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Title: Copper Work - A Text Book for Teachers and Students in the Manual Arts
Author: Rose, Augustus F.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Copper Work - A Text Book for Teachers and Students in the Manual Arts" ***

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[Illustration: CHAFING DISH.]



                COPPER WORK

  A Text Book for Teachers and Students

                   IN THE

                Manual Arts


             FULLY ILLUSTRATED



                     BY

              AUGUSTUS F. ROSE

  Providence Technical High School and
     Rhode Island School of Design



               THE DAVIS PRESS
          Worcester, Massachusetts
                    1906



              Copyrighted, 1906

             By Augustus F. Rose



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                                                         PAGE

  Chapter I.--Introduction, Equipment, Materials           11

  Chapter II.--Problems, Escutcheons and Hinge Tail        23

  Chapter III.--Drawer and Door Pull and Hinge             30

  Chapter IV.--Finger Plates, Pad Corners, Box
    Corners, Stamp Box and Match Box                       45

  Chapter V.--Sconce, Picture Frame, Soldering,
    Repousse or Embossing                                  63

  Chapter VI.--Raised Forms                                77

  Chapter VII.--Porringer, Trays or Plates                 88

  Chapter VIII.--Ink Pot, Sealing Wax Set and Watch
    Fobs                                                   94

  Chapter IX.--Spoons, Sugar Tongs and Tea Scoops,
    Rivets, Drawing Wire and Tubing, Polishing,
    Stamping Work, Coloring                               105

  Chapter X.--Enameling                                   114



PREFACE.


In this book the subject of Copper Work, as it may be introduced into
the public schools, is treated to the extent of specifying an equipment
and suggesting some of the possibilities of a course. Not only will
there be found an abundance of illustrative material on this subject,
consisting of drawings and photographs of various objects executed by
upper grammar and high school pupils, but also a detailed description of
the processes necessary for the execution of many of the designs. It is
not expected that the problems as given will be slavishly copied, but
rather that they will make clear the methods and processes that may be
applied in the working out of similar problems. It is hoped that this
volume will be especially helpful to teachers in the Manual Arts who are
trying to introduce Metal Work into the regular school course.

The author is indebted to Charles J. Martin and Antonio Cirino, for
valuable assistance in making some of the illustrations.

                                                       AUGUSTUS F. ROSE.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                       PLATES.

  PLATE                                      PAGE

   1.  Anvils                                  15

   2.  Hammers                                 17

   3.  Shears and Plyers                       18

   4.  Escutcheons                             24

   5.  Escutcheons. Photograph                 25

   6.  Escutcheons                             27

   7.  Escutcheons                             28

   8.  Escutcheons                             29

   9.  Drawer and Door Pulls                   31

  10.  Drawer and Door Pulls                   32

  11.  Drawer and Door Pulls                   33

  12.  Drawer and Door Pulls. Photograph       34

  13.  Hinges                                  40

  14.  Hinges                                  41

  15.  Hinges                                  42

  16.  Hinges                                  43

  17.  Hinges                                  44

  18.  Finger Plates                           46

  19.  Finger Plates. Photographs              47

  20.  Pad Corners                             49

  21.  Box Corners                             51

  22.  Box Corners                             52

  23.  Stamp Boxes                             54

  24.  Stamp Boxes                             56

  25.  Stamp Boxes. Cover Designs              57

  26.  Stamp Boxes. Photograph                 59

  27.  Match Boxes                             61

  28.  Match Boxes. Cover Designs              62

  29.  Sconce A                                64

  29a. Sconce A. Pattern                       65

  30.  Desk Set. Photograph                    66

  31.  Sconce B                                68

  32.  Picture Frame                           70

  33.  Picture Frame Designs                   72

  34.  Raised Forms                            78

  35.  Raised Forms. Photograph                81

  36.  Pitchers                                83

  37.  Tea Set                                 86

  38.  Pupils at Work. Photograph              87

  39.  Porringer                               89

  40.  Porringer Handles                       90

  41.  Porringer. Photograph                   92

  42.  Ink Pot                                 95

  43.  Ink Pot. Photograph                     96

  44.  Ink Pot                                 98

  45.  Sealing Wax Set                        100

  46.  Watch Fobs                             102

  47.  Watch Fobs. Photograph                 103

  48.  Spoons                                 106

  49.  Sugar Tongs and Tea Scoops             107

  50.  Rivets                                 109



                     FIGURES.


  FIGURE                                    PAGE

   1.  Annealing Tray                         13

   2.  Sawdust Box                            14

   3.  Saw Frame                              16

   4.  Sand Bag or Engraver's Pad             16

   5.  Chasing Tools                          19

   6.  Engraving Tools                        19

   7.  Dapping Tools and Die                  20

   8.  Sawing                                 23

   8a. Sawing. Photograph                     26

   9.  Draw Pulls                             30

  10.  Draw Pulls                             30

  11.  Draw Pulls                             30

  12.  Draw Pulls                             35

  13.  Draw Pulls                             35

  14.  Draw Pulls                             35

  15a. Draw Pulls                             36

  15b. Draw Pulls                             36

  15c, d, Draw Pulls                          36

  15e. Draw Pulls                             36

  16a. Draw Pulls                             37

  16b. Draw Pulls                             37

  16c. Draw Pulls                             37

  16d. Draw Pulls                             37

  16e. Draw Pulls                             37

  18.  Stamp Box                              53

  19.  Stamp Box                              55

  20.  Stamp Box                              55

  21.  Chasing. Photograph                    76

  22.  Chasing Hammer                         76

  23.  Hammering. Photograph                  79

  24.  Raised Bowl, First step                79

  25.  Surface Plate. Photograph              82

  26.  Snarling Iron                          84

  27.  Snarling Iron in use. Photograph       85

  28.  Soldering Porringer                    88

  29.  Dapping Tools in use                   94

  30.  Drawing Tubing                        110

  31.  Drawing Tubing                        110

  32.  Drawing Wire. Photograph              111

  33.  Stamp                                 112

  34.  Engraving. Photograph                 115

  35.  Engraving                             117



Chapter I.

INTRODUCTION.


During the past few years many experiments have been tried in the
development of Manual Training Courses and much time has been spent in
discussing of what lines of work they should consist. Wood and iron were
the first materials used and are yet indispensable, but experience has
led those who are developing this work to believe that there are other
materials as well adapted to Manual Training work in all its various
forms. Clay, used not only for modeling but for ceramic work as well,
leather, brass and copper are materials that have also been put to the
test and found satisfactory in many ways.

In ancient times copper was known as a useful metal, and down through
the ages it not only held its own but increased in usefulness. Among its
valuable properties may be mentioned toughness and ductility; its
toughness enables it to be beaten into thin strong sheets, while its
ductility enables it to be drawn out into fine wire. Copper readily
forms important alloys, such as brass from copper and zinc.

Work in sheet copper and brass has been introduced into the public
school course with gratifying results. It has proved itself to be a
valuable departure from other branches of Manual Training work and gives
promise of being permanent. Sheet, copper and brass offer possibilities
for various kinds of treatment, either in the flat work which includes
saw piercing, embossing and enameling, or in the raised work.

