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Title: Rustic Carpentry
Author: Hasluck, Paul N.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Note
Emphasis notation for italic is _Text_ and bold is =Text=.
Whole and fractional parts of numbers is displayed as 2-1/4.
Exponents are prefaced by a carat (^) as E^1.]



                   RUSTIC CARPENTRY


       _WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND DIAGRAMS_


                      EDITED BY

                   PAUL N. HASLUCK

        EDITOR OF "WORK" AND "BUILDING WORLD"
  AUTHOR OF "HANDYBOOKS FOR HANDICRAFTS," ETC. ETC.


                    [Illustration]


            CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED

   _LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK & MELBOURNE. MCMVII_

                 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



PREFACE.


This Handbook contains, in a form convenient for everyday use, a number
of articles on Rustic Carpentry contributed by various authors to
WORK--one of the journals it is my fortune to edit.

Readers who may desire additional information respecting special details
of the matters dealt with in this Handbook, or instructions on kindred
subjects, should address a question to the Editor of WORK, La Belle
Sauvage, London, EC., so that it may be answered in the columns of that
journal.

                                                         P. N. HASLUCK.

  _La Belle Sauvage, London._
        _April, 1907._



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER                                    PAGE

      I.--Light Rustic Work                     9

     II.--Flower Stands, Vases, etc.           22

    III.--Tables                               36

     IV.--Chairs and Seats                     40

      V.--Gates and Fences                     52

     VI.--Rosery Walk                          66

    VII.--Porches                              71

   VIII.--Canopy for Swing                     77

     IX.--Aviary                               83

      X.--Foot-bridges                         92

     XI.--Verandahs                            98

    XII.--Tool Houses, Garden Shelters, etc.  106

   XIII.--Summer Houses                       126

          Index                               159



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


   FIG.                                                     PAGE

     1.--Photograph Frame and Wall Bracket Combined           10

     2.--Section of Bracket                                   11

     3.--Small Easel                                          12

     4.--Attaching Support to Easel                           13

     5.--Mitred Joint                                         13

     6.--Mortise and Tenon Joint                              14

     7, 8.--Flower Holder                                 14, 15

     9-11.--Rustic Hall Stand                                 17

    12, 13.--Plant Stool                                      18

    14-16.--Window Box                                    19, 20

    17.--Flower-pot Stand                                     23

    18.--Bending Saplings                                     24

    19.--Fixing Rails, etc., to Posts                         24

    20.--Vase on Tripod Stand                                 25

    21.--Joint of Hexagon Sides of Vase                       25

    22.--Securing Sides and Legs of Vase to Base              25

    23.--Section of Twigs at Angles of Vase                   25

    24, 25.--Flower-pot Stand                                 26

    26.--Joining Rails to Uprights                            27

    27.--Supporting End Shelves of Flower-pot Stand           27

    28.--Fixing Centre Shelves of Stand                       27

    29.--Large Square Vase                                    28

    30.--Large Hexagonal Vase                                 28

    31.--Vase with Claw Foot                                  29

    32.--Foot of Rustic Table                                 30

    33.--Garden Plant Tub                                     31

    34, 35.--Mouldings                                        32

    36.--Plant Vase                                           32

    37.--Rectangular Garden Plant Stand                       33

    38-40.--Rustic Pedestal                                   34

    41.--Flower-pot Stand                                     35

    42.--Square Table                                         36

    43.--Hexagon Table                                        37

    44, 45.--Top of Hexagon Table                         38, 39

    46.--Armchair                                             40

    47.--Fixing Seat Rails to Leg of Armchair                 41

    48.--Plan of Armchair Seat Frame                          41

    49, 50.--Garden Seat                                  42, 43

    51.--Joints of Rails and Posts                            43

    52.--Arm-rest for Garden Seat                             44

    53.--Part Plan of Seat                                    44

    54, 55.--Garden Seat                                  44, 45

    56.--Front Rail, Cross Rail, and Battens                  45

    57.--Part Plan of Seat                                    46

    58-60.--Garden Seat with Canopy                        47-49

    61.--Plan of Canopy                                       50

    62, 63.--Canopy Panels                                    50

    64.--Plan of Seat                                         50

    65-67.--Garden Gate                                   52, 53

    68-70.--Joints in Gate Frame                              54

    71, 72.--Fixing Ends of Twigs                             54

    73.--Closing Stile                                        54

    74-77.--Rustic Gates                                  55, 56

    78-80.--Fences                                        57, 58

    81, 82.--Rustic Trellis with Seats and Gate               59

    83.--Vertical Section of Trellis                          60

    84.--End Post and Trellis                                 60

    85.--Back of Seat for Trellis                             60

    86.--Alternative Design for Gate                          61

    87.--Hanging and Latching Gate                            62

    88.--Catch for Gate                                       63

    89, 90.--Rustic Carriage Entrance                     64, 65

    91.--Rosery Walk                                          67

    92.--Roof of Rosery Walk                                  68

    93.--Entrance to Rosery Walk                              69

    94, 95.--Porch                                        72, 73

    96.--Seat and Floor of Cottage Porch                      74

    97.--Porch at Gable                                       74

    98.--Porch at Eaves                                       75

    99.--Roof for Porch                                       75

   100.--Gable for Porch                                      76

   101, 102.--Rustic Canopy for Swing                     77, 78

   103.--Fixing Middle Post of Canopy to Sill                 79

   104.--Joints of Rails, Struts, and Posts for Canopy        79

   105.--Securing Cross Rails to Plates and Posts of Canopy   80

   106, 107.--Hook and Thimble for Canopy                     80

   108, 109.--Fenced Seat for Canopy                          81

   110.--Fixing Rope to Eyelet                                81

   111, 112.--Aviary                                      84, 85

   113, 114.--Joint of Rails and Uprights for Aviary          85

   115.--Sectional Plan of Aviary                             86

   116.--Cross Section of Aviary                              87

   117.--Half Under View of Bottom of Aviary                  88

   118.--Door Wires for Aviary                                88

   119.--Part Longitudinal Section of Aviary                  89

   120.--Half Plan of Aviary Roof                             90

   121, 122.--Rustic Foot-bridge                          92, 93

   123.--Girders for Foot-bridge                              93

   124, 125.--Joint of Post and Girder                        93

   126.--Middle Rail and Post of Foot-bridge                  94

   127, 128.--Joint of Strut to Post of Foot-bridge           94

   129.--Twig Hollowed to Fit Rail                            94

   130.--Elevated Bridge                                      95

   131.--Girder and Post bolted to Sleeper                    96

   132.--Elevated Foot-bridge at Lower Step (Fig. 130)        96

   133, 134.--Verandah                                   99, 101

   135.--Bottom of Post for Glazed Verandah                  103

   136.--Top of Post for Glazed Verandah                     103

   137, 138.--Rustic Tool House                         106, 107

   139.--Common Method of Using Slabs                        108

   140.--Ground Plan of Rustic Tool House                    109

   141.--Cap of Tool House Pilaster                          111

   142.--Garden Snuggery                                     112

   143.--Ground Framework of Garden Snuggery                 113

   144.--Back Framework for Garden Snuggery                  113

   145.--Snuggery Porch                                      114

   146.--Window-board                                        115

   147, 148.--Sections of Snuggery Walls                     117

   149-151.--Garden Retreat                              118-121

   152.--Seat of Garden Retreat                              122

   153.--Joint of Garden Retreat at C (Fig. 151)             123

   154.--Detail of Front Joints (see C, Fig. 151)            124

   155.--Alternative Method of Joining Rails to Posts        124

   156.--Section of Middle Rail at A (Fig. 152)              125

   157.--Detail of Middle Rail at B (Fig. 152)               125

   158-161.--Lean-to Summer House                        126-131

   162-164.--Shelter for Tennis Lawn                    133, 134

   165.--Connecting Plates to Corner Post                    135

   166.--Fixing Sleeper to Posts                             135

   167.--Section of Flooring                                 135

   168.--Finial                                              135

   169.--Garden Shelter at Front Eaves                       135

   170.--Section of Seat                                     135

   171.--Strapping Cushion to Seat                           137

   172-174.--Octagonal Summer House                     137, 139

   175.--Collar Posts and Ends of Wall Plates                141

   176.--Timbers over Entrance of Octagonal Summer House     141

   177.--Window Side of Octagonal Summer House               143

   178, 179.--Table for Octagonal Summer House               145

   180.--Seat Side of Octagonal Summer House                 147

   181.--Mosaic Seats                                        149

   182-184.--Octagonal Summer House with Three Gables    151-153

   185, 186.--Roof for Octagonal Summer House                153

   187.--Securing Glass to Rustic Casement                   154

   188, 189.--Door for Octagonal Summer House                155

   190.--Part Plan of Octagonal Summer House                 156

   191.--Horizontal Section through Door Posts               156

   192.--Part Section of Side Panel                          157

   193.--Fixing Plate to Posts                               157

   194.--Finial                                              157



RUSTIC CARPENTRY.



CHAPTER I.

LIGHT RUSTIC WORK.


Rustic carpentry does not demand great skill in woodworking, but it does
require a large amount of artistic perception. The tools needed are but
few, and the materials employed are comparatively cheap, although in
many districts they are becoming dearer every year.

It may be said that any articles made from the now popular bamboo may be
made quite as effectively in light rustic work.

For light rustic work, sticks of hazel, cherry, yew, blackthorn, birch,
larch, fir, and the prunings of many varieties of shrubs may be used;
but it is necessary that the material should be cut at the proper
season, and thoroughly dried before being worked up. The sticks should
be cut in mid-winter, as at that time the sap is at rest; if cut in the
summer time the bark will peel off. If peeled sticks are required, they
should be cut in the spring, when the sap is rising, as at that time the
rind will come off easily. In some districts the copses are cleared of
undergrowth periodically, and the sticks (generally hazel) sold to
hurdle and spar makers. A selection of these sticks would be very
suitable for the purpose here described.

The sticks should be stacked in an open shed in an upright position if
possible, and in such a manner that the air can freely circulate around
them. When they are required for fishing rods or walking sticks they are
hung up to season--this keeps them straighter; but the hanging of them
up is not necessary for the work about to be dealt with. When the sticks
have been put away for from six to twelve months, according to size,
they will be ready for use, after being rubbed with a cloth or brushed
to clean off the dust and bring up the colour of the bark. Fir cones may
often be worked into a design, and bits of rough bark and the warts and
burrs found on old elm trees may be collected by the rustic worker and
put by for future use.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Photograph Frame and Wall Bracket Combined.]

One method of treatment for designs in light rustic work is to split the
sticks and use them to overlay the work with a Swiss pattern, as shown
by Fig. 1; another method is to work the sticks up after the manner that
canes are used in bamboo furniture (see Figs. 3 and 42, pp. 12 and 36).

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Section of Bracket, showing Fixing of Glass.]

Fig. 1 represents a wall bracket with a photograph or mirror in the
frame. To make this, the piece forming the back is first cut out of
3/8-in. deal. The shelf, of 3/4-in. deal, is then nailed to the bottom
edge. Some straight hazel, fir, or other sticks are next selected and
split; these are nailed round the edges of the back, and round the
opening at the centre. The pieces round the opening overlap the edges
about 1/4 in., to form a rebate for the glass. The bare spaces at the
sides and top may be covered in the following manner: Take a piece of
brown elm bark and run a saw into it. Catch the sawdust, and, after
warming the wood, cover it with thin glue.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Small Easel in Rustic Work.]

Sprinkle the brown sawdust on the glued surface, and sufficient will
adhere to cover the deal and give the frame a rustic appearance.
Cork-dust or filings may be used instead of sawdust. Bunches of fir or
larch cones are nailed to the corners, as illustrated; these should be
pared at the back with knife or chisel to a flat surface. The outer edge
of the shelf is finished with an edging of short lengths of split stick
nailed on. The general construction of the bracket, and the method of
fixing the glass, will be clear from Fig. 2, which is a section through
the centre.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Method of Attaching Support to Easel.]

A small easel for photographs, or, if constructed larger, for a
fire-screen, is shown by Fig. 3. It is made entirely of round sticks.
Fig. 4 illustrates the method of attaching the back support--namely, by
means of a couple of staples, which may be made out of a hairpin. In
jointing round sticks together, the joints may be mitred by notching a
=V=-shaped piece out of one stick and cutting the other to fit (Fig. 5);
or a mortise and tenon, as represented by Fig. 6, may be used.

[Illustration: Fig. 5--Mitred Joint.]

In making the easel (Fig. 3), the top and bottom bars are mitred to the
sides, and the central upright to the top and bottom bars. The joints
are secured by either brads or panel pins. Care must be taken to bore
for the nails with a bradawl, as nothing looks worse than splits in the
work. The upright piece in the centre of the top bar may be secured by
driving a long panel pin into the lower upright through the top bar,
filing the head to a point to form a dowel, and driving the top piece on
with a hammer.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--Mortise and Tenon Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--Rustic Flower Holder for Table Decoration.]

Where a small stick is joined to a larger one, as in the case of the
filling-in pieces, a flat may be made with a knife or chisel on the
larger stick, and the smaller one cut to fit and nailed on. In making a
small easel, only a single stick attached to the centre upright will be
required to form a back support, but for a larger one it will be
preferable to frame it as shown by Fig. 3.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Rustic Flower Holder Complete, with Cocoanut
Vase in Position.]

The finished articles may be either stained and varnished or left plain.
Cherry sticks look well if the bark is left the natural colour, and the
ends, where exposed, cleaned off and varnished without being stained.
Some sticks improve in colour if rubbed over with a rag moistened with
linseed oil.

If a stain is required, one that is sold in bottles would be suitable,
but a little vandyke brown, ground in water, and applied with a sponge,
answers the purpose. Sometimes, as in the case of the table top (see
Fig. 42, p. 36), it is a good plan to stain the wood before nailing on
the pattern work, or there will be danger, if the sticks are dark in
colour, of the lighter wood showing through.

If the rustic work is intended to be placed out of doors, it should be
given two or three coats of hard outside varnish.

The rustic flower-holder for table decoration, shown by Fig. 7, consists
simply of a gipsy tripod formed with six rustic sticks, put together in
the form shown, and tied with a length of bass. There is no attempt made
at finish, but the sticks must be firmly tied together at the joints,
and the ends of the bass can be left, either hanging loose or tied in a
bow. The holder for the flowers is a cocoanut shell, which has been sawn
in two, so as to leave one part a sort of cup or egg shape; three holes
are bored with a bradawl at equal distances round the edge, and it is
suspended from the tripod with three more pieces of the bass, which
completes the arrangement. Of course, any small receptacle can be used
in place of the cocoanut shell, but that, perhaps, carries out the
rustic appearance the best, and is very easily obtained. Fig. 8 is an
attempt to show the tripod when decorated.

The rustic hall-stand shown by Figs. 9 to 11 was made actually from
branches and twigs of an old apple tree. The uprights and principal
cross-pieces are 7/8 in. thick, and the criss-cross pieces are 1/2 in.
thick. The bottom is made of four pieces 1-1/2 in. thick. The longer
ones measure 1 ft. 8 in., and the shorter ones 1 ft. 2 in.; they are
nailed together in such a manner that the ends at the two front corners
each cross and project 2-1/2 in. The front uprights are 2 ft. high, the
back ones 2 ft. 2 in.; the longer cross-pieces are 1 ft. 8 in., the
shorter 11 in. The ends intersect and project 3 in. at each of the front
corners; only the longest piece projects 3 in. at the back corners, the
shorter pieces being cut off flush with the frame to allow of the stand
fitting close to a wall.

[Illustration: Figs. 9 and 10.--Front and Side Elevations of Rustic Hall
Stand.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Plan of Rustic Hall Stand, showing Umbrella
Pan.]

These cross-pieces are nailed to the uprights to allow the top ends of
the latter to project 2 in. above them, this bringing the measurement of
the oblong inner framework to 1 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. The thin
pieces are nailed on as shown in Fig. 9, being interlaced as much as
possible. The back of the stand is treated in a similar manner. The
whole of the wood is used as rough as possible, the bark being retained,
with the knots, etc.; the ends are, however, pared off smooth with a
chisel. Two coats of varnish finish the stand, save for the addition of
a receptacle to catch the drainings from umbrellas, and for this the
stand illustrated has a painted baking-tin A (Fig. 11).

[Illustration: Figs. 12 and 13.--Elevation and Plan of Plant Stool.]

