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Title: Outline Studies in the New Testament for Bible Teachers
Author: Hurlbut, Jesse Lyman, 1843-1930
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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OUTLINE STUDIES

IN

THE NEW TESTAMENT

FOR

BIBLE TEACHERS

By

JESSE LYMAN HURLBUT, D.D.

[Illustration]


    NEW YORK: EATON & MAINS
    CINCINNATI: JENNINGS & GRAHAM



    Copyright, 1906, by
    EATON & MAINS.



CONTENTS


                                                        PAGE
  PREFATORY                                                5
  HINTS TO STUDENTS                                        7
  HINTS TO TEACHERS                                        9
  THE COURSE DIVIDED INTO LESSONS                         11
       I. THE LAND OF PALESTINE                           13
      II. THE PEOPLE OF PALESTINE                         19
     III. THE LIFE OF CHRIST                              25
      IV. THE THIRTY YEARS OF PREPARATION                 30
       V. THE YEAR OF OBSCURITY                           35
      VI. THE YEAR OF POPULARITY                          40
     VII. THE YEAR OF OPPOSITION                          48
    VIII. THE WEEK OF THE PASSION                         54
      IX. THE DAY OF THE CRUCIFIXION                      58
       X. THE FORTY DAYS OF RESURRECTION                  64
      XI. THE NEW TESTAMENT WORLD                         68
     XII. THE SYNAGOGUE                                   73
    XIII. THE CHURCH IN JUDEA                             76
     XIV. THE CHURCH IN TRANSITION                        83
      XV. THE CHURCH TWENTY YEARS AFTER THE ASCENSION     89
     XVI. THE PREPARATION OF PAUL FOR HIS WORK            93
   XVII. THE CHURCH AMONG THE GENTILES                    99
  XVIII. THE END OF THE AGE                              106



PREFATORY


There is no book in the world which repays earnest study so abundantly
as the Holy Bible. Even the cursory reader who possesses a candid mind
can gather many precious thoughts from its pages; and he who turns to it
for guidance in life, however ignorant he may be, will never be led
astray. But as the precious metal lies hidden in the mountains, and must
be sought out by the miners, so the treasures in the Word of Life are
found only by those who search diligently for them. He who not only
reads but _studies_ the Scriptures finds an abundant reward. There is
need in our age of searchers in the Bible, who shall bring out of its
treasure-house things new and old.

In the old Bible the most important themes are those which gather around
the God-man, Jesus Christ. His coming to earth was the culmination of
all prophecy, the focus of all history, and the center of all doctrine;
and the church which he founded has been for nineteen centuries the
inspiration of the world's progress. There are two subjects in the New
Testament with which every follower of Christ should be thoroughly
acquainted, and they are its two most prominent themes: the life of
Christ on earth, and the growth of the early church. In the life of
Christ he should know the order of the leading events; he should grasp
its principles, and should enter into its spirit. Only as we apprehend
Christ can we comprehend the truths taught and inspired by Christ.

But our work as New Testament students must not end with the story of
Christ's ascension from earth. Jesus left behind him a little church, of
only one hundred and twenty members, which in seventy years overswept
all the lands of the greatest empire then on the earth, and which now
covers nearly all the world. Of that church we are members, inheritors
of its traditions, its doctrines, and--best of all--its spirit. It
should be our delight to trace the steps of its early progress, to see
how its plans grew with the advancing years, and how an obscure company
of Jewish disciples became a church of world-wide reach.

To enable a student to obtain this knowledge this book has been
prepared. The earlier studies on the life of Christ have been published
as Studies in the Four Gospels, but have been carefully revised and, in
the author's judgment, improved. The studies on the early church are the
outgrowth of work begun many years ago, frequently revised, taught to
classes many times, and carefully restudied in the light of the most
recent researches in the domain of early church history.

These chapters are, as their titles indicate, _studies_; designed, not
for reading, but for study. This book does not undertake to be a life of
Christ, and a history of the early church, to be read. It simply extends
a helping hand, and holds out to the student a clue by means of which he
can form his own life of Christ and prepare for himself a history of the
early church. Wherever a fact can be learned by searching out a
Scripture reference the fact is not stated, but the reference is given.
Every text referred to should be searched out, as these texts contain
the essential facts of this book. Whoever would use these studies
rightly must pursue them with the Bible close at hand, and must consult
his Bible more frequently than this text-book.

There are a million and a half Sunday school teachers who should be
acquainted with the story of Christ and his church: and there are
several millions of young people in our Sunday schools who may be
teachers before many years and need the same knowledge. This book has
been prepared in the hope that these teachers and young people may find
it a help to know Him who is the head of the church; and to understand
the church, which is the pillar and ground of truth.

                                           JESSE L. HURLBUT.

January 3, 1906.



HINTS TO STUDENTS


Those who desire merely to _read_ this book, or to look it over, will
not find it interesting. Those who already know how to study will not
need these hints, and can use the book in their own way. But there are
many who desire to study these subjects carefully and yet do not know
precisely how to do the work. For these students, earnest but untrained,
these hints are given.

1. These studies should be pursued with the Bible close at hand, so that
every Scripture reference may be at once searched out and read.

2. Begin each lesson by a general view; reading it through carefully,
and memorizing the leading divisions of the outline, which are indicated
by the Roman numerals I, II, III, etc. This will give the general plan
of the lesson.

3. Now take up Part I of the lesson in detail; notice and memorize its
subdivisions, indicated by 1, 2, 3, etc., and search out all the
Scripture references cited in it. If practicable, write out on a sheet
of paper the reference (not the language of the text in full), and what
each reference shows. Thus with references in the Second Study, page 19,
Section I, =Origin=, 1. =Semitic.= (Gen. 12. 1-3) God's call and promise
to Abram. (Gen. 17. 1-8) The call repeated; name changed to Abraham.
(James 2. 23) The Friend of God. (Gen. 18. 19: "He will command his
children," etc.)

In this manner write out all the facts ascertained from all the
references in the section.

4. It would be a good plan to write out in full, as a connected
statement, all the facts in the section.

5. In like manner study out and write out all the facts obtained by a
study of the lesson and the text cited in it. This will greatly aid the
memory in holding fast to the information gained.

6. Having done this, look at the blackboard outline at the end of the
study and see if you can read the outline of the lesson by the aid of
the catch-words and indications which it affords. Study the lesson until
you can read it with the blackboard outline, and then recall it without
the outline.

7. Now take up the questions for review. Read them over, one by one, and
see if you can answer them. To many of them the answer is not given in
the text-book, but it will be found in the Scripture references when
searched out. Do not cease your study until every question can be
answered from memory.

8. Frequently review the lessons already learned. Before beginning the
third study review the first and second; before the fourth, review the
first, second and third; and at the completion of the course review them
all. The knowledge gained by this thorough study will more than
compensate for the time and trouble which it requires.



HINTS TO TEACHERS


Classes may be organized on various plans and out of varied materials
for the study of these lessons.

1. A teachers' class, composed of teachers and also of senior scholars
in the Sunday school, may be formed to study the life of Christ, which
is one of the most important subjects in the Bible. This may meet on an
evening, or an afternoon, and devote all the session to the study of the
lesson and to discussions upon it.

2. In many places a teachers' meeting is held for the study of the
International Lesson as a preparation for the Sunday school class. A
part of the time might be taken at this meeting for the study of these
subjects. In that case it would be well to follow the division into
lessons, as given on pages 11, 12.

3. A normal class may be organized among the brightest scholars in the
Sunday school, who should be trained to become teachers. This normal
class may meet on an afternoon, or an evening, or may take the lesson
period in the Sunday school session.

4. These studies may be pursued by the young people's society of the
church, or by a class formed under its auspices, meeting at such time
and place as shall be found most convenient.

There are two methods in which these lessons may be taught: One is the
_lecture method_, by which the instructor gives the lesson to the class
in the form of a lecture, placing the outline upon the blackboard as he
proceeds, calling upon the students to read the texts cited, and
frequently reviewing the outline in a concert drill. By this method the
students may or may not have the books, as they and the instructor
prefer. While it is not necessary to supply the class with the
text-book, it will be a good plan to do so. Some lecturers prefer to
have the books closed while the lecture is being given; but others
desire to have the students use the outline in the book as a syllabus,
enabling them to follow the subject more closely.

The other method, simpler and easier, is to let the student have a copy
of the book, to expect the lesson to be prepared by the class, and to
have it recited, either individually or in concert. Let each student
gain all the information that he can upon the subjects of the lesson;
let each bring his knowledge to the possession of all; let all talk
freely, and all will be the gainers.

It would be a good plan to have papers read from time to time upon the
subjects suggested by the course and parallel with it.

Some teachers and classes may regard the contents of this book as too
extensive and may prefer a shorter course. The aim of the author has
been to include in the course only those subjects that are essential to
an understanding of the New Testament, and the entire series of lessons
is recommended; but if a shorter course be deemed absolutely necessary,
two plans are suggested:

1. There are three subjects which under necessity might be omitted:
Second Study, The People of Palestine; Third Study, General View of the
Life of Christ; Twelfth Study, The Synagogue. This will leave fifteen
studies, or twenty-two lessons.

2. Another plan might be undertaken: to take up as a course the studies
on the life of Christ, or even omitting, as above, the second and third
studies, making eight; and to leave the eight studies in the early
church--a most interesting and valuable subject--to a later period.



THE COURSE DIVIDED INTO LESSONS


For the convenience of teachers and classes, the eighteen studies of
this course are divided into twenty-five lessons, as follows:

  Lesson  1.  The Land of Palestine. First Study.
    "     2.  The People of Palestine. Second Study.
    "     3.  The Life of Christ--General View. Third Study.
    "     4.  The Thirty Years of Preparation. Fourth Study.
    "     5.  The Year of Obscurity. Fifth Study.
    "     6.  The Year of Popularity. Sixth Study. Part One.
    "     7.  The Year of Popularity. Sixth Study. Part Two.
    "     8.  The Year of Opposition. Seventh Study. Part One.
    "     9.  The Year of Opposition. Seventh Study. Part Two.
    "     10. The Week of the Passion. Eighth Study.
    "     11. The Day of the Crucifixion. Ninth Study.
    "     12. The Forty Days of Resurrection. Tenth Study.
    "     13. The New Testament World. Eleventh Study.
    "     14. The Synagogue. Twelfth Study.
    "     15. The Church in Judea. Thirteenth Study. Part One.
    "     16. The Church in Judea. Thirteenth Study. Part Two.
    "     17. The Church in Transition. Fourteenth Study.
    "     18. The Church Twenty Years after the Ascension. Fifteenth
                      Study.
    "     19. The Preparation of Paul for his Work. Sixteenth Study.
                      Part One.
    "     20. The Preparation of Paul for his Work. Sixteenth Study.
                      Part Two.
    "     21. The Church among the Gentiles. Seventeenth Study. Part
                      One.
    "     22. The Church among the Gentiles. Seventeenth Study. Part
                      Two.
    "     23. The Church among the Gentiles. Seventeenth Study. Part
                      Three.
    "     24. The End of the Age. Eighteenth Study. Part One.
    "     25. The End of the Age. Eighteenth Study. Part Two.



FIRST STUDY

The Land of Palestine


In the historical study of the New Testament the two principal subjects
are, the life of Jesus Christ on earth and, after the Ascension, the
growth of the Christian church.

The life of Christ was passed entirely in Palestine; and we therefore
begin our studies with a view of that land as it was in our Saviour's
day.

I. =It was an oriental land.= In all ages the boundaries of Palestine
have been about the same, though the dominion of its rulers has varied
according to their power. Palestine Proper, originally the land of
Canaan, and later the land of Israel, or the Twelve Tribes, is located
near the south-eastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea; having Syria and
Phoenicia on the north, the great Syrian Desert on the east, the
Sinaitic wilderness on the south, and the Mediterranean on the west.
Located just outside the tropics, near the point of contact between Asia
and Africa, it belongs to the Oriental or Eastern world.

II. =It was a small land.= The greatest lands have not always been the
largest. Greece, no larger than half a dozen counties in America, is
greater in history than vast China; and the single city of Rome won and
held the empire of the Mediterranean lands. Territorially the whole
extent of Palestine was about that of Massachusetts and Connecticut
united, or that of Switzerland, in Europe--about 12,500 square miles.
Its sea-coast, from Tyre to Gaza, is 140 miles long; its Jordan line,
from Mount Hermon to the foot of the Dead Sea, is 156 miles.

III. =It was a land of varied natural features.= There is a regularity
in the natural conformation of Palestine which every traveler notices.
The country lies in five parallel sections.

1. Approaching from the Mediterranean one meets first a =sea-coast
plain= two or three miles wide at the north, but widening, as it goes
southward, to nearly twenty miles at Gaza.

2. Crossing this we approach the =Shephelah=, _or foot-hills_; a terrace
of low hills, from 300 to 500 feet high.

3. Ascending these we reach =the mountain region=, a range of mountains
broken by ravines in all directions, and varying from 2,500 to 3,000
feet high. This region was the home of the Israelites in all their
history. They were always a mountain people and never occupied the lower
plains in any great degree. In all the Bible times the plains and
valleys were mainly foreign and heathen in their population, while the
mountains were Israelite in the Old Testament and Jewish in the New.

4. Crossing the mountains we descend to the =Jordan valley=, lower than
the sea level and from five to twenty miles wide. Through this runs the
river Jordan, passing through two lakes--Lake Merom and the Sea of
Galilee--and emptying into the Dead Sea.

5. Beyond the valley rises the =eastern table-land=, with higher
mountains, but more level summits, and broken by fewer valleys. The
mountains gradually decline to the great Syrian Desert on the east.

IV. =It was a Land of Five Provinces.= In the time of Christ there were
five political divisions in Palestine; three on the west side of Jordan
and two on the east.

[Illustration: PALESTINE In the time of CHRIST]

1. On the north, west of the Jordan, was the province of =Galilee=,
situated between the river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, the land of
Phoenicia and Mount Carmel. It was inhabited by a brave, simple-hearted
people, mainly Jews, but with many Gentiles among them. Hence its name
(Isa. 9. 1, 2; Matt. 4. 15, 16); and the contempt in which it was held
at Jerusalem. (John 7. 41, 52.) It was the home of Jesus during most of
his life and ministry.

2. The central region was =Samaria=. See its location. (John 4. 3, 4.)
It was, strictly speaking, not a province but a district around the
cities of Shechem and Samaria, not extending either to the sea or river,
and of uncertain limits, inhabited by a composite people, partly
Israelite, partly heathen, in their origin. Note the claim of its people
(John 4. 12) and their expectation. (John 4. 25.) Observe how they were
regarded by the Jews. (John 4. 9; 8. 48.) Notice that Christ paid no
regard to this caste prejudice. (John 4. 10.)

3. The southernmost province of Palestine was =Judea=. As the largest,
and the special home of the Jewish people, it often gave its name to the
whole land, as in Mark 1. 5; Luke 7. 17; Acts 10. 37. Generally,
however, it is distinguished as the name of the province, as in Luke 2.
4; Matt. 2. 22; John 4. 3. Jesus made several visits to this district,
especially to its city, but only for limited periods, as its people were
more bigoted than the Galileans and bitterly opposed to him.

4. On the east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea was the province of
=Peræa=, a word meaning "beyond." It is not mentioned by that name in
the New Testament. Notice what it is called in Matt. 19. 1; Mark 10. 1.
We read of a visit paid by Jesus to this region near the close of his
ministry.

5. North of the river Hieromax, and east of the Sea of Galilee, was a
fifth province, the ancient land of =Bashan=, "woodland," but known in
the gospels as "Philip's tetrarchy." Notice how it is specified in Luke
3. 1. Another name for a part of this territory is given in Matt. 4. 25;
Mark 5. 20; 7. 31. Its inhabitants were mostly Gentiles or heathen.
Twice this country enjoyed brief visits from Jesus, each marked by a
miracle (Mark 5. 1-20; 7. 31-37).

V. =It was a Populous Land.= We can only note the places referred to in
the gospel history, and we arrange them according to the provinces.

1. In Galilee we note: 1.) =Nazareth=, due west of the southern end of
the Sea of Galilee, the early home of Jesus (Matt. 2. 23; Luke 2. 51).
2.) =Nain=, south of Nazareth, where he wrought a miracle (Luke 7. 11).
3.) =Cana=, north of Nazareth, where the first miracle was wrought (John
2. 1). 4.) =Capernaum=, on the Sea of Galilee, the home of Jesus during
most of his ministry, and the scene of many miracles (Luke 4. 31; Mark
2. 1).

2. In Samaria we note two places: 1.) =Shechem=, which may be the place
referred to in John 4. 5, though late authorities regard it as the name
of a hamlet, now called Iskar, near by. 2.) =Samaria=, a few miles
north-west of Shechem, the early capital of the province, and the first
place where the Gospel was preached to other than the Jews (Acts 8. 5).

3. In the province of Judea we notice: 1.) =Jerusalem=, "the holy city"
(Matt. 4. 5), and the place where Jesus was crucified (Matt. 16. 21).
2.) =Bethany=, two miles east of Jerusalem (John 11. 18), where Jesus
was entertained by Mary and Martha (John 11. 1). Note two great events
near this place (John 11. 43; Luke 24. 50, 51). 3.) =Bethlehem=, six
miles south of Jerusalem. The great event in its history (Matt. 2. 1.)
Its ancient honor (Luke 2. 4.) 4.) =Hebron=, the ancient capital of
Judah, a priestly city, and the probable birthplace of John the Baptist
(Luke 1. 39, 40.) 5.) =Jericho=, eighteen miles from Jerusalem, in the
Jordan valley, visited by Jesus near the end of his ministry (Luke 19.
1). 6.) =Ephraim=, a village fourteen miles north of Jerusalem, the
hiding place of Jesus for a brief period (John 11. 54).

4. In the province of Peræa but one place is identified as connected
with the life of Christ: =Bethabara= (Revised version, "Bethany beyond
the Jordan") the place of the baptism and of the first disciples;
thirteen miles south of the Sea of Galilee.

5. In Philip's tetrarchy, east of the Sea of Galilee, we note three
places: 1.) =Cæsarea Philippi=, at the foot of the Mount Hermon (Mark 8.
27; 9. 2). 2.) =Bethsaida=, at the head of the Sea of Galilee, east of
the Jordan (Luke 9. 10-13). 3.) =Gergesa= or =Gerasa=, a little place on
the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee (Matt. 8. 28).

VI. =It was a Subject Land.= Half a century before the birth of Christ
the Jews became subject to Rome, and thenceforward various changes took
place in the form of government:

1. The whole land, with some surrounding provinces, was a =kingdom=
under Herod the Great (Matt. 2. 1), but tributary to the emperor at Rome
from 37 B. C. to 4 B. C., the year of Christ's birth.

2. On Herod's death it was divided into three =tetrarchies=,
"fourth-part rules." Archelaus became tetrarch of Judea and Samaria
(Matt. 2. 22); Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peræa (Matt. 14.
1; Luke 23. 6, 7); Herod Philip, tetrarch of the Bashan district (Luke
3. 1). A fourth tetrarchy, outside of Palestine, on the north, was held
by Lysanias (Luke 3. 1).

3. About the year 7 A. D., when Jesus was eleven years old, Archelaus
was deposed by the Roman emperor and his dominion made a province under
a Roman procurator, the other two tetrarchies remaining undisturbed.
This was the form of government during the ministry of Jesus. Judea and
Samaria constituting one Roman province under Pontius Pilate; Galilee
and Peræa, Herod's tetrarchy, and Bashan, Philip's tetrarchy.

[Illustration: NEW TESTAMENT PALESTINE]

4. In the year 37 the Roman emperor made Herod Agrippa I. king first
over Judea, and then, in 41, over all the dominions of his grandfather,
so that Palestine became a kingdom again. He is mentioned in Acts 12. 1.

5. On Agrippa's death, in A. D. 44, a new division took place. Agrippa
II., son of Agrippa I., became ruler of Chalcis and Bashan. He is
called, but by courtesy only, "King Agrippa," in Acts 25. 13; 26. 1, 2.
The rest of Palestine, consisting of Judea, Samaria, and Peræa, became
again a procuratorship under direct Roman rule. See Acts 23. 24; 24. 27.

6. On the rebellion of the Jews, A. D. 66, the government was again
changed. Palestine became a part of Syria, under Vespasian, the legate.
This was the end of Jewish history as a separate nationality.


Suggestions for Study and Teaching

      1. Study carefully a good map of Palestine and learn
      from it the boundaries and location of the land.
      Memorize the dimensions and distances given in the
      outline.

      2. Draw a map showing the five natural divisions in
      Par. III., and learn their names.

      3. Indicate on your own map the five provinces,
      comparing the best maps at hand to find their boundary
      lines.

      4. Locate on your own map all the places named in Par.
      V., and be able to name an event connected with each,
      studying the references for this purpose.

      5. Be sure to examine all the references, and state
      what fact each reference shows concerning a locality.

      6. Draw in succession five sketch maps, each to
      represent the political government of a period. Write
      across each province the name of a ruler. Map No. 1
      will represent it at the birth of Christ. No. 2,
      during the childhood of Christ. Map No. 3, during his
      ministry. No. 4, about A. D. 41. No. 5, from 42 to 66
      A. D. Look out all the references given in Par. VI.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Orien. L. Bound.=  N. S. P.  E. S. D.  S. S. W.  W. M. S.

   II. =Sm. L.=  S. M. 12,500.  S. C. 140.  J. L. 156.

  III. =Var. Nat. Fea.=  S. C. P.  Sh.  M. R.  J. V.  E. T. L.

   IV. =Fiv. Prov.=  Gal. Sam. Jud. Per. Bash.

    V. =Pop. L.=  Gal. N. N. C. C.  Sam. Sh. Sa.  Jud. J. B. B. H.
        J. E.  Per. B.  Ph. Tet. C. P. B. G.

   VI. =Sub. L.=  1. Km.  2. Tetr.  3. Prov.  4. Kgm.  5. "Kg. Ag."
        Rom. Proc.  6. Part of Syr.


Questions for Review

      Why do we need to study the land of Palestine? What
      were the boundaries of Palestine? Where is it located?
      Name some small countries which have been prominent in
      history. What is the size of Palestine? How long is
      the coast-line? The Jordan line? What are the five
      natural divisions of the land? Name and bound each of
      the political divisions. In which of these provinces
      was Jesus born? In which did he pass most of his life?
      In which was he crucified? Name four places in
      Galilee, and an event connected with each? Two places
      in Samaria, and their events. Six places in Judea and
      their events. One place in Peræa and three in Philip's
      tetrarchy, with their events. State the six successive
      forms of government and their rulers in Palestine
      during the New Testament period.



SECOND STUDY

The People of Palestine


In all the ancient world there was but one people among whom Christ
could have come with his revelation, and through whom his message could
have been given to mankind. That people was =the Jews=, in certain
respects the most remarkable of all the races.

I. We notice their =origin=, which shows a series of selections
extending through many centuries and a training for their peculiar
mission.

1. Of the three great families of earth, they sprang from the =Semitic=,
which has been the mother of all the great religions of the world; a
thoughtful, meditative race, rather than active and aggressive.

2. From this race =Abraham= was called, more than twenty centuries
before Christ, to be the father of a great nation (Gen. 12. 1-3; 17.
1-8). He was distinguished for his worship of the one God, for his
faith, and for his nobility of character. Notice his title in Jas. 2.
23; a name by which he is still known in the East, _el Khalil_, "the
Friend." His influence upon his family (Gen. 18. 19).

3. Of the families descended from Abraham that of =Isaac= was chosen
(Gen. 21. 12; Rom. 9. 7). All the other races of Abrahamic origin
yielded to the idolatrous influences around them and lost the knowledge
of God.

4. Of the two sons of Isaac one married among the Canaanites, and, as a
result, his descendants became idolaters (Gen. 26. 34, 35; 36. 2). The
other chose the inheritance of the covenant (Gen. 28. 20-22). His name
was changed (Gen. 32. 28; 35. 10). His descendants, the =Israelites=,
trained up in the true faith, became the people of God. Each of his
twelve sons was the ancestor of a tribe (Exod. 1. 1-7). They continued
one people for a thousand years, though part of the time divided into
two kingdoms.

5. In the year 721 B. C. ten of the twelve tribes were carried into
Assyrian captivity (2 Kings 17. 18-20). Having lost their religion, the
only bond of unity, they mingled with the idolatrous world and ceased to
be a separate people. The =tribe of Judah= was left, Benjamin being
incorporated with it. Henceforth they were called "the Jews," a name
found first in 2 Kings 18. 26.