There is something about this work that appeals to pupils and holds
their interest. The nature of the material, hard enough to offer some
resistance and yet pliable enough to allow its being wrought into many
forms, the durability of the object when completed, and the variety of
colors that may be obtained, especially with copper, all tend to make
the subject not only interesting but fascinating.

All exercises in sheet metal should be of some real value to the pupil;
no time should be spent on work done simply for practice, but the
various steps should be learned in the making of useful objects of
artistic worth. In this, as in other work, it seems best to give each
member of the class the same work for a while until he has become
acquainted with the different tools and learned the limitations of the
material. When this has been accomplished, each pupil may be allowed to
work out his own designs. In this the educational value is very greatly
increased. The pupil conceives the idea and makes several sketches of
it, carrying it through repeated changes until it is brought to the
perfected design appropriate in every way to the idea. Some may not be
fortunate enough to get a full equipment so that all of the various
kinds of metal work may be done, but such may be able to make a
beginning by doing light work in saw piercing, which requires a very
limited equipment.


EQUIPMENT.

The equipment necessary for a start in Copper work need cost but little
if the teacher is somewhat ingenious, for the patterns of the various
anvils may be made by him; from these patterns the castings can be made
at any foundry for three or four cents per pound. It is better to begin
with a few anvils and tools and to add one or two at a time as the need
is felt for a more varied supply. If the work can be done in a room
already fitted with benches and vises, it will reduce the first cost
considerably. Any home-made bench will do if a regulation one is not to
be had. One that has given satisfaction was made of 2" × 4" studding
with plank tops in lengths of 12 feet, giving space for four vises at
each bench. A swivel vise that may be turned at any angle will be found
satisfactory.

[Illustration: FIGURE 1.]

An annealing tray made of a piece of sheet iron in the shape of a box
about 18" square and 3" deep, with the corners lapped and riveted and
filled with slag, answers very well, but one similar to the
illustration, Figure 1, is better. In this the top is circular and
rotary, which is an advantage. A pair of light long nose-tongs are
needed to handle the work. Any ordinary foot bellows and blow-pipe will
do.

[Illustration: FIGURE 2.]

[Illustration: PLATE 1. ANVILS]

A box, Figure 2, large enough to hold two 2-gallon
stone jars and about half a bushel of sawdust, is needed.
One of the jars is for water in which the object is cooled
after being annealed; the other is for pickle which is used
to clean the work. The sawdust is used to dry the object
after it has been dipped in the water.

[Illustration: FIGURE 3.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 4. Sand bag or engravers pad.]

Plate 1 illustrates forms of anvils that have been found
most useful.

Plate 2 shows a variety of hammers needed.

Plate 3 shears and plyers.

The following tools are also necessary:

  Cutting shears--straight and curved.
  Steel square 12".
  Jeweler's saw frame. Figure 3.
  Piercing saws.
  Breast drill and assortment of drills.

[Illustration: PLATE 2. HAMMERS]

[Illustration: PLATE 3. SHEARS AND PLYERS]

[Illustration: FIGURE 5. Chasing tools and punches for embossing.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 6. Engraving tools.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 7.]

  Compasses.
  Calipers.
  Surface gauge.
  Surface plate.
  Assortment of files.
  Sand bag or engraver's pad. Figure 4.
  Pitch block.
  A set of chasing tools and punches. Figure 5.
  A set of engraving tools. Figure 6.
  A set of dapping tools and dapping die. Figure 7.
  Plyers--flat nose, round nose, and pointed.
  Cloth and felt buffs.
  Borax slate.
  Two 4-gallon stone crocks.
  Mortar and pestle (Porcelain.)
  Mouth blow-pipe.
  Bench pins.


MATERIALS.

Copper is the material best suited for the work outlined in this book,
although the processes as described may be applied to brass or silver.
Brass may be used successfully in the flat work, but for raised work
copper is the best material for the beginner.

Copper is obtainable in different thicknesses and in various grades but
the best grade should be used. For most of the work from 18 to 24 gauge
is used, while metal from 12 to 18 gauge is used occasionally.

Copper wire is used in several sizes for making rivets.

No. 22 and 28 iron wire is indispensable for binding when soldering.

Easy running silver solder may be made by the user, but as a small piece
will solder many joints, and as it is not practical to make it in small
quantities, it is better to buy it ready made as desired.

Powdered or lump borax is used as a flux in soldering. Charcoal or
asbestos blocks are used when soldering small work.

Cut-quick and rouge are used for polishing.

Nitric and sulphuric acids are used to clean work.


PICKLE.

Pickle is a trade name given to solutions used in cleaning work.
Different proportions of acids are used according to the work to be
cleaned. For copper and silver a dilute bath of sulphuric acid is used
of 1 part acid to 15 parts of water. The solution may be used cold but
when used hot it becomes much more effective. When used hot a copper
dish is necessary. The object being placed in the dish with enough
pickle to cover it, it is then placed over a gas plate and allowed to
come to boiling heat. The pickle is then poured off and the object
rinsed in clean water. A dilute solution of nitric acid is used for
brass.


GAUGE.

Gauge, as referred to in this book, is a term used to denote the
thickness of sheet metal. The Standard Wire Gauge is divided in gauge
numbers from 5 to 36; and is used for measuring the thickness of wire
and sheet metal. It is usually a plate of steel having round its edge a
series of notches of standard openings.

[Illustration]



Chapter II.

PROBLEMS.


ESCUTCHEONS.

Escutcheons may be made of any metal; but copper, brass, and iron are
most used. The size and shape of the escutcheon are determined by the
size of the lock and the space at our disposal. The outline may be
circular, square or rectangular, or it may be modified somewhat, care
being taken to keep it in harmony with its surroundings.

[Illustration: FIGURE 8.]

[Illustration: PLATE 4. ESCUTCHEONS]

[Illustration: PLATE 5.]

First make a careful drawing of the design. Take a piece of metal a
little larger than the drawing calls for, and of the desired gauge, from
12 to 20 gauge is all right for such an exercise. The design is then
transferred to the metal by the use of carbon paper, or a tracing is
made on rice paper from the drawing and pasted on the metal. Then take a
metal saw (No. 2 or 3) and saw about the design Figure 8, 8A. To saw the
key hole, a hole must be drilled through which the saw can be placed to
follow the line. Before drilling use a center punch, making a slight
depression as a start for the drill. After the sawing is completed, a
file is used to true up the outline and to smooth the edges. The holes
for the nails are next drilled. After using a little emery paper about
the edges, it is ready to finish.

[Illustration: FIGURE 8 A.]

The metal, as it comes from the rolling mill, is perfectly smooth. If,
in this piece of work, it is desired to make the surface a little more
interesting, it may be done by taking any hammer with a smooth domed
face and going over the surface. This, however, should be done before
sawing. As the hammering stretches the metal somewhat, if it is left
till after the sawing is done, it means more filing to get the design
into shape. For a beginning this exercise has proved very satisfactory,
as it gives the pupil an acquaintance with the metal and uses but a
small piece of material.


HINGE TAILS.

These plates represent suggestive designs for hinges and may be given
among first exercises in sawing; when so used, they should be treated
like the escutcheon already described.