The rustic stool (Figs. 12 and 13) is intended to be made in pairs, and
placed one on each side of the umbrella-stand above described, each
supporting a plant, such as a fern or palm. The top of each stool is cut
from 9 in. square 1-in. wood (wood from an old box answers well), and is
sawn into an octagonal shape. A double row of pieces of apple, maple, or
some other wood with good bark, is nailed around the edges, thicker
pieces being used at the bottom than at the top to give a graduated
appearance. The entire top is then covered with straight pieces of
stick, selected for the beauty of their bark. All pieces are nailed on
with cut brads. The four legs are formed of 1-in. apple-wood 9 in. long.
They are bevelled at the top to fit a square block of wood, 2 in. thick
and 3 in. long, which is firmly secured to the top by two screws. This
piece of wood should be fastened to the top before the rustic rods are
placed in position. Two 2-1/2-in. wire nails through each of the legs
hold them quite securely to the central block. Portions of rustic wood,
from 1/4 in. to 3/8 in. in diameter, are then nailed across the legs, as
shown in Fig. 12, the ends being allowed to cross each other and project
about 1 in. all ways. The whole stool, when finished, stands 10-1/2 in.
high, and is so strong that it will support a heavy man with safety. The
block of wood to which the legs are attached should be stained to match
the rustic wood; permanganate of potash solution will effect this.
Finally, two coats of clear varnish give a good finish to the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Window Box.]

Window boxes are illustrated by Figs. 14 to 16. That shown by Fig. 14 is
made from a raisin box obtained from a grocer. Such boxes are not
costly, and to buy and knock these up for rough uses is often more
economical than buying new material.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--More Elaborate Window Box.]

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Cross Section of Window Box in Position.]

Take care that the boards are stout enough to hold the brads firmly. The
box measures about 21 in. by 7 in. by 7 in., and is wholly covered with
mosaic of dark and light strips in panels. Strips are also nailed on the
upper edges.

The more elaborate window box (Figs. 15 and 16) can be made of a size to
fit the window for which it is intended. A few holes should be bored in
the bottom for drainage, and the front board is cut to the shape shown
and the rustic ornament is nailed to the box and forms no part of the
construction. In Fig. 16 wedge pieces are shown fitted to the stone sill
to bring the box level; it is kept in position by two metal angle-pieces
screwed both to the wood sill and to the back of the box.



CHAPTER II.

FLOWER STANDS, VASES, ETC.


The rustic-work flower stand (Fig. 17) may be 3 ft. high by 3 ft. 6 in.
long by 9 in. wide. For the legs, select four curved saplings 3 ft. 3
in. long by 2-1/2 in. in diameter; and as some difficulty may be
experienced in obtaining them with the natural curves sufficiently
alike, artificial methods of bending must be resorted to. Therefore get
the saplings from 2 ft. to 3 ft. longer than the finished length, and
bend them to shape by means of the Spanish windlass as shown in Fig. 18.
Flexible six-strand fixing wire or stout hemp cord can be used; or a
straining screw and link, as employed for tightening fencing wire, will
answer equally well; keep the tension on till the wood is curved
permanently, the time varying with the nature and condition of the wood,
and the strain being applied gradually at intervals. The rails are
tenoned to fit mortises in the legs, and battens are nailed to the lower
long rails, to support the flower pots (see Fig. 19). The rustic work is
then fixed diagonally to the rails. The ends that abut against the legs
and centre-piece are pared away so as to make a neat joint, and angle
boards are fitted to the under side of the lower rails to support the
rustic work where it curves downwards.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--Flower-pot Stand.]

The vase shown by Fig. 20 is hexagonal in shape, with vandyked sides
fixed to a base supported upon tripod legs, and stands about 3 ft. 3 in.
high. Elm boards are suitable for the sides and bottom; they are 1 ft. 3
in. high by 9 in. wide at the top end, and 6-1/2 in. wide at the bottom
by 1 in. thick. Shoot the edges of the boards to a bevel of 60°, and fix
them with nails driven as shown at Fig. 21. When the six sides are
completed, prepare the hexagon baseboard to suit. Bore holes in it for
drainage, and also bore three equidistant holes, 1-1/4 in. in diameter,
at an angle of about 60°, for the tenons of the legs to enter (see Fig.
22). Next screw the base to the sides, and fix on the barked rustic
work. The twigs for this should be seasoned at least one year before
using. They are sawn in halves, straight twigs being selected for the
purpose. If necessary, shoot the edges slightly, so as to obtain a
closer fit when fixing them in parallel. Begin by attaching the lower
border to the hexagonal base, then the upright pieces over the angles,
hollowed as shown at Fig. 23; next fix the top sloping pieces, and
finally the horizontal twigs. The legs are nailed at the base of the
vase (see Fig. 22); and at the centre, where they cross, they are
further secured with twigs, which do the duty of rungs, as shown in Fig.
20.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.--Method of Bending Saplings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Fixing Rails, etc., to Posts.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Vase on Tripod Stand.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--Joint of Hexagon Sides of Vase.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--Securing Sides and Legs of Vase to Base.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--Section of Twigs at Angles of Vase.]

[Illustration: Figs. 24 and 25.--Side and End Elevations of Flower-pot
Stand.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.--Joining Rails of Flower-pot Stand to Uprights.]

[Illustration: Fig. 27.--Method of Supporting End Shelves of Flower-pot
Stand at A and B (Fig. 24).]

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--Fixing Centre Shelves of Flower-pot Stand.]

The flower stand shown in front and end view by Figs. 24 and 25 has
accommodation for sixteen pots. The two uprights are 2 ft. 8 in. high by
about 2-1/2 in. in diameter. The three rails are 2 ft. 9 in. long, and
are tenoned to the posts as shown by Fig. 26; the posts are also tenoned
and nailed to the sills (bottom rails), and strutted, as shown in Fig.
25. The method of fixing the shelves A and B (Fig. 24) is shown in Fig.
27, which is an under-side view; struts are also fitted, as shown in
Fig. 25. The method of fixing the centre shelves is indicated at Fig.
28. The shelf, and also the struts C, D, E, and E^1 (Figs. 24 and 25),
are fixed to the centre rail; then the top diagonal braces are nailed to
both the shelf and the top rail, thus keeping the whole secure. The
remainder of the work calls for no special instructions. Split twigs are
used for the fencing around the shelves.

[Illustration: Fig. 29.--Large Square Vase.]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.--Large Hexagonal Vase.]

Fig. 29 shows a square vase constructed from elm boards 1-1/4 in. thick.
A fair size for the sides will be 1 ft. 8 in. at the top and 1 ft. 5
in. at the base by 2 ft. high, including the 2-1/2-in. plinth. The split
twigs forming the decoration are 1-1/2 in. wide, and spaced about 2 in.
apart edge to edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.--Large Plant Vase with Claw Foot.]

The vase shown by Fig. 30 is hexagonal in shape, the sides being 1 ft. 8
in. high by 1 ft. 2 in. wide at the top edge, and 1 ft. 0-1/2 in. at the
base. The sides and bottom of both vases are connected as in Figs. 21
and 22. Five 1-in. holes are bored for drainage. The short feet having
been secured with screws driven from the inside, the split rustic work
is bradded on in the same order as that described for Fig. 20.

The stands and vases should be given two coats of oil varnish, allowing
the first coat to dry before applying the second.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.--Foot of Rustic Table.]

A big plant vase made from half a paraffin cask is illustrated by Fig.
31. An ordinary 40-gal. cask stands, roughly, some 3 ft. high, has a
diameter of some 2 ft., and is made of good stout oak. Sawn through the
middle, the paraffin barrel makes two admirable tubs. One such half is
shown in Fig. 31. This it is proposed to render suitable for some large
bushy plant, so it will have to be mounted on legs. The legs shown are
simply so many pieces cut from rough branches. From a heap of stuff one
can generally choose pieces sufficiently adapted to the purpose, though
their exact contours will, of course, vary. Oak branches, technically
known as "bangles," from which the bark has been taken to make tan, will
do well; or if the bark is liked, apple-tree or elm boughs will be
suitable. That these sticks should be rough and gnarled and knotted
adds to their effect. As the tub will be only partly covered with
rustic mosaic work, it will be well before nailing anything upon it to
paint it. A good dark brown or chocolate will go well with the natural
bark. The rustic pieces will have to be cut through with the saw, the
lengths being too great to be safely split with the hatchet--that is,
with the exception of those round the lip, which are of thicker rod than
the zig-zags; say, 1-1/2 in. as compared with 1 in. In the zig-zags the
light central strip is supposed to be of peeled withy, the darker ones
on each side having the bark on, and being probably of hazel. Generally
speaking, wrought brads are to be recommended for fixing rustic mosaic,
but where, as in the present case, the strips have to be bent over a
curved surface, small wire nails will be found more secure. Groups of
fir cones, as shown, will prettily ornament the triangular spaces.

A style of foot suitable for a one-leg flower stand or table is
illustrated in plan and part section by Fig. 32.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.--Garden Plant Tub.]

Fig. 33 shows the other half of the cask arranged for, say, a dwarf
shrub, an orange-tree, or the like. In small town or suburban premises,
such tubs are specially useful where there is a back court into which
anything green cannot otherwise be introduced. In this, it will be seen
that by way of variety the tops of the staves have been sawn to a
zig-zag line, which is followed a little below by a moulding of split
rods. Alternative styles of moulding are shown by Figs. 34 and 35.
Half-way between this and the bottom a band of mosaic is arranged in
light and dark strips of withy and hazel. The bits filling the
diamond-shaped centres of this pattern are cut from thicker stuff than
the rest, so that they may project as bosses beyond the general level.
Over the unavoidable iron hoop at bottom, from which place short strips
would, if nailed, be often detached, a rough "dry-cask" wooden hoop has
been fixed. At the sides two pieces of rough branch stuff have been
placed to serve as handles, and to resist strain these should be secured
from within by strong screws.

[Illustration: Figs. 34 and 35.--Alternative Mouldings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36.--Ornamental Plant Vase.]

The vase shown by Fig. 36 is intended for a somewhat low-growing
flowering plant--say, a large bushy geranium. In its original character
it is an American lard pail. As in the last tub, the staves have been
sawn to a more ornamental outline, and they have also been perforated.
The ornamental strips of split rod have been arranged in straight
vertical lines, to avoid the difficulty of bending and keeping them in
place if bent round so small a vessel. The bottom of the pail is screwed
down to an octagonal slab of wood, to the under side of which four short
bits of rough bough are nailed as feet. As neither this nor the last tub
is wholly covered with mosaic, they should, of course, first be painted.
The slab at bottom will look very well rough, as shown, but if painted
it will be improved by strips of split rod nailed round its edges.

[Illustration: Fig. 37.--Rectangular Garden Plant Stand.]

A garden plant stand, made from a soap box and mounted on legs is shown
by Fig. 37. The easiest way to fix one of these legs on is to saw the
piece of stuff in half to a distance from the top equal to the depth of
the box, and then to cross-cut and remove one half. The corner of the
box will be brought to the middle of the cross-cut, and the leg nailed
on to the side of the box. The piece which has been sawn off will then
be cut through (quartered), and the proper quarter replaced and nailed
to the end of the box. Frets, such as those shown in these two examples,
are patterns of a kind well adapted to be worked out in rustic mosaic.

[Illustration: Figs. 38 to 40.--Elevation, Section, and Horizontal
Section of Rustic Pedestal.]

A pedestal for a sundial or flower vase is shown by Figs. 38 to 40. It
is a box of 1-in. elm boards, the top being a 2-in. thick slab.
Suitable dimensions are 3 ft. 6 in. high, and 1 ft. square, the top
being 16 in. square.

[Illustration: Fig. 41.--Rustic Flower-pot Stand in Imitation of
Bamboo.]

A design for a rustic flower-pot stand in imitation of bamboo is
represented by Fig. 41. The height should be about 2 ft. 6 in. to the
top, and the length from 3 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. The box at the top may be
about 9 in. wide and 8 in. deep. Care must be taken when putting the
work together to get the frames true and square. Slovenliness in
construction will completely spoil the appearance of the finished
article. The box at the top is made to fit inside, and should be lined
with a zinc tray. The outside may be covered with glue and brown
sawdust.



CHAPTER III.

TABLES.


[Illustration: Fig. 42.--Square Table.]

A small rustic table which may, if desired, be used as a flower-pot
stand, is illustrated by Fig. 42. The top may be made of 3/4-in. stuff,
and should have two ledges nailed underneath to prevent twisting. The
table may be 1 ft. 10 in. high, with the top 15 in. square, or, if a
larger size is required, 2 ft. 1 in. high, with the top 18 in. square.
The design is not suitable for tables of a larger size.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.--Hexagonal Table.]

The legs may be secured to the top by boring holes in the ledges and
driving them in. The cross bars must be firmly secured to the legs, and,
for the joints, the mortise and tenon shown at Fig. 6 (see p. 14) would
be suitable. If the sticks used to form the legs are rather small, it
will be better if the cross bars are kept a little higher on two of the
sides, so that the mortises do not meet each other.

The top is covered with a Swiss overlay pattern, made of split sticks.
The design may be set out by drawing lines from corner to corner on the
top, and across the top in the centre of each side. A smaller square is
then drawn in the centre of the top, with diagonals at right angles to
the sides of the top. Lines drawn from the corners of the small square
to the corners of the top will form a four-pointed star. The pattern
should be clearly outlined with a pencil. In nailing on the sticks,
those round the outer edge of the top should be put on first and mitred
at the corners. Next the outside sticks of the small square should be
nailed on, then the eight pieces from the corners of the small square to
the corners of the top.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.--Part Vertical Section of Top of Hexagonal
Table.]

In working up patterns of the above description, always nail on the
sticks that follow the outline of the design first. The filling-in
pieces may be put on afterwards. Variety may be given to the patterns by
using sticks of different colours; for instance, the design may be
outlined in hazel or blackthorn, and filled in with hawthorn or peeled
willow. The edges of the table top are concealed by nailing on an edging
of short sticks or cones.

[Illustration: Fig. 45.--Half Plans of Top of Hexagonal Table.]

Fig. 43 shows a small hexagon-top table for use in a summer-house or on
the lawn. The following dimensions are suitable: Height 2 ft. 6 in., and
diameter of circle for the hexagon top 2 ft. 9 in. The top is made from
two or three 7/8-in. boards cramped together to the required width and
fixed underneath with two battens 3-1/2 in. wide by 1 in. thick. The
four legs are dowelled and nailed to these battens and further stiffened
by the rungs and the diagonal braces which are nailed to the legs. A
corona is fixed around the edges of the table top, and the method of
securing the board is shown in Fig. 44. In Fig. 45 the half plans show
two ways of ornamenting the top. The twigs should be sawn so that in
section they are less than a semicircle, and it will be an advantage to
shoot their edges slightly, as then they will fit closer and cover the
rough boards that form the table top.



CHAPTER IV.

CHAIRS AND SEATS.


[Illustration: Fig. 46.--Armchair.]

For the armchair (Fig. 46) select four slightly curved legs about 3 in.
in diameter; the front pair are 2 ft. high and the back pair are 2 ft. 9
in. high. The front seat rail is 1 ft. 2 in. long by 2-1/2 in. in
diameter, the back rail is 1 ft. long, and the side rails are 1 ft. 3
in. long, their ends being trimmed to fit the legs, and fixed with
inserted ash or elm dowels 7/8 in. in diameter; see Fig. 47. The height
from the ground line to the seat top is 1 ft. 4-1/2 in. The battens
forming the seat rest on the side rails, and cleats are fixed to the
inner sides of the four legs (see Fig. 48) to support the extreme back
and front battens. The arms and back are made in three parts, the
scarfed joints coming immediately over the back legs. The trellis work
is then added, and finally the struts and dentils are fixed around the
seat. The chair can be made from unbarked wood without any dressing, or
the bark may be removed and the wood, when dry, can be finished in stain
and outside varnish.

[Illustration: Fig. 47.--Fixing Seat Rails to Leg of Armchair.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48.--Plan of Armchair Seat Frame.]

The garden-seats about to be described will look very effective if made
of oak that has had the bark removed and the small twigs trimmed off
clean; they should be finished in stain and varnish. In construction
they are fairly simple.


[Illustration: Fig. 49.--General View of Garden Seat.]

For making the seat shown by Fig. 49, first select the three back posts,
with their natural curves as much alike as possible. In diameter they
should be from 2-1/2 in. to 3 in. Select also two arm-posts and one
centre leg for the front. Next cut two seat rails for the back and one
rail for the front, 5 ft. or 6 ft. long as desired, and cut two side
rails (see Fig. 50) and one centre rail, each 1 ft. 7 in. long. Work the
ends of the rails to the shape of the posts as shown by Figs. 51 and 52,
so that they make a fairly good joint, and bore the posts and rails with
a 7/8-in. bit 1-1/4 in. deep, to receive dowels made of ash or elm.
These are preferable to tenons formed on the rails themselves. Now try
the whole together temporarily, and make good any defects.

