By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 16, Slice 5 - "Letter" to "Lightfoot, John"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 16, Slice 5 - "Letter" to "Lightfoot, John"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters; [dP] for partial differential symbol.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE LIBRARIES: "... to be called the Nationale Bibliotheek. In
      1805 the present name was adopted; and since 1815 it has become the
      national library." 'Nationale' amended from 'National'.

    ARTICLE LIBRARIES: "Tijdschrift voor boek- en bibliotheekwezen
      (Hague, 1903); ..." 'boek- en bibliotheekwezen' amended from
      'boekund bibliothekwezen'.

    ARTICLE LICHENS: "... thus Chroolepus umbrinus is found as the
      gonidia of 13 different lichen genera." 'Chroolepus' amended from

    ARTICLE LICHENS: "The soredia are the most successful method of
      reproduction in lichens, for not only are some forms nearly always
      without spore-formation and in others the spores largely abortive
      ..." 'largely' amended from 'laregly'.

    ARTICLE LIEBIG, JUSTUS VON: "... but of the mineral constituents
      the supply is limited because the soil cannot afford an indefinite
      amount of them ..." 'constituents' amended from 'constitutents'.

    ARTICLE LIGHT: "... and also to the study of achromatism, the
      principles of which followed from Newton's analysis and synthesis
      of white light." 'synthesis' amended from 'snythesis'.

    ARTICLE LIGHT: "It follows from these principles that, in an
      isotropic dielectric, transverse electric vibrations can be
      propagated with a velocity ..." 'dielectric' amended from



              ELEVENTH EDITION

             VOLUME XVI, SLICE V

          Letter to Lightfoot, John


  LETTER                            LIAS
  LETTERKENNY                       LIBANIUS
  LETTER OF CREDIT                  LIBATION
  LETTERS PATENT                    LIBAU
  LETTUCE                           LIBELLATICI
  LEUCADIA                          LIBER and LIBERA
  LEUCIPPUS                         LIBERAL PARTY
  LEUCTRA                           LIBERIA
  LEUK                              LIBERIUS
  LEUTHEN                           LIBER PONTIFICALIS
  LEUTZE, EMANUEL                   LIBERTAD
  LEVANT                            LIBERTINES
  LEVECHE                           LIBERTY
  LEVÉE (river embankment)          LIBERTY PARTY
  LEVEE (reception)                 LIBITINA
  LEVELLERS                         LIBMANAN
  LEVEN (Scotish burgh)             LIBON
  LEVEN, LOCH                       LIBOURNE
  LEVER                             LIBRATION
  LEVI, HERMANN                     LICENCE
  LEVI, LEONE                       LICHEN
  LEVIATHAN                         LICHENS
  LEVIRATE                          LICHFIELD
  LÉVIS                             LICH-GATE
  LEVITES                           LICHTENBERG, GEORG CHRISTOPH
  LEVITICUS                         LICHTENBERG (German principality)
  LEVY, AMY                         LICINIANUS, GRANIUS
  LEVY (money raising)              LICINIUS CALVUS STOLO, GAIUS
  LEWANIKA                          LICODIA EUBEA
  LEWES (town of England)           LIDDESDALE
  LEWES (Delaware, U.S.A.)          LIDDON, HENRY PARRY
  LEWISBURG                         LIEBKNECHT, WILHELM
  LEWISHAM                          LIECHTENSTEIN
  LEWISTON                          LIÉGE (province of Belgium)
  LEWIS-WITH-HARRIS                 LIÉGE (Belgian city)
  LEXICON                           LIEGE (feudal term)
  LEXINGTON, BARON                  LIEGNITZ
  LEXINGTON (Kentucky, U.S.A.)      LIEN
  LEXINGTON (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) LIERRE
  LEXINGTON (Missouri, U.S.A.)      LIESTAL
  LEXINGTON (Virginia, U.S.A.)      LIEUTENANT
  LEYDEN, JOHN                      LIFE
  LEYDEN JAR                        LIFE-BOAT, and LIFE-SAVING SERVICE
  LEYS, HENDRIK                     LIFFORD
  LEYTON                            LIGAMENT
  LHASA                             LIGAO
  LIAO-YANG                         LIGHTFOOT, JOHN

LETTER (through Fr. _lettre_ from Lat. _littera_ or _litera_, letter of
the alphabet; the origin of the Latin word is obscure; it has probably
no connexion with the root of _linere_, to smear, i.e. with wax, for an
inscription with a stilus), a character or symbol expressing any one of
the elementary sounds into which a spoken word may be analysed, one of
the members of an alphabet. As applied to things written, the word
follows mainly the meanings of the Latin plural _litterae_, the most
common meaning attaching to the word being that of a written
communication from one person to another, an epistle (q.v.). For the
means adopted to secure the transmission of letters see POST AND POSTAL
SERVICE. The word is also, particularly in the plural, applied to many
legal and formal written documents, as in letters patent, letters
rogatory and dismissory, &c. The Latin use of the plural is also
followed in the employment of "letters" in the sense of literature
(q.v.) or learning.

LETTERKENNY, a market town of Co. Donegal, Ireland, 23 m. W. by S. of
Londonderry by the Londonderry and Lough Swilly and Letterkenny railway.
Pop. (1901) 2370. It has a harbour at Port Ballyrane, 1 m. distant on
Lough Swilly. In the market square a considerable trade in grain, flax
and provisions is prosecuted. Rope-making and shirt-making are
industries. The handsome Roman Catholic cathedral for the diocese of
Raphoe occupies a commanding site, and cost a large sum, as it contains
carving from Rome, glass from Munich and a pulpit of Irish and Carrara
marble. It was consecrated in 1901. There is a Catholic college
dedicated to St Ewnan. The town, which is governed by an urban district
council, is a centre for visitors to the county. Its name signifies the
"hill of the O'Cannanans," a family who lorded over Tyrconnell before
the rise of the O'Donnells.

LETTER OF CREDIT, a letter, open or sealed, from a banker or merchant,
containing a request to some other person or firm to advance the bearer
of the letter, or some other person named therein, upon the credit of
the writer a particular or an unlimited sum of money. A letter of credit
is either general or special. It is general when addressed to merchants
or other persons in general, requesting an advance to a third person,
and special when addressed to a particular person by name requesting him
to make such an advance. A letter of credit is not a negotiable
instrument. When a letter of credit is given for the purchase of goods,
the letter of credit usually states the particulars of the merchandise
against which bills are to be drawn, and shipping documents (bills of
lading, invoices, insurance policies) are usually attached to the draft
for acceptance.

LETTERS PATENT. It is a rule alike of common law and sound policy that
grants of freehold interests, franchises, liberties, &c., by the
sovereign to a subject should be made only after due consideration, and
in a form readily accessible to the public. These ends are attained in
England through the agency of that piece of constitutional machinery
known as "letters patent." It is here proposed to consider only the
characteristics of letters patent generally. The law relating to letters
patent for inventions is dealt with under the heading PATENTS.

Letters patent (_litterae patentes_) are letters addressed by the
sovereign "to all to whom these presents shall come," reciting the grant
of some dignity, office, monopoly, franchise or other privilege to the
patentee. They are not sealed up, but are left open (hence the term
"patent"), and are recorded in the Patent Rolls in the Record Office, or
in the case of very recent grants, in the Chancery Enrolment Office, so
that all subjects of the realm may read and be bound by their contents.
In this respect they differ from certain other letters of the sovereign
directed to particular persons and for particular purposes, which, not
being proper for public inspection, are closed up and sealed on the
outside, and are thereupon called _writs close_ (_litterae clausae_) and
are recorded in the Close Rolls. Letters patent are used to put into
commission various powers inherent in the crown--legislative powers, as
when the sovereign entrusts to others the duty of opening parliament or
assenting to bills; judicial powers, e.g. of gaol delivery; executive
powers, as when the duties of Treasurer and Lord High Admiral are
assigned to commissioners of the Treasury and Admiralty (Anson, _Const._
ii. 47). Letters patent are also used to incorporate bodies by
charter--in the British colonies, this mode of legislation is frequently
applied to joint stock companies (cf. Rev. Stats. Ontario, c. 191, s.
9)--to grant a _congé d'élire_ to a dean and chapter to elect a bishop,
or licence to convocation to amend canons; to grant pardon, and to
confer certain offices and dignities. Among grants of offices, &c., made
by letters patent the following may be enumerated: offices in the
Heralds' College; the dignities of a peer, baronet and knight bachelor;
the appointments of lord-lieutenant, custos rotulorum of counties, judge
of the High Court and Indian and Colonial judgeships, king's counsel,
crown livings; the offices of attorney- and solicitor-general,
commander-in-chief, master of the horse, keeper of the privy seal,
postmaster-general, king's printer; grants of separate courts of
quarter-sessions. The fees payable in respect of the grant of various
forms of letters patent are fixed by orders of the lord chancellor,
dated 20th of June 1871, 18th of July 1871 and 11th of Aug. 1881. (These
orders are set out at length in the _Statutory Rules and Orders Revised_
(ed. 1904), vol. ii. _tit._ "Clerk of the Crown in Chancery," pp. i. et
seq.) Formerly each colonial governor was appointed and commissioned by
letters patent under the great seal of the United Kingdom. But since
1875, the practice has been to create the office of governor in each
colony by letters patent, and then to make each appointment to the
office by commission under the Royal Sign Manual and to give to the
governor so appointed instructions in a uniform shape under the Royal
Sign Manual. The letters patent, commission and instructions, are
commonly described as the Governor's Commission (see Jenkyns, _British
Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas_, p. 100; the forms now in use are
printed in Appx. iv. Also the _Statutory Rules and Codes Revised_, ed.
1904, under the title of the colony to which they relate). The Colonial
Letters Patent Act 1863 provides that letters patent shall not take
effect in the colonies or possessions beyond the seas until their
publication there by proclamation or otherwise (s. 2), and shall be
void unless so published within nine months in the case of colonies east
of Bengal or west of Cape Horn, and within six months in any other case.
Colonial officers and judges holding offices by patent for life or for a
term certain, are removable by a special procedure--"amotion"--by the
Governor and Council, subject to a right of appeal to the king in
Council (Leave of Absence Act, formerly cited as "Burke's Act" 1782; see
_Montagu_ v. _Governor of Van Diemen's Land_, 1849, 6 Moo. P.C. 491;
_Willis_ v. _Gipps_, 1846, 6 St. Trials [N.S., 311]). The law of
conquered or ceded colonies may be altered by the crown by letters
patent under the Great Seal as well as by Proclamation or Order in
Council (_Jephson_ v. _Riera_, 1835, 3 Knapp, 130; 3 St. Trials [N.S.]

_Procedure._--Formerly letters patent were always granted under the
Great Seal. But now, under the Crown Office Act 1877, and the Orders in
Council made under it, many letters patent are sealed with the wafer
great seal. Letters patent for inventions are issued under the seal of
the Patent Office. The procedure by which letters patent are obtained is
as follows: A warrant for the issue of letters patent is drawn up; and
is signed by the lord chancellor; this is submitted to the law officers
of the crown, who countersign it; finally, the warrant thus signed and
countersigned is submitted to His Majesty, who affixes his signature.
The warrant is then sent to the Crown Office and is filed, after it has
been acted upon by the issue of letters patent under the great or under
the wafer seal as the case may be. The letters patent are then delivered
into the custody of those in whose favour they are granted.

_Construction._--The construction of letters patent differs from that of
other grants in certain particulars: (i.) Letters patent, contrary to
the ordinary rule, are construed in a sense favourable to the grantor
(viz. the crown) rather than to the grantee; although this rule is said
not to apply so strictly where the grant is made for consideration, or
where it purports to be made _ex certâ scientiâ et mero motu_. (ii.)
When it appears from the face of the grant that the sovereign has been
mistaken or deceived, either in matter of fact or in matter of law, as,
e.g. by false suggestion on the part of the patentee, or by misrecital
of former grants, or if the grant is contrary to law or uncertain, the
letters patent are absolutely void, and may still, it would seem, be
cancelled (except as regards letters patent for inventions, which are
revoked by a special procedure, regulated by § 26 of the Patents Act
1883), by the procedure known as scire facias, an action brought against
the patentee in the name of the crown with the fiat of the

  As to letters patent generally, see Bacon's _Abridgment_
  ("Prerogative," F.); Chitty's _Prerogative_; Hindmarsh on _Patents_
  (1846); Anson, _Law and Custom of the Const._ ii. (3rd ed., Oxford and
  London, 1907-1908).     (A. W. R.)

LETTRES DE CACHET. Considered solely as French documents, _lettres de
cachet_ may be defined as letters signed by the king of France,
countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal
(_cachet_). They contained an order--in principle, any order
whatsoever--emanating directly from the king, and executory by himself.
In the case of organized bodies _lettres de cachet_ were issued for the
purpose of enjoining members to assemble or to accomplish some definite
act; the provincial estates were convoked in this manner, and it was by
_a lettre de cachet_ (called _lettre de jussion_) that the king ordered
a parlement to register a law in the teeth of its own remonstrances. The
best-known _lettres de cachet_, however, were those which may be called
penal, by which the king sentenced a subject without trial and without
an opportunity of defence to imprisonment in a state prison or an
ordinary gaol, confinement in a convent or a hospital, transportation to
the colonies, or relegation to a given place within the realm.

The power which the king exercised on these various occasions was a
royal privilege recognized by old French law, and can be traced to a
maxim which furnished a text of the _Digest_ of Justinian: "Rex solutus
est a legibus." This signified particularly that when the king
intervened directly in the administration proper, or in the
administration of justice, by a special act of his will, he could
decide without heeding the laws, and even in a sense contrary to the
laws. This was an early conception, and in early times the order in
question was simply verbal; thus some letters patent of Henry III. of
France in 1576 (Isambert, _Anciennes lois françaises_, xiv. 278) state
that François de Montmorency was "prisoner in our castle of the Bastille
in Paris by verbal command" of the late king Charles IX. But in the 14th
century the principle was introduced that the order should be written,
and hence arose the _lettre de cachet_. The _lettre de cachet_ belonged
to the class of _lettres closes_, as opposed to _lettres patentes_,
which contained the expression of the legal and permanent will of the
king, and had to be furnished with the seal of state affixed by the
chancellor. The _lettres de cachet_, on the contrary, were signed simply
by a secretary of state (formerly known as _secrétaire des
commandements_) for the king; they bore merely the imprint of the king's
privy seal, from which circumstance they were often called, in the 14th
and 15th centuries, _lettres de petit signet_ or _lettres de petit
cachet_, and were entirely exempt from the control of the chancellor.

While serving the government as a silent weapon against political
adversaries or dangerous writers and as a means of punishing culprits of
high birth without the scandal of a suit at law, the _lettres de cachet_
had many other uses. They were employed by the police in dealing with
prostitutes, and on their authority lunatics were shut up in hospitals
and sometimes in prisons. They were also often used by heads of families
as a means of correction, e.g. for protecting the family honour from the
disorderly or criminal conduct of sons; wives, too, took advantage of
them to curb the profligacy of husbands and vice versa. They were issued
by the intermediary on the advice of the intendants in the provinces and
of the lieutenant of police in Paris. In reality, the secretary of state
issued them in a completely arbitrary fashion, and in most cases the
king was unaware of their issue. In the 18th century it is certain that
the letters were often issued blank, i.e. without containing the name of
the person against whom they were directed; the recipient, or mandatary,
filled in the name in order to make the letter effective.

Protests against the _lettres de cachet_ were made continually by the
parlement of Paris and by the provincial parlements, and often also by
the States-General. In 1648 the sovereign courts of Paris procured their
momentary suppression in a kind of charter of liberties which they
imposed upon the crown, but which was ephemeral. It was not until the
reign of Louis XVI. that a reaction against this abuse became clearly
perceptible. At the beginning of that reign Malesherbes during his short
ministry endeavoured to infuse some measure of justice into the system,
and in March 1784 the baron de Breteuil, a minister of the king's
household, addressed a circular to the intendants and the lieutenant of
police with a view to preventing the crying abuses connected with the
issue of _lettres de cachet_. In Paris, in 1779, the _Cour des Aides_
demanded their suppression, and in March 1788 the parlement of Paris
made some exceedingly energetic remonstrances, which are important for
the light they throw upon old French public law. The crown, however, did
not decide to lay aside this weapon, and in a declaration to the
States-General in the royal session of the 23rd of June 1789 (art. 15)
it did not renounce it absolutely. _Lettres de cachet_ were abolished by
the Constituent Assembly, but Napoleon re-established their equivalent
by a political measure in the decree of the 9th of March 1801 on the
state prisons. This was one of the acts brought up against him by the
_sénatus-consulte_ of the 3rd of April 1814, which pronounced his fall
"considering that he has violated the constitutional laws by the decrees
on the state prisons."

  See Honoré Mirabeau, _Les Lettres de cachet et des prisons d'état_
  (Hamburg, 1782), written in the dungeon at Vincennes into which his
  father had thrown him by a _lettre de cachet_, one of the ablest and
  most eloquent of his works, which had an immense circulation and was
  translated into English with a dedication to the duke of Norfolk in
  1788; Frantz Funck-Brentano, _Les Lettres de cachet à Paris_ (Paris,
  1904); and André Chassaigne, _Les Lettres de cachet sous l'ancien
  régime_ (Paris, 1903).     (J. P. E.)

LETTUCE, known botanically as _Lactuca sativa_ (nat. ord. Compositae), a
hardy annual, highly esteemed as a salad plant. The London
market-gardeners make preparation for the first main crop of Cos
lettuces in the open ground early in August, a frame being set on a
shallow hotbed, and, the stimulus of heat not being required, this is
allowed to subside till the first week in October, when the soil,
consisting of leaf-mould mixed with a little sand, is put on 6 or 7 in.
thick, so that the surface is within 4½ in. of the sashes. The best time
for sowing is found to be about the 11th of October, one of the best
varieties being Lobjoits Green Cos. When the seeds begin to germinate
the sashes are drawn quite off in favourable weather during the day, and
put on, but tilted, at night in wet weather. Very little watering is
required, and the aim should be to keep the plants gently moving till
the days begin to lengthen. In January a more active growth is
encouraged, and in mild winters a considerable extent of the planting
out is done, but in private gardens the preferable time would be
February. The ground should be light and rich, and well manured below,
and the plants put out at 1 ft. apart each way with the dibble. Frequent
stirring of the ground with the hoe greatly encourages the growth of the
plants. A second sowing should be made about the 5th of November, and a
third in frames about the end of January or beginning of February. In
March a sowing may be made in some warm situation out of doors;
successional sowings may be made in the open border about every third or
fourth week till August, about the middle of which month a crop of Brown
Cos, Hardy Hammersmith or Hardy White Cos should be sown, the latter
being the most reliable in a severe winter. These plants may be put out
early in October on the sides of ridges facing the south or at the front
of a south wall, beyond the reach of drops from the copings, being
planted 6 or 8 in. apart. Young lettuce plants should be thinned out in
the seed-beds before they crowd or draw each other, and transplanted as
soon as possible after two or three leaves are formed. Some cultivators
prefer that the summer crops should not be transplanted, but sown where
they are to stand, the plants being merely thinned out; but
transplanting checks the running to seed, and makes the most of the

For a winter supply by gentle forcing, the Hardy Hammersmith and Brown
Dutch Cabbage lettuces, and the Brown Cos and Green Paris Cos lettuces,
should be sown about the middle of August and in the beginning of
September, in rich light soil, the plants being pricked out 3 in. apart
in a prepared bed, as soon as the first two leaves are fully formed.
About the middle of October the plants should be taken up carefully with
balls attached to the roots, and should be placed in a mild hotbed of
well-prepared dung (about 55°) covered about 1 ft. deep with a compost
of sandy peat, leaf-mould and a little well-decomposed manure. The Cos
and Brown Dutch varieties should be planted about 9 in. apart. Give
plenty of air when the weather permits, and protect from frost. For
winter work Stanstead Park Cabbage Lettuce is greatly favoured now by
London market-gardeners, as it stands the winter well. Lee's Immense is
another good variety, while All the Year Round may be sown for almost
any season, but is better perhaps for summer crops.

There are two races of the lettuce, the Cos lettuce, with erect oblong
heads, and the Cabbage lettuce, with round or spreading heads,--the
former generally crisp, the latter soft and flabby in texture. Some of
the best lettuces for general purposes of the two classes are the

_Cos:_ White Paris Cos, best for summer; Green Paris Cos, hardier than
the white; Brown Cos, Lobjoits Green Cos, one of the hardiest and best
for winter; Hardy White Cos.

_Cabbage:_ Hammersmith Hardy Green; Stanstead Park, very hardy, good for
winter; Tom Thumb; Brown Dutch; Neapolitan, best for summer; All the
Year Round; Golden Ball, good for forcing in private establishments.

_Lactuca virosa_, the strong-scented lettuce, contains an alkaloid which
has the power of dilating the pupil and may possibly be identical with
hyoscyamine, though this point is as yet not determined. No variety of
lettuce is now used for any medicinal purpose, though there is probably
some slight foundation for the belief that the lettuce has faint
narcotic properties.

LEUCADIA, the ancient name of one of the Ionian Islands, now Santa Maura
(q.v.), and of its chief town (Hamaxichi).

LEUCIPPUS, Greek philosopher, born at Miletus (or Elea), founder of the
Atomistic theory, contemporary of Zeno, Empedocles and Anaxagoras. His
fame was so completely overshadowed by that of Democritus, who
subsequently developed the theory into a system, that his very existence
was denied by Epicurus (Diog. Laërt. x. 7), followed in modern times by
E. Rohde. Epicurus, however, distinguishes Leucippus from Democritus,
and Aristotle and Theophrastus expressly credit him with the invention
of Atomism. There seems, therefore, no reason to doubt his existence,
although nothing is known of his life, and even his birthplace is
uncertain. Between Leucippus and Democritus there is an interval of at
least forty years; accordingly, while the beginnings of Atomism are
closely connected with the doctrines of the Eleatics, the system as
developed by Democritus is conditioned by the sophistical views of his
time, especially those of Protagoras. While Leucippus's notion of Being
agreed generally with that of the Eleatics, he postulated its plurality
(atoms) and motion, and the reality of not-Being (the void) in which his
atoms moved.

  See DEMOCRITUS. On the Rohde-Diels controversy as to the existence of
  Leucippus, see F. Lortzing in Bursian's _Jahresbericht_, vol. cxvi.
  (1904); also J. Burnet, _Early Greek Philosophy_ (1892).

LEUCITE, a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium
metasilicate KAl(SiO3)2. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra
{211}, but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are
not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic. Goniometric
measurements made by G. vom Rath in 1873 led him to refer the crystals
to the tetragonal system, the faces o being distinct from those lettered
i in the adjoining figure. Optical investigations have since proved the
crystals to be still more complex in character, and to consist of
several orthorhombic or monoclinic individuals, which are optically
biaxial and repeatedly twinned, giving rise to twin-lamellae and to
striations on the faces. When the crystals are raised to a temperature
of about 500° C. they become optically isotropic, the twin-lamellae and
striations disappearing, reappearing, however, when the crystals are
again cooled. This pseudo-cubic character of leucite is exactly the same
as that of the mineral boracite (q.v.).


The crystals are white (hence the name suggested by A. G. Werner in
1791, from [Greek: leukos]) or ash-grey in colour, and are usually dull
and opaque, but sometimes transparent and glassy; they are brittle and
break with a conchoidal fracture. The hardness is 5.5, and the specific
gravity 2.5. Enclosures of other minerals, arranged in concentric zones,
are frequently present in the crystals. On account of the colour and
form of the crystals the mineral was early known as "white garnet."
French authors employ R. J. Haüy's name "amphigène."     (L. J. S.)

  _Leucite Rocks._--Although rocks containing leucite are numerically
  scarce, many countries such as England being entirely without them,
  yet they are of wide distribution, occurring in every quarter of the
  globe. Taken collectively, they exhibit a considerable variety of
  types and are of great interest petrographically. For the presence of
  this mineral it is necessary that the silica percentage of the rock
  should not be high, for leucite never occurs in presence of free
  quartz. It is most common in lavas of recent and Tertiary age, which
  have a fair amount of potash, or at any rate have potash equal to or
  greater than soda; if soda preponderates nepheline occurs rather than
  leucite. In pre-Tertiary rocks leucite is uncommon, since it readily
  decomposes and changes to zeolites, analcite and other secondary
  minerals. Leucite also is rare in plutonic rocks and dike rocks, but
  leucite-syenite and leucite-tinguaite bear witness to the possibility
  that it may occur in this manner. The rounded shape of its crystals,
  their white or grey colour, and rough cleavage, make the presence of
  leucite easily determinable in many of these rocks by simple
  inspection, especially when the crystals are large. "Pseudo-leucites"
  are rounded areas consisting of felspar, nepheline, analcite, &c.,
  which have the shape, composition and sometimes even the crystalline
  forms of leucite; they are probably pseudomorphs or paramorphs, which
  have developed from leucite because this mineral, in its isometric
  crystals, is not stable at ordinary temperatures and may be expected
  under favourable conditions to undergo spontaneous change into an
  aggregate of other minerals. Leucite is very often accompanied by
  nepheline, sodalite or nosean; other minerals which make their
  appearance with some frequency are melanite, garnet and melilite.

  The plutonic leucite-bearing rocks are leucite-syenite and missourite.
  Of these the former consists of orthoclase, nepheline, sodalite,
  diopside and aegirine, biotite and sphene. Two occurrences are known,
  one in Arkansas, the other in Sutherlandshire, Scotland. The Scottish
  rock has been called borolanite. Both examples show large rounded
  spots in the hand specimens; they are pseudo-leucites and under the
  microscope prove to consist of orthoclase, nepheline, sodalite and
  decomposition products. These have a radiate arrangement externally,
  but are of irregular structure at their centres; it is interesting to
  note that in both rocks melanite is an important accessory. The
  missourites are more basic and consist of leucite, olivine, augite and
  biotite; the leucite is partly fresh, partly altered to analcite, and
  the rock has a spotted character recalling that of the
  leucite-syenites. It has been found only in the Highwood Mountains of

  The leucite-bearing dike-rocks are members of the tinguaite and
  monchiquite groups. The leucite-tinguaites are usually pale grey or
  greenish in colour and consist principally of nepheline,
  alkali-felspar and aegirine. The latter forms bright green moss-like
  patches and growths of indefinite shape, or in other cases scattered
  acicular prisms, among the felspars and nephelines of the ground mass.
  Where leucite occurs, it is always eumorphic in small, rounded,
  many-sided crystals in the ground mass, or in larger masses which have
  the same characters as the pseudo-leucites. Biotite occurs in some of
  these rocks, and melanite also is present. Nepheline appears to
  decrease in amount as leucite increases. Rocks of this group are known
  from Rio de Janeiro, Arkansas, Kola (in Finland), Montana and a few
  other places. In Greenland there are leucite-tinguaites with much
  arfvedsonite (hornblende) and eudyalite. Wherever they occur they
  accompany leucite- and nepheline-syenites. Leucite-monchiquites are
  fine-grained dark rocks consisting of olivine, titaniferous augite and
  iron oxides, with a glassy ground mass in which small rounded crystals
  of leucite are scattered. They have been described from Bohemia.

  By far the greater number of the rocks which contain leucite are lavas
  of Tertiary or recent geological age. They are never acid rocks which
  contain quartz, but felspar is usually present, though there are
  certain groups of leucite lavas which are non-felspathic. Many of them
  also contain nepheline, sodalite, hauyne and nosean; the much rarer
  mineral melilite appears also in some examples. The commonest
  ferromagnesian mineral is augite (sometimes rich in soda), with
  olivine in the more basic varieties. Hornblende and biotite occur
  also, but are less common. Melanite is found in some of the lavas, as
  in the leucite-syenites.

  The rocks in which orthoclase (or sanidine) is present in considerable
  amount are leucite-trachytes, leucite-phonolites and leucitophyres. Of
  these groups the two former, which are not sharply distinguished from
  one another by most authors, are common in the neighbourhood of Rome
  (L. Bracciano, L. Bolsena). They are of trachytic appearance,
  containing phenocysts of sanidine, leucite, augite and biotite.
  Sodalite or hauyne may also be present, but nepheline is typically
  absent. Rocks of this class occur also in the tuffs of the Phlegraean
  Fields, near Naples. The leucitophyres are rare rocks which have been
  described from various parts of the volcanic district of the Rhine
  (Olbrück, Laacher See, &c.) and from Monte Vulture in Italy. They are
  rich in leucite, but contain also some sanidine and often much
  nepheline with hauyne or nosean. Their pyroxene is principally
  aegirine or aegirine augite; some of them are rich in melanite.
  Microscopic sections of some of these rocks are of great interest on
  account of their beauty and the variety of felspathoid minerals which
  they contain. In Brazil leucitophyres have been found which belong to
  the Carboniferous period.

  Those leucite rocks which contain abundant essential plagioclase
  felspar are known as leucite-tephrites and leucite-basanites. The
  former consist mainly of plagioclase, leucite and augite, while the
  latter contain olivine in addition. The leucite is often present in
  two sets of crystals, both porphyritic and as an ingredient of the
  ground mass. It is always idiomorphic with rounded outlines. The
  felspar ranges from bytownite to oligoclase, being usually a variety
  of labradorite; orthoclase is scarce. The augite varies a good deal in
  character, being green, brown or violet, but aegirine (the dark green
  pleochroic soda-iron-augite) is seldom present. Among the accessory
  minerals biotite, brown hornblende, hauyne, iron oxides and apatite
  are the commonest; melanite and nepheline may also occur. The ground
  mass of these rocks is only occasionally rich in glass. The
  leucite-tephrites and leucite-basanites of Vesuvius and Somma are
  familiar examples of this class of rocks. They are black or ashy-grey
  in colour, often vesicular, and may contain many large grey phenocysts
  of leucite. Their black augite and yellow green olivine are also
  easily detected in hand specimens. From Volcanello, Sardinia and
  Roccamonfina similar rocks are obtained; they occur also in Bohemia,
  in Java, Celebes, Kilimanjaro (Africa) and near Trebizond in Asia

  Leucite lavas from which felspar is absent are divided into the
  leucitites and leucite basalts. The latter contain olivine, the former
  do not. Pyroxene is the usual ferromagnesian mineral, and resembles
  that of the tephrites and basanites. Sanidine, melanite, hauyne and
  perofskite are frequent accessory minerals in these rocks, and many of
  them contain melilite in some quantity. The well-known leucitite of
  the Capo di Bove, near Rome, is rich in this mineral, which forms
  irregular plates, yellow in the hand specimen, enclosing many small
  rounded crystals of leucite. Bracciano and Roccamonfina are other
  Italian localities for leucitite, and in Java, Montana, Celebes and
  New South Wales similar rocks occur. The leucite-basalts belong to
  more basic types and are rich in olivine and augite. They occur in
  great numbers in the Rhenish volcanic district (Eifel, Laacher See)
  and in Bohemia, and accompany tephrites or leucitites in Java,
  Montana, Celebes and Sardinia. The "peperino" of the neighbourhood of
  Rome is a leucitite tuff.     (J. S. F.)

LEUCTRA, a village of Boeotia in the territory of Thespiae, chiefly
noticeable for the battle fought in its neighbourhood in 371 B.C.
between the Thebans and the Spartans and their allies. A Peloponnesian
army, about 10,000 strong, which had invaded Boeotia from Phocis, was
here confronted by a Boeotian levy of perhaps 6000 soldiers under
Epaminondas (q.v.). In spite of inferior numbers and the doubtful
loyalty of his Boeotian allies, Epaminondas offered battle on the plain
before the town. Massing his cavalry and the 50-deep column of Theban
infantry on his left wing, he sent forward this body in advance of his
centre and right wing. After a cavalry engagement in which the Thebans
drove their enemies off the field, the decisive issue was fought out
between the Theban and Spartan foot. The latter, though fighting well,
could not sustain in their 12-deep formation the heavy impact of their
opponents' column, and were hurled back with a loss of about 2000 men,
of whom 700 were Spartan citizens, including the king Cleombrotus.
Seeing their right wing beaten, the rest of the Peloponnesians retired
and left the enemy in possession of the field. Owing to the arrival of a
Thessalian army under Jason of Pherae, whose friendship they did not
trust, the Thebans were unable to exploit their victory. But the battle
is none the less of great significance in Greek history. It marks a
revolution in military tactics, affording the first known instance of a
deliberate concentration of attack upon the vital point of the enemy's
line. Its political effects were equally far-reaching, for the loss in
material strength and prestige which the Spartans here sustained
deprived them for ever of their supremacy in Greece.

  AUTHORITIES.--Xenophon, _Hellenica_, vi. 4. 3-15; Diodorus xi. 53-56;
  Plutarch, _Pelopidas_, chs. 20-23; Pausanias ix. 13. 2-10; G. B.
  Grundy, _The Topography of the Battle of Plataea_ (London, 1894), pp.
  73-76; H. Delbrück, _Geschichte der Kriegskunst_ (Berlin, 1900), i.
  130 ff.     (M. O. B. C.)

LEUK (Fr. _Loèche Ville_), an ancient and very picturesque little town
in the Swiss canton of the Valais. It is built above the right bank of
the Rhone, and is about 1 m. from the Leuk-Susten station (15½ m. east
of Sion and 17½ m. west of Brieg) on the Simplon railway. In 1900 it had
1592 inhabitants, all but wholly German-speaking and Romanists. About
10½ m. by a winding carriage road N. of Leuk, and near the head of the
Dala valley, at a height of 4629 ft. above the sea-level, and
overshadowed by the cliffs of the Gemmi Pass (7641 ft.; q.v.) leading
over to the Bernese Oberland, are the Baths of Leuk (_Leukerbad_, or
_Loèche les Bains_). They have only 613 permanent inhabitants, but are
much frequented in summer by visitors (largely French and Swiss)
attracted by the hot mineral springs. These are 22 in number, and are
very abundant. The principal is that of St Laurence, the water of which
has a temperature of 124° F. The season lasts from June to September.
The village in winter is long deprived of sunshine, and is much exposed
to avalanches, by which it was destroyed in 1518, 1719 and 1756, but it
is now protected by a strong embankment from a similar catastrophe.
     (W. A. B. C.)

LEUTHEN, a village of Prussian Silesia, 10 m. W. of Breslau, memorable
as the scene of Frederick the Great's victory over the Austrians on
December 5, 1757. The high road from Breslau to Lüben crosses the marshy
Schweidnitz Water at Lissa, and immediately enters the rolling country
about Neumarkt. Leuthen itself stands some 4000 paces south of the
road, and a similar distance south again lies Sagschütz, while Nypern,
on the northern edge of the hill country, is 5000 paces from the road.
On Frederick's approach the Austrians took up a line of battle resting
on the two last-named villages. Their whole position was strongly
garrisoned and protected by obstacles, and their artillery was numerous
though of light calibre. A strong outpost of Saxon cavalry was in Borne
to the westward. Frederick had the previous day surprised the Austrian
bakeries at Neumarkt, and his Prussians, 33,000 to the enemy's 82,000,
moved towards Borne and Leuthen early on the 5th. The Saxon outpost was
rushed at in the morning mist, and, covered by their advanced guard on
the heights beyond, the Prussians wheeled to their right. Prince Charles
of Lorraine, the Austrian commander-in-chief, on Leuthen Church tower,
could make nothing of Frederick's movements, and the commander of his
right wing (Lucchesi) sent him message after message from Nypem and
Gocklerwitz asking for help, which was eventually despatched. But the
real blow was to fall on the left under Nadasdy. While the Austrian
commander was thus wasting time, the Prussians were marching against
Nadasdy in two columns, which preserved their distances with an
exactitude which has excited the wonder of modern generations of
soldiers; at the due place they wheeled into line of battle obliquely to
the Austrian front, and in one great _échelon_,--the cavalry of the
right wing foremost, and that of the left "refused,"--Frederick advanced
on Sagschütz. Nadasdy, surprised, put a bold face on the matter and made
a good defence, but he was speedily routed, and, as the Prussians
advanced, battalion after battalion was rolled up towards Leuthen until
the Austrians faced almost due south. The fighting in Leuthen itself was
furious; the Austrians stood, in places, 100 deep, but the disciplined
valour of the Prussians carried the village. For a moment the victory
was endangered when Lucchesi came down upon the Prussian left wing from
the north, but Driesen's cavalry, till then refused, charged him in
flank and scattered his troopers in wild rout. This stroke ended the
battle. The retreat on Breslau became a rout almost comparable to that
of Waterloo, and Prince Charles rallied, in Bohemia, barely 37,000 out
of his 82,000. Ten thousand Austrians were left on the field, 21,000
taken prisoners (besides 17,000 in Breslau a little later), with 51
colours and 116 cannon. The Prussian loss in all was under 5500. It was
not until 1854 that a memorial of this astonishing victory was erected
on the battlefield.

  See Carlyle, _Frederick_, bk. xviii. cap. x.; V. Ollech, _Friedrich
  der Grosse von Kolin bis Leuthen_ (Berlin, 1858); Kutzen, _Schlacht
  bei Leuthen_ (Breslau, 1851 ); and bibliography under SEVEN YEARS'

LEUTZE, EMANUEL (1816-1868), American artist, was born at Gmünd,
Württemberg, on the 24th of May 1816, and as a child was taken by his
parents to Philadelphia, where he early displayed talent as an artist.
At the age of twenty-five he had earned enough to take him to Düsseldorf
for a course of art study at the royal academy. Almost immediately he
began the painting of historical subjects, his first work, "Columbus
before the Council of Salamanca," being purchased by the Düsseldorf Art
Union. In 1860 he was commissioned by the United States Congress to
decorate a stairway in the Capitol at Washington, for which he painted a
large composition, "Westward the Star of Empire takes its Way." His
best-known work, popular through engraving, is "Washington crossing the
Delaware," a large canvas containing a score of life-sized figures; it
is now owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. He became a
member of the National Academy of Design in 1860, and died at
Washington, D.C., on the 18th of July 1868.

LEVALLOIS-PERRET, a north-western suburb of Paris, on the right bank of
the Seine, 2½ m. from the centre of the city. Pop. (1906) 61,419. It
carries on the manufacture of motor-cars and accessories, carriages,
groceries, liqueurs, perfumery, soap, &c., and has a port on the Seine.

LEVANT (from the French use of the participle of _lever_, to rise, for
the east, the orient), the name applied widely to the coastlands of the
eastern Mediterranean Sea from Greece to Egypt, or, in a more restricted
and commoner sense, to the Mediterranean coastlands of Asia Minor and
Syria. In the 16th and 17th centuries the term "High Levant" was used of
the Far East. The phrase "to levant," meaning to abscond, especially of
one who runs away leaving debts unpaid, particularly of a betting man or
gambler, is taken from the Span. _levantar_, to lift or break up, in
such phrases as _levantar la casa_, to break up a household, or _el
campo_, to break camp.

LEVASSEUR, PIERRE EMILE (1828-   ), French economist, was born in Paris
on the 8th of December 1828. Educated in Paris, he began to teach in the
lycée at Alençon in 1852, and in 1857 was chosen professor of rhetoric
at Besançon. He returned to Paris to become professor at the lycée Saint
Louis, and in 1868 he was chosen a member of the academy of moral and
political sciences. In 1872 he was appointed professor of geography,
history and statistics in the Collège de France, and subsequently became
also professor at the Conservatoire des arts et métiers and at the École
libre des sciences politiques. Levasseur was one of the founders of the
study of commercial geography, and became a member of the Council of
Public Instruction, president of the French society of political economy
and honorary president of the French geographical society.

  His numerous writings include: _Histoire des classes ouvrières en
  France depuis la conquête de Jules César jusqu'à la Révolution_
  (1859); _Histoire des classes ouvrières en France depuis la Révolution
  jusqu'à nos jours_ (1867); _L'Étude et l'enseignement de la
  géographie_ (1871); _La Population française_ (1889-1892);
  _L'Agriculture aux États-Unis_ (1894); _L'Enseignement primaire dans
  les pays civilisés_ (1897); _L'Ouvrier américain_ (1898); _Questions
  ouvrières et industrielles sous la troisième République_ (1907); and
  _Histoire des classes ouvrières et de l'industrie en France de 1789 à
  1870_ (1903-1904). He also published a _Grand Atlas de géographie
  physique et politique_ (1890-1892).

LEVECHE, the name given to the dry hot sirocco wind in Spain; often
incorrectly called the "solano." The direction of the Leveche is mostly
from S.E., S. or S.W., and it occurs along the coast from Cabo de Gata
to Cabo de Nao, and even beyond Malaga for a distance of some 10 m.

LEVÉE (from Fr. _lever_, to raise), an embankment which keeps a river in
its channel. A river such as the Mississippi (q.v.), draining a large
area, carries a great amount of sediment from its swifter head-streams
to the lower ground. As soon as a stream's velocity is checked, it drops
a portion of its load of sediment and spreads an alluvial fan in the
lower part of its course. This deposition of material takes place
particularly at the sides of the stream where the velocity is least, and
the banks are in consequence raised above the main channel, so that the
river becomes lifted bodily upwards in its bed, and flows above the
level of the surrounding country. In flood-time the muddy water flows
over the river's banks, where its velocity is at once checked as it
flows gently down the outer side, causing more material to be deposited
there, and a long alluvial ridge, called a natural levée, to be built up
on either side of the stream. These ridges may be wide or narrow, but
they slope from the stream's outer banks to the plain below, and in
consequence require careful watching, for if the levée is broken by a
"crevasse," the whole body of the river may pour through and flood the
country below. In 1890 the Mississippi near New Orleans broke through
the Nita crevasse and flowed eastward with a current of 15 m. an hour,
spreading destruction in its path. The Hwang-ho river in China is
peculiarly liable to these inundations. The word levée is also sometimes
used to denote a riverside quay or landing-place.

LEVEE (from the French substantival use of _lever_, to rise; there is no
French substantival use of _levée_ in the English sense), a reception or
assembly held by the British sovereign or his representative, in Ireland
by the lord-lieutenant, in India by the viceroy, in the forenoon or
early afternoon, at which men only are present in distinction from a
"drawing-room," at which ladies also are presented or received. Under
the _ancien règime_ in France the _lever_ of the king was regulated,
especially under Louis XIV., by elaborate etiquette, and the various
divisions of the ceremonial followed the stages of the king's rising
from bed, from which it gained its name. The _petit lever_ began when
the king had washed and said his daily offices; to this were admitted
the princes of the blood, certain high officers of the household and
those to whom a special permit had been granted; then followed the
_première entrée_, to which came the secretaries and other officials and
those having the _entrée_; these were received by the king in his
dressing-gown. Finally, at the _grand lever_, the remainder of the
household, the nobles and gentlemen of the court were received; the king
by that time was shaved, had changed his linen and was in his wig. In
the United States the term "levee" was formerly used of the public
receptions held by the president.

LEVELLERS, the name given to an important political party in England
during the period of the Civil War and the Commonwealth. The germ of the
Levelling movement must be sought for among the Agitators (q.v.), men of
strong republican views, and the name Leveller first appears in a letter
of the 1st of November 1647, although it was undoubtedly in existence as
a nickname before this date (Gardiner, _Great Civil War_, iii. 380).
This letter refers to these extremists thus: "They have given themselves
a new name, viz. Levellers, for they intend to sett all things straight,
and rayse a parity and community in the kingdom."

The Levellers first became prominent in 1647 during the protracted and
unsatisfactory negotiations between the king and the parliament, and
while the relations between the latter and the army were very strained.
Like the Agitators they were mainly found among the soldiers; they were
opposed to the existence of kingship, and they feared that Cromwell and
the other parliamentary leaders were too complaisant in their dealings
with Charles; in fact they doubted their sincerity in this matter. Led
by John Lilburne (q.v.) they presented a manifesto, _The Case of the
Army truly stated_, to the commander-in-chief, Lord Fairfax, in October
1647. In this they demanded a dissolution of parliament within a year
and substantial changes in the constitution of future parliaments, which
were to be regulated by an unalterable "law paramount." In a second
document, _The Agreement of the People_, they expanded these ideas,
which were discussed by Cromwell, Ireton and other officers on the one
side, and by John Wildman, Thomas Rainsborough and Edward Sexby for the
Levellers on the other. But no settlement was made; some of the
Levellers clamoured for the king's death, and in November 1647, just
after his flight from Hampton Court to Carisbrooke, they were
responsible for a mutiny which broke out in two regiments at Corkbush
Field, near Ware. This, however, was promptly suppressed by Cromwell.
During the twelve months which immediately preceded the execution of the
king the Levellers conducted a lively agitation in favour of the ideas
expressed in the _Agreement of the people_, and in January 1648 Lilburne
was arrested for using seditious language at a meeting in London. But no
success attended these and similar efforts, and their only result was
that the Levellers regarded Cromwell with still greater suspicion.

Early in 1649, just after the death of the king, the Levellers renewed
their activity. They were both numerous and dangerous, and they stood
up, says Gardiner, "for an exaggeration of the doctrine of parliamentary
supremacy." In a pamphlet, _England's New Chains_, Lilburne asked for
the dissolution of the council of state and for a new and reformed
parliament. He followed this up with the _Second Part of England's New
Chains_; his writings were declared treasonable by parliament, and in
March 1649 he and three other leading Levellers, Richard Overton,
William Walwyn and Prince were arrested. The discontent which was
spreading in the army was fanned when certain regiments were ordered to
proceed to Ireland, and in April 1649 there was a meeting in London; but
this was quickly put down by Fairfax and Cromwell, and its leader,
Robert Lockyer, was shot. Risings at Burford and at Banbury were also
suppressed without any serious difficulty, and the trouble with the
Levellers was practically over. Gradually they became less prominent,
but under the Commonwealth they made frequent advances to the exiled
king Charles II., and there was some danger from them early in 1655 when
Wildman was arrested and Sexby escaped from England. The distinguishing
mark of the Leveller was a sea-green ribbon.

Another but more harmless form of the same movement was the assembling
of about fifty men on St George's Hill near Oatlands in Surrey. In April
1649 these "True Levellers" or "Diggers," as they were called, took
possession of some unoccupied ground which they began to cultivate. They
were, however, soon dispersed, and their leaders were arrested and
brought before Fairfax, when they took the opportunity of denouncing
landowners. It is interesting to note that Lilburne and his colleagues
objected to being designated Levellers, as they had no desire to take
away "the proper right and title that every man has to what is his own."

Cromwell attacked the Levellers in his speech to parliament in September
1654 (Carlyle, _Cromwell's Letters and Speeches_, Speech II.). He said:
"A nobleman, a gentleman, a yeoman; the distinction of these; that is a
good interest of the nation, and a great one. The 'natural' magistracy
of the nation, was it not almost trampled under foot, under despite and
contempt, by men of Levelling principles? I beseech you, for the orders
of men and ranks of men, did not that Levelling principle tend to the
reducing of all to an equality? Did it 'consciously' think to do so; or
did it 'only unconsciously' practise towards that for property and
interest? 'At all events,' what was the purport of it but to make the
tenant as liberal a fortune as the landlord? Which, I think, if
obtained, would not have lasted long."

  In 1724 there was a rising against enclosures in Galloway, and a
  number of men who took part therein were called Levellers or
  Dyke-breakers (A. Lang, _History of Scotland_, vol. iv.). The word was
  also used in Ireland during the 18th century to describe a secret
  revolutionary society similar to the Whiteboys.     (A. W. H.*)

LEVEN, ALEXANDER LESLIE, 1ST EARL OF (c. 1580-1661), Scottish general,
was the son of George Leslie, captain of Blair-in-Athol, and a member of
the family of Leslie of Balquhain. After a scanty education he sought
his fortune abroad, and became a soldier, first under Sir Horace Vere in
the Low Countries, and afterwards (1605) under Charles IX. and Gustavus
Adolphus of Sweden, in whose service he remained for many years and
fought in many campaigns with honour. In 1626 Leslie had risen by merit
to the rank of lieutenant-general, and had been knighted by Gustavus. In
1628 he distinguished himself by his constancy and energy in the defence
of Stralsund against Wallenstein, and in 1630 seized the island of Rügen
in the name of the king of Sweden. In the same year he returned to
Scotland to assist in recruiting and organizing the corps of Scottish
volunteers which James, 3rd marquis of Hamilton, brought over to
Gustavus in 1631. Leslie received a severe wound in the following
winter, but was able nevertheless to be present at Gustavus's last
battle at Lützen. Like many others of the soldiers of fortune who served
under Gustavus, Leslie cherished his old commander's memory to the day
of his death, and he kept with particular care a jewel and miniature
presented to him by the king. He continued as a general officer in the
Swedish army for some years, was promoted in 1636 to the rank of field
marshal, and continued in the field until 1638, when events recalled him
to his own country. He had married long before this--in 1637 his eldest
son was made a colonel in the Swedish army--and he had managed to keep
in touch with Scottish affairs.

As the foremost Scottish soldier of his day he was naturally nominated
to command the Scottish army in the impending war with England, a post
which, resigning his Swedish command, he accepted with a glad heart, for
he was an ardent Covenanter and had caused "a great number of our
commanders in Germany subscryve our covenant" (Baillie's _Letters_). On
leaving Sweden he brought back his arrears of pay in the form of cannon
and muskets for his new army. For some months he busied himself with the
organization and training of the new levies, and with inducing Scottish
officers abroad to do their duty to their country by returning to lead
them. Diminutive in size and somewhat deformed in person as he was, his
reputation and his shrewdness and simple tact, combined with the
respect for his office of lord general that he enforced on all ranks,
brought even the unruly nobles to subordination. He had by now amassed a
considerable fortune and was able to live in a manner befitting a
commander-in-chief, even when in the field. One of his first exploits
was to take the castle of Edinburgh by surprise, without the loss of a
man. He commanded the Scottish army at Dunse Law in May of that year,
and in 1640 he invaded England, and defeated the king's troops at
Newburn on the Tyne, which gave him possession of Newcastle and of the
open country as far as the Tees. At the treaty with the king at Ripon,
Leslie was one of the commissioners of the Scottish parliament, and when
Charles visited Edinburgh Leslie entertained him magnificently and
accompanied him when he drove through the streets. His affirmations of
loyalty to the crown, which later events caused to be remembered against
him, were sincere enough, but the complicated politics of the time made
it difficult for Leslie, the lord general of the Scottish army, to
maintain a perfectly consistent attitude. However, his influence was
exercised chiefly to put an end to, even to hush up, the troubles, and
he is found, now giving a private warning to plotters against the king
to enable them to escape, now guarding the Scottish parliament against a
royalist _coup d'état_, and now securing for an old comrade of the
German wars, Patrick Ruthven, Lord Ettrick, indemnity for having held
Edinburgh Castle for the king against the parliament. Charles created
him, by patent dated Holyrood, October 11, 1641, earl of Leven and Lord
Balgonie, and made him captain of Edinburgh Castle and a privy
councillor. The parliament recognized his services by a grant, and, on
his resigning the lord generalship, appointed him commander of the
permanent forces. A little later, Leven, who was a member of the
committee of the estates which exercised executive powers during the
recess of parliament, used his great influence in support of a proposal
to raise a Scottish army to help the elector palatine in Germany, but
the Ulster massacres gave this force, when raised, a fresh direction and
Leven himself accompanied it to Ireland as lord general. He did not
remain there long, for the Great Rebellion (q.v.) had begun in England,
and negotiations were opened between the English and the Scottish
parliaments for mutual armed assistance. Leven accepted the command of
the new forces raised for the invasion of England, and was in
consequence freely accused of having broken his personal oath to
Charles, but he could hardly have acted otherwise than he did, and at
that time, and so far as the Scots were concerned, to the end of the
struggle, the parliaments were in arms, professedly and to some extent
actually, to rescue his majesty from the influence of evil counsellors.

The military operations preceding Marston Moor are described under GREAT
REBELLION, and the battle itself under its own heading. Leven's great
reputation, wisdom and tact made him an ideal commander for the allied
army formed by the junction of Leven's, Fairfax's and Manchester's in
Yorkshire. After the battle the allied forces separated, Leven bringing
the siege of Newcastle to an end by storming it. In 1645 the Scots were
less successful, though their operations ranged from Westmorland to
Hereford, and Leven himself had many administrative and political
difficulties to contend with. These difficulties became more pronounced
when in 1646 Charles took refuge with the Scottish army. The king
remained with Leven until he was handed over to the English parliament
in 1647, and Leven constantly urged him to take the covenant and to make
peace. Presbyterians and Independents had now parted, and with no more
concession than the guarantee of the covenant the Scottish and English
Presbyterians were ready to lay down their arms, or to turn them against
the "sectaries." Leven was now old and infirm, and though retained as
nominal commander-in-chief saw no further active service. He acted with
Argyll and the "godly" party in the discussions preceding the second
invasion of England, and remained at his post as long as possible in the
hope of preventing the Scots becoming merely a royalist instrument for
the conquest of the English Independents. But be was induced in the end
to resign, though he was appointed lord general of all new forces that
might be raised for the defence of Scotland. The occasion soon came, for
Cromwell annihilated the Scottish invaders at Preston and Uttoxeter, and
thereupon Argyll assumed political and Leven military control at
Edinburgh. But he was now over seventy years of age, and willingly
resigned the effective command to his subordinate David Leslie (see
NEWARK, LORD), in whom he had entire confidence. After the execution of
Charles I. the war broke out afresh, and this time the "godly" party
acted with the royalists. In the new war, and in the disastrous campaign
of Dunbar, Leven took but a nominal part, though attempts were
afterwards made to hold him responsible. But once more the parliament
refused to accept his resignation. Leven at last fell into the hands of
a party of English dragoons in August 1651, and with some others was
sent to London. He remained incarcerated in the Tower for some time,
till released on finding securities for £20,000, upon which he retired
to his residence in Northumberland. While on a visit to London he was
again arrested, for a technical breach of his engagement, but by the
intercession of the queen of Sweden he obtained his liberty. He was
freed from his engagements in 1654, and retired to his seat at Balgonie
in Fifeshire, where he died at an advanced age in 1661. He acquired
considerable landed property, particularly Inchmartin in the Carse of
Gowrie, which he called Inchleslie.


LEVEN, a police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 5577. It is
situated on the Firth of Forth, at the mouth of the Leven, 5¾ m. E. by
N. of Thornton Junction by the North British railway. The public
buildings include the town hall, public hall and people's institute, in
the grounds of which the old town cross has been erected. The industries
are numerous, comprising flax-spinning, brewing, linen-weaving,
paper-making, seed-crushing and rope-making, besides salt-works, a
foundry, saw-mill and brick-works. The wet dock is not much used, owing
to the constant accumulation of sand. The golf-links extending for 2 m.
to Lundin are among the best in Scotland. Two miles N.E. is Lundin Mill
and Drumochie, usually called LUNDIN (pop. 570), at the mouth of Kiel
Burn, with a station on the Links. The three famous standing stones are
supposed to be either of "Druidical" origin or to mark the site of a
battle with the Danes. In the vicinity are the remains of an old house
of the Lundins, dating from the reign of David II. To the N.W. of Leven
lies the parish of KENNOWAY (pop. 870). In Captain Seton's house, which
still stands in the village of Kennoway, Archbishop Sharp spent the
night before his assassination (1679). One mile east of Lundin lies
LARGO (pop. of parish 2046), consisting of Upper Largo, or Kirkton of
Largo, and Lower Largo. The public buildings include Simpson institute,
with a public hall, library, reading-room, bowling-green and lawn-tennis
court, and John Wood's hospital, founded in 1659 for poor persons
bearing his name. A statue of Alexander Selkirk, or Selcraig
(1676-1721), the prototype of "Robinson Crusoe," who was born here, was
erected in 1886. Sir John Leslie (1766-1832), the natural philosopher,
was also a native. Largo claims two famous sailors, Admiral Sir Philip
Durham (1763-1845), commander-in-chief at Portsmouth from 1836 to 1839,
and Sir Andrew Wood (d. 1515), the trusted servant of James III. and
James IV., who sailed the "Great Michael," the largest ship of its time.
When he was past active service he had a canal cut from his house to the
parish church, to which he was rowed every Sunday in an eight-oared
barge. Largo House was granted to him by James III., and the tower of
the original structure still exists. About 1½ m. from the coast rises
the height of Largo Law (948 ft.). Kellie Law lies some 5½ m. to the

LEVEN, LOCH, a lake of Kinross-shire, Scotland. It has an oval shape,
the longer axis running from N.W. to S.E., has a length of 3{2/3} m.,
and a breadth of 2{2/3} m. and is situated near the south and east
boundaries of the shire. It lies at a height of 350 ft. above the sea.
The mean depth is less than 15 ft., with a maximum of 83 ft., the lake
being thus one of the shallowest in Scotland. Reclamation works carried
on from 1826 to 1836 reduced its area by one quarter, but it still
possesses a surface area of 5½ sq. m. It drains the county and is
itself drained by the Leven. It is famous for the Loch Leven trout
(_Salmo levenensis_, considered by some a variety of _S. trutta_), which
are remarkable for size and quality. The fishings are controlled by the
Loch Leven Angling Association, which organizes competitions attracting
anglers from far and near. The loch contains seven islands. Upon St
Serf's, the largest, which commemorates the patron saint of Fifeshire,
are the ruins of the Priory of Portmoak--so named from St Moak, the
first abbot--the oldest Culdee establishment in Scotland. Some time
before 961 it was made over to the bishop of St Andrews, and shortly
after 1144 a body of canons regular was established on it in connexion
with the priory of canons regular founded in that year at St Andrews.
The second largest island, Castle Island, possesses remains of even
greater interest. The first stronghold is supposed to have been erected
by Congal, son of Dongart, king of the Picts. The present castle dates
from the 13th century and was occasionally used as a royal residence. It
is said to have been in the hands of the English for a time, from whom
it was delivered by Wallace. It successfully withstood Edward Baliol's
siege in 1335, and was granted by Robert II. to Sir William Douglas of
Lugton. It became the prison at various periods of Robert II.; of
Alexander Stuart, earl of Buchan, "the Wolf of Badenoch"; Archibald,
earl of Douglas (1429); Patrick Graham, archbishop of St Andrews (who
died, still in bondage, on St Serf's Island in 1478), and of Mary, queen
of Scots. The queen had visited it more than once before her detention,
and had had a presence chamber built in it. Conveyed hither in June 1567
after her surrender at Carberry, she signed her abdication within its
walls on the 4th of July and effected her escape on the 2nd of May 1568.
The keys of the castle, which were thrown into the loch during her
flight, were found and are preserved at Dalmahoy in Midlothian. Support
of Mary's cause had involved Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland
(b. 1528). He too was lodged in the castle in 1569, and after three
years' imprisonment was handed over to the English, by whom he was
beheaded at York in 1572. The proverb that "Those never got luck who
came to Loch Leven" sums up the history of the castle. The causeway
connecting the isle with the mainland was long submerged too deeply for
use, but the reclamation operations already referred to almost brought
it into view again.

LEVEN AND MELVILLE, EARLS OF. The family of Melville which now holds
these two earldoms is descended from Sir John Melville of Raith in
Fifeshire. Sir John, who was a member of the reforming party in
Scotland, was put to death for high treason on the 13th of December
1548; he left with other children a son Robert (1527-1621), who in 1616
was created a lord of parliament as Lord Melville of Monymaill. Before
his elevation to the Scottish peerage Melville had been a stout partisan
of Mary, queen of Scots, whom he represented at the English court, and
he had filled several important offices in Scotland under her son James
VI. The fourth holder of the lordship of Melville was George (c.
1634-1707), a son of John, the 3rd lord (d. 1643), and a descendant of
Sir John Melville. Implicated in the Rye House plot against Charles II.,
George took refuge in the Netherlands in 1683, but he returned to
England after the revolution of 1688 and was appointed secretary for
Scotland by William III. in 1689, being created earl of Melville in the
following year. He was made president of the Scottish privy council in
1696, but he was deprived of his office when Anne became queen in 1702,
and he died on the 20th of May 1707. His son David, 2nd earl of Melville
(1660-1728), fled to Holland with his father in 1683; after serving in
the army of the elector of Brandenburg he accompanied William of Orange
to England in 1688. At the head of a regiment raised by himself he
fought for William at Killiecrankie and elsewhere, and as
commander-in-chief of the troops in Scotland he dealt promptly and
effectively with the attempted Jacobite rising of 1708. In 1712,
however, his office was taken from him and he died on the 6th of June

Alexander Leslie, 1st earl of Leven (q.v.), was succeeded in his earldom
by his grandson Alexander, who died without sons in July 1664. The
younger Alexander's two daughters were then in turn countesses of Leven
in their own right; and after the death of the second of these two
ladies in 1676 a dispute arose over the succession to the earldom
between John Leslie, earl (afterwards duke) of Rothes, and David
Melville, 2nd earl of Melville, mentioned above. In 1681, however,
Rothes died, and Melville, who was a great-grandson of the 1st earl of
Leven, assumed the title, calling himself earl of Leven and Melville
after he succeeded his father as earl of Melville in May 1707. Since
1805 the family has borne the name of Leslie-Melville. In 1906 John
David Leslie-Melville (b. 1886) became 12th earl of Leven and 11th earl
of Melville.

  See Sir W. Fraser, _The Melvilles, Earls of Melville, and the Leslies,
  Earls of Leven_ (1890); and the _Leven and Melville Papers_, edited by
  the Hon. W. H. Leslie-Melville for the Bannatyne Club (1843).

LEVER, CHARLES JAMES (1806-1872), Irish novelist, second son of James
Lever, a Dublin architect and builder, was born in the Irish capital on
the 31st of August 1806. His descent was purely English. He was educated
in private schools, where he wore a ring, smoked, read novels, was a
ringleader in every breach of discipline, and behaved generally like a
boy destined for the navy in one of Captain Marryat's novels. His
escapades at Trinity College, Dublin (1823-1828), whence he took the
degree of M.B. in 1831, form the basis of that vast cellarage of
anecdote from which all the best vintages in his novels are derived. The
inimitable Frank Webber in _Charles O'Malley_ (spiritual ancestor of
Foker and Mr Bouncer) was a college friend, Robert Boyle, later on an
Irish parson. Lever and Boyle sang ballads of their own composing in the
streets of Dublin, after the manner of Fergusson or Goldsmith, filled
their caps with coppers and played many other pranks embellished in the
pages of _O'Malley_, _Con Cregan_ and _Lord Kilgobbin_. Before seriously
embarking upon the medical studies for which he was designed, Lever
visited Canada as an unqualified surgeon on an emigrant ship, and has
drawn upon some of his experiences in _Con Cregan_, _Arthur O'Leary_ and
_Roland Cashel_. Arrived in Canada he plunged into the backwoods, was
affiliated to a tribe of Indians and had to escape at the risk of his
life, like his own Bagenal Daly.

Back in Europe, he travelled in the guise of a student from Göttingen to
Weimar (where he saw Goethe), thence to Vienna; he loved the German
student life with its beer, its fighting and its fun, and several of his
merry songs, such as "The Pope he loved a merry life" (greatly envied by
Titmarsh), are on _Student-lied_ models. His medical degree admitted him
to an appointment from the Board of Health in Co. Clare and then as
dispensary doctor at Port Stewart, but the liveliness of his diversions
as a country doctor seems to have prejudiced the authorities against
him. In 1833 he married his first love, Catherine Baker, and in February
1837, after varied experiences, he began running _The Confessions of
Harry Lorrequer_ through the pages of the recently established _Dublin
University Magazine_. During the previous seven years the popular taste
had declared strongly in favour of the service novel as exemplified by
_Frank Mildmay_, _Tom Cringle_, _The Subaltern_, _Cyril Thornton_,
_Stories of Waterloo_, _Ben Brace_ and _The Bivouac_; and Lever himself
had met William Hamilton Maxwell, the titular founder of the genre.
Before _Harry Lorrequer_ appeared in volume form (1839), Lever had
settled on the strength of a slight diplomatic connexion as a
fashionable physician in Brussels (16, Rue Ducale). _Lorrequer_ was
merely a string of Irish and other stories good, bad and indifferent,
but mostly rollicking, and Lever, who strung together his anecdotes late
at night after the serious business of the day was done, was astonished
at its success. "If this sort of thing amuses them, I can go on for
ever." Brussels was indeed a superb place for the observation of
half-pay officers, such as Major Monsoon (Commissioner Meade), Captain
Bubbleton and the like, who terrorized the _tavernes_ of the place with
their endless peninsular stories, and of English society a little
damaged, which it became the specialty of Lever to depict. He sketched
with a free hand, wrote, as he lived, from hand to mouth, and the chief
difficulty he experienced was that of getting rid of his characters who
"hung about him like those tiresome people who never can make up their
minds to bid you good night." Lever had never taken part in a battle
himself, but his next three books, _Charles O'Malley_ (1841), _Jack
Hinton_ and _Tom Burke of Ours_ (1843), written under the spur of the
writer's chronic extravagance, contain some splendid military writing
and some of the most animated battle-pieces on record. In pages of
_O'Malley_ and _Tom Burke_ Lever anticipates not a few of the best
effects of Marbot, Thiébaut, Lejeune, Griois, Seruzier, Burgoyne and the
like. His account of the Douro need hardly fear comparison, it has been
said, with Napier's. Condemned by the critics, Lever had completely won
the general reader from the Iron Duke himself downwards.

In 1842 he returned to Dublin to edit the _Dublin University Magazine_,
and gathered round him a typical coterie of Irish wits (including one or
two hornets) such as the O'Sullivans, Archer Butler, W. Carleton, Sir
William Wilde, Canon Hayman, D. F. McCarthy, McGlashan, Dr Kenealy and
many others. In June 1842 he welcomed at Templeogue, 4 m. south-west of
Dublin, the author of the _Snob Papers_ on his Irish tour (the _Sketch
Book_ was, later, dedicated to Lever). Thackeray recognized the fund of
Irish sadness beneath the surface merriment. "The author's character is
not humour but sentiment. The spirits are mostly artificial, the _fond_
is sadness, as appears to me to be that of most Irish writing and
people." The Waterloo episode in _Vanity Fair_ was in part an outcome of
the talk between the two novelists. But the "Galway pace," the display
he found it necessary to maintain at Templeogue, the stable full of
horses, the cards, the friends to entertain, the quarrels to compose and
the enormous rapidity with which he had to complete _Tom Burke_, _The
O'Donoghue_ and _Arthur O'Leary_ (1845), made his native land an
impossible place for Lever to continue in. Templeogue would soon have
proved another Abbotsford. Thackeray suggested London. But Lever
required a new field of literary observation and anecdote. His _sève
originel_ was exhausted and he decided to renew it on the continent. In
1845 he resigned his editorship and went back to Brussels, whence he
started upon an unlimited tour of central Europe in a family coach. Now
and again he halted for a few months, and entertained to the limit of
his resources in some ducal castle or other which he hired for an off
season. Thus at Riedenburg, near Bregenz, in August 1846, he entertained
Charles Dickens and his wife and other well-known people. Like his own
_Daltons_ or _Dodd Family Abroad_ he travelled continentally, from
Carlsruhe to Como, from Como to Florence, from Florence to the Baths of
Lucca and so on, and his letters home are the litany of the literary
remittance man, his ambition now limited to driving a pair of novels
abreast without a diminution of his standard price for serial work
("twenty pounds a sheet"). In the _Knight of Gwynne_, a story of the
Union (1847), _Con Cregan_ (1849), _Roland Cashel_ (1850) and _Maurice
Tiernay_ (1852) we still have traces of his old manner; but he was
beginning to lose his original joy in composition. His _fond_ of sadness
began to cloud the animal joyousness of his temperament. Formerly he had
written for the happy world which is young and curly and merry; now he
grew fat and bald and grave. "After 38 or so what has life to offer but
one universal declension. Let the crew pump as hard as they like, the
leak gains every hour." But, depressed in spirit as he was, his wit was
unextinguished; he was still the delight of the _salons_ with his
stories, and in 1867, after a few years' experience of a similar kind at
Spezia, he was cheered by a letter from Lord Derby offering him the more
lucrative consulship of Trieste. "Here is six hundred a year for doing
nothing, and you are just the man to do it." The six hundred could not
atone to Lever for the lassitude of prolonged exile. Trieste, at first
"all that I could desire," became with characteristic abruptness
"detestable and damnable." "Nothing to eat, nothing to drink, no one to
speak to." "Of all the dreary places it has been my lot to sojourn in
this is the worst" (some references to Trieste will be found in _That
Boy of Norcott's_, 1869). He could never be alone and was almost
morbidly dependent upon literary encouragement. Fortunately, like
Scott, he had unscrupulous friends who assured him that his last
efforts were his best. They include _The Fortunes of Glencore_ (1857),
_Tony Butler_ (1865), _Luttrell of Arran_ (1865), _Sir Brooke Fosbrooke_
(1866), _Lord Kilgobbin_ (1872) and the table-talk of _Cornelius
O'Dowd_, originally contributed to Blackwood. His depression, partly due
to incipient heart disease, partly to the growing conviction that he was
the victim of literary and critical conspiracy, was confirmed by the
death of his wife (23rd April 1870), to whom he was tenderly attached.
He visited Ireland in the following year and seemed alternately in very
high and very low spirits. Death had already given him one or two
runaway knocks, and, after his return to Trieste, he failed gradually,
dying suddenly, however, and almost painlessly, from failure of the
heart's action on the 1st of June 1872. His daughters, one of whom,
Sydney, is believed to have been the real author of _The Rent in a
Cloud_ (1869), were well provided for.

Trollope praised Lever's novels highly when he said that they were just
like his conversation. He was a born raconteur, and had in perfection
that easy flow of light description which without tedium or hurry leads
up to the point of the good stories of which in earlier days his supply
seemed inexhaustible. With little respect for unity of action or
conventional novel structure, his brightest books, such as _Lorrequer_,
_O'Malley_ and _Tom Burke_, are in fact little more than recitals of
scenes in the life of a particular "hero," unconnected by any continuous
intrigue. The type of character he depicted is for the most part
elementary. His women are mostly rouées, romps or Xanthippes; his heroes
have too much of the Pickle temper about them and fall an easy prey to
the serious attacks of Poe or to the more playful gibes of Thackeray in
_Phil Fogarty_ or Bret Harte in _Terence Deuville_. This last is a
perfect bit of burlesque. Terence exchanges nineteen shots with the Hon.
Captain Henry Somerset in the glen. "At each fire I shot away a button
from his uniform. As my last bullet shot off the last button from his
sleeve, I remarked quietly, 'You seem now, my lord, to be almost as
ragged as the gentry you sneered at,' and rode haughtily away." And yet
these careless sketches contain such haunting creations as Frank Webber,
Major Monsoon and Micky Free, "the Sam Weller of Ireland." Falstaff is
alone in the literature of the world; but if ever there came a later
Falstaff, Monsoon was the man. As for Baby Blake, is she not an Irish Di
Vernon? The critics may praise Lever's thoughtful and careful later
novels as they will, but _Charles O'Malley_ will always be the pattern
of a military romance.

Superior, it is sometimes claimed, in construction and style, the later
books approximate it may be thought to the good _ordinary_ novel of
commerce, but they lack the _extraordinary_ qualities, the
incommunicable "go" of the early books--the élan of Lever's untamed
youth. Artless and almost formless these productions may be, but they
represent to us, as very few other books can, that pathetic ejaculation
of Lever's own--"Give us back the wild freshness of the morning!" We
know the novelist's teachers, Maxwell, Napier, the old-fashioned
compilation known as _Victoires, conquêtes et désastres des Français_
(1835), and the old buffers at Brussels who emptied the room by uttering
the word "Badajos." But where else shall we find the equals of the
military scenes in _O'Malley_ and _Tom Burke_, or the military episodes
in _Jack Hinton_, _Arthur O'Leary_ (the story of Aubuisson) or _Maurice
Tiernay_ (nothing he ever did is finer than the chapter introducing "A
remnant of Fontenoy")? It is here that his true genius lies, even more
than in his talent for conviviality and fun, which makes an early copy
of an early Lever (with Phiz's illustrations) seem literally to exhale
an atmosphere of past and present entertainment. It is here that he is a
true romancist, not for boys only, but also for men.

Lever's lack of artistry and of sympathy with the deeper traits of the
Irish character have been stumbling-blocks to his reputation among the
critics. Except to some extent in _The Martins of Cro' Martin_ (1856) it
may be admitted that his portraits of Irish are drawn too exclusively
from the type depicted in Sir Jonah Barrington's _Memoirs_ and already
well known on the English stage. He certainly had no deliberate
intention of "lowering the national character." Quite the reverse. Yet
his posthumous reputation seems to have suffered in consequence, in
spite of all his Gallic sympathies and not unsuccessful endeavours to
apotheosize the "Irish Brigade."

  The chief authorities are the _Life_, by W. J. Fitzpatrick (1879), and
  the _Letters_, ed. in 2 vols. by Edmund Downey (1906), neither of
  which, however, enables the reader to penetrate below the surface. See
  also Dr Garnett in _Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dublin Univ. Mag._ (1880), 465
  and 570; Anthony Trollope's _Autobiography; Blackwood_ (August 1862);
  _Fortnightly Review_, vol. xxxii.; Andrew Lang's _Essays in Little_
  (1892); Henley's _Views and Reviews_; Hugh Walker's _Literature of the
  Victorian Era_ (1910); _The Bookman Hist. of English Literature_
  (1906), p. 467; _Bookman_ (June 1906; portraits). A library edition of
  the novels in 37 vols. appeared 1897-1899 under the superintendence of
  Lever's daughter, Julie Kate Neville.     (T. Se.)

LEVER (through O. Fr. _leveour_, _levere_, mod. _levier_, from Lat.
_levare_, to lift, raise), a mechanical device for raising bodies; the
"simple" lever consists of a rigid bar free to move about a fixed point,
termed the _fulcrum_; one point of the rod is connected to the piece to
be moved, and power is applied at another point (see MECHANICS).

LEVERRIER, URBAIN JEAN JOSEPH (1811-1877), French astronomer, was born
at St Lô in Normandy on the 11th of March 1811. His father, who held a
small post under government, made great efforts to send him to Paris,
where a brilliant examination gained him, in 1831, admittance to the
École Polytechnique. The distinction of his career there was rewarded
with a free choice amongst the departments of the public service open to
pupils of the school. He selected the administration of tobaccos,
addressing himself especially to chemical researches under the guidance
of Gay-Lussac, and gave striking proof of ability in two papers on the
combinations of phosphorus with hydrogen and oxygen, published in
_Annales de Chimie et de Physique_ (1835 and 1837). His astronomical
vocation, like that of Kepler, came from without. The place of teacher
of that science at the École Polytechnique falling vacant in 1837, it
was offered to and accepted by Leverrier, who, "docile to circumstance,"
instantly abandoned chemistry, and directed the whole of his powers to
celestial mechanics. The first fruits of his labours were contained in
two memoirs presented to the Academy, September 16 and October 14, 1839.
Pursuing the investigations of Laplace, he demonstrated with greater
rigour the stability of the solar system, and calculated the limits
within which the eccentricities and inclinations of the planetary orbits
vary. This remarkable début excited much attention, and, on the
recommendation of François Arago, he took in hand the theory of Mercury,
producing, in 1843, vastly improved tables of that planet. The
perturbations of the comets discovered, the one by H. A. E. A. Faye in
November 1843, the other by Francesco de Vico a year later, were
minutely investigated by Leverrier, with the result of disproving the
supposed identity of the first with Lexell's lost comet of 1770, and of
the other with Tycho's of 1585. On the other hand, he made it appear all
but certain that Vico's comet was the same with one seen by Philippe de
Lahire in 1678. Recalled once more, by the summons of Arago, to
planetary studies, he was this time invited to turn his attention to
Uranus. Step by step, with sagacious and patient accuracy, he advanced
to the great discovery which has immortalized his name. Carefully
sifting all the known causes of disturbance, he showed that one
previously unknown had to be reckoned with, and on the 23rd of September
1846 the planet Neptune was discerned by J. G. Galle (d. 1910) at
Berlin, within one degree of the spot Leverrier had indicated (see

This memorable achievement was greeted with an outburst of public
enthusiasm. Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among
their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king
of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in
the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of
astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was
appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes. Returned to
the Legislative Assembly in 1849 by his native department of Manche, he
voted with the anti-republican party, but devoted his principal
attention to subjects connected with science and education. After the
_coup d'état_ of 1851 he became a senator and inspector-general of
superior instruction, sat upon the commission for the reform of the
École Polytechnique (1854), and, on the 30th of January 1854, succeeded
Arago as director of the Paris observatory. His official work in the
latter capacity would alone have strained the energies of an ordinary
man. The institution had fallen into a state of lamentable inefficiency.
Leverrier placed it on a totally new footing, freed it from the control
of the Bureau of Longitudes, and raised it to its due rank among the
observatories of Europe. He did not escape the common lot of reformers.
His uncompromising measures and unconciliatory manner of enforcing them
raised a storm only appeased by his removal on the 5th of February 1870.
On the death of his successor Charles Eugène Delaunay (1816-1872), he
was reinstated by Thiers, but with authority restricted by the
supervision of a council. In the midst of these disquietudes, he
executed a task of gigantic proportions. This was nothing less than the
complete revision cf the planetary theories, followed by a laborious
comparison of results with the most authentic observations, and the
construction of tables representing the movements thus corrected. It
required all his indomitable perseverance to carry through a purpose
which failing health continually menaced with frustration. He had,
however, the happiness of living long enough to perfect his work. Three
weeks after he had affixed his signature to the printed sheets of the
theory of Neptune he died at Paris on the 23rd of September 1877. By his
marriage with Mademoiselle Choquet, who survived him little more than a
month, he left a son and daughter.

  The discovery with which Leverrier's name is popularly identified was
  only an incident in his career. The elaboration of the scheme of the
  heavens traced out by P. S. Laplace in the _Mécanique céleste_ was its
  larger aim, for the accomplishment of which forty years of unremitting
  industry barely sufficed. He nevertheless found time to organize the
  meteorological service in France and to promote the present system of
  international weather-warnings. He founded the Association
  Scientifique, and was active in introducing a practical scientific
  element into public education. His inference of the existence, between
  Mercury and the sun, of an appreciable quantity of circulating matter
  (_Comptes rendus_, 1859, ii. 379), has not yet been verified. He was
  twice, in 1868 and 1876, the recipient of the gold medal of the Royal
  Astronomical Society, London, and the university of Cambridge
  conferred upon him, in 1875, the honorary degree of LL.D. His
  planetary and solar tables were adopted by the _Nautical Almanac_, as
  well as by the _Connaissance des temps_.

  The _Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris_, the publication of which was
  set on foot by Leverrier, contain, in vols. i.-vi. (_Mémoires_)
  (1855-1861) and x.-xiv. (1874-1877), his theories and tables of the
  several planets. In vol. i. will be found, besides his masterly report
  on the observatory, a general theory of secular inequalities, in which
  the development of the disturbing function was carried further than
  had previously been attempted.

  The memoirs and papers communicated by him to the Academy were
  summarized in _Comptes rendus_ (1839-1876), and the more important
  published in full either separately or in the _Conn. des temps_ and
  the _Journal des mathématiques_. That entitled _Développemens sur
  différents points de la théorie des perturbations_ (1841), was
  translated in part xviii. of Taylor's _Scientific Memoirs_. For his
  scientific work see Professor Adams's address, _Monthly Notices_,
  xxxvi. 232, and F. Tisserand's review in _Ann. de l'Obs._ tom. xv.
  (1880); for a notice of his life, J. Bertrand's "Éloge historique,"
  _Mém. de l'Ac. des Sciences_, tom, xli., 2^(me) série.     (A. M. C.)

LEVERTIN, OSCAR IVAN (1862-1906), Swedish poet and man of letters, was
born of Jewish parents at Norrköping on the 17th of July 1862. He
received his doctorate in letters at Upsala in 1887, and was
subsequently _docent_ at Upsala, and later professor of literature at
Stockholm. Enforced sojourns in southern Europe on account of health
familiarized him with foreign languages. He began by being an extreme
follower of the naturalist school, but on his return in 1890 from a two
years' residence in Davos he wrote, in collaboration with the poet C. G.
Verner von Heidenstam (b. 1859), a novel, _Pepitas bröllop_ (1890),
which was a direct attack on naturalism. His later volumes of short
stories, _Rococonoveller_ and _Sista noveller_, are fine examples of
modern Swedish fiction. The lyrical beauty of his poems, _Legender och
visor_ (1891), placed him at the head of the romantic reaction in
Sweden. In his poems entitled _Nya Dikter_ (1894) he drew his material
partly from medieval sources, and a third volume of poetry in 1902
sustained his reputation. His last poetical work (1905) was _Kung Salomo
och Morolf_, poems founded on an eastern legend. As a critic he first
attracted attention by his books on the Gustavian age of Swedish
letters: _Teater och drama under Gustaf III._ (1889), &c. He was an
active collaborator in the review _Ord och Bild_. He died in 1906, at a
time when he was engaged on his _Linné_, posthumously published, a
fragment of a great work on Linnaeus.

LEVI, HERMANN (1839-1900), German orchestral conductor, was born at
Giessen on the 7th of November 1839, and was the son of a Jewish rabbi.
He was educated at Giessen and Mannheim, and came under Vincenz
Lachner's notice. From 1855 to 1858 Levi studied at the Leipzig
conservatorium, and after a series of travels which took him to Paris,
he obtained his first post as music director at Saarbrücken, which post
he exchanged for that at Mannheim in 1861. From 1862 to 1864 he was
chief conductor of the German opera in Rotterdam, then till 1872 at
Carlsruhe, when he went to Munich, a post he held until 1896, when
ill-health compelled him to resign. Levi's name is indissolubly
connected with the increased public appreciation of Wagner's music. He
conducted the first performance of _Parsifal_ at Bayreuth in 1882, and
was connected with the musical life of that place during the remainder
of his career. He visited London in 1895.

LEVI, LEONE (1821-1888), English jurist and statistician, was born of
Jewish parents on the 6th of June 1821, at Ancona, Italy. After
receiving an early training in a business house in his native town, he
went to Liverpool in 1844, became naturalized, and changing his faith,
joined the Presbyterian church. Perceiving the necessity, in view of the
unsystematic condition of the English law on the subject, for the
establishment of chambers and tribunals of commerce in England, he
warmly advocated their institution in numerous pamphlets; and as a
result of his labours the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, of which Levi
was made secretary, was founded in 1849. In 1850 Levi published his
_Commercial Law of the World_, being an exhaustive and comparative
treatise upon the laws and codes of mercantile countries. Appointed in
1852 to the chair of commercial law in King's College, London, he proved
himself a highly competent and popular instructor, and his evening
classes were a most successful innovation. He was called to the bar at
Lincoln's Inn in 1859, and received from the university of Tübingen the
degree of doctor of political science. His chief work--_History of
British Commerce and of the Economic Progress of the British Nation_,
1763-1870, is perhaps a rather too partisan account of British economic
development, being a eulogy upon the blessings of Free Trade, but its
value as a work of reference cannot be gainsaid. Among his other works
are: _Work and Pay_; _Wages and Earnings of the Working Classes_;
_International Law, with Materials for a Code_. He died on the 7th of
May 1888.

LEVIATHAN, the Hebrew name (_livyathan_), occurring in the poetical
books of the Bible, of a gigantic animal, apparently the sea or water
equivalent of behemoth (q.v.), the king of the animals of the dry land.
In Job xli. 15 it would seem to represent the crocodile, in Isaiah
xxvii. 1 it is a crooked and piercing serpent, the dragon of the sea;
cf. Psalms civ. 26. The etymology of the word is uncertain, but it has
been taken to be connected with a root meaning "to twist." Apart from
its scriptural usage, the word is applied to any gigantic marine animal
such as the whale, and hence, figuratively, of very large ships, and
also of persons of outstanding strength, power, wealth or influence.
Hobbes adopted the name as the title of his principal work, applying it
to "the multitude so united in one person ... called a commonwealth....
This is the generation of that Leviathan, or rather ... of that mortal
God, to which we owe under the immortal God, our peace and defence."

LEVIRATE (Lat. _levir_, a husband's brother), a custom, sometimes even a
law, compelling a dead man's brother to marry his widow. It seems to
have been widespread in primitive times, and is common to-day. Of the
origin and primitive purpose of the levirate marriage various
explanations have been put forward:--

1. It has been urged that the custom was primarily based on the law of
inheritance; a wife, regarded as a chattel, being inherited like other
possessions. The social advantage of providing one who should maintain
the widow doubtless aided the spread of the custom. The abandonment of a
woman and her children in the nomadic stage of civilization would be
equivalent to death for them; hence with some peoples the levirate
became a duty rather than a right. Among the Thlinkets, for example,
when a man dies, his brother or his sister's son must marry the widow, a
failure in this duty occasioning feuds. The obligation on a man to
provide for his sister-in-law is analogous to other duties devolving on
kinsfolk, such as the vendetta.

2. J. F. McLennan, however, would assume the levirate to be a relic of
polyandry, and in his argument lays much stress on the fact that it is
the dead man's _brother_ who inherits the widow. But among many races
who follow the custom, such as the Fijians, Samoans, Papuans of New
Guinea, the Caroline Islanders, and some tribes in the interior of
Western Equatorial Africa, the rule of inheritance is to the brother
first. Thus among the Santals, "when the elder brother dies, the next
younger inherits the widow, children and all the property." Further,
there is no known race where it is permitted to a son to marry his own
mother. Inheriting a woman in primitive societies would be always
tantamount to marrying her, and, apart from any special laws of
inheritance, it would be natural for the brother to take over the widow.
In polygamous countries where a man leaves many widows the son would
have a right of ownership over these, and could dispose of them or keep
them as he pleased, his own mother alone excepted. Thus among the
Bakalai, an African tribe, widows may marry the son of their dead
husband, or in default of a son, can live with the brother. The Negroes
of Benin and the Gabun and the Kaffirs of Natal have similar customs. In
New Caledonia every man, married or single, must immediately marry his
brother's widow. In Polynesia the levirate has the force of law, and it
is common throughout America and Asia.

3. Another explanation of the custom has been sought in a semi-religious
motive which has had extraordinary influence in countries where to die
without issue is regarded as a terrible calamity. The fear of this
catastrophe would readily arise among people who did not believe in
personal immortality, and to whom the extinction of their line would be
tantamount to annihilation. Or it is easily conceivable as a natural
result of ancestor-worship, under which failure of offspring entailed
deprivation of cherished rites and service.[1] Thus it is only when the
dead man has no offspring that the Jewish, Hindu and Malagasy laws
prescribe that the brother shall "raise up seed" to him. In this sense
the levirate forms part of the Deuteronomic Code, under which, however,
the obligation is restricted to the brother who "dwelleth together"
(i.e. on the family estate) with the dead man, and the first child only
of the levirate marriage is regarded as that of the dead man. That the
custom was obsolescent seems proved by the enjoining of ceremony on any
brother who wished to evade the duty, though he had to submit to an
insult from his sister-in-law, who draws off his sandal and spits in his
face. The biblical story of Ruth exemplifies the custom, though with
further modifications (see RUTH, BOOK OF). Finally the custom is
forbidden in Leviticus, though in New Testament times the levirate law
was still observed by some Jews. The ceremony ordained by Deuteronomy is
still observed among the orthodox. Among the Hindus the _levir_ did not
take his brother's widow as wife, but he had intercourse with her. This
practice was called _niyoga_.

4. Yet another suggested origin of the levirate is agrarian, the motive
being to keep together under the levirate husband the property which
would otherwise have been divided among all the brothers or next of kin.

  See J. F. McLennan, _Studies in Ancient History_ (London, 1886) and
  "The Levirate and Polyandry," in _The Fortnightly Review_, n.s. vol.
  xxi. (1877); C. N. Starcke, _The Primitive Family in its Origin and
  Development_ (London, 1889); Edward Westermarck, _History of Human
  Marriage_ (London, 1894), pp. 510-514, where are valuable notes
  containing references to numerous books of travel; H. Spencer,
  _Principles of Sociology_, ii. 649; A. H. Post, _Einleitung in das
  Stud. d. Ethnolog. Jurisprud_. (1886).


  [1] An expression of this idea is quoted from the _Mahabharata_
    (Muir's trans.), by Max Müller (Gifford Lectures), _Anthropological
    Religion_, p. 31--

      "That stage completed, seek a wife
       And gain the fruit of wedded life,
       A race of sons, by rites to seal,
       When thou art gone, thy spirit's weal."

LÉVIS (formerly Pointe Levi), the chief town of Lévis county, Quebec,
Canada, situated on the precipitous south bank of the St Lawrence,
opposite Quebec city. Pop. (1901) 7783. It is on the Intercolonial
railway, and is the eastern terminus of the Grand Trunk and Quebec
Central railways. It contains the Lorne dock, a Dominion government
graving dock, 445 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, with a depth on the sill of
26½ and 20½ ft. at high water, spring and neap tides respectively. It is
an important centre of the river trade, and is connected by steam
ferries with the city of Quebec. It is named after the maréchal duc de
Lévis, the last commander of the French troops in Canada.

LEVITES, or sons of Levi (son of Jacob by Leah), a sacred caste in
ancient Israel, the guardians of the temple service at Jerusalem.[1]

1. _Place in Ritual._--In the developed hierarchical system the
ministers of the sanctuary are divided into distinct grades. All are
"Levites" by descent, and are thus correlated in the genealogical and
other lists, but the true priesthood is confined to the sons of Aaron,
while the mass of the Levites are subordinate servants who are not
entitled to approach the altar or to perform any strictly priestly
function. All access to the Deity is restricted to the one priesthood
and to the one sanctuary at Jerusalem; the worshipping subject is the
nation of Israel as a unity, and the function of worship is discharged
on its behalf by divinely chosen priests. The ordinary individual may
not intrude under penalty of death; only those of Levitical origin may
perform service, and they are essentially the servants and hereditary
serfs of the Aaronite priests (see Num. xviii.). But such a scheme finds
no place in the monarchy; it presupposes a hierocracy under which the
priesthood increased its rights by claiming the privileges which past
kings had enjoyed; it is the outcome of a complicated development in Old
Testament religion in the light of which it is to be followed (see

First (a), in the earlier biblical writings which describe the state of
affairs under the Hebrew monarchy there is not this fundamental
distinction among the Levites, and, although a list of Aaronite
high-priests is preserved in a late source, internal details and the
evidence of the historical books render its value extremely doubtful (1
Chron. vi. 3-15, 49-53). In Jerusalem itself the subordinate officers of
the temple were not members of a holy gild, but of the royal body-guard,
or bond-slaves who had access to the sacred courts, and might even be
uncircumcised foreigners (Josh. ix. 27; 1 Kings xiv. 28; 2 Kings xi.;
cf. Zeph. i. 8 seq.; Zech. xiv. 21). Moreover, ordinary individuals
might serve as priests (1 Sam. ii II, 18, vii. 1; see 2 Sam. viii. 18,
deliberately altered in 1 Chron. xviii. 17); however, every Levite was a
priest, or at least qualified to become one (Deut. x. 8, xviii. 7;
Judges xvii. 5-13), and when the author of 1 Kings xii. 31, wishes to
represent Jeroboam's priests as illegitimate, he does not say that they
were not Aaronites, but that they were not of the sons of Levi.

The next stage (b) is connected with the suppression of the local
high-places or minor shrines in favour of a central sanctuary. This
involved the suppression of the Levitical priests in the country (cf.
perhaps the allusion in Deut. xxi. 5); and the present book of
Deuteronomy, in promulgating the reform, represents the Levites as poor
scattered "sojourners" and recommends them to the charity of the people
(Deut. xii. 12, 18 seq., xiv. 27, 29, xvi. 11, 14, xxvi. 11 sqq.).
However, they are permitted to congregate at "the place which Yahweh
shall choose," where they may perform the usual priestly duties together
with their brethren who "stand there before Yahweh," and they are
allowed their share of the offerings (Deut. xviii. 6-8).[2] The
Deuteronomic history of the monarchy actually ascribes to the Judaean
king Josiah (621 B.C.) the suppression of the high-places, and states
that the local priests were brought to Jerusalem and received support,
but did not minister at the altar (2 Kings xxiii. 9). Finally, a scheme
of ritual for the second temple raises this exclusion to the rank of a
principle. The Levites who had been idolatrous are punished by exclusion
from the proper priestly work, and take the subordinate offices which
the uncircumcised and polluted foreigners had formerly filled, while the
sons of Zadok, who had remained faithful, are henceforth the legitimate
priests, the only descendants of Levi who are allowed to minister unto
Yahweh (Ezek. xliv. 6-15, cf. xl. 46, xliii. 19, xlviii. 11). "A
threefold cord is not quickly broken," and these three independent
witnesses agree in describing a significant innovation which ends with
the supremacy of the Zadokites of Jerusalem over their brethren.

In the last stage (c) the exclusion of the ordinary Levites from all
share in the priesthood of the sons of Aaron is looked upon as a matter
of course, dating from the institution of priestly worship by Moses. The
two classes are supposed to have been founded separately (Exod. xxviii.,
cf. xxix. 9; Num. iii. 6-10), and so far from any degradation being
attached to the rank and file of the Levites, their position is
naturally an honourable one compared with that of the mass of
non-Levitical worshippers (see Num. i. 50-53), and they are taken by
Yahweh as a surrogate for the male first-born of Israel (iii. 11-13).
They are inferior only to the Aaronites to whom they are "joined"
(xviii. 2, a play on the name Levi) as assistants. Various adjustments
and modifications still continue, and a number of scattered details may
indicate that internal rivalries made themselves felt. But the different
steps can hardly be recovered clearly, although the fact that the
priesthood was extended beyond the Zadokites to families of the
dispossessed priests points to some compromise (1 Chron. xxiv.).
Further, it is subsequently found that certain classes of temple
servants, the singers and porters, who had once been outside the
Levitical gilds, became absorbed as the term "Levite" was widened, and
this change is formally expressed by the genealogies which ascribe to
Levi, the common "ancestor" of them all, the singers and even certain
families whose heathenish and foreign names show that they were once
merely servants of the temple.[3]

2. _Significance of the Development._--Although the legal basis for the
final stage is found in the legislation of the time of Moses (latter
part of the second millennium B.C.), it is in reality scarcely earlier
than the 5th century B.C., and the Jewish theory finds analogies when
developments of the Levitical service are referred to David (1 Chron.
xv. seq., xxiii. sqq.), Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxix.) and Josiah
(xxxv.)--contrast the history in the earlier books of Samuel and
Kings--or when the still later book of Jubilees (xxxii.) places the rise
of the Levitical priesthood in the patriarchal period. The traditional
theory of the Mosaic origin of the elaborate Levitical legislation
cannot be maintained save by the most arbitrary and inconsequential
treatment of the evidence and by an entire indifference to the
historical spirit; and, although numerous points of detail still remain
very obscure, the three leading stages in the Levitical institutions are
now recognized by nearly all independent scholars. These stages with a
number of concomitant features confirm the literary hypothesis that
biblical history is in the main due to two leading recensions, the
Deuteronomic and the Priestly (cf. [b] and [c] above), which have
incorporated older sources.[4] If the hierarchical system as it existed
in the post-exilic age was really the work of Moses, it is inexplicable
that all trace of it was so completely lost that the degradation of the
non-Zadokites in Ezekiel was a new feature and a punishment, whereas in
the Mosaic law the ordinary Levites, on the traditional view, was
already forbidden priestly rights under penalty of death. There is in
fact no clear evidence of the existence of a distinction between priests
and Levites in any Hebrew writing demonstrably earlier than the
Deuteronomic stage, although, even as the Pentateuch contains ordinances
which have been carried back by means of a "legal convention" to the
days of Moses, writers have occasionally altered earlier records of the
history to agree with later standpoints.[5]

  No argument in support of the traditional theory can be drawn from the
  account of Korah's revolt (Num. xvi. sqq., see § 3) or from the
  Levitical cities (Num. xxxv.; Josh. xxi.). Some of the latter were
  either not conquered by the Israelites until long after the invasion,
  or, if conquered, were not held by Levites; and names are wanting of
  places in which priests are actually known to have lived. Certainly
  the names are largely identical with ancient holy cities, which,
  however, are holy because they possessed noted shrines, not because
  the inhabitants were members of a holy tribe. Gezer and Taanach, for
  example, are said to have remained in the hands of Canaanites (Judges
  i. 27, 29; cf. 1 Kings ix. 16), and recent excavation has shown how
  far the cultus of these cities was removed from Mosaic religion and
  ritual and how long the grosser elements persisted.[6] On the other
  hand, the sanctuaries obviously had always their local ministers, all
  of whom in time could be called Levitical, and it is only in this
  sense, not in that of the late priestly legislation, that a place like
  Shechem could ever have been included. Further, instead of holding
  cities and pasture-grounds, the Levites are sometimes described as
  scattered and divided (Gen. xlix. 7; Deut. xviii. 6), and though they
  may naturally possess property as private individuals, they alone of
  all the tribes of Israel possess no tribal inheritance (Num. xviii.
  23, xxvi. 62; Deut. x. 9; Josh. xiv. 3). This fluctuation finds a
  parallel in the age at which the Levites were to serve; for neither
  has any reasonable explanation been found on the traditional view.
  Num. iv. 3 fixes the age at thirty, although in i. 3 it has been
  reduced to twenty; but in 1 Chron. xxiii. 3, David is said to have
  numbered them from the higher limit, whereas in vv. 24, 27 the lower
  figure is given on the authority of "the last words (or acts) of
  David." In Num. viii. 23-26, the age is given as twenty-five, but
  twenty became usual and recurs in Ezra iii. 8 and 2 Chron. xxxi. 17.
  There are, however, independent grounds for believing that 1 Chron.
  xxiii. 24, 27, 2 Chron. xxxi. 17 belong to later insertions and that
  Ezr. iii. 8 is relatively late.

When, in accordance with the usual methods of Hebrew genealogical
history, the Levites are defined as the descendants of Levi, the third
son of Jacob by Leah (Gen. xxix. 34), a literal interpretation is
unnecessary, and the only narrative wherein Levi appears as a person
evidently delineates under the form of personification events in the
history of the Levites (Gen. xxxiv.).[7] They take their place in Israel
as the tribe set apart for sacred duties, and without entering into the
large question how far the tribal schemes can be used for the earlier
history of Israel, it may be observed that no adequate interpretation
has yet been found of the ethnological traditions of Levi and other sons
of Leah in their historical relation to one another or to the other
tribes. However intelligible may be the notion of a tribe _reserved_ for
priestly service, the fact that it does not apply to early biblical
history is apparent from the heterogeneous details of the Levitical
divisions. The incorporation of singers and porters is indeed a late
process, but it is typical of the tendency to co-ordinate all the
religious classes (see GENEALOGY: _Biblical_). The genealogies in their
complete form pay little heed to Moses, although Aaron and Moses could
typify the priesthood and other Levites generally (1 Chron. xxiii. 14).
Certain priesthoods in the first stage (§ 1 [a]) claimed descent from
these prototypes, and it is interesting to observe (1) the growing
importance of Aaron in the later sources of "the Exodus," and (2) the
relation between Mosheh (Moses) and his two sons Gershom and Eliezer, on
the one side, and the Levitical names Mushi (i.e. the Mosaite), Gershon
and the Aaronite priest Eleazar, on the other. There are links, also,
which unite Moses with Kenite, Rechabite, Calebite and Edomite families,
and the Levitical names themselves are equally connected with the
southern tribes of Judah and Simeon and with the Edomites.[8] It is to
be inferred, therefore, that some relationship subsisted, or was thought
to subsist, among (1) the Levites, (2) clans actually located in the
south of Palestine, and (3) families whose names and traditions point to
a southern origin. The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but
if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature
represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that
the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include
all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to
become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not
by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence
for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where
the specific term alone occurs.

3. _The Traditions of the Levites._--In the "Blessing of Moses" (Deut,
xxxiii. 8-11), Levi is a collective name for the priesthood, probably
that of (north) Israel. He is the guardian of the sacred oracles,
knowing no kin, and enjoying his privileges for proofs of fidelity at
Massah and Meribah. That these places (in the district of Kadesh) were
traditionally associated with the origin of the Levites is suggested by
various Levitical stories, although it is in a narrative now in a
context pointing to Horeb or Sinai that the Levites are Israelites who
for some cause (now lost) severed themselves from their people and took
up a stand on behalf of Yahweh (Exod. xxxii.). Other evidence allows us
to link together the Kenites, Calebites and Danites in a tradition of
some movement into Palestine, evidently quite distinct from the great
invasion of Israelite tribes which predominates in the existing records.
The priesthood of Dan certainly traced its origin to Moses (Judges xvii.
9, xviii. 30); that of Shiloh claimed an equally high ancestry (1 Sam.
ii. 27 seq.).[9] Some tradition of a widespread movement appears to be
ascribed to the age of Jehu, whose accession, promoted by the prophet
Elisha, marks the end of the conflict between Yahweh and Baal. To a
Rechabite (the clan is allied to the Kenites) is definitely ascribed a
hand in Jehu's sanguinary measures, and, though little is told of the
obviously momentous events, one writer clearly alludes to a bloody
period when reforms were to be effected by the sword (1 Kings xix. 17).
Similarly the story of the original selection of the Levites in the
wilderness mentions an uncompromising massacre of idolaters.
Consequently, it is very noteworthy that popular tradition preserves the
recollection of some attack by the "brothers" Levi and Simeon upon the
famous holy city of Shechem to avenge their "sister" Dinah (Gen.
xxxiv.), and that a detailed narrative tells of the bloodthirsty though
pious Danites who sacked an Ephraimite shrine on their journey to a new
home (Judges xvii. sq.).

  The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers
  indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these
  varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the
  biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the
  prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the
  Israelite priesthood. The condemnation of Jehu's bloodshed (Hos. i. 4)
  gives another view of events in which both Elijah and Elisha were
  concerned, and the change is more vividly realized when it is found
  that even to Moses and Aaron, the traditional founders of Israelite
  religion and ritual, is ascribed an offence whereby they incurred
  Yahweh's wrath (Num. xx. 12, 24, xxvii. 14; Deut. ix. 20, xxxii. 51).
  The sanctuaries of Shiloh and Dan lasted until the deportation of
  Israel (Judges xviii. 30 seq.), and some of their history is still
  preserved in the account of the late pre-monarchical age (12th-11th
  centuries B.C.). Shiloh's priestly gild is condemned for its iniquity
  (1 Sam. iii. 11-14), the sanctuary mysteriously disappears, and the
  priests are subsequently found at Nob outside Jerusalem (1 Sam. xxi.
  seq.). All idea of historical perspective has been lost, since the
  fall of Shiloh was apparently a recent event at the close of the 7th
  century (Jer. vii. 12-15, xxvi. 6-9). But the tendency to ascribe the
  disasters of northern Israel to the priesthood (see esp. Hosea) takes
  another form when an inserted prophecy revokes the privileges of the
  ancient and honourable family, foretells its overthrow, and announces
  the rise of a new faithful and everlasting priesthood, at whose hands
  the dispossessed survivors, reduced to poverty, would beg some
  priestly office to secure a livelihood (1 Sam. ii. 27-36). The sequel
  to this phase is placed in the reign of Solomon, when David's old
  priest Abiathar, sole survivor of the priests of Shiloh, is expelled
  to Anathoth (near Jerusalem), and Zadok becomes the first chief priest
  contemporary with the foundation of the _first_ temple (1 Kings ii.
  27, 35). These situations cannot be severed from what is known
  elsewhere of the Deuteronomic teaching, of the reform ascribed to
  Josiah, or of the principle inculcated by Ezekiel (see § 1 [b]). The
  late specific tendency in favour of Jerusalem agrees with the
  Deuteronomic editor of Kings who condemns the sanctuaries of Dan and
  Bethel for calf-worship (1 Kings xii. 28-31), and does not acknowledge
  the northern priesthood to be Levitical (1 Kings xii. 31, note the
  interpretation in 2 Chron. xi. 14, xiii. 9). It is from a similar
  standpoint that Aaron is condemned for the manufacture of the golden
  calf, and a compiler (not the original writer) finds its sequel in the
  election of the faithful Levites.[10]

In the third great stage there is another change in the tone. The
present (priestly) recension of Gen. xxxiv. has practically justified
Levi and Simeon from its standpoint of opposition to intermarriage, and
in spite of Jacob's curse (Gen. xlix. 5-7) later traditions continue to
extol the slaughter of the Shechemitcs as a pious duty. Post-exilic
revision has also hopelessly obscured the offence of Moses and Aaron,
although there was already a tendency to place the blame upon the people
(Deut. i. 37, iii. 26, iv. 21). When two-thirds of the priestly families
are said to be Zadokites and one-third are of the families of Abiathar,
some reconciliation, some adjustment of rivalries, is to be recognized
(1 Chron. xxiv.). Again, in the composite story of Korah's revolt, one
version reflects a contest between Aaronites and the other Levites who
claimed the priesthood (Num. xvi. 8-11, 36-40), while another shows the
supremacy of the Levites as a caste either over the rest of the people
(? cf. the prayer, Deut. xxxiii. 11), or, since the latter are under the
leadership of Korah, later the eponym of a gild of singers, perhaps over
the more subordinate ministers who once formed a separate class.[11] In
the composite work Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah (dating after the
post-exilic Levitical legislation) a peculiar interest is taken in the
Levites, more particularly in the singers, and certain passages even
reveal some animus against the Aaronites (2 Chron. xxix. 34, xxx. 3). A
Levite probably had a hand in the work, and this, with the evidence for
the Levitical Psalms (see PSALMS), gives the caste an interesting place
in the study of the transmission of the biblical records.[12] But the
history of the Levites in the early post-exilic stage and onwards is a
separate problem, and the work of criticism has not advanced
sufficiently for a proper estimate of the various vicissitudes. However,
the feeling which was aroused among the priests when some centuries
later the singers obtained from Agrippa the privilege of wearing the
priestly linen dress (Josephus, _Ant._ xx. 9. 6), at least enables one
to appreciate more vividly the scantier hints of internal jealousies
during the preceding years.[13]

4. _Summary._--From the inevitable conclusion that there are three
stages in the written sources for the Levitical institutions, the next
step is the correlation of allied traditions on the basis of the
genealogical evidence. But the problem of fitting these into the history
of Israel still remains. The assumption that the earlier sources for the
pre-monarchical history, as incorporated by late compilers, are
necessarily trustworthy confuses the inquiry (on Gen. xxxiv., see
SIMEON), and even the probability of a reforming spirit in Jehu's age
depends upon the internal criticism of the related records (see JEWS, §§
11-14). The view that the Levites came from the south may be combined
with the conviction that there Yahweh had his seat (cf. Deut. xxxiii. 2;
Judges v. 4; Hab. iii. 3), but the latter is only one view, and the
traditions of the patriarchs point to another belief (cf. also Gen. iv.
26). The two are reconciled when the God of the patriarchs reveals His
name for the first time unto Moses (Exod. iii. 15, vi. 3). With these
variations is involved the problem of the early history of the
Israelites.[14] Moreover, the real Judaean tendency which associates the
fall of Eli's priesthood at Shiloh with the rise of the Zadokites
involves the literary problems of Deuteronomy, a composite work whose
age is not certainly known, and of the twofold Deuteronomic redaction
elsewhere, one phase of which is more distinctly Judaean and
anti-Samaritan. There are vicissitudes and varying standpoints which
point to a complicated literary history and require some historical
background, and, apart from actual changes in the history of the
Levites, some allowance must be made for the real character of the
circles where the diverse records originated or through which they
passed. The key must be sought in the exilic and post-exilic age where,
unfortunately, direct and decisive evidence is lacking. It is clear that
the Zadokite priests were rendered legitimate by finding a place for
their ancestor in the Levitical genealogies--through Phinehas (cf. Num.
xxv. 12 seq.), and Aaron--there was a feeling that a legitimate priest
must be an Aaronite, but the historical reason for this is uncertain
(see R. H. Kennett, _Journ. Theolog. Stud._, 1905, pp. 161 sqq.). Hence,
it is impossible at present to trace the earlier steps which led to the
grand hierarchy of post-exilic Judaism. Even the name Levite itself is
of uncertain origin. Though popularly connected with _lavah_, "be
joined, attached," an ethnic from Leah has found some favour; the
Assyrian _li'u_ "powerful, wise," has also been suggested. The term has
been more plausibly identified with _l-v-_' (fem. _l-v-'-t_), the name
given in old Arabian inscriptions (e.g. at al-'Ola, south-east of Elath)
to the priests and priestesses of the Arabian god Vadd (so especially
Hommel, _Anc. Heb. Trad._, pp. 278 seq.). The date of the evidence,
however, has not been fixed with unanimity, and this very attractive
and suggestive view requires confirmation and independent support.