[Illustration: PLATE 6. HINGE TAILS]

[Illustration: PLATE 7. HINGE TAILS]

[Illustration: PLATE 8. HINGE TAILS]



Chapter III.

DRAWER AND DOOR PULLS.


[Illustration: FIGURE 9.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 11.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 10.]

Pulls generally consist of two parts, the handle and the plate to which
the handle is fastened. Some pulls are stationary as in Figures 9, 10,
while in others the handle swings from either one or two points, Figures
11, 12, 13. In this case the handle may be made by taking a rod as great
in diameter as the thickest part of the handle, and either drawing it
out by hammering or filing it down to the required taper. After it is
tapered to the required size as at Figure 14, it is then bent into
shape according to the design. If the handle is to swing from one or two
points, it should be fastened by any one of the following methods.

[Illustration: PLATE 9. DRAW PULLS]

[Illustration: PLATE 10. DRAW PULLS]

[Illustration: PLATE 11. DRAW PULLS]

[Illustration: PLATE 12.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 12.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 13.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 14.]

Method 1. If it is possible to have the handle support go through the
drawer or door, the support may be made from a piece of square rod of
the length desired, a hole being drilled through one end, the size
needed, as at Figure 15, A. A shoulder is then made by filing the rod
down to the size of the hole in the plate. In making the shoulder the
remainder of the rod which is to go through the drawer front may be left
square or filed round; as the hole is round that is drilled to receive
it, this last is the better way. It is also easier to fasten it on the
inside of the drawer when it is made in this way, for it may be simply
headed up as in making a rivet, Figure 15 B, or a thread may be cut and
a nut used, Figure 15 C, D. The latter method is better where taps and
dies are at hand. When it is fastened by riveting, a circular or square
piece of metal called a washer, Figure 15 E, a little larger in diameter
than the bolt, with a hole the size of the bolt, is placed next to the
drawer front on the inside; this makes the riveting more secure.

[Illustration: FIGURE 15.]

Method 2. Another method for fastening this style of a handle is to cut
a slot through the plate about 1/16 inch wide and length called for by
the design, Figure 16 A. Then take a strip of copper in length 7 times
the diameter of the handle end and as wide as the slot in the plate is
long, Figure 16 B. This is then bent circular a little larger in
diameter than the end of handle as at Figure 16 C, and placed in the
slot as at Figure 16 D, and clinched on the back of the plate as at
Figure 16 E. The plate is in this case fastened to the drawer or door by
nailing or riveting.

[Illustration: FIGURE 16.]

Method 3. When it is desirable to make the plate and handle support all
in one piece, it may be done in any one of three ways. First. By
allowing enough metal in the center of the plate to form the handle
support as at Figure 12. Second. By allowing metal at the top of the
plate to bend over handle as at Figure 11. Third. By allowing metal at
the sides to be turned up at right angles to the plate to form the
support as at Figure 13. In this case holes are drilled in the side
pieces and a rivet is put through from one side to the other to hold the
handle. For this one the handle must be either bent around the rivet or
drilled to receive the rivet. In all three of these cases the plate is
fastened to the door or drawer by nailing or riveting.


HINGES.

  Plate 13, Various outlines of the same hinge.
  Plate 14, Hinges of same outline with interior variations.
  Plates 15, 16, 17, Butt and Strap Hinges.

In a hinge, the joint is the important feature. The size of the hinge,
the strength required, and the decoration must also receive attention.
After these have been determined, a drawing should be made giving a
development of the joint. Whatever the size of the hinge, the following
principle in regard to the joint must be kept in mind. There must be
alternating projections left on the inner ends of each leaf of the hinge
to fit into one another so that the pin may pass through them and allow
the hinge to swing. The method of making these projections is determined
by the size of the hinge.

In hinges of any considerable size, the projections are left attached to
the hinge proper; in allowing for them there will be an even number on
one leaf and an odd number on the other. To obtain the strength desired,
the width of the projections on one leaf should equal the width of the
projections on the other leaf. This applies to any number of
projections. Their length should be determined by the diameter of the
joint, three times the diameter is the approximate length.

In making small hinges the projections may be bent into position by the
use of the round nose plyers. In larger work the projection is fastened
in the vise and beginning at the end is bent around the pin a little at
a time using the raw-hide mallet to work it into shape.

For small joints or hinges, such as would be used on a match box, stamp
box, bon-bon box, or ink pot, the joint should be made of small tubing
as described on page 100. This tubing is sawed into the required lengths
and soldered to the leaves to be hinged. The parts to receive the joint
are sometimes filed out.

[Illustration: PLATE 13. HINGES]

[Illustration: PLATE 14. HINGES]

[Illustration: PLATE 15. HINGES]

[Illustration: PLATE 16. HINGES]

[Illustration: PLATE 17. HINGES]



Chapter IV.

FINGER PLATES.


The finger plate used on the edge of a door to receive the wear of the
hand serves as an excellent exercise in sawing and filing. The design is
transferred to the metal by use of carbon paper. The sawing is done as
in the escutcheon. The surface may be left smooth or it may be gone over
with a hammer having a face somewhat rounded. If the design calls for
any repousse work, it is done as described on page 64.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 18. FINGER PLATE]

[Illustration: PLATE 19.]


PAD CORNERS.

Desk pad corners while not difficult to make, are very useful as well as
ornamental. The design may be carried out in any one of three ways:
pierced, embossed or enameled.

In making the pattern for the pad corner, an allowance must be made for
the thickness of the pad, as at A, and also for laps as at B, that are
to go under the pad to hold the corners in place. The corner may be
riveted to the pad at the back or the laps may be bent in such a way as
to clamp them to the pad, and permit of their removal at any time.

When the design has been pierced or embossed, the laps can be bent over
a piece of metal equal in thickness to that of the pad. If the design is
to be carried out in enamel, all bending must be done before enameling
as any expansion or contraction of the metal will crack the enamel.

[Illustration: PLATE 20. PAD CORNERS]


BOX CORNERS.

Box corners serve primarily to protect the corners of the box and to
increase its strength, but they can be so made that they give character
to the box. The corner should be designed to suit the particular box or
chest to which it is to be applied. The method of making a box corner is
slightly different from those previously described. After the design has
been drawn, a pattern made from it in heavy paper will be found helpful,
for this pattern may be used to mark out the design on the metal. In
this way irregularities in the design are less likely to occur than when
the design is transferred with the carbon paper directly to the metal.
The decoration may be pierced or embossed, according to one's choice.
After the sawing or embossing has been done, it should be filed
carefully and smoothed up with fine emery cloth to do away with crude
and sharp edges.

The holes for the rivets are then drilled and the burr that is made by
drilling is removed with a larger drill. The two edges, A A. Plate 21,
that are to come together when in place on the box should be beveled a
little so that they will form a better corner. After this is done, the
sides are bent down over a block of wood or metal placed in the vise. A
rawhide hammer should be used to avoid marks on the face of the corner.
In this as in other work, if it is desired that the metal have a
hammered surface, the effect must be given before the design is cut out.

Suitable rivets are next made as described on page 98 and illustrated on
page 99. After being colored or polished the corner is ready to be
applied to the box.