6. But through all the history of Judah, as well as of Israel, there had
been two distinct elements in the people: the worshipers of God and of
idols; the religious and the worldly. In order to separate these
elements, to cut off the evil and to discipline the good, came the
Babylonian captivity, B. C. 587. Through this the idolatrous element was
either destroyed or assimilated with the heathen world. At the release
from captivity, B. C. 536, all the Jews were of God-fearing,
Scripture-loving element. This was =the Remnant=, the "holy seed," the
true Israel (Isa. 6. 8-13).

Thus, out of all the world, was gradually chosen and prepared a people
among whom the Lord should come.

II. Notice =their traits= as a race, for which they were chosen, and
which were intensified by their training:

1. They were a =religious= people; monotheistic; worshiping the one
invisible God, hating idolatry. See the command (Exod. 20. 3-6). The
exhortation of Joshua (Josh. 24. 14). This is the great glory of Israel
alone among the ancient nations.

2. They were an =exclusive= people; strongly attached to each other, and
seeking no affiliation with other races. Note this trait in Abraham
(Gen. 24. 2-4). Also in Isaac (Gen. 28. 1, 2). See Balaam's prophecy
(Num. 23. 9). To this day the Jews dwell apart; in most European cities
there is a "Jewish quarter."

3. They were a =conservative= people; attached to their own customs,
opposed to all changes, clinging to their worship despite persecution.

4. They were an =aspiring= people. From their earliest history the Jews
cherished the expectation of being a great and conquering nation. From
their own prophecies they obtained the hope and belief that a great king
should arise among them to rule the world. See the promises in Gen. 49.
10. The prophecy in Isa. 32. 1, 2. His title in Dan. 9. 25. The word
"Messiah" in Hebrew is "Christos" in Greek, and "Anointed" in English.
This messianic hope was the central thought of all Judaism.

5. They were a =moral= people. Their Scripture set up a standard of
character immeasurably superior to that in other ancient lands. Among
the Jews womanhood was honored, drunkenness was rare, honesty was the
rule, and crime was far less frequent than elsewhere.

These were the traits that made the Jews the people of God and fitted
them to accomplish the divine purpose.

III. What was that purpose? Every race has its mission in the world. The
Greeks were set to exalt the intellect; the Romans, to establish the
reign of law. We notice the =mission of the Jewish people=:

1. =To perpetuate the knowledge of God.= In the general wickedness of
the world and the spread of idolatry there was danger lest the true
religion be utterly lost. Therefore God chose out one nation--the one
having the traits best fitting it for his purpose--and set it apart to
guard the holy fire of divine truth until the rest of the world should
be ready to receive it.

2. =To receive training for higher revelation.= The higher revelations
of God can come only to a people whose religious faculties have been
trained to receive them. Judaism was God's school where a chosen race
was educated. They received the Scriptures, the prophets, the ritual of
worship, and, above all, the discipline of trial, fitting them to become
"a nation of priests." See Paul's enumeration of their privileges in
Rom. 9. 4, 5.

3. =To proclaim the Gospel to the world.= When, in the fullness of time,
Israel was trained up to knowledge and the outer world prepared to
receive the truth, Christ came as the consummation of Judaism. Then a
new mission opened before the Jews--that of proclaiming Christ to the
world. The little company of disciples were the seed that should
replenish the whole earth. See the command. (Matt. 28. 19, 20.)

IV. We notice now the =Jews in the time of Christ=.

1. They were divided into two great =branches=: the =Jews of Palestine=
and the =Jews of the Dispersion=. The former were descendants of those
who had settled in Palestine after the decree of Cyrus, B. C. 536 (Ezra
1. 1-3); the latter those who remained in the lands of their adoption,
were found all over the ancient world, and were far more numerous. See
references to them in John 7. 35; James 1. 1; 1 Pet. 1. 1. We note that
these "Jews of the Dispersion" were not descendants of the Ten Tribes,
except in a few instances, but were _Jews_--that is, descendants of
Judah.

2. Noticing now the Palestinian Jews, for with these the life of Christ
was mainly connected, we find them divided into two =sects=, or schools
of thought: the =Pharisees= and the =Sadducees=. These two parties arose
about 168 B. C., in the time of the Maccabæan uprising. Let us look at
them in contrast.

      1.) Their _names_ express their traits. _Pharisee_
      means "separatist," "one who is apart." _Sadducee_
      means "just," or "righteous," but rather with our idea
      of the world "moralist."

      2.) Their _aims_. The Pharisee aimed to keep the
      Mosaic law absolutely, particularly with regard to
      ceremonial requirements; to do more than obey it, by
      setting around it a hedge of traditional
      interpretations going beyond its letter in strictness.
      The Sadducee professed to keep the law, ignoring
      tradition, but gave it a lax and easy interpretation
      which often ignored its requirements.

      3.) Their _spirit_. The Pharisee was the radical and
      zealot, showing an intense, intolerant Judaism. The
      Sadducee was the liberal easy-going man of the world,
      taking the world as he found it.

      4.) Their _beliefs_. The Pharisee believed in a
      spiritual world, heaven, hell, angels, the hereafter,
      the judgment. The Sadducee could not find clear
      statements of these doctrines in the Old Testament,
      and denied them. See Matt. 22. 23; Acts 23. 8.

      5.) Their _influence_. The Pharisees were strong in
      the synagogues, where the scribes gave their
      interpretations, and hence were powerful among the
      people as leaders in religion. The Sadducees were the
      smaller body, but influential from their wealth and
      their social position, for the high priests and all
      the priestly order belonged to them, and they were the
      office-holding class, the court party. (Acts 4. 1, 2;
      5. 17.)

      6.) Their _evils_. The evil of the Pharisees was their
      tendency to make religion mere hypocritical formality,
      so often rebuked by Christ. See Matt. 23. 2-7. The
      evil of the Sadducees was their utter lack of moral
      conviction, from worldliness and self-interest. See
      their motive for putting Christ to death (John 11.
      47-50).

3. Thus far we have noticed only Jews, but there were also in Palestine
many =Gentiles=, which was the name the Jews gave to all foreigners or
people of race other than themselves. These were of three classes,
called respectively: 1.) =Sinners=--That is, those who made no attempt
to observe Jewish usages. See Gal. 2. 15. The same name was given to the
Jews who did not undertake to keep the ceremonial law, without reference
to their moral character (Matt. 9. 10, 11). 2.) =The Devout.= Those who
believed in the Scriptures and worshiped God, but who had not been
received into the Jewish Church by circumcision. Such was Cornelius
(Acts 10. 1, 2). 3.) =Proselytes=--Such as renounced Gentilism, received
circumcision, and obeyed the Jewish law (Acts 6. 5; Matt. 23. 15).

V. =The Language of Palestine.=

1. Originally =Hebrew=; still read, in Christ's time, in the synagogue
but not well understood and requiring an interpreter.

2. Mostly =Aramaic=, or =Syro-Chaldaic=--that is, Chaldaic with Syrian
admixture; the common dialect of the people, and undoubtedly spoken by
Christ. See instances in Mark 7. 34; 15. 34. This is the language
referred to in John 19. 20, 21, and Acts 22. 2, as "Hebrew."

3. The language of polite literature in all countries was =Greek=;
strongly opposed by the Pharisees, but employed by the Jews of the
Dispersion, and used in the courts of Herod and Pilate (Acts 21. 37).

4. The official language was =Latin=, that of the Roman Government, but
not used by the Jews, and not generally understood by them.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Origin.=--1. Sem.  2. Abr.  3. Isa.  4. Isr. (12 t.)
        5. Jud (Jews).  6. "Remn."

   II. =Traits.=--1. Rel.  2. Exc.  3. Cons.  4. Asp. "Mess."  5. Mor.

  III. =Mission.=--1. Per. kno. G.  2. Rec. tra. hi. rev.  3. Pro.
        Gos. wo.

   IV. =Jews Ti. Chr.=--1. Bran. Pal. Dis.  2. Sec. Phar. Sadd.
        1.) Nam.  2.) Aim.  3.) Spir.  4.) Bel.  5.) Inf.  6.) Evils.
        3. Gen.  1.) Sin.  2.) "Dev."  3.) Pro.

    V. =Lang.=--1. Heb.  2. Ara. (Syr.-Chal.).  3. Gre.  4. Lat.


Questions for Review

      To what people did Jesus Christ belong? From what
      great family of races did that people spring? What
      were the traits of this race? Who was the ancestor of
      the Jews, and what were his traits of character? How
      were the Jews gradually selected from among the
      descendants of Abraham? To which of the twelve tribes
      did most of the Jews belong? What was "the remnant" in
      Old Testament history? Name five traits of the Jews as
      a people. What was the mission of the Jewish people?
      What were the two great branches of the Jews in the
      time of Christ? What were their two sects? What were
      the differences between these sects? Who were the
      Gentiles? Into what three classes were they divided?
      What four languages were found among the Jews in the
      time of Christ?



THIRD STUDY

The Life of Christ


The central figure in all the Bible is Jesus Christ. Note his importance
in the Old Testament (John 5. 39; Luke 24. 27; Acts 10. 43). Note his
prominence in all true gospel teaching (1 Cor. 2. 2). Note his relation
to every man (John 1. 9.) (Rev. Ver.) We have, then, an interest in
Jesus Christ deeper than in any other man who ever lived.

I. Let us notice some =General Aspects of his Life=.

1. It was a =short= life. This man, who has influenced the world more
than any other, lived less than thirty-five years. His age at the
beginning of his ministry we learn from Luke 3. 23; and the duration of
his ministry was not more than three years and a half at the longest.

2. It was a life =passed wholly in Palestine=. Only once do we read of
his journeying near any other country, and it is not probable that he
went beyond its borders (Mark 7. 24). The only times of direct contact
with Gentiles are mentioned (Mark 7. 25, 26; John 12. 20-22). He never
enjoyed the benefits of foreign travel, of communion with learned men in
the great cities, of studies at the universities of Athens or
Alexandria. All his knowledge came from within.

3. It was a life =among the common people=. He lived in a despised
province (John 7. 41, 52). He came from a despised town (John 1. 46). He
was a working mechanic (Mark 6. 3). He received only a common education
(John 7. 15). His manner of life during his ministry (Matt. 8. 20). Yet
out of these lowly surroundings grew up the one exalted character, the
one perfect life, in all human history.

4. It was an =active= life. The first thirty years may have been spent
in quiet preparation, but the three years of his ministry were very
busy. See pictures in Mark 1. 36-38; 2. 1-4; 6. 31-34. Notice the
hyperbole in John 21. 25, which is not to be taken literally. But if
the whole life of Jesus were related with the minuteness of the day
between the sunset of the Last Supper and that of the burial the
narration would require one hundred and eighty-five books as large as
the Bible.

II. Let us arrange the events of Christ's life in chronological order,
grouping them into =Seven Periods=.

1. The first period is that of =The Thirty Years of Preparation=, of
which we notice the following facts:

      1.) It begins with his Birth (Luke 2. 7), and ends
      with his Temptation (Matt. 4. 1).

      2.) It is related mainly by Luke (Luke 1-4) with some
      facts in Matthew (Matt. 1. 2; 4. 1-11), and a brief
      mention of its closing events in Mark (Mark 1. 9-13).

      3.) It was passed mainly in Galilee, though with
      isolated events in Judea, in Egypt (Matt. 2. 14, 15),
      and in Peræa. See John 1. 28.

      4.) It was the longest of all the periods, embracing
      nine-tenths of his life; yet it is the one having the
      fewest incidents recorded; and of eighteen years in it
      absolutely no events are known.

2. Next is =The Year of Obscurity=. In this and the two succeeding
periods the year is not a precise epoch, and may have been a little less
or a little more.

      1.) It begins with the first followers (John 1.
      35-37), and ends with the return to Galilee (John 4.
      43, 44).

      2.) It is related only by John, who, of all the gospel
      writers, records the visit of Jesus to Judea and
      Jerusalem.

      3.) It was passed principally in Judea, though with
      visits to Galilee, and on the way a visit to Samaria.

      4.) It is justly called a "year of obscurity," for we
      know but little concerning either its aims, its
      events, or its results. It was accompanied with
      miracles (John 3. 2; 4. 45). It attracted attention
      (John 3. 26; 4. 1). Yet at its close we find that the
      followers of Jesus were few, and he went to Galilee to
      begin his ministry anew.

3. =The Year of Popularity=, in marked contrast with the preceding
period.

      1.) It begins with the Rejection at Nazareth (Luke 4.
      14-30), and ends with the Discourse on the Bread of
      Life (John 6. 25-71), a day or two after the miracle
      of Feeding the Five Thousand.

      2.) It is related by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, with
      some additional incidents by John.

      3.) The scene of the Saviour's ministry was in
      Galilee, which he traversed extensively during this
      year. One visit to Jerusalem is related by John (John
      5. 1, 2).

      4.) It was a year of great activity, spent in
      incessant journeys, preaching, and works of mercy, and
      the most popular period of the Saviour's life, when
      the crowds were greatest and the people seemed ready
      to accept Jesus as the Messiah of Israel. Yet at its
      close, as before, he was left alone with his twelve
      disciples (John 6. 66-68).

4. Another period we find in =The Year of Opposition=, again contrasted
with the year before it.

      1.) It begins with the Retirement to Phoenicia (Mark
      7. 24) and ends with the Anointing by Mary (John 12.
      1-3).

      2.) It is recorded in all the gospels in almost equal
      measure, Luke giving the most complete account of the
      ministry in Peræa, and John, as usual, relating the
      visit to Judea.

      3.) This period is peculiar in the fact that in it
      Jesus visited all the five provinces of Palestine. We
      find him in Decapolis (which was a part of the Bashan
      district) (Mark 7. 31); passing through Galilee (Mark
      9. 30); also through Samaria (Luke 9. 51, 52); in
      Peræa (Mark 10. 1), and in Judea (John 11. 7).

      4.) This part of the Saviour's life has been variously
      characterized as "a ministry of sorrow and
      humiliation," "a year of instruction," and "a period
      of retirement." All are correct, for during this, the
      last year of his life, Jesus sought to be alone with
      his disciples, and in order to escape the crowds
      visited places where he was unknown. He aimed to
      instruct his disciples in the deeper truths of the
      gospel, to prepare their minds for his approaching
      death and for their mission as apostles (Matt. 16.
      21).

5. We now approach the close of Christ's life on earth, and the
narration is more detailed as the cross comes nearer to view. Our next
period is =The Week of the Passion=.

      1.) Beginning with the Triumphal Entry on the Sunday
      before the Passover (John 21. 12, 13), it ends with
      the Agony in the Garden about midnight on Thursday
      (Matt. 26. 36); thus embracing strictly but five days.

      2.) It is related in all the gospels, John alone
      adding the teaching given at the Last Supper (John
      13-17).

      3.) All the events of this period took place in or
      near Jerusalem.

      4.) This was the last call of Christ to the Jews of
      Jerusalem, and his final rebuke for their rejection of
      his ministry.

6. =The Day of the Crucifixion.= The most important day in all earth's
history was that when Jesus died upon the cross. It is also the day
whose events are narrated more fully than any other in the Bible annals.
Therefore we study it apart from the rest of the week as a separate
period.

      1.) It begins with the Arrest (Matt. 26. 47), soon
      after midnight, Friday A. M., the day of the Passover,
      and ends at about sunset of the same day with the
      Burial (Matt. 27. 59, 60).

      2.) Each gospel adds its portion to the account, that
      of John, an eye-witness of all the events, being the
      most complete.

      3.) The events took place in Jerusalem; but few, if
      any, of the localities are known with certainty.

      4.) In the scenes of this day we see Jesus as the
      suffering Saviour, bearing the sins of the world.

7. Last of all come =The Forty Days of Resurrection=.

      1.) From the Resurrection, early on the first Easter
      Sunday (Matt. 28. 1-8), to the Ascension, forty days
      afterward (Acts 1. 1-3).

      2.) All the gospels give accounts of the appearances
      of the risen Saviour, but Luke alone tells the story
      of his Ascension (Luke 24. 50, 51; Acts 1. 9-11).

      3.) The manifestations of Christ after his
      Resurrection took place in and near Jerusalem, near
      the village of Emmaus (Luke 24. 13), and in Galilee
      (Matt. 28. 16; John 21. 1).

      4.) During this period the visible revelation of
      Christ was not constant, but occasional; to his
      disciples only, never to his enemies; and of a
      spiritual body, which was freed from the restraints of
      the flesh (Mark 16. 12; Luke 24. 31; John 20. 19).


Blackboard Outline

   I. =Gen. Asp.=  1. Sh.  2. In Pal.  3 Am. com. peo.  4. Ac.

  II. =Sev. Per.=

   1. =Th. Ye. Prep.=  1) Bir-Temp.  2) Lu. Mat. Mar.  3) Gal.
       4) Long. few inc.

   2. =Ye. Obs.=  1) Fir. Foll.-Re. Gal.  2) Jno.  3) Jud.  4) Obs.

   3. =Ye. Pop.=  1) Re. Naz-Dis. B. L.  2) M. M. L.  3) Gal.  4) Act.

   4. =Ye. Opp.=  1) Re. Ph.-An. Ma.  2) All Gos.  3) All Prov.
       4) Instruc.

   5. =We. Pass.=  1) Tri. En.-Ag. Gar.  2) All Gos.  3) Jer.
       4) Las. Ca.

   6. =Day Cru.=  1) Arr.-Bur.  2) All Gos.  3) Jer.  4) Suff. Sav.

   7. =For. Da. Res.=  1) Res.-Asc.  2) All Gos.  3) Jud. Gal.
       4) Spir. bod.


Questions for Review

      In what respects is Jesus Christ the central figure in
      the Bible? How long was Christ's life on the earth?
      Where was it passed? Among what class of people did
      Jesus live? How do we know that Jesus led an active
      life? What is the first of the seven periods into
      which his life is divided? With what events does the
      first period begin and end? Which gospel relates the
      most of this period? Where was it mainly passed? How
      long was it? What is the second period called? What
      are its first and last events? By whom is it related?
      Where was it passed? What were its results? What is
      the third period called? With what events did it begin
      and end? By what evangelists is it related? In what
      province was it passed? What is the fourth period
      called? With what events did it begin and end? What
      provinces were visited during this period? What were
      the traits of Christ's ministry at this time? What is
      the fifth period called? How long was it? What in this
      period is related by but one evangelist? Where did its
      events take place? What is the sixth period called?
      How long was it? With what events did it begin and
      end? Which account is most complete? What is the
      seventh and last period called? What were its first
      and last events? Which gospel alone relates the
      ascension? What were the traits of Jesus during those
      days?



FOURTH STUDY

The Thirty Years of Preparation

From the Birth of Jesus to His Temptation.


We have before us the longest of all the divisions in the history of
Jesus, embracing thirty of his thirty-three years of life, and the one
concerning which we know the least.

I. Let us study the =Places= connected with this period. These we group
according to locality, and not in the order of their events. Beginning
in the north and traveling southward we note the following places:

1. =Nazareth, his early home=, in Galilee, due west of the southern
point of the Sea of Galilee. Here Joseph and Mary lived before the birth
of Jesus (Luke 2. 39); here Jesus was brought up (Luke 4. 16); and here
he was living up to the time of his baptism (Mark 1. 9).

2. =Bethabara= (Rev. Ver., Bethany), =the place of his baptism=. This
was in the Jordan valley, south of the Sea of Galilee. (John 1. 28).

3. =The wilderness, the place of his temptation.= (Matt. 4. 1.) This was
probably the rocky desolate region of Judea, near the head of the Dead
Sea.

4. =Jerusalem, the place of the Temple=; the Jewish capital, due west of
the northern point of the Dead Sea. Find three visits of Jesus to the
temple during this period. 1.) In his infancy (Luke 2. 22). 2.) In his
youth (Luke 2. 42). 3.) In his manhood (Luke 4. 9).

5. =Bethlehem, the place of his birth.= (Matt. 2. 1). This was six miles
south of Jerusalem, in Judea.

6. =Egypt, the place of his refuge.= (Matt. 2. 14). This was the land
south-west of Palestine, where Jesus was taken in his infancy in order
to escape from King Herod.

Let the student 1.) Draw a map showing these places. 2.) Memorize the
list. 3.) With each place name its event in the life of Jesus. 4.) Find
other events of Scripture history connected with these places.

II. Let us arrange in order the =Events= of this period. 1. =The
annunciation of his birth.= 1.) To Mary (Luke 1. 26-38). 2.) To Joseph
(Matt. 1. 20, 21). 3.) To Simeon (Luke 2. 25, 26). 4.) To the shepherds
(Luke 2. 8-11).

2. =The birth at Bethlehem.= Note the purpose for which Joseph and Mary
went to Bethlehem (Luke 2. 1-4). The circumstances of his birth (Luke 2.
6, 7).

3. =The welcome to the child.= 1.) On the night of his birth (Luke 2.
15). 2.) A few days later (Matt. 2. 1, 11). 3.) In the temple (Luke 2.
25-28, 36, 38).

4. =The refuge in Egypt= (Matt. 2. 13-15). This may have been for a few
weeks, a few months, or for a few years.

5. =The childhood at Nazareth= (Matt. 2. 22, 23; Luke 2. 39, 40). By
what route would the journey from Egypt be made?

6. =The visit to the temple.= Read the account in Luke 2. 41-52, and
notice: 1.) The age of Jesus. 2.) The object of the journey. 3.)
Probable route. 4.) Where he tarried and why. 5.) The objects of his
interest. 6.) Traits of his character shown.

7. =The silent years.= From the age of twelve to that of thirty no
events are named. His home was still at Nazareth (John 1. 45).

8. =The woodworker at Nazareth.= From the fact that Joseph is not
referred to after the visit to the temple it may be presumed that he
died before the ministry of Jesus began. He had been a "carpenter"
(Matt. 13. 35); although the word means, more precisely, "a skilled
worker in wood," and may refer to the making of almost anything except
houses, which were not built of wood. Jesus followed the same trade
(Mark 6. 3) and, as the oldest son, supported his widowed mother and
younger brothers and sisters (Mark 6. 3).

9. =The baptism in Jordan.= Compare the four accounts (Matt. 3. 13-17;
Mark 1. 9-11; Luke 3. 21, 22; John 1. 28-34); and find: 1.) The place.
2.) The age of Jesus. 3.) The baptizer. 4.) The divine manifestation.

10. =The temptation in the wilderness.= This followed immediately upon
the baptism, and was a preparation for his ministry (Matt. 4. 1-11; Mark
1. 12, 13; Luke 4. 1-13). Note: 1.) The place. 2.) The personality of
the tempter. 3.) The three forms of temptation. 4.) How repelled. 5.)
The result.

Let the student, 1.) Memorize these nine events in their order. 2.) Read
the account of each in the gospels. 3.) Recall where each took place.
4.) Notice what other persons besides Jesus are named in the period (for
example, Joseph, Mary, Simeon, Anna, Herod, etc.) and each one's part in
the events.

[Illustration: _JOURNEYS OF 30 YEARS OF PREPARATION_]

III. Draw the map of Palestine, locating upon it the live places named;
and then indicate the following =Journeys= of the period: 1. From
Bethlehem to Jerusalem (for the presentation in the temple) and return.
2. From Bethlehem to Egypt (flight from Herod). 3. From Egypt to
Nazareth. 4. From Nazareth to Jerusalem and return (visit to temple). 5.
From Nazareth to Bethabara (baptism). 6. Bethabara to the wilderness
(temptation).

IV. Let us now study the =External Conditions= of Christ's life during
this period.

1. =The family.= The royal line of both Joseph and Mary (Matt. 1. 1;
Luke 1. 27, 32). Their obscure social condition (Matt. 13. 54, 55). In
all probability they belonged to the better class of self-supporting
workers: for Joseph followed a trade.

2. =The house.= Probably like those of working people in Palestine;
built of clay, one story high, containing but one room with no window,
but lighted through the door; whitewashed on the outside; floor of
earth.

3. =The furniture.= A couch that could be rolled up (Mark 2. 12). A
lamp, a lamp-stand, "the bushel" (used as seat, table, and dish (Matt.
5. 15). Hand-mill for grinding (Deut. 24. 6; Matt. 24. 41). Probably
neither chair, table, nor bedstead.

4. =Education.= Jesus received only the common schooling, not a college
education (John 7. 15). Contrast with the early advantages of Paul (Acts
22. 3). Every synagogue had a school taught by "the minister." See Luke
4. 20. He was not a priest, nor even a scribe, but properly the curator
or sexton of the synagogue, and all the teaching was the reading of the
Old Testament.

5. =Religious training.=

      1.) There was the influence of a godly man and woman.
      Joseph, "a just man," living in fellowship with God.
      (Matt. 1. 19, 20). The character of Mary (Luke 1. 38;
      2. 19, 51).