  AUTHORITIES.--For the argument in § 1, see Wellhausen, _Prolegomena_,
  pp. 121-151; W. R. Smith, _Old Test. in Jew. Church_ (2nd ed., Index,
  s.v. "Levites"); A. Kuenen, _Hexateuch_, §§ 3 n. 16; 11, pp. 203 sqq.;
  15 n. 15 (more technical); also the larger commentaries on
  Exodus-Joshua and the ordinary critical works on Old Testament
  literature. In § 1 and part of § 2 use has been freely made of W. R.
  Smith's article "Levites" in the 9th edition of the _Ency. Brit._ (see
  the revision by A. Bertholet, _Ency. Bib._ col. 2770 sqq.). For the
  history of the Levites in the post-exilic and later ages, see the
  commentaries on Numbers (by G. B. Gray) and Chronicles (E. L. Curtis),
  and especially H. Vogelstein, _Der Kampf zwischen Priestern u. Leviten
  seit den Tagen Ezechiels_, with Kuenen's review in his _Gesammelte
  Abhandlungen_ (ed. K. Budde, 1894). See further PRIEST.     (S. A. C.)


  [1] For the derivation of "Levi" see below § 4 end.

  [2] The words "beside that which cometh of the sale of his patrimony"
    (lit. "his sellings according to the fathers") are obscure; they seem
    to imply some additional source of income which the Levite enjoys at
    the central sanctuary.

  [3] For the _nethinim_ ("given") and "children of the slaves of
    Solomon" (whose hereditary service would give them a pre-eminence
    over the temple slaves), see art. NETHINIM, and Benzinger, _Ency.
    Bib._ cols. 3397 sqq.

  [4] In defence of the traditional view, see S. I. Curtiss, _The
    Levitical Priests_ (1877), with which his later attitude should be
    contrasted (see _Primitive Semitic Religion To-day_, pp. 14, 50, 133
    seq., 171, 238 sqq., 241 sqq.); W. L. Baxter, _Sanctuary and
    Sacrifice_ (1895); A. van Hoonacker, _Le Sacerdoce lévitique_ (1899);
    and J. Orr, _Problem of the O.T._ (1905). These and other apologetic
    writings have so far failed to produce any adequate alternative
    hypothesis, and while they argue for the traditional theory, later
    revision not being excluded, the modern critical view accepts late
    dates for the literary sources in their present form, and explicitly
    recognizes the presence of much that is ancient. Note the curious old
    tradition that Ezra wrote out the law which had been burnt (2 Esdr.
    xiv. 21 sqq.).

  [5] For example, in 1 Kings viii. 4, there are many indications that
    the context has undergone considerable editing at a fairly late date.
    The Septuagint translators did not read the clause which speaks of
    "priests and Levites," and 2 Chron. v. 5 reads "the Levite priests,"
    the phrase characteristic of the Deuteronomic identification of
    priestly and Levitical ministry. 1 Sam. vi. 15, too, brings in the
    Levites, but the verse breaks the connexion between 14 and 16. For
    the present disorder in the text of 2 Sam. xv. 24, see the

  [6] See Father H. Vincent, O.P., _Canaan d'après l'exploration
    récente_ (1907), pp. 151, 200 sqq., 463 sq.

  [7] So Gen. xxxiv. 7, Hamor has wrought folly "in Israel" (cf. Judges
    xx. 6 and often), and in v. 30 "Jacob" is not a personal but a
    collective idea, for he says, "I am a few men," and the capture and
    destruction of a considerable city is in the nature of things the
    work of more than two individuals. In the allusion to Levi and Simeon
    in Gen. xlix. the two are spoken of as "brothers" with a communal
    assembly. See, for other examples of personification, GENEALOGY:

  [8] See E. Meyer, _Israeliten u. ihre Nachbarstämme_, pp. 299 sqq.
    (passim); S. A. Cook, _Ency. Bib._ col. 1665 seq.; _Crit. Notes on
    O.T. History_, pp. 84 sqq., 122-125.

  [9] The second element of the name Abiathar is connected with Jether
    or Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, and even Ichabod (1 Sam. iv.
    21) seems to be an intentional reshaping of Jochebed, which is
    elsewhere the name of the mother of Moses. Phinehas, Eli's son,
    becomes in later writings the name of a prominent Aaronite priest in
    the days of the exodus from Egypt.

  [10] With this development in Israelite religion, observe that
    Judaean cult included the worship of a brazen serpent, the
    institution of which was ascribed to Moses, and that, according to
    the compiler of Kings, Hezekiah was the first to destroy it when he
    suppressed idolatrous worship in Judah (2 Kings xviii. 4). It may be
    added that the faithful Kenites (found in N. Palestine, Judges iv.
    11) appear in another light when threatened with captivity by Asshur
    (Num. xxiv. 22; cf. fall of Dan and Shiloh), and if their eponym is
    Cain (q.v.), the story of Cain and Abel serves, amid a variety of
    purposes, to condemn the murder of the settled agriculturist by the
    nomad, but curiously allows that any retaliation upon Cain shall be
    avenged (see below, note 5).

  [11] The name Korah itself is elsewhere Edomite (Gen. xxxvi. 5, 14,
    18) and Calebite (1 Chron. ii. 43). See _Ency. Bib._, s.v.

  [12]: The musical service of the temple has no place in the
    Pentateuch, but was considerably developed under the second temple
    and attracted the special attention of Greek observers (Theophrastus,
    _apud_ Porphyry, _de Abstin._ ii. 26); see on this subject, R.
    Kittel's _Handkommentar_ on Chronicles, pp. 90 sqq.

  [13] Even the tithes enjoyed by the Levites (Num. xviii. 21 seq.)
    were finally transferred to the priests (so in the Talmud: see
    _Yebamoth_, fol. 86a, Carpzov, _App. ad Godw._ p. 624; Hottinger, _De
    Dec._ vi. 8, ix. 17).

  [14] For some suggestive remarks on the relation between nomadism and
    the Levites, and their influence upon Israelite religion and literary
    tradition, see E. Meyer, _Die Israeliten u. ihre Nachbarstämme_
    (1906), pp. 82-89, 138; on the problems of early Israelite history,
    see SIMEON (end), JEWS, §§ 5, 8, and PALESTINE, _History_.

LEVITICUS, in the Bible, the third book of the Pentateuch. The name is
derived from that of the Septuagint version ([Greek: to]) [Greek:
leu[e]itikon] (sc. [Greek: biblion]), though the English form is due to
the Latin rendering, _Leviticus_ (sc. _liber_). By the Jews the book is
called _Wayyikra_ ([Hebrew: Wayykra]) from the first word of the Hebrew
text, but it is also referred to (in the Talmud and Massorah) as _Torath
kohanim_ ([Hebrew: Totath kohanim], law of the priests), _Sepher
kohanim_ ([Hebrew: Sepher k´´], book of the priests), and _Sepher
korbanim_ ([Hebrew: Sepher korbanim], book of offerings). As a
descriptive title _Leviticus_, "the Levitical book," is not
inappropriate to the contents of the book, which exhibits an elaborate
system of sacrificial worship. In this connexion, however, the term
"Levitical" is used in a perfectly general sense, since there is no
reference in the book itself to the Levites themselves.

The book of Leviticus presents a marked contrast to the two preceding
books of the Hexateuch in that it is derived from one document only,
viz. the Priestly Code (P), and contains no trace of the other documents
from which the Hexateuch has been compiled. Hence the dominant interest
is a priestly one, while the contents are almost entirely legislative as
opposed to historical. But though the book as a whole is assigned to a
single document, its contents are by no means homogeneous: in fact the
critical problem presented by the legislative portions of Leviticus,
though more limited in scope, is very similar to that of the other books
of the Hexateuch. Here, too, the occurrence of repetitions and
divergencies, the variations of standpoint and practice, and, at times,
the linguistic peculiarities point no less clearly to diversity of

The historical narrative with which P connects his account of the sacred
institutions of Israel is reduced in Leviticus to a minimum, and
presents no special features. The consecration of Aaron and his sons
(viii. ix.) resumes the narrative of Exod. xl., and this is followed by
a brief notice of the death of Nadab and Abihu (x. 1-5), and later by an
account of the death of the blasphemer (xxiv. 10 f.). Apart from these
incidents, which, in accordance with the practice of P, are utilized for
the purpose of introducing fresh legislation, the book consists of three
main groups or collections of ritual laws: (1) chaps, i.-vii., laws of
sacrifice; (2) chaps, xi.-xv., laws of purification, with an appendix
(xvi.) on the Day of Atonement; (3) chaps, xvii.-xxvi., the Law of
Holiness, with an appendix (xxvii.) on vows and tithes. In part these
laws appear to be older than P, but when examined in detail the various
collections show unmistakably that they have undergone more than one
process of redaction before they assumed the form in which they are now
presented. The scope of the present article does not permit of an
elaborate analysis of the different sections, but the evidence adduced
will, it is hoped, afford sufficient proof of the truth of this

I. _The Laws of Sacrifice._--Chaps. i.-vii. This group of laws clearly
formed no part of the original narrative of P since it interrupts the
connexion of chap. viii. with Exod. xl. For chap. viii. describes how
Moses carried out the command of Exod. xl. 12-15 in accordance with the
instructions given in Exod. xxix. 1-35, and bears the same relation to
the latter passage that Exod. xxxv. ff. bears to Exod. xxv. ff. Hence we
can only conclude that Lev. i.-vii. were added by a later editor. This
conclusion does not necessarily involve a late date for the laws
themselves, many of which have the appearance of great antiquity,
though their original form has been considerably modified. But though
these chapters form an independent collection of laws, and were
incorporated as such in P, a critical analysis of their contents shows
that they were not all derived from the same source.

  The collection falls into two divisions, (a) i.-vi. 7 (Heb. v. 26),
  and (b) vi. 8 (Heb. vi. 1)-vii., the former being addressed to the
  people and the latter to the priests. The laws contained in (a) refer
  to (1) burnt-offerings, i.; (2) meal-offerings, ii.; (3)
  peace-offerings, iii.; (4) sin-offerings, iv. (on v. 1-13 see below);
  (5) trespass-offerings, v. 14-vi. 7 (Heb. v. 14-26). The laws in (b)
  cover practically the same ground--(1) burnt-offerings, vi. 8-13 (Heb.
  vv. 1-6); (2) meal-offerings, vi. 14-18 (Heb. vv. 7-11); (3) the
  meal-offering of the priest, vi. 19-23 (Heb. vv. 12-16); (4)
  sin-offerings, vi. 24-30 (Heb. vv. 17-23); (5) trespass-offerings,
  vii. 1-7, together with certain regulations for the priest's share of
  the burnt- and meal-offerings (vv. 8-10); (6) peace-offerings, vii.
  11-21. Then follow the prohibition of eating the fat or blood (vv.
  22-28), the priest's share of the peace-offerings (vv. 29-34), the
  priest's anointing-portion (vv. 35, 36), and the subscription (vv. 37,
  38). The second group of laws is thus to a certain extent
  supplementary to the first, and was, doubtless, intended as such by
  the editor of chaps. i.-vii. Originally it can hardly have formed part
  of the same collection; for (a) the order is different, that of the
  second group being supported by its subscription, and (b) the laws in
  vi. 8-vii. are regularly introduced by the formula "This is the law
  (_torah_) of...." Most probably the second group was excerpted by the
  editor of chaps. i.-vii. from another collection for the purpose of
  supplementing the laws of i.-v., more especially on points connected
  with the functions and dues of the officiating priests.

  Closer investigation, however, shows that both groups of laws contain
  heterogeneous elements and that their present form is the result of a
  long process of development. Thus i. and iii. seem to contain
  genuinely old enactments, though i. 14-17 is probably a later
  addition, since there is no reference to birds in the general heading
  v. 2. Chap. ii. 1-3, on the other hand, though it corresponds in form
  to i. and iii., interrupts the close connexion between those chapters,
  and should in any case stand after iii.: the use of the second for the
  third person in the remaining verses points to a different source. As
  might be expected from the nature of the sacrifice with which it
  deals, iv. (sin-offerings) seems to belong to a relatively later
  period of the sacrificial system. Several features confirm this view:
  (1) the blood of the sin-offering of the "anointed priest" and of the
  whole congregation is brought within the veil and sprinkled on the
  altar of incense, (2) the sin-offering of the congregation is a
  bullock, and not, as elsewhere, a goat (ix. 15; Num. xv. 24), (3) the
  altar of incense is distinguished from the altar of burnt-offering (as
  opposed to Exod. xxix.; Lev. viii. ix.). Chap. v. 1-13 have usually
  been regarded as an appendix to iv., setting forth (a) a number of
  typical cases for which a sin-offering is required (vv. 1-6), and (b)
  certain concessions for those who could not afford the ordinary
  sin-offering (vv. 7-13). But vv. 1-6, which are not homogeneous (vv. 2
  and 3 treating of another question and interrupting vv. 1, 4, 5 f.),
  cannot be ascribed to the same author as iv.: for (1) it presents a
  different theory of the sin-offering (contrast v. 1 f. with iv. 2),
  (2) it ignores the fourfold division of offerings corresponding to the
  rank of the offender, (3) it fails to observe the distinction between
  sin- and trespass-offering (in vv. 6, 7, "his guilt-offering"
  ([Hebrew: ashamo]) appears to have the sense of a "penalty" or
  "forfeit," unless with Baentsch we read [Hebrew: korbano] "his
  oblation" in each case; cf. v. 11, iv. 23 ff. Verses 7-13, on the
  other hand, form a suitable continuation of iv., though probably they
  are secondary in character. Chap. v. 14 (Heb. v. 26)-vi. 7 contain
  regulations for the trespass-offering, in which the distinctive
  character of that offering is clearly brought out. The cases cited in
  vi. 1-7 (Heb. v. 20-26) are clearly analogous to those in v. 14-16,
  from which they are at present separated by vv. 17-19. These latter
  prescribe a trespass-offering for the same case for which in iv. 22 f.
  a sin-offering is required: it is noticeable also that no restitution,
  the characteristic feature of the _asham_, is prescribed. It is hardly
  doubtful that the verses are derived from a different source to that
  of their immediate context, possibly the same as v. 1-6.

  The subscription (vii. 37, 38) is our chief guide to determining the
  original extent of the second group of laws (vi. 8 [Heb. vi. 1]-vii.
  36). From it we infer that originally the collection only dealt with
  the five chief sacrifices (vi. 8-13; 14-18; 24, 25, 27-30; vii. 1-6;
  11-21) already discussed in i.-v., since only these are referred to in
  the colophon where they are given in the same order (the
  consecration-offering [v. 37] is probably due to the same redactor who
  introduced the gloss "in the day when he is anointed" in vi. 20). Of
  the remaining sections vi. 19-23 (Heb. 12-16), the daily meal-offering
  of the (high-) priest, betrays its secondary origin by its absence
  from the subscription, cf. also the different introduction. Chaps. vi.
  26 (Heb. 19) and vii. 7 assign the offering to the officiating priest
  in contrast to vi. 18 (Heb. 11), 29 (Heb. 22), vii. 6 ("every male
  among the priests"), and possibly belong, together with vii. 8-10, to
  a separate collection which dealt especially with priestly dues. Chap.
  vii. 22-27, which prohibit the eating of fat and blood, are addressed
  to the community at large, and were, doubtless, inserted here in
  connexion with the sacrificial meal which formed the usual
  accompaniment of the peace-offering. Chap. vii. 28-34 are also
  addressed to the people, and cannot therefore have formed part of the
  original priestly manual; v. 33 betrays the same hand as vi. 26 (Heb.
  19) and vii. 7, and with 35a may be assigned to the same collection as
  those verses; to the redactor must be assigned vv. 32 (a doublet of v.
  33), 34, 35b and 36.

  Chaps. viii.-x. As stated, these chapters form the original sequel to
  Exod. xl. They describe (a) the consecration of Aaron and his sons, a
  ceremony which lasted seven days (viii.), and (b) the public worship
  on the eighth day, at which Aaron and his sons officiated for the
  first time as priests (ix.); then follow (c) an account of the death
  of Nadab and Abihu for offering strange fire (x. 1-5); (d) various
  regulations affecting the priests (vv. 12-15), and (e) an explanation,
  in narrative form, of the departure in ix. 15 from the rules for the
  sin-offering given in vi. 30 (vv. 16-20).

  According to Exod. xl. 1-15 Moses was commanded to set up the
  Tabernacle and to consecrate the priests, and the succeeding verses
  (16-38) describe how the former command was carried out. The execution
  of the second command, however, is first described in Lev. viii., and
  since the intervening chapters exhibit obvious traces of belonging to
  another source, we may conclude with some certainty that Lev. viii.
  formed the immediate continuation of Exod. xl. in the original
  narrative of P. But it has already been pointed out (see Exodus) that
  Exod. xxxv.-xl. belong to a later stratum of P than Exod. xxv.-xxix,
  hence it is by no means improbable that Exod. xxxv-xl. have superseded
  an earlier and shorter account of the fulfilment of the commands in
  Exod. xxv.-xxix. If this be the case, we should naturally expect to
  find that Lev. viii., which bears the same relation to Exod. xxix.
  1-35 as Exod. xxxv. ff. to Exod. xxv. ff. also belonged to a later
  stratum. But Lev. viii., unlike Exod xxxv. ff., only mentions one
  altar, and though in its present form the chapter exhibits marks of
  later authorship, these marks form no part of the original account,
  but are clearly the work of a later editor. These additions, the
  secondary character of which is obvious both from the way in which
  they interrupt the context and also from their contents, are (1), v.
  10, the anointing of the Tabernacle in accordance with Exod. xxx. 26
  ff.: it is not enjoined in Exod. xxix.; (2) v. 11, the anointing of
  the altar and the laver (cf. Exod. xxx. 17 ff.) as in Exod. xxix. 36b,
  xxx. 26 ff.; (3) v. 30, the sprinkling of blood and oil on Aaron and
  his sons. Apart from these secondary elements, which readily admit of
  excision, the chapter is in complete accord with P as regards point of
  view and language, and is therefore to be assigned to that source.

  The consecration of Aaron and his sons was, according to P, a
  necessary preliminary to the offering of sacrifice, and chap. ix.
  accordingly describes the first solemn act of worship. The ceremony
  consists of (a) the offerings for Aaron, and (b) those for the
  congregation; then follows the priestly blessing (v. 22), after which
  Moses and Aaron enter the sanctuary, and on reappearing once more
  bless the people. The ceremony terminates with the appearance of the
  glory of Yahweh, accompanied by a fire which consumes the sacrifices
  on the altar. Apart from a few redactional glosses the chapter as a
  whole belongs to P. The punishment of Nadab and Abihu by death for
  offering "strange fire" (x. 1-5) forms a natural sequel to chap. ix.
  To this incident a number of disconnected regulations affecting the
  priests have been attached, of which the first, viz. the prohibition
  of mourning to Aaron and his sons (vv. 6, 7), alone has any connexion
  with the immediate context; as it stands, the passage is late in form
  (cf. xxi. 10 ff.). The second passage, vv. 8, 9, which prohibits the
  use of wine and strong drink to the priest when on duty, is clearly a
  later addition. The connexion between these verses and the following
  is extremely harsh, and since vv. 10, 11 relate to an entirely
  different subject (cf. xi. 47), the latter verses must be regarded as
  a misplaced fragment. Verses 12-15 relate to the portions of the meal-
  and peace-offerings which fell to the lot of the priests, and connect,
  therefore, with chap. ix.; possibly they have been wrongly transferred
  from that chapter. In the remaining paragraph, x. 16-20, we have an
  interesting example of the latest type of additions to the Hexateuch.
  According to ix. 15 (cf. v. 11) the priests had burnt the flesh of the
  sin-offering which had been offered on behalf of the congregation,
  although its blood had not been taken into the inner sanctuary (cf.
  iv. 1-21, vi. 26). Such treatment, though perfectly legitimate
  according to the older legislation (Exod. xxix. 14; cf. Lev. viii.
  17), was in direct contradiction to the ritual of vi. 24 ff., which
  prescribed that the flesh of ordinary sin-offerings should be eaten by
  the priests. Such a breach of ritual on the part of Aaron and his sons
  seemed to a later redactor to demand an explanation, and this is
  furnished in the present section.

II. _The Laws of Purification._--Chaps. xi.-xv. This collection of laws
comprises four main sections relating to (1) clean and unclean beasts
(xi.), (2) childbirth (xii.), (3) leprosy (xiii. xiv.), and (4) certain
natural secretions (xv.). These laws, or _toroth_, are so closely allied
to each other by the nature of their contents and their literary form
(cf. especially the recurring formula "This is the law of ..." xi. 46,
xii. 7, xiii. 59, xiv. 32, 54, 57, xv. 32) that they must originally
have formed a single collection. The collection, however, has clearly
undergone more than one redaction before reaching its final form. This
is made evident not only by the present position of chap. xii. which in
v. 2 presupposes chap. xv. (cf. xv. 19), and must originally have
followed after that chapter, but also by the contents of the different
sections, which exhibit clear traces of repeated revision. At the same
time it seems, like chaps. i.-vii., xvii.-xxvi., to have been formed
independently of P and to have been added to that document by a later
editor; for in its present position it interrupts the main thread of P's
narrative, chap. xvi. forming the natural continuation of chap. x.; and,
further, the inclusion of Aaron as well as Moses in the formula of
address (xi. 1, xiii. 1, xiv. 33, xv. 1) is contrary to the usage of P.

  1. Chap. xi. consists of two main sections, of which the first (vv.
  1-23, 41-47) contains directions as to the clean and unclean animals
  which may or may not be used for food, while the second (vv: 24-40)
  treats of the defilement caused by contact with the carcases of
  unclean animals (in v. 39 f. contact with clean animals after death is
  also forbidden), and prescribes certain rites of purification. The
  main interest of the chapter, from the point of view of literary
  criticism, centres in the relation of the first section to the Law of
  Holiness (xvii.-xxvi.) and to the similar laws in Deut. xiv. 3-20.
  From xx. 25 it has been inferred with considerable probability that H,
  or the Law of Holiness, originally contained legislation of a similar
  character with reference to clean and unclean animals; and many
  scholars have held that the first section (vv. 1 [or 2]-23 and 41-47)
  really belongs to that code. But while vv. 43-45 may unhesitatingly be
  assigned to H, the remaining verses fail to exhibit any of the
  characteristic features of that code. We must assign them, therefore,
  to another source, though, in view of xx. 25 and xi. 43-45, it is
  highly probable that they have superseded similar legislation
  belonging to H.

  The relation of Lev. xi. 2-23 to Deut. xiv. 4-20 is less easy to
  determine, since the phenomena presented by the two texts are somewhat
  inconsistent. The two passages are to a large extent verbally
  identical, but while Deut. xiv. 4b, 5 both defines and exemplifies the
  clean animals (as opposed to Lev. xi. 3; which only defines them), the
  rest of the Deuteronomic version is much shorter than that of
  Leviticus. Thus, except for vv. 4b, 5, the Deuteronomic version, which
  in its general style, and to a certain extent in its phraseology (cf.
  [Hebrew: min] _kind_, vv. 13, 15, 18, and [Hebrew: sheretz] _swarm_,
  v. 19), shows traces of a priestly origin, might be regarded as an
  abridgment of Lev. xi. But the Deuteronomic version uses [Hebrew:
  tame] _unclean_ throughout (vv. 7, 10. 19), while Lev xi. from v. 11
  onwards employs the technical term [Hebrew: sheketz] _detestable
  thing_, and it is at least equally possible to treat the longer
  version of Leviticus as an expansion of Deut. xiv. 4-20. The fact that
  Deut. xiv. 21 permits the stranger ([Hebrew: gher]) to eat the flesh
  of any animal that dies a natural death, while Lev. xvii. 25 places
  him on an equal footing with the Israelite, cannot be cited in favour
  of the priority of Deuteronomy since v. 21 is clearly supplementary;
  cf. also Lev. xi. 39. On the whole it seems best to accept the view
  that both passages are derived separately from an earlier source.

  2. Chap. xii. prescribes regulations for the purification of a woman
  after the birth of (a) a male and (b) a female child. It has been
  already pointed out that this chapter would follow more suitably after
  chap. xv., with which it is closely allied in regard to
  subject-matter. The closing formula (v. 7) shows clearly that, as in
  the case of v. 7-13 (cf. i. 14-17), the concessions in favour of the
  poorer worshipper are a later addition.

  3. Chaps. xiii., xiv. The regulations concerning leprosy fall readily
  into four main divisions: (a) xiii. 1-46a, an elaborate description of
  the symptoms common to the earlier stages of leprosy and other skin
  diseases to guide the priest in deciding as to the cleanness or
  uncleanness of the patient; (b) xiii. 47-59, a further description of
  different kinds of mould or fungus growth affecting stuffs and
  leather; (c) xiv. 1-32, the rites of purification to be employed after
  the healing of leprosy; and (d) xiv. 33-53, regulations dealing with
  the appearance of patches of mould or mildew on the walls of a house.
  Like other collections the group of laws on leprosy easily betrays its
  composite character and exhibits unmistakable evidence of its gradual
  growth. There is, however, no reason to doubt that a large portion of
  the laws is genuinely old since the subject is one that would
  naturally call for early legislation; moreover, Deut. xxiv. 8
  presupposes the existence of regulations concerning leprosy,
  presumably oral, which were in the possession of the priests. The
  earliest sections are admittedly xiii. 1-46a and xiv. 2-8a, the ritual
  of the latter being obviously of a very archaic type. The secondary
  character of xiii. 47-59 is evident: it interrupts the close connexion
  between xiii. 1-46a and xiv. 2-8a, and further it is provided with its
  own colophon in v. 59. A similar character must be assigned to the
  remaining verses of chap. xiv., with the exception of the colophon in
  v. 57b; the latter has been successively expanded in vv. 54-57a so as
  to include the later additions. Thus xiv. 9-20 prescribes a second and
  more elaborate ritual of purification after the healing of leprosy,
  though the leper, according to v. 8a, is already clean; its secondary
  character is further shown by the heightening of the ceremonial which
  seems to be modelled on that of the consecration of the priest (viii.
  23 ff.), the multiplication of sacrifices and the minute regulations
  with regard to the blood and oil. The succeeding section (vv. 21-32)
  enjoins special modifications for those who cannot afford the more
  costly offerings of vv. 9-20, and like v. 7-13, xii. 8 is clearly a
  later addition; cf. the separate colophon, v. 32. The closing section
  xiv. 33-53 is closely allied to xiii. 47-59, though probably later in
  date: probably the concluding verses (48-53), in which the same rites
  are prescribed for the purification of a house as are ordained for a
  person in vv. 3-8a, were added at a still later period.

  4. Chap. xv. deals with the rites of purification rendered necessary
  by various natural secretions, and is therefore closely related to
  chap. xii. On the analogy of the other laws it is probable that the
  old _torah_, which forms the basis of the chapter, has been
  subsequently expanded, but except in the colophon (vv. 32-34), which
  displays marks of later redaction, there is nothing to guide us in
  separating the additional matter.

  Chap. xvi. It may be regarded as certain that this chapter consists of
  three main elements, only one of which was originally connected with
  the ceremonial of the Day of Atonement, and that it has passed through
  more than one stage of revision. Since the appearance of Benzinger's
  analysis _ZATW_ (1889), critics in the main have accepted the division
  of the chapter into three independent sections: (1) vv. 1-4, 6, 12,
  13, 34b (probably vv. 23, 24 also form part of this section),
  regulations to be observed by Aaron whenever he might enter "the holy
  place within the veil." These regulations are the natural outcome of
  the death of Nadab and Abihu (x. 1-5), and their object is to guard
  Aaron from a similar fate; the section thus forms the direct
  continuation of chap. x.; (2) vv. 29-34a, rules for the observance of
  a yearly fast day, having for their object the purification of the
  sanctuary and of the people; (3) vv. 5, 7-10, 14-22, 26-28, a later
  expansion of the blood-ritual to be performed by the high-priest when
  he enters the Holy of Holies, with which is combined the strange
  ceremony of the goat which is sent away into the wilderness to Azazel.
  The matter common to the first two sections, viz. the entrance of the
  high priest into the Holy of Holies, was doubtless the cause of their
  subsequent fusion; beyond this, however, the sections have no
  connexion with one another, and must originally have been quite
  independent. Doubtless, as Benzinger suggests, the rites to be
  performed by the officiating high priest on the annual Day of
  Atonement, which are not prescribed in vv. 29-34a, were identical with
  those laid down in chap. ix. That the third section belongs to a later
  stage of development and was added at a later date is shown by (a) the
  incongruity of vv. 14 ff. with v. 6--according to the latter the
  purification of Aaron is a preliminary condition of his entrance
  within the veil--and (b) the elaborate ceremonial in connexion with
  the sprinkling of the blood. The first section, doubtless, belongs to
  the main narrative of P; it connects directly with chap. x. and
  presupposes only one altar (cf. v. 12, Exod. xxviii. 35). The second
  and third sections, however, must be assigned to a later stratum of P,
  if only because they appear to have been unknown to Ezra (Neh. ix. 1);
  the fact that Ezra's fast day took place on the twenty-fourth day of
  the seventh month (as opposed to Lev. xvi. 29, xxiii. 26 f.) acquires
  an additional importance in view of the agreement between Neh. viii.
  23 f. and Lev. xxiii. 33 f. as to the date of the Feast of
  Tabernacles. No mention is made of the Day of Atonement in the
  pre-exilic period, and it is a plausible conjecture that the present
  law arose from the desire to turn the spontaneous fasting of Neh. ix.
  1 into an annual ceremony; in any case directions as to the annual
  performance of the rite must originally have preceded vv. 29 ff.
  Possibly the omission of this introduction is due to the redactor who
  combined (1) and (2) by transferring the regulations of (1) to the
  ritual of the annual Day of Atonement. At a later period the ritual
  was further developed by the inclusion of the additional ceremonial
  contained in (3).

III. _The Law of Holiness._--Chaps. xvii.-xxvi. The group of laws
contained in these chapters has long been recognized as standing apart
from the rest of the legislation set forth in Leviticus. For, though
they display undeniable affinity with P, they also exhibit certain
features which closely distinguish them from that document. The most
noticeable of these is the prominence assigned to certain leading ideas
and motives, especially to that of _holiness_. The idea of holiness,
indeed, is so characteristic of the entire group that the title "Law of
Holiness," first given to it by Klostermann (1877), has been generally
adopted. The term "holiness" in this connexion consists positively in
the fulfilment of ceremonial obligations and negatively in abstaining
from the defilement caused by heathen customs and superstitions, but it
also includes obedience to the moral requirements of the religion of

  On the literary side also the chapters are distinguished by the
  paraenetic setting in which the laws are embedded and by the use of a
  special terminology, many of the words and phrases occurring rarely,
  if ever, in P (for a list of characteristic phrases cf. Driver,
  _L.O.T._^6, p. 49). Further, the structure of these chapters, which
  closely resembles that of the other two Hexateuchal codes (Exod. xx.
  22-xxiii. and Deut. xii.-xxviii.), may reasonably be adduced in
  support of their independent origin. All three codes contain a
  somewhat miscellaneous collection of laws; all alike commence with
  regulations as to the place of sacrifice and close with an
  exhortation. Lastly, some of the laws treat of subjects which have
  been already dealt with in P (cf. xvii. 10-14 and vii. 26 f., xix. 6-8
  and vii. 15-18). It is hardly doubtful also that the group of laws,
  which form the basis of chaps. xvii.-xxvi., besides being independent
  of P, represent an older stage of legislation than that code. For the
  sacrificial system of H (= Law of Holiness) is less developed than
  that of P, and in particular shows no knowledge of the sin- and
  trespass-offerings; the high priest is only _primus inter pares_ among
  his brethren, xxi. 10 (cf. Lev. x. 6, 7, where the same prohibition is
  extended to all the priests); the distinction between "holy" and "most
  holy" things (Num. xviii. 8) is unknown to Lev. xxii. (Lev. xxi. 22 is
  a later addition). It cannot be denied, however, that chaps.
  xvii.-xxvi. present many points of resemblance with P, both in
  language and subject-matter, but on closer examination these points of
  contact are seen to be easily separable from the main body of the
  legislation. It is highly probable, therefore, that these marks of P
  are to be assigned to the compiler who combined H with P. But though
  it may be regarded as certain that H existed as an independent code,
  it cannot be maintained that the laws which it contains are all of the
  same origin or belong to the same age. The evidence rather shows that
  they were first collected by an editor before they were incorporated
  in P. Thus there is a marked difference in style between the laws
  themselves and the paraenetic setting in which they are embedded; and
  it is not unnatural to conjecture that this setting is the work of the
  first editor.

  Two other points in connexion with H are of considerable importance:
  (a) the possibility of other remains of H, and (b) its relation to
  Deuteronomy and Ezekiel.

  (a) It is generally recognized that H, in its present form, is
  incomplete. The original code must, it is felt, have included many
  other subjects now passed over in silence. These, possibly, were
  omitted by the compiler of P, because they had already been dealt with
  elsewhere, or they may have been transferred to other connexions. This
  latter possibility is one that has appealed to many scholars, who have
  accordingly claimed many other passages of P as parts of H. We have
  already accepted xi. 43 ff. as an undoubted excerpt from H, but, with
  the exception of Num. xv. 37-41 (on fringes), the other passages of
  the Hexateuch which have been attributed to H do not furnish
  sufficient evidence to justify us in assigning them to that
  collection. Moore (_Ency. Bibl._ col. 2787) rightly points out that
  "resemblance in the subject or formulation of laws to _toroth_
  incorporated in H may point to a relation to the _sources_ of H, but
  is not evidence that these laws were ever included in that

  (b) The exact relation of H to Deuteronomy and Ezekiel is hard to
  determine. That chaps. xvii.-xxvi. display a marked affinity to
  Deuteronomy cannot be denied. Like D, they lay great stress on the
  duties of humanity and charity both to the Israelite and to the
  stranger (Deut. xxiv.; Lev. xix.; compare also laws affecting the poor
  in Deut. xv.; Lev. xxv.), but in some respects the legislation of H
  appears to reflect a more advanced stage than that of D, e.g. the
  rules for the priesthood (chap. xxi.), the feasts (xxiii. 9-20,
  39-43), the Sabbatical year (xxv. 1-7, 18-22), weights and measures
  (xix. 35 f.). It must be remembered, however, that these laws have
  passed through more than one stage of revision and that the original
  regulations have been much obscured by later glosses and additions; it
  is therefore somewhat hazardous to base any argument on their present
  form. "The mutual independence of the two (codes) is rather to be
  argued from the absence of laws identically formulated, the lack of
  agreement in order either in the whole or in smaller portions, and the
  fact that of the peculiar motives and phrases of R_{D} there is no
  trace in H (Lev. xxiii. 40 is almost solitary). It is an unwarranted
  assumption that all the fragments of Israelite legislation which have
  been preserved lie in one serial development" (Moore, _Ency. Bibl._
  col. 2790).

  The relation of H to Ezekiel is remarkably close, the resemblances
  between the two being so striking that many writers have regarded
  Ezekiel as the author of H. Such a theory, however, is excluded by the
  existence of even greater differences of style and matter, so that the
  main problem to be decided is whether Ezekiel is prior to H or vice
  versa. The main arguments brought forward by those who maintain the
  priority of Ezekiel are (1) the fact that H makes mention of a high
  priest, whereas Ezekiel betrays no knowledge of such an official, and
  (2) that the author of Lev. xxvi. presupposes a condition of exile and
  looks forward to a restoration from it. Too much weight, however, must
  not be attached to these points; for (1) the phrase used in Lev. xxi.
  10 (_literally_, "he who is greater than his brethren") cannot be
  regarded as the equivalent of the definitive "chief priest" of P, and
  is rather comparable with the usage of 2 Kings xxii. 4 ff., xxv. 18
  ("the chief priest"), cf. "the priest" in xi. 9 ff., xvi. 10 ff.; and
  (2) the passages in Lev. xxvi. (vv. 34 f., 39-45), which are
  especially cited in support of the exilic standpoint of the writer,
  are just those which, on other grounds, show signs of later
  interpolation. The following considerations undoubtedly suggest the
  priority of H: (1) there is no trace in H of the distinction between
  priests and Levites first introduced by Ezekiel; (2) Ezekiel xviii.,
  xx., xxii., xxiii. appear to presuppose the laws of Lev. xviii.-xx.;
  (3) the calendar of Lev. xxiii. represents an earlier stage of
  development than the fixed days and months of Ezek. xlv.; (4) the sin-
  and trespass-offerings are not mentioned in H (cf. Ezek. xl. 39, xlii.
  13, xliv. 29, xlvi. 20); (5) the parallels to H, which are found
  especially in Ezek. xviii., xx., xxii. f., include both the paraenetic
  setting and the laws; and lastly, (6) a comparison of Lev. xxvi. with
  Ezekiel points to the greater originality of the former. Baentsch,
  however, who is followed by Bertholet, adopts the view that Lev. xxvi.
  is rather an independent hortatory discourse modelled on Ezekiel. The
  same writer further maintains that H consists of three separate
  elements, viz. chaps. xvii.; xviii.-xx., with various ordinances in
  chaps. xxiii.-xxv.; and xxii., xxiii., of which the last is certainly
  later than Ezekiel, while the second is in the main prior to that
  author. But the arguments which he adduces in favour of the threefold
  origin of H are not sufficient to outweigh the general impression of
  unity which the code presents.

  Chap. xvii. comprises four main sections which are clearly marked off
  by similar introductory and closing formulae: (1) vv. 3-7, prohibition
  of the slaughter of domestic animals, unless they are presented to
  Yahweh; (2) vv. 8, 9, sacrifices to be offered to Yahweh alone; (3)
  vv. 10-12, prohibition of the eating of blood; (4) vv. 13, 14, the
  blood of animals not used in sacrifice to be poured on the ground. The
  chapter as a whole is to be assigned to H. At the same time it
  exhibits many marks of affinity with P, a phenomenon most easily
  explained by the supposition that older laws of H have been expanded
  and modified by later hands in the spirit of P. Clear instances of
  such revision may be seen in the references to "the door of the tent
  of meeting" (vv. 4, 5, 6, 9) and "the camp" (v. 3), as well as in vv.
  6, 11, 12-14; vv. 15, 16 (prohibiting the eating of animals that die a
  natural death or are torn by beasts) differ formally from the
  preceding paragraphs, and are to be assigned to P. What remains after
  the excision of later additions, however, is not entirely uniform, and
  points to earlier editorial work on the part of the compiler of H.
  Thus vv. 3-7 reflect two points of view, vv. 3, 4 drawing a contrast
  between profane slaughter and sacrifice, while vv. 5-7 distinguish
  between sacrifices offered to Yahweh and those offered to demons.

  Chap. xviii. contains laws on prohibited marriages (vv. 6-18) and
  various acts of unchastity (vv. 19-23) embedded in a paraenetic
  setting (vv. 1-5 and 24-30), the laws being given in the 2nd pers.
  sing., while the framework employs the 2nd pers. plural. With the
  exception of v. 21 (on Molech worship), which is here out of place,
  and has possibly been introduced from xx. 2-5, the chapter displays
  all the characteristics of H.

  Chap. xix. is a collection of miscellaneous laws, partly moral, partly
  religious, of which the fundamental principle is stated in v. 2 ("Ye
  shall be holy"). The various laws are clearly defined by the formula
  "I am Yahweh," or "I am Yahweh your God," phrases which are especially
  characteristic of chaps. xviii.-xx. The first group of laws (vv. 3 f.)
  corresponds to the first table of the decalogue, while vv. 11-18 are
  analogous to the second table; vv. 5-8 (on peace-offerings) are
  obviously out of place here, and are possibly to be restored to the
  cognate passage xxii. 29 f., while the humanitarian provisions of vv.
  9 and 10 (cf. xxiii. 22) have no connexion with the immediate context;
  similarly v. 20 (to which a later redactor has added vv. 21, 22, in
  accordance with vi. 6 f.) appears to be a fragment from a penal code;
  the passage resembles Exod. xxi. 7 ff., and the offence is clearly one
  against property, the omission of the punishment being possibly due to
  the redactor who added vv. 21, 22.

  Chap. xx. Prohibitions against Molech worship, vv. 2-5, witchcraft,
  vv. 6 and 27, unlawful marriages and acts of unchastity, vv. 10-21.
  Like chap. xviii., the main body of laws is provided with a paraenetic
  setting, vv. 7, 8 and 22-24; it differs from that chapter, however, in
  prescribing the death penalty in each case for disobedience. Owing to
  the close resemblance between the two chapters, many critics have
  assumed that they are derived from the same source and that the latter
  chapter was added for the purpose of supplying the penalties. This
  view, however, is not borne out by a comparison of the two chapters,
  for four of the cases mentioned in chap. xviii. (vv. 7, 10, 17b, 18)
  are ignored in chap. xx., while the order and in part the terminology
  are also different; further, it is difficult on this view to explain
  why the two chapters are separated by chap. xix. A more probable
  explanation is that the compiler of H has drawn from two parallel, but
  independent, sources. Signs of revision are not lacking, especially in
  vv. 2-5, where vv. 4 f. are a later addition intended to reconcile the
  inconsistency of v. 2 with v. 3 (R_{H}); v. 6, which is closely
  connected with xix. 31, appears to be less original than v. 27, and
  may be ascribed to the same hand as v. 3; v. 9 can hardly be in its
  original context--it would be more suitable after xxiv. 15. The
  paraenetic setting (vv. 7, 8 and 22-24) is to be assigned to the
  compiler of H, who doubtless prefaced the parallel version with the
  additional laws of vv. 2-6. Verses 25, 26 apparently formed the
  conclusion of a law on clean and unclean animals similar to that of
  chap. xi., and very probably mark the place where H's regulations on
  that subject originally stood.

  Chaps. xxi., xxii. A series of laws affecting the priests and
  offerings, viz. (1) regulations ensuring the holiness of (a) ordinary
  priests, xxi. 1-9, and (b) the chief priest, vv. 10-15; (2) a list of
  physical defects which exclude a priest from exercising his office,
  vv. 16-24; (3) the enjoyment of sacred offerings limited to (a)
  priests, if they are ceremonially clean, xxi. 1-9, and (b) members of
  a priestly family, vv. 10-16; (4) animals offered in sacrifice must be
  without blemish, vv. 17-25; (5) further regulations with regard to
  sacrifices, vv. 26-30, with a paraenetic conclusion, vv. 31-33.

  These chapters present considerable difficulty to the literary critic;
  for while they clearly illustrate the application of the principle of
  "holiness," and in the main exhibit the characteristic phraseology of
  H, they also display many striking points of contact with P and the
  later strata of P, which have been closely interwoven into the
  original laws. These phenomena can be best explained by the
  supposition that we have here a body of old laws which have been
  subjected to more than one revision. The nature of the subjects with
  which they deal is one that naturally appealed to the priestly
  schools, and owing to this fact the laws were especially liable to
  modification and expansion at the hands of later legislators who
  wished to bring them into conformity with later usage. Signs of such
  revision may be traced back to the compiler of H, but the evidence
  shows that the process must have been continued down to the latest
  period of editorial activity in connexion with P. To redactors of the
  school of P belong such phrases as "the sons of Aaron" (xxi. 1, 24,
  xxii. 2, 18), "the seed of Aaron" (xxi. 21, xxii. 4 and "thy seed," v.
  17; cf. xxii. 3), "the offerings of the Lord made by fire" (xxi. 6,
  21, xxii. 22, 27), "the most holy things" (xxi. 22; cf. xxii. 3 ff.
  "holy things" only), "throughout their (or your) generations" (xxi. 7,
  xxii. 3), the references to the anointing of Aaron (xxi. 10, 12) and
  the Veil (xxi. 23), the introductory formulae (xxi. 1, 16 f., xxii. 1
  f., 17 f., 26) and the subscription (xxi. 24). Apart from these
  redactional additions, chap. xxi. is to be ascribed to H, vv. 6 and 8
  being possibly the work of R_{H}. Most critics detect a stronger
  influence of P in chap. xxii., more especially in vv. 3-7 and 17-25,
  29, 30; most probably these verses have been largely recast and
  expanded by later editors, but it is noticeable that they contain no
  mention of either sin- or trespass-offerings.

  Chap. xxiii. A calendar of sacred seasons. The chapter consists of two
  main elements which can easily be distinguished from one another, the
  one being derived from P and the other from H. To the former belongs
  the fuller and more elaborate description of vv. 4-8, 21, 23-38; to
  the latter, vv. 9-20, 22, 39-44. Characteristic of the priestly
  calendar are (1) the enumeration of "holy convocations," (2) the
  prohibition of all work, (3) the careful determination of the date by
  the day and month, (4) the mention of "the offerings made by fire to
  Yahweh," and (5) the stereotyped form of the regulations. The older
  calendar, on the other hand, knows nothing of "holy convocations," nor
  of abstinence from work; the time of the feasts, which are clearly
  connected with agriculture, is only roughly defined with reference to
  the harvest (cf. Exod. xxiii. 14 ff., xxxiv. 22; Deut. xvi. 9 ff.).

  The calendar of P comprises (a) the Feast of Passover and the
  Unleavened Cakes, vv. 4-8; (b) a fragment of Pentecost, v. 21; (c) the
  Feast of Trumpets, vv. 23-25; (d) the Day of Atonement, vv. 26-32; and
  (e) the Feast of Tabernacles, vv. 33-36, with a subscription in vv.
  37, 38. With these have been incorporated the older regulations of H
  on the Feast of Weeks, or Pentecost, vv. 9-20, which have been
  retained in place of P's account (cf. v. 21), and on the Feast of
  Tabernacles, vv. 39-44, the latter being clearly intended to
  supplement vv. 33-36. The hand of the redactor who combined the two
  elements may be seen partly in additions designed to accommodate the
  regulations of H to P (e.g. v. 39a, "on the fifteenth day of the
  seventh month," and 39b, "and on the eighth day shall be a solemn
  rest"), partly in the later expansions corresponding to later usage,
  vv. 12 f., 18, 19a, 21b, 41. Further, vv. 26-32 (on the Day of
  Atonement, cf. xvi.) are a later addition to the P sections.

  Chap. xxiv. affords an interesting illustration of the manner in which
  the redactor of P has added later elements to the original code of H.
  For the first part of the chapter, with its regulations as to (a) the
  lamps in the Tabernacle, vv. 1-4, and (b) the Shewbread, vv. 5-9, is
  admittedly derived from P, vv. 1-4, forming a supplement to Exod. xxv.
  31-40 (cf. xxvii. 20 f.) and Num. viii. 1-4, and vv. 5-9 to Exod. xxv.
  30. The rest of the chapter contains old laws (vv. 15b-22) derived
  from H on blasphemy, manslaughter and injuries to the person, to which
  the redactor has added an historical setting (vv. 10-14, 23) as well
  as a few glosses.

  Chap. xxv. lays down regulations for the observance of (a) the
  Sabbatical year, vv. 1-7, 19-22, and (b) the year of Jubilees, vv.
  8-18, 23, and then applies the principle of redemption to (1) land and
  house property, vv. 24-34, and (2) persons, vv. 35-55. The rules for
  the Sabbatical year (vv. 1-7) are admittedly derived from H, and vv.
  19-22 are also from the same source. Their present position after vv.
  8-18 is due to the redactor who wished to apply the same rules to the
  year of Jubilee. But though the former of the two sections on the year
  of Jubilee (vv. 8-18, 23) exhibits undoubted signs of P, the traces of
  H are also sufficiently marked to warrant the conclusion that the
  latter code included laws relating to the year of Jubilee, and that
  these have been modified by R_{P} and then connected with the
  regulations for the Sabbatical year. Signs of the redactor's handiwork
  may be seen in vv. 9, 11-13 (the year of Jubilee treated as a fallow
  year) and 15, 16 (cf. the repetition of "ye shall not wrong one
  another," vv. 14 and 17). Both on historical and on critical grounds,
  however, it is improbable that the principle of restitution underlying
  the regulations for the year of Jubilee was originally extended to
  _persons_ in the earlier code. For it is difficult to harmonize the
  laws as to the release of Hebrew slaves with the other legislation on
  the same subject (Exod. xxi. 2-6; Deut. xv.), while both the secondary
  position which they occupy in this chapter and their more elaborate
  and formal character point to a later origin for vv. 35-55. Hence
  these verses in the main must be assigned to R_{P}. In this connexion
  it is noticeable that vv. 35-38, 39-40a, 43, 47, 53, 55, which show
  the characteristic marks of H, bear no special relation to the year of
  Jubilee, but merely inculcate a more humane treatment of those
  Israelites who are compelled by circumstances to sell themselves
  either to their brethren or to strangers. It is probable, therefore,
  that they form no part of the original legislation of the year of
  Jubilee, but were incorporated at a later period. The present form of
  vv. 24-34 is largely due to R_{P}, who has certainly added vv. 32-34
  (cities of the Levites) and probably vv. 29-31.

  Chap. xxvi. The concluding exhortation. After reiterating commands to
  abstain from idolatry and to observe the Sabbath, vv. 1, 2, the
  chapter sets forth (a) the rewards of obedience, vv. 3-13, and (b) the
  penalties incurred by disobedience to the preceding laws, vv. 14-46.
  The discourse, which is spoken throughout in the name of Yahweh, is
  similar in character to Exod. xxiii. 20-33 and Deut. xxviii., more
  especially to the latter. That it forms an integral part of H is shown
  both by the recurrence of the same distinctive phraseology and by the
  emphasis laid on the same motives. At the same time it is hardly
  doubtful that the original discourse has been modified and expanded by
  later hands, especially in the concluding paragraphs. Thus vv. 34, 35,
  which refer back to xxv. 2 ff., interrupt the connexion and must be
  assigned to the priestly redactor, while vv. 40-45 display obvious
  signs of interpolation. With regard to the literary relation of this
  chapter with Ezekiel, it must be admitted that Ezekiel presents many
  striking parallels, and in particular makes use, in common with chap.
  xxvi., of several expressions which do not occur elsewhere in the Old
  Testament. But there are also points of difference both as regards
  phraseology and subject-matter, and in view of these latter it is
  impossible to hold that Ezekiel was either the author or compiler of
  this chapter.

  Chap. xxvii. On the commutation of vows and tithes. The chapter as a
  whole must be assigned to a later stratum of P, for while vv. 2-25 (on
  vows) presuppose the year of Jubilee, the section on tithes, vv.
  30-33, marks a later stage of development than Num. xviii. 21 ff. (P);
  vv. 26-29 (on firstlings and devoted things) are supplementary
  restrictions to vv. 2-25.

  LITERATURE.--_Commentaries_: Dillmann-Ryssel, _Die Bücher Exodus und
  Leviticus_ (1897); Driver and White, _SBOT. Leviticus_ (English,
  1898); B. Baentsch, _Exod. Lev. u. Num._ (HK, 1900); Bertholet,
  _Leviticus_ (KHC, 1901). _Criticism_: The Introductions to the Old
  Testament by Kuenen, Holzinger, Driver, Cornill, König and the
  archaeological works of Benzinger and Nowack. Wellhausen, _Die
  Composition des Hexateuchs_, &c. (1899); Kayser, _Das vorexilische
  Buch der Urgeschichte Isr._ (1874); Klostermann, _Zeitschrift für
  Luth. Theologie_ (1877); Horst, _Lev. xvii.-xxvi. and Hezekiel_
  (1881); Wurster, _ZATW_ (1884); Baentsch, _Das Heiligkeitsgesetz_
  (1893); L. P. Paton, "The Relation of Lev. 20 to Lev. 17-19,"
  _Hebraica_ (1894); "The Original Form of Leviticus," _JBL_ (1897,
  1898); "The Holiness Code and Ezekiel," _Pres. and Ref. Review_
  (1896); Carpenter, _Composition of the Hexateuch_ (1902). Articles on
  Leviticus by G. F. Moore, Hastings's _Diet. Bib._, and G. Harford
  Battersby, _Ency. Bib._     (J. F. St.)

LEVY, AMY (1861-1889), English poetess and novelist, second daughter of
Lewis Levy, was born at Clapham on the 10th of November 1861, and was
educated at Newnham College, Cambridge. She showed a precocious aptitude
for writing verse of exceptional merit, and in 1884 she published a
volume of poems, _A Minor Poet and Other Verse_, some of the pieces in
which had already been printed at Cambridge with the title _Xantippe and
Other Poems_. The high level of this first publication was maintained in
_A London Plane Tree and Other Poems_, a collection of lyrics published
in 1889, in which the prevailing pessimism of the writer's temperament
was conspicuous. She had already in 1888 tried her hand at prose fiction
in _The Romance of a Shop_, which was followed by _Reuben Sachs_, a
powerful novel. She committed suicide on the 10th of September 1889.

LEVY, AUGUSTE MICHEL (1844-   ), French geologist, was born in Paris on
the 7th of August 1844. He became inspector-general of mines, and
director of the Geological Survey of France. He was distinguished for
his researches on eruptive rocks, their microscopic structure and
origin; and he early employed the polarizing microscope for the
determination of minerals. In his many contributions to scientific
journals he described the granulite group, and dealt with pegmatites,
variolites, eurites, the ophites of the Pyrenees, the extinct volcanoes
of Central France, gneisses, and the origin of crystalline schists. He
wrote _Structures et classification des roches éruptives_ (1889), but
his more elaborate studies were carried on with F. Fouqué. Together they
wrote on the artificial production of felspar, nepheline and other
minerals, and also of meteorites, and produced _Minéralogie
micrographique_ (1879) and _Synthèse des minéraux et des roches_ (1882).
Levy also collaborated with A. Lacroix in _Les Minéraux des roches_
(1888) and _Tableau des minéraux des roches_ (1889).

LEVY (Fr. _levée_, from _lever_, Lat. _levare_, to lift, raise), the
raising of money by the collection of an assessment, &c., a tax or
compulsory contribution; also the collection of a body of men for
military or other purposes. When all the able-bodied men of a nation are
enrolled for service, the French term _levée en masse_, levy in mass, is
frequently used.

LEWALD, FANNY (1811-1889), German author, was born at Königsberg in East
Prussia on the 24th of March 1811, of Jewish parentage. When seventeen
years of age she embraced Christianity, and after travelling in Germany,
France and Italy, settled in 1845 at Berlin. Here, in 1854, she married
the author, Adolf Wilhelm Theodor Stahr (1805-1876), and removed after
his death in 1876 to Dresden, where she resided, engaged in literary
work, until her death on the 5th of August 1889. Fanny Lewald is less
remarkable for her writings, which are mostly sober, matter-of-fact
works, though displaying considerable talent and culture, than for her
championship of "women's rights," a question which she was practically
the first German woman to take up, and for her scathing satire on the
sentimentalism of the Gräfin Hahn Hahn. This authoress she ruthlessly
attacked in the exquisite parody (_Diogena, Roman von Iduna Gräfin H....
H...._ (2nd ed., 1847). Among the best known of her novels are
_Klementine_ (1842); _Prinz Louis Ferdinand_ (1849; 2nd ed., 1859); _Das
Mädchen von Hela_ (1860); _Von Geschlecht zu Geschlecht_ (8 vols.,
1863-1865); _Benvenuto_ (1875), and _Stella_ (1883; English by B.
Marshall, 1884). Of her writings in defence of the emancipation of women
_Osterbriefe für die Frauen_ (1863) and _Für und wider die Frauen_
(1870) are conspicuous. Her autobiography, _Meine Lebensgeschichte_ (6
vols., 1861-1862), is brightly written and affords interesting glimpses
of the literary life of her time.

  A selection of her works was published under the title _Gesammelte
  Schriften_ in 12 vols. (1870-1874). Cf. K. Frenzel, _Erinnerungen und
  Strömungen_ (1890).

LEWANIKA (c. 1860-   ), paramount chief of the Barotse and subject tribes
occupying the greater part of the upper Zambezi basin, was the
twenty-second of a long line of rulers, whose founder invaded the
Barotse valley about the beginning of the 17th century, and according to
tradition was the son of a woman named Buya Mamboa by a god. The graves
of successive ruling chiefs are to this day respected and objects of
pilgrimage for purposes of ancestor worship. Lewanika was born on the
upper Kabompo in troublous times, where his father--Letia, a son of a
former ruler--lived in exile during the interregnum of a foreign dynasty
(Makololo), which remained in possession from about 1830 to 1865, when
the Makololo were practically exterminated in a night by a
well-organized revolt. Once more masters of their own country, the
Barotse invited Sepopa, an uncle of Lewanika, to rule over them. Eleven
years of brutality and licence resulted in the tyrant's expulsion and
subsequent assassination, his place being taken by Ngwana-Wina, a
nephew. Within a year abuse of power brought about this chief's downfall
(1877), and he was succeeded by Lobosi, who assumed the name of Lewanika
in 1885. The early years of his reign were also stained by many acts of
blood, until in 1884 the torture and murder of his own brother led to
open rebellion, and it was only through extreme presence of mind that
the chief escaped with his life into exile. His cousin, Akufuna or
Tatela, was then proclaimed chief. It was during his brief reign that
François Coillard, the eminent missionary, arrived at Lialui, the
capital. The following year Lewanika, having collected his partisans,
deposed the usurper and re-established his power. Ruthless revenge not
unmixed with treachery characterized his return to power, but gradually
the strong personality of the high-minded François Coillard so far
influenced him for good that from about 1887 onward he ruled tolerantly
and showed a consistent desire to better the condition of his people. In
1890 Lewanika, who two years previously had proposed to place himself
under the protection of Great Britain, concluded a treaty with the
British South Africa Company, acknowledging its supremacy and conceding
to it certain mineral rights. In 1897 Mr R. T. Coryndon took up his
position at Lialui as British agent, and the country to the east of 25°
E. was thrown open to settlers, that to the west being reserved to the
Barotse chief. In 1905 the king of Italy's award in the Barotse boundary
dispute with Portugal deprived Lewanika of half of his dominions, much
of which had been ruled by his ancestors for many generations. In 1902
Lewanika attended the coronation of Edward VII. as a guest of the
nation. His recognized heir was his eldest son Letia.

  See BAROTSE, and the works there cited, especially _On the Threshold
  of Central Africa_ (London, 1897), by François Coillard.
       (A. St. H. G.)

LEWES, CHARLES LEE (1740-1803), English actor, was the son of a hosier
in London. After attending a school at Ambleside he returned to London,
where he found employment as a postman; but about 1760 he went on the
stage in the provinces, and some three years later began to appear in
minor parts at Covent Garden Theatre. His first rôle of importance was
that of "Young Marlow" in _She Stoops to Conquer_, at its production of
that comedy in 1773, when he delivered an epilogue specially written for
him by Goldsmith. He remained a member of the Covent Garden company till
1783, appearing in many parts, among which were "Fag" in _The Rivals_,
which he "created," and "Sir Anthony Absolute" in the same comedy. In
1783 he removed to Drury Lane, where he assumed the Shakespearian rôles
of "Touchstone," "Lucio" and "Falstaff." In 1787 he left London for
Edinburgh, where he gave recitations, including Cowper's "John Gilpin."
For a short time in 1792 Lewes assisted Stephen Kemble in the management
of the Dundee Theatre; in the following year he went to Dublin, but he
was financially unsuccessful and suffered imprisonment for debt. He
employed his time in compiling his _Memoirs_, a worthless production
published after his death by his son. He was also the author of some
poor dramatic sketches. Lewes died on the 23rd of July 1803. He was
three times married; the philosopher, George Henry Lewes, was his

  See John Genest, _Some Account of the English Stage_ (Bath, 1832).

LEWES, GEORGE HENRY (1817-1878), British philosopher and literary
critic, was born in London in 1817. He was a grandson of Charles Lee
Lewes, the actor. He was educated in London, Jersey, Brittany, and
finally at Dr Burney's school in Greenwich. Having abandoned
successively a commercial and a medical career, he seriously thought of
becoming an actor, and between 1841 and 1850 appeared several times on
the stage. Finally he devoted himself to literature, science and
philosophy. As early as 1836 he belonged to a club formed for the study
of philosophy, and had sketched out a physiological treatment of the
philosophy of the Scottish school. Two years later he went to Germany,
probably with the intention of studying philosophy. In 1840 he married a
daughter of Swynfen Stevens Jervis (1798-1867), and during the next ten
years supported himself by contributing to the quarterly and other
reviews. These articles discuss a wide variety of subject, and, though
often characterized by hasty impulse and imperfect study, betray a
singularly acute critical judgment, enlightened by philosophic study.
The most valuable are those on the drama, afterwards republished under
the title _Actors and Acting_ (1875). With this may be taken the volume
on _The Spanish Drama_ (1846). The combination of wide scholarship,
philosophic culture and practical acquaintance with the theatre gives
these essays a high place among the best efforts in English dramatic
criticism. In 1845-1846 he published _The Biographical History of
Philosophy_, an attempt to depict the life of philosophers as an
ever-renewed fruitless labour to attain the unattainable. In 1847-1848
he made two attempts in the field of fiction--_Ranthrope_, and _Rose,
Blanche and Violet_--which, though displaying considerable skill both
in plot, construction and in characterization, have taken no permanent
place in literature. The same is to be said of an ingenious attempt to
rehabilitate Robespierre (1849). In 1850 he collaborated with Thornton
Leigh Hunt in the foundation of the _Leader_, of which he was the
literary editor. In 1853 he republished under the title of _Comte's
Philosophy of the Sciences_ a series of papers which had appeared in
that journal. In 1851 he became acquainted with Miss Evans (George
Eliot) and in 1854 left his wife. Subsequently he lived with Miss Evans
as her husband (see ELIOT, GEORGE).

The culmination of Lewes's work in prose literature is the _Life of
Goethe_ (1855), probably the best known of his writings. Lewes's
many-sidedness of mind, and his combination of scientific with literary
tastes, eminently fitted him to appreciate the large nature and the
wide-ranging activity of the German poet. The high position this work
has taken in Germany itself, notwithstanding the boldness of its
criticism and the unpopularity of some of its views (e.g. on the
relation of the second to the first part of _Faust_), is a sufficient
testimony to its general excellence. From about 1853 Lewes's writings
show that he was occupying himself with scientific and more particularly
biological work. He may be said to have always manifested a distinctly
scientific bent in his writings, and his closer devotion to science was
but the following out of early impulses. Considering that he had not had
the usual course of technical training, these studies are a remarkable
testimony to the penetration of his intellect. The most important of
these essays are collected in the volumes _Seaside Studies_ (1858),
_Physiology of Common Life_ (1859), _Studies in Animal Life_ (1862), and
_Aristotle, a Chapter from the History of Science_ (1864). They are much
more than popular expositions of accepted scientific truths. They
contain able criticisms of authorized ideas, and embody the results of
individual research and individual reflection. He made a number of
impressive suggestions, some of which have since been accepted by
physiologists. Of these the most valuable is that now known as the
doctrine of the functional indifference of the nerves--that what are
known as the specific energies of the optic, auditory and other nerves
are simply differences in their mode of action due to the differences of
the peripheral structures or sense-organs with which they are connected.
This idea was subsequently arrived at independently by Wundt
(_Physiologische Psychologie_, 2nd ed., p. 321). In 1865, on the
starting of the _Fortnightly Review_, Lewes became its editor, but he
retained the post for less than two years, when he was succeeded by John
Morley. This date marks the transition from more strictly scientific to
philosophic work. He had from early youth cherished a strong liking for
philosophic studies; one of his earliest essays was an appreciative
account of Hegel's _Aesthetics_. Coming under the influence of
positivism as unfolded both in Comte's own works and in J. S. Mill's
_System of Logic_, he abandoned all faith in the possibility of
metaphysic, and recorded this abandonment in the above-mentioned
_History of Philosophy_. Yet he did not at any time give an unqualified
adhesion to Comte's teachings, and with wider reading and reflection his
mind moved away further from the positivist standpoint. In the preface
to the third edition of his _History of Philosophy_ he avowed a change
in this direction, and this movement is still more plainly discernible
in subsequent editions of the work. The final outcome of this
intellectual progress is given to us in _The Problems of Life and Mind_,
which may be regarded as the crowning work of his life. His sudden death
on the 28th of November 1878 cut short the work, yet it is complete
enough to allow us to judge of the author's matured conceptions on
biological, psychological and metaphysical problems. Of his three sons
only one, Charles (1843-1891), survived him; in the first London County
Council Election (1888) he was elected for St Pancras; he was also much
interested in the Hampstead Heath extension.

  _Philosophy._--The first two volumes on _The Foundations of a Creed_
  lay down what Lewes regarded as the true principles of philosophizing.
  He here seeks to effect a _rapprochement_ between metaphysic and
  science. He is still so far a positivist as to pronounce all inquiry
  into the ultimate nature of things fruitless. What matter, form,
  spirit are in themselves is a futile question that belongs to the
  sterile region of "metempirics." But philosophical questions may be so
  stated as to be susceptible of a precise solution by scientific
  method. Thus, since the relation of subject to object falls within our
  experience, it is a proper matter for philosophic investigation. It
  may be questioned whether Lewes is right in thus identifying the
  methods of science and philosophy. Philosophy is not a mere extension
  of scientific knowledge; it is an investigation of the nature and
  validity of the knowing process itself. In any case Lewes cannot be
  said to have done much to aid in the settlement of properly
  philosophical questions. His whole treatment of the question of the
  relation of subject to object is vitiated by a confusion between the
  scientific truth that mind and body coexist in the living organism and
  the philosophic truth that all knowledge of objects implies a knowing
  subject. In other words, to use Shadworth Hodgson's phrase, he mixes
  up the question of the _genesis_ of mental forms with the question of
  their _nature_ (see _Philosophy of Reflexion_, ii. 40-58). Thus he
  reaches the "monistic" doctrine that mind and matter are two aspects
  of the same existence by attending simply to the parallelism between
  psychical and physical processes given as a fact (or a probable fact)
  of our experience, and by leaving out of account their relation as
  subject and object in the cognitive act. His identification of the two
  as phases of one existence is open to criticism, not only from the
  point of view of philosophy, but from that of science. In his
  treatment of such ideas as "sensibility," "sentience" and the like, he
  does not always show whether he is speaking of physical or of
  psychical phenomena. Among the other properly philosophic questions
  discussed in these two volumes the nature of the casual relation is
  perhaps the one which is handled with most freshness and
  suggestiveness. The third volume, _The Physical Basis of Mind_,
  further develops the writer's views on organic activities as a whole.
  He insists strongly on the radical distinction between organic and
  inorganic processes, and on the impossibility of ever explaining the
  former by purely mechanical principles. With respect to the nervous
  system, he holds that all its parts have one and the same elementary
  property, namely, sensibility. Thus sensibility belongs as much to the
  lower centres of the spinal cord as to the brain, contributing in this
  more elementary form elements to the "subconscious" region of mental
  life. The higher functions of the nervous system, which make up our
  conscious mental life, are merely more complex modifications of this
  fundamental property of nerve substance. Closely related to this
  doctrine is the view that the nervous organism acts as a whole, that
  particular mental operations cannot be referred to definitely
  circumscribed regions of the brain, and that the hypothesis of nervous
  activity passing in the centre by an isolated pathway from one
  nerve-cell to another is altogether illusory. By insisting on the
  complete coincidence between the regions of nerve-action and
  sentience, and by holding that these are but different aspects of one
  thing, he is able to attack the doctrine of animal and human
  automatism, which affirms that feeling or consciousness is merely an
  incidental concomitant of nerve-action and in no way essential to the
  chain of physical events. Lewes's views in psychology, partly opened
  up in the earlier volumes of the _Problems_, are more fully worked out
  in the last two volumes (3rd series). He discusses the method of
  psychology with much insight. He claims against Comte and his
  followers a place for introspection in psychological research. In
  addition to this subjective method there must be an objective, which
  consists partly in a reference to nervous conditions and partly in the
  employment of sociological and historical data. Biological knowledge,
  or a consideration of the organic conditions, would only help us to
  explain mental _functions_, as feeling and thinking; it would not
  assist us to understand differences of mental _faculty_ as manifested
  in different races and stages of human development. The organic
  conditions of these differences will probably for ever escape
  detection. Hence they can be explained only as the products of the
  social environment. This idea of dealing with mental phenomena in
  their relation to social and historical conditions is probably Lewes's
  most important contribution to psychology. Among other points which he
  emphasizes is the complexity of mental phenomena. Every mental state
  is regarded as compounded of three factors in different
  proportions--namely, a process of sensible affection, of logical
  grouping and of motor impulse. But Lewes's work in psychology consists
  less in any definite discoveries than in the inculcation of a sound
  and just method. His biological training prepared him to view mind as
  a complex unity, in which the various functions interact one on the
  other, and of which the highest processes are identical with and
  evolved out of the lower. Thus the operations of thought, "or the
  logic of signs," are merely a more complicated form of the elementary
  operations of sensation and instinct or "the logic of feeling." The
  whole of the last volume of the _Problems_ may be said to be an
  illustration of this position. It is a valuable repository of
  psychological facts, many of them drawn from the more obscure regions
  of mental life and from abnormal experience, and is throughout
  suggestive and stimulating. To suggest and to stimulate the mind,
  rather than to supply it with any complete system of knowledge, may be
  said to be Lewes's service in philosophy. The exceptional rapidity and
  versatility of his intelligence seems to account at once for the
  freshness in his way of envisaging the subject-matter of philosophy
  and psychology, and for the want of satisfactory elaboration and of
  systematic co-ordination.     (J. S.; X.)

LEWES, a market-town and municipal borough and the county town of
Sussex, England, in the Lewes parliamentary division, 50 m. S. from
London by the London, Brighton & South Coast railway. Pop. (1901)
11,249. It is picturesquely situated on the slope of a chalk down
falling to the river Ouse. Ruins of the old castle, supposed to have
been founded by King Alfred and rebuilt by William de Warenne shortly
after the Conquest, rise from the height. There are two mounds which
bore keeps, an uncommon feature. The castle guarded the pass through the
downs formed by the valley of the Ouse. In one of the towers is the
collection of the Sussex Archaeological Society. St Michael's church is
without architectural merit, but contains old brasses and monuments; St
Anne's church is a transitional Norman structure; St Thomas-at-Cliffe is
Perpendicular; St John's, Southover, of mixed architecture, preserves
some early Norman portions, and has some relics of the Warenne family.
In the grounds of the Cluniac priory of St Pancras, founded in 1078, the
leaden coffins of William de Warenne and Gundrada his wife were dug up
during an excavation for the railway in 1845. There is a free grammar
school dating from 1512, and among the other public buildings are the
town hall and corn exchange, county hall, prison, and the Fitzroy
memorial library. The industries include the manufacture of agricultural
implements, brewing, tanning, and iron and brass founding. The municipal
borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 1042

The many neolithic and bronze implements that have been discovered, and
the numerous tumuli and earthworks which surround Lewes, indicate its
remote origin. The town Lewes (Loewas, Loewen, Leswa, Laquis,
Latisaquensis) was in the royal demesne of the Saxon kings, from whom it
received the privilege of a market. Æthelstan established two royal
mints there, and by the reign of Edward the Confessor, and probably
before, Lewes was certainly a borough. William I. granted the whole
barony of Lewes, including the revenue arising from the town, to William
de Warenne, who converted an already existing fortification into a place
of residence. His descendants continued to hold the barony until the
beginning of the 14th century. In default of male issue, it then passed
to the earl of Arundel, with whose descendants it remained until 1439,
when it was divided between the Norfolks, Dorsets and Abergavennys. By
1086 the borough had increased 30% in value since the beginning of the
reign, and its importance as a port and market-town is evident from
Domesday. A gild merchant seems to have existed at an early date. The
first mention of it is in a charter of Reginald de Warenne, about 1148,
by which he restored to the burgesses the privileges they had enjoyed in
the time of his grandfather and father, but of which they had been
deprived. In 1595 a "Fellowship" took the place of the old gild and in
conjunction with two constables governed the town until the beginning of
the 18th century. The borough seal probably dates from the 14th century.
Lewes was incorporated by royal charter in 1881. The town returned two
representatives to parliament from 1295 until deprived of one member in
1867. It was disfranchised in 1885. Earl Warenne and his descendants
held the fairs and markets from 1066. In 1792 the fair-days were the 6th
of May, Whit-Tuesday, the 26th of July (for wool), and the 2nd of
October. The market-day was Saturday. Fairs are now held on the 6th of
May for horses and cattle, the 20th of July for wool, and the 21st and
28th of September for Southdown sheep. A corn-market is held every
Tuesday, and a stock-market every alternate Monday. The trade in wool
has been important since the 14th century.

Lewes was the scene of the battle fought on the 14th of May 1264 between
Henry III. and Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester. Led by the king and
by his son, the future king Edward I., the royalists left Oxford, took
Northampton and drove Montfort from Rochester into London. Then,
harassed on the route by their foes, they marched through Kent into
Sussex and took up their quarters at Lewes, a stronghold of the royalist
Earl Warenne. Meanwhile, reinforced by a number of Londoners, Earl Simon
left London and reached Fletching, about 9 m. north of Lewes, on the
13th of May. Efforts at reconciliation having failed he led his army
against the town, which he hoped to surprise, early on the following
day. His plan was to direct his main attack against the priory of St
Pancras, which sheltered the king and his brother Richard, earl of
Cornwall, king of the Romans, while causing the enemy to believe that
his principal objective was the castle, where Prince Edward was. But the
surprise was not complete and the royalists rushed from the town to meet
the enemy in the open field. Edward led his followers against the
Londoners, who were gathered around the standard of Montfort, put them
to flight, pursued them for several miles, and killed a great number of
them. Montfort's ruse, however, had been successful. He was not with his
standard as his foes thought, but with the pick of his men he attacked
Henry's followers and took prisoner both the king and his brother.
Before Edward returned from his chase the earl was in possession of the
town. In its streets the prince strove to retrieve his fortunes, but in
vain. Many of his men perished in the river, but others escaped, one
band, consisting of Earl Warenne and others, taking refuge in Pevensey
Castle. Edward himself took sanctuary and on the following day peace was
made between the king and the earl.

LEWES, a town in Sussex county, Delaware, U.S.A., in the S.E. part of
the state, on Delaware Bay. Pop. (1910), 2158. Lewes is served by the
Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington (Pennsylvania System), and the
Maryland, Delaware & Virginia railways. Its harbour is formed by the
Delaware Breakwater, built by the national government and completed in
1869, and 2¼ m. above it another breakwater was completed in December
1901 by the government. The cove between them forms a harbour of refuge
of about 550 acres. At the mouth of Delaware Bay, about 2 m. below
Lewes, is the Henlopen Light, one of the oldest lighthouses in America.
The Delaware Bay pilots make their headquarters at Lewes. Lewes has a
large trade with northern cities in fruits and vegetables, and is a
subport of entry of the Wilmington Customs District. The first
settlement on Delaware soil by Europeans was made near here in 1631 by
Dutch colonists, sent by a company organized in Holland in the previous
year by Samuel Blommaert, Killian van Rensselaer, David Pieterszen de
Vries and others. The settlers called the place Zwaanendael, valley of
swans. The settlement was soon entirely destroyed by the Indians, and a
second body of settlers whom de Vries, who had been made director of the
colony, brought in 1632 remained for only two years. The fact of the
settlement is important; because of it the English did not unite the
Delaware country with Maryland, for the Maryland Charter of 1632
restricted colonization to land within the prescribed boundaries,
uncultivated and either uninhabited or inhabited only by Indians. In
1658 the Dutch established an Indian trading post, and in 1659 erected a
fort at Zwaanendael. After the annexation of the Delaware counties to
Pennsylvania in 1682, its name was changed to Lewes, after the town of
that name in Sussex, England. It was pillaged by French pirates in 1698.
One of the last naval battles of the War of Independence was fought in
the bay near Lewes on the 8th of April 1782, when the American privateer
"Hyder Ally" (16), commanded by Captain Joshua Barnes (1759-1818),
defeated and captured the British sloop "General Monk" (20), which had
been an American privateer, the "General Washington," had been captured
by Admiral Arbuthnot's squadron in 1780, and was now purchased by the
United States government and, as the "General Washington," was commanded
by Captain Barnes in 1782-1784. In March 1813 the town was bombarded by
a British frigate.

  See the "History of Lewes" in the _Papers_ of the Historical Society
  of Delaware, No. xxxviii. (Wilmington, 1903); and J. T. Scharf,
  _History of Delaware_ (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1888).

LEWIS, SIR GEORGE CORNEWALL, BART. (1806-1863), English statesman and
man of letters, was born in London on the 21st of April 1806. His
father, Thomas F. Lewis, of Harpton Court, Radnorshire, after holding
subordinate office in various administrations, became a poor-law
commissioner, and was made a baronet in 1846. Young Lewis was educated
at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, where in 1828 he took a
first-class in classics and a second-class in mathematics. He then
entered the Middle Temple, and was called to the bar in 1831. In 1833 he
undertook his first public work as one of the commissioners to inquire
into the condition of the poor Irish residents in the United Kingdom.[1]
In 1834 Lord Althorp included him in the commission to inquire into the
state of church property and church affairs generally in Ireland. To
this fact we owe his work on _Local Disturbances in Ireland, and the
Irish Church Question_ (London, 1836), in which he condemned the
existing connexion between church and state, proposed a state provision
for the Catholic clergy, and maintained the necessity of an efficient
workhouse organization. During this period Lewis's mind was much
occupied with the study of language. Before leaving college he had
published some observations on Whately's doctrine of the predicables,
and soon afterwards he assisted Thirlwall and Hare in starting the
_Philological Museum_. Its successor, the _Classical Museum_, he also
supported by occasional contributions. In 1835 he published an _Essay on
the Origin and Formation of the Romance Languages_ (re-edited in 1862),
the first effective criticism in England of Raynouard's theory of a
uniform romance tongue, represented by the poetry of the troubadours. He
also compiled a glossary of provincial words used in Herefordshire and
the adjoining counties. But the most important work of this earlier
period was one to which his logical and philological tastes contributed.
_The Remarks on the Use and Abuse of some Political Terms_ (London,
1832) may have been suggested by Bentham's _Book of Parliamentary
Fallacies_, but it shows all that power of clear sober original thinking
which marks his larger and later political works. Moreover, he
translated Boeckh's _Public Economy of Athens_ and Müller's _History of
Greek Literature_, and he assisted Tufnell in the translation of
Müller's _Dorians_. Some time afterwards he edited a text of the
_Fables_ of Babrius. While his friend Hayward conducted the _Law
Magazine_, he wrote in it frequently on such subjects as secondary
punishments and the penitentiary system. In 1836, at the request of Lord
Glenelg, he accompanied John Austin to Malta, where they spent nearly
two years reporting on the condition of the island and framing a new
code of laws. One leading object of both commissioners was to associate
the Maltese in the responsible government of the island. On his return
to England Lewis succeeded his father as one of the principal poor-law
commissioners. In 1841 appeared the _Essay on the Government of
Dependencies_, a systematic statement and discussion of the various
relations in which colonies may stand towards the mother country. In
1844 Lewis married Lady Maria Theresa Lister, sister of Lord Clarendon,
and a lady of literary tastes. Much of their married life was spent in
Kent House, Knightsbridge. They had no children. In 1847 Lewis resigned
his office. He was then returned for the county of Hereford, and Lord
John Russell appointed him secretary to the Board of Control, but a few
months afterwards he became under-secretary to the Home Office. In this
capacity he introduced two important bills, one for the abolition of
turnpike trusts and the management of highways by a mixed county board,
the other for the purpose of defining and regulating the law of
parochial assessment. In 1850 he succeeded Hayter as financial secretary
to the treasury. About this time, also, appeared his _Essay on the
Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion_. On the dissolution of
parliament which followed the resignation of Lord John Russell's
ministry in 1852, Lewis was defeated for Herefordshire and then for
Peterborough. Excluded from parliament he accepted the editorship of the
_Edinburgh Review_, and remained editor until 1855. During this period
he served on the Oxford commission, and on the commission to inquire
into the government of London. But its chief fruits were the _Treatise
on the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics_, and the
_Enquiry into the Credibility of the Early Roman History_,[2] in which
he vigorously attacked the theory of epic lays and other theories on
which Niebuhr's reconstruction of that history had proceeded. In 1855
Lewis succeeded his father in the baronetcy. He was at once elected
member for the Radnor boroughs, and Lord Palmerston made him chancellor
of the exchequer. He had a war loan to contract and heavy additional
taxation to impose, but his industry, method and clear vision carried
him safely through. After the change of ministry in 1859 Sir George
became home secretary under Lord Palmerston, and in 1861, much against
his wish, he succeeded Sidney Herbert (Lord Herbert of Lea) at the War
Office. The closing years of his life were marked by increasing
intellectual vigour. In 1859 he published an able _Essay on Foreign
Jurisdiction and the Extradition of Criminals_, a subject to which the
attempt on Napoleon's life, the discussions on the Conspiracy Bill, and
the trial of Bernard, had drawn general attention. He advocated the
extension of extradition treaties, and condemned the principal idea of
_Weltrechtsordnung_ which Mohl of Heidelberg had proposed. His two
latest works were the _Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients_, in
which, without professing any knowledge of Oriental languages, he
applied a sceptical analysis to the ambitious Egyptology of Bunsen; and
the _Dialogue on the Best Form of Government_, in which, under the name
of Crito, the author points out to the supporters of the various systems
that there is no one abstract government which is the best possible for
all times and places. An essay on the _Characteristics of Federal,
National, Provincial and Municipal Government_ does not seem to have
been published. Sir George died in April 1863. A marble bust by Weekes
stands in Westminster Abbey.

Lewis was a man of mild and affectionate disposition, much beloved by a
large circle of friends, among whom were Sir E. Head, the Grotes, the
Austins, Lord Stanhope, J. S. Mill, Dean Milman, the Duff Gordons. In
public life he was distinguished, as Lord Aberdeen said, "for candour,
moderation, love of truth." He had a passion for the systematic
acquirement of knowledge, and a keen and sound critical faculty. His
name has gone down to history as that of a many-sided man, sound in
judgment, unselfish in political life, and abounding in practical good

  A reprint from the _Edinburgh Review_ of his long series of papers on
  the _Administration of Great Britain_ appeared in 1864, and his
  _Letters to various Friends_ (1870) were edited by his brother
  Gilbert, who succeeded him in the baronetcy.


  [1] See the _Abstract of Final Report of Commissioners of Irish Poor
    Enquiry_, &c., by G. C. Lewis and N. Senior (1837).

  [2] Translated into German by Liebrecht (Hanover, 1858).

LEWIS, HENRY CARVILL (1853-1888), American geologist, was born in
Philadelphia on the 16th of November 1853. Educated in the university of
Pennsylvania he took the degree of M.A. in 1876. He became attached to
the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania in 1879, serving for three years
as a volunteer member, and during this term he became greatly interested
in the study of glacial phenomena. In 1880 he was chosen professor of
mineralogy in the Philadelphia academy of natural sciences, and in 1883
he was appointed to the chair of geology in Haverford College,
Pennsylvania. During the winters of 1885 to 1887 he studied petrology
under H. F. Rosenbusch at Heidelberg, and during the summers he
investigated the glacial geology of northern Europe and the British
Islands. His observations in North America, where he had studied under
Professor G. F. Wright, Professor T. C. Chamberlin and Warren Upham, had
demonstrated the former extension of land-ice, and the existence of
great terminal moraines. In 1884 his _Report on the Terminal Moraine in
Pennsylvania and New York_ was published: a work containing much
information on the limits of the North American ice-sheet. In Britain he
sought to trace in like manner the southern extent of the terminal
moraines formed by British ice-sheets, but before his conclusions were
matured he died at Manchester on the 21st of July 1888. The results of
his observations were published in 1894 entitled _Papers and Notes on
the Glacial Geology of Great Britain and Ireland_, edited by Dr H. W.

  See "Prof. Henry Carvill Lewis and his Work in Glacial Geology," by
  Warren Upham, _Amer. Geol._ vol. ii. (Dec. 1888) p. 371, with

LEWIS, JOHN FREDERICK (1805-1876), British painter, son of F. C. Lewis,
engraver, was born in London. He was elected in 1827 associate of the
Society of Painters in Water Colours, of which he became full member in
1829 and president in 1855; he resigned in 1858, and was made associate
of the Royal Academy in 1859 and academician in 1865. Much of his
earlier life was spent in Spain, Italy and the East, but he returned to
England in 1851 and for the remainder of his career devoted himself
almost exclusively to Eastern subjects, which he treated with
extraordinary care and minuteness of finish, and with much beauty of
technical method. He is represented by a picture, "Edfou: Upper Egypt,"
in the National Gallery of British Art. He achieved equal eminence in
both oil and water-colour painting.

LEWIS, MATTHEW GREGORY (1775-1818), English romance-writer and
dramatist, often referred to as "Monk" Lewis, was born in London on the
9th of July 1775. He was educated for a diplomatic career at Westminster
school and at Christ Church, Oxford, spending most of his vacations
abroad in the study of modern languages; and in 1794 he proceeded to the
Hague as attaché to the British embassy. His stay there lasted only a
few months, but was marked by the composition, in ten weeks, of his
romance _Ambrosio, or the Monk_, which was published in the summer of
the following year. It immediately achieved celebrity; but some passages
it contained were of such a nature that about a year after its
appearance an injunction to restrain its sale was moved for and a rule
_nisi_ obtained. Lewis published a second edition from which he had
expunged, as he thought, all the objectionable passages, but the work
still remains of such a character as almost to justify the severe
language in which Byron in _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_

  "Wonder-working Lewis, Monk or Bard,
   Who fain would'st make Parnassus a churchyard;
   Even Satan's self with thee might dread to dwell,
   And in thy skull discern a deeper hell."

Whatever its demerits, ethical or aesthetic, may have been, _The Monk_
did not interfere with the reception of Lewis into the best English
society; he was favourably noticed at court, and almost as soon as he
came of age he obtained a seat in the House of Commons as member for
Hindon, Wilts. After some years, however, during which he never
addressed the House, he finally withdrew from a parliamentary career.
His tastes lay wholly in the direction of literature, and _The Castle
Spectre_ (1796, a musical drama of no great literary merit, but which
enjoyed a long popularity on the stage), _The Minister_ (a translation
from Schiller's _Kabale u. Liebe_), _Rolla_ (1797, a translation from
Kotzebue), with numerous other operatic and tragic pieces, appeared in
rapid succession. _The Bravo of Venice_, a romance translated from the
German, was published in 1804; next to _The Monk_ it is the best known
work of Lewis. By the death of his father he succeeded to a large
fortune, and in 1815 embarked for the West Indies to visit his estates;
in the course of this tour, which lasted four months, the _Journal of a
West Indian Proprietor_, published posthumously in 1833, was written. A
second visit to Jamaica was undertaken in 1817, in order that he might
become further acquainted with, and able to ameliorate, the condition of
the slave population; the fatigues to which he exposed himself in the
tropical climate brought on a fever which terminated fatally on the
homeward voyage on the 14th of May 1818.

  _The Life and Correspondence of M. G. Lewis_, in two volumes, was
  published in 1839.

LEWIS, MERIWETHER (1774-1809), American explorer, was born near
Charlottesville, Virginia, on the 18th of August 1774. In 1794 he
volunteered with the Virginia troops called out to suppress the "Whisky
Insurrection," was commissioned as ensign in the regular United States
army in 1795, served with distinction under General Anthony Wayne in the
campaigns against the Indians, and attained the rank of captain in 1797.
From 1801 to 1803 he was the private secretary of President Jefferson.
On the 18th of January 1803 Jefferson sent a confidential message to
Congress urging the development of trade with the Indians of the
Missouri Valley and recommending that an exploring party be sent into
this region, notwithstanding the fact that it was then held by Spain
and owned by France. Congress appropriated funds for the expedition, and
the president instructed Lewis to proceed to the head-waters of the
Missouri river and thence across the mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
With Jefferson's consent Lewis chose as a companion Lieut. William
Clark, an old friend and army comrade. The preparations were made under
the orders of the War Department, and, until the news arrived that
France had sold Louisiana to the United States, they were conducted in
secrecy. Lewis spent some time in Philadelphia, gaining additional
knowledge of the natural sciences and learning the use of instruments
for determining positions; and late in 1803 he and Clark, with
twenty-nine men from the army, went into winter quarters near St Louis,
where the men were subjected to rigid training. On the 14th of May 1804
the party, with sixteen additional members, who, however, were to go
only a part of the way, started up the Missouri river in three boats,
and by the 2nd of November had made the difficult ascent of the stream
as far as 47° 21´ N. lat., near the site of the present Bismarck, North
Dakota, where, among the Mandan Indians, they passed the second winter.
Early in April 1805 the ascent of the Missouri was continued as far as
the three forks of the river, which were named the Jefferson, the
Gallatin and the Madison. The Jefferson was then followed to its source
in the south-western part of what is now the state of Montana. Procuring
a guide and horses from the Shoshone Indians, the party pushed westward
through the Rocky Mountains in September, and on the 7th of October
embarked in canoes on a tributary of the Columbia river, the mouth of
which they reached on the 15th of November. They had travelled upwards
of 4000 m. from their starting-point, had encountered various Indian
tribes never before seen by whites, had made valuable scientific
collections and observations, and were the first explorers to reach the
Pacific by crossing the continent north of Mexico. After spending the
winter on the Pacific coast they started on the 23rd of March 1806 on
their return journey, and, after crossing the divide, Lewis with one
party explored Maria's river, and Clark with another the Yellowstone. On
the 12th of August the two explorers reunited near the junction of the
Yellowstone and the Missouri, and on the 23rd of September reached St
Louis. In spite of exposure, hardship and peril only one member of the
party died, and only one deserted. No later feat of exploration,
perhaps, in any quarter of the globe has exceeded this in romantic
interest. The expedition was commemorated by the Lewis and Clark
Centennial Exposition at Portland, Oregon, in 1905. The leaders and men
of the exploring party were rewarded with liberal grants of land from
the public domain, Lewis receiving 1500 acres; and in March 1807 Lewis
was made governor of the northern part of the territory obtained from
France in 1803, which had been organized as the Louisiana Territory. He
performed the duties of this office with great efficiency, but it is
said that in the unwonted quiet of his new duties, his mind, always
subject to melancholy, became unbalanced, and that while on his way to
Washington he committed suicide about 60 m. south-west of Nashville,
Tennessee, on the 11th of October 1809. It is not definitely known,
however, whether he actually committed suicide or was murdered.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Jefferson's _Message from the President of the United
  States_, _Communicating Discoveries made in Exploring the Missouri,
  Red River and Washita by Captains Lewis and Clark, Dr Sibley and Mr
  Dunbar_ (Washington, 1806, and subsequent editions) is the earliest
  account, containing the reports sent back by the explorers in the
  winter of 1804-1805. Patrick Gass's _Journal of the Voyages and
  Travels of a Corps of Discovery under the Command of Capt. Lewis and
  Capt. Clark_ (Pittsburg, 1807) is the account of a sergeant in the
  party. Biddle and Allen's _History of the Expedition under the Command
  of Captains Lewis and Clark_ (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1814) is a
  condensation of the original journals. There are numerous reprints of
  this work, the best being that of Elliott Coues (4 vols., New York,
  1893), which contains additions from the original manuscripts and a
  new chapter, in the style of Biddle, inserted as though a part of the
  original text. As a final authority consult R. G. Thwaites (ed.), _The
  Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition_ (8 vols., New
  York, 1904-1905), containing all the known literary records of the
  expedition. For popular accounts see W. R. Lighton, _Lewis and Clark_
  (Boston, 1901); O. D. Wheeler, _The Trail of Lewis and Clark_ (2
  vols., New York, 1904); and Noah Brooks (ed.), _First across the
  Continent: Expedition of Lewis and Clark_ (New York, 1901).

LEWISBURG, a borough and the county-seat of Union county, Pennsylvania,
U.S.A., on the W. bank of West Branch of the Susquehanna river, about 50
m. N. of Harrisburg. Pop. (1900) 3457 (60 foreign-born); (1910) 3081. It
is served by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading railways.
It is the seat of Bucknell University (coeducational), opened in 1846 as
the university of Lewisburg and renamed in 1886 in honour of William
Bucknell (1809-1890), a liberal benefactor. The university comprises a
College of Liberal Arts, an Academy for Young Men, an Institute for
Young Women, and a School of Music, and in 1908-1909 had 50 instructors
and 775 students, of whom 547 were in the College of Liberal Arts. The
city is situated in a farming region, and has various manufactures,
including flour, lumber, furniture, woollens, nails, foundry products
and carriages. Lewisburg (until about 1805 called Derrstown) was founded
and laid out in 1785 by Ludwig Derr, a German, and was chartered as a
borough in 1812.

LEWISHAM, a south-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England,
bounded N.W. by Deptford, N.E. by Greenwich, E. by Woolwich, and W. by
Camberwell, and extending S. to the boundary of the county of London.
Pop. (1901) 127,495. Its area is for the most part occupied by villas.
It includes the districts of Blackheath and Lee in the north, Hither
Green, Catford and Brockley in the central parts, and Forest Hill and
part of Sydenham in the south-west. In the districts last named
well-wooded hills rise above 300 ft., and this is an especially favoured
residential quarter, its popularity being formerly increased by the
presence of medicinal springs, discovered in 1640, on Sydenham Common.
Towards the south, in spite of the constant extension of building, there
are considerable tracts of ground uncovered, apart from public grounds.
In the north the borough includes the greater part of Blackheath (q.v.),
an open common of considerable historical interest. The other principal
pleasure grounds are Hilly Fields (46 acres) and Ladywell Recreation
Grounds (46 acres) in the north-west part of the borough; and at
Sydenham (but outside the boundary of the county of London) is the
Crystal Palace. Among institutions are the Horniman Museum, Forest Hill
(1901); Morden's College, on the south of Blackheath, founded at the
close of the 17th century by Sir John Morden for Turkey merchants who
were received as pensioners, and subsequently extended in scope;
numerous schools in the same locality; and the Park Fever Hospital,
Hither Green. The parliamentary borough of Lewisham returns one member.
The borough council consists of a mayor, 7 aldermen and 42 councillors.
Area, 7014.4 acres.

LEWISTON, a city of Androscoggin county, Maine, U.S.A., on the
Androscoggin river, opposite Auburn, with which it is connected by four
steel bridges, and about 36 m. N.E. of Portland. Pop. (1900) 23,761, of
whom 9316 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 26,247. It is served by the
Maine Central, the Grand Trunk, the Portland & Rumford Falls and the
Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville (electric) railways. The surrounding
country is hilly and the river is picturesque; in the vicinity there are
many lakes and ponds abounding in salmon and trout. The Maine fish
hatchery is on Lake Auburn, 3 m. above the city. Lewiston is the seat of
Bates College, a non-sectarian institution, which grew out of the Maine
State Seminary (chartered in 1855), and was chartered in 1864 under its
present name, adopted in honour of Benjamin E. Bates (d. 1877), a
liberal benefactor. In 1908-1909 the college had 25 instructors and 440
students, and its library contained 34,000 volumes. The campus of the
college is about 1 m. from the business portion of Lewiston and covers
50 acres; among the college buildings are an auditorium (1909) given by
W. Scott Libbey of Lewiston, and the Libbey Forum for the use of the
three literary societies and the two Christian associations of the
college. The literary societies give excellent training in forensics.
The matriculation pledge requires from male students total abstinence
from intoxicants as a condition of membership. There are no secret
fraternities. From the beginning women have been admitted on the same
terms as men. The Cobb Divinity School (Free Baptist), which was founded
at Parsonfield, Maine, in 1840 as a department of Parsonfield Seminary,
and was situated in 1842-1844 at Dracut, Massachusetts, in 1844-1854 at
Whitestown, New York, and in 1854-1870 at New Hampton, New Hampshire,
was removed to Lewiston in 1870 and became a department (known as Bates
Theological Seminary until 1888) of Bates College, with which it was
merged in 1908. Lewiston has a fine city hall, a Carnegie library and a
public park of 10½ acres, with a bronze soldiers' monument by Franklin
Simmons, who was born in 1839 at Webster near Lewiston, and is known for
his statues of Roger Williams, William King, Francis H. Pierpont and U.
S. Grant in the national Capitol, and for "Grief" and "History" on the
Peace Monument at Washington. In Lewiston are the Central Maine General
Hospital (1888), the Sisters' Hospital (1888), under the charge of the
French Catholic Sisters of Charity, a home for aged women, a young
women's home and the Hesley Asylum for boys. The Shrine Building (Kora
Temple), dedicated in 1909, is the headquarters of the Shriners of the
state. The river at Lewiston breaks over a ledge of mica-schist and
gneiss, the natural fall of 40 ft. having been increased to more than 50
ft. by a strong granite dam; and 3 m. above the city at Deer Rips a
cement dam furnishes 10,000 horse-power. The water-power thus obtained
is distributed by canals from the nearer dam and transmitted by wire
from the upper dam. The manufacture of cotton goods is the principal
industry, and in 1905 the product of the city's cotton mills was valued
at about one-third of that of the mills of the whole state. Among other
industries are the manufacture of woollen goods, shirts, dry-plates,
carriages, spools and bobbins, and boots and shoes, and the dyeing and
finishing of textiles. The total factory product in 1905 was valued at
$8,527,649. The municipality owns its water works and electric lighting
plant. Lewiston was settled in 1770, incorporated as a township in 1795
and chartered as a city in 1861. It was the home of Nelson Dingley
(1832-1899), who from 1856 until his death controlled the Lewiston
_Journal_. He was governor of the state in 1874-1876, Republican
representative in Congress in 1881-1899, and the drafter of the Dingley
Tariff Bill (1897).

LEWIS-WITH-HARRIS, the most northerly island of the Outer Hebrides,
Scotland. It is sometimes called the Long Island and is 24 m. from the
nearest point of the mainland, from which it is separated by the strait
called The Minch. It is 60 m. long and has an extreme breadth of 30 m.,
its average breadth being 15 m. It is divided into two portions by a
line roughly drawn between Loch Resort on the west and Loch Seaforth on
the east, of which the larger or more northerly portion, known as Lewis
(pron. _Lews_), belongs to the county of Ross and Cromarty and the
lesser, known as Harris, to Inverness-shire. The area of the whole
island is 492,800 acres, or 770 sq. m., of which 368,000 acres belong to
Lewis. In 1891 the population of Lewis was 27,045, of Harris 3681; in
1901 the population of Lewis was 28,357, of Harris 3803, or 32,160 for
the island, of whom 17,175 were females, 11,209 spoke Gaelic only, and
17,685 both Gaelic and English. There is communication with certain
ports of the Western Highlands by steamer via Stornoway every
week--oftener during the tourist and special seasons--the steamers
frequently calling at Loch Erisort, Loch Sealg, Ardvourlie, Tarbert,
Ardvey, Rodel and The Obe. The coast is indented to a remarkable degree,
the principal sea-lochs in Harris being East and West Loch Tarbert; and
in Lewis, Loch Seaforth, Loch Erisort and Broad Bay (or Loch a Tuath) on
the east coast and Loch Roag and Loch Resort on the west. The mainland
is dotted with innumerable fresh-water lakes. The island is composed of
gneiss rocks, excepting a patch of granite near Carloway, small bands of
intrusive basalt at Gress and in Eye Peninsula and some Torridonian
sandstone at Stornoway, Tong, Vatskir and Carloway. Most of Harris is
mountainous, there being more than thirty peaks above 1000 ft. high.
Lewis is comparatively flat, save in the south-east, where Ben More
reaches 1874 ft., and in the south-west, where Mealasbhal (1885) is the
highest point; but in this division there are only eleven peaks
exceeding 1000 ft. in height. The rivers are small and unimportant. The
principal capes are the Butt of Lewis, in the extreme north, where the
cliffs are nearly 150 ft. high and crowned with a lighthouse, the light
of which is visible for 19 m.; Tolsta Head, Tiumpan Head and Cabag Head,
on the east; Renish Point, in the extreme south; and, on the west, Toe
Head and Gallon Head. The following inhabited islands in the
Inverness-shire division belong to the parish of Harris: off the S.W.
coast, Bernera (pop. 524), Ensay, Killigray and Pabbay; off the W.
coast, Scarp (160), Soay and Tarrensay (72); off the E. coast, Scalpa
(587) and Scotasay. Belonging to the county of Ross and Cromarty are
Great Bernera (580) to the W. of Lewis, in the parish of Uig, and the
Shiant Isles, about 21 m. S. of Stornoway, in the parish of Lochs, so
named from the number of its sea lochs and fresh-water lakes. The
south-eastern base of Broad Bay is furnished by the peninsula of Eye,
attached to the main mass by so slender a neck as seemingly to be on the
point of becoming itself an island. Much of the surface of both Lewis
and Harris is composed of peat and swamp; there are scanty fragments of
an ancient forest. The rainfall for the year averages 41.7 in., autumn
and winter being very wet. Owing to the influence of the Gulf Stream,
however, the temperature is fairly high, averaging for the year 46.6°
F., for January 39.5° F. and for August 56.5° F.

The economic conditions of the island correspond with its physical
conditions. The amount of cultivable land is small and poor. Sir James
Matheson (1796-1878), who purchased the island in 1844, is said to have
spent nearly £350,000 in reclamation and improvements. Barley and
potatoes are the chief crops. A large number of black cattle are reared
and some sheep-farming is carried on in Harris. Kelp-making, once
important, has been extinct for many years. Harris has obtained great
reputation for tweeds. The cloth has an aroma of heather and peat, and
is made in the dwellings of the cotters, who use dyes of
long-established excellence. The fisheries are the principal mainstay of
the people. In spite of the very considerable reductions in rent
effected by the Crofters' Commission (appointed in 1886) and the sums
expended by government, most of the crofters still live in poor huts
amid dismal surroundings. The island affords good sporting facilities.
Many of the streams abound with salmon and trout; otters and seals are
plentiful, and deer and hares common; while bird life includes grouse,
ptarmigan, woodcock, snipe, heron, widgeon, teal, eider duck, swan and
varieties of geese and gulls. There are many antiquarian remains,
including duns, megaliths, ruined towers and chapels and the like. At
RODEL, in the extreme south of Harris, is a church, all that is left of
an Augustinian monastery. The foundation is Norman and the
superstructure Early English. On the towers are curious carved figures
and in the interior several tombs of the Macleods, the most remarkable
being that of Alastair (Alexander), son of William Macleod of Dunvegan,
dated 1528. The monument, a full-length recumbent effigy of a knight in
armour, lies at the base of a tablet in the shape of an arch divided
into compartments, in which are carved in bas-relief, besides the
armorial bearings of the deceased and a rendering of Dunvegan castle,
several symbolical scenes, one of which exhibits Satan weighing in the
balance the good and evil deeds of Alastair Macleod, the good obviously
preponderating. Stornoway, the chief town (pop. 3852) is treated under a
separate heading. At CALLERNISH, 13 m. due W. of Stornoway, are several
stone circles, one of which is probably the most perfect example of
so-called "Druidical" structures in the British Isles. In this specimen
the stones are huge, moss-covered, undressed blocks of gneiss. Twelve of
such monoliths constitute the circle, in the centre of which stands a
pillar 17 ft. high. From the circle there runs northwards an avenue of
stones, comprising on the right-hand side nine blocks and on the
left-hand ten. There also branch off from the circle, on the east and
west, a single line of four stones and, on the south, a single line of
five stones. From the extreme point of the south file to the farther
end of the avenue on the north is a distance of 127 yds. and the width
from tip to tip of the east and west arms is 41 yds. Viewed from the
north end of the avenue, the design is that of a cross. The most
important fishery centre on the west coast is Carloway, where there is
the best example of a broch, or fort, in the Hebrides. Rory, the blind
harper who translated the Psalms into Gaelic, was born in the village.
Tarbert, at the head of East Loch Tarbert, is a neat, clean village, in
communication by mail-car with Stornoway. At Coll, a few miles N. by E.
of Stornoway, is a mussel cave; and at Gress, 2 m. or so beyond in the
same direction, there is a famous seals' cave, adorned with fine
stalactites. Port of Ness, where there is a harbour, is the headquarters
of the ling fishery. Loch Seaforth gave the title of earl to a branch of
the Mackenzies, but in 1716 the 5th earl was attainted for Jacobitism
and the title forfeited. In 1797 Francis Humberston Mackenzie
(1754-1815), chief of the Clan Mackenzie, was created Lord Seaforth and
Baron Mackenzie of Kintail, and made colonel of the 2nd battalion of the
North British Militia, afterwards the 3rd battalion of the Seaforth
Highlanders. The 2nd battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders was formerly
the Ross-shire Buffs, which was raised in 1771.

LEXICON, a dictionary (q.v.). The word is the Latinized form of Gr.
[Greek: lexikon], sc. [Greek: biblion], a word-book ([Greek: lexis],
word, [Greek: legein], to speak). Lexicon, rather than dictionary, is
used of word-books of the Greek language, and sometimes of Arabic and

LEXINGTON, BARON, a title borne in the English family of Sutton from
1645 to 1723. Robert Sutton (1594-1668), son of Sir William Sutton of
Averham, Nottinghamshire, was a member of parliament for his native
county in 1625 and again in 1640. He served Charles I. during the Civil
War, making great monetary sacrifices for the royal cause, and in 1645
the king created him Baron Lexington, this being a variant of the name
of the Nottinghamshire village of Laxton. His estate suffered during the
time of the Commonwealth, but some money was returned to him by Charles
II. He died on the 13th of October 1668. His only son, Robert, the 2nd
baron (1661-1723), supported in the House of Lords the elevation of
William of Orange to the throne, and was employed by that king at court
and on diplomatic business. He also served as a soldier, but he is
chiefly known as the British envoy at Vienna during the conclusion of
the treaty of Ryswick, and at Madrid during the negotiations which led
to the treaty of Utrecht. He died on the 19th of September 1723. His
letters from Vienna, selected and edited by the Hon. H. M. Sutton, were
published as the _Lexington Papers_ (1851). Lexington's barony became
extinct on his death, but his estates descended to the younger sons of
his daughter Bridget (d. 1734), the wife of John Manners, 3rd duke of
Rutland. Lord George Manners, who inherited these estates in 1762, is
the ancestor of the family of Manners-Sutton. An earlier member of this
family is Oliver Sutton, bishop of Lincoln from 1280 to 1299.

