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Title: Yachting Vol. 1
Author: Brassey, Lord, Pritchett, R. T. (Robert Taylor), 1828-1907, Sullivan, Edward, Seth-Smith, C.E., Watson, G. L.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's notes: Obvious printer's errors have been corrected,
hyphenation has been standardised, all other inconsistencies are as in
the original. The author's spelling has been maintained.

Missing pages numbers correspond to blank pages or moved
illustrations.

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[Illustration: THE JACK OF 1606 A.D.

_St. Andrew of Scotland._

_St. George of England._

_St. Patrick of Ireland._

THE UNION JACK.]



  The Badminton Library
  of
  SPORTS AND PASTIMES


  EDITED BY
  HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G.
  ASSISTED BY ALFRED E. T. WATSON


  _YACHTING_

  I.



  YACHTING

  BY

  SIR EDWARD SULLIVAN, BART.

  LORD BRASSEY, K.C.B., C. E. SETH-SMITH, C.B., G. L. WATSON

  R. T. PRITCHETT

  SIR GEORGE LEACH, K.C.B., Vice-President Y.R.A.

  'THALASSA'

  THE EARL OF PEMBROKE AND MONTGOMERY

  E. F. KNIGHT and REV. G. L. BLAKE

  [Illustration: Yachts.]

  IN TWO VOLUMES--VOL. I.

  _WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY R. T. PRITCHETT
  AND FROM PHOTOGRAPHS_

  LONDON
  LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
  1894



_DEDICATION

TO

H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES_


                                                BADMINTON: _May 1885_.

Having received permission to dedicate these volumes, the BADMINTON
LIBRARY of SPORTS and PASTIMES, to HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF
WALES, I do so feeling that I am dedicating them to one of the best
and keenest sportsmen of our time. I can say, from personal
observation, that there is no man who can extricate himself from a
bustling and pushing crowd of horsemen, when a fox breaks covert, more
dexterously and quickly than His Royal Highness; and that when hounds
run hard over a big country, no man can take a line of his own and
live with them better. Also, when the wind has been blowing hard,
often have I seen His Royal Highness knocking over driven grouse and
partridges and high-rocketing pheasants in first-rate workmanlike
style. He is held to be a good yachtsman, and as Commodore of the
Royal Yacht Squadron is looked up to by those who love that pleasant
and exhilarating pastime. His encouragement of racing is well known,
and his attendance at the University, Public School, and other
important Matches testifies to his being, like most English gentlemen,
fond of all manly sports. I consider it a great privilege to be
allowed to dedicate these volumes to so eminent a sportsman as His
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and I do so with sincere feelings
of respect and esteem and loyal devotion.

                                                             BEAUFORT.

[Illustration: BADMINTON.]



PREFACE


A few lines only are necessary to explain the object with which these
volumes are put forth. There is no modern encyclopædia to which the
inexperienced man, who seeks guidance in the practice of the various
British Sports and Pastimes, can turn for information. Some books
there are on Hunting, some on Racing, some on Lawn Tennis, some on
Fishing, and so on; but one Library, or succession of volumes, which
treats of the Sports and Pastimes indulged in by Englishmen--and
women--is wanting. The Badminton Library is offered to supply the
want. Of the imperfections which must be found in the execution of
such a design we are conscious. Experts often differ. But this we may
say, that those who are seeking for knowledge on any of the subjects
dealt with will find the results of many years' experience written by
men who are in every case adepts at the Sport or Pastime of which they
write. It is to point the way to success to those who are ignorant of
the sciences they aspire to master, and who have no friend to help or
coach them, that these volumes are written.

       *       *       *       *       *

To those who have worked hard to place simply and clearly before the
reader that which he will find within, the best thanks of the Editor
are due. That it has been no slight labour to supervise all that has
been written, he must acknowledge; but it has been a labour of love,
and very much lightened by the courtesy of the Publisher, by the
unflinching, indefatigable assistance of the Sub-Editor, and by the
intelligent and able arrangement of each subject by the various
writers, who are so thoroughly masters of the subjects of which they
treat. The reward we all hope to reap is that our work may prove
useful to this and future generations.

                                                           THE EDITOR.