[Illustration: Fig. 50.--End Elevation of Garden Seat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 51.--Joints of Rails and Posts for Garden Seat.]

Then take the pieces apart, and coat the joints with a thick priming
consisting of two parts of white-lead (ground in oil) and one part of
red-lead thinned with boiled linseed oil. Drive the joints home and fix
them with nails or screws and wipe off the surplus paint.

[Illustration: Fig. 52.--Arm-rest for Garden Seat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53.--Part Plan of Seat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54.--Another Garden Seat.]

The top back rail and the arm-rest can next be fitted. The ends of the
back rail are worked bird's mouth, to fit the posts. The arm-rests are
treated in the same way at the back; they fit in vees cut in the front
posts, and are fixed with nails.

[Illustration: Fig. 56.--Vertical Section, showing Front Rail, Cross
Rail, and Battens.]

[Illustration: Fig. 55.--Cross Section of Garden Seat.]

Measure off and mark equal spaces for the struts, the ends of which are
trimmed to fit the rails and posts. Secure them with two nails at each
end. The seat (Fig. 53) is made up of split saplings laid as shown, with
the ends pared to fit the rails and bradded on. Finally, fit the struts
between the seat rails and the lower part of the posts.

The framework for the chair shown by Figs. 54 and 55 is on the same
principle as that already described. The segmental battens forming the
seat run longitudinally, and their ends are shaped to fit the outer
rails. The battens rest on a flat worked on the centre cross rail (see
Figs. 55, 56, and 57). Fig. 56 also gives a part cross section near the
centre leg, and shows the front rail placed out of centre and the cross
rail resting on the leg, to which it is firmly nailed. When the seat is
more than 5 ft. in length the battens require intermediate supports,
which can be cut from split saplings. The panelling on the back is fixed
to the top and bottom rails and supported in the centre by a wide
longitudinal rail and two vertical rails at the mitres of the diamond
centres. These are fitted in and secured, and then the vertical split
twigs are fixed partly on them and also on the rails. Finally, struts
are fixed to the seat rails and legs and covered with short twigs, with
their lower ends running in a regular curve.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.--Part Plan of Seat.]

A rustic garden seat with canopy is illustrated by Fig. 58. Where shade
is required, the back and canopy offer facilities for securing it, as
they can be covered with climbers. Fig. 58 is not drawn to scale, but
the explanatory diagrams (Figs. 59 to 64) are 3/4 in. to the foot.

[Illustration: Fig. 58.--Garden Seat with Canopy.]

The upright posts and all the more important pieces will best be formed
of somewhat small larch stuff; the smaller straight sticks may be hazel,
birch, or withy. The last named, stripped of its bark, and used in some
parts only, will form a pretty contrast with the darker rods. In filling
spaces in back and canopy, a few pieces of crooked stuff are used; these
will probably be of apple-tree.


[Illustration: Fig. 59.--Front Elevation of Garden Seat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 60.--End Elevation of Garden Seat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.--Plan of Canopy for Garden Seat.]

[Illustration: Figs. 62 and 63.--Back and Side Views of Canopy Panels.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.--Plan of Seat.]

The two posts A, on which almost the entire weight is sustained, should
be let into the ground not less than 2 ft. They rise 5 ft. above the
ground-line. They are set at a distance, measuring from centre to
centre, of 4 ft. apart. The smaller posts (marked B), which support the
seat, stand 17 in. in advance of those last named, and should be let
into the earth 1 ft. The broad seat thus given is essential to comfort
when the back of the chair is upright, as it must be in this instance.

Two principal cross-pieces are nailed against the main posts. The lower
one, of halved stuff, is 15 in. from the ground, and carries the back of
the seat. The other is close to the top of the posts, and carries the
back of the canopy. The canopy is chiefly supported on the three
wall-plates, C (Fig. 59), which rest at one end on the heads of the
posts, and towards the other on the struts, D (Fig. 60). Fig. 61 shows
in plan the arrangement of the principal pieces forming the canopy: E E
are the rafters of the gables, the lower ends of which rest on the
wall-plates, and the upper against the pinnacle, F (Fig. 61). The back
rafters are marked G G, and these rest their lower ends on the
cross-piece and their upper against the pinnacle. Fig. 62 shows the
filling-in of the two back panels of canopy; Fig. 63 that of the four
side panels.

The filling-in of the back of the seat is clearly shown in Fig. 59.

In Fig. 64 the seat proper appears in plan. Its front and ends are of
halved stuff, nailed to the posts. The spars forming the seat are placed
with spaces between them, that they may not hold moisture; for the same
reason, it is advised that they should be of peeled withy.



CHAPTER V.

GATES AND FENCES.


[Illustration: Figs. 65 and 66.--Front View and Plan of Solid Garden
Gate.]

In many gardens there is a space devoted to the tool-house, potting
shed, refuse head, etc. Shrubberies of course hide the unsightly
appearance of this particular spot to a certain extent, but it may be
found desirable to close the entrance to this part of the garden from
the remainder, and the gate illustrated in front elevation by Fig. 65
is, from its semi-rustic nature, particularly suitable. Fig. 66 shows a
plan and Fig. 67 is a part back view. The gate is quite simple in
construction, and should be of sufficient height to obstruct the view
from each side.

[Illustration: Fig. 67.--Part Back View of Frame for Solid Garden Gate.]

Local circumstances will of course determine the width of the gate, but
the one illustrated by Fig. 65 is constructed on a framework 6 ft.
square, the total height being 8 ft. The timber for the frame need not
be planed.

[Illustration: Figs. 68 to 70.--Joints in Frame of Solid Garden Gate.]

[Illustration: Figs. 71 and 72.--Fixing Ends of Twigs.]

[Illustration: Fig 73.--Detail of Closing Stile.]

Cut the closing and hingeing stiles 6 ft. long out of stuff 6 in. wide
by 2-1/2 in. thick. The three rails are of the same dimensions, and can
be halved and dovetailed to the stiles or, better, mortised, tenoned,
and wedged and braced, as shown in Figs. 68, 69, and 70. Separate pieces
of stuff are fixed up the centre to form a muntin for supporting the
rustic work; the necessity is obvious from Fig. 66, where it will be
noticed the twigs are outlined on the frame. Each twig has a bearing on
the frame, and can thus be nailed individually.

[Illustration: Figs. 74 and 75.--Designs for Rustic Gates.]

Two stout gate hinges and hooks are required, and they can be bolted on
with 7/16-in. Whitworth bolts and nuts, or secured from the back with
square-headed coach screws. Now commence fixing on the unbarked twigs;
they should be as straight as possible and used in their natural shape,
without being split in halves.

The terminations of the joints for circular stuff are slightly different
from the ends of the half-round stuff; see Figs. 71 and 72. Start by
fixing the outside square, then the two inner squares, and finally the
diagonal filling.

The posts are 9 in. or 10 in. in diameter by 9 ft. long, 3 ft. being
underground. Cut three mortises in the posts to receive the rails for
the side fencing. These rails are nailed flush to the secondary posts,
nails also being driven through each mortise in the gate posts. Next
dig the holes for the posts, these being kept at correct distances apart
by nailing battens to the top and at the ground line while ramming in
the posts. Two parts of old brickwork and one part of Portland cement
will make a good concrete for the posts.

A week or more should elapse before the gate is hung to the posts. This
may then be propped up fair between the two posts, and the positions
should be marked for the staple of the latch, and hooks for the hinges.
A rebate is formed for the gate on the posts by nailing on split
sapling; see Figs. 67 and 73. Finally, a short post can be driven in the
ground and fitted with a hook for retaining the gate when open wide.

[Illustration: Figs. 76 and 77.--Designs for Rustic Gates.]

Suitable designs for small rustic gates are given by Figs. 74 to 77. The
wood for making gates to the two designs (Figs. 76 and 77) should have
the bark removed. The chief rails and posts are about 2 in. thick,
filled in with 1-1/2-in. or 1-in. pieces, halved and nailed together
where they cross. The joints may be hidden by bosses of planed wood (see
Fig. 77). If the gate is to be removable, fix a hook on the hanging
stile to engage with a staple in the joint, and a pin in the bottom to
turn round in a socket. The gate is then easily taken out of its
hangings. Varnish the wood on completion.

[Illustration: Figs. 78 and 79.--Designs for Fences.]

Rustic fences can be constructed as shown in Figs. 78 to 80.

The garden trellis illustrated at Fig. 81 will form an attractive
addition to the grounds of a suburban or country villa residence. In the
case of new houses, the existence of such a trellis, with creepers ready
planted, will often prove a deciding factor in effecting a quick sale or
letting. The structure extends to a length of about 20 ft., but the
dimensions may readily be altered to suit requirements. The material may
be fir or other straight unbarked saplings and twigs. The posts are 12
ft. long; the four for the arch being 4 in. in diameter, and the others
3 in. or 3-1/2 in. The rails are 2-1/2 in. in diameter, and the twigs
for the trellis, etc., 1-3/4 in. or 2 in. The bay seat with canopy is 6
ft. long by 1 ft. 4 in. wide.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.--Design for Fence.]

The position of the seats and posts and of the shores A, B, and C is
clearly shown in the plan (Fig. 82). The arrangement of the double posts
adds materially to the stiffness of the framework, making long shores
unnecessary. The shores are placed 3 ft. 6 in. above the ground line,
and are inclined at an angle of 50°. The posts are sunk into the ground
a distance of 3 ft., and well rammed in; rubble stones being mixed with
the earth, as shown in the vertical section (Fig. 83).

[Illustration: Figs. 81 and 82.--General View and Ground Plan of Rustic
Trellis with Seats and Gate.]

[Illustration: Fig. 83.--Vertical Section of Trellis.]

[Illustration: Fig. 84.--Section through End Post and Trellis.]

[Illustration: Fig. 85.--Detail of Back of Seat for Trellis.]

[Illustration: Fig. 86.--Alternative Design for Gate.]

The arch may with advantage be entirely fitted together before being put
in position, as a better job can thus be made of the joints of the short
rails and struts. The joints in the remainder of the work, with the
exception of the gate, are of the simplest description. The rail ends
are bevelled and notched to the posts, and secured with nails as shown
in the sectional view of the trellis at Fig. 84.

Having erected the framework in position, next sink and well ram the
shores deep into the ground, and splay and nail the top ends to the
uprights. Also fix the shorter posts for the seats, letting them into
the ground about 1 ft. 6 in. The end seat bearers are fixed to the end
posts, and the centre bearers to the front and back central posts. The
seat battens are saplings split in two, the flat portion being laid
downwards and nailed to the bearers (see Fig. 83). Fig. 85 is an
enlarged section through the seat back, showing the method of securing
the smaller twigs to the rails. The fixing of the vertical pieces in the
lower part, and the inclined lengths above, will complete this portion
of the screen.

The gate, shown enlarged at Fig. 86, which gives an alternative design,
is 3 ft. 9 in. wide by 4 ft. 6 in. high. The stiles are 4 ft. 9 in. long
and about 2-1/2 in. in diameter, and should be as straight as possible,
with the twigs neatly trimmed on; the rails should be at least 2-1/4 in.
in diameter, trimmed to fit the stiles, and secured with inserted
hardwood dowels 1 in. in diameter, as shown at Fig. 26, p. 27.

The diagonal struts in the top panel should be fitted and in place
before the rails and stiles are finally secured; the vertical twigs in
the lower panel should be similarly fitted and nailed before the rails
are secured to the stiles. Ordinary forged hooks and eyes are used for
hanging the gate; these are secured to the stile and post with nuts and
washers, as shown in the enlarged horizontal section (Fig. 87).

[Illustration: Fig. 87.--Method of Hanging and Latching Gate.]

A mortice is cut in the closing stile to receive the latch, the catch
for the latter being a simple forging (see Fig. 88) with a pointed tang
for driving into the post.

A rustic carriage entrance is shown by Fig. 89. The intention is, of
course, that the rustic archway above the gates shall be more or less
clothed with climbing plants. It is for roses that the structure will be
best adapted, though clematis or honeysuckle will look well upon it. Ivy
would look too heavy, and, if neglected, might even prove too heavy in
other respects. Light as the arch may appear, the four posts grouped to
form the turret on either side are so tied and braced together as to be,
to all intents and purposes, a solid pillar, 30 in. square, and fully
equal to resisting any outward thrust of the rafters. In the elevation
(Fig. 89), to avoid confusion, no indication is given of the work
forming the farther side of the arch, though something of it would
necessarily be seen from the front; the two sides will be alike. Figs.
89 and 90 are drawn to a scale of 1/2 in. to the foot.

[Illustration: Fig. 88.--Catch for Gate.]

The posts, and at least all the more important straight pieces, should
be of larch. The wood chosen for filling-in should have picturesque
forks and contortions. Small oak bangles will, perhaps, be most
appropriate.

In the ground plan of the left-hand turret (Fig. 90) it will be seen
that the posts used--four at each end--are some 5 in. or 6 in. in
diameter, and that the largest is selected as hanging-post for the gate.
From centre to centre they are set 2 ft. 3 in. apart. They are 13 ft.
long--that is, 10 ft. 4 in. above ground and 2 ft. 8 in. below. The
rafters of the arch spring from them 7 ft. from the ground, and at this
point each post is surrounded by a cap, formed of four pieces of
quartered stuff nailed upon it. The rafters are not mortised into the
post, but if, instead of being merely nailed, they are attached by a
bolt and nut, a stronger joint will be made.

[Illustration: Fig 89.--Elevation of Rustic Carriage Entrance.]

The upper rafters, back and front, are connected by five straight
cross-pieces, whose ends show in Fig. 89. The spaces between these are
filled up very much at random with crooked stuff.

The four posts of each turret are bound together close beneath their
tops by cross-pieces nailed outside them, whilst from their tops, and
nailed down to them, slant four short rafters, which meet pyramid-wise
in the centre. The filling up of the upper parts of the turrets, as well
as of the front and back of the arch, is with a mixture of straight and
crooked stuff, the arrangement of which is clearly shown in the
elevation (Fig. 89).

[Illustration: Fig. 90.--Plan of Left Side of Carriage Entrance.]

The lower parts of the turrets and the gates must be constructed in such
a way as to exclude animals; the palings are so arranged as not to leave
a space between them wider than 3 in. The rails of the gates should, of
course, be mortised into the heads and hinge-trees.



CHAPTER VI.

ROSERY WALK.


The rustic construction here illustrated is intended primarily as a
trellis over which to train roses, and to form a shady and fragrant
walk, and generally to contribute to the adornment of the flower garden.
It can readily be adapted so as to form a roofed-in track from a door to
the public roadway; and the means of so adapting it will be explained
later.

The materials will be entirely rough wood in its natural bark. For the
posts fir poles of some kind should be chosen, and larch is especially
to be preferred both as regards durability and appearance. All the
smaller pieces which show as straight stuff may well be of the same kind
of wood as the posts, though hazel is best for the finer rods. It will
be seen that in the mere filling-in much crooked stuff is used, and for
this apple branches, or indeed almost anything that comes to hand, will
answer.

The rosery walk (Fig. 91) is 4 ft. wide, and the rustic erection is
carried on two rows of pillars or collar-posts ranged at intervals of 3
ft. These posts should be let into the ground 2 ft., and well rammed in.
They should have an average diameter of 3 in. or 3-1/2 in., except in
the case of each third one, as that which in Fig. 91 is seen standing in
the middle of the portion with the lower roof; such pillars may be
smaller as having little weight to bear, and will look better than they
would do if equal in size to the others. Resting on the line of posts
lies the wall-plate (A A, Fig. 92), the top of which is 5 ft. 6 in. from
the ground line.

[Illustration: Fig. 91.--Elevation of Rosery Walk.]

[Illustration: Fig. 92.--Plan of Roof of Rosery Walk.]

From each group of four large collar-posts rise four rafters (B, B, Fig.
92), meeting at top pyramid-wise. They rise to a height from the ground
of 7 ft. 6 in., and have, therefore, to be 3 ft. 4 in. long. Half-way up
them--that is, 6 ft. 6 in. from the ground line--the purlins (C, C, Fig.
92) are nailed upon them. Figs. 91 and 92 alike show how the space
between wall-plate and purlin is filled in, and Fig. 92 shows how the
space, 7 ft. 3 in. long, stretching from one pyramidal portion to the
next, is covered with a flat roof of open rustic work lying upon the
purlins. This space, it will be observed, is chiefly filled in with
crooked stuff.