LEXINGTON, a city and the county-seat of Fayette county, Kentucky,
U.S.A., about 75 m. S. of Cincinnati. Pop. (1900) 26,369, of whom 10,130
were negroes and 924 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 35,099. It is
served by the Louisville & Nashville, the Southern, the Chesapeake &
Ohio, the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, the Lexington &
Eastern, and electric railways. The city, which lies at an altitude of
about 950 ft., is situated near the centre of the celebrated "blue
grass" region, into which extend a number of turnpike roads. Its public
buildings include the court house and the Federal building, both built
of Bowling Green oolitic limestone. Among the public institutions are
two general hospitals--St Joseph's (Roman Catholic) and Good Samaritan
(controlled by the Protestant churches of the city)--the Eastern Lunatic
Asylum (1815, a state institution since 1824), with 250 acres of
grounds; a state House of Reform for Girls and a state House of Reform
for Boys (both at Greendale, a suburb); an orphan industrial school (for
negroes); and two Widows' and Orphans' Homes, one established by the Odd
Fellows of Kentucky and the other by the Knights of Pythias of the
state. Lexington is the seat of Transylvania University (non-sectarian;
coeducational), formerly Kentucky University (Disciples of Christ),
which grew out of Bacon College (opened at Georgetown, Ky., in 1836),
was chartered in 1858 as Kentucky University, and was opened at
Harrodsburg, Ky., in 1859, whence after a fire in 1864 it removed to
Lexington in 1865. At Lexington it was consolidated with the old
Transylvania University, a well-known institution which had been
chartered as Transylvania Seminary in 1783, was opened near Danville,
Ky., in 1785, was removed to Lexington in 1789, was re-chartered as
Transylvania University in 1798, and virtually ceased to exist in
1859.[1] In 1908 Kentucky University resumed the old name, Transylvania
University. It has a college of Liberal Arts, a College of Law, a
Preparatory School, a Junior College for Women, and Hamilton College for
women (founded in 1869 as Hocker Female College), over which the
university assumed control in 1903, and a College of the Bible,
organized in 1865 as one of the colleges of the university, but now
under independent control. In 1907-1908 Transylvania University,
including the College of the Bible, had 1129 students. At Lexington are
the State University, two colleges for girls--the Campbell-Hagerman
College and Sayre College--and St Catherine's Academy (Roman Catholic).
The city is the meeting-place of a Chatauqua Assembly, and has a public
library. The State University was founded (under the Federal Land Grant
Act of 1862) in 1865 as the State Agricultural and Mechanical College,
was opened in 1866, and was a college of Kentucky University until 1878.
In 1890 the college received a second Federal appropriation, and it
received various grants from the state legislature, which in 1880
imposed a state tax of one-half of 1% for its support. In connexion with
it an Agricultural Experiment Station was established in 1885. In 1908
its title became, by act of Legislature, the State University. The
university has a College of Agriculture, a College of Arts and Science,
a College of Law, a School of Civil Engineering, a School of Mechanical
and Electrical Engineering, and a School of mining Engineering. The
university campus is the former City Park, in the southern part of the
city. In 1907-1908 the university had 1064 students. The city is the see
of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric.

Lexington was the home of Henry Clay from 1797 until his death in 1852,
and in his memory a monument has been erected, consisting of a
magnesian-limestone column (about 120 ft.) in the Corinthian style and
surmounted by a statue of Clay, the head of which was torn off in 1902
by a thunderbolt. Clay's estate, "Ashland," is now one of the best known
of the stock-farms in the vicinity; the present house is a replica of
Clay's home. The finest and most extensive of these stock-farms, and
probably the finest in the world, is "Elmendorf," 6 m. from the city. On
these farms many famous trotting and running horses have been raised.
There are two race-tracks in Lexington, and annual running and trotting
race meetings attract large crowds. The city's industries consist
chiefly in a large trade in tobacco, hemp, grain and live stock--there
are large semi-annual horse sales--and in the manufacture of "Bourbon"
whisky, tobacco, flour, dressed flax and hemp, carriages, harness and
saddles. The total value of the city's factory products in 1905 was
$2,774,329 (46.9% more than in 1900).

Lexington was named from Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1775 by a party of
hunters who were encamped here when they received the news of the battle
of Lexington; the permanent settlement dates from 1779. It was laid out
in 1781, incorporated as a town in 1782, and chartered as a city in
1832. The first newspaper published west of the Alleghany Mountains, the
_Kentucky Gazette_, was established here in 1787, to promote the
separation of Kentucky from Virginia. The first state legislature met
here in 1792, but later in the same year Frankfort became the state
capital. Until 1907, when the city was enlarged by annexation, its
limits remained as they were first laid out, a circle with a radius of 1
m., the court house being its centre.

  See G. W. Ranck, _History of Lexington, Kentucky_ (Cincinnati, 1872).


  [1] See Robert Peter, _Transylvania University: Its Origin, Rise,
    Decline and Fall_ (Louisville, 1896), and his _History of the Medical
    Department of Transylvania University_ (Louisville, 1905).

LEXINGTON, a township of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about
11 m. N.W. of Boston. Pop. (1900) 3831, (1910 U.S. census) 4918. It is
traversed by the Boston & Maine railroad and by the Lowell & Boston
electric railway. Its area is about 17 sq. m., and it contains three
villages--Lexington, East Lexington and North Lexington. Agriculture is
virtually the only industry. Owing to its historic interest the village
of Lexington is visited by thousands of persons annually, for it was on
the green or common of this village that the first armed conflict of the
American War of Independence occurred. On the green stand a monument
erected by the state in 1799 to the memory of the minute-men who fell in
that engagement, a drinking fountain surmounted by a bronze statue
(1900, by Henry Hudson Kitson) of Captain John Parker, who was in
command of the minute-men, and a large boulder, which marks the position
of the minute-men when they were fired upon by the British. Near the
green, in the old burying-ground, are the graves of Captain Parker and
other American patriots--the oldest gravestone is dated 1690. The
Hancock-Clarke House (built in part in 1698) is now owned by the
Lexington Historical Society and contains a museum of revolutionary and
other relics, which were formerly exhibited in the Town Hall. The
Buckman Tavern (built about 1690), the rendezvous of the minute-men, and
the Munroe Tavern (1695), the headquarters of the British, are still
standing, and two other houses, on the common, antedate the War of
Independence. The Cary Library in this village, with 23,000 volumes
(1908), was founded in 1868, and was housed in the Town Hall from 1871
until 1906, when it was removed to the Cary Memorial Library building.
In the library are portraits of Paul Revere, William Dawes and Lord
Percy. The Town Hall (1871) contains statues of John Hancock (by Thomas
R. Gould) and Samuel Adams (by Martin Millmore), of the "Minute-Man of
1775" and the "Soldier of 1861," and a painting by Henry Sandham, "The
Battle of Lexington."

Lexington was settled as a part of Cambridge as early as 1642. It was
organized as a parish in 1691 and was made a township (probably named in
honour of Lord Lexington) in 1713. In the evening of the 18th of April
1775 a British force of about 800 men under Lieut.-Colonel Francis Smith
and Major John Pitcairn was sent by General Thomas Gage from Boston to
destroy military stores collected by the colonists at Concord, and to
seize John Hancock and Samuel Adams, then at Parson Clarke's house (now
known as the Hancock-Clarke House) in Lexington. Although the British
had tried to keep this movement a secret, Dr Joseph Warren discovered
their plans and sent out Paul Revere and William Dawes to give warning
of their approach. The expedition had not proceeded far when Smith,
discovering that the country was aroused, despatched an express to
Boston for reinforcements and ordered Pitcairn to hasten forward with a
detachment of light infantry. Early in the morning of the 19th Pitcairn
arrived at the green in the village of Lexington, and there found
between sixty and seventy minute-men under Captain John Parker drawn up
in line of battle. Pitcairn ordered them to disperse, and on their
refusal to do so his men fired a volley. Whether a stray shot preceded
the first volley, and from which side it came, are questions which have
never been determined. After a second volley from the British, Parker
ordered his men to withdraw. The engagement lasted only a few minutes,
but eight Americans were killed and nine were wounded; not more than two
or three of the British were wounded. Hancock and Adams had escaped
before the British troops reached Lexington. The British proceeded from
Lexington to Concord (q.v.). On their return they were continually fired
upon by Americans from behind trees, rocks, buildings and other
defences, and were threatened with complete destruction until they were
rescued at Lexington by a force of 1000 men under Lord Hugh Percy
(later, 1786, duke of Northumberland). Percy received the fugitives
within a hollow square, checked the onslaught for a time with two
field-pieces, used the Munroe Tavern for a hospital, and later in the
day carried his command with little further injury back to Boston. The
British losses for the entire day were 73 killed, 174 wounded and 26
missing; the American losses were 49 killed, 39 wounded and 5 missing.

In 1839 a state normal school for women (the first in Massachusetts and
the first public training school for teachers in the United States) was
opened at Lexington; it was transferred to West Newton in 1844 and to
Framingham in 1853.

  See Charles Hudson, _History of the Town of Lexington_ (Boston, 1868),
  and the publications of the Lexington Historical Society, (1890 seq.).

LEXINGTON, a city and the county-seat of Lafayette county, Missouri,
U.S.A., situated on the S. bank of the Missouri river, about 40 m. E. of
Kansas City. Pop. (1900) 4190, including 1170 negroes and 283
foreign-born; (1910) 5242. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa
Fé, the Wabash (at Lexington Junction, 4 m. N.W.), and the Missouri
Pacific railway systems. The city lies for the most part on high broken
ground at the summit of the river bluffs, but in part upon their face.
Lexington is the seat of the Lexington College for Young Women (Baptist,
established 1855), the Central College for Women (Methodist Episcopal,
South; opened 1869), and the Wentworth Military Academy (1880). There
are steam flour mills, furniture factories and various other small
manufactories; but the main economic interest of the city is in
brickyards and coal-mines in its immediate vicinity. It is one of the
principal coal centres of the state, Higginsville (pop. in 1910, 2628),
about 12 m. S.E., in the same county, also being important. Lexington
was founded in 1819, was laid out in 1832, and, with various additions,
was chartered as a city in 1845. A new charter was received in 1870.
Lexington succeeded Sibley as the eastern terminus of the Santa Fé
trade, and was in turn displaced by Independence; it long owed its
prosperity to the freighting trade up the Missouri, and at the opening
of the Civil War it was the most important river town between St Louis
and St Joseph and commanded the approach by water to Fort Leavenworth.

After the Confederate success at Wilson's Creek (Aug. 10, 1861), General
Sterling Price advanced northward, and with about 15,000 men arrived in
the vicinity of Lexington on the 12th of September. Here he found a
Federal force of about 2800 men under Colonel James A. Mulligan
(1830-1864) throwing up intrenchments on Masonic College Hill, an
eminence adjoining Lexington on the N.E. An attack was made on the same
day and the Federals were driven within their defences, but at night
General Price withdrew to the Fair-grounds not far away and remained
there five days waiting for his wagon train and for reinforcements. On
the 18th the assault was renewed, and on the 20th the Confederates,
advancing behind movable breastworks of water-soaked bales of hemp,
forced the besieged, now long without water, to surrender. The losses
were: Confederate, 25 killed and 75 wounded; Federal, 39 killed and 120
wounded. At the end of September General Price withdrew, leaving a guard
of only a few hundred in the town, and on the 16th of the next month a
party of 220 Federal scouts under Major Frank J. White (1842-1875)
surprised this guard, released about 15 prisoners, and captured 60 or
more Confederates. Another Federal raid on the town was made in December
of the same year by General John Pope's cavalry. Again, during General
Price's Missouri expedition in 1864, a Federal force entered Lexington
on the 16th of October, and three days later there was some fighting
about 4 m. S. of the town.

LEXINGTON, a town and the county-seat of Rockbridge county, Virginia,
U.S.A., on the North river (a branch of the James), about 30 m. N.N.W.
of Lynchburg. Pop. (1900) 3203 (1252 negroes); (1910) 2931. It is served
by the Chesapeake & Ohio and the Baltimore & Ohio railways. The famous
Natural Bridge is about 16 m. S.W., and there are mineral springs in the
vicinity--at Rockbridge Baths, 10 m. N., at Wilson's Springs, 12 m. N.,
and at Rockbridge Alum Springs, 17 m. N.W. Lexington is best known as
the seat of Washington and Lee University, and of the Virginia Military
Institute. The former grew out of Augusta Academy, which was established
in 1749 in Augusta county, about 15 m. S.W. of what is now the city of
Staunton, was renamed Liberty Hall and was established near Lexington
in 1780, and was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy in 1782. In 1798 its
name was changed to Washington Academy, in recognition of a gift from
George Washington of some shares of canal stock, which he refused to
receive from the Virginia legislature. In 1802 the Virginia branch of
the Society of the Cincinnati disbanded and turned over to the academy
its funds, about $25,000; in 1813 the academy took the name Washington
College; and in 1871 its corporate name was changed to Washington and
Lee University, the addition to the name being made in honour of General
Robert E. Lee, who was the president of the college from August 1865
until his death in 1870. He was succeeded by his son, General George
Washington Custis Lee (b. 1832), president from 1871 to 1897, and Dr
William Lyne Wilson (1843-1900), the eminent political leader and
educator, was president from 1897 to 1900. In 1908-1909 the university
comprised a college, a school of commerce, a school of engineering and a
school of law, and had a library of 47,000 volumes, 23 instructors and
565 students. In the Lee Memorial chapel, on the campus, General Robert
E. Lee is buried, and over his grave is a notable recumbent statue of
him by Edward Virginius Valentine (b. 1838). The Virginia Military
Institute was established in March 1839, when its cadet corps supplanted
the company of soldiers maintained by the state to garrison the Western
Arsenal at Lexington. The first superintendent (1839-1890) was General
Francis Henney Smith (1812-1890), a graduate (1833) of the United States
Military Academy; and from 1851 until the outbreak of the Civil War
"Stonewall" Jackson was a professor in the Institute--he is buried in
the Lexington cemetery and his grave is marked by a monument. On the
campus of the institute is a fine statue, "Virginia Mourning Her Dead,"
by Moses Ezekiel (b. 1844), which commemorates the gallantry of a
battalion of 250 cadets from the institute, more than 50 of whom were
killed or wounded during the engagement at New Market on the 15th of May
1864. In 1908-1909 the institute had 21 instructors and 330 cadets.
Flour is manufactured in Lexington and lime in the vicinity. The town
owns and operates its water-works. The first settlers of Rockbridge
county established themselves in 1737 near the North river, a short
distance below Lexington. The first permanent settlement on the present
site was made about 1778. On the 11th of June 1864, during the
occupation of the town by Federal troops under General David Hunter,
most of the buildings in the town and those of the university were
damaged and all those of the institute, except the superintendent's
headquarters, were burned.

LEYDEN, JOHN (1775-1811), British orientalist and man of letters, was
born on the 8th of September 1775 at Denholm on the Teviot, not far from
Hawick. Leyden's father was a shepherd, but contrived to send his son to
Edinburgh University to study for the ministry. Leyden was a diligent
but somewhat miscellaneous student, reading everything apparently,
except theology, for which he seems to have had no taste. Though he
completed his divinity course, and in 1798 received licence to preach
from the presbytery of St Andrews, it soon became clear that the pulpit
was not his vocation. In 1794 Leyden had formed the acquaintance of Dr
Robert Anderson, editor of _The British Poets_, and of _The Literary
Magazine_. It was Anderson who introduced him to Dr Alexander Murray,
and Murray, probably, who led him to the study of Eastern languages.
They became warm friends and generous rivals, though Leyden excelled,
perhaps, in the rapid acquisition of new tongues and acquaintance with
their literature, while Murray was the more scientific philologist.
Through Anderson also he came to know Richard Heber, by whom he was
brought under the notice of Sir Walter Scott, who was then collecting
materials for his _Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border_. Leyden was
admirably fitted for helping in this kind of work, for he was a borderer
himself, and an enthusiastic lover of old ballads and folk-lore. Scott
tells how, on one occasion, Leyden walked 40 m. to get the last two
verses of a ballad, and returned at midnight, singing it all the way
with his loud, harsh voice, to the wonder and consternation of the poet
and his household.

Leyden meanwhile compiled a work on the _Discoveries and Settlements of
Europeans in Northern and Western Africa_, suggested by Mungo Park's
travels, edited _The Complaint of Scotland_, printed a volume of
Scottish descriptive poems, and nearly finished his _Scenes of Infancy_,
a diffuse poem based on border scenes and traditions. He also made some
translations from Eastern poetry, Persian and Arabic. At last his
friends got him an appointment in India on the medical staff, for which
he qualified by a year's hard work. In 1803 he sailed for Madras, and
took his place in the general hospital there. He was promoted to be
naturalist to the commissioners going to survey Mysore, and in 1807 his
knowledge of the languages of India procured him an appointment as
professor of Hindustani at Calcutta; this he soon after resigned for a
judgeship, and that again to be a commissioner in the court of requests
in 1809, a post which required a familiarity with several Eastern
tongues. In 1811 he joined Lord Minto in the expedition to Java. Having
entered a library which was said to contain many Eastern MSS., without
having the place aired, he was seized with Batavian fever, and died,
after three days' illness, on the 28th of August 1811.

LEYDEN JAR, or CONDENSER, an electrical appliance consisting in one form
of a thin glass jar partly coated inside and outside with tin foil, or
in another of a number of glass plates similarly coated. When the two
metal surfaces are connected for a short time with the terminals of some
source of electromotive force, such as an electric machine, an induction
coil or a voltaic battery, electric energy is stored up in the condenser
in the form of electric strain in the glass, and can be recovered again
in the form of an electric discharge.

  Early history.

The earliest form of Leyden jar consisted of a glass vial or thin
Florence flask, partly full of water, having a metallic nail inserted
through the cork which touched the water. The bottle was held in the
hand, and the nail presented to the prime conductor of an electrical
machine. If the person holding the bottle subsequently touched the nail,
he experienced an electric shock. This experiment was first made by E.
G. von Kleist of Kammin in Pomerania in 1745,[1] and it was repeated in
another form in 1746 by Cunaeus and P. van Musschenbroek, of the
university of Leyden (Leiden), whence the term Leyden jar.[2] J. H.
Winkler discovered that an iron chain wound round the bottle could be
substituted for the hand, and Sir William Watson in England shortly
afterward showed that iron filings or mercury could replace the water
within the jar. Dr John Bevis of London suggested, in 1746, the use of
sheet lead coatings within and without the jar, and subsequently the use
of tin foil or silver leaf made closely adherent to the glass. Benjamin
Franklin and Bevis devised independently the form of condenser known as
a Franklin or Leyden pane, which consists of a sheet of glass, partly
coated on both sides with tin foil or silver leaf, a margin of glass all
round being left to insulate the two tin foils from each other. Franklin
in 1747 and 1748 made numerous investigations on the Leyden jar, and
devised a method of charging jars in series as well as in parallel. In
the former method, now commonly known as charging in _cascade_, the jars
are insulated and the outside coating of one jar is connected to the
inside coating of the next and so on for a whole series, the inside
coating of the first jar and the outside coating of the last jar being
the terminals of the condenser. For charging in parallel a number of
jars are collected in a box, and all the outside coatings are connected
together metallically and all the inside coatings brought to one common
terminal. This arrangement is commonly called a battery of Leyden jars.
To Franklin also we owe the important knowledge that the electric charge
resides really in the glass and not in the metal coatings, and that when
a condenser has been charged the metallic coatings can be exchanged for
fresh ones and yet the electric charge of the condenser remains.

  Modern construction.

In its modern form the Leyden jar consists of a wide-mouthed bottle of
thin English flint glass of uniform thickness, free from flaws. About
half the outside and half the inside surface is coated smoothly with tin
foil, and the remainder of the glazed surface is painted with shellac
varnish. A wooden stopper closes the mouth of the jar, and through it a
brass rod passes which terminates in a chain, or better still, three
elastic brass springs, which make good contact with the inner coating.
The rod terminates externally in a knob or screw terminal. The jar has a
certain capacity C which is best expressed in microfarads or
electrostatic units (see ELECTROSTATICS), and is determined by the
surface of the tin foil and thickness and quality of the glass. The jar
can be charged so that a certain potential difference V, reckoned in
volts, exists between the two coatings. If a certain critical potential
is exceeded, the glass gives way under the electric strain and is
pierced. The safe voltage for most glass jars is about 20,000 volts for
glass {1/10}th in. in thickness; this corresponds with an electric spark
of about 7 millimetres in length. When the jar is charged, it is usually
discharged through a metallic arc called the discharging tongs, and this
discharge is in the form of an oscillatory current (see
ELECTROKINETICS). The energy stored up in the jar in joules is expressed
by the value of ½ CV², where C is the capacity measured in farads and V
the potential difference of the coatings in volts. If the capacity C is
reckoned in microfarads then the energy storage is equal to CV²/2 × 10^6
joules or 0.737 CV²/2 × 10^6 foot-pounds. The size of jar commonly known
as a quart size may have a capacity from {1/400}th to {1/800}th of a
microfarad, and if charged to 20,000 volts stores up energy from a
quarter to half a joule or from {3/16}ths to {3/8}ths of a foot-pound.

  High tension condensers.

Leyden jars are now much employed for the production of the high
frequency electric currents used in wireless telegraphy (see TELEGRAPHY,
WIRELESS). For this purpose they are made by Moscicki in the form of
glass tubes partly coated by silver chemically deposited on the glass on
the inner and outer surfaces. The tubes have walls thicker at the ends
than in the middle, as the tendency to puncture the glass is greatest at
the edges of the coatings. In other cases, Leyden jars or condensers
take the form of sheets of mica or micanite or ebonite partly coated
with tin foil or silver leaf on both sides; or a pile of sheets of
alternate tin foil and mica may be built up, the tin foil sheets having
lugs projecting out first on one side and then on the other. All the
lugs on one side are connected together, and so also are all the lugs on
the other side, and the two sets of tin foils separated by sheets of
mica constitute the two metallic surfaces of the Leyden jar condenser.
For the purposes of wireless telegraphy, when large condensers are
required, the ordinary Leyden jar occupies too much space in comparison
with its electrical capacity, and hence the best form of condenser
consists of a number of sheets of crown glass, each partly coated on
both sides with tin foil. The tin foil sheets have lugs attached which
project beyond the glass. The plates are placed in a vessel full of
insulating oil which prevents the glow or brush discharge taking place
over their edges. All the tin foils on one side of the glass plates are
connected together and all the tin foils on the opposite sides, so as to
construct a condenser of any required capacity. The box should be of
glass or stoneware or other non-conducting material. When glass tubes
are used it is better to employ tubes thicker at the ends than in the
middle, as it has been found that when the safe voltage is exceeded and
the glass gives way under electric strain, the piercing of the glass
nearly always takes place at the edges of the tin foil.

  Compressed air condensers.

Glass is still commonly used as a dielectric because of its cheapness,
high dielectric strength or resistance to electric puncture, and its
high dielectric constant (see ELECTROSTATICS). It has been found,
however, that very efficient condensers can be made with compressed air
as dielectric. If a number of metal plates separated by small distance
pieces are enclosed in an iron box which is pumped full of air to a
pressure, say, of 100 lb. to 1 sq. in., the dielectric strength of the
air is greatly increased, and the plates may therefore be brought very
near to one another without causing a spark to pass under such voltage
as would cause discharge in air at normal pressure. Condensers of this
kind have been employed by R. A. Fessenden in wireless telegraphy, and
they form a very excellent arrangement for standard condensers with
which to compare the capacity of other Leyden jars. Owing to the
variation in the value of the dielectric constant of glass with the
temperature and with the frequency of the applied electromotive force,
and also owing to electric glow discharge from the edges of the tin foil
coatings, the capacity of an ordinary Leyden jar is not an absolutely
fixed quantity, but its numerical value varies somewhat with the method
by which it is measured, and with the other circumstances above
mentioned. For the purpose of a standard condenser a number of
concentric metal tubes may be arranged on an insulating stand, alternate
tubes being connected together. One coating of the condenser is formed
by one set of tubes and the other by the other set, the air between
being the dielectric. Paraffin oil or any liquid dielectric of constant
inductivity may replace the air.

  See J. A. Fleming, _Electric Wave Telegraphy_ (London, 1906); R. A.
  Fessenden, "Compressed Air for Condensers," _Electrician_, 1905, 55,
  p. 795; Moscicki, "Construction of High Tension Condensers,"
  _L'Éclairage électrique_, 1904, 41, p. 14, or _Engineering_, 1904, p.
  865.     (J. A. F.)


  [1] Park Benjamin, _The Intellectual Rise in Electricity_, p. 512.

  [2] Ibid. p. 519.

LEYS, HENDRIK, BARON (1815-1869), Belgian painter, was born at Antwerp
on the 18th of February 1815. He studied under Wappers at the Antwerp
Academy. In 1833 he painted "Combat d'un grenadier et d'un cosaque," and
in the following year "Combat de Bourguignons et Flamands." In 1835 he
went to Paris where he was influenced by the Romantic movement. Examples
of this period of his painting are "Massacre des échevins de Louvain,"
"Mariage flamand," "Le Roi des arbalétriers" and other works. Leys was
an imitative painter in whose works may rapidly be detected the schools
which he had been studying before he painted them. Thus after his visit
to Holland in 1839 he reproduced many of the characteristics of the
Dutch genre painters in such works as "Franz Floris se rendant à une
fête" (1845) and "Service divin en Hollande" (1850). So too the methods
of Quentin Matsys impressed themselves upon him after he had travelled
in Germany in 1852. In 1862 Leys was created a baron. At the time of his
death, which occurred in August 1869, he was engaged in decorating with
fresco the large hall of the Antwerp Hôtel de Ville.

LEYTON, an urban district forming one of the north-eastern suburbs of
London, England, in the Walthamstow (S.W.) parliamentary division of
Essex. Pop. (1891) 63,106; (1901) 98,912. It lies on the east (left)
bank of the Lea, along the flat open valley of which runs the boundary
between Essex and the county of London. The church of St Mary, mainly a
brick reconstruction, contains several interesting memorials; including
one to William Bowyer the printer (d. 1737), erected by his son and
namesake, more famous in the same trade. Here is also buried John Strype
the historian and biographer (d. 1737), who held the position of curate
and lecturer at this church. Leyton is in the main a residential as
distinct from a manufacturing locality. Its name is properly Low Leyton,
and the parish includes the district of Leytonstone to the east. Roman
remains have been discovered here, but no identification with a Roman
station by name has been made with certainty. The ground of the Essex
County Cricket Club is at Leyton.

LHASA (LHASSA, LASSA, "God's ground"), the capital of Tibet. It lies in
29° 39´ N., 91° 5´ E., 11,830 ft. above sea-level. Owing to the
inaccessibility of Tibet and the political and religious exclusiveness
of the lamas, Lhasa was long closed to European travellers, all of whom
during the latter half of the 19th century were stopped in their
attempts to reach it. It was popularly known as the "Forbidden City."
But its chief features were known by the accounts of the earlier Romish
missionaries who visited it and by the investigations, in modern times,
of native Indian secret explorers, and others, and the British armed
mission of 1904 (see TIBET).

_Site and General Aspect._--The city stands in a tolerably level plain,
which is surrounded on all sides by hills. Along its southern side,
about ½ m. south of Lhasa, runs a considerable river called the Kyichu
(Ki-chu) or Kyi, flowing here from E.N.E., and joining the great Tsangpo
(or upper course of the Brahmaputra) some 38 m. to the south-west. The
hills round the city are barren. The plain, however, is fertile, though
in parts marshy. There are gardens scattered over it round the city, and
these are planted with fine trees. The city is screened from view from
the west by a rocky ridge, lofty and narrow, with summits at the north
and south, the one flanked and crowned by the majestic buildings of
Potala, the chief residence of the Dalai lama, the other by the temple
of medicine. Groves, gardens and open ground intervene between this
ridge and the city itself for a distance of about 1 m. A gate through
the centre of the ridge gives access from the west; the road thence to
the north part of the city throws off a branch to the Yutok sampa or
turquoise-tiled covered bridge, one of the noted features of Lhasa,
which crosses a former channel of the Kyi, and carries the road to the
centre of the town.

The city is nearly circular in form, and less than 1 m. in diameter. It
was walled in the latter part of the 17th century, but the walls were
destroyed during the Chinese occupation in 1722. The chief streets are
fairly straight, but generally of no great width. There is no paving or
metal, nor any drainage system, so that the streets are dirty and in
parts often flooded. The inferior quarters are unspeakably filthy, and
are rife with evil smells and large mangy dogs and pigs. Many of the
houses are of clay and sun-dried brick, but those of the richer people
are of stone and brick. All are frequently white-washed, the doors and
windows being framed in bands of red and yellow. In the suburbs there
are houses entirely built of the horns of sheep and oxen set in clay
mortar. This construction is in some cases very roughly carried out, but
in others it is solid and highly picturesque. Some of the inferior huts
of this type are inhabited by the Ragyaba or scavengers, whose chief
occupation is that of disposing of corpses according to the practice of
cutting and exposing them to the dogs and birds of prey. The houses
generally are of two or three storeys. Externally the lower part
generally presents dead walls (the ground floor being occupied by
stables and similar apartments); above these rise tiers of large windows
with or without projecting balconies, and over all flat broad-eaved
roofs at varying levels. In the better houses there are often spacious
and well-finished apartments, and the principal halls, the verandahs and
terraces are often highly ornamented in brilliant colours. In every
house there is a kind of chapel or shrine, carved and gilt, on which are
set images and sacred books.

    The Jokhang.

  _Temples and Monasteries._--In the centre of the city is an open
  square which forms the chief market-place. Here is the great temple of
  the "Jo" or Lord Buddha, called the Jokhang,[1] regarded as the centre
  of all Tibet, from which all the main roads are considered to radiate.
  This is the great metropolitan sanctuary and church-centre of Tibet,
  the St Peter's or Lateran of Lamaism. It is believed to have been
  founded by the Tibetan Constantine, Srong-tsan-gampo, in 652, as the
  shrine of one of those two very sacred Buddhist images which were
  associated with his conversion and with the foundation of the
  civilized monarchy in Tibet. The exterior of the building is not
  impressive; it rises little above the level of other buildings which
  closely surround it, and the effect of its characteristic gilt roof,
  though conspicuous and striking from afar, is lost close at hand.

  The main building of the Jokhang is three storeys high. The entrance
  consists of a portico supported on timber columns, carved and gilt,
  while the walls are engraved with Chinese, Mongolian and Tibetan
  characters, and a great prayer-wheel stands on one side. Massive
  folding doors, ornamented with scrollwork in iron, lead to an
  antehall, and from this a second gate opens into a courtyard
  surrounded by a verandah with many pillars and chapels, and frescoes
  on its walls. On the left is the throne of the grand lama, laid with
  cushions, together with the seats of other ecclesiastical dignitaries,
  variously elevated according to the rank of their occupants. An inner
  door with enclosed vestibule gives access to the quadrangular choir or
  chancel, as it may be called, though its centre is open to the sky. On
  either side of it are three chapels, and at the extremity is the
  rectangular "holy of holies," flanked by two gilded images of the
  coming Buddha, and screened by lattice-work. In it is the shrine on
  which sits the great image of Sakya, set about with small figures,
  lamps and a variety of offerings, and richly jewelled, though the
  workmanship of the whole is crude. In the second and third storeys of
  the temple are shrines and representations of a number of gods and
  goddesses. The temple contains a vast accumulation of images, gold and
  silver vessels, lamps, reliquaries and precious bric-à-brac of every
  kind. The daily offices are attended by crowds of worshippers, and a
  sacred way which leads round the main building is constantly traversed
  by devotees who perform the circuit as a work of merit, always in a
  particular direction. The temple was found by the members of the
  British mission who visited it to be exceedingly dirty, and the
  atmosphere was foul with the fumes of butter-lamps.

  Besides the convent-cells, halls of study and magazines of precious
  lumber, buildings grouped about the Jokhang are occupied by the civil
  administration, e.g. as treasuries, customs office, courts of justice,
  &c., and there are also private apartments for the grand lama and
  other high functionaries. No woman is permitted to pass the night
  within the precinct.

  In front of the main entrance to the Jokhang, in the shadow of a
  sacred willow tree, stands a famous monument, the Doring monolith,
  which bears the inscribed record of a treaty of peace concluded in 822
  (or, according to another view, in 783) between the king of Tibet and
  the emperor of China. Before this monument the apostate from Lamaism,
  Langdharma, brother and successor of the last-named king, is said to
  have been standing when a fanatic recluse, who had been stirred by a
  vision to avenge his persecuted faith, assassinated him.


  The famous Potala hill, covered by the palace of the Dalai lama, forms
  a majestic mountain of building; with its vast inward-sloping walls
  broken only in the upper parts by straight rows of many windows, and
  its flat roofs at various levels, it is not unlike a fortress in
  appearance. At the south base of the rock is a large space enclosed by
  walls and gates, with great porticoes on the inner side. This swarms
  with lamas and with beggars. A series of tolerably easy staircases,
  broken by intervals of gentle ascent, leads to the summit of the rock.
  The whole width of this is occupied by the palace. The central part of
  this group of buildings (for the component parts of Potala are of
  different dates) rises in a vast quadrangular mass above its
  satellites to a great height, terminating in gilt canopies similar to
  those on the Jokhang. Here on the lofty terrace is the grand lama's
  promenade, and from this great height he looks down upon the crowds of
  his votaries far below. This central member of Potala is called the
  red palace from its crimson colour, which distinguishes it from the
  rest. It contains the principal halls and chapels and shrines of past
  Dalai lamas. There is in these much rich decorative painting, with
  jewelled work, carving and other ornament, but the interior of Potala
  as a whole cannot compare in magnificence with the exterior. Among the
  numerous other buildings of note on or near Potala hill, one is
  distinguished by the Chinese as one of the principal beauties of
  Lhasa. This is a temple not far from the base of the hill, in the
  middle of a lake which is surrounded by trees and shrubberies. This
  temple, called Lu-kang, is circular in form, with a _loggia_ or
  portico running all round and adorned with paintings. Its name, "the
  serpent house," comes from the tradition of a serpent or dragon, which
  dwelt here and must be propitiated lest it should cause the waters to
  rise and flood Lhasa.

  Another great and famous temple is Ramo-ché, at the north side of the
  city. This is also regarded as a foundation of Srong-tsan-gampo, and
  is said to contain the body of his Chinese wife and the second of the
  primeval palladia, the image that she brought with her to the
  Snow-land; whence it is known as the "small Jokhang." This temple is
  noted for the practice of magical arts. Its buildings are in a
  neglected condition.

  Another monastery within the city is that of Moru, also on the north
  side, remarkable for its external order and cleanliness. Though famous
  as a school of orthodox magic, it is noted also for the printing-house
  in the convent garden. This convent was the temporary residence of the
  regent during the visit of the British mission in 1904. Other
  monasteries in or near the city are the Tsamo Ling or Chomoling at the
  north-west corner; the Tangyä Ling or Tengyeling at the west of the
  city; the Kundä Ling or Kundeling about 1 m. west of the city, at the
  foot of a low isolated hill called Chapochi. Three miles south, beyond
  the river, is the Tsemchog Ling or Tsecholing. These four convents are
  known as "The Four Ling." From their inmates the Dalai lama's regent,
  during his minority, was formerly chosen. The temple of medicine, as
  already stated, crowns the summit (Chagpa) at the end of the ridge
  west of the city, opposite to that on which stands the Potala. It is
  natural that in a country possessing a religious system like that of
  Tibet the medical profession should form a branch of the priesthood.
  "The treatment of disease, though based in some measure upon a
  judicious use of the commoner simple drugs of the country, is, as was
  inevitable amongst so superstitious a people, saturated with
  absurdity" (Waddell, _Lhasa and its Mysteries_).

  The three great monasteries in the vicinity of Lhasa, all claiming to
  be foundations of Tsongkhapa (1356-1418), the medieval reformer and
  organizer of the modern orthodox Lama Church, "the yellow caps," are
  the following:--

  1. _Debung_ (written '_Bras spungs_) is 6 m. west of Lhasa at the foot
  of the hills which flank the plain on the north. It is one of the
  largest monasteries in the world, having some 8000 monks. In the
  middle of the convent buildings rises a kind of pavilion, brilliant
  with colour and gilding, which is occupied by the Dalai Lama when he
  visits Debung once a year and expounds to the inmates. The place is
  frequented by the Mongol students who come to Lhasa to graduate, and
  is known in the country as the Mongol convent; it has also been
  notorious as a centre of political intrigue. Near it is the seat of
  the chief magician of Tibet, the Nachung Chos-kyong, a building
  picturesque in itself and in situation.

  2. _Sera_ is 3 m. north of the city on the acclivity of the hills and
  close to the road by which pilgrims enter from Mongolia. From a
  distance the crowd of buildings and temples, rising in amphitheatre
  against a background of rocky mountains, forms a pleasing picture. In
  the recesses of the hill, high above the convent, are scattered cells
  of lamas adopting the solitary life. The chief temple of Sera, a
  highly ornate building, has a special reputation as the resting-place
  of a famous _Dorje_, i.e. the _Vajra_ or Thunderbolt of Jupiter, the
  symbol of the strong and indestructible, which the priest grasps and
  manipulates in various ways during prayer. The emblem is a bronze
  instrument, shaped much like a dumbbell with pointed ends, and it is
  carried solemnly in procession to the Jokhang during the New Year's

  The hill adjoining Sera is believed to be rich in silver ore, but it
  is not allowed to be worked. On the summit is a spring and a holy
  place of the Lhasa Mahommedans, who resort thither. Near the monastery
  there is said to be gold, which is worked by the monks. "Should they
  ... discover a nugget of large size, it is immediately replaced in the
  earth, under the impression that the large nuggets ... germinate in
  time, producing the small lumps which they are privileged to search
  for" (Nain Singh).

  3. _Galdan._--This great convent is some 25 m. east of Lhasa, on the
  other side of the Kyichu. It is the oldest monastery of the "Yellow"
  sect, having been founded by Tsongkhapa and having had him for its
  first superior. Here his body is said to be preserved with miraculous
  circumstances; here is his tomb, of marble and malachite, with a great
  shrine said to be of gold, and here are other relics of him, such as
  the impression of his hands and feet.

  _Samyé_ is another famous convent intimately connected with Lhasa,
  being said to be used as a treasury by the government, but it lies
  some 36 m. south-east on the left bank of the great Tsangpo. It was
  founded in 770, and is the oldest extant monastery in Tibet. It is
  surrounded by a very high circular stone wall, 1½ m. in circumference,
  with gates facing the four points of the compass. On this wall Nain
  Singh, who was here on his journey in 1874, counted 1030 votive piles
  of brick. One very large temple occupies the centre, and round it are
  four smaller but still large temples. Many of the idols are said to be
  of pure gold, and the wealth is very great. The interiors of the
  temples are covered with beautiful writing in enormous characters,
  which the vulgar believe to be the writing of Sakya himself.

_Population and Trade._--The total population of Lhasa, including the
lamas in the city and vicinity, is probably about 30,000; a census in
1854 made the figure 42,000, but it is known to have greatly decreased
since. There are only some 1500 resident Tibetan laymen and about 5500
Tibetan women. The permanent population embraces, besides Tibetans,
settled families of Chinese (about 2000 persons), as well as people from
Nepal, from Ladak, and a few from Bhotan and Mongolia. The Ladakis and
some of the other foreigners are Mahommedans, and much of the trade is
in their hands. Desideri (1716) speaks also of Armenians and even
"Muscovites." The Chinese have a crowded burial-ground at Lhasa, tended
carefully after their manner. The Nepalese (about 800) supply the
mechanics and metal-workers. There are among them excellent gold- and
silversmiths; and they make the elaborate gilded canopies crowning the
temples. The chief industries are the weaving of a great variety of
stuffs from the fine Tibetan wool; the making of earthenware and of the
wooden porringers (varying immensely in elaboration and price) of which
every Tibetan carries one about with him; also the making of certain
fragrant sticks of incense much valued in China and elsewhere.

As Lhasa is not only the nucleus of a cluster of vast monastic
establishments, which attract students and aspirants to the religious
life from all parts of Tibet and Mongolia, but is also a great place of
pilgrimage, the streets and public places swarm with visitors from every
part of the Himalayan plateau,[2] and from all the steppes of Asia
between Manchuria and the Balkhash Lake. Naturally a great traffic
arises quite apart from the pilgrimage. The city thus swarms with
crowds attracted by devotion and the love of gain, and presents a great
diversity of language, costume and physiognomy; though, in regard to the
last point, varieties of the broad face and narrow eye greatly
predominate. Much of the retail trade of the place is in the hands of
the women. The curious practice of the women in plastering their faces
with a dark-coloured pigment is less common in Lhasa than in the

During December especially traders arrive from western China by way of
Tachienlu bringing every variety of silk-stuffs, carpets, china-ware and
tea; from Siningfu come silk, gold lace, Russian goods, carpets of a
superior kind, semi-precious stones, horse furniture, horses and a very
large breed of fat-tailed sheep; from eastern Tibet, musk in large
quantities, which eventually finds its way to Europe through Nepal; from
Bhotan and Sikkim, rice; from Sikkim also tobacco; besides a variety of
Indian and European goods from Nepal and Darjeeling, and _charas_
(resinous exudation of hemp) and saffron from Ladakh and Kashmir. The
merchants leave Lhasa in March, before the setting in of the rains
renders the rivers impassable.

The tea importation from China is considerable, for tea is an absolute
necessary to the Tibetan. The tea is of various qualities, from the
coarsest, used only for "buttered" tea (a sort of broth), to the fine
quality drunk by the wealthy. This is pressed into bricks or cakes
weighing about 5½ lb., and often passes as currency. The quantity that
pays duty at Tachienlu is about 10,000,000 lb., besides some amount
smuggled. No doubt a large part of this comes to Lhasa.

  _Lhasa Festivities._--The greatest of these is at the new year. This
  lasts fifteen days, and is a kind of lamaic carnival, in which masks
  and mummings, wherein the Tibetans take especial delight, play a great
  part. The celebration commences at midnight, with shouts and clangour
  of bells, gongs, chank-shells, drums and all the noisy repertory of
  Tibetan music; whilst friends exchange early visits and administer
  coarse sweetmeats and buttered tea. On the second day the Dalai Lama
  gives a grand banquet, at which the Chinese and native authorities are
  present, whilst in the public spaces and in front of the great
  convents all sorts of shows and jugglers' performances go on. Next day
  a regular Tibetan exhibition takes place. A long cable, twisted of
  leather thongs, is stretched from a high point in the battlements of
  Potala slanting down to the plain, where it is strongly moored. Two
  men slide from top to bottom of this huge hypothenuse, sometimes lying
  on the chest (which is protected by a breast-plate of strong leather),
  spreading their arms as if to swim, and descending with the rapidity
  of an arrow-flight. Occasionally fatal accidents occur in this
  performance, which is called "the dance of the gods"; but the
  survivors are rewarded by the court, and the Grand Lama himself is
  always a witness of it. This practice occurs more or less over the
  Himalayan plateau, and is known in the neighbourhood of the Ganges as
  _Barat_. It is employed as a kind of expiatory rite in cases of
  pestilence and the like. Exactly the same performance is described as
  having been exhibited in St Paul's Churchyard before King Edward VI.,
  and again before Philip of Spain, as well as, about 1750, at Hertford
  and other places in England (see Strutt's _Sports_, &c., 2nd ed., p.

  The most remarkable celebration of the new year's festivities is the
  great jubilee of the _Monlam_ (_s Mon-lam_, "prayer"), instituted by
  Tsongkhapa himself in 1408. Lamas from all parts of Tibet, but chiefly
  from the great convents in the neighbourhood, flock to Lhasa, and
  every road leading thither is thronged with troops of monks on foot or
  horseback, on yaks or donkeys, carrying with them their breviaries and
  their cooking-pots. Those who cannot find lodging bivouac in the
  streets and squares, or pitch their little black tents in the plain.
  The festival lasts six days, during which there reigns a kind of
  saturnalia. Unspeakable confusion and disorder reign, while gangs of
  lamas parade the streets, shouting, singing and coming to blows. The
  object of this gathering is, however, supposed to be devotional. Vast
  processions take place, with mystic offerings and lama-music, to the
  Jokhang and Moru convents; the Grand Lama himself assists at the
  festival, and from an elevated throne beside the Jokhang receives the
  offerings of the multitude and bestows his benediction.

  On the 15th of the first month multitudes of torches are kept ablaze,
  which lighten up the city to a great distance, whilst the interior of
  the Jokhang is illuminated throughout the night by innumerable
  lanterns shedding light on coloured figures in bas-relief, framed in
  arabesques of animals, birds and flowers, and representing the history
  of Buddha and other subjects, all modelled in butter. The figures are
  executed on a large scale, and, as described by Huc, who witnessed the
  festival at Kunbum on the frontier of China, with extraordinary truth
  and skill. These singular works of art occupy some months in
  preparation, and on the morrow are thrown away. On other days
  horse-races take place from Sera to Potala, and foot-races from Potala
  to the city. On the 27th of the month the holy _Dorje_ is carried in
  solemn procession from Sera to the Jokhang, and to the presence of the
  lama at Potala.

  Of other great annual feasts, one, in the fourth month, is assigned to
  the conception of Sakya, but appears to connect itself with the old
  nature-feast of the entering of spring, and to be more or less
  identical with the _Huli_ of India. A second, the consecration of the
  waters, in September-October, appears, on the confines of India, to be
  associated with the Dasehra.

  On the 30th day of the second month there takes place a strange
  ceremony, akin to that of the scapegoat (which is not unknown in
  India). It is called the driving out of the demon. A man is hired to
  perform the part of demon (or victim rather), a part which sometimes
  ends fatally. He is fantastically dressed, his face mottled with white
  and black, and is then brought forth from the Jokhang to engage in
  quasi-theological controversy with one who represents the Grand Lama.
  This ends in their throwing dice against each other (as it were for
  the weal or woe of Lhasa). If the demon were to win the omen would be
  appalling; so this is effectually barred by false dice. The victim is
  then marched outside the city, followed by the troops and by the whole
  populace, hooting, shouting and firing volleys after him. Once he is
  driven off, the people return, and he is carried off to the Samyé
  convent. Should he die shortly after, this is auspicious; if not, he
  is kept in ward at Samyé for a twelvemonth.

  Nain Singh, whose habitual accuracy is attested by many facts,
  mentions a strange practice of comparatively recent origin, according
  to which the civil power in the city is put up to auction for the
  first twenty-three days of the new year. The purchaser, who must be a
  member of the Debung monastery, and is termed the _Jalno_, is a kind
  of lord of misrule, who exercises arbitrary authority during that time
  for his own benefit, levying taxes and capricious fines upon the

_History._--The seat of the princes whose family raised Tibet to a
position among the powers of Asia was originally on the Yarlung river,
in the extreme east of the region now occupied by Tibetan tribes. It was
transplanted to Lhasa in the 7th century by the king Srong-tsan-gampo,
conqueror, civilizer and proselytizer, the founder of Buddhism in Tibet,
the introducer of the Indian alphabet. On the three-peaked crag now
occupied by the palace-monastery of the Grand Lama this king is said to
have established his fortress, while he founded in the plain below
temples to receive the sacred images, brought respectively from Nepal
and from China by the brides to whom his own conversion is attributed.

Tibet endured as a conquering power some two centuries, and the more
famous among the descendants of the founder added to the city.
This-rong-de-tsan (who reigned 740-786) is said to have erected a great
temple-palace of which the basement followed the Tibetan style, the
middle storey the Chinese, and the upper storey the Indian--a
combination which would aptly symbolize the elements that have moulded
the culture of Lhasa. His son, the last of the great orthodox kings, in
the next century, is said to have summoned artists from Nepal and India,
and among many splendid foundations to have erected a sanctuary (at
Samyé) of vast height, which had nine storeys, the three lower of stone,
the three middle of brick, the three uppermost of timber. With this king
the glory of Tibet and of ancient Lhasa reached its zenith, and in 822,
a monument recording his treaty on equal terms with the Great T'ang
emperor of China was erected in the city. There followed dark days for
Lhasa and the Buddhist church in the accession of this king's brother
Langdharma, who has been called the Julian of the lamas. This king
rejected the doctrine, persecuted and scattered its ministers, and threw
down its temples, convents and images. It was more than a century before
Buddhism recovered its hold and its convents were rehabilitated over
Tibet. The country was then split into an infinity of petty states, many
of them ruled from the convents by warlike ecclesiastics; but, though
the old monarchy never recovered, Lhasa seems to have maintained some
supremacy, and probably never lost its claim to be the chief city of
that congeries of principalities, with a common faith and a common
language, which was called Tibet.

The Arab geographers of the 10th century speak of Tibet, but without
real knowledge, and none speaks of any city that we can identify with
Lhasa. The first passage in any Western author in which such
identification can be probably traced occurs in the narrative of Friar
Odoric of Pordenone (c. 1330). This remarkable traveller's route from
Europe to India, and thence by sea to China, can be traced
satisfactorily, but of his journey homeward through Asia the indications
are very fragmentary. He speaks, however, on this return journey of the
realm of Tibet, which lay on the confines of India proper: "The folk of
that country dwell in tents made of black felt. But the chief and royal
city is all built with walls of black and white, and all its streets are
very well paved. In this city no one shall dare to shed the blood of
any, whether man or beast, for the reverence they bear a certain idol
that is there worshipped. In that city dwelleth the _Abassi_, i.e. in
their tongue the pope, who is the head of all the idolaters, and has the
disposal of all their benefices such as they are after their manner."

We know that Kublai Khan had constituted a young prince of the Lama
Church, Mati Dhwaja, as head of that body, and tributary ruler of Tibet,
but besides this all is obscure for a century. This passage of Odoric
shows that such authority continued under Kublai's descendants, and that
some foreshadow of the position since occupied by the Dalai Lama already
existed. But it was not till a century after Odoric that the strange
heredity of the dynasty of the Dalai Lamas of Lhasa actually began. In
the first two centuries of its existence the residence of these pontiffs
was rather at Debung or Sera than at Lhasa itself, though the latter was
the centre of devout resort. A great event for Lhasa was the conversion,
or reconversion, of the Mongols to Lamaism (c. 1577), which made the
city the focus of sanctity and pilgrimage to so vast a tract of Asia. It
was in the middle of the 17th century that Lhasa became the residence of
the Dalai Lama. A native prince, known as the Tsangpo, with his seat at
Shigatse, had made himself master of southern Tibet, and threatened to
absorb the whole. The fifth Dalai Lama, Nagwang Lobzang, called in the
aid of a Kalmuck prince, Gushi Khan, from the neighbourhood of the
Koko-nor, who defeated and slew the Tsangpo and made over full dominion
in Tibet to the lama (1641). The latter now first established his court
and built his palace on the rock-site of the fortress of the ancient
monarchy, which apparently had fallen into ruin, and to this he gave the
name of Potala.

The founder of Potala died in 1681. He had appointed as "regent" or
civil administrator (_Deisri_, or _Deba_) one supposed to be his own
natural son. This remarkable personage, Sangye Gyamtso, of great
ambition and accomplishment, still renowned in Tibet as the author of
some of the most valued works of the native literature, concealed the
death of his master, asserting that the latter had retired, in mystic
meditation or trance, to the upper chambers of the palace. The
government continued to be carried on in the lama's name by the regent,
who leagued with Galdan Khan of Dzungaria against the Chinese (Manchu)
power. It was not till the great emperor Kang-hi was marching on Tibet
that the death of the lama, sixteen years before, was admitted. A solemn
funeral was then performed, at which 108,000 lamas assisted, and a new
incarnation was set up in the person of a youth of fifteen, Tsangs-yang
Gyamtso. This young man was the scandal of the Lamaist Church in every
kind of evil living and debauchery, so that he was deposed and
assassinated in 1701. But it was under him and the regent Sangye Gyamtso
that the Potala palace attained its present scale of grandeur, and that
most of the other great buildings of Lhasa were extended and

  For further history and bibliography, see TIBET. Consult also LAMAISM.
       (H. Y.; L. A. W.)


  [1] The name given by Köppen (_Die lamaische Kirche_, Berlin, 1859,
    p. 74) is "La Brang," by which it is sometimes known.

  [2] Among articles sold in the Lhasa bazaars are fossil bones, called
    by the people "lightning bones," and believed to have healing

L'HÔPITAL (or L'HOSPITAL), MICHEL DE (c. 1505-1573), French statesman,
was born near Aigueperse in Auvergne (now Puy-de-Dôme). His father, who
was physician to the constable Charles of Bourbon, sent him to study at
Toulouse, whence at the age of eighteen he was driven, a consequence of
the evil fortunes of the family patron, to Padua, where he studied law
and letters for about six years. On the completion of his studies he
joined his father at Bologna, and afterwards, the constable having died,
went to Rome in the suite of Charles V. For some time he held a position
in the papal court at Rome, but about 1534 he returned to France, and
becoming an advocate, his marriage, in 1537, procured for him the post
of counsellor to the parlement of Paris. This office he held until 1547,
when he was sent by Henry II. on a mission to Bologna, where the council
of Trent was at that time sitting; after sixteen months of wearisome
inactivity there, he was by his own desire recalled at the close of
1548. L'Hôpital now for some time held the position of chancellor to the
king's sister, Margaret, duchess of Berry. In 1553, on the
recommendation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, he was named master of the
requests, and afterwards president of the chambre des comptes. In 1559
he accompanied the princess Margaret, now duchess of Savoy, to Nice,
where, in the following year, tidings reached him that he had been
chosen to succeed François Olivier (1487-1560) in the chancellorship of

One of his first acts after entering on the duties of his office was to
cause the parlement of Paris to register the edict of Romorantin, of
which he is sometimes, but erroneously, said to have been the author.
Designed to protect heretics from the secret and summary methods of the
Inquisition, it certainly had his sympathy and approval. In accordance
with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the
whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to
call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560
and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings
against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of
the church by a general or national council. The States General met in
December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally,
after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most
liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of
France. Its terms, however, were not carried out, and during the war
which was the inevitable result of the massacre of Vassy in March,
L'Hôpital, whose dismissal had been for some time urged by the papal
legate Hippolytus of Este, found it necessary to retire to his estate at
Vignay, near Étampes, whence he did not return until after the
pacification of Amboise (March 19, 1563). It was by his advice that
Charles IX. was declared of age at Rouen in August 1563, a measure which
really increased the power Of Catherine de' Medici; and it was under his
influence also that the royal council in 1564 refused to authorize the
publication of the acts of the council of Trent, on account of their
inconsistency with the Gallican liberties. In 1564-1566 he accompanied
the young king on an extended tour through France; and in 1566 he was
instrumental in the promulgation of an important edict for the reform of
abuses in the administration of justice. The renewal of the religious
war in September 1567, however, was at once a symptom and a cause of
diminished influence to L'Hôpital, and in February 1568 he obtained his
letters of discharge, which were registered by the parlement on the 11th
of May, his titles, honours and emoluments being reserved to him during
the remainder of his life. Henceforward he lived a life of unbroken
seclusion at Vignay, his only subsequent public appearance being by
means of a _mémoire_ which he addressed to the king in 1570 under the
title _Le But de la guerre et de la paix, ou discours du chancelier
l'Hospital pour exhorter Charles IX. à donner la paix à ses sujets_.
Though not exempt from considerable danger, he passed in safety through
the troubles of St Bartholomew's eve. His death took place either at
Vignay or at Bellébat on the 13th of March 1573.

  After his death Pibrac, assisted by De Thou and Scévole de
  Sainte-Marthe, collected a volume of the _Poemata_ of L'Hôpital, and
  in 1585 his grandson published _Epistolarum seu Sermonum libri sex_.
  The complete _Oeuvres de l'Hôpital_ were published for the first time
  by P. J. S. Dufey (5 vols., Paris, 1824-1825). They include his
  "Harangues" and "Remonstrances," the _Epistles_, the _Mémoire_ to
  Charles IX., a _Traité de la réformation de la justice_, and his will.
  See also A. F. Villemain, _Vie du Chancelier de l'Hôpital_ (Paris,
  1874); R. G. E. T; St-René Taillandier, _Le Chancelier de l'Hospital_
  (Paris, 1861); Dupré-Lasalle, _Michel de l'Hospital avant son
  élévation au poste de chancelier de France_ (Paris, 1875-1899);
  Amphoux, _Michel de l'Hospital et la liberté de conscience au XVI^e
  siècle_ (Paris, 1900); C. T. Atkinson, _Michel de l'Hospital_ (London,
  1900), containing an appendix on bibliography and sources; A. E. Shaw,
  _Michel de l'Hospital and his Policy_ (London, 1905); and Eugène and
  Emile Haag, _La France protestante_ (2nd ed., 1877 seq.).

LIAO-YANG, a city of China, formerly the chief town of the province of
Liao-tung or Shêng-king (southern Manchuria), 35 m. S of Mukden. It is
situated in a rich cotton district in the fertile valley of the Liao, on
the road between Niuchwang and Mukden, and carries on a considerable
trade. The walls include an area about 2½ m. long by 2 m. broad, and
there are fairly extensive suburbs; but a good deal even of the enclosed
area is under cultivation. The population is estimated at 100,000.
Liao-yang was one of the first objectives of the Japanese during the
Russo-Japanese War, and its capture by them resulted in some of the
fiercest fighting during the campaign, from the 24th of August to the
4th of September 1904.

LIAS, in geology, the lowermost group of Jurassic strata. Originally the
name seems to have been written "Lyas"; it is most probably a provincial
form of "layers," strata, employed by quarrymen in the west of England;
it has been suggested, however, that the Fr. _liais_, Breton _leach_ = a
stone, Gaelic _leac_ = flat stone, may have given rise to the English
"Lias." Liassic strata occupy an important position in England, where
they crop out at Lyme Regis on the Dorsetshire coast and extend thence
by Bath, along the western flank of the Cotswold Hills, forming Edge
Hill and appearing at Banbury, Rugby, Melton, Grantham, Lincoln, to
Redcar on the coast of Yorkshire. They occur also in Glamorganshire,
Shropshire, near Carlisle, in Skye, Raasay (Pabba, Scalpa and Broadfoot
beds), and elsewhere in the north of Scotland, and in the north-east of
Ireland. East of the belt of outcrop indicated, the Lias is known to
occur beneath the younger rocks for some distance farther east, but it
is absent from beneath London, Reading, Ware, Harwich, Dover, and in the
southern portion of the area in which these towns lie; the Liassic rocks
are probably thinned out against a concealed ridge of more ancient
rocks. The table on following page will serve to illustrate the general
characters of the English Lias and the subdivisions adopted by the
Geological Survey. By the side are shown the principal zonal ammonites,
and, for comparison, the subdivisions preferred by Messrs Tate and Blake
and by A. de Lapparent.

The important fact is clearly demonstrated in the table, that where the
Lias is seen in contact with the Trias below or the Inferior Oolite
above, there is, as a rule, a gradual passage from the Liassic
formation, both downwards and upwards; hence Professor de Lapparent
includes in his _Liassique System_ the zone of _Ammonites opalinus_ at
the top, and the Rhaetic beds at the bottom (see OOLITE; RHAETIC). Owing
to the transgression of the Liassic sea the strata rest in places upon
older Palaeozoic rocks. The thickness of the Lias varies considerably;
in Dorsetshire it is 900 ft., near Bath it has thinned to 280 ft., and
beneath Oxford it is further reduced. In north Gloucestershire it is
1360 ft., Northampton 760 ft., Rutland 800 ft., Lincolnshire 950 ft.,
and in Yorkshire about 500 ft.

The Lias of England was laid down in conditions very similar to those
which obtained at the same time in north France and north Germany, that is
to say, on the floor of a shallow sea; but in the Alpine region limestones
are developed upon a much greater scale. Many of the limestones are red
and crystalline marbles such as the "ammonitico-rosso-inferiore" of the
Apennines; a grey, laminated limestone is known as the "Fleckenmergel."
The whitish "Hierlatzkalke," the Adnet beds and the "Grestener beds" in
the eastern Alps and Balkan Mountains are important phases of Alpine Lias.
The Grestener beds contain a considerable amount of coal. The Lias of
Spain and the Pyrenees contains much dolomitic limestone. This formation
is widely spread in western Europe; besides the localities already cited
it occurs in Swabia, the Rhenish provinces, Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg,
Ardennes, Normandy, Austria-Hungary, the Balkan States, Greece and Scania.
It has not been found north of Kharkov in Russia, but it is present in the
south and in the Caucasus, in Anatolia, Persia and the Himalayas. It
appears on the eastern side of Japan, in Borneo, Timor, New Caledonia and
New Zealand (Bastion beds); in Algeria, Tunisia and elsewhere in North
Africa, and on the west coast of Madagascar. In South America it is found
in the Bolivian Andes, in Chile and Argentina; it appears also on the
Pacific coast of North America.

  |     | S. W. England and Midlands.  |     Yorkshire.    |     Ammonite Zones.*     |    Divisions according to     |
  |     |                              |                   |                          |       A. de Lapparent.**      |
  | U L | Midford Sands (passage beds) | Alum shale        |_Am. jurensis_     \      | (Including the _opalinus_ zone|
  | p i |                              |                   |                    |     |   of the Inferior Oolite.)    |
  | p a | Clays with Cement-stones     | Jet Rock          |  "  _communis_      > U. | Toarcien.                     |
  | e s | Limestones and Clays         | Grey Shale        |  "  _serpentinus_ /      |                               |
  | r . |                              |                   |  "  _annulatus_   \      |                               |
  +-----+------------------------------+-------------------+------------------- |  ---+-------------------------------+
  | M   |                              |                   |                    |     |                               |
  | i L | Marlstone and Sands          | Ironstone Series  |_Am. spinatus_      |     |                               |
  | d i |   (Rock Bed and Ironstones)  |                   |                    |     |                               |
  | d a | Micaceous Clays and Sands    | Sandy Series      |  "  _margaritatus_ |     |                               |
  | l s |                              |                   |                    |     |                               |
  | e . |                              |                   |                     > M. |                               |
  +-----+------------------------------+------------------ +------------------- |     | Charmouthien.                 |                                                                                                                                and
  |     | Clays with occasional bands  | Upper Series with |_Am. capricornus_   |     |                               |
  |     |   of Limestone               |  Ironstone nodules|  "  _Jamesoni_     |     |                               |
  | L L |                              |                   |        and         |     |                               |
  | o i |                              |                   |  "  _armatus_     /      |                               |
  | w a |                              |                   |                          +-------------------------------+
  | e s | Limestones and Clays         | Lower Series with |  "  _oxynotus_    \      |                               |
  | r . |                              |   Sandy and Marly |  "  _Bucklandi_     > L. | Sinémourien.                  |
  |     |                              |   Beds            |  "  _angulatus_    |     | Hettangien including "White   |
  |     |                              |                   |  "  _planorbis_   /      |   Lias."                      |
  |     |                              |                   |                          | Rhétien.                      |
     * The brackets indicate the divisions made by R. Tate and J. F. Blake.
    ** _Traité de géologie_ (5th ed., Paris, 1906).

  The economic products of the Lias are of considerable importance. In
  the Lower Lias of Lincolnshire and the Middle Lias of Oxfordshire,
  Northamptonshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Yorkshire the beds
  of ironstone are of great value. Most of these ores are limestones
  that have been converted into iron carbonate with some admixture of
  silicates; they weather near the surface into hydrated peroxide. At
  Frodingham in Lincolnshire the oolitic iron ore reaches 30 ft. in
  thickness, of which 12 ft. are workable. In Gloucestershire the top
  beds of the Lower Lias and lower beds of the Middle division are the
  most ferruginous; the best ores near Woodstock and Banbury and between
  Market Harborough and Leicester are at the summit of the Middle Lias
  in the Marlstone or Rock bed. The ironstone of Fawler is sometimes
  known as Blenheim ore. The ores of the Cleveland district in Yorkshire
  have a great reputation; the main seam is 11 ft. thick at Eston, where
  it rests directly upon the Pecten Seam, the two together aggregating
  15 ft. 6 in. Similar iron ores of this age are worked at
  Meurthe-et-Moselle, Villerupt, Marbache, Longuy, Champagneulles, &c.
  Some of the Liassic limestones are used as building stones, the more
  important ones being the Lower Lias Sutton stone of Glamorganshire and
  Middle Lias Hornton stone, the best of the Lias building stones, from
  Edge Hill. The limestones are often used for paving. The limestones of
  the Lower Lias are much used for the production of hydraulic cement
  and "Blue Lias" lime at Rugby, Barrow-on-Soar, Barnstone, Lyme Regis,
  Abertham and many other places. Roman cement has been made from the
  nodules in the Upper Lias of Yorkshire; alum is obtained from the same
  horizon. A considerable trade was formerly done in jet, the best
  quality being obtained from the "Serpentinus" beds, but "bastard" or
  soft jet is found in many of the other strata in the Yorkshire Lias.
  Both Lower and Upper Lias clays have been used in making bricks and

  Fossils are abundant in the Lias; Lyme Regis, Shepton Mallet, Rugby,
  Robin Hood's Bay, Ilminster, Whitby and Golden Cap near Charmouth are
  well-known localities. The saurian reptiles, _Ichthyosaurus_ and
  _Plesiosaurus_, are found in excellent preservation along with the
  Pterodactyl. Among the fishes are _Hybodus_, _Dapedius_,
  _Pholidophorus_, _Acrodus_. The crinoids, _Pentacrinus_ and
  _Extracrinus_ are locally abundant. Insect remains are very abundant
  in certain beds. Many ammonites occur in this formation in addition to
  the forms used as zonal indexes mentioned in the table. _Lima
  gigantea_, _Posidonomya Bronni_, _Inoceramus dubius_, _Gryphaea
  cymbium_ and _G. arcuata_ are common pelecypods. _Amberleya
  capitanea_, _Pleurotomaria anglica_ are Lias gasteropods. _Leptaena_,
  _Spiriferina_, _Terebratella_ and _Rhynchonella tetrahedra_ and _R.
  variabilis_ are among the brachiopods.

  Certain dark limestones with regular bedding which occur in the
  Carboniferous System are sometimes called "Black Lias" by quarrymen.

  See "The Lias of England and Wales" (Yorkshire excepted), by H. B.
  Woodward, _Geol. Survey Memoir_ (London, 1893); and, for Yorkshire,
  "The Jurassic Rocks of Britain," vol. i., "Yorkshire," by C.
  Fox-Strangways, _Geol. Survey Memoir_. See also JURASSIC.
       (J. A. H.)

LIBANIUS (A.D. 314-393), Greek sophist and rhetorician, was born at
Antioch, the capital of Syria. He studied at Athens, and spent most of
his earlier manhood in Constantinople and Nicomedia. His private classes
at Constantinople were much more popular than those of the public
professors, who had him expelled in 346 (or earlier) on the charge of
studying magic. He removed his school to Nicomedia, where he remained
five years. After another attempt to settle in Constantinople, he
finally retired to Antioch (354). Though a pagan, he enjoyed the favour
of the Christian emperors. When Julian, his special patron, restored
paganism as the state religion, Libanius showed no intolerance. Among
his pupils he numbered John Chrysostom, Basil (bishop of Caesarea) and
Ammianus Marcellinus. His works, consisting chiefly of orations
(including his autobiography), declamations on set topics, letters, life
of Demosthenes, and arguments to all his orations are voluminous. He
devoted much time to the classical Greek writers, and had a thorough
contempt for Rome and all things Roman. His speeches and letters throw
considerable light on the political and literary history of the age. The
letters number 1607 in the Greek original; with these were formerly
included some 400 in Latin, purporting to be a translation, but now
proved to be a forgery by the Italian humanist F. Zambeccari (15th

  Editions: Orations and declamations, J. J. Reiske (1791-1797);
  letters, J. C. Wolf (1738); two additional declamations, R. Förster
  (_Hermes_, ix. 22, xii. 217), who in 1903 began the publication of a
  complete edition; _Apologia Socratis_, Y. H. Rogge (1891). See also E.
  Monnier, _Histoire de Libanius_ (1866); L. Petit, _Essai sur la vie et
  la correspondance du sophiste Libanius_ (1866); G. R. Sievers, _Das
  Leben des Libanius_ (1868); R. Förster, _F. Zambeccari und die Briefe
  des Libanius_ (1878). Some letters from the emperor Julian to Libanius
  will be found in R. Hercher, _Epistolographi Graeci_ (1873). Sixteen
  letters to Julian have been translated by J. Duncombe (_The Works of
  the Emperor Julian_, i. 303-332, 3rd ed., London, 1798). The oration
  on the emperor Julian is translated by C. W. King (in Bohn's
  "Classical Library," London, 1888), and that in Defence of the Temples
  of the Heathen by Dr Lardner (in a volume of translations by Thomas
  Taylor, from Celsus and others, 1830). See further J. E. Sandys,
  _Hist. of Classical Scholarship_, i. (1906), and A. Harrent, _Les
  Écoles d'Antioche_ (1898).

LIBATION (Lat. _libatio_, from _libare_, to take a portion of something,
to taste, hence to pour out as an offering to a deity, &c.; cf. Gr.
[Greek: leibein]), a drink offering, the pouring out of a small quantity
of wine, milk or other liquid as a ceremonial act. Such an act was
performed in honour of the dead (Gr. [Greek: choai], Lat.
_profusiones_), in making of treaties (Gr. [Greek: spondê, spendein] =
_libare_, whence [Greek: spondai], treaty), and particularly in honour
of the gods (Gr. [Greek: loibê], Lat. _libatio_, _libamentum_,
_libamen_). Such libations to the gods were made as part of the daily
ritual of domestic worship, or at banquets or feasts to the Lares, or to
special deities, as by the Greeks to Hermes, the god of sleep, when
going to rest.

LIBAU (Lettish, _Leepaya_), a seaport of Russia, in the government of
Courland, 145 m. by rail S.W. of Riga, at the northern extremity of a
narrow sandy peninsula which separates Lake Libau (12 m. long and 2 m.
wide) from the Baltic Sea. Its population has more than doubled since
1881 (30,000), being 64,505 in 1897. The town is well built of stone,
with good gardens, and has a naval cathedral (1903). The harbour was 2
m. S. of the town until a canal was dug through the peninsula in 1697;
it is now deepened to 23 ft., and is mostly free from ice throughout the
year. Since being brought, in 1872, into railway connexion with Moscow,
Orel and Kharkov, Libau has become an important port. New Libau
possesses large factories for colours, explosives, machinery belts,
sails and ropes, tobacco, furniture, matches, as well as iron works,
agricultural machinery works, tin-plate works, soap works, saw-mills,
breweries, oil-mills, cork and linoleum factories and flour-mills. The
exports reach the annual value of £3,250,000 to £5,500,000, oats being
the chief export, with flour, wheat, rye, butter, eggs, spirits, flax,
linseed, oilcake, pork, timber, horses and petroleum. The imports
average £1,500,000 to £2,000,000 annually. Shipbuilding, including
steamers for open-sea navigation, is on the increase. North of the
commercial harbour and enclosing it the Russian government made
(1893-1906) a very extensive fortified naval port, protected by moles
and breakwaters. Libau is visited for sea-bathing in summer.

The port of Libau, _Lyra portus_, is mentioned as early as 1263; it then
belonged to the Livonian Order or Brothers of the Sword. In 1418 it was
burnt by the Lithuanians, and in 1560 it was mortgaged by the
grandmaster of the Teutonic Order, to which it had passed, to the
Prussian duke Albert. In 1701 it was captured by Charles XII. of Sweden,
and was annexed to Russia in 1795.

  See Wegner, _Geschichte der Stadt Libau_ (Libau, 1898).

LIBEL and SLANDER, the terms employed in English law to denote injurious
attacks upon a man's reputation or character by words written or spoken,
or by equivalent signs. In most early systems of law verbal injuries are
treated as a criminal or quasi-criminal offence, the essence of the
injury lying not in pecuniary loss, which may be compensated by damages,
but in the personal insult which must be atoned for--a vindictive
penalty coming in the place of personal revenge. By the law of the XII.
Tables, the composition of scurrilous songs and gross noisy public
affronts were punished by death. Minor offences of the same class seem
to have found their place under the general conception of _injuria_,
which included ultimately every form of direct personal aggression which
involved contumely or insult. In the later Roman jurisprudence, which
has, on this point, exercised considerable influence over modern systems
of law, verbal injuries are dealt with in the edict under two heads. The
first comprehended defamatory and injurious statements made in a public
manner (_convicium contra bonos mores_). In this case the essence of the
offence lay in the unwarrantable public proclamation. In such a case the
truth of the statements was no justification for the unnecessarily
public and insulting manner in which they had been made. The second head
included defamatory statements made in private, and in this case the
offence lay in the imputation itself, not in the manner of its
publication. The truth was therefore a sufficient defence, for no man
had a right to demand legal protection for a false reputation. Even
belief in the truth was enough, because it took away the intention which
was essential to the notion of _injuria_. The law thus aimed at giving
sufficient scope for the discussion of a man's character, while it
protected him from needless insult and pain. The remedy for verbal
injuries was long confined to a civil action for a money penalty, which
was estimated according to the gravity of the case, and which, although
vindictive in its character, doubtless included practically the element
of compensation. But a new remedy was introduced with the extension of
the criminal law, under which many kinds of defamation were punished
with great severity. At the same time increased importance attached to
the publication of defamatory books and writings, the _libri_ or
_libelli famosi_, from which we derive our modern use of the word libel;
and under the later emperors the latter term came to be specially
applied to anonymous accusations or pasquils, the dissemination of which
was regarded as peculiarly dangerous, and visited with very severe
punishment, whether the matter contained in them were true or false.

The earlier history of the English law of defamation is somewhat
obscure. Civil actions for damages seem to have been tolerably frequent
so far back as the reign of Edward I. There was no distinction drawn
between words written and spoken. When no pecuniary penalty was involved
such cases fell within the old jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical
courts, which was only finally abolished in the 19th century. It seems,
to say the least, uncertain whether any generally applicable criminal
process was in use. The crime of _scandalum magnatum_, spreading false
reports about the magnates of the realm, was established by statutes,
but the first fully reported case in which libel is affirmed generally
to be punishable at common law is one tried in the star chamber in the
reign of James I. In that case no English authorities are cited except a
previous case of the same nature before the same tribunal; the law and
terminology appear to be taken directly from Roman sources, with the
insertion that libels tended to a breach of the peace; and it seems
probable that that not very scrupulous tribunal had simply found it
convenient to adopt the very stringent Roman provisions regarding the
_libelli famosi_ without paying any regard to the Roman limitations.
From that time we find both the criminal and civil remedies in full
operation, and the law with regard to each at the present time may now
be considered.

_Civil Law._--The first important distinction encountered is that
between slander and libel, between the oral and written promulgation of
defamatory statements. In the former case the remedy is limited. The law
will not take notice of every kind of abusive or defamatory language. It
must be shown either that the plaintiff has suffered actual damage as a
direct consequence of the slander, or that the imputation is of such a
nature that we are entitled to infer damage as a necessary consequence.
The special damage on which an action is founded for slanderous words
must be of the nature of pecuniary loss. Loss of reputation or of
position in society, or even illness, however clearly it may be traced
to the slander, is insufficient. When we cannot prove special damage,
the action for slander is only allowed upon certain strictly defined
grounds. These are the imputation of a crime or misdemeanour which is
punishable corporeally, e.g. by imprisonment; the imputation of a
contagious or infectious disease; statements which tend to the
disherison of an apparent heir (other cases of slander of title when the
party is in possession requiring the allegation of special damage); the
accusing a woman of unchastity (Slander of Women Act 1891); and, lastly,
slanders directed against a man's professional or business character,
which tend directly to prejudice him in his trade, profession, or means
of livelihood. In the latter case the words must either be directly
aimed at a man in his business or official character, or they must be
such as necessarily to imply unfitness for his particular office or
occupation. Thus words which merely reflect generally upon the moral
character of a tradesman or professional man are not actionable, but
they are actionable if directed against his dealings in the course of
his trade or profession. But, in the case of a merchant or trader, an
allegation which affects his credit generally is enough, and it has been
held that statements are actionable which affect the ability or moral
characters of persons who hold offices, or exercise occupation which
require a high degree of ability, or infer peculiar confidence. In every
case the plaintiff must have been at the time of the slander in the
actual exercise of the occupation or enjoyment of the office with
reference to which the slander is supposed to have affected him.

The action for libel is not restricted in the same way as that for
slander. Originally there appears to have been no essential distinction
between them, but the establishment of libel as a criminal offence had
probably considerable influence, and it soon became settled that written
defamatory statements, or pictures and other signs which bore a
defamatory meaning, implied greater malice and deliberation, and were
generally fraught with greater injury than those made by word of mouth.
The result has been that the action for libel is not limited to special
grounds, or by the necessity of proving special damage. It may be
founded on any statement which disparages a man's private or
professional character, or which tends to hold him up to hatred,
contempt or ridicule. In one of the leading cases, for example, the
plaintiff obtained damages because it was said of him that he was a
hypocrite, and had used the cloak of religion for unworthy purposes. In
another case a charge of ingratitude was held sufficient. In civil cases
the libel must be published by being brought by the defendant under the
notice of a third party; it has been held that it is sufficient if this
has been done by gross carelessness, without deliberate intention to
publish. Every person is liable to an action who is concerned in the
publication of a libel, whether he be the author, printer or publisher;
and the extent and manner of the publication, although not affecting the
ground of the action, is a material element in estimating the damages.

It is not necessary that the defamatory character of the words or
writing complained of should be apparent on their face. They may be
couched in the form of an insinuation, or may derive their sting from a
reference to circumstances understood by the persons to whom they are
addressed. In such a case the plaintiff must make the injurious sense
clear by an averment called an innuendo, and it is for the jury to say
whether the words bore the meaning thus ascribed to them.

In all civil actions for slander and libel the falsity of the injurious
statements is an essential element, so that the defendant is always
entitled to justify his statements by their truth; but when the
statements are in themselves defamatory, their falsity is presumed, and
the burden of proving their truth is laid upon the defendant. There are
however a large class of false defamatory statements, commonly called
privileged, which are not actionable on account of the particular
circumstances in which they are made. The general theory of law with
regard to these cases is this. It is assumed that in every case of
defamation intention is a necessary element; but in the ordinary case,
when a statement is false and defamatory, the law presumes that it has
been made or published with an evil intent, and will not allow this
presumption to be rebutted by evidence or submitted as matter of fact to
a jury. But there are certain circumstances in which the natural
presumption is quite the other way. There are certain natural and proper
occasions on which statements may be made which are in themselves
defamatory, and which may be false, but which naturally suggest that the
statements may have been made from a perfectly proper motive and with
entire belief in their truth. In the cases of this kind which are
recognized by law, the presumption is reversed. It lies with the
plaintiff to show that the defendant was actuated by what is called
_express malice_, by an intention to do harm, and in this case the
question is not one of legal inference for the court, but a matter of
fact to be decided by the jury. Although, however, the theory of the law
seems to rest entirely upon natural presumption of intention, it is
pretty clear that in determining the limits of privilege the courts have
been almost wholly guided by considerations of public or general

In some cases the privilege is absolute, so that we cannot have an
action for defamation even although we prove express malice. Thus no
action of this kind can be maintained for statements made in judicial
proceedings if they are in any sense relevant to the matter in hand. In
the same way no statements or publications are actionable which are made
in the ordinary course of parliamentary proceedings. Papers published
under the authority of parliament are protected by a special act, 3 & 4
Vict. c. 9, 1840, which was passed after a decree of the law courts
adverse to the privilege claimed. The reports of judicial and
parliamentary proceedings stand in a somewhat different position, which
has only been attained after a long and interesting conflict. The
general rule now is that all reports of parliamentary or judicial
proceedings are privileged in so far as they are honest and impartial.
Even _ex parte_ proceedings, in so far as they take place in public, now
fall within the same rule. But if the report is garbled, or if part of
it only is published, the party who is injured in consequence is
entitled to maintain an action, and to have the question of malice
submitted to a jury.

Both absolute and qualified privilege are given to newspaper reports
under certain conditions by the Law of Libel Amendment Act 1888. The
reports must, however, be published in a newspaper as defined in the
Newspaper Libel and Registration Act 1881. Under this act a newspaper
must be published "at intervals not exceeding twenty-six days."

  By s. 3 of the act of 1888 fair and accurate reports of judicial
  proceedings are absolutely privileged provided that the report is
  published contemporaneously with the proceedings and no blasphemous or
  indecent matter is contained therein. By s. 4 a limited privilege is
  given to fair and accurate reports (1) of the proceedings of a _bona
  fide_ public meeting lawfully held for a lawful purpose and for the
  furtherance and discussion of any matter of public concern, even when
  the admission thereto is restricted; (2) of any meeting, open either
  to the public or to a reporter, of a vestry, town council, school
  board, board of guardians, board of local authority, formed or
  constituted under the provisions of any act of parliament, or of any
  committee appointed by any of these bodies; or of any meeting of any
  commissioners authorized to act by letters patent, act of parliament,
  warrant under royal sign manual, or other lawful warrant or authority,
  select committees of either House of parliament, justices of the peace
  in quarter sessions assembled for administrative or deliberative
  purposes; (3) of the publication of any notice or report issued for
  the information of the public by any government office or department,
  officer of state, commissioner of police or chief constable, and
  published at their request. But the privilege given in s. 4 does not
  authorize the publication of any blasphemous or indecent matter; nor
  is the protection available as a defence if it be proved that the
  reports or notices were published maliciously, in the legal sense of
  the word, or the defendant has been requested to insert in the
  newspaper in which the report was issued a reasonable letter or
  statement by way of contradiction or explanation, and has refused or
  neglected to do so. Moreover, nothing in s. 4 is to interfere with any
  privilege then existing, or to protect the publication of any matter
  not of public concern, or in cases where publication is not for the
  public benefit. Consequently no criminal prosecution should be
  commenced where the interests of the public are not affected. By the
  Law of Libel Amendment Act 1888, s. 8, no criminal prosecution for
  libel is to be commenced against any newspaper proprietor, publisher
  or editor unless the order of a judge at chambers has been first
  obtained. This protection does not cover the actual writer of the
  alleged libel.

In private life a large number of statements are privileged so long as
they remain matters of strictly private communication. It is difficult
to define the limits of private privilege without extensive reference to
concrete cases; but generally it may be said that it includes all
communications made in performance of a duty not merely legal but moral
or social, answers to _bona fide_ inquiries, communications made by
persons in confidential relations regarding matters in which one or both
are interested, and even statements made within proper limits by persons
in the _bona fide_ prosecution of their own interest. Common examples of
this kind of privilege are to be found in answer to inquiries as to the
character of servants or the solvency of a trader, warnings to a friend,
communications between persons who are jointly interested in some
matters of business. But in every case care must be taken not to exceed
the limits of publication required by the occasion, or otherwise the
privilege is lost. Thus defamatory statements may be privileged when
made to a meeting of shareholders, but not when published to others who
have no immediate concern in the business.

In a few instances in which an action cannot be maintained even by the
averment of malice, the plaintiff may maintain an action by averring not
only malice but also want of reasonable and probable cause. The most
common instances of this kind are malicious charges made in the ordinary
course of justice and malicious prosecutions. In such cases it would be
contrary to public policy to punish or prevent every charge which was
made from a purely malicious motive, but there is no reason for
protecting accusations which are not only malicious, but destitute of
all reasonable probability.

_Criminal Law._--Publications which are blasphemous, immoral or
seditious are frequently termed libels, and are punishable both at
common law and by various statutes. The matter, however, which
constitutes the offence in these publications lies beyond our present
scope. Libels upon individuals may be prosecuted by criminal information
or indictment, but there can be no criminal prosecution for slander. So
far as concerns the definition of libel, and its limitation by the
necessity of proving in certain cases express malice, there is no
substantial difference between the rules which apply to criminal
prosecutions and to civil actions, with the one important exception
(now considerably modified) that the falsity of a libel is not in
criminal law an essential element of the offence. If the matter alleged
were in itself defamatory, the court would not permit inquiry into its
truth. The sweeping application of this rule seems chiefly due to the
indiscriminate use, in earlier cases, of a rule in Roman law which was
only applicable to certain modes of publication, but has been supported
by various reasons of general policy, and especially by the view that
one main reason for punishing a libel was its tendency to provoke a
breach of the peace.

An important dispute about the powers of the jury in cases of libel
arose during the 19th century in connexion with some well-known trials
for seditious libels. The point is familiar to readers of Macaulay in
connexion with the trial of the seven bishops, but the cases in which it
was brought most prominently forward, and which led to its final
settlement, were those against Woodfall (the printer of _Junius_),
Wilkes and others, and especially the case against Shipley, the dean of
St Asaph (21 St. Tr. 925), in which the question was fought by Lord
Erskine with extraordinary energy and ability. The controversy turned
upon the question whether the jury were to be strictly confined to
matters of fact which required to be proved by evidence, or whether in
every case they were entitled to form their own opinion upon the
libellous character of the publication and the intention of the author.
The jury, if they pleased, had it in their power to return a general
verdict of guilty or not guilty, but both in theory and practice they
were subject in law to the directions of the court, and had to be
informed by it as to what they were to take into consideration in
determining upon their verdict. There is no difficulty about the general
application of this principle in criminal trials. If the crime is one
which is inferred by law from certain facts, the jury are only concerned
with these facts, and must accept the construction put upon them by law.
Applying these principles to the case of libel, juries were directed
that it was for the court to determine whether the publication fell
within the definition of libel, and whether the case was one in which
malice was to be inferred by construction of law. If the case were one
in which malice was inferred by law, the only facts left to the jury
were the fact of publication and the meaning averred by innuendoes; they
could not go into the question of intention, unless the case were one of
privilege, in which express malice had to be proved. In general
principle, therefore, the decisions of the court were in accordance with
the ordinary principles of criminal law. But there were undoubtedly some
peculiarities in the case of libel. The sense of words, the inferences
to be drawn from them, and the effect which they produce are not so
easily defined as gross matters of fact. They seem to belong to those
cases in which the impression made upon a jury is more to be trusted
than the decision of a judge. Further, owing to the mode of procedure,
the defendant was often punished before the question of law was
determined. But, nevertheless, the question would scarcely have been
raised had the libels related merely to private matters. The real ground
of dispute was the liberty to be accorded to political discussion. Had
the judges taken as wide a view of privilege in discussing matters of
public interest as they do now, the question could scarcely have arisen;
for Erskine's whole contention really amounted to this, that the jury
were entitled to take into consideration the good or bad intent of the
authors, which is precisely the question which would now be put before
them in any matter which concerned the public. But at that time the
notion of a special privilege attaching to political discussion had
scarcely arisen, or was confined within very narrow limits, and the
cause of free political discussion seemed to be more safely entrusted to
juries than to courts. The question was finally settled by the Libel Act
1792, by which the jury were entitled to give a general verdict on the
whole matter put in issue.

  _Scots Law._--In Scots law there were originally three remedies for
  defamation. It might be prosecuted by or with the concurrence of the
  lord advocate before the court of justiciary; or, secondly, a criminal
  remedy might be obtained in the commissary (ecclesiastical) courts,
  which originally dealt with the defender by public retractation or
  penance, but subsequently made use of fines payable to their own
  procurator or to the party injured, these latter being regarded as
  solatium to his feelings; or, lastly, an action of damages was
  competent before the court of session, which was strictly civil in its
  character and aimed at the reparation of patrimonial loss. The first
  remedy has fallen into disuse; the second and third (the commissary
  courts being now abolished) are represented by the present action for
  damages or solatium. Originally the action before the court of session
  was strictly for damages--founded, not upon the _animus injuriandi_,
  but upon culpa, and could be defended by proving the truth of the
  statements. But in time the court of session began to assume the
  original jurisdiction of the commissary courts, and entertained
  actions for solatium in which the _animus injuriandi_ was a necessary
  element, and to which, as in Roman law, the truth was not necessarily
  a defence. Ultimately the two actions got very much confused. We find
  continual disputes as to the necessity for the _animus injuriandi_ and
  the applicability of the plea of _veritas convicii_, which arose from
  the fact that the courts were not always conscious that they were
  dealing with two actions, to one of which these notions were
  applicable, and to the other not. On the introduction of the jury
  court, presided over by an English lawyer, it was quite natural that
  he, finding no very clear distinction maintained between damage and
  solatium, applied the English plea of truth as a justification to
  every case, and retained the _animus injuriandi_ both in ordinary
  cases and cases of privilege in the same shape as the English
  conception of malice. The leading and almost only differences between
  the English and Scots law now are that the latter makes no essential
  distinction between oral and written defamation, that it practically
  gives an action for every case of defamation, oral or written, upon
  which in England a civil action might be maintained for libel, and
  that it possesses no criminal remedy. In consequence of the latter
  defect and the indiscriminate application of the plea of veritas to
  every case both of damages and solatium, there appears to be no remedy
  in Scotland even for the widest and most needless publication of
  offensive statements if only they are true.

  _American Law._--American law scarcely if at all differs from that of
  England. In so far indeed as the common law is concerned, they may be
  said to be substantially identical. The principal statutes which have
  altered the English criminal law are represented by equivalent
  legislation in most American states.

  See generally W. B. Odgers, _Libel and Slander_; Fraser, _Law of Libel
  and Slander_.

LIBELLATICI, the name given to a class of persons who, during the
persecution of Decius, A.D. 250, evaded the consequences of their
Christian belief by procuring documents (_libelli_) which certified that
they had satisfied the authorities of their submission to the edict
requiring them to offer incense or sacrifice to the imperial gods. As
thirty-eight years had elapsed since the last period of persecution, the
churches had become in many ways lax, and the number of those who failed
to hold out under the persecution was very great. The procedure of the
courts which had cognizance of the matter was, however, by no means
strict, and the judges and subordinate officials were often not
ill-disposed towards Christians, so that evasion was fairly easy. Many
of those who could not hold out were able to secure certificates which
gave them immunity from punishment without actually renouncing the
faith, just as "parliamentary certificates" of conformity used to be
given in England without any pretext of fact. It is to the persons who
received such certificates that the name _libellatici_ belonged (those
who actually fulfilled the edict being called _thurificati_ or
_sacrificati_). To calculate their number would be impossible, but we
know from the writings of Cyprian, Dionysius of Alexandria and other
contemporaries, that they were a numerous class, and that they were to
be found in Italy, in Egypt and in Africa, and among both clergy and
laity. Archbishop Benson is probably right in thinking that "there was
no systematic and regular procedure in the matter," and that the
_libelli_ may have been of very different kinds. They must, however, as
a general rule, have consisted of a certificate _from the authorities_
to the effect that the accused person had satisfied them. [The name
_libellus_ has also been applied to another kind of document--to the
letters given by confessors, or by those who were about to suffer
martyrdom, to persons who had fallen, to be used to secure forgiveness
for them from the authorities of the Church. With such _libelli_ we are
not here concerned.] The subject has acquired a fresh interest from the
fact that two of these actual _libelli_ have been recovered, in 1893 and
1894 respectively, both from Egypt; one is now in the Brugsch Pasha
collection in the Berlin Museum; the other is in the collection of
papyri belonging to the Archduke Rainer. The former is on a papyrus leaf
about 8 by 3 in., the latter on mere fragments of papyrus which have
been pieced together. The former was first deciphered and described by
Dr Fritz Krebs, the latter by Dr K. Wessely: both are given and
commented upon by Dr Benson. There is a remarkable similarity between
them: in each the form is that N. "was ever constant in sacrificing to
the gods"; and that he now, in the presence of the commissioners of the
sacrifices ([Greek: hoi hêrêmenoi tôn thysôn]), has both sacrificed and
drunk [_or_ has poured libations], and has tasted of the victims, in
witness whereof he begs them to sign this certificate. Then follows the
signature, with attestations. The former of the two is dated, and the
date must fall in the year 250. It is impossible to prove that either of
the documents actually refers to Christians: they may have been given to
pagans who had been accused and had cleared themselves, or to former
Christians who had apostatized. But no doubt _libelli_ in this same form
were delivered, in Egypt at least, to Christians who secured immunity
without actual apostasy; and the form in Italy and Africa probably did
not differ widely from this. The practice gave rise to complicated
problems of ecclesiastical discipline, which are reflected in the
correspondence of Cyprian and especially in the Novatian controversy.

  See E. W. Benson, _Cyprian_ (London, 1897); _Theol. Literaturzeitung_,
  20th of January and 17th of March 1894.     (W. E. Co.)

LIBER and LIBERA, in Roman mythology, deities, male and female,
identified with the Greek Dionysus and Persephone. In honour of Liber
(also called Liber Pater and Bacchus) two festivals were celebrated. In
the country feast of the vintage, held at the time of the gathering of
the grapes, and the city festival of March 17th called _Liberalia_
(Ovid, _Fasti_, iii. 711) we find purely Italian ceremonial unaffected
by Greek religion. The country festival was a great merry-making, where
the first-fruits of the new must were offered to the gods. It was
characterized by the grossest symbolism, in honour of the fertility of
nature. In the city festival, growing civilization had impressed a new
character on the primitive religion, and connected it with the framework
of society. At this time the youths laid aside the boy's _toga
praetexta_ and assumed the man's _toga libera_ or _virilis_ (_Fasti_,
iii. 771). Cakes of meal, honey and oil were offered to the two deities
at this festival. Liber was originally an old Italian god of the
productivity of nature, especially of the vine. His name indicated the
free, unrestrained character of his worship. When, at an early period,
the Hellenic religion of Demeter spread to Rome, Liber and Libera were
identified with Dionysus and Persephone, and associated with another
Italian goddess Ceres, who was identified with Demeter. By order of the
Sibylline books, a temple was built to these three deities near the
Circus Flaminius; the whole cultus was borrowed from the Greeks, down
even to the terminology, and priestesses were brought from the Greek

LIBERAL PARTY, in Great Britain, the name given to and accepted by the
successors of the old Whig party (see WHIG AND TORY), representing the
political party opposed to Toryism or Conservatism, and claiming to be the
originators and champions of political reform and progressive legislation.
The term came into general use definitely as the name of one of the two
great parties in the state when Mr Gladstone became its leader, but before
this it had already become current coin, as a political appellation,
through a natural association with the use of such phrases as "liberal
ideas," in the sense of "favourable to change," or "in support of
political freedom and democracy." In this respect it was the outcome of
the French Revolution, and in the early years of the 19th century the term
was used in a French form; thus Southey in 1816 wrote about the "British
_Liberales_." But the Reform Act and the work of Bentham and Mill resulted
in the crystallization of the term. In Leigh Hunt's autobiography (1850)
we read of "newer and more thorough-going Whigs ... known by the name of
Radicals ... since called Liberals"; and J. S. Mill in 1865 wrote (from
his own Liberal point of view), "A Liberal is he who looks forward for his
principles of government; a Tory looks backward." The gradual adoption of
the term for one of the great parties, superseding "Whig," was helped by
the transition period of "Liberal Conservatism," describing the position
of the later Peelites; and Mr Gladstone's own career is the best instance
of its changing signification; moreover the adjective "liberal" came
meanwhile into common use in other spheres than that of parliamentary
politics, e.g. in religion, as meaning "intellectually advanced" and free
from the trammels of tradition. Broadly speaking, the Liberal party stands
for progressive legislation in accordance with freedom of social
development and advanced ethical ideas. It claims to represent government
by the people, by means of trust in the people, in a sense which denies
genuine popular sympathy to its opponents. Being largely composed of
dissenters, it has identified itself with opposition to the vested
interests of the Church of England; and, being apt to be thwarted by the
House of Lords, with attempts to override the veto of that house. Its old
watchword, "Peace, retrenchment and reform," indicated its tendency to
avoidance of a "spirited" foreign policy, and to parsimony in expenditure.
But throughout its career the Liberal party has always been pushed forward
by its extreme Radical wing, and economy in the spending of public money
is no longer cherished by those who chiefly represent the non-taxpaying
classes. The party organization lends itself to the influence of new
forces. In 1861 a central organization was started in the "Liberal
Registration Association," composed "of gentlemen of known Liberal
opinions"; and a number of "Liberal Associations" soon rose throughout the
country. Of these, that at Birmingham became, under Mr J. Chamberlain and
his active supporter Mr Schnadhorst, particularly active in the
'seventies; and it was due to Mr Schnadhorst that in 1877 a conference was
held at Birmingham which resulted in the formation of the "National
Federation of Liberal Associations," or "National Liberal Federation,"
representing a system of organization which was dubbed by Lord
Beaconsfield "the Caucus." The Birmingham Caucus and the Central Liberal
Association thus coexisted, the first as an independent democratic
institution, the second as the official body representing the whips of the
party, the first more advanced and "Radical," the second inclined to
Whiggishness. Friction naturally resulted, but the 1880 elections
confirmed the success of the Caucus and consolidated its power. And in
spite of the Home Rule crisis in 1886, resulting in the splitting off of
the Liberal Unionists--"dissentient Liberals," as Mr Gladstone called
them--from the Liberal party, the organization of the National Liberal
Federation remained, in the dark days of the party, its main support. Its
headquarters were, however, removed to London, and under Mr Schnadhorst it
was practically amalgamated with the old Central Association.

It is impossible here to write in detail the later history of the
Liberal party, but the salient facts will be found in such articles as
those on Mr Gladstone, Mr J. Chamberlain, Lord Rosebery, Sir Henry
Campbell-Bannerman, Mr H. H. Asquith and Mr David Lloyd George.

  See, apart from general histories of the period, M. Ostrogorski's
  _Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties_ (Eng. trans.

LIBER DIURNUS ROMANORUM PONTIFICUM, or "Journal of the Roman Pontiffs,"
the name given to a collection of formulae used in the papal chancellery
in preparing official documents, such as the installation of a pope, the
bestowal of the pallium and the grant of papal privileges. It was
compiled between 685 and 751, and was constantly employed until the 11th
century, when, owing to the changed circumstances of the Church, it fell
into disuse, and was soon forgotten and lost. During the 17th century a
manuscript of the _Liber_ was discovered in Rome by the humanist, Lucas
Holstenius, who prepared an edition for publication; for politic
reasons, however, the papal authorities would not allow this to appear,
as the book asserted the superiority of a general council over the pope.
It was, however, published in France by the Jesuit, Jean Garnier, in
1680, and other editions quickly followed.

  The best modern editions are one by Eugène de Rozière (Paris, 1869)
  and another by T. E. von Sichel (Vienna, 1889), both of which contain
  critical introductions. The two existing manuscripts of the _Liber_
  are in the Vatican library, Rome, and in the library of St Ambrose at

LIBERIA, a negro republic in West Africa, extending along the coast of
northern Guinea about 300 m., between the British colony of Sierra Leone
on the N.W. and the French colony of the Ivory Coast on the S.E. The
westernmost point of Liberia (at the mouth of the river Mano) lies in
about 6° 55´ N. and 11° 32´ W. The southernmost point of Liberia, and at
the same time almost its most eastern extension, is at the mouth of the
Cavalla, beyond Cape Palmas, only 4° 22´ N. of the equator, and in about
7° 33´ W. The width of Liberia inland varies very considerably; it is
greatest, about 200 m., from N.E. to S.W. The Liberia-Sierra Leone
boundary was determined by a frontier commission in 1903. Commencing at
the mouth of the river Mano, it follows the Mano up stream till that
river cuts 10° 40´ W. It then followed this line of longitude to its
intersection with N. latitude 9° 6´, but by the Franco-Liberian
understanding of 1907 the frontier on this side was withdrawn to 8° 25´
N., where the river Makona crosses 10° 40' W. The Liberian frontier with
the adjacent French possessions was defined by the Franco-Liberian
treaty of 1892, but as the definition therein given was found to be very
difficult of reconciliation with geographical features (for in 1892 the
whole of the Liberian interior was unmapped) further negotiations were
set on foot. In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line
should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up
stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this
point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting
between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast
rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N.
latitude was reached, thence following this 8th degree eastwards to
where it cuts the head stream of the Cavalla river. From this point the
boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla
river from near its source to the sea. Within the limits above described
Liberia would possess a total area of about 43,000 to 45,000 sq. m. But
after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents"
France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition
of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows:--

  Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of
  Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the
  Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river
  Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of
  Bofosso. From this point the frontier shall leave the line of the
  Makona and be carried in a south-easterly direction to the source of
  the most north-westerly affluent of the Nuon river or Western Cavalla.
  This line shall be so drawn as to leave on the French side of the
  boundary the following towns: Kutumai, Kisi Kurumai, Sundibú, Zuapa,
  Nzibila, Koiama, Bangwedu and Lola. From the north-westernmost source
  of the Nuon the boundary shall follow the right bank of the said Nuon
  river down stream to its presumed confluence with the Cavalla, and
  thenceforward the right bank of the river Cavalla down to the sea. If
  the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then
  the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as
  far as the town of Tuleplan. A line shall then be drawn from the
  southern outskirts of the town of Tuleplan due E. to the Cavalla
  river, and thence shall follow the right bank of the Cavalla river to
  the sea.

  (The delimitation commission proved that the Nuon does not flow into
  the Cavalla, but about 6° 30´ N. it flows very near the
  north-westernmost bend of that river. Tuleplan is in about lat. 6° 50´
  N. The river Makona takes a much more northerly course than had been
  estimated. The river Nuon also is situated 20 or 30 m. farther to the
  east than had been supposed. Consequently the territory of Liberia as
  thus demarcated is rather larger than it would appear on the
  uncorrected English maps of 1907--about 41,000 sq. m.)

It is at the southern extremity of Liberia, Cape Palmas, that the West
African coast from Morocco to the southernmost extremity of Guinea turns
somewhat abruptly eastwards and northwards and faces the Gulf of Guinea.
As the whole coastline of Liberia thus fronts the sea route from Europe
to South Africa it is always likely to possess a certain degree of
strategical importance. The coast, however, is unprovided with a single
good harbour. The anchorage at Monrovia is safe, and with some
expenditure of money a smooth harbour could be made in front of Grand

  _Coast Features._--The coast is a good deal indented, almost all the
  headlands projecting from north-east to south-west. A good deal of
  the seaboard is dangerous by reason of the sharp rocks which lie near
  the surface. As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at
  the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the
  Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this
  part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a
  sunken land. In all probability the western projection of Africa was
  connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as
  the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch. The Liberian coast has few
  lagoons compared with the adjoining littoral of Sierra Leone or that
  of the Ivory Coast. The coast, in fact, rises in some places rather
  abruptly from the sea. Cape Mount (on the northern side of which is a
  large lagoon--Fisherman Lake) at its highest point is 1050 ft. above
  sea level. Cape Mesurado is about 350 ft., Cape Palmas about 200 ft.
  above the sea. There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas
  river and the vicinity of the Cavalla. Although very little of the
  coast belt is actually swampy, a kind of natural canalization connects
  many of the rivers at their mouths with each other, though some of
  these connecting creeks are as yet unmarked on maps.

  _Mountains._--Although there are patches of marsh--generally the
  swampy bottoms of valleys--the whole surface of Liberia inclines to be
  hilly or even mountainous at a short distance inland from the coast.
  In the north-east, French explorers have computed the altitudes of
  some mountains at figures which would make them the highest land
  surfaces of the western projection of Africa--from 6000 to 9000 ft.
  But these altitudes are largely matters of conjecture. The same
  mountains have been sighted by English explorers coming up from the
  south and are pronounced to be "very high." It is possible that they
  may reach to 6000 ft. in some places. Between the western bend of the
  Cavalla river and the coast there is a somewhat broken mountain range
  with altitudes of from 2000 to 5000 ft. (approximate). The Po range to
  the west of the St Paul's river may reach in places to 3000 ft.

  _Rivers._--The work of the Franco-Liberian delimitation commission in
  1908-1909 cleared up many points connected with the hydrography of the
  country. Notably it traced the upper Cavalla, proving that that river
  was not connected either with the Nuon on the west or the Ko or Zo on
  the east. The upper river and the left bank of the lower river of the
  Cavalla are in French territory. It rises in about 7° 50´ N., 8° 30´
  W. in the Nimba mountains, where also rise the Nuon, St John's and
  Dukwia rivers. After flowing S.E. the Cavalla, between 7° and 6° N.,
  under the name of Dugu, makes a very considerable elbow to the west,
  thereafter resuming its south-easterly course. It is navigable from
  the sea for some 80 m. from its mouth and after a long series of
  rapids is again navigable. Unfortunately the Cavalla does not afford a
  means of easy penetration into the rich hinterland of Liberia on
  account of the bad bar at its mouth. The Nuon (or Nipwe), which up to
  1908 was described sometimes as the western Cavalla and sometimes as
  the upper course of the St John's river, has been shown to be the
  upper course of the Cestos. About 6° 30´ N. it approaches within 16 m.
  of the Cavalla. It rises in the Nimba mountains some 10 m. S. of the
  source of the Cavalla, and like all the Liberian rivers (except the
  Cavalla) it has a general S.W. flow. The St Paul, though inferior to
  the Cavalla in length, is a large river with a considerable volume of
  water. The main branch rises in the Beila country nearly as far north
  as 9° N. under the name of Diani. Between 8° and 7° N. it is joined by
  the Wé from the west and the Walé from the east. The important river
  Lofa flows nearly parallel with the St Paul's river and enters the sea
  about 40 m. to the west, under the name of Little Cape Mount river.
  The Mano or Bewa river rises in the dense Gora forest, but is of no
  great importance until it becomes the frontier between Liberia and
  Sierra Leone. The Dukwia and Farmington are tortuous rivers entering
  the sea under the name of the river Junk (Portuguese, _Junco_). The
  Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the
  lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of
  the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of
  the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.
  The Sino river rises in the Niete mountains and brings down a great
  volume of water to the sea, though it is not a river of considerable
  length. The Duobe rises at the back of the Satro Mountains and flows
  nearly parallel with the Cavalla, which it joins. The Moa or Makona
  river is a fine stream of considerable volume, but its course is
  perpetually interrupted by rocks and rapids. Its lower course is
  through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the

  _Climate and Rainfall._--Liberia is almost everywhere well watered.
  The climate and rainfall over the whole of the coast region for about
  120 m. inland are equatorial, the rainfall in the western half of the
  country being about 150 in. per annum and in the eastern half about
  100 in. North of a distance of about 120 m. inland the climate is not
  quite so rainy, and the weather is much cooler during the dry season.
  This region beyond the hundred-miles coast belt is far more agreeable
  and healthy to Europeans.

  _Forests._--Outside a coast belt of about 20 m. and south of 8° N. the
  country is one vast forest, except where the natives have cleared the
  land for cultivation. In many districts the land has been cleared and
  cultivated and then abandoned, and has relapsed into scrub and jungle
  which is gradually returning to the condition of forest. The densest
  forest of all would seem to be that known as Gora, which is almost
  entirely uninhabited and occupies an area of about 6000 sq. m. between
  the Po hills and the British frontier. There is another very dense
  forest stretching with little interruption from the eastern side of
  the St Paul's river nearly to the Cavalla. The Nidi forest is
  noteworthy for its magnificent growth of _Funtumia_ rubber trees. It
  extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers. The extreme north of
  Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country,
  covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks
  that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in
  which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up. In the main Liberia is
  the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this
  region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both
  Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical
  geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as
  to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its
  existing fauna.

  _Fauna._--The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate
  as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a
  "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in
  this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northern-most
  portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into
  Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast. It is probable that the
  Liberian chimpanzee may offer one or more distinct varieties; there is
  an interesting local development of the Diana monkey, sometimes called
  the bay-thighed monkey (_Cercopithecus diana ignita_) on account of
  its brilliant orange-red thighs. One or more species of bats are
  peculiar to the country--_Vespertilio stampflii_, and perhaps
  _Roussettus büttikoferi_; two species of shrew (_Crocidura_), one
  dormouse (_Graphiurus nagtglasii_); the pygmy hippopotamus (_H.
  liberiensis_)--differing from the common hippopotamus by its much
  smaller size and by the reduction of the incisor teeth to a single
  pair in either jaw, or occasionally to the odd number of three; and
  two remarkable _Cephalophus_ antelopes peculiar to this region so far
  as is known--these are the white-shouldered duiker, _Cephalophus
  jentinki_, and the zebra antelope, _C. doriae_, a creature the size of
  a small goat, of a bright bay brown, with broad black zebra-like
  stripes. Amongst other interesting mammals are four species of the
  long-haired _Colobus_ monkeys (black, black and white, greenish-grey
  and reddish-brown); the Potto lemur, fruit bats of large size with
  monstrous heads (_Hypsignathus monstrosus_); the brush-tailed African
  porcupine; several very brightly coloured squirrels; the scaly-tailed
  flying _Anomalurus_; the common porcupine; the leopard, serval, golden
  cat (_Felis celidogaster_) in two varieties, the copper-coloured and
  the grey, possibly the same animal at different ages; the striped and
  spotted hyenas (beyond the forest region); two large otters; the tree
  hyrax, elephant and manati; the red bush pig (_Potamochoerus porcus_);
  the West African chevrotain (_Dorcatherium_); the Senegalese buffalo;
  Bongo antelope (_Boocercus_); large yellow-backed duiker (_Cephalophus
  sylvicultrix_), black duiker, West African hartebeest (beyond the
  forest), pygmy antelope (_Neotragus_); and three species of _Manis_ or
  pangolin (_M. gigantea_, _M. longicaudata_ and _M. tricuspis_).