[Illustration: PLATE 21. BOX CORNERS]

[Illustration: PLATE 22. BOX CORNERS]


STAMP BOXES.

Stamp boxes may be made in various ways, three of which are described
below:

Box No. 1 and 2, Plate 23.

On a piece of 20 gauge metal, lay out or draw the pattern as shown on
the plate; first with pencil, then with a scratch awl to insure
permanency, going over the lines lightly on the metal. By the use of a
saw frame and a No. 3 saw the corners of the square are cut out.

[Illustration: FIGURE 18.]

The edges that form the corners are next filed up, keeping all edges
straight and at right angles; after this, the edges are beveled a
little, forming a mitre which, when soldered, makes a better joint than
otherwise.

The sides are next bent up over an iron block placed in the vise as at
Figure 18. The corners should be brought well together, using a rawhide
hammer, No. 1, Plate 2.

[Illustration: PLATE 23. STAMP BOX]

A piece of iron wire about No. 24 is then placed around the box and
twisted tight enough to hold the corners in place while being soldered,
Figure 19. Borax and solder are next applied and the soldering done as
described on page 63. In this case, however, all of the corners should
be prepared at the same time for soldering. If but one corner is
prepared and soldered, the heat necessary for soldering causes the
copper oxides to come to the surface at the other corners which must be
removed before they can be soldered. This is remedied by coating with
borax and placing the solder at all corners before applying any heat.

[Illustration: FIGURE 19.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 20.]

After the soldering is done the box is pickled. Surplus solder is next
removed by filing. The box is again placed over the iron block which is
held in the vise; the corners and bottom edges are squared up, using the
round end of hammer shown at No. 2, Plate 2, and the top is filed off
level. This completes the body part of the box.

The cover is made in the same way as the box. Much care must be taken to
have the pattern carefully and accurately drawn so that when the cover
is finished it will fit closely to the body. The design, if there is
any, whether it is embossed or enamelled, must be carried out before
cutting it to size.

Box No. 2, although of different proportion, is made in the same way as
No. 1.

Box No. 3, Plate 24.

[Illustration: PLATE 24. STAMP BOX]

[Illustration: PLATE 25. STAMP BOX COVER DESIGNS]

Take a strip of metal as wide as the required depth of the box and as
long as the sum of the four sides. The length of each side is measured
off on this strip and a line scratched at right angles to the edge. The
strip is then placed over a block of metal and, with a rawhide hammer
bent at right angles at scratched lines, making three corners, leaving
the ends to meet at the fourth corner where they are to be soldered.
These ends should be mitered as in Box 1, before soldering. After the
corner has been soldered and the box pickled, it is again placed over a
block and trued up square. Having decided which is to be the top and
which the bottom of the box, file the bottom edges level and at right
angles to the sides. A piece of metal is then cut for the bottom large
enough to allow about 1/16" to project on all four sides.

It is then prepared for soldering and bound together with iron wire,
Figure 20. The solder should be cut in small pieces and placed about the
inside edges. In soldering the bottom, care must be taken not to
unsolder the corner. This may be avoided by keeping the flame away from
the soldered corner until the rest of the solder has run, applying it to
the corner at the last and only for a fraction of a minute.

After the soldering, the box is pickled and the edges of the bottom
filed square. The 1/16" that was allowed to project may be filed flush
with the sides of the box or left to project a little.

The cover is made by taking a strip of metal about 3/16" wide and long
enough to fit around the inside of the box. The length of the sides
(inside measurement) is laid out and then bent over a block as
previously described. The corner is soldered and the upper edges are
filed off level and soldered to a piece of metal, forming the top. This
strip on the inside keeps the cover in place. If the design on the cover
is to be carried out in enamel it should be done after the cover is
completed. If the design is to be embossed, it should be done before the
strip which holds the cover in place is soldered on.

[Illustration: PLATE 26.]

Box No. 4, Plate 24.

The body of this box may be made like either No. 1 or No. 3. An addition
is shown on this one which allows the stamp to be taken from the box
more easily. A strip of 20 gauge metal 1/16" wide is soldered on the
inside next to the top edge extending from one end to the other as shown
in the section at D. Another piece of the same gauge metal is cut, in
length equal to the inside length of the box and about 1/4" wider than
the box. This is placed inside the box and sprung into place as shown at
C in the section. This device may be applied to either of the other
boxes.

The cover of this box is made of but one piece and hinged with a strap
hinge, which also forms the cover decoration.

To give the surface of the metal of this box a bold hammered surface
adds much to its attractiveness.


MATCH BOX.

The Match Box may be made in the same way as the Stamp Box with the
exception of the cover. It seems better to have the cover of the match
box hinged. The hinge may be made so as to form a part of the decoration
of the cover by making it a strap hinge as shown at Plates 15, 16, 17.
The hinge may also be made of tubing and extend across the back of the
box. This method leaves the cover to be decorated in some other way,
either by embossing or by enameling or by both.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 27. MATCH BOX]

[Illustration: PLATE 28. MATCH BOX COVER DESIGNS]



Chapter V.

SCONCE A.


The pattern for this sconce as shown at Plate 29A is transferred to the
metal which is then cut out. The part which serves as a reflector is
raised by placing the metal face down on a sand bag, or on pitch and
with the pein end of a chaser's hammer or with a pointed horn hammer,
driving the center down to the required depth. If the face is somewhat
irregular, it can be trued up by placing it on a block of wood and going
over it with a rawhide hammer.

The shelf on which the candle socket rests is formed by bending the
lower part of the sconce at right angles as shown by the dotted line.
The projections at 2, 3, 4, Plate 29A, when bent into shape as shown on
Plate 29 form the supports for the candle socket. The projection at 5
Plate 29A when bent into shape serves as a bracket to support the shelf.
The candle socket is made from a strip of metal bent into cylindrical
shape with the ends riveted together. When the socket has been riveted
and holes drilled as indicated, the sconce is finished according to
taste and mounted on a back of wood stained to harmonize with the color
of the metal.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 29. SCONCE A.]

[Illustration: PLATE 29 A. SCONCE A.]

[Illustration: PLATE 30.]


SCONCE B.

A rectangular piece of metal is cut out about 1/2 inch larger on all
sides than the design calls for and given a hammered surface with the
pein end of a large hammer. After the design has been transferred to the
back of the metal, it is then placed on pitch face down, and with a
suitable tool the lines are sunk at A and B, Plate 31, about 1/16", as
shown in the section at C. It is then removed from the pitch and, after
cleaning, is put over a sand bag face up, and with a rawhide hammer, the
part that is to serve as a reflector is concaved a little.

The candle socket is made like the pattern as shown at D. It is bent
cylindrical in shape and the ends are riveted together, then the laps on
either side are bent nearly at right angles and serve to hold the socket
in place. The cup is made from a circular piece of metal hammered into a
slightly conical shape, E. A rod the length required is bent at right
angles with a shoulder left at each end. The bracket is made next like
the pattern F and bent into shape as at G.

When all the parts are finished, they are put together. Place the rod in
a vise with the short end up. The cup is put over the pin at H, and also
the socket, so that the pin passes through the holes in both laps. The
pin is then headed up, holding all securely in place. The bracket is
next riveted to the back at K, through which the rod is put, the pin
passing through the back is headed up at L. After finishing, the sconce
may be mounted on a wood back.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 31. SCONCE B.]