Fig. 93 shows how the upper part of the rosery would appear at one of
its ends, and explains how the roof would be in section--the shaded
parts give the form of the roof in its lower portions; whilst if the
cross-piece, D (which is on a level with the purlins), is supposed to be
removed, there is presented with the dotted lines, B, B, a section
through the middle of one of the higher pyramidal portions.

[Illustration: Fig. 93.--Entrance to Rosery Walk.]

Over the middle of the entrance is a rough knot or a piece of root.

The filling-in of the sides of the rosery is plainly shown in the
elevation, Fig. 91. For its better preservation from damp, this work is
kept 4 in. from the ground.

Supposing that, as was suggested above, the design is to be utilised for
a dry path with a covering of metal or other light material, it will be
well to keep the whole roof to the level of the pyramidal portions--a
ridge-piece will have to be used--and the rafters, instead of following
the present arrangement, will meet in pairs opposite to the pillars.
Instead of round stuff, also, use halved stuff for the rafters and
purlins, the sawn side being uppermost. The space between ridge-piece
and purlin can then be filled in the same manner as that between purlin
and wall-plate.



CHAPTER VII.

PORCHES.


The rustic porch shown in front elevation by Fig. 94 and in vertical
section by Fig. 95 is constructed from straight, well-seasoned saplings
and twigs, from which, in each case, the bark has been removed. The
design is eminently suitable for a farmhouse or a country cottage. The
porch is of large dimensions, and is provided with seating accommodation
on each side. The seats do not appear in the elevations, but one side is
shown in the part plan (Fig. 96).

The seats are 1 ft. 6 in. high by 1 ft. 2 in. wide. The battens are
1-3/4 in. wide by 1-1/2 in. thick, and are supported on cross-pieces
fixed to the front posts and wall; a centre batten being fixed to the
centre panel, and supported by a diagonal bracket running from the front
down to the sill-piece. The floor space is 7 ft. wide, and stands out 5
ft. from the walls.

The posts are 7 ft. 6 in. long by 4 in. in diameter. The front posts are
preferably dropped over metal dowels leaded into the stone floor, at 1
ft. 2 in. centres, while the side posts are at 10-1/2 in. centres, and
of smaller section--say about 3 in. in diameter. One post, 5 in. in
diameter, sawn longitudinally through the centre, does duty for the two
wall-posts, the flat portion being, of course, scribed to the wall, the
latter having been previously plugged for the reception of the fixing
nails.

The rails are tenoned to the posts, and 1-1/4 in. diameter holes are
bored in the posts, and also in the ends of the rails, for the reception
of the inserted tenons. The ends of the rails are also hollowed to fit
roughly the posts (see Fig. 97). The lower rail is 10 in. up from the
floor, while the centre rail is 3 ft. 4 in. up. The rail immediately
below (Fig. 95) is 10 in. below the centre rail.

[Illustration: Fig. 94.--Front Elevation of Cottage Porch.]


[Illustration: Fig. 95.--Vertical Section of Cottage Porch.]

The top ends of the front posts are hollowed, and fitted with inserted
dowels for the reception of the front rail. The six side-posts are
finished off square, and have tenons which fit into the plates. The
front ends of the plates are notched to the front top rail. The rafters
are 5 ft. 7 in. long by 3 in. deep and 2 in. wide, wrought and
chamfered and birdsmouthed to the plates as shown at Fig. 98. The ridge
piece, 4 in. deep by 1-1/2 in. thick, projects 5 ft. 2 in. from the
wall. On the front end of the ridge is fixed the finial, which is 2 in.
square. The rafters are covered with 1-in. V-jointed, wrought, grooved
and tongued boarding, cut in 5-ft. 4-in. lengths, and laid horizontally
or at right angles to the rafters.

[Illustration: Fig. 96.--Part Plan of Seat and Floor of Cottage Porch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 97.--Section of Cottage Porch at Gable.]

The roof may be covered with slates, with Broseley tiles, with wood
shingles, or with thatch. A part plan of the roof is shown in Fig. 99.
An enlarged section of the front angle of the gable is given in Fig.
100. Two boards, each 1 ft. 1 in. wide by 1-1/4 in. thick, are fixed to
the outer rafters and run parallel with them; the heels of the two
boards abutting on the front top rail, to which they are nailed. The
split-twig herringbone ornament is also nailed to these boards. On the
inner edges of the boards are secured twigs of about 1-3/4-in. in
diameter, which are rebated to fit to the edges as shown in Fig. 100.
The front projecting ends of the roofing boards are concealed by split
twigs of about 2-1/2-in. or 3-in. diameter, which do duty as
bargeboards. The method is shown at A (Fig. 100).

[Illustration: Fig. 98.--Enlarged Detail of Cottage Porch at Eaves.]

[Illustration: Fig. 99.--Part Plan of Roof for Cottage Porch.]

The panels have now to be filled with stuff ranging from 1-1/2 in. to
2-1/4 in. in diameter. The vertically placed twigs between the posts
and rails should be fitted in place before the rails are finally jointed
up to the posts. The ends are roughly hollowed, and are secured with cut
nails. Alternatively, the vertical members could be fitted so that their
inner edges coincided with the centre of the rails. The major portion of
the twigs being on the outer side, the smaller diameter of the twigs
will thus bring their front edges flush with the larger diameter edges
of the rails. The herringbone and the diagonally placed twigs are quite
easy to fit, the ends being simply pared off till they are sufficiently
shortened to assume their correct position in the panels.

[Illustration: Fig. 100.--Section of Gable for Cottage Porch.]

The decorative effect of the porch will be greatly improved by the
addition of a suitable door, as shown in the front elevation (Fig. 94).
The cost of manufacture of such a door is but slightly more than that of
an ordinary six-panel door. The bottle ends in the top glazed panel form
a quaint and pleasing feature of the general scheme.



CHAPTER VIII.

CANOPY FOR A SWING.

[Illustration: Fig. 101.--General View of Rustic Canopy for Swing.]


Fig. 101 is a general view of the canopy and swing, and Fig. 102 a side
elevation slightly more elaborate in design than Fig. 101, the chief
members, however, being exactly the same. The material used is stripped
fir saplings. Six of these are required for the uprights.

[Illustration: Fig. 102.--Side Elevation of Canopy for Swing
(Alternative Design).]

The middle posts are slightly larger in section, as they have to carry
the cross rail supporting the swing; a good size for these is 6-in.
diameter at the base by 10 ft. or 12 ft. high. The outer posts may be
4-3/4-in. to 5-in. diameter at the base. The posts are sub-tenoned (see
Fig. 103) to elm sills 10 ft. 6 in. long by 8 in. diameter. Tenons are
formed on both ends of the posts, and seatings and mortices at 4-ft.
centres are made in both the sills (bottom rails) and plates (top rails)
to receive them.

[Illustration: Fig. 103.--Fixing Middle Post of Canopy to Sill.]

[Illustration: Fig. 104.--Details of Joints of Rails, Struts, and Posts
for Canopy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 105.--Securing Cross Rails to Plates and Posts of
Canopy.]

The short rails are 4 in. in diameter by 3 ft. 6 in. long, and are
stub-tenoned and pinned to the posts at a height of 3 ft. 9 in. from the
ground line. The struts also are tenoned and pinned to the middle posts
and sills, as shown in Fig. 104, where, it will be noticed, the struts
are in one piece and the braces in two, the latter being hollowed to fit
in the angles and over the struts.

[Illustration: Figs. 106 and 107.--Hook and Thimble for Canopy.]

When all the members are ready for the final drive home, the tenons of
the rails should be just entered to the posts; the struts and braces are
next placed in position and driven up, then the sill and plate are
entered and driven home, and finally the several joints are secured with
oak pins. This operation will be carried out better with the work in a
horizontal position. When the two sides are so far completed, they may
be erected in position and fixed with temporary battens, at a distance
apart of 7 ft. 9 in. centres, while the top cross rails are being
fitted.

[Illustration: Fig. 108.--Front View of Fenced Seat for Canopy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 109.--End View of Fenced Seat for Canopy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 110.--Fixing Rope to Eyelet.]

The middle cross rail which carries the swing is 6 in. in diameter and 8
ft. 6 in. long. A seating is formed on the plates, and a shallow one
upon the rails, which are secured with long 3/4-in. diameter bolts and
nuts; the latter are let into the posts at a distance of 8 in. from the
top, as shown in Fig. 105, which is a cross section through the plate
near the middle rail. Short struts may also be fixed between the posts
and cross rail, as in Fig. 105; they are not shown in Fig. 101. A floor
is formed of saplings, connected to the sills, thus preventing them from
spreading. The trellis-work, both on the roof and sides, is now fixed.
This is composed of 1-3/4-in. and 2-in. twigs.

The swing hooks (Fig. 106) pass right through the rails, and are secured
with nuts and washers. Collars should be forged on the shanks to prevent
the hooks being drawn too far into the wood when screwing up the nuts.
The shank is screwed 3/4-in. Whitworth pitch thread, and the hook is
1-1/4 in. in diameter at the thickest part. The hemp rope is spliced
around galvanised iron thimbles (see Fig. 107), which take the wear on
the hooks. The rope is usually secured to the seat by simply knotting
the ends.

Should the swing be used for very young children, a seat provided with a
fence will be necessary, as shown at Figs. 108 and 109, which are front
and end views respectively. The back rail and the two side rails are
fixed to the seat with the balusters; but the front rail is tenoned to
open-ended mortices in the side rails, and thus made to hinge, to
facilitate the lifting of the children on and off the seat, the rail
being secured in its closed position with a brass pin and retaining
chain. The suspending rope in this case is passed through the end rails
and knotted to the seat. Fig. 110 shows the rope passed around and
whipped to an eyelet.



CHAPTER IX.

AVIARY.


The outside dimensions of the rustic aviary shown by Figs. 111 and 112
are--length, 3 ft. 2 in.; width, 1 ft. 6 in.; height, 1 ft. 10 in.

Hazel sticks, with the bark on, should be used, the straightest
obtainable being best for the frame; if at all crooked or bent, the
sticks can be straightened by steaming, or, if not too dry, by the heat
of a spirit lamp.

Four uprights, 1 ft. 5-1/2 in. by 5/8 in., are first cut; then six
rails, 1/2 in. thick, are made, with the ends shaped as shown in Fig.
113, to fit the uprights, measuring 2 ft. 10 in. inside the hollow ends
when finished. Four of these should be laid on the bench side by side,
and marked with a pair of compasses for the wires, which are 5/8 in.
apart. They are then drilled, the holes being bored right through the
two sticks for the top rails, but only half through the bottom rails. If
the stuff is not too hard, the holes may be pierced with a
well-sharpened brad awl.

The uprights are now secured to the rails with 2-in. wire nails, driven
so as to avoid the holes (see Fig. 114), and glue is applied at the
joints. The bottom rail is flush with the lower ends, the next one being
placed 1-1/2 in. above it; the third is 1/4 in. from the top ends. These
form the front and back frames, and should be quite square and out of
winding. The rails for the ends, also six in number, measure 1 ft. 3
in., and are bored and fixed to the uprights to correspond with the
others in exactly the same way.

[Illustration: Fig. 111.--Front Elevation of Aviary.]

The two rails supporting the tree perches are placed about 7 in. from
the ends. Before they are fixed, however, the tree perches must be
arranged. These should be cut from the limb of a leafless tree, in
winter, in order to retain the bark. Suitable pieces may be prepared by
cutting off badly placed twigs and fixing them where required. They are
then put on the perch rails, employing the same joint as the rails and
upright, but securing with a strong screw.

[Illustration: Fig. 112.--End Elevation of Aviary.]

[Illustration: Figs. 113 and 114.--Details of Joint of Rails and Uprights
for Aviary.]

When all is ready, the perches are fixed in the framework (see Figs. 115
and 116), and narrow strips of 1/4-in. board are fitted between the
lower rails of the back and ends, to be faced with split stuff, put on
diagonally as shown in Figs. 111 and 112. The best plan would be to take
a sufficient quantity of material to the nearest sawmill to be divided
by a circular or band saw; the material must be free from grit, or
objections will be raised against cutting it.

A stain, made by thinning down brunswick black with turps, should be at
hand to stain the wood before fixing on the split stuff, which is
secured with fine panel pins.

[Illustration: Fig. 115.--Part Sectional Plan of Aviary.]

The wood bottom is 3 ft. 1-1/2 in. by 1 ft. 5-1/2 in. by 3/8 in.; it is
planed both sides, and secured in place with screws. The top side is
treated round the margin, as shown in Fig. 115, and the under side as
shown in Fig. 117. The centre of the design of the under side, covering
a space of 2 ft. 3 in. by 8 in., is worked first; it is worked from the
centre outwards, each strip being mitred as shown. The marginal strips
are pieces of split cut slanting at the ends where they fit other
pieces, and flush with the edge of the wood bottom, which is surrounded
with the same stuff.

[Illustration: Fig. 116.--Cross Section of Aviary.]

[Illustration: Fig. 117.--Half Under View of Bottom of Aviary.]

[Illustration: Fig. 118.--Construction of Door Wires for Aviary.]

The wiring is all straightforward work. The wires are passed through the
top rails to those below and clipped off level at the top. Six
feeding-holes are required, one in the centre at each end, and two at
the back and front close to the perches. The top ends of these wires are
pushed up through the rails; the circular ends are slightly sunk and
fixed with small staples. Six wires are omitted from the middle of the
front to allow for the door. The cross-wires, which should be of a
stronger gauge, are then put in. In the back and ends it is immaterial
whether they are put inside or out, but at the front they must be
inside. The six wires above the door are inserted in twos, being
returned in the same manner as the lower ends of the door wires (see
Fig. 118), and soldered to the cross-wire, which is afterwards bound to
the others with thin pliable coil wire. In making the sliding door, the
returned ends of the wires are soldered to the base wire inside, so that
the ends may fit round the wires of the doorway; the top ends fit round
those above the cross-wire, and when the door is in place a scroll-piece
is soldered on outside (see Fig. 111).

[Illustration: Fig. 119.--Part Longitudinal Section of Aviary.]

Eight corner-pieces of the split stuff are put on close against the
wires, being secured to the uprights and rails with pins. Two pieces of
1/4-in. board are next got out for the top, measuring 2 ft. 10 in.
long, 4 in. across the centre, and slanting at the upper edge to 1/4 in.
at the ends. The design is worked on these in split, the boards being
kept in place with pins driven through the top rails, and the back and
front connected at the top point by a length of wood of 2-in. by 1-in.
section (see Fig. 119). The roof-pieces, 1 ft. 5-1/2 in. by 1 ft. 7-1/4
in. by 1/4 in., are nailed on and covered with split stuff, as shown by
Fig. 120.

[Illustration: Fig. 120.--Half Plan of Aviary Roof.]

A sliding bottom or tray is required for cleaning purposes; this is of
1/4-in. board, and is nailed to the strip that fits between the rails in
front; other strips about 1 in. wide are nailed on the upper side at the
extreme ends and back edge to form a tray for the sand, runners being
put in against the lower end rails. The front strip is treated with the
split, and to draw out the tray, the door may be slightly raised to
admit the fingers to push it forward from the inside. Two additional
perches put across from the wires, and fixed with staples, give strength
to the front and back.

The aviary is now gone over with fine glass-paper, all white places
being touched up with the stain and nicely varnished, with the exception
of the perches. The aviary will stand on a table, but may be hung from
the ceiling if desired. For hanging purposes, four screw-eyes are put in
the top, two on the ridge, about 3 in. from the front and back, and one
towards each end, placed midway to catch the rails. The four ceiling
hooks should screw into the joists, the aviary being suspended with
chains.



CHAPTER X.

FOOT-BRIDGES.


Very pleasing effects may be produced in public or private recreation
grounds by the constructional use of rustic work of good design.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.--Rustic Foot-bridge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 122.--Cross Section of Foot-bridge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 123.--Enlarged Section of Girders for Foot-bridge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 124.]

[Illustration: Fig. 125.]

[Illustration: Figs. 124 and 125.--Parts of Joint of Post and Girder.]

[Illustration: Fig. 126.--Detail of Middle Rail and Post of Foot-bridge.]

[Illustration: Figs. 127 and 128.--Joint of Strut to Post of Foot-bridge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 129.--Twig Hollowed to fit Rail of Foot-bridge.]