      2.) The instruction in the Scriptures at home (Deut.
      6. 7.)

      3.) The daily prayers, morning and evening, always
      observed (Matt. 6. 5, 6).

      4.) The Sabbath rest (Mark 2. 27).

      5.) The worship of the synagogue (Luke 4. 16; Mark 6.
      2.)

      6.) The great feasts, celebrated each year at
      Jerusalem--Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles--which
      Joseph and Mary attended (Luke 2. 41).

Under these influences Jesus grew up to manhood.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Pla.= 1. Naz. ea. h.  2. Beth. pl. bap.  3. Wil. pl. temp.
        4. Jer. pl. Tem.  5. Beth. pl. bir.  6. Eg. pl. ref.

   II. =Even.= 1. Ann. bir.  2. Bir. Beth.  3. Wel. ch.  4. Ref. Eg.
        5. Chi. Naz.  6. Vis. Tem.  7. Sil. ye.  8. Wo. Naz.  9. Bap.
        Jor.  10. Tem. wil.

  III. =Jour.= 1. B. J. R.  2. B. E.  3. E. N.  4. N. J. R.  5. N. C.
        6. B. W.

   IV. =Ext. Con.= 1. Fam.  2. Hou.  3. Furn.  4. Edu.  5. Rel. tra.


Questions for Review

      Where did the mother of Jesus live before her
      marriage? At what place was Jesus baptized? Where did
      the temptation take place? What three visits did Jesus
      make to Jerusalem before his ministry? To what country
      was Jesus taken as a refuge from Herod? Name six
      places connected with this period and a fact about
      each. Name four announcements made to different people
      of the coming of Jesus. For what purpose did Joseph
      and Mary go to Bethlehem just before the birth of
      Jesus? Who came to see Jesus at Bethlehem. Who gave
      him welcome in the temple during his infancy? How old
      was Jesus when he first visited the temple? What part
      of his life is known as "the silent years"? What trade
      did Jesus follow when he became a man? What took place
      at the baptism of Jesus? State nine events in the
      first thirty years of Jesus's life. State a fact in
      the life of Jesus with which each of the following
      persons was connected: Joseph, Simeon, Herod, John the
      Baptist, Gabriel, wise men, "the doctors of the law,"
      shepherds. How do we know that Joseph and Mary were
      poor people? To what distinguished family did they
      belong? In what kind of a house did they probably
      dwell? What articles of furniture did the house
      contain? What education did Jesus receive? Who was the
      teacher of the school? What were the religious
      influences around the youth of Jesus? What feasts did
      he attend?



FIFTH STUDY

The Year of Obscurity

From the First Followers of Jesus to His Return to Galilee.


I. =Preliminary Notes= on the period.

1. =Sources of Information.= Our only account of this period is
contained in =John's Gospel=. Read carefully John 1. 19 to 4. 54 for all
the facts on record.

2. =Time.= The Saviour came from the temptation in the wilderness either
late in February or early in March, A. D. 27, and he began his ministry
in Galilee in May, A. D. 28; so that this period embraced nearly
=fifteen months=. (Edersheim. According to Andrews it ended in March,
and was a year in duration).

3. =Locality.= Most of this year was passed in =Judea=, though there is
mention of one journey to =Galilee= soon after the beginning (John 1.
43), and of another at the close (John 4. 3).

4. =Aim.= It is probable that Jesus began his ministry in Judea, the
leading province, in order to give to the leaders of the nation the
=first opportunity= of accepting him as the Messiah of Israel. Not until
Jerusalem and Judea had rejected him did he turn to the people of
Galilee.

II. =Places.=

1. =Bethabara= (or Bethany, as in Rev. Ver.) (John 1. 28). Here occurred
the meeting of Jesus with his first followers (John 1. 37).

2. =Cana=, the place of the first miracle (John 2. 1). This was in
Galilee, not far from Nazareth.

3. =Capernaum=, named only as a place of a brief visit by Jesus at this
time, but later more prominent in the history (John 2. 12). Situated on
the north-western shore of the Sea of Galilee.

4. =Sychar=, the place of the Samaritan ministry (John 4. 5, 40). This
was formerly supposed to be the well-known city of Shechem, but is now
more accurately fixed at _Askar_, a small village near to Jacob's well.

5. =Jerusalem.= During this period two events took place in
Jerusalem--the cleansing of the temple (John 2. 14, 15), and the
conversation with Nicodemus (John 3. 1-21).

[Illustration: _YEAR OF OBSCURITY._]

III. =Journeys.= We begin in the wilderness of the temptation. 1. From
the wilderness to Bethabara. 2. From Bethabara to Cana. 3. From Cana to
Capernaum. 4. From Capernaum to Jerusalem and Judea. 5. From Judea to
Sychar, and thence to Cana.

IV. We place in order next the =Events= of the Saviour's life during
this period.

1. =The first followers.= Read John 1. 35-51 and ascertain the names of
four, with hints of two others; for one of two in ver. 40 was John, and
the language in ver. 41 implies that each sought his own brother. Notice
what traits of character each disciple showed. In this little company,
the band out of which grew the Christian Church, we find: 1.) A man who
brought people one by one to Jesus. 2.) A deep, spiritually-minded
mystic. 3.) A born leader. 4.) A plain, simple-minded believer. 5.) A
man of pure, spotless character. What a combination of qualities for the
founding of a church!

2. =The first miracle= (John 2. 1-11). In this miracle we find an apt
symbol of what Christ came to do among men. He found water, and he
turned it into living, spirit-quickening wine.

3. =The visit to Capernaum= (John 2. 12). Why he went we have no means
of knowing, and it is idle to speculate.

4. =The first Passover= (John 2. 13). The mention of these passovers is
important, for they enable us to know how long was the ministry of
Jesus, and they give us dates for its events. This was the first
passover of his ministry, not of his life.

5. =Cleansing the Temple= (John 2. 14-17). This was the first public act
of his ministry in which he claimed the authority of Messiah in the
house of God. See the prophecy, Mal. 3. 1-3. At the close of his
ministry he found that the same evils had crept again into the temple,
and purged it a second time (Matt. 21. 12).

6. =Conversation with Nicodemus= (John 3. 1-21). This conversation was
remarkable: 1.) From the rank and character of the man (Vers. 3, 10).
2.) From the theme (Ver. 3.) 3). From its results (John 7. 50; 19. 39).

7. =Ministry in Judea= (John 3. 22.) 1.) Its precise place is unknown.
2.) Its relation to John the Baptist (John 3. 26). 3.) Its success (John
4. 1).

8. =Ministry in Samaria= (John 4. 4-42). 1.) What led to it. (Ver. 4.)
2.) Where it took place. (Ver. 5.) 3.) How it began. (Vers. 6, 7.) 4.)
Its first convert, a remarkable character, of aptness in speech,
penetration, and power to influence others. (Vers. 9, 15, 20, 25, 28,
30, 39.) Compare her brightness with the dullness of Nicodemus. 5.) Its
length. (Ver. 40.) 6.) Its results: (Vers. 41,42.) This ministry is a
most interesting episode in the life of Jesus.

9. =Return to Galilee= (John 4. 43). 1.) Reason for the journey (John 4.
1-3). 2.) Another reason (Mark 1. 14). 3.) Still another reason (John 4.
44, 45)--that is, he had no honor in his own country until he had
obtained it in Judea.

10. =Healing the nobleman's son= (John 4. 46-54). 1.) Where Jesus was.
(Ver. 46.) 2.) Who the man was. (Ver. 46)--literally, "a king's man,
courtier." Is his name given in Luke 8. 30? 3.) His spirit, earnestness,
persistence, faith. (Vers. 48-50.) 4.) His reward. (Vers. 51, 52.) 5.)
Result of the miracle. (Ver. 53.)

Let the student, 1.) Commit this series to memory. 2.) Study the facts
in relation to each by searching out the references. 3.) Recall the
facts in connection with each event. 4.) Make a list of eight men and
two women who were connected with these events and recall what is
related of each person.

V. Let us now consider the =General Traits of the Ministry of Christ=
during this period.

1. It was =preparatory=. So far as we can perceive, the plans of
Christ's kingdom were not as yet revealed, and no general proclamation
of it was made. Yet he clearly revealed himself to a chosen few as the
Messiah of Israel (John 1. 41, 45: 4. 25, 26).

2. =It was connected with John the Baptist.= The two streams of John's
ministry and Christ's ministry run together during this preparatory
ministry. John introduced Jesus (John 1. 29-36). The two worked at the
same time, in the same way, and not far apart (John 3. 22-24). Both
Jesus and John refused to be put into a relation of rivalry, either by
their friends (John 3. 25-30) or by their enemies (John 4. 1-3).

3. It was =individual=--that is, to individuals rather than to masses of
people. We read of no such multitudes as in the succeeding period, but
we find six conversations of Jesus with single persons or small groups.
He sought to gather a few choice disciples rather than many adherents.

4. It was a =teaching= ministry. There were miracles (John 2. 23; 3. 2),
but they were not made prominent; and the immediate followers of Jesus
were won by what they saw in him and heard from him rather than by
wonders wrought by him.

VI. Lastly, we ascertain the =Results= of the Saviour's ministry during
this period.

1. It gave him =prominence before the people=. The popular attention was
arrested, and there was a transient, superficial acceptance by the many;
but Jesus knew the hearts of men too well to trust them (John 2. 23, 24;
3. 26).

2. It led to his =rejection by the rulers=. Though this is not stated it
is hinted at in the controversies of the Jewish leaders (John 2. 18); in
the conclusion of the gospel writer (John 3. 18-20), and in the
reference to the Pharisees (John 4. 1). From this hour the attitude of
the capital and the ruling minds was hostile to Jesus. They missed the
one great opportunity in their nation's history.

3. It drew around him =chosen followers=. From this time there was a
company of disciples with Jesus. They returned to their homes in Galilee
for a time, but were soon called to leave all and accompany their
master. To some of them we find three separate calls (John 1. 37-42;
Matt. 4. 18-22 more than a year later, and Mark 3. 13, 14, later still).

4. =It prepared for his ministry in Galilee.= The fame of Christ's acts
in Judea went before him to Galilee, awakened curiosity, and gave him a
ready reception on his return (John 4. 45). We shall find in the next
period great multitudes thronging after Jesus as the result of his
ministry in Judea.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Pre. Not.=  1. =Sour. Inf.= Jno.  2. =Ti.= 15 m.  3. =Loc.=
        Jud.  4. =Aim.= Fir. opp.

   II. =Pla.=  1. Beth.  2. Can.  3. Cap.  4. Syc.  5. Jer.

  III. =Jour.=  1. W. B.  2. B. C.  3. C. C.  4. C. J. & J.
        5. J. S. & C.

   IV. =Even.=  1. Fir. Foll.  2. Fir. Mir.  3. Vis. Cap.  4. Fir. Pass.
        5. Cle. Tem.  6. Con. Nic.  7. Min. Jud.  8. Min. Sam.  9. Ret.
        Gal.  10. Heal. Nob. Son.

    V. =Gen. Tra.=  1. Prep.  2. Con. J. Bap.  3. Ind.  4. Tea.

   VI. =Res.=  1. Prom.  2. Rej. rul.  3. Cho. fol.  4. Prep. Min. Gal.


Questions for Students

      What book is our only source of information for this
      period? How long was the period? Where was it mostly
      passed? What was Christ's aim at this time? Name the
      five places of the period, and an event at each. Give
      in order the ten events of this period. Who were the
      first six followers of Jesus? What was his first
      miracle, and where wrought? Where did Jesus go for his
      first passover? Name two events that took place at
      this visit. Where did Jesus preach for a time? What
      led him to another province? Whom did he meet there,
      and at what place? How long did he stay in the
      province of Samaria? What were his reasons for
      returning to Galilee? What miracle did he work on his
      return? What were the circumstances of this miracle?
      What were the general traits of Christ's ministry
      during this period? What were the results of his
      ministry? How did it prepare the way for his work in
      Galilee?



SIXTH STUDY

The Year of Popularity

From the Rejection at Nazareth to the Discourse on the Bread of Life


I. =General Aspects of the Ministry of Christ during the Period.=

1. =Its Time.= It was either a little less or a little more than a year,
according to different authorities. According to Dr. Edersheim it
extended from May, A. D. 28, to April, A. D. 29; according to Dr.
Andrews, from March, A. D. 28, to April, A. D. 29.

2. =Its Locality.= The principal sphere of Christ's activity during this
year was Galilee, though he made one visit to Jerusalem (John 5. 1).

3. =Its Aim.= The purpose of Jesus during this year seems to have been
to proclaim the new kingdom of God as widely as possible, and to make
men acquainted with its principles. The theme of his preaching is given
in Matt. 4. 17. The deeper themes of the Gospel were reserved for a
later time and a select body of hearers; and those aspects were
presented which all men could at once comprehend, as the teaching in the
Sermon on the Mount.

4. =Its Activity.= No other year in the Saviour's life was crowded so
thickly with journeys and labors. See its summary in Matt. 4. 23-25. We
can trace eight distinct journeys from Capernaum to various regions
during this year.

5. =Its Divisions.= The number of events left on record makes a
subdivision of this period necessary, and we find a convenient place at
the Sermon on the Mount, which marks a point of departure in the
Saviour's ministry. The =Early Galilean Ministry= extends from the
rejection at Nazareth to the Sermon on the Mount, and the =Later
Galilean Ministry= from the Sermon on the Mount to the discourse on the
Bread of Life. During the earlier section the ministry was personal and
the range was less extended; during the later Jesus sent his apostles
forth to labor, and his own journeys were longer and in new fields.

II. =The Places.= Though the Saviour visited many places during this
year only seven have been named in the gospels. These are:

1. =Capernaum=, his home during the period (Matt. 4. 15). From this
place he went forth on all of his preaching tours, and to it he
returned. Its privilege (Matt. 11. 23, 24). It was situated on the
northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee.

2. =Nazareth.= Twice in this period Jesus was at this place: at its
beginning (Luke 4. 16), and again in the middle of the year (Matt. 13.
54). On both occasions he was rejected by the people (Luke 4. 28, 29;
Matt. 13. 57).

3. =Nain.= This was a city southwest of the Sea of Galilee, where Jesus
restored a young man to life (Luke 7. 11).

4. =The Mountain.= A few miles from Capernaum and west of the Sea of
Galilee is a mountain (probably Kurun Hattin, "the horns of Hattin")
where was delivered the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5. 1).

5. =Bethsaida=, a place on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee,
east of the river Jordan. Near this was wrought the miracle of Feeding
the Five Thousand (Mark 6. 45).

6. =Gergesa.= A place on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, called
also =Gerasa= (Mark 5. 1; Luke 8. 26. Rev. Ver.).

7. =Jerusalem.= We read of one visit to the capital during this period
(John 5. 1).

III. =The Early Galilean Ministry.=

1.) =The Journeys.= Combining the accounts in the four gospels we find
that the journeys were the following:

2.) =The Settlement at Capernaum= (Cana to Nazareth and Capernaum). From
Cana, where Jesus was at the close of the preceding period, he went to
Nazareth (Luke 4. 16), probably intending to begin his ministry there;
but being rejected went down to Capernaum and made it the headquarters
of his ministry (Luke 4. 30, 31).

3.) =Tour in Eastern Galilee= (Capernaum, Eastern Galilee, and return).
From Capernaum Jesus went forth on a preaching tour through the villages
near the Sea of Galilee (Luke 4. 43, 44).

4.) =A Visit to Jerusalem= (Capernaum to Jerusalem and return). Mention
is made in John 5. 1 of a feast in Jerusalem which Jesus attended, but
it is uncertain whether Passover, Tabernacles, or Purim is meant.

5.) =The Mountain Journey= (Capernaum to the mountain and return). For
the purpose of quiet meditation and the call of his apostles Jesus went
to a mountain near the Sea of Galilee. There he chose the twelve and
gave to them and the multitudes around the Sermon on the Mount (Mark 3.
13, 14; Matt. 5. 1).

[Illustration: _YEAR OF POPULARITY

PART ONE_]

IV. =Events of the Early Galilean Ministry.=

1.) With the first Journey, the _Settlement at Capernaum_, we connect
the following events:

      1. =The Rejection at Nazareth= (Luke 4. 16-30).

      2. =The First Disciples Called= (Luke 5. 1-11). They
      had already been followers of Jesus, but now were
      called upon to leave their homes and become his
      disciples.

      3. =Miracles at Capernaum= (Mark 1. 21-34). The gospel
      writers select the scenes of one day and show many
      miracles, in the synagogue, at Peter's house, and in
      the street.

2.) With the Second Journey, the _Tour in Eastern Galilee_, we find two
events named:

      4. =Healing of the Leper= (Mark 1. 40-45). This took
      place during the journey.

      5. =Healing the Paralytic= (Mark 2. 1-12). This took
      place after the return to Capernaum.

3.) With the Third Journey, the _Visit to Jerusalem_, we note two
events:

      6. =The Miracle at Bethesda= (John 5. 1-16). Read this
      in the Rev. Ver. and note what is omitted. Observe
      also what resulted from this miracle in Jerusalem
      (John 5. 16-19).

      7. =The Withered Hand= (Mark 3. 1-6). This probably
      took place at Capernaum, soon after the return from
      Jerusalem.

4.) With the Fourth, the _Mountain Journey_, we note two events:

      8. =The Call of the Twelve= (Mark 3. 7-19). This was
      at the mountain.

      9. =Sermon on the Mount= (Matt. 5-7). This sermon is
      omitted in Mark and abbreviated in Luke, but reported
      fully in Matthew.


To the Teacher

      1. Let the outline of the lesson be committed to
      memory.

      2. Let one scholar draw the maps in presence of the
      class, another insert the places, a third indicate and
      name the journeys.

      3. Then let one scholar name all the events with the
      first journey; another the events of the second
      journey, etc.

      4. Let a scholar be called upon to tell the story of
      each one of the nine events in the period.


Blackboard Outline

PART ONE

    I. =Gen. Asp.=  1. Ti.  2. Loc.  3. Aim.  4. Act.  5. Div.

   II. =Pla.=  1. Cap.  2. Naz.  3. Nai.  4. Moun.  5. Beth.  6. Ger.
        7. Jer.

  III. =Ear. Gal. Min. Jour.=  1. Set. Cap.  2. To. Ea. Gal.  3. Vis.
        Jer.  4. Moun. Jour.

   IV. =Events. Ear. Gal. Min.=
       _Jour. 1._  1. Rej. Naz.  2. Fir. Dis. Cal.  3. Mir. Cap.
       _Jour. 2._  4. Heal Lep.  5. Heal Par.
       _Jour. 3._  6. Mir. Beth.  7. With. Ha.
       _Jour. 4._  8. Ca. Tw.  9. Ser. Mo.


Questions for Review

PART ONE

      How long was this period? Where was it passed? What
      was the aim of Jesus during this year? What are its
      two subdivisions? Name seven places visited by Jesus
      during this period. Name four journeys during the
      early part of this period. What three events are
      connected with the settlement at Capernaum? What two
      events are named in connection with the tour in
      eastern Galilee? What two events are given with the
      visit to Jerusalem? What two events are named with the
      mountain journey?


PART TWO

We now take up the second part of the Year of Popularity, from the
Sermon on the Mount to the Discourse on the Bread of Life.

V. =The Journeys of the Later Galilean Ministry.=

1. =Tour in Southern Galilee= (Capernaum to Nain and return). From
Capernaum Jesus led his disciples southward as far as Nain (Luke 7. 1,
11). There he wrought a miracle, and on the journey homeward preached in
various places (Luke 8. 1).

2. =The Voyage to Gergesa.= (Capernaum to Gergesa and return.) With his
disciples Jesus sailed across the Sea of Galilee (Luke 8. 22), stilling
the tempest on the way. They landed at Gergesa, in the country of the
Gadarenes (Luke 8. 26)--that is, not far from the well-known city of
Gadara, which was twenty miles from the Sea of Galilee. Here the
Gadarene demoniac was restored, but the people were unwilling to receive
Jesus, so he sailed back to Capernaum (Matt. 9. 1.)

[Illustration: _YEAR OF POPULARITY

PART TWO._]

3. =Tour in Central Galilee= (Capernaum to Nazareth and return). The
object of this journey was a second visit to Nazareth (Mark 6. 1), but,
like the first, it was unsuccessful; so Jesus left "his own country" and
preached in the villages of central Galilee (Mark 6. 6).

4. =Retirement to Bethsaida= (Capernaum, Bethsaida, and return). In
order to obtain needed rest and seclusion Jesus and his disciples sailed
across the lake to the unsettled country near Bethsaida (Mark 6. 31,
32). Here he wrought the miracle of Feeding the Five Thousand, recrossed
the lake in the night, and a day or two afterward gave his last
discourse of the Galilean ministry.

Let the pupil draw the same map as with Part One, but omitting the
journeys of that part; and place upon the maps the journeys of the later
Galilean ministry.


VI. =The Events of the Later Galilean Ministry.=

1.) With the First Journey, the _Tour in Southern Galilee_:

      1.) =The Widow's Son Raised= (Luke 7. 11-16). This
      took place at Nain, southwest of the Sea of Galilee.

      2.) =Washing the Saviour's Feet= (Luke 7. 36-50). This
      event is to be carefully distinguished from the
      "anointing by Mary," much later in the history.

These two events are related only by Luke.

2.) With the Second Journey, the _Voyage to Gergesa_:

      3.) =Parables by the Sea= (Mark 4. 1-34; also in Matt.
      13. 1-52). These were given just before the journey.

      4.) =Stilling the Tempest= (Mark 4. 1-35-41).

      5.) =The Gadarene Demoniac Restored= (Mark 5. 1-20).

      6.) =Jairus's Daughter Raised= (Mark 5. 21-43). Two
      miracles wrought after the return from the Gadarene
      country.

3.) With the third Journey, the _Tour in Central Galilee_.

      7.) =Second Rejection at Nazareth= (Mark 6. 1-6).
      Compare with this the account of his former rejection,
      and note the differences.

      8.) =Sending out the Twelve= (Mark 6. 7-13). Read the
      longer report of the charge to the Twelve in Matt. 10.

4.) With the Fourth Journey, the _Retirement to Bethsaida_:

      9.) =Feeding the Five Thousand= (Mark 6. 31-44). This
      and the following are the only miracles related in all
      the four gospels. Compare their accounts.

      10.) =Walking on the Sea= (Mark 6. 45-52). Note the
      additions in Matt. 14. 22-33).

      11.) =Discourse on the Bread of Life= (John 6. 24-59).
      This marked a crisis in his ministry, for it
      proclaimed a spiritual application of the miracle, and
      not a "kingdom of meat and drink," as men were
      expecting. Note the results (John 6. 60-68). Thus at
      the close of his Galilean ministry--as before at the
      close of his Judean ministry--the Saviour was left
      alone with his few disciples.


Blackboard Outline

PART TWO

   V. =Jour. Lat. Gal. Min.= 1. To. Gal.  2. Voy. Ger.  3. To. Cen. Gal.
       4. Ret. Beth.

  VI. =Ev. Lat. Gal. Min.=--
      _Jour. 1._  1. Wid. So. Rai.  2. Wash. Sav. Fe.
      _Jour. 2._  3. Par. Sea.  4. Still Tem.  5. Gad. Dem. Res.  6. Jai.
         Dau. Ra.
      _Jour. 3._  7. Sec. Rej. Naz.  8. Sen. Twel.
      _Jour. 4._  9. Fe. Fi. Th.  10 Wal. Sea.  11. Dis. Br. Li.


Questions for Review

PART TWO

[Review the Questions with Part One.]

      How many journeys are named with the later Galilean
      ministry? What was the first journey of the later
      Galilean ministry? The second journey? The third? The
      fourth? What two events took place with the tour in
      southern Galilee? What four events with the Gadarene
      voyage? What two events with the tour in Central
      Galilee? What three events with the retirement to
      Bethsaida?



SEVENTH STUDY

The Year of Opposition

From the Retirement to Phoenicia to the Anointing by Mary


PART ONE

I. =General Aspects of the Period.=

1. =It was a year, lacking one week.= Jesus did not attend the third
passover of his ministry. We find him at this time still in Galilee, and
soon afterward leaving Galilee for "the coasts of Tyre and Sidon" (John
7. 1-3; Mark 7. 24). Nearly a year later, on the week before the fourth
passover, we find Jesus at Bethany, where the anointing by Mary took
place (John 12. 1, 2). Between these two passovers came the year of
opposition.