PICTURE FRAME.

This object is made as follows: Take a piece of metal quite a little
larger than the outline of the frame that is to be made. Draw on this
piece of metal the outline of the frame and also the extensions which
are folded back to give the thickness necessary for the reception of the
picture, glass, and back, as shown at B. Have the side opposite to that
on which the drawing is done free from scratches as it is to serve later
as the front. Any decoration that is used must be of the simplest sort.
This decoration may be pierced or in repousse. The frame here
illustrated and the plate of designs were intended for repousse as more
satisfactory results have been obtained by this process. After the
design for the decoration of the front of the frame has been transferred
to the same side of the metal as the outline, it must be prepared for
the repousse process. This is done by placing it on a pitch pot. The
pitch is softened enough so that the metal will stick to it. After
placing the metal on the pitch, work a little of the pitch over the
edges as this will hold it more securely. It is then allowed to cool or
harden before working. With a suitable tool and hammer, after the pitch
is hard, follow the lines which make up the design or decorative part of
the frame. The lines should be gone over lightly, slowly, and carefully
at first until the design is fairly well started; then they may be gone
over again, sinking them a little deeper each time until they have been
carried deep enough to give the design the required relief on the face
of the frame. For this part of the work the tool should not be used as a
punch, driving the metal down in one place and then moving it to another
and so on, but it should be kept moving all the time and should at the
same time receive a repeated number of light blows from the hammer. By
so doing the face of the work will be smooth, otherwise each blow from
the hammer will show.

[Illustration: PLATE 32. PICTURE FRAME]

If there is doubt as to the depth to which the lines should be carried,
the work may be taken off the pitch occasionally, so that the face may
be seen. It is not an easy thing to reduce relief in this work,
therefore it is better to go carefully working it up slowly. After the
repousse part of the frame is done, clean it with kerosene and pickle.

The corners may then be cut out as at B, filed up square, and beveled as
in the box. The sides are then bent back over a block of wood or metal,
bringing the corners well together. They are then soldered. A metal saw
is used to make the opening, A, the edges of which are then filed up
square.

The back for this frame is made in the same way as the front except that
it is left perfectly plain. This should be made to fit inside of the
frame tight enough so that no fastening will be needed to hold it in
place.

A frame of this size and kind may be made to hang or to stand. If it is
to hang, a small ring may be made and fastened to the back as shown at
C. If it is to stand, a support of some kind such as is shown at D is
needed. This is made of the same thickness metal as the frame and may be
made in many outlines. This support may be made stationary by riveting
it to the back, or hinged, which is much better, as is shown at E and F.
The hinge is made by taking a piece of about 1/8" tubing and cutting
three pieces, making one of the pieces equal in width to the other two
and having the three equal in width to the top of the support. The two
short pieces are soldered to the back and the long piece to the support.
A piece of wire equal in diameter to the hole in the tube is then cut
and put in place which hinges the back and support together.

The method of making the tubing used for the above is described on page
100.

[Illustration: PLATE 33. PICTURE FRAME DESIGNS]


SOLDERING.

A piece of silver solder, a slate slab such as is ordinarily used for
grinding ink, powdered or lump borax, and a soft hair brush of some sort
are all that is necessary for the process of soldering in addition to
what we already have.

The pieces of metal that are to be soldered must be absolutely free from
all foreign matter. To insure this the joint is scraped bright with some
sharpe-edged tool. Care must be taken to keep the fingers away from the
joint as any moisture or greasy substance will prevent the solder from
running. The best results are obtained only by being extremely careful
as to cleanliness throughout the process. Being sure that the slab is
perfectly clean, a little water is put in it and the lump of borax is
ground around until the water becomes like thin cream. If powdered borax
is used a block of wood will answer as a pestle to grind the borax to
the right consistency.

The solder may be obtained any gauge, but about 20 answers for most
purposes. After cutting the solder into pieces about 1/16 of an inch
long and about the same width, drop them into the borax that has been
ground to give them a coating of borax and to remove any grease that may
have adhered to them. Coat the surfaces that are to be soldered with the
borax being careful to get no more borax about than is necessary. Put
the parts together and bind them with No. 24 iron wire, not too tightly.
The pieces of solder are then lifted with the brush used for the borax
or with a pair of tweezers and placed next to the edge that is to be
soldered, about one inch apart. The object is then placed on the
annealing tray, which answers for soldering as well, and with the
blow-pipe it is heated, very slowly at first until the water has
evaporated and the borax crystallized and dissolved, the flame may then
be applied more directly and the object brought to a soldering heat. If
the heat is applied too quickly, it will throw off the solder; and if
heated hotter than necessary it is liable to melt or burn the parts
being soldered, so the process demands the closest attention from the
start.

The object is then pickled, washed in clear water and dried in the
sawdust.

If the above directions are carefully followed good results may be
expected.


REPOUSSE OR EMBOSSING.

Repousse or embossing involves practically the same principle as
modeling in clay or wax, the only difference being that metal is used as
the material and that different tools are employed. In this, as in clay
or wax work, it is desirable to bring certain parts of a design into
relief; to do this with metal the work must be placed on a substance
which will give some resistance and yet allow each blow of the hammer or
tool to make an impression. The substance commonly used for this purpose
has the following composition, in the proportions given:

    Black pitch           1 lb.
    Tallow                3 teaspoonfuls.
    Plaster of Paris      1/2 cup.

The pitch is put in some kind of dish (agate is good), placed over a gas
plate, and melted. The tallow is then added and the plaster sprinkled
and stirred in, the whole being well mixed. It is then poured into the
pitch pot, or whatever it is to be used in. When used in hot weather
more plaster must be used. A pot, hemispherical in shape, Figure 21,
made of cast iron about 1/2 inch thick is generally used. This, when
placed on a chaser's pad or ring, Figure 21, may be turned at any angle,
and is found to be a great convenience. An ordinary 7" × 12" baking pan
of iron serves the purpose, or a box may be made of wood, but of course
this is not so durable.

After allowing the composition to cool partly, yet while soft enough to
stick, the piece of work that is to be embossed is placed on it, the
right side next to the pitch. It is then allowed to cool still more;
when quite hard or when it is difficult to make an impression on it with
the thumb nail, it is ready to work on. The design is next drawn or
transferred to the metal by the use of carbon paper and then scratched
on with a scratch awl to make the drawing more permanent, as in going
over the piece of work the pencil or carbon lines are easily erased.

The tools necessary for this work may be made as needed according to
each individual design. There are a few general ones that are always
found useful, such as those shown at Figure 5. Figure 22 shows a hammer
generally used for this work.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: FIGURE 21.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 22.]



Chapter VI.

RAISED FORMS.


The first exercise in raising should be a form quite simple in outline,
Plate 34 A. A drawing or blue print should be used showing the shape and
dimensions and this should be worked to as closely as possible. Next
select a piece of copper suitable in thickness for an object of this
size, in this case 20 gauge. The metal for raising must be circular in
shape and the diameter of the piece needed for this bowl determined in
the following way:

Take a piece of string, place it on the drawing or blue print, starting
in the center of the base, and follow the curve as indicated at A, on
Plate 34. This will give the radius needed for describing the circle,
which is 5-1/2". The circle is then cut out with the shears, after which
another circle is described on the metal for the base. All lines made on
the metal should be made quite lightly.