Fig. 121 is a perspective view of a rustic foot-bridge suitable for a
span of 8 ft. or 12 ft. The banks of the stream to be bridged are
excavated to allow of the building of a low rubble wall, on which the
sleepers rest, as shown in Fig. 122. The girders are formed of spruce or
larch spars. In the present instance, four are used; and they may be 8
in. or 10 in. in diameter, according to the length of the span. They are
roughly adzed down to sit on the sleepers, and each girder is also
worked down tolerably flat on the inner sides. The girders are then
bolted together in pairs with six 3/4-in. diameter coach bolts, as
shown by Fig. 123. The posts are tenoned and wedged to fit mortices in
the girders. Figs. 124 and 125 show the mortice and tenon joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 130.--Elevated Foot-bridge.]

The posts and top rails are 4-1/2 in. or 5-1/2 in. in diameter, and the
intermediate rails 3 in. in diameter. Fig. 126 indicates the method of
jointing the rails to the posts. The girder spars, with posts and rails
fitted, having been placed in position on the sleepers, and plumbed up
and stayed, the floor battens, 11 in. by 2-1/2 in., are fixed and the
struts are fitted and pinned or spiked to the posts and sleepers. The
joint for the struts is shown by Figs. 127 and 128.

[Illustration: Fig. 131.--Girder and Post of Elevated Foot-bridge Bolted
to Sleeper.]

[Illustration: Fig. 132.--Cross Section of Elevated Foot-bridge at Lower
Step (Fig. 130).]

If the bridge happens to be in a locality that is subject to periodical
flooding, it should be anchored to prevent its being unseated by flood
water. The anchoring can be best effected by driving four short piles
into the soil on the inside of both girders and near their ends. The
girders can be fastened to the piles with coach bolts. The tops of the
piles will be concealed by the end floor battens. The smaller twigs
forming the ornamentation are now fixed, and Fig. 129 shows the
vertical piece hollowed to fit the rails.

Fig. 130 gives a part view, in longitudinal section, of an elevated
bridge, suitable for a span of 12 ft. to 18 ft., and raised on piles to
enable small boats and canoes to pass under. Elm logs are suitable for
the pile foundation. An iron ring must be fitted over the tops of the
logs while they are being driven, and it will be necessary to use a
pile-driver. The logs, having been sufficiently driven, are cut off to
the required height from the ground line. Three piles on each side are
required to carry the sleepers. The bridge is 5 ft. 6 in. wide, and the
spars for girders are 12 in. in diameter. The sleepers are bolted to the
piles, and the girders are also bolted to the sleepers as shown by Fig.
131. A row of smaller piles is now driven, and a plank, 11 in. by 3 in.,
is housed to the top ends of these piles, and also connected to the
projecting ends of the girders. The treads of the steps rest upon the
tops of the smaller piles, and the outer side of the piles and planks is
covered with split saplings (see Fig. 130, and the cross-section, Fig.
132). The handrails and balustrades are fixed in similar manner to those
in Fig. 121.



CHAPTER XI.

VERANDAHS.


The front elevation of a rustic verandah is presented by Fig. 133, which
shows a part only, which may be extended to any required length at
either end. As to the width, that indicated is 3-1/2 ft. from the wall
to the middle of the collar-posts, the eaves having a further projection
of 6 in. For a cottage verandah the width given is a satisfactory one.
It gives sufficient room for seats on a hot day, or for a promenade on a
wet one. The width, as also the height, can easily be increased to suit
a larger house. The verandah is supposed to be built on a raised
platform of brick or stone.

All parts of the actual framework are of straight natural wood,
preferably larch; whilst the mere filling-in of rustic open-work is of
small crooked stuff--probably oak or apple tree. The roof, as
illustrated, is of tiles.

It will be seen that the posts which support the verandah are arranged
in pairs, so that 3 in. or 3-1/2 in. poles will suffice for them. Their
bases are supposed to be dowelled to the masonry of the platform on
which they stand; they are 6 ft. 6 in. high. Except at the entrances, a
sill of half-stuff runs from post to post on the platform. At a height
of 3 ft. 3 in. they are connected by a round bar of smaller material,
and, again, by a second cross-bar of similar size to the last, at 6 in.
from their upper ends. On the tops of the posts rests a lintel of
half-stuff of larger diameter--say 5 in. The upper and lower cross-bars
come opposite to the middles of the posts, but need not be mortised into
them, for if their ends are cut V-shaped, so as to clip the posts, they
can be nailed quite firmly.

[Illustration: Fig. 133.--Front Elevation of Verandah.]

The lower cross-rail is placed at a convenient height for leaning upon.
At a height of 5 ft. 6 in. caps are formed by simply nailing four pieces
of quartered stuff round each post. The diagonal braces which start from
above the capitals pass in front of the upper cross-bars, to which and
to the lintel they are nailed. Fig. 133 sufficiently shows how the
panels between the pairs of posts and the frieze between the upper
cross-bar and lintel are filled with open-work of small crooked
branches, which contrasts in a pleasing manner with the straight pieces
of the framework. This open-work may be made available for, and will be
found useful as, a support for climbing plants.

In so narrow a structure the rafters alone will suffice to keep all in
place, without anything of the nature of a tie-beam being called for.
These rafters will be of half-stuff, and for the given width a length of
5 ft. will be enough; this will allow of such a projection beyond the
lintel as will give the eaves a width of 6 in.; the pitch will be rather
less than a true pitch, but amply steep for the purpose. A piece of
half-stuff nailed to the wall will support the upper ends of the
rafters.

In forming the roof it is proposed to board over the whole space upon
the rafters, and to nail the tiles or other covering upon the boards.
The inside may be lined beneath the boarding with rush matting. This is
an inexpensive material; its brownish-green hue is pleasing to the eye,
and it is so inartificial in appearance as to harmonise well with the
natural wood. After fixing the rafters, the matting is to be stretched
tightly across them before the boards are nailed down. It is probable
that the rafters will be arranged with intervals of about a foot between
them, and to hold the matting more closely to the boards a strip of
split rod may be nailed up the middle of each space, or strips may be
nailed so as to form a simple ornamental pattern; an intricate one will
not be desirable, as fixing it will be overhead work.

[Illustration: Fig. 134.--Front Elevation of Glazed Verandah for Grape
Culture.]

A neat, but less characteristic, ceiling may be formed by painting the
boards a suitable colour and slightly ornamenting them with split
strips of rod. In this case the boards should be planed. None will
be better for this purpose than 3/4-in. flooring boards, and these are
commonly sold planed on one side. Other ways of lining the roofs of
rustic buildings are discussed in Chapter XIII. For summer-houses thatch
makes a good-looking roof, but a thatched verandah would scarcely be
desirable unless attached to a thatched cottage. Practically the choice
lies between shingles, metal, and tile or slate. A metal roof is,
undoubtedly, that most easily fixed by the beginner; black sheet iron
looks better than galvanised, and must be kept painted. As a matter of
taste, metal looks thin and poor, but it becomes less objectionable when
painted; a deep, dull red would be the colour to be preferred. Perhaps,
of all available coverings, nothing will look better than tiles, as
drawn. Red or buff tiles will in themselves look best, but the choice
must, to an extent, be influenced by the general covering of the house.
It may be, if that is of slate, that small slates will come in most
appropriately; but whichever of these coverings is used, the best finish
against the wall will be with a "flashing" of metal, as shown.

It has been asserted by some who consider themselves authorities in
matters of taste that nothing of the nature of a greenhouse ever
harmonises with natural surroundings, or is otherwise than an eyesore in
a garden in other respects beautiful. The hard, straight lines of wood
or metal, and wide surfaces of shining glass, are not pleasing, and are
too suggestive of the shop and factory to accord well with natural
objects. It has been suggested that the difficulty might be overcome by
combining rustic work with glass. This, at the first glance, looks
fairly easy; but, on consideration, it will be seen to be otherwise.
Rustic carpentry is in its nature irregular, and cannot be brought to
those level planes and straight lines essential to glass-work; whilst
for interiors, and especially those of houses intended for vines, rough
bark-coloured surfaces afford too much shelter to insect pests--so that,
in reality, rustic-work can only be made applicable to a very limited
extent. In the grape-growing verandah shown by Fig. 134, therefore, only
a limited amount of rustic-work has been introduced, and that on the
outside.

[Illustration: Fig. 135.--Side View of Bottom of Post for Glazed
Verandah.]

[Illustration: Fig. 136.--Side View of Top of Post for Glazed Verandah.]

Such of the materials as are of a rustic kind are, for the parapet and
uprights, some rather small larch poles or other tolerably straight,
round stuff, and for the panels, some of those "slabs," or rough outside
planks. As to the posts, and such parts as are not rustic, they are
supposed to be of good deal. The sash-bars, which carry the glass both
in roof and walls, are to be bought struck by steam at a lower price
than they can be worked by hand, or sashes may be bought ready glazed.
For glazing work of this kind, 16-oz., or sometimes 20-oz., glass is
used.

As in the design for an open rustic verandah (see Fig. 133) it is
intended that the collar-posts should be set upon and dowelled into a
raised platform of masonry. The present structure is, of course,
intended for the warmer sides of a house, south or west. The width, to
meet particular cases, can be varied, but is, according to the drawings,
4-1/2 ft. The posts are 6 ft. high and 3-1/2 in. square. They are set
with spaces between them alternately of 3 ft. and 4-1/2 ft. On their
tops rests a wall-plate of the same width as themselves, and 2-1/2 in.
deep. The rafters, which are sash-bars rebated to carry the glass, rest
on this wall-plate, and against a second vertical one fixed to the house
wall.

Fig. 134 is a front elevation of a portion of the verandah, whilst Fig.
135 gives a side view of the lower half of one of the collar-posts. At
_a_, in Fig. 135, is seen the section of the upper cross-rail, which has
its top 2-1/2 ft. from the ground; at _b_ is the lower cross-rail, or
sill. Both are of quartered rough stuff, and are mortised to the post
3/4 in. from its inner edge, so that when the 3/4-in. boarding, _c_, is
nailed against them, it will come flush with the inner side of the post.
At _d_ is indicated the sash-frame, with its rebate for glass, which
occupies the upper part of the opening; and at _e_ is a metal flashing
between rail and sash to throw off rain. It is proposed that the sashes
in the narrower openings only should be made to push outwards at bottom
for ventilation. At _f_ is a piece of halved rough stuff nailed to the
front of the post.

The panels, which occupy the lower part of the space between the
collar-posts, are filled with pieces of rough plank or "slab," as shown
in Fig. 134. These pieces should wear their natural bark as far as
possible; they are nailed to the inner boarding.

In Fig. 136 the upper part of a post is in like manner shown in profile:
_g_ is the wall-plate in section, and _h_ is the lower end of a rafter.
At _i_ will be observed a strip of quartered stuff nailed across the
post (with a fir-cone bradded beneath it), which gives a starting-point
to the upright _k_, by which the openwork rustic parapet is supported.
These uprights are of small round stuff, slightly flattened on the side
towards the post. The openwork parapet is too plainly figured to need
description; it is intended to break to a certain extent the straight
lines, and partially to conceal the glass-work of the roof, without
seriously interfering with sunshine.

So much of the planed wood-work as shows outside should be painted of a
good brown, to assimilate with the rustic-work.



CHAPTER XII.

TOOL HOUSES, GARDEN SHELTERS, ETC.

[Illustration: Fig. 137.--End Elevation of Rustic Tool House.]

[Illustration: Fig. 138.--Side Elevation of Rustic Tool House.]

For the small rustic tool house shown by Figs. 137 and 138 the materials
used are what are known as "slabs" or "rough planks." These are cheap,
and have, when judiciously handled, a good picturesque effect. These
slabs are the outside slices cut from logs of rough timber. These slabs
generally retain their bark (except in the case of oak), and in most
districts they will commonly be of elm. Their thickness and outlines are
necessarily irregular: one end will frequently be narrower than the
other; and this will account for the arrangement seen in the walls and
door of the tool house. They are to be bought at saw-mills, and often
sold at a fire-wood price. Where their cost is not sensibly increased by
carriage, no other material comes so cheaply for building rough sheds.
The ordinary country way of using them is as in the horizontal section,
Fig. 139. This plan, however, is not suitable for the present purpose.
In so small a structure, rough planks on the inner side would take up
too much space It is, therefore, proposed to straighten the edges,
either by sawing or by chopping with the axe, according to
circumstances, and lining their inner sides with thin board. If the cost
be not objected to, 1/2-in. match-boarding will be neatest for this
purpose; if economy is an object, the boards of packing-boxes, bought
from the grocer, might suffice. There are, it will be seen, three sides
only to be lined.

Among a lot of rough planks, it is likely that stuff may be found
sufficient for the posts and other scantling. As to the six pilasters,
which are added for appearance merely, it is possible that stuff might
be found which would, when sawn to width, do for them; in the
illustration they are supposed to be fir poles or elm saplings; four
sticks only are needed to supply the six halves and four quarters used.

[Illustration: Fig. 139.--Common Method of Using Slabs.]

At the corners are four main posts, 4 in. square (see _a_, Fig. 140).
These enclose a space of 7 ft. by 5 ft. (outside measurement). They are
let into the ground 2 ft., and rise 5 ft. 3 in. above the ground line.

On their tops, and coming flush with their outer edges, rest the
wall-plates, which are 3 in. deep; these are needed at the back and
sides only, and not at the front. On the same three sides will also be
cross-rails, 2 in. to 3 in. thick, the ends of which will be let flush
into the posts about a foot from the ground. To the wall-plates and
these rails the slabs are nailed. In the side elevation, Fig. 138, the
nails driven into the cross-rails appear, but not those driven into the
wallplate, a piece of rough stuff being there shown as fixed over the
latter to support the eaves of the thatch.

[Illustration: Fig. 140.--Ground Plan of Rustic Tool House.]

To the front are to be seen the two door-posts, _b_, _b_, Fig. 140,
which are 2 ft. 8 in. apart, and should be about 3 in. square. As their
tops are nailed to the front pair of rafters, they rise to a height of 6
ft. 6 in. The space between door-post and corner-post is filled up by a
single slab nailed to the two--5 ft. 6 in. long by 10 in. broad. Above
these, instead of a wall-plate, comes the piece of strong slab, shown in
Fig. 137 as having an opening cut in it for the head of the door. This
is nailed against the door-posts, rafters, etc.

The pilasters are only a matter of ornament. As drawn, they are of
halved stuff; the corner ones are so placed that their middles come
opposite to the corners of the posts, on the other faces of which pieces
of quartered stuff are nailed to meet them. The simple arrangement of
the caps of these pilasters, with their decorations of fir cones, is
shown on a larger scale in Fig. 141. The horizontal piece beneath the
eaves, nailed over the slabs, has the effect of resting on the caps.
Beneath the thatch at front and back corresponding pieces are fixed,
those at the front being ornamented with fir cones nailed upon them.

The roof is shown in the elevations as thatched. No other covering will
look so well, or be so thoroughly in keeping with other parts. The
non-professional builder finds it easy to prepare for thatch, any rough
stuff serving as rafters and laths, and inequalities being of no
account. The rafters for thatch should be arranged about 1 ft., the
laths about 6 in. apart.

Should there, however, be reasons for not employing thatch, the building
may be more quickly and easily, if not more cheaply, roofed with
galvanised iron; only the gables will then best be made sharp instead of
blunt, as at present.

Regarding the door, its outer slabs, which appear in Fig. 137, are
simply nailed to three ledgers of the same. Being of such rough
materials, it will open better if hung on hooks and thimbles than on
butt hinges.

The dotted line at _c_, Fig. 140, marks the projection of a set of
shelves, about five in number, which fill the whole of the left-hand
side. Of these, the lower will be for flower-pots, the upper for lines,
setting-pins, trowels, etc. At _d_ is shown a strip of wood fixed
across the floor to hold the wheel of the barrow from running back when
that useful vehicle is tilted up against the end wall, which will be the
place assigned for it. In the gable and upper part of this end will be
hooks or pegs on which to hang the riddle, watering-cans, and such
matters. At _e_ is an upright let into the ground, which, at the height
of 2 ft., supports rails running to side and back; these form a kind of
stand for spades, forks, and tools of that description. Above, against
the wall-plate, may be more hooks or pegs.

[Illustration: Fig. 141.--Enlarged Cap of Tool House Pilaster.]

It is suggested that at _f_ a seat might be fixed to fold down like the
leaf of a table when not wanted. As this building would form a snug
shelter in a shower, such a seat would be a convenience; but the more
important use of this space is that slightly below the level of the
eaves it will be fitted with a rack for hoes, rakes, and similar
implements. Such a rack is best made by boring 1/2-in. holes in a strip
of wood at intervals of 3 in., and driving pegs into them 5 in. or 6 in.
long. This has to be nailed so that the pegs will slope upwards, at an
angle of about 45°. Rakes, etc., hung in a rack so made cannot fall.