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME


  CHAPTER                                                         PAGE

     I. INTRODUCTION                                                 1
        _By Sir Edward Sullivan, Bart._


    II. OCEAN CRUISING                                              18
        _By Lord Brassey, K.C.B._


   III. CORINTHIAN DEEP-SEA CRUISING                                41
        _By C. E. Seth-Smith, C.B. (late commanding London Brigade
        Royal Naval Volunteers_)


    IV. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN RACING YACHT                    50
        _By G. L. Watson._


     V. SLIDING KEELS AND CENTREBOARDS                             102
        _By R. T. Pritchett._


    VI. RECOLLECTIONS OF SCHOONER RACING                           108
        _By Sir George Leach, K.C.B., Vice-President Y.R.A._


   VII. THE RACING RULES AND THE RULES OF RATING                   146
        _By 'Thalassa.'_


  VIII. YACHT'S SAILING BOATS                                      187
        _By the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery._


    IX. SMALL YACHT RACING ON THE SOLENT                           222
        _By 'Thalassa.'_


     X. FITTING OUT A FIFTY-TONNER TO GO FOREIGN.                  295
        _By E. F. Knight._


    XI. BALTIC CRUISING                                            308
        _By E. F. Knight._


   XII. FIVE-TONNERS AND FIVE-RATERS IN THE NORTH                  322
        _By G. L. Blake._


  XIII. YACHT INSURANCE                                            407
       _By G. L. Blake._


  INDEX                                                            415


ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FIRST VOLUME

(_Reproduced by J. D. Cooper and Messrs. Walker & Boutall_)


FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

                                       ARTIST             TO FACE PAGE

  UNION JACK                                            _Frontispiece_

  'BRITANNIA,' H.R.H. Prince of Wales
               _From a photograph by Wm. U. Kirk, of Cowes_         50

  'VARUNA,' 40-RATER
               _From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay_          54

  'DORA,' 10-TONNER
                                  "                                 58

  'ARROW'--LINES
               _G. L. Watson_                                       72

  'LETHE'--KEEL
               _From a photograph_                                  78

  SALOON OF 'THISTLE'
                                  "                                 82

  'JULLANAR'
               _From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay_          88

  MIDSHIP SECTIONS
               _J. M. Soper, M.I.N.A._                             102

  'EGERIA'
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   114

  'EGERIA' AND 'OIMARA'
                                  "                                134

  'SEABELLE'
                                  "                                138

  RACING FLAGS, SCHOONERS, CUTTERS, YAWLS, &c                      140

  'SAVOURNA,' 5-RATER
               _From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay_         244

  'THE BABE,' 2-1/2-RATER
               _From a photograph by Symonds, of Portsmouth_       246

  'DACIA,' 5-RATER
                                  "                                252

  SOLENT OWNERS' RACING COLOURS                                    276

  START OF SMALL RATERS ON THE CLYDE
               _From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay_         354

  'WENONAH,' 2-1/2-RATER
                                  "                                360

  'RED LANCER,' 5-RATER
                                  "                                372

  COMMERCIAL CODE OF SIGNALS                                       394


ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

  BEFORE THE START (_Vignette_)                           _Title-page_

  VICTORIA CUP, 1893
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                     1

  'SUNBEAM' (R.Y.S), 1874
                                  "                                 19

  'SUNBEAM'--MIDSHIP SECTION
               _St. Clare Byrne, of Liverpool_                      24

  'SUNBEAM'--LINES
                                  "                                 29

  'CYGNET,' CUTTER, 1846--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _G. L. Watson_                                       54

  'PROBLEM,' 1852--PROFILE AND DECK PLAN
               _Hunt's Magazine_                                    55

  'VARUNA,' 1892--PROFILE
               _G. L. Watson_                                       55

  VANDERDECKEN'S TONNAGE CHEATER
               _Hunt's Magazine_                                    56

  DOG-LEGGED STERNPOST
               _G. L. Watson_                                       57

  'QUIRAING,' 1877--IMMERSED COUNTER
                                  "                                 58

  'BRITANNIA,' 1893--CUTWATER
                                  "                                 60

  'THISTLE,' 1887--CUTWATER
                                  "                                 60

  DIAGRAM OF LENGTH AND DISPLACEMENT OF 5-TONNERS
               _G. L. Watson_                                       62

  PROFILES OF 5-TONNERS
                                  "                                 63

  SECTIONS SHOWING DECREASE OF BREADTH AND INCREASE OF DEPTH IN
  5-TONNERS UNDER 94 AND 1730 RULES
                                  "                                 63

  DIAGRAM OF VARIATION UNDER DIFFERENT RULES
                                  "                                 64

  DIAGRAM SHOWING VARIATION OF DIMENSIONS, &c., WITH YEARS;
  40-RATERS; L. AND S.A. RULE.
                                  "                                 67

  PROFILES OF 40-RATERS
                                  "                                 67

  MIDSHIP SECTIONS OF 40-RATERS
                                  "                                 68

  'LEOPARD,' 1807--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _Linn Ratsey, of Cowes_                              72