As a rule the copper comes from the rolling mill somewhat hardened so
the next thing to do is to soften it by a process called annealing.

Place upon the annealing tray, Figure 1, the circular piece of metal
already cut, and apply the flame from the blow-pipe upon it until it
becomes red hot. It is either allowed to cool off gradually or dipped in
cold water and then dried in the sawdust.

Select an anvil the shape of which conforms somewhat to the outline of
the bowl and also to the curve of the base. It is often necessary to use
several anvils to complete an object, but a little experience will help
to decide which should be used first. The No. 1 anvil on Plate 1 seems
to be about what is needed for this particular piece of work.

[Illustration: PLATE 34. RAISED FORMS]

[Illustration: FIGURE 23.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 24.]

The anvil is placed in the vise and the metal held in the left hand
against the anvil so that the end of the anvil comes directly under the
circle which represents the base, as shown at Figure 23. With a raising
hammer, No. 3 on Plate 2, begin hammering with light blows at first,
following the circle closely the first time around until the base is
well started. This operation is continued at each turn striking a
little above the previous blows until the top is reached when it will
take the shape as shown at Figure 24. Sometimes a horn or box-wood
mallet is used to start a piece of work. As the hammering hardens the
metal it is necessary to anneal it each time after going over the
surface. After this is done, we proceed as at first until the required
form is obtained as called for by the drawing.

Care must be taken not to stretch the metal any more than can be helped
as the more it is stretched the thinner it becomes.

The surface and outline of the bowl left by the raising hammer is quite
irregular and needs to be trued up by a process called planishing; for
this a No. 2 or 4 hammer, Plate 2, with a polished face and somewhat
broader than the raising hammer is used. By going over the surface with
this hammer all irregularities are removed leaving a refined curve and a
finished surface.

If the bottom gets a little out of shape during the operation of
raising, it can be easily brought back again by using a No. 2 stake,
Plate 1, and a No. 5 hammer, Plate 2.

During the raising process the top edge has also become very irregular
and must now be trimmed off level. Place the bowl on some level surface
(a surface plate will give the best results) and with the point in the
surface gauge describe a line about the top making it the desired
height, Figure 25. A small pair of shears is then used to trim off the
top to the line, after which a file is used to finish the edge, leaving
it perfectly smooth. A piece of fine emery cloth may be used at the
last.

[Illustration: PLATE 35.]

The principle of raising as here described applies to forms of all sorts
with few variations. Where a form is to be raised with the top edge
turned in as at B, Plate 34, an anvil similar to the outline must be
used. In raising a form like C, Plate 34, the sides are carried up as
shown by the dotted lines and then the form is reversed and the neck
part drawn in. A deep form is raised more quickly if, at the start, the
metal is placed on a crinkling block and the edge crinkled.

[Illustration: FIGURE 25.]

In all raised work after one becomes acquainted with the material, it
will be found that the metal can be forced in any direction, giving
thickness at the bottom, at the sides, or at the rim, as is necessary.

[Illustration: PLATE 36. PITCHERS]

After raising a form like C, Plate 34, it may be desired to increase the
diameter a little at o-o, where an anvil cannot be used; or, if the form
is satisfactory it may be necessary to raise certain parts of it to
carry out the decoration called for by the design. This is done by the
use of the snarling-iron, made as illustrated at Figure 26, which shows
the general outline only, as the ends vary in form according to the work
they are to do. One arm of the iron is held in the vise as at Figure 27.
The form is then placed over the end and held with the left hand while,
with a hammer in the right hand, the iron is struck quite near the end
in the vise which causes the other end to rebound. This serves the same
purpose as a direct blow from a hammer, except that it works much more
slowly.

[Illustration: FIGURE 26.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: FIGURE 27.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 37.]

[Illustration: PLATE 38.]



Chapter VII.

PORRINGER.


The making of a porringer serves as a very interesting exercise; and it
is so simple in form that it can be raised after very little experience.
A suitable handle must also be designed, sawed out and soldered to the
body.

After the bowl has been raised into shape according to the design, the
top is cut and filed off level. When the handle has been sawed out and
the edges trued up, it is fitted to the bowl part. Mark on the edge of
the bowl the place where the handle is to be fitted and fit it at that
place. The edge of the bowl where the handle is to be soldered should be
filed or scraped bright before the soldering process is begun.

[Illustration: FIGURE 28.]

Invert bowl and handle and lay them upon a level block of charcoal, as
shown at Figure 28. Four or five wire nails or pieces of iron wire
forced into the charcoal keep the handle and bowl together. The borax is
applied and sufficient solder to make a good joint. Use no more solder
than is necessary, as it will have to be removed by filing and the less
filing that is done about such a joint the better the work will be.
After the exercise has cooled, it may be pickled, washed and dried.

[Illustration: PLATE 39. PORRINGER]

[Illustration: PLATE 40. PORRINGER HANDLES]

While the heat is being applied for soldering, the bowl is at the same
time annealed and becomes so soft that it is easily bent out of shape.
The bowl of course must be hardened again; this is done by placing it on
an anvil that conforms to the outline of the bowl and hammered lightly
over the surface. The handle is also treated in the same way.

Any necessary filing or finishing is now done and the porringer is ready
to be polished.

If we choose, the handle may be riveted on, or it may be made of the
same piece as the bowl by allowing enough metal where the handle is to
be, to be bent back when the bowl is raised into shape.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 41.]


TRAYS OR PLATES.

Trays or plates may be made by working the bowl part over an anvil or by
driving it into a sand bag until the required depth is obtained, or a
form may be turned out of a block of wood and the metal driven into it.
After the bowl part has been shaped it may be placed on the pitch block
and the outline trued up with a chasing tool. The edge of the tray or
plate may be decorated either by piercing, embossing, etching, or
enameling.

[Illustration]



Chapter VIII.

INK POT.


This exercise is carried out as follows: A form is first raised like the
lower part of the pot inverted, which is nothing more than a bowl so
far. A hole with a diameter a little less than the diameter of the ink
well is then sawed with a piercing saw in the bottom of this bowl, as at
A. After this a circular piece of metal is cut equal in diameter to the
top of this bowl plus 1/4 of an inch, and soldered on G. By making this
piece 1/4 inch greater than the diameter of the bowl, the soldering
process becomes much easier. After the soldering is finished, the
projecting edges may be filed off to the edge of the bowl. The bowl is
then inverted so that it rests on its greatest diameter H, and it
becomes an ink pot.

[Illustration: FIGURE 29. Dapping tools in use.]

The cover, J, is made by taking a circular piece of metal and raising
the sides in the same way as in the bowl except that the design calls
for the sides at right angles to the base. The curve is obtained by
placing it on a sand bag and driving it out from the inside to the
required height. From a strip of copper 20 gauge and 3/16 inch wide, C,
make a ring, D, equal in diameter to the inside of the cover. Solder the
ends of the ring together and, after shaping it over a circular stake,
fit and solder it to the base, as shown in the section at E.