2. =It was a year of wandering.= During this period we notice that Jesus
was in constant motion, staying only a little while at each place, and
in succession visiting all the five provinces of Palestine. Notice the
province referred to in each of the following references: John 7. 1;
Mark 7. 31; Mark 8. 27; Luke 9. 51, 52; Mark 10. 1; John 10. 40.

3. =It was a year of retirement.= We do not find that Jesus sought the
multitudes during this year, though in new places he was sought by them
(Luke 11. 29; 12. 1). He seems to have chosen most of the time a
secluded life, preferring to be alone with his disciples. See instances
in Mark 7. 24, 32, 33, 36; 8. 22, 23, 26; 9. 30.

4. =It was a year of instruction.= He chose to be alone with his
disciples, knowing that he was rapidly nearing the close of his life on
earth; and he wished to instruct his chosen followers in the deeper
truths of the gospel before he should be taken from them. His teaching
in this period presented the spiritual side of truth and the doctrines
of the cross. Notice how often during this year he foretold his own
death (Mark 8. 31; 9. 31, 32; 10. 32-34; John 12. 7, 8).

5. =It was a year of opposition.= Nearly all the people had now
forsaken Jesus and turned against him. Note the attitude of the
Pharisees. (Matt 12. 23, 24, 38, 39; 23. 23.) The Sadducees, who were
the office-holding class, are mainly referred to in John 11. 47, 48, 53.
The attitude of the people. (John 6. 66.) Jesus was now rejected by the
rulers, the leaders of the religious class, and by the people.

II. =The Localities of the Period.= Beside the five provinces, Judea,
Samaria, Galilee, Bashan and Peræa, two other lands or districts are
named:

1. =Phoenicia=, called in the gospels "the borders of Tyre and Sidon,"
narrow strip of territory between Mount Lebanon and the Mediterranean
Sea, northwest of Palestine.

2. =Decapolis.= The word means "ten cities," and refers to a region,
partly in Bashan and partly in Peræa, wherein were ten important cities,
not Jewish but Gentile.

In addition to the above we meet with names of eight cities:

3. =Cæsarea Philippi=, at the foot of Mount Hermon, in the province of
Bashan.

4. =Bethsaida=, on the northeastern shore of the Sea of Galilee.

5. =Capernaum=, on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee.

6. =Bethabara=, in the Jordan Valley, east of the river, south of the
Sea of Galilee.

7. =Jericho=, in the Jordan Valley, west of the river, near the head of
the Dead Sea.

8. =Jerusalem=, the capital.

9. =Bethany=, two miles east of Jerusalem, on the eastern slope of the
Mount of Olives.

10. =Ephraim=, or Ephron, fourteen miles north of Jerusalem, among the
mountains.

III. =The Journeys and Events of the Period.= The information upon this
year is meager, and it is impossible to arrange its places and facts
with absolute certainty. No other period is so uncertain in the order of
its events as this. We trace in this period nine journeys; and with each
journey call attention to the most important events connected with it.
The first journey begins at Capernaum.

1. =A Visit to Phoenicia.= (From Capernaum to Phoenicia.) (Matt. 15.
21). This was the only land outside of Palestine visited by Jesus, and
it is uncertain how far he entered within its limits. He sought
retirement and opportunity of instructing his disciples (Mark 7. 24).

On this journey was wrought the miracle on the =Syrophenician Woman's
Daughter= (Mark 7. 25, 26), in which Jesus showed his disciples that
Gentiles may have true faith.

[Illustration: _YEAR OF OPPOSITION._]

2. =A Visit to Decapolis.= Finding seclusion impossible he went around
Galilee to Decapolis, east of the Sea of Galilee (Mark 7. 31).

Here two miracles were wrought: 1.) =Healing the Deaf Man.= Notice its
peculiarities in Mark 7. 32-37. 2.) =Feeding the Four Thousand= (Mark 8.
1-9). Notice its differences from a former miracle in the preceding
period.

3. =A Visit to Cæsarea Philippi.= (Decapolis to Dalmanutha, Bethsaida,
and Cæsarea Philippi.) Trace the route from Mark 8. 10, 22, 27.

During this journey occurred four events: 1.) =Healing the Blind Man=
(Mark 8. 22-26). This was at Bethsaida. 2.) =Peter's Confession= (Matt.
16. 13-20). 3.) =The Transfiguration= (Mark 9. 2-8). 4.) =Healing the
Demoniac Boy= (Mark 9. 14-29). These three events were at Cæsarea
Philippi.

4. =A Visit to Capernaum.= (Cæsarea Philippi to Capernaum.) (Mark 9.
33). Notice that his coming was unattended by the crowds of former times
(Mark 9. 33). This visit is noteworthy as his farewell to the city which
had been his home.

On this visit took place the touching incident of the =Child in the
Midst= (Mark 9. 36, 37).


PART TWO

5. =A Visit to Jerusalem.= (Capernaum, through Samaria, to Jerusalem.)
See Luke 9. 51, 52. His visit to the capital was for the purpose of
attending the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7. 2, 10, 14) and he seems to
have remained until the Feast of Dedication, two months later.

In connection with this visit note, 1.) =The Rejection by Samaritans=
(Luke 9. 52-56). 2.) =Mary and Martha= (Luke 10. 38-42). 3.) =The Pool
of Siloam= (John 9. 1-7). 4.) =The Good Shepherd= (John 10. 1-18).

6. =A Visit to Bethabara.= (Jerusalem to Bethabara.) From the Feast of
Dedication Jesus went down to Bethabara, evidently with the purpose of
beginning a ministry in Peræa (John 10. 39, 40).

With this journey we place =Sending out the Seventy= (Luke 10. 1). These
messengers were sent out to prepare for the visit of Jesus to a new
province.

7. =A Visit to Bethany= (John 11. 1, 7.) From Bethabara Jesus was
suddenly called to Bethany, near Jerusalem (John 11. 18).

With this visit we place the =Raising of Lazarus= (John 11. 1-46), a
miracle narrated only by John, and told because it led directly to the
conspiracy against the life of Jesus (John 11. 47, 48).

8. =A Visit to Peræa.= (From Bethany to Ephraim and Peræa.) Trace the
journey from John 11. 54, and Mark 10. 1. Jesus stayed some months in
Peræa, preaching to his people.

Many events might be given with this Peræan ministry, of which we name
only, 1.) =Blessing the Children= (Mark 10. 13-16). 2.) =The Rich Young
Ruler= (Mark 10. 17-25). 3.) =Parable of the Prodigal Son= (Luke 15.
11-32).

9. =A Second Visit to Bethany.= (From Peræa, through Jericho, to
Bethany.) Notice the journey in Mark 10. 32, 46; John 12. 1.

With this journey notice the events, 1.) =The Healing of Bartimæus=
(Mark 10. 46, 52). 2.) =The Visit to Zacchæus= (Luke 19. 1-10). 3.) =The
Anointing by Mary= (John 12. 1-8). This brings the life of Christ within
one week of the Crucifixion, and completes the period.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Gen. Asp.=  1. Year.  2. Wan.  3. Ret.  4. Ins.  5. Opp.

   II. =Loc. Per.= La. Ph.  Dec. Cit. C. P. B. C. B. J. J. B. E.

  III. =Jour.=  1. =Vis. Phoe.=  1.) Syr. Wom. Dau.
       2. =Vis. Dec.=  1.) He. De. M.  2.) Fe. Fou. Thou.
       3. =Vis. Ces. Phil.=  1.) Hea. Bl. M.  2.) Pet. Con.  3.) Trans.
           4.) Hea. Dem. B.
       4. =Vis. Cap.=  1.) Ch. Mid.
       5. =Vis. Jer.=  1.) Rej. Sam.  2.) M. and M.  3.) P. Sil.
           4.) G. Sh.
       6. =Vis. Beth.=  1.) Sen. 70.
       7. =Vis. Beth.=  1.) Rai. Laz.
       8. =Vis. Per.=  1.) Bl. Ch.  2.) R. Yo. Ru.  3.) Par. Prod. So.
       9. =Sec. Vis. Beth.=  1.) Hea. Bar.  2.) Vis. Zac.
          3.) Anoin. Ma.


Review Questions

      With what event does the Year of Opposition begin?
      With what does it end? How long was it? Where was it
      passed? How did it differ from the preceding year? Why
      did Jesus seek retirement at this time? What was the
      feeling of the people toward Jesus? What land outside
      of Palestine was visited by Jesus? What miracle was
      wrought during this visit? Where was the Second
      Journey of this Period? What two miracles were wrought
      at this time? What was the Third Journey? Name four
      events connected with this journey. What was the
      Fourth Journey? The Fifth Journey? Name four events
      with this journey. Where did Jesus go for the Sixth
      Journey? Whom did he send out at this time, and for
      what purpose? What was the place and what the purpose
      of the Seventh Journey? Where was the Eighth Journey?
      What took place with this journey? What was the Ninth
      Journey? Name three events of this journey.



EIGHTH STUDY

The Week of the Passion

From the Triumphal Entry Until the Agony in the Garden


I. =General View of the Period.=

1. Our studies have now reached the close of the Saviour's ministry and
have brought us to his =last visit to Jerusalem=. This period presents
the last appeal of Jesus to the Jewish people and his final
conversations with his disciples before his death.

2. Strictly speaking, "the week of the passion" or suffering of Jesus
should include all the events from his Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem on
Sunday until his burial on Friday evening. But the events of the day of
his crucifixion were so many and so important as to make that day a
period by itself, and we therefore consider at present only =five days=,
from the Sunday morning to the Thursday night of the Jewish Passover,
the night before the Saviour's crucifixion.

3. All its events took place in or =near Jerusalem=. On each morning
Jesus went from Bethany, where he remained at night with his friends,
the household of Mary and Martha; and on each evening except the last he
returned to Bethany. The days were mostly spent in Jerusalem.

II. In the study of this period we note the following =Places=:

1. =Bethany=, a small village on the eastern slope of the Mount of
Olives. It was the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus (John 11. 1). Its
distance from Jerusalem (John 11. 18). The lodging place of Jesus at
this time (Matt. 21. 17).

2. =The Temple= in Jerusalem. Here Jesus passed most of the time during
the first three days of this week in discussion with the Jews (Luke 21.
37). The part of the temple in which Jesus taught (John 8. 20; Mark 12.
41). This was the Court of the Women, called "the treasury" because of
boxes for contributions upon its walls. It was inside the larger Court
of the Gentiles, and was about two hundred and thirty feet square, open
above to the sky, but with galleries around.

3. =The Supper room.= See Mark 14. 13-17. The place is unknown; but
there is on Mount Zion a locality pointed out by tradition which may or
may not be correct. This was probably the "upper room" used as a meeting
place after the Resurrection and Ascension (John 20. 19; Acts 1. 13; 2.
1).

4. =The Mount of Olives.= This is a range of hills east of Jerusalem and
separated from the Temple by the Valley of the Kedron (John 18. 1). Its
distance from the city (Acts 1. 12). Here began the Triumphal Entry
(Luke 19. 37). From this height Jesus gave his prophecy of the
destruction of the city (Mark 13. 3, 4).

5. =The Garden of Gethsemane.= The word means "oil-press," and suggests
that it was an olive orchard on the western slope of the Mount of Olives
(Mark 14. 26, 32). A garden is still shown which may be the true
locality of the Agony.

Let the student draw a map of Jerusalem and its surroundings and locate
upon it the above places, not failing to search out the references and
associate the events with their localities.

III. We draw on our map and fix in our memory the following =Journeys=:

1. =On Sunday, the First Journey; from Bethany to the Temple and
Return.= On the first day of the week Jesus left Bethany, entered in
triumphal procession into Jerusalem, looked around on the Temple, and at
evening returned to Bethany.

2. =On Monday, the Second Journey; from Bethany to the Temple and
Return.= Early in the morning, without waiting for breakfast, Jesus left
Bethany (Mark 11. 12), and crossed the ridge of the Mount of Olives, on
the way cursing the barren fig tree. He cleansed the Temple of its
traders, and at evening returned again to Bethany (Mark 11. 19).

3. =On Tuesday, the Third Journey; from Bethany to the Temple and
Return.= This was the last day of Christ's public teaching, closing with
a terrible denunciation of the Scribes and Pharisees. Toward evening he
went out of the Temple for the last time, sat upon the Mount of Olives
with his disciples, and gave to them his prediction of the destruction
of the city (Mark 13. 1-4).

4. =On Thursday afternoon, the Fourth Journey; from Bethany to the
Supper room.= Take notice that no journey or event is named by any
evangelist as taking place on Wednesday. Probably the day was passed in
seclusion and meditation, for no conversations with disciples are
recorded. On Thursday afternoon Jesus with his disciples left Bethany
and walked over the mountain and the valley to Jerusalem (Mark 14. 16,
17), where they celebrated the passover and partook of the Last Supper
together. Afterward came the long conversations recorded in John 13 to
17.

5. =On Thursday, at about midnight, the Fifth Journey; from the Supper
room to Gethsemane.= The Saviour and his eleven disciples went from the
supper room into the silent streets of Jerusalem, through the gate, and
into the valley of Kedron. They crossed the brook and entered the Garden
of Gethsemane, where the Agony took place, and immediately after it the
Arrest (John 18. 1).

IV. We now pass in order the =Events= of these five days:

1. =The Triumphal Entry.= (Sunday.) (Mark 11. 1-10.) Compare the
accounts and note the additions made by John. (John 12. 12-16.)

2. =The Barren Fig tree.= (Monday.) (Mark 11. 12-14.) This was not a
wanton or petulant act of cursing. The tree was a vivid picture of the
Jewish state, bearing leaves but no fruit, and the miracle was wrought
as a warning of impending doom.

3. =Cleansing the Temple.= (Monday.) (Mark 11. 15-17.) Once before, in
the beginning of his ministry, Jesus had purged the Temple (John 2.
13-16). But the former abuses had crept in again, and Christ again
proclaimed his authority in his Father's house.

4. =The Last Discourses.= (Tuesday.) (Mark 11. 27; 12. 44.) On this day
Jesus met and vanquished in debate successively the rulers (Mark 11.
27-33); the Pharisees (Mark 12. 1-12; Matt. 21. 45); the Herodians (Mark
12. 13-17); the Sadducees (Mark 12. 18-27); and the scribes (Mark 12.
28-37). He closed his ministry with a rebuke to the scribes and
Pharisees (Matt. 23. 1-39); and after commending the gift of the widow
(Mark 12. 41-44) went out of the Temple, never to return (Mark 13. 1,
2.)

5. =The Prophecy of the Last Things.= (Tuesday.) In the afternoon of
that day Jesus sat with his disciples on the Mount of Olives, and
looking down upon the city gave a prophecy to his disciples, mingling
the predictions of the city's overthrow and of the end of the world
(Mark 13. 1-37). In Matthew are added two parables--the Ten Virgins
(Matt. 25. 1-13), and the Talents (Matt. 25. 14-30), and also the
description of the Last Judgment (Matt. 25. 31-46).

6. =The Retirement at Bethany.= (Wednesday.) Inasmuch as none of the
gospels mention any event of Wednesday we assume that the day was passed
in retirement.

7. =The Last Supper.= (Thursday.) On the afternoon of Thursday Jesus
went to Jerusalem with the Twelve, partook of the Passover, and at its
close instituted the Lord's Supper (Mark 14. 12-31).

8. =The Last Conversation.= (Thursday evening.) (John 14 to 18.) After
the Supper the long conversation took place recorded in full by John,
and scarcely mentioned in the other gospels.

9. =The Agony in the Garden.= (Thursday, midnight.) Late at night Jesus
crossed the brook Kedron and entered the Garden of Gethsemane, where the
Agony came upon him (Mark 14. 32-42).


Blackboard Outline

THE WEEK OF THE PASSION

   I. =Gen. Vi.=  1. La. Vis. Jer.  2. Fi. Da.  3. Ne. Jer.

   II. =Pla.= 1. Beth.  2. Tem.  3. Sup.-ro.  4. Mo. Oli.  5. Gar. Geth.

  III. =Jour.=  1. (Sun.) Be. Tem. Re.  2. (Mon.) Be. Tem. Re.  3. (Tu.)
        Be. Tem. Re.  4. (Thu.) Be. Sup.-ro.  5. (Thu.) Sup.-ro. Geth.

   IV. =Events.=  1. Tri. Ent. (Sun.)  2. Bar. Fig. tr. (Mon.)  3. Cl.
        Tem. (Mon.)  4. La. Dis. (Tue.)  5. Pro. La. Th. (Tue.)  6. Ret.
        Beth. (Wed.)  7. La. Sup. (Thu.)  8. La. Con. (Thu.)  9. Ag.
        Gar. (Thu.)


Questions for Review

      Where did the events of this period take place?
      Between what days did they occur? In what village did
      Jesus pass most of the nights of this week? Where was
      the Last Supper partaken? Where did Jesus begin his
      triumphal entry into the city? What journey took place
      on the Sunday of this week? On Monday? On Tuesday? On
      Thursday afternoon? Name the events of Sunday. Of
      Monday. Of Tuesday. Of Wednesday. Of Thursday.



NINTH STUDY

The Day of the Crucifixion

From the Betrayal to the Burial of Jesus


I. =General View of the Period.=

1. This period embraces the events of but =one day= in the life of
Jesus. It was the day following the Passover Day, and therefore the
fifteenth of the month Nisan, in the Jewish year. See Num. 28. 16.

The betrayal of Jesus took place a little after midnight, on Friday
morning, and the burial about sunset on the same day; so that the
transactions of the period include about eighteen hours.

2. It was, however, =an eventful day= in the life of Jesus. No day in
all Bible story is narrated with the fullness of this day. Nearly
one-twelfth of the matter in the four gospels is occupied with the
account of this one day. If the whole story of Christ's life were
written out with equal completeness to this one day's record it would
require more than four hundred volumes as large as the New Testament.

3. It was an =important day=; the most important in the history of the
world. Notice in the epistles how much more is said of the death of
Christ than of his life. See 1 Cor. 2. 2; Gal. 6. 14; 1 John 1. 7.
Because of its eventfulness and importance we should give it careful
study and place in order its events as a separate period in the life of
Jesus Christ.

II. =The Places.= All these are in or near Jerusalem; but none of them
can be identified with certainty. Yet it is well to know the traditional
localities and to fix them upon the map of the city. There are five
places named in the story of this day.

1. =The Garden of Gethsemane.= Here Jesus was arrested, immediately
after the agony (Mark 14. 43). See the mention of this locality in the
last study.

2. =The High Priest's House= (Mark 14. 53, 54). The high priest at that
time was Caiaphas, but his father-in-law, Annas, who had been deposed by
the Romans, was still regarded by the Jews as the legitimate priest,
and possessed great authority. There was no special "palace" of the high
priest, and Annas and Caiaphas may have lived in the same group of
buildings. The place is located by tradition on Mount Zion, near that of
the supper room.

3. =Pilate's Palace= (Mark 15. 1-16). The Roman capital of Judea was not
in Jerusalem, but at Cæsarea, where the procurator resided (Acts 23. 23,
24). But it was customary for the governor to visit Jerusalem at the
time of Passover, in order to quell any disturbance at that time, when
the city was thronged. Pilate may have made his headquarters in
Jerusalem either in the castle of Antonia, north of the temple (referred
to in Acts 21. 34, and elsewhere), or in the palace of Herod the Great
on the northwest corner of Mount Zion, the place now occupied by the
(so-called) Tower of David. The latter locality is accepted by the best
of the recent authorities. Here Jesus was brought for his trial and
sentence by Pontius Pilate.

4. =Herod's Palace.= At that time Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and
Peræa (Luke 3. 1), the slayer of John the Baptist, was present in
Jerusalem attending the Passover, and to him Jesus was sent by Pilate
(Luke 23. 7). His abiding place was probably the old Maccabean palace,
about midway between the temple and Pilate's headquarters.

5. =Calvary or Golgotha.= See Luke 23. 33 and Mark 15. 22 for the two
names, one of which is Greek, the other Hebrew, both meaning
"skull-like" or "the place of skulls." All positively known about this
place is that it was outside the wall, but near the city (John 19. 20).
Two localities are given: the traditional one, north of Zion and west of
the temple, now occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulcher; the other,
recently coming into notice and accepted by many scholars, a hill on the
north of the city, containing a great cave known as the "Grotto of
Jeremiah." We adopt the latter place as Calvary, although the evidence
is by no means certain. The place of the cross and that of the burial
were in the same locality (John 19. 41, 42).

It would be well for the student to draw a rough diagram showing these
places in their general relation to each other, as above.

III. We notice the =Journeys of Jesus= on the day of his crucifixion.

1. =From Gethsemane to the High Priest's House.= From the Garden of
Gethsemane Jesus was taken to the high priest's house for examination
before Annas and Caiaphas (Luke 22. 54.)

2. =From the High Priest's House to Pilate's Palace.= After examination
before the high priests and the Jewish council Jesus was led to Pilate
for another trial (Luke 23. 1).

[Illustration]

3. =From Pilate's Palace to Herod's Palace and return.= Pilate sent
Jesus to Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee; but Herod was unwilling to
pass judgment upon him and sent him back (Luke 23. 7-11).

4. =From Pilate's Palace to Calvary.= At this second appearance before
Pilate Jesus was condemned to death, and was taken to Calvary, outside
the wall. Here he was crucified and after his death was buried (John 19.
16, 17, 41).

Let the student draw on the diagram a line representing each of these
journeys and recall the events associated with them.

In Jerusalem, at the present time, there is a street known as Via
Dolorosa, "the Sorrowful Way," over which Jesus is believed to have
carried his cross from Pilate's judgment hall to Calvary. But in our
view both Pilate's judgment hall and Calvary are wrongly located by
tradition, and therefore this path cannot be the true "way of the
cross."

IV. =The Events.= We may group all the transactions of this momentous
day around eleven leading events:

1. =The Betrayal= (Mark 14. 43-50). This was in the Garden of
Gethsemane, a little after midnight, and, therefore, on Friday, the 15th
of Nisan. See the more detailed account in John 18. 1-11.

2. =Jesus before Annas= (John 18. 12, 13). This was a preliminary
examination, and not official in its character.

3. =Jesus before Caiaphas= (John 18. 24). Read the account of the event
in Mark 14. 53-72. By comparing the four accounts we find that there was
first an examination before the high priest and such of the council as
could be gathered (Mark 14. 55), and then later a trial before the
entire Sanhedrin, or body of the elders (Luke 22. 66), at which Jesus
was condemned to death. Peter's denial took place in the house of the
high priest (John 18. 24, 25).

4. =Jesus before Pilate.= The Jews had no power to sentence to death,
and hence were compelled to bring Jesus before Pilate (John 18. 28-32).
Notice that the Jews condemned Jesus on one ground, but accused him
before Pilate on another (Matt. 26. 65, 66; Luke 23. 2). The dialogue of
Pilate with Jesus is given in John 18. 29-37. Pilate declared Christ's
innocence and proposed that he should be released, but the people still
demanded that he should be put to death.

5. =Jesus before Herod.= Pilate was unwilling to take the responsibility
either of putting to death an innocent man or of offending the Jews by
releasing him. He therefore sent him to Herod. But Herod also refused to
judge the case and after mocking Jesus sent him back to Pilate (Luke 23.
6-11).

6. =Jesus Condemned to Death.= After Jesus was brought back Pilate still
endeavored to save his life. But instead of setting him free at once as
an innocent man he proposed to release him as an act of good feeling at
the Passover festival. The Jews chose Barabbas and rejected Jesus; and
at last Pilate gave unwilling sentence that Jesus should be crucified.
He was then delivered to the soldiers to be mocked and tortured (Luke
23. 13-25).

7. =Jesus Bearing his Cross.= On the way from Pilate's palace to Calvary
Jesus was compelled to carry one of the beams of his own cross (John 19.
17). A part of the way his cross was carried by a man named Simon, of
Cyrene, in Africa (Mark 15. 21).

8. =Jesus on the Cross.= At Calvary Jesus was fastened to the cross by
nails through his hands and feet (Luke 23. 33; John 20. 25). He was
crucified at nine o'clock in the morning and lived until three o'clock
in the afternoon (Mark 15. 25-34). The stupefying potion offered to him
before he was crucified (Mark 15. 23). Note the four versions of the
superscription (Matt. 27. 37; Mark 15. 26; Luke 23. 38; John 19. 19).
The witnesses (John 19. 25).

9. =The Seven Words from the Cross.= The first word (Luke 23. 34). The
second word (John 19. 26, 27). The third word (Luke 23. 43). The fourth
word (Matt. 27. 46). The fifth word (John 19. 28). The sixth word (John
19. 30). The seventh word (Luke 23. 46).