  'MOSQUITO,' 1848--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _T. Waterman_                                        75

  'LETHE'--MIDSHIP SECTION
               _G. L. Watson_                                       79

  'VALKYRIE'--PROFILE
                                  "                                 82

  'VIGILANT'--PROFILE
                                  "                                 82

  'BRITANNIA' CUTTER--GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN
                                  "                                 84

  S.S. 'MERKARA'--RESISTANCE CURVES
                                  "                                 87

  'JULLANAR,' YAWL, 1875--MIDSHIP SECTION
               _E. H. Bentall, Esq._                                89

  'JULLANAR,' YAWL--LINES
                                  "                                 91

  'EVOLUTION,' 1880--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
                                  "                                 92

  'METEOR' (LATE 'THISTLE'), 1887--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _G. L. Watson_                                       94

  'FLORINDA,' YAWL, 1873--LINES
               _Camper & Nicholson, of Gosport_                     97

  'KRIEMHILDA,' 1872--PROFILE
               _Michael Ratsey, of Cowes_                           98

  'FLORINDA,' YAWL, 1873--PLANS
               _Camper & Nicholson, of Gosport_                    100

  'FLORINDA,' YAWL, 1873--MIDSHIP SECTION
                                  "                                101

  H.M. BRIG 'LADY NELSON,' WITH THREE KEELS, 1797
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   102

  DIAGRAM OF BOAT WITH ONE CENTREBOARD, 1774
                                  "                                103

  DIAGRAM OF BOAT WITH THREE SLIDING KEELS, 1789
                                  "                                103

  DIAGRAMS SHOWING USE OF THREE KEELS IN 'LAYING TO,' 'ON A WIND,'
  AND SCUDDING
                                  "                                104

  'CUMBERLAND,' WITH FIVE SLIDING KEELS
               _From a model in possession of Taylor family_       105

  'CUMBERLAND,' SHOWING THE FIVE KEELS DOWN
                                  "                                105

  H.M. 'TRIAL' CUTTER, 1791--SHEER DRAUGHT
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   107

  'KESTREL,' SCHOONER, 1839
                                  "                                108

  'PANTOMIME,' SCHOONER, 1865--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _Michael Ratsey, of Cowes_                          112

  'CAMBRIA,' BEATING 'DAUNTLESS' IN 1870
  (_From picture at R.T.Y.C._)
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   125

  'DAUNTLESS,' SCHOONER (N.Y.Y.C.), 1871
                                  "                                129

  'CETONIA,' SCHOONER, 1873--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _Michael Ratsey, of Cowes_                          142

  THE START
               _From a photograph by Debenham, of Cowes_           148

  CHART OF THE ROYAL SOUTHAMPTON YACHT CLUB (BRAMBLES AND LEPE
  COURSE)                                                          161

  DIAGRAM OF SAIL CURVES, 40-RATING CLASS
               _'Thalassa'_                                        173

  WHALES
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   189

  THE SWOOP OF THE GANNET
                                  "                                192

  'BLACK PEARL'S' CUTTER--MIDSHIP SECTION
                                  "                                200

  MAIN SHEET ON IRON HORSE                                         202

  'BLACK PEARL'S' CUTTER--SAIL PLAN
               _Richard Perry & Co._                               203

  S.S. 'ALINE'S' CUTTER                                            205

  S.S. 'ALINE'S' CUTTER--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _Earl of Pembroke_                                  207

  'BLACK PEARL'S' CUTTER--LINES
                                  "                                209

  THE SQUALL IN LOCH SCAVAIG, SKYE
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   217

  'EXCUSE ME'
                                  "                                218

  SELF-UNMOORED
                                  "                                219

  NEVER 'MOON'
                                  "                                220

  THERE IS NO PLACE LIKE HOME
                                  "                                221

  'COCK-A-WHOOP,' 1889--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _A. E. Payne_                                       234

  'HUMMING BIRD,' 1889
               _A. E. Payne, from a photograph by Symonds_         236

  'QUINQUE,' 5-RATER; LT.-COL. BUCKNILL, R.E.
               _From a photograph by Symonds, of Portsmouth_       242

  'THE BABE,' 1890--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _A. E. Payne_                                       244

  'MOSQUITO,' 1892, WITH ROLL FORESAIL
               _J. M. Soper_                                       249

  'DOREEN,' 1892
               _From a photograph by Debenham, of Cowes_           252

  'CYANE,' 1892
               _From a private Kodak_                              253

  'WINDFALL,' 1891
               From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay           254

  'FAUGH-A-BALLAGH,' 1892--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _A. E. Payne_                                       256