  The birds of Liberia are not quite so peculiar as the mammals. There
  is the interesting white-necked guineafowl, _Agelastes_ (which is
  found on the Gold Coast and elsewhere west of the lower Niger); there
  is one peculiar species of eagle owl (_Bubo lettii_) and a very
  handsome sparrow-hawk (_Accipiter büttikoferi_); a few sun-birds,
  warblers and shrikes are peculiar to the region. The other birds are
  mainly those of Senegambia and of the West African forest region
  generally. A common and handsome bird is the blue plantain-eater
  (_Corythaeola_). The fishing vulture (_Gypohierax_) is found in all
  the coast districts, but true vultures are almost entirely absent
  except from the north, where the small brown _Percnopterus_ makes its
  appearance. A flamingo (_Phoeniconaias_) visits Fisherman Lake, and
  there are a good many species of herons. Cuckoos are abundant, some of
  them of lovely plumage, also rollers, kingfishers and horn-bills. The
  last family is well represented, especially by the three forest
  forms--the elate hornbill and black hornbill (_Ceratogymna_), and the
  long-tailed, white-crested hornbill (_Ortholophus leucolophus_). There
  is one trogon--green and crimson, a brightly coloured ground thrush
  (_Pitta_), numerous woodpeckers and barbets; glossy starlings, the
  black and white African crow and a great variety of brilliantly
  coloured weaver birds, waxbills, shrikes and sun-birds.

  As regards reptiles, there are at least seven poisonous snakes--two
  cobras, two puff-adders and three vipers. The brilliantly coloured red
  and blue lizard (_Agama colonorum_) is found in the coast region of
  eastern Liberia. There are three species of crocodile, at least two
  chameleons (probably more when the forest is further explored), the
  large West African python (_P. sebae_) and a rare Boine snake
  (Calabaria). On the sea coast there is the leathery turtle
  (_Dermochelis_) and also the green turtle (_Chelone_). In the rivers
  and swamps there are soft-shelled turtle (_Trionyx_ and
  _Sternothaerus_). The land tortoises chiefly belong to the genus
  _Cynyxis_. The fresh-water fish seem in their affinities to be nearly
  allied to those of the Niger and the Nile. There is a species of
  _Polypterus_, and it is probable that the _Protopterus_ or lung fish
  is also found there, though its existence has not as yet been
  established by a specimen. As regards invertebrates, very few species
  or genera are peculiar to Liberia so far as is yet known, though there
  are probably one or two butterflies of local range. The gigantic
  scorpions (_Pandinus imperator_)--more than 6 in. long--are a common
  feature in the forest. One noteworthy feature in Liberia, however, is
  the relative absence of mosquitoes, and the white ants and some other
  insect pests are not so troublesome here as in other parts of West
  Africa. The absence or extreme paucity of mosquitoes no doubt accounts
  for the infrequency of malarial fever in the interior.

  _Flora._--Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a
  more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the
  adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast. This is partly
  due to the equatorial position and the heavy rainfall. The region of
  dense forest, however, does not cover the whole of Liberia; the Makona
  river and the northern tributaries of the Lofa and St Paul's flow
  through a mountainous country covered with grass and thinly scattered
  trees, while the ravines and watercourses are still richly forested. A
  good deal of this absence of forest is directly due to the action of
  man. Year by year the influence of the Mahommedan tribes on the north
  leads to the cutting down of the forest, the extension of both
  planting and pasture and the introduction of cattle and even horses.
  In the regions bordering the coast also a good deal of the forest has
  disappeared, its place being taken (where the land is not actually
  cultivated) by very dense scrub. The most striking trees in the forest
  region are, in the basin of the Cavalla, the giant _Funtumia
  elastica_, which grows to an altitude of 200 ft.; various kinds of
  _Parinarium_, _Oldfieldia_ and _Khaya_; the bombax or cotton tree,
  giant dracaenas, many kinds of fig; _Borassus_ palms, oil palms, the
  climbing _Calamus_ palms, and on the coast the coconut. The most
  important palm of the country perhaps is the _Raphia vinifera_, which
  produces the piassava fibre of commerce. There are about twenty-two
  different trees, shrubs and vines producing rubber of more or less
  good quality. These belong chiefly to the Apocynaceous order. In this
  order is the genus _Strophanthus_, which is represented in Liberia by
  several species, amongst others _S. gratus_. This _Strophanthus_ is
  not remarkable for its rubber--which is mere bird lime--but for the
  powerful poison of its seeds, often used for poisoning arrows, but of
  late much in use as a drug for treating diseases of the heart. Coffee
  of several species is indigenous and grows wild. The best known is the
  celebrated _Coffea liberica_. The kola tree is also indigenous. Large
  edible nuts are derived from _Coula edulis_ of the order Olacineae.
  The country is exceedingly rich in Aroids, many of which are
  epiphytic, festooning the trunks of tall trees with a magnificent
  drapery of abundant foliage. A genus much represented is _Culcasia_,
  and swampy localities are thickly set with the giant _Cyrtosperma_
  arum, with flower spathes that are blotched with deep purple. Ground
  orchids and tree orchids are well represented; _Polystachya liberica_,
  an epiphytic orchid with sprays of exquisite small flowers of purple
  and gold, might well be introduced into horticulture for its beauty.
  The same might be said of the magnificent _Lissochilus roseus_, a
  terrestrial orchid, growing to 7 ft. in height, with rose-coloured
  flowers nearly 1 in. long; there are other orchids of fantastic design
  in their green and white flowers, some of which have spurs (nectaries)
  nearly 7 in. long.

  Many trees offer magnificent displays of flowers at certain seasons of
  the year; perhaps the loveliest effect is derived from the bushes and
  trailing creepers of the _Combretum_ genus, which, during the "winter"
  months from December to March, cover the scrub and the forest with
  mantles of rose colour. _Smaethmannia_ trees are thickly set at this
  season with large blossoms of waxen white. Very beautiful also are the
  red velvet or white velvet sepals of the _Mussaenda_ genus. Bamboos of
  the genus _Oxytenanthera_ are indigenous. Tree ferns are found on the
  mountains above 4000 ft. The bracken grows in low sandy tracts near
  the coast. The country in general is a fern paradise, and the
  iridescent creeping _Selaginella_ (akin to _Lycopodium_) festoons the
  undergrowth by the wayside. The cultivated trees and plants of
  importance are, besides rubber, the manioc or cassada, the orange
  tree, lime, cacao, coffee, pineapple (which now runs wild over the
  whole of Liberia), sour sop, ginger, papaw, alligator apple, avocado
  pear, okro, cotton (_Gossypium peruvianum_--the kidney cotton),
  indigo, sweet potato, capsicum (chillie), bread-fruit, arrowroot
  (_Maranta_), banana, yam, "coco"-yam (_Colocasia antiquorum_, var.
  _esculenta_), maize, sorghum, sugar cane, rice and eleusine
  (_Eleusine_), besides gourds, pumpkins, cabbages and onions.

  _Minerals._--The hinterland of Liberia has been but slightly explored
  for mineral wealth. In a general way it is supposed that the lands
  lying between the lower St Paul's river and the Sierra Leone frontier
  are not much mineralized, except that in the vicinity of river mouths
  there are indications of bitumen. The sand of nearly all the rivers
  contains a varying proportion of gold. Garnets and mica are everywhere
  found. There have been repeated stories of diamonds obtained from the
  Finley Mountains (which are volcanic) in the central province, but all
  specimens sent home, except one, have hitherto proved to be quartz
  crystals. There are indications of sapphires and other forms of
  corundum. Corundum indeed is abundantly met with in the eastern half
  of Liberia. The sand of the rivers contains monazite. Graphite has
  been discovered in the Po Hills. Lead has been reported from the Nidi
  or Niete Mountains. Gold is present in some abundance in the river
  sand of central Liberia, and native reports speak of the far interior
  as being rich in gold. Iron--haematite--is present almost everywhere.
  There are other indications of bitumen, besides those mentioned, in
  the coast region of eastern Liberia.

_History and Population._--Tradition asserts that the Liberian coast was
first visited by Europeans when it was reached by the Dieppois
merchant-adventurers in the 14th century. The French in the 17th century
claimed that but for the loss of the archives of Dieppe they would be
able to prove that vessels from this Norman port had established
settlements at Grand Basa, Cape Mount, and other points on the coast of
Liberia. No proof has yet been forthcoming, however, that the Portuguese
were not the first white men to reach this coast. The first Portuguese
pioneer was Pedro de Sintra, who discovered and noted in 1461 the
remarkable promontory of Cape Mount, Cape Mesurado (where the capital,
Monrovia, is now situated) and the mouth of the Junk river. In 1462 de
Sintra returned with another Portuguese captain, Sueiro da Costa, and
penetrated as far as Cape Palmas and the Cavalla river. Subsequently the
Portuguese mapped the whole coast of Liberia, and nearly all the
prominent features--capes, rivers, islets--off that coast still bear
Portuguese names. From the 16th century onwards, English, Dutch, German,
French and other European traders contested the commerce of this coast
with the Portuguese, and finally drove them away. In the 18th century
France once or twice thought of establishing colonies here. At the end
of the 18th century, when the tide was rising in favour of the abolition
of slavery and the repatriation of slaves, the Grain Coast [so called
from the old trade in the "Grains of Paradise" or _Amomum_ pepper] was
suggested once or twice as a suitable home for repatriated negroes.
Sierra Leone, however, was chosen first on account of its possessing an
admirable harbour. But in 1821 Cape Mesurado was selected by the
American Colonization Society as an appropriate site for the first
detachment of American freed negroes, whom difficulties in regard to
extending the suffrage in the United States were driving away from a
still slave-holding America. From that date, 1821, onwards to the
present day, negroes and mulattos--freed slaves or the descendants of
such--have been crossing the Atlantic in small numbers to settle on the
Liberian coast. The great migrations took place during the first half of
the 19th century. Only two or three thousand American emigrants--at
most--have come to Liberia since 1860.

The colony was really founded by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American,
between 1822 and 1828. The name "Liberia" was invented by the Rev. R. R.
Gurley in 1824. In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to
be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was
recognized in 1848-1849 by most of the great powers with the exception
of the United States. Until 1857 Liberia consisted of two
republics--Liberia and Maryland. These American settlements were dotted
at intervals along the coast from the mouth of the Sewa river on the
west to the San Pedro river on the east (some 60 m. beyond Cape Palmas).
Some tracts of territory, such as the greater part of the Kru coast,
still, however, remain without foreign--American--settlers, and in a
state of quasi-independence. The uncertainty of Liberian occupation led
to frontier troubles with Great Britain and disputes with France.
Finally, by the English and French treaties of 1885 and 1892 Liberian
territory on the coast was made continuous, but was limited to the strip
of about 300 m. between the Mano river on the west and the Cavalla river
on the east. The Sierra Leone-Liberia frontier was demarcated in 1903;
then followed the negotiations with France for the exact delimitation of
the Ivory Coast-Liberia frontier, with the result that Liberia lost part
of the hinterland she had claimed. Reports of territorial encroachments
aroused much sympathy with Liberia in America and led in February 1909
to the appointment by President Roosevelt of a commission which visited
Liberia in the summer of that year to investigate the condition of the
country. As a result of the commissioners' report negotiations were set
on foot for the adjustment of the Liberian debt and the placing of
United States officials in charge of the Liberian customs. In July 1910
it was announced that the American government, acting in general
agreement with Great Britain, France and Germany, would take charge of
the finances, military organization, agriculture and boundary questions
of the republic. A loan for £400,000 was also arranged. Meantime the
attempts of the Liberian government to control the Kru coast led to
various troubles, such as the fining or firing upon foreign steamships
for alleged contraventions of regulations. During 1910 the natives in
the Cape Palmas district were at open warfare with the Liberian

One of the most notable of the Liberian presidents was J. J. Roberts,
who was nearly white, with only a small proportion of negro blood in his
veins. But perhaps the ablest statesman that this American-Negro
republic has as yet produced is a pure-blooded negro--President Arthur
Barclay, a native of Barbados in the West Indies, who came to Liberia
with his parents in the middle of the 19th century, and received all his
education there. President Barclay was of unmixed negro descent, but
came of a Dahomey stock of superior type.[1] Until the accession to
power of President Barclay in 1904 (he was re-elected in 1907), the
Americo-Liberian government on the coast had very uncertain relations
with the indigenous population, which is well armed and tenacious of
local independence. But of late Liberian influence has been extending,
more especially in the counties of Maryland and Montserrado.

The president is now elected for a term of four years. There is a
legislature of eight senators and thirteen representatives. The type of
the constitution is very like that of the United States. Increasing
attention is being given to education, to deal with which there are
several colleges and a number of schools. The judicial functions are
discharged by four grades of officials--the local magistrates, the
courts of common pleas, the quarterly courts (five in number) and the
supreme court.

The customs service includes British customs officers lent to the
Liberian service. A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the
British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty
officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government. The language
of government and trade is English, which is understood far and wide
throughout Liberia. As the origin of the Sierra Leonis and the
Americo-Liberian settlers was very much the same, an increasing intimacy
is growing up between the English-speaking populations of these
adjoining countries. Order is maintained in Liberia to some extent by a

The population of Americo-Liberian origin in the coast regions is
estimated at from 12,000 to 15,000. To these must be added about 40,000
civilized and Christianized negroes who make common cause with the
Liberians in most matters, and have gradually been filling the position
of Liberian citizens.

For administrative purposes the country is divided into four counties,
Montserrado, Basa, Sino and Maryland, but Cape Mount in the far west and
the district round it has almost the status of a fifth county. The
approximate revenue for 1906 was £65,000, and the expenditure about
£60,000, but some of the revenue was still collected in paper of
uncertain value. There are three custom-houses, or ports of entry on the
Sierra Leone land frontier between the Moa river on the north and the
Mano on the south, and nine ports of entry along the coast. At all of
these Europeans are allowed to settle and trade, and with very slight
restrictions they may now trade almost anywhere in Liberia. The rubber
trade is controlled by the Liberian Rubber Corporation, which holds a
special concession from the Liberian government for a number of years,
and is charged with the preservation of the forests. Another English
company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to
connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river. The trade is done
almost entirely with Great Britain, Germany and Holland, but friendly
relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in
Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.

The indigenous population must be considered one of the assets of
Liberia. The native population--apart from the American element--is
estimated at as much as 2,000,000; for although large areas appear to
be uninhabited forest, other parts are most densely populated, owing to
the wonderful fertility of the soil. The native tribes belong more or
less to the following divisions, commencing on the west, and proceeding
eastwards: (1) Vai, Gbandi, Kpwesi, Mende, Buzi and Mandingo (the Vai,
Mende and Mandingo are Mahommedans); all these tribes speak languages
derived from a common stock. (2) In the densest forest region between
the Mano and the St Paul's river is the powerful Gora tribe of unknown
linguistic affinities. (3) In the coast region between the St Paul's
river and the Cavalla (and beyond) are the different tribes of Kru stock
and language family--De, Basa, Gibi, Kru, Grebo, Putu, Sikoñ, &c. &c.
The actual Kru tribe inhabits the coast between the river Cestos on the
west and Grand Sesters on the east. It is known all over the Atlantic
coasts of Africa, as it furnishes such a large proportion of the seamen
employed on men-of-war and merchant ships in these tropical waters. Many
of the indigenous races of Liberia in the forest belt beyond 40 m. from
the coast still practise cannibalism. In some of these forest tribes the
women still go quite naked, but clothes of a Mahommedan type are fast
spreading over the whole country. Some of the indigenous races are of
very fine physique. In the Nidi country the women are generally taller
than the men. No traces of a Pygmy race have as yet been discovered, nor
any negroes of low physiognomy. Some of the Krumen are coarse and ugly,
and this is the case with the Mende people; but as a rule the indigenes
of Liberia are handsome, well-proportioned negroes, and some of the
Mandingos have an almost European cast of feature.

  AUTHORITIES.--Col. Wauwerman, _Liberia; Histoire de la fondation d'un
  état nègre_ (Brussels, 1885); J. Büttikofer, _Reisebilder aus Liberia_
  (Leiden, 1890); Sir Harry Johnston, _Liberia_ (2 vols., London, 1906),
  with full bibliography; Maurice Delafosse, _Vocabulaires comparatifs
  de plus de 60 langues et dialectes parlés à la Côte d'Ivoire et dans
  la région limitrophe_ (1904), a work which, though it professes to
  deal mainly with philology, throws a wonderful light on the
  relationships and history of the native tribes of Liberia.
       (H. H. J.)


  [1] Amongst other remarkable negroes that Liberian education produced
    was Dr E. W. Blyden (b. 1832), the author of many works dealing with
    negro questions.

LIBERIUS, pope from 352 to 366, the successor of Julius I., was
consecrated according to the _Catalogus Liberianus_ on the 22nd of May.
His first recorded act was, after a synod had been held at Rome, to
write to Constantius, then in quarters at Arles (353-354), asking that a
council might be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of
Athanasius; but his messenger Vincentius of Capua was compelled by the
emperor at a conciliabulum held in Arles to subscribe against his will a
condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria. In 355 Liberius
was one of the few who, along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of
Milan and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of
Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by imperial command
upon all the Western bishops; the consequence was his relegation to
Beroea in Thrace, Felix II. (antipope) being consecrated his successor
by three "catascopi haud episcopi," as Athanasius called them. At the
end of an exile of more than two years he yielded so far as to subscribe
a formula giving up the "homoousios," to abandon Athanasius, and to
accept the communion of his adversaries--a serious mistake, with which
he has justly been reproached. This submission led the emperor to recall
him from exile; but, as the Roman see was officially occupied by Felix,
a year passed before Liberius was sent to Rome. It was the emperor's
intention that Liberius should govern the Church jointly with Felix, but
on the arrival of Liberius, Felix was expelled by the Roman people.
Neither Liberius nor Felix took part in the council of Rimini (359).
After the death of the emperor Constantius in 361, Liberius annulled the
decrees of that assembly, but, with the concurrence of SS. Athanasius
and Hilarius, retained the bishops who had signed and then withdrawn
their adherence. In 366 Liberius gave a favourable reception to a
deputation of the Eastern episcopate, and admitted into his communion
the more moderate of the old Arian party. He died on the 24th of
September 366.

  His biographers used to be perplexed by a letter purporting to be from
  Liberius, in the works of Hilary, in which he seems to write, in 352,
  that he had excommunicated Athanasius at the instance of the Oriental
  bishops; but the document is now held to be spurious. See Hefele,
  _Conciliengesch_. i. 648 seq. Three other letters, though contested by
  Hefele, seem to have been written by Liberius at the time of his
  submission to the emperor.     (L. D.*)

popes), consists of the lives of the bishops of Rome from the time of St
Peter to the death of Nicholas I. in 867. A supplement continues the
series of lives almost to the close of the 9th century, and several
other continuations were written later. During the 16th century there
was some discussion about the authorship of the _Liber_, and for some
time it was thought to be the work of an Italian monk, Anastasius
Bibliothecarius (d. 886). It is now, however, practically certain that
it was of composite authorship and that the earlier part of it was
compiled about 530, three centuries before the time of Anastasius. This
is the view taken by Louis Duchesne and substantially by G. Waitz and T.
Mommsen, although these scholars think that it was written about a
century later. The _Liber_ contains much information about papal affairs
in general, and about endowments, martyrdoms and the like, but a
considerable part of it is obviously legendary. It assumes that the
bishops of Rome exercised authority over the Christian Church from its
earliest days.

  _The Liber_, which was used by Bede for his _Historia Ecclesiastica_,
  was first printed at Mainz in 1602. Among other editions is the one
  edited by T. Mommsen for the _Monumenta Germaniae historica. Gesta
  Romanorum pontificum_, Band i., but the best is the one by L.
  Duchesne, _Le Liber pontificalis: texte, introduction, commentaire_
  (Paris, 1884-1892). See also the same writer's _Étude sur le Liber
  pontificalis_ (Paris, 1877); and the article by A. Brackmann in
  Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_, Band xi. (Leipzig, 1902).

LIBERTAD, or LA LIBERTAD, a coast department of Peru, bounded N. by
Lambayeque and Cajamarca, E. by San Martin, S. by Ancachs, S.W. and W.
by the Pacific. Pop. (1906 estimate) 188,200; area 10,209 sq. m.
Libertad formerly included the present department of Lambayeque. The
Western Cordillera divides it into two nearly equal parts; the western
consisting of a narrow, arid, sandy coast zone and the western slopes of
the Cordillera broken into valleys by short mountain spurs, and the
eastern a high inter-Andine valley lying between the Western and Central
Cordilleras and traversed by the upper Marañon or Amazon, which at one
point is less than 90 m. in a straight line from the Pacific coast. The
coast region is traversed by several short streams, which are fed by the
melting snows of the Cordillera and are extensively used for irrigation.
These are (the names also applying to their valleys) the Jequetepeque or
Pacasmayo, in whose valley rice is an important product, the Chicama, in
whose valley the sugar plantations are among the largest and best in
Peru, the Moche, Viru, Chao and Santa; the last, with its northern
tributary, the Tablachaca, forming the southern boundary line of the
department. The Santa Valley is also noted for its sugar plantations.
Cotton is produced in several of these valleys, coffee in the Pacasmayo
district, and coca on the mountain slopes about Huamachuco and Otuzco,
at elevations of 3000 to 6000 ft. above sea-level. The upland regions,
which have a moderate rainfall and a cool, healthy climate, are partly
devoted to agriculture on a small scale (producing wheat, Indian corn,
barley, potatoes, quinua, alfalfa, fruit and vegetables), partly to
grazing and partly to mining. Cattle and sheep have been raised on the
upland pastures of Libertad and Ancachs since early colonial times, and
the llama and alpaca were reared throughout this "sierra" country long
before the Spanish conquest. Gold and silver mines are worked in the
districts of Huamachuco, Otuzco and Pataz, and coal has been found in
the first two. The department had 169 m. of railway in 1906, viz.: from
Pacasmayo to Yonán (in Cajamarca) with a branch to Guadalupe, 60 m.;
from Salaverry to Trujillo with its extension to Ascope, 47 m.; from
Trujillo to Laredo, Galindo and Menocucho, 18½ m.; from Huanchaco to
Roma, 25 m.; and from Chicama to Pampas, 18½ m. The principal ports are
Pacasmayo and Salaverry, which have long iron piers built by the
national government; Malabrigo, Huanchuco, Guañape and Chao are open
roadsteads. The capital of the department is Trujillo. The other
principal towns are San Pedro, Otuzco, Huamachuco, Santiago de Chuco
and Tuyabamba--all provincial capitals and important only through their
mining interests, except San Pedro, which stands in the fertile district
of the Jequetepeque. The population of Otuzco (35 m. N.E. of Trujillo)
was estimated to be about 4000 in 1896, that of Huamachuco (65 m. N.E.
of Trujillo) being perhaps slightly less.

LIBERTARIANISM (from Lat. _libertas_, freedom), in ethics, the doctrine
which maintains the freedom of the will, as opposed to necessitarianism
or determinism. It has been held in various forms. In its extreme form
it maintains that the individual is absolutely free to chose this or
that action indifferently (the _liberum arbitrium indifferentiae_), but
most libertarians admit that acquired tendencies, environment and the
like, exercise control in a greater or less degree.

LIBERTINES, the nickname, rather than the name, given to various
political and social parties. It is futile to deduce the name from the
Libertines of Acts vi. 9; these were "sons of freedmen," for it is vain
to make them citizens of an imaginary Libertum, or to substitute (with
Beza) Libustines, in the sense of inhabitants of Libya. In a sense akin
to the modern use of the term "libertine," i.e. a person who sets the
rules of morality, &c., at defiance, the word seems first to have been
applied, as a stigma, to Anabaptists in the Low Countries (Mark
Pattison, _Essays_, ii. 38). It has become especially attached to the
liberal party in Geneva, opposed to Calvin and carrying on the tradition
of the Liberators in that city; but the term was never applied to them
till after Calvin's death (F. W. Kampschulte, _Johann Calvin_). Calvin,
who wrote against the "Libertins qui se nomment Spirituelz" (1545),
never confused them with his political antagonists in Geneva, called
Perrinistes from their leader Amadeo Perrin. The objects of Calvin's
polemic were the Anabaptists above mentioned, whose first obscure leader
was Coppin of Lisle, followed by Quintin of Hennegau, by whom and his
disciples, Bertram des Moulins and Claude Perseval, the principles of
the sect were disseminated in France. Quintin was put to death as a
heretic at Tournai in 1546. His most notable follower was Antoine
Pocquet, a native of Enghien, Belgium, priest and almoner (1540-1549),
afterwards pensioner of the queen of Navarre, who was a guest of Bucer
at Strassburg (1543-1544) and died some time after 1560. Calvin (who had
met Quintin in Paris) describes the doctrines he impugns as pantheistic
and antinomian.

  See Choisy in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ (1902).     (A. Go.*)

LIBERTINES, SYNAGOGUE OF THE, a section of the Hellenistic Jews who
attacked Stephen (Acts vi. 9). The passage reads, [Greek: tines tôn êk
tês sunagôgês tês legomenês Libertinôn, kai Kurênaiôn kai Alexandreôn,
kai tôn apo Kilikias kai Asias], and opinion is divided as to the number
of synagogues here named. The probability is that there are three,
corresponding to the geographical regions involved, (1) Rome and Italy,
(2) N.E. Africa, (3) Asia Minor. In this case "the Synagogue of the
Libertines" is the assembly of "the Freedmen" from Rome, descendants of
the Jews enslaved by Pompey after his conquest of Judaea 63 B.C. If,
however, we take [Greek: Libertinôn kai Kurênaiôn kai Alexandreôn]
closely together, the first name must denote the people of some city or
district. The obscure town Libertum (inferred from the title Episcopus
Libertinensis in connexion with the synod of Carthage, A.D. 411) is less
likely than the reading ([Greek: Libuôn] or) [Greek: Libustinôn]
underlying certain Armenian versions and Syriac commentaries. The Greek
towns lying west from Cyrene would naturally be called Libyan. In any
case the interesting point is that these returned Jews, instead of being
liberalized by their residence abroad, were more tenacious of Judaism
and more bitter against Stephen than those who had never left Judaea.

LIBERTY (Lat. _libertas_, from _liber_, free), generally the state of
freedom, especially opposed to subjection, imprisonment or slavery, or
with such restricted or figurative meaning as the circumstances imply.
The history of political liberty is in modern days identified
practically with the progress of civilization. In a more particular
sense, "a liberty" is the term for a franchise, a privilege or branch of
the crown's prerogative granted to a subject, as, for example, that of
executing legal process; hence the district over which the privilege
extends. Such liberties are exempt from the jurisdiction of the sheriff
and have separate commissions of the peace, but for purposes of local
government form part of the county in which they are situated. The
exemption from the jurisdiction of the sheriff was recognized in England
by the Sheriffs Act 1887, which provides that the sheriff of a county
shall appoint a deputy at the expense of the lord of the liberty, such
deputy to reside in or near the liberty. The deputy receives and opens
in the sheriff's name all writs, the return or execution of which
belongs to the bailiff of the liberty, and issues to the bailiff the
warrant required for the due execution of such writs. The bailiff then
becomes liable for non-execution, mis-execution or insufficient return
of any writs, and in the case of non-return of any writ, if the sheriff
returns that he has delivered the writ to a bailiff of a liberty, the
sheriff will be ordered to execute the writ notwithstanding the liberty,
and must cause the bailiff to attend before the high court of justice
and answer why he did not execute the writ.

In nautical phraseology various usages of the term are derived from its
association with a sailor's leave on shore, e.g. liberty-man,
liberty-day, liberty-ticket.

  _A History of Modern Liberty_, in eight volumes, of which the third
  appeared in 1906, has been written by James Mackinnon; see also Lord
  Acton's lectures, and such works as J. S. Mill's _On Liberty_ and Sir
  John Seeley's _Introduction to Political Science_.

LIBERTY PARTY, the first political party organized in the United States
to oppose the spread and restrict the political power of slavery, and
the lineal precursor of the Free Soil and Republican parties. It
originated in the Old North-west. Its organization was preceded there by
a long anti-slavery religious movement. James G. Birney (q.v.), to whom
more than to any other man belongs the honour of founding and leading
the party, began to define the political duties of so-called
"abolitionists" about 1836; but for several years thereafter he, in
common with other leaders, continued to disclaim all idea of forming a
political party. In state and local campaigns, however, non-partisan
political action was attempted through the questioning of Whig and
Democratic candidates. The utter futility of seeking to obtain in this
way any satisfactory concessions to anti-slavery sentiment was speedily
and abundantly proved. There arose, consequently, a division in the
American Anti-slavery Society between those who were led by W. L.
Garrison (q.v.), and advocated political non-resistance--and, besides,
had loaded down their anti-slavery views with a variety of religious and
social vagaries, unpalatable to all but a small number--and those who
were led by Birney, and advocated independent political action. The
sentiment of the great majority of "abolitionists" was, by 1838,
strongly for such action; and it was clearly sanctioned and implied in
the constitution and declared principles of the Anti-slavery Society;
but the capture of that organization by the Garrisonians, in a "packed"
convention in 1830, made it unavailable as a party nucleus--even if it
had not been already outgrown--and hastened a separate party
organization. A convention of abolitionists at Warsaw, New York, in
November 1839 had resolved that abolitionists were bound by every
consideration of duty and expediency to organize an independent
political party. Accordingly, the political abolitionists, in another
convention at Albany, in April 1840, containing delegates from six
states but not one from the North-west, launched the "Liberty Party,"
and nominated Birney for the presidency. In the November election he
received 7069 votes.[1]

The political "abolitionists" were abolitionists only as they were
restrictionists: they wished to use the federal government to exclude
(or abolish) slavery from the federal Territories and the District of
Columbia, but they saw no opportunity to attack slavery in the
states--i.e. to attack the institution _per se_; also they declared
there should be "absolute and unqualified division of the General
Government from slavery"--which implied an amendment of the
constitution. They proposed to use ordinary moral and political means to
attain their ends--not, like the Garrisonians, to abstain from voting,
or favour the dissolution of the Union.

After 1840 the attempt began in earnest to organize the Liberty Party
thoroughly, and unite all anti-slavery men. The North-west, where "there
was, after 1840, very little known of Garrison and his methods" (T. C.
Smith), was the most promising field, but though the contest of state
and local campaigns gave morale to the party, it made scant political
gains (in 1843 it cast hardly 10% of the total vote); it could not
convince the people that slavery should be made the paramount question
in politics. In 1844, however, the Texas question gave slavery precisely
this pre-eminence in the presidential campaign. Until then, neither
Whigs nor Democrats had regarded the Liberty Party seriously; now,
however, each party charged that the Liberty movement was corruptly
auxiliary to the other. As the campaign progressed, the Whigs
alternately abused the Liberty men and made frantic appeals for their
support. But the Liberty men were strongly opposed to Clay personally;
and even if his equivocal campaign letters (see CLAY, HENRY) had not
left exceedingly small ground for belief that he would resist the
annexation of Texas, still the Liberty men were not such as to admit
that an end justifies the means; therefore they again nominated Birney.
He received 62,263 votes[2]--many more than enough in New York to have
carried that state and the presidency for Clay, had they been thrown to
his support. The Whigs, therefore, blamed the Liberty Party for
Democratic success and the annexation of Texas; but--quite apart from
the issue of political ethics--it is almost certain that though Clay's
chances were injured by the Liberty ticket, they were injured much more
outside the Liberty ranks, by his own quibbles.[3] After 1844 the
Liberty Party made little progress. Its leaders were never very strong
as politicians, and its ablest organizer, Birney, was about this time
compelled by an accident to abandon public life. Moreover, the election
of 1844 was in a way fatal to the party; for it seemed to prove that
though "abolition" was not the party programme, still its antecedents
and personnel were too radical to unite the North; and above all it
could not, after 1844, draw the disaffected Whigs, for though their
party was steadily moving toward anti-slavery their dislike of the
Liberty Party effectually prevented union. Indeed, no party of one idea
could hope to satisfy men who had been Whigs or Democrats. At the same
time, anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats were segregating in state
politics, and the issue of excluding slavery from the new territory
acquired from Mexico afforded a golden opportunity to unite all
anti-slavery men on the principle of the Wilmot Proviso (1846). The
Liberty Party reached its greatest strength (casting 74,017 votes) in
the state elections of 1846. Thereafter, though growing somewhat in New
England, it rapidly became ineffective in the rest of the North. Many,
including Birney, thought it should cease to be an isolated party of one
idea--striving for mere balance of power between Whigs and Democrats,
welcoming small concessions from them, almost dependent upon them. Some
wished to revivify it by making it a party of general reform. One result
was the secession and formation of the Liberty League, which in 1847
nominated Gerrit Smith for the presidency. No adequate effort was made
to take advantage of the disintegration of other parties. In October
1847, at Buffalo, was held the third and last national convention. John
P. Hale--whose election to the United States Senate had justified the
first successful union of Liberty men with other anti-slavery men in
state politics--was nominated for the presidency. But the nomination by
the Democrats of Lewis Cass shattered the Democratic organization in New
York and the North-west; and when the Whigs nominated General Taylor,
adopted a non-committal platform, and showed hostility to the Wilmot
Proviso, the way was cleared for a union of all anti-slavery men. The
Liberty Party, abandoning therefore its independent nominations, joined
in the first convention and nominations of the Free Soil Party (q.v.),
thereby practically losing its identity, although it continued until
after the organization of the Republican Party to maintain something of
a semi-independent organization. The Liberty Party has the unique honour
among third-parties in the United States of seeing its principles
rapidly adopted and realized.

  See T. C. Smith, _History of the Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the
  Northwest_ (Harvard University Historical Studies, New York, 1897),
  and lives and writings of all the public men mentioned above; also of
  G. W. Julian, J. R. Giddings and S. P. Chase.

LIBITINA, an old Roman goddess of funerals. She had a sanctuary in a
sacred grove (perhaps on the Esquiline), where, by an ordinance of
Servius Tullius, a piece of money (_lucar Libitinae_) was deposited
whenever a death took place. Here the undertakers (_libitinarii_), who
carried out all funeral arrangements by contract, had their offices, and
everything necessary was kept for sale or hire; here all deaths were
registered for statistical purposes. The word _Libitina_ then came to be
used for the business of an undertaker, funeral requisites, and (in the
poets) for death itself. By later antiquarians Libitina was sometimes
identified with Persephone, but more commonly (partly or completely)
with Venus Lubentia or Lubentina, an Italian goddess of gardens. The
similarity of name and the fact that Venus Lubentia had a sanctuary in
the grove of Libitina favoured this idea. Further, Plutarch (_Quaest.
Rom._ 23) mentions a small statue at Delphi of Aphrodite Epitymbia (A.
of tombs = Venus Libitina), to which the spirits of the dead were
summoned. The inconsistency of selling funeral requisites in the temple
of Libitina, seeing that she is identified with Venus, is explained by
him as indicating that one and the same goddess presides over birth and
death; or the association of such things with the goddess of love and
pleasure is intended to show that death is not a calamity, but rather a
consummation to be desired. Libitina may, however, have been originally
an earth goddess, connected with luxuriant nature and the enjoyments of
life (cf. _lub-et_, _lib-ido_); then, all such deities being connected
with the underworld, she also became the goddess of death, and that side
of her character predominated in the later conceptions.

  See Plutarch, _Numa_, 12; Dion. Halic. iv. 15; Festus xvi., s.v.
  "Rustica Vinalia"; Juvenal xii. 121, with Mayor's note; G. Wissowa in
  Roscher's _Lexicon der Mythologie_, s.v.


  [1] Mr T. C. Smith estimates that probably not one in ten of even
    professed abolitionists supported Birney; only in Massachusetts did
    he receive as much as 1% of the total vote cast.

  [2] Birney's vote was reduced by a disgraceful election trick by the
    Whigs (the circulation of a forged letter on the eve of the
    election); a trick to which he had exposed himself by an ingenuously
    honest reception of Democratic advances in a matter of local
    good-government in Michigan.

  [3] E.g. Horace Greeley made the Whig charge; but in later life he
    repeatedly attributed Clay's defeat simply to Clay's own letters; and
    for Millard Fillmore's important opinion see footnote to KNOW NOTHING

LIBMANAN, a town of the province of Ambos Camarines, Luzon, Philippine
Islands, on the Libmanan river, 11 m. N.W. of Nueva Cáceres, the
capital. Pop. (1903) 17,416. It is about 4½ m. N.E. of the Bay of San
Miguel. Rice, coco-nuts, hemp, Indian corn, sugarcane, bejuco, arica
nuts and camotes, are grown in the vicinity, and the manufactures
include hemp goods, alcohol (from coco-nut-palm sap), copra, and
baskets, chairs, hammocks and hats of bejuco and bamboo. The Libmanan
river, a tributary of the Bicol, into which it empties 2 m. below the
town, is famous for its clear cold water and for its sulphur springs.
The language is Bicol.

LIBO, in ancient Rome, the name of a family belonging to the Scribonian
gens. It is chiefly interesting for its connexion with the Puteal
Scribonianum or Puteal Libonis in the forum at Rome,[1] dedicated or
restored by one of its members, perhaps the praetor of 204 B.C., or the
tribune of the people in 149. In its vicinity the praetor's tribunal,
removed from the comitium in the 2nd century B.C., held its sittings,
which led to the place becoming the haunt of litigants, money-lenders
and business people. According to ancient authorities, the Puteal
Libonis was between the temples of Castor and Vesta, near the Porticus
Julia and the Arcus Fabiorum, but no remains have been discovered. The
idea that an irregular circle of travertine blocks, found near the
temple of Castor, formed part of the puteal is now abandoned.

  See Horace, _Sat._ ii. 6. 35, _Epp._ i. 19. 8; Cicero, _Pro Sestio_,
  8; for the well-known coin of L. Scribonius Libo, representing the
  puteal of Libo, which rather resembles a _cippus_ (sepulchral
  monument) or an altar, with laurel wreaths, two lyres and a pair of
  pincers or tongs below the wreaths (perhaps symbolical of Vulcanus as
  forger of lightning), see C. Hülsen, _The Roman Forum_ (Eng. trans. by
  J. B. Carter, 1906), p. 150, where a marble imitation found at Veii is
  also given.


  [1] _Puteal_ was the name given to an erection (or enclosure) on a
    spot which had been struck by lightning; it was so called from its
    resemblance to the stone kerb or low enclosure round a well

LIBON, a Greek architect, born at Elis, who was employed to build the
great temple of Zeus at Olympia (q.v.) about 460 B.C. (Pausanias v. 10.

LIBOURNE, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement
of the department of Gironde, situated at the confluence of the Isle
with the Dordogne, 22 m. E.N.E. of Bordeaux on the railway to Angoulême.
Pop. (1906) town, 15,280; commune, 19,323. The sea is 56 m. distant, but
the tide affects the river so as to admit of vessels drawing 14 ft.
reaching the town at the highest tides. The Dordogne is here crossed by
a stone bridge 492 ft. long, and a suspension bridge across the Isle
connects Libourne with Fronsac, built on a hill on which in feudal times
stood a powerful fortress. Libourne is regularly built. The Gothic
church, restored in the 19th century, has a stone spire 232 ft. high. On
the quay there is a machicolated clock-tower which is a survival of the
ramparts of the 14th century; and the town-house, containing a small
museum and a library, is a quaint relic of the 16th century. There is a
statue of the Duc Decazes, who was born in the neighbourhood. The
sub-prefecture, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and a
communal college are among the public institutions. The principal
articles of commerce are the wines and brandies of the district.
Printing and cooperage are among the industries.

Like other sites at the confluence of important rivers, that of Libourne
was appropriated at an early period. Under the Romans _Condate_ stood
rather more than a mile to the south of the present Libourne; it was
destroyed during the troubles of the 5th century. Resuscitated by
Charlemagne, it was rebuilt in 1269, under its present name and on the
site and plan it still retains, by Roger de Leybourne (of Leybourne in
Kent), seneschal of Guienne, acting under the authority of King Edward
I. of England. It suffered considerably in the struggles of the French
and English for the possession of Guienne in the 14th century.

  See R. Guinodie, _Hist. de Libourne_ (2nd ed., 2 vols., Libourne,

LIBRA ("THE BALANCE"), in astronomy, the 7th sign of the zodiac (q.v.),
denoted by the symbol [symbol], resembling a pair of scales, probably in
allusion to the fact that when the sun enters this part of the ecliptic,
at the autumnal equinox, the days and nights are equal. It is also a
constellation, not mentioned by Eudoxus or Aratus, but by Manetho (3rd
century B.C.) and Geminus (1st century B.C.), and included by Ptolemy in
his 48 asterisms; Ptolemy catalogued 17 stars, Tycho Brahe 10, and
Hevelius 20. [delta] _Librae_ is an Algol (q.v.) variable, the range of
magnitude being 5.0 to 6.2, and the period 2 days 7 hrs. 51 min.; and
the cluster _M. 5 Librae_ is a faint globular cluster of which only
about one star in eleven is variable.

LIBRARIES. A library (from Lat. _liber_, book), in the modern sense, is
a collection of printed or written literature. As such, it implies an
advanced and elaborate civilization. If the term be extended to any
considerable collection of written documents, it must be nearly as old
as civilization itself. The earliest use to which the invention of
inscribed or written signs was put was probably to record important
religious and political transactions. These records would naturally be
preserved in sacred places, and accordingly the earliest libraries of
the world were probably temples, and the earliest librarians priests.
And indeed before the extension of the arts of writing and reading the
priests were the only persons who could perform such work as, e.g. the
compilation of the _Annales Maximi_, which was the duty of the
pontifices in ancient Rome. The beginnings of literature proper in the
shape of ballads and songs may have continued to be conveyed orally only
from one generation to another, long after the record of important
religious or civil events was regularly committed to writing. The
earliest collections of which we know anything, therefore, were
collections of archives. Of this character appear to have been such
famous collections as that of the Medians at Ecbatana, the Persians at
Susa or the hieroglyphic archives of Knossos discovered by A. J. Evans
(_Scripta Minoa_, 1909) of a date synchronizing with the XIIth Egyptian
dynasty. It is not until the development of arts and sciences, and the
growth of a considerable written literature, and even of a distinct
literary class, that we find collections of books which can be called
libraries in our modern sense. It is of libraries in the modern sense,
and not, except incidentally, of archives that we are to speak.



The researches which have followed the discoveries of P. E. Botta and
Sir H. Layard have thrown unexpected light not only upon the history but
upon the arts, the sciences and the literatures of the ancient
civilizations of Babylonia and Assyria. In all these wondrous
revelations no facts are more interesting than those which show the
existence of extensive libraries so many ages ago, and none are more
eloquent of the elaborateness of these forgotten civilizations. In the
course of his excavations at Nineveh in 1850, Layard came upon some
chambers in the south-west palace, the floor of which, as well as the
adjoining rooms, was covered to the depth of a foot with tablets of
clay, covered with cuneiform characters, in many cases so small as to
require a magnifying glass. These varied in size from 1 to 12 in.
square. A great number of them were broken, as Layard supposed by the
falling in of the roof, but as George Smith thought by having fallen
from the upper storey, upon which he believed the collection to have
been placed. These tablets formed the library of the great monarch
Assur-bani-pal--the Sardanapalus of the Greeks--the greatest patron of
literature amongst the Assyrians. It is estimated that this library
consisted of some ten thousand distinct works and documents, some of the
works extending over several tablets. The tablets appear to have been
methodically arranged and catalogued, and the library seems to have been
thrown open for the general use of the king's subjects.[1] A great
portion of this library has already been brought to England and
deposited in the British museum, but it is calculated that there still
remain some 20,000 fragments to be gathered up. For further details as
to Assyrian libraries, and the still earlier Babylonian libraries at
Tello, the ancient Lagash, and at Niffer, the ancient Nippur, from which
the Assyrians drew their science and literature, see BABYLONIA and

  Ancient Egyptian Libraries.

Of the libraries of ancient Egypt our knowledge is scattered and
imperfect, but at a time extending to more than 6000 years ago we find
numerous scribes of many classes who recorded official events in the
life of their royal masters or details of their domestic affairs and
business transactions. Besides this official literature we possess
examples of many commentaries on the sacerdotal books, as well as
historical treatises, works on moral philosophy and proverbial wisdom,
science, collections of medical receipts as well as a great variety of
popular novels and humoristic pieces. At an early date Heliopolis was a
literary centre of great importance with culture akin to the Babylonian.
Attached to every temple were professional scribes whose function was
partly religious and partly scientific. The sacred books of Thoth
constituted as it were a complete encyclopaedia of religion and science,
and on these books was gradually accumulated an immense mass of
exposition and commentary. We possess a record relating to "the land of
the collected works [library] of Khufu," a monarch of the IVth dynasty,
and a similar inscription relating to the library of Khafra, the builder
of the second pyramid. At Edfu the library was a small chamber in the
temple, on the wall of which is a list of books, among them a manual of
Egyptian geography (Brugsch, _History of Egypt_, 1881, i. 240). The
exact position of Akhenaten's library (or archives) of clay tablets is
known and the name of the room has been read on the books of which it
has been built. A library of charred books has been found at Mendes
(Egypt Expl. Fund, _Two Hieroglyphic Papyri_), and we have references to
temple libraries in the Silsileh "Nile" stelae and perhaps in the great
Harris papyri. The most famous of the Egyptian libraries is that of King
Osymandyas, described by Diodorus Siculus, who relates that it bore an
inscription which he renders by the Greek words [Greek: PSUCHÊS
IATREION] "the Dispensary of the Soul." Osymandyas has been identified
with the great king Rameses II. (1300-1236 B.C.) and the seat of the
library is supposed to have been the Ramessaeum at Western Thebes.
Amen-em-hant was the name of one of the directors of the Theban
libraries. Papyri from the palace, of a later date, have been discovered
by Professor W. F. Flinders Petrie. At Thebes the scribes of the
"Foreign Office" are depicted at work in a room which was perhaps rather
an office than a library. The famous Tel-el-Amarna tablets (1383-1365
B.C.) were stored in "the place of the records of the King." There were
record offices attached to the granary and treasury departments and we
know of a school or college for the reproduction of books, which were
kept in boxes and in jars. According to Eustathius there was a great
collection at Memphis. A heavy blow was dealt to the old Egyptian
literature by the Persian invasion, and many books were carried away by
the conquerors. The Egyptians were only delivered from the yoke of
Persia to succumb to that of Greece and Rome and henceforward their
civilization was dominated by foreign influences. Of the Greek libraries
under the Ptolemies we shall speak a little further on.



Of the libraries of ancient Greece we have very little knowledge, and
such knowledge as we possess comes to us for the most part from late
compilers. Amongst those who are known to have collected books are
Pisistratus, Polycrates of Samos, Euclid the Athenian, Nicocrates of
Cyprus, Euripides and Aristotle (Athenaeus i. 4). At Cnidus there is
said to have been a special collection of works upon medicine.
Pisistratus is reported to have been the first of the Greeks who
collected books on a large scale. Aulus Gellius, indeed, tells us, in
language perhaps "not well suited to the 6th century B.C.,"[2] that he
was the first to establish a public library. The authority of Aulus
Gellius is hardly sufficient to secure credit for the story that this
library was carried away into Persia by Xerxes and subsequently restored
to the Athenians by Seleucus Nicator. Plato is known to have been a
collector; and Xenophon tells us of the library of Euthydemus. The
library of Aristotle was bequeathed by him to his disciple Theophrastus,
and by Theophrastus to Neleus, who carried it to Scepsis, where it is
said to have been concealed underground to avoid the literary cupidity
of the kings of Pergamum. Its subsequent fate has given rise to much
controversy, but, according to Strabo (xiii. pp. 608, 609), it was sold
to Apellicon of Teos, who carried it to Athens, where after Apellicon's
death it fell a prey to the conqueror Sulla, and was transported by him
to Rome. The story told by Athenaeus (i. 4) is that the library of
Neleus was purchased by Ptolemy Philadelphus. The names of a few other
libraries in Greece are barely known to us from inscriptions; of their
character and contents we know nothing. If, indeed, we are to trust
Strabo entirely, we must believe that Aristotle was the first person who
collected a library, and that he communicated the taste for collecting
to the sovereigns of Egypt. It is at all events certain that the
libraries of Alexandria were the most important as they were the most
celebrated of the ancient world. Under the enlightened rule of the
Ptolemies a society of scholars and men of science was attracted to
their capital. It seems pretty certain that Ptolemy Soter had already
begun to collect books, but it was in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus
that the libraries were properly organized and established in separate
buildings. Ptolemy Philadelphus sent into every part of Greece and Asia
to secure the most valuable works, and no exertions or expense were
spared in enriching the collections. Ptolemy Euergetes, his successor,
is said to have caused all books brought into Egypt by foreigners to be
seized for the benefit of the library, while the owners had to be
content with receiving copies of them in exchange. Nor did the
Alexandrian scholars exhibit the usual Hellenic exclusiveness, and many
of the treasures of Egyptian and even of Hebrew literature were by their
means translated into Greek. There were two libraries at Alexandria; the
larger, in the Brucheum quarter, was in connexion with the Museum, a
sort of academy, while the smaller was placed in the Serapeum. The
number of volumes in these libraries was very large, although it is
difficult to attain any certainty as to the real numbers amongst the
widely varying accounts. According to a scholium of Tzetzes, who appears
to draw his information from the authority of Callimachus and
Eratosthenes, who had been librarians at Alexandria, there were 42,800
vols. or rolls in the Serapeum and 490,000 in the Brucheum.[3] This
enumeration seems to refer to the librarianship of Callimachus himself
under Ptolemy Euergetes. In any case the figures agree tolerably well
with those given by Aulus Gellius[4] (700,000) and Seneca[5] (400,000).
It should be observed that, as the ancient roll or volume usually
contained a much smaller quantity of matter than a modern book--so that,
e.g. the history of Herodotus might form nine "books" or volumes, and
the _Iliad_ of Homer twenty-four--these numbers must be discounted for
the purposes of comparison with modern collections. The series of the
first five librarians at Alexandria appears to be pretty well
established as follows: Zenodotus, Callimachus, Eratosthenes, Apollonius
and Aristophanes; and their activity covers a period of about a century.
The first experiments in bibliography appear to have been made in
producing catalogues of the Alexandrian libraries. Amongst other lists,
two catalogues were prepared by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, one of
the tragedies, the other of the comedies contained in the collections.
The [Greek: Pinakes] of Callimachus formed a catalogue of all the
principal books arranged in 120 classes. When Caesar set fire to the
fleet in the harbour of Alexandria, the flames accidentally extended to
the larger library of the Brucheum, and it was destroyed.[6] Antony
endeavoured to repair the loss by presenting to Cleopatra the library
from Pergamum. This was very probably placed in the Brucheum, as this
continued to be the literary quarter of Alexandria until the time of
Aurelian. Thenceforward the Serapeum became the principal library. The
usual statement that from the date of the restoration of the Brucheum
under Cleopatra the libraries continued in a flourishing condition until
they were destroyed after the conquest of Alexandria by the Saracens in
A.D. 640 can hardly be supported. It is very possible that one of the
libraries perished when the Brucheum quarter was destroyed by Aurelian,
A.D. 273. In 389 or 391 an edict of Theodosius ordered the destruction
of the Serapeum, and its books were pillaged by the Christians. When we
take into account the disordered condition of the times, and the neglect
into which literature and science had fallen, there can be little
difficulty in believing that there were but few books left to be
destroyed by the soldiers of Amru. The familiar anecdote of the caliph's
message to his general rests mainly upon the evidence of Abulfaraj, so
that we may be tempted to agree with Gibbon that the report of a
stranger who wrote at the end of six hundred years is overbalanced by
the silence of earlier and native annalists. It is, however, so far from
easy to settle the question that a cloud of names could easily be cited
upon either side, while some of the most careful inquirers confess the
difficulty of a decision[7] (see ALEXANDRIA, III.).


The magnificence and renown of the libraries of the Ptolemies excited
the rivalry of the kings of Pergamum, who vied with the Egyptian rulers
in their encouragement of literature. The German researches in the
acropolis of Pergamum between 1878 and 1886 revealed four rooms which
had originally been appropriated to the library (Alex. Conze, _Die
pergamen. Bibliothek_, 1884). Despite the obstacles presented by the
embargo placed by the Ptolemies upon the export of papyrus, the library
of the Attali attained considerable importance, and, as we have seen,
when it was transported to Egypt numbered 200,000 vols. We learn from a
notice in Suidas that in 221 B.C. Antiochus the Great summoned the poet
and grammarian Euphorion of Chalcis to be his librarian.


The early Romans were far too warlike and practical a people to devote
much attention to literature, and it is not until the last century of
the republic that we hear of libraries in Rome. The collections of
Carthage, which fell into their hands when Scipio sacked that city (146
B.C.), had no attractions for them; and with the exception of the
writings of Mago upon agriculture, which the senate reserved for
translation into Latin, they bestowed all the books upon the kinglets of
Africa (Pliny, _H.N._ xviii. 5). It is in accordance with the military
character of the Romans that the first considerable collections of which
we hear in Rome were brought there as the spoils of war. The first of
these was that brought by Aemilius Paulus from Macedonia after the
conquest of Perseus (167 B.C.). The library of the conquered monarch was
all that he reserved from the prizes of victory for himself and his
sons, who were fond of letters. Next came the library of Apellicon the
Teian, brought from Athens by Sulla (86 B.C.). This passed at his death
into the hands of his son, but of its later history nothing is known.
The rich stores of literature brought home by Lucullus from his eastern
conquests (about 67 B.C.) were freely thrown open to his friends and to
men of letters. Accordingly his library and the neighbouring walks were
much resorted to, especially by Greeks. It was now becoming fashionable
for rich men to furnish their libraries well, and the fashion prevailed
until it became the subject of Seneca's scorn and Lucian's wit. The zeal
of Cicero and Atticus in adding to their collections is well known to
every reader of the classics. Tyrannion is said to have had 30,000 vols.
of his own; and that M. Terentius Varro had large collections we may
infer from Cicero's writing to him: "Si hortum in bibliotheca habes,
nihil deerit." Not to prolong the list of private collectors, Serenus
Sammonicus is said to have left to his pupil the young Gordian no less
than 62,000 vols. Amongst the numerous projects entertained by Caesar
was that of presenting Rome with public libraries, though it is doubtful
whether any steps were actually taken towards its execution. The task of
collecting and arranging the books was entrusted to Varro. This
commission, as well as his own fondness for books, may have led Varro to
write the book upon libraries of which a few words only have come down
to us, preserved by a grammarian. The honour of being the first actually
to dedicate a library to the public is said by Pliny and Ovid to have
fallen to G. Asinius Pollio, who erected a library in the Atrium
Libertatis on Mount Aventine, defraying the cost from the spoils of his
Illyrian campaign. The library of Pollio was followed by the public
libraries established by Augustus. That emperor, who did so much for the
embellishment of the city, erected two libraries, the Octavian and the
Palatine. The former was founded (33 B.C.) in honour of his sister, and
was placed in the Porticus Octaviae, a magnificent structure, the lower
part of which served as a promenade, while the upper part contained the
library. The charge of the books was committed to C. Melissus. The other
library formed by Augustus was attached to the temple of Apollo on the
Palatine hill, and appears from inscriptions to have consisted of two
departments, a Greek and a Latin one, which seem to have been separately
administered. The charge of the Palatine collections was given to
Pompeius Macer, who was succeeded by Julius Hyginus, the grammarian and
friend of Ovid. The Octavian library perished in the fire which raged at
Rome for three days in the reign of Titus. The Palatine was, at all
events in great part, destroyed by fire in the reign of Commodus. The
story that its collections were destroyed by order of Pope Gregory the
Great in the 6th century is now generally rejected. The successors of
Augustus, though they did not equal him in their patronage of learning,
maintained the tradition of forming libraries. Tiberius, his immediate
successor, established one in his splendid house on the Palatine, to
which Gellius refers as the "Tiberian library," and Suetonius relates
that he caused the writings and images of his favourite Greek poets to
be placed in the public libraries. Vespasian established a library in
the Temple of Peace erected after the burning of the city under Nero.
Domitian restored the libraries which had been destroyed in the same
conflagration, procuring books from every quarter, and even sending to
Alexandria to have copies made. He is also said to have founded the
Capitoline library, though others give the credit to Hadrian. The most
famous and important of the imperial libraries, however, was that
created by Ulpius Trajanus, known as the Ulpian library, which was first
established in the Forum of Trajan, but was afterwards removed to the
baths of Diocletian. In this library were deposited by Trajan the "libri
lintei" and "libri elephantini," upon which the senatus consulta and
other transactions relating to the emperors were written. The library of
Domitian, which had been destroyed by fire in the reign of Commodus, was
restored by Gordian, who added to it the books bequeathed to him by
Serenus Sammonicus. Altogether in the 4th century there are said to have
been twenty-eight public libraries in Rome.

  Roman provincial libraries.

Nor were public libraries confined to Rome. We possess records of at
least 24 places in Italy, the Grecian provinces, Asia Minor, Cyprus and
Africa in which libraries had been established, most of them attached to
temples, usually through the liberality of generous individuals. The
library which the younger Pliny dedicated to his townsmen at Comum cost
a million sesterces and he contributed a large sum to the support of a
library at Milan. Hadrian established one at Athens, described by
Pausanias, and recently identified with a building called the Stoa of
Hadrian, which shows a striking similarity with the precinct of Athena
at Pergamum. Strabo mentions a library at Smyrna; Aulus Gellius one at
Patrae and another at Tibur from which books could be borrowed. Recent
discoveries at Ephesus in Asia Minor and Timegad in Algeria have
furnished precise information as to the structural plan of these
buildings. The library at Ephesus was founded by T. Julius Aquila
Polemaeanus in memory of his father, pro-consul of Asia in the time of
Trajan, about A.D. 106-107. The library at Timegad was established at a
cost of 400,000 sesterces by M. Julius Quintianus Flavius Rogatianus,
who probably lived in the 3rd century (R. Cagnat, "Les Bibliothèques
municipales dans l'Empire Romain," 1906, _Mém. de l'Acad. des Insc._,
tom. xxxviii. pt. 1). At Ephesus the light came through a circular
opening in the roof; the library at Timegad greatly resembles that
discovered at Pompeii and possesses a system of book stores. All these
buildings followed the same general plan, consisting of a reading-room
and more or less ample book stores; the former was either rectangular or
semi-circular in shape and was approached under a stately portico and
colonnade. In a niche facing the entrance a statue was always erected;
that formerly at Pergamum--a figure of Minerva--is now preserved at
Berlin. From a well-known line of Juvenal (_Sat._ iii. 219) we may
assume that a statue of the goddess was usually placed in libraries. The
reading-room was also ornamented with busts or life-sized images of
celebrated writers. The portraits or authors were also painted on
medallions on the presses (_armaria_) in which the books or rolls were
preserved as in the library of Isidore of Seville; sometimes these
medallions decorated the walls, as in a private library discovered by
Lanciani in 1883 at Rome (_Ancient Rome_, 1888, p. 193). Movable seats,
known to us by pictorial representations, were in use. The books were
classified, and the presses (framed of precious woods and highly
ornamented) were numbered to facilitate reference from the catalogues. A
private library discovered at Herculaneum contained 1756 MSS. placed on
shelves round the room to a height of about 6 ft. with a central press.
In the public rooms some of the books were arranged in the reading-room
and some in the adjacent book stores. The Christian libraries of later
foundation closely followed the classical prototypes not only in their
structure but also in smaller details. The general appearance of a Roman
library is preserved in the library of the Vatican fitted up by Sextus
V. in 1587 with painted presses, busts and antique vases.

As the number of libraries in Rome increased, the librarian, who was
generally a slave or freedman, became a recognized public functionary.
The names of several librarians are preserved to us in inscriptions,
including that of C. Hymenaeus, who appears to have fulfilled the double
function of physician and librarian to Augustus. The general
superintendence of the public libraries was committed to a special
official. Thus from Nero to Trajan, Dionysius, an Alexandrian
rhetorician, discharged this function. Under Hadrian it was entrusted to
his former tutor C. Julius Vestinus, who afterwards became administrator
of the Museum at Alexandria.


When the seat of empire was removed by Constantine to his new capital
upon the Bosporus, the emperor established a collection there, in which
Christian literature was probably admitted for the first time into an
imperial library. Diligent search was made after the Christian books
which had been doomed to destruction by Diocletian. Even at the death of
Constantine, however, the number of books which had been brought
together amounted only to 6900. The smallness of the number, it has been
suggested, seems to show that Constantine's library was mainly intended
as a repository of Christian literature. However this may be, the
collection was greatly enlarged by some of Constantine's successors,
especially by Julian and Theodosius, at whose death it is said to have
increased to 100,000 vols. Julian, himself a close student and
voluminous writer, though he did his best to discourage learning among
the Christians, and to destroy their libraries, not only augmented the
library at Constantinople, but founded others, including one at Nisibis,
which was soon afterwards destroyed by fire. From the Theodosian code we
learn that in the time of that emperor a staff of seven copyists was
attached to the library at Constantinople under the direction of the
librarian. The library was burnt under the emperor Zeno in 477, but was
again restored.

Meanwhile, as Christianity made its way and a distinctively Christian
literature grew up, the institution of libraries became part of the
ecclesiastical organization. Bishop Alexander (d. A.D. 250) established
a church library at Jerusalem, and it became the rule to attach to every
church a collection necessary for the inculcation of Christian doctrine.
There were libraries at Cirta, at Constantinople and at Rome. The
basilica of St Lawrence at Rome contained a library or _archivum_
founded by Pope Damasus at the end of the 4th century. Most of these
collections were housed in the sacred edifices and consisted largely of
copies of the Holy Scriptures, liturgical volumes and works of devotion.
They also included the _Gesta Martyrum_ and _Matriculae Pauperum_ and
official correspondence. Many of the basilicas had the apse subdivided
into three smaller hemicycles, one of which contained the library
(Lanciani, op. cit. p. 187). The largest of these libraries, that
founded by Pamphilus (d. A.D. 309) at Caesarea, and said to have been
increased by Eusebius, the historian of the church, to 30,000 vols., is
frequently mentioned by St Jerome. St Augustine bequeathed his
collection to the library of the church at Hippo, which was fortunate
enough to escape destruction at the hands of the Vandals. The hermit
communities of the Egyptian deserts formed organizations which developed
into the later monastic orders of Western Europe and the accumulation of
books for the brethren was one of their cares.

The removal of the capital to Byzantium was in its result a serious blow
to literature. Henceforward the science and learning of the East and
West were divorced. The libraries of Rome ceased to collect the writings
of the Greeks, while the Greek libraries had never cared much to collect
Latin literature. The influence of the church became increasingly
hostile to the study of pagan letters. The repeated irruptions of the
barbarians soon swept the old learning and libraries alike from the
soil of Italy. With the close of the Western empire in 476 the ancient
history of libraries may be said to cease.



During the first few centuries after the fall of the Western empire,
literary activity at Constantinople had fallen to its lowest ebb. In the
West, amidst the general neglect of learning and literature, the
collecting of books, though not wholly forgotten, was cared for by few.
Sidonius Apollinaris tells us of the libraries of several private
collectors in Gaul. Publius Consentius possessed a library at his villa
near Narbonne which was due to the labour of three generations. The most
notable of these appears to have been the prefect Tonantius Ferreolus,
who had formed in his villa of Prusiana, near Nîmes, a collection which
his friend playfully compares to that of Alexandria. The Goths, who had
been introduced to the Scriptures in their own language by Ulfilas in
the 4th century, began to pay some attention to Latin literature.
Cassiodorus, the favourite minister of Theodoric, was a collector as
well as an author, and on giving up the cares of government retired to a
monastery which he founded in Calabria, where he employed his monks in
the transcription of books.

Henceforward the charge of books as well as of education fell more and
more exclusively into the hands of the church. While the old schools of
the rhetoricians died out new monasteries arose everywhere. Knowledge
was no longer pursued for its own sake, but became subsidiary to
religious and theological teaching. The proscription of the old
classical literature, which is symbolized in the fable of the
destruction of the Palatine library by Gregory the Great, was only too
effectual. The Gregorian tradition of opposition to pagan learning long
continued to dominate the literary pursuits of the monastic orders and
the labours of the scriptorium.



During the 6th and 7th centuries the learning which had been driven from
the Continent took refuge in the British Islands, where it was removed
from the political disturbances of the mainland. In the Irish
monasteries during this period there appear to have been many books, and
the Venerable Bede was superior to any scholar of his age. Theodore of
Tarsus brought a considerable number of books to Canterbury from Rome in
the 7th century, including several Greek authors. The library of York,
which was founded by Archbishop Egbert, was almost more famous than that
of Canterbury. The verses are well known in which Alcuin describes the
extensive library under his charge, and the long list of authors whom he
enumerates is superior to that of any other library possessed by either
England or France in the 12th century, when it was unhappily burnt. The
inroads of the Northmen in the 9th and 10th centuries had been fatal to
the monastic libraries on both sides of the channel. It was from York
that Alcuin came to Charlemagne to superintend the school attached to
his palace; and it was doubtless inspired by Alcuin that Charles issued
the memorable document which enjoined that in the bishoprics and
monasteries within his realm care should be taken that there shall be
not only a regular manner of life, but also the study of letters. When
Alcuin finally retired from the court to the abbacy of Tours, there to
carry out his own theory of monastic discipline and instruction, he
wrote to Charles for leave to send to York for copies of the books of
which they had so much need at Tours. While Alcuin thus increased the
library at Tours, Charlemagne enlarged that at Fulda, which had been
founded in 774, and which all through the middle ages stood in great
respect. Lupus Servatus, a pupil of Hrabanus Maurus at Fulda, and
afterwards abbot of Ferrières, was a devoted student of the classics and
a great collector of books. His correspondence illustrates the
difficulties which then attended the study of literature through the
paucity and dearness of books, the declining care for learning, and the
increasing troubles of the time. Nor were private collections of books
altogether wanting during the period in which Charlemagne and his
successors laboured to restore the lost traditions of liberal education
and literature. Pepin le Bref had indeed met with scanty response to the
request for books which he addressed to the pontiff Paul I. Charlemagne,
however, collected a considerable number of choice books for his private
use in two places. Although these collections were dispersed at his
death, his son Louis formed a library which continued to exist under
Charles the Bald. About the same time Everard, count of Friuli, formed a
considerable collection which he bequeathed to a monastery. But the
greatest private collector of the middle ages was doubtless Gerbert,
Pope Sylvester II., who showed the utmost zeal and spent large sums in
collecting books, not only in Rome and Italy, but from Germany, Belgium
and even from Spain.

  St. Benedict.

The hopes of a revival of secular literature fell with the decline of
the schools established by Charles and his successors. The knowledge of
letters remained the prerogative of the church, and for the next four or
five centuries the collecting and multiplication of books were almost
entirely confined to the monasteries. Several of the greater orders made
these an express duty; this was especially the case with the
Benedictines. It was the first care of St Benedict, we are told, that in
each newly founded monastery there should be a library, "et velut curia
quaedam illustrium auctorum." Monte Cassino became the starting-point of
a long line of institutions which were destined to be the centres of
religion and of literature. It must indeed be remembered that literature
in the sense of St Benedict meant Biblical and theological works, the
lives of the saints and martyrs, and the lives and writings of the
fathers. Of the reformed Benedictine orders the Carthusians and the
Cistercians were those most devoted to literary pursuits. The abbeys of
Fleury, of Melk and of St Gall were remarkable for the splendour of
their libraries. In a later age the labours of the congregation of St
Maur form one of the most striking chapters in the history of learning.
The Augustinians and the Dominicans rank next to the Benedictines in
their care for literature. The libraries of St Geneviève and St Victor,
belonging to the former, were amongst the largest of the monastic
collections. Although their poverty might seem to put them at a
disadvantage as collectors, the mendicant orders cultivated literature
with much assiduity, and were closely connected with the intellectual
movement to which the universities owed their rise. In England Richard
of Bury praises them for their extraordinary diligence in collecting
books. Sir Richard Whittington built a large library for the Grey Friars
in London, and they possessed considerable libraries at Oxford.

It would be impossible to attempt here an account of all the libraries
established by the monastic orders. We must be content to enumerate a
few of the most eminent.

  Monastic libraries.

In Italy Monte Cassino is a striking example of the dangers and
vicissitudes to which monastic collections were exposed. Ruined by the
Lombards in the 6th century, the monastery was rebuilt and a library
established, to fall a prey to Saracens and to fire in the 9th. The
collection then reformed survived many other chances and changes, and
still exists. Boccaccio gives a melancholy description of its condition
in his day. It affords a conspicuous example of monastic industry in the
transcription not only of theological but also of classical works. The
library of Bobbio, which owed its existence to Irish monks, was famous
for its palimpsests. The collection, of which a catalogue of the 10th
century is given by Muratori (_Antiq. Ital. Med. Aev._ iii. 817-824),
was mainly transferred to the Ambrosian library at Milan. Of the library
of Pomposia, near Ravenna, Montfaucon has printed a catalogue dating
from the 11th century (_Diarium Italicum_, chap. xxii.).

Of the monastic libraries of France the principal were those of Fleury,
of Cluny, of St Riquier and of Corbie. At Fleury Abbot Macharius in 1146
imposed a contribution for library purposes upon the officers of the
community and its dependencies, an example which was followed elsewhere.
After many vicissitudes, its MSS., numbering 238, were deposited in 1793
in the town library of Orleans. The library of St Riquier in the time
of Louis the Pious contained 256 MSS., with over 500 works. Of the
collection at Corbie in Picardy we have also catalogues dating from the
12th and from the 17th centuries. Corbie was famous for the industry of
its transcribers, and appears to have stood in active literary
intercourse with other monasteries. In 1638, 400 of its choicest
manuscripts were removed to St Germain-des-Prés. The remainder were
removed after 1794, partly to the national library at Paris, partly to
the town library of Amiens.

The chief monastic libraries of Germany were at Fulda, Corvey, Reichenau
and Sponheim. The library at Fulda owed much to Charlemagne and to its
abbot Hrabanus Maurus. Under Abbot Sturmius four hundred monks were
hired as copyists. In 1561 the collection numbered 774 volumes. The
library of Corvey on the Weser, after being despoiled of some of its
treasures in the Reformation age, was presented to the university of
Marburg in 1811. It then contained 109 vols., with 400 or 500 titles.
The library of Reichenau, of which several catalogues are extant, fell a
prey to fire and neglect, and its ruin was consummated by the Thirty
Years' War. The library of Sponheim owes its great renown to John
Tritheim, who was abbot at the close of the 15th century. He found it
reduced to 10 vols., and left it with upwards of 2000 at his retirement.
The library at St Gall, formed as early as 816 by Gozbert, its second
abbot, still exists.


In England the principal collections were those of Canterbury, York,
Wearmouth, Jarrow, Whitby, Glastonbury, Croyland, Peterborough and
Durham. Of the library of the monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury,
originally founded by Augustine and Theodore, and restored by Lanfranc
and Anselm, a catalogue has been preserved dating from the 13th or 14th
century, and containing 698 volumes, with about 3000 works. Bennet
Biscop, the first abbot of Wearmouth, made five journeys to Rome, and on
each occasion returned with a store of books for the library. It was
destroyed by the Danes about 867. Of the library at Whitby there is a
catalogue dating from the 12th century. The catalogue of Glastonbury has
been printed by Hearne in his edition of John of Glastonbury. When the
library of Croyland perished by fire in 1091 it contained about 700
vols. The library at Peterborough was also rich; from a catalogue of
about the end of the 14th century it had 344 vols., with nearly 1700
titles. The catalogues of the library at the monastery of Durham have
been printed by the Surtees Society, and form an interesting series.
These catalogues with many others[8] afford abundant evidence of the
limited character of the monkish collections, whether we look at the
number of their volumes or at the nature of their contents. The
scriptoria were manufactories of books and not centres of learning. That
in spite of the labours of so many transcribers the costliness and
scarcity of books remained so great may have been partly, but cannot
have been wholly, due to the scarcity of writing materials. It may be
suspected that indolence and carelessness were the rule in most
monasteries, and that but few of the monks keenly realized the whole
force of the sentiment expressed by one of their number in the 12th
century--"Claustrum sine armario quasi castrum sine armamentario."
Nevertheless it must be admitted that to the labours of the monastic
transcribers we are indebted for the preservation of Latin literature.

  The development of library arrangements.

The subject of the evolution of the arrangement of library rooms and
fittings as gradually developed throughout medieval Europe should not be
passed over.[9] The real origin of library organization in the Christian
world, one may almost say the origin of modern library methods, began
with the rule of St Benedict early in the 6th century. In the 48th
chapter the monks were ordered to borrow a book apiece and to read it
straight through. There was no special apartment for the books in the
primitive Benedictine house. After the books became too numerous to be
kept in the church they were preserved in _armaria_, or chests, in the
cloister; hence the word _armarius_, the Benedictine librarian, who at
first joined with it the office of precentor. The Benedictine
regulations were developed in the stricter observances of the Cluniacs,
which provided for a kind of annual report and stocktaking. The
Carthusians were perhaps the first to lend books away from the convent;
and the Cistercians to possess a separate library official as well as a
room specially devoted to books. The observances of the Augustinians
contained rules for the binding, repairing, cataloguing and arranging
the books by the librarian, as well as a prescription of the exact kind
of chest to be used. Among the Premonstratensians or Reformed
Augustinians, it was one of the duties of the librarian to provide for
the borrowing of books elsewhere for the use of the monks. The Mendicant
Friars found books so necessary that at last Richard de Bury tells us
with some exaggeration that their libraries exceeded all others. Many
volumes still exist which belonged to the library at Assisi, the parent
house of the Franciscans, of which a catalogue was drawn up in 1381. No
authentic monastic bookcase can now be found; the doubtful example shown
at Bayeux probably contained ecclesiastical utensils. At the Augustinian
priory at Barnwell the presses were lined with wood to keep out the damp
and were partitioned off both vertically and horizontally. Sometimes
there were recesses in the walls of the cloisters fitted with shelves
and closed with a door. These recesses developed into a small windowless
room in the Cistercian houses. At Clairvaux, Kirkstall, Fountains,
Tintern, Netley and elsewhere this small chamber was placed between the
chapter-house and the transept of the church. At Meaux in Holderness the
books were lodged on shelves against the walls and even over the door of
such a chamber. In many houses the treasury or spendiment contained two
classes of books--one for the monks generally, others more closely
guarded. A press near the infirmary contained books used by the reader
in the refectory. By the end of the 15th century the larger monasteries
became possessed of many volumes and found themselves obliged to store
the books, hitherto placed in various parts of the building, in a
separate apartment. We now find libraries being specially built at
Canterbury, Durham, Citeaux, Clairvaux and elsewhere, and with this
specialization there grew up increased liberality in the use of books
and learned strangers were admitted. Even at an early date students were
permitted to borrow from the Benedictines at St Germain-des-Prés at
Paris, of which a later foundation owned in 1513 a noble library erected
over the south wall of the cloister, and enlarged and made very
accessible to the outer world in the 17th and 18th centuries. The
methods and fittings of college libraries of early foundation closely
resembled those of the monastic libraries. There was in both the annual
giving out and inspection of what we would now call the lending
department for students; while the books, fastened by chains--a kind of
reference department kept in the library chamber for the common use of
the fellows--followed a similar system in monastic institutions. By the
15th century collegiate and monastic libraries were on the same plan,
with the separate room containing books placed on their sides on desks
or lecterns, to which they were attached by chains to a horizontal bar.
As the books increased the accommodation was augmented by one or two
shelves erected above the desks. The library at Cesena in North Italy
may still be seen in its original condition. The Laurentian library at
Florence was designed by Michelangelo on the monastic model. Another
good example of the old form may be seen, in the library of Merton
College at Oxford, a long narrow room with bookcases standing between
the windows at right angles to the walls. In the chaining system one end
was attached to the wooden cover of the book while the other ran freely
on a bar fixed by a method of double locks to the front of the shelf or
desk on which the book rested. The fore edges of the volumes faced the
reader. The seat and shelf were sometimes combined. Low cases were
subsequently introduced between the higher cases, and the seat replaced
by a step. Shelf lists were placed at the end of each case. There were
no chains in the library of the Escorial, erected in 1584, which showed
for the first time bookcases placed against the walls. Although chains
were no longer part of the appliances in the newly erected libraries
they continued to be used and were ordered in bequests in England down
to the early part of the 18th century. Triple desks and revolving
lecterns, raised by a wooden screw, formed part of the library
furniture. The English cathedral libraries were fashioned after the same
principle. The old methods were fully reproduced in the fittings at
Westminster, erected at a late date. Here we may see books on shelves
against the walls as well as in cases at right angles to the walls; the
desk-like shelves for the chained volumes (no longer in existence) have
a slot in which the chains could be suspended, and are hinged to allow
access to shelves below. An ornamental wooden tablet at the end of each
case is a survival of the old shelf list. By the end of the 17th century
the type of the public library developed from collegiate and monastic
prototypes, became fixed as it were throughout Europe (H. R. Tedder,
"Evolution of the Public Library," in _Trans. of 2nd Int. Library
Conference_, 1897, 1898).


The first conquests of the Arabians, as we have already seen, threatened
hostility to literature. But, as soon as their conquests were secured,
the caliphs became the patrons of learning and science. Greek
manuscripts were eagerly sought for and translated into Arabic, and
colleges and libraries everywhere arose. Baghdad in the east and Cordova
in the west became the seats of a rich development of letters and
science during the age when the civilization of Europe was most
obscured. Cairo and Tripoli were also distinguished for their libraries.
The royal library of the Fatimites in Africa is said to have numbered
100,000 manuscripts, while that collected by the Omayyads of Spain is
reported to have contained six times as many. It is said that there were
no less than seventy libraries opened in the cities of Andalusia.
Whether these figures be exaggerated or not--and they are much below
those given by some Arabian writers, which are undoubtedly so--it is
certain that the libraries of the Arabians and the Moors of Spain offer
a very remarkable contrast to those of the Christian nations during the
same period.[10]


The literary and scientific activity of the Arabians appears to have
been the cause of a revival of letters amongst the Greeks of the
Byzantine empire in the 9th century. Under Leo the Philosopher and
Constantine Porphyrogenitus the libraries of Constantinople awoke into
renewed life. The compilations of such writers as Stobaeus, Photius and
Suidas, as well as the labours of innumerable critics and commentators,
bear witness to the activity, if not to the lofty character of the
pursuits, of the Byzantine scholars. The labours of transcription were
industriously pursued in the libraries and in the monasteries of Mount
Athos and the Aegean, and it was from these quarters that the restorers
of learning brought into Italy so many Greek manuscripts. In this way
many of the treasures of ancient literature had been already conveyed
to the West before the fate which overtook the libraries of
Constantinople on the fall of the city in 1453.

Meanwhile in the West, with the reviving interest in literature which
already marks the 14th century, we find arising outside the monasteries
a taste for collecting books. St Louis of France and his successors had
formed small collections, none of which survived its possessor. It was
reserved for Charles V. to form a considerable library which he intended
to be permanent. In 1373 he had amassed 910 volumes, and had a catalogue
of them prepared, from which we see that it included a good deal of the
new sort of literature. In England Guy, earl of Warwick, formed a
curious collection of French romances, which he bequeathed to Bordesley
Abbey on his death in 1315. Richard d'Aungervyle of Bury, the author of
the _Philobiblon_, amassed a noble collection of books, and had special
opportunities of doing so as Edward III.'s chancellor and ambassador. He
founded Durham College at Oxford, and equipped it with a library a
hundred years before Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, made his benefaction
of books to the university. The taste for secular literature, and the
enthusiasm for the ancient classics, gave a fresh direction to the
researches of collectors. A disposition to encourage literature began to
show itself amongst the great. This was most notable amongst the Italian
princes. Cosimo de' Medici formed a library at Venice while living there
in exile in 1433, and on his return to Florence laid the foundation of
the great Medicean library. The honour of establishing the first modern
public library in Italy had been already secured by Niccolo Niccoli, who
left his library of over 800 volumes for the use of the public on his
death in 1436. Frederick, duke of Urbino, collected all the writings in
Greek and Latin which he could procure, and we have an interesting
account of his collection written by his first librarian, Vespasiano.
The ardour for classical studies led to those active researches for the
Latin writers who were buried in the monastic libraries which are
especially identified with the name of Poggio. For some time before the
fall of Constantinople, the perilous state of the Eastern empire had
driven many Greek scholars from that capital into western Europe, where
they had directed the studies and formed the taste of the zealous
students of the Greek language and literature. The enthusiasm of the
Italian princes extended itself beyond the Alps. Matthias Corvinus, king
of Hungary, amassed a collection of splendidly executed and
magnificently bound manuscripts, which at his death are said to have
reached the almost incredible number of 50,000 vols. The library was not
destined long to survive its founder. There is reason to believe that it
had been very seriously despoiled even before it perished at the hands
of the Turks on the fall of Buda in 1527. A few of its treasures are
still preserved in some of the libraries of Europe. While these
munificent patrons of learning were thus taking pains to recover and
multiply the treasures of ancient literature by the patient labour of
transcribers and calligraphers, an art was being elaborated which was
destined to revolutionize the whole condition of literature and
libraries. With the invention of printing, so happily coinciding with
the revival of true learning and sound science, the modern history of
libraries may be said to begin.


In most of the European countries and in the United States libraries of
all kinds have during the last twenty years been undergoing a process of
development and improvement which has greatly altered their policy and
methods. At one time libraries were regarded almost entirely as
repositories for the storage of books to be used by the learned alone,
but now they are coming to be regarded more and more as workshops or as
places for intellectual recreation adapted for every department of life.
This is particularly to be found as the ideal in the public libraries of
the Anglo-Saxon races throughout the world.

The following details comprise the chief points in the history,
equipment and methods of the various libraries and systems noticed.

_The United Kingdom._

  British Museum.

_State Libraries._--The British Museum ranks in importance before all
the great libraries of the world, and excels in the arrangement and
accessibility of its contents. The library consists of over 2,000,000
printed volumes and 56,000 manuscripts, but this large total does not
include pamphlets and other small publications which are usually counted
in other libraries. Adding these together it is probable that over
5,000,000 items are comprised in the collections. This extraordinary
opulence is principally due to the enlightened energy of Sir Anthony
Panizzi (q.v.). The number of volumes in the printed book department,
when he took the keepership in 1837, was only 240,000; and during the
nineteen years he held that office about 400,000 were added, mostly by
purchase, under his advice and direction. It was Panizzi likewise who
first seriously set to work to see that the national library reaped all
the benefits bestowed upon it by the Copyright Act.

The foundation of the British Museum dates from 1753, when effect was
given to the bequest (in exchange for £20,000 to be paid to his
executors) by Sir Hans Sloane, of his books, manuscripts, curiosities,
&c., to be held by trustees for the use of the nation. A bill was passed
through parliament for the purchase of the Sloane collections and of the
Harleian MSS., costing £10,000. To these, with the Cottonian MSS.,
acquired by the country in 1700, was added by George II., in 1757, the
royal library of the former kings of England, coupled with the
privilege, which that library had for many years enjoyed, of obtaining a
copy of every publication entered at Stationers' Hall. This addition was
of the highest importance, as it enriched the museum with the old
collections of Archbishop Cranmer, Henry prince of Wales, and other
patrons of literature, while the transfer of the privilege with regard
to the acquisition of new books, a right which has been maintained by
successive Copyright Acts, secured a large and continuous augmentation.
A lottery having been authorized to defray the expenses of purchases, as
well as for providing suitable accommodation, the museum and library
were established in Montague House, and opened to the public 15th
January 1759. In 1763 George III. presented the well-known Thomason
collection (in 2220 volumes) of books and pamphlets issued in England
between 1640 and 1662, embracing all the controversial literature which
appeared during that period. The Rev. C. M. Cracherode, one of the
trustees, bequeathed his collection of choice books in 1799; and in 1820
Sir Joseph Banks left to the nation his important library of 16,000
vols. Many other libraries have since then been incorporated in the
museum, the most valuable being George III.'s royal collection (15,000
vols. of tracts, and 65,259 vols. of printed books, including many of
the utmost rarity, which had cost the king about £130,000), which was
presented (for a pecuniary consideration, it has been said) by George
IV. in 1823, and that of the Right Honourable Thomas Grenville (20,240
vols. of rare books, all in fine condition and binding), which was
acquired under bequest in 1846. The Cracherode, Banksian, King's and
Grenville libraries are still preserved as separate collections. Other
libraries of minor note have also been absorbed in a similar way, while,
at least since the time of Panizzi, no opportunity has been neglected of
making useful purchases at all the British and Continental book

The collection of English books is far from approaching completeness,
but, apart from the enormous number of volumes, the library contains an
extraordinary quantity of rarities. Few libraries in the United States
equal either in number or value the American books in the museum. The
collection of Slavonic literature, due to the initiative of Thomas
Watts, is also a remarkable feature. Indeed, in cosmopolitan interest
the museum is without a rival in the world, possessing as it does the
best library in any European language out of the territory in which the
language is vernacular. The Hebrew, the Chinese, and printed books in
other Oriental languages are important and represented in large numbers.
Periodical literature has not been forgotten, and the series of
newspapers is of great extent and interest. Great pains are taken by the
authorities to obtain the copies of the newspapers published in the
United Kingdom to which they are entitled by the provisions of the
Copyright Act, and upwards of 3400 are annually collected, filed and

The department of MSS. is almost equal In importance to that of the
printed books. The collection of MSS. in European languages ranges from
the 3rd century before Christ down to our own times, and includes the
_Codex Alexandrinus_ of the Bible. The old historical chronicles of
England, the charters of the Anglo-Saxon kings, and the celebrated
series of Arthurian romances are well represented; and care has been
taken to acquire on every available opportunity the imprinted works of
English writers. The famous collections of MSS. made by Sir Robert
Cotton and Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, have already been mentioned,
and from these and other sources the museum has become rich in early
Anglo-Saxon and Latin codices, some of them being marvels of skill in
calligraphy and ornamentation, such as the charters of King Edgar and
Henry I. to Hyde Abbey, which are written in gold letters; or the
Lindisfarne gospels (A.D. 700) containing the earliest extant
Anglo-Saxon version of the Latin gospels. The Burney collection of
classical MSS. furnished important additions, so that from this source
and from the collection of Arundel MSS. (transferred from the Royal
Society in 1831), the museum can boast of an early copy of the _Iliad_,
and one of the earliest known codices of the _Odyssey_. Among the
unrivalled collection of Greek papyri are the unique MSS. of several
works of ancient literature. Irish, French and Italian MSS. are well
represented. Special reference may be made to the celebrated Bedford
Hours, illuminated for the duke of Bedford, regent of France, to the
Sforza Book of Hours and to Queen Mary's Psalter. The Oriental
collection is also extremely valuable, including the library formed by
Mr Rich (consul at Baghdad in the early part of the 19th century), and a
vast quantity of Arabic, Persian and Turkish MSS.; the Chambers
collection of Sanskrit MSS.; several other collections of Indian MSS.;
and a copious library of Hebrew MSS. (including that of the great
scholar Michaelis, and codices of great age, recently brought from
Yemen). The collection of Syriac MSS., embracing the relics of the
famous library of the convent of St Mary Deipara in the Nitrian desert,
formed by the abbot Moses of Nisibis, in the 10th century, is the most
important in existence; of the large store of Abyssinian volumes many
were amassed after the campaign against King Theodore. The number of
genealogical rolls and documents relating to the local and family
history of Great Britain is very large. Altogether there are now more
than 56,000 MSS. (of which over 9000 are Oriental), besides more than
75,000 charters and rolls. There is a very large and valuable collection
of printed and manuscript music of all kinds, and it is probable that of
separate pieces there are nearly 200,000. The catalogue of music is
partly in manuscript and partly printed, and a separate printed
catalogue of the MS. music has been published. The number of maps is
also very large, and a printed catalogue has been issued.

  The general catalogue of the printed books was at one time kept in MS.
  in large volumes, but since 1880 the entries have gradually been
  superseded by the printed titles forming part of the large
  alphabetical catalogue which was completed in 1900. This important
  work is arranged in the order of authors' names, with occasional
  special entries at words like Bible, periodicals and biographical
  names. It is being constantly supplemented and forms an invaluable
  bibliographical work of reference.

  The other printed catalogues of books commence with one published in 2
  vols. folio (1787), followed by that of 1813-1819 in 7 vols. 8vo; the
  next is that of the library of George III. (1820-1829, 5 vols. folio,
  with 2 vols. 8vo, 1834), describing the geographical and topographical
  collections; and then the _Bibliotheca Grenvilliana_ (1842-1872, 4
  vols. 8vo). The first vol. (letter A) of a general catalogue appeared
  in 1841 in a folio volume which has never been added to. The octavo
  catalogue of the Hebrew books came out in 1867; that of the Sanskrit
  and Pali literature is in 4to (1876); and the Chinese catalogue is
  also in 4to (1877). There is a printed list of the books of reference
  (1910) in the reading-room.

  The printed catalogues of the MSS. are--that of the old Royal Library
  (1734, 4to), which in 1910 was shortly to be superseded by a new one;
  the Sloane and others hitherto undescribed (1782, 2 vols. 4to); the
  Cottonian (1802, folio); the Harleian (1808, 4 vols. folio); the
  Hargrave (1818, 4to); the Lansdowne (1819, folio); the Arundel (1840,
  folio); the Burney (1840, folio); the Stowe (1895-1896, 4to); the
  Additional, in periodical volumes since 1836; the Greek Papyri
  (1893-1910); the Oriental (Arabic and Ethiopic), 5 pts., folio
  (1838-1871); the Syriac (1870-1873, 3 pts., 4to); the Ethiopic (1877,
  4to); the Persian (1879-1896, 4 vols. 4to); and the Spanish
  (1875-1893, 4 vols. 8vo); Turkish (1888); Hebrew and Samaritan
  (1900-1909, 3 vols.); Sanskrit (1903); Hindi, &c. (1899); Sinhalese
  (1900). There are also catalogues of the Greek and Egyptian papyri
  (1839-1846, 5 pts., folio). Many other special catalogues have been
  issued, including one of the Thomason Collection of Civil War
  pamphlets, Incunabula (vol. i.), Romances (MSS.), Music, Seals and
  Arabic, Hebrew and other Oriental books, maps, prints and drawings.
  Perhaps the most useful catalogue of all is the _Subject-index to
  Modern Works_ issued in 1881-1905 (4 vols.) and compiled by Mr G. K.

  The _Rules for compiling catalogues in the department of printed
  books_ were revised and published in 1906.

The building in which the library is housed forms part of the fine group
situated in Great Russell Street in central London, and is distinguished
by a stately circular reading-room designed by Sydney Smirke from
suggestions and sketches supplied by Sir A. Panizzi. This was begun in
1855 and opened in 1857. The room is surrounded by book stores placed in
galleries with iron floors, in which, owing to congestion of stock,
various devices have been introduced, particularly a hanging and rolling
form of auxiliary bookcase. The presses inside the reading-room,
arranged in three tiers, contain upwards of 60,000 vols., those on the
ground floor (20,000) being books of reference to which readers have
unlimited access. The accommodation for readers is comfortable and
roomy, each person having a portion of table fitted with various
conveniences. Perhaps not the least convenient arrangement here is the
presence of the staff in the centre of the room, at the service of
readers who require aid.

  In order to enjoy the privilege of reading at the British Museum, the
  applicant (who must be over twenty-one years of age) must obtain a
  renewable ticket of admission through a recommendation from a
  householder addressed to the principal librarian.

  The pressure upon the space at the command of the library has been so
  great that additional land at the rear and sides of the existing
  buildings was purchased by the government for the further extension of
  the Museum. One very important wing facing Torrington Square was
  nearly completed in 1910. The Natural History Museum, South
  Kensington, a department of the British Museum under separate
  management, has a library of books on the natural sciences numbering
  nearly 100,000 vols.

  Patent Office.

Next in importance to the British Museum, and superior to it in
accessibility, is the Library of the Patent Office in Southampton
Buildings, London. This is a department of the Board of Trade, and
though primarily intended for office use and patentees, it is really a
public library freely open to anyone. The only formality required from
readers is a signature in a book kept in the entrance hall. After this
readers have complete access to the shelves. The library contains
considerably over 110,000 vols., and possesses complete sets of the
patents specifications of all countries, and a remarkable collection of
the technical and scientific periodicals of all countries. The library
was first opened in 1855, in somewhat unsuitable premises, and in 1897
it was transferred to a handsome new building.

  The reading-room is provided with two galleries and the majority of
  the books are open to public inspection without the need for
  application forms. A printed catalogue in author-alphabetical form has
  been published with supplement, and in addition, separate subject
  catalogues are issued. This is one of the most complete libraries of
  technology in existence, and its collection of scientific transactions
  and periodicals is celebrated.

  Other state libraries.

Another excellent special library is the National Art Library, founded
in 1841 and transferred to South Kensington in 1856. It contains about
half a million books, prints, drawings and photographs, and is used
mostly by the students attending the art schools, though the general
public can obtain admission on payment of sixpence per week.

A somewhat similar library on the science side is the Science Library
of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, which was founded
in 1857. It is a general science collection and incorporates most of the
books which at one time were in the Museum of Practical Geology.

The only other state library which is open to the public is that of the
Board of Education in Whitehall, which was opened in a new building in
1908. It contains a large collection of works on educational subjects
for which a special classification has been devised and printed.

  The other state libraries in London may be briefly noted as follows:
  Admiralty (1700), 40,000 vols.; College of Arms, or Heralds College,
  15,000 vols.; Colonial Office, c. 15,000 vols.; Foreign Office, c.
  80,000 vols.; Home Office (1800) c. 10,000 vols.; House of Commons
  (1818), c. 50,000 vols.; House of Lords (1834), 50,000 vols.; India
  Office (1800), c. 86,000 vols.; Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens (1853),
  22,000 vols.; and Royal Observatory (Greenwich), c. 20,000 vols.

  Outside London the most important state library is the National
  Library of Ireland, Dublin, founded in 1877 and incorporating the
  library of the Royal Dublin Society. It is housed in a handsome
  building (1890) and contains about 200,000 vols., classified on the
  Decimal system, and catalogued in various forms. The library of the
  Museum of Science and Art at Edinburgh, containing over 20,000 vols.,
  was opened to the public in 1890. Practically every department of the
  state has a reference library of some kind for the use of the staff,
  and provision is also made for lending libraries and reading-rooms in
  connexion with garrisons, naval depots and other services of the army
  and navy.

No professional qualifications are required for positions in British
state libraries, most of the assistants being merely second-division
clerks who have passed the Civil Service examinations. It would be an
advantage from an administrative point of view if the professional
certificates of the Library Association were adopted by the Civil
Service Commissioners as compulsory requirements in addition to their
own examination. The official recognition of a grade of properly trained
librarians would tend to improve the methods and efficiency of the state
libraries, which are generally behind the municipal libraries in
organization and administration.


_University and Collegiate Libraries._--The Bodleian Library, Oxford,
though it had been preceded by various efforts towards a university
library, owed its origin to Sir Thomas Bodley (q.v.). Contributing
largely himself, and procuring contributions from others, he opened the
library with upwards of 2000 vols. in 1602. In 1610 he obtained a grant
from the Stationers' Company of a copy of every work printed in the
country, a privilege still enjoyed under the provisions of the various
copyright acts. The additions made to the library soon surpassed the
capacity of the room, and the founder proceeded to enlarge it. By his
will he left considerable property to the university for the maintenance
and increase of the library. The example set by Bodley found many noble
imitators. Amongst the chief benefactors have been Archbishop Laud, the
executors of Sir Kenelm Digby, John Selden, Sir Thomas (Lord) Fairfax,
Richard Gough, Francis Douce, Richard Rawlinson, and the Rev. Robert
Mason. The library now contains almost 800,000 printed vols., and about
41,000 manuscripts. But the number of volumes, as bound up, conveys a
very inadequate idea of the size or value of the collection. In the
department of Oriental manuscripts it is perhaps superior to any other
European library; and it is exceedingly rich in other manuscript
treasures. It possesses a splendid series of Greek and Latin _editiones
principes_ and of the earliest productions of English presses. Its
historical manuscripts contain most valuable materials for the general
and literary history of the country.

  The last general catalogue of the printed books was printed in 4 vols.
  folio (1843-1851). In 1859 it was decided to prepare a new manuscript
  catalogue on the plan of that then in use at the British Museum, and
  this has been completed in duplicate. In 1910 it was being amended
  with a view to printing. It is an alphabetical author-catalogue; and
  the Bodleian, like the British Museum, has no complete subject-index.
  A slip-catalogue on subjects was, however, in course of preparation in
  1910, and there are classified hand-lists of accessions since 1883.
  There are also printed catalogues of the books belonging to several of
  the separate collections. The MSS. are in general catalogued according
  to the collections to which they belong, and they are all indexed. A
  number of the catalogues of manuscripts have been printed.

In 1860 the beautiful Oxford building known as the "Radcliffe Library,"
now called the "Radcliffe Camera," was offered to the curators of the
Bodleian by the Radcliffe trustees. The Radcliffe Library was founded by
the famous physician Dr John Radcliffe, who died in 1714, and
bequeathed, besides a permanent endowment of £350 a year, the sum of
£40,000 for a building. The library was opened in 1749. Many years ago
the trustees resolved to confine their purchases of books to works on
medicine and natural science. When the university museum and
laboratories were built in 1860, the trustees allowed the books to be
transferred to the museum. It is used as a storehouse for the more
modern books, and it also serves as a reading-room. It is the only room
open after the hour when the older building is closed owing to the rule
as to the exclusion of artificial light. In 1889 the gallery of the
Radcliffe Camera was opened as an addition to the reading-room.

  A _Staff Kalendar_ has been issued since 1902, which with a
  _Supplement_ contains a complete list of cataloguing rules, routine
  work of the libraries and staff, and useful information of many kinds
  concerning the library methods.

The Bodleian Library is open by right to all graduate members of the
university, and to others upon producing a satisfactory recommendation.
No books are allowed to be sent out of the library except by special
leave of the curators and convocation of the university. The
administration and control of the library are committed to a librarian
and board of thirteen curators. The permanent endowment is comparatively
small; the ordinary expenditure, chiefly defrayed from the university
chest, is about £10,000. Within recent years the use of wheeling metal
bookcases has been greatly extended, and a large repository has been
arranged for economical book storage underground.

  The Taylor Institution is due to the benefaction of Sir Robert Taylor,
  an architect, who died in 1788, leaving his property to found an
  establishment for the teaching of modern languages. The library was
  established in 1848, and is devoted to the literature of the modern
  European languages. It contains a fair collection of works on European
  philology, with a special Dante collection, about 1000 Mazarinades and
  400 Luther pamphlets. The Finch collection, left to the university in
  1830, is also kept with the Taylor Library. Books are lent out to
  members of the university and to others on a proper introduction. The
  endowment affords an income of £800 to £1000 for library purposes.

  The libraries of the several colleges vary considerably in extent and
  character, although, owing chiefly to limited funds, the changes and
  growth of all are insignificant. That of All Souls was established in
  1443 by Archbishop Chichele, and enlarged in 1710 by the munificent
  bequest of Christopher Codrington. It devotes special attention to
  jurisprudence, of which it has a large collection. It possesses 40,000
  printed volumes and 300 MSS., and fills a splendid hall 200 ft. long.
  The library of Brasenose College has a special endowment fund, so that
  it has, for a college library, the unusually large income of £200. The
  library of Christ Church is rich in divinity and topography. It
  embraces the valuable library bequeathed by Charles Boyle, 4th earl of
  Orrery, amounting to 10,000 volumes, the books and MSS. of Archbishop
  Wake, and the Morris collection of Oriental books. The building was
  finished in 1761, and closely resembles the basilica of Antoninus at
  Rome, now the Dogana. Corpus possesses a fine collection of Aldines,
  many of them presented by its founder, Bishop Fox, and a collection of
  17th-century tracts catalogued by Mr Edwards, with about 400 MSS.
  Exeter College Library has 25,000 volumes, with special collections of
  classical dissertations and English theological and political tracts.
  The library of Jesus College has few books of later date than the
  early part of the last century. Many of them are from the bequest of
  Sir Leoline Jenkins, who built the existing library. There are also
  some valuable Welsh MSS. The library of Keble College consists largely
  of theology, including the MSS. of many of Keble's works. The library
  of Magdalen College has about 22,500 volumes (including many volumes
  of pamphlets) and 250 MSS. It has scientific and topographical
  collections. The library of Merton College has of late devoted itself
  to foreign modern history. New College Library has about 17,000
  printed volumes and about 350 MSS., several of which were presented by
  its founder, William of Wykeham. Oriel College Library, besides its
  other possessions, has a special collection of books on comparative
  philology and mythology, with a printed catalogue. The fine library of
  Queen's College is strong in theology, in English and modern European
  history, and in English county histories. St John's College Library is
  largely composed of the literature of theology and jurisprudence
  before 1750, and possesses a collection of medical books of the 16th
  and 17th centuries. The newer half of the library building was
  erected by Inigo Jones at the expense of Laud, who also gave many
  printed and manuscript books. The room used as a library at Trinity
  College formed part of Durham College, the library of which was
  established by Richard of Bury. Wadham College Library includes a
  collection of botanical books bequeathed by Richard Warner in 1775 and
  a collection of books, relating chiefly to the Spanish Reformers,
  presented by the executors of Benjamin Wiffen. Worcester College
  Library has of late specially devoted itself to classical archaeology.
  It is also rich in old plays.

  The college libraries as a rule have not been used to the extent they
  deserve, and a good deal must be done before they can be said to be as
  useful and efficient as they might be.


The history of the University Library at Cambridge dates from the
earlier part of the 15th century. Two early lists of its contents are
preserved, the first embracing 52 vols. dating from about 1425, the
second a shelf-list, apparently of 330 vols., drawn up by the outgoing
proctors in 1473. Its first great benefactor was Thomas Scott of
Rotherham, archbishop of York, who erected in 1475 the building in which
the library continued until 1755. He also gave more than 200 books and
manuscripts to the library, some of which still remain. The library
received other benefactions, but nevertheless appeared "but mean" to
John Evelyn when he visited Cambridge in 1654. In 1666 Tobias Rustat
presented a sum of money to be invested to buy the choicest and most
useful books. In 1715 George I. presented the library of Bishop Moore,
which was very rich in early English printed books, forming over 30,000
vols. of printed books and manuscripts. The funds bequeathed by William
Worts and John Manistre, together with that of Rustat, produce at
present about £1500 a year. The share of university dues appropriated to
library purposes amounts to £3000 a year. In addition the library is
entitled to new books under the Copyright Acts. The number of printed
volumes in the library cannot be exactly stated, as no recent
calculation on the subject exists. It has been estimated at half a
million. It includes a fine series of _editiones principes_ of the
classics and of the early productions of the English press. The MSS.
number over 6000, in which are included a considerable number of
adversaria or printed books with MS. notes, which form a leading feature
in the collection. The most famous of the MSS. is the celebrated copy of
the four gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, which is known as _Codex
Bezae_, and which was presented to the university by that Reformer.

  A catalogue of the MSS. has been published in 4 vols. (1856-1861), and
  this has been followed up by the publication of a number of separate
  catalogues of Persian, Syriac, Hebrew, Chinese, &c., MSS. There is no
  published catalogue of the books, although the catalogue is in print,
  the accessions being printed and cut up and arranged in volumes. A
  catalogue of English books before 1640 is in course of publication.
  The regulations of the library with regard to the lending of books are
  very liberal, as many as ten volumes being allowed out to one borrower
  at the same time. The annual income is about £7000.

There is a library attached to the Fitzwilliam Museum, bequeathed to the
university in 1816. It consists of the entire library of Lord
Fitzwilliam, with the addition of an archaeological library bought from
the executors of Colonel Leake, and a small number of works, chiefly on
the history of art, since added by purchase or bequest. It contains a
collection of engravings of old masters, a collection of music, printed
and MS., and a collection of illuminated MSS., chiefly French and
Flemish, of the 14th to 16th centuries. The books are not allowed to be
taken out. Catalogues and reprints of some of the music and other
collections have been published.

  The library of Trinity College, which is contained in a magnificent
  hall built by Sir Christopher Wren, has about 90,000 printed and 1918
  MS. vols., and is especially strong in theology, classics and
  bibliography. It owes to numerous gifts and bequests the possession of
  a great number of rare books and manuscripts. Amongst these special
  collections are the Capell collection of early dramatic and especially
  Shakespearian literature, the collection of German theology and
  philosophy bequeathed by Archdeacon Hare, and the Grylls bequest in
  1863 of 9600 vols., including many early printed books. There are
  printed catalogues of the Sanskrit and other Oriental MSS. by Dr
  Aufrecht and Professor Palmer, and of the incunabula by the late
  librarian, Mr Sinker. The library is open to all members of the
  college, and the privilege of using it is liberally extended to
  properly accredited students. One of the most interesting libraries
  is that of Trinity Hall, in which the original bookcases and benches
  are preserved, and many books are seen chained to the cases, as used
  formerly to be the practice.

  None of the other college libraries rivals Trinity in the number of
  books. The library of Christ's College received its first books from
  the foundress. Clare College Library includes a number of Italian and
  Spanish plays of the end of the 16th century left by George Ruggle.
  The library of Corpus Christi College first became notable through the
  bequest of books and MSS. made by Archbishop Parker in 1575. The
  printed books are less than 5000 in number, and the additions now made
  are chiefly in such branches as throw light on the extremely valuable
  collection of ancient MSS., which attracts scholars from all parts of
  Europe. There is a printed catalogue of these MSS. Gonville and Caius
  College Library is of early foundation. A catalogue of the MSS. was
  printed in 1849, with pictorial illustrations, and a list of the
  incunabula in 1850. The printed books of King's College includes the
  fine collection bequeathed by Jacob Bryant in 1804. The MSS. are
  almost wholly Oriental, chiefly Persian and Arabic, and a catalogue of
  them has been printed. Magdalene College possesses the curious library
  formed by Pepys and bequeathed by him to the college, together with
  his collections of prints and drawings and of rare British portraits.
  It is remarkable for its treasures of popular literature and English
  ballads, as well as for the Scottish manuscript poetry collected by
  Sir Richard Maitland. The books are kept in Pepys's own cases, and
  remain just as he arranged them himself. The library Of Peterhouse is
  the oldest library in Cambridge, and possesses a catalogue of some 600
  or 700 books dating from 1418, in which year it was completed. It is
  chiefly theological, though it possesses a valuable collection of
  modern works on geology and natural science, and a unique collection
  of MS. music. Queen's College Library contains about 30,000 vols.
  mainly in theology, classics and Semitic literature, and has a printed
  class-catalogue. The library of St John's College is rich in early
  printed books, and possesses a large collection of English historical
  tracts. Of the MSS. and rare books there is a printed catalogue.


The library of the university of London, founded in 1837, has over
60,000 vols, and includes the Goldsmith Library of economic literature,
numbering 30,000 vols. Other collections are De Morgan's collection of
mathematical books, Grote's classical library, &c. There is a printed
catalogue of 1897, with supplements. Since its removal to South
Kensington, this library has been greatly improved and extended.
University College Library, Gower Street, established in 1829, has close
upon 120,000 vols. made up chiefly of separate collections which have
been acquired from time to time. Many of these collections overlap, and
much duplicating results, leading to congestion. These collections
include Jeremy Bentham's library, Morrison's Chinese library, Barlow's
Dante library, collections of law, mathematical, Icelandic, theological,
art, oriental and other books, some of them of great value.