Figs. 137 and 138 are 1/3 in. to the foot; Fig. 140 is 1/2 in. to the
foot; but Figs. 139 and 141 are not drawn to scale.

[Illustration: Fig. 142.--Garden Snuggery.]

The garden snuggery, of which a general view is shown at Fig. 142, and a
ground plan at Fig. 143, is built chiefly of wood, and measures 10 ft.
by 7 ft. 8 in. inside, not including the porch, which is 3 ft. wide; it
may serve as a summer-house. A building as small as this needs but
little foundation. If the ground is level, it is only necessary to lay
four large flat stones on the surface, A A (Fig. 144), to carry the
timbers, the floor being thus raised enough to keep it dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 143.--Plan of Ground Framework of Garden Snuggery.]

[Illustration: Fig. 144.--Back Framework for Garden Snuggery.]

The two side sills B (Fig. 143) are each 10 ft. 8 in. long, 6 in. wide,
and 4 in. thick, and rest on the stones; on them lie the end sills C C,
which are 8 ft. 2 in. long. These sills are halved together at the ends,
and a hole is bored through them where the middle of the collar-post
will rest. This hole should be bored a couple of inches into the stone,
and an iron pin or dowel 8 in. long driven in; the pin will thus stand a
couple of inches above the face of the sill, and will fit into a hole in
the collar post.

[Illustration: Fig. 145.--Front Elevation of Snuggery Porch.]

The joists D (Fig. 143) for supporting the floor are five in number,
each being 8 ft. long, 2-1/2 in. wide, and 3 in. deep. They are halved
for a distance of 2 in. at each end to fit into slots, 1-1/2 in. deep,
made for them in the sills, and are nailed in place. When fixed their
upper surfaces are level with the sills.

The four collar-posts E (Figs. 143 and 144) are each 6 ft. 9 in. long
and 4 in. square, and, when set up, their outer sides come flush with
the sills. The uprights F (Figs. 143 and 144) are 3 in. square, and need
to be 2 in. longer than the collar-posts, as their lower ends are halved
for this distance to fit slots in the outer sides of the sills. There
are four of such uprights at each side, three at the back and two at the
front, the latter serving also as door cheeks. They are nailed in place
with their outer sides flush with those of the collar-posts and sills.

[Illustration: Fig. 146.--Side Elevation of Window-board.]

For the rustic pillars of the portico G (Fig. 145) nothing will be more
suitable than larch poles about 4-1/2 in. in diameter at the base;
failing larch, fairly straight pieces of any rough, round wood could be
used. The pillars are shown in Figs. 142 and 145 standing upon and
dowelled to pieces of stone. When in position, their tops will be level
with the collar-posts and uprights, their centres being 2 ft. 4 in. in
advance of the front sill.

On the collar-posts, uprights, and pillars are placed the wall plates H
(Fig. 144), of which there are four belonging to the snuggery proper,
each 5 in. wide and 3 in. thick. The side plates are 13 ft. 4 in. long,
and are halved where they rest on the collar-posts and pillars, to
receive the ends of the cross-plates, which are 8 ft. 2 in. long and
halved to a distance of 5 in. from their ends. The wall-plates come
flush with the collar-posts and uprights on which they rest, and to
which they are nailed. There is also a fifth wall-plate which lies along
the tops of the pillars in the front. The best material to use for this
would be half of a pole like those used for the pillars, the flat side
resting on the pillar tops. It will be observed that the front ends of
the side wall-plates project about 4 in. beyond this piece.

Ten rafters, K (Fig. 144), will be required for the roof, each 5 ft.
long and 3 in. square. The two outer pairs come flush with the outer
sides of the sills and wall-plates. A sixth pair of rafters to stand
over the pillars and their wall-plates are made from a round pole cut in
half, with the sawn side laid uppermost. The tops of the rafters butt
against a ridge-piece L (Fig. 144), made of 1-in. board 4 in. deep and
13 ft. 4 in. long. As shown in Fig. 144, continuations of the uprights
are in the back carried from the wall-plate to the roof, the front being
treated in a similar manner.

The lintel of the doorway is 6 ft. above the sill, the door opening
being 5 ft. 11-1/4 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. after the floor has been laid. The
window shown in Fig. 142 is 3 ft. above the sill, and is 3 ft. high;
including the two mullions, it is 5 ft. 10 in. wide. The board shown
nailed in front of the window sill is sloped a little downwards to throw
off the rain, whilst above there is a board 9 in. wide, nailed at a
steeper slope upon brackets, as seen in Fig. 146, to shelter the window.
The 3/4-in. flooring boards which are used for the floor should be
bought ready planed on one side, and must be well seasoned, and cramped
tightly together in laying, or there will be chinks between them.
Similar boards may be used for the outside of the snuggery, being nailed
to the uprights at the back and sides, as shown in Fig. 147. At the
sides this weather-boarding will extend as far forward as the rustic
pillars, thus enclosing the sides of the porch. For the inside of the
snuggery use 1/2-in. matchboarding, as shown in Fig. 147. This may be
carried up beneath the rafters to the ridge-piece. The porch may be also
matchboarded throughout if desired, although this is not essential.

[Illustration: Figs. 147 and 148.--Sections of Snuggery Walls.]

There are several methods of making the wooden walls non-conductors of
heat, the most thorough being to pack the space between the inner and
outer casings with sawdust. Shavings or similar materials could also be
used, but less effectually. Another plan is to tack felt over the inner
side of the weather-boarding before nailing up the interior casing. But
even without any packing, two thicknesses of board with an air space
between make a reasonably good non-conductor. Felt is fastened over the
matchboard lining of the roof before the iron is put on.


[Illustration: Fig. 149.--Front View of Garden Retreat.]

To reduce the cost, the snuggery can be cased with wood obtained from
packing cases. Boards thus obtained will, of course, be in short
lengths, and will involve more labour; but the design is so arranged
that it will be quite practicable to carry it out with them.

[Illustration: Fig. 150.--Plan of Garden Retreat.]

The short lengths can be made to fit between the uprights instead of
lying upon them, and the house will thus look as shown in Fig. 142, the
section of the wall being as shown in Fig. 148, instead of as in Fig.
147. A strip of lath--that sold for tiling--1 in. wide and 5/8 in.
thick, is nailed to the sides of the uprights, as shown, and to this the
weather-boarding and internal casing are fastened; the effect being
that the walls both inside and out appear to be divided into long
panels. The effect may be heightened by painting the framework a darker
colour than the boarding. In boarding the roof with this material, the
easiest plan will be to nail the pieces on the upper sides of the
rafters, to cover them with felt, and upon that to screw the iron. The
space between the two casings of the walls, although much narrower than
before, can be packed with sawdust, etc.

On reference to Fig. 145 it will be seen that the caps to the rustic
pillars of the porch are formed by nailing round each pillar four short
pieces of rough wood quartered, the two sawn sides being placed upwards
and inwards. Four rough sticks crossing each other fill the space
between wall-plate and the rafters. The bargeboards M M are sawn from
3/4-in. board, 9 in. wide, and are nailed to the ends of the side
wall-plates and ridge-piece. They thus project some inches beyond the
line of the pillars. They are shown ornamented with fir cones bradded on
them; virgin cork might be used instead. The porch may also have its
interior decorated with virgin cork or with rustic mosaic work. At each
side of the doorway there is a seat 16 in. high and 14 in. wide. The
door is made by merely nailing the boards to four cross-ledgers.

The window lights in Fig. 142 are shown filled with fancy lead work,
which is the most suitable way of treating them for a building of this
kind. A strip of lath is nailed around the window opening, as in Fig.
148, and the leaded light fastened in the rebate thus formed with small
wire nails, a little putty being used to make the joints waterproof. It
will, of course, be much cheaper to glaze each light with a single sheet
of glass puttied in the rebate, but the effect will not be so good. For
the roof, fourteen 6-ft. sheets of corrugated galvanised iron and a
14-ft. run of ridge capping will be needed.

[Illustration: Fig. 151.--Side Elevation of Garden Retreat.]

The iron should be screwed, not nailed, to the rafters, and should not
cost more than 40s., including 1-1/2 gross of galvanised screws and
washers. The dotted lines at N N (Fig. 143) indicate the area covered.
Its low cost, the ease with which it is fixed, and the few timbers
required to carry it, make an iron roof very suitable for a building
erected by an amateur workman. It, however, has drawbacks, the chief of
which are that it conducts heat too freely, and has not a very artistic
appearance. Some precautions against the first defect have already been
suggested, and if the snuggery is erected where it will be shaded by
trees during the hotter part of the day, this disadvantage will be
somewhat overcome. Its inartistic appearance is greatly due to its
colour, and some improvement may be made by painting. If surrounded by
trees, an iron roof looks very well when painted a reddish-brown colour,
while in other situations a buff, or a dull sage green, might be
suitable. The paint needs renewing often. Another method is to cover the
roof with trellis work raised a few inches above the iron, and upon this
to train ivy or other climbing plants.

[Illustration: Fig. 152.--Detail of Seat of Garden Retreat.]

It will be better to paint the inside of the snuggery than to paper it,
as paper would crack on the boards. Should the second and cheaper plan
of boarding be adopted, the rafters, which are left exposed, might be
coloured dark brown, and the intermediate spaces of the ceiling painted
a buff colour, whilst on the walls a dark sage green might be used for
the framework and a lighter sage green for the panels. If the whole
interior is lined with matchboarding, according to the first method, the
simplest and perhaps best finish would be to use a varnish that had raw
or burnt umber ground into it. No fireplace has been provided, but in
ordinary winter weather an oil stove would suffice to warm so small a
room; if more warmth is wanted, a coal stove might easily be provided, a
hole for its pipe being cut through the roof. In either case a
ventilator, which can be opened or closed at pleasure, should be
arranged near the ridge at each end of the building.

[Illustration: Fig. 153.--Joint of Garden Retreat at C (Fig. 151).]

The garden retreat shown in front view by Fig. 149, and in plan and side
elevation by Figs. 150 and 151, is constructed from straight unbarked
fir saplings, the small twigs of which should be carefully trimmed off.
As the bark is to be left on, it should not be cut or bruised; then no
artificial finish will be necessary, the bark in itself being sufficient
protection against climatic conditions, and presenting the desired
rustic appearance. A new feature in the design is the introduction of a
roof or canopy, which may be covered with a sun blind as shown in Fig.
151; or a creeping plant may be trained over it.

The two front posts are 3 in. in diameter at the base by 6 ft. high,
and the back posts 3 in. in diameter by 5 ft. 6 in. high; the middle
back post is 3 ft. 2 in. high, and the front leg 1 ft. 4 in. The seat
rails are 2-1/2 in. in diameter. The front rail is 6 ft. long; the back
is in two parts, dowelled to the middle post, which comes between. The
side rails are 1 ft. 9 in. long; it is advisable to allow a fair margin
for hollowing the ends to fit the posts--3 in. on the length would
probably be sufficient. After the ends of the rails have been shaped
roughly to fit the posts, they are bored for the reception of 1-1/8-in.
oak or elm dowels; these are driven into the rails, and should also be a
good fit in the posts. The dowel joint is shown in the top corner of
Fig. 152.

[Illustration: Fig. 154.--Detail of Front Joints (See C. Fig. 151).]

[Illustration: Fig. 155.--Alternative Method of Joining Rails to Posts.]

The lower rungs, arm-rests, and back rails are jointed to the posts by
tapering their ends slightly, and then tapering the dowel holes to suit
with a gouge, so that the rails will just drive up nicely; this joint is
shown in the bottom corner of Fig. 152. The rails, etc., are finally
driven home, and secured with nails or screws inserted at suitable
angles. The back and the side panels are filled with twigs about 1-1/4
in. in diameter, the ends of the twigs being trimmed to fit the rails,
and afterwards nailed in position.

The seat battens are half-round in section, and are cut from 3-in.
saplings, the flat part being placed downwards. The method of fixing
them is shown in Figs. 152, 156, and 157. The seat having been fitted,
the struts under the seat rails are next cut and fixed in position.

[Illustration: Fig 156.--Section of Middle Rail at A (Fig. 152).]

[Illustration: Fig 157.--Detail of Middle Rail at B (Fig. 152).]

The canopy must now be put together. The tops of the posts are first
hollowed to form a seating for 2-1/4-in. saplings, 4 ft. 6 in. long;
these act as principal rafters. Before nailing or screwing them to the
posts, it is advisable to sight across them to see if they are in the
same plane; any alteration that may be required to bring them to lie in
the same angle can be effected at the seating on the top of the posts.
The halved joint at each end of the principals should also be cut
(before fixing up) for receiving the purlins; the principals are further
steadied with struts, screwed or nailed to the posts. The purlins are
about 2 in. in diameter by 8 ft. 6 in. long, and are fixed to the halved
joint previously made on the principal rafters. Smaller twigs, which act
as common rafters, are in turn fixed to the purlins. Fig. 153 shows the
method of jointing at the back of the canopy at C (Fig. 151), and Fig.
154 is the detail of the front joints. Fig. 129 (p. 94) is the top of
the post hollowed to receive the principal rafter, Fig. 155 is an
alternative method of joining the rails to the posts, Fig. 156 is a
section near the middle rail at A (Fig. 152), while Fig. 157 is a detail
of middle rail at B (Fig. 152).



CHAPTER XIII.

SUMMER-HOUSES.


The lean-to summer-house shown by Fig. 158 is intended for a small
garden. Perhaps in no better way can a dead wall or the back of some
unsightly outhouse be better utilised than as the background for such a
building. The dimensions of the structure are: length, 8 ft.; breadth, 3
ft. 3 in.; height, 8 ft.

[Illustration: Fig. 158.--Lean-to Summer-house.]

[Illustration: Fig. 159.--Ground Plan of Lean-to Summer-house.]

Its general arrangement is seen in the ground plan (Fig. 159). Four
pillars, A, B, B, A, occupy the front. These are poles 3-1/2 in. or 4
in. in diameter. Any rough and tolerably straight wood will do, but
larch is to be preferred. These rise 5 ft. above ground, and should not
have less than 2 ft. below the surface. The dwarf pillars C supporting
the seat are of similar stuff, but rather smaller. They show 14 in.
above, and should be buried about 9 in. below ground. The pilasters D
are of rather larger stuff sawn in half. These are only 5 ft. long, as
they need not enter into the ground, being fixed only by strong nails to
the wall.

[Illustration: Fig 160.--Elevation of Inside of End of Lean-to
Summer-house.]

The ends of the summer-house (the space from A to D) are of smaller
half-stuff, ranged side by side (as seen at E, E), and nailed to the
cross-pieces, F and G, which appear in Fig. 160. In this last-named
figure also appears one of the wall-plates, resting on and nailed to the
tops of the pillars (H, at Fig. 160), and at I is seen where one of the
front wall-plates meets it. There are two of these front wall-plates,
each resting on the two pillars to right and left of the entrance, and
their inner ends appear in Fig. 158, where the ends of the purlins which
form the small gable rest upon them. The wall-plates are of large
half-stuff, with the flat side above. In Fig. 160 will be seen how the
short cross-piece which carries the sloping end of the roof is
supported; and Fig. 161, which is a section through the centre of the
building, explains how the ridge-piece of the small gable, E, rests at
its inner end on a crosspiece M from rafter to rafter, seen in section
only, whilst N shows the point at which the purlins meet and support the
ridge-piece towards its outer end. The intersection of the diagonal
braces in the gable is indicated at O, and P shows the course of one of
the rafters, and how its upper end rests against the wall, and upon a
ridge-piece of half-stuff, Q, strongly nailed to the masonry.

The elevation (Fig. 158) explains pretty clearly the ornamental details
of the front. They are not elaborate. It will be seen that the top of
each pillar has a small cap, formed of four pieces of quartered stuff,
mitred at the corners, and that across the opening on each side of the
entrance, near the top, is a "transom" of straight wood, with a little
arrangement of crooked bangles round it. Over the entrance are diagonal
braces crossing, and also a little filling-in with bangles. The entrance
is 5 ft. 10 in. high.

In order that an ornamental and appropriate lining may be given to the
back of our summer-house, it is recommended to plug the wall, and nail
over it a level covering of thin boards--say, 1/2-in. matchboarding.
Upon this the decorative work can be bradded. The back of the seat is
shown in Fig. 158 to be of rustic mosaic. Above this, as well as under
the seats, a covering of bark has been introduced. British-grown bark,
such as elm, can be made to lie flat, but as in any but rural districts
this may be difficult to get, virgin cork may be made to take its place.