10. =The Death on the Cross.= The fact (Mark 15. 37). A remarkable
testimony (Mark 15. 39). A remarkable event (Matt. 27. 51-53). An
evidence of his death (John 19. 32-35).

11. =The Burial.= Why the body was taken away (John 19. 31). How it was
obtained (John 19. 38). The preparation (John 19. 39, 40). The place of
burial (Matt. 27. 59, 60). The witnesses (Matt. 27. 61). The sealing of
the tomb (Matt. 27. 62-66).


Blackboard Outline

DAY OF CRUCIFIXION

    I. =Gen. Vie.=  1. On. Da.  2. Ev. Da.  3. Imp. Da.

   II. =Pla.=  1. Gar. Geth.  2. H. P. Ho.  3. Pil. Pal.  4. Her. Pal.
        5. Cal. Gol.

  III. =Jour.=  1. Geth. H.-p. Ho.  2. H.-p Ho. Pil. Pal.  3. Pil. Pal.
        Her. Pal. Re.  4. Pil. Pal. Calv.

   IV. =Events.=  1. Betr.  2. J. bef. Ann.  3. J. bef. Cai.  4. J. bef.
        Pil.  5. J. bef. Her.  6. J. Con. Dea.  7. J. Bear. Cro.  8. J.
        on Cro.  9. Sev. Wo. Cro.  10. De. Cro.  11. Bur.


Questions for Review

      How long was this period? What was its date in the
      Jewish year? What shows that it was an eventful day?
      Why was this the most important day in the world's
      history? What are the five places named in this
      period? State the probable location of each place.
      Name four journeys of this period. Name eleven events
      of this period. Before what rulers was Jesus brought
      for examination or trial? State the seven utterances
      of Jesus on the cross. What took place at the moment
      of Jesus's death? Why was the body buried so soon? Why
      was the tomb sealed? Who witnessed the burial?



TENTH STUDY

The Forty Days of Resurrection

From the Resurrection to the Ascension of Christ


I. =The Necessity of Christ's Resurrection.= Strange as the resurrection
may appear to men in general, and unexpected as it was to the disciples
of Jesus, it was the necessary completion of his work on earth.

1. It was necessary =from the nature of Christ=. A divine man, it was
impossible that he should be held in the grave (Acts 2. 24). His
resurrection showed that he was the Son of God (Rom. 1. 4).

2. It was necessary =for the fulfillment of prophecy=. Jesus himself
declared that the prophecies pointed to his resurrection (Luke 24. 45,
46). The apostles constantly appealed to the Old Testament prophecies
(Acts 13. 34, 35; 26. 22, 23; 1 Cor. 15. 4).

3. It was necessary for the =work of redemption=. He lived as our
example, and he must appear before God as our high priest and mediator
(Rom. 4. 25; 8. 34; 1 Cor. 15. 17).

4. It was necessary for the =faith of the disciples=. If Christ had not
risen the world would never have heard of his life and the church would
never have existed (1 Cor. 15. 19, 20; 1 Pet. 1. 3).

5. It was necessary to =attest Christ's authority=. But for the
resurrection the name of Jesus could have possessed no more weight than
any other name. Raised from the dead he has all power (Matt. 28. 18;
Acts 13. 33; 17. 31).

6. It was necessary as a =pledge of our resurrection=. If Christ rose we
too shall rise (Acts 26. 23; 1 Cor. 15. 12, 20-23).

II. =The Fact of Christ's Resurrection.=

1. =It was proved by the testimony of witnesses.= See Acts 1. 3; 2. 32.
The conduct of the disciples before and after the resurrection was in
itself a proof. Before they were in sorrow (Mark 16. 10; Luke 24. 17).
Afterward they were glad (Luke 24. 52; John 20. 20). The Christian
Church to-day is the best evidence; for without the resurrection it
could never have been established.

2. =It was effected by the power of God.= (Acts 3. 15; Rom. 8. 11; Eph.
1. 20). Jesus speaks of his own power in connection with this (John 2.
19; 10. 18). The Holy Spirit is also mentioned as raising Christ from
the dead (1 Peter 3. 18).

3. It took place =on the first day of the week=. (Mark 16. 9). In
commemoration of this event the first day of the week was observed by
the early Church (Acts 20. 7; 1 Cor. 16. 2). The name given to this day
(Rev. 1. 10).

4. It took place on =the third day after his death=. The body of Jesus
was in the grave between thirty and thirty-six hours--from sunset on
Friday to daybreak on Sunday. But in the Jewish notation of time this
was three days (Luke 24. 46; Acts 10. 40; 1 Cor. 15. 4).

III. =The Ten Appearances of Jesus after his Resurrection.= It is not
easy, perhaps not possible, to harmonize precisely all the accounts in
the gospels and in 1 Cor. 15. 4-7. But the best authorities unite in the
following order of the manifestations of Christ between the resurrection
and the ascension:

1. =To Mary Magdalene= (Mark 16. 9). This was at the sepulcher, very
soon after the resurrection. Several women went to the sepulcher, found
it open, and were told by an angel that Jesus had risen. They went to
bear the news to the disciples (Mark 16. 1-8; Matt. 28. 1-8; Luke 24.
1-10). Mary Magdalene returned after the rest had gone and saw the risen
Lord (John 20. 1-18). Notice that this Mary is to be carefully
distinguished from Mary of Bethany, John 11. 2, and from the unnamed
woman in Luke 7. 37.

2. =To the other women= (Matt. 28. 9). This was near the sepulcher, a
few minutes later than the first appearance. The names of these women
(Mark 16. 1; Luke 24. 10).

3. =To two disciples= (Luke 24. 13-32). The place where Jesus was
revealed (Luke 24. 13). The name of Luke's probable informant (Luke 24.
18).

4. =To Peter= (Luke 24. 33, 34; 1 Cor. 15. 5). This was in Jerusalem.
What took place at this meeting has not been revealed.

5. =To ten disciples= (Luke 24. 36-43). Another account in John 20.
19-25. This was in the upper room in Jerusalem, where the Last Supper
had been partaken, and it was on the evening of the day of
resurrection.

6. =To eleven disciples= (John 20. 26-29). This was in the same place a
week later.

7. =To seven disciples= at the Sea of Galilee (John 21. 1-22). At this
interview Peter was reinstated in his apostleship.

8. =To five hundred disciples= (1 Cor. 15. 6). This was the official
manifestation of Christ appointed before his death (Matt. 26. 32; 28.
16). It took place "on the mountain" (Rev. Ver.), probably where the
Sermon on the Mount was preached. At this time the great commission was
given (Matt. 28. 18-20).

9. =To James= (1 Cor. 15. 7). Nothing is known about this meeting. The
relationship of James to Jesus (Mark 6. 3; Gal. 1. 19). Allusions to him
in Acts 15. 13; 21. 18. His epistle (James 1. 1). Probably this
appearance was in Jerusalem (Acts 1. 14).

10. =The Ascension= (Luke 24. 50-53; Acts 1. 9). This was at Bethany, on
the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives (Acts 1. 12). The promise at
his departure (Acts 1. 10, 11).

This list of appearances should be carefully memorized and the place of
each noted on the map, with its circumstances and events.

IV. =The Traits of the Risen Christ.= There were some respects in which
Jesus after his resurrection was the same as he had been before; but
there were also some essential differences.

1. =He was the very same Jesus.= It was not a spirit, a disembodied
ghost, which appeared to the disciples. He possessed personal identity,
and was the living one whom the disciples had known before. See Luke 24.
39, 40; John 20. 27.

2. =He appeared only occasionally.= He did not come to remain with his
people, for it was better for them that he should go away (John 16. 7).
He manifested himself after his resurrection often enough to strengthen
faith, but not enough to lead his disciples to lean upon his presence.

3. =He appeared to his disciples only= (Acts 10. 40, 41). Why he did not
appear to unbelievers (Luke 16. 31). His personal ministry was ended,
and henceforth he was to speak to men through his messengers (2 Cor. 5.
19, 20).

4. =He possessed a spiritual body.= There is a spiritual body (1 Cor.
15. 40-44). Christ possessed such a body, uncontrolled by physical law,
but dominated by the spirit. He came and went at will (Luke 24. 36; John
20. 19). He withheld himself from recognition or permitted it as he
chose (Luke 24. 15, 16; 24. 30, 31; John 20. 14-16; 21. 4-7). With us
the body limits the spirit; with him the spirit controlled the body.

5. =He recognized individuals= after his resurrection. The grave had not
blotted out his memory of the past nor of his personal regard for
people. He called his friends by name after his resurrection (Matt. 28.
10; John 20. 16; 20. 26; 21. 15). He showed the same spirit of
affection, of tenderness, and of patience with the mistakes of his
followers as he had shown during his earthly life. His gentleness toward
a sorrowing woman (John 20. 11-15). His kindness toward a doubting
disciple (John 20. 24-29). His forgiveness of a denying disciple (John
21. 15-19). Such were the traits which he bore away from earth, and such
are the traits which he bears still on his throne.


Blackboard Outline

THE FORTY DAYS OF RESURRECTION

    I. =Nec. Chr. Res.=  1. Nat. Ch.  2. Ful. pro.  3. Wo. red.  4. Fai.
        dis.  5. Att. Chr. auth.  6. Pl. ou. res.

   II. =Fac. Chr. Res.=  1. Pro. tes. wit.  2. Eff. pow. G.  3. Fir. da.
        we.  4. Th. d. af. de.

  III. =Ten. App. Je. af. Res.=  1. Ma. Mag. [Sep.]  2. Oth. wom. [Sep.]
        3. Tw. dis. [Emm.]  4. Pet. [Jer.]  5. Ten dis. [Jer.]  6. Elev.
        dis. [Jer.]  7. Sev. dis. [Sea Gal.]  8. Fiv. hun. dis.
        [Mt. Gal.]  9. Jas. [Jer.]  10. Asc. [Beth.]

   IV. =Tra. Ris. Chr.=  1. Ver. sa. Jes.  2. Ap. on occ.  3. To dis.
        on.  4. Pos. spir. bod.  5. Rec. ind.


Questions for Review

      Why was the resurrection of Jesus Christ a necessity?
      What proves the fact of the resurrection? How was the
      resurrection effected? When did it take place? How
      long after the death of Jesus was his resurrection?
      How many times did Jesus appear after his
      resurrection? To whom did he appear first? What were
      the circumstances of this appearance? What were the
      five appearances on the day of resurrection? Name the
      instances when Jesus appeared during the forty days
      after the resurrection day. What were the traits of
      the risen Christ? What was the nature of his body
      after his resurrection?



ELEVENTH STUDY

The New Testament World


We have seen that the life of Jesus Christ while on earth was limited to
the land of Palestine. But in a few years the church founded by his
apostles overstepped the boundaries of that land; and its scope became
world-wide. Therefore as we begin the history of the Early Church it
becomes necessary for us to study =the New Testament World=.

Comparing the maps before us with that of the Old Testament World we
find that in the four centuries between the events of the Old and New
Testaments the dominion of the world passed from Asia to Europe, and
Jerusalem, which had been in the center, became one of the cities upon
the extreme east. Hence our map moves with the course of the empire
westward a thousand miles.

I. We draw the outlines of the most important =Seas=. These are:

1. The =Mediterranean Sea=, from its eastern limits as far west as
Italy. Voyages on it are referred to in Acts 9. 30; 13. 4; 21. 1, 2; 27.
3.

2. The =Sea of Galilee=, associated with the life of Christ. Find its
three different names in Matt. 15. 29; John 6. 1; Luke 5. 1.

3. The =Dead Sea=, not named in the New Testament.

4. The =Black Sea=, north of Asia Minor.

5. The =Ægean Sea=, between Asia Minor and Greece. Voyages upon it (Acts
16. 11; 18. 18; 20. 13-15).

6. The =Adriatic Sea=, between Greece and Italy (Acts 27. 27).

II. In these seas are many =Islands=, of which we name five of the most
noteworthy in New Testament history:

1. =Cyprus=, in the northeast corner of the Mediterranean (Acts 4. 36;
13. 4).

2. =Crete=, south of the Ægean Sea, between Asia Minor and Greece (Acts
27. 7; Titus 1. 5).

3. =Patmos=, in the Ægean Sea, not far from Ephesus (Rev. 1. 9).

4. =Sicily=, southwest of Italy (Acts 28. 12).

5. =Melita=, now Malta, south of Sicily (Acts 28. 1).

III. We locate the different =Provinces=, arranging them in four groups.

[Illustration: MAP OF THE NEW TESTAMENT WORLD]

1. Those on the continent of =Europe= are: 1.) =Thrace.= 2.) =Macedonia=
(Acts 14. 9, 10; 20. 1-3). 3.) =Greece=, also called =Achaia= (Acts 18.
12; 20. 3). 4.) =Illyricum= (Rom. 15. 19). 5.) =Italy= (Acts 27. 1).

2. Those on the continent of =Africa= are: 1.) =Africa Proper.= 2.)
=Libya= (Acts 2. 10) 3.) =Egypt= (Matt. 2. 13).

3. Those on the continent of =Asia=, exclusive of Asia Minor, are: 1.)
=Arabia=, perhaps referring to the desert region southeast of Palestine
(Gal. 1. 17). 2.) =Judea=, the Jewish name for all Palestine, in the New
Testament period (Luke 1. 5). 3.) =Phoenicia= (Mark 7. 24; Acts 15. 3;
21. 2). 4.) =Syria=, north of Palestine (Acts 15. 41; 20. 3).

4. The provinces in =Asia Minor= are so frequently mentioned in the Acts
and Epistles that it is necessary for the student to learn their names
and locations. We divide the fourteen provinces into four groups.

      (_a_) Three on the Black Sea, beginning on the east.
      1.) =Pontus= (Acts 18. 2). 2.) =Paphlagonia.= 3.)
      =Bithynia= (Peter 1. 1).

      (_b_) Three on the Ægean Sea, beginning on the north.
      4.) =Mysia= (Acts 16. 7). 5.) =Lydia.= 6.) =Caria.=
      These three provinces together formed the district
      known as "Asia" (Acts 2. 9; 19. 10).

      (_c_) Three on the Mediterranean Sea, beginning on the
      west. 7.) =Lycia= (Acts 27. 5). 8.) =Pamphylia= (Acts
      13. 13). 9.) =Cilicia= (Acts 21. 39).

      (_d_) Five in the interior. 10.) On the north,
      =Galatia= (Gal. 1. 2). 11.) On the east, =Cappadocia=
      (Acts 2. 9). 12.) On the southeast, =Lycaonia= (Acts
      14. 6). 13.) On the southwest, =Pisidia= (Acts 13.
      14). 14.) On the west =Phrygia= (Acts 16. 6).

IV. We notice the twelve most important =Places=.

1. =Alexandria=, the commercial metropolis of Egypt (Acts 18. 24).

2. =Jerusalem=, the religious capital of the Jewish world (Matt. 4. 5;
Luke 24. 47).

3. =Cæsarea=, the Roman capital of Judea (Acts 10. 1; 23. 23, 24).

4. =Damascus=, in the southern part of Syria (Acts 19. 3).

5. =Antioch=, the capital of Syria, in the north (Acts 11. 26; 13. 1).

6. =Tarsus=, the birthplace of St. Paul, in Cilicia (Acts 22. 3).

7. =Ephesus=, the metropolis of Asia Minor, in the province of Lydia
(Acts 19. 1).

8. =Philippi=, in Macedonia, where the gospel was first preached in
Europe (Acts 16. 12).

9. =Thessalonica=, the principal city in Macedonia (Acts 17. 1; Thess 1.
1).

10. =Athens=, the literary center of Greece (Acts 17. 16).

11. =Corinth=, the political capital of Greece (Acts 18. 1-12).

12. =Rome=, the imperial city (Acts 28. 16; Rom. 1. 7).

Other lands and places are referred to as Elam, Parthia, and Media, all
east of the Euphrates river (Acts 2. 9). Ethiopia, south of Egypt in
Africa (Acts 8. 27), and Babylon on the Euphrates (1 Peter 5. 13); but
these places are outside the general history of the church.


Hints to the Teacher and Her Class. Eleventh Study

      In teaching this lesson let the conductor sketch the
      outline of the map upon the board and drill upon the
      seas; then draw and name the islands; then drill upon
      the provinces, etc. Review until the lesson is learned
      by all the class.

      The student should search all the references and be
      able to state the events connected with each locality.

      It would be well for the student to find additional
      Scripture references to all the localities.

      Let each student practice the drawing of the map at
      home, until he can draw it without copy. Then, in
      presence of the class, let one student draw on the
      blackboard in presence of the class the boundary lines
      of the continents; or one the boundary line in Asia;
      another in Europe; and a third in Africa. Then let
      another draw and name the islands; and others locate
      and name the provinces in Asia, Europe, and Africa;
      and finally let the twelve cities be located and
      named.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Se.= Med. Gal. De. Bl. Æg. Adr.

   II. =Isl.= Cyp. Cre. Pat. Sic. Mel.

  III. =Prov.=  1. =Eur.= Thr. Mac. Gre. (Ach.) Ill. It.  2. =Afr.=
        Af.-Pr. Lib. Eg.  3. =Asi.= Ar. Jud. Phoe. Syr.  4. =As. Min.=
        (_a_) Pon. Paph. Bit. (_b_) Mys. Lyd. Car. (_c_) Lyc. Pam. Cil.
        (_d_) Gal. Cap. Lyc. Pi. Ph.

   IV. =Pla.= Alex. Jer. Cæs. Dam. Ant. Tar. Eph. Phi. Thes. Ath. Cor.
        Ro.


Questions for Review

      What difference is to be noted between the map of the
      Old Testament world and that of the New? Name six seas
      in the New Testament world. State the location of
      each of these seas. Name five islands in the New
      Testament world. Give the location of each island.
      Name in order the provinces in Europe in the New
      Testament world. Name the provinces in Africa. Name
      the provinces in Asia, exclusive of Asia Minor. Name
      the provinces of Asia Minor bordering on the Black
      Sea. Name the provinces on the Ægean Sea. Name the
      provinces on the Mediterranean Sea. Name and locate
      each of the interior provinces. What city of the New
      Testament world was in Africa? What cities were in
      Judea and Syria? What cities were in Asia Minor? What
      cities were in Europe?



TWELFTH STUDY

The Synagogue


Before beginning the history of the Early Church, we must study one
institution which formed an important link between the Old Testament and
the New; and more than any other institution prepared the way for the
gospel throughout the Jewish world. That institution was the synagogue.

I. =Its Origin.= The synagogue arose during the captivity, when the
Temple was in ruins and the sacrifices were in abeyance. In the land of
captivity the people of God met for worship and fellowship, and out of
their meeting grew the synagogue, a word meaning "a coming together." It
is believed that the institution was organized as a part of the Jewish
system by Ezra, B. C. 440.

II. =Its Universality.= There was but one temple, standing on Mount
Moriah, and only those who journeyed thither could attend its services.
But the synagogue was in every place where the Jews dwelt, both in
Palestine and throughout the world. Wherever ten Jewish heads of
families could be found there a synagogue would be established. There
were four hundred and sixty synagogues in Jerusalem; and every
nationality of Jews had its own (Acts 6. 9).

III. =The Place of Meeting.= This might be a building erected for the
purpose, or a hired room, or even a place in the open air (Acts 16. 13).
This meeting place was employed for secular as well as religious uses.
Courts were held in it, and sentence was administered (Acts 22. 19), and
sometimes a school for teaching the law was held in it. Thus the
synagogue became a center of local influence.

IV. =Its Arrangement.= Every ancient synagogue contained:

1. _An_ "_ark_," which was the chest for the sacred rolls, and stood in
the end of the building toward Jerusalem.

2. _Chief seats_, elevated, near and around the "ark," for the elders
and leading men (Matt. 23. 6).

3. A desk for the reader standing upon a platform.

4. Places for the worshipers, carefully graded according to rank, the
Gentile visitors having seats near the door of entrance.

5. A lattice gallery where women could worship without being seen.

V. =Its Officers.= These were:

1. Three _rulers of the synagogue_, who directed the worship, managed
the business details, and possessed a limited judicial authority over
the Jews in the district (Mark 4. 22; Acts 13. 15). One of these was the
presiding officer, and called "_the_ ruler."

2. The _chazzan_ (Luke 4. 20, "the minister"), who united the functions
of clerk, schoolmaster, sexton, and constable to administer sentence on
offenders.

3. The _batlanim_, "men of ease," seven men who were chosen to act as a
legal congregation, were pledged to be present at the regular services,
and sometimes received a small fee for being present.

VI. =Its Services.= These were held on Saturday, Monday, and Thursday,
and were conducted by the members in turn, several taking part in each
service. They consisted of:

1. Forms of prayer, conducted by a leader, with the responses by the
worshipers.

2. Reading of selections from the law and the prophets, according to an
appointed order (Acts 15. 21). The reading was in Hebrew, but it was
translated, verse by verse, into the language of the people, whether
Greek or Aramaic.

3. Exposition or comment upon the Scripture, in which any member might
take part (Luke 4. 20, 21; Acts 13. 15, 16).

VII. =Its Influence.= It is easy to perceive how widely and how
powerfully the results of such an institution would reach.

1. It perpetuated the worship of God and united the worshipers.

2. It supplied a more thoughtful and spiritual worship than the
elaborate ritual of the Temple.

3. It promoted the study of the Old Testament Scriptures and made them
thoroughly familiar to every Jew.

4. It attracted the devout and intelligent among the Gentiles, many of
whom became worshipers of God and were known as "proselytes of the gate"
(Acts 10. 1, 2).

VIII. =Its Preparation for the Gospel.= It is evident that the apostles
and early Christian teachers were greatly aided by the synagogue.

1. It furnished a _place_; for everywhere the church began in the
synagogue, even though it soon left it (Acts 13. 5; 18. 4; 19. 8).

2. It prepared a _people_; for the synagogue was attended by the earnest
and thoughtful, both of Jews and Gentiles, who were thus made ready for
the higher truths of the gospel (Acts 13. 42, 43).

3. It supplied a _plan of service_; for it is evident that the early
Christian worship was modeled, not on the ritual of the Temple, but on
the simpler forms of the synagogue.

4. It gave a _system of organization_; for the Government of the early
church was similar to, and doubtless suggested by, that of the
synagogue.


Blackboard Outline

     I. =Ori.= Cap. Ez. B. C. 440.

    II. =Univ.= 10 fam. 460 Jer.

   III. =Pl. Meet.= Buil. ro.  op. air.  sec. us.

    IV. =Arr.=  1. Ark.  2. Ch. sea.  3. Desk.  4. Pla. wor.  5. Gal.

     V. =Off.=  1. Rul.  2. Chaz.  3. Batl.

    VI. =Serv.=  1. Pr.  2. Read. Ser.  3. Exp.

   VII. =Inf.=  1. Per. wor.  2. Spir. wor.  3. St. O. T.  4. Attr. Gen.

  VIII. =Prep. Gosp.=  1. Pla.  2. Peo.  3. Ser.  4. Org.


Review Questions

      Between what two institutions was the synagogue a link
      of connection? How did the synagogue originate? Who
      gave it definite organization? Wherein did it differ
      from the temple and its services? Where were
      synagogues formed? How many were in Jerusalem? What
      buildings and places were used for the synagogue
      service? To what secular uses were these buildings
      put? What were the arrangements of the synagogue?
      Where did the women worship? What was "the ark" in the
      synagogue? Who were the officers? What was the
      _chazzan_? Who were the _batlanim_? What were the
      services of the synagogue? What influence did the
      synagogue exert? Whom did the synagogue benefit
      outside of the Jews? How did the synagogue prepare the
      way for the gospel?



THIRTEENTH STUDY

The Church in Judea


PART ONE

From the Ascension of Christ A. D. 30, to the Appointment of the Seven
A. D. 35.

We now enter upon the second great subject in New Testament history, the
Early Church. This will include the annals of the church from the
Ascension of Christ, A. D. 30, to the end of the apostolic age, A. D.
100. This epoch of seventy years is divided into four periods:

1. _The church in Judea_, from the Ascension of Christ, A. D. 30, to the
Appointment of the Seven, A. D. 35.

2. _The church in Transition_, from the Appointment of the Seven, A. D.
35, to the Council at Jerusalem, A. D. 50.

3. _The church among the Gentiles_, from the Council at Jerusalem, A. D.
50, to the death of St. Paul, A. D. 68.

4. _The End of the Age_, from the death of St. Paul to the death of St.
John, about A. D. 100. It should be noted that all of these dates are
uncertain and historians are not agreed with reference to them.

Of these four periods we take up the first, the church in Judea, or "The
church of the First Days;" a space of about five years. During this time
the work of the church was confined wholly to the Jewish people, and
apparently to the immediate region of Jerusalem.