  DIAGRAMS SHOWING IMPROVEMENTS IN FORE SECTIONS OF 2-1/2 RATERS
               _J. M. Soper_                                       257

  DIAGRAMS SHOWING IMPROVEMENTS IN AFT SECTIONS OF 2-1/2 RATERS
                                  "                                258

  DESIGN FOR 1-RATER BY J. M. SOPER, 1892
                                  "                                260

  DESIGN FOR A CENTREBOARD 1-RATER BY J. M. SOPER, 1892
                                  "                                262

  'WEE WINN,' 1892
               _From a photograph by Debenham, of Cowes_           265

  'WEE WINN'--LINES
               _J. M. Soper_                                       266

  'DAISY,' 1892--LINES
                                  "                                266

  CHART OF THE ROYAL SOUTHAMPTON YACHT CLUB, 'BRAMBLES COURSE'     283

  THE DROGUE OFF THE KULLEN HEAD
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   308

  DANSKE FISHING-BOAT AND ANCHOR
                                  "                                311

  ROSKILDE FROM THE FIORD
                                  "                                313

  A DANSKE CRAFT
                                  "                                315

  A GOOD CRAFT FOR THE BALTIC
                                  "                                317

  TOWING HEAD TO WIND
                                  "                                319

  A DROGUE
                                  "                                321

  CHART OF THE DUBLIN, KINGSTOWN, AND MERSEY COURSE                327

  'FREDA'
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   336

  'CHALLENGE,' 1876
                                  "                                339

  'MINERVA,' 1888--LINES AND MIDSHIP SECTION
               _Fife of Fairlie_                                   368

  'NATICA,' 1892
               _From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay_         374

  IN THE CHANNEL
               _R. T. Pritchett_                                   406



CHAPTER I

[Illustration: Yachts.]

INTRODUCTION

BY SIR EDWARD SULLIVAN, BART.


[Illustration: VICTORIA CUP. 1893.]

It is related that Chrysippus, a cynic, killed himself in order that
he might sooner enjoy the delights of Paradise. Philosophers do queer
things sometimes. Many who are not philosophers kill themselves in
order to avoid the miseries of this world; but, as far as I know, this
is the only case on record of a man killing himself from impatience to
enjoy the pleasures of the next.

Ideas of Paradise are exceedingly various. To the ancients Paradise
meant a _dolce far niente_ in the Elysian Fields; to the North
American Indians it means happy hunting grounds and plenty of fat
buffalo. The Scythians believed in a Paradise of immortal drunkenness
and drinking blood out of the skulls of their enemies, and the
Paradise that to-day influences the belief of one-fourth of the human
race is contained in Chapter X. of the Koran. To Madame de Chevreuse
it meant chatting with her friends in the next world. To one friend of
mine it was galloping for ever over a grass country without gates. To
another it meant driving four horses, with Tim Carter seated at his
side. To some, I believe, Paradise means yachting, and for my own
part, I think a 200-ton schooner, a ten-knot breeze, and a summer sea
hard to beat. Whether yachting approaches one's conception of Paradise
or not, I think there are very few of us who, if they do not suffer
from that hopeless affection the _mal de mer_, do not more or less
enjoy a life on the ocean wave; it is so fresh and life-giving and so
various. 'A home on the stormy deep' we won't say so much about. I
have seen two or three storms at sea, but I have never found them
pleasant; very much the contrary. There is grandeur, if you like, but
there is also terror and horror.

  As black as night she turned to white,
    And cast against the cloud
  A snowy sheet as if each surge
    Upturned a sailor's shroud.

This is poetry; but it is true. You look to windward, and you look to
leeward; you look ahead, and you look astern, and you feel that, if
you are not already engulfed, you probably may be in the next minute.

Dr. Johnson said the pleasure of going to sea was getting ashore
again; certainly the pleasure of a storm is getting into smooth water
again.

The ideas of pleasure as connected with yachting vary as much as the
ideas of Paradise; to one it means steaming at full speed from one
port to another; but this becomes monotonous. A friend of mine used to
write a letter at Cowes, address it to himself at Guernsey, and then
steam, hard all, to Guernsey to get his letter. When he got it he
would write to himself at Plymouth, then steam away, hard all again,
to get that, and so on; even in steaming you must have an object of
some kind, you know.