King's College Library, founded in 1828, has over 30,000 vols. chiefly
of a scientific character. In close association with the university of
London is the London School of Economics and Political Science in Clare
Market, in which is housed the British Library of Political Science with
50,000 vols. and a large number of official reports and pamphlets.

The collegiate library at Dulwich dates from 1619, and a list of its
earliest accessions, in the handwriting of the founder, may still be
seen. There are now about 17,000 vols. of miscellaneous works of the
17th and 18th centuries, with a few rare books. A catalogue of them was
printed in 1880; and one describing the MSS. (567) and the muniments
(606) was issued during the succeeding year. The last two classes are
very important, and include the well-known "Alleyn Papers" and the
theatrical diary of Philip Henslow. Sion College is a gild of the
parochial clergy of the city and suburbs of London, and the library was
founded in 1629 for their use; laymen may also read (but not borrow) the
books when recommended by some beneficed metropolitan clergyman. The
library is especially rich in liturgies, Port-Royal authors, pamphlets,
&c., and contains about 100,000 vols. classified on a modification of
the Decimal system. The copyright privilege was commuted in 1835 for an
annual sum of £363, 15s. 2d. The present building was opened in 1886 and
is one of the striking buildings of the Victoria Embankment.

  Most of the London collegiate or teaching institutions have libraries
  attached to them, and it will only be necessary to mention a few of
  the more important to get an idea of their variety: Baptist College
  (1810), 13,000 vols.; Bedford College (for women), 17,000 vols.;
  Birkbeck College (1823), 12,000 vols.; Congregational Library
  (1832-1893), 14,000 vols.; the Royal College of Music, containing the
  library of the defunct Sacred Harmonic Society; Royal Naval College
  (Greenwich, 1873), 7000 vols.; St Bartholomew's Hospital (1422),
  15,000 vols.; St Paul's School (1509), 10,000 vols.; the Working Men's
  College (1854), 5000 vols.; and all the Polytechnic schools in the
  Metropolitan area.

  English provinces.

The university library of Durham (1832) contains about 35,000 vols., and
all the modern English universities--Birmingham, Mason University
College (1880), 27,000 vols.; Leeds, Liverpool (1882), 56,000 vols.;
Manchester, Victoria University, which absorbed Owens College (1851),
115,000 vols.; Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Sheffield (1907), &c.--have
collections of books. The libraries in connexion with theological
colleges and public schools throughout England are often quite
extensive, and reference may be made to Eton College (1441), 25,000
vols.; Haileybury (1862), 12,000 vols.; Harrow (Vaughan Library), 12,000
vols.; Mill Hill; Oscott College, Erdington (1838), 36,000 vols.; Rugby
(1878), 8000 vols.; Stonyhurst College (1794), c. 40,000 vols., &c. The
new building for the university of Wales at Bangor has ample
accommodation for an adequate library, and the University College at
Aberystwith is also equipped with a library.


The origin of the University Library of Edinburgh is to be found in a
bequest of his books of theology and law made to the town in 1580 by
Clement Little, advocate. This was two years before the foundation of
the university, and in 1584 the town council caused the collection to be
removed to the college, of which they were the patrons. As it was the
only library in the town, it continued to grow and received many
benefactions, so that in 1615 it became necessary to erect a library
building. Stimulated perhaps by the example of Bodley at Oxford,
Drummond of Hawthornden made a large donation of books, of which he
printed a catalogue in 1627, and circulated an appeal for assistance
from others. In 1678 the library received a bequest of 2000 vols. from
the Rev. James Nairne. In 1709 the library became entitled to the copy
privilege, which has since been commuted for a payment of £575 per
annum. In 1831 the books were removed to the present library buildings,
for which a parliamentary grant had been obtained. The main library hall
(190 ft. in length) is one of the most splendid apartments in Scotland.
One of the rooms is set apart as a memorial to General Reid, by whose
benefaction the library has greatly benefited. Amongst the more recent
accessions have been the Halliwell-Phillips Shakespeare collection, the
Laing collection of Scottish MSS., the Baillie collection of Oriental
MSS. (some of which are of great value), and the Hodgson collection of
works on political economy. The library now consists of about 210,000
vols. of printed books with over 2000 MSS. Recently it has been found
necessary to make considerable additions to the shelving. The library of
the university of Glasgow dates from the 15th century, and numbers
George Buchanan and many other distinguished men amongst its early
benefactors. A classified subject-catalogue has been printed, and there
is also a printed dictionary catalogue. The annual accessions are about
1500, and the commutation-grant £707. Connected with the university,
which is trustee for the public, is the library of the Hunterian Museum,
formed by the eminent anatomist Dr William Hunter. It is a collection of
great bibliographical interest, as it is rich in MSS. and in fine
specimens of early printing, especially in Greek and Latin classics.
There are about 200,000 vols. in the library.

  The first mention of a library at St Andrews is as early as 1456. The
  three colleges were provided with libraries of their own about the
  time of their foundation--St Salvator's 1455, St Leonard's 1512, St
  Mary's 1537. The University Library was established about 1610 by King
  James VI., and in the course of the 18th century the college libraries
  were merged in it. The copyright privilege was commuted in 1837. The
  collection numbers 120,000 vols. exclusive of pamphlets, with about
  200 MSS., chiefly of local interest. A library is supposed to have
  existed at Aberdeen since the foundation of King's College by Bishop
  Elphinstone in 1494. The present collection combines the libraries of
  King's College and Marischal College, now incorporated in the
  university. The latter had its origin in a collection of books formed
  by the town authorities at the time of the Reformation, and for some
  time kept in one of the churches. The library has benefited by the
  Melvin bequest, chiefly of classical books, and those of Henderson and
  Wilson, and contains some very valuable books. The general library is
  located in Old Aberdeen in a room of imposing design, while the
  medical and law books are in the New Town in Marischal College. The
  library has a grant, in lieu of the copyright privilege, of £320. The
  annual income of the library is £2500, and it contains over 180,000
  vols. The books are classified on a modification of the decimal
  system, and there are printed author and MS. subject-catalogues. By
  arrangement with the municipal library authority, books are lent to
  non-students. All the technical schools, public schools, and
  theological and other colleges in Scotland are well equipped with
  libraries as the following list will show:--Aberdeen: Free Church
  College, 17,000 vols. Edinburgh: Fettes College, c. 5000 vols.;
  Heriot's Hospital (1762), c. 5000 vols.; New College (1843), 50,000
  vols. Glasgow: Anderson's College (containing the valuable Euing music
  library), 16,000 vols.; United Free Church Theological College, 33,000
  vols. Trinity College, Glenalmond, 5000 vols.


The establishment of the library of Trinity College, Dublin, is
contemporaneous with that of the Bodleian at Oxford, and it is an
interesting circumstance that, when Challoner and Ussher (afterwards the
archbishop) were in London purchasing books to form the library, they
met Bodley there, and entered into friendly intercourse and co-operation
with him to procure the choicest and best books. The commission was
given to Ussher and Challoner as trustees of the singular donation which
laid the foundation of the library. In the year 1601 the English army
determined to commemorate their victory over the Spanish troops at
Kinsale by some permanent monument. Accordingly they subscribed the sum
of £1800 to establish a library in the university of Dublin. For
Ussher's own collection, consisting of 10,000 vols. and many valuable
MSS., the college was also indebted to military generosity. On his death
in 1655 the officers and soldiers of the English army then in Ireland
purchased the whole collection for £22,000 with the design of presenting
it to the college. Cromwell, however, interfered, alleging that he
proposed to found a new college, where the books might more conveniently
be preserved. They were deposited therefore in Dublin Castle, and the
college only obtained them after the Restoration. In 1674 Sir Jerome
Alexander left his law books with some valuable MSS. to the college. In
1726 Dr Palliser, archbishop of Cashel, bequeathed over 4000 vols. to
the library; and ten years later Dr Gilbert gave the library nearly
13,000 vols. which he had himself collected and arranged. In 1745 the
library received a valuable collection of MSS. as a bequest from Dr
Stearne. In 1802 the collection formed by the pensionary Fagel, which
had been removed to England on the French invasion of Holland, was
acquired for £10,000. It consisted of over 20,000 vols. In 1805 Mr Quin
bequeathed a choice collection of classical and Italian books. There
have been many other smaller donations, in addition to which the library
is continually increased by the books received under the Copyright Act.
The library now contains 300,000 vols. and over 2000 MSS. There is no
permanent endowment, and purchases are made by grants from the board.
The whole collections are contained in one building, erected in 1732,
consisting of eight rooms. The great library hall is a magnificent
apartment over 200 ft. long. A new reading-room was opened in 1848. A
catalogue of the books acquired before 1872 has been printed (1887).
There is a printed catalogue of the MSS. and Incunabula (1890).
Graduates of Dublin, Oxford, and Cambridge are admitted to read
permanently, and temporary admission is granted by the board to any fit
person who makes application.

  The library of Queen's College, Belfast (1849), contains about 60,000
  vols., while Queen's College, Cork (1849), has over 32,000 vols. St
  Patrick's College, Maynooth (1795), has about 60,000, and other
  collegiate libraries are well supplied with books.

  Cathedral and church libraries.

With one or two exceptions, libraries are attached to the cathedrals of
England and Wales. Though they are of course intended for the use of the
cathedral or diocesan clergy, they are in most cases open to any
respectable person who may be properly introduced. They seldom contain
very much modern literature, chiefly consisting of older theology, with
more or less addition of classical and historical literature. They vary
in extent from a few volumes, as at Llandaff or St David's, to 20,000
vols., as at Durham. Together they possess nearly 150,000 printed and
manuscript vols. As a rule, very little is spent upon them, and they are
very little used. The chamber in the old cloisters, in which the library
of the dean and chapter of Westminster is preserved, is well known from
the charming description by Washington Irving in his _Sketch Book_.
There are about 14,000 vols., mostly of old theology and history,
including many rare Bibles and other valuable books. The library of the
dean and chapter of St Paul's Cathedral was founded in very early times,
and now numbers some 22,000 vols. and pamphlets, mainly theological,
with a good collection of early Bibles and Testaments, Paul's Cross
Sermons, and works connected with the cathedral.

Perhaps the best library of Catholic theology in London is that of the
Oratory at South Kensington, established in 1849, and now containing
nearly 35,000 vols. The Catholic Cathedral of Westminster, of recent
foundation, contains about 22,000 vols. The archiepiscopal library at
Lambeth was founded in 1610 by Archbishop Bancroft, and has been
enriched by the gifts of Laud, Tenison, Manners Sutton, and others of
his successors; it is now lodged in the noble hall built by Juxon. The
treasures consist of the illuminated MSS., and a rich store of early
printed books; of the latter two catalogues have been issued by Samuel
Roffey Maitland (1792-1866). The MSS. are described in H. J. Todd's
catalogue, 1812. The total number of printed books and manuscripts is
nearly 45,000.

  The library of Christ Church, Oxford, belongs alike to the college and
  the cathedral, but will be more properly described as a college
  library. The cathedral library of Durham dates from monastic times,
  and possesses many of the books which belonged to the monastery. These
  were added to by Dean Sudbury, the second founder of the library, and
  Bishop Cosin. The collection has been considerably increased in more
  modern times, and now contains 15,000 vols. It is especially rich in
  MSS., some of which are of great beauty and value; a catalogue of them
  was printed in 1825. The library has good topographical and
  entomological collections. The chapter spend £370 per annum in
  salaries and in books. The library at York numbers about 11,000 vols.,
  and has been very liberally thrown open to the public. It is kept in
  the former chapel of the archbishop's palace, and has many valuable
  MSS. and early printed books. The foundation of the library at
  Canterbury dates probably from the Roman mission to England, A.D. 596,
  although the library does not retain any of the books then brought
  over, or even of the books said to have been sent by Pope Gregory to
  the first archbishop in 601. It is recorded that among Lanfranc's
  buildings was a new library, and Becket is said to have collected
  books abroad to present to the library. The collection now numbers
  about 9900 printed books, with about 110 MS. vols., and between 6000
  and 7000 documents. A catalogue was printed in 1802. The present
  building was erected in 1867 on part of the site of the monastic
  dormitory. The library at Lincoln contains 7400 vols., of which a
  catalogue was printed in 1859. It possesses a fine collection of
  political tracts of the age of Elizabeth, James and Charles I. The
  present collection at Chichester dates from the Restoration only; that
  at Ely is rich in books and tracts relating to the non-jurors. The
  library at Exeter possesses many Saxon MSS. of extreme interest, one
  of them being the gift of Leofric, the first bishop. The treasures of
  Lichfield were destroyed by the Puritans during the civil war, and the
  existing library is of later formation. Frances, duchess of Somerset,
  bequeathed to it nearly 1000 vols., including the famous Evangeliary
  of St Chad. The collection at Norwich is chiefly modern, and was
  presented by Dr Sayers. The earlier library at Peterborough having
  almost wholly perished in the civil war, Bishop White Kennett became
  the virtual founder of the present collection. Salisbury is rich in
  incunabula, and a catalogue has recently been printed. Winchester
  Cathedral Library is mainly the bequest of Bishop Morley in the 17th
  century. The library at Bristol, then numbering 6000 or 7000 vols.,
  was burnt and pillaged by the mob in the riots of 1831. Only about
  1000 vols. were saved, many of which were recovered, but few additions
  have been made to them. At Chester in 1691 Dean Arderne bequeathed his
  books and part of his estate "as the beginning of a public library for
  the clergy and city." The library of Hereford is a good specimen of an
  old monastic library; the books are placed in the Lady Chapel, and
  about 230 choice MSS. are chained to oaken desks. The books are ranged
  with the edges outwards upon open shelves, to which they are attached
  by chains and bars. Another most interesting "chained" library is that
  at Wimborne Minster, Dorset, which contains about 280 books in their
  original condition. The four Welsh cathedrals were supplied with
  libraries by a deed of settlement in 1709. The largest of them, that
  of St Asaph, has about 1750 vols. The Bibliotheca Leightoniana, or
  Leightonian Library, founded by Archbishop Leighton in 1684 in
  Dunblane Cathedral, Scotland, contains about 2000 vols., and is the
  only cathedral library in Scotland of any historic interest. The
  library of St Benedict's Abbey, Fort Augustus (1878) with 20,000 vols.
  is an example of a recent foundation. The public library in St
  Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, sometimes called Marsh's Library after
  its founder, was established about 1694 by Archbishop Marsh, was
  incorporated by act of parliament in 1707, and endowed by its founder
  at his death in 1713. The building was erected by the founder, and the
  original oak fittings still remain. There is no room for additions,
  and a large collection of modern books was refused a few years ago on
  that account. The endowment is too small to allow of purchases from
  the funds of the library, so that it still retains the character of a
  17th-century library. The books are chiefly theological, and in the
  learned languages; they include the libraries of Bishop Stillingfleet
  and of Elias Bouhereau, a French refugee, who was the first librarian.

  Endowed libraries.

Endowed libraries may be defined as those which have been directly
established by the bequests of individuals or corporate bodies,
excluding those which have been assisted by donors or are merely named
after them. As compared with the United States, the endowed libraries of
Britain are few in number, although several are of great importance.
London possesses very few libraries which have been endowed by
individual donors. The principal are the Bishopsgate Institute (1891),
which was founded out of sundry City of London charities, and now
contains about 44,000 vols., and is celebrated for a fine collection of
local prints, drawings and maps. It is open free to persons in the east
part of the City. The Cripplegate Institute (1896) in Golden Lane, also
founded out of charity moneys, has three branches--St Bride's Foundation
Institute (18,000 vols.), jointly; Queen Street, Cheapside, Branch (8000
vols.); and St Luke's Institute (5000 vols.)--and contains 28,000 vols.
Lectures and other entertainments are features of both these libraries.
Dr Williams' library was founded by the will of an eminent Presbyterian
divine of that name; it was opened in 1729. The books (50,000) are
housed in a new building in Gordon Square, completed in 1873. Theology
of all schools of opinion is represented, and there are special
collections of theosophical books and MSS., the works of Boehme, Law,
and other mystical writers. The MSS. include the original minutes of the
Westminster Assembly, letters and treatises of Richard Baxter, &c. The
St Bride Foundation Technical Reference Library (1895) is a very
complete collection of books and specimens of printing and the allied
arts, including the libraries of William Blades and Talbot Baines Reed,
and a number of more modern books presented by Mr Passmore Edwards. It
contains about 18,000 vols., and is open to all persons interested in
printing, lithography, &c., and also to the general public.

  The most notable of the English provincial endowed libraries are those
  established in Manchester. The fine old library established by
  Humphrey Chetham in 1653 is still housed in the old collegiate
  buildings where Sir Walter Raleigh was once entertained by Dr Dee. The
  collection consists largely of older literature, and numbers about
  60,000 volumes and MSS. It is freely open to the public, and may be
  said to have been the first free library in England. Catalogues in
  broad classified form were issued in 1791-1863, and there have been
  supplements since. A remarkable instance of a great library
  established by private munificence is that of the John Rylands Library
  at Manchester, which was founded, erected and endowed by Mrs E. A.
  Rylands in memory of her husband, and is contained in a magnificent
  building designed by Basil Champneys and opened in 1899. The
  collection was formed largely on the famous Althorp Library, made by
  Earl Spencer (40,000 vols.), one of the most remarkable collections of
  early printed books and rare Bibles ever brought together. The present
  number of volumes is about 115,000, of which over 2500 are incunabula.
  A short-title catalogue, 3 vols. 4to., and one of English books, have
  been published, and a manuscript dictionary catalogue has been
  provided. Several valuable special catalogues and descriptive lists
  have been issued, one of the latest being a special catalogue of the
  architectural works contained in all the Manchester libraries.

  The William Salt Library, a special Staffordshire library with
  numerous MSS. and other collections, formed to bring together
  materials for a history of Staffordshire, was opened to the public in
  1874 in the town of Stafford. It contains nearly 20,000 books, prints
  and other items.

  Other endowed libraries in the English provinces which deserve mention
  are the Bingham Public Library (1905) at Cirencester; the Guille-Allès
  Library (1856), Guernsey; St Deiniol's Library (1894), Hawarden,
  founded by William Ewart Gladstone, the great statesman; and the
  Shakespeare Memorial Library and theatre (1879) at

  The most important endowed library in Scotland is the Mitchell Library
  in Glasgow, founded by Stephen Mitchell, tobacco-manufacturer (1874),
  who left £70,000 for the purpose. It was opened in 1877 in temporary
  premises, and after various changes will soon be transferred to a very
  fine new building specially erected. It contains some very valuable
  special collections, among which may be mentioned Scottish poetry,
  Burns' works, Glasgow books and printing, and a choice collection of
  fine books on art and other subjects given by Robert Jeffrey. It
  contains nearly 200,000 vols. and is the reference library for the
  Glasgow public library system. Another older Glasgow public library,
  also founded by a tobacco merchant, is Stirling's and Glasgow Public
  Library (1791), which was endowed by Walter Stirling, and amalgamated
  with an existing subscription library. It contains 60,000 vols. and is
  free to reference readers, but a subscription is charged for borrowing
  privileges. Still another Glasgow institution is Baillie's Institution
  Free Reference Library, established under the bequest of George
  Baillie (1863), but not opened till 1887. It contains over 24,000
  vols. Other Scottish endowed libraries are the Anderson Library,
  Woodside, Aberdeen (1883); the Taylor Free Library, Crieff (1890); the
  Elder Free Library, Govan (1900); and the Chambers Institution,
  Peebles (1859), founded by William Chambers, the well-known publisher.
  The public library of Armagh, Ireland, was founded by Lord Primate
  Robinson in 1770, who gave a considerable number of books and an
  endowment. The books are freely available, either on the spot, or by
  loan on deposit of double the value of the work applied for.

  Libraries of societies and learned bodies.

There are many libraries belonging to societies devoted to the study of
every kind of subject, and it is only necessary to mention a few of the
principal. Full particulars of most of them will be found in Reginald A.
Rye's _Libraries of London: a Guide for Students_ (1910), a work of
accuracy and value.

  Of the law libraries, that at Lincoln's Inn, London, is the oldest and
  the largest. It dates from 1497, when John Nethersale, a member of the
  society, made a bequest of forty marks, part of which was to be
  devoted to the building of a library for the benefit of the students
  of the laws of England. A catalogue of the printed books was published
  in 1859 and since supplemented, and the MSS. were catalogued by the
  Rev. Joseph Hunter in 1837. There are about 72,000 vols. The library
  of the Inner Temple is known to have existed in 1540. In the middle of
  the 17th century it received a considerable benefaction from William
  Petyt, the well-known keeper of the Tower records. There are now about
  60,000 vols., including the pamphlets collected by John Adolphus for
  his _History of England_, books on crime and prisons brought together
  by Mr Crawford, and a selection of works on jurisprudence made by John
  Austin. A library in connexion with the Middle Temple was in existence
  during the reign of Henry VIII., but the date usually assigned to its
  foundation is 1641, when Robert Ashley left his books to the inn of
  which he had been a member. There are now about 50,000 vols. Gray's
  Inn Library (21,000 vols.) was perhaps established before 1555. In
  1669 was made the first catalogue of the books, and the next, still
  extant, in 1689. The Law Society (1828) has a good law and general
  library (50,000 vols.), including the best collection of private acts
  of parliament in England. The library of the Royal Society (1667), now
  housed in Burlington House, contains over 80,000 vols., of which many
  are the transactions and other publications of scientific bodies. The
  Royal Institution of Great Britain (1803) possesses a reference
  library of 60,000 vols. Some of its early catalogues were in
  classified form. The London Institution (1805), in the City, is a
  general library of reference and lending books open to members only.
  There are about 150,000 vols., and lectures are given in connexion
  with the institution. The Royal Society of Arts has a library
  numbering about 11,000 vols., chiefly the publications of other
  learned bodies.

  The best library of archaeology and kindred subjects is that of the
  Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, consisting of nearly 40,000
  printed vols. and many MSS. It is rich in early printed books,
  topography, heraldry and numismatics, and includes a curious
  collection of books on pageants presented by Mr Fairholt, and the
  remarkable assemblage of lexicographical works formerly belonging to
  Albert Way.

  Of libraries devoted to the natural sciences may be mentioned those of
  the Geological Society of London (1807), with over 30,000 vols. and
  maps; the Linnean Society (1788), 35,000 vols.; the Zoological Society
  (1829), about 31,000 vols. Of libraries associated with medicine there
  are those of the Royal Society of Medicine (1907), incorporating a
  number of medical societies, over 95,000 vols., about to be housed in
  a new building; the Royal College of Physicians (1525), 26,000 vols.;
  the British Medical Association, 20,000 vols.; the Royal College of
  Surgeons of England (1800), 60,000 vols., with a MS. catalogue on
  cards; the Chemical Society (1841), over 25,000 vols.; and the
  Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (1841), about 15,000 vols.
  Other important London society libraries are--the Royal Geographical
  Society (1830), 50,000 vols., and numerous maps in a special room,
  open to the public for reference; the Royal Colonial Institute (1868),
  70,000 vols. of British colonial literature; the Royal United Service
  Institution, Whitehall (1831), has 32,000 works on military and naval
  subjects and a museum. Large and interesting collections of books are
  owned by the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Institution of
  Civil Engineers, the Institution of Electrical Engineers (containing
  the Ronalds Library), the Royal Academy, the Royal Institute of
  British Architects, and practically every other working society in

  The English provincial libraries connected with societies or learned
  bodies are mostly attached to those concerned with law, medicine, and
  various antiquarian, literary and scientific subjects. The
  headquarters of most national societies being in London to some extent
  accounts for the comparatively small number of these special libraries
  in the provinces.

  The most important libraries of this description outside London are
  situated in Scotland and Ireland, and one at least is practically a
  national collection.

  The principal library in Scotland is that of the Faculty of Advocates
  at Edinburgh, who in 1680 appointed a committee of their number, which
  reported that "it was fitt that, seeing if the recusants could be made
  pay their entire money, there wold be betwixt three thousand and four
  thousand pounds in cash; that the same be imployed on the best and
  fynest lawers and other law bookes, conforme to a catalogue to be
  condescended upon by the Facultie, that the samen may be a fonde for
  ane Bibliothecque whereto many lawers and others may leave their
  books." In 1682 the active carrying out of the scheme was committed to
  the Dean of Faculty, Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, who may be
  regarded as the founder of the library. In 1684 the first librarian
  was appointed, and the library appears to have made rapid progress,
  since it appears from the treasurer's accounts that in 1686 the books
  and furniture were valued at upwards of £11,000 Scots, exclusive of
  donations. In the year 1700, the rooms in the Exchange Stairs,
  Parliament Close, in which the library was kept, being nearly
  destroyed by fire the collection was removed to the ground floor of
  the Parliament House, where it has ever since remained. The library
  retains the copyright privilege conferred upon it in 1709. Of the
  special collections the most important are the Astorga collection of
  old Spanish books, purchased by the faculty in 1824 for £4000; the
  Thorkelin collection, consisting of about 1200 vols., relating chiefly
  to the history and antiquities of the northern nations, and including
  some rare books on old Scottish poetry; the Dietrich collection of
  over 100,000 German pamphlets and dissertations, including many of the
  writings of Luther and Melanchthon, purchased for the small sum of
  £80; and the Combe collection.

  The faculty appear early to have turned their attention to the
  collection of MSS., and this department of the library now numbers
  about 3000 vols. Many of them are of great interest and value,
  especially for the civil and ecclesiastical history of Scotland before
  and after the Reformation. There are thirteen monastic chartularies
  which escaped the destruction of the religious houses to which they
  belonged. The MSS. relating to Scottish church history include the
  collections of Spottiswoode, Wodrow and Calderwood. The Wodrow
  collection consists of 154 vols., and includes his correspondence,
  extending from 1694 to 1726. Sir James Balfour's collection and the
  Balcarres papers consist largely of original state papers, and include
  many interesting royal letters of the times of James V., Queen Mary
  and James VI. The Sibbald papers, numbering over 30 vols., are largely
  topographical. The Riddel notebooks, numbering 156 vols., contain
  collections to illustrate the genealogy of Scottish families. There
  are about one hundred volumes of Icelandic MSS., purchased in 1825
  from Professor Finn Magnusson, and some Persian and Sanskrit, with a
  few classical, manuscripts. The department has some interesting
  treasures of old poetry, extending to 73 vols. The most important are
  the Bannatyne MS., in 2 vols. folio, written by George Bannatyne in
  1568, and the Auchinleck MS., a collection of ancient English poetry,
  named after Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck, who presented it in 1774.

  The first catalogue of the printed books was compiled in 1692, and
  contains a preface by Sir George Mackenzie. Another was prepared under
  the care of Ruddiman in 1742. In 1853 the late Mr Halkett commenced a
  catalogue, which has been printed in 6 vols. 4to, with a supplement,
  and includes all the printed books in the library at the end of 1871,
  containing about 260,000 entries. The library, managed by a keeper and
  staff, under a board of six curators, is easily accessible to all
  persons engaged in literary work, and now contains about 500,000 vols.

  The library of the Writers to the Signet was established by the
  Society at Edinburgh in 1755. At first it consisted of law books
  exclusively, but in 1788 they began to collect the best editions of
  works in other departments of literature. During the librarianship of
  Macvey Napier (1805-1837) the number of volumes was more than
  sextupled, and in 1812 the library was removed to the new hall
  adjoining the Parliament House. In 1834 the upper hall was devoted to
  the collection. This is a magnificent apartment 142 ft. long, with a
  beautiful cupola painted by Stothard. The library now contains over
  110,000 vols. and includes some fine specimens of early printing, as
  well as many other rare and costly works. It is especially rich in
  county histories and British topography and antiquities. A catalogue
  of the law books was printed in 1856. The late David Laing, who became
  librarian in 1837, published the first volume of a new catalogue in
  1871, and in 1891 this was completed with a subject index. The books
  are lent out to the writers and even to strangers recommended by them.

  The library of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin was established on
  the formation of the Academy in 1785 for the purpose of promoting the
  study of science, literature and antiquities in Ireland. The library
  possesses about 80,000 printed vols. and MSS. There is a large
  collection of MSS. and books relating to the history, ancient
  language, and antiquities of Ireland. They include the Betham
  collection, acquired partly by public subscription in 1851. The
  library is partly supported by a government grant and is freely open
  on a proper introduction. The publication of Irish MSS. in the library
  was begun in 1870, and has since continued; the general catalogue is
  in manuscript form.

  The library of King's Inns was founded, pursuant to a bequest of books
  and legal MSS. under the will of Mr Justice Robinson in 1787, to form
  the nucleus of a library for law students. It is partly supported from
  the funds of the benchers, but partly also by a treasury grant in lieu
  of the copyright privilege.

  It is needless to describe the other society libraries, as most of
  them are described in annuals like the _Literary Year-book_ and
  similar publications, with statistics of stock, issues, &c., brought
  up to date.

  Proprietary and subscription libraries.

Proprietary and subscription libraries were at one time more common than
now, as, owing to the steady advance of the municipal library, the minor
subscription libraries have been gradually extinguished. A striking
example of this is furnished by the mechanics' institutes which used to
flourish all over the country. In most cases these have been handed over
to the local authorities by the owners to form the nucleus of the public
rate-supported library, and in this way the older libraries have been
preserved and valuable aid has been given to the popular library
movement. Somewhat akin to the mechanics' institutes are the libraries
established in connexion with various co-operative societies in the
north of England. Together with working men's club libraries, there must
be nearly 100 libraries of the class just mentioned, ranging in size
from a few hundred vols. to 30,000 or 40,000 vols. The affiliated clubs
of the Working Men's Club and Institute Union possess among them over
100,000 vols.

Among subscription libraries, the London Library stands first in order
of importance. It was founded in 1841 as a lending library for the use
of scholars, and Dean Milman, Sir G. C. Lewis, W. E. Gladstone, Thomas
Carlyle, Henry Hallam and other eminent men took part in its formation.
By means of a moderate subscription, funds were raised for the purchase
of books on general subjects, which now amount to about 250,000 vols. Of
these elaborate and excellent author and subject catalogues have been
printed. The last is valuable as a classified guide to the contents of
the library.

  Some mention should be made also of the more important subscription or
  proprietary libraries, which were formed for the most part in the
  latter half of the 18th century. The earliest circulating library in
  the metropolis was established about the middle of the 18th century.
  The first in Birmingham was opened by Hutton in 1757. The idea of a
  proprietary library appears to have been first carried out at
  Liverpool in 1758. The library then formed still flourishes at the
  Lyceum, and possesses a collection of 55,000 vols. and an income of
  £1000 a year. In 1760 a library was formed at Warrington which has
  been merged in the Warrington Museum. The Leeds library was
  established in 1768, and now has 64,000 vols. In 1772 the Bristol
  museum and library was formed, and numbered Coleridge, Southey and
  Landor among its earlier members. It has now been merged in the
  reference collection of the Bristol public libraries. The Birmingham
  (old) library was formed in 1779, and its rules were drawn up by Dr
  Priestley. The library has now about 80,000 vols.

  Other English proprietary libraries have been established at
  Leicester, Liverpool (Athenaeum, 1798), Manchester, Nottingham and
  elsewhere. In Scotland the first subscription library was started by
  Allan Ramsay, the poet, at Edinburgh in 1725, and since that time
  commercial subscription libraries have increased greatly in number and
  size, Mudie's and _The Times_ Book Club being typical modern examples.

  Club libraries.

Many of the principal clubs possess libraries; that of the Athenaeum
(London) is by far the most important. It now numbers about 75,000 vols.
of books in all departments of literature, and is especially rich in
well-bound and fine copies of works on the fine arts, archaeology,
topography and history. The pamphlets, of which there is a complete
printed catalogue, as well as of the books, form a remarkable series,
including those collected by Gibbon and Mackintosh. Next comes the
Reform Club, with about 60,000 vols., chiefly in belles-lettres, with a
fair proportion of parliamentary and historical works. The National
Liberal Club, containing the Gladstone Library, has about 45,000 vols.,
and may be used occasionally by non-members. The Oxford and Cambridge
Club has 30,000 vols. in general and classical literature. At the
Garrick there is a small dramatic collection; and the (Senior) United
Service Club, besides a number of books on professional subjects,
possesses the fine library which formerly belonged to Dugald Stewart.

  Other London clubs which possess libraries are the Carlton with 25,000
  vols.; the Constitutional with 12,000 vols.; Grand Lodge of
  Freemasons, 10,000 vols.; Alpine, 5000 vols.; Travellers, 8000 vols.;
  and Junior Carlton, 6000 vols. In the provinces and in Scotland and
  Ireland every club of a social character has a reading-room, and in
  most cases a library is attached.

  Municipal libraries.

The first act of parliament authorizing the establishment of public
libraries in England was obtained by William Ewart, M.P. for the
Dumfries Burghs, in 1850. This arose out of the report of a special
parliamentary committee appointed to enquire into the management of the
British Museum in 1835, and a more general report on libraries in 1849,
at which much evidence was submitted to prove the necessity for
providing public libraries. Ewart obtained both committees and also, in
1845, procured an act for "encouraging the establishment of museums in
large towns." Neither the 1845 nor 1850 acts proved effective, owing
chiefly to the limitation of the library rate to ½d. in the £ of rental,
which produced in most cases an insufficient revenue. In 1853 the
Library Act of 1850 was extended to Ireland and Scotland, and in 1854
Scotland obtained an act increasing the rate limit from ½d. to 1d. in
the £. In 1855 Ireland also obtained a penny rate, and later in the same
year England obtained the same power by an act which remained the
principal library act, with some intermediate amendments, till 1892,
when a Public Library Consolidation Act was passed. In the following
year, 1893, the power of adopting the acts, or putting them in
operation, was transferred from the ratepayers to the local authority,
save in the case of rural parishes and the metropolitan vestries. By the
London Government Act of 1899, however, the metropolitan boroughs were
given the power of adopting the acts of 1892-1893 without consulting the
ratepayers, so that as the law at present stands, any urban district can
put the public libraries acts in force without reference to the voters.
Rural parishes are still required by the provisions of the Local
Government Act 1894 to adopt the 1892 Libraries Act by means of a parish
meeting, or if a poll is demanded, by means of a poll of the voters.

  The main points in British library legislation are as follows:--

  (a) The acts are permissive in character and not compulsory, and can
  only be put in force by a vote of a majority of members in an urban
  district or city, or of a majority of voters in rural districts.

  (b) The amount of rate which can be collected is limited to one penny
  in the pound of the rateable value of the district, though in some
  towns power has been obtained by special legislation for local
  purposes to increase the amount to 2d. In a few cases, as at
  Birmingham, no limit is fixed. The incomes produced by the penny in
  the pound range from less than £10 in a rural district to over £25,000
  in a large city.

  (c) Municipal libraries are managed by committees appointed by the
  local authorities, who may, if so disposed, delegate to them all their
  powers and duties under section 15 of the act of 1892. The local
  authorities in England have also power to appoint persons on such
  committees who are not members of the council. By the Scottish
  principal act of 1887 committees are to consist of one-half
  councillors and one-half non-councillors, not to exceed a total of 20,
  and these committees become independent bodies not subject to the
  councils. Glasgow has contracted out of this arrangement by means of a
  special act. In Ireland, committees are appointed much on the same
  system as in England.

  (d) Power is given to provide libraries, museums, schools for science,
  art galleries, and schools for art. Needless to say it is impossible
  to carry on so many departments with the strictly limited means
  provided by the acts, although some towns have attempted to do so. The
  Museums and Gymnasiums Act of 1891 enables an additional rate of ½d.
  to be raised for either purpose, and many places which have
  established museums or art galleries under the provisions of the
  Libraries Acts have also adopted the Museums Act in order to increase
  their revenues.

  (e) The regulation and management of public libraries are entrusted to
  the library authority, which may either be the local authority, or a
  committee with a full or partial delegation of powers. The library
  authority can buy books, periodicals, specimens of art and science,
  and make all necessary rules for the proper working of the libraries.
  A staff can be appointed, and arrangements may be made with adjoining
  local authorities for the joint use of one or more libraries.
  Buildings may also be erected, and money borrowed for the purpose on
  the security of the local rates. These are the main provisions of the
  library legislation of the United Kingdom as at present existing.
  Revision and amendment are wanted as regards the abolition or raising
  of the rate limitation, and some clearer definitions as to powers
  which can be exercised, as, for example, the right to spend money on
  lectures. The rate limitation is the most serious obstacle to
  progress, and it affects the smaller towns to a much greater degree
  than large cities or areas.

Between 1850 and 1910 about 630 local government areas of all kinds
adopted the Public Libraries Acts. Of these a considerable number had in
1910 not yet put the acts in operation, whilst the London Government Act
1899, by joining various previously independent vestries or boards,
extinguished about 23 library areas. The Metropolitan County of London
in 1910 comprised 25 library areas, or counting also the City, 26, and
only Marylebone, Bethnal Green and parts of Finsbury and Paddington
remained unprovided. Practically every large city or district council
has adopted the Public Libraries Acts or obtained special legislation,
and the only important places, in addition to Marylebone and Bethnal
Green, unprovided in 1910 were Bacup, Crewe, Dover, Jarrow, Scarborough,
Swindon, Weymouth, Llandudno, Govan, Leith, Pollokshaws and Wishaw. In
all, 556 places had library systems in operation, and among them they
possessed about 925 buildings.

  The progress of the public library movement was very slow up to 1887,
  the year of Queen Victoria's jubilee. From 1887, however, when many
  districts established libraries as memorials to Queen Victoria, the
  progress has been much more rapid. An immense stimulus to the movement
  was given from about 1900, when Mr Andrew Carnegie (q.v.) began to
  present library buildings to towns in England as well as to Scotland
  and the United States. The result of this action was to increase the
  number of municipal libraries from 146 in 1886 to 556 in 1910; and in
  the 10 years up to 1910 during which Mr Carnegie's gifts had been
  offered, no fewer than 163 places had put the acts in operation, a
  yearly average of over 16 adoptions.

There is one municipal library whose importance demands special mention,
although it is not rate-supported under the provisions of the Public
Libraries Acts. This is the Guildhall library of the Corporation of the
City of London, which is a free public reference library with a
periodicals reading-room, and a lending department for officials and
members of the corporation. A library was established for London by Sir
Richard Whittington between 1421-1426, and several notices in the civic
records show how well in those times the citizens cared for their books.
But it did not remain without accident; in 1522 the Lord Protector
Somerset carried off three cart-loads of books, and during the great
fire of 1666 the remainder was destroyed together with the library
buildings. Nothing was done to repair the loss until 1824, when a
committee was appointed, and rooms set apart for library purposes. In
1840 a catalogue of 10,000 vols. was printed, and in 1859 a second was
prepared of 40,000 vols. In consequence of the large and increasing
number of the readers, the present fine building was commenced about ten
years later, and, after having cost £90,000, was opened in 1873 as a
free public library.

  There are now upwards of 136,000 printed vols. and 5900 MSS. in the
  Guildhall library. The contents are of a general character, and
  include a special collection of books about London, the Solomons
  Hebrew and rabbinical library, and the libraries of the Clockmakers
  Company and the old Dutch church in Austin Friars. Recently the fine
  collection of books by and about Charles Dickens, called the National
  Dickens Library, was added, and other special libraries of a valuable
  nature, as well as an extensive and well-cared-for collection of
  London prints, and drawings.

  British library administration.

There is such a variety of library buildings in the United Kingdom that
it is not possible to single out examples for special description, but a
brief statement of their work and methods will help to give some idea of
the extent of their activities.

The total number of borrowers enrolled in 1910 was[11] about 2,200,000,
59% males and 41% females, 48% under 20 years of age and 52% over 20.
Industrial and commercial occupations were followed by 49% of the
borrowers, the balance of 51% being domestic, professional, unstated,
and including 20% of students and scholars. To these borrowers
60,000,000 vols. are circulated every year for home-reading, and of this
large number 54% represented fiction, including juvenile literature. The
Reference libraries issued over 11,000,000 vols., exclusive of books
consulted at open shelves, and to the Reading-rooms, Magazines,
Newspapers, Directories, Time-tables, &c., allowing only one
consultation for each visit, 85,000,000 visits are made per annum.
Allowing 5% for the reading of fiction in current magazines, it appears
that the percentage of fiction read in British municipal libraries,
taking into account the work of every issuing or consulting department,
is only about 24%. This fact should be carefully recorded, as in the
past municipal libraries have suffered in the esteem of all sections of
the public, by being erroneously described as mere centres for the
distribution of common novels. The quality of the fiction selected is
the best obtainable, and, as shown above, it is not read to an
unreasonable or unnecessary extent.

The changes in character, policy and methods which have marked library
administration in the United Kingdom, have affected libraries of all
kinds, but on the whole the municipal libraries have been most active in
the promotion of improvements. It is evident, moreover, even to the most
casual observer, that a complete revolution in library practice has been
effected since 1882, not only in the details of administration, but in
the initiation of ideas and experiments. One of the most notable changes
has been the gradual disappearance of the unclassified library. Previous
to 1882 very little had been accomplished in the way of scientific
classification schemes equipped with suitable notations, although the
Decimal method of Mr Melvil Dewey had been applied in the United States.
After that date this system began to be adopted for reference
departments in British municipal libraries, till in 1910 at least 120
places had been classified by means of the scheme. An English scheme,
called the "Adjustable," with a notation, but not fully expanded, has
been adopted in 53 places, and a very complete and minute scheme called
the "Subject," also English, has been used in nearly 40 libraries,
although it only dates from 1906. That much remains to be accomplished
in this direction is indicated by the fact that over 340 municipal
libraries were in 1910 not closely classified, but only arranged in
broad numerical or alphabetical divisions. The adoption of exact schemes
of classification for books in libraries may be said to double their
utility almost mechanically, and in course of time an unclassified
municipal library will be unknown. The other kinds of library--state,
subscription, university, &c.--are very often not classified, but some
use the Decimal system, while others, like the Patent Office, have
systems peculiar to themselves.

The catalogue, as a means of making known the contents of books, has
also undergone a succession of changes, both in policy and mechanical
construction. At one period, before access to the shelves and other
methods of making known the contents of libraries had become general,
the printed catalogue was relied upon as practically the sole guide to
the books. Many excellent examples of such catalogues exist, in author,
subject and classified form, and some of them are admirable
contributions to bibliography. Within recent years, however, doubts have
arisen in many quarters, both in Europe and America, as to the wisdom of
printing the catalogues of general popular libraries which possess
comparatively few rare or extraordinary books. A complete catalogue of
such a library is out of date the moment it is printed, and in many
cases the cost is very great, while only a small number is sold. For
these and other reasons, modern libraries have begun to compile complete
catalogues only in MS. form, and to issue comparatively cheap
class-lists at intervals, supplemented by monthly or quarterly bulletins
or lists of recent accessions, which in combination will answer most of
the questions likely to be put to a catalogue. Various improvements in
the mechanical construction of manuscript catalogues have contributed to
popularize them, and many libraries use the card, sheaf and other
systems which allow constant and infinite intercalation coupled with
economy and ease in making additions.

The idea of using separate slips or cards for cataloguing books, in
order to obtain complete powers of arrangement and revision is not new,
having been applied during the French revolutionary period to the
cataloguing of libraries. More recently the system has been applied to
various commercial purposes, such as book-keeping by what is known as
the "loose-leaf ledger," and in this way greater public attention has
been directed to the possibilities of adjustable methods both in
libraries and for business. The card system is perhaps the most
generally used at present, but many improvements in the adjustable
binders, called by librarians the "sheaf system," will probably result
in this latter form becoming a serious rival. The card method consists
of a series of cards in alphabetical or other order kept on edge in
trays or drawers, to which projecting guides are added in order to
facilitate reference. Entries are usually made on one side of the card,
and one card serves for a single entry. The sheaf method provides for
slips of an uniform size being kept in book form in volumes capable of
being opened by means of a screw or other fastening, for the purpose of
adding or withdrawing slips. In addition to the advantage of being in
book-form the sheaf system allows both sides of a slip to be used, while
in many cases from two to twelve entries may be made on one slip. This
is a great economy and leads to considerable saving of space. A great
advantage resulting from the use of an adjustable manuscript catalogue,
in whatever form adopted, is the simplicity with which it can be kept
up-to-date. This is an advantage which in the view of many librarians
outweighs the undoubted valuable qualities of comparative safety and
multiplication of copies possessed by the printed form. There are many
different forms of both card and sheaf systems, and practically every
library now uses one or other of them for cataloguing or indexing

One other modification in connexion with the complete printed catalogue
has been tried with success, and seems worthy of brief mention. After a
complete manuscript catalogue has been provided in sheaf form, a select
or eclectic catalogue is printed, comprising all the most important
books in the library and those that represent special subjects. This,
when supplemented by a printed list or bulletin of additions, seems to
supply every need.

The most striking tendency of the modern library movement is the great
increase in the freedom allowed to readers both in reference and lending
departments. Although access to the shelves was quite a common feature
in the older subscription libraries, and in state libraries like the
British Museum and Patent Office, it is only within comparatively recent
years that lending library borrowers were granted a similar privilege.
Most municipal reference libraries grant access to a large or small
collection of books, and at Cambridge, Birmingham and elsewhere in the
United Kingdom, the practice is of long standing. So also in the United
States, practically every library has its open shelf collection. On the
continent of Europe, however, this method is not at all general, and
books are guarded with a jealousy which in many cases must militate
against their utility. The first "safe-guarded" open access municipal
lending library was opened at Clerkenwell (now Finsbury), London, in
1893, and since then over one hundred cities and districts of all sizes
in Britain have adopted the system. The British municipal libraries
differ considerably from those of the United States in the safeguards
against abuse which are employed, and the result is that their losses
are insignificant, whilst in America they are sometimes enormous.
Pawtucket and Cleveland in America were pioneers to some extent of the
open shelf system for lending libraries, but the methods employed had
little resemblance to the safe-guarded system of British libraries. The
main features of the British plan are: exact classification; class,
shelf and book guiding; the provision of automatic locking wickets to
regulate the entrance and exit of borrowers, and the rule that borrowers
must be registered before they can obtain admission. This last rule is
not always current in America, and in consequence abuses are liable to
take place. The great majority of British and American libraries,
whether allowing open access or not, use cards for charging or
registering books loaned to borrowers. In the United Kingdom a
considerable number of places still use indicators for this purpose,
although this mechanical method is gradually being restricted to
fiction, save in very small places.

  Other activities of modern libraries which are common to both Britain
  and America are courses of lectures, book exhibitions, work with
  children, provision of books for the blind and for foreign residents,
  travelling libraries and the education of library assistants. In many
  of the recent buildings, especially in those erected from the gifts of
  Mr Andrew Carnegie, special rooms for lectures and exhibitions and
  children are provided. Courses of lectures in connexion with the
  Liverpool and Manchester public libraries date from 1860, but during
  the years 1900-1910 there was a very great extension of this work. As
  a rule these courses are intended to direct attention to the
  literature of the subjects treated, as represented in the libraries,
  and in this way a certain amount of mutual advantage is secured. In
  some districts the libraries work in association with the education
  authorities, and thus it is rendered possible to keep schools supplied
  with books, over which the teachers are able to exercise supervision.
  This connexion between libraries and schools is much less common in
  the United Kingdom than in the British colonies and the United States,
  where the libraries are regarded as part of the national system of
  education. Excellent work has been accomplished within recent years by
  the Library Association in the training of librarians, and it is usual
  for about 300 candidates to come forward annually for examination in
  literary history, bibliography, classification, cataloguing, library
  history and library routine for which subjects certificates and
  diplomas are awarded. The profession of municipal librarian is not by
  any means remunerative as compared with employment in teaching or in
  the Civil Service, and until the library rate is increased there is
  little hope of improvement.

  The usefulness of public libraries has been greatly increased by the
  work of the Library Association, founded in 1877, during the first
  International Library Conference held in London in October 1877. A
  charter of incorporation was granted to the association in 1898. It
  holds monthly and annual meetings, publishes a journal, conducts
  examinations, issues certificates, holds classes for instruction, and
  has greatly helped to improve the public library law. The Library
  Assistants Association (1895) publishes a journal. A second
  International Library Conference was held at London in 1897, and a
  third at Brussels in 1910. Library associations have been started in
  most of the countries of Europe, and the American Library Association,
  the largest and most important in existence, was established in 1876.
  These associations are giving substantial aid in the development and
  improvement of library methods and the status of librarians, and it is
  certain that their influence will in time produce a more scientific
  and valuable type of library than at present generally exists.

_British Colonies and India._

The majority of the British Colonies and Dependencies have permissive
library laws on lines very similar to those in force in the mother
country. There are, however, several points of difference which are
worth mention. The rate limit is not so strict in every case, and an
effort is made to bring the libraries into closer relations with the
educational machinery of each colony. There is, for example, no rate
limit in Tasmania; and South Australia may raise a library rate
equivalent to 3d. in the £, although, in both cases, owing to the
absence of large towns, the legislation existing has not been adopted.
In Africa, Australia and Canada the governments make grants to public
libraries up to a certain amount, on condition that the reading-rooms
are open to the public, and some of the legislatures are even in closer
touch with the libraries. The Canadian and Australian libraries are
administered more or less on American lines, whilst those of South
Africa, India, &c., are managed on the plan followed in England.


There are several important libraries in South Africa, and many small
town libraries which used to receive a government grant equal to the
subscriptions of the members, but in no case did such grants exceed £150
for any one library in one year. These grants fluctuate considerably
owing to the changes and temper of successive governments, and since the
last war they have been considerably reduced everywhere. One of the
oldest libraries is the South African Public Library at Cape Town
established in 1818, which enjoys the copyright-privilege of receiving
a free copy of every publication issued in Cape Colony. This library
contains the great collection of colonial books bequeathed by Sir George
Grey. The libraries of the various legislatures are perhaps the best
supported and most important, but mention should be made of the public
libraries of Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, which published an excellent
catalogue, and the public libraries at Kimberley; Durban, Natal;
Bloemfontein, Orange River Colony; Bulawayo, Rhodesia; Johannesburg,
Transvaal; and the public and university libraries at Pretoria. None of
the libraries of North Africa are specially notable, although there are
considerable collections at Cairo and Algiers.


All the public libraries, mechanics' institutes, schools of arts and
similar institutes receive aid from the government, either in the form
of grants of money or boxes of books sent from some centre. The public
library of New South Wales, Sydney (1869), which includes the Mitchell
Library of over 50,000 vols., now possesses a total of nearly 250,000
vols., and circulates books to country libraries, lighthouses and
teachers' associations to the number of about 20,000 vols. per annum.
The public library of Victoria, Melbourne (1853), with about 220,000
vols., also sends books to 443 country libraries of various kinds, which
among them possess 750,000 vols., and circulate annually considerably
over 2½ million vols. The university library at Melbourne (1855) has
over 20,000 vols., and the libraries connected with the parliament and
various learned societies are important. The public library of South
Australia, Adelaide, has about 75,000 vols., and is the centre for the
distribution of books to the institutes throughout the colony. These
institutes possess over 325,000 vols. There is a good public library at
Brisbane, Queensland, and there are a number of state-aided schools of
arts with libraries attached. The Library of Parliament in Brisbane
possesses over 40,000, and the Rockhampton School of Arts has 10,000
vols. Western Australia has a public library at Perth, which was
established in 1887, and the small town institutes are assisted as in
the other colonies.

Tasmania has several good libraries in the larger towns, but none of
them had in 1910 taken advantage of the act passed in 1867 which gives
municipalities practically unlimited powers and means as far as the
establishment and maintenance of public libraries are concerned. At
Hobart the Tasmanian Public Library (1849) is one of the most important,
with 25,000 vols.

New Zealand is well equipped with public libraries established under
acts dating from 1869 to 1877, as well as subscription, college and
government libraries. At Auckland the Free Public Library (1880) has
50,000 vols., including Sir George Grey's Australasian collection; the
Canterbury Public Library, Christchurch (1874), has 40,000 vols.; the
University of Otago Library, Dunedin (1872), 10,000 vols.; and the
public library at Wellington (1893) contains 20,000 vols.

_India and the East._

Apart from government and royal libraries, there are many college,
society, subscription and others, both English and oriental. It is
impossible to do more than name a few of the most notable. Lists of many
of the libraries in private hands including descriptions of their MS.
contents have been issued by the Indian government. At Calcutta the
Sanskrit college has 1652 printed Sanskrit volumes and 2769 Sanskrit
MSS., some as old as the 14th century; there is also a large collection
of Jain MSS. The Arabic library attached to the Arabic department of the
Madrasa was founded about 1781, and now includes 731 printed volumes,
143 original MSS. and 151 copies; the English library of the
Anglo-Persian department dates from 1854, and extends to 3254 vols. The
library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal was founded in 1784, and now
contains 15,000 printed vols., chiefly on eastern and philological
subjects, with a valuable collection of 9500 Arabic and Persian MSS.

At Bombay the library of the Bombay branch of the Royal Asiatic Society,
established in 1804 as the Literary Society of Bengal, is now an
excellent general and oriental collection of 75,000 printed vols. and
MSS., described in printed catalogues. The Moolla Feroze Library was
bequeathed for public use by Moolla Feroze, head priest of the Parsis of
the Kudmi sect in 1831, and consisted chiefly of MSS., in Arabic and
Persian on history, philosophy and astronomy; some additions of English
and Gujarati works have been made, as well as of European books on
Zoroastrianism. The Native General Library (1845) has 11,000 vols., and
there are libraries attached to Elphinstone College and the university
of Bombay.

The library of Tippoo Sahib, consisting of 2000 MSS., fell into the
hands of the British, and a descriptive catalogue of them by Charles
Stewart was published at Cambridge in 1809, 4to. A few were presented to
public libraries in England, but the majority were placed in the college
of Fort William, then recently established. The first volume, containing
Persian and Hindustani poetry, of the _Catalogue of the Libraries of the
King of Oudh_, by A. Sprenger, was published at Calcutta in 1854. The
compiler shortly afterwards left the Indian service, and no measures
were taken to complete the work. On the annexation of the kingdom in
1856 the ex-king is believed to have taken some of the most valuable
MSS. to Calcutta, but the largest portion was left behind at Lucknow.
During the siege the books were used to block up windows, &c., and those
which were not destroyed were abandoned and plundered by the soldiers.
Many were burnt for fuel; a few, however, were rescued and sold by
auction, and of these some were purchased for the Asiatic Society of

Perhaps the most remarkable library in India is that of the raja of
Tanjore, which dates from the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th
century, when Tanjore was under the rule of the Telugu Naiks, who
collected Sanskrit MSS. written in the Telugu character. In the 18th
century the Mahrattas conquered the country, and since that date the
library increased but slowly. By far the greater portion of the store
was acquired by Sharabhoji Raja during a visit to Benares in 1820-1830;
his successor Sivaji added a few, but of inferior value. There are now
about 18,000 MSS. written in Devanagari, Nandinagari, Telugu, Kannada,
Granthi, Malayalam, Bengali, Panjabi or Kashmiri, and Uriya; 8000 are on
palm leaves. Dr Burnell's printed catalogue describes 12,375 articles.

The Royal Asiatic Society has branches with libraries attached in many
of the large cities of India, the Straits Settlements, Ceylon, China,
Japan, &c. At Rangoon in Burma there are several good libraries. The
Raffles Library at Singapore was established as a proprietary
institution in 1844, taken over by the government in 1874, and given
legal status by an ordinance passed in 1878. It now contains about
35,000 vols. in general literature, but books relating to the Malayan
peninsula and archipelago have been made a special feature, and since
the acquisition of the collection of J. R. Logan in 1879 the library has
become remarkably rich in this department. In Ceylon there is the Museum
Library at Colombo (1877), which is maintained by the government, and
there are many subscription and a few oriental libraries.


The public libraries of the various provinces of Canada have grown
rapidly in importance and activity, and, assisted as they are by
government and municipal grants, they promise to rival those of the
United States in generous equipment. Most of the library work in Canada
is on the same lines as that of the United States, and there are no
special points of difference worth mention. The library laws of the
Dominion are embodied in a series of acts dating from 1854, by which
much the same powers are conferred on local authorities as by the
legislation of Britain and the United States. An important feature of
the Canadian library law is the close association maintained between
schools and libraries, and in some provinces the school libraries are
established by the school and not the library laws. There is also an
important extension of libraries to the rural districts, so that in
every direction full provision is being made for the after-school
education and recreation of the people.

  The province of Ontario has a very large and widespread library system
  of which full particulars are given in the annual reports of the
  minister of education. The library portion has been printed
  separately, and with its illustrations and special articles forms
  quite a handbook of Canadian library practice. There are now 413
  public libraries described as free and not free, and of these 131 free
  and 234 not free reported in 1909. The free libraries possessed
  775,976 vols. and issued 2,421,049 vols. The not free libraries, most
  of which receive legislative or municipal grants, possessed 502,879
  vols. and issued 650,826 vols. This makes a grand total of 1,278,855
  vols. in municipal and assisted subscription libraries without
  counting the university and other libraries in the province. The most
  important other libraries in Ontario are--Queen's University, Kingston
  (1841), 40,000 vols.; Library of Parliament, Ottawa, about 250,000
  vols.; university of Ottawa, 35,000 vols.; Legislative Library of
  Ontario, Toronto, about 100,000 vols.; university of Toronto (1856),
  50,000 vols. The Public (municipal) Library of Toronto has now over
  152,000 vols.

  In the province of Quebec, in addition to the state-aided libraries
  there are several large and important libraries, among which may be
  mentioned the Fraser Institute, Montreal, 40,000 vols.; McGill
  University, Montreal (1855), 125,000 vols., comprising many important
  collections; the Seminary of St Sulpice, Montreal, about 80,000 vols.;
  Laval University, Quebec, 125,000 vols.; and the library of the
  Legislature (1792), about 100,000 vols. In the western provinces
  several large public, government and college libraries have been
  formed, but none of them are as old and important as those in the
  eastern provinces.

  In Nova Scotia there are now 279 cases of books circulating among the
  school libraries, containing about 40,000 vols., and in addition 2800
  vols. were stocked for the use of rural school libraries. The rural
  school libraries of Nova Scotia are regulated by a special law, and a
  little handbook has been printed, somewhat similar to that published
  by the French educational authorities for the communale libraries. The
  Legislative Library at Halifax contains nearly 35,000 vols., and the
  Dalhousie University (1868), in the same town, contains about 20,000
  vols. The Legislative Library of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown,
  containing the Dodd Library, issues books for home use. The school law
  of New Brunswick provides for grants being made in aid of school
  libraries by the Board of Education equal to one half the amount
  raised by a district, and a series of rules has been published. The
  only other British libraries in America of much consequence are those
  in the West Indian Islands. The Institute of Jamaica, Kingston (1879)
  has about 15,000 vols.; the Trinidad Public Library (1841), recently
  revised and catalogued, 23,000 vols.; and there are a few small
  legislative and college libraries in addition.

  AUTHORITIES.--For the history of British libraries see H. B. Adams,
  _Public Libraries and Popular Education_ (Albany, N.Y., 1900); J. D.
  Brown, _Guide to Librarianship_ (1909); G. F. Chambers and H. W.
  Fovargue, _The Law relating to Public Libraries_ (4th ed., 1899); J.
  W. Clark, _The Care of Books_ (1909); E. Edwards, _Memoirs of
  Libraries_ (1859); T. Greenwood, _Edward Edwards_ (1901) and _Public
  Libraries_ (4th ed., revised, 1891); J. J. Ogle, _The Free Library_
  (1897); Maurice Pellisson, _Les Bibliothèques populaires à l'etranger
  et en France_ (Paris, 1906); R. A. Rye, _The Libraries of London_
  (1910); E. A. Savage, _The Story of Libraries and Book-Collectors_

  For library economy consult J. D. Brown, _Manual of Library Economy_
  (1907); F. J. Burgoyne, _Library Construction, &c._ (1897); A. L.
  Champneys, _Public Libraries: a Treatise on their Design_ (1907); J.
  C. Dana, _A Library Primer_ (Chicago, 1910); Arnim Graesel, _Handbuch
  der Bibliothekslehre_ (Leipzig, 1902); Albert Maire, _Manuel pratique
  du bibliothécaire_ (Paris, 1896). On the subject of classification
  consult J. D. Brown, _Manual of Library Classification_ (1898) and
  _Subject Classification_ (1906); C. A. Cutter, _Expansive
  Classification_ (1891-1893) (not yet completed); M. Dewey, _Decimal
  Classification_ (6th ed., 1899), and _Institut International de
  Bibliographie: Classification bibliographique décimale_ (Brussels,
  1905); E. C. Richardson, _Classification: Theoretical and Practical_

  Various methods of cataloguing books are treated in _Cataloguing
  Rules, author and title entries, compiled by the Committees of the
  American Library Association and the Library Association_ (1908); C.
  A. Cutter, _Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue_ (Washington,
  1904); M. Dewey, _Rules for Author and Classed Catalogues_ (1892); T.
  Hitchler, _Cataloguing for Small Libraries_ (Boston, 1905); K. A.
  Linderfelt, _Eclectic Card Catalog Rules_ (Boston, 1890); J. H. Quinn,
  _Manual of Library Cataloguing_ (1899); E. A. Savage, _Manual of
  Descriptive Annotation_ (1906); J. D. Stewart, _The Sheaf Catalogue_
  (1909); H. B. Wheatley, _How to Catalogue a Library_ (1889).

_United States of America._

The libraries of the United States are remarkable for their number,
size, variety, liberal endowment and good administration. The total
number of libraries with over 1000 vols. was 5383 in 1900, including
those attached to schools and institutions, and in 1910 there were
probably at least 10,000 libraries having 1000 vols. and over. It is
impossible to do more than glance at the principal libraries and
activities, where the field is so immense, and a brief sketch of some
of the chief federal, state, university, endowed and municipal libraries
will therefore be presented.

  Federal libraries.

The Library of Congress was first established in 1800 at Washington, and
was burned together with the Capitol by the British army in 1814.
President Jefferson's books were purchased to form the foundation of a
new library, which continued to increase slowly until 1851, when all but
20,000 vols. were destroyed by fire. From this time the collection has
grown rapidly, and now consists of about 1,800,000 vols. In 1866 the
library of the Smithsonian Institution, consisting of 40,000 vols.,
chiefly in natural science, was transferred to the Library of Congress.
The library is specially well provided in history, jurisprudence, the
political sciences and Americana. Since 1832 the law collections have
been constituted into a special department. This is the national
library. In 1870 the registry of copyrights was transferred to it under
the charge of the librarian of Congress, and two copies of every
publication which claims copyright are required to be deposited. Cards
for these are now printed and copies are sold to other libraries for an
annual subscription fixed according to the number taken. The building in
which the library is now housed was opened in 1897. It covers 3½ acres
of ground, contains 10,000,000 cub. ft. of space, and has possible
accommodation for over 4 million vols. Its cost was $6,500,000, or
including the land, $7,000,000. It is the largest, most ornate and most
costly building in the world yet erected for library purposes. Within
recent years the appropriation has been largely increased, and the
bibliographical department has been able to publish many valuable books
on special subjects. The _A.L.A. Catalog_ (1904) and _A.L.A. Portrait
Index_ (1906), may be mentioned as of especial value. The classification
of the library is being gradually completed, and in every respect this
is the most active government library in existence.

Other important federal libraries are those attached to the following
departments at Washington: Bureau of Education (1868); Geological Survey
(1882); House of Representatives; Patent Office (1836); Senate (1868);
Surgeon General's Office (1870), with an elaborate analytical printed
catalogue of world-wide fame.

  State libraries.

Although the state libraries of Pennsylvania and New Hampshire are known
to have been established as early as 1777, it was not until some time
after the revolution that any general tendency was shown to form
official libraries in connexion with the state system. It is especially
within the last thirty years that the number of these libraries has so
increased that now every state and territory possesses a collection of
books and documents for official and public purposes. These collections
depend for their increase upon annual appropriations by the several
states, and upon a systematic exchange of the official publications of
the general government and of the several states and territories. The
largest is that of the state of New York at Albany, which contains
nearly 500,000 vols., and is composed of a general and a law library.
Printed and MS. card catalogues have been issued. The state libraries
are libraries of reference, and only members of the official classes are
allowed to borrow books, although any well-behaved person is admitted to
read in the libraries.

  University libraries.

The earliest libraries formed were in connexion with educational
institutions, and the oldest is that of Harvard (1638). It was destroyed
by fire in 1764, but active steps were at once taken for its
restoration. From that time to the present, private donations have been
the great resource of the library. In 1840 the collection was removed to
Gore Hall, erected for the purpose with a noble bequest from Christopher
Gore (1758-1829), formerly governor of Massachusetts. There are also ten
special libraries connected with the different departments of the
university. The total numbers of vols. in all these collections is over
800,000. There is a MS. card-catalogue in two parts, by authors and
subjects, which is accessible to the readers. The only condition of
admission to use the books in Gore Hall is respectability; but only
members of the university and privileged persons may borrow books. The
library of Yale College, New Haven, was founded in 1701, but grew so
slowly that, even with the 1000 vols. received from Bishop Berkeley in
1733, it had only increased to 4000 vols. in 1766, and some of these
were lost in the revolutionary war. During the 19th century the
collection grew more speedily, and now the library numbers over 550,000

  Other important university and college libraries are Amherst College,
  Mass. (1821), 93,000 vols.; Brown University, R.I. (1767), 156,000
  vols.; Columbia University, N.Y. (1763), 430,000 vols.; Cornell
  University, N.Y. (1868), 355,000 vols.; Dartmouth College, N.H.
  (1769), 106,000 vols.; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (1876),
  220,000 vols.; Lehigh University, Pa. (1877), 150,000 vols.; Leland
  Stanford University, Cal. (1891), 113,000 vols.; Princeton University,
  N.J. (1746), 260,000 vols.; University of California (1868), 240,000
  vols.; University of Chicago, Ill. (1892), 480,000 vols.; University
  of Michigan (1837), 252,000 vols.; University of Pennsylvania (1749),
  285,000 vols. There are numerous other college libraries, several of
  them even larger than some of those named above.

  Subscription and Endowed Libraries.

The establishment of proprietary or subscription libraries runs back
into the first half of the 18th century, and is connected with the name
of Benjamin Franklin. It was at Philadelphia, in the year 1731, that he
set on foot what he called "his first project of a public nature, that
for a subscription library.... The institution soon manifested its
ability, was imitated by other towns and in other provinces." The
Library Company of Philadelphia was soon regularly incorporated, and
gradually drew to itself other collections of books, including the
Loganian Library, which was vested in the company by the state
legislature in 1792 in trust for public use. Hence the collection
combines the character of a public and of a proprietary library, being
freely open for reference purposes, while the books circulate only among
the subscribing members. It numbers at present 226,000 vols., of which
11,000 belong to the Loganian Library, and may be freely lent. In 1869
Dr James Rush left a bequest of over one million dollars for the purpose
of erecting a building to be called the Ridgeway branch of the library.
The building is very handsome, and has been very highly spoken of as a
library structure. Philadelphia has another large proprietary
library--that of the Mercantile Library Company, which was established
in 1821. It possesses 200,000 vols., and its members have always enjoyed
direct access to the shelves. The library of the Boston Athenaeum was
established in 1807, and numbers 235,000 vols. It has published an
admirable dictionary-catalogue. The collection is especially rich in art
and in history, and possesses a part of the library of George
Washington. The Mercantile Library Association of New York, which was
founded in 1820, has over 240,000 vols. New York possesses two other
large proprietary libraries, one of which claims to have been formed as
early as 1700 as the "public" library of New York. It was organized as
the New York Society Library in 1754, and has been especially the
library of the old Knickerbocker families and their descendants, its
contents bearing witness to its history. It contains about 100,000 vols.
The Apprentices' Library (1820) has about 100,000 vols., and makes a
special feature of works on trades and useful arts.

The Astor Library in New York was founded by a bequest of John Jacob
Astor, whose example was followed successively by his son and grandson.
The library was opened to the public in 1854, and consists of a careful
selection of the most valuable books upon all subjects. It is a library
of reference, for which purpose it is freely open, and books are not
lent out. It is "a working library for studious persons." The Lenox
Library was established by James Lenox in 1870, when a body of trustees
was incorporated by an act of the legislature. In addition to the funds
intended for the library building and endowment, amounting to
$1,247,000, the private collection of books which Mr Lenox had long been
accumulating is extremely valuable. Though it does not rank high in
point of mere numbers, it is exceedingly rich in early books on America,
in Bibles, in Shakesperiana and in Elizabethan poetry. Both those
libraries are now merged in the New York Public Library. The Peabody
Institute at Baltimore was established by George Peabody in 1857, and
contains a reference library open to all comers. The institute has an
endowment of $1,000,000, which, however, has to support, besides the
library, a conservatoire of music, an art gallery, and courses of
popular lectures. It has a very fine printed dictionary catalogue and
now contains nearly 200,000 vols. In the same city is the Enoch Pratt
Free Library (1882) with 257,000 vols. In the city of Chicago are two
very important endowed libraries, the Newberry Library (1887) with over
200,000 vols., and the John Crerar Library (1894), with 235,000 vols.
Both of these are reference libraries of great value, and the John
Crerar Library specializes in science, for which purpose its founder
left $3,000,000.

  It will be sufficient to name a few of the other endowed libraries to
  give an idea of the large number of donors who have given money to
  libraries. Silas Bronson (Waterbury), Annie T. Howard (New Orleans),
  Joshua Bates (Boston), Charles E. Forbes (Northampton, Mass.),
  Mortimer F. Reynolds (Rochester, N.Y.), Leonard Case (Cleveland), I.
  Osterhout (Wilkes-Barré, Pa.), and above all Andrew Carnegie, whose
  library benefactions exceed $53,000,000.

  It remains to mention another group of proprietary and society

  Since the organization of the government in 1789, no less than one
  hundred and sixty historical societies have been formed in the United
  States, most of which still continue to exist. Many of them have
  formed considerable libraries, and possess extensive and valuable
  manuscript collections. The oldest of them is the Massachusetts
  Historical Society, which dates from 1791.

  The earliest of the scientific societies, the American Philosophical
  Society (1743), has 73,000 vols. The most extensive collection is that
  of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, which consists of
  80,000 vols. and pamphlets. For information as to the numerous
  professional libraries of the United States--theological, legal and
  medical--the reader may be referred to the authorities quoted below.

  Municipal Libraries.

In no country has the movement for the development of municipal
libraries made such progress as in the United States; these institutions
called free or public as the case may be are distinguished for their
work, enterprise and the liberality with which they are supported. They
are established under laws passed by the different states, the first to
pass such an enactment being Massachusetts, which in 1848 empowered the
city of Boston to establish a free public library. This was subsequently
extended to the whole state in 1851. Other states followed, all with
more or less variation in the provisions, till practically every state
in the Union now has a body of library laws. In general the American
library law is much on the same lines as the English. In most states the
acts are permissive. In New Hampshire aid is granted by the state to any
library for which a township contracts to make a definite annual
appropriation. A limit is imposed in most states on the library tax
which may be levied, although there are some, like Massachusetts and New
Hampshire, which fix no limit. In every American town the amount derived
from the library tax usually exceeds by double or more the same rate
raised in Britain in towns of similar size. For example, East Orange,
N.J., with a population of 35,000, expends £2400, while Dumfries in
Scotland, with 23,000 pop. expends £500. Cincinnati, 345,000 pop.,
expenditure £26,000; Islington (London), 350,000 pop., expenditure
£8200, is another example. In the smaller towns the difference is not so
marked, but generally the average American municipal library income is
considerably in excess of the British one. Many American municipal
libraries have also endowments which add to their incomes.

  American Library Administration.

In one respect the American libraries differ from those of the United
Kingdom. They are usually managed by a small committee or body of
trustees, about five or more in number, who administer the library
independent of the city council. This is akin to the practice in
Scotland, although there, the committees are larger. In addition to the
legislation authorizing town libraries to be established, thirty-two
states have formed state library commissions. These are small bodies of
three or five trained persons appointed by the different states which,
acting on behalf of the state, encourage the formation of local
libraries, particularly in towns and villages, and in many cases have
authority to aid their establishment by the grant out of the state
funds of a certain sum (usually $100) towards the purchase of books,
upon the appropriation of a similar sum by the local authorities. These
commissions are prepared to aid further with select lists of desirable
books, and with suggestions or advice in the problems of construction
and maintenance. Such commissions are in existence in Alabama,
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee,
Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington and Wisconsin.

The reports and other documents issued by some of these commissioners
are very interesting and valuable, especially as regards the light they
throw on the working of the travelling libraries in country districts.
These to some extent are a revival of the "itinerating" library idea of
Samuel Brown of Haddington in Scotland, who from 1817 to 1836 carried on
a system of travelling subscription libraries in that country. At the
time of his death there were 3850 vols. in 47 libraries. The American
travelling libraries, often under state supervision, are well organized
and numerous, and the books are circulated free. New York was the
pioneer in this movement which now extends to most of the states which
have established library commissions. There are also town travelling
libraries and deposit stations in addition to branches, so that every
effort is made to bring people in outlying districts into touch with

The municipal libraries of the United States work in conjunction with
the schools, and it is generally considered that they are part of the
educational machinery of the country. In the case of New York the state
libraries have been put under the control of the university of the state
of New York, which also inaugurated the travelling libraries. Work with
the schools and children generally is more cultivated in the libraries
of the United States than elsewhere. In some cases the libraries send
collections of books to the schools; in others provision is made for
children's reading-rooms and lending departments at the library
buildings. At Cleveland (Ohio), Pittsburg (Pa.), New York and many other
places, elaborate arrangements are in force for the convenience and
amusement of children. There is a special school, the Carnegie Library
training school for children's librarians, at Pittsburg, and within
recent years the instruction has included the art of telling stories to
children at the libraries. This "story-hour" idea has been the cause of
considerable discussion in the United States, librarians and teachers
being divided in opinion as to the value of the service. The chief
factors in children's work in American libraries, often overlooked by
critics, are the number of non-English reading adults and the large
number of children of foreign origin. The adults do not use the
libraries to any large extent, but the children, who learn English at
the schools, are brought into close touch with the juvenile departments
of the libraries. In this way many libraries are obliged to undertake
special work for children, and as a rule it is performed in a sane,
practical and economical manner. The preponderance of women librarians
and their natural sentimental regard for children has tended to make
this work loom rather largely in some quarters, but with these
exceptions the activity on behalf of children is justified on many
grounds. But above all, it is manifest that a rapidly growing nation,
finding homes for thousands of foreigners and their children annually,
must use every means of rapidly educating their new citizens, and the
public library is one of the most efficient and ready ways of
accomplishing this great national object.

With regard to methods, the American libraries are working on much the
same plan as those of the United Kingdom. They allow access to the
shelves more universally, and there is much more standardization in
classification and other internal matters. The provision of books is
more profuse, although there is, on the whole, more reading done in the
United Kingdom. The largest municipal library system in America, and
also in the world, is that of New York City, which, after struggling
with a series of Free Circulating Libraries, blossomed out in 1895 into
the series of combinations which resulted in the present great
establishment. In that year, the Astor and Lenox libraries (see above)
were taken over by the city, and in addition, $2,000,000 was given by
one of the heirs of Mr S. J. Tilden, who had bequeathed about $4,000,000
for library purposes in New York but whose will had been upset in the
law courts. In 1901 Mr Andrew Carnegie gave about £1,500,000 for the
purpose of providing 65 branches, and these are now nearly all erected.
A very fine central library building has been erected, and when the
organization is completed there will be no system of municipal libraries
to equal that of New York. It possesses about 1,400,000 vols. in the
consolidated libraries. Brooklyn, although forming part of Greater New
York, has an independent library system, and possesses about 560,000,
vols. distributed among 26 branches and including the old Brooklyn
Library which has been absorbed in the municipal library system. At
Boston (Mass.) is one of the most renowned public libraries in the
United States, and also the oldest established by act of legislature. It
was first opened to the public in 1854, and is now housed in a very
magnificently decorated building which was completed in 1895. The
central library contains many fine special collections, and there are 28
branch and numerous school libraries in connexion. It possesses about
1,000,000 vols. altogether, its annual circulation is about 1,500,000
vols., and its annual expenditure is nearly £70,000.

  Other notable municipal libraries are those of Philadelphia (1891),
  Chicago (1872), Los Angeles (Cal.), 1872, Indianapolis (1868), Detroit
  (1865), Minneapolis (1885), St Louis (1865), Newark, N.J. (1889),
  Cincinnati (1856), Cleveland (1869), Allegheny (1890), Pittsburg
  (1895), Providence, R.I. (1878), Milwaukee (1875), Washington, D.C.
  (1898), Worcester, Mass. (1859), Buffalo (1837).

  AUTHORITIES.--_The Annual Library Index_ (New York, 1908)--contains a
  select list of libraries in the United States; Arthur E. Bostwick,
  _The American Public Library_, illust. (New York, 1910)--the most
  comprehensive general book; Bureau of Education, _Statistics of Public
  Libraries in the United States and Canada_ (1893)--this has been
  succeeded by a list of "Public, Society and School Libraries,"
  reprinted at irregular intervals from the Report of the Commissioner
  of Education and giving a list of libraries containing over 5000 vols.
  with various other particulars; Clegg, _International Directory of
  Booksellers_ (1910) and earlier issues--contains a list of American
  libraries with brief particulars; John C. Dana, _A Library Primer_
  (Chicago, 1910)--the standard manual of American library practice;
  _Directory of Libraries in the United States and Canada_ (6th ed.;
  Minneapolis, 1908)--a brief list of 4500 libraries, with indication of
  the annual income of each; Wm. I. Fletcher, _Public Libraries in
  America_ (2nd ed., Boston, 1899), illust.; T. W. Koch, _Portfolio of
  Carnegie Libraries_ (1908); Cornelia Marvin, _Small Library Buildings_
  (Boston, 1908); A. R. Spofford, _A Book for all Readers ... the
  Formation of Public and Private Libraries_ (1905).


French libraries (other than those in private hands) belong either to
the state, to the departments, to the communes, or to learned societies,
educational establishments and other public institutions; the libraries
of judicial or administrative bodies are not considered to be owned by
them, but to be state property. Besides the unrivalled library
accommodation of the capital, France possesses a remarkable assemblage
of provincial libraries. The communal and school libraries also form
striking features of the French free library system. Taking as a basis
for comparison the _Tableau statistique des bibliothèques publiques_
(1857), there were at that date 340 departmental libraries with a total
of 3,734,260 vols., and 44,436 MSS. In 1908 the number of volumes in all
the public libraries; communal, university, learned societies,
educational and departmental, was more than 20,060,148 vols., 93,986
MSS. and 15,530 incunabula. Paris alone now possesses over 10,570,000
printed vols., 147,543 MSS., 5000 incunabula, 609,439 maps and plans,
2,000,000 prints (designs and reproductions).


The Bibliothèque Nationale (one of the most extensive libraries in the
world) has had an advantage over others in the length of time during
which its contents have been accumulating, and in the great zeal shown
for it by several kings and other eminent men. Enthusiastic writers find
the original of this library in the MS. collections of Charlemagne and
Charles the Bald, but these were dispersed in course of time, and the
few precious relics of them which the national library now possesses
have been acquired at a much later date. Of the library which St Louis
formed in the 13th century (in imitation of what he had seen in the
East) nothing has fallen into the possession of the Bibliothèque
Nationale, but much has remained of the royal collections made by kings
of the later dynasties. The real foundation of the institution (formerly
known as the Bibliothèque du Roi) may be said to date from the reign of
King John, the Black Prince's captive, who had a considerable taste for
books, and bequeathed his "royal library" of MSS. to his successor
Charles V. Charles V. organized his library in a very effective manner,
removing it from the Palais de la Cité to the Louvre, where it was
arranged on desks in a large hall of three storeys, and placed under the
management of the first librarian and cataloguer, Claude Mallet, the
king's valet-de-chambre. His catalogue was a mere shelf-list, entitled
_Inventaire des Livres du Roy nostre Seigneur estans au chastel du
Louvre_; it is still extant, as well as the further inventories made by
Jean Blanchet in 1380, and by Jean le Bègue in 1411 and 1424. Charles V.
was very liberal in his patronage of literature, and many of the early
monuments of the French language are due to his having employed Nicholas
Oresme, Ràoul de Presle and other scholars to make translations from
ancient texts. Charles VI. added some hundreds of MSS. to the royal
library, which, however, was sold to the regent, duke of Bedford, after
a valuation had been established by the inventory of 1424. The regent
transferred it to England, and it was finally dispersed at his death in
1435. Charles VII. and Louis XI. did little to repair the loss of the
precious Louvre library, but the news of the invention of printing
served as a stimulus to the creation of another one, of which the first
librarian was Laurent Paulmier. The famous miniaturist, Jean Foucquet of
Tours, was named the king's _enlumineur_, and although Louis XI.
neglected to avail himself of many precious opportunities that occurred
in his reign, still the new library developed gradually with the help of
confiscation. Charles VIII. enriched it with many fine MSS. executed by
his order, and also with most of the books that had formed the library
of the kings of Aragon, seized by him at Naples. Louis XII., on coming
to the throne, incorporated the Bibliothèque du Roi with the fine
Orleans library at Blois, which he had inherited. The Blois library,
thus augmented, and further enriched by plunder from the palaces of
Pavia, and by the purchase of the famous Gruthuyse collection, was
described at the time as one of the four marvels of France. Francis I.
removed it to Fontainebleau in 1534, enlarged by the addition of his
private library. He was the first to set the fashion of fine artistic
bindings, which was still more cultivated by Henry II., and which has
never died out in France. During the librarianship of Amyot (the
translator of Plutarch) the library was transferred from Fontainebleau
to Paris, not without the loss of several books coveted by powerful
thieves. Henry IV. removed it to the Collége de Clermont, but in 1604
another change was made, and in 1622 it was installed in the Rue de la
Harpe. Under the librarianship of J. A. de Thou it acquired the library
of Catherine de' Medici, and the glorious Bible of Charles the Bald. In
1617 a decree was passed that two copies of every new publication should
be deposited in the library, but this was not rigidly enforced till
Louis XIV.'s time. The first catalogue worthy of the name was finished
in 1622, and contains a description of some 6000 vols., chiefly MSS.
Many additions were made during Louis XIII.'s reign, notably that of the
Dupuy collection, but a new era dawned for the Bibliothèque du Roi under
the patronage of Louis XIV. The enlightened activity of Colbert, one of
the greatest of collectors, so enriched the library that it became
necessary for want of space to make another removal. It was therefore in
1666 installed in the Rue Vivien (now Vivienne) not far from its present
habitat. The departments of engravings and medals were now created, and
before long rose to nearly equal importance with that of books.
Marolles's prints, Foucquet's books, and many from the Mazarin library
were added to the collection, and, in short, the Bibliothèque du Roi
had its future pre-eminence undoubtedly secured. Nic. Clément made a
catalogue in 1684 according to an arrangement which has been followed
ever since (that is, in twenty-three classes, each one designated by a
letter of the alphabet), with an alphabetical index to it. After
Colbert's death Louvois emulated his predecessor's labours, and employed
Mabillon, Thevenot and others to procure fresh accessions from all parts
of the world. A new catalogue was compiled in 1688 in 8 vols, by several
distinguished scholars. The Abbé Louvois, the minister's son, became
head of the library in 1691, and opened it to all students--a privilege
which although soon withdrawn was afterwards restored. Towards the end
of Louis XIV.'s reign it contained over 70,000 vols. Under the
management of the Abbé Bignon numerous additions were made in all
departments, and the library was removed to its present home in the Rue
Richelieu. Among the more important acquisitions were 6000 MSS. from the
private library of the Colbert family, Bishop Huet's forfeited
collection, and a large number of Oriental books imported by
missionaries from the farther East, and by special agents from the
Levant. Between 1739 and 1753 a catalogue in 11 vols, was printed, which
enabled the administration to discover and to sell its duplicates. In
Louis XVI.'s reign the sale of the La Vallière library furnished a
valuable increase both in MSS. and printed books. A few years before the
Revolution broke out the latter department contained over 300,000 vols,
and opuscules. The Revolution was serviceable to the library, now called
the Bibliothèque Nationale, by increasing it with the forfeited
collections of the _émigrés_, as well as of the suppressed religious
communities. In the midst of the difficulties of placing and cataloguing
these numerous acquisitions, the name of Van Praet appears as an
administrator of the first order. Napoleon increased the amount of the
government grant; and by the strict enforcement of the law concerning
new publications, as well as by the acquisition of several special
collections, the Bibliothèque made considerable progress during his
reign towards realizing his idea that it should be universal in
character. At the beginning of last century the recorded numbers were
250,000 printed vols., 83,000 MSS., and 1,500,000 engravings. After
Napoleon's downfall the MSS. which he had transferred from Berlin,
Hanover, Florence, Venice, Rome, the Hague and other places had to be
returned to their proper owners. The MacCarthy sale in 1817 brought a
rich store of MSS. and incunabula. From that time onwards to the
present, under the enlightened administration of MM. Taschereau and
Delisle and Marcel, the accessions have been very extensive.

  According to the statistics for 1908 the riches of the Bibliothèque
  Nationale may be enumerated as follows: (1) Département des Imprimés:
  more than 3,000,000 vols.; Maps and plans, 500,000 in 28,000 vols. (2)
  Département des Manuscrits: 110,000 MSS. thus divided: Greek 4960,
  Latin 21,544, French 44,913, Oriental and miscellaneous 38,583. (3)
  Département des Estampes: 1,000,000 pieces. (4) Département des
  Médailles: 207,096 pieces.

  Admittance to the "salle de travail" is obtained through a card
  procured from the secretarial office; the "salle publique" contains
  344 places for readers, who are able to consult more than 50,000 vols.
  of books of reference. Great improvements have lately been introduced
  into the service. A "salle de lecture publique" is free to all readers
  and is much used. New buildings are in process of construction. The
  slip catalogue bound in volumes dates from 1882 and gives a list of
  all accessions since that date; it is divided into two parts, one for
  the names of authors and the other for subjects. There is not yet, as
  at the British Museum, an alphabetical catalogue of all the printed
  works and kept up by periodical supplements, but since 1897 a
  _Catalogue général des livres imprimés_ has been begun. In 1909 the
  38th vol. containing letters A to Delp had appeared. Some volumes are
  published each year, but the earlier volumes only contain a selection
  of the books; this inconvenience has now been remedied. Among the
  other catalogues published by the Printed Book Department, the
  following may be mentioned: _Répertoire alphabétique des livres mis à
  la disposition des lecteurs dans la salle de travail_ (1896, 8vo),
  _Liste des périodiques français et étrangers mis à la disposition des
  lecteurs_ (1907, 4to, autogr.), _Liste des périodiques étrangers_ (new
  ed., 1896, 8vo) and _Supplement_ (1902, 8vo), _Bulletin des récentes
  publications françaises_ (from 1882, 8vo), _Catalogue des
  dissertations et écrits académiques provenant des échanges avec les
  universités étrangères_ (from 1882, 8vo). The other extensive
  catalogues apart from those of the 18th century are: _Catalogue de
  l'histoire de France_ (1885-1889, 4to, 11 vols.); _Table des auteurs,_
  par P. Marchal (1895, 4to), with the following autographed
  supplements: _Histoire locale_ (1880); _Histoire généalogique et
  biographies_ (1884); _Moeurs et coutumes, archéologie_ (1885);
  _Histoire maritime et militaire_ (1894); _Histoire constitutionnelle_
  (1895); _Sciences médicales_ (1857-1889, 3 vols., 4to); _Histoire de
  la Grande-Bretagne_ (1875-1878, autogr.); _Histoire de l'Espagne et du
  Portugal_ (1883, autogr.); _Histoire de l'Asie_ (1894); _Histoire de
  l'Afrique_ (1895, autogr.); _Histoire de l'Amérique_, par G. Barringer
  (1903-1908, autogr.); _Factums et autres documents judiciaires
  antérieurs à 1790_, par Corda et A. Trudon des Ormes (1890-1907, 8
  vols., 8vo); _Catalogue général des incunables des bibliothèques
  publiques de France_, par M. Pellechet et L. Polain, t. i.-iii.
  (1897-1909, 8vo); _Livres d'heures imprimés au XV^e siècle conservés
  dans les bibliothèques publiques de Paris_, par P. Lacombe (1907,
  8vo), &c. In the Geographical section there is L. Vallée's _Catalogue
  des cartes et plans relatifs à Paris et aux environs de Paris_ (1908,
  8vo). The following should be mentioned: _Bibliographie générale des
  travaux historiques et archéologiques publiés par les sociétés
  savantes de la France_, par R. de Lasteyrie avec la collaboration d'E.
  Lefèvre-Pontalis, S. Bougenot, A. Vidier, t. i.-vi. (1885-1908, 4to).
  The scientific division of this work (in two parts) is by Deniker. The
  printed catalogues and the autographed and manuscript lists of the
  Département des Manuscrits are very numerous and greatly facilitate
  research. For the French there are: H. Omont, _Catalogue général des
  manuscrits français_ (1895-1897, 9 vols. 8vo); H. Omont, _Nouvelles
  acquisitions_ (continuation of the same catalogue, 1899-1900, 3 vols.
  8vo); H. Omont, _Anciens Inventaires de la Bibliothèque Nationale_
  (1908-1909, 2 vols. 8vo); E. Coyecque, _Inventaire de la Collection
  Anisson sur l'histoire de l'imprimerie et de la librairie_ (1900, 2
  vols. 8vo). Without repeating the catalogues mentioned in the tenth
  edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, it is yet necessary to
  mention the following: _Catalogue de la collection Baluze_;
  _Inventaire des sceaux de la collection Clairambault_; _Catalogue de
  la collection des cinq-cents et des mélanges Colbert_; _Catalogue des
  collections Duchesne et de Bréquigny_; those of the Dupuy, Joly de
  Fleury, and Moreau collections, and that of provincial history, &c.
  For the Greek collection the most important catalogues have been made
  by H. Omont, the present Keeper of the Manuscripts, and these are:
  _Inventaire sommaire des MSS. grecs_ (1886-1898, 4 vols. 8vo);
  _Catalogus codicum hagiographicorum graecorum_ (1896, 8vo);
  _Facsimilés des plus anciens MSS. grecs en onciale et en minuscule du
  IX^e au XIV^e siècle_ (1891, fol.); as well as _Description des
  peintures et autres ornements contenus dans les MSS. latins_, par H.
  Bordier (1883, 4to). The lists of the Latin MSS. are: _Inventaire des
  manuscrits latins et nouvelles acquisitions jusqu'en 1874_ (1863-1874,
  7 pts. 8vo) and _Manuscrits latins et français ajoutés aux fonds des
  nouvelles acquisitions 1875-1881_ (1891, 2 vols. 8vo), by M. Delisle;
  M. Omont published _Nouvelles Acquisitions du département des
  manuscrits_ (1892-1907, 8 pts. 8vo), and B. Haureau, _Notices et
  extraits de quelques manuscrits latins_ (1890-1893, 6 vols. 8vo). The
  principal modern catalogues of the oriental collection are: B. de
  Slane, _Catalogue des MSS. arabes, avec supplément_ (1883-1895, 4to);
  E. Blochet, _Catalogue des MSS. arabes, persans, et turcs de la
  collection Schefer_ (1900); E. Blochet, _Inventaire des MSS. arabes de
  la collection Decourtemanche_ (1906); F. Macler, _Catalogue des MSS.
  arméniens et géorgiens_ (1908). For other oriental languages the
  following catalogues have been compiled: _MSS. birmans et cambodgiens_
  (1879); _MSS. chinois, coréens et japonais_ (1900-1907); _MSS. coptes_
  (1906); _MSS. éthiopiens_ (1859-1877); _MSS. hébreux et samaritains_
  (1867-1903); MSS. _indo-chinois_ (in the press); _MSS.
  malayo-polynésiens_ (in the press); _MSS. mazdéens_ (1900); _MSS.
  mexicains_ (1899); _MSS. persans_, t. i. (1905); _MSS. sanscrits et
  pâlis_ (1899, 1907-1908); _MSS. siamois_ (1887); _MSS. syriaques et
  sabéens_ (1874-1896); _MSS. thibétains_ (in the press), &c. The
  catalogues of manuscripts in modern languages are nearly all
  completed. The Départements des Médailles et des Estampes possess
  excellent catalogues, and the following should be mentioned: E.
  Babelon, _Catalogue des monnaies grecques_ (1890-1893); E. Babelon,
  _Inventaire sommaire de la collection Waddington_ (1898); _Médailles
  fausses recueillies_, par Hoffmann (1902); Muret et Chabouillet,
  _Catalogue des monnaies gauloises_ (1889-1892); Prou, _Catalogue des
  monnaies françaises_ (1892-1896); H. de la Tour, _Catalogue de la
  collection Rouyer, 1^(re) partie_ (1899); _Catalogues des monnaies et
  médailles d'Alsace_ (1902); _Cat. des monnaies de l'Amérique du Nord_
  (1861); _Cat. des monnaies musulmanes_ (1887-1891); _Cat. des plombs_
  (1900); _Cat. des bronzes antiques_ (1889); _Cat. des camées antiques
  et modernes_ (1897-1899); _Cat. des vases peints_ (1902-1904, 2
  vols.). In the Département des Estampes the following should be
  mentioned: F. Courboin, _Catalogue sommaire des gravures et
  lithographies de la Réserve_ (1900-1901); Duplessis, _Cat. des
  portraits français et étrangers_ (1896-1907, 6 vols.); H. Bouchot,
  _Les Portraits au crayon des XVI^e et XVII^e siècles_ (1884); _Cat.
  des dessins relatifs à l'histoire du théâtre_ (1896); F. Courboin,
  _Inventaire des dessins, photographies et gravures relatives à
  l'histoire générale de l'art_ (1895, 2 vols.), &c.

The Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal was founded by the marquis de Paulmy
(Antoine-René d'Argenson) in the 18th century; it received in 1786
80,000 vols. from the duc de La Vallière. Before its confiscation as
national property it had belonged to the comte d'Artois, who had bought
it from the marquis de Paulmy in his lifetime. It contains at the
present time about 600,000 vols., 10,000 manuscripts, 120,000 prints and
the Bastille collection (2500 portfolios) of which the inventory is
complete; it is the richest library for the literary history of France
and has more than 30,000 theatrical pieces.

  _L'Inventaire des manuscrits_ was made by H. Martin (1885-1899, t.
  i.-viii.); the other catalogues and lists are: _Extrait du catalogue
  des journaux conservés à la Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal_ ("Bulletin des
  biblioth. et des archives" t. i.); _Archives de la Bastille_, par F.
  Funck-Brentano (1892-1894, 3 vols. 8vo); _Notice sur les dépôts
  littéraires_ par J. B. Labiche (1880, 8vo); _Catalogue des estampes,
  dessins et cartes composant le cabinet des estampes de la bibliothèque
  de l'Arsenal_, par G. Schefer (1894-1905, 8 pts. 8vo).

The Bibliothèque Mazarine owes its origin to the great cardinal, who
confided the direction to Gabriel Naudé; it was open to the public in
1642, and was transferred to Rue de Richelieu in 1648. Dispersed during
the Fronde in the lifetime of Mazarin, it was reconstituted after the
death of the cardinal in 1661, when it contained 40,000 vols. which were
left to the Collège des Quatre-Nations, which in 1691 made it again
public. It now has 250,000 vols.; with excellent manuscript catalogues.

  The catalogues of incunabula and manuscripts are printed: P. Marais et
  A. Dufresne de Saint-Léon, _Catalogue des incunables de la
  bibliothèque Mazarine_ (1893, 8vo); _Supplément, additions et
  corrections_ (1898, 4 vols. 8vo); _Catalogue des MSS._, par A.
  Molinier (1885-1892, 4 vols. 8vo); _Inventaire sommaire des MSS.
  grecs_, par H. Omont.

The first library of the Genovéfains had nearly disappeared owing to bad
administration when Cardinal François de la Rochefoucauld, who had
charge of the reformation of that religious order, constituted in 1642 a
new library with his own books. The Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève in 1716
possessed 45,000 vols.; important gifts were made by Letellier in 1791,
and the duc d'Orléans increased it still more. It became national
property in 1791, and was called the Bibliothèque du Panthéon and added
to the Lycée Henri IV. under the empire. In 1908 the library contained
350,000 printed vols., 1225 incunabula, 3510 manuscripts, 10,000 prints
(including 7357 portraits and 3000 maps and plans).

  The printed catalogues at present comprise: Poirée et Lamoureux,
  _Catalogue abrégé de la bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève_ (1891, 8vo); 3
  supplements (1890-1896, 1897-1899, 1900-1902); _Catalogue des
  incunables de la bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève, rédigé par Daunou_,
  publié par M. Pellechet (1892, 8vo); _Catalogue général des MSS._, par
  Ch. Kohler (1894-1896, 2 vols. 8vo); _Inventaire sommaire des MSS.
  grecs_, par H. Omont; _Notices sur quelques MSS. normands_, par E.
  Deville (1904-1906, 10 pts. 8vo), &c.

The Bibliothèque des Archives nationales, founded in 1808 by Daunou,
contains 30,000 vols. on sciences auxiliary to history. It is only
accessible to the officials.

  It would be impossible to describe all the official, municipal and
  academic libraries of Paris more or less open to the public, which are
  about 200 in number, and in the following survey we deal only with
  those having 10,000 vols. and over.

  The Bibliothèque du Ministère des affaires étrangères was founded by
  the marquis de Torcy, minister for foreign affairs under Louis XIV.;
  it contains 80,000 vols. and is for official use only. The
  Bibliothèque du Ministère de l'Agriculture dates from 1882 and has
  only 4000 vols. At the Ministry for the Colonies the library (of
  10,000 vols.) dates from 1897; the catalogue was published in 1905;
  the library of the Colonial office is attached to this ministry;
  suppressed in 1896, it was re-established in 1899, and now contains
  6000 vols., 7400 periodicals and 5000 photographs; it is open to the
  public. There are 30,000 vols. in the Bibliothèque du Ministère du
  commerce et de l'industrie; the Bibliothèque du Ministère des finances
  was burnt at the Commune, but has been reconstituted and now contains
  35,000 vols.; connected with it are the libraries of the following
  offices: Contributions directes, Contributions indirectes,
  Enregistrement et inspection des finances; the contents of these four
  libraries make a total of 13,500 vols. The Bibliothèque du Ministère
  de la Guerre was formed by Louvois and possesses 130,000 vols. and 800
  MSS. and an income of 20,000 francs; the catalogues are _Bibliothèque
  du dépôt de la guerre: Catalogue_ (1883-1890); _Suppléments_
  (1893-1896); _Catalogue des MSS._, par J. Lemoine (1910). The
  following libraries are connected with this department: Comité de
  santé (10,000 vols.), École supérieure de guerre (70,000 vols.),
  Comité technique de l'artillerie (24,000 vols.). The Bibliothèque du
  Ministère de l'Intérieur was founded in 1793 and has 80,000 vols. The
  Bibliothèque du Ministère de la Justice possesses 10,000 vols., and
  L'Imprimerie Nationale which is connected with it has a further 19,000
  vols. There are also the following law libraries: Cour d'appel
  (12,000 vols.); Ordre des avocats, dating from 1871 (56,000 vols.,
  with a catalogue printed in 1880-1882); the Bibliothèque des avocats
  de la cour de Cassation (20,000 vols.); that of the Cour de Cassation
  (40,000 vols.). The Bibliothèque du Ministère de la Marine is of old
  formation (catalogue 1838-1843); it contains 100,000 vols, and 356
  MSS.; the catalogue of manuscripts was compiled in 1907. The
  Bibliothèque du service hydrographique de la Marine has 65,000 vols,
  and 250 MSS. The Ministère des Travaux publics possesses 12,000 vols.,
  and the Sous-Secrétariat des postes et télégraphes a further 30,000
  vols. The Bibliothèque de la Chambre des députés (1796) possesses
  250,000 printed books and 1546 MSS. (_Catalogue des manuscrits_, by E.
  Coyecque et H. Debray, 1907; _Catalogue des livres de jurisprudence,
  d'économie politique, de finances, et d'administration_, 1883). The
  Bibliothèque du Sénat (1818) contains 150,000 vols, and 1343 MSS. The
  Bibliothèque du Conseil d'État has 30,000 vols. All these libraries
  are only accessible to officials except by special permission.

  The Bibliothèque Historique de la ville de Paris was destroyed in
  1871, but Jules Cousin reconstituted it in 1872; it possesses 400,000
  vols., 3500 MSS. and 14,000 prints; the principal printed catalogues
  are _Catalogue des imprimés de la Réserve_ by M. Poète (1910),
  _Catalogue des manuscrits_, by F. Bournon (1893); a _Bulletin_ has
  been issued periodically since 1906. The Bibliothèque administrative
  de la préfecture de la Seine is divided into two sections: French
  (40,000 vols.) and foreign (22,000 vols.); it is only accessible to
  officials and to persons having a card of introduction; the catalogues
  are printed.

  The other libraries connected with the city of Paris are that of the
  Conseil municipal (20,000 vols.), the Bibliothèques Municipales
  Populaires, 82 in number with a total of 590,000 books; those of the
  22 Hospitals (92,887 vols.), the Préfecture de police (10,000 vols.),
  the Bibliothèque Forney (10,000 vols. and 80,000 prints), the five
  Écoles municipales supérieures (19,700 vols.), the six professional
  schools (14,200 vols.).

  The libraries of the university and the institutions dealing with
  higher education in Paris are well organized and their catalogues
  generally printed.

  The Bibliothèque de l'Université, although at present grouped as a
  system in four sections in different places, historically considered
  is the library of the Sorbonne. This was founded in 1762 by Montempuis
  and only included the faculties of Arts and Theology. It changed its
  name several times; in 1800 it was the Bibliothèque du Prytanée, in
  1808 Bibliothèque des Quatre Lycées and in 1812 Bibliothèque de
  l'Université de France. The sections into which the Bibliothèque de
  l'Université is now divided are: (1) Facultés de Sciences et des
  Lettres à la Sorbonne, (2) Faculté de Médecine, (3) Faculté de droit,
  (4) École supérieure de pharmacie. Before the separation of Church and
  State there was a fifth section, that of Protestant theology. After
  the Bibliothèque nationale it is the richest in special collections,
  and above all as regards classical philology, archaeology, French and
  foreign literature and literary criticism, just as the library of the
  Faculté des Sciences et des Lettres is notable for philosophy,
  mathematics and chemico-physical sciences. The great development which
  has taken place during the last thirty years, especially under the
  administration of M. J. de Chantepie du Dézert, its installation since
  1897 in the buildings of the New Sorbonne, have made it a library of
  the very first rank. The reading-room only seats about 300 persons.
  The average attendance per day is 1200, the number of books consulted
  varies from 1500 to 3000 vols. a day, and the loans amount to 14,000
  vols. per year. The store-rooms, although they contain more than 1200
  mètres of shelves and comprise two buildings of five storeys each, are
  insufficient for the annual accessions, which reach nearly 10,000
  vols. by purchase and presentation. Amongst the latter the most
  important are the bequests of Leclerc, Peccot, Lavisse, Derenbourg and
  Beljame; the last-named bequeathed more than 3000 vols., including an
  important Shakespearean library. The first section contains more than
  550,000 vols., 2800 periodicals which include over 70,000 vols., 320
  incunabula, 2106 MSS., more than 2000 maps and plans and some prints.
  The alphabetical catalogues are kept up day by day on slips. The
  classified catalogues were in 1910 almost ready for printing, and some
  had already been published: Périodiques (1905); Cartulaires (1907);
  _Mélanges jubilaires et publications commémoratives_ (1908);
  _Inventaires des MSS._, by E. Chatelain (1892); _Incunables_, by E.
  Chatelain (1902); and _Supplément, Réserve de la bibliothèque_
  1401-1540, by Ch. Beaulieux (1909); _Nouvelles acquisitions_
  (1905-1908); _Catalogue des livres de G. Duplessis donnés à
  l'Université de Paris_ (1907), _Catalogue collectif des bibliothèques
  universitaires_ by Fécamp (1898-1901). For French thèses, of which the
  library possesses a rich collection, the catalogues are as follows:
  Mourier et Deltour, _Catalogue des thèses de lettres_ (1809, &c.); A.
  Maire, _Répertoire des thèses de lettres_ (1809-1900); A. Maire,
  _Catalogue des thèses de sciences_ (1809-1890) with _Supplément_ to
  1900 by Estanave; _Catalogue des thèses publié par le Ministère de
  l'Instruction publique_ (1882, &c.).

  At the Sorbonne are also to be found the libraries of A. Dumont and V.
  Cousin (15,000 vols.), and those of the laboratories, of which the
  richest is the geological (30,000 specimens and books). The section
  relating to medicine, housed since 1891 in the new buildings of the
  Faculté de Médecine, includes 180,000 vols, and 88 MSS. (catalogue
  1910). The Bibliothèque de la faculté de droit dates from 1772 and
  contains 80,000 vols., 239 MSS. The fourth section, l'École supérieure
  de pharmacie, greatly developed since 1882, now contains 50,000 vols.

  The other libraries connected with higher education include that of
  the École des Beaux-Arts (40,000 vols., 100,000 reproductions, 14,000
  drawings). The library of the École normale supérieure (1794),
  established in the Rue d'Ulm in 1846, has received legacies from
  Verdet (1867), Caboche (1887), Lerambert-Whitcomb (1890), and a
  portion of Cuvier's library; the system of classification in use is
  practically the same as that of the Sorbonne, being devised by
  Philippe Lebas (librarian of the Sorbonne) about 1845; there are
  200,000 vols. The library of the Muséum d'histoire naturelle dates
  from the 18th century, and contains 220,000 vols., 2000 MSS., 8000
  original drawings on vellum beginning in 1631. The Bibliothèque de
  l'Office et Musée de l'Instruction publique (formerly Musée
  pédagogique), founded only in 1880, has 75,000 vols. In 1760 was
  founded the Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, which is very rich;
  its acquisitions come particularly from gifts and exchanges (400,000
  vols., numerous and scarce; valuable MSS., especially modern ones).

  The following may be briefly mentioned: Conservatoire national de
  musique (1775), which receives everything published in France relating
  to music (200,000 vols.); the Bibliothèque du théâtre de l'Opéra
  (25,000 vols., 5000 songs, 20,000 romances, and a dramatic library of
  12,000 vols. and 20,000 prints); the Théâtre français (40,000 vols.);
  the Académie de médecine (15,000 vols., 10,000 vols. of periodicals,
  5000 portraits), l'Observatoire (18,400 vols.); the Bureau des
  Longitudes (15,000 vols. and 850 MSS.). The scholastic libraries are:
  L'École centrale des arts et manufactures (16,000 vols.); l'École
  coloniale (11,000 vols.); 1,'Êcole d'application du service de santé
  militaire (23,000 vols.); l'École d'application du génie maritime
  (14,000 vols.); l'École libre des sciences politiques (25,000 vols.,
  250 periodicals); l'École normale d'instituteurs de la Seine (10,000
  vols.); l'École normale israélite (30,000 vols., 250 MSS.); l'École
  nationale des ponts-et-chausées (9000 vols., 5000 MSS., 5000
  photographs); Bibliothèque de l'Institut catholique (160,000 vols.);
  l'Institut national agronomique (25,000 vols.); Faculté libre de
  théologie protestante (36,000 vols.); Conservatoire des arts et
  métiers (46,000 vols., 2500 maps and plans); Bibliothèque polonaise,
  administered by the Académie des Sciences de Cracovie (80,000 vols.,
  30,000 prints); Séminaire des Missions étrangères (25,000 vols.);
  l'Association Valentin Haüy, established 1885 (2000 vols. printed in
  relief) which lends out 40,000 books per annum; l'Association générale
  des Étudiants (22,000 vols.), which lends and allows reference on the
  premises to books by students; Bibliothèque de la Chambre de Commerce
  (40,000 vols.), the catalogues of which were printed in 1879, 1889 and
  1902; the Société nationale d'agriculture (20,000 vols.); the Société
  d'anthropologie (23,000 vols.); the Société asiatique (12,000 vols.,
  200 MSS.); the Société chimique de France (10,000 vols.), the
  catalogue of which was published in 1907; the Société de chirurgie,
  dating from 1843 (20,000 vols.); the Société entomologique (30,000
  vols.); the Société de géographie founded 1821 (60,000 vols., 6000
  maps, 22,000 photographs, 2200 portraits, 80 MSS. of which the
  catalogue was printed in 1901); the Société géologique de France
  (15,000 vols., 30,000 specimens, 800 periodicals); the Société de
  l'histoire du protestantisme français, founded in 1852 (50,000 vols.,
  1000 MSS.; income 25,000 frs.); the Société d'encouragement pour
  l'industrie nationale (50,000 vols., income 8000 frs.); the Société
  des Ingénieurs civils (47,000 vols.; catalogue made in 1894); the
  Société de legislation comparée (15,000 vols., 4500 pamphlets); and
  lastly the Bibliothèque de la Société de Statistique de Paris, founded
  in 1860 (60,000 vols., with a printed catalogue).