I. We notice the =Events of this Period=.

1. =The followers of Christ= immediately after the Ascension; a company
of people believing in Jesus as the Messiah of Israel.

      1.) _Their number_ was 120 (Acts 1. 15). They were
      mostly from Galilee (Acts 2. 7). They were all the
      organized church at that time, although throughout the
      land were thousands more ready to unite with them.

      2.) _Their meeting place_ was "the upper room" (Acts
      1. 13), on Mount Zion, probably the room where the
      "Last Supper" was held. Some think that this may have
      been the house of Mary the mother of Mark, referred to
      in Acts 12. 1, 2.

      3.) _Their religious condition_ between the Ascension
      and Pentecost was probably that of belief in Jesus as
      the King of Israel, but with the conception of an
      earthly kingdom (Acts 1. 6). They were waiting with
      prayer for divine direction (Acts 1. 14).

2. =The Outpouring of the Spirit= came upon this company on the day of
Pentecost, ten days after the Ascension, fifty days after the
Crucifixion. The spirit descended upon them all in the form of "tongues
of fire."

1.) _Physical effect._ This was "the gift of tongues," a mysterious
influence (Acts 2. 2, 3). This was not a power to speak foreign
languages at will; but probably a strange divine speech, sounding to
everyone who heard it as though it were the language of his own people
(Acts 2. 8).

2.) _Mental effect._ There came to these disciples a revelation, once
and for all, of Christ's kingdom, not as a political state, but as a
spiritual institution; a society of believers of which Jesus in glory is
the invisible yet real head.

3.) _Spiritual effect._ This was the personal presence of the Holy
Spirit with each member; an indwelling life given not merely to the
apostles, but to each and every disciple; a divine enthusiasm, giving
guidance, enlightenment, power. Nor was that divine life limited to that
company. It has dwelt ever since in the church of Christ, and in each
member of the church, (1 Cor. 3. 16; 6. 19).

3. =The Testimony of the Gospel.= 1.) The first effect of this new
endowment of the Holy Spirit was a strong testimony to the gospel of
Christ; a proclamation of _Jesus as the Messiah King_; and this
testimony was the conquering weapon of the church. 2.) This testimony
was given by _all_ the members. It is a mistake to suppose that the
church settled down in Jerusalem with Peter as its pastor and preacher.
Peter was the leader, but not the ruler of the church. Find four
addresses of Peter sketched in Acts 2-5; not "sermons" after the modern
method, but ardent declarations of Jesus as the Messiah; and similar
testimonies were given by all the members everywhere, in synagogues, in
houses, publicly and privately.

4. =The Apostolic Miracles.= 1.) At the opening of the history of the
church we read of a _number of miracles_. a) A lame man healed. (Acts 3.
1-10). b) A miracle of judgment (Acts 5. 1-10). c) More miracles of
healing (Acts 5. 12-16). 2.) We can see the _purpose of these_ miracles
and how they were needed by the church in the day of its weakness. (a)
They attracted _attention_ to the gospel. (b) They gave _authority_ to
the apostles as teachers. (c) They were _illustrations_ of the spiritual
work of the gospel; i. e., healing of the lame man a type of salvation.

5. =The Persecution of the Apostles.= It was inevitable that the
preaching of the apostles and the growing prominence of the church
should arouse opposition from the men who a few months before had
crucified Jesus. A persecution was begun, at first upon Peter and John,
then upon all the apostles. It was not sharp, murderous, crushing out
the church. The apostles were first threatened (Acts 4. 17), then
imprisoned (Acts 5. 18), then scourged (Acts 5. 40). The persecution
only attracted greater notice to the gospel, and led to increasing
numbers of believers.

6. =The Growth of the Church= went on through all these experiences.
Beginning with 120, on the day of Pentecost 3,000 were received by
baptism (Acts 2. 41). There was a daily growth after (Acts 2. 47). Soon
the number grew to 5,000, besides women and children (Acts 4. 4).
Another increase is named in Acts 5. 14; also again in Acts 6. 7.

7. The last event in this period was =the Appointment of the Seven=.
Read the account in Acts 6. 1-7. Notice for the first time in this
history a reference to the two great classes of Jews. 1.) _Hebrews_,
Jews whose ancestors had lived in Palestine, and who spoke the Hebrew
tongue, though with Syriac admixture. 2.) _Grecian Jews_ (frequently
called Hellenists). Jews descended from exiles who had remained abroad
in foreign lands, otherwise "Jews of the Dispersion." Everywhere except
in Palestine these foreign Jews were far more numerous than the Hebrews,
and they were also the richer and more intelligent. They spoke the Greek
language.

Note also that the seven men named in this account are nowhere spoken of
as "deacons." From Acts 21. 8 we learn that they were called "the
seven." They were not an order in the church, but a committee appointed
for a service.


Blackboard Outline

  Per.  1. Ch. Jud.  2. Ch. Trans.  3. Ch. am. Gen.  4. E. A.

  =Ch. in Jud.=  1. =Ev. Per.=
    1. =Foll. Ch.=  1.) Num.  2.) Meet-pl.  3.) Rel. Con.
    2. =Out Sp.=  1.) Phys. eff.  2.) Men. eff.  3.) Spir. eff.
    3. =Tes. Gosp.=  1.) Jes. Mess. K.  2.) By all.
    4. =Ap. Mir.=  1.) Num. mir.  2.) Pur. Att. Auth. Illus.
    5. =Per. Ap.=
    6. =Gro. Ch.= 120, 3,000, 5,000. "Multitude."
    7. =App. Sev.= Heb. Gre. (Hellen.)


Review Questions. Part One

      How long a period is embraced in the history of the
      New Testament church? Name four periods in the
      history, and the events with which each begins and
      ends. How long a time is embraced in the first period?
      By what name is the first period called? State in
      order the seven events in the first period. What was
      the number of Christ's followers in Jerusalem
      immediately after his Ascension? Where did they meet?
      What was their religious condition? What took place
      ten days after the Ascension of Christ? On what day
      did this outpouring occur? What were the physical
      effects of this outpouring? What were the mental
      effects? What were the spiritual effects? What
      testimony was given by the apostles and church? How
      many addresses of Peter at this time are mentioned?
      What miracles were wrought? How did these miracles
      benefit the church? What persecution arose? What was
      the nature of this persecution? Against whom was it
      directed? Did it harm the church? What is said of the
      growth of the church during this epoch? Who were "the
      seven"? How were they chosen? For what were they
      appointed? What two classes of Jesus are named? Define
      each class.


PART TWO

II. Having studied the history we now look at the =General Aspects of
the Pentecostal Church=.

1. =Its locality=: entirely in Judea, and apparently in and around
Jerusalem. There is no mention during this early period of churches in
Galilee, although most of the earliest members were Galileans (Acts 1.
11; 2. 7). Individual believers doubtless were to be found throughout
the land, but outside of Jerusalem they were not yet gathered together
in assemblies and not yet endowed with the Spirit.

2. =Its membership= was composed wholly of Jews. As yet not a single
Gentile had been received, and apparently there was no thought of
Gentile believers. Christianity began as a Jewish society. Three classes
of Jews were embraced in its membership: 1.) _Hebrews_, or Palestinian
Jews. 2.) _Grecians_ or Hellenists, Jews of the Dispersion. 3.)
_Proselytes_, or Gentiles who had embraced Judaism and received
circumcision (Acts 6. 5).

3. =The qualifications for membership= were: 1.) _Repentance_, which
meant not so much sorrow as decision for Christ. 2.) _Faith in Jesus_ as
Christ; i. e., submission to Jesus as the true King of Israel. 3.)
_Baptism_ in the name of Jesus the Christ as the outward form of
consecration.

4. =The spirit of the Pentecostal Church.= 1.) In theory, and for the
most part in fact, every member _possessed the Holy Spirit_, an
abounding, directing spiritual life. Every member was conscious of the
immediate presence of God, and lived in this fellowship. 2.) This
inspired a _Christian fellowship_, the love of the brotherhood. 3.) As a
result of this divine and human fellowship came _liberal giving_ to each
other's needs. There was a voluntary and limited "community of goods,"
the rich giving freely to aid the poor; which led to some insincere
imitation. See the contrast of Barnabas and Ananias (Acts 4. 34-37; 5.
1-11).

5. =Doctrines.= The doctrinal aspects of Christianity at that early
period were less prominent than its spirit. As yet there was no such
theological system as arose later. Three great doctrines were held
fervently: 1.) _The resurrection of Jesus_; that he had risen and was
living. 2.) _The Messiahship of Jesus_; that he was the prince of the
true spiritual kingdom of Israel. 3.) _The return of Jesus as Christ_;
that he would soon come again to earth.

6. =Worship and institutions.= These were: 1.) _The temple worship_
attended by the disciples of Christ as by all worshiping Jews (Acts 2.
46; 3. 1). 2.) _The synagogue services_, twice each week; held
everywhere throughout the city; with Scripture reading, prayer and
testimony. 3.) "_The upper room_" was for a time the headquarters of the
church; but Solomon's porch in the temple soon took its place (Acts 5.
12). 4.) "Breaking bread," which was the Holy Communion or the Lord's
Supper; at that time observed not in public assemblies but as a family
ordinance, at home (Acts 2. 42, 46). 5.) _The baptism_ of new members.

7. =Government.= Scarcely any government or discipline was needed in a
church where the Spirit of God was recognized as dwelling in each
member. The apostles were revered as leaders, but were not exactly
rulers over the body of believers. "The Seven" (Acts 6. 3) were not
officials or "deacons," but laymen charged with specific duties.

8. =Literature.= 1.) _The Old Testament_; familiar to all, read in the
synagogue, was seen now in a new light and with new meaning. 2.) _The
teachings of Jesus_, as yet unwritten, were in the memory of most of the
members who had heard his words; and especially in the memory of the
apostles; but no books of the New Testament were by this time in
writing.

9. =Leaders of the church.= 1.) Throughout this period _Peter_ stands at
the front as the ruling spirit of the church, by his endowments of mind,
and especially by his promptness in word and act. 2.) With him stands
_John_ (Acts 3. 1; 4. 19). 3.) _Barnabas_ won notice by his liberality
and gifts of preaching (Acts 4. 36, 37). His name means "the speaker" or
"the preacher." 4.) At the end of the period _Stephen_ comes into
notice.


Blackboard Outline

  II. =Gen. Asp. Pen. Ch.=
    1. =Loc.= Jud. Jer.
    2. =Mem.= Jews.  1.) Heb.  2.) Gre. Hel.  3.) Pros.
    3. =Qual. Mem.=  1.) Rep.  2.) Fai.  3.) Bap.
    4. =Spir.=  1.) Poss. H. S.  2.) Chr. fell.  3.) Lib. giv.
    5. =Doc.=  1.) Res. Jes.  2.) Mess. Jes.  3.) Ret. Jes.
    6. =Worsh. and Inst.=  1.) Tem.  2.) Syn.  3.) "Up. ro"  4.) "Bre.
        br."  5.) Bap.
    7. =Gov.= Sp. Apos. Sev.
    8. =Lit.=  1.) O. T.  2.) Tea. Jes.
    9. =Lead.=  1.) Pet.  2.) Jo.  3.) Bar.  4.) Ste.


Review Questions. Part Two

      Where was the church located during the Pentecostal
      period? Were there churches or members in Galilee? To
      what race did all the members belong? What were the
      three classes in its membership? Who were Hebrews? Who
      were Grecians? By what other name were they called?
      Who were the "proselytes"? What were the requisites
      for membership in the church? What is said of the
      spirit of this church? How did this spirit lead the
      members to regard each other? What is said of their
      gifts to each other? Were doctrines made prominent in
      the church? What three doctrines were held by the
      members? What institutions of worship were maintained?
      What other institutions were observed? What is meant
      by "breaking bread"? Where was this service held? What
      is said as to the government of the church? What was
      the position of the apostles? What were "the seven"?
      What literature did the church possess at this time?
      What knowledge did they have of the teachings of
      Jesus? Who were the leaders of the church in this
      period?



FOURTEENTH STUDY

The Church in Transition

From the Appointment of the Seven, A. D. 35, to the Council at
Jerusalem, A. D. 50.


We enter upon the study of a brief period, only fifteen years, but of
supreme importance and of vast results to the world; a period, too, in
which we have the deepest interest, for if its events had never taken
place Christianity would have been only a Jewish sect and we would not
be members of it.

1. At its opening, 35 A. D., the church was in and around Jerusalem
only; and every member was a Jew, bound by the restrictions of the
Jewish law and ceremony. There was no thought that the church would ever
include Gentiles except as Gentiles might first become proselytes to
Judaism.

2. At its close, 50 A. D., we see a church planted all around the
northeastern portion of the Mediterranean Sea; and, what is even more
remarkable, a church wherein Jews and Gentiles were worshiping together
on terms of equality. A wonderful transition this!

I. Let us draw =the Map of the Lands= occupied by the church during
those fifteen years. 1. Draw the coast line of the Mediterranean Sea. 2.
The island of Cyprus. 3. The lands east of the Mediterranean Sea. Judea
(or Palestine), Syria, Phoenicia. 4. The lands north of the
Mediterranean Sea, in Asia Minor, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycaonia.
5. The places: Jerusalem, Joppa, Cæsarea and Samaria in Judea, Damascus
and Antioch in Syria, Tarsus in Cilicia, Antioch in Pisidia, Lystra and
Derbe in Lycaonia.

II. Let us carefully note the =Progress of Events= in this remarkable
evolution of the church.

1. =The Preaching of Stephen.= Stephen was a Hellenist, or a Jew of
foreign origin. He was the man who first had the vision of a church
wider than the bounds of Judaism; and he proclaimed this great truth.
See evidences of this in:

      1.) The new and bitter _enmity_ which his teaching
      aroused (Acts 6. 12).

      2.) The _accusation_ against him, which contained a
      half truth (Acts 6. 11, 13, 14).

      3.) The _prominence_ of the man, and his discourse,
      the longest public discourse reported in the New
      Testament, except the Sermon on the Mount (Acts 7.
      1-53).

      4.) The _logical aim_ of his address: to show that the
      Jews had shown themselves unworthy of their trust,
      implying that it would be given to others. This sermon
      was never finished, being broken up by the riotous
      acts of the council.

2. =Saul's Persecution= (Acts 8. 1-3). We shall study this man's early
history later. (See page 96). He was intense and furious in his loyalty
to Judaism, and undertook to crush out the gospel of Christ by violent
measures. See Acts 22. 4; 26. 10, 11; Gal. 1. 13. 1.) As a result the
Pentecostal church was broken up and its members were scattered. 2.)
But, as another effect, these disciples who were scattered went
everywhere preaching (Acts 8. 4). These "preachers" were not the
apostles; they were lay-members; not delivering sermons, but testifying
in country synagogues and in homes the gospel of Christ. 3.) Another
result followed, churches sprang up throughout Judea (Acts 9. 31),
Samaria (Acts 8. 14), and Syria (Acts 9. 2, 10; Acts 11. 19). Thus Saul
by his persecution unconsciously aided the spread of the gospel.

3. =The Gospel in Samaria= (Acts 8. 5-8). One of these disciples, Philip
(not the apostle, but one of the "seven" Acts 6. 5), went to Samaria,
and there preached with great success. A significant event, showing
breadth of view and victory over prejudice. See John 4. 9. The
Samaritans were regarded, not exactly as Gentiles, but as irregular and
inferior, and despised even more than Gentiles. Still more significant,
the Samaritan church was recognized by the apostles and received the
gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 8. 14-17). Note also that, after his work
in Samaria, Philip went down to the coast and established a chain of
churches from Azotus to Cæsarea (Acts 8. 40).

4. =Peter's Vision= (Acts 10. 1-48), and the events accompanying it, was
the next step in the forward movement of the church. The leading apostle
and most prominent man in the church, under direction of the Spirit,
journeys thirty miles to preach to a little company of Gentiles; the
Spirit falls upon them, another Pentecost; and Peter baptizes them.
Here, then, is a genuine church of Gentiles founded by an apostle; the
first fruits of a great harvest.

5. The next step is even more momentous in its results, =the Conversion
of Saul= (Acts 9. 1-19). It seems to be a sudden conversion, but one
expression (Acts 9. 5) shows that Saul had been struggling against
conviction. His enmity had not been so greatly against "Jesus as Christ"
as against "Christ for all the world" i. e., the gospel as preached by
Stephen; and when converted he went fully over to Stephen's view, and
became Stephen's successor, with even larger vision. Note the order of
events in Saul's early ministry. 1.) Preaching in Damascus (Acts 9.
20-22). 2.) Retirement to Arabia (Gal. 1. 17). This may mean almost
anywhere to the east or south of Palestine. In our opinion, he went
thither not to meditate nor to study theology, but to preach in the
cities between Palestine and the desert. 3.) Again preaching in Damascus
(Gal. 1. 17). His escape (Acts 9. 23-25). 4.) Visit to Jerusalem (Acts
9. 26-28). Whom he met on this visit (Gal. 1. 8, 19). The event which
led to his departure from Jerusalem (Acts 22. 17-21). 5.) His return to
his birthplace (Acts 9. 29, 30. Gal. 1. 21). Let the student draw on the
map all the journeys of Saul, beginning with his journey from Jerusalem
to Damascus before his conversion.

VI. =The Church at Antioch.= (Acts 11. 19-30). Antioch was the third
city of the Roman empire; capital of Syria, of which Judea was a
dependency. Its many Jews had their synagogues, each with its "court of
the Gentiles," where the Gentile worshipers sat during the services. In
the story of this church note 1.) Its unnamed founders (Acts 11. 19).
2.) Its membership of both Jews and Gentiles (Acts 11. 20). See American
Revised Version. 3.) Its prominence (Acts 11. 22-26). 4.) Its liberality
(Acts 11. 27-30). 5.) Some of its workers (Acts 13. 1). 6.) Note how
Saul came to be associated with this church (Acts 11. 25, 26).

VII. =The First Missionary Journey= (Acts 13. 1-4). Another step in
advance was taken when two missionaries went out to plant churches of
both Jews and Gentiles. 1.) They were called by the Holy Spirit (ver.
2). 2.) Approved by the church (Ver. 3). 3.) Their method; whenever
possible beginning with the synagogue, where they would have access both
to devout Jews and devout Gentiles (Acts 13. 5). 4.) The lands visited.
Cyprus (Acts 13. 4-6). Pisidia (Acts 13. 14). Lycaonia (Acts 14. 6). On
the return journey, Pamphylia (Acts 14. 24, 25). Let the student draw
the maps showing the lands and places, and the route of the journey. One
province in the southern tier was left unvisited, Cilicia, because Paul
had already preached there (Gal. 1. 21-23).

[Illustration]

VIII. =The Council at Jerusalem= (Acts 15). Of course such a spread of
the gospel among the Gentiles would be very unwelcome to narrow Jewish
believers. Their complaint and demand (Acts 15. 1, 2). Who attended the
Council at Jerusalem (Acts 15. 2-4). Who took prominent part in it
(Acts 15. 7, 13). The conclusion of the Council (Acts 15. 27-29).

The great question was now settled. Jews and Gentiles were standing at
last on equality in the church, and the great transition from a Jewish
church to a church for all the world was accomplished.


Hints to the Teacher and the Student

      1. Read carefully in the book of Acts from the 8th to
      the 15th chapter, inclusive.

      2. Draw the map first from copy, then without copy;
      not seeking for accuracy, but aiming rather for
      correct relation of the lands to each other.

      3. Study each section of the lesson; look up every
      reference, and note its relation to the general
      subject. Master the eight points in the outline
      thoroughly.

      4. Draw on the map (or, better, on a series of maps)
      the following journeys: 1.) Philip's journeys. Acts 8.
      2.) Peter's journeys. Acts 8 and 10. 3.) Saul's early
      journeys. 4.) The journey of Saul and Barnabas. 5.)
      The journeys in connection with the council at
      Jerusalem, going and returning.

      5. Let the teacher call upon the scholars to tell as a
      story each of the eight points in the lesson, not from
      the text-book but from the book of Acts; each story by
      a student in turn.


Blackboard Outline

  =Ch. in Trans.= 1.) Op.  2.) Clo.
   I.  =Map.= Lands. Cy. Ju. Syr. Ph. Cil. Pam. Pi. Lyc. Places. Jer.
        Jop. Cæs.  Dam. Ant.  Tar. An (Pi) Lys. Der.

  II. =Prog. of Ev.=  1. =Pre. Ste.=  1.) En.  2.) Acc.  3.) Prom.
        4.) Log. ai.
    2. =Sau. Per.= Res. 1.) Pen. Ch. bro. up.  2.) Dis. everyw. prea.
        3.) Chur. spr. up.
    3. =Gosp. in Sam.= Phil.
    4. =Pet. Vis.= Pet. and Corn.
    5. =Conv. Sau.= Sau. ear. Min.  1.) Dam.  2.) Ara.  3.) Dam.
        4.) Jeru.  5.) Tar.
    6. =Ch. at. Ant.=  1.) Foun.  2.) Mem.  3.) Prom.  4.) Lib.
        5.) Work.  6.) Sau. asso.
    7. =Fir. Miss. Jour.=  1.) Cal.  2.) App.  3.) Meth.  4.) Lands.
        C. P. L. P.
    8. =Coun. at Jer.=


Review Questions

      With what events did the period of transition begin
      and end? How long was it? What was the state of the
      church when it opened? What was the state of the
      church when it closed? Name an island and seven lands
      connected with this period. Name ten places connected
      with the period. State the eight great events in the
      history of the church at this time. What preacher
      introduced this epoch? How do we know that he preached
      salvation for the Gentiles? What man's persecution at
      this time proved a help to the church? Tell the story
      of this persecution. What three results followed it?
      Who formed the church in Samaria? Who were the
      Samaritans? How was the church recognized? Tell the
      story of a remarkable vision on a housetop. To what
      did that vision lead? Tell the story of a persecutor's
      conversion to Christ. Where did this conversion take
      place? What were the events in Saul's life that
      followed this conversion? What important church arose
      in Syria? Who were its founders? Who constituted its
      membership? Who were its leaders? What facts showed
      its prominence and influence? How came Saul to be
      associated with this church? Who went out as
      missionaries? Who went with them as helper? What
      became of this young man? What was their method of
      work? What lands did they visit? In what cities did
      they found churches? What led to the council at
      Jerusalem? Who attended the council? Who spoke in it?
      What were its conclusions? How did this end the period
      of transition in the church?



FIFTEENTH STUDY

The Church Twenty Years After the Ascension


We have now studied the two earliest periods in the history of the
Christian church and have come to the year 50 A. D., twenty years after
the Ascension of Christ and the outpouring of the Spirit on the first
Pentecost. Let us look over the field and see what at that time was the
state of the church.

I. =Its Extent.= Let the student draw again the map given with the last
lesson, and locate upon it the following =lands=: 1. Judea (Palestine).
2. Syria. 3. Phoenicia. 4. Cyprus. 5. Cilicia. 6. Pamphylia. 7. Pisidia.
8. Lycaonia. In all these lands churches were established and at work.

II. =Its Membership.= The members of the church consisted of two classes
of people, widely apart by nature, but brought together by the gospel:

1. There were churches where all the members were =Jews=, as in Judea.
These were all faithful to the regulations of the Jewish ceremonial law,
and many of them almost bigoted in their opinions concerning it (Acts
15. 1, 5).

2. There were other churches, as in Lycaonia, where all or nearly all
the members were =Gentiles= (Acts 14. 6-13). In these the Jewish rules
were unrecognized, almost unknown.

3. Between these two extremes was the great body of churches of =both
Jews and Gentiles=. The two classes worshiped together; Jews remaining
Jews, and Gentiles remaining Gentiles; but probably received the Lord's
Supper apart, as it was as yet a house-service, not held at the public
meetings.

4. While in most churches there was harmony, on both sides there were
some radical members; but especially among the Jews. These were the
=Judaizers=; men who sought to compel all the disciples to receive
circumcision, obey the ceremonial law and make the Christian church
subordinate to Jewish ritualism. These were the enemies of Paul to the
end of his ministry, perverting the Gentile churches and opposing the
apostle's work.