Fig. 160 gives an inside view of one of the ends, and from this it will
be seen that the ornamentation of those parts varies little from that of
the back. The lower band, however, answering to the strip under the
seats, is not bark, which, in this place, would be liable to be kicked
and destroyed by the feet, but of smaller half-stuff, so arranged as to
break joint with the outside pieces. This will be seen by referring to
the ground plan. Any chinks in the ends should be neatly tucked with
moss, so as to make them wind-proof.

The roof is of wooden shingles--things which any rough hand at carpentry
can prepare and put on for himself. As will be seen from Fig. 158, it is
easy to give an ornamental character to these. They will have a rustic
look, which will go well with other parts of the structure, and, if
clumsily made, the effect will be none the worse. For the present
purpose, suppose the shingles to be 12 in. by 4 in. The lower ends may
be sawn to a variety of ornamental shapes.

If this covering is used, instead of nailing laths across the rafters,
it is proposed to cover the whole roof with similar boarding to the
back, and upon this it is a simple thing to nail the shingles, placing
them just as tiles might be placed. Whilst nailing them on, it will be
necessary to have some person within to hold a heavy hammer against the
place, otherwise the vibration will jar off the shingles as fast as they
are fixed. A 3/4-in. board, rather wider than half the length of the
shingles, should first be nailed along the eaves to make up the required
thickness.

[Illustration: Fig. 161.--Section through Centre of Lean-to
Summer-house.]

It will be noticed that the ends of the rafters are made to project so
as to give a good breadth of eaves--a desirable feature in so narrow a
building, alike for shade, shelter, and the appearance of cosiness. If,
however, the roof should be thatched, the projecting rafters will be
unnecessary, as the thatch alone will form sufficient eaves.

Down the "valleys" at the juncture of the main roof and the entrance
gable a strip of zinc will, of course, be nailed before the shingles are
put on, whilst along the ridges a strip of zinc will be nailed upon the
shingles; and this latter will need painting to match the colour of the
wood.

Various suggestions may be given for finishing the inside of the roof.
Supposing that round or half-round larch stuff has been used for the
rafters (the latter is to be preferred for shingles, as giving a level
surface to board upon), the space between the rafters may be covered
with bark--virgin cork or otherwise--the chinks being stuffed with moss.
But if this is done it will be well to fix the bark with screws, as the
vibration caused by driving nails would displace or loosen the shingles.

A second plan under the like circumstances would be before nailing the
boards upon the rafters to stretch matting across the latter--either
ordinary garden bast matting or, better, the more substantial rush
matting, both of which are very inexpensive. These have a pleasant
natural colour (the last-named especially, of a greenish hue), and are
so unartificial in their structure as to appear in no way out of place
among rustic work.

Or it may so happen that suitable larch stuff is not to hand, and that
ordinary sawn scantling has to be used for the rafters. If so, the whole
roof may be hung with ling; or the rush matting may be stretched across
the lower side of the rafters and tacked there, being afterwards more
completely secured and finished by nailing a split hazel or other rod
down the middle of each rafter. This last plan makes a neat and pleasing
roof.

[Illustration: Figs. 162 and 163.--Front and Side Elevations of Shelter
for Tennis Lawn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 164.--Part Roof, Seat, and Floor Plans for Tennis
Lawn Shelter.]

It scarcely needs to be said that to make such a summer-house look its
best the wall on each side ought to be covered with ivy or other
creepers; and it will also be obvious that, if the height of the wall
permits the floor of the summer-house to be raised a step or two above
the surrounding level, the structure will gain thereby both in
effectiveness of appearance and in pleasantness as a place in which to
sit.

[Illustration: Fig. 165.--Connecting Plates to Corner Post.]

[Illustration: Fig. 166.--Fixing Sleeper to Posts.]

[Illustration: Fig 167.--Section of Flooring.]

[Illustration: Fig. 168.--Finial.]

[Illustration: Fig. 169.--Detail of Garden Shelter at Front Eaves.]

[Illustration: Fig 170.--Section of Seat.]

The rustic summer-house or tennis lawn shelter illustrated in front and
side elevations by Figs. 162 and 163 is constructed from straight
saplings and twigs that have had their bark removed, and have been
subjected to a reasonable period of seasoning. A new feature in the
design is the accommodation under the seats for the reception of the
croquet or tennis gear, and also the extended eaves and floor (see Fig.
164) and the open front, giving at once an uninterrupted view of the
game and shelter from the direct rays of the sun.

The shelter is 10 ft. long by 5 ft. 6 in. wide, the height from the
floor to the eaves being 6 ft. 3 in., and from the floor to the ridge 9
ft. The four posts are 6 ft. 9 in. long by 6 in. in diameter. The middle
and lower end and the back rails are tenoned to the posts, a flat being
formed on the post by the mortise and a corresponding shoulder on the
rails. The remaining portion is worked to fit roughly the contour of the
post.

The plates are 5 in. by 5 in. in section, and are secured to the posts
with long galvanised bolts and nuts and a 3-1/2-in. square washer under
the heads of the bolts. When halving the front plate, allow it to house
into the side plates 1-1/2 in.; by this method it will have a bearing on
both posts. In Fig. 165 the left-hand plate represents the front. The
front posts are connected at the floor line by a scantling, 4 in. by 3
in., which also forms a sleeper for the floor joists; see Figs. 166 and
167.

The structure rests on a low plinth of bricks, spaces being left for the
circulation of air under the floor.

The extended floor also rests on bricks placed immediately below the
joists; see Fig. 167, which is a section on C D (Fig. 164). The twig
plinth nailed around the front will effectually conceal the sleeper and
brick foundation.

The rafters are 2-1/2 in. by 3 in., and the ridge and hip rafters 2 in.
by 5 in., the finials (see Fig. 168) being nailed between the angles of
the hips. The eaves in front project 2 ft. beyond the posts, and Fig.
169 shows the method by which the additional width is obtained.

[Illustration: Fig. 171.--Strapping Cushion to Seat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 172.--Front Elevation of Octagonal Summer-house.]

The sides are filled with 5/8-in. vee-grooved and tongued boarding, to
which is attached the rustic work.

The stained glass windows are fixed, and on the outer side of the back
are diagonal braces made from split saplings, while in the centre a
vertical post runs from sill to plate.

The braces and post are shown in the plan (Fig. 164).

The seats are constructed to form lockers (see Fig. 170, which is a
section at A B, Fig. 164), their height being 1 ft. 3 in., which, with
the addition of a 3-in. cushion, will form comfortable sitting
accommodation.

The cushions are retained in place by straps passing through slots and
fastening over suitable studs on the under side; see Fig. 171. This
method provides a means of easily removing and quickly replacing the
cushions when required for use. A space of 3 in., or a distance equal to
the thickness of the cushions, must be left at the sloping back, to
allow the seat to open properly.

The nature of the locker is partly concealed by the rustic work of split
twigs that is nailed to the front.

Next fix the lattice work between the finials and under the front plate.
The short struts on the front posts are more for effect than for any
real support.

The roof is boarded on the inside, the work being carried on the rafters
as far as the collar ties, and continued flat on these. Moulding is
fixed in the angles formed between the rafters and ties, and a cornice
is fixed at the plates. The heels of the rafters and plates are also
boarded around, as shown in Fig. 169.

The roof may be covered with thatch of wheat, straw, reeds, broom, or
heather, and the whole of the woodwork visible should be varnished.

The summer-house illustrated by Fig. 172 is suited to a garden of
moderate size, one in which space is not so restricted as to necessitate
crowding the building close against a wall. This octagonal summer-house
has a continuous seat some 15 ft. long. From side to side each way it
measures 10 ft. Fig. 172 is an elevation of the front of the house.

[Illustration: Fig. 173.--Ground Plan of Octagonal Summer house.]

[Illustration: Fig. 174.--Section of Octagonal Summer-house at Y Z
(Fig. 173), showing Framework.]

Its framework and the main part of it are of larch poles;
other woods are, however, used for minor purposes. The roof is of
thatch. In the arrangement of this building there is a certain
resemblance to a tent. It has a central pillar, A, not unlike a tent
pole, which sustains much of the weight of the roof. Being of first
importance, this pillar is somewhat larger than any of the other
timbers--say 6 in. in diameter near its bottom, and tapering as little
as may be. A rod of iron or wood rises from its top to form the centre
of the straw pinnacle seen crowning the roof in Fig. 172. This pillar
shows a height of 11 ft. 2 in. above ground, and it should be let 3 ft.
or more into the soil; for it will need to be firmly fixed, or it may be
forced out of the perpendicular during the erection of the roof; when
the roof timbers are once fixed in place, it will have little further
chance of moving. The diagram Fig. 173 is a ground plan, and Fig. 174 is
a section showing the timbers from the interior; both are drawn on a
scale of 1/4 in. to the foot.

The eight collar-posts (B, Figs. 173 and 174) at the corners of the
octagon are of somewhat smaller stuff--say 4 in. They show 6 ft. above
ground, and should have 2 ft. below. It will be well to gas-tar all the
underground work.

The ground plan of a building in this shape is readily laid out. The
space being levelled, a string is taken which has a loop at each end,
and is 5 ft. 2 in. long. With a stake driven through the loop at one end
as a centre, and with a stick passed through the loop at the other to
serve as the travelling leg of the compasses, a circle is struck 10 ft.
4 in. in diameter, and into this pegs are driven at equal intervals (4
ft. apart) to mark the centres of the eight collar-posts. Whilst digging
the holes for the posts, these points are kept by drawing two straight
lines on the ground which intersect at the peg.

The cross-pieces which rest on the collar-posts, and which serve as
wall-plates, are a trifle smaller stuff than the posts--say 3 in. Fig.
175 shows how they are cut to fit the tops of the posts, and nailed
there. In this building there are no mortise and tenon joints. On these
ends above the posts rest the lower ends of the eight main rafters, D,
the upper ends of which rest against and are nailed to the central
pillar. The eight intermediate rafters, E, rest at the bottom on the
middles of the side plates, and at top are cut to fit upon and between
the tops of the main rafters.

[Illustration: Fig. 175.--Collar Posts and Ends of Wall Plates.]

[Illustration: Fig. 176.--Timbers over Entrance of Octagonal
Summer-house.]

The laths used are in this case in no way particular--any sticks will
do; they will not be seen, and under thatch there is no necessity that a
level surface should be formed by them, as for slates or tiles. They are
nailed 6 in. or 8 in. apart.

The gable over the entrance is arranged as in Fig. 176. The laths, when
nailed on, will have to run over the little ridge formed by F, instead
of keeping the level, as on the other sides. This will cause no special
difficulties in the thatching.

The walls are of larch poles sawn in half. To split a number of heavy
poles with the handsaw is tedious work, and it is better to get them
run through by the nearest steam saw. The quantity of half-stuff
required may be easily calculated; one of these sides will take about
five and a half 6-ft. lengths of 4-in. stuff. The tops of these
wall-pieces are sawn obliquely to fit against the round wall-plates to
which they are nailed. In their lower parts they are nailed to the lower
cross-pieces, G, G, G, Fig. 174.

These latter will best be made of rather large stuff quartered, since
their upper sides on which the seat-boards rest should be level, as well
as their backs, which go against the wall-pieces. The middle
cross-pieces are of smaller half-stuff, and should be nailed to the
wall-pieces rather than that the wall-pieces should be nailed to them;
for they are in a conspicuous place, and nails driven through them and
clenched would be unsightly.

The front supports of the seats are let into the ground some 6 in., and
rise 14-1/2 in. above the ground line. The seats should be cut from
1-in. board, and should be about 16-1/2 in. wide.

In the two window sides of the octagon (see Figs. 177 and 172), the
space below the windows is filled with whole poles, their bottoms
resting on a sill let in level with the ground, and their tops nailed
into through a cross-piece of half-stuff (K, Fig. 177). The mullions and
transoms of the windows--mere sticks--are of small straight larch stuff,
but the ornamental filling in above is of crooked branches--oak bangles
by preference, though apple-wood would do very well. It often happens
that an old apple-tree is cut down, and at once condemned as firewood;
yet its stem may have grotesque knots, and its branches picturesque
contortions which would make it valuable for rustic work. Whenever
rustic building is contemplated, it is well that such wood should be
laid by; a single tree would supply all the small quantity of crooked
stuff that is required in the present instance. Even the interlaced
stems of ivy, when an old growth has covered a wall, have sometimes been
utilised to excellent effect.

[Illustration: Fig. 177.--Window Side of Octagonal Summer-house.]

It may be observed that any chinks between the pieces beneath the
windows, as well as in the walls generally, are most readily and
appropriately rendered wind-proof by neatly stuffing with moss. Fig. 177
gives a full front elevation of one of the window sides (they being only
seen obliquely in Fig. 172), and it is on the 1/2-in. scale.

Four stout crooked pieces are used as struts to support the table (drawn
to 1 in. scale in Figs. 178 and 179); 3/4-in. board will suffice for
the top of this table, and it will probably be cut from two widths. To
give proper strength to the ornamental border (seen in Fig. 179), a
second thickness of the board is attached below each corner, extending 3
or 4 in. to each side, so as to allow each of the longer bits of split
rod to be fixed, as shown, with two brads.

A really satisfactory material in which to finish the top of a rustic
table is not easily found; it must give a level surface, and at the same
time be in harmony with its surroundings. Board, planed or painted,
oilcloth, or any manufactured material, is felt to be out of place;
marble or slate looks cold and hard. Nothing that is absolutely level
satisfies the requirements; the best alternative is rustic mosaic. By
this is meant split rods of wood so bradded down as to form patterns.
For the present purpose, however, the mosaic must be kept more neat and
smooth than usual. Fig. 178 shows the top of the table thus treated.

The rods most in favour for rustic mosaic are those of the hazel. They
are to be bought cheaply and abundantly when the undergrowth of woods is
cut. They have a smooth and pretty bark, and the useful size is from 3/4
in. to 1-1/2 in. Sticks of other kinds of the same size can also be
used: birch and wild cherry may be named among those with smooth bark,
and wych elm and maple among those with rough; willow or withy, again,
is of most common growth, and exceedingly useful. In river-side
neighbourhoods it is often the cheapest and most plentiful of all woods.
For mosaic work, it is always peeled, for its bark is unattractive, and
its light colour when stripped makes it tell well in contrast to the
dark bark of other woods. If used, as it often is, for outdoor purposes
in garden carpentry, it should always be peeled. Country carpenters have
a saying that withy lasts twice as long without its bark as with it;
and in this there is much truth, for the loose bark holds the wet to the
wood and causes it to rot. To make it peel freely, it should be cut just
as the young leaves make their appearance. The like holds good with
other woods; but if it is desired that the bark should hold firmly, the
wood should be cut down in dead of winter, when all the sap is down.

[Illustration: Figs. 178 and 179.--Plan and Elevation of Table for
Octagonal Summer-house.]

The top of the table is supposed to be mainly composed of peeled withy.
The pattern contains only the double dark line bounding the star and the
single strip round the edge in hazel. So much white will not look amiss
in this place, and withy is easily worked. Hazel and most woods twist so
much in the grain that it is rarely safe to split them except with the
saw, but withy--in short lengths like these, at least--can be split with
a hatchet.

In rough carpentry there is no more pretty or interesting work than
these mosaics. The backs of the seats (Fig. 180), and the seats
themselves (Fig. 181), are decorated in this way. On the seats
themselves, as on the table top, hazel and withy are contrasted, and
form a design in alternate triangles; the separating bands, it may be
noticed, have a light strip against the dark, and a dark strip against
the light, triangle. Along the edge of the seats one or two strips
merely are nailed lengthwise. In such a situation an ornamental edging
like that round the table would be too liable to be broken. It is
recommended that the back of the seats should be in dark bark-covered
woods only, for the mosaic in that position will look better without any
mixture of the light-coloured withy.

The upper compartments of the sides with which the backs of those
sitting down will not come in contact may be more quickly and yet
pleasingly covered with sheets of bark. Elm bark is good for the
purpose. It may be peeled in large sheets from the trunks of trees
felled in spring, when the sap is rising; and whilst it is drying should
have bricks or stones laid on it to press it flat. When dried, it is
nailed to the walls, and any cracks which appear can be neatly filled
with moss. The space beneath the seats is also shown as roughly covered
with bark.

[Illustration: Fig. 180.--Seat Side of Octagonal Summer-house.]