[Illustration: PLATE 42. INK POT]

[Illustration: PLATE 43.]

This keeps the cover in place. The knob, K, on the cover is made of two
hemispheres, L, by use of the dapping block and tools, Figures 7 and 29.
The two pieces are soldered together, filed or finished about the joint,
and soldered to the cover, F. After dipping the different parts in the
pickle, then washing them in clean water, and doing a little filing here
and there about the joints to remove surplus solder, the ink pot is
ready for finishing. This may be done by polishing, bronzing, or
oxidizing.

The ink well proper should be made so that it may be removed. It should
be of glass or some other material easily cleansed.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 44. INK POT]


SEALING WAX SET.

THE WAX POT.

The wax pot is raised into shape as described in Chapter VI on raised
forms. Instead of cutting the top off level, a nose is formed as shown
at A, Plate 45, which will pour well. A handle is designed, sawed out,
and riveted on at the position indicated at B.


THE LAMP.

The body of the lamp is made by raising a bowl to conform with the
design; after cutting a hole in the bottom it is inverted, C, and the
bottom is soldered on at D. A shallow cup is raised, E, a hole cut in
the bottom to allow for the lamp proper, and soldered to the body. Legs
as shown at F, and held together by a strip, H, are riveted to the side
of the body at G; on these the wax pot rests. The lamp proper or alcohol
well, which is filled with asbestos, is raised with the edges turned
out, as at N, which hold it in place as shown in the section at J. The
part at K serves as a burner and is placed loosely in the cup, E,
allowing its removal at any time.


SEAL.

A monogram, letter or design of some sort must first be decided on. When
this has been done, the design is transferred and scratched on a piece
of 22 or 24 gauge copper. If the design has a right and wrong to it, the
reverse should be transferred to the metal so that, when stamped, the
right side will appear. The copper is then placed on the pitch and when
cool enough to work upon, the lines are followed with a chasing tool,
sinking them to the required depth. Care must be taken to avoid sharp
edges or any undercutting, if the seal is to free itself easily from the
wax. A handle for the seal may be made of wood as shown on the plate;
the seal is cut and attached as shown at Section on L. M.

[Illustration: PLATE 45. SEALING WAX SET]


WATCH FOB.

There are many ways of making watch fobs. A very simple one is made as
follows: First make a drawing of the fob with some suitable pendant as
at A, Plate 46. The pendant design is next transferred to a piece of 12
gauge copper, then sawed out and filed into shape. This must be done
with perhaps more care than on larger work as it is to be more closely
scrutinized. The parts of the fob must be made to conform with the width
of the ribbon that is to be used. A bar must be made for the top, wide
enough for the ribbon to be passed through and fastened. This bar is
made by cutting a slot in a piece of metal of the same gauge as the
pendant, or by bending a piece of wire around a piece of metal about
1/16 of an inch thick and the width of the ribbon, making the ends meet
in the centre of one of the long sides. If more than one of these pieces
is needed, the wire is wound around the metal as many times as there are
pieces required and sawed apart. The ends are then bent to come in line
with each other and soldered. The piece is again placed over the metal
and, with a rawhide hammer, worked into shape. The links that connect
the bar and the swivel are made as all links are made. Take a piece of
iron or steel wire the size required and also a piece of copper; place
one end of the steel wire and one end of the copper wire in a vise so
that the steel wire stands vertical. Then wind the copper wire around
the steel wire spirally with as many turns as there are links required.
Now take it out of the vise and slip it off the steel wire, which leaves
it in the shape of a spring. Hold it with the thumb and forefinger of
the left hand and, resting it against the bench pin, saw the links off
with a fine saw one at a time until there are as many as needed.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 46. WATCH FOBS]

[Illustration: PLATE 47.]

[Illustration]

One of these links is soldered to the bar that holds the ribbon and one
to the top of the pendant; the others are linked together to form the
short chain at the top. To connect the pendant to the ribbon, two larger
links are needed which are made in the same way as the small ones. All
the links may be soldered or not. The links that are soldered to the bar
and to the pendant should be filed flat a little to make the point of
contact greater. This insures a more secure joint. When soldering such
small pieces the charcoal block is indispensable, for depressions are
easily made in it where necessary. The parts are placed on the block in
position and a small mouth blow-pipe is used; with this the flame can be
more delicately applied.

[Illustration]

When the different parts are completed, they are pickled, rinsed, dried,
and polished, and then put together with the ribbon.

Fobs are sometimes made entirely of metal as B, Plate 46. In this slots
are sawed in three or more bars of metal which are linked together with
links made from the same thickness metal as the bars. The pendant and
the swivel are also connected with the same kind of links.

[Illustration]



Chapter IX.

SPOONS, SUGAR TONGS AND TEA SCOOPS.


These exercises are easily carried out after a little experience. No
steps are taken that have not already been described, except in the case
of forming the bowl of the spoon. This is done by taking a piece of lead
and making a depression in it the size and shape of the bowl required. A
piece of hard wood is shaped on the end grain to fit the depression made
in the lead. The metal is placed over the depression and the wood shape
placed on top of the metal; it is then driven into the form by using a
hammer. This will give the general shape of the bowl which may be trued
up later by sawing and filing.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PLATE 48. SPOONS]

[Illustration: PLATE 49.
    SUGAR TONGS
    AND
    TEA SCOOPS]


RIVETS.

The making of rivets is quite important as it is impossible to find in
the market the variety in size and shape of head that each piece of work
demands. Where rivets with a wire 1/8" or less are needed, they may be
made as follows: Take a piece of iron or steel A, Plate 50, thicker than
the desired length of the rivet and drill a hole through it having its
diameter a little greater than the wire of the rivet. Take a piece of
copper wire of the required diameter and about 1/8" longer than the
thickness of the iron. Place the wire in the hole and the iron on some
smooth metal surface, B. With a hammer make a burr of the wire that
projects above the iron. Then reverse the iron and drive out the rivets.
This gives what is shown at D. The rivet is then cut off the required
length, placed in position and headed up. The head may be made conical,
I, hemispherical, J, pyramidal, K, or square, L, in shape. It may be
headed up simply with the hammer, or with a rivet header, M.

When necessary, the process may be reversed and the head made first; but
when made in this way, a rivet block is needed to rest the head in while
making the burr.

The rivet may be made more of a decorative feature by sawing out of
sheet metal some suitable design as shown at P, Q, R. Drill a hole in
the center the size of the rivet and then use any ordinary rivet head.
Nails may be made by the same process, headed and pointed as at S and
O.

[Illustration: PLATE 50. RIVETS]


TO DRAW WIRE AND SMALL TUBING.

[Illustration: FIGURE 30.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 31.]

Cut a piece of copper the length required, having the width about three
times the diameter of the tube that is to be made. The edges must first
be made parallel by filing. In a block of maple or some hard wood, with
a wood file, make a groove as shown at Figure 30. Place the strip of
metal over the groove and, with a somewhat pointed hammer, drive the
metal into it until it takes the shape of a V. Figure 31 A. Then place
it on the flat part of the block and strike on the edges with the
hammer, turning them in until they meet, as at B and C.