Before the Revolution there were in Paris alone 1100 libraries
containing altogether 2,000,000 vols. After the suppression of the
religious orders the libraries were confiscated, and in 1791 more than
800,000 vols, were seized in 162 religious houses and transferred to
eight literary foundations in accordance with a decree of November 14,
1789. In the provinces 6,000,000 vols. were seized and transferred to
local depositories. The organization of the central libraries under the
decree of 3 Brumaire An IV. (October 25, 1795) came to nothing, but the
consular edict of January 28, 1803 gave definitive organization to the
books in the local depositories. From that time the library system was
reconstituted, alike in Paris and the provinces. Unfortunately many
precious books and MSS. were burnt, since by the decree of 4 Brumaire An
II. (October 25, 1793) the Committee of Instruction ordered, on the
proposition of its president the deputy Romme, the destruction or
modification of books and objects of art, under the pretext that they
recalled the outward signs of feudalism.

  Libraries of the Departments.

The books in the provincial libraries, not including those in private
hands or belonging to societies, number over 9,200,000 vols., 15,540
incunabula and 93,986 MSS. The number in the colonies and protected
states outside France is uncertain, but it extends to more than 200,000
vols.; to this number must be added the 2,428,954 vols. contained in
the university libraries. There are over 300 departmental libraries, and
as many belong to learned societies. The increase in the provincial
libraries is slower than that of the Parisian collections. With the
exception of 26 libraries connected specially with the state, the others
are municipal and are administered under state control by municipal
librarians. The original foundation of most of the libraries dates but a
short time before the Revolution, but there are a few exceptions. Thus
the Bibliothèque d'Angers owes its first collection to Alain de la Rue
about 1376; it now contains 72,485 vols., 134 incunabula and 2039 MSS.
That of Bourges dates from 1466 (36,856 vols., 325 incunabula, 741
MSS.). The library of Carpentras was established by Michel Anglici
between 1452 and 1474 (50,000 vols., 2154 MSS.). Mathieu de la Porte is
said to be the founder of the library at Clermont-Ferrand at the end of
the 15th century; it contained rather more than 49,000 vols. at the time
of its union with the Bibliothèque Universitaire.

  Amongst the libraries which date from the 16th century must be
  mentioned that at Lyons founded by François I. in 1527; it possesses
  113,168 vols., 870 incunabula and 5243 MSS. That of the Palais des
  Arts has 82,079 vols., 64 incunabula and 311 MSS.

  In the 17th century were established the following libraries:
  Abbeville, by Charles Sanson in 1685 (46,929 vols., 42 incunabula, 342
  MSS.); Besançon by Abbé Boisot in 1696 (93,580 vols., 1000 incunabula,
  2247 MSS.). In 1604 the Consistoire réformé de la Rochelle established
  a library which possesses to-day 58,900 vols., 14 incunabula, 1715
  MSS. St Étienne, founded by Cardinal de Villeroi, has 50,000 vols., 8
  incunabula, 343 MSS.

  The principal libraries founded during the 18th century are the
  following: Aix-en-Provence, established by Tournon and Méjane in 1705
  (160,000 vols., 300 incunabula, 1351 MSS.); Bordeaux, 1738 (200,000
  vols., 3491 MSS.); Chambéry, 1736 (64,200 vols., 47 incunabula, 155
  MSS.); Dijon, 1701, founded by P. Fevret (125,000 vols., 211
  incunabula, 1669 MSS.); Grenoble, 1772 (260,772 vols., 635 incunabula,
  2485 MSS.); Marseilles, 1799 (111,672 vols., 143 incunabula, 1691
  MSS.); Nancy, founded in 1750 by Stanislas (126,149 vols., 205
  incunabula, 1695 MSS.); Nantes, 1753 (103,328 vols., 140 incunabula,
  2750 MSS.); Nice, founded in 1786 by Abbé Massa (55,000 vols., 300
  incunabula, 150 MSS.); Nîmes, founded by J. T. de Séguier in 1778
  (80,000 vols., 61 incunabula, 675 MSS.); Niort, by Jean de Dieu and R.
  Bion in 1771 (49,413 vols., 67 incunabula, 189 MSS.); Perpignan, by
  Maréchal de Mailly in 1759 (27,200 vols., 80 incunabula, 127 MSS.);
  Rennes, 1733 (110,000 vols., 116 incunabula, 602 MSS., income 8950
  frs.); Toulouse, by archbishop of Brienne in 1782 (213,000 vols., 859
  incunabula, 1020 MSS.).

  Nearly all the other municipal libraries date from the Revolution, or
  rather from the period of the redistribution of the books in 1803. The
  following municipal libraries possess more than 100,000 vols.: Avignon
  (135,000 vols., 698 incunabula, 4152 MSS.), of which the first
  collection was the legacy of Calvet in 1810; Caen (122,000 vols., 109
  incunabula, 665 MSS.); Montpellier (130,300 vols., 40 incunabula, 251
  MSS.); Rouen (140,000 vols., 400 incunabula, 4000 MSS.); Tours
  (123,000 vols., 451 incunabula, 1999 MSS.); Versailles (161,000 vols.,
  436 incunabula, 1213 MSS.).

  The following towns have libraries with more than 50,000 volumes:
  Amiens, Auxerre, Beaune, Brest, Douai, le Hâvre, Lille, le Mans,
  Orléans, Pau, Poitiers, Toulon and Verdun.

  The catalogues of the greater part of the municipal libraries are
  printed. Especially valuable is the _Catalogues des MSS. des
  bibliothèques de Paris et des Départements_, which began to appear in
  1885; the MSS. of Paris fill 18 octavo volumes, and those of the
  provinces 50.

  The libraries of the provincial universities, thanks to their
  reorganization in 1882 and to the care exhibited by the general
  inspectors, are greatly augmented. Aix has 74,658 vols.; Alger
  160,489; Besançon 24,275; Bordeaux 216,278; Caen 127,542; Clermont
  173,000; Dijon 117,524; Grenoble 127,400; Lille 215,427; Lyons
  425,624; Marseilles 53,763; Montpellier 210,938; Nancy 139,036;
  Poitiers 180,000; Rennes 166,427; Toulouse 232,000.

  Since 1882 the educational libraries have largely developed; in 1877
  they were 17,764 in number; in 1907 they were 44,021, containing
  7,757,917 vols. The purely scholastic libraries have decreased; in
  1902 there were 2674 libraries with 1,034,132 vols., whilst after the
  reorganization (Circulaire of March 14, 1904) there were only 1131
  with 573,279 vols. The Société Franklin pour la propagation des
  bibliothèques populaires et militaires distributed among the libraries
  which it controls 55,185 vols., between the years 1900 and 1909.

  AUTHORITIES.--Information has been given for this account by M. Albert
  Maire, librarian at the Sorbonne. See also the following
  works:--_Bibliothèque Nationale:_ I. _Bâtiments, collections,
  organisation, département des estampes, département des médailles et
  antiques_, par Henri Marcel, Henri Bouchot et Ernest Babelon. II. _Le
  Département des imprimés et la section de géographie. Le Département
  des manuscrits_, par Paul Marchal et Camille Couderc (Paris, 1907, 2
  vols); Félix Chambon, _Notes sur la bibliothèque de l'Université de
  Paris de 1763 à 1905_ (Ganat, 1905); Fosseyeux, _La Bibliothèque des
  hôpitaux de Paris_ (Revue des bibliothèques, t. 18, 1908); Alfred
  Franklin, _Guide des savants, des littérateurs et des artistes dans
  les bibliothèques de Paris_ (Paris, 1908); _Instruction du 7 Mars 1899
  sur l'organisation des bibliothèques militaires_ (Paris, 1899); Henri
  Jadart, _Les Anciennes bibliothèques de Reims, leur sort en 1790-1791
  et la formation de la bibliothèque publique_ (Reims, 1891); Henry
  Marcel, _Rapport adressé au Ministre de l'Instruction Publique, sur
  l'ensemble des services de la bibliothèque nationale en 1905_ (Journal
  Officiel, 1906); Henry Martin, _Histoire de la bibliothèque de
  l'Arsenal_ (Paris, 1899); E. Morel, _Le Développement des
  bibliothèques publiques_ (Paris, 1909); Théod. Mortreuil, _La
  Bibliothèque nationale, son origine et ses accroissements; notice
  historique_ (Paris, 1878); Abbé L. V. Pécheur, _Histoire des
  bibliothèques publiques du département de l'Aisne existant à Soissons,
  Laon et Saint-Quentin_ (Soissons, 1884); M. Poète, E. Beaurepaire and
  E. Clouzot, _Une visite à la bibliothèque de la ville de Paris_
  (Paris, 1907); E. de Saint-Albin, _Les Bibliothèques municipales de la
  ville de Paris_ (Paris, 1896); B. Subercaze, _Les Bibliothèques
  populaires, scolaires et pédagogiques_ (Paris, 1892).

_Germany_ (_with Austria-Hungary and Switzerland_).


Germany is emphatically the home of large libraries; her former want of
political unity and consequent multiplicity of capitals have had the
effect of giving her many large state libraries, and the number of her
universities has tended to multiply considerable collections; 1617
libraries were registered by P. Schwenke in 1891. As to the conditions,
hours of opening, &c., of 200 of the most important of them, there is a
yearly statement in the _Jahrbuch der deutschen Bibliotheken_, published
by the Verein deutscher Bibliothekare.

The public libraries of the German empire are of four distinct types:
state libraries, university libraries, town libraries and popular
libraries. The administration and financial affairs of the state and
university libraries are under state control. The earlier distinction
between these two classes has become less and less marked. Thus the
university libraries are no longer restricted to professors and
students, but they are widely used by scientific workers, and books are
borrowed extensively, especially in Prussia. In Prussia, as a link
between the state and the libraries, there has been since 1907 a special
office which deals with library matters at the Ministry of Public
Instruction. Generally the state does not concern itself with the town
libraries and the popular libraries, but there is much in common between
these two classes. Sometimes popular libraries are under the supervision
of a scientifically administered town library as in Berlin, Dantzig,
&c.; elsewhere, as at Magdeburg, we see an ancient foundation take up
the obligations of a public library. Only in Prussia and Bavaria are
regulations in force as to the professional education of librarians.
Since 1904 the librarians of the Prussian state libraries have been
obliged to complete their university courses and take up their
doctorate, after which they have to work two years in a library as
volunteers and then undergo a technical examination. The secretarial
officials since 1909 have to reach a certain educational standard and
must pass an examination. This regulation has been in force as regards
librarians in Bavaria from 1905.


  Berlin is well supplied with libraries, 268 being registered by P.
  Schwenke and A. Hortzschansky in 1906, with about 5,000,000 printed
  vols. The largest of them is the Royal Library, which was founded by
  the "Great Elector" Frederick William, and opened as a public library
  in a wing of the electoral palace in 1661. From 1699 the library
  became entitled to a copy of every book published within the royal
  territories, and it has received many valuable accessions by purchase
  and otherwise. It now includes 1,230,000 printed vols. and over 30,000
  MSS. The amount yearly expended upon binding and the acquisition of
  books, &c., is £11,326. The catalogues are in manuscript, and include
  two general alphabetical catalogues, the one in volumes, the other on
  slips, as well as a systematic catalogue in volumes. The following
  annual printed catalogues are issued: _Verzeichnis der aus der neu
  erschienenen Literatur von der K. Bibliothek und den Preussischen
  Universitats-Bibliotheken erworbenen Druckschriften_ (since 1892);
  _Jahresverzeichnis der an den Deutschen Universitaten erschienenen
  Schriften_ (since 1887); _Jahresverzeichnis der an den Deutschen
  Schulanstalten erschienenen Abhandlungen_ (since 1889). There is
  besides a printed _Verzeichnis der im grossen Lesesaal aufgestellten
  Handbibliothek_ (4th ed. 1909), the alphabetical _Verzeichnis der
  laufenden Zeitschriften_ (last ed., 1908), and the classified
  _Verzeichnis der laufenden Zeitschriften_ (1908). The catalogue of
  MSS. are mostly in print, vols. 1-13, 16-23 (1853-1905). The library
  is specially rich in oriental MSS., chiefly due to purchases of
  private collections. The musical MSS. are very remarkable and form the
  richest collection in the world as regards autographs. The building,
  erected about 1780 by Frederick the Great, has long been too small,
  and a new one was completed in 1909. The building occupies the whole
  space between the four streets: Unter den Linden, Dorotheenstrasse,
  Universitätsstrasse and Charlottenstrasse, and besides the Royal
  Library, houses the University Library and the Academy of Sciences.
  The conditions as to the use of the collections are, as in most German
  libraries, very liberal. Any adult person is allowed to have books in
  the reading-room. Books are lent out to all higher officials,
  including those holding educational offices in the university, &c.,
  and by guarantee to almost any one recommended by persons of standing;
  borrowing under pecuniary security is also permitted. By special leave
  of the librarian, books and MSS. may be sent to a scholar at a
  distance, or, if especially valuable, may be deposited in some public
  library where he can conveniently use them. In 1908-1909 264,000 vols.
  were used in the reading-rooms, 312,000 were lent inside Berlin, and
  32,000 outside. There is a regular system of exchange between the
  Royal Library and a great number of Prussian libraries. It is the same
  in Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden; the oldest system is that between
  Darmstadt and Giessen (dating from 1837). There is either no charge
  for carriage to the borrower or the cost is very small. The
  reading-room and magazine hall are, with the exception of Sundays and
  holidays, open daily from 9 to 9, the borrowing counter from 9 to 6.

  Associated with the Royal Library are the following undertakings: the
  _Gesamtkatalog der Preussischen wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken_
  (describing the printed books in the Royal Library and the Prussian
  University Libraries in one general catalogue upon slips), the
  Auskunftsbureau der Deutschen Bibliotheken (bureau to give information
  where any particular book may be consulted), and the Kommission für
  den Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke (to draw up a complete catalogue of
  books printed before 1500).

  The University Library (1831) numbers 220,000 vols. together with
  250,000 academical and school dissertations. The number of volumes
  lent out in 1908-1909 was 104,000. The library possesses the right to
  receive a copy of every work published in the province of Brandenburg.

  Some of the governmental libraries are important, especially those of
  the Statistisches Landesamt (184,000 vols.); Reichstag (181,000
  vols.); Patent-Amt (118,000 vols.); Haus der Abgeordneten (100,000
  vols.); Auswärtiges-Amt (118,000 vols.).

  The public library of Berlin contains 102,000 vols.; connected
  therewith 28 municipal Volksbibliotheken and 14 municipal
  reading-rooms. The 28 Volksbibliotheken contain (1908) 194,000 vols.

  The Prussian university libraries outside Berlin include Bonn (332,000
  printed vols., 1500 MSS.); Breslau (330,000 printed vols., 3700 MSS.);
  Göttingen, from its foundation in 1736/7 the best administered library
  of the 18th century (552,000 printed vols., 6800 MSS.); Greifswald
  (200,000 printed vols., 800 MSS.); Halle (261,000 printed vols., 2000
  MSS.); Kiel (278,000 printed vols., 2400 MSS.); Königsberg (287,000
  printed vols., 1500 MSS.); Marburg (231,000 printed vols, and about
  800 MSS.); Münster (191,000 printed vols., 800 MSS.). Under provincial
  administration are the Königliche and Provinzialbibliothek at Hanover
  (203,000 printed vols., 4000 MSS.); the Landesbibliothek at Cassel
  (230,000 printed vols., 4400 MSS.); and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Bibliothek
  at Posen (163,000 printed vols.). A number of the larger towns possess
  excellent municipal libraries; Aix-la-Chapelle (112,000 vols.);
  Breslau (164,000 vols., 4000 MSS.); Dantzig (145,600 vols., 2900
  MSS.); Frankfort a/M (342,000 vols, besides MSS.); Cassel Murhardsche
  Bibliothek (141,000 vols., 6300 MSS.); Cologne (235,000 vols.); Treves
  (100,000 vols., 2260 MSS.); Wiesbaden (158,000 vols.).


  The libraries of Munich, though not so numerous as those of Berlin,
  include two of great importance. The Royal Library, for a long time
  the largest collection of books in Germany, was founded by Duke
  Albrecht V. of Bavaria (1550-1579), who made numerous purchases from
  Italy, and incorporated the libraries of the Nuremberg physician and
  historian Schedel, of Widmannstadt, and of J. J. Fugger. The number of
  printed vols, is estimated at about 1,100,000 and about 50,000 MSS.
  The library is especially rich in incunabula, many of them being
  derived from the libraries of over 150 monasteries closed in 1803. The
  oriental MSS. are numerous and valuable, and include the library of
  Martin Haug. The amount annually spent upon books and binding is
  £5000. The catalogues of the printed books are in manuscript, and
  include (1) a general alphabetical catalogue, (2) an alphabetical
  repertorium of each of the 195 subdivisions of the library, (3)
  biographical and other subject catalogues. A printed catalogue of MSS.
  in 8 vols, was in 1910 nearly complete; the first was published in
  1858. The library is open on weekdays from 8 to 1 (November to March
  8.30 to 1), and on Monday to Friday (except from August 1 to September
  15) also from 3 to 8. The regulations for the use of the library are
  very similar to those of the Royal Library at Berlin. The building was
  erected for this collection under King Louis I. in 1832-1843. The
  archives are bestowed on the ground floor, and the two upper floors
  are devoted to the library, which occupies seventy-seven apartments.
  The University Library was originally founded at Ingolstadt in 1472,
  and removed with the university to Munich in 1826. At present the
  number of vols. amounts to 550,000; the MSS. number 2000. Forty-six
  Munich libraries are described in Schwenke's _Adressbuch_, 15 of which
  possessed in 1909 about 2,000,000 printed vols. and about 60,000 MSS.
  After the two mentioned above the most noteworthy is the Königlich
  Bayrische Armee-Bibliothek (100,000 printed vols., 1000 MSS.).

  The chief Bavarian libraries outside Munich are the Royal Library at
  Bamberg (350,000 vols., 4300 MSS.) and the University Library at
  Würzburg (390,000 vols., 1500 MSS.); both include rich monastic
  libraries. The University Library at Erlangen has 237,000 vols. The
  Staats-Kreis and Stadtbibliothek at Augsburg owns 200,000 vols., and
  2000 MSS.; Nuremberg has two great collections, the Bibliothek des
  Germanischen National-museums (250,000 vols., 3550 MSS.) and the
  Stadtbibliothek (104,000 vols., 2500 MSS.).


  In 1906 there were in Dresden 78 public libraries with about 1,495,000
  vols. The Royal Public Library in the Japanese Palace was founded in
  the 16th century. Among its numerous acquisitions have been the
  library of Count Bünau in 1764, and the MSS. of Ebert. Special
  attention is devoted to history and literature. The library possesses
  more than 520,000 vols. (1909); the MSS. number 6000. Admission to the
  reading-room is granted to any respectable adult on giving his name,
  and books are lent out to persons qualified by their position or by a
  suitable guarantee. Here, as at other large libraries in Germany,
  works of belles-lettres are only supplied for a literary purpose. The
  number of persons using the reading-room in a year is about 14,000,
  and about 23,000 vols. are lent. The second largest library in
  Dresden, the Bibliothek des Statistischen Landes-Amtes, has 120,000

  Leipzig is well equipped with libraries; that of the University has
  550,000 vols. and 6500 MSS. The Bibliothek des Reichsgerichts has
  151,000 vols., the Pädagogische Central-Bibliothek der
  Comenius-Stiftung 150,000 vols., and the Stadtbibliothek 125,000
  vols., with 1500 MSS.


  The Royal Public Library of Stuttgart, although only established in
  1765, has grown so rapidly that it now possesses about 374,000 vols.
  of printed works and 5300 MSS. There is a famous collection of Bibles,
  containing over 7200 vols. The annual expenditure devoted to books and
  binding is £2475. The library also enjoys the copy-privilege in
  Württemberg. The annual number of borrowers is over 2600, who use
  nearly 29,000 vols. The number issued in the reading-room is 41,000.
  The number of parcels despatched from Stuttgart is nearly 23,000.
  Admission is also gladly granted to the Royal Private Library, founded
  in 1810, which contains about 137,000 vols.

  Of the other libraries of Württemberg the University Library of
  Tübingen (500,000 vols. and 4100 MSS.) need only be noted.


  The Grand-ducal Library of Darmstadt was established by the grand-duke
  Louis I. in 1819, on the basis of the still older library formed in
  the 17th century, and includes 510,000 vols. and about 3600 MSS.
  (1909). The number of vols. used in the course of the year is about
  90,000, of which 14,000 are lent out.

  Among the other libraries of the Grand Duchy of Hesse the most
  remarkable are the University Library at Giessen (230,000 vols., 1500
  MSS.), and the Stadtbibliothek at Mainz (220,000 vols., 1200 MSS.) to
  which is attached the Gutenberg Museum.

  In the Grand Duchy of Baden are the Hof- und Landesbibliothek at
  Carlsruhe (202,000 vols., 3800 MSS.), the University Library at
  Freiburg i/B (300,000 vols., 700 MSS.), and the University Library at
  Heidelberg. This, the oldest of the German University libraries, was
  founded in 1386. In 1623 the whole collection, described by Joseph
  Scaliger in 1608 as "locupletior et meliorum librorum quam Vaticana,"
  was carried as a gift to the pope and only the German MSS. were
  afterwards returned. The library was re-established in 1703, and after
  1800 enriched with monastic spoils; it now contains about 400,000
  vols. and 3500 MSS. for the most part of great value.

  Among the State or University libraries of other German states should
  be mentioned Detmold (110,000 vols.); Jena (264,000 vols.);
  Neustrelitz (130,000 vols.); Oldenburg (126,000 vols.); Rostock
  (275,000 vols.); Schwerin (225,000 vols.); and Weimar (270,000), all
  possessing rich collections of MSS.


  The Ducal Library of Gotha was established by Duke Ernest the Pious in
  the 17th century, and contains many valuable books and MSS. from
  monastic collections. It numbers about 192,000 vols., with 7400 MSS.
  The catalogue of the oriental MSS., chiefly collected by Seetzen, and
  forming one-half of the collection, is one of the best in existence.

  The Ducal Library at Wolfenbüttel, founded in the second half of the
  16th century by Duke Julius, was made over to the university of
  Helmstedt in 1614, whence the most important treasures were returned
  to Wolfenbüttel in the 19th century; it now numbers 300,000 vols.,
  7400 MSS.

  The chief libraries of the Hanse towns are: Bremen (Stadtbibliothek,
  141,000 vols.), and Lübeck (Stadtbibliothek, 121,000 vols.); the most
  important being the Stadtbibliothek at Hamburg, made public since 1648
  (383,000 vols., 7300 MSS., among them many Mexican). Hamburg has also
  in the Kommerzbibliothek (120,000 vols.) a valuable trade collection,
  and the largest Volksbibliothek (about 100,000 vols.) after that at
  Berlin. Alsace-Lorraine has the most recently formed of the great
  German collections--the Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek at
  Strassburg, which, though founded only in 1871 to replace that which
  had been destroyed in the siege, already ranks amongst the largest
  libraries of the empire. Its books amount to 922,000 vols., the number
  of MSS. is 5900.


The _Adressbuch der Bibliotheken der Oesterreich-ungarischen Monarchie_
by Bohatta and Holzmann (1900) describes 1014 libraries in Austria, 656
in Hungary, and 23 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Included in this list,
however, are private lending libraries.

The largest library in Austria, and one of the most important
collections in Europe, is the Imperial Public Library at Vienna,
apparently founded by the emperor Frederick III. in 1440, although its
illustrious librarian Lambecius, in the well-known inscription over the
entrance to the library which summarizes its history attributes this
honour to Frederick's son Maximilian. However this may be, the
munificence of succeeding emperors greatly added to the wealth of the
collection, including a not inconsiderable portion of the dispersed
library of Corvinus. Since 1808 the library has also been entitled to
the copy-privilege in respect of all books published in the empire. The
sum devoted to the purchase and binding of books is £6068 annually. The
number of printed vols. is 1,000,000; 8000 incunabula. The MSS. amount
to 27,000, with 100,000 papyri of the collection of Archduke Rainer. The
main library apartment is one of the most splendid halls in Europe.
Admission to the reading-room is free to everybody, and books are also
lent out under stricter limitations. The University Library of Vienna
was established by Maria Theresa. The reading-room is open to all
comers, and the library is open from 1st Oct. to 30th June from 9 a.m.
to 8 p.m.; in the other months for shorter hours. In 1909 447,391 vols.
were used in the library, 45,000 vols. lent out in Vienna, and 6519
vols. sent carriage free to borrowers outside Vienna. The number of
printed vols. is 757,000. For the purchase of books and binding the
Vienna University Library has annually 60,000 crowns from the state as
well as 44,000 crowns from matriculation fees and contributions from the

  The total number of libraries in Vienna enumerated by Bohatta and
  Holzmann is 165, and many of them are of considerable extent. One of
  the oldest and most important libraries of the monarchy is the
  University Library at Cracow, with 380,000 vols. and 8169 MSS.

  The number of monastic libraries in Austria is very considerable. They
  possess altogether more than 2,500,000 printed vols., 25,000
  incunabula and 25,000 MSS. The oldest of them, and the oldest in
  Austria, is that of the monastery of St Peter at Salzburg, which was
  established by Archbishop Arno (785-821). It includes 70,000 vols.,
  nearly 1500 incunabula. The three next in point of antiquity are
  Kremsmünster (100,000), Admont (86,000) and Melk (70,000), all of them
  dating from the 11th century. Many of the librarians of these monastic
  libraries are trained in the great Vienna libraries. There is no
  official training as in Prussia and Bavaria.


Information about income, administration, accessions, &c., of the chief
libraries in the Hungarian kingdom, are given in the Hungarian
_Statistical Year Book_ annually. The largest library in Hungary is the
Széchenyi-Nationalbibliothek at Budapest, founded in 1802 by the gift of
the library of Count Franz Széchenyi. It contains 400,000 printed vols.,
16,000 MSS., and has a remarkable collection of Hungarica. The
University Library of Budapest includes 273,000 printed books and more
than 2000 MSS. Since 1897 there has been in Hungary a Chief Inspector of
Museums and Libraries whose duty is to watch all public museums and
libraries which are administered by committees, municipalities,
religious bodies and societies. He also has undertaken the task of
organizing a general catalogue of all the MSS. and early printed books
in Hungary.

  The libraries of the monasteries and other institutions of the
  Catholic Church are many in number but not so numerous as in Austria.
  The chief among them, the library of the Benedictines at St
  Martinsberg, is the central library of the order in Hungary and
  contains nearly 170,000 vols. It was reconstituted in 1802 after the
  re-establishment of the order. The principal treasures of this abbey
  (11th century) were, on the secularization of the monasteries under
  Joseph II., distributed among the state libraries in Budapest.


Among the Swiss libraries, which numbered 2096 in 1868, there is none of
the first rank. Only three possess over 200,000 vols.--the University
Library at Basle founded in 1460, the Cantonal Library at Lausanne, and
the Stadtbibliothek at Berne, which since 1905 is united to the
University Library of that city. One great advantage of the Swiss
libraries is that they nearly all possess printed catalogues, which
greatly further the plan of compiling a great general catalogue of all
the libraries of the republic. A valuable co-operative work is their
treatment of Helvetiana. All the literature since 1848 is collected by
the Landes-Bibliothek at Berne, established in 1895 for this special
object. The older literature is brought together in the Bürgerbibliothek
at Lucerne, for which it has a government grant. The monastic libraries
of St Gall and Einsiedeln date respectively from the years 830 and 946,
and are of great historical and literary interest.

  AUTHORITIES.--Information has been supplied for this account by
  Professor Dr A. Hortzschansky, librarian of the Royal Library, Berlin.
  See also _Adressbuch der deutschen Bibliotheken_ by Paul Schwenke
  (Leipzig, 1893); _Jahrbuch der deutschen Bibliotheken_ (Leipzig,
  1902-1910); _Berliner Bibliothekenführer_, by P. Schwenke and A.
  Hortzschansky (Berlin, 1906); A. Hortzschansky, _Die K. Bibliothek zu
  Berlin_ (Berlin, 1908); Ed. Zarncke, _Leipziger Bibliothekenführer_
  (Leipzig, 1909); J. Bohatta and M. Holzmann, _Adressbuch der
  Bibliotheken der österreich-ungarischen Monarchie_ (Vienna, 1900); Ri.
  Kukula, _Die österreichischen Studienbibliotheken_ (1905); A. Hübl,
  _Die österreichischen Klosterbibliotheken in den Jahren 1848-1908_
  (1908); P. Gulyas, _Das ungarische Oberinspektorat der Museen und
  Bibliotheken_ (1909); _Die über 10,000 Bände zählenden
  öffentlichen-Bibliotheken Ungarns, im Jahre 1908_ (Budapest, 1910); H.
  Escher, "Bibliothekswesen" in _Handbuch der Schweizer
  Volkswirtschaft_, vol. i. (1903).


As the former centre of civilization, Italy is, of course, the country
in which the oldest existing libraries must be looked for, and in which
the rarest and most valuable MSS. are preserved. The Vatican at Rome and
the Laurentian Library at Florence are sufficient in themselves to
entitle Italy to rank before most other states in that respect, and the
venerable relics at Vercelli, Monte Cassino and La Cava bear witness to
the enlightenment of the peninsula while other nations were slowly
taking their places in the circle of Christian polity. The local rights
and interests which so long helped to impede the unification of Italy
were useful in creating and preserving at numerous minor centres many
libraries which otherwise would probably have been lost during the
progress of absorption that results from such centralization as exists
in England. In spite of long centuries of suffering and of the
aggression of foreign swords and foreign gold, Italy is still rich in
books and MSS. The latest official statistics (1896) give particulars of
1831 libraries, of which 419 are provincial and communal. In 1893 there
were 542 libraries of a popular character and including circulating

  Governmental libraries.

The governmental libraries (_biblioteche governative_) number 36 and are
under the authority of the minister of public instruction. The
_Regolamento_ controlling them was issued in the _Bolletino Ufficiale_,
5 Dec. 1907. They consist of the national central libraries of Rome
(Vittorio Emanuele) and Florence, of the national libraries of Milan
(Braidense), Naples, Palermo, Turin and Venice (Marciana); the
Biblioteca governativa at Cremona; the Marucelliana, the
Mediceo-Laurenziana and the Riccardiana at Florence; the governativa at
Lucca; the Estense at Modena; the Brancacciana and that of San Giacomo
at Naples; the Palatina at Parma; the Angelica, the Casanatense, and the
Lancisiana at Rome; the university libraries of Bologna, Cagliari,
Catania, Genoa, Messina, Modena, Naples, Padua, Pavia, Pisa, Rome and
Sassari; the Ventimiliana at Catania (joined to the university library
for administrative purposes); the Vallicelliana and the musical library
of the R. Accad. of St Cecilia at Rome; the musical section of the
Palatine at Parma; and the Lucchesi-Palli (added to the national library
at Naples). There are provisions whereby small collections can be united
to larger libraries in the same place and where there are several
government libraries in one city a kind of corporate administration can
be arranged. The libraries belonging to bodies concerned with higher
education, to the royal scientific and literary academies, fine art
galleries, museums and scholastic institutions are ruled by special
regulations. The minister of public instruction is assisted by a
technical board.

The librarians and subordinates are divided into (1) librarians, or
keepers of MSS.; (2) sub-librarians, or sub-keepers of MSS.; (3)
attendants, or book distributors; (4) ushers, &c. Those of class 1
constitute the "board of direction," which is presided over by the
librarian, and meets from time to time to consider important measures
connected with the administration of the library. Each library is to
possess, alike for books and MSS., a general inventory, an accessions
register, an alphabetical author-catalogue and a subject-catalogue. When
they are ready, catalogues of the special collections are to be
compiled, and these the government intends to print. A general catalogue
of the MSS. was in 1910 being issued together with catalogues of
oriental codices and incunabula. Various other small registers are
provided for. The sums granted by the state for library purposes must be
applied to (1) salaries and the catalogues of the MSS.; (2) maintenance
and other expenses; (3) purchase of books, binding and repairs, &c.
Books are chosen by the librarians. In the university libraries part of
the expenditure is decided by the librarians, and part by a council
formed by the professors of the different faculties. The rules (_Boll.
Ufficiale_, Sept. 17, 1908) for lending books and MSS. allow them to be
sent to other countries under special circumstances.

The 36 _biblioteche governative_ annually spend about 300,000 lire in
books. From the three sources of gifts, copyright and purchases, their
accessions in 1908 were 142,930, being 21,122 more than the previous
year. The number of readers is increasing. In 1908 there were 1,176,934,
who made use of 1,650,542 vols., showing an increase of 30,456 readers
and 67,579 books as contrasted with the statistics of the previous year.
Two monthly publications catalogue the accessions of these libraries,
one dealing with copyright additions of Italian literature, the other
with all foreign books.

The minister of public instruction has kept a watchful eye upon the
literary treasures of the suppressed monastic bodies. In 1875 there were
1700 of these confiscated libraries, containing two millions and a half
of volumes. About 650 of the collections were added to the contents of
the public libraries already in existence; the remaining 1050 were
handed over to the different local authorities, and served to form 371
new communal libraries, and in 1876 the number of new libraries so
composed was 415.


The Biblioteca Vaticana stands in the very first rank among European
libraries as regards antiquity and wealth of MSS. We can trace back the
history of the Biblioteca Vaticana to the earliest records of the
_Scrinium Sedis Apostolicae_, which was enshrined in safe custody at the
Lateran, and later on partly in the Turris Chartularia; but of all the
things that used to be stored there, the only survival, and that is a
dubious example, is the celebrated Codex Amiatinus now in the Laurentian
Library at Florence. Of the new period inaugurated by Innocent III.
there but remains to us the inventory made under Boniface VIII. The
library shared in the removal of the Papal court to Avignon, where the
collection was renewed and increased, but the Pontifical Library at
Avignon has only in part, and in later times, been taken into the
Library of the Vatican. This latter is a new creation of the great
humanist popes of the 15th century. Eugenius IV. planted the first seed,
but Nicholas V. must be looked upon as the real founder of the library,
to which Sixtus IV. consecrated a definite abode, ornate and splendid,
in the Court of the Pappagallo. Sixtus V. erected the present
magnificent building in 1588, and greatly augmented the collection. The
library increased under various popes and librarians, among the most
noteworthy of whom were Marcello Cervini, the first _Cardinale
Bibliotecario_, later Pone Marcel II., Sirleto and A. Carafa. In 1600 it
was further enriched by the acquisition of the valuable library of
Fulvio Orsini, which contained the pick of the most precious libraries.
Pope Paul V. (1605-1621) separated the library from the archives, fixed
the progressive numeration of the Greek and Latin MSS., and added two
great halls, called the Pauline, for the new codices. Under him and
under Urban VIII. a number of MSS. were purchased from the Convento of
Assisi, of the Minerva at Rome, of the Capranica College, &c. Especially
noteworthy are the ancient and beautiful MSS. of the monastery of
Bobbio, and those which were acquired in various ways from the monastery
of Rossano. Gregory XV. (1622) received from Maximilian I., duke of
Bavaria, by way of compensation for the money supplied by him for the
war, the valuable library of the Elector Palatine, which was seized by
Count Tilly at the capture of Heidelberg. Alexander VII. (1658), having
purchased the large and beautiful collection formerly belonging to the
dukes of Urbino, added the MSS. of it to the Vatican library. The
_Libreria della Regina_, i.e. of Christina, queen of Sweden, composed of
very precious manuscripts from ancient French monasteries, from St Gall
in Switzerland, and others--also of the MSS. of Alexandre Petau, of
great importance for their history and French literature, was purchased
and in great part presented to the Vatican library by Pope Alexander
VIII. (Ottoboni) in 1689, while other MSS. came in later with the
Ottoboni library. Under Clement XI. there was the noteworthy purchase of
the 54 Greek MSS. which had belonged to Pius II., and also the increase
of the collection of Oriental MSS. Under Benedict XIV. there came into
the Vatican library, as a legacy, the library of the Marchese Capponi,
very rich in rare and valuable Italian editions, besides 285 MSS.; and
by a purchase, the Biblioteca Ottoboniana, which, from its wealth in
Greek, Latin, and even Hebrew MSS., was, after that of the Vatican, the
richest in all Rome. Clement XIII. in 1758, Clement XIV. in 1769, and
Pius VI. in 1775 were also benefactors. During three centuries the vast
and monumental library grew with uninterrupted prosperity, but it was to
undergo a severe blow at the end of the 18th century. In 1798, as a
sequel to the Treaty of Tolentino, 500 MSS. picked from the most
valuable of the different collections were sent to Paris by the
victorious French to enrich the Bibliothèque Nationale and other
libraries. These, however, were chiefly restored in 1815. Most of the
Palatine MSS., which formed part of the plunder, found their way back to
the university of Heidelberg. Pius VII. acquired for the Vatican the
library of Cardinal Zelada in 1800, and among other purchases of the
19th century must be especially noted the splendid Cicognara collection
of archaeology and art (1823); as well as the library in 40,000 vols. of
Cardinal Angelo Mai (1856). Recent more important purchases, during the
Pontificate of Leo XIII., have been the Borghese MSS., about 300 in
number, representing part of the ancient library of the popes at
Avignon; the entire precious library of the Barberini; the Borgia
collection _De Propaganda Fide_, containing Latin and Oriental MSS., and
500 incunabula.

Few libraries are so magnificently housed as the Biblioteca Vaticana.
The famous _Codici Vaticani_ are placed in the _salone_ or great double
hall, which is decorated with frescoes depicting ancient libraries and
councils of the church. At the end of the great hall an immense gallery,
also richly decorated, and extending to 1200 ft., opens out from right
to left. Here are preserved in different rooms the codici Palatini,
Regin., Ottoboniani, Capponiani, &c. The printed books only are on open
shelves, the MSS. being preserved in closed cases. The printed books
that were at first stored in the Borgia Apartment, now with the library
of Cardinal Mai, constitute in great part the _Nuova Sala di
Consultazione_, which was opened to students under the Pontificate of
Leo XIII. Other books, on the other hand, are still divided into 1^a and
2^(da) raccolta, according to the ancient denomination, and are stored
in adjacent halls.

Well-reasoned calculations place the total number of printed books at
400,000 vols.; of incunabula about 4000, with many vellum copies; 500
Aldines and a great number of bibliographical rarities. The Latin
manuscripts number 31,373; the Greek amount to 4148; the Oriental MSS.,
of which the computation is not complete, amount to about 4000. Among
the Greek and Latin MSS. are some of the most valuable in the world,
alike for antiquity and intrinsic importance. It is sufficient to
mention the famous biblical _Codex Vaticanus_ of the 4th century, the
two Virgils of the 4th and 5th centuries, the Bembo Terence, the
palimpsest _De Republica_ of Cicero, conjectured to be of the 4th
century, discovered by Cardinal Mai, and an extraordinary number of
richly ornamented codices of great beauty and costliness. The archives
are apart from the library, and are accessible in part to the public
under conditions. Leo XIII. appointed a committee to consider what
documents of general interest might expediently be published.

The Biblioteca Vaticana is now open from October 1st to Easter every
morning between 9 and 1 o'clock, and from Easter to June 29 from 8
o'clock to 12, with the exception of Sundays, Thursdays and the
principal feast days.

Catalogues of special classes of MSS. have been published. The Oriental
MSS. have been described by J. S. Assemani, _Bibliotheca orientalis
Clementino-Vaticana_ (Rome, 1719-1728, 4 vols. folio), and _Bibl. Vat.
codd. MSS. catalogus ab S. E. et J. S. Assentano redactus_ (ib.,
1756-1759, 3 vols. folio), and by Cardinal Mai in _Script. Vet. nova
collectio_. The Coptic MSS. have been specially treated by G. Zoega
(Rome, 1810, folio) and by F. G. Bonjour (Rome, 1699, 4to). There are
printed catalogues of the Capponi (1747) and the Cicognara (1820)
libraries. The following catalogues have lately been printed: E.
Stevenson, _Codd. Palatini Graeci_ (1885), _Codd. Gr. Reg. Sueciae et
Pii II._ (1888); Feron-Battaglini, _Codd. Ottobon. Graeci_ (1893); C.
Stornaiolo, _Codd. Urbinates Gr._ (1895); E. Stevenson, _Codd. Palatini
Lat._ tom. 1 (1886); G. Salvo-Cozzo, _Codici Capponiani_ (1897); M.
Vattasso and P. Franchi de' Cavalieri, _Codd. Lat. Vaticani_, tom. 1
(1902); C. Stornaiolo, _Codices Urbinates Latini_, tom. 1 (1902); E.
Stevenson, _Inventario dei libri stampali Palatino-Vaticani_
(1886-1891); and several volumes relating to Egyptian papyri by O.
Marucchi. Some of the greatest treasures have been reproduced in

    Other Roman libraries.

  The most important library in Italy for modern requirements is the
  Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele. From its foundation in 1875,
  incorporating the _biblioteca maior o secreta_ of the Jesuits in the
  Collegio Romano, and all the cloister libraries of the Provincia
  Romana which had devolved to the state through the suppression of the
  Religious Orders, it has now, by purchases, by donations, through the
  operation of the law of the press increased to about 850,000 printed
  vols., and is continually being ameliorated. It possesses about 1600
  incunabula and 6200 MSS. Noteworthy among these are the Farfensi and
  the Sessoriani MSS. of Santa Croce in Jerusalem, and some of these
  last of the 6th to the 8th centuries are real treasures. The library
  has been recently reorganized. It is rich in the history of the
  renaissance, Italian and foreign reviews, and Roman topography. A
  monthly _Bollettino_ is issued of modern foreign literature received
  by the libraries of Italy.

  The Biblioteca Casanatense, founded by Cardinal Casanate in 1698,
  contains about 200,000 printed vols., over 2000 incunabula, with many
  Roman and Venetian editions, and more than 5000 MSS., among which are
  examples of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries. They are arranged in
  eleven large rooms, the large central hall being one of the finest in
  Rome. It is rich in theology, the history of the middle ages,
  jurisprudence and the economic, social and political sciences. An
  incomplete catalogue of the printed books by A. Audiffredi still
  remains a model of its kind (Roma, 1761-1788, 4 vols. folio, and part
  of vol. v.).

  The Biblioteca Angelica was founded in 1605 by Monsignor Angelo Rocca,
  an Augustinian, and was the first library in Rome to throw open its
  doors to the public. It contains about 90,000 vols., of which about
  1000 are incunabula; 2570 MSS., of which 120 are Greek, and 91
  Oriental. It includes all the authentic acts of the Congregatio de
  Auxiliis and the collections of Cardinal Passionei and Lucas

  The Biblioteca Universitaria Alessandrina was founded by Pope
  Alexander VII., with the greater part of the printed books belonging
  to the dukes of Urbino, and was opened in 1676. In 1815 Pius VII.
  granted to it the right to receive a copy of every printed book in the
  States of the Church, which grant at the present time, by virtue of
  the laws of Italy, is continued, but limited to the province of Rome.
  The library possesses 130,000 printed books, 600 incunabula, 376 MSS.

  The library of the Senate was established at Turin in 1848. It
  contains nearly 87,000 vols. and is rich in municipal history and the
  statutes of Italian cities, the last collection extending to 2639
  statutes or vols. for 679 municipalities. The library of the Chamber
  of Deputies contains 120,000 vols. and pamphlets. It is rich in modern
  works, and especially in jurisprudence, native and foreign history,
  economics and administration.

  The Biblioteca Vallicelliana was founded by Achille Stazio (1581), and
  contains some valuable manuscripts, including a Latin Bible of the 8th
  century attributed to Alcuin, and some inedited writings of Baronius.
  It now contains 28,000 vols. and 2315 MSS. Since 1884 it has been in
  the custody of the R. Società Romana di Storia Patria. The Biblioteca
  Lancisiana, founded in 1711 by G. M. Lancisi, is valuable for its
  medical collections.

  In 1877 Professor A. Sarti presented to the city of Rome his
  collection of fine-art books, 10,000 vols., which was placed in charge
  of the Accademia di San Luca, which already possessed a good artistic
  library. The Biblioteca Centrale Militare (1893) includes 66,000
  printed vols. and 72,000 maps and plans relating to military affairs;
  and the Biblioteca della R. Accad. di S. Cecilia (1875), a valuable
  musical collection of 40,000 volumes and 2300 MSS.


  Among the private libraries accessible by permission, the Chigiana
  (1660) contains 25,000 vols. and 2877 MSS. The Corsiniana, founded by
  Clement XII. (Lorenzo Corsini) is rich in incunabula, and includes one
  of the most remarkable collections of prints, the series of
  Marc-Antonios being especially complete. It was added to the Accademia
  dei Lincei in 1884 and now extends to 43,000 vols. The library of the
  Collegium de Propaganda Fide was established by Urban VIII. in 1626.
  It owes its present richness almost entirely to testamentary gifts,
  among which may be mentioned those of Cardinals Borgia, Caleppi and Di
  Pietro. It is a private collection for the use of the congregation and
  of those who belong to it, but permission may be obtained from the
  superiors. There are at least thirty libraries in Rome which are more
  or less accessible to the public. At Subiaco, about 40 m. from Rome,
  the library of the Benedictine monastery of Santa Scolastica is not a
  very large one, comprising only 6000 printed vols. and 400 MSS., but
  the place is remarkable as having been the first seat of typography in
  Italy. It was in this celebrated Protocoenobium that Schweynheim and
  Pannartz, fresh from the dispersion of Fust and Schoeffer's workmen in
  1462, established their press and produced a series of very rare and
  important works which are highly prized throughout Europe. The Subiaco
  library, although open daily to readers, is only visited by students
  who are curious to behold the cradle of the press in Italy, and to
  inspect the series of original editions preserved in their first home.


  The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, formed from the union
  of Magliabechi's library with the Palatina, is the largest after the
  Vittorio Emanuele at Rome. The Magliabechi collection became public
  property in 1714, and with accessions from time to time, held an
  independent place until 1862, when the Palatina (formed by Ferdinand
  III., Grand Duke of Tuscany), was incorporated with it. An old statute
  by which a copy of every work printed in Tuscany was to be presented
  to the Magliabechi library was formerly much neglected, but has been
  maintained more rigorously in force since 1860. Since 1870 it receives
  by law a copy of every book published in the kingdom. A _Bollettino_
  is issued describing these accessions. There are many valuable
  autograph originals of famous works in this library, and the MSS.
  include the most important extant _codici_ of Dante and later poets,
  as well as of the historians from Villani to Machiavelli and
  Guicciardini. Amongst the printed books is a very large assemblage of
  rare early impressions, a great number of the _Rappresentazioni_ of
  the 16th century, at least 200 books printed on vellum, and a copious
  collection of municipal histories and statutes, of _testi di lingua_
  and of maps. The Galileo collection numbers 308 MSS. The MS.
  portolani, 25 in number, are for the most part of great importance;
  the oldest is dated 1417, and several seem to be the original charts
  executed for Sir Robert Dudley (duke of Northumberland) in the
  preparation of his _Arcano del Mare_. The library contains (1909)
  571,698 printed vols., 20,222 MSS., 9037 engravings, 21,000 portraits,
  3847 maps, and 3575 incunabula. In 1902 the Italian parliament voted
  the funds for a new building which is being erected on the Corso dei
  Tintori close to the Santa Croce Church.


  The Biblioteca Nazionale of Milan, better known as the Braidense,
  founded in 1770 by Maria Theresa, consists of 243,000 printed vols.
  1787 MSS. and over 3000 autographs. It comprises nearly 2300 books
  printed in the 15th century (including the rare _Monte Santo di Dio_
  of Bettini, 1477), 913 Aldine impressions, and a xylographic _Biblia
  Pauperum_. Amongst the MSS. are an early Dante and autograph letters
  of Galileo, some poems in Tasso's autograph, and a fine series of
  illustrated service-books, with miniatures representing the advance of
  Italian art from the 12th to the 16th century. One room is devoted to
  the works of Manzoni.


  The Biblioteca Nazionale at Naples, though only opened to the public
  in 1804, is the largest library of that city. The nucleus from which
  it developed was the collection of Cardinal Seripando, which comprised
  many MSS. and printed books of great value. Acquisitions came in from
  other sources, especially when in the year 1848 many private and
  conventual libraries were thrown on the Neapolitan market, and still
  more so in 1860. The Biblical section is rich in rarities, commencing
  with the Mainz Bible of 1462, printed on vellum. Other special
  features are the collection of _testi di lingua_, that of books on
  volcanoes, the best collection in existence of the publications of
  Italian literary and scientific societies and a nearly complete set of
  the works issued by the Bodoni press. The MSS. include a palimpsest
  containing writings of the 3rd, 5th and 6th centuries under a
  grammatical treatise of the 8th, 2 Latin papyri of the 6th century,
  over 50 Latin Bibles, many illuminated books with miniatures, and the
  autographs of G. Leopardi. There are more than 40 books printed on
  vellum in the 15th and 16th centuries, including a fine first Homer;
  and several MS. maps and portolani, one dating from the end of the
  14th century. The library contains about 389,100 printed vols., 7990
  MSS. and 4217 incunabula.


  The Biblioteca Nazionale of Palermo, founded from the Collegio Massimo
  of the Jesuits, with additions from other libraries of that suppressed
  order, is rich in 15th-century books, which have been elaborately
  described in a catalogue printed in 1875, and in Aldines and
  bibliographical curiosities of the 16th and following centuries, and a
  very complete series of the Sicilian publications of the 16th century,
  many being unique. The library contains 167,898 printed vols., 2550
  incunabula, 1537 MSS.



  The Biblioteca Nazionale Universitatia of Turin took its origin in the
  donation of the private library of the House of Savoy, which in 1720
  was made to the University by Vittorio Amedeo II. The disastrous fire
  of January 1904 destroyed about 24,000 out of the 300,000 vols. which
  the library possessed, and of the MSS., the number of which was 4138,
  there survive now but 1500 in a more or less deteriorated condition.
  Among those that perished were the palimpsests of Cicero, Cassidorus,
  the Codex Theodosianus and the famous _Livre d'Heures_. What escaped
  the fire entirely was the valuable collection of 1095 incunabula, the
  most ancient of which is the _Rationale Divinorum Officiorum_ of 1459.
  Since the fire the library has been enriched by new gifts, the most
  conspicuous of which is the collection of 30,000 vols. presented by
  Baron Alberto Lumbroso, principally relating to the French Revolution
  and empire. The library was in 1910 about to be transferred to the
  premises of the Palazzo of the Debito Publico. The Biblioteca
  Marciana, or library of St Mark at Venice, was traditionally founded
  in 1362 by a donation of MSS. from the famous Petrarch (all of them
  now lost) and instituted as a library by Cardinal Bessarione in 1468.
  The printed vols. number 417,314. The precious contents include 12,106
  MSS. of great value, of which more than 1000 Greek codices were given
  by Cardinal Bessarione, important MS. collections of works on Venetian
  history, music and theatre, rare incunabula, and a great number of
  volumes, unique or exceedingly rare, on the subject of early
  geographical research. Amongst the MSS. is a Latin Homer, an
  invaluable codex of the laws of the Lombards, and the autograph MS. of
  Sarpi's _History of the Council of Trent_. Since the fall of the
  republic and the suppression of the monasteries a great many private
  and conventual libraries have been incorporated with the Marciana,
  which had its first abode in the Libreria del Sansovino, from which in
  turn it was transferred in 1812 to the Palazzo Ducale, and from this
  again in 1904 to the Palazzo della Zecca (The Mint).

    University libraries.

  Among the university libraries under government control some deserve
  special notice. First in historical importance comes the Biblioteca
  della Università at Bologna, founded by the naturalist U. Aldrovandi,
  who bequeathed by his will in 1605 to the senate of Bologna his
  collection of 3800 printed books and 360 MSS. Count Luigi F. Marsili
  increased the library by a splendid gift in 1712 and established an
  Istituto delle Scienze, reconstituted as a public library by Benedict
  XIV. in 1756. The printed books number 255,000 vols., and the MSS.
  5000. The last comprise a rich Oriental collection of 547 MSS. in
  Arabic, 173 in Turkish, and several in Persian, Armenian and Hebrew.
  Amongst the Latin codices is a Lactantius of the 6th or 7th century.
  The other noteworthy articles include a copy of the Armenian gospels
  (12th century), the Avicenna, with miniatures dated 1194, described in
  Montfaucon's _Diarium Italicum_, and some unpublished Greek texts.
  Amongst the Italian MSS. is a rich assemblage of municipal histories.
  Mezzofanti was for a long time the custodian here, and his own
  collection of books has been incorporated in the library, which is
  remarkable likewise for the number of early editions and Aldines which
  it contains. A collection of drawings by Agostino Caracci is another
  special feature of worth. The grand hall with its fine furniture in
  walnut wood merits particular attention. The Biblioteca della
  Università at Naples was established by Joachim Murat in 1812 in the
  buildings of Monte Oliveto, and has thence been sometimes called the
  "Biblioteca Gioacchino." Later it was transferred to the Royal
  University of studies, and was opened to the public in 1827. It was
  increased by the libraries of several monastic bodies. The most
  copious collections relate to the study of medicine and natural
  science. It possesses about 300,000 printed books, 404 incunabula, 203
  Aldines, and 196 Bodoni editions, but the more important incunabula
  and MSS. about the middle of the 19th century went to enrich the
  Biblioteca Nazionale. Other important university libraries are those
  of Catania (1755), 130,000 vols.; Genoa (1773), 132,000 vols., 1588
  MSS.; Pavia (1763), 250,000 vols., 1100 MSS.; Padua (200,000 vols.,
  2356 MSS.), which in 1910 was housed in a new building; Cagliari
  (90,000 vols.); Sassari (74,000 vols.). Messina, destroyed in the
  earthquake of 1908, preserved, however, beneath its ruins the more
  important part of its furniture and fittings, and in 1910 was already
  restored to active work, as regards the portion serving for the
  reawakened Faculty of Law in the University.



  Chief among the remaining government libraries comes the world-famed
  Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana at Florence, formed from the
  collections of Cosimo the Elder, Pietro de' Medici, and Lorenzo the
  Magnificent (which, however, passed away from the family after the
  expulsion of the Medici from Florence, and were repurchased in 1508 by
  Cardinal Giovanni, afterwards Leo X.). It was first constituted as a
  public library in Florence by Clement VII., who charged Michelangelo
  to construct a suitable edifice for its reception. It was opened to
  the public by Cosimo I. in 1571, and has ever since gone on increasing
  in value, the accessions in the 18th century alone being enough to
  double its former importance. The printed books it contains are
  probably no more than 11,000 in number, but are almost all of the
  highest rarity and interest, including 242 incunabula of which 151
  _editiones principes_. It is, however, the precious collection of
  MSS., amounting to 9693 articles, which gives its chief importance to
  this library. They comprise more than 700 of dates earlier than the
  11th century. Some of them are the most valuable codices in the
  world--the famous Virgil of the 4th or 5th century, Justinian's
  _Pandects_ of the 6th, a Homer of the 10th, and several other very
  early Greek and Latin classical and Biblical texts, as well as copies
  in the handwriting of Petrarch, about 100 codices of Dante, a
  _Decameron_ copied by a contemporary from Boccaccio's own MS., and
  Cellini's MS. of his autobiography. Bandini's catalogue of the MSS.
  occupies 13 vols. folio, printed in 1764-1778. Administratively united
  to the Laurentian is the Riccardiana rich in MSS. of Italian
  literature, especially the Florentine (33,000 vols., 3905 MSS.). At
  Florence the Biblioteca Marucelliana, founded in 1703, remarkable for
  its artistic wealth of early woodcuts and metal engravings, was opened
  to the public in 1753. The number of these and of original drawings by
  the old masters amounts to 80,000 pieces; the printed volumes number
  200,000, the incunabula 620, and the MSS. 1500. At Modena is the
  famous Biblioteca Estense, so called from having been founded by the
  Este family at Ferrara in 1393; it was transferred to Modena by Cesare
  D'Este in 1598. Muratori, Zaccaria and Tiraboschi were librarians
  here, and made good use of the treasures of the library. It is
  particularly rich in early printed literature and valuable codices.
  Between 1859 and 1867 it was known as the Biblioteca Palatina. The
  printed vols. number 150,570, the incunabula 1600, the MSS. 3336,
  besides the 4958 MSS. and the 100,000 autographs of the Campori


  The oldest library at Naples is the Biblioteca Brancacciana, with many
  valuable MSS. relating to the history of Naples. Two planispheres by
  Coronelli are preserved here. It was founded in 1673 by Cardinal F. M.
  Brancaccio, and opened by his heirs in 1675; 150,000 vols. and 3000
  MSS. The Regia Biblioteca di Parma, founded definitively in 1779, owes
  its origin to the grand-duke Philip, who employed the famous scholar
  Paciaudi to organize it. It is now a public library containing 308,770
  vols. and 4890 MSS. Amongst its treasures is De Rossi's magnificent
  collection of Biblical and rabbinical MSS. Also worthy of note are the
  Bibl. Pubblica or governation of Lucca (1600) with 214,000 vols., 725
  incunabula and 3091 MSS. and that of Cremona (1774), united to that of
  the Museo Civico.


  Among the great libraries not under government control, the most
  important is the famous Biblioteca Ambrosiana at Milan, founded in
  1609 by Cardinal Fed. Borromeo. It contains 230,000 printed vols. and
  8400 MSS. Amongst the MSS. are a Greek Pentateuch of the 5th century,
  the famous Peshito and Syro-Hexaplar from the Nitrian convent of St
  Maria Deipara, a Josephus written on papyrus, supposed to be of the
  5th century, several palimpsest texts, including an early Plautus, and
  St Jerome's commentary on the Psalms in a volume of 7th-century
  execution, full of contemporary glosses in Irish, Gothic fragments of
  Ulfilas, and a Virgil with notes in Petrarch's handwriting. Cardinal
  Mai Was formerly custodian here. In 1879 Professor C. Mensinger
  presented his "Biblioteca Europea," consisting of 2500 vols., 300 maps
  and 5000 pieces, all relating to the literature and linguistics of
  European countries. The Melzi and Trivulzio libraries should not pass
  without mention here, although they are private and inaccessible
  without special permission. The former is remarkable for its
  collection of early editions with engravings, including the Dante of
  1481, with twenty designs by Baccio Bandinelli. The latter is rich in
  MSS. with miniatures of the finest and rarest kind, and in printed
  books of which many are unique or nearly so. It consists of 70,000
  printed vols. At Genoa the Biblioteca Franzoniana, founded about 1770
  for the instruction of the poorer classes, is noteworthy as being the
  first European library lighted up at night for the use of readers.

    Monte Cassino.


  The foundation of the monastery of Monte Cassino is due to St
  Benedict, who arrived there in the year 529, and established the
  prototype of all similar institutions in western Europe. The library
  of printed books now extends to about 20,000 vols., chiefly relating
  to the theological sciences, but including some rare editions. A
  collection of the books belonging to the monks contains about the same
  number of volumes. But the chief glory of Monte Cassino consists of
  the _archivio_, which is quite apart; and this includes more than
  30,000 bulls, diplomas, charters and other documents, besides 1000
  MSS. dating from the 6th century downwards. The latter comprehend some
  very early Bibles and important codices of patristic and other
  medieval writings. There are good written catalogues, and descriptions
  with extracts are published in the _Bibliotheca Casinensis_. The
  monastery was declared a national monument in 1866. At Ravenna the
  Biblioteca Classense has a 10th-century codex of Aristophanes and two
  14th-century codices of Dante. At Vercelli the Biblioteca dell'
  Archivio Capitolare, the foundation of which can be assigned to no
  certain date, but must be referred to the early days when the
  barbarous conquerors of Italy had become christianized, comprises
  nothing but MSS., all of great antiquity and value. Amongst them is an
  Evangeliarium S. Eusebii in Latin, supposed to be of the 4th century;
  also the famous codex containing the Anglo-Saxon homilies which have
  been published by the Ælfric Society.

    La Cava.

  The Biblioteca del Monastero della S. Trinità, at La Cava dei Tirreni
  in the province of Salerno, is said to date from the foundation of the
  abbey itself (beginning of the 11th century). It contains only some
  10,000 vols., but these include a number of MSS. of very great rarity
  and value, ranging from the 8th to the 14th century. Amongst these is
  the celebrated Codex Legum Longobardorum, dated 1004, besides a
  well-known geographical chart of the 12th century, over 100 Greek
  MSS., and about 1000 charters beginning with the year 840, more than
  200 of which belong to the Lombard and Norman periods. The library is
  now national property, the abbot holding the office of Keeper of the

  Not a few of the communal and municipal libraries are of great extent
  and interest: Bologna (1801), 191,000 vols., 5060 MSS.; Brescia,
  Civica Quiriniana, 125,000 vols., 1500 MSS.; Ferrara (1753), 91,000
  vols., 1698 MSS., many Ferrarese rarities; Macerata, the
  Mozzi-Borgetti (1783-1835, united 1855), 50,000 vols.; Mantua, 70,000
  vols., 1300 MSS.; Novara, Negroni e Civica (1847 and 1890), 75,000
  vols.; Padua, 90,000 vols., 1600 MSS.; Palermo (1760), 216,000 vols.,
  3263 MSS., coins and Sicilian collection; Perugia (1852), founded by
  P. Podiani, 70,000 vols., 915 MSS.; Siena (1758), founded by S.
  Bandini, fine art collection, 83,250 vols., 5070 MSS.; Venice, Museo
  Civico Correr, 50,000 vols., 11,000 MSS.; Verona (1792, public since
  1802), 180,000 vols., 2650 MSS.; Vicenza, Bertoliana (1708), local
  literature, archives of religious corporations, 175,000 vols., 6000

  Popular libraries have now been largely developed in Italy, chiefly
  through private or municipal enterprise; they enjoy a small state
  subvention of £1000. The government report for 1908 stated that 319
  communes possessed _biblioteche popolari_ numbering altogether 415. Of
  these, 313 were established by municipalities, 113 by individuals, 8
  by business houses, 80 by working men's societies and 15 by ministers
  of religion; 225 are open to the public, 358 lend books, 221
  gratuitously, and 127 on payment of a small fee. In order to establish
  these institutions throughout the kingdom, a _Bollettino_ has been
  published at Milan since 1907, and a National Congress was held at
  Rome in December 1908.

  Information has been given for this account by Dr G. Staderini of the
  Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome. See also F. Bluhme, _Iter Italicum_
  (Berlin, 1824-1836); _Notizie sulle biblioteche governative del regno
  d' Italia_ (Roma, 1893); _Le biblioteche governative Italiane nel
  1898_ (Roma, 1900); _Statistica delle biblioteche_ (Roma, 1893-1896, 2
  pts.); _Le biblioteche popolari in Italia, relazione al Ministro della
  Pubb. Istruzione_ (Roma, 1898); _Bollettino delle biblioteche
  popolari_ (Milano, 1907, in progress); E. Fabietti, _Manuale per le
  biblioteche popolari_ (2^(da) ediz., Milano); _Le biblioteche pop. al
  1^o Congresso Naz. 1908_ (Milano, 1910).

_Latin America._

Much interest in libraries has not been shown in south, central and
other parts of Latin America. Most of the libraries which exist are
national or legislative libraries.


  As the libraries of the republic of Cuba are more Spanish than
  American in character, it will be convenient to consider them here.
  The chief libraries are in Havana, and the best are the Biblioteca
  Publica and the University Library. The Biblioteca Publica has within
  recent years been completely overhauled, and is now one of the most
  actively-managed libraries in Latin America.


  Out of the twenty-nine states and territories of the Mexican republic
  about half have public libraries, and only a small proportion of the
  contents consists of modern literature. Many possess rare and valuable
  books, of interest to the bibliographer and historian, which have come
  from the libraries of the suppressed religious bodies. There is a
  large number of scientific and literary associations in the republic,
  each possessing books. The Society of Geography and Statistics,
  founded in 1851 in Mexico City, is the most important of them, and
  owns a fine museum and excellent library. After the triumph of the
  Liberal party the cathedral, university and conventual libraries of
  the city of Mexico came into the possession of the government, and
  steps were taken to form them into one national collection. No
  definite system was organized, however, until 1867, when the church of
  San Augustin was taken and fitted up for the purpose. In 1884 it was
  opened as the Biblioteca Nacional, and now possesses over 200,000
  vols. Two copies of every book printed in Mexico must be presented to
  this library. Most of the libraries of Mexico, city or provincial, are
  subscription, and belong to societies and schools of various kinds.


  The importance of public libraries has been fully recognized in
  Argentina, and more than two hundred of them are in the country. They
  are due to benefactions, but the government in every case adds an
  equal sum to any endowment. A central commission exists for the
  purpose of facilitating the acquisition of books and to promote a
  uniform excellence of administration. The most considerable is the
  Biblioteca Nacional at Buenos Aires, which is passably rich in MSS.,
  some of great interest, concerning the early history of the Spanish
  colonies. There is also the Biblioteca Municipal with about 25,000
  vols. There are libraries attached to colleges, churches and clubs,
  and most of the larger towns possess public libraries.


  The chief library in Brazil is the Bibliotheca Publica Nacional at Rio
  de Janeiro (1807) now comprising over 250,000 printed vols. with many
  MSS. National literature and works connected with South America are
  special features of this collection. A handsome new building has been
  erected which has been fitted up in the most modern manner. Among
  other libraries of the capital may be mentioned those of the Faculty
  of Medicine, Marine Library, National Museum, Portuguese Literary
  Club, Bibliotheca Fluminense, Benedictine Monastery, and the
  Bibliotheca Municipal. There are various provincial and public
  libraries throughout Brazil, doing good work, and a typical example is
  the public library of Maranhao.


  The Biblioteca Nacional at Santiago is the chief library in Chile. The
  catalogue is printed, and is kept up by annual supplements. It
  possesses about 100,000 vols. There is also a University Library at
  Santiago, and a fairly good Biblioteca Publica at Valparaiso.


  The Biblioteca Nacional at Lima was founded by a decree of the
  liberator San Martin on the 28th of August 1821, and placed in the
  house of the old convent of San Pedro. The nucleus of the library
  consisted of those of the university of San Marcos and of several
  monasteries, and a large present of books was also made by San Martin.
  The library is chiefly interesting from containing so many MSS. and
  rare books relating to the history of Peru in viceregal times.

_Spain and Portugal._

Most of the royal, state and university libraries of Spain and Portugal
have government control and support. In Portugal the work of the
universities is to a certain extent connected up, and an official
bulletin is published in which the laws and accessions of the libraries
are contained.

  The chief library in Spain is the Biblioteca Nacional (formerly the
  Biblioteca Real) at Madrid. The printed volumes number 600,000 with
  200,000 pamphlets. Spanish literature is of course well represented,
  and, in consequence of the numerous accessions from the libraries of
  the suppressed convents, the classes of theology, canon law, history,
  &c., are particularly complete. There are 30,000 MSS., including some
  finely illuminated codices, historical documents, and many valuable
  autographs. The collection of prints extends to 120,000 pieces, and
  was principally formed from the important series bought from Don
  Valentin Carderera in 1865. The printed books have one catalogue
  arranged under authors' names, and one under titles; the departments
  of music, maps and charts, and prints have subject-catalogues as well.
  There is a general index of the MSS., with special catalogues of the
  Greek and Latin codices and genealogical documents. The cabinet of
  medals is most valuable and well arranged. Of the other Madrid
  libraries it is enough to mention the Biblioteca de la Real Academia
  de la Historia, 1758 (20,000 vols. and 1500 MSS.), which contains some
  printed and MS. Spanish books of great value, including the well-known
  Salazar collection. The history of the library of the Escorial (q.v.)
  has been given elsewhere. In 1808, before the invasion, the Escorial
  is estimated to have contained 30,000 printed vols. and 3400 MSS.;
  Joseph removed the collection to Madrid, but when it was returned by
  Ferdinand 10,000 vols. were missing. There are now about 40,000
  printed vols. The Arabic MSS. have been described by M. Casiri,
  1760-1770; and a catalogue of the Greek codices by Müller was issued
  at the expense of the French government in 1848. There is a MS.
  catalogue of the printed books. Permission to study at the Escorial,
  which is one of the royal private libraries, must be obtained by
  special application. The Biblioteca Provincial y Universitaria of
  Barcelona (1841) contains about 155,000 vols., and that of Seville
  (1767) has 82,000 vols. Other cities in Spain possess provincial or
  university libraries open to students under various restrictions,
  among them may be mentioned the Biblioteca Universitaria of Salamanca
  (1254) with over 80,000 vols.


  Among the libraries of Portugal the Bibliotheca Nacional at Lisbon
  (1796) naturally takes the first place. In 1841 it was largely
  increased from the monastic collections, which, however, seem to have
  been little cared for according to a report prepared by the principal
  librarian three years later. There are now said to be 400,000 vols. of
  printed books, among which theology, canon law, history and Portuguese
  and Spanish literature largely predominate. The MSS. number 16,000
  including many of great value. There is also a cabinet of 40,000 coins
  and medals. The Bibliotheca da Academia, founded in 1780, is preserved
  in the suppressed convent of the Ordem Terceira da Penitencia. In
  1836 the Academy acquired the library of that convent, numbering
  30,000 vols., which have since been kept apart. The Archivo Nacional,
  in the same building, contains the archives of the kingdom, brought
  here after the destruction of the Torre do Castello during the great

  The Biblioteca Publica Municipal at Oporto is the second largest in
  Portugal, although only dating from the 9th of July 1833, the
  anniversary of the debarcation of D. Pedro, and when the memorable
  siege was still in progress; from that date to 1874 it was styled the
  Real Biblioteca do Porto. The regent (ex-emperor of Brazil) gave to
  the town the libraries of the suppressed convents in the northern
  provinces, the municipality undertaking to defray the expense of
  keeping up the collection. Recent accessions consist mainly of
  Portuguese and French books. The important Camoens collection is
  described in a printed catalogue (Oporto, 1880). A notice of the MSS.
  may be found in _Catalogo dos MSS. da B. Publica Eborense_, by H. da
  Cunha Rivara (Lisbon, 1850-1870), 3 vols. folio, and the first part of
  an _Indice preparatorio do Catalogo dos Manuscriptos_ was produced in
  1880. The University Library of Coimbra (1591) contains about 100,000
  vols., and other colleges possess libraries.


Since 1900 there has been considerable progress made in both Belgium and
Holland in the development of public libraries, and several towns in the
latter country have established popular libraries after the fashion of
the municipal libraries of the United Kingdom and America.


  The national library of Belgium is the Bibliothèque Royale at
  Brussels, of which the basis may be said to consist of the famous
  Bibliothèque des ducs de Bourgogne, the library of the Austrian
  sovereigns of the Low Countries, which had gradually accumulated
  during three centuries. After suffering many losses from thieves and
  fire, in 1772 the Bibliothèque de Bourgogne received considerable
  augmentations from the libraries of the suppressed order of Jesuits,
  and was thrown open to the public. On the occupation of Brussels by
  the French in 1794 a number of books and MSS. were confiscated and
  transferred to Paris (whence the majority were returned in 1815); in
  1795 the remainder were formed into a public library under the care of
  La Serna Santander, who was also town librarian, and who was followed
  by van Hulthem. At the end of the administration of van Hulthem a
  large part of the precious collections of the Bollandists was
  acquired. In 1830 the Bibliothèque de Bourgogne was added to the state
  archives, and the whole made available for students. Van Hulthem died
  in 1832, leaving one of the most important private libraries in
  Europe, described by Voisin in _Bibliotheca Hulthemiana_ (Brussels,
  1836), 5 vols., and extending to 60,000 printed vols, and 1016 MSS.,
  mostly relating to Belgian history. The collection was purchased by
  the government in 1837, and, having been added to the Bibliothèque de
  Bourgogne (open since 1772) and the Bibliothèque de la Ville (open
  since 1794), formed what has since been known as the Bibliothèque
  Royale de Belgique. The printed volumes now number over 600,000 with
  30,000 MSS., 105,000 prints and 80,000 coins and medals. The special
  collections, each with a printed catalogue, consist of the Fonds van
  Hulthem, for national history; the Fonds Fétis, for music; the Fonds
  Goethals, for genealogy; and the Fonds Müller, for physiology. The
  catalogue of the MSS. has been partly printed, and catalogues of
  accessions and other departments are also in course of publication.
  There are libraries attached to most of the departments of the
  government, the ministry of war having 120,000 vols. and the ministry
  of the interior, 15,000 vols. An interesting library is the
  Bibliothèque Collective des Sociétés Savantes founded in 1906 to
  assemble in one place the libraries of all the learned societies of
  Brussels. It contains about 40,000 vols. which have been catalogued on
  cards. The Bibliothèque du Conservatoire royal de Musique (1832)
  contains 12,000 vols, and 6000 dramatic works. The popular or communal
  libraries of Brussels contain about 30,000 vols. and those of the
  adjoining suburbs about 50,000 vols., most of which are distributed
  through the primary and secondary schools. At Antwerp the Stadt
  Bibliothek (1805) has now 70,000 vols., and is partly supported by
  subscriptions and endowments. The valuable collection of books in the
  Musée Plantin-Moretus (1640) should also be mentioned. It contains
  11,000 MSS. and 15,000 printed books, comprising the works issued by
  the Plantin family and many 15th-century books.

  The University Library of Ghent, known successively as the
  Bibliothèque de l'École Centrale and Bibliothèque Publique de la
  Ville, was founded upon the old libraries of the Conseil de Flandres,
  of the College des Échevins, and of many suppressed religious
  communities. It was declared public in 1797, and formally opened in
  1798. On the foundation of the university in 1817 the town placed the
  collection at its disposal, and the library has since remained under
  state control. The printed volumes now amount to 353,000. There are
  important special collections on archaeology, Netherlands literature,
  national history, books printed in Flanders, and 23,000 historical
  pamphlets of the 16th and 17th centuries. The main catalogue is in MS.
  on cards. There are printed catalogues of the works on jurisprudence
  (1839), and of the MSS. (1852). The Bibliothèque de l'Université
  Catholique of Louvain is based upon the collection of Beyerlinck, who
  bequeathed it to his alma mater in 1627; this example was followed by
  Jacques Romain, professor of medicine, but the proper organization of
  the library began in 1636. There are now said to be 211,000 vols. The
  Bibliothèque de l'Université of Liége dates from 1817, when on the
  foundation of the university the old Bibliothèque de la Ville was
  added to it. There are now 350,000 printed vols., pamphlets, MSS., &c.
  The Liége collection (of which a printed catalogue appeared in 3 vols.
  8vo., 1872), bequeathed by M. Ulysse Capitaine, extends to 12,061
  vols. and pamphlets. There are various printed catalogues. The
  Bibliothèques Populaires of Liége established in 1862, now number
  five, and contain among them 50,000 vols. which are circulated to the
  extent of 130,000 per annum among the school children. The
  Bibliothèque publique of Bruges (1798) contains 145,600 printed books
  and MSS., housed in a very artistic building, once the Tonlieu or
  douane, 1477. There are communal libraries at Alost, Arlon (1842), Ath
  (1842), Courtrai, Malines (1864), Mons (1797), Namur (1800), Ostend
  (1861), Tournai (1794, housed in the Hôtel des Anciens Prêtres, 1755),
  Ypres (1839) and elsewhere, all conducted on the same system as the
  French communal libraries. Most of them range in size from 5000 to
  40,000 vols, and they are open as a rule only part of the day. Every
  small town has a similar library, and a complete list of them,
  together with much other information, will be found in the _Annuaire
  de la Belgique, scientifique, artistique et littéraire_ (Brussels 1908
  and later issues).


  The national library of Holland is the Koninklijke Bibliotheek at
  Hague, which was established in 1798, when it was decided to join the
  library of the princes of Orange with those of the defunct government
  bodies in order to form a library for the States-General, to be called
  the Nationale Bibliotheek. In 1805 the present name was adopted; and
  since 1815 it has become the national library. In 1848 the Baron W. Y.
  H. van Westreenen van Tiellandt bequeathed his valuable books, MSS.,
  coins and antiquities to the country, and directed that they should be
  preserved in his former residence as a branch of the royal library.
  There are now upwards of 500,000 vols. of printed books, and the MSS.
  number 6000, chiefly historical, but including many fine books of
  hours with miniatures. Books are lent all over the country. The
  library boasts of the richest collection in the world of books on
  chess, Dutch incunabula, Elzevirs and Spinozana. There is one general
  written catalogue arranged in classes, with alphabetical indexes. In
  1800 a printed catalogue was issued, with four supplements down to
  1811; and since 1866 a yearly list of additions has been published.
  Special mention should be made of the excellent catalogue of the
  incunabula published in 1856.

  The next library in numerical importance is the famous Bibliotheca
  Academiae Lugduno-Batavae, which dates from the foundation of the
  university of Leiden by William I., prince of Orange, on the 8th of
  February 1575. It has acquired many valuable additions from the books
  and MSS. of the distinguished scholars, Golius, Joseph Scaliger, Isaac
  Voss, Ruhnken and Hemsterhuis. The MSS. comprehend many of great
  intrinsic importance. The library of the Society of Netherland
  Literature has been placed here since 1877; this is rich in the
  national history and literature. The Arabic and Oriental MSS. known as
  the Legatum Warnerianum are of great value and interest; and the
  collection of maps bequeathed in 1870 by J. J. Bodel Nyenhuis is also
  noteworthy. The library is contained in a building which was formerly
  a church of the Béguines, adapted in 1860 somewhat after the style of
  the British Museum. The catalogues (one alphabetical and one
  classified) are on slips, the titles being printed. A catalogue of
  books and MSS. was printed in 1716, one of books added between 1814
  and 1847 and a supplementary part of MSS. only in 1850. A catalogue of
  the Oriental MSS. was published in 6 vols. (1851-1877). The
  Bibliotheek der Rijks Universiteit (1575) at Leiden contains over
  190,000 vols.

  The University Library at Utrecht dates from 1582, when certain
  conventual collections were brought together in order to form a public
  library, which was shortly afterwards enriched by the books bequeathed
  by Hub. Buchelius and Ev. Pollio. Upon the foundation of the
  university in 1636, the town library passed into its charge. Among the
  MSS. are some interesting cloister MSS. and the famous "Utrecht
  Psalter," which contains the oldest text of the Athanasian creed. The
  last edition of the catalogue was in 2 vols. folio, 1834, with
  supplement in 1845, index from 1845-1855 in 8vo., and additions
  1856-1870, 2 vols. 8vo. A catalogue of the MSS. was issued in 1887.
  The titles of accessions are now printed in sheets and pasted down for
  insertion. There are now about 250,000 vols. in the library.

  The basis of the University Library at Amsterdam consists of a
  collection of books brought together in the 15th century and preserved
  in the Nieuwe Kerk. At the time of the Reformation in 1578 they became
  the property of the city, but remained in the Nieuwe Kerk for the use
  of the public till 1632, when they were transferred to the Athenaeum.
  Since 1877 the collection has been known as the University Library,
  and in 1881 it was removed to a building designed upon the plan of the
  new library and reading-room of the British Museum. The library
  includes the best collection of medical works in Holland, and the
  Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana of Hebrew and Talmudic literature is of
  great fame and value; a catalogue of the last was printed in 1875. The
  libraries of the Dutch Geographical and other societies are preserved
  here. A general printed catalogue was issued in 6 vols. 8vo.,
  Amsterdam (1856-1877); one describing the bequests of J. de Bosch
  Kemper, E. J. Potgieter and F. W. Rive, in 3 vols., 8vo. (1878-1879);
  a catalogue of the MSS. of Professor Moll was published in 1880, and
  one of those of P. Camper in 1881. Other catalogues have been
  published up to 1902, including one of the MSS. The library contains
  about half a million volumes. There are popular subscription libraries
  with reading-rooms in all parts of Holland, and in Rotterdam there is
  a society for the encouragement of social culture which has a large
  library as part of its equipment. At Hague, Leiden, Haarlem, Dordrecht
  and other towns popular libraries have been established, and there is
  a movement of recent growth, in favour of training librarians on
  advanced English lines.

  The library of the Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen at Batavia
  contains books printed in Netherlandish India, works relating to the
  Indian Archipelago and adjacent countries, and the history of the
  Dutch in the East. There are 20,000 printed vols. and 1630 MSS., of
  which 243 are Arabic, 445 Malay, 303 Javanese, 60 Batak and 517 on
  lontar leaves, in the ancient Kawi, Javanese and Bali languages, &c.
  Printed catalogues of the Arabic, Malay, Javanese and Kawi MSS. have
  been issued.


Owing largely to so many Scandinavian librarians having been trained and
employed in American libraries, a greater approach has been made to
Anglo-American library ideals in Norway, Sweden and Denmark than
anywhere else on the continent of Europe.


  The beginning of the admirably managed national library of Denmark,
  the great Royal Library at Copenhagen (Det Store Kongelige Bibliothek)
  may be said to have taken place during the reign of Christian III.
  (1533-1559), who took pride in importing foreign books and choice
  MSS.; but the true founder was Frederick III. (1648-1670); to him is
  mainly due the famous collection of Icelandic literature and the
  acquisition of Tycho Brahe's MSS. The present building (in the
  Christiansborg castle) was begun in 1667. Among notable accessions may
  be mentioned the collections of C. Reitzer, the count of Danneskjöld
  (8000 vols. and 500 MSS.) and Count de Thott; the last bequeathed 6039
  vols. printed before 1531, and the remainder of his books, over
  100,000 vols., was eventually purchased. In 1793 the library was
  opened to the public, and it has since remained under state control.
  Two copies of every book published within the kingdom must be
  deposited here. The incunabula and block books form an important
  series. There is a general classified catalogue in writing for the use
  of readers; and an alphabetical one on slips arranged in boxes for the
  officials. A good catalogue of the de Thott collection was printed in
  12 vols. 8vo. (1789-1795); a catalogue of the French MSS. appeared in
  1844; of Oriental MSS., 1846; of the Danish collection, 1875, 8vo.
  Annual reports and accounts of notable MSS. have been published since
  1864. The library now contains over 750,000 vols.

  The University Library, founded in 1482, was destroyed by fire in
  1728, and re-established shortly afterwards. A copy of every Danish
  publication must be deposited here. The MSS. include the famous
  Arne-Magnean collection. There are now about 400,000 vols. in this
  library. The Statsbiblioteket of Aarhus (1902) possesses about 200,000
  vols. and the Landsbókasafn Islands (National Library) of Reykjavik,
  Iceland, has about 50,000 printed books and 5500 MSS. In Copenhagen
  there are 11 popular libraries supported in part by the city, and
  there are at least 50 towns in the provinces with public libraries and
  in some cases reading-rooms. An association for promoting public
  libraries was formed in 1905, and in 1909 the minister of public
  instruction appointed a special adviser in library matters. About 800
  towns and villages are aided by the above named association, the state
  and local authorities, and it is estimated that they possess among
  them 500,000 vols., and circulate over 1,000,000 vols. annually.


  The chief library in Norway is the University Library at Christiania,
  established at the same time as the university, September 2nd, 1811,
  by Frederick II., with a donation from the king of many thousands of
  duplicates from the Royal Library at Copenhagen, and since augmented
  by important bequests. Annual catalogues are issued and there are now
  over 420,000 vols. in the collection. The Deichmanske Bibliothek in
  Christiania was founded by Carl Deichmann in 1780 as a free library.
  In 1898 it was reorganized, and in 1903 the open shelf method was
  installed by Haakon Nyhuus, the librarian, who had been trained in the
  United States. The library is partly supported by endowment, partly by
  grants from the municipality. It now contains about 85,000 vols., and
  is a typical example of a progressive library. The Free Library at
  Bergen (1872) has about 90,000 vols. and has recently been re-housed
  in a new building. A free library, with open shelves, has also been
  opened at Trondhjem. The library connected with the Kongellige
  Videnskabers Selskab at Trondhjem now contains about 120,000 vols.
  Owing to the absence of small towns and villages in Norway, most of
  the library work is concentrated in the coast towns.


  The Royal Library at Stockholm was first established in 1585. The
  original collection was given to the university of Upsala by Gustavus
  II., that formed by Christina is at the Vatican, and the library
  brought together by Charles X. was destroyed by fire in 1697. The
  present library was organized shortly afterwards. The
  Benzelstjerna-Engeström Library (14,500 printed vols. and 1200 MSS.)
  rich in materials for Swedish history, is now annexed to it. Natural
  history, medicine and mathematics are left to other libraries. Among
  the MSS. the _Codex Aureus_ of the 6th or 7th century, with its
  interesting Anglo-Saxon inscription, is particularly noteworthy. The
  catalogues are in writing, and are both alphabetical and classified;
  printed catalogues have been issued of portions of the MSS. The
  present building was opened in 1882. The library now contains about
  320,000 printed books and over 11,000 MSS. The Karolinska Institutet
  in Stockholm, contains a library of medical books numbering over

  The University Library at Upsala was founded by Gustavus Adolphus in
  1620, from the remains of several convent libraries; he also provided
  an endowment. The MSS. chiefly relate to the history of the country,
  but include the _Codex Argenteus_, containing the Gothic gospels of
  Ulfilas. The general catalogue is in writing. A catalogue was printed
  in 1814; special lists of the foreign accessions have been published
  each year from 1850; the Arabic, Persian and Turkish MSS. are
  described by C. J. Tornberg, 1846. It now contains about 340,000
  printed books and MSS. The library at Lund dates from the foundation
  of the university in 1668, and was based upon the old cathedral
  library. The MSS. include the de la Gardie archives, acquired in 1848.
  There are about 200,000 vols. in the library. The Stadsbibliotek of
  Gothenburg contains about 100,000 vols., and has a printed catalogue.


The imperial Public Library at St Petersburg is one of the largest
libraries in the world, and now possesses about 1,800,000 printed vols.
and 34,000 MSS., as well as large collections of maps, autographs,
photographs, &c. The beginning of this magnificent collection may be
said to have been the books seized by the Czar Peter during his invasion
of Courland in 1714; the library did not receive any notable
augmentation, however, till the year 1795, when, by the acquisition of
the famous Zaluski collection, the Imperial Library suddenly attained a
place in the first rank among great European libraries. The Zaluski
Library was formed by the Polish count Joseph Zaluski, who collected at
his own expense during forty-three years no less than 200,000 vols.,
which were added to by his brother Andrew, bishop of Cracow, by whom in
1747 the library was thrown open to the public. At his death it was left
under the control of the Jesuit College at Warsaw; on the suppression of
the order it was taken care of by the Commission of Education; and
finally in 1795 it was transferred by Suwaroff to St Petersburg as a
trophy of war. It then extended to 260,000 printed vols. and 10,000
MSS., but in consequence of the withdrawal of many medical and
illustrated works to enrich other institutions, hardly 238,000 vols.
remained in 1810. Literature, history and theology formed the main
features of the Zaluski Library; the last class alone amounted to
one-fourth of the whole number. Since the beginning of the 19th century,
through the liberality of the sovereigns, the gifts of individuals,
careful purchases, and the application of the law of 1810, whereby two
copies of every Russian publication must be deposited here, the Imperial
Library has attained its present extensive dimensions. Nearly one
hundred different collections, some of them very valuable and extensive,
have been added from time to time. They include, for example, the
Tolstoi Sclavonic collection (1830), Tischendorf's MSS. (1858), the
Dolgorousky Oriental MSS. (1859), and the Firkowitsch Hebrew (Karaite)
collection (1862-1863), the libraries of Adelung (1858) and Tobler
(1877), that of the Slavonic scholar Jungmann (1856), and the national
MSS. of Karamzin (1867). This system of acquiring books, while it has
made some departments exceedingly rich, has left others comparatively
meagre. The library was not regularly opened to the public until 1814;
it is under the control of the minister of public instruction. There are
fine collections of Aldines and Elzevirs, and the numerous incunabula
are instructively arranged.

The manuscripts include 26,000 codices, 41,340 autographs, 4689 charters
and 576 maps. The glory of this department is the celebrated _Codex
Sinaiticus_ of the Greek Bible, brought from the convent of St Catherine
on Mount Sinai by Tischendorf in 1859. Other important Biblical and
patristic codices are to be found among the Greek, and Latin MSS.; the
Hebrew MSS. include some of the most ancient that exist, and the
Samaritan collection is one of the largest in Europe; the Oriental MSS.
comprehend many valuable texts, and among the French are some of great
historical value. The general catalogues are in writing, but many
special catalogues of the MSS. and printed books have been published.

  The nucleus of the library at the Hermitage Palace was formed by the
  empress Catherine II., who purchased the books and MSS. of Voltaire
  and Diderot. In the year 1861 the collection amounted to 150,000
  vols., of which nearly all not relating to the history of art were
  then transferred to the Imperial Library. There are many large and
  valuable libraries attached to the government departments in St
  Petersburg, and most of the academies and colleges and learned
  societies are provided with libraries.

  The second largest library in Russia is contained in the Public Museum
  at Moscow. The class of history is particularly rich, and Russian
  early printed books are well represented. The MSS. number 5000,
  including many ancient Sclavonic codices and historical documents of
  value. One room is devoted to a collection of Masonic MSS., which
  comprehend the archives of the lodges in Russia between 1816 and 1821.
  There is a general alphabetical catalogue in writing; the catalogue of
  the MSS. has been printed, as well as those of some of the special
  collections. This large and valuable library now contains close upon
  1,000,000 printed books and MSS. The Imperial University at Moscow
  (1755) has a library of over 310,000 vols., and the Duchovnaja Academy
  has 120,000 vols. The Imperial Russian Historical Museum (1875-1883)
  in Moscow contains nearly 200,000 vols. and most of the state
  institutions and schools are supplied with libraries. All the Russian
  universities have libraries, some of them being both large and
  valuable--Dorpat (1802) 400,000 vols.; Charkov (1804) 180,000 vols.;
  Helsingfors (1640-1827) 193,000 vols.; Kasan (1804) 242,000 vols.;
  Kiev (1832) 125,000 vols.; Odessa (1865) 250,000 vols.; and Warsaw
  (1817) 550,000 vols. There are also communal or public libraries at
  Charkov (1886) 110,000 vols.; Odessa (1830) 130,000 vols.; Reval
  (1825) 40,000 vols.; Riga, 90,000 vols.; Vilna (1856) 210,000 vols.
  and many other towns. A text-book on library economy, based on Graesel
  and Brown, was issued at St Petersburg in 1904.

_Eastern Europe._

At Athens the National Library (1842) possesses about 260,000 vols., and
there is also a considerable library at the university. The Public
Library at Corfu has about 40,000 vols. Belgrade University Library has
60,000 vols. and the University Library of Sofia has 30,000 vols.
Constantinople University in 1910 had a library in process of formation,
and there are libraries at the Greek Literary Society (20,000 vols.) and
Theological School (11,000 vols.).


Chinese books were first written on thin slips of bamboo, which were
replaced by silk or cloth scrolls in the 3rd century B.C., paper coming
into use in the beginning of the 2nd century. These methods were
customary down to the 10th or 11th century. There were no public
libraries in the western sense.

  The practice of forming national collections of the native literature
  originated in the attempts to recover the works destroyed in the
  "burning of the books" by the "First Emperor" (220 B.C.). In 190 B.C.
  the law for the suppression of literary works was repealed, but
  towards the close of the 1st century B.C. many works were still
  missing. Hsiao Wu (139-86 B.C.) formed the plan of Repositories, in
  which books might be stored, with officers to transcribe them. Liu
  Hsiang (80-9 B.C.) was specially appointed to classify the literature
  and form a library. His task was completed by his son, and the
  _resumé_ of their labours is a detailed catalogue with valuable notes
  describing 11,332 "sections" (volumes) by 625 authors. Similar
  national collections were formed by nearly every succeeding dynasty.
  The high estimation in which literature has always been held has led
  to the formation of very large imperial, official and private
  collections of books. Large numbers of works, chiefly relating to
  Buddhism and Taoism, are also stored in many of the temples. Chinese
  books are usually in several, and frequently in many volumes. The
  histories and encyclopaedias are mostly of vast dimensions.
  Collections of books are kept in wooden cupboards or on open shelves,
  placed on their sides, each set (_t'ao_) of volumes (_pên_) being
  protected and held together by two thin wooden or card boards, one
  forming the front cover (in a European book) and the other the back
  cover, joined by two cords or tapes running round the whole. By
  untying and tying these tapes the _t'ao_ is opened and closed. The
  titles of the whole work and of each section are written on the edge
  (either the top or bottom in a European book) and so face outwards as
  it lies on the shelf. Catalogues are simple lists with comments on the
  books, not the systematic and scientific productions used in Western
  countries. There are circulating libraries in large numbers in Peking,
  Canton and other cities.

  See E. T. C. Werner, "Chinese Civilisation" (in H. Spencer's
  _Descriptive Sociology_, pt. ix.).


The ancient history of libraries in Japan is analogous to that of China,
with whose civilization and literature it had close relations. Since
about 1870, however, the great cities and institutions have established
libraries on the European model.

  Perhaps the most extensive library of the empire is that of the
  Imperial Cabinet (1885) at Tokio with over 500,000 vols., consisting
  of the collections of the various government departments, and is for
  official use alone. The University Library (1872) is the largest open
  to students and the public; it contains over 400,000 vols. of which
  230,000 are Chinese and Japanese. The Public Library and reading-room
  (Tosho-Kwan) at Ueno Park (1872) was formed in 1872 and contains over
  250,000 vols., of which about one-fifth are European books. At Tokio
  are also to be found the Ohashi Library (1902) with 60,000 vols. and
  the Hibaya Library (1908) with 130,000 vols. and the Nanki Library
  (1899) with 86,000 vols. The library of the Imperial University of
  Kyoto contains nearly 200,000 vols., of which over 90,000 are in
  European languages. To this is attached the library of the Fukuoka
  Medical College with 113,000 vols. The Municipal Library of Kyoto
  (1898) contains 46,000 vols. Other important municipal libraries in
  Japan are those at Akita in the province Of Ugo (1899), 47,000 vols.,
  at Mito, province of Hitachi (1908), 25,000 vols., Narita, province of
  Shimosa (1901), 36,000 vols., chiefly Buddhistic, Yamaguchi, province
  of Suó (1907), 23,000 vols. The libraries of the large temples often
  contain books of value to the philologist. Lending libraries of native
  and Chinese literature have existed in Japan from very early times.


The first and largest association established for the study of
librarianship was the American Library Association (1876). The Library
Association of the United Kingdom was formed in 1877 as an outcome of
the first International Library Conference, held at London, and in 1898
it received a royal charter. It publishes a _Year Book_, the monthly
_Library Association Record_, and a number of professional handbooks. It
also holds examinations in Literary History, Bibliography and Library
Economy, and issues certificates and diplomas. There are also English
and Scottish district library associations. The Library Assistants
Association was formed in 1895 and has branches in different parts of
England, Wales and Ireland. It issues a monthly magazine entitled _The
Library Assistant_. There is an important Library Association in Germany
which issues a year-book giving information concerning the libraries of
the country, and a similar organization in Austria-Hungary which issues
a magazine at irregular intervals. An Association of Archivists and
Librarians was formed at Brussels in 1907, and there are similar
societies in France, Italy, Holland and elsewhere. In every country
there is now some kind of association for the study of librarianship,
archives or bibliography. International conferences have been held at
London, 1877; London, 1897; Paris (at Exhibition), 1903; St Louis, 1904;
Brussels (preliminary), 1908; and Brussels, 1910.

  LIBRARY PERIODICALS.--The following is a list of the current
  periodicals which deal with library matters, with the dates of their
  establishment and place of publication: _The Library Journal_ (New
  York, 1876); _The Library_ (London, 1889); _Public Libraries_
  (Chicago, 1896); _The Library World_ (London, 1898); _The Library
  Assistant_ (1898); _The Library Association Record_ (1899); _Library
  Work_ (Minneapolis, U.S., 1906); _Bulletin of the American Library
  Association_ (Boston, 1907); _Revue des bibliothèques_ (Paris, 1891);
  _Bulletin des bibliothèques populaires_ (Paris, 1906); _Courrier des
  Bibliothèques_ (Paris); _Bulletin de l'institut international de
  bibliographie_ (Brussels, 1895); _Revue des bibliothèques et archives
  de Belgique_ (Brussels, 1903); _Tijdschrift voor boek- en
  bibliotheekwezen_ (Hague, 1903); _De Boekzaal_ (Hague, 1907);
  _Bogsamlingsbladet_ (Copenhagen, 1906); _For Folke-og
  Barnboksamlinger_ (Christiania, 1906); _Folkebibliotheksbladet_
  (Stockholm, 1903); _Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen_ (Leipzig,
  1884); _Blätter für Volksbibliotheken und Lesehallen_ (1899;
  occasional supplement to the above); _Bibliographie des Bibliotheks-
  und Buchwesens_ (ed. by Adalbert Hortzschansky, 1904; issued in the
  _Zentralblatt_); _Jahrbuch der Deutschen Bibliotheken_ (Leipzig,
  1902); _Minerva. Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt_ (Strassburg, 1890);
  _Mitteilungen des österreichischen Vereins für Bibliothekswesen_
  (Vienna, 1896); _Ceská Osvéta_ (Novy Bydzov, Bohemia, 1905); _Revista
  delle biblioteche e degli archivi_ (Florence, 1890); _Bollettino delle
  biblioteche popolari_ (Milan, 1907); _Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas
  y Museos Madrid_ (1907); _The Gakuto_ (Tokio, Japan, 1897).
       (H. R. T.; J. D. Br.)


  [1] See Menant, _Bibliothèque du palais de Ninive_ (Paris, 1880).

  [2] Grote, _History of Greece_, iv. 37, following Becker.

  [3] Ritschl, _Die alexandrinischen Bibliotheken_, p. 22; _Opusc.
    phil._ i. § 123.

  [4] _N.A._ vi. 17.

  [5] _De tranq. an._ 9.

  [6] Parthey (_Alexandrinisches Museum_) assigns topographical reasons
    for doubting this story.

  [7] Some of the authorities have been collected by Parthey, _op.

  [8] The oldest catalogue of a western library is that of the
    monastery of Fontanelle in Normandy compiled in the 8th century. Many
    catalogues may be found in the collections of D'Achery, Martene and
    Durand, and Pez, in the bibliographical periodicals of Naumann and
    Petzholdt and the _Centralblatt f. Bibliothekswissenschaft_. The Rev.
    Joseph Hunter has collected some particulars as to the contents of
    the English monastic libraries, and Ed. Edwards has printed a list of
    the catalogues (_Libraries and Founders of Libraries_, 1865, pp.
    448-454). See also G. Becker, _Catalogi Bibliothecarum Antiqui_
    (1885). There are said to be over six hundred such catalogues in the
    Royal Library at Munich. In the 14th century the Franciscans compiled
    a general catalogue of the MSS. in 160 English libraries and about
    the year 1400 John Boston, a Benedictine monk of Bury, travelled over
    England and a part of Scotland and examined the libraries of 195
    religious houses (Tanner, _Bibliotheca Brit. Hibern._ 1748). Leland's
    list of the books he found during his visitation of the houses in
    1539-1545 is printed in his _Collectanea_ (ed. Hearne, 1715, 6
    vols.). T. W. Williams has treated Gloucestershire and Bristol
    medieval libraries and their catalogues in a paper in the Bristol and
    Gloucestershire _Arch. Soc._ vol. xxxi.

  [9] This subject has been specially treated by J. Willis Clark in
    several works, of which the chief is a masterly volume, _The Care of
    Books_ (1901). See also Dom Gasquet, "On Medieval Monastic
    Libraries," in his _Old English Bible_ (1897).

  [10] Among the Arabs, however, as among the Christians, theological
    bigotry did not always approve of non-theological literature, and the
    great library of Cordova was sacrificed by Almanzor to his reputation
    for orthodoxy, 978 A.D.

  [11] _Guide to Librarianship_ by J. D. Brown (1909).

LIBRATION (Lat. _libra_, a balance), a slow oscillation, as of a
balance; in astronomy especially the seeming oscillation of the moon
around her axis, by which portions of her surface near the edge of the
disk are alternately brought into sight and swung out of sight.

LIBYA, the Greek name for the northern part of Africa, with which alone
Greek and Roman history are concerned. It is mentioned as a land of
great fertility in Homer (_Odyssey_, iv. 85), but no indication of its
extent is given. It did not originally include Egypt, which was
considered part of Asia, and first assigned to Africa by Ptolemy, who
made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between the two
continents. The name Africa came into general use through the Romans. In
the early empire, North Africa (excluding Egypt) was divided into
Mauretania, Numidia, Africa Propria and Cyrenaica. The old name was
reintroduced by Diocletian, by whom Cyrenaica (detached from Crete) was
divided into Marmarica (Libya inferior) in the east, and Cyrenaica
(Libya superior) in the west. A further distinction into Libya interior
and exterior is also known. The former ([Greek: hê entós]) included the
interior (known and unknown) of the continent, as contrasted with the N.
and N.E. portion; the latter ([Greek: hê exô], called also simply Libya,
or _Libyae nomos_), between Egypt and Marmarica, was so called as having
once formed an Egyptian "nome." See AFRICA, ROMAN.

LICATA, a seaport of Sicily, in the province of Girgenti, 24 m. S.E. of
Girgenti direct and 54 m. by rail. Pop. (1901) 22,931. It occupies the
site of the town which Phintias of Acragas (Agrigentum) erected after
the destruction of Gela, about 281 B.C., by the Mamertines, and named
after himself. The river Salso, which flows into the sea on the east of
the town, is the ancient _Himera Meridionalis_. The promontory at the
foot of which the town is situated, the _Poggio di Sant' Angelo_, is the
Ecnomus (_Eknomon_) of the Greeks, and upon its slopes are scanty traces
of ancient structures and rock tombs. It was off this promontory that
the Romans gained the famous naval victory over the Carthaginians in the
spring of 256 B.C., while the plain to the north was the scene of the
defeat of Agathocles by Hamilcar in 310 B.C. The modern town is mainly
important as a shipping port for sulphur.

LICENCE (through the French from Lat. _licentia_, _licere_, to be
lawful), permission, leave, liberty, hence an abuse of liberty,
licentiousness; in particular, a formal authority to do some lawful act.
Such authority may be either verbal or written; when written, the
document containing the authority is called a "licence." Many acts,
lawful in themselves, are regulated by statutory authority, and licences
must be obtained. For the sale of alcoholic liquor see LIQUOR LAWS.

LICHEN (_lichen ruber_), in medical terminology, a papular disease of
the skin, consisting of an eruption in small thickly set, slightly
elevated red points, more or less widely distributed over the body, and
accompanied by slight febrile symptoms.

LICHENS, in botany, compound or dual organisms each consisting of an
association of a higher fungus, with a usually unicellular, sometimes
filamentous, alga. The fungal part of the organism nearly always
consists of a number of the _Discomycetes_ or _Pyrenomycetes_, while the
algal portion is a member of the Schizophyceae (Cyanophyceae or
Blue-green Algae) or of the Green Algae; only in a very few cases is the
fungus a member of the Basidiomycetes. The special fungi which take part
in the association are, with rare exceptions, not found growing
separately, while the algal forms are constantly found free. The
reproductive organs of the lichen are of a typically fungal character,
i.e. are apothecia or perithecia (see FUNGI) and spermogonia. The algal
cells are never known to form spores while part of the lichen-thallus,
but they may do so when separated from it and growing free. The fungus
thus clearly takes the upper hand in the association.

Owing to their peculiar dual nature, lichens are able to live in
situations where neither the alga nor fungus could exist alone. The
enclosed alga is protected by the threads (hyphae) of the fungus, and
supplied with water and salts and, possibly, organic nitrogenous
substances; in its turn the alga by means of its green or blue-green
colouring matter and the sun's energy manufactures carbohydrates which
are used in part by the fungus. An association of two organisms to their
mutual advantage is known as _symbiosis_, and the lichen in botanical
language is described as a symbiotic union of an alga and a fungus. This
form of relationship is now known in other groups of plants (see
BACTERIOLOGY and FUNGI), but it was first discovered in the lichens. The
lichens are characterized by their excessively slow growth and their
great length of life.

Until comparatively recent times the lichens were considered as a group
of simple organisms on a level with algae and fungi. The green (or
blue-green) cells were termed gonidia by Wallroth, who looked upon them
as asexual reproductive cells, but when it was later realized that they
were not reproductive elements they were considered as mere outgrowths
of the hyphae of the thallus which had developed chlorophyll. In 1865 De
Bary suggested the possibility that such lichens as _Collema_, _Ephebe_,
&c., arose as a result of the attack of parasitic Ascomycetes upon the
algae, Nostoc, Chroococcus, &c. In 1867 the observations of Famintzin
and Baranetzky showed that the gonidia, in certain cases, were able to
live outside the lichen-thallus, and in the case of Physcia, Evernia and
Cladonia were able to form zoospores. Baranetzky therefore concluded
that a certain number, if not all of the so-called algae were nothing
more than free living lichen-gonidia. In 1869 Schwendener put forward
the really illuminating view--exactly opposite to that of
Baranetzky--that the gonidia in all cases were algae which had been
attacked by parasitic fungi. Although Schwendener supported this view of
the "dual" nature of lichens by very strong evidence and identified the
more common lichen-gonidia with known free-living algae, yet the theory
was received with a storm of opposition by nearly all lichenologists.
These workers were unable to consider with equanimity the loss of the
autonomy of their group and its reduction to the level of a special
division of the fungi. The observations of Schwendener, however,
received ample support from Bornet's (1873) examination of 60 genera. He
investigated the exact relation of fungus and alga and showed that the
same alga is able to combine with a number of different fungi to form
lichens; thus _Chroolepus umbrinus_ is found as the gonidia of 13
different lichen genera.

The view of the dual nature of lichens had hitherto been based on
analysis; the final proof of this view was now supplied by the actual
_synthesis_ of a lichen from fungal and algal constituents. Rees in 1871
produced the sterile thallus of a _Collema_ from its constituents; later
Stahl did the same for three species. Later Bonnier (1886) succeeded in
producing fertile thalli by sowing lichen spores and the appropriate
algae upon sterile glass plates or portions of bark, and growing them in
sterilized air (fig. 1). Möller also in 1887 succeeded in growing small
lichen-thalli without their algal constituent (gonidia) on nutritive
solutions; in the case of _Calicium_ pycnidia were actually produced
under these conditions.

The thallus or body of the lichen is of very different form in different
genera. In the simplest filamentous lichens (e.g. _Ephebe pubescens_)
the form of thallus is the form of the filamentous alga which is merely
surrounded by the fungal hyphae (fig. 2). The next simplest forms are
gelatinous lichens (e.g. _Collemaceae_); in these the algae are
Chroococcaceae and Nostocaceae, and the fungus makes its way into the
gelatinous membranes of the algal cells and ramifies there (fig. 3). We
can distinguish this class of forms as lichens with a _homoiomerous_
thallus, i.e. one in which the alga and fungus are equally distributed.
The majority of the lichens, however, possess a stratified thallus in
which the gonidia are found as a definite layer or layers embedded in a
pseudo-parenchymatous mass of fungal hyphae, i.e. they are
_heteromerous_ (figs. 8 and 9). Obviously these two conditions may merge
into one another, and the distinction is not of classificatory value.