III. =Its Leaders.= Three names stand out prominently at this time: 1.
=Paul=, as the leader of the church in its world-wide plans, the apostle
to the Gentiles (Gal. 2. 7). 2. =James=, as leader of the Jewish but not
Judaizing elements (Acts 13. 13, 19). This was not James the apostle,
for he had been put to death some time before this (Acts 12. 2); but
James "the brother of the Lord" (Gal. 1. 19). He was the head of the
church in Jerusalem and author of the Epistle of James. 3. =Peter=, who
stood in friendly relation to both parties in the church, although his
conduct was not always perfectly consistent with regard to Jewish
regulations (Acts 11. 2, 3; Gal. 2. 11-14). Between these three leaders
there was a clear understanding and no strong division of spirit,
although they might not agree in all points. 4. Other leaders in this
period were =Philip= (Acts 8. 40; 21. 8). =Barnabas=, =Silas= of
Jerusalem and Antioch (Acts 15. 22, 32, 40), and =Titus= (Gal. 2. 1-4).

IV. =Its Government.= In our time the church is often a highly wrought
organization, with articles of faith, orders, and officials of various
grades. We are apt to assume such a condition in the early church. But
at the time of which we speak there was very little organization or
machinery; and there was little need of any, for a special reason:
_Every member was under the direct guidance of the Holy Spirit_, living
in fellowship with God, without mediation of priest or church. Yet we
find certain officers named in the church:

1. =Apostles=, originally "the twelve," but changes arose and others
were called by the title, for example, Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14. 14);
James (Gal. 1. 19). The work of the apostles was not primarily
government, but inspired testimony to Jesus as the Christ (Acts 1. 22;
6. 4); nowhere in Acts are the apostles represented as ruling the church
(Acts 15. 6, 22).

2. =Elders= (Acts 11. 30; 14. 23; 15. 4). These were analogous to the
same officers in the synagogue, from which the plan of the local
churches was taken.

3. =Prophets= (Acts 11. 27, 28; Acts 13. 1; Acts 15. 32). Men who spoke
out of direct fellowship with the Lord, and under inspiration of the
Spirit; sometimes, though not always, giving predictions of future
events.

4. =Teachers= (Acts 13. 1). Men who gave instruction in the Christian
character; probably largely from recollection or knowledge of the
teaching of Christ. The difference between "prophesy" and "teaching" was
that the former was the more spontaneous and the latter the more
educative in the principles of the gospel.

V. =Its Doctrinal Views.= These remained substantially as in the first
period. There was little tendency toward intellectual questionings while
the church remained under Jewish influence. The discussion was rather
regarding Jewish ceremonial regulations. The Messiahship, Resurrection
and Return of Jesus were still the prominent teaching of the period.

VI. =Its Moral Standards.= The church is now face to face with the
heathen world and all its abominable vices. Heathen moralists
continually made excuse for the immorality which was so generally
practiced. But Christianity made no compromise; set forth the high
standard of the gospel, with the character of Christ as its ideal. This
high standard unswervingly maintained was one secret of the church's
power and growth. Notice, a little later than this period, in St. Paul's
writings, the strong ethical spirit.

VII. =Its Meeting-places.= As yet "churches" or buildings for worship
were not erected. The disciples met with the Jews in the synagogue or
established synagogues of their own (James 2. 2). Often they met, even
later than this period, in the upper rooms of private houses (Acts 20.
8; Rom. 16. 3-5; Philem. 2).

VIII. =Its Literature.= This was still the =Old Testament= only; no book
of the New Testament having been written as early as 50 A. D. These
writings were familiar to all the Jewish members, and almost equally
familiar to the Gentiles who attended the synagogue. Was there an "oral
gospel" in existence? Probably not in any set, authorized form; but
repeated as the narration of teachings and works of Jesus. The tendency
would naturally be for these teachings to settle into a few accepted
forms or "gospels."

IX. Wherein did =the Unity of the Church= consist? Not in organization,
nor government, nor doctrinal statement; but in a =common spiritual
life=. They were of one heart and one mind, loved each other,
contributed to each other's needs (Acts 11. 29; Gal. 2. 10), visited
each other's churches (Acts 11. 22, 27, 30; 13. 25; 15. 27, 32). This
was, and is, true church unity.


Blackboard Outline

  =Ch. 20 Ye. af. Asc.=

     I. =Ext.= Ja. Sy. Ph. Cy. Cil. Pam. Pi. Lyc.

    II. =Mem.=  1. Je.  2. Gen.  3. Both J. and G.  4. "Judai."

   III. =Lead.=  1. Pau.  2. Jam.  3. Pet.  4. Phi.  5. Bar.
        6. Sil.  7. Tit.

    IV. =Gov.= (Dir. Guid. H. S).  1. Aps.  2. El.  3. Pro.  4. Tea.

     V. =Doc. Vie.= Mes. Res. Ret. Jes.

    VI. =Mor. Stan.= "No comp."

   VII. =Meet. Pla.= Syn.  "Up. roo."

  VIII. =Lit.= O. T. "Or. gosp."

    IX. =Uni.= Com. spir. lif.


Review Questions

      What stage in the church's progress do we now
      consider? In what lands was the church established at
      this time? What two classes of people constituted its
      membership? How did these two classes worship
      together? What service was observed in the homes of
      members? Who were the Judaizers? What harm did they
      do? Name the three great leaders at this time. Who was
      James? Give an instance when Peter was not entirely
      consistent in his conduct. Name four other leaders and
      a fact about each. Why did the church of that time
      need very little government? Name four kinds of
      officers in the church. What was the special work of
      the apostles? Where did the elders originate? With
      what churches are elders named in this period? What
      were the prophets in the church? Name some who are
      called prophets in this period. What was the work of
      teachers in the church? Were doctrinal studies or
      discussions prominent at this time? What were the
      three prominent doctrines of the church? Why do the
      moral standards of the church come into prominence at
      this time? What were those standards? Where did the
      Christians hold their meetings? What was the
      literature of the church at this time? What do you
      understand by "the oral gospel?" Was such a gospel in
      existence? Wherein did the unity of the church
      consist? How was this unity shown?



SIXTEENTH STUDY

The Preparation of Paul for his Work


PART ONE

Before we enter upon the study of "The church among the Gentiles," our
next period, there is a preliminary topic to be considered. The only
record which we possess of the period before us, the Book of Acts, not
only represents Paul as the leading worker for the gospel, but it even
omits all reports of the work of other apostles and evangelists. There
must have been other workers: Peter, Barnabas, Philip, and other workers
were still living, and must have been active in founding churches; but
their work is not mentioned. We find mention of churches which Paul had
not founded (Acts 21. 3, 7; Acts 28. 13, 14, 15). Paul stands before us
as the leading and the typical worker in the gospel. We will therefore
take for our theme, =The Preparation and Methods of Paul=.

At A. D. 50 Paul is now at Antioch, about fifty years old, having been
born probably about four years after Jesus Christ. His first missionary
journey has taken place, and he is now about to enter upon his second
missionary journey. Let us notice some of his advantages for leadership
in the gospel.

I. He was =a Jew=. (See Phil. 3. 5; Rom. 11. 1). The leader in this
movement must be a Jew. 1. Because as a Jew he would have a _training_
in Bible knowledge, and in the _faith_ of a coming Messiah such as no
Gentile could possess. 2. Moreover the work in nearly all places must
begin in the synagogue. (See Acts 17. 1; 2. 10; 18. 1, 4; 19. 1, 8). And
only a Jew could take part in its services.

II. He was a =Trained and Recognized Rabbi=: an accredited teacher of
the law; "a college man" with the prestige of scholarship won in the
school of Gamaliel, the greatest Jewish master of that age (Acts 5. 34;
Acts 22. 3). Such a teacher would be welcome in any synagogue. In this
respect contrast Paul with Peter and the other apostles (Acts 4. 13).

III. He was a =Hellenist=, or "Grecian Jew;" i. e., a Jew of the
Dispersion; by birth and environment broader than the Jews of Jerusalem,
who rarely came in contact with Gentiles. He was a traveler acquainted
with the world; spoke Greek as fluently as Hebrew, an absolute necessity
for preaching to Gentiles (Acts 21. 37, 40). He spoke to the Greek
philosophers in their own tongue and after their own manner. Contrast
Acts 17. 22 with Acts 22. 1. Tradition says that Peter, when at Rome,
used an interpreter in preaching to the church. Paul's ability to speak
at least two languages gave him a great advantage.

IV. Another advantage was that he was by birth a =Roman Citizen= (Acts
16. 37. Acts 22. 25-28). This privilege, at that time rare among those
outside of Italy, gave the apostle safety, immunity from imprisonment by
the local rulers, and the right to a trial before a Roman judge, with
appeal to the emperor. James was put to death, and Peter thrown into
prison by King Herod (Acts 12. 2-4); but Paul was by his citizenship
undoubtedly saved more than once from torture and from death.

V. He was a divinely-called =Apostle=. When he spoke it was with all the
fervor and authority of one who had seen the Lord and had received a
special command from the lips of the ascended Christ to bear testimony
to his gospel. His call came with his conversion (Acts 26. 12-19). He
claimed the authority of an apostle (Gal. 1. 1; 1 Cor. 9. 1). Notice
that in his letters Paul always places "apostles" before "prophets"
(Eph. 2. 20; 3. 5; 4. 11), as holding the higher office in the church.

VI. He possessed rare =Natural Endowments= for his work.

1. He was a man of _sympathy_, warm-hearted and tender; making strong
friendships, drawing men after him. Note how in every place he found
friends (Acts 19. 31; 20. 4; 27. 3, 43).

2. He was a _preacher_ of power. He was a master of the art of public
speaking; and people would always listen to him with the deepest
interest (Acts 17. 22-31. Acts 22. 1-2. Acts 26. 1-26).

3. He was a _theologian_. He saw the great truths of the gospel in
clearer light than any of his co-workers. Under the guidance of the
Spirit he formulated a system of doctrine (Gal. 1. 11, 12), which he
sometimes called "my gospel" (Rom. 2. 16; 2 Tim. 2. 8). This "gospel
according to Paul," presented in his great epistles, came to be the
theology of the church, and so remains.

4. He possessed rare _tact_ in dealing with men; knew how to adapt his
methods to people of varied races and views. His manner of preaching at
Athens was very different from that in Jerusalem. Note 1 Cor. 9. 19-22.

5. He was a _natural leader_ of men; ready to take responsibilities,
quick to decide, yet thoughtful of others. He possessed the ruling
spirit, yet was no imperious, self-willed man. People were as ready to
follow as he was to lead.

6. He was a _tireless worker_; indomitable and undiscouraged, caring
little for hardship (2 Cor. 11. 23-28), although he seems to have been
delicate in health. See allusions 2 Cor. 12. 7-10. Gal. 4. 13. Notice
the field of his labors, in the middle of his ministry (Rom. 15. 19).
Notice too his plans for regions more distant (Rom. 15. 24).


Blackboard Outline

PART ONE

  =Pau. Prep. & Meth.=

    I. =Je.=  1. Train. fai.  2. Part in Syn.

   II. =Trai. Rec. Rab.= Sch. of Gam.

  III. =Hell.= "Gre. J." Trav. Gre. Lang.

   IV. =Rom. cit.=

    V. =Apos.=

   VI. =Nat. Endow.=  1. Sym.  2. Pre.  3. Theol.  4. Tac.  5. Nat.
        lead.  6. Tir. Work.


Review Questions

PART ONE

      What prominence does the book of Acts give to Paul in
      the period of the church among the Gentiles? How do we
      know that there were other workers at that time? Name
      some of these other workers. What churches are named
      which could not have been founded by Paul? What was
      Paul's age at the opening of this period? What were
      some advantages which Paul possessed for his work?
      What were the advantages of his birth and training as
      a Jew? What education did he receive, and wherein was
      it a help to him? To what great branch of the Jews did
      Paul belong? How was this fact an advantage in his
      work? Of what nation was he a citizen? Name instances
      when this fact was of avail to Paul. With what
      authority could Paul speak? Whence came this
      authority? What were some of Paul's natural endowments
      for his ministry? What does Paul mean by the
      expression, "my gospel"? What showed his industry as a
      worker?


PART TWO

VII. We must also study Paul's =Methods of Work=. These were varied
greatly according to circumstances, but in them we may note certain
principles.

1. _He took fellow workers_ with him. Notice his companions on his first
journey. Acts 13. 2-5. On his second journey. Acts 15. 40; 16. 1-3. What
other companion is indicated in the word "we" in Acts 16. 10? On his
third journey. Acts 19. 22, 29. Other companions on this journey. Acts
20. 4, 5. This method gave 1.) _Mutual encouragement_. Paul was social,
loved companionship; was sometimes melancholy when alone (Acts 17. 15,
16; 2 Cor. 2. 12, 13; 2 Cor. 7. 5, 6). 2.) _Power in co-operation_; two
can do much more than twice as much as one. 3.) There was also
_training_ for younger workers, whom Paul always took with him; e. g.,
Mark, Timothy, and perhaps Titus.

2. _He chose the cities_; and of these the largest and most important
centers of population. Antioch, Thessalonica, Corinth, Ephesus, Rome.
Paul was, in training and tastes, a man of the city, not of the country.
He took great interest in men, but apparently none in nature. Contrast
Paul in this respect with Christ, most of whose illustrations were drawn
from nature. One result of Paul's choice of the cities was the wide and
rapid diffusion of the gospel. The cities became Christian long before
the country-places. The word "pagan" literally means "countryman," but
it came to mean a worshiper of idols. See the effect of Paul's two years
in Ephesus (Acts 19. 10). "The seven churches of Asia" (Rev. 1. 11) were
the outgrowth of Paul's work in Ephesus.

3. _He supported himself by his trade._ His occupation. Acts 18. 3.
References to his self-support in different places. 1 Cor. 4. 12; 1
Thess. 2. 9; Acts 20. 34; Paul's was a "self-supporting mission,"
because there was no society to support him and he would not lay the
burden upon those just converted. But although he asked no
contributions, he accepted them when tendered. Phil. 4. 15; 16. 18.

4. _He began in the synagogue._ In every large city there were Jewish
synagogues; and in these Paul could speak as an accepted Rabbi. Note how
constantly he made use of the synagogue. Acts 13. 4, 5. Acts 14. 1. Acts
17. 1. Acts 18. 4, 19. This method gave him access to the worshiping
Scripture-loving _Jews_, to whom he felt called to give the gospel first
(Rom. 1. 16). But it also gave him access to the thoughtful, serious
_Gentiles_ who were seeking after God; and from this class came many of
the early Christians. Notice that in Paul's opening address in Antioch
in Pisidia he addressed both these classes (Acts 13. 16). The synagogue
among the Jews of the dispersion was a great aid to the gospel.

5. He formed _acquaintance with rulers_ and influential men in many
places; in so many that it cannot have been accidental, but must have
been a part of his plan. Examine the following references, and note
names and places: Acts 13. 7. Acts 17. 34. Rom. 16. 23. Acts 19. 31.
Acts 28. 7. These friendships were often of great service to Paul,
especially when opposed by his own people.

6. _He used the pen_ as well as the voice. He wrote many letters, not so
much to spread the gospel as to strengthen and instruct the churches
which he had planted. A number of his letters to churches and to
individuals have been preserved; but it is evident that some have been
lost (1 Cor. 5. 9. Col. 4. 16).

7. He strengthened his work by frequently _revisiting his churches_.
Notice a re-visitation on his first journey (Acts 14. 21). The same
churches visited again on his second journey (Acts 16. 1-4). Again on
his third journey he passed through the same places (Acts 19. 1). A
re-visitation of the European churches (Acts 20. 1, 2).

VIII. Note, lastly, =Paul's Enemies=; those who throughout his journeys
opposed, fought, persecuted him. Almost everywhere his work stirred up
violent antagonisms. This came in different places from three sources:

1. _The Jews_, whose opposition came not so much from his preaching
Jesus as the Messiah as from his willingness to receive Gentiles into
the church. He was regarded as breaking down the distinctions between
Jew and Gentile. Note instances of persecution from this source (Acts
13. 45, 50. Acts 14. 1, 2. Acts 14. 19. Acts 17. 5. Acts 21. 27).

2. _The Judaizing Christians_; professed disciples who were opposed to
Gentile membership in the church (Acts 15. 1, 5. Acts 21. 20, 21. Phil.
1. 14-17). As the years passed the proportion of Jews to Gentiles in the
church became less and less, and this party diminished in power.

3. _The Gentiles._ In only two places do we find persecution stirred up
against Paul by Gentiles without suggestion by Jews. Note the places and
circumstances in Acts 16. 16-24. Acts 19 23-30. In each instance private
interests caused the trouble. As yet there was no strife between
Christianity and the imperial government. But Paul saw the trials
impending, and not far distant, and he forewarned his churches of
sharper persecution soon to come (Thess. 2. 3-10. Acts 20. 29. Phil. 1.
28-30).


Blackboard Outline

Part Two

   VII. =Pau. Meth. Wor.=  1. Fell. work.  2. Ch. cit.  3. Sup. by tra.
         4. Beg. syn.  5. Acq. w. ral.  6. Us. pen.  7. Rev. chu.

  VIII. =Pau. Ene.=  1. Je.  2. Jud. Chr.  3. Gen.


Review Questions. Part Two

      Name seven facts about Paul's methods of work in the
      gospel. Who were his companions on his first, second,
      and third journeys? What were the benefits of having
      fellow-workers? Name some cities where Paul labored
      longest. How is Paul contrasted in this respect with
      Jesus Christ? What was the effect of beginning the
      work in the great cities? How was Paul supported while
      preaching? Why did he follow that plan? In what place
      did Paul begin his work wherever possible? Whom did he
      reach in that method? Name some rulers and influential
      people in different places who were friends of Paul.
      What use of the pen did Paul make in his ministry?
      Show how he frequently revisited his churches. What
      three classes of people were enemies of Paul in his
      work? Name instances when the Jews opposed him. What
      was their reason for their opposition? What opposition
      did he meet from fellow-Christians? At what places was
      he persecuted by Gentiles? What was the attitude of
      the Roman government at that time toward Christianity?



SEVENTEENTH STUDY

The Church among the Gentiles

From the Council at Jerusalem, A. D. 50, To the Death of St. Paul, A. D.
68.


PART ONE

The history of this period of eighteen years, as contained in the book
of Acts, is limited to the labors of St. Paul, who was pre-eminently the
apostle to the Gentiles (2 Tim. 1. 11).

I. Let us draw the =map of the lands= embraced in the later journeys of
the apostle Paul.

1. _The Lands_: 1.) Asia Minor. 2.) Thrace. 3.) Macedonia. 4.) Greece or
Achaia. 5.) Italy. 6.) Africa, not visited by Paul. 7.) Palestine or
Judea. 8.) Syria.

2. _The Localities._ 1.) Jerusalem. 2.) Antioch. 3.) Ephesus. 4.) Troas.
5.) Philippi. 6.) Thessalonica. 7.) Berea. 8.) Athens. 9.) Corinth. 10.)
Rome.

II. =Paul's Second Missionary Journey.= The gospel in Europe (A. D.
51-53). Notice:

1. _His companions_: the quarrel with Barnabas and separation (Acts 15.
36-39). Barnabas at this point drops out of the record. Silas, Timothy,
and later Luke, accompany Paul (Acts 15. 40; 16. 1; 16. 10). Luke's
profession, perhaps therein helping the apostle (Col. 4. 14).

2. _Asia Minor revisited._ Note and locate the provinces through which
they passed, starting from Antioch: 1.) Cilicia (Acts 15. 41). 2.)
Lycaonia (Acts 16. 1, 3.) Probably Pisidia (Acts 16. 4). 4.) Galatia.
5.) Phrygia (Acts 16. 6). Through Mysia to Troas (Acts 16. 8). Locate
these provinces on the map.

3. _The Gospel in Europe._ Note the events which led to the voyage
across the Ægean Sea (Acts 16. 9). Trace the route on the map--from what
city? to what city? The three cities in Macedonia (Acts 16. 12; 17. 1;
17. 10). The two cities in Greece (Acts 17. 15; 18. 1). Note the long
stay in Corinth (Acts 18. 11); the largest city in Greece and the
commercial metropolis, at that time far more important than Athens.

Review and locate the five cities in Europe thus far visited, P. T. B.
A. C., and recall the peculiar events at each place.

4. _The two Epistles to the Thessalonians_ were written while Paul was
at Corinth, perhaps 52 and 53 A. D. These are the earliest extant
writings of Paul, and the earliest books of the New Testament. Two
subjects are presented in both letters: 1.) General precepts concerning
_Christian character_. 2.) The _second coming of Christ_.

5. _A visit to Ephesus_, the chief city of Asia Minor (Acts 18. 18, 19).
Notice what would be the direct route from Corinth. Paul's stay at this
time was short, but with promise of a speedy return.

6. _Return to Antioch._ The route, from Ephesus to Cæsarea, thence to
the mother church at Jerusalem; thence 250 miles either by land via
Damascus, or by water via Cæsarea (Acts 18. 22). The great result of the
second missionary journey was the planting of the gospel in Europe. The
churches founded were composed of both Jews and Gentiles, with the
latter largely in the majority.


Blackboard Outline

PART ONE

   I. =Map.=  1. Lands.  1.) A. M.  2.) Th.  3.) Mac.  4.) Gre.  5.) It.
           6.) Af.  7.) Pal.  8.) Syr.
       2. =Pla.=  1.) Jer.  2.) Ant.  3.) Eph.  4.) Tro.  5.) Phi.
           6.) Thes.  7.) Ber.  8.) Ath.  9.) Cor.

  II. =Pau. Sec. Miss. Jour.=  1. Comp. S. T. L.
       2. _As. Min. Rev._  1.) Cil.  2.) Ly.  3.) Pi.  4.) Gal.  5.) Ph.
           6.) My. T.
       3. _Gos. in Eur._ Tro.  Phil.  Thess.  Ber.  Ath.  Cor.
       4. _Ep. Thess._  1.) Chr. Char.  2.) Chr. sec. com.
       5.  _Vis. Eph._
       6.  _Ret. Ant._  Result-Gosp. Eur.


Review Questions. Part One

      What lands in Asia are named with this lesson on the
      map? What lands in Europe? What localities in
      Palestine and Syria? Localities in Asia Minor?
      Localities in Europe? Who were Paul's companions on
      his second missionary journey? What places of his
      earlier journey were revisited at this time? What new
      places did he visit in Asia Minor? What event called
      Paul to go to Europe? In what city in Europe did Paul
      first preach the gospel? How was his work in that city
      interrupted? What other places in Macedonia did he
      visit? In which of these places did he find the people
      "more noble"? What cities in Greece did he visit? In
      which city did he stay for a long time, and for what
      reason? What letters were written during this journey?
      From what place was each written? What was the subject
      or purpose of each epistle? What large city in Asia
      Minor was the last one visited on this journey? At
      what places did Paul stop on his return journey? Where
      did his journey end? What was the great result of this
      journey?


PART TWO

II. =Paul's Third Missionary Journey= (A. D. 54-58). His companions are
named in Acts 19. 22. The latter seems to have been a man of importance
from Corinth (Rom. 16. 23). We trace the journey, starting, as both the
former journeys, from Antioch:

1. _From Antioch to Ephesus_ (Acts 18. 23). He went through Galatia and
Phrygia, visiting churches already founded. Some think that this
indicates a fourth visit to Lycaonia and Pisidia, as those lands were
loosely regarded as belonging to Galatia; but this is not certain.

2. _Three years in Ephesus._ (Acts 19. 1-20.) In this metropolis of Asia
Minor Paul made a stay longer than in any other place during his
ministry. As results, churches arose in all that region: Colossæ (Col.
2. 2; 2. 1), Hierapolis (Col. 4. 13), and "the seven churches of Asia"
(Rev. 1. 11).

3. _Macedonia and Greece revisited._ We can tell what places he would
visit in this journey through former fields, although they are not
named--the four or five cities wherein he had already planted churches:
Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea (Athens?), Corinth. One of his errands on
this journey, not mentioned in Acts, is frequently referred to in the
epistles of this period, his _collection for the poor Christians in
Judea_. See Rom. 15. 26, 27. 1 Cor. 16. 1-3. 2 Cor. 9. 1-4. Probably the
care of these funds was one reason for the large number of disciples
accompanying Paul on his return journey (Acts 20. 4).

4. _Epistles of this Period._ These were the following:

      1.) _First Corinthians_, written from Ephesus, perhaps
      about 57 A. D. Its occasion (1 Cor. 1. 11, 12). Its
      purpose, to set forth a true church-life.

      2.) _Second Corinthians_ (57 A. D.), probably written
      from Macedonia. (2 Cor. 7. 5; 8. 1); its purpose,
      mainly a defense of Paul's apostolic authority.

      3.) _Galatians_, also probably from Macedonia (57 A.
      D). Its occasion, the influence of Judaizing teachers
      on Paul's churches in Galatia (Gal. 1. 6, 7).
      "Galatia" may refer to the regions in Lycaonia and
      Pisidia (according to Ramsay); but most expositors
      refer it to Galatia Proper, north of those provinces.
      The theme of this book is "Salvation by faith _only_."