[Illustration: FIGURE 32.]

A draw plate is then placed in the vise, Figure 32. After pointing the
tube a little, the end is placed in one of the larger holes and drawn
through. This will bring it somewhat into shape. Repeat this operation
by drawing the tube through the hole the next smaller in size and so on
till the tube is of the diameter required.

Wire may be drawn in the same way. Rectangular, triangular and square
drawplates may be obtained as well as circular ones.


POLISHING.

To polish work, a cloth or felt buff is placed on a lathe or a polishing
head. With a little cut-quick and rouge objects may be brightened by
holding them against the wheel.


STAMPING WORK.

[Illustration: STAMP

FIGURE 33.]

The marking of work so that it will be known to whom it belongs and
doing it in a neat and workmanlike manner is sometimes a problem. Using
a gummed label with the name written on it has been tried, but the
labels frequently come off. The name has been scratched with a
sharp-pointed tool, but it is not an easy thing to do and certainly does
not look well. The way described below however has proved very
satisfactory. Have each pupil design a little trade mark of his own, and
work it out on the end of a piece of tool steel, 1/8 inch or 3/16 inch
square, round or hexagonal. This can be done by a little filing, perhaps
the use of a drill if the design should call for it, and a little emery
paper to take off all sharp edges. This serves as a stamp with which he
may mark all of his work. The instructor has a book with the names of
the pupils, and after each name he may stamp this mark and thereby
register it so that he may tell at any time to whom work belongs.

Figure 33 shows a stamp and a few suitable designs.


COLORING.

The most satisfactory color that can be given copper is a bronze which
comes naturally if left to come in contact with varying atmospheres. If
the object has a good polished surface in the first place the color
seems to become richer as time goes on.

A color that is satisfactory in many cases is obtained in the following
way:

Place in a porcelain dish and bring to a boiling heat, liver of sulphur,
1 oz., and water, 1 qt. Dip the object to be colored in this solution
while hot and then rinse in clean water. This gives the object a very
dark color. Take a little powdered pumice stone on a piece of cloth and
rub over the surface lightly bringing the copper color to the surface
where desired.

A greenish color is given copper by submitting the object to the fumes
of spirits of ammonia.

Beautiful colors are obtained by heating the object to different
degrees, over a gas plate, but these results are not permanent.



Chapter X.

ENAMELING.


Enamel may be applied to metal objects and add a great deal to their
value and attractiveness if used sparingly. The enamels most used are
transparent and opaque; the transparent reflects the color of the metal
adding a great deal of life to the work, the opaque gives color on the
surface only.

The process, as described in this chapter, touches but the elementary
stages of the art that are within the possibilities of high school work
and possibly the upper grammar grades.

Enamel may be applied by any of the following methods:

First: By covering the entire surface of the object with enamel.

Second: By using a flat wire which is bent into sections the shape of
the design and soldered to the object; the wire forms partitions to
receive the enamel.

Third: By cutting away the design by the use of engraving tools, making
channels about 1/32 of an inch deep to receive the enamel.

Fourth: By using a chasing tool either from the front or from the back
of the work, forming raised or sunken partitions to receive the enamel.

The first and second methods are difficult ones, requiring a great deal
of experience in handling metal and enamel to obtain satisfactory
results.

The third and fourth methods are comparatively simple and are within the
possibilities of those for whom this book is intended.

In the third method the design is first transferred to the object by the
use of carbon paper and then made more permanent with a scratcher. The
design is cut out with the engraving tools, Figures 6, 34 and 35, about
1/32 of an inch deep. All edges should be kept as smooth as possible and
the channels should be uniform in depth. For convenience in holding, if
the work is small, it may be fastened to a little pitch or wax spread on
a block, or it may be placed on the pitch block as described under
embossing on page 64. The handle of the tool is held in the palm of the
hand, and the thumb, placed within an inch of the point, serves as a
guide while cutting, Figures 34 and 35. By wriggling the tool a little
from one side to the other, greater progress is possible.

[Illustration: FIGURE 34.]

In the fourth method the design is transferred to either side of the
object. After placing it on a pitch block, depressions may be made from
the face or lines raised from the under side.

After the partitions have been formed, the object must be thoroughly
cleaned and brightened by dipping in a bath of nitric acid. After
dipping, which should be done quickly on account of the rapid action of
the acid on the metal, it should be rinsed thoroughly in clean water.
This process removes all dirt and leaves the metal bright. After this
cleaning, the fingers should not touch any part of the object that is to
receive the enamel.

To prepare the enamel for application it must be ground. First break it
into small pieces with a hammer. To keep it from flying about, it is
well to roll it up in a piece of heavy wrapping paper. It is then placed
in a porcelain mortar and, with a little water and a pestle, it is
ground about as fine as fine sand. The water is poured off and the
enamel rinsed several times in clean water until the milky substance
disappears. Unsatisfactory results often come from lack of care in
washing the enamel. After washing it is removed from the mortar to a
small saucer by the use of a palette knife. While still wet, which
allows its being spread more easily, the enamel is applied to the object
with a soft hair brush.

All of the enameling suggested in this book may be done with an ordinary
blow-pipe or a Bunsen burner, but more satisfactory results are obtained
with a kiln.

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.]

To apply the process to a definite piece of work, the steps necessary in
enameling the Stamp Box cover on Plate 24, No. 3, will be taken up. It
will be assumed that the box is made, ready for the application of the
design as shown on the plate. The design is first transferred to the
cover and then cut away. It is cleaned with kerosene and dipped in
nitric acid as before explained. After being thoroughly washed, it is
ready for the enamel. In applying the enamel care must be taken not to
get particles outside of the channels. After the moisture has evaporated
and the enamel has been fired it settles considerably so that this must
be allowed for by rounding it above the surface. After the enamel has
been applied, the strip that is soldered to the under side of the cover
must be protected from the heat before firing, as the temperature
required for fusing the enamel is several times greater than that
required for soldering. The soldering is protected by placing a paste
made of yellow ochre and water about the soldered joint both inside and
outside of the strip. The more of this clay we bank about the joint the
more protection there is. When the above has been done, the object must
be left in some warm place until the moisture from both the enamel and
the clay is thoroughly evaporated. It is then ready for firing. If the
blow-pipe or the Bunsen burner is used, take a tripod and place a piece
of heavy iron netting over the top and place the object on top of the
netting. The flame should always be applied to the under side. Watch the
enamel as the firing goes on and when it settles and glazes the heat
should be withdrawn. The object should be allowed to cool very slowly.
Hurrying at this point only increases chances for accidents. If, when
cool, it is found that the channels in places are not full of enamel,
the object is again cleaned in the nitric acid, more enamel applied, and
fired as at first. The cover is now ready to finish. The enamel may be
stoned down level with the top with an emery stone, or it may be left
just as it comes from the fire in the first place. If stoned down, it is
necessary to fire it again just enough to give it a glazed surface.

The directions as given apply to either transparent or opaque enamel;
but, in addition to the above, when transparent enamel is used, the
surface to be enameled must first receive a coating of flux to retain
the transparency. The flux is treated and applied just the same as the
enamel already described.

The upper half of Plate 26 shows boxes treated with enamel.





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