[Illustration: After Bonnier, from v. Tavel.

  From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission of Gustav

  FIG. 1.--_Xanthoria parietina._ By the fusion of the hyphae in the
  middle of the mycelium a pseudo-parenchymatous cortical layer has
  begun to form.

  1, Germinating ascospore (sp) with branching germ-tube applied to the
    _Cystococcus_ cells (a).
  2, Thallus in process of formation.
  sp, Two ascospores.
  p, _Cystococcus_ cells.]

  In external form the heteromerous thallus presents the following
  modifications. (a) The _foliaceous_ (leaf-like) thallus, which may be
  either peltate, i.e. rounded and entire, as in _Umbilicaria_, &c., or
  variously lobed and laciniated, as in _Sticta_, _Parmelia_, _Cetraria_
  (fig. 4), &c. This is the highest type of its development, and is
  sometimes very considerably expanded. (b) The _fruticose_ thallus may
  be either erect, becoming pendulous, as in _Usnea_ (fig. 5),
  _Ramalina_, &c., or prostrate, as in _Alectoria jubata_, var.
  _chalybeiformis_. It is usually divided into branches and branchlets,
  bearing some resemblance to a miniature shrub. An erect cylindrical
  thallus terminated by the fruit is termed a _podetium_, as in
  _Cladonia_ (fig. 7). (c) The _crustaceous_ thallus, which is the most
  common of all, forms a mere crust on the substratum, varying in
  thickness, and may be squamose (in _Squamaria_), radiate (in
  _Placodium_), areolate, granulose or pulverulent (in various
  _Lecanorae_ and _Lecideae_). (d) The _hypophloeodal_ thallus is often
  concealed beneath the bark of trees (as in some _Verrucariae_ and
  _Arthoniae_), or enters into the fibres of wood (as in _Xylographa_
  and _Agyrium_), being indicated externally only by a very thin film
  (figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8). In colour also the thallus externally is
  very variable. In the dry and more typical state it is most frequently
  white or whitish, and almost as often greyish or greyish glaucous.
  Less commonly it is of different shades of brown, red, yellow and
  black. In the moist state of the thallus these colours are much less
  apparent, as the textures then become more or less translucent, and
  the thallus usually prevents the greenish colour of the gonidia (e.g.
  _Parmelia Borreri_, _Peltidea aphthosa_, _Umbilicaria pustulata_ and
  pulverulent _Lecideae_).

  The thallus may be free upon the surface of the substratum (e.g.
  _Collema_) or may be fixed more or less closely to it by special
  hyphae or rhizoids. These may penetrate but slightly into the
  substratum, but the connexion established may be so close that it is
  impossible to remove the thallus from the substratum without injury
  (e.g. _Physcia_, _Placodium_). In some cases the rhizoids are united
  together into larger strands, the _rhizines_.

  The typical heteromerous thallus shows on section a peripheral, thin
  and therefore transparent, layer, the _cortical layer_, and centrally
  a mass of denser tissue the so-called _medullary layer_, between these
  two layers is the algal zone or gonidial layer (figs. 8 and 9).

  The term _epithallus_ is sometimes applied to the superficial dense
  portion of the cortical layer and the term _hypothallus_ to the layer,
  when specially modified, in immediate contact with the substratum; the
  hypothallus is usually dark or blackish. The cylindrical branches of
  the fruticose forms are usually radially symmetrical, but the
  flattened branches of these forms and also the thalli of the
  foliaceous form show a difference in the cortex of the upper and lower
  side. The cortical layer is usually more developed on the side towards
  the light, while in many lichens this is the only side provided with a
  cortical layer. The podetia of some species of Cladonia possess no
  cortical layer at all. The surface of the thallus often exhibits
  outgrowths in the form of warts, hairs, &c. The medullary layer, which
  usually forms the main part of the thallus, is distinguished from the
  cortical layer by its looser consistence and the presence in it of
  numerous, large, air-containing spaces.

[Illustration: After Sachs, from De Bary's _Vergleichende Morphologie
und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoen und Bacterien_, by permission of
Wilhelm Engelmann.

  FIG. 2.--_Ephebe pubescens_, Fr. A branched filiform thallus of
  _Stigonema_ with the hyphae of the fungus growing through its
  gelatinous membranes. Extremity of a branch of the thallus with a
  young lateral branch a; h, hyphae; g, cells of the alga; gs, the apex
  of the thallus.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Section of Homoiomerous Thallus of _Collema
conglomeratum_, with _Nostoc_ threads scattered among the hyphae.]

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

  FIG. 4.--_Cetraria islandica._ (Nat. size.) ap, Apothecium.]

_Gonidia._--It has been made clear above that the gonidia are nothing
more than algal cells, which have been ensnared by fungal hyphae and
made to develop in captivity (fig. 1). Funfstuck gives ten free living
algae which have been identified as the gonidia of lichens.
_Pleurococcus_ (_Cystococcus_) _humicola_ in the majority of lichens,
e.g. _Usnea_, _Cladonia_, _Physcia_, _Parmelia_, _Calicium_, many
species of _Lecidea_, &c., _Trentepohlia_ (_Chroolepus_) _umbrina_ in
many species of _Verrucaria_, _Graphidieae_ and _Lecidea_; _Palmella
botryoides_ in _Epigloea_; _Pleurococcus vulgaris_ in Acarospora,
Dermatocarpon, Catillaria; _Dactylococcus infusionum_ in _Solorina_,
_Nephromia_; _Nostoc lichenoides_ in most of the Collemaceae; _Rivularia
rutida_ in _Omphalaria_; _Lichina_, &c., _Polycoccus punctiformis_ in
_Peltigera_, _Pannaria_ and _Stictina_; _Gloeocapsa polydermatica_ in
_Baeomyces_ and _Omphalaria_; _Sirosiphon pulvinatus_ in _Ephebe
pubescens_. The majority of lichens are confined to one particular kind
of gonidium (i.e. species of alga) but a few forms are known (_Lecanora
granatina_, _Solorina crocea_) which make use of more than one kind in
their development. In the case of _Solorina_, for example, the principal
alga is a green alga, one of the Palmellaceae, but _Nostoc_ (a
blue-green alga) is also found playing a subsidiary part as gonidia. In
L. _granatina_ the primary alga is _Pleurococcus_, the secondary,

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

  FIG. 5.--_Usnea barbata_. (Nat. size.) _ap_, Apothecium.]

  _Cephalodia._--In about 100 species of lichens peculiar growths are
  developed in the interior of the thallus which cause a slight
  projection of the upper or lower surface. These structures are known
  as _cephalodia_ and they usually occupy a definite position in the
  thallus. They are distinguished by possessing as gonidia algae foreign
  to the ordinary part of the thallus. The foreign algae are always
  members of the Cyanophyceae and on the same individual and even in the
  same cephalodium more than one type of gonidium may be found. The
  function of these peculiar structures is unknown. Zukal has suggested
  that they may play the part of water-absorbing organs.

The exact relation of gonidia and hyphae has been investigated
especially by Bornet and also by Hedlund, and very considerable
differences have been shown to exist in different genera. In _Physma_,
_Arnoldia_, _Phylliscum_ and other genera the gonidia are killed sooner
or later by special hyphal branches, _haustoria_, which pierce the
membrane of the algal cell, penetrate the protoplasm and absorb the
contents (fig. 11, C). In other cases, e.g. _Synalissa_, _Micarea_, the
haustoria pierce the membrane, but do not penetrate the protoplasm (fig.
11, D). In many other cases, especially those algae possessing
_Pleurococcus_ as their gonidia, there are no penetrating hyphae, but
merely special short hyphal branches which are in close contact with the
membrane of the algal cell (fig. 3).

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 6.--_Cladonia rangiferina_. (Nat. size.)

  A, Sterile.
  B, With ascus-fruit at the ends of the branches.]

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

  FIG. 7.--_Cladonia coccifera_. Podetia bearing apothecia. (Nat. size.)

  _t_, Scales of primary thallus.]


There are three methods of reproduction of the lichen: by fragmentation,
by soredia, by the formation of fungal spores. In the first process,
portions of thallus containing gonidia may be accidentally separated and
so may start new plants. The second method is only a special process of
fragmentation. The soredia are found in a large number of lichens, and
consist of a single gonidium or groups of gonidia, surrounded by a
sheath and hyphae. They arise usually in the gonidial layer of the
thallus by division of the gonidia and the development around them of
the hyphal investment; their increase in number leads to the rupture of
the enclosing cortical layer and the soredia escape from the thallus as
a powdery mass (fig. 12). Since they are provided with both fungal and
algal elements, they are able to develop directly, under suitable
conditions, into a new thallus. The soredia are the most successful
method of reproduction in lichens, for not only are some forms nearly
always without spore-formation and in others the spores largely
abortive, but in all cases the spore represents only the fungal
component of the thallus, and its success in the development of a new
lichen-thallus depends on the chance meeting, at the time of
germination, with the appropriate algal component.

  _Conidia._--Contrary to the behaviour of the non-lichen forming
  Ascomycetes the lichen-fungi show very few cases of ordinary conidial
  formation. Bornet describes free conidia in _Arnoldia minitula_, and
  _Placodium decipiens_ and _Conidia_-formation has been described by
  Neubner in the Caliciae.

  [Illustration: After Sachs, from De Bary's _Vergleichende Morphologie
  und Biologie der Pilze_, _Mycetozoen und Bacterien_, by permission of
  Wilhelm Engelmann.

    FIG. 8.--Usnea barbata. (Mag. nearly 100 times.)

    A, Optical longitudinal section of the extremity of a thin branch of
      the thallus which has become transparent in solution of potash.
    B, Transverse section through a stronger branch with the point of
      origin of an adventitious branch (sa).
    r, Cortical layer.
    m, Medullary layer.
    x, Stout axile strand.
    g, The algal zone (_Cystococcus_).
    s, Apex of the branch.]

  _Spermatia._--In the majority of genera of lichens small flask-shaped
  structures are found embedded in the thallus (fig. 13). These were
  investigated by Tulasne in 1853, who gave them the name _spermogonia_
  The lower, ventral portion of the spermogonium is lined by delicate
  hyphae, the _sterigmata_, which give origin to minute colourless
  cells, the _spermatia_. The sterigmata are either simple (fig. 13, C)
  or septate--the so-called arthrosterigmata (fig. 13, B). The
  spermogonia open by a small pore at the apex, towards which the
  sterigmata converge and through which the spermatia escape (fig. 13).
  There are two views as to the nature of the spermatia. In one view
  they are mere asexual conidia, and the term _pycnoconidia_ is
  accordingly applied since they are borne in structures like the
  non-sexual _pycnidia_ of other fungi. In the other view the spermatia
  are the male sexual cells and thus are rightly named; it should,
  however, be pointed out that this was not the view of Tulasne, though
  we owe to him the designation which carries with it the sexual
  significance. The question is one very difficult to settle owing to
  the fact that the majority of spermatia appear to be functionless. In
  favour of the conidial view is the fact that in the case of _Collema_
  and a few other forms the spermatia have been made to germinate in
  artificial cultures, and in the case of _Calicium parietinum_ Möfler
  succeeded in producing a spermogonia bearing thallus from a
  spermatium. For the germination of the spermatia in nature there is
  only the observation of Hedlund, that in _Catillaria denigrata_ and
  _C. prasena_ a thallus may be derived from the spermatia under natural
  conditions. In relation to the view that the spermatia are sexual
  cells, or at least were primitively so, it must be pointed out that
  although the actual fusion of the spermatial nucleus with a female
  nucleus has not been observed, yet in a few cases the spermatia have
  been seen to fuse with a projecting portion (trichogyne) of the
  ascogonium, as in _Collema_ and _Physcia_, and there is very strong
  circumstantial evidence that fertilization takes place (see later in
  section on development of ascocarp). The resemblance of the spermatia
  and spermogonia to those of Uredineae should be pointed out, where
  also there is considerable evidence for their original sexual nature,
  though they appear in that group to be functionless in all cases. The
  observations of Möller, &c., on the germination cannot be assumed to
  negative the sexual hypothesis for the sexual cells of _Ulothrix_ and
  _Ectocarpus_, for example are able to develop with or without fusion.
  The most satisfactory view in the present state of our knowledge seems
  to be that the spermatia are male cells which, while retaining their
  fertilizing action in a few cases are now mainly functionless. The
  female sexual organs, the ascogonia, would thus in the majority of
  cases develop by the aid of some reduced sexual process or the
  ascocarps be developed without relation to sexual organs. A further
  argument in support of this view is that it is in complete agreement
  with what we know of the sexuality of the ordinary, free-living
  ascomycetes, where we find both normal and reduced forms (see FUNGI).

[Illustration: From _Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik_.

  FIG. 9.--Section of Heteromerous Lichen Thallus.

  a, Upper cortical layer.
  d, Lower cortical layer.
  c, Medullary layer.
  b, Gonidial layer.]

[Illustration: After Bornet, from De Bary's _Vergleichende Morphologie
und Biologie der Pilze, Myceiozoen und Bacterien_, by permission of
Wilhelm Engelmann.

  FIG. 11.--Lichen-forming Algae. (A, C, D, E mag. 950, B 650 times.)
  The alga is in all cases indicated by the letter _g_, the assailing
  hyphae by _h_.

  A, _Pleurococcus_, Ag. (_Cystococcus_, Näg.) attacked by the germ-tube
    from a spore of _Physica parietina_.
  B, _Scytonema_ from the thallus of _Stereocaulon famulosum_.
  C, _Nostoc_ from the thallus of _Physma chalazanum_.
  D, _Gloeocapsa_ from the thallus of _Synalissa Symphorea_.
  E, _Pleurococcus_ Sp. (_Cystococcus_) from the thallus of _Cladonia

_Fruit Bodies._--We find two chief types of fruit bodies in the lichens,
the _perithecium_ and _apothecium_; the first when the fungal element is
a member of the Pyrenomycetes division of the Ascomycetes, the second
when the fungus belongs to the Discomycetes division. In the two genera
of lichens--the _Basidiolichens_--in which the fungus is a member of the
Basidiomycetes, we have the fructification characteristic of that class
of fungi: these are dealt with separately. The perithecium is very
constant in form and since the gonidia take no part in the formation of
this organ or that of the apothecium it has the general structure
characteristic of that division of fungi. The apothecia, though of the
normal fungal type and usually disk-shaped, are somewhat more variable,
and since the variations are of value in classification some more
details may be added.

[Illustration: After Schwendener, from De Bary's _Vergleichende
Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze Mycetozoen und Bacterien,_ by
permission of Wilhelm Engelmann.

FIG. 12.--_Usnea barbata._ (Mag. more than 500 times.)

  c, An isolated mature soredium, with an algal cell (_Pleurococcus_) in
    the envelope or hyphae.
  d, Another with several algal cells in optical longitudinal section.
  e, f, Two soredia in the act of germinating; the hyphal envelope has
    grown out below into rhizoid branches, and above shows already the
    structure of the apex of the thallus (see fig 9).]

  They present various shapes, of which the following are the principal:
  (a) _peltate_, which are large, rounded, without any distinct thalline
  margin[1] (e.g. _Usnea_, _Peltigera_); (b) _lecanorine_, or
  scutelliform, which are orbicular and surrounded by a distinct, more
  or less prominent thalline margin (e.g. _Parmelia_, _Lecanora_),
  having sometimes also in addition a proper one¹ (e.g. _Thelotrema_,
  _Urceolaria_); (c) _lecideine_, or patelliform, which are typically
  orbicular, with only a proper margin (e.g. _Lecidea_), sometimes
  obsolete, and which are occasionally irregular in shape, angular or
  flexuose (e.g. _Lecidea jurana_, _L. myrmecina_), or complicated and
  gyrose (e.g. _Gyrophora_), and even stipitate (e.g. _Baeomyces_); (d)
  _lirelliform_, which are of very irregular figure, elongated, branched
  or flexuose, with only a proper margin (e.g. _Xylographa_, _Graphis_,
  &c.) or none (e.g. some _Arthoniae_), and often very variable even in
  the same species. In colour the apothecia are extremely variable, and
  it is but rarely that they are the same colour as the thallus (e.g.
  _Usnea_, _Ramalina_). Usually they are of a different colour, and may
  be black, brown, yellowish, or also less frequently rose-coloured,
  rusty-red, orange-reddish, saffron, or of various intermediate shades.
  Occasionally in the same species their colour is very variable (e.g.
  _Lecanora metaboloides_, _Lecidea decolorans_), while sometimes they
  are white or glaucous, rarely greenish, pruinose. Lecideine apothecia,
  which are not black, but otherwise variously coloured, are termed

  [Illustration: After Tulasne, from De Bary's _Vergleichende
  Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoen und Bacterien_, by
  permission of Wilhelm Engelmann.

    FIG. 13.--A, B, _Gyrophora cylindrica._ (A mag. 90, B 390 times, C
    highly magnified.)

    A, A vertical median section through a spermogonium imbedded in the
    o, Upper rind.
    u, Under rind.
    m, Medullary layer of the thallus.
    B, Portion of a very thin section from the base of the spermogonium.
    w, Its wall from which proceed sterigmata with rod-like spermatia
    m, Medullary hyphae of the thallus.
    C, _Cladonia novae Angliae_, Delise; sterigmata with spermatia from
      the spermogonium.]

  The two principal parts of which an apothecium consists are the
  _hypothecium_ and the hymenium, or thecium. The _hypothecium_ is the
  basal part of the apothecium on which the _hymenium_ is borne; the
  latter consists of asci (thecae) with ascospores, and paraphyses. The
  paraphyses (which may be absent entirely in the Pyrenolichens) are
  erect, colourless filaments which are usually dilated and coloured at
  the apex; the apices are usually cemented together into a definite
  layer, the _epithecium_ (fig. 14). The spores themselves may be
  unicellular without a septum or multicellular with one or more septa.
  Sometimes the two cavities are restricted to the two ends of the
  spore, the _polari-bilocular_ type and the two loculi may be united
  by a narrow channel (fig. 15). At other times the spores are divided
  by both transverse and longitudinal septa producing the muriform
  (murali-divided) spore so called from the resemblance of the
  individual chambers to the stones in a wall. The very large single
  spores of _Pertusaria_ have been shown to contain numerous nuclei and
  when they germinate develop a large number of germ tubes.

  [Illustration: After Darbishire, from _Berichte der deutschen
  botanischen Gesellschaft_, by permission of Borntraeger & Co.

    FIG. 14.--Diagram showing Apothecium in Section and surrounding
    Portion of Thallus, and special terms used to designate these

  _Development of the Ascocarps._--As the remarks on the nature of the
  spermatia show, the question of the sexuality of the lichens has been
  hotly disputed in common with that of the rest of the Ascomycetes. As
  indicated above, the weight of evidence seems to favour what has been
  put forward in the case of the non-lichen-forming fungi (see FUNGI),
  that in some cases the ascogonia develop as a result of a previous
  fertilization by spermatia, in other cases the ascogonia develop
  without such a union, while in still other cases the reduction goes
  still farther and the ascogenous hyphae instead of developing from the
  ascogonia are derived directly from the vegetative hyphae.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Vertical Section of Apothecium of _Xanthoria

    a, Paraphyses.
    b, Asci (thecae) with bilocular spores.
    c, Hypothecium.]

  The first exact knowledge as to the origin of the ascocarp was the
  work of Stahl on _Collema_ in 1877. He showed that the archicarp
  consisted of two parts, a lower coiled portion, the ascogonium, and an
  upper portion, the trichogyne, which projected from the thallus. Only
  when a spermatium was found attached to the trichogyne did the further
  development of the ascogonium take place. From these observations he
  drew the natural conclusion that the spermatium was a male, sexual
  cell. This view was hotly contested by many workers and it was sought
  to explain the trichogyne--without much success--as a respiratory
  organ, or as a boring organ which made a way for the developing
  apothecium. It was not till 1898, however, that Stahl's work received
  confirmation and addition at the hands of Baur (fig. 16). The latter
  showed that in _Collema crispum_ there are two kinds of thalli, one
  with numerous apothecia, the other quite sterile or bearing only a
  few. The sterile thalli possessed no spermogonia, but were found to
  show sometimes as many as 1000 archicarps with trichogynes; yet none
  or very few came to maturity. The fertile thalli were shown to bear
  either spermogonia or to be in immediate connexion with
  spermogonia-bearing thalli. Furthermore Baur showed that after the
  fusion of the spermatium with the trichogyne the transverse walls of
  that organ became perforated. There was thus very strong
  circumstantial evidence in favour of fertilization, although the male
  nucleus was not traced. The further work of Baur, and that of
  Darbishire, Funfstuck and Lindau, have shown that in a number of other
  cases trichogynes are present. Thus ascogonia with trichogynes have
  been observed in _Endocarpon_, _Collema_, _Pertusaria_, _Lecanora_,
  _Gyrophora_, _Parmelia_, _Ramalina_, _Physcia_, _Anaptychia_ and
  _Cladonia_. In _Nephroma_, _Peltigera_, _Peltidea_ and _Solorina_ a
  cogonia without trichogynes have been observed. In _Collema_ and a
  form like _Xanthoria parietina_ it is probable that actual
  fertilization takes place, and possibly also in some of the other
  forms. It is probable, however, that in the majority of cases the
  ascogonia develop without normal fertilization, as is necessarily the
  case where the ascogonia have no trichogynes or the spermatia are
  absent. In these cases we should expect to find some reduced process
  of fertilization similar to that of _Humaria granulata_ among the
  ordinary Ascomycetes, where in the absence of the antheridia the
  female nuclei fuse in pairs. In other lichens we should expect to find
  the ascogenous hyphae arising directly from the vegetative hyphae as
  in _Humaria rutilans_ among the ordinary fungi, where the process is
  associated with the fusion of vegetative nuclei. It is possible that
  _Solorina saccata_ belongs to this class. Cytological details of
  nuclear behaviour among the lichens are, however, difficult to obtain
  owing to the slow growth of these forms and the often refractory
  nature of the material in the matter of preparation for microscopical

  [Illustration: After E. Baur, from Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der
  Botanik_, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

    FIG. 16.--_Collema crispum._

    A, Carpogonium, c, with its trichogyne t.
    B, Apex of the trichogyne with the spermatium, s, attached.]

  _Ejection of Spores._--The spores are ejected from the apothecia and
  perithecia as in the fungi by forcible ejaculation from the asci. In
  the majority of forms it is clear that the soredia rather than the
  ascospore must play the more important part in lichen distribution as
  the development of the ordinary spores is dependent on their finding
  the proper alga on the substratum on which they happen to fall. In a
  number of forms (_Endocarpon pusillum_, _Stigmaatonima cataleptum_,
  various species of _Staurothele_), however, there is a special
  arrangement by which the spores are, on ejection, associated with
  gonidia. In these forms gonidia are found in connexion with the young
  fruit; such algal cells undergo numerous divisions becoming very small
  in size and penetrating into the hymenium among the asci and
  paraphyses. When the spores are thrown out some of these hymenial
  gonidia, as they are called, are carried with them. When the spores
  germinate the germ-tubes surround the algal cells, which now increase
  in size and become the normal gonidia of the thallus.


[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

  FIG. 17.--_Cora pavonia._ A, Viewed from above; B, From below; _hym_,
  hymenium. (Nat. size.)]

As is clear from the above, nearly all the lichens are produced by the
association of an ascomycetous fungus with algae. For some obscure
reason the Basidiomycetes do not readily form lichens, so that only a
few forms are known in which the fungal element is a member of this
family. The two best-known genera are _Cora_ and _Dictyonema_;
_Corella_, whose hymenium is unknown, is also placed here by Wainio. The
so-called Gasterolichens, _Trichocoma_ and _Emericella_, have been shown
to be merely ascomycetous fungi. _Clavaria mucida_, however, has
apparently some claims to be considered as a Basidiolichen, since the
base of the fruit body and the thallus from which it arises, according
to Coker, always shows a mixture of hyphae and algae.

The best-known species is _Cora pavonia_, which is found in tropical
regions growing on the bare earth and on trees; the gonidia belong to
the genus _Chroococcus_ while the fungus belongs, apparently, to the
Thelephoreae (see FUNGI). This lichen seems unique in the fact that the
fungal element is also found growing and fruiting entirely devoid of
algae, while in the ascolichens the fungus portion seems to have become
so specialized to its symbiotic mode of life that it is never found
growing independently.

The genus _Dictyonema_ has gonidia belonging to the blue-green alga,
_Scytonema_. When the fungus predominates in the thallus it has a
bracket-like mode of growth and is found projecting from the branches of
trees with the hymenium on the under side. When the alga is predominant
it forms felted patches on the bark of trees, the _Laudatea_ form. It is
said that the fungus of _Cora pavonia_ and of _Dictyonema_ is identical,
the difference being in the nature of the alga.

_Mode of Life._

Lichens are found growing in various situations such as bare earth, the
bark of trees, dead wood, the surface of stones and rocks, where they
have little competition to fear from ordinary plants. As is well known,
the lichens are often found in the most exposed and arid situations; in
the extreme polar regions these plants are practically the only
vegetable forms of life. They owe their capacity to live under the most
inhospitable conditions to the dual nature of the organism, and to their
capacity to withstand extremes of heat, cold and drought without
destruction. On a bare rocky surface a fungus would die from want of
organic substance and an alga from drought and want of mineral
substances. The lichen, however, is able to grow as the alga supplies
organic food material and the fungus has developed a battery of acids
(see below) which enable it actually to dissolve the most resistant
rocks. It is owing to the power of disintegrating by both mechanical and
chemical means the rocks on which they are growing that lichens play
such an important part in soil-production. The resistance of lichens is
extraordinary; they may be cooled to very low temperatures and heated to
high temperatures without being killed. They may be dried so thoroughly
that they can easily be reduced to powder yet their vitality is not
destroyed but only suspended; on being supplied with water they absorb
it rapidly by their general surface and renew their activity. The life
of many lichens thus consists of alternating periods of activity when
moisture is plentiful, and completely suspended animation under
conditions of dryness. Though so little sensitive to drought and
extremes of temperature lichens appear to be very easily affected by the
presence in the air of noxious substances such as are found in large
cities or manufacturing towns. In such districts lichen vegetation is
entirely or almost entirely absent. The growth of lichens is extremely
slow and many of them take years before they arrive at a spore-bearing
stage. _Xanthoria parietina_ has been known to grow for forty-five years
before bearing apothecia. This slowness of growth is associated with
great length of life and it is probable that individuals found growing
on hard mountain rocks or on the trunks of aged trees are many hundreds
of years old. It is possible that specimens of such long-lived species
as _Lecidea geographica_ actually outrival in longevity the oldest

_Relation of Fungus and Alga._

The relation of the two constituents of the lichen have been briefly
stated in the beginning of this article. The relation of the fungus to
the alga, though it may be described in general terms as one of
symbiosis, partakes also somewhat of the nature of parasitism. The algal
cells are usually controlled in their growth by the hyphae and are
prevented from forming zoospores, and in some cases, as already
described, the algal cells are killed sooner or later by the fungus. The
fungus seems, on the other hand, to stimulate the algal cells to special
development, for those in the lichen are larger than those in the free
state, but this is not necessarily adverse to the idea of parasitism,
for it is well known that an increase in the size of the cells of the
host is often the result of the attacks of parasitic fungi. It must be
borne in mind that the exact nutritive relations of the two constituents
of the lichen have not been completely elucidated, and that it is very
difficult to draw the line between symbiosis and parasitism. The lichen
algae are not alone in their specialization to the symbiotic (or
parasitic) mode of life, for, as stated earlier, the fungus appear in
the majority of cases to have completely lost the power of independent
development since with very rare exceptions they are not found alone.
They also differ very markedly from free living fungi in their chemical

_Chemistry of Lichens._

  The chemistry of lichens is very complex, not yet fully investigated
  and can only be very briefly dealt with here. The wall of the hyphae
  of the fungus give in the young state the ordinary reactions of
  cellulose but older material shows somewhat different reactions,
  similar to those of the so-called fungus-cellulose. In many
  lichen-fungi the wall shows various chemical modifications. In
  numerous lichens, e.g. _Cetraria islandica_, the wall contains
  Lichenin (C6H10O5), a gummy substance which swells in cold water and
  dissolves in hot. Besides this substance, a very similar one,
  Isolichenin, is also found which is distinguished from lichenin by the
  fact that it dissolves in cold water and turns blue under the reaction
  of Iodine. Calcium oxalate is a very common substance, especially in
  crustaceous lichens; fatty oil in the form of drops or as an
  infiltration in the membrane is also common; it sometimes occurs in
  special cells and in extreme cases may represent 90% of the dry
  substance as in _Verrucaria calciseda_, _Biatora immersa_.

  _Colouring Matters._--Many lichens, as is well known, exhibit a vivid
  colouring which is usually due to the incrustation of the hyphae with
  crystalline excretory products. These excretory products have usually
  an acid nature and hence are generally known as lichen-acids. A large
  number of these acids, which are mostly benzene derivatives, have been
  isolated and more or less closely investigated. They are characterized
  by their insolubility or very slight solubility in water; as examples
  may be mentioned erythrinic acid in _Roccella_ and _Lecanora_; evernic
  acid in species of _Evernia_, _Ramalina_ and _Cladonia_; lecanoric
  acid in _Lecanora_, _Gyrophora_. The so-called chrysophanic acid found
  in _Xanthoria_ (Physcia) _parietina_ is not an acid but a quinone and
  is better termed physcion.

  _Colour Reactions of Lichens._--The classification of lichens is
  unique in the fact that chemical colour reactions are used by many
  lichenologists in the discrimination of species, and these reactions
  are included in the specific diagnoses. The substances used as tests
  in these reactions are caustic potash and calcium hypochlorite; the
  former being the substance dissolved in an equal weight of water and
  the latter a saturated extract of bleaching powder in water. These
  substances are represented by lichenologists by the signs K and CaCl
  respectively, and the presence or absence of the colour reactions are
  represented thus, K+, CaCl+, or K-, CaCl-. If the cortical layer
  should exhibit positive reaction and the medulla of the same species a
  negative reaction with both reagents, the result is represented thus,
  K±CaCl±. If a reaction is only produced after the consecutive addition
  of the two reagents, this is symbolized by K(CaCl)+. A solution of
  iodine is also used as a test owing to the blue or wine-red colour
  which the thallus, hymenium or spores may give with this reagent. The
  objection to the case of these colour reactions is due to the
  indefinite nature of the reaction and the doubt as to the constant
  presence of a definite chemical compound in a given species. A yellow
  colour with caustic potash solution is produced not only by atranoric
  acid but also by evernic acid, thamnolic acid, &c. Again in the case
  of _Xanthoria parietina_ vulpinic acid is only to be found in young
  thalli growing on sandstone; in older forms or in those growing on
  another substratum it is not to be detected. A similar relation
  between oil formation and the nature of the substratum has been
  observed in many lichens. Considerations such as these should make one
  very wary in placing reliance on these colour reactions for the
  purposes of classification.

_Economic Uses of Lichens._

In the arts, as food and as medicine, many lichens have been highly
esteemed, though others are not now employed for the same purposes as

1. _Lichens Used in the Arts._--Of these the most important are such as
yield, by maceration in ammonia, the dyes known in commerce as archil,
cudbear and litmus. These, however, may with propriety be regarded as
but different names for the same pigmentary substance, the variations in
the character of which are attributable to the different modes in which
the pigments are manufactured. Archil proper is derived from several
species of _Roccella_ (e.g. _R. Montaguei_, _R. tinctoria_), which yield
a rich purple dye; it once fetched a high price in the market. Of
considerable value is the "perelle" prepared from _Lecanora parella_,
and used in the preparation of a red or crimson dye. Inferior to this is
"cudbear," derived from _Lecanora tartarea_, which was formerly very
extensively employed by the peasantry of north Europe for giving a
scarlet or purple colour to woollen cloths. By adding certain alkalies
to the other ingredients used in the preparation of these pigments, the
colour becomes indigo-blue, in which case it is the litmus of the Dutch
manufacturers. Amongst other lichens affording red, purple or brown dyes
may be mentioned _Ramalina scopulorum_, _Parmelia_, _saxatilis_ and _P.
amphalodes_, _Umbilicaria pustulata_ and several species of _Gyrophora_,
_Urceolaria scruposa_, all of which are more or less employed as
domestic dyes. Yellow dyes, again, are derived from _Chlorea vulpina_,
_Platysma juniperinum_, _Parmelia caperata_ and _P. conspersa_, _Physcia
flavicans_, _Ph. parietina_ and _Ph. lychnea_, though like the preceding
they do not form articles of commerce, being merely used locally by the
natives of the regions in which they occur most plentifully. In addition
to these, many exotic lichens, belonging especially to _Parmelia_ and
_Sticta_ (e.g. _Parmelia tinctorum_, _Sticta argyracea_), are rich in
colouring matter, and, if obtained in sufficient quantity, would yield a
dye in every way equal to archil. These pigments primarily depend upon
special acids contained in the thalli of lichens, and their presence may
readily be detected by means of the reagents already noticed. In the
process of manufacture, however, they undergo various changes, of which
the chemistry is still but little understood. At one time also some
species were used in the arts for supplying a gum as a substitute for
gum-arabic. These were chiefly _Ramalina fraxinea_, _Evernia prunastri_
and _Parmelia physodes_, all of which contain a considerable proportion
of gummy matter (of a much inferior quality, however, to gum-arabic),
and were employed in the process of calico-printing and in the making of
parchment and cardboard. In the 17th century some filamentose and
fruticulose lichens, viz. species of _Usnea_ and _Ramalina_, also
_Evernia furfuracea_ and _Cladonia rangiferina_, were used in the art of
perfumery. From their supposed aptitude to imbibe and retain odours,
their powder was the basis of various perfumes, such as the celebrated
"Poudre de Cypre" of the hairdressers, but their employment in this
respect has long since been abandoned.

2. _Nutritive Lichens._--Of still greater importance is the capacity of
many species for supplying food for man and beast. This results from
their containing starchy substances, and in some cases a small quantity
of saccharine matter of the nature of mannite. One of the most useful
nutritious species is _Cetraria islandica_, "Iceland moss," which, after
being deprived of its bitterness by boiling in water, is reduced to a
powder and made into cakes, or is boiled and eaten with milk by the poor
Icelander, whose sole food it often constitutes. Similarly _Cladonia
rangiferina_ and _Cl. sylvatica_, the familiar "reindeer moss," are
frequently eaten by man in times of scarcity, after being powdered and
mixed with flour. Their chief importance, however, is that in Lapland
and other northern countries they supply the winter food of the reindeer
and other animals, who scrape away the snow and eagerly feed upon them.
Another nutritious lichen is the "Tripe de Roche" of the arctic regions,
consisting of several species of the _Gyrophorei_, which when boiled is
often eaten by the Canadian hunters and Red Indians when pressed by
hunger. But the most singular esculent lichen of all is the "manna
lichen," which in times of drought and famine has served as food for
large numbers of men and cattle in the arid steppes of various countries
stretching from Algiers to Tartary. This is derived chiefly from
_Lecanora esculenta_, which grows unattached on the ground in layers
from 3 to 6 in. thick over large tracts of country in the form of small
irregular lumps of a greyish or white colour. In connexion with their
use as food we may observe that of recent years in Scandinavia and
Russia an alcoholic spirit has been distilled from _Cladonia
rangiferina_ and extensively consumed, especially in seasons when
potatoes were scarce and dear. Formerly also _Sticta pulmonaria_ was
much employed in brewing instead of hops, and it is said that a Siberian
monastery was much celebrated for its beer which was flavoured with the
bitter principle of this species.

3. _Medicinal Lichens._--During the middle ages, and even in some
quarters to a much later period, lichens were extensively used in
medicine in various European countries. Many species had a great repute
as demulcents, febrifuges, astringents, tonics, purgatives and
anthelmintics. The chief of those employed for one or other, and in
some cases for several, of these purposes were _Cladonia pyxidata_,
_Usnea barbata_, _Ramalina farinacea_, _Evernia prunastri_, _Cetraria
ìslandica_, _Sticla pulmonaria_, _Parmelia saxatilis_, _Xanthoria
parietina_ and _Pertusaria amara_. Others again were believed to be
endowed with specific virtues, e.g. _Peltigera canina_, which formed the
basis of the celebrated "pulvis antilyssus" of Dr Mead, long regarded as
a sovereign cure for hydrophobia; _Platysma juniperinum_, lauded as a
specific in jaundice, no doubt on the _similia similibus_ principle from
a resemblance between its yellow colour and that of the jaundiced skin;
_Peltidea aphthosa_, which on the same principle was regarded by the
Swedes, when boiled in milk, as an effectual remedy for the _aphthae_ or
rash on their children. Almost all of these virtues, general or
specific, were imaginary; and at the present day, except perhaps in some
remoter districts of northern Europe, only one of them is employed as a
remedial agent. This is the "Iceland moss" of the druggists' shops,
which is undoubtedly an excellent demulcent in various dyspeptic and
chest complaints. No lichen is known to be possessed of any poisonous
properties to man, although _Chlorea vulpina_ is believed by the Swedes
to be so. Zukal has considered that the lichen acids protect the lichen
from the attacks of animals; the experiments of Zopf, however, have cast
doubt on this; certainly lichens containing very bitter acids are eaten
by mites though some of the acids appear to be poisonous to frogs.


The dual nature of the lichen thallus introduces at the outset a
classificatory difficulty. Theoretically the lichens may be classified
on the basis of their algal constituent, on the basis of their fungal
constituent, or they may be classified as if they were homogeneous
organisms. The first of these systems is impracticable owing to the
absence of algal reproductive organs and the similarity of the algal
cells (gonidia) in a large number of different forms. The second system
is the most obvious one, since the fungus is the dominant partner and
produces reproductive organs. The third system was that of Nylander and
his followers, who did not accept the Schwenderian doctrine of duality.
In actual practice the difference between the second and third methods
is not very great since the fungus is the producer of the reproductive
organs and generally the main constituent. Most systems agree in
deriving the major divisions from the characters of the reproductive
organs (perithecia, apothecia, or basidiospore bearing fructification),
while the characters of the algal cells and those of the thallus
generally are used for the minor divisions. The difference between the
various systems lies in the relative importance given to the
reproductive characters on the one hand and the vegetative characters on
the other. In the system (1854-1855) of Nylander the greater weight is
given to the latter, while in more modern systems the former characters
receive the more attention.

A brief outline of a system of classification, mainly that of
Zahlbruckner as given in Engler and Prantl's _Pflanzenfamilien_, is
outlined below.

There are two main divisions of lichens, _Ascolichenes_ and
_Basidiolichenes_, according to the nature of the fungal element,
whether an ascomycete or basidiomycete. The Ascolichenes are again
divided into _Pyrenocarpeae_ or _Pyrenolichenes_ and _Gymnocarpeae_ or
_Discolichenes_; the first having an ascocarp of the nature of a
perithecium, the second bearing their ascospores in an open apothecium.


Series I. Perithecium simple not divided.

  a. With _Pleurococcus_ or _Palmella_ gonidia. Moriolaceae,
  Verrucariaceae, Pyrenothamnaceae.

  b. With _Chroolepus_ gonidia. Pyrenulaceae, Paratheliaceae.

  c. With _Phyllactidium_ or _Cephaleurus_ gonidia. Strigulaceae.

  d. With _Nostoc_ or _Scytonema_ gonidia. Pyrenidiaceae.

Series II. Perithecia divided or imperfectly divided by cross-walls.
Mycoporaceae with _Palmella_ or _Chroolepus_ gonidia.


Series I. Coniocarpineae. The paraphyses branch and form a network
(capillitium) over the asci, the capillitium and ejected spores forming
a long persistent powdery mass (mazaedium).

Caliciaceae, Cypheliaceae, Sphaerophoraceae.

Series II. Graphidineae. Apothecia seldom round, usually
elongated-ellipsoidal, no capillitium. Arthoniaceae, Graphidiaceae,

Series III. Cyclocarpineae, Apothecium usually circular, no capillitium.

  A. Spores usually two-celled, either with a strongly thickened
    cross-wall often perforated by a narrow canal or with cross-wall only
    slightly thickened. In the first case the spores are usually
    colourless, the second case always brown. Buelliaceae, Physciaceae.

  B. Spores unicellular, parallel-multicellular or muriform, usually
    colourless, cross-walls usually thin.

    [alpha] Thallus in moist state more or less gelatinous. Gonidia
      always belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Lichinaceae, Ephebaceae,
      Collemaceae, Pyrenopsidaceae.

    ß Thallus not gelatinous. Coenogoniaceae, Lecideaceae, Cladoniaceae,
      Lecanoraceae, Pertusariaceae, Peltigeraceae, Stictaceae,
      Pannariaceae, Gyrophoraceae, Parmeliaceae, Cladoniaceae, Usneaceae.

  BASIDIOLICHENES (Hymenolichenes)

_Cora_, _Dictyonema_ (incl. Laudatea), _Corella_ (doubtfully placed here
as the hymenium is unknown).

_Habitats and Distribution of Lichens._

1. _Habitats._--These are extremely varied, and comprise a great number
of very different substrata. Chiefly, however, they are the bark of
trees, rocks, the ground, mosses and, rarely, perennial leaves. (a) With
respect to _corticolous_ lichens, some prefer the rugged bark of old
trees (e.g. _Ramalina_, _Parmelia_, _Stictei_) and others the smooth
bark of young trees and shrubs (e.g. _Graphidei_ and some _Lecideae_).
Many are found principally in large forests (e.g. _Usnea_, _Alectoria
jubata_); while a few occur more especially on trees by roadsides (e.g.
_Physcia parietina_ and _Ph. pulverulenta_). In connexion with
corticolous lichens may be mentioned those _lignicole_ species which
grow on decayed, or decaying wood of trees and on old pales (e.g.
_Caliciei_, various _Lecideae_, _Xylographa_), (b) As to _saxicolous_
lichens, which occur on rocks and stones, they may be divided into two
sections, viz. _calcicolous_ and _calcifugous_. To the former belong
such as are found on calcareous and cretaceous rocks, and the mortar of
walls (e.g. _Lecanora calcarea_, _Lecidea calcivora_ and several
_Verrucariae_), while all other saxicolous lichens may be regarded as
belonging to the latter, whatever may be the mineralogical character of
the substratum. It is here worthy of notice that the apothecia of
several calcicolous lichens (e.g. _Lecanora Prevostii_, _Lecidea
calcivora_) have the power of forming minute cavities in the rock, in
which they are partially buried. (c) With respect to terrestrial
species, some prefer peaty soil (e.g. _Cladonia_, _Lecidea decolorans_),
others calcareous soil (e.g. _Lecanora crassa_, _Lecidea decipiens_),
others sandy soil or hardened mud (e.g. _Collema limosum_, _Peltidea
venosa_); while many may be found growing on all kinds of soil, from the
sands of the sea-shore to the granitic detritus of lofty mountains, with
the exception of course of cultivated ground, there being no agrarian
lichens. (d) _Muscicolous_ lichens again are such as are most frequently
met with on decayed mosses and _Jungermannia_, whether on the ground,
trees or rocks (e.g. _Leptogium muscicola_, _Gomphillus calicioides_).
(e) The _epiphyllous_ species are very peculiar as occurring upon
perennial leaves of certain trees and shrubs, whose vitality is not at
all affected by their presence as it is by that of fungi. In so far,
however, as is known, they are very limited in number (e.g. _Lecidea_,
_Bouteillei_, _Strigula_).

Sometimes various lichens occur abnormally in such unexpected habitats
as dried dung of sheep, bleached bones of reindeer and whales, old
leather, iron and glass, in districts where the species are abundant. It
is apparent that in many cases lichens are quite indifferent to the
substrata on which they occur, whence we infer that the preference of
several for certain substrata depends upon the temperature of the
locality or that of the special habitat. Thus in the case of saxicolous
lichens the mineralogical character of the rock has of itself little or
no influence upon lichen growth, which is influenced more especially and
directly by their physical properties, such as their capacity for
retaining heat and moisture. As a rule lichens grow commonly in open
exposed habitats, though some are found only or chiefly in shady
situations; while, as already observed, scarcely any occur where the
atmosphere is impregnated with smoke. Many species also prefer growing
in moist places by streams, lakes and the sea, though very few are
normally and probably none entirely, _aquatic_, being always at certain
seasons exposed for a longer or shorter period to the atmosphere (e.g.
_Lichina_, _Leptogium rivulare_, _Endocarpon fluviatile_, _Verrucaria
maura_). Some species are entirely parasitical on other lichens (e.g.
various _Lecideae_ and _Pyrenocarpei_), and may be peculiar to one (e.g.
_Lecidea vitellinaria_) or common to several species (e.g. _Habrothallus
parmeliarum_). A few, generally known as _erratic_ species, have been
met with growing unattached to any substratum (e.g. _Parmella revoluta_,
var. _concentrica_, _Lecanora esculenta_); but it can hardly be that
these are really free _ab initio_ (_vide_ Crombie in _Journ. Bot._,
1872, p. 306). It is to the different characters of the stations they
occupy with respect to exposure, moisture, &c., that the variability
observed in many types of lichens is to be attributed.

2. _Distribution._--From what has now been said it will readily be
inferred that the distribution of lichens over the surface of the globe
is regulated, not only by the presence of suitable substrata, but more
especially by climatic conditions. At the same time it may safely be
affirmed that their geographical range is more extended than that of any
other class of plants, occurring as they do in the coldest and warmest
regions--on the dreary shores of arctic and antarctic seas and in the
torrid valleys of tropical climes, as well as on the greatest mountain
elevations yet attained by man, on projecting rocks even far above the
snowline (e.g. _Lecidea geographica_). In arctic regions lichens form by
far the largest portion of the vegetation, occurring everywhere on the
ground and on rocks, and fruiting freely; while terrestrial species of
_Cladonia_ and _Stereocaulon_ are seen in the greatest luxuriance and
abundance spreading over extensive tracts almost to the entire exclusion
of other vegetation. The lichen flora of temperate regions again is
essentially distinguished from the preceding by the frequency of
corticolous species belonging to _Lecanora_, _Lecidea_ and _Graphidei_.
In intertropical regions lichens attain their maximum development (and
beauty) in the foliaceous _Stictei_ and _Parmeliei_, while they are
especially characterized by epiphyllous species, as _Strigula_, and by
many peculiar corticole _Thelotremei_, _Graphidei_ and _Pyrenocarpei_.
Some lichens, especially saxicolous ones, seem to be cosmopolitan (e.g.
_Lecanora subfusca_, _Cladonia pyxidata_); and others, not strictly
cosmopolitan, have been observed in regions widely apart. A considerable
number of species, European and exotic, seem to be _endemic_, but
further research will no doubt show that most of them occur in other
climatic regions similar to those in which they have hitherto alone been
detected. To give any detailed account, however, of the distribution of
the different genera (not to speak of that of individual species) of
lichens would necessarily far exceed available limits.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--General: Engler and Prantl, _Die natürlichen
  Pflanzenfamilien_, Teil I, Abt. 1 * where full literature will be
  found up to 1898. M. Funfstuck, "Der gegenwärtige Stand der
  Flechtenkunde," _Refer. Generalvers. d. deut. bot. Ges._ (1902). Dual
  Nature: J. Baranetzky, "Beiträge zur Kenntnis des selbstständigen
  Lebens der Flechtengonidien," _Prings. Jahrb. f. wiss. Bot._ vii.
  (1869); E. Bornet, "Recherches sur les gonidies des lichens," _Ann. de
  sci. nat. bot._, 5 sér. n. 17 (1873); G. Bonnier, "Recherches sur la
  synthèse des lichens," _Ann. de sci. nat. bot._, 7 sér. n. 9 (1889);
  A. Famintzin and J. Baranetzky, "Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der
  Gonidien u. Zoosporenbildung der Lichenen," _Bot. Zeit._ (1867, p.
  189, 1868, p. 169); S. Schwendener, _Die Algentypen der
  Flechtengonidien_ (Basel, 1869); A. Möller, _Über die Kultur
  flechtenbildender Ascomyceten ohne Algen_. (Münster, 1887). Sexuality:
  E. Stahl, _Beiträge zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Flechten_
  (Leipzig, 1877); G. Lindau, _Über Anlage und Entwickelung einiger
  Flechtenapothecien_ (Flora, 1888); E. Baur, "Zur Frage nach der
  Sexualität der Collemaceae," _Ber. d. deut. bot. Ges._ (1898); "Über
  Anlage und Entwicklung einiger Flechtenapothecien" (_Flora_, Bd. 88,
  1901); "Untersuchungen über die Entwicklungsgeschichte der
  Flechtenapothecien," _Bot. Zeit._ (1904); O. V. Darbishire, "Über die
  Apothecium-entwickelung der Flechte, Physcia pulverulenta," _Nyl.
  Prings. Jahrb._ (Bd. 34, 1900). Chemistry.--W. Zopf, "Vergleichende
  Produkte," _Beitr. z. bot. Centralbl._ (Bd. 14, 1903); _Die
  Flechtenstoffe_ (Jena, 1907).     (J. M. C; V. H. B.)


  [1] The _thalline margin_ (margo thallinus) is the projecting edge of
    a special layer of thallus, the amphithecium, round the actual
    apothecium; the _proper margin_ (margo proprius) is the projecting
    edge of the apothecium itself.

LICHFIELD, a city, county of a city, and municipal borough in the
Lichfield parliamentary division of Staffordshire, England, 118 m. N.W.
from London. Pop. (1901) 7902. The London and North-Western railway has
stations at Trent Valley Junction on the main line, and in the city on a
branch westward. The town lies in a pleasant country, on a small stream
draining eastward to the Trent, with low hills to the E. and S. The
cathedral is small (the full internal length is only 370 ft., and the
breadth of the nave 68 ft.), but beautiful in both situation and style.
It stands near a picturesque sheet of water named Minster Pool. The
present building dates from various periods in the 13th and early 14th
centuries, but the various portions cannot be allocated to fixed years,
as the old archives were destroyed during the Civil Wars of the 17th
century. The earlier records of the church are equally doubtful. A Saxon
church founded by St Chad, who was subsequently enshrined here, occupied
the site from the close of the 7th century; of its Norman successor
portions of the foundations have been excavated, but no record exists
either of its date or of its builders. The fine exterior of the
cathedral exhibits the feature, unique in England, of a lofty central
and two lesser western spires, of which the central, 252 ft. high, is a
restoration attributed to Sir Christopher Wren after its destruction
during the Civil Wars. The west front is composed of three stages of
ornate arcading, with niches containing statues, of which most are
modern. Within, the south transept shows simple Early English work, the
north transept and chapter house more ornate work of a later period in
that style, the nave, with its geometrical ornament, marks the
transition to the Decorated style, while the Lady chapel is a beautiful
specimen of fully developed Decorated work with an apsidal east end. The
west front probably falls in date between the nave and the Lady chapel.
Among numerous monuments are--memorials to Samuel Johnson, a native of
Lichfield, and to David Garrick, who spent his early life and was
educated here; a monument to Major Hodson, who fell in the Indian
mutiny, and whose father was canon of Lichfield; the tomb of Bishop
Hacket, who restored the cathedral after the Civil Wars; and a
remarkable effigy of Perpendicular date displaying Sir John Stanley
stripped to the waist and awaiting chastisement. Here is also the
"Sleeping Children," a masterpiece by Chantrey (1817).

A picturesque bishop's palace (1687) and a theological college (1857)
are adjacent to the cathedral. The diocese covers the greater part of
Staffordshire and about half the parishes in Shropshire, with small
portions of Cheshire and Derbyshire. The church of St Chad is ancient
though extensively restored; on its site St Chad is said to have
occupied a hermit's cell. The principal schools are those of King Edward
and St Chad. There are many picturesque half-timbered and other old
houses, among which is that in which Johnson was born, which stands in
the market-place, and is the property of the corporation and opened to
the public. There is also in the market place a statue to Johnson. A
fair is held annually on Whit-Monday, accompanied by a pageant of
ancient origin. Brewing is the principal industry, and in the
neighbourhood are large market gardens. The city is governed by a mayor,
6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 3475 acres.

There is a tradition that "Christianfield" near Lichfield was the site
of the martyrdom of a thousand Christians during the persecutions of
Maximian about 286, but there is no evidence in support of the
tradition. At Wall, 3 m. from the present city, there was a
Romano-British village called Letocetum ("grey wood"), from which the
first half of the name Lichfield is derived. The first authentic notice
of Lichfield (_Lyecidfelth_, _Lychfeld_, _Litchfield_) occurs in Bede's
history where it is mentioned as the place where St Chad fixed the
episcopal see of the Mercians. After the foundation of the see by St
Chad in 669, it was raised in 786 by Pope Adrian through the influence
of Offa, King of Mercia, to the dignity of an archbishopric, but in 803
the primacy was restored to Canterbury. In 1075 the see of Lichfield was
removed to Chester, and thence a few years later to Coventry, but it was
restored in 1148. At the time of the Domesday Survey Lichfield was held
by the bishop of Chester: it is not called a borough, and it was a small
village, whence, on account of its insignificance, the see had been
moved. The lordship and manor of the town were held by the bishop until
the reign of Edward VI., when they were leased to the corporation. There
is evidence that a castle existed here in the time of Bishop Roger
Clinton (_temp._ Henry I.), and a footpath near the grammar-school
retains the name of Castle-ditch. Richard II. gave a charter (1387) for
the foundation of the gild of St Mary and St John the Baptist; this gild
obtained the whole local government, which it exercised until its
dissolution by Edward VI., who incorporated the town (1548), vesting the
government in two bailiffs and twenty-four burgesses; further charters
were given by Mary, James I. and Charles II. (1664), the last,
incorporating it under the title of the "bailiffs and citizens of the
city of Lichfield," was the governing charter until 1835; under this
charter the governing body consisted of two bailiffs and twenty-four
brethren. Lichfield sent two members to the parliament of 1304 and to a
few succeeding parliaments, but the representation did not become
regular until 1552; in 1867 it lost one member, and in 1885 its
representation was merged in that of the county. By the charter of James
I. the market day was changed from Wednesday to Tuesday and Friday; the
Tuesday market disappeared during the 19th century; the only existing
fair is a small pleasure fair of ancient origin held on Ash-Wednesday;
the annual fête on Whit-Monday claims to date from the time of Alfred.
In the Civil Wars Lichfield was divided. The cathedral authorities with
a certain following were for the king, but the townsfolk generally sided
with the parliament, and this led to the fortification of the close in
1643. Lord Brooke, notorious for his hostility to the church, came
against it, but was killed by a deflected bullet on St Chad's day, an
accident welcomed as a miracle by the Royalists. The close yielded and
was retaken by Prince Rupert in this year; but on the breakdown of the
king's cause in 1646 it again surrendered. The cathedral suffered
terrible damage in these years.

  See Rev. T. Harwood, _Hist. and Antiquities of Church and City of
  Lichfield_ (1806), _Victoria County History, Stafford_.

LICH-GATE, or LYCH-GATE (from O. Eng. _lic_ "a body, a corpse"; cf. Ger.
_Leiche_), the roofed-in gateway or porch-entrance to churchyards.
Lich-gates existed in England certainly thirteen centuries ago, but
comparatively few early ones survive, as they were almost always of
wood. One at Bray, Berkshire, is dated 1448. Here the clergy meet the
corpse and some portion of the service is read. The gateway was really
part of the church; it also served to shelter the pall-bearers while the
bier was brought from the church. In some lich-gates there stood large
flat stones called lich-stones upon which the corpse, usually
uncoffined, was laid. The most common form of lich-gate is a simple shed
composed of a roof with two gabled ends, covered with tiles or thatch.
At Berrynarbor, Devon, there is a lich-gate in the form of a cross,
while at Troutbeck, Westmorland, there are three lich-gates to one
churchyard. Some elaborate gates have chambers over them. The word
_lich_ entered into composition constantly in old English, thus,
lich-bell, the hand-bell rung before a corpse; lich-way, the path along
which a corpse was carried to burial (this in some districts was
supposed to establish a right-of-way); lich-owl, the screech-owl,
because its cry was a portent of death; and lyke-wake, a night watch
over a corpse.

LICHTENBERG, GEORG CHRISTOPH (1742-1799), German physicist and satirical
writer, was born at Oberramstadt, near Darmstadt, on the 1st of July
1742. In 1763 he entered Göttingen university, where in 1769 he became
extraordinary professor of physics, and six years later ordinary
professor. This post he held till his death on the 24th of February
1799. As a physicist he is best known for his investigations in
electricity, more especially as to the so-called Lichtenberg figures,
which are fully described in two memoirs _Super nova methodo motum ac
naturam fluidi electrici investigandi_ (Göttingen, 1777-1778). These
figures, originally studied on account of the light they were supposed
to throw on the nature of the electric fluid or fluids, have reference
to the distribution of electricity over the surface of non-conductors.
They are produced as follows: A sharp-pointed needle is placed
perpendicular to a non-conducting plate, such as of resin, ebonite or
glass, with its point very near to or in contact with the plate, and a
Leyden jar is discharged into the needle. The electrification of the
plate is now tested by sifting over it a mixture of flowers of sulphur
and red lead. The negatively electrified sulphur is seen to attach
itself to the positively electrified parts of the plate, and the
positively electrified red lead to the negatively electrified parts. In
addition to the distribution of colour thereby produced, there is a
marked difference in the _form_ of the figure, according to the nature
of the electricity originally communicated to the plate. If it be
positive, a widely extending patch is seen on the plate, consisting of a
dense nucleus, from which branches radiate in all directions; if
negative the patch is much smaller and has a sharp circular boundary
entirely devoid of branches. If the plate receives a mixed charge, as,
for example, from an induction coil, a "mixed" figure results,
consisting of a large red central nucleus, corresponding to the negative
charge, surrounded by yellow rays, corresponding to the positive charge.
The difference between the positive and negative figures seems to depend
on the presence of the air; for the difference tends to disappear when
the experiment is conducted in vacuo. Riess explains it by the negative
electrification of the plate caused by the friction of the water vapour,
&c., driven along the surface by the explosion which accompanies the
disruptive discharge at the point. This electrification would favour the
spread of a positive, but hinder that of a negative discharge. There is,
in all probability, a connexion between this phenomenon and the
peculiarities of positive and negative brush and other discharge in air.

As a satirist and humorist Lichtenberg takes high rank among the German
writers of the 18th century. His biting wit involved him in many
controversies with well-known contemporaries, such as Lavater, whose
science of physiognomy he ridiculed, and Voss, whose views on Greek
pronunciation called forth a powerful satire, _Über die Pronunciation
der Schöpse des alten Griechenlandes_ (1782). In 1769 and again in 1774
he resided for some time in England and his _Briefe aus England_
(1776-1778), with admirable descriptions of Garrick's acting, are the
most attractive of his writings. He contributed to the _Göttinger
Taschenkalender_ from 1778 onwards, and to the _Göttingisches Magazin
der Literatur und Wissenschaft_, which he edited for three years
(1780-1782) with J. G. A. Forster. He also published in 1794-1799 an
_Ausführliche Erklärung der Hogarthschen Kupferstiche_.

  Lichtenberg's _Vermischte Schriften_ were published by F. Kries in 9
  vols. (1800-1805); new editions in 8 vols. (1844-1846 and 1867).
  Selections by E. Grisebach, _Lichtenbergs Gedanken und Maximen_
  (1871); by F. Robertag (in Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_
  (vol. 141, 1886); and by A. Wilbrandt (1893). Lichtenberg's _Briefe_
  have been published in 3 vols, by C. Schüddekopf and A. Leitzmann
  (1900-1902); his _Aphorismen_ by A. Leitzmann (3 vols., 1902-1906).
  See also R. M. Meyer, _Swift und Lichtenberg_ (1886); F. Lauchert,
  _Lichtenbergs schriftstellerische Tätigkeit_ (1893); and A. Leitzmann,
  _Aus Lichtenbergs Nachlass_ (1899).

LICHTENBERG, formerly a small German principality on the west bank of
the Rhine, enclosed by the Nahe, the Blies and the Glan, now belonging
to the government district of Trier, Prussian Rhine province. The
principality was constructed of parts of the electorate of Trier, of
Nassau-Saarbrücken and other districts, and lay between Rhenish Bavaria
and the old Prussian province of the Rhine. Originally called the
lordship of Baumholder, it owed the name of Lichtenberg and its
elevation in 1819 to a principality to Ernest, duke of Saxe-Coburg, to
whom it was ceded by Prussia, in 1816, in accordance with terms agreed
upon at the congress of Vienna. The duke, however, restored it to
Prussia in 1834, in return for an annual pension of £12,000 sterling.
The area is about 210 sq. m.

LICINIANUS, GRANIUS, Roman annalist, probably lived in the age of the
Antonines (2nd century A.D.). He was the author of a brief epitome of
Roman history based upon Livy, which he utilized as a means of
displaying his antiquarian lore. Accounts of omens, portents, prodigies
and other remarkable things apparently took up a considerable portion of
the work. Some fragments of the books relating to the years 163-178 B.C.
are preserved in a British Museum MS.

  EDITIONS.--C. A. Pertz (1857); seven Bonn students (1858); M. Flemisch
  (1904); see also J. N. Madvig, _Kleine philologische Schriften_
  (1875), and the list of articles in periodicals in Flemisch's edition
  (p. iv.).

307-324, of Illyrian peasant origin, was born probably about 250. After
the death of Flavius Valerius Severus he was elevated to the rank of
Augustus by Galerius, his former friend and companion in arms, on the
11th of November 307, receiving as his immediate command the provinces
of Illyricum. On the death of Galerius, in May 311, he shared the entire
empire with Maximinus, the Hellespont and the Thracian Bosporus being
the dividing line. In March 313 he married Constantia, half-sister of
Constantine, at Mediolanum (Milan), in the following month inflicted a
decisive defeat on Maximinus at Heraclea Pontica, and established
himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was
supreme in the West. In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a
treasonable enterprise on the part of Bassianus against Constantine.
When his perfidy became known a civil war ensued, in which he was twice
severely defeated--first near Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8th, 314),
and next in the plain of Mardia in Thrace; the outward reconciliation,
which was effected in the following December, left Licinius in
possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but added numerous
provinces to the Western empire. In 323 Constantine, tempted by the
"advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war
against him, and, having defeated his army at Adrianople (3rd of July
323), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The
defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus,
Constantine's eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a
last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (18th of
September), finally resulted in his submission. He was interned at
Thessalonica and executed in the following year on a charge of
treasonable correspondence with the barbarians.

  See Zosimus ii. 7-28; Zonaras xiii. 1; Victor, _Caes._ 40, 41;
  Eutropius x. 3; Orosius vii. 28.

LICINIUS CALVUS STOLO, GAIUS, Roman statesman, the chief representative
of the plebeian Licinian gens, was tribune in 377 B.c., consul in 361.
His name is associated with the Licinian or Licinio-Sextian laws
(proposed 377, passed 367), which practically ended the struggle between
patricians and plebeians. He was himself fined for possessing a larger
share of the public land than his own law allowed.

  See ROME: _History_, II. "The Republic."

LICINIUS MACER CALVUS, GAIUS (82-47 B.C.), Roman poet and orator, was
the son of the annalist Licinius Macer. As a poet he is associated with
his friend Catullus, whom he followed in style and choice of subjects.
As an orator he was the leader of the opponents of the florid Asiatic
school, who took the simplest Attic orators as their model and attacked
even Cicero as wordy and artificial. Calvus held a correspondence on
questions connected with rhetoric, perhaps (if the reading be correct)
the _commentarii_ alluded to by Tacitus (_Dialogus_, 23; compare also
Cicero, _Ad Fam._ xv. 21). Twenty-one speeches by him are mentioned,
amongst which the most famous were those delivered against Publius
Vatinius. Calvus was very short of stature, and is alluded to by
Catullus (Ode 53) as _Salaputium disertum_ (eloquent Lilliputian).

  For Cicero's opinion see _Brutus_, 82; Quintilian x. I. 115; Tacitus,
  _Dialogus_, 18. 21; the monograph by F. Plessis (Paris, 1896) contains
  a collection of the fragments (verse and prose).

LICODIA EUBEA, a town of Sicily in the province of Catania, 4 m. W. of
Vizzini, which is 39 m. S.W. of Catania by rail. Pop. (1901) 7033. The
name Eubea was given to the place in 1872 owing to a false
identification with the Greek city of Euboea, a colony of Leontini,
founded probably early in the 6th century B.C. and taken by Gelon. The
town occupies the site of an unknown Sicel city, the cemeteries of which
have been explored. A few vases of the first period were found, but
practically all the tombs explored in 1898 belonged to the fourth period
(700-500 B.C.) and show the gradual process of Hellenization among the

  See _Römische Mitteilungen_, 1898, 305 seq.; _Notizie degli scavi_,
  1902, 219.     (T. As.)

LICTORS (_lictores_), in Roman antiquities, a class of the attendants
(_apparitores_) upon certain Roman and provincial magistrates.[1] As an
institution (supposed by some to have been borrowed from Etruria) they
went back to the regal period and continued to exist till imperial
times. The majority of the city lictors were freedmen; they formed a
corporation divided into decuries, from which the lictors of the
magistrates in office were drawn; provincial officials had the
nomination of their own. In Rome they wore the toga, perhaps girded up;
on a campaign and at the celebration of a triumph, the red military
cloak (_sagulum_); at funerals, black. As representatives of magistrates
who possessed the _imperium_, they carried the fasces and axes in front
of them (see FASCES). They were exempt from military service; received a
fixed salary; theoretically they were nominated for a year, but really
for life. They were the constant attendants, both in and out of the
house, of the magistrate to whom they were attached. They walked before
him in Indian file, cleared a passage for him (_summovere_) through the
crowd, and saw that he was received with the marks of respect due to his
rank. They stood by him when he took his seat on the tribunal; mounted
guard before his house, against the wall of which they stood the fasces;
summoned offenders before him, seized, bound and scourged them, and (in
earlier times) carried out the death sentence. It should be noted that
directly a magistrate entered an allied, independent state, he was
obliged to dispense with his lictors. The king had twelve lictors; each
of the consuls (immediately after their institution) twelve,
subsequently limited to the monthly officiating consul, although Caesar
appears to have restored the original arrangement; the dictator, as
representing both consuls, twenty-four; the emperors twelve, until the
time of Domitian, who had twenty-four. The Flamen Dialis, each of the
Vestals, the _magister-vicorum_ (overseer of the sections into which the
city was divided) were also accompanied by lictors. These lictors were
probably supplied from the _lictores curiatii_, thirty in number, whose
functions were specially religious, one of them being in attendance on
the pontifex maximus. They originally summoned the comitia curiata, and
when its meetings became merely a formality, acted as the
representatives of that assembly. Lictors were also assigned to private
individuals at the celebration of funeral games, and to the aediles at
the games provided by them and the theatrical representations under
their supervision.

  For the fullest account of the lictors, see Mommsen, _Römisches
  Staatsrecht_, i. 355, 374 (3rd ed., 1887).


  [1] The Greek equivalents of _lictor_ are [Greek: rabdouchos,
    rabdophoros, rabdonomos] (rod-bearer); the Latin word is variously
    derived from: (a) _ligare_, to bind or arrest a criminal; (b)
    _licere_, to summon, as convoking assemblies or haling offenders
    before the magistrate; (c) _licium_, the girdle with which (according
    to some) their toga was held up; (d) Plutarch (_Quaestiones Romanae_,
    67), assuming an older form [Greek: litôr], suggests an
    identification with [Greek: leitourgos], one who performs a public

LIDDELL, HENRY GEORGE (1811-1898), English scholar and divine, eldest
son of the Rev. Henry George Liddell, younger brother of the first Baron
Ravensworth, was born at Binchester, near Bishop Auckland, on the 6th of
February 1811. He was educated at Charterhouse and Christ Church,
Oxford. Gaining a double first in 1833, Liddell became a college tutor,
and was ordained in 1838. In the same year Dean Gaisford appointed him
Greek reader in Christ Church, and in 1846 he was appointed to the
headmastership of Westminster School. Meanwhile his life work, the great
_Lexicon_ (based on the German work of F. Passow), which he and Robert
Scott began as early as 1834, had made good progress, and the first
edition appeared in 1843. It immediately became the standard
Greek-English dictionary and still maintains this rank, although,
notwithstanding the great additions made of late to our Greek vocabulary
from inscriptions, papyri and other sources, scarcely any enlargement
has been made since about 1880. The 8th edition was published in 1897.
As headmaster of Westminster Liddell enjoyed a period of great success,
followed by trouble due to the outbreak of fever and cholera in the
school. In 1855 he accepted the deanery of Christ Church, then vacant by
the death of Gaisford. In the same year he brought out a _History of
Ancient Rome_ (much used in an abridged form as the _Student's History
of Rome_) and took a very active part in the first Oxford University
Commission. His tall figure, fine presence and aristocratic mien were
for many years associated with all that was characteristic of Oxford
life. Coming just at the transition period when the "old Christ Church,"
which Pusey strove so hard to preserve, was inevitably becoming broader
and more liberal, it was chiefly due to Liddell that necessary changes
were effected with the minimum of friction. In 1859 Liddell welcomed the
then prince of Wales when he matriculated at Christ Church, being the
first holder of that title who had matriculated since Henry V. In
conjunction with Sir Henry Acland, Liddell did much to encourage the
study of art at Oxford, and his taste and judgment gained him the
admiration and friendship of Ruskin. In 1891, owing to advancing years,
he resigned the deanery. The last years of his life were spent at Ascot,
where he died on the 18th of January 1898. Dean Liddell married in July
1846 Miss Lorina Reeve (d. 1910), by whom he had a numerous family.

  See memoir by H. L. Thompson, _Henry George Liddell_ (1899).

LIDDESDALE, the valley of Liddel Water, Roxburghshire, Scotland,
extending in a south-westerly direction from the vicinity of Peel Fell
to the Esk, a distance of 21 m. The Waverley route of the North British
railway runs down the dale, and the Catrail, or Picts' Dyke, crosses its
head. At one period the points of vantage on the river and its affluents
were occupied with freebooters' peel-towers, but many of them have
disappeared and the remainder are in decay. Larriston Tower belonged to
the Elliots, Mangerton to the Armstrongs and Park to "little Jock
Elliot," the outlaw who nearly killed Bothwell in an encounter in 1566.
The chief point of interest in the valley, however, is Hermitage Castle,
a vast, massive H-shaped fortress of enormous strength, one of the
oldest baronial buildings in Scotland. It stands on a hill overlooking
Hermitage Water, a tributary of the Liddel. It was built in 1244 by
Nicholas de Soulis and was captured by the English in David II.'s reign.
It was retaken by Sir William Douglas, who received a grant of it from
the king. In 1492 Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of Angus, exchanged it for
Bothwell Castle on the Clyde with Patrick Hepburn, 1st earl of Bothwell.
It finally passed to the duke of Buccleuch, under whose care further
ruin has been arrested. It was here that Sir Alexander Ramsay of
Dalhousie was starved to death by Sir William Douglas in 1342, and that
James Hepburn, 4th earl of Bothwell, was visited by Mary, queen of
Scots, after the assault referred to.

  To the east of the castle is Ninestane Rig, a hill 943 ft. high, 4 m.
  long and 1 m. broad, where it is said that William de Soulis, hated
  for oppression and cruelty, was (in 1320) boiled by his own vassals in
  a copper cauldron, which was supported on two of the nine stones which
  composed the "Druidical" circle that gave the ridge its name. Only
  five of the stones remain. James Telfer (1802-1862), the writer of
  ballads, who was born in the parish of Southdean (pronounced Soudan),
  was for several years schoolmaster of Saughtree, near the head of the
  valley. The castle of the lairds of Liddesdale stood near the junction
  of Hermitage Water and the Liddel and around it grew up the village of

LIDDON, HENRY PARRY (1829-1890), English divine, was the son of a naval
captain and was born at North Stoneham, Hampshire, on the 20th of August
1829. He was educated at King's College School, London, and at Christ
Church, Oxford, where he graduated, taking a second class, in 1850. As
vice-principal of the theological college at Cuddesdon (1854-1859) he
wielded considerable influence, and, on returning to Oxford as
vice-principal of St Edmund's Hall, became a growing force among the
undergraduates, exercising his influence in strong opposition to the
liberal reaction against Tractarianism, which had set in after Newman's
secession in 1845. In 1864 the bishop of Salisbury (W. K. Hamilton),
whose examining chaplain he had been, appointed him prebendary of
Salisbury cathedral. In 1866 he delivered his Bampton Lectures on the
doctrine of the divinity of Christ. From that time his fame as a
preacher, which had been steadily growing, may be considered
established. In 1870 he was made canon of St Paul's Cathedral, London.
He had before this published _Some Words for God_, in which, with great
power and eloquence, he combated the scepticism of the day. His
preaching at St Paul's soon attracted vast crowds. The afternoon sermon,
which fell to the lot of the canon in residence, had usually been
delivered in the choir, but soon after Liddon's appointment it became
necessary to preach the sermon under the dome, where from 3000 to 4000
persons used to gather to hear the preacher. Few orators belonging to
the Church of England have acquired so great a reputation as Liddon.
Others may have surpassed him in originality, learning or reasoning
power, but for grasp of his subject, clearness of language, lucidity of
arrangement, felicity of illustration, vividness of imagination,
elegance of diction, and above all, for sympathy with the intellectual
position of those whom he addressed, he has hardly been rivalled. In the
elaborate arrangement of his matter he is thought to have imitated the
great French preachers of the age of Louis XIV. In 1870 he had also been
made Ireland professor of exegesis at Oxford. The combination of the two
appointments gave him extensive influence over the Church of England.
With Dean Church he may be said to have restored the waning influence of
the Tractarian school, and he succeeded in popularizing the opinions
which, in the hands of Pusey and Keble, had appealed to thinkers and
scholars. His forceful spirit was equally conspicuous in his opposition
to the Church Discipline Act of 1874, and in his denunciation of the
Bulgarian atrocities of 1876. In 1882 he resigned his professorship and
utilized his thus increased leisure by travelling in Palestine and
Egypt, and showed his interest in the Old Catholic movement by visiting
Döllinger at Munich. In 1886 he became chancellor of St Paul's, and it
is said that he declined more than one offer of a bishopric. He died on
the 9th of September 1890, in the full vigour of his intellect and at
the zenith of his reputation. He had undertaken and nearly completed an
elaborate life of Dr Pusey, for whom his admiration was unbounded; and
this work was completed after his death by Messrs Johnston and Wilson.
Liddon's great influence during his life was due to his personal
fascination and the beauty of his pulpit oratory rather than to any high
qualities of intellect. As a theologian his outlook was that of the 16th
rather than the 19th century; and, reading his Bampton Lectures now, it
is difficult to realize how they can ever have been hailed as a great
contribution to Christian apologetics. To the last he maintained the
narrow standpoint of Pusey and Keble, in defiance of all the
developments of modern thought and modern scholarship; and his latter
years were embittered by the consciousness that the younger generation
of the disciples of his school were beginning to make friends of the
Mammon of scientific unrighteousness. The publication in 1889 of _Lux
Mundi_, a series of essays attempting to harmonize Anglican Catholic
doctrine with modern thought, was a severe blow to him, for it showed
that even at the Pusey House, established as the citadel of Puseyism at
Oxford, the principles of Pusey were being departed from. Liddon's
importance is now mainly historical. He was the last of the classical
pulpit orators of the English Church, the last great popular exponent of
the traditional Anglican orthodoxy. Besides the works mentioned, Liddon
published several volumes of _Sermons_, a volume of Lent lectures
entitled _Some Elements of Religion_ (1870), and a collection of _Essays
and Addresses_ on such themes as Buddhism, Dante, &c.

  See _Life and Letters_, by J. O. Johnston (1904); G. W. E. Russell,
  _H. P. Liddon_ (1903); A. B. Donaldson, _Five Great Oxford Leaders_
  (1900), from which the life of Liddon was reprinted separately in

LIE, JONAS LAURITZ EDEMIL (1833-1908), Norwegian novelist, was born on
the 6th of November 1833 close to Hougsund (Eker), near Drammen. In
1838, his father being appointed sheriff of Tromsö, the family removed
to that Arctic town. Here the future novelist enjoyed an untrammelled
childhood among the shipping of the little Nordland capital, and gained
acquaintance with the wild seafaring life which he was afterwards to
describe. In 1846 he was sent to the naval school at Frederiksvaern, but
his extreme near-sight unfitted him for the service, and he was
transferred to the Latin school at Bergen. In 1851 he went to the
university of Christiania, where Ibsen and Björnson were among his
fellow-students. Jonas Lie, however, showed at this time no inclination
to literature. He pursued his studies as a lawyer, took his degrees in
law in 1858, and settled down to practice as a solicitor in the little
town of Kongsvinger. In 1860 he married his cousin, Thomasine Lie, whose
collaboration in his work he acknowledged in 1893 in a graceful article
in the _Samtiden_ entitled "Min hustru." In 1866 he published his first
book, a volume of poems. He made unlucky speculations in wood, and the
consequent financial embarrassment induced him to return to Christiania
to try his luck as a man of letters. As a journalist he had no success,
but in 1870 he published a melancholy little romance, _Den Fremsynte_
(Eng. trans., _The Visionary_, 1894), which made him famous. Lie
proceeded to Rome, and published Tales in 1871 and _Tremasteren
"Fremtiden"_ (Eng. trans., _The Barque "Future,"_ Chicago, 1879), a
novel, in 1872. His first great book, however, was _Lodsen og hans
Hustru_ (_The Pilot and his Wife_, 1874), which placed him at the head
of Norwegian novelists; it was written in the little town of Rocca di
Papa in the Albano mountains. From that time Lie enjoyed, with Björnson
and Ibsen, a stipend as poet from the Norwegian government. Lie spent
the next few years partly in Dresden, partly in Stuttgart, with frequent
summer excursions to Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian highlands. During his
exile he produced the drama in verse called _Faustina Strozzi_ (1876).
Returning to Norway, Lie began a series of romances of modern life in
Christiania, of which _Thomas Ross_ (1878) and _Adam Schrader_ (1879)
were the earliest. He returned to Germany, and settled first in Dresden
again, then in Hamburg, until 1882, when he took up his abode in Paris,
where he lived in close retirement in the society of Scandinavian
friends. His summers were spent at Berchtesgaden in Tirol. The novels of
his German period are _Rutland_ (1881) and _Gaa paa_ ("_Go Ahead!_"
1882), tales of life in the Norwegian merchant navy. His subsequent
works, produced with great regularity, enjoyed an immense reputation in
Norway. Among the best of them are: _Livsslaven_ (1883, Eng. trans.,
"_One of Life's Slaves_," 1895); _Familjen paa Gilje_ ("_The Family of
Gilje_," 1883); _Malstroem_ (1885), describing the gradual ruin of a
Norwegian family; _Et Samliv_ ("_Life in Common_," 1887), describing a
marriage of convenience. Two of the most successful of his novels were
_The Commodore's Daughters_ (1886) and Niobe (1894), both of which were
presented to English readers in the International library, edited by Mr
Gosse. In 1891-1892 he wrote, under the influence of the new romantic
impulse, twenty-four folk-tales, printed in two volumes entitled
_Trold_. Some of these were translated by R. N. Bain in _Weird Tales_
(1893), illustrated by L. Housman. Among his later works were the
romance _Naar Sol gaar ned_ ("_When the Sun goes down_," 1895), the
powerful novel of _Dyre Rein_ (1896), the fairy drama of _Lindelin_
(1897), _Faste Forland_ (1899), a romance which contains much which is
autobiographical, _When the Iron Curtain falls_ (1901), and _The Consul_
(1904). _His Samlede Vaerker_ were published at Copenhagen in 14 vols.
(1902-1904). Jonas Lie left Paris in 1891, and, after spending a year in
Rome, returned to Norway, establishing himself at Holskogen, near
Christiansand. He died at Christiania on the 5th of July 1908. As a
novelist he stands with those minute and unobtrusive painters of
contemporary manners who defy arrangement in this or that school. He is
with Mrs Gaskell or Ferdinand Fabre; he is not entirely without relation
with that old-fashioned favourite of the public, Fredrika Bremer.

  His son, Erik Lie (b. 1868), published a successful volume of stories,
  _Med Blyanten_, in 1890; and is also the author of various works on
  literary history. An elder son, Mons Lie (b. 1864), studied the violin
  in Paris, but turned to literature in 1894. Among his works are the
  plays _Tragedier om Kjaerlighed_ (1897); _Lombardo and Agrippina_
  (1898); _Don Juan_ (1900); and the novels, _Sjöfareren_ (1901); _Adam
  Ravn_ (1903) and _I. Kvindensnet_ (1904).     (E. G.)

LIE, MARIUS SOPHUS (1842-1899), Norwegian mathematician, was born at
Nordfjordeif, near Bergen, on the 17th of December 1842, and was educated
at the university of Christiania, where he took his doctor's degree in
1868 and became extraordinary professor of mathematics (a chair created
specially for him) four years later. In 1886 he was chosen to succeed
Felix Klein in the chair of geometry at Leipzig, but as his fame grew a
special post was arranged for him in Christiania. But his health was
broken down by too assiduous study, and he died at Christiania on the
18th of February 1899, six months after his return. Lie's work exercised
a great influence on the progress of mathematical science during the
later decades of the 19th century. His primary aim has been declared to
be the advancement and elaboration of the theory of differential
equations, and it was with this end in view that he developed his theory
of transformation groups, set forth in his _Theorie der
Transformationsgruppen_ (3 vols., Leipzig, 1888-1893), a work of wide
range and great originality, by which probably his name is best known. A
special application of his theory of continuous groups was to the general
problem of non-Euclidean geometry. The latter part of the book above
mentioned was devoted to a study of the foundations of geometry,
considered from the standpoint of B. Riemann and H. von Helmholtz; and he
intended to publish a systematic exposition of his geometrical
investigations, in conjunction with Dr G. Scheffers, but only one volume
made its appearance (_Geometrie der Berührungstransformationen_, Leipzig,
1896). Lie was a foreign member of the Royal Society, as well as an
honorary member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and the London
Mathematical Society, and his geometrical inquiries gained him the
much-coveted honour of the Lobatchewsky prize.

  An analysis of Lie's works is given in the _Bibliotheca Mathematica_
  (Leipzig, 1900).

LIEBER, FRANCIS (1800-1872), German-American publicist, was born at
Berlin on the 18th of March 1800. He served with his two brothers under
Blücher in the campaign of 1815, fighting at Ligny, Waterloo and Namur,
where he was twice dangerously wounded. Shortly afterwards he was
arrested for his political sentiments, the chief evidence against him
being several songs of liberty which he had written. After several
months he was discharged without a trial, but was forbidden to pursue
his studies at the Prussian universities. He accordingly went to Jena,
where he took his degrees in 1820, continuing his studies at Halle and
Dresden. He subsequently took part in the Greek War of Independence,
publishing his experiences in his _Journal in Greece_ (Leipzig, 1823,
and under the title _The German Anacharsis_, Amsterdam, 1823). For a
year he was in Rome as tutor to the son of the historian Niebuhr, then
Prussian ambassador. Returning to Berlin in 1823, he was imprisoned at
Koepenik, but was released after some months through the influence of
Niebuhr. In 1827 he went to the United States and as soon as possible
was naturalized as a citizen. He settled at Boston, and for five years
edited _The Encyclopaedia Americana_ (13 vols.). From 1835 to 1856 he
was professor of history and political economy in South Carolina College
at Columbia, S.C., and during this period wrote his three chief works,
_Manual of Political Ethics_ (1838), _Legal and Political Hermeneutics_
(1839), and _Civil Liberty and Self Government_ (1853). In 1856 he
resigned and next year was elected to a similar post in Columbia
College, New York, and in 1865 became professor of constitutional
history and public law in the same institution. During the Civil War
Lieber rendered services of great value to the government. He was one
of the first to point out the madness of secession, and was active in
upholding the Union. He prepared, upon the requisition of the president,
the important _Code of War for the Government of the Armies of the
United States in the Field_, which was promulgated by the Government in
General Orders No. 100 of the war department. This code suggested to
Bluntschli his codification of the law of nations, as may be seen in the
preface to his _Droit International Codifié_. During this period also
Lieber wrote his _Guerilla Parties with Reference to the Laws and Usages
of War_. At the time of his death he was the umpire of the commission
for the adjudication of Mexican claims. He died on the 2nd of October
1872. His books were acquired by the University of California, and his
papers were placed in the Johns Hopkins University.

  His _Miscellaneous Writings_ were published by D. C. Gilman
  (Philadelphia, 1881). See T. S. Perry, _Life and Letters_ (1882), and
  biography by Harby (1899).

LIEBERMANN, MAX (1849-   ), German painter and etcher, was born in
Berlin. After studying under Steffeck, he entered the school of art at
Weimar in 1869. Though the straightforward simplicity of his first
exhibited picture, "Women plucking Geese," in 1872, presented already a
striking contrast to the conventional art then in vogue, it was heavy
and bituminous in colour, like all the artist's paintings before his
visit to Paris at the end of 1872. A summer spent at Barbizon in 1873,
where he became personally acquainted with Millet and had occasion to
study the works of Corot, Troyon, and Daubigny, resulted in the clearing
and brightening of his palette, and taught him to forget the example of
Munkacsy, under whose influence he had produced his first pictures in
Paris. He subsequently went to Holland, where the example of Israels
confirmed him in the method he had adopted at Barbizon; but on his
return to Munich in 1878 he caused much unfavourable criticism by his
realistic painting of "Christ in the Temple," which was condemned by the
clergy as irreverent and remained his only attempt at a scriptural
subject. Henceforth he devoted himself exclusively to the study of
free-light and to the painting of the life of humble folk. He found his
best subjects in the orphanages and asylums for the old in Amsterdam,
among the peasants in the fields and village streets of Holland, and in
the beer-gardens, factories, and workrooms of his own country. Germany
was reluctant, however, in admitting the merit of an artist whose style
and method were so markedly at variance with the time-honoured academic
tradition. Only when his fame was echoed back from France, Belgium, and
Holland did his compatriots realize the eminent position which is his
due in the history of German art. It is hardly too much to say that
Liebermann has done for his country what Millet did for France. His
pictures hold the fragrance of the soil and the breezes of the heavens.
His people move in their proper atmosphere, and their life is stated in
all its monotonous simplicity, without artificial pathos or melodramatic
exaggeration. His first success was a medal awarded him for "An Asylum
for Old Men" at the 1881 Salon. In 1884 he settled again in Berlin,
where he became professor of the Academy in 1898. He became a member of
the Société nationale des Beaux Arts, of the Société royale belge des
Aquarellistes, and of the Cercle des Aquarellistes at the Hague.
Liebermann is represented in most of the German and other continental
galleries. The Berlin National Gallery owns "The Flax-Spinners"; the
Munich Pinakothek, "The Woman with Goats"; the Hamburg Gallery, "The
Net-Menders"; the Hanover Gallery, the "Village Street in Holland." "The
Seamstress" is at the Dresden Gallery; the "Man on the Dunes" at
Leipzig; "Dutch Orphan Girls" at Strassburg; "Beer-cellar at
Brandenburg" at the Luxembourg Museum in Paris, and the "Knöpflerinnen"
in Venice. His etchings are to be found in the leading print cabinets of

LIEBIG, JUSTUS VON, BARON (1803-1873), German chemist, was born at
Darmstadt, according to his baptismal certificate, on the 12th of May
1803 (4th of May, according to his mother). His father, a drysalter and
dealer in colours, used sometimes to make experiments in the hope of
finding improved processes for the production of his wares, and thus his
son early acquired familiarity with practical chemistry. For the
theoretical side he read all the text-books which he could find,
somewhat to the detriment of his ordinary school studies. Having
determined to make chemistry his profession, at the age of fifteen he
entered the shop of an apothecary at Appenheim, near Darmstadt; but he
soon found how great is the difference between practical pharmacy and
scientific chemistry, and the explosions and other incidents that
accompanied his private efforts to increase his chemical knowledge
disposed his master to view without regret his departure at the end of
ten months. He next entered the university of Bonn, but migrated to
Erlangen when the professor of chemistry, K. W. G. Kastner (1783-1857),
was appointed in 1821 to the chair of physics and chemistry at the
latter university. He followed this professor to learn how to analyse
certain minerals, but in the end he found that the teacher himself was
ignorant of the process. Indeed, as he himself said afterwards, it was a
wretched time for chemistry in Germany. No laboratories were accessible
to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the
universities could give in the lecture-room and the library, and though
both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the
deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students'
physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and
speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own
country. Therefore, having graduated as Ph.D. in 1822, he left
Erlangen--where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the
"greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in
a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and
genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life--and by
the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled
to go to Paris. By the help of L. J. Thénard he gained admission to the
private laboratory of H. F. Gaultier de Claubry (1792-1873), professor
of chemistry at the École de Pharmacie, and soon afterwards, by the
influence of A. von Humboldt, to that of Gay-Lussac, where in 1824 he
concluded his investigations on the composition of the fulminates. It
was on Humboldt's advice that he determined to become a teacher of
chemistry, but difficulties stood in his way. As a native of
Hesse-Darmstadt he ought, according to the academical rules of the time,
to have studied and graduated at the university of Giessen, and it was
only through the influence of Humboldt that the authorities forgave him
for straying to the foreign university of Erlangen. After examination
his Erlangen degree was recognized, and in 1824 he was appointed
extraordinary professor of chemistry at Giessen, becoming ordinary
professor two years later. In this small town his most important work
was accomplished. His first care was to persuade the Darmstadt
government to provide a chemical laboratory in which the students might
obtain a proper practical training. This laboratory, unique of its kind
at the time, in conjunction with Liebig's unrivalled gifts as a teacher,
soon rendered Giessen the most famous chemical school in the world; men
flocked from every country to enjoy its advantages, and many of the most
accomplished chemists of the 19th century had to thank it for their
early training. Further, it gave a great impetus to the progress of
chemical education throughout Germany, for the continued admonitions of
Liebig combined with the influence of his pupils induced many other
universities to build laboratories modelled on the same plan. He
remained at Giessen for twenty-eight years, until in 1852 he accepted
the invitation of the Bavarian government to the ordinary chair of
chemistry at Munich university, and this office he held, although he was
offered the chair at Berlin in 1865, until his death, which occurred at
Munich on the 10th of April 1873.

  Apart from Liebig's labours for the improvement of chemical teaching,
  the influence of his experimental researches and of his contributions
  to chemical thought was felt in every branch of the science. In regard
  to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements
  in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the
  natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of
  organic bases bv means of their chloroplatinates, his process for
  determining the quantity of urea in a solution--the first step
  towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical
  medicine--and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in
  every laboratory. His contributions to inorganic chemistry were
  numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony,
  aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and
  on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in
  importance by his work on organic substances. In this domain his first
  research was on the fulminates of mercury and silver, and his study of
  these bodies led him to the discovery of the isomerism of cyanic and
  fulminic acids, for the composition of fulminic acid as found by him
  was the same as that of cyanic acid, as found by F. Wöhler, and it
  became necessary to admit them to be two bodies which differed in
  properties, though of the same percentage composition. Further work on
  cyanogen and connected substances yielded a great number of
  interesting derivatives, and he described an improved method for the
  manufacture of potassium cyanide, an agent which has since proved of
  enormous value in metallurgy and the arts. In 1832 he published,
  jointly with Wöhler, one of the most famous papers in the history of
  chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein
  it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an
  unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil
  of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
  Berzelius hailed this discovery as marking the dawn of a new era in
  organic chemistry, and proposed for benzoyl the names "Proïn" or
  "Orthrin" (from [Greek: prôi] and [Greek: örthrus]). A continuation of
  their work on bitter almond oil by Liebig and Wöhler, who remained
  firm friends for the rest of their lives, resulted in the elucidation
  of the mode of formation of that substance and in the discovery of the
  ferment emulsin as well as the recognition of the first glucoside,
  amygdalin, while another and not less important and far-reaching
  inquiry in which they collaborated was that on uric acid, published in
  1837. About 1832 he began his investigations into the constitution of
  ether and alcohol and their derivatives. These on the one hand
  resulted in the enunciation of his ethyl theory, by the light of which
  he looked upon those substances as compounds of the radicle ethyl
  (C2H5), in opposition to the view of J. B. A. Dumas, who regarded them
  as hydrates of olefiant gas (ethylene); on the other they yielded
  chloroform, chloral and aldehyde, as well as other compounds of less
  general interest, and also the method of forming mirrors by depositing
  silver from a slightly ammoniacal solution by acet aldehyde. In 1837
  with Dumas he published a note on the constitution of organic acids,
  and in the following year an elaborate paper on the same subject
  appeared under his own name alone; by this work T. Graham's doctrine
  of polybasicity was extended to the organic acids. Liebig also did
  much to further the hydrogen theory of acids.

  These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his
  attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life
  were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of
  life, both animal and vegetable. In animal physiology he set himself
  to trace out the operation of determinate chemical and physical laws
  in the maintenance of life and health. To this end he examined such
  immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the
  juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and
  investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he
  classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special
  function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the
  philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical
  opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of
  the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the
  organism. A secondary result of this line of study was the preparation
  of his food for infants and of his extract of meat. Vegetable
  physiology he pursued with special reference to agriculture, which he
  held to be the foundation of all trade and industry, but which could
  not be rationally practised without the guidance of chemical
  principles. His first publication on this subject was _Die Chemie in
  ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie_ in 1840, which was at
  once translated into English by Lyon Playfair. Rejecting the old
  notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that
  they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia
  present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to
  the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and
  fermentation--which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in
  nature--while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come
  from the soil. Of the carbon dioxide and ammonia no exhaustion can
  take place, but of the mineral constituents the supply is limited
  because the soil cannot afford an indefinite amount of them; hence the
  chief care of the farmer, and the function of manures, is to restore
  to the soil those minerals which each crop is found, by the analysis
  of its ashes, to take up in its growth. On this theory he prepared
  artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances
  together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held
  that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and
  carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land
  which he obtained from the town of Giessen in 1845. But in practice
  the results were not wholly satisfactory, and it was a long time
  before he recognized one important reason for the failure in the fact
  that to prevent the alkalis from being washed away by the rain he had
  taken pains to add them in an insoluble form, whereas, as was
  ultimately suggested to him by experiments performed by J. T. Way
  about 1850, this precaution was not only superfluous but harmful,
  because the soil possesses a power of absorbing the soluble saline
  matters required by plants and of retaining them, in spite of rain,
  for assimilation by the roots.

  Liebig's literary activity was very great. The Royal Society's
  _Catalogue of Scientific Papers_ enumerates 318 memoirs under his
  name, exclusive of many others published in collaboration with other
  investigators. A certain impetuousness of character which disposed him
  to rush into controversy whenever doubt was cast upon the views he
  supported accounted for a great deal of writing, and he also carried
  on an extensive correspondence with Wöhler and other scientific men.
  In 1832 he founded the _Annalen der Pharmazie_, which became the
  _Annalen der Chemie und Pharmazie_ in 1840 when Wöhler became
  joint-editor with himself, and in 1837 with Wöhler and Poggendorff he
  established the _Handwörterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie_.
  After the death of Berzelius he continued the _Jahresbericht_ with H.
  F. M. Kopp. The following are his most important separate
  publications, many of which were translated into English and French
  almost as soon as they appeared: _Anleitung zur Analyse der
  organischen Körper_ (1837); _Die Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf
  Agrikultur und Physiologie_ (1840); _Die Thier-Chemie oder die
  organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie_
  (1842); _Handbuch der organischen Chemie mit Rücksicht auf Pharmazie_
  (1843); _Chemische Briefe_ (1844); _Chemische Untersuchungen über das
  Fleisch und seine Zubereitung zum Nahrungsmittel_ (1847); _Die
  Grundsätze der Agrikultur-Chemie_ (1855); _Über Theorie und Praxis in
  der Landwirthschaft_ (1856); _Naturwissenschaftliche Briefe über die
  moderne Landwirtschaft_ (1859). A posthumous collection of his
  miscellaneous addresses and publications appeared in 1874 as _Reden
  und Abhandlungen_, edited by his son George (b. 1827). His criticism
  of Bacon, _Über Francis von Verulam_, was first published in 1863 in
  the _Augsburger allgemeine Zeitung_, where also most of his letters on
  chemistry made their first appearance.

  See _The Life Work of Liebig_ (London, 1876), by his pupil A. W. von
  Hofmann, which is the Faraday lecture delivered before the London
  Chemical Society in March 1875, and is reprinted in Hofmann's _Zur
  Erinnerung an vorangegangene Freunde_; also W. A. Shenstone, _Justus
  von Liebig, his Life and Work_ (1895).

LIEBKNECHT, WILHELM (1826-1900), German socialist, was burn at Giessen
on the 29th of March 1826. Left an orphan at an early age, he was
educated at the gymnasium in his native town, and attended the
universities of Giessen, Bonn and Marburg. Before he left school he had
become affected by the political discontent then general in Germany; he
had already studied the writings of St Simon, from which he gained his
first interest in communism, and had been converted to the extreme
republican theories of which Giessen was a centre. He soon came into
conflict with the authorities, and was expelled from Berlin apparently
in consequence of the strong sympathy he displayed for some Poles, who
were being tried for high treason. He proposed in 1846 to migrate to
America, but went instead to Switzerland, where he earned his living as
a teacher. As soon as the revolution of 1848 broke out he hastened to
Paris, but the attempt to organize a republican corps for the invasion
of Germany was prevented by the government. In September, however, in
concert with Gustav von Struve, he crossed the Rhine from Switzerland at
the head of a band of volunteers, and proclaimed a republic in Baden.
The attempt collapsed; he was captured, and, after suffering eight
months' imprisonment, was brought to trial. Fortunately for him, a new
rising had just broken out; the mob burst into the court, and he was
acquitted. During the short duration of the revolutionary government he
was an active member of the most extreme party, but on the arrival of
the Prussian troops he succeeded in escaping to France. Thence he went
to Geneva, where he came into intercourse with Mazzini; but, unlike most
of the German exiles, he was already an adherent of the socialist creed,
which at that time was more strongly held in France. Expelled from
Switzerland he went to London, where he lived for thirteen years in
close association with Karl Marx. He endured great hardships, but
secured a livelihood by teaching and writing; he was a correspondent of
the _Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung_. The amnesty of 1861 opened for him
the way back to Germany, and in 1862 he accepted the post of editor of
the _Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung_, the founder of which was an old
revolutionist. Only a few months elapsed before the paper, passed under
Bismarck's influence. There is no more curious episode in German
history than the success with which Bismarck acquired the services of
many of the men of 1848, but Liebknecht remained faithful to his
principles and resigned his editorship. He became a member of the
Arbeiterverein, and after the death of Ferdinand Lassalle he was the
chief mouthpiece in Germany of Karl Marx, and was instrumental in
spreading the influence of the newly-founded _International_. Expelled
from Prussia in 1865, he settled at Leipzig, and it is primarily to his
activity in Saxony among the newly-formed unions of workers that the
modern social democrat party owes its origin. Here he conducted the
_Demokratisches Wochenblatt_. In 1867 he was elected a member of the
North German Reichstag, but in opposition to Lassalle's followers he
refused all compromise with the "capitalists," and avowedly used his
position merely for purposes of agitation whilst taking every
opportunity for making the parliament ridiculous. He was strongly
influenced by the "great German" traditions of the democrats of 1848,
and, violently anti-Prussian, he distinguished himself by his attacks on
the policy of 1866 and the "revolution from above," and by his
opposition to every form of militarism. His adherence to the traditions
of 1848 are also seen in his dread of Russia, which he maintained to his
death. His opposition to the war of 1870 exposed him to insults and
violence, and in 1872 he was condemned to two years' imprisonment in a
fortress for treasonable intentions. The Union of the German Socialists
in 1874 at the congress of Gotha was really a triumph of his influence,
and from that time he was regarded as founder and leader of the party.
From 1874 till his death he was a member of the German Reichstag, and
for many years also of the Saxon diet. He was one of the chief spokesmen
of the party, and he took a very important part in directing its policy.
In 1881 he was expelled from Leipzig, but took up his residence in a
neighbouring village. After the lapse of the Socialist law (1890) he
became chief editor of the _Vorwärts_, and settled in Berlin. If he did
not always find it easy in his later years to follow the new
developments, he preserved to his death the idealism of his youth, the
hatred both of Liberalism and of State Socialism; and though he was to
some extent overshadowed by Bebel's greater oratorical power, he was the
chief support of the orthodox Marxian tradition. Liebknecht was the
author of numerous pamphlets and books, of which the most important
were: _Robert Blum und seine Zeit_ (Nuremberg, 1892); _Geschichte der
Französischen Revolution_ (Dresden, 1890); _Die Emser Depesche_
(Nuremberg, 1899) and _Robert Owen_ (Nuremberg, 1892). He died at
Charlottenburg on the 6th of August 1900.

  See Kurt Eisner, _Wilhelm Liebknecht, sein Leben und Wirken_ (Berlin,

LIECHTENSTEIN, the smallest independent state in Europe, save San Marino
and Monaco. It lies some way S. of the Lake of Constance, and extends
along the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Swiss territory, between
Sargans and Sennwald, while on the E. it also comprises the upper
portion of the Samina glen that joins the Ill valley at Frastanz, above
Feldkirch. It is about 12 m. in length, and covers an area of 61.4 or
68.8 sq. m. (according to different estimates). Its loftiest point rises
at the S.E. angle of the state, in the Rhätikon range, and is named to
Naafkopf or the Rothe Wand (8445 ft.); on its summit the Swiss,
Vorarlberg, and Liechtenstein frontiers join. In 1901 the population was
9477 (of whom 4890 were women and 4587 men). The capital is Vaduz (1523
ft.), with about 1100 inhabitants, and 2 m. S. of the Schaan railway
station, which is 2 m. from Buchs (Switz.). Even in the 17th century the
Romonsch language was not extinguished in the state, and many Romonsch
place-names still linger, e.g. Vaduz, Samina, Gavadura, &c. Now the
population is German-speaking and Romanist. The constitution of 1862 was
amended in 1878, 1895 and 1901. All males of 24 years of age are primary
electors, while the diet consists of 12 members, holding their seats for
4 years and elected indirectly, together with 3 members nominated by the
prince. The prince has a lieutenant resident at Vaduz, whence there is
an appeal to the prince's court at Vienna, with a final appeal (since
1884) to the supreme district court at Innsbruck. Compulsory military
service was abolished in 1868, the army having till then been 91 strong.
The principality forms ecclesiastically part of the diocese of Coire,
while as regards customs duties it is joined with the Vorarlberg, and as
regards postal and coinage arrangements with Austria, which (according
to the agreement of 1852, renewed in 1876, by which the principality
entered the Austrian customs union) must pay it at least 40,000 crowns
annually. In 1904 the revenues of the principality amounted to 888,931
crowns, and its expenditure to 802,163 crowns. There is no public debt.

The county of Vaduz and the lordship of Schellenberg passed through many
hands before they were bought in 1613 by the count of Hohenems (to the
N. of Feldkirch). In consequence of financial embarrassments, that
family had to sell both (the lordship in 1699, the county in 1713) to
the Liechtenstein family, which had since the 12th century owned two
castles of that name (both now ruined), one in Styria and the other a
little S.W. of Vienna. In 1719 these new acquisitions were raised by the
emperor into a principality under the name of Liechtenstein, which
formed part successively of the Holy Roman Empire (till 1806) and of the
German Confederation (1815-1866), having been sovereign 1806-1815 as
well as since 1866.

  See J. Falke's _Geschichte d. fürstlichen Hauses Liechtenstein_ (3
  vols., Vienna, 1868-1883); J. C. Heer, _Vorarlberg und Liechtenstein_
  (Feldkirch, 1906); P. Kaiser, _Geschichte d. Fürstenthums
  Liechtenstein_ (Coire, 1847); F. Umlauft, _Das Fürstenthum
  Liechtenstein_ (Vienna, 1891); E. Walder, _Aus den Bergen_ (Zürich,
  1896); A. Waltenberger, _Algäu, Vorarlberg, und Westtirol_ (Rtes. 25
  and 26) (10th ed., Innsbruck, 1906).     (W. A. B. C.)

LIÉGE, one of the nine provinces of Belgium, touching on the east the
Dutch province of Limburg and the German district of Rhenish Prussia. To
a certain extent it may be assumed to represent the old
prince-bishopric. Besides the city of Liége it contains the towns of
Verviers, Dolhain, Seraing, Huy, &c. The Meuse flows through the centre
of the province, and its valley from Huy down to Herstal is one of the
most productive mineral districts in Belgium. Much has been done of late
years to develop the agricultural resources of the Condroz district
south of the Meuse. The area of the province is 723,470 acres, or 1130
sq. m. The population in 1904 was 863,254, showing an average of 763 per
sq. m.

LIÉGE (Walloon, _Lige_, Flemish, _Luik_, Ger. _Lüttich_), the capital of
the Belgian province that bears its name. It is finely situated on the
Meuse, and was long the seat of a prince-bishopric. It is the centre of
the Walloon country, and Scott commits a curious mistake in _Quentin
Durward_ in making its people talk Flemish. The Liége Walloon is the
nearest existing approach to the old Romance language. The importance of
the city to-day arises from its being the chief manufacturing centre in
Belgium, and owing to its large output of arms it has been called the
Birmingham of the Netherlands. The productive coal-mines of the Meuse
valley, extending from its western suburb of Seraing to its northern
faubourg of Herstal, constitute its chief wealth. At Seraing is
established the famous manufacturing firm of Cockerill, whose offices
are in the old summer palace of the prince-bishops.

The great cathedral of St Lambert was destroyed and sacked by the French
in 1794, and in 1802 the church of St Paul, dating from the 10th century
but rebuilt in the 13th, was declared the cathedral. The law courts are
installed in the old palace of the prince-bishops, a building which was
constructed by Bishop Everard de la Marck between 1508 and 1540. The new
boulevards are well laid out, especially those flanking the river, and
the views of the city and surrounding country are very fine. The
university, which has separate schools for mines and arts and
manufactures, is one of the largest in the country, and enjoys a high
reputation for teaching in its special line.