      4.) _Romans_ was written from Corinth perhaps in 58 A.
      D. See Rom. 16. 1, a reference to the seaport of
      Corinth. Its subject is "Justification by Faith."
      Notice how important were the writings of this period.

5. _The return journey_ (Acts 20. 6-21, 17). Note the route and places,
which should be traced on the map. 1.) Philippi (Acts 20. 6). 2.) Troas
(Acts 20. 6-13). What took place at Troas? 3.) Voyage to Miletus (Acts
20. 14, 15). 4.) At Miletus, a touching address (Acts 20. 17-38). 5.)
Voyage to Tyre (Acts 21. 1-6). 6.) Ptolemais (Acts 21. 7). 7.) Cæsarea
(Acts 21. 8-15.) A remarkable meeting. 8.) Jerusalem (Acts 21. 17).
Paul's errand to Jerusalem was to present the contribution of the
Gentile churches; seeking to reconcile them with the mother church in
Jerusalem, which was exceedingly bigoted in its zeal for the law (Acts
21. 20, 21).

6. =Paul's arrest and imprisonment= (Acts 21. 27-34). Our purpose is not
to narrate the personal life of St. Paul but to show the development of
the Christian church, therefore we do not enter into the details of his
experience. He was arrested in Jerusalem, and placed in the castle of
Antonia for his protection (Acts 21. 24); subsequently taken to Cæsarea
(Acts 23. 25-35). Here he remained in prison two years (Acts 24. 27).
During this time Paul was placed on trial at least four times: 1.)
Before the Jewish council of the Sanhedrim. (Acts 23. 1-10.) 2.) Before
the Roman governor or procurator Felix. (Acts 24:. 1-22.) 3.) Before
Festus, the successor of Felix. (Acts 25. 1-12.) 4.) Before Agrippa, the
ethnarch of the Bashan district, called by courtesy "King Agrippa."
(Acts 26. 1-32.)


Blackboard Outline

PART TWO

  III. =Pau. Thir. Miss. Jour.= (54-58). Comp. Tim. Eras.
        1. _Ant. to Eph._ Gal. Phr.
        2. _Thr. Ye. Eph._ Res. Col. Hier. "Sev. Ch. As."
        3. _Mac. Gre. Rev._ Phil. Thes. Ber. (Ath.?) Cor. Coll. for Jud.
        4. _Ep. Per._  1.) 1 Cor. Eph. 57. Tr. Ch. Lif.  2.) 2 Cor. 57.
            Mac. P. ap. auth.  3.) Gal. Mac. 57. "Jud. tea." "Salv. fai.
            on."  4.) Rom. Cor. 58. "Jus. by fai."
        5. _Ret. Jour._  1.) Ph.  2.) Tro.  3.) Voy. Mil.  4.) Mil.
            5.) Voy. Tyr.  6.) Ptol.  7.) Cæs.  8.) Jer.
        6. _Pau. Arr. & Imp._ Jer. Cæs.


Review Questions, Part Two

      Who were companions of Paul on his third journey? From
      what city did he start? Through what lands did he
      first pass? What great city was his principal field of
      labor? In what neighboring cities did churches arise
      as a result? What provinces in Europe, and what cities
      in them, did he revisit? What was one of his important
      errands on this journey? Who accompanied Paul on his
      return? What letters were written while Paul was on
      this journey? Name the place from which each of these
      epistles was written. State the approximate date of
      each letter. What was the purpose or theme of each
      letter? Name some of the places where Paul stopped on
      his return journey. What took place at Troas? What
      took place at Miletus? Whom did Paul meet at Cæsarea?
      What was Paul's destination? What was his purpose in
      visiting the mother church? What happened to Paul at
      Jerusalem? To what place was he afterwards taken? How
      long was he a prisoner in that place?


PART THREE

IV. =Paul's Fourth Journey= (Acts 27 and 28). Although made by a
prisoner, some of the time wearing a chain (Acts 26. 29; 28. 20), the
journey to Rome was a missionary journey, in many respects like Paul's
other journeys. To visit Rome had long been his desire and expectation
(Acts 19. 21. Rom. 1. 15. Rom. 15. 23, 24). His companions on the
journey, Luke, Aristarchus (Acts 27. 1, 2), and probably Timothy.

1. On the voyage he was able to bring the _gospel to the island of
Malta_ (Acts 28. 7-10).

2. Arriving at _Rome_ (Acts 28. 16) he took up his work as nearly as
possible according to his _regular method_. 1.) He found a _home_ and
_employment_ (Acts 28. 16). 2.) As he could not go to the synagogue he
_sent for the chief Jews_ and preached the gospel to them (Acts 28.
17-24). 3.) He then turned to the Gentiles (Acts 28. 28-31). 4.) Some
_results_ of his ministry in Rome (Phil 1. 12-18).

3. _The Epistles of Paul's Imprisonment at Rome._ The order of these is
uncertain, but they belong rather to the close of the period than to its
opening.

      1.) _Ephesians_; called by S. T. Coleridge "the
      divinest composition of man;" written A. D. 62; its
      subject, "The mystical union of Christ and his
      church."

      2.) _Philippians_; the most affectionate of all Paul's
      letters; written A. D. 62; its subject "The character
      of Christ's followers."

      3.) _Colossians_; written to a church that Paul had
      never seen; about A. D. 62; subject, "Christ the Head
      of the Church."

      4.) _Philemon_: a personal letter to a friend at
      Colossæ concerning a _runaway slave_ Onesimus, whom
      Paul sent back, "no longer a slave, but a brother
      beloved."

V. =Paul's Later Years.= The record is uncertain, and almost unknown. It
is probable, though not certain, that Paul was set free about 63 A. D.

1. _His years of liberty._ 63 to 67 A. D. Shall we speak of a _fifth
journey_? We find hints or expectations of his being at Colossæ (Philem.
22); Miletus (2 Tim. 4. 13); Nicopolis, north of Greece, on the Adriatic
Sea (Titus 3. 12). Tradition states that at this place he was arrested,
and sent from it a second time to Rome.

2. _His last epistles._ It is not certain that all the "pastoral
epistles" were written by Paul. 1.) They are unlike his other writings
in their style. 2.) His doctrinal views are not prominent in them. Yet
on the whole, they show a reasonable probability of Paul's authorship.

      1.) _First Timothy_ was written during the period of
      liberty, between 63 and 66 A. D., as a book of
      _counsels to a minister_, Timothy, in charge of the
      church at Ephesus.

      2.) _Titus_, about the same time and for the same
      purpose; to Titus, in charge of churches on the island
      of Crete.

      3.) _Second Timothy_, from Rome, during Paul's second
      and last imprisonment; a letter of farewell counsels
      to his "son Timothy." Strictly speaking this book
      should be named under the next subject.

VI. =The First Imperial Persecution.= The Christians were becoming
numerous in Rome, as well as throughout the empire; and a conflict was
sure to arise with the Roman government. The first persecution came soon
after the burning of Rome, A. D. 64, which Nero charged falsely upon the
Christians. Thousands were put to death, although the persecution was
mainly limited to the capital. The _martyrdom of St. Paul_, probably of
St. Peter also, took place about 68 A. D. at Rome.


Blackboard Outline

PART THREE

  IV. =Pau. Fou. Jour.= Pris. Comp. Lu. Aris. Tim.
   1. Gos. Mal.
   2. Ro.  1.) Ho. Emp.  2.) Sent. Ch. Je.  3.) Tur. Gen.  4.) Res. min.
   3. Ep. Pau. Imp.  1.) Eph. "Mys. Un. Ch. and Ch."  2.) Phil. "Char.
      Chr. fol."   3.) Col. "Chr. Hea. Ch."  4.) Philem. Run. Sla.

   V. =Pau. Lat. Ye.=  1. Yea. Lib. Col. Mil. Nicop.  2. Las. Ep.
       1.) 1 Tim.  2.) Tit.  3.) 2 Tim.

  VI. =Fir. Imp. Per.= Mart. Pau. 68 A. D.


Review Questions. Part Three

      Under what circumstances did Paul make his fourth
      journey? Who were his companions? Where did he preach
      the gospel on his journey? How did he follow his
      regular method, as far as possible, at Rome? What were
      some results of his ministry in Rome? What epistles
      were written at Rome? What is the subject of these
      epistles? How long was Paul at liberty after his first
      imprisonment? What places did he probably visit during
      those years? What were the last three epistles written
      by Paul? What is the subject of each epistle? How did
      the first imperial persecution of the Christians
      arise? Who probably suffered martyrdom at this time?



EIGHTEENTH STUDY

The End of the Age

From the Death of St. Paul, A. D. 68, to the Death of St. John, 100 A.
D.


PART ONE

We come now to our last period, an _age of shadows_, of which we know
very little, and wish that we knew more. The curtain of New Testament
history falls while St. Paul is still a prisoner at Rome, five years
before the supposed date of his death. From that time, A. D. 63, to
about A. D. 125 there is very little history, and none in the New
Testament; we are left to hints, traditions, and conjectures.

A question which we would like to answer is, What became of the
_companions_ of St. Paul: such men as Timothy (Heb. 13. 23), Titus (2
Tim. 4. 10), Apollos (Titus 3. 13), Luke (2 Tim. 4. 11)? All of these
were living and working at the close of Paul's life; but there is no
report of their life and labors after that event.

Another perplexing fact is that when the curtain rises at about 125 A.
D. it shows us a very _different church_ from that of St. Paul's day: a
church completely organized, with bishops in almost absolute control;
and sects quarreling over controversies apparently unknown when St. Paul
wrote his letters.

While Peter and Paul were living the church had wise and statesmanlike
leaders, who directed its energies. But when these great men died
"second-rate men" were left in control and they were not equal to the
demand of the new time; and the church drifted into disputes, which grew
into divisions. Let us notice the few known =Events of this Period=.

I. =The Fall of Jerusalem=: epoch-making, not only to Jewish but also to
Christian history.

1. The _rebellion of the Jews_ against the Roman power began in 68 A.
D.; hopeless from the beginning--for how could one small state measure
swords with the empire of the civilized world? The city of Jerusalem was
taken and destroyed 70 A. D., and with it fell forever the Jewish
state.

2. The _siege had been predicted_ in the gospels (Matt. 24. 15-18; Mark
13. 14), and was expected by the disciples of Christ. The _Christians_
in Jerusalem and Judea _withdrew_ to _Pella_ in the Jordan valley; but
their numbers were not large, showing that Jewish Christianity must have
declined since A. D. 58 (see Acts 21. 20), while Gentile Christianity
had increased. After the destruction of Jerusalem Jewish Christianity
remained for 200 years a feeble and declining sect, hated by their own
people as traitors, and despised by Gentile Christians because they
still observed the Jewish law.

3. The effect of the fall of Jerusalem was to draw a sharp line of
_division between Jews and Christians_. Before, the two classes had been
closely related, and confused in the popular mind. Thenceforth the two
streams ran further and further apart, and have continued apart even to
our own time. All Jewish rites ceased in the church, Christians could no
longer be Jews; and after 125 A. D. Jews could no longer be Christians
without renouncing Judaism. The church was now thoroughly a Gentile,
non-Jewish church. Note in the gospel of John how "the Jews" are
everywhere named as enemies of Christ (John 5. 16; 7. 1; 11. 8; 18. 36);
and yet the author of this book was himself a Jew by birth and training;
but at the time of writing he had ceased to be a Jew.

II. =St. John at Ephesus.= Ephesus, at the western end of Asia Minor,
was now the leading city of Christianity. It is probable that the
apostle John passed the last thirty years of his life in that city. He
was revered as the _last of the apostles_; but he was not a statesman or
man of affairs; rather a mystic and man of meditation. It is supposed
that he died about 100 A. D. but the date is not certain.

III. =The Rise of the Heresies.= 1. This was the inevitable _result of
the Greek mind_ working on the simple doctrines of the gospel. The
Christian doctrine was Jewish; and the Jewish mind was not given to
subtle intellectual questions. But when Christianity ceased to be Jewish
and began to Gentile it was dominated by the Greek spirit of restless
inquiry. Asia Minor was the home of wild, uncontrolled thinking. Sects
almost without number appeared, wrangled, and divided over every article
of the creed. The more mysterious the question, the more apart from
practical life and from human interest, the more fascinating became the
study.

2. Two great classes of sects embraced many minor groups.

1.) _The Ebionites._ Strict Jews, who sought to make Christianity a
branch of Pharisaism, keeping the Jewish law. 2.) _The Gnostics._ People
with peculiar views concerning the nature of God, heavenly beings, the
nature of Christ.

3. The _results_ of these controversies were both good and evil. 1.)
_Good_ in that the clashing of ideas aided in _fixing_ in permanent form
the true _doctrines_ of the church. 2.) But far more _evil_; for the
energies of the members were absorbed in debate and controversy; the
spiritual life of the church greatly declined; the aim ceased to be
devotion to Christ, but was now orthodoxy in belief. Christianity became
a creed, instead of an inner spiritual life.

IV. =The Second Imperial Persecution=; under the emperor Domitian, son
of Titus, about A. D. 95. This was far more widely extended than the
former persecution under Nero; and it was followed by a long series of
persecutions, wherein untold thousands of Christians were put to death.
The inevitable conflict had come between Christianity and the Roman
empire, and it lasted two hundred years; but at its close the cross was
triumphant over the Roman eagles. It is not difficult to see the
_causes_ of this _struggle_:

1. _Heathenism was hospitable_, welcoming new gods and goddesses, while
_Christianity was exclusive_, opposing with all its might every other
form of worship.

2. _Idol-worship_ and its services were _interwoven_ with all the _life
of the people_; personal, family, social, political. Temples, statues,
festivals were constantly in evidence; on all occasions there were rites
of worship. But here was a growing multitude of people who stood aloof
from these exercises. It was not strange that these people were regarded
as enemies of society and of the state.

3. Certain forms of religion were allowed in the Roman empire, but all
new forms were forbidden. _Judaism was a permitted_ religion. As long as
Christianity was looked upon as a branch of Judaism, it was allowed. But
after the fall of Jerusalem it stood alone, an unlicensed form of
worship, hence under suspicion; suspicion readily becoming enmity.

4. _The worship of the emperor_ was the one most prevalent throughout
the empire. A statue of the reigning emperor stood in every city, and it
was a test of loyalty to offer libations of incense before it. This
worship is doubtless referred to in an enigmatic manner in such
passages as 2 Thess. 2. 3, 4. Rev. 13. 1, 4, 8, 18. This worship was
refused by the Christians, who were for that reason regarded as
disloyal.

From these causes persecution after persecution arose; hundreds of
thousands perished; yet in spite of the persecution, the church grew
rapidly.


Blackboard Outline

PART ONE

  =En. Ag.= Ag. shad.  Comp. Paul.  Diff. Ch. 125 A. D. "Sec. ra. m."

    I. =Fa. Jer.=  1.) Reb. A. D. 68-70.  2.) Siege pred. Chr. with.
        Pel.  3.) Eff. div. Je. Chr.

   II. =Jhn. Eph.= Last. Ap. 100 A. D.

  III. =Ris. Her.=  1. Gre. min.  2. Eb. Gnos.  3. Res.  1.) G.  2.) Ev.

   IV. =Sec. Imp. Per.= Dom. 95. Caus.  1. Heath. hosp.  2. Id. wor. int.
        li.  3. Jud. per. rel. Chr. unlic.  4. Wor. Emp.


Review Questions

      What is said of the period after the death of St.
      Paul? Between what years is there very little history?
      What companions of St. Paul were living at the time of
      his death? What became of these men? Wherein was the
      church of a later period different from that of the
      earlier time? What reason is assigned for these
      changes? Name the four principal events in the period
      under consideration. When did the rebellion of the
      Jews against the Roman empire begin? What was the
      result of this rebellion? What became of the
      Christians in Jerusalem at the opening of the Jewish
      war? What was the after history of Jewish
      Christianity? What was the effect of the fall of
      Jerusalem on the relations between Christianity and
      Judaism? Who was the last of the twelve apostles on
      the earth? Where did he live? What was his character?
      What is said as to his death? What divisions in the
      church arose at this period? Of what were these
      divisions the result? What country was the home of the
      heresies? Who were the Ebionites? Who were the
      Gnostics? What good result came from these
      controversies? What evil result followed them? What
      persecution arose during this period? At what time?
      Under what emperor did the persecution begin? How did
      it compare with the earlier persecution under Nero?
      What general causes may be given for the series of
      imperial persecutions of the Christians? Wherein was
      heathenism hospitable, and Christianity exclusive? How
      was idolatry interwoven with the affairs of life? How
      was this fact adverse to the Christians? How did
      Christianity come to be looked on with suspicion in
      the empire? How did the worship of the emperor affect
      the Christians? What is this worship called in the New
      Testament? Did these persecutions stop the progress of
      the church?


PART TWO

Let us consider the =condition of the church= at the end of the first
century, seventy years after the Ascension of our Lord.

I. =Its Numbers= cannot be definitely stated; but the church was very
large, and growing with marvelous rapidity. Sources of information: 1.)
_The catacombs_; cemeteries under and around Rome where Christians only
were buried, and wherein they met in times of persecution; occupied
between 100 and 400 A. D.; containing in three centuries two million
graves of Christians. 2.) A letter of Pliny, Roman governor of
Bithynia-Pontus in Asia Minor, 112 A. D., stating that "the temples were
almost deserted," "an incredible number of professors." Evidences point
to the church, A. D. 100, having already a large proportion of the
population of the Roman empire.

II. =Its Membership.= 1. Once the church had been entirely Jewish; then
it became Jewish and Gentile; now it was almost everywhere a Gentile
church, with a few Jewish members, most of whom had abandoned Jewish
rites and rules and were regarded by the Jews as "apostates."

2. _Its social condition_ was varied. It is a mistake to suppose that at
any time the early church was composed mainly of slaves and the poorest
classes. Such there were; but there were also men of wealth, of high
rank, and of great influence. There is reason to believe that some
relatives of the emperor, previous to 100 A. D. were banished on account
of their Christian profession. The gospel had by this time permeated all
classes.

III. =Its Organization.= We observe in this respect a remarkable change
since the period of St. Paul's ministry. Everywhere the church was
hardening into an _ecclesiastical system ruled by bishops_. Bishops are
first mentioned late in St. Paul's ministry (Acts 20. 28; Rev. Ver.
Phil. 1. 1; 1 Tim. 3. 1-7); but it is evident that the word at that time
meant no more than "elder;" otherwise the elders of Ephesus would not
have been called "bishops" in Acts 20.28. But in an autocratic state the
church would naturally become autocratic in its arrangement, ruled from
above rather than from below. By 125 A. D. bishops were in control
everywhere.

IV. =Its Institutions.= Two of these require notice. 1. _The Lord's
Supper._ We have seen how this began as a service in the home, like the
Jewish Passover, out of which it grew (Acts 2. 46). But among Gentile
churches the custom arose of celebrating it at a public meeting, as a
supper to which each member brought some share of provision. See 1 Cor.
11. 20-30, an account of abuses that had arisen. By the end of the first
century the supper had become a service held at the meeting place of the
Christians, but not in public. All except members of the church were
excluded from this service, which was held as a "mystery."

2. _The Lord's Day._ The observance of the first day of the week grew
gradually, and with its growth the recognition of the Jewish sabbath
declined. Note the development indicated in 1 Cor. 16. 2; Acts 20. 7;
Rev. 1. 10. As the church became entirely a Gentile institution "the
Lord's day" took the place of the Jewish sabbath.

V. =Its Doctrinal System.= The _theology of St. Paul_, as set forth in
Romans and Ephesians, was now accepted as the doctrine of the church.
Notice that St. Peter (1 Pet. 1. 18-21) states the great Pauline
principle of justification by faith through the blood of Christ.

VI. =Its Literature.= By 100 A. D. all the books of the New Testament
were written, though not all of them were everywhere accepted as
authoritative. In some places there were questions about Hebrews, 2
Peter and Revelation; the latter because local in its address, and so
recent in origin as not to be known everywhere. But the gospels (except
John, which was about 95 A. D. in its date), the Acts and nearly all the
epistles were read in all the churches as possessing an inspired
authority. Note that, in 2 Peter, Paul's writings are placed on a par
with "the other Scriptures," which must refer to the Old Testament.

VII. =Its Spiritual Life.= It must be admitted that there had been a
decline in the fervency of the Christian life in the church. Its moral
standards were still high; but spiritual gifts had become less
noticeable; the rule of bishops and councils and the controversies over
doctrines were weakening the fervor of spirituality. Note the difference
in spirit and tone between the writings of the New Testament and those
of the early church-fathers in the second century.


Blackboard Outline

PART TWO

  =Cond. of Ch.= 100 =A. D.=

    I. =Num.=  1.) Cat.  2.) Let. Plin.

   II. =Mem.=  1.) Gen. few Je.  2.) Soc. cond. all class.

  III. =Org.= Ecc. Sys. ru. b. Bish.

   IV. =Inst.= Lor. Sup.  Lor. D.

    V. =Doc. Sys.= Theo. Pau.

   VI. =Lit.= N. T.

  VII. =Spir. Lif.= Dec.


Review Questions. Part Two

      What is the estimate of the number of members in the
      church at the end of the first century? What evidence
      of this is found in the Catacombs of Rome? What
      evidence is given by a letter? Who wrote this letter,
      and when was it written? Was the church at this time
      Jewish or Gentile? What was the relation of Jewish
      believers to the church? Of what social elements was
      the church composed? How was the church organized at
      this time? What references to "bishops" are found in
      the New Testament, and what do they indicate? How did
      the bishops grow to be rulers in the church? What two
      institutions of the church are referred to? How was
      the Lord's Supper observed in the earliest church?
      What changes arose in the method of administration?
      How did the first day of the week come to be
      recognized in the church? What was the doctrinal
      system of this time? What was the literature of the
      church? What books were at first questioned? What was
      the spiritual condition of the church as compared with
      earlier periods? What may have caused the decline in
      spiritual fervor?


THE END



THE

Ten Minute Series OF Supplemental Lessons

FOR

The Sunday School,

BY

LORANUS E. HITCHCOCK.


The necessity of some instruction in the Bible in order to supply the
deficiencies which are unavoidable to any system of uniform lessons, is
realized in every Sunday school. The International Lessons can only give
detached portions of Scripture, and a supplemental lesson must be added
to impart a general knowledge of the book as a whole.

The full course of study includes five series of lessons, adapted to be
used in any denomination.

      I. The Life of Jesus.
     II. Studies about the Bible.
    III. Bible Geography.
     IV. Bible History.
      V. History of the Christian Church.

Two additional series of special interest to the Methodist Episcopal
Church have been prepared, namely:

     VI. History of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
    VII. Government of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

These lessons are arranged for use as graded studies for scholars ten
years of age and upward.

Each series contains thirty-six lessons, which can easily be learned in
the course of a year, even if the study be suspended during the summer
months.

    Sample Set, 7 numbers, 35 cents.
    Price of each, per dozen, 50 cents; by mail, 59 cents.

    New York: EATON & MAINS.          Cincinnati: JENNINGS & GRAHAM.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Text uses both Maccabean and
Maccabæan once.

Page 7, "17" changed to "19" (Study, page 19)

Page 9, "9, 10" changed to "11, 12" (given on pages 11, 12)

Page 17, "he" changed to "the" (the legate)

Page 18, "Perea" changed to "Peræa" (place in Peræa and three)

Page 25, "thrty-five" changed to "thirty-five" (less than thirty-five
years)

Page 30, "1.)" added to text. (this period. 1.) In his infancy)

Page 36, comma changed to hyphen. Original read: (Nicodemus (John 3. 1,
21))

Page 41, number "1.)" was used for the first two items under heading
III. The items were renumbered consecutively.

Page 46, "Gaililee" changed to "Galilee" (southwest of the Sea of
Galilee)

Page 48, "refences" changed to "references" (of the following
references)

Page 49, "provincess" changed to "provinces" (Beside the five provinces)

Page 51, "occured" changed to "occurred" (this journey occurred four)

Page 51, "visit" changed to "Visit" (A Visit to Bethany)

Page 52, "Question" changed to "Questions" (Review Questions)

Page 72, "Aegean" changed to "Ægean" (the Ægean Sea. Name the)

Page 75, "sugested" changed to "suggested" (and doubtless suggested by)

Page 75, "synagoguge" changed to "synagogue" (synagogue service? To
what)

Page 77, "Jersualem" changed to "Jerusalem" (in Jerusalem with Peter)

Page 97, "13. 5, 4. changed to "13. 4, 5." (13. 4, 5. Acts)





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