The almost conical roof is thatched. No other covering is so pleasing as
thatch for a rustic building. Its colour and rough texture harmonise
well with the natural wood, and all its associations are of a rustic
character; no other covering so effectually excludes the summer heat,
and nowhere can one find a retreat so suggestive of coolness, quiet,
and repose, as under the low eaves of a thatched building. Thatch has,
it must be admitted, certain practical disadvantages--birds and winds
are apt to scatter fragments from it, and it needs renewing at
comparatively short intervals. The common saying is that a thatched roof
needs re-coating every ten years. Often, no doubt, this is near the
truth, yet really good work will frequently stand for almost twenty
years. The materials in use in this country are reeds, straw, and
stubble. Reeds make a strong thatch, but are not easily to be procured,
except in fenny districts. Stubble, which is the lower and stronger part
of the wheat stem, stands better than straw, which is its upper and
weaker portion; to last properly, however, stubble should be cut
immediately after harvest, and should not be left standing, as it
frequently is, till the spring, for then the winter rains, collecting in
its hollow stems, cause it to rot before it is cut. On small buildings
like summer-houses especially, stubble makes a much more compact and
sightly roof than straw.

Thatching is not costly or difficult work. In agricultural districts a
load of stubble--sufficient to thatch three such buildings as the one
illustrated--costs 30s., and a thatcher expects the wages of a
first-class labourer only, not those of a mechanic. He needs an
assistant, whose business it is to straighten the material into
convenient bundles (called "yelvens"), and to supply him as he requires
them. If he is re-thatching an old building, he merely thrusts the ends
of his new material into the old thatch with a wooden spud; but if he is
covering a new roof he sews down his "yelvens" to the laths and rafters
with a huge needle and stout tarred string. He begins at the eaves,
laying as wide a breadth as he can conveniently reach on one side of his
ladder, this breadth being called a "stelch." He works upwards, each
new layer covering the tar-cord which secures that beneath it; and thus
he goes on till he has reached the ridge.

In his second "stelch" he is careful to blend together its edge and the
edge of that already laid, so that no rain may find its way between
them; and in doing this completely lies much of the superiority of good
over bad thatching. When laid, the thatch is smoothed down and
straightened with a gigantic comb, like the head of a large rake, one
end being without teeth, and serving as a handle. In the present
instance, the tops of all the stelches meeting in a point are finished
and capped by the little bundle of thatching material forming the
pinnacle, which is tightly bound round the rod of wood or iron in its
centre.

[Illustration: Fig. 181.--Mosaic Seats for Octagonal Summer-house.]

It is usual to bind thatching down with at least two belts of buckles
and runners. In the summer-house (Fig. 172) two double belts are shown.
The buckles have some resemblance to ladies' hair-pins on a colossal
scale. They are made of slips of withy, twisted and doubled in their
middles and pointed at their ends; the runners are long straight slips
of the same. These latter are laid across the thatch, and the buckles,
being placed over them, are pushed tightly into it--their points being
driven upwards, that wet may not be let into the roof by them. The
short diagonal runners seen in the illustration crossing each other
between the horizontal lines are used in ornamental thatching only, and
are rather for appearance than for use. Lastly, the eaves are cut to
shape, and trimmed with paring-knife and shears.

The roof looks most pretty and cosy within if lined with ling. The ling
is fixed in a way somewhat akin to thatching. A layer is placed along
the bottom opposite to the eaves, and secured by a strip of wood nailed
from rafter to rafter; the layer next above hides this strip, and so the
work is carried on to the apex, where a knot cut from an apple-tree
trunk, a bunch of fir-cones fastened together, or some such matter,
finishes the whole. In districts where ling is not to be had, gorse or
furze in short pieces may serve instead, but stout gloves are required
to handle it; or the ends of fir branches may do, if nothing better
offers.

It is not always easy to decide on the best way of forming a floor.
Boards may look out of place. A pitching of pebbles is more in
character: it is dry and cleanly, and especially if some variety of
colour is obtainable, and the stones are arranged in some geometrical
design, it may add to the ornamental effect. Pebbles are not, however,
pleasing to the feet of those who wear thin shoes. Gravel, where it is
always dry, is apt to become dusty, and to disagree with ladies'
dresses. If, however, gravel should be used, perhaps the best plan to
prevent the rising of damp, and to obviate dust as far as possible, is
to asphalt it: on the foundation of broken stones and a layer of coarse
gravel to put a course of asphalt or of ordinary gas tar, and on this to
sift enough fine _washed_ gravel to hide it. Yet a wood pavement of
small larch poles, cut into 5-or 6-in. billets, and pitched with some
attention to geometrical arrangement, will make the most dry and
comfortable of floors, and one which will not harmonise badly with any
of the decorative work of our summer-house.

The octagonal house illustrated by Fig. 182 is made up of varnished
rustic work. The saplings and twigs should be as straight and as regular
as possible, and divested of their bark.

[Illustration: Fig. 182.--Octagonal Summer-house with Three Gables.]


[Illustration: Fig. 184.--Vertical Section of Octagonal Summer-house
through Lower Part of Door and Sill.]

[Illustration: Fig. 183.--Vertical Section of Octagonal Summer-house
through Side Casement.]

[Illustration: Figs. 185 and 186.--Elevation and Plan of Roof for Octagonal
Summer-house.]

The eight posts are 4 in. in diameter by 6 ft. 8 in. long. The short
sill pieces are also 4 in. in diameter, while the middle rails are 3-1/2
in. in diameter, and the plate is 3 in. by 4-1/2 in. The floor and roof
are constructed from ordinary scantlings.

The posts form a circle 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter. They are spaced about 2
ft. 3 in. apart, except the door-posts, which are 2 ft. 7 in. centres.
Flats may be worked on the posts for the better fitting of the door,
panels, and casements, and the top edge of the sill is also planed flat
to receive the floorboards, and a rebate is formed for the 5/8-in.
matchboard (see Fig. 183).

The sill and middle rails are scribed and stub-tenoned to the posts. The
plate is halved, dowelled, and nailed to the posts. The joists are 2 in.
by 4 in., and are notched to the sills (Fig. 184) and covered with 1-in.
floorboards.

[Illustration: Fig. 187.--Securing Glass to Rustic Casement.]

The roof is formed with three gables, four being deemed unnecessary, as
a summer-house is generally fixed with its back to a shrubbery. Eight
hip rafters are required, and by fixing the heels of each pair of
rafters on the sides of the plate marked 1, 2, 3, and 4 (see Fig. 185)
more space is acquired for the gables. The ridges and valley-pieces of
the gables are attached to a wide batten screwed to the under side of
the hip rafters (see Figs. 185 and 186). Some of the small battens are
omitted from Fig. 185 to give a better view of the gables, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 188.--Half Front and Half Back View of Door for
Octagonal Summer-house.]

[Illustration: Fig. 189.--Section of Door for Octagonal Summer-house.]

The roof-covering is generally wheat straw, with a top dressing of
either broom or heather. The dark colour of the two latter materials
harmonises much better with a varnished house than does a covering
wholly of straw. The four lower panels are filled in with matchboarding,
which is carried right up to the plate in the three back divisions. The
rustic work, excepting the back panels, is then fitted and nailed.

[Illustration: Fig. 190.--Part Plan of Octagonal Summer-house.]

There are four casement windows, which open outward. A section of
casement and frame enlarged is shown in Fig. 187. A shallow rebate is
formed to receive the leaded lights, which are retained in position with
split bamboo fixed with round-headed brass screws.

[Illustration: Fig. 191.--Horizontal Section through Door Posts.]

The door (Figs. 188 and 189) is 6 ft. 1 in. by 2 ft. 3 in. The rustic
work is overlaid on the frame of the door. The centre of the
diamond-shaped panel is filled with cork. The top panel is glazed with
stained glass. Three butts and a rim lock are fitted on the inside of
the door, and the lower panel is filled with matchboarding.

[Illustration: Fig. 192.--Part Section of Side Panel.]

Some further illustrations may be noted. Fig. 190 is a part plan of the
octagonal summer-house; Fig. 191, horizontal section through door-posts;
Fig. 192, part section of a side panel; Fig. 193, method of fixing plate
to posts; and Fig. 194, finial.

[Illustration: Fig. 193.--Fixing Plate to Posts.]

[Illustration: Fig. 194.--Finial.]

A seat 13 in. wide, supported on wide battens, which in turn rest on
shaped brackets, is fixed at each angle. A sloping back (see Fig. 183)
is fitted, which adds to the general comfort. The decoration of the
inside should now receive attention. The floor may be covered with
linoleum, the seats carpeted or cushioned. The sloping backs of the
seats and the walls will look well if covered with Indian matting or
Japanese leather paper. Split cane or bamboo may be used with good
effect at the joints or angles. The under side of the roof or ceiling
should be first covered by stretching canvas across the rafters, and to
this is attached the decorative material.

The summer-house stands on stone slabs raised about 1 in. above the
ground. The lower ends of the posts are dressed with pitch, or are stood
on sheet lead. The triangular spaces in the gables can be made to open
inwards if desired, and used for ventilation.



INDEX.


    Anchoring Foot-bridges, 96

    Armchair, 40, 41

    Aviary, 83-91
      ----, Bottom, 86
      ----, Perches for, 83, 85
      ----, Sliding Tray for, 90
      ----, Wiring for, 87, 88
      ----, Wood for, 83


    "Bangles," 30

    Bending Wood with Spanish Windlass, 22

    Boxes, Window, 19-21

    Bracket for Wall, 11, 12


    Canopied Garden Seat, 47-51

    Canopy for Garden Retreat, 123, 125
      ---- for Swing, 77-82

    Carriage Entrance, 63-65

    Chair, Arm, 40, 41

    Chairs and Seats, 40-51

    Collar-posts, 114, 115, 140

    Cottage Porch, 76


    Door of Tool House, 110


    Easel, Mitred Joint for, 13
      ----, for Photographs, 13-16
      ----, Stain for, 15, 16

    Elevated Foot-bridges, 97

    Entrance, Carriage, 63-65


    Fenced Seat for Swing, 82

    Fences, 57

    Fire-screen, 13

    Flower-holder, Tripod, 16

    Flower-pot Stand, 27, 28, 35

    Foot-bridges, 92
      ----, Anchoring, 96
      ----, Elevated, 97
      ----, Girders for, 94, 95


    Gables to Octagonal Summer-house, 141, 150-158

    Garden Gate, 52-56, 62
      ---- Plant Tub, 31, 32
      ---- Retreat, 123-125
      ---- Seat with Canopy, 47-51
      ---- Seats, 41-51
      ---- Snuggery, 112-123
      ---- ----, Collar-posts for, 114
      ---- ----, Door for, 116, 117
      ---- ----, Joists for, 114
      ---- ----, Pillars, Caps for, 120
      ---- ----, Rafters for, 116
      ---- ----, Roof, Boarding, 120
      ---- ---- ----, Coverings for, 121, 122
      ---- ----, Rustic Pillars of, 115, 120
      ---- ----, Walls, Non-conducting, 117

    Garden, Tool House for (see Tool House)
      ---- Trellis with Seats and Gate, 58-62

    Gates and Fences, 52-65

    Girders  for  Rustic  Footbridges, 94, 95

    Grape Culture, Glazed Verandah for, 104


    Hall Stand, 16-18

    Hazel Rods for Rustic Mosaic Work, 144

    Hexagonal Table, 38, 39
      ---- Vase, 29, 30

    House, Tool, Door for, 110
      ----, ----, Doorposts for, 109
      ----, ----, Folding Seat for, 111, 112
      ----, ----, Pilaster for, 110
      ----, ----, Plan of, 108, 109
      ----, ----, "Rough  Planks" for, 106


    Joint, Mitred, 13

    Joists for Garden Snuggery, 114


    Lean-to Summer-house, 126-134
      ---- ---- ----, Lining for Walls of, 129
      ---- ---- ----, Mosaic  Work for Walls of, 130
      ---- ---- ----, Roof of, 130

    Lining Roof with Ling, 150
      ---- Summer-house Walls, 129


    Mitred Joint, 13

    Mosaic Work, 144-146
      ---- ----, Hazel Rods for, 144
      ---- ----, Withy for, 146
      ---- ----, for  Summer-house Walls, 130


    Octagonal Summer-house, 138-158
      ---- ---- ----, Collar-posts for, 140
      ---- ---- ----, Gable for, 141
      ---- ---- ----, Ground Plan of, 140
      ---- ---- ----, Roof for, 147
      ---- ---- ----, Table for, 143
      ---- ---- ----, Thatched, 138-150
      ---- ---- ----, Three-gabled, 150-158
      ---- ---- ----, Walls for, 141


    Pedestal for Sundial, 35

    Pilaster for Tool House, 110

    Pillars of Garden Snuggery, 115, 120

    Plant Stand, Rectangular, 34
      ---- Tub for Garden, 31, 32
      ---- Vase, Large, 30, 31
      ---- ----, Ornamental, 33, 34

    Porches, 71-76


    Rectangular Garden Plant Stand, 34

    Retreat, Garden, 123-125

    Roof for Garden Snuggery, 120-122
      ---- for Lean-to Summerhouse, 130
      ----, Materials for, 102
      ---- for Tennis Lawn Shelter, 138
      ---- of Tool House, 110
      ---- for Verandah, 100

    Rosery Walk, 66-70

    "Rough Planks" for Tool House, 106


    Seats and Chairs, 40-51

    Shelter for Tennis Lawn, 135

    "Slabs," Fixing, 107, 108

    Snuggery, Garden, 112-123
      ----, ----, Collar-posts for 114, 115
      ----, ----, Door for, 116, 117
      ----, ----, Joists for, 114
      ----, ----, Pillars for, 120
      ----, ----, Rafters for, 116
      ----, ----, Roof for, 120-122
      ----, ----, ---- Coverings for, 121, 122
      ----, ----, Rustic Pillars of, 115
      ----, ----, Walls of, 117

    Spanish Windlass for Bending Wood, 22

    Stain for Easel, 15, 16

    Stand, Flower, 27, 28
      ----, Flower-pot, in imitation of Bamboo, 35
      ----, Hall, 16-18
      ----, Rectangular Plant, 34

    "Stelch" for Thatching, 148

    Stool, 18, 19

    Summer-house, Lean-to, 126-134
      ---- ----, ----, Lining for Walls, 129
      ---- ----, ----, Mosaic Work for Walls of, 130
      ---- ----, ----, Roof of, 130
      ---- ----, Octagonal, 138-158
      ---- ----, ----, Collar-posts for, 140
      ---- ----, ----, Floor for, 150
      ---- ----, ----, Gable for, 141
      ---- ----, ----, Ground Plan of, 140
      ---- ----, ----, Roof for, 147

    Summer-house, Octagonal, Table for, 143, 144-147
      ---- ----, ----, Thatched Roof of, 147
      ---- ----, ----, with Three Gables, 150-158
      ---- ----, ----, Walls for, 141
      ---- ----, ----, Windows for, 142
      ---- ----, Thatched Octagonal, 138-150

    Swing, Canopy for, 77-82
      ----, Fenced Seat for, 82


    Table for Octagonal Summer-house, 143-147
      ----, Hexagon, 38, 39
      ----, Square, 36-38

    Tables, 36-39

    Tennis Lawn Shelter, 135-138
      ---- ---- ----, Roof for, 138

    Thatched Octagonal Summer-house, 138-150

    Thatching, Cost of, 148
      ----, "Stelch," 148
      ----, Roof of Octagonal Summer-house, 147-150
      ----, "Yelvens," 148

    Tool House, 106-112
      ---- ----, Door, 110
      ---- ----, Doorposts, 109, 110
      ---- ----, Folding Seat for, 111, 112
      ---- ----, Pilaster, 110
      ---- ----, Roof, 110
      ---- ----, "Rough Planks" for, 106

    Trellis, Garden, with Seats and Gate, 58-62


    Vase, Hexagonal, 29, 30
      ----, Plant, 30, 31, 33, 34
      ----, Square, 28, 29
      ----, on Tripod Stand, 22-27

    Verandahs, 98-105
      ----, for Grape Culture, 104
      ----, Open, 104
      ----, Posts Supporting, 98, 99
      ----, Rafters for, 100
      ----, Roof for, 100
      ----, ---- Materials for, 102


    Walk, Rosery, 66-70

    Wall Bracket, 10, 11

    Windlass, Spanish, 22

    Window Boxes, 19-21

    Wiring Aviary, 87, 88

    Withy for Rustic Mosaic Work, 144

    Wood Bending with Spanish Windlass, 22
      ---- for Rustic Work, 9


    "Yelvens" in Thatching, 148



PRINTED BY CASSELL AND COMPANY, LTD., LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.C.





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