Liége is a fortified position of far greater strength than is generally
appreciated. In the wars of the 18th century Liége played but a small
part. It was then defended only by the citadel and a detached fort on
the right side of the Meuse, but at a short distance from the river,
called the Chartreuse. Marlborough captured these forts in 1703 in
preparation for his advance in the following year into Germany which
resulted in the victory of Blenheim. The citadel and the Chartreuse were
still the only defences of Liége in 1888 when, after long discussions,
the Belgian authorities decided on adequately fortifying the two
important passages of the Meuse at Liége and Namur. A similar plan was
adopted at each place, viz. the construction of a number of detached
forts along a perimeter drawn at a distance varying from 4 to 6 m. of
the town, so as to shelter it so far as possible from bombardment. At
Liége twelve forts were constructed, six on the right bank and six on
the left. Those on the right bank beginning at the north and following
an eastern curve are Barchon, Evegnée, Fléron, Chaudfontaine, Embourg
and Boncelles. The average distance between each fort is 4 m., but
Fléron and Chaudfontaine are separated by little over 1 m. in a direct
line as they defend the main line of railway from Germany. The six forts
on the left bank also commencing at the north, but following a western
curve, are Pontisse, Liers, Lantin, Loncin, Hollogne and Flemalle. These
forts were constructed under the personal direction of General
Brialmont, and are on exactly the same principle as those he designed
for the formidable defences of Bucarest. All the forts are constructed
in concrete with casemates, and the heavy guns are raised and lowered
automatically. Communication is maintained between the different forts
by military roads in all cases, and by steam tramways in some. It is
estimated that 25,000 troops would be required for the defence of the
twelve forts, but the number is inadequate for the defence of so
important and extensive a position. The population of Liége, which in
1875 was only 117,600, had risen by 1900 to 157,760, and in 1905 it was

_History._--Liége first appears in history about the year 558, at which
date St Monulph, bishop of Tongres, built a chapel near the confluence
of the Meuse and the Legia. A century later the town, which had grown up
round this chapel, became the favourite abode of St Lambert, bishop of
Tongres, and here he was assassinated. His successor St Hubert raised a
splendid church over the tomb of the martyred bishop about 720 and made
Liége his residence. It was not, however, until about 930 that the title
bishop of Tongres was abandoned for that of bishop of Liége. The
episcopate of Notger (972-1008) was marked by large territorial
acquisitions, and the see obtained recognition as an independent
principality of the Empire. The popular saying was "Liége owes Notger to
God, and everything else to Notger." By the munificent encouragement of
successive bishops Liége became famous during the 11th century as a
centre of learning, but the history of the town for centuries records
little else than the continuous struggles of the citizens to free
themselves from the exactions of their episcopal sovereigns; the aid of
the emperor and of the dukes of Brabant being frequently called in to
repress the popular risings. In 1316 the citizens compelled Bishop
Adolph de la Marck to sign a charter, which made large concessions to
the popular demands. It was, however, a triumph of short duration, and
the troubles continued, the insurgent subjects now and again obtaining a
fleeting success, only to be crushed by the armies of the powerful
relatives of the bishops, the houses of Brabant or of Burgundy. During
the episcopate of Louis de Bourbon (1456-1484) the Liégeois, having
expelled the bishop, had the temerity to declare war on Philip V., duke
of Burgundy. Philip's son, Charles the Bold, utterly defeated them in
1467, and razed the walls of the town to the ground. In the following
year the citizens again revolted, and Charles being once more successful
delivered up the city to sack and pillage for three days, and deprived
the remnant of the citizens of all their privileges. This incident is
narrated in _Quentin Durward_. The long episcopate of Eberhard de la
Marck (1505-1538) was a time of good administration and of quiet, during
which the town regained something of its former prosperity. The outbreak
of civil war between two factions, named the _Cluroux_ and the
_Grignoux_, marked the opening of the 17th century. Bishop Maximilian
Henry of Bavaria (1650-1688) at last put an end to the internal strife
and imposed a regulation (_règlement_) which abolished all the free
institutions of the citizens and the power of the gilds. Between this
date and the outbreak of the French Revolution the chief efforts of the
prince-bishops were directed to maintaining neutrality in the various
wars, and preserving their territory from being ravaged by invading
armies. They were only in part successful. Liége was taken by
Marlborough in 1702, and the fortress was garrisoned by the Dutch until
1718. The French revolutionary armies overran the principality in 1792,
and from 1794 to the fall of Napoleon it was annexed to France, and was
known as the department of the Ourthe. The Congress of Vienna in 1815
decreed that Liége with the other provinces of the southern Netherlands
should form part of the new kingdom of the Netherlands under the rule of
William I., of the house of Orange. The town of Liége took an active
part in the Belgian revolt of 1830, and since that date the ancient
principality has been incorporated in the kingdom of Belgium.

The see, which at first bore the name of the bishopric of Tongres, was
under the metropolitan jurisdiction of the archbishops of Cologne. The
principality comprised besides the town of Liége and its district, the
counties of Looz and Hoorn, the marquessate of Franchimont, and the
duchy of Bouillon.

  AUTHORITIES.--Théodore Bouille, _Histoire de la ville et du pays de
  Liége_ (3 vols., Liége, 1725-1732); A. Borgnet, _Histoire de la
  révolution liégeoise_ (2 vols., Liége, 1865); Baron B. C. de Gerlache,
  _Histoire de Liége_ (Brussels, 1843); J. Daris, _Histoire du diocèse
  et de la principauté de Liége_ (10 vols., Liége, 1868-1885); Ferdinand
  Henaux, _Histoire du pays de Liége_ (2 vols., Liége, 1857); L. Polain,
  _Histoire de l'ancien pays de Liége_ (2 vols., Liége, 1844-1847). For
  full bibliography see Ulysse Chevalier, _Répertoire des sources
  historiques_. _Topo-bibliographie_, s.v. (Montbéliard, 1900).

LIEGE, an adjective implying the mutual relationship of a feudal
superior and his vassal; the word is used as a substantive of the feudal
superior, more usually in this sense, however, in the form "liege lord,"
and also of the vassals, his "lieges." Hence the word is often used of
the loyal subjects of a sovereign, with no reference to feudal ties. It
appears that _ligeitas_ or _ligentia_, the medieval Latin term for this
relationship, was restricted to a particular form of homage. According
to N. Broussel (_Nouvel examen de l'usage général des fiefs en France_,
1727) the homage of a "liege" was a stronger form of the ordinary
homage, the especial distinction being that while the ordinary vassal
only undertook forty days' military service, the liege promised to serve
as long as the war might last, in which his superior was engaged (cf.
Ducange, _Glossarium_, s.v. "_Ligius_").

The etymology of the word has been much discussed. It comes into English
through the O. Fr. _lige_ or _liege_, Med. Lat. _ligius_. This was early
connected with the Lat. _ligatus_, bound, _ligare_, to bind, from the
sense of the obligation of the vassal to his lord, but this has been
generally abandoned. Broussel takes the Med. Lat. _liga_, i.e.,
_foedus_, _confederatio_, the English "league," as the origin. Ducange
connects it with the word _lities_, which appears in a gloss of the
Salic law, and is defined as a _scriptitius_, _servus glebae_. The more
usually accepted derivation is now from the Old High Ger. _ledic_, or
_ledig_, meaning "free" (Mod. Ger. _ledig_ means unoccupied, _vacuus_).
This is confirmed by the occurrence in a charter of Otto of Benthem,
1253, of a word "ledigh-man" (quoted in Ducange, _Glossarium_, s.v.),
_Proinde affecti sumus ligius homo, quod Teutonice dictur Ledighman_.
Skeat, in explaining the application of "free" to such a relationship as
that subsisting between a feudal superior and his vassal, says "'a
_liege_ lord' seems to have been the lord of a free band; and his
_lieges_, though serving under him, were privileged men, free from all
other obligations; their name being due to their _freedom_, not to their
service" (_Etym. Dict._, ed. 1898). A. Luchaire (_Manuel des
institutions françaises_, 1892, p. 189, n. 1) considers it difficult to
call a man "free" who is under a strict obligation to another; further
that the "liege" was not free from all obligation to a third party, for
the charters prove without doubt that the "liege men" owed duty to more
than one lord.

LIEGNITZ, a town in Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia,
picturesquely situated on the Katzbach, just above its junction with
the Schwarzwasser, and 40 m. W.N.W, of Breslau, on the main line of
railway to Berlin via Sommerfeld. Pop. (1885) 43,347, (1905) 59,710. It
consists of an old town, surrounded by pleasant, shady promenades, and
several well-built suburbs. The most prominent building is the palace,
formerly the residence of the dukes of Liegnitz, rebuilt after a fire in
1835 and now used as the administrative offices of the district. The
Ritter Akademie, founded by the emperor Joseph I. in 1708 for the
education of the young Silesian nobles, was reconstructed as a gymnasium
in 1810. The Roman Catholic church of St John, with two fine towers,
contains the burial vault of the dukes. The principal Lutheran church,
that of SS. Peter and Paul (restored in 1892-1894), dates from the 14th
century. The manufactures are considerable, the chief articles made
being cloth, wool, leather, tobacco, pianos and machinery. Its trade in
grain and its cattle-markets are likewise important. The large market
gardens in the suburbs grow vegetables of considerable annual value.

Liegnitz is first mentioned in an historical document in the year 1004.
In 1163 it became the seat of the dukes of Liegnitz, who greatly
improved and enlarged it. The dukes were members of the illustrious
Piast family, which gave many kings to Poland. During the Thirty Years'
War Liegnitz was taken by the Swedes, but was soon recaptured by the
Imperialists. The Saxon army also defeated the imperial troops near
Liegnitz in 1634. On the death of the last duke of Liegnitz in 1675, the
duchy came into the possession of the Empire, which retained it until
the Prussian conquest of Silesia in 1742. On the 15th of August 1760
Frederick the Great gained a decisive victory near Liegnitz over the
Austrians, and in August 1813 Blücher defeated the French in the
neighbourhood at the battle of the Katzbach. During the 19th century
Liegnitz rapidly increased in population and prosperity. In 1906 the
German autumn manoeuvres were held over the terrain formerly the scene
of the great battles already mentioned.

  See Schuchard, _Die Stadt Liegnitz_ (Berlin, 1868); Sammter and
  Kraffert, _Chronik von Liegnitz_ (Liegnitz, 1861-1873); Jander,
  _Liegnitz in seinem Entwickelungsgange_ (Liegnitz, 1905); and _Führer
  für Liegnitz und seine Umgebung_ (Liegnitz, 1897); and the
  _Urkundenbuch der Stadt Liegnitz bis 1455_, edited by Schirrmacher
  (Liegnitz, 1866).

LIEN, in law. The word _lien_ is literally the French for a band, cord
or chain, and keeping in mind that meaning we see in what respect it
differs from a pledge on the one hand and a mortgage on the other. It is
the bond which attaches a creditor's right to a debtor's property, but
which gives no right _ad rem_, i.e. to property in the thing; if the
property is in the possession of the creditor he may retain it, but in
the absence of statute he cannot sell to recover what is due to him
without the ordinary legal process against the debtor; and if it is not
in possession, the law would indeed assist him to seize the property,
and will hold it for him, and enable him to sell it in due course and
pay himself out of the proceeds, but does not give him the property
itself. It is difficult to say at what period the term lien made its
appearance in English law; it probably came from more than one source.
In fact, it was used as a convenient phrase for any right against the
owner of property in regard to the property not specially defined by
other better recognized species of title.

The possessory lien of a tradesman for work done on the thing, of a
carrier for his hire, and of an innkeeper for his bill, would seem to be
an inherent right which must have been in existence from the dawn, or
before the dawn, of civilization. Probably the man who made or repaired
weapons in the Stone Age was careful not to deliver them until he
received what was stipulated for, but it is also probable that the term
itself resulted from the infusion of the civil law of Rome into the
common law of England which the Norman Conquest brought about, and that
it represents the "tacit pledge" of the civil law. As might be expected,
so far as the possessory lien is concerned the common law and civil law,
and probably the laws of all countries, whether civilized or not,
coincide; but there are many differences with respect to other species
of lien. For instance, by the common law--in this respect a legacy of
the feudal system--a landlord has a lien over his tenant's furniture and
effects for rent due, which can be enforced without the assistance of
the law simply by the landlord taking possession, personally or by his
agent, and selling enough to satisfy his claim; whereas the maritime
lien is more distinctly the product of the civil law, and is only found
and used in admiralty proceedings, the high court of admiralty having
been founded upon the civil law, and still (except so far as restrained
by the common-law courts prior to the amalgamation and co-ordination of
the various courts by the Judicature Acts, and as affected by statute
law) acting upon it. The peculiar effects of this maritime lien are
discussed below. There is also a class of liens, usually called
equitable liens (e.g. that of an unpaid vendor of real property over the
property sold), which are akin to the nature of the civil law rather
than of the common law. The word lien does not frequently occur in
statute law, but it is found in the extension of the common-law
"carriers' or shipowners' lien" in the Merchant Shipping Act 1894; in
the definition, extension and limitation of the vendor's lien; in the
Factors Act 1877, and the Sale of Goods Act 1893; in granting a maritime
lien to a shipmaster for his wages and disbursements, and in regulating
that of the seamen in the Merchant Shipping Act 1894; and in the equity
jurisdiction of the county courts 1888.

_Common-Law Liens._--These may be either particular, i.e. a right over
one or more specified articles for a particular debt, or general, i.e.
for all debts owing to the creditor by the debtor.

The requisites for a particular lien are, firstly, that the creditor
should be in possession of the article; secondly, that the debt should
be incurred with reference to the article; and thirdly, that the amount
of the debt should be certain. It may be created by express contract, by
implied contract (such as the usage of a particular trade or business),
or as a consequence of the legal relation existing between the parties.
As an example of the first, a shipowner at common law has a lien on the
cargo for the freight; but though the shipper agrees to pay dead freight
in addition, i.e. to pay freight on any space in the ship which he fails
to occupy with his cargo, the shipowner has no lien on the cargo for
such dead freight except by express agreement. The most usual form of
the second is that which is termed a possessory lien--the right a
ship-repairer has to retain a ship in his yard till he is paid for the
repairs executed upon her,[1] and the right a cobbler has to retain a
pair of shoes till he is paid for the repairs done to them. But this
lien is only in respect of the work done on, and consequent benefit
received by, the subject of the lien. Hence an agistor of cattle has no
lien at common law upon them for the value of the pasturage consumed,
though he may have one by agreement; nor a conveyancer upon deeds which
he has not drawn, but which are in his possession for reference. The
most common example of the third is that of a carrier, who is bound by
law to carry for all persons, and has, therefore, a lien for the price
of the carriage on the goods carried. It has been held that even if the
goods are stolen, and entrusted to the carrier by the thief, the carrier
can hold them for the price of the carriage against the rightful owner.
Of the same nature is the common-law lien of an innkeeper on the baggage
of his customer for the amount of his account, he being under a legal
obligation to entertain travellers generally. Another instance of the
same class is where a person has obtained possession of certain things
over which he claims to hold a lien in the exercise of a legal right.
For example, when a lord of a manor has seized cattle as estrays, he has
a lien upon them for the expense of their keep as against the real
owner; but the holder's claim must be specific, otherwise a general
tender of compensation releases the lien.

A general lien is a right of a creditor to retain property, not merely
for charges relating to it specifically, but for debts due on a general
account. This not being a common-law right, is viewed by the English
courts with the greatest jealousy, and to be enforced must be strictly
proved. This can be done by proof either of an express or implied
contract or of a general usage of trade. The first of these is
established by the ordinary methods or by previous dealings between the
parties on such terms; the second is recognized in certain businesses;
it would probably be exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to extend
it at the present time to any other trades. When, however, a lien by
general usage has once been judicially established, it becomes part of
the Law Merchant, and the courts are bound to recognize and enforce it.
The best known and most important instance is the right of a solicitor
to retain papers in his hands belonging to his client until his account
is settled. The solicitor's lien, though probably more commonly enforced
than any other, is of no great antiquity in English law, the earliest
reported case of it being in the reign of James II.; but it is now of a
twofold nature. In the first place there is the retaining lien. This is
similar in kind to other possessory liens, but of a general nature
attaching to all papers of the client, and even to his money, up to the
amount of the solicitor's bill, in the hands of the solicitor in the
ordinary course of business. There are certain exceptions which seem to
have crept in for the same reason as the solicitor's lien itself, i.e.
general convenience of litigation; such exceptions are the will of the
client after his decease, and proceedings in bankruptcy. In this latter
case the actual possessory lien is given up, the solicitor's interests
and priorities being protected by the courts, and it may be said that
the giving up the papers is really only a means of enforcing the lien
they give in the bankruptcy proceedings. In the second place there is
what is called a charging lien--more correctly classed under the head of
equitable lien, since it does not require possession, but is a lien the
solicitor holds over property recovered or preserved for his client. He
had the lien on an order by the court upon a fund in court by the common
law, but as to property generally it was only given by 23 & 24 Vict. c.
127, § 28; and it has been held to attach to property recovered in a
probate action (_ex parte Tweed_, C.A. 1899, 2 Q.B. 167). A banker's
lien is the right of a banker to retain securities belonging to his
customer for money due on a general balance. Other general liens,
judicially established, are those of wharfingers, brokers and factors
(which are in their nature akin to those of solicitors and bankers), and
of calico printers, packers of goods, fullers (at all events at Exeter),
dyers and millers; but in all these special trades it is probable that
the true reason is that the account due was for one continuous
transaction. The calico would come to be printed, the goods to be
packed, the cloth to be bleached, the silk to be dyed, and the corn to
be ground, in separate parcels, and at different times, but all as one
undertaking; and they are therefore, though spoken of as instances of
general lien, only adaptations by the courts of the doctrine of
particular lien to special peculiarities of business. In none of these
cases would the lien exist, in the absence of special agreement, for
other matters of account, such as money lent or goods sold.

_Equitable Liens._--"Where equity has jurisdiction to enforce rights and
obligations growing out of an executory contract," e.g. in a suit for
specific performance, "this equitable theory of remedies cannot be
carried out unless the notion is admitted that the contract creates some
right or interest in or over specific property, which the decree of the
court can lay hold of, and by means of which the equitable relief can be
made efficient. The doctrine of equitable liens supplies this necessary
element; and it was introduced for the sole purpose of furnishing a
ground for these specific remedies which equity confers, operating upon
particular identified property instead of the general pecuniary
recoveries granted by courts of common law. It follows, therefore, that
in a large class of executory contracts express and implied, which the
common law regards as creating no property, right nor interest analogous
to property, but only a mere personal right to obligation, equity
recognizes in addition to the personal obligation a particular right
over the thing with which the contract deals, which it calls a _lien_,
and which though not property is analogous to property, and by means of
which the plaintiff is enabled to follow the identical thing and to
enforce the defendant's obligation by a remedy which operates directly
on the thing. The theory of equitable liens has its ultimate
foundation, therefore, in contracts express or implied which either deal
or in some manner relate to specific property, such as a tract of land,
particular chattels or securities, a certain fund and the like. It is
necessary to divest oneself of the purely legal notion concerning the
effects of such contracts, and to recognize the fact that equity regards
them as creating a charge upon, or hypothecation of, the specific thing,
by means of which the personal obligation arising from the agreement may
be more effectively enforced than by a mere pecuniary recovery at law"
(Pomeroy, 2 Eq. Jur. 232).

This description from an American text-book seems to give at once the
fullest and most concise definition and description of an equitable
lien. It differs essentially from a common-law lien, inasmuch as in the
latter possession or occupation is as a rule necessary, whereas in the
equitable lien the person claiming the lien is seldom in possession or
occupation of the property, its object being to obtain the possession
wholly or partially. A special instance of such a lien is that claimed
by a publisher over the copyright of a book which he has agreed to
publish on terms which are not complied with--for example, the author
attempting to get the book published elsewhere. It cannot perhaps be
said that this has been absolutely decided to exist, but a strong
opinion of the English court of exchequer towards the close of the 18th
century was expressed in its favour (_Brook_ v. _Wentworth_, 3
Anstruther 881). Other instances are the charging lien of a solicitor,
and the lien of a person on improvements effected by him on the property
of another who "lies by" and allows the work to be done before claiming
the property. So also of a trustee for expenses lawfully incurred about
the trust property. The power of a limited liability company to create a
lien upon its own shares was in 1901 established (_Allen_ v. _Gold
Reefs, &c._, C.A. 1900, 1 Ch. 656).

_Maritime Liens._--Maritime lien differs from all the others yet
considered, in its more elastic nature. Where a maritime lien has once
attached to property--and it may and generally does attach without
possession--it will continue to attach, unless lost by laches, so long
as the thing to which it attaches exists, notwithstanding changes in the
possession of and property in the thing, and notwithstanding that the
new possessor or owner may be entirely ignorant of its existence; and
even if enforced it leaves the owner's personal liability for any
balance unrealized intact (the "_Gemma_," 1899, P. 285). So far as
England is concerned, it must be borne in mind that the courts of
admiralty were conducted in accordance with the principles of civil law,
and in that law both the pledge with possession and the hypothecation
without possession were well recognized. The extreme convenience of such
a right as the latter with regard to such essentially movable chattels
as ships is apparent. Strictly speaking, a maritime lien is confined to
cases arising in those matters over which the courts of admiralty had
original jurisdiction, viz. collisions at sea, seamen's wages, salvage
and bottomry, in all of which cases the appropriate remedy is a
proceeding _in rem_ in the admiralty court. In the first of
these--collisions at sea--if there were no maritime lien there would
frequently be no remedy at all. When two ships have collided at sea it
may well be that the innocent ship knows neither the name nor the
nationality of the wrongdoer, and the vessel may escape with slight
damage and not have to make a port of refuge in the neighbourhood.
Months afterwards it is ascertained that she was a foreign ship, and in
the interval she has changed owners. Then, were it not a fact that a
maritime lien invisible to the wrongdoer nevertheless attaches itself to
his ship at the moment of collision, and continues to attach, the
unfortunate owner of the innocent ship would have no remedy, except the
doubtful one of pursuing the former owner of the wrong-doing vessel in
his own country in a personal action where such proceedings are
allowed--which is by no means the case in all foreign countries. The
same reasons apply, though not possibly with quite the same force, to
the other classes of cases mentioned.

Between 1840 and 1873 the jurisdiction of the admiralty court was
largely extended. At the latter date it was merged in the probate,
divorce and admiralty division of the High Court of Justice. Since the
merger questions have arisen as to how far the enlargement of
jurisdiction has extended the principle of maritime lien. An interesting
article on this subject by J. Mansfield, barrister-at-law, will be found
in the _Law Quarterly Review_, vol. iv., October 1888. It must be
sufficient to state here that where legislation has extended the already
existing jurisdiction to which a maritime lien pertained, the maritime
lien is extended to the subject matter, but that where a new
jurisdiction is given, or where a jurisdiction formerly existing without
a maritime lien is extended, no maritime lien is given, though even then
the extended jurisdiction can be enforced by proceedings _in rem_. Of
the first class of extended jurisdictions are collisions, salvage and
seamen's wages. Prior to 1840 the court of admiralty only had
jurisdiction over these when occurring or earned on the high seas. The
jurisdiction, and with it the maritime lien, is extended to places
within the body of a county in collision or salvage; and as to seamen's
wages, whereas they were dependent on the earning of freight, they are
now free from any such limitation; and also, whereas the remedy _in rem_
was limited to seamen's wages not earned under a special contract, it is
now extended to all seamen's wages, and also to a master's wages and
disbursements, and the maritime lien covers all these. The new
jurisdiction given over claims for damage to cargo carried into any port
in England or Wales, and on appeal from the county courts over all
claims for damage to cargo under £300, though it may be prosecuted by
proceedings _in rem_, i.e. by arrest of the ship, yet confers no
maritime lien; and so also in the case of claims by material men
(builders and fitters-out of ships) and for necessaries. Even though in
the latter case the admiralty court had jurisdiction previously to 1840
where the necessaries were supplied on the high seas, yet as it could
not be shown that such jurisdiction had ever been held to confer a
maritime lien, no such lien is given. Even now there is much doubt as to
whether towage confers a maritime lien or not, the services rendered
being pursuant to contract, and frequently to a contract made verbally
or in writing on the high seas, and being rendered also to a great
extent on the high seas. In these cases and to that extent the high
court of admiralty would have had original jurisdiction. But prior to
1840 towage, as now rendered by steam tugs expressly employed for the
service, was practically unknown, and therefore there was no established
catena of precedent to show the exercise of a maritime lien. It may be
argued on the one hand that towage is only a modified form of salvage,
and therefore entitled to a maritime lien, and on the other that it is
only a form of necessary power supplied like a new sail or mast to a
ship to enable her to complete her voyage expeditiously, and therefore
of the nature of necessaries, and as such not entitled to a maritime
lien. The matter is not of academical interest only, for though in the
case of an inward-bound ship the tug owner can make use of his statutory
right of proceeding _in rem_, and so obtain much of the benefit of a
maritime lien, yet in the case of an outward-bound ship, if she once
gets away without payment, and the agent or other authorized person
refuses or is unable to pay, the tug owner's claim may, on the return of
the ship to a British port, be met by an allegation of a change of
ownership, which defeats his right of proceeding at all if he has no
maritime lien; whereas if he has a maritime lien he can still proceed
against the ship and recover his claim, if he has not been guilty of

  A convenient division of the special liens other than possessory on
  ships may be made by classifying them as maritime, statutory-maritime
  or quasi-maritime, and statutory. The first attach only in the case of
  damage done by collision between ships on the high seas, salvage on
  the high seas, bottomry and seamen's wages so far as freight has been
  earned; the second attach in cases of damage by collision within the
  body of a county, salvage within the body of a county, life salvage
  everywhere, seamen's wages even if no freight has been earned,
  master's wages and disbursements. These two classes continue to attach
  notwithstanding a change of ownership without notice of the lien, if
  there have been no laches in enforcing it (the "_Bold Buccleuch_,"
  1852, 7 Moo. P.C. 267; the "_Kong Magnus_," 1891, P. 223). The third
  class, which only give a right to proceed _in rem_, i.e. against the
  ship itself, attach, so long as there is no _bona fide_ change of
  ownership, without citing the owners, in all cases of claims for
  damage to ship and of claims for damage to cargo where no owner is
  domiciled in England or Wales. Irrespective of this limitation, they
  attach in all cases not only of damage to cargo, but also of breaches
  of contract to carry where the damage does not exceed £300, when the
  suit must be commenced in a county court having admiralty
  jurisdiction; and in cases of claims for necessaries supplied
  elsewhere than in the ship's home port, for wages earned even under a
  special contract by masters and mariners, and of claims for towage. In
  all three classes the lien also exists over cargo where the suit from
  its nature extends to it, as in salvage and in some cases of bottomry
  or respondentia, and in cases where proceedings are taken against
  cargo by the shipowner for a breach of contract (cargo _ex_ "_Argos_"
  and the "_Hewsons_," 1873, L.R. 5 P.C. 134; the "_Alina_," 1880, 5 Ex.
  D. 227).

  Elsewhere than in England, and those countries such as the United
  States which have adopted her jurisprudence in maritime matters
  generally, the doctrine of maritime lien, or that which is substituted
  for it, is very differently treated. Speaking generally, those states
  which have adopted the Napoleonic codes or modifications of
  them--France, Italy, Spain, Holland, Portugal, Belgium, Greece,
  Turkey, and to some extent Russia--have instead of a maritime lien the
  civil-law principle of privileged debts. Amongst these in all cases
  are found claims for salvage, wages, bottomry under certain
  restrictions, and necessaries. Each of these has a privileged claim
  against the ship, and in some cases against freight and cargo as well,
  but it is a matter of very great importance that, except in Belgium, a
  claim for collision damage (which as we have seen confers a maritime
  lien, and one of a very high order, in Great Britain) confers no
  privilege against the wrong-doing ship, whilst in all these countries
  an owner can get rid of his personal liability by abandoning the ship
  and freight to his creditor, and so, if the ship is sunk, escape all
  liability whilst retaining any insurance there may be. This, indeed,
  was at one time the law of Great Britain; the measure of damage was
  limited by the value of the _res_; and in the United States at the
  present time a shipowner can get rid of his liability for damage by
  abandoning the ship and freight. A different rule prevails in Germany
  and the Scandinavian states. There claims relating to the ship, unless
  the owner has specially rendered himself liable, confer no personal
  claim at all against him. The claim is limited _ab initio_ to ship and
  freight, except in the case of seamen's wages, which do confer a
  personal claim so far as they have been earned on a voyage or passage
  completed prior to the loss of the ship. In all maritime states,
  however, except Spain, a provisional arrest of the ship is allowed,
  and thus between the privilege accorded to the debt and the power to
  arrest till bail is given or the ship abandoned to creditors, a
  condition of things analogous to the maritime lien is established;
  especially as these claims when the proper legal steps have been taken
  to render them valid--usually by endorsement on the ship's papers on
  board, or by registration at her port of registry--attach to the ship
  and follow her into the hands of a purchaser. They are in fact notice
  to him of the incumbrance.

_Duration of Lien._--So long as the party claiming the lien at common
law retains the property, the lien continues, notwithstanding the debt
in respect of which it is claimed becoming barred by the Statute of
Limitations (_Higgins_ v. _Scott_, 1831, 2 B. & Ald. 413). But if he
takes proceedings at law to recover the debt, and on a sale of the goods
to satisfy the judgment purchases them himself, he so alters the nature
of the possession that he loses his lien (_Jacobs_ v. _Latour_, 5 Bing.
130). An equitable lien probably in all cases continues, provided the
purchaser of the subject matter has notice of the lien at the time of
his purchase. A maritime lien is in no respect subject to the Statute of
Limitations, and continues in force notwithstanding a change in the
ownership of the property without notice, and is only terminated when it
has once attached, by laches on the part of the person claiming it (the
"_Kong Magnus_," 1891, P. 223). There is an exception in the case of
seamen's wages, where by 4 Anne c. 16 (_Stat. Rev._ 4 & 5 Anne c. 3) all
suits for seamen's wages in the Admiralty must be brought within six

_Ranking of Maritime Liens._--There may be several claimants holding
maritime and other liens on the same vessel. For example, a foreign
vessel comes into collision by her own fault and is damaged and her
cargo also; she is assisted into port by salvors and ultimately under a
towage agreement, and put into the hands of a shipwright who does
necessary repairs. The innocent party to the collision has a maritime
lien for his damage, and the seamen for their wages; the cargo owner has
a suit _in rem_ or a statutory lien for damage, and the shipwright a
possessory lien for the value of his repairs, while the tugs certainly
have a right _in rem_ and possibly a maritime lien also in the nature of
salvage. The value of the property may be insufficient to pay all
claims, and it becomes a matter of great consequence to settle whether
any, and if so which, have priority over the others, or whether all rank
alike and have to divide the proceeds of the property _pro ratâ_ amongst
them. The following general rules apply: liens for benefits conferred
rank against the fund in the inverse, and those for the reparation of
damage sustained in the direct order of their attaching to the _res_; as
between the two classes those last mentioned rank before those first
mentioned of earlier date; as between liens of the same class and the
same date, the first claimant has priority over others who have not
taken action. The courts of admiralty, however, allow equitable
considerations, and enter into the question of marshalling assets. For
example, if one claimant has a lien on two funds, or an effective right
of action in addition to his lien, and another claimant has only a lien
upon one fund, the first claimant will be obliged to exhaust his second
remedy before coming into competition with the second. As regards
possessory liens, the shipwright takes the ship as she stands, i.e. with
her incumbrances, and it appears that the lien for seaman's wages takes
precedence of a solicitor's lien for costs, under a charging order made
in pursuance of the Solicitors Act 1860, § 28.

  Subject to equitable considerations, the true principle appears to be
  that services rendered under an actual or implied contract, which
  confer a maritime lien, make the holder of the lien in some sort a
  proprietor of the vessel, and therefore liable for damage done by
  her--hence the priority of the damage lien--but, directly it has
  attached, benefits conferred on the property by enabling it to reach
  port in safety benefit the holder of the damage lien in common with
  all other prior holders of maritime liens. It is less easy to see why
  of two damage liens the earlier should take precedence of the later,
  except on the principle that the _res_ which came into collision the
  second time is depreciated in value by the amount of the existing lien
  upon her for the first collision, and where there was more than one
  damage lien, and also liens for benefits conferred prior to the first
  collision between the two collisions and subsequent to the second, the
  court would have to make a special order to meet the peculiar
  circumstances. The claim of a mortgagee naturally is deferred to all
  maritime liens, whether they are for benefits conferred on the
  property in which he is interested or for damage done by it, and also
  for the same reason to the possessory lien of the shipwright, but both
  the possessory lien of the shipwright and the claim of the mortgagee
  take precedence over a claim for necessaries, which only confers a
  statutory lien or a right to proceed _in rem_ in certain cases. In
  other maritime states possessing codes of commercial law, the
  privileged debts are all set out in order of priority in these codes,
  though, as has been already pointed out, the lien for damage by
  collision--the most important in English law--has no counterpart in
  most of the foreign codes.

_Stoppage in Transitu._--This is a lien held by an unpaid vendor in
certain cases over goods sold after they have passed out of his actual
possession. It has been much discussed whether it is an equitable or
common-law right or lien. The fact appears to be that it has always been
a part of the Law Merchant, which, properly speaking, is itself a part
of the common law of England unless inconsistent with it. This
particular right was, in the first instance, held by a court of equity
to be equitable and not contrary to English law, and by that decision
this particular part of the Law Merchant was approved and became part of
the common law of England (see per Lord Abinger in _Gibson_ v.
_Carruthers_, 8 M. & W., p. 336 et seq.). It may be described as a lien
by the Law Merchant, decided by equity to be part of the common law, but
in its nature partaking rather of the character of an equitable lien
than one at common law. "It is a right which arises solely upon the
insolvency of the buyer, and is based on the plain reason of justice and
equity that one man's goods shall not be applied to the payment of
another man's debts. If, therefore, after the vendor has delivered the
goods out of his own possession and put them in the hands of a carrier
for delivery to the buyer, he discovers that the buyer is insolvent, he
may re-take the goods if he can before they reach the buyer's
possession, and thus avoid having his property applied to paying debts
due by the buyer to other people" (_Benjamin on Sales_, 2nd ed., 289).
This right, though only recognized by English law in 1690, is highly
favoured by the courts on account of its intrinsic justice, and extends
to quasi-vendors, or persons in the same position, such as consignors
who have bought on behalf of a principal and forwarded the goods. It is,
however, defeated by a lawful transfer of the document of title to the
goods by the vendor to a third person, who takes it _bonâ fide_ and for
valuable consideration (Factors Act 1889; Sale of Goods Act 1893).

_Assignment or Transfer of Lien._--A lien being a personal right
acquired in respect of personal services, it cannot, as a rule, be
assigned or transferred; but here again there are exceptions. The
personal representative of the holder of a possessory lien on his
decease would probably in all cases be held entitled to it; and it has
been held that the lien over a client's papers remains with the firm of
solicitors notwithstanding changes in the constitution of the firm
(_Gregory_ v. _Cresswell_, 14 L.J. Ch. 300). So also where a solicitor,
having a lien on documents for his costs, assigned the debt to his
bankers with the benefit of the lien, it was held that the bankers might
enforce such lien in equity. But though a tradesman has a lien on the
property of his customer for his charges for work done upon it, where
the property is delivered to him by a servant acting within the scope of
his employment, such lien cannot be transferred to the servant, even if
he has paid the money himself; and the lien does not exist at all if the
servant was acting without authority in delivering the goods, except
where (as in the case of a common carrier) he is bound to receive the
goods, in which case he retains his lien for the carriage against the
rightful owner. Where, however, there is a lien on property of any sort
not in possession, a person acquiring the property with knowledge of the
lien takes it subject to such lien. This applies to equitable liens, and
cannot apply to those common-law liens in which possession is necessary.
It is, however, true that by statute certain common-law liens can be
transferred, e.g. under the Merchant Shipping Act a master of a ship
having a lien upon cargo for his freight can transfer the possession of
the cargo to a wharfinger, and with it the lien (Merchant Shipping Act
1894, § 494). In this case, however, though the matter is simplified by
the statute, if the wharfinger was constituted the agent or servant of
the shipmaster, his possession would be the possession of the
shipmaster, and there would be no real transfer of the lien; therefore
the common-law doctrine is not altered, only greater facilities for the
furtherance of trade are given by the statute, enabling the wharfinger
to act in his own name without reference to his principal, who may be at
the other side of the world. So also a lien may be retained,
notwithstanding that the property passes out of possession, where it has
to be deposited in some special place (such as the Custom-House) to
comply with the law. Seamen cannot sell or assign or in any way part
with their maritime lien for wages (Merchant Shipping Act 1894, § 156),
but, nevertheless, with the sanction of the court, a person who pays
seamen their wages is entitled to stand in their place and exercise
their rights (the _Cornelia Henrietta_, 1866, L.R. 1 Ad. & Ec. 51).

_Waiver._--Any parting with the possession of goods is in general a
waiver of the lien upon them; for example, when a factor having a lien
on the goods of his principal gives them to a carrier to be carried at
the expense of his principal, even if undisclosed, he waives his lien,
and has no right to stop the goods _in transitu_ to recover it; so also
where a coach-builder who has a lien on a carriage for repairs allows
the owner from time to time to take it out for use without expressly
reserving his lien, he has waived it, nor has he a lien for the standage
of the carriage except by express agreement, as mere standage does not
give a possessory lien. It has even been held that where a portion of
goods sold as a whole for a lump sum has been taken away and paid for
proportionately, the conversion has taken place and the lien for the
residue of the unpaid purchase-money has gone (_Gurr_ v. _Cuthbert_,
1843, 12 L.J. Ex. 309). Again, an acceptance of security for a debt is
inconsistent with the existence of a lien, as it substitutes the credit
of the owner for the material guarantee of the thing itself, and so acts
as a waiver of the lien. For the same reason even an agreement to take
security is a waiver of the lien, though the security is not, in fact,
given (_Alliance Bank_ v. _Broon_, 11 L.T. 332).

_Sale of Goods under Lien._--At common law the lien only gives a right
to retain the goods, and ultimately to sell by legal process, against
the owner; but in certain cases a right has been given by statute to
sell without the intervention of legal process, such as the right of an
innkeeper to sell the goods of his customer for his unpaid account
(Innkeepers Act 1878, § 1), the right of a wharfinger to sell goods
entrusted to him by a shipowner with a lien upon them for freight, and
also for their own charges (Merchant Shipping Act 1894, §§ 497, 498),
and of a railway company to sell goods for their charges (Railway
Clauses Act 1845, § 97). Property affected by an equitable lien or a
maritime lien cannot be sold by the holder of the lien without the
interposition of the court to enforce an order, or judgment of the
court. In Admiralty cases, where a sale is necessary, no bail having
been given and the property being under arrest, the sale is usually made
by the marshal in London, but may be elsewhere on the parties concerned
showing that a better price is likely to be obtained.

AMERICAN LAW.--In the United States, speaking very generally, the law
relating to liens is that of England, but there are some considerable
differences occasioned by three principal causes. (1) Some of the
Southern States, notably Louisiana, have never adopted the common law of
England. When that state became one of the United States of North
America it had (and still preserves) its own system of law. In this
respect the law is practically identical with the Code Napoleon, which,
again speaking generally, substitutes privileges for liens, i.e. gives
certain claims a prior right to others against particular property.
These privileges being _strictissimae interpretationis_, cannot be
extended by any principle analogous to the English doctrine of equitable
liens. (2) Probably in consequence of the United States and the several
states composing it having had a more democratic government than Great
Britain, in their earlier years at all events, certain liens have been
created by statute in several states in the interest of the working
classes which have no parallel in Great Britain, e.g. in some states
workmen employed in building a house or a ship have a lien upon the
building or structure itself for their unpaid wages. This statutory lien
partakes rather of the nature of an equitable than of a common-law lien,
as the property is not in the possession of the workman, and it may be
doubted whether the right thus conferred is more beneficial to the
workman than the priority his wages have in bankruptcy proceedings in
England. Some of the states have also practically extended the maritime
lien to matters over which it was never contended for in England. (3) By
the constitution of the United States the admiralty and inter-state
jurisdiction is vested in the federal as distinguished from the state
courts, and these federal courts have not been liable to have their
jurisdiction curtailed by prohibition from courts of common law, as the
court of admiralty had in England up to the time of the Judicature Acts;
consequently the maritime lien in the United States extends further than
it does in England, even after recent enlargements; it covers claims for
necessaries and by material men (see _Maritime Lien_), as well as
collision, salvage, wages, bottomry and damage to cargo.

Difficulties connected with lien occasionally arise in the federal
courts in admiralty cases, from a conflict on the subject between the
municipal law of the state where the court happens to sit and the
admiralty law; but as there is no power to prohibit the federal court,
its view of the admiralty law based on the civil law prevails. More
serious difficulties arise where a federal court has to try inter-state
questions, where the two states have different laws on the subject of
lien; one for example, like Louisiana, following the civil law, and the
other the common law and equitable practice of Great Britain. The
question as to which law is to govern in such a case can hardly be said
to be decided. "The question whether equitable liens can exist to be
enforced in Louisiana by the federal courts, notwithstanding its
restrictive law of privileges, is still an open one" (Derris,
_Contracts of Pledge_, 517; and see _Burdon Sugar Refining Co._ v.
_Payne_, 167 U.S. 127).

BRITISH COLONIES.--In those colonies which before the Canadian
federation were known as Upper Canada and the Maritime Provinces of
British North America, and in the several Australasian states where the
English common law is enforced except as modified by colonial statute,
the principles of lien, whether by common law or equitable or maritime,
discussed above with reference to England, will prevail; but questions
not dissimilar to those treated of in reference to the United States may
arise where colonies have come to the crown of Great Britain by cession,
and where different systems of municipal law are enforced. For example,
in Lower Canada the law of France prior to the Revolution occupies the
place of the common law in England, but is generally regulated by a code
very similar to the Code Napoleon; in Mauritius and its dependencies the
Code Napoleon itself is in force except so far as modified by subsequent
ordinances. In South Africa, and to some extent in Ceylon and Guiana,
Roman-Dutch law is in force; in the island of Trinidad old Spanish law,
prior to the introduction of the present civil code of Spain, is the
basis of jurisprudence. Each several system of law requires to be
studied on the point; but, speaking generally, apart from the possessory
lien of workmen and the maritime lien of the vice-admiralty courts, it
may be assumed that the rules of the civil law, giving a privilege or
priority in certain specified cases rather than a lien as understood in
English law, prevail in those colonies where the English law is not in
force.     (F. W. Ra.)


  [1] This right, however, is not absolute, but depends on the custom
    of the port (_Raitt_ v. _Mitchell_, 1815, 4 Camp. 146).

LIERRE (Flemish, _Lier_), a town in the province of Antwerp, Belgium; 9
m. S.E. of Antwerp. Pop. (1904) 24,229. It carries on a brisk industry
in silk fabrics. Its church of St Gommaire was finished in 1557 and
contains three fine glass windows, the gift of the archduke Maximilian,
to celebrate his wedding with Mary of Burgundy.

LIESTAL, the capital (since 1833) of the half canton of Basel-Stadt in
Switzerland. It is a well-built but uninteresting industrial town,
situated on the left bank of the Ergolz stream, and is the most populous
town in the entire canton of Basel, after Basel itself. By rail it is 9¼
m. S.E. of Basel, and 15¾ m. N.W. of Olten. In the 15th-century town
hall (_Rathaus_) is preserved the golden drinking cup of Charles the
Bold, duke of Burgundy, which was taken at the battle of Nancy in 1477.
In 1900 the population was 5403, all German-speaking and mainly
Protestants. The town was sold in 1302 by its lord to the bishop of
Basel who, in 1400, sold it to the city of Basel, at whose hands it
suffered much in the Peasants' War of 1653, and so consented gladly to
the separation of 1833.

LIEUTENANT, one who takes the place, office and duty of and acts on
behalf of a superior or other person. The word in English preserves the
form of the French original (from _lieu_, place, _tenant_, holding),
which is the equivalent of the Lat. _locum tenens_, one holding the
place of another. The usual English pronunciation appears early, the
word being frequently spelled _lieftenant_, _lyeftenant_ or _luftenant_
in the 14th and 15th centuries. The modern American pronunciation is
_lewtenant_, while the German is represented by the present form of the
word _Leutnant_. In French history, _lieutenant du roi_ (_locum tenens
regis_) was a title borne by the officer sent with military powers to
represent the king in certain provinces. With wider powers and
functions, both civil as well as military, and holding authority
throughout an entire province, such a representative of the king was
called _lieutenant général du roi_. The first appointment of these
officials dates from the reign of Philip IV. the Fair (see CONSTABLE).
In the 16th century the administration of the provinces was in the hands
of _gouverneurs_, to whom the _lieutenants du roi_ became subordinates.
The titles _lieutenant civil_ or _criminel_ and _lieutenant général de
police_ have been borne by certain judicial officers in France (see
CHÂTELET and BAILIFF: _Bailli_). As the title of the representative of
the sovereign, "lieutenant" in English usage appears in the title of the
lord lieutenant of Ireland, and of the lords lieutenant of the counties
of the United Kingdom (see below).

The most general use of the word is as the name of a grade of naval and
military officer. It is common in this application to nearly every navy
and army of the present day. In Italy and Spain the first part of the
word is omitted, and an Italian and Spanish officer bearing this rank
are called _tenente_ or _teniente_ respectively. In the British and most
other navies the lieutenants are the commissioned officers next in rank
to commanders, or second class of captains. Originally the lieutenant
was a soldier who aided, and in case of need replaced, the captain, who,
until the latter half of the 17th century, was not necessarily a seaman
in any navy. At first one lieutenant was carried, and only in the
largest ships. The number was gradually increased, and the lieutenants
formed a numerous corps. At the close of the Napoleonic War in 1815
there were 3211 lieutenants in the British navy. Lieutenants now often
qualify for special duties such as navigation, or gunnery, or the
management of torpedoes. In the British army a lieutenant is a subaltern
officer ranking next below a captain and above a second lieutenant. In
the United States of America subalterns are classified as first
lieutenants and second lieutenants. In France the two grades are
_lieutenant_ and _sous-lieutenant_, while in Germany the _Leutnant_ is
the lower of the two ranks, the higher being _Ober-leutnant_ (formerly
_Premier-leutnant_). A "captain lieutenant" in the British army was
formerly the senior subaltern who virtually commanded the colonel's
company or troop, and ranked as junior captain, or "puny captain," as he
was called by Cromwell's soldiers.

  The lord lieutenant of a county, in England and Wales and in Ireland,
  is the principal officer of a county. His creation dates from the
  reign of Henry VIII. (or, according to some, Edward VI.), when the
  military functions of the sheriff were handed over to him. He was
  responsible for the efficiency of the militia of the county, and
  afterwards of the yeomanry and volunteers. He was commander of these
  forces, whose officers he appointed. By the Regulation of the Forces
  Act 1871, the jurisdiction, duties and command exercised by the lord
  lieutenant were revested in the crown, but the power of recommending
  for first appointments was reserved to the lord lieutenant. By the
  Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907, the lord lieutenant of a
  county was constituted president of the county association. The office
  of lord lieutenant is honorary, and is held during the royal pleasure,
  but virtually for life. Appointment to the office is by letters patent
  under the great seal. Usually, though not necessarily, the person
  appointed lord lieutenant is also appointed custos rotulorum (q.v.).
  Appointments to the county bench of magistrates are usually made on
  the recommendation of the lord lieutenant (see JUSTICE OF THE PEACE).

  A deputy lieutenant (denoted frequently by the addition of the letters
  D.L. after a person's name) is a deputy of a lord lieutenant of a
  county. His appointment and qualifications previous to 1908 were
  regulated by the Militia Act 1882. By s. 30 of that act the lieutenant
  of each county was required from time to time to appoint such properly
  qualified persons as he thought fit, living within the county, to be
  deputy lieutenants. At least twenty had to be appointed for each
  county, if there were so many qualified; if less than that number were
  qualified, then all the duly qualified persons in the county were to
  be appointed. The appointments were subject to the sovereign's
  approval, and a return of all appointments to, and removals from, the
  office had to be laid before parliament annually. To qualify for the
  appointment of deputy lieutenant a person had to be (a) a peer of the
  realm, or the heir-apparent of such a peer, having a place of
  residence within the county; or (b) have in possession an estate in
  land in the United Kingdom of the yearly value of not less than £200;
  or (c) be the heir-apparent of such a person; or (d) have a clear
  yearly income from personalty within the United Kingdom of not less
  than £200 (s. 33). If the lieutenant were absent from the United
  Kingdom, or through illness or other cause were unable to act, the
  sovereign might authorize any three deputy lieutenants to act as
  lieutenant (s. 31), or might appoint a deputy lieutenant to act as
  vice-lieutenant. Otherwise, the duties of the office were practically
  nominal, except that a deputy lieutenant might attest militia recruits
  and administer the oath of allegiance to them. The reorganization in
  1907 of the forces of the British crown, and the formation of county
  associations to administer the territorial army, placed increased
  duties on deputy lieutenants, and it was publicly announced that the
  king's approval of appointments to that position would only be given
  in the case of gentlemen who had served for ten years in some force of
  the crown, or had rendered eminent service in connexion with a county

  The lord lieutenant of Ireland is the head of the executive in that
  country. He represents his sovereign and maintains the formalities of
  government, the business of government being entrusted to the
  department of his chief secretary, who represents the Irish
  government in the House of Commons, and may have a seat in the
  cabinet. The chief secretary occupies an important position, and in
  every cabinet either the lord lieutenant or he has a seat.

  Lieutenant-governor is the title of the governor of an Indian
  province, in direct subordination to the governor-general in council.
  The lieutenant-governor comes midway in dignity between the governors
  of Madras and Bombay, who are appointed from England, and the chief
  commissioners of smaller provinces. In the Dominion of Canada the
  governors of provinces also have the title of lieutenant-governor. The
  representatives of the sovereign in the Isle of Man and the Channel
  Islands are likewise styled lieutenant-governors.

LIFE, the popular name for the activity peculiar to protoplasm (q.v.).
This conception has been extended by analogy to phenomena different in
kind, such as the activities of masses of water or of air, or of
machinery, or by another analogy, to the duration of a composite
structure, and by imagination to real or supposed phenomena such as the
manifestations of incorporeal entities. From the point of view of exact
science life is associated with matter, is displayed only by living
bodies, by all living bodies, and is what distinguishes living bodies
from bodies that are not alive. Herbert Spencer's formula that life is
"the continuous adjustment of internal relations to external relations"
was the result of a profound and subtle analysis, but omits the
fundamental consideration that we know life only as a quality of and in
association with living matter.

In developing our conception we must discard from consideration the
complexities that arise from the organization of the higher living
bodies, the differences between one living animal and another, or
between plant and animal. Such differentiations and integrations of
living bodies are the subject-matter of discussions on evolution; some
will see in the play of circumambient media, natural or supernatural, on
the simplest forms of living matter, sufficient explanation of the
development of such matter into the highest forms of living organisms;
others will regard the potency of such living matter so to develop as a
mysterious and peculiar quality that must be added to the conception of
life. Choice amongst these alternatives need not complicate
investigation of the nature of life. The explanation that serves for the
evolution of living matter, the vehicle of life, will serve for the
evolution of life. What we have to deal with here is life in its
simplest form.

The definition of life must really be a description of the essential
characters of life, and we must set out with an investigation of the
characters of living substance with the special object of detecting the
differences between organisms and unorganized matter, and the
differences between dead and living organized matter.

Living substance (see PROTOPLASM), as it now exists in all animals and
plants, is particulate, consisting of elementary organisms living
independently, or grouped in communities, the communities forming the
bodies of the higher animals and plants. These small particles or larger
communities are subject to accidents, internal or external, which
destroy them, immediately or slowly, and thus life ceases; or they may
wear out, or become clogged by the products of their own activity. There
is no reason to regard the mortality of protoplasm and the consequent
limited duration of life as more than the necessary consequence of
particulate character of living matter (see LONGEVITY).

Protoplasm, the living material, contains only a few elements, all of
which are extremely common and none of which is peculiar to it. These
elements, however, form compounds characteristic of living substance and
for the most part peculiar to it. Proteid, which consists of carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, is present in all protoplasm, is
the most complex of all organic bodies, and, so far, is known only from
organic bodies. A multitude of minor and simpler organic compounds, of
which carbohydrates and fats are the best known, occur in different
protoplasm in varying forms and proportions, and are much less isolated
from the inorganic world. They may be stages in the elaboration or
disintegration of protoplasm, and although they were at one time
believed to occur only as products of living matter, are gradually
being conquered by the synthetic chemist. Finally, protoplasm contains
various inorganic substances, such as salts and water, the latter giving
it its varying degrees of liquid consistency.

We attain, therefore, our first generalized description of life as the
property or peculiar quality of a substance composed of none but the
more common elements, but of these elements grouped in various ways to
form compounds ranging from proteid, the most complex of known
substances to the simplest salts. The living substance, moreover, has
its mixture of elaborate and simple compounds associated in a fashion
that is peculiar. The older writers have spoken of protoplasm or the
cell as being in a sense "manufactured articles"; in the more modern
view such a conception is replaced by the statement that protoplasm and
the cell have behind them a long historical architecture. Both ideas, or
both modes of expressing what is fundamentally the same idea, have this
in common, that life is not a sum of the qualities of the chemical
elements contained in protoplasm, but a function first of the peculiar
architecture of the mixture, and then of the high complexity of the
compounds contained in the mixture. The qualities of water are no sum of
the qualities of oxygen and hydrogen, and still less can we expect to
explain the qualities of life without regard to the immense complexity
of the living substance.

We must now examine in more detail the differences which exist or have
been alleged to exist between living organisms and inorganic bodies.
There is no essential difference in structure. Confusion has arisen in
regard to this point from attempts to compare organized bodies with
crystals, the comparison having been suggested by the view that as
crystals present the highest type of inorganic structure, it was
reasonable to compare them with organic matter. Differences between
crystals and organized bodies have no bearing on the problem of life,
for organic substance must be compared with a liquid rather than with a
crystal, and differs in structure no more from inorganic liquids than
these do amongst themselves, and less than they differ from crystals.
Living matter is a mixture of substances chiefly dissolved in water; the
comparison with the crystals has led to a supposed distinction in the
mode of growth, crystals growing by the superficial apposition of new
particles and living substance by intussusception. But inorganic liquids
also grow in the latter mode, as when a soluble substance is added to

The phenomena of movement do not supply any absolute distinction.
Although these are the most obvious characters of life, they cannot be
detected in quiescent seeds, which we know to be alive, and they are
displayed in a fashion very like life by inorganic foams brought in
contact with liquids of different composition. Irritability, again,
although a notable quality of living substance, is not peculiar to it,
for many inorganic substances respond to external stimulation by
definite changes. Instability, again, which lies at the root of
Spencer's definition "continuous adjustment of internal relations to
external relations" is displayed by living matter in very varying
degrees from the apparent absolute quiescence of frozen seeds to the
activity of the central nervous system, whilst there is a similar range
amongst inorganic substances.

The phenomena of reproduction present no fundamental distinction. Most
living bodies, it is true, are capable of reproduction, but there are
many without this capacity, whilst, on the other hand, it would be
difficult to draw an effective distinction between that reproduction of
simple organisms which consists of a sub-division of their substance
with consequent resumption of symmetry by the separate pieces, and the
breaking up of a drop of mercury into a number of droplets.

Consideration of the mode of origin reveals a more real if not an
absolute distinction. All living substance so far as is known at present
(see BIOGENESIS) arises only from already existing living substance. It
is to be noticed, however, that green plants have the power of building
up living substance from inorganic material, and there is a certain
analogy between the building up of new living material only in
association with pre-existing living material, and the greater readiness
with which certain inorganic reactions take place if there already be
present some trace of the result of the reaction.

The real distinction between living matter and inorganic matter is
chemical. Living substance always contains proteid, and although we know
that proteid contains only common inorganic elements, we know neither
how these are combined to form proteid, nor any way in which proteid can
be brought into existence except in the presence of previously existing
proteid. The central position of the problem of life lies in the
chemistry of proteid, and until that has been fully explored, we are
unable to say that there is any problem of life behind the problem of

Comparison of living and lifeless organic matter presents the initial
difficulty that we cannot draw an exact line between a living and a dead
organism. The higher "warm-blooded" creatures appear to present the
simplest case and in their life-history there seems to be a point at
which we can say "that which was alive is now dead." We judge from some
major arrest of activity, as when the heart ceases to beat. Long after
this, however, various tissues remain alive and active, and the event to
which we give the name of death is no more than a superficially visible
stage in a series of changes. In less highly integrated organisms, such
as "cold-blooded" vertebrates, the point of death is less conspicuous,
and when we carry our observations further down the scale of animal
life, there ceases to be any salient phase in the slow transition from
life to death.

The distinction between life and death is made more difficult by a
consideration of cases of so-called "arrested vitality." If credit can
be given to the stories of Indian fakirs, it appears that human beings
can pass voluntarily into a state of suspended animation that may last
for weeks. The state of involuntary trance, sometimes mistaken for
death, is a similar occurrence. A. Leeuwenhoek, in 1719, made the
remarkable discovery, since abundantly confirmed, that many animalculae,
notably tardigrades and rotifers, may be completely desiccated and
remain in that condition for long periods without losing the power of
awaking to active life when moistened with water. W. Preyer has more
recently investigated the matter and has given it the name "anabiosis."
Later observers have found similar occurrences in the cases of small
nematodes, rotifers and bacteria. The capacity of plant seeds to remain
dry and inactive for very long periods is still better known. It has
been supposed that in the case of the plant seeds and still more in that
of the animals, the condition of anabiosis was merely one in which the
metabolism was too faint to be perceptible by ordinary methods of
observation, but the elaborate experiments of W. Kochs would seem to
show that a complete arrest of vital activity is compatible with
viability. The categories, "alive" and "dead," are not sufficiently
distinct for us to add to our conception of life by comparing them. A
living organism usually displays active metabolism of proteid, but the
metabolism may slow down, actually cease and yet reawaken; a dead
organism is one in which the metabolism has ceased and does not

_Origin of Life._--It is plain that we cannot discuss adequately the
origin of life or the possibility of the artificial construction of
living matter (see ABIOGENESIS and BIOGENESIS) until the chemistry of
protoplasm and specially of proteid is more advanced. The investigations
of O. Bütschli have shown how a model of protoplasm can be manufactured.
Very finely triturated soluble particles are rubbed into a smooth paste
with an oil of the requisite consistency. A fragment of such a paste
brought into a liquid in which the solid particles are soluble, slowly
expands into a honeycomb like foam, the walls of the minute vesicles
being films of oil, and the contents being the soluble particles
dissolved in droplets of the circumambient liquid. Such a model,
properly constructed, that is to say, with the vesicles of the foam
microscopic in size, is a marvellous imitation of the appearance of
protoplasm, being distinguishable from it only by a greater symmetry.
The nicely balanced conditions of solution produce a state of unstable
equilibrium, with the result that internal streaming movements and
changes of shape and changes of position in the model simulate closely
the corresponding manifestations in real protoplasm. The model has no
power of recuperation; in a comparatively short time equilibrium is
restored and the resemblance with protoplasm disappears. But it suggests
a method by which, when the chemistry of protoplasm and proteid is
better known, the proper substances which compose protoplasm may be
brought together to form a simple kind of protoplasm.

It has been suggested from time to time that conditions very unlike
those now existing were necessary for the first appearance of life, and
must be repeated if living matter is to be constructed artificially. No
support for such a view can be derived from observations of the existing
conditions of life. The chemical elements involved are abundant; the
physical conditions of temperature pressure and so forth at which living
matter is most active, and within the limits of which it is confined,
are familiar and almost constant in the world around us. On the other
hand, it may be that the initial conditions for the synthesis of proteid
are different from those under which proteid and living matter display
their activities. E. Pflüger has argued that the analogies between
living proteid and the compounds of cyanogen are so numerous that they
suggest cyanogen as the starting-point of protoplasm. Cyanogen and its
compounds, so far as we know, arise only in a state of incandescent
heat. Pflüger suggests that such compounds arose when the surface of the
earth was incandescent, and that in the long process of cooling,
compounds of cyanogen and hydrocarbons passed into living protoplasm by
such processes of transformation and polymerization as are familiar in
the chemical groups in question, and by the acquisition of water and
oxygen. His theory is in consonance with the interpretation of the
structure of protoplasm as having behind it a long historical
architecture and leads to the obvious conclusion that if protoplasm be
constructed artificially it will be by a series of stages and that the
product will be simpler than any of the existing animals or plants.

Until greater knowledge of protoplasm and particularly of proteid has
been acquired, there is no scientific room for the suggestion that there
is a mysterious factor differentiating living matter from other matter
and life from other activities. We have to scale the walls, open the
windows, and explore the castle before crying out that it is so
marvellous that it must contain ghosts.

As may be supposed, theories of the origin of life apart from doctrines
of special creation or of a primitive and slow spontaneous generation
are mere fantastic speculations. The most striking of these suggests an
extra-terrestrial origin. H. E. Richter appears to have been the first
to propound the idea that life came to this planet as cosmic dust or in
meteorites thrown off from stars and planets. Towards the end of the
19th century Lord Kelvin (then Sir W. Thomson) and H. von Helmholtz
independently raised and discussed the possibility of such an origin of
terrestrial life, laying stress on the presence of hydrocarbons in
meteoric stones and on the indications of their presence revealed by the
spectra of the tails of comets. W. Preyer has criticized such views,
grouping them under the phrase "theory of cosmozoa," and has suggested
that living matter preceded inorganic matter. Preyer's view, however,
enlarges the conception of life until it can be applied to the phenomena
of incandescent gases and has no relation to ideas of life derived from
observation of the living matter we know.

  REFERENCES.--O. Bütschli, _Investigations on Microscopic Foams and
  Protoplasm_ (Eng. trans. by E. A. Minchin, 1894), with a useful list
  of references; H. von Helmholtz, _Vorträge und Reden_, ii. (1884); W.
  Kochs, _Allgemeine Naturkunde_, x. 673 (1890); A. Leeuwenhoek,
  _Epistolae ad Societatem regiam Anglicam_ (1719); E. Pflüger, "Über
  einige Gesetze des Eiweissstoffwechsels," in _Archiv. Ges. Physiol._
  liv. 333 (1893); W. Preyer, _Die Hypothesen über den Ursprung des
  Lebens_ (1880); H. E. Richter, _Zur Darwinischen Lehre_ (1865);
  Herbert Spencer, _Principles of Biology_; Max Verworm, _General
  Physiology_ (English trans. by F. S. Lee, 1899), with a very full
  literature.     (P. C. M.)

LIFE-SAVING (q.v.) deals generally with the means of saving life at sea,
but under this heading it is convenient to include the appliances
connected specially with the life-boat service. The ordinary open boat
is unsuited for life-saving in a stormy sea, and numerous contrivances,
in regard to which the lead came from England, have been made for
securing the best type of life-boat.

The first life-boat was conceived and designed by Lionel Lukin, a London
coach-builder, in 1785. Encouraged by the prince of Wales (George IV.),
Lukin fitted up a Norway yawl as a life-boat, took out a patent for it,
and wrote a pamphlet descriptive of his "Insubmergible Boat." Buoyancy
he obtained by means of a projecting gunwale of cork and air-chambers
inside--one of these being at the bow, another at the stern. Stability
he secured by a false iron keel. The self-righting and self-emptying
principles he seems not to have thought of; at all events he did not
compass them. Despite the patronage of the prince, Lukin went to his
grave a neglected and disappointed man. But he was not altogether
unsuccessful, for, at the request of the Rev Dr Shairp, Lukin fitted up
a coble as an "unimmergible" life-boat, which was launched at
Bamborough, saved several lives the first year and afterwards saved many
lives and much property.

Public apathy in regard to shipwreck was temporally swept away by the
wreck of the "Adventure" of Newcastle in 1789. This vessel was stranded
only 300 yds. from the shore, and her crew dropped, one by one, into the
raging breakers in presence of thousands of spectators, none of whom
dared to put off in an ordinary boat to the rescue. An excited meeting
among the people of South Shields followed; a committee was formed, and
premiums were offered for the best models of a life-boat. This called
forth many plans, of which those of William Wouldhave, a painter, and
Henry Greathead, a boatbuilder, of South Shields, were selected. The
committee awarded the prize to the latter, and, adopting the good points
of both models, gave the order for the construction of their boat to
Greathead. This boat was rendered buoyant by nearly 7 cwts. of cork, and
had very raking stem and stern-posts, with great curvature of keel. It
did good service, and Greathead was well rewarded; nevertheless no other
life-boat was launched till 1798, when the duke of Northumberland
ordered Greathead to build him a life-boat which he endowed. This boat
also did good service, and its owner ordered another in 1800 for Oporto.
In the same year Mr Cathcart Dempster ordered one for St Andrews, where,
two years later, it saved twelve lives. Thus the value of life-boats
began to be recognized, and before the end of 1803 Greathead had built
thirty-one boats--eighteen for England, five for Scotland and eight for
foreign lands. Nevertheless, public interest in life-boats was not
thoroughly aroused till 1823.

In that year Sir William Hillary, Bart., stood forth to champion the
life-boat cause. Sir William dwelt in the Isle of Man, and had assisted
with his own hand in the saving of three hundred and five lives. In
conjunction with two members of parliament--Mr Thomas Wilson and Mr
George Hibbert--Hillary founded the "Royal National Institution for the
Preservation of Life from Shipwreck." This, perhaps the grandest of
England's charitable societies, and now named the "Royal National
Life-boat Institution," was founded on the 4th of March 1824. The king
patronized it; the archbishop of Canterbury presided at its birth; the
most eloquent men in the land--among them Wilberforce--pleaded the
cause; nevertheless, the institution began its career with a sum of only
£9826. In the first year twelve new life-boats were built and placed at
different stations, besides which thirty-nine life-boats had been
stationed on the British shores by benevolent individuals and by
independent associations over which the institution exercised no control
though it often assisted them. In its early years the institution placed
the mortar apparatus of Captain Manby at many stations, and provided for
the wants of sailors and others saved from shipwreck,--a duty
subsequently discharged by the "Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners'
Royal Benevolent Society." At the date of the institution's second
report it had contributed to the saving of three hundred and forty-two
lives, either by its own life-saving apparatus or by other means for
which it had granted rewards. With fluctuating success, both as regards
means and results, the institution continued its good work--saving many
lives, and occasionally losing a few brave men in its tremendous battles
with the sea. Since the adoption of the self-righting boats, loss of
life in the service has been comparatively small and infrequent.

Towards the middle of the 19th century the life-boat cause appeared to
lose interest with the British public, though the life-saving work was
prosecuted with unremitting zeal, but the increasing loss of life by
shipwreck, and a few unusually severe disasters to life-boats, brought
about the reorganization of the society in 1850. The Prince Consort
became vice-patron of the institution in conjunction with the king of
the Belgians, and Queen Victoria, who had been its patron since her
accession, became an annual contributor to its funds. In 1851 the duke
of Northumberland became president, and from that time forward a tide of
prosperity set in, unprecedented in the history of benevolent
institutions, both in regard to the great work accomplished and the
pecuniary aid received. In 1850 its committee undertook the immediate
superintendence of all the life-boat work on the coasts, with the aid of
local committees. Periodical inspections, quarterly exercise of crews,
fixed rates of payments to coxswains and men, and quarterly reports,
were instituted, at the time when the self-righting self-emptying boat
came into being. This boat was the result of a hundred-guinea prize,
offered by the president, for the best model of a life-boat, with
another hundred to defray the cost of a boat built on the model chosen.
In reply to the offer no fewer than two hundred and eighty models were
sent in, not only from all parts of the United Kingdom, but from France,
Germany, Holland and the United States of America. The prize was gained
by Mr James Beeching of Great Yarmouth, whose model, slightly modified
by Mr James Peake, one of the committee of inspection, was still further
improved as time and experience suggested (see below).

The necessity of maintaining a thoroughly efficient life-boat service is
now generally recognized by the people not only of Great Britain, but
also of those other countries on the European Continent and America
which have a seaboard, and of the British colonies, and numerous
life-boat services have been founded more or less on the lines of the
Royal National Life-boat Institution. The British Institution was again
reorganized in 1883; it has since greatly developed both in its
life-saving efficiency and financially, and has been spoken of in the
highest terms as regards its management by successive governments--a
Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1897 reporting to the House
that the thanks of the whole community were due to the Institution for
its energy and good management. On the death of Queen Victoria in
January 1901 she was succeeded as patron of the Institution by Edward
VII., who as prince of Wales had been its president for several years.
At the close of 1908 the Institution's fleet consisted of 280
life-boats, and the total number of lives for the saving of which the
committee of management had granted rewards since the establishment of
the Institution in 1824 was 47,983. At this time there were only
seventeen life-boats on the coast of the United Kingdom which did not
belong to the Institution. In 1882 the total amount of money received by
the Institution from all sources was £57,797, whereas in 1901 the total
amount received had increased to £107,293. In 1908 the receipts were
£115,303, the expenditure £90,335.

  In 1882 the Institution undertook, with the view of diminishing the
  loss of life among the coast fishermen, to provide the masters and
  owners of fishing-vessels with trustworthy aneroid barometers, at
  about a third of the retail price, and in 1883 the privilege was
  extended to the masters and owners of coasters under 100 tons burden.
  At the end of 1901 as many as 4417 of these valuable instruments had
  been supplied. In 1889 the committee of management secured the passing
  of the Removal of Wrecks Act 1877 Amendment Act, which provides for
  the removal of wrecks in non-navigable waters which might prove
  dangerous to life-boat crews and others. Under its provisions
  numerous highly dangerous wrecks have been removed.

  In 1893 the chairman of the Institution moved a resolution in the
  House of Commons that, in order to decrease the serious loss of life
  from shipwreck on the coast, the British Government should provide
  either telephonic or telegraphic communication between all the
  coast-guard stations and signal stations on the coast of the United
  Kingdom; and that where there are no coast-guard stations the post
  offices nearest to the life-boat stations should be electrically
  connected, the object being to give the earliest possible information
  to the life-boat authorities at all times, by day and night, when the
  life-boats are required for service; and further, that a Royal
  Commission should be appointed to consider the desirability of
  electrically connecting the rock lighthouses, light-ships, &c., with
  the shore. The resolution was agreed to without a division, and its
  intention has been practically carried out, the results obtained
  having proved most valuable in the saving of life.

  On the 1st of January 1898 a pension and gratuity scheme was
  introduced by the committee of management, under which life-boat
  coxswains, bowmen and signalmen of long and meritorious service,
  retiring on account of old age, accident, ill-health or abolition of
  office, receive special allowances as a reward for their good
  services. While these payments act as an incentive to the men to
  discharge their duties satisfactorily, they at the same time assist
  the committee of management in their effort to obtain the best men for
  the work. For many years the Institution has given compensation to any
  who may have received injury while employed in the service, besides
  granting liberal help to the widows and dependent relatives of any in
  the service who lose their own lives when endeavouring to rescue

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The 33-ft., Double-banked, Ten-oared,
Self-righting and Self-emptying Life-boat (1881) of the Institution on
its Transporting Carriage, ready for launching.]

A very marked advance in improvement in design and suitability for
service has been made in the life-boat since the reorganization of the
Institution in 1883, but principally since 1887, when, as the result of
an accident in December 1886 to two self-righting life-boats in
Lancashire, twenty-seven out of twenty-nine of the men who manned them
were drowned. At this time a permanent technical sub-committee was
appointed by the Institution, whose object was, with the assistance of
an eminent consulting naval architect--a new post created--and the
Institution's official experts, to give its careful attention to the
designing of improvements in the life-boat and its equipment, and to the
scientific consideration of any inventions or proposals submitted by the
public, with a view to adopting them if of practical utility. Whereas in
1881 the self-righting life-boat of that time was looked upon as the
Institution's special life-boat, and there were very few life-boats in
the Institution's fleet not of that type, at the close of 1901 the
life-boats of the Institution included 60 non-self-righting boats of
various types, known by the following designations: Steam life-boats 4,
Cromer 3, Lamb and White 1, Liverpool 14, Norfolk and Suffolk 19,
tubular 1, Watson 18. In 1901 a steam-tug was placed at Padstow for use
solely in conjunction with the life-boats on the north coast of
Cornwall. The self-righting life-boat of 1901 was a very different boat
from that of 1881. The Institution's present policy is to allow the men
who man the life-boats, after having seen and tried by deputation the
various types, to select that in which they have the most confidence.

The present life-boat of the self-righting type (fig. 2) differs
materially from its predecessor, the stability being increased and the
righting power greatly improved. The test of efficiency in this last
quality was formerly considered sufficient if the boat would quickly
right herself in smooth water without her crew and gear, but every
self-righting life-boat now built by the Institution will right with
her full crew and gear on board, with her sails set and the anchor down.
Most of the larger self-righting boats are furnished with
"centre-boards" or "drop-keels" of varying size and weight, which can be
used at pleasure, and materially add to their weather qualities. The
drop-keel was for the first time placed in a life-boat in 1885.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Plans, Profile and Section of Modern English
Self-righting Life-boat.

  A, Deck.
  B, Relieving valves for automatic discharge of water off deck.
  C, Side air-cases above deck.
  D, End air compartments, usually called "end-boxes," an important
    factor in self-righting.
  E, Wale, or fender.
  F, Iron keel ballast, important in general stability and
  G, Water-ballast tanks.
  H, Drop-keel.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Plans, Profile and Section of English Steam

  A, Cockpit.
  a, Deck.
  b, Propeller hatch.
  c, Relief valves.
  B, Engine-room.
  C, Boiler-room.
  D, Water-tight compartments.
  E, Coal-bunkers.
  F, Capstan.
  G, Hatches to engine and boiler rooms.
  H, Cable reel.
  I, Anchor davit.]

Steam was first introduced into a life-boat in 1890, when the
Institution, after very full inquiry and consideration, stationed on the
coast a steel life-boat, 50 ft. long and 12 ft. beam, and a depth of 3
ft. 6 in., propelled by a turbine wheel driven by engines developing 170
horse-power. It had been previously held by all competent judges that a
mechanically-propelled life-boat, suitable for service in heavy weather,
was a problem surrounded by so many and great difficulties that even the
most sanguine experts dared not hope for an early solution of it. This
type of boat (fig. 3) has proved very useful. It is, however, fully
recognized that boats of this description can necessarily be used at
only a very limited number of stations, and where there is a harbour
which never dries out. The highest speed attained by the first hydraulic
steam life-boat was rather more than 9 knots, and that secured in the
latest 9½ knots. In 1909 the fleet of the Institution included 4 steam
life-boats and 8 motor life-boats. The experiments with motor life-boats
in previous years had proved successful.

The other types of pulling and sailing life-boats are all
non-self-righting, and are specially suitable for the requirements of
the different parts of the coast on which they are placed. Their various
qualities will be understood by a glance at the illustrations (figs. 4,
5, 6, 7 and 8).

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Plans, Profile and Section of Cromer Type of

  A, Deck.
  B, Relieving valves for automatic discharge of water off deck.
  C, Side air-cases above deck.
  E, Wale, or fender.
  G, Water-ballast tanks.]

The Institution continues to build life-boats of different sizes
according to the requirements of the various points of the coast at
which they are placed, but of late years the tendency has been generally
to increase the dimensions of the boats. This change of policy is mainly
due to the fact that the small coasters and fishing-boats have in great
measure disappeared, their places being taken by steamers and steam
trawlers. The cost of the building and equipping of pulling and sailing
life-boats has materially increased, more especially since 1898, the
increase being mainly due to improvements and the seriously augmented
charges for materials and labour. In 1881 the average cost of a
fully-equipped life-boat and carriage was £650, whereas at the end of
1901 it amounted to £1000, the average annual cost of maintaining a
station having risen to about £125.

The _transporting-carriage_ continues to be a most important part of the
equipment of life-boats, generally of the self-righting type, and is
indispensable where it is necessary to launch the boats at any point not
in the immediate vicinity of the boat-house. It is not, however, usual
to supply carriages to boats of larger dimensions than 37 ft. in length
by 9 ft. beam, those in excess as regards length and beam being either
launched by means of special slipways or kept afloat. The
transporting-carriage of to-day has been rendered particularly useful at
places where the beach is soft, sandy or shingly, by the introduction in
1888 of Tipping's sand-plates. They are composed of an endless plateway
or jointed wheel tyre fitted to the main wheels of the carriage, thereby
enabling the boat to be transferred with rapidity and with greatly
decreased labour over beach and soft sand. Further efficiency in
launching has also been attained at many stations by the introduction in
1890 of pushing-poles, attached to the transporting-carriages, and of
horse launching-poles, first used in 1892. Fig. 9 gives a view of the
modern transporting-carriage fitted with Tipping's sand- or

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Plans, Profile and Section of Liverpool Type of
Life-boat. A, B, C, E, G, as in fig. 3; D, end air-compartments; F, iron
keel; H, drop-keels.]

The _life-belt_ has since 1898 been considerably improved, being now
less cumbersome than formerly, and more comfortable. The feature of the
principal improvement is the reduction in length of the corks under the
arms of the wearer and the rounding-off of the upper portions, the
result being that considerably more freedom is provided for the arms.
The maximum extra buoyancy has thereby been reduced from 25 lb. to 22
lb., which is more than sufficient to support a man heavily clothed with
his head and shoulders above the water, or to enable him to support
another person besides himself. Numerous life-belts of very varied
descriptions, and made of all sorts of materials, have been patented,
but it is generally agreed that for life-boat work the cork life-belt of
the Institution has not yet been equalled.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Plans, Profile and Section of Norfolk and
Suffolk Type of Life-boat. A, B, E, F, G, H, as in fig. 4; A, side deck;
I, cable-well.]

_Life-saving rafts, seats for ships' decks, dresses, buoys, belts, &c.,_
have been produced in all shapes and sizes, but apparently nothing
indispensable has as yet been brought out. Those interested in
life-saving appliances were hopeful that the Paris Exhibition of 1900
would have produced some life-saving invention which might prove a
benefit to the civilized world, but so lacking in real merit were the
life-saving exhibits that the jury of experts were unable to award to
any of the 435 competitors the Andrew Pollok prize of £4000 for the best
method or device for saving life from shipwreck.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Plan, Profile and Section of Tubular Type of
Life-boat. A, deck; E, wale, or fender; H, drop-keel.]

The _rocket apparatus_, which in the United Kingdom is under the
management of the coast-guard, renders excellent service in life-saving.
This, next to the life-boat, is the most important and successful means
by which shipwrecked persons are rescued on the British shores. Many
vessels are cast every year on the rocky parts of the coasts, under
cliffs, where no life-boat could be of service. In such places the
rocket alone is available.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Plans, Profile and Section of Watson Type of
Life-boat. Lettering as in fig. 5, but C, side air-cases above deck and

  The rocket apparatus consists of five principal parts, viz. the
  rocket, the rocket-line, the whip, the hawser and the sling life-buoy.
  The mode of working it is as follows. A rocket, having a light line
  attached to it, is fired over the wreck. By means of this line the
  wrecked crew haul out the whip, which is a double or endless line,
  rove through a block with a tail attached to it. The tail-block,
  having been detached from the rocket-line, is fastened to a mast, or
  other portion of the wreck, high above the water. By means of the whip
  the rescuers haul off the hawser, to which is hung the travelling or
  sling life-buoy. When one end of the hawser has been made fast to the
  mast, about 18 in. _above_ the whip, and its other end to tackle
  fixed to an anchor on shore, the life-buoy is run out by the rescuers,
  and the shipwrecked persons, getting into it one at a time, are hauled
  ashore. Sometimes, in cases of urgency, the life-buoy is worked by
  means of the whip alone, without the hawser. Captain G. W. Manby,
  F.R.S., in 1807 invented, or at least introduced, the mortar
  apparatus, on which the system of the rocket apparatus, which
  superseded it in England, is founded. Previously, however, in 1791,
  the idea of throwing a rope from a wreck to the shore by means of a
  shell from a mortar had occurred to Serjeant Bell of the Royal
  Artillery, and about the same time, to a Frenchman named La Fère, both
  of whom made successful experiments with their apparatus. In the same
  year (1807) a rocket was proposed by Mr Trengrouse of Helston in
  Cornwall, also a hand and lead line as means of communicating with
  vessels in distress. The _heaving-cane_ was a fruit of the latter
  suggestion. In 1814 forty-five mortar stations were established, and
  Manby received £2000, in addition to previous grants, in
  acknowledgment of the good service rendered by his invention. Mr John
  Dennett of Newport, Isle of Wight, introduced the rocket, which was
  afterwards extensively used. In 1826 four places in the Isle of Wight
  were supplied with Dennett's rockets, but it was not till after
  government had taken the apparatus under its own control, in 1855,
  that the rocket invented by Colonel Boxer was adopted. Its peculiar
  characteristic lies in the combination of two rockets in one case, one
  being a continuation of the other, so that, after the first
  compartment has carried the machine to its full elevation, the second
  gives it an additional impetus whereby a great increase of range is
  obtained.     (R. M. B.; C. Di.)

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Life-boat Transporting-Carriage with Tipping's

UNITED STATES.--In the extent of coast line covered, magnitude of
operations and the extraordinary success which has crowned its efforts,
the life-saving service of the United States is not surpassed by any
other institution of its kind in the world. Notwithstanding the exposed
and dangerous nature of the coasts flanking and stretching between the
approaches to the principal seaports, and the immense amount of shipping
concentrating upon them, the loss of life among a total of 121,459
persons imperilled by marine casualty within the scope of the operations
of the service from its organization in 1871 to the 30th of June 1907,
was less than 1%, and even this small proportion is made up largely of
persons washed overboard immediately upon the striking of vessels and
before any assistance could reach them, or lost in attempts to land in
their own boats, and people thrown into the sea by the capsizing of
small craft. In the scheme of the service, next in importance to the
saving of life is the saving of property from marine disaster, for which
no salvage or reward is allowed. During the period named vessels and
cargoes to the value of nearly two hundred million dollars were saved,
while only about a quarter as much was lost.

The first government life-saving stations were plain boat-houses erected
on the coast of New Jersey in 1848, each equipped with a fisherman's
surf-boat and a mortar and life-car with accessories. Prior to this
time, as early as 1789, a benevolent organization known as the
Massachusetts Humane Society had erected rude huts along the coast of
that state, followed by a station at Cohasset in 1807 equipped with a
boat for use by volunteer crews. Others were subsequently added. Between
1849 and 1870 this society secured appropriations from Congress
aggregating $40,000. It still maintains sixty-nine stations on the
Massachusetts coast. The government service was extended in 1849 to the
coast of Long Island, and in 1850 one station was placed on the Rhode
Island coast. In 1854 the appointment of keepers for the New Jersey and
Long Island stations, and a superintendent for each of these coasts, was
authorized by law. Volunteer crews were depended upon until 1870, when
Congress authorized crews at each alternate station for the three winter

The present system was inaugurated in 1871 by Sumner I. Kimball, who in
that year was appointed chief of the Revenue Cutter Service, which had
charge of the few existing stations. He recommended an appropriation of
$200,000 and authority for the employment of crews for all stations for
such periods as were deemed necessary, which were granted. The existing
stations were thoroughly overhauled and put in condition for the housing
of crews; necessary boats and equipment were furnished; incapable
keepers, who had been appointed largely for political reasons, were
supplanted by experienced men; additional stations were established; all
were manned by capable surfmen; the merit system for appointments and
promotions was inaugurated; a beach patrol system was introduced,
together with a system of signals; and regulations for the government of
the service were promulgated. The result of the transformation was
immediate and striking. At the end of the year it was found that not a
life had been lost within the domain of the service; and at the end of
the second year the record was almost identical, but one life having
been lost, although the service had been extended to embrace the
dangerous coast of Cape Cod. Legislation was subsequently secured,
totally eliminating politics in the choice of officers and men, and
making other provisions necessary for the completion of the system. The
service continued to grow in extent and importance until, in 1878, it
was separated from the Revenue Cutter Service and organized into a
separate bureau of the Treasury, its administration being placed in the
hands of a general superintendent appointed by the president and
confirmed by the senate, his term of office being limited only by the
will of the president. Mr Kimball was appointed to the position, which
he still held in 1909.

  The service embraces thirteen districts, with 280 stations located at
  selected points upon the sea and lake coasts. Nine districts on the
  Atlantic and Gulf coasts contain 201 stations, including nine houses
  of refuge on the Florida coast, each in charge of a keeper only,
  without crews; three districts on the Great Lakes contain 61 stations,
  including one at the falls of the Ohio river, Louisville, Kentucky;
  and one district on the Pacific coast contains 18 stations, including
  one at Nome, Alaska.

  The general administration of the service is conducted by a general
  superintendent; an inspector of life-saving stations and two
  superintendents of construction of life-saving stations detailed from
  the Revenue Cutter Service; a district superintendent for each
  district; and assistant inspectors of stations, also detailed from the
  Revenue Cutter Service "to perform such duties in connexion with the
  conduct of the service as the general superintendent may require."
  There is also an advisory board on life-saving appliances consisting
  of experts, to consider devices and inventions submitted by the
  general superintendent.

  Station crews are composed of a keeper and from six to eight surfmen,
  with an additional man during the winter months at most of the
  stations on the Atlantic coast. The surfmen are reenlisted from year
  to year during good behaviour, subject to a thorough physical
  examination. The keepers are also subject to annual physical
  examinations after attaining the age of fifty-five. Stations on the
  Atlantic and Gulf coasts are manned from August 1st to May 31st. On
  the lakes the active season covers the period of navigation, from
  about April 1st to early in December. The falls station at Louisville,
  and all stations on the Pacific coast, are in commission continuously.
  One station, located in Dorchester Bay, an expanse of water within
  Boston harbour, where numerous yachts rendezvous and many accidents
  occur, which, with the one at Louisville are, believed to be the only
  floating life-saving stations in the world, is manned from May 1st to
  November 15th. Its equipment includes a steam tug and two gasoline
  launches, the latter being harboured in a slip cut into the after-part
  of the station and extending from the stern to nearly amidships. The
  Louisville stations guard the falls of the Ohio river, where life is
  much endangered from accidents to vessels passing over the falls and
  small craft which are liable to be drawn into the chutes while
  attempting to cross the river. Its equipment includes two river skiffs
  which can be instantly launched directly from the ways at one end of
  the station. These skiffs are small boats modelled much like
  surf-boats, designed to be rowed by one or two men. Other equipments
  are provided for the salvage of property. The stations, located as
  near as practicable to a launching place, contain as a rule convenient
  quarters for the residence of the keeper and crew and a boat and
  apparatus room. In some instances the dwelling- and boat-house are
  built separately. Each station has a look-out tower for the day watch.

  The principal apparatus consists of surf- and life-boats, Lyle gun and
  breeches-buoy apparatus and life-car. The Hunt gun and Cunningham
  line-carrying rocket are available at selected stations on account of
  their greater range, but their use is rarely necessary. The crews are
  drilled daily in some portion of rescue work, as practice in
  manoeuvring, upsetting and righting boats, with the breeches-buoy, in
  the resuscitation of the apparently drowned and in signalling. The
  district officers upon their quarterly visits examine the crews orally
  and by drill, recording the proficiency of each member, including the
  keeper, which record accompanies their report to the general
  superintendent. For watch and patrol the day of twenty-four hours is
  divided into periods of four or five hours each. Day watches are stood
  by one man in the look-out tower or at some other point of vantage,
  while two men are assigned to each night watch between sunset and
  sunrise. One of the men remains on watch at the station, dividing his
  time between the beach look-out and visits to the telephone at
  specified intervals to receive messages, the service telephone system
  being extended from station to station nearly throughout the service,
  with watch telephones at half-way points. The other man patrols the
  beach to the end of his beat and returns, when he takes the look-out
  and his watchmate patrols in the opposite direction. A like patrol and
  watch is maintained in thick or stormy weather in the daytime. Between
  adjacent stations a record of the patrol is made by the exchange of
  brass checks; elsewhere the patrolman carries a watchman's clock, on
  the dial of which he records the time of his arrival at the keypost
  which marks the end of his beat. On discovering a vessel standing into
  danger the patrolman burns a Coston signal, which emits a brilliant
  red flare, to warn the vessel of her danger. The number of vessels
  thus warned averages about two hundred in each year, whereby great
  losses are averted, the extent of which can never be known. When a
  stranded vessel is discovered, the patrolman's Coston signal apprises
  the crew that they are seen and assistance is at hand. He then
  notifies his station, by telephone if possible. When such notice is
  received at the station, the keeper determines the means with which to
  attempt a rescue, whether by boat or beach-apparatus. If the
  beach-apparatus is chosen, the apparatus cart is hauled to a point
  directly opposite the wreck by horses, kept at most of the stations
  during the inclement months, or by the members of the crew. The gear
  is unloaded, and while being set up--the members of the crew
  performing their several allotted parts simultaneously--the keeper
  fires a line over the wreck with the Lyle gun, a small bronze cannon
  weighing, with its 18 lb. elongated iron projectile to which the line
  is attached, slightly more than 200 lb., and having an extreme range
  of about 700 yds., though seldom available at wrecks for more than 400
  yds. This gun was the invention of Lieutenant (afterwards Colonel)
  David A. Lyle, U.S. Army. Shot lines are of three sizes, {4/32},
  {7/32} and {9/32} of an inch diameter, designated respectively Nos. 4,
  7 and 9. The two larger are ordinarily used, the No. 4 for extreme
  range. A line having been fired within reach of the persons on the
  wreck, an endless rope rove through a tail-block is sent out by it
  with instructions, printed in English and French on a tally-board, to
  make the tail fast to a mast or other elevated portion of the wreck.
  This done, a 3-in. hawser is bent on to the whip and hauled off to the
  wreck, to be made fast a little above the tail-block, after which the
  shore end is hauled taut over a crotch by means of tackle attached to
  a sand anchor. From this hawser the breeches-buoy or life-car is
  suspended and drawn between the ship and shore of the endless
  whip-line. The life-car can also be drawn like a boat between ship and
  shore without the use of a hawser. The breeches-buoy is a cork
  life-buoy to which is attached a pair of short canvas breeches, the
  whole suspended from a traveller block by suitable lanyards. It
  usually carries one person at a time, although two have frequently
  been brought ashore together. The life-car, first introduced in 1848,
  is a boat of corrugated iron with a convex iron cover, having a hatch
  in the top for the admission of passengers, which can be fastened
  either from within or without, and a few perforations to admit air,
  with raised edges to exclude water. At wreck operations during the
  night the shore is illuminated by powerful acetylene (calcium carbide)
  lights. If any of the rescued persons are frozen, as often happens,
  or are injured or sick, first aid and simple remedies are furnished
  them. Dry clothing, supplied by the Women's National Relief
  Association, is also furnished to survivors, which the destitute are
  allowed to keep.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--American Power Life-boat.]

  Several types of light open surf-boats are used, adapted to the
  special requirements of the different localities and occasions. They
  are built of cedar, from 23 to 27 ft. long, and are provided with end
  air chambers and longitudinal air cases on each side under the

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Beebe-McLellan Self-bailing Boat.]

  Self-righting and self-bailing life-boats, patterned after those used
  in England and other countries, have heretofore been used at most of
  the Lake stations and at points on the ocean coast where they can be
  readily launched from ways. Most of these boats, however, have now
  been transformed into power boats without the sacrifice of any of
  their essential qualities. The installation of power is effected by
  introducing a 25 H.P. four-cycle gasoline motor, weighing with its
  fittings, tanks, &c., about 800 lb. The engine is installed in the
  after air chamber, with the starting crank, reversing clutches, &c.,
  recessed into the bulkhead to protect them from accidents. These boats
  attain a speed of from 7 to 9 m. an hour, and have proved extremely
  efficient. A new power life-boat (fig. 10) on somewhat improved lines,
  36 ft. in length, and equipped with a 35-40 H.P. gasoline engine,
  promises to prove still more efficient. A number of surf-boats have
  also been equipped with gasoline engines of from 5 to 7 H.P., for
  light and quick work, with very satisfactory results.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Details of boat shown in Fig. 10.]

  A distinctively American life-boat extensively used is the
  Beebe-McLellan self-bailing boat (fig. 11), which for all round
  life-saving work is held in the highest esteem. It possesses all the
  qualities of the self-righting and self-bailing life-boats in use in
  all life-saving institutions, except that of self-righting; and the
  sacrifice of this quality is largely counteracted by the ease with
  which it can be righted by its crew when capsized. For accomplishing
  this the crews are thoroughly drilled. In drill a trained crew can
  upset and right the boat and resume their places at the oars in twenty
  seconds. The boat is built of cedar, weighs about 1200 lb., and can be
  used at all stations and launched by the crew directly off the beach
  from the boat-wagon especially made for it. The self-bailing quality
  is secured by a water-tight deck at a level a little above the load
  water line with relieving tubes fitted with valves through which any
  water shipped runs back into the sea by gravity. Air cases along the
  sides under the thwarts, inclining towards the middle of the boat,
  minimize the quantity of water taken in, and the water-ballast tank in
  the bottom increases the stability by the weight of the water which
  can be admitted by opening the valve. When transported along the land
  it is empty. The Beebe-McLellan boat is 25 ft. long, 7 ft. beam, and
  will carry 12 to 15 persons in addition to its crew. Some of these
  boats, intended for use in localities where the temperature of the
  water will not permit of frequent upsetting and righting drills, are
  built with end air cases which render them self-righting.

  In addition to the principal appliances described, a number of minor
  importance are included in the equipment of every life-saving station,
  such as launching carriages for life-boats, roller boat-skids, heaving
  sticks and all necessary tools. Members of all life-saving crews are
  required on all occasions of boat practice or duty at wrecks to wear
  life-belts of the prescribed pattern.     (A. T. T.)

_Life-boat Service in other Countries._--Good work is done by the
life-boat service in other countries, most of these institutions having
been formed on the lines of the Royal National Life-boat Institution of
Great Britain. The services are operating in the following countries:--

  _Belgium._--Established in 1838. Supported entirely by government.

  _Denmark._--Established in 1848. Government service.

  _Sweden._--Established in 1856. Government service.

  _France._--Established in 1865. Voluntary association, but assisted by
  the government.

  _Germany._--Established in 1885. Supported entirely by voluntary

  _Turkey_ (Black Sea).--Established in 1868. Supported by dues.

  _Russia._--Established in 1872. Voluntary association, but receiving
  an annual grant from the government.

  _Italy._--Established in 1879. Voluntary association.

  _Spain._--Established in 1880. Voluntary association, but receiving
  annually a grant of £1440 from government.

  _Canada._--Established in 1880. Government service.

  _Holland._--Established in 1884. Voluntary association, but assisted
  by a government subsidy.

  _Norway._--Established in 1891. Voluntary association, but receiving a
  small annual grant from government.

  _Portugal._--Established in 1898. Voluntary society.

  _India (East Coast)._--Voluntary association.

  _Australia (South)._--Voluntary association.

  _New Zealand._--Voluntary association.

  _Japan._--The National Life-boat Institution of Japan was founded in
  1889. It is a voluntary society, assisted by government. Its affairs
  are managed by a president and a vice-president, supported by a very
  influential council. The head office is at Tôkyô; there are numerous
  branches with local committees. The Imperial government contributes an
  annual subsidy of 20,000 _yen_ (£2000). The members of the Institution
  consist of three classes--honorary, ordinary and sub-ordinary, the
  amount contributed by the member determining the class in which he is
  placed. The chairman and council are not, as in Great Britain,
  appointed by the subscribers, but by the president, who must always be
  a member of the imperial family. The Institution bestows three medals:
  (a) the medal of merit, to be awarded to persons rendering
  distinguished service to the Institution; (b) the medal of membership,
  to be held by honorary and ordinary members or subscribers; and (c)
  the medal of praise, which is bestowed on those distinguishing
  themselves by special service in the work of rescue.

LIFFORD, the county town of Co. Donegal, Ireland, on the left bank of
the Foyle. Pop. (1901) 446. The county gaol, court house and infirmary
are here, but the town is practically a suburb of Strabane, across the
river, in Co. Londonderry. Lifford, formerly called Ballyduff, was a
chief stronghold of the O'Donnells of Tyrconnell. It was incorporated as
a borough (under the name of Liffer) in the reign of James I. It
returned two members to the Irish parliament until the union in 1800.

LIGAMENT (Lat. _ligamentum_, from _ligare_, to bind), anything which
binds or connects two or more parts; in anatomy a piece of tissue
connecting different parts of an organism (see CONNECTIVE TISSUES and

LIGAO, a town near the centre of the province of Albay, Luzon,
Philippine Islands, close to the left bank of a tributary of the Bicol
river, and on the main road through the valley. Pop. (1903) 17,687. East
of the town rises Mayón, an active volcano, and the rich volcanic soil
in this region produces hemp, rice and coco-nuts. Agriculture is the
sole occupation of the inhabitants. Their language is Bicol.

LIGHT. _Introduction._--§ 1. "Light" may be defined subjectively as the
sense-impression formed by the eye. This is the most familiar
connotation of the term, and suffices for the discussion of optical
subjects which do not require an objective definition, and, in
particular, for the treatment of physiological optics and vision. The
objective definition, or the "nature of light," is the _ultima Thule_ of
optical research. "Emission theories," based on the supposition that
light was a stream of corpuscles, were at first accepted. These gave
place during the opening decades of the 19th century to the "undulatory
or wave theory," which may be regarded as culminating in the "elastic
solid theory"--so named from the lines along which the mathematical
investigation proceeded--and according to which light is a transverse
vibratory motion propagated longitudinally though the aether. The
mathematical researches of James Clerk Maxwell have led to the rejection
of this theory, and it is now held that light is identical with
electromagnetic disturbances, such as are generated by oscillating
electric currents or moving magnets. Beyond this point we cannot go at
present. To quote Arthur Schuster (_Theory of Optics_, 1904), "So long
as the character of the displacements which constitute the waves remains
undefined we cannot pretend to have established a theory of light." It
will thus be seen that optical and electrical phenomena are co-ordinated
as a phase of the physics of the "aether," and that the investigation of
these sciences culminates in the derivation of the properties of this
conceptual medium, the existence of which was called into being as an
instrument of research.[1] The methods of the elastic-solid theory can
still be used with advantage in treating many optical phenomena, more
especially so long as we remain ignorant of fundamental matters
concerning the origin of electric and magnetic strains and stresses; in
addition, the treatment is more intelligible, the researches on the
electromagnetic theory leading in many cases to the derivation of
differential equations which express quantitative relations between
diverse phenomena, although no precise meaning can be attached to the
symbols employed. The school following Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz
has certainly laid the foundations of a complete theory of light and
electricity, but the methods must be adopted with caution, lest one be
constrained to say with Ludwig Boltzmann as in the introduction to his
_Vorlesungen über Maxwell's Theorie der Elektricität und des Lichtes_:--

  "So soll ich denn mit saurem Schweiss
   Euch lehren, was ich selbst nicht weiss."

     GOETHE, _Faust_.

The essential distinctions between optical and electromagnetic phenomena
may be traced to differences in the lengths of light-waves and of
electromagnetic waves. The aether can probably transmit waves of any
wave-length, the velocity of longitudinal propagation being about 3.10^10
cms. per second. The shortest waves, discovered by Schumann and
accurately measured by Lyman, have a wave-length of 0.0001 mm.; the
ultra-violet, recognized by their action on the photographic plate or by
their promoting fluorescence, have a wave-length of 0.0002 mm.; the eye
recognizes vibrations of a wave-length ranging from about 0.0004 mm.
(violet) to about 0.0007 (red); the infra-red rays, recognized by their
heating power or by their action on phosphorescent bodies, have a
wave-length of 0.001 mm.; and the longest waves present in the radiations
of a luminous source are the residual rays ("_Rest-strahlen_") obtained
by repeated reflections from quartz (.0085 mm.), from fluorite (0.056
mm.), and from sylvite (0.06 mm.). The research-field of optics includes
the investigation of the rays which we have just enumerated. A
delimitation may then be made, inasmuch as luminous sources yield no
other radiations, and also since the next series of waves, the
electromagnetic waves, have a minimum wave-length of 6 mm.

§ 2. The commonest subjective phenomena of light are colour and
visibility, i.e. why are some bodies visible and others not, or, in
other words, what is the physical significance of the words
"transparency," "colour" and "visibility." What is ordinarily understood
by a _transparent_ substance is one which transmits all the rays of
white light without appreciable absorption--that some absorption does
occur is perceived when the substance is viewed through a sufficient
thickness. _Colour_ is due to the absorption of certain rays of the
spectrum, the unabsorbed rays being transmitted to the eye, where they
occasion the sensation of colour (see COLOUR; ABSORPTION OF LIGHT).
Transparent bodies are seen partly by reflected and partly by
transmitted light, and opaque bodies by absorption. Refraction also
influences visibility. Objects immersed in a liquid of the same
refractive index and dispersion would be invisible; for example, a glass
rod can hardly be seen when immersed in Canada balsam; other instances
occur in the petrological examination of rock-sections under the
microscope. In a complex rock-section the boldness with which the
constituents stand out are measures of the difference between their
refractive indices and the refractive index of the mounting medium, and
the more nearly the indices coincide the less defined become the
boundaries, while the interior of the mineral may be most advantageously
explored. Lord Rayleigh has shown that transparent objects can only be
seen when non-uniformly illuminated, the differences in the refractive
indices of the substance and the surrounding medium becoming inoperative
when the illumination is uniform on all sides. R. W. Wood has performed
experiments which confirm this view.

The analysis of white light into the spectrum colours, and the
reformation of the original light by transmitting the spectrum through a
reversed prism, proved, to the satisfaction of Newton and subsequent
physicists until late in the 19th century, that the various coloured
rays were present in white light, and that the action of the prism was
merely to sort out the rays. This view, which suffices for the
explanation of most phenomena, has now been given up, and the modern
view is that the prism or grating really does _manufacture_ the colours,
as was held previously to Newton. It appears that white light is a
sequence of irregular wave trains which are analysed into series of more
regular trains by the prism or grating in a manner comparable with the
analytical resolution presented by Fourier's theorem. The modern view
points to the _mathematical_ existence of waves of all wave-lengths in
white light, the Newtonian view to the _physical_ existence. Strictly,
the term "monochromatic" light is only applicable to light of a single
wave-length (which can have no actual existence), but it is commonly
used to denote light which cannot be analysed by the instruments at our
disposal; for example, with low-power instruments the light emitted by
sodium vapour would be regarded as homogeneous or monochromatic, but
higher power instruments resolve this light into two components of
different wave-lengths, each of which is of a higher degree of
homogeneity, and it is not impossible that these rays may be capable of
further analysis.

§ 3. _Divisions of the Subject._--In the early history of the science of
light or optics a twofold division was adopted: _Catoptrics_ (from Gr.
[Greek: katoptron], a mirror), embracing the phenomena of reflection,
i.e. the formation of images by mirrors; and _Dioptrics_ (Gr. [Greek:
dia], through), embracing the phenomena of refraction, i.e. the bending
of a ray of light when passing obliquely through the surface dividing
two media.[2] A third element, _Chromatics_ (Gr. [Greek: chrôma],
colour), was subsequently introduced to include phenomena involving
colour transformations, such as the iridescence of mother-of-pearl,
feathers, soap-bubbles, oil floating on water, &c. This classification
has been discarded (although the terms, particularly "dioptric" and
"chromatic," have survived as adjectives) in favour of a twofold
division: geometrical optics and physical optics. _Geometrical optics_
is a mathematical development (mainly effected by geometrical methods)
of three laws assumed to be rigorously true: (1) the law of rectilinear
propagation, viz. that light travels in straight lines or _rays_ in any
homogeneous medium; (2) the law of reflection, viz. that the incident
and reflected rays at any point of a surface are equally inclined to,
and coplanar with, the normal to the surface at the point of incidence;
and (3) the law of refraction, viz. that the incident and refracted rays
at a surface dividing two media make angles with the normal to the
surface at the point of incidence whose sines are in a ratio (termed the
"refractive index") which is constant for every particular pair of
media, and that the incident and refracted rays are coplanar with the
normal. _Physical optics_, on the other hand, has for its ultimate
object the elucidation of the question: what is light? It investigates
the nature of the rays themselves, and, in addition to determining the
validity of the axioms of geometrical optics, embraces phenomena for the
explanation of which an expansion of these assumptions is necessary.

Of the subordinate phases of the science, "physiological optics" is
concerned with the phenomena of vision, with the eye as an optical
instrument, with colour-perception, and with such allied subjects as
the appearance of the eyes of a cat and the luminosity of the glow-worm
and firefly; "meteorological optics" includes phenomena occasioned by
the atmosphere, such as the rainbow, halo, corona, mirage, twinkling of
stars and colour of the sky, and also the effects of atmospheric dust in
promoting such brilliant sunsets as were seen after the eruption of
Krakatoa; "magneto-optics" investigates the effects of electricity and
magnetism on optical properties; "photo-chemistry," with its more
practical development photography, is concerned with the influence of
light in effecting chemical action; and the term "applied optics" may be
used to denote, on the one hand, the experimental investigation of
material for forming optical systems, e.g. the study of glasses with a
view to the formation of a glass of specified optical properties (with
which may be included such matters as the transparency of rock-salt for
the infra-red and of quartz for the ultra-violet rays), and, on the
other hand, the application of geometrical and physical investigations
to the construction of optical instruments.

§ 4. _Arrangement of the Subject._--The following three divisions of
this article deal with: (I.) the history of the science of light; (II.)
the nature of light; (III.) the velocity of light; but a summary (which
does not aim at scientific precision) may here be given to indicate to
the reader the inter-relation of the various optical phenomena, those
phenomena which are treated in separate articles being shown in larger

The simplest subjective phenomena of light are COLOUR and intensity, the
measurement of the latter being named PHOTOMETRY. When light falls on a
medium, it may be returned by REFLECTION or it may suffer ABSORPTION; or
it may be transmitted and undergo REFRACTION, and, if the light be
composite, DISPERSION; or, as in the case of oil films on water,
brilliant colours are seen, an effect which is due to INTERFERENCE.
Again, if the rays be transmitted in two directions, as with certain
crystals, "double refraction" (see REFRACTION, DOUBLE) takes place, and
the emergent rays have undergone POLARIZATION. A SHADOW is cast by light
falling on an opaque object, the complete theory of which involves the
phenomenon of DIFFRACTION. Some substances have the property of
transforming luminous radiations, presenting the phenomena of
composed of any number of MIRRORS or LENSES, or of both. If light
falling on a system be not brought to a focus, i.e. if all the emergent
rays be not concurrent, we are presented with a CAUSTIC and an
ABERRATION. An optical instrument is simply the setting up of an optical
LUCIDA, CAMERA OBSCURA and the KALEIDOSCOPE are examples; instruments
serviceable for simultaneous vision with both eyes are termed BINOCULAR
INSTRUMENTS; the STEREOSCOPE may be placed in this category; the optical
action of the Zoétrope, with its modern development the CINEMATOGRAPH,
depends upon the physiological persistence of VISION. Meteorological
optical phenomena comprise the CORONA, HALO, MIRAGE, RAINBOW, colour of
SKY and TWILIGHT, and also astronomical refraction (see REFRACTION,
ASTRONOMICAL); the complete theory of the corona involves DIFFRACTION,
and atmospheric DUST also plays a part in this group of phenomena.


§ 1. There is reason to believe that the ancients were more familiar
with optics than with any other branch of physics; and this may be due
to the fact that for a knowledge of external things man is indebted to
the sense of vision in a far greater degree than to other senses. That
light travels in straight lines--or, in other words, that an object is
seen in the direction in which it really lies--must have been realized
in very remote times. The antiquity of mirrors points to some
acquaintance with the phenomena of reflection, and Layard's discovery of
a convex lens of rock-crystal among the ruins of the palace of Nimrud
implies a knowledge of the burning and magnifying powers of this
instrument. The Greeks were acquainted with the fundamental law of
reflection, viz. the equality of the angles of incidence and reflection;
and it was Hero of Alexandria who proved that the path of the ray is the
least possible. The lens, as an instrument for magnifying objects or for
concentrating rays to effect combustion, was also known. Aristophanes,
in the _Clouds_ (c. 424 B.C.), mentions the use of the burning-glass to
destroy the writing on a waxed tablet; much later, Pliny describes such
glasses as solid balls of rock-crystal or glass, or hollow glass balls
filled with water, and Seneca mentions their use by engravers. A
treatise on optics ([Greek: Katoptrika]), assigned to Euclid by Proclus
and Marinus, shows that the Greeks were acquainted with the production
of images by plane, cylindrical and concave and convex spherical
mirrors, but it is doubtful whether Euclid was the author, since neither
this work nor the [Greek: Optika], a work treating of vision and also
assigned to him by Proclus and Marinus, is mentioned by Pappus, and more
particularly since the demonstrations do not exhibit the precision of
his other writings.

Reflection, or catoptrics, was the key-note of their explanations of
optical phenomena; it is to the reflection of solar rays by the air that
Aristotle ascribed twilight, and from his observation of the colours
formed by light falling on spray, he attributes the rainbow to
reflection from drops of rain. Although certain elementary phenomena of
refraction had also been noted--such as the apparent bending of an oar
at the point where it met the water, and the apparent elevation of a
coin in a basin by filling the basin with water--the quantitative law of
refraction was unknown; in fact, it was not formulated until the
beginning of the 17th century. The analysis of white light into the
continuous spectrum of rainbow colours by transmission through a prism
was observed by Seneca, who regarded the colours as fictitious, placing