To another dowagering up and down the Solent, lunching on board, and
then hurrying back to dine and sleep ashore are pleasure; to another,
sailing with the wind, or against the wind, or drifting when there is
no wind, is the ideal of yachting. Certainly that is mine. I have
tried both. I have had a steamer and I have had sailing vessels, and
if I lived to the age of the Hyperboreans and owned several gold mines
I should never keep a steamer for pleasure. In sailing, the interest
never flags; the rigging, the sails, the anchors, the cables, the
boats, the decks, all have their separate interest; every puff of
wind, every catspaw, is a source of entertainment, and when the breeze
comes, and, with everything drawing below and aloft, you tear along
ten or twelve knots an hour, the sensation of pleasure is complete--if
you are not sick.

I can never allow that steaming, under any conditions, can give the
same pleasure as sailing--nor a hundredth part of it. If you are in a
hurry, steam by all means--steam, steam, steam, pile on the coal,
blacken sea and sky with your filthy smoke, and get into your port;
but that is the pleasure of locomotion, not of yachting. Even as
regards locomotion, there are occasions when a fine sailing vessel
will go by a steamer as if she were standing still.

Years ago I sailed from Plymouth to Lisbon in four days, and from
Lisbon to Cowes in four days, and passed all the steamers on the way!
_Atque haec olim meminisse juvabit._ These are the happy moments, like
forty minutes across a grass country, that fond memory brings back to
us, and which Time's effacing fingers will never touch. Can steam at
its best afford such delight as this? No; of course not. But,
although this is my opinion of the relative pleasure of sailing and
steaming, it is not by any means the general one; the race of steam
_versus_ canvas has been run, and alas! steam has won easily, hands
down. I say alas! for I think that, from every point of view, yachting
has suffered from the general employment of steam.

One of the objects of the Royal Yacht Squadron, when it was originally
founded, was to encourage seamanship, and, as steam was supposed to
destroy seamanship, steamers were not admitted into the Club; and the
Royal Yacht Squadron was right. Steam does destroy seamanship; a
steamship hand is certainly not half a sailor. Now more than half the
tonnage of the Club is in steamers. I think it is a pity, and they are
such steamers too! 800 tons, 1,000 tons, 1,500 tons. I do not see
where they are to stop; but, I believe that in this, as in most
things, we have run into excess. I cannot believe that the largest
steam yacht afloat, with all the luxury and cost that upholsterers and
cabinet-makers can devise, will ever give a man who is fond of the sea
and seafaring matters a tithe of the gratification that a 100-ton
sailing vessel will afford; one is a floating hotel, the other is a
floating cottage. I prefer the cottage.

The worry of maintaining discipline in a crew of forty or fifty men,
amongst whom there is sure to be one or two black sheep, the smoke,
the smell of oil, the vibration, the noise, even the monotony, destroy
pleasure. Personally, the game seems to me not worth the candle.

Thirty or forty years ago, yachting men with their sixty or hundred
tonners went on year after year, fitting out, and cruising about the
coast, as part of their yearly life. When their vessel was wearing
out, they would sell her, and buy or build another; they seldom parted
with her for any other reason. Now a man builds a floating palace or
hotel at a fabulous cost; but as a general rule in about two years he
wants to sell her and to retire from yachting life.

A sailing vessel and a steamer are different articles; you get
attached to a sailing vessel as you do to anything animate, to your
horse, or your dog; but I defy anyone to get attached to a smoky, oily
steamer. There is an individuality about the sailing vessel; none
about the steamer.

When the seven wise men of Greece delivered the oracular dictum that
there were only two beautiful things in the world, women and roses,
and only two good things, women and wine, they spoke according to
their limited experience--they had never seen the new type of racing
yacht under sail. Of course the perfection of animate beauty is
represented by women, but certainly inanimate nature can show nothing
more beautiful than 'Britannia,' 'Navahoe,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Satanita,'
their sails well filled, the sun shining on them, streaking along
twelve or thirteen knots an hour, apparently without an effort,
scarcely raising a ripple. And then a yacht is so exceedingly feminine
in her ways. One day everything goes right with her--she will not only
do all she is asked to do, but a great deal more than her greatest
admirers ever thought she could do: the next day everything goes wrong
with her--she will not do anything she is asked, and indeed will not
do what her admirers know she can do without an effort.

Some women--I speak it with all respect--bear being 'squeezed' and
'pinched,' they almost seem to like it, at any rate they don't cry
out; whereas others will cry out immediately and vigorously. So will
yachts.

The more you squeeze one vessel, the more you pinch her, the more she
seems to enjoy it. Squeeze another, pinch her into the wind, and she
lies down and calls out at once. The difference between vessels in
this respect is quite funny, and essentially feminine.

Curiously enough, extremes meet; that is to say, if the pendulum of
taste or fashion goes very much over to one side, it is sure to go
over just as far on the other. Sailing yachts of 100, 200, 300 tons
have gone out of fashion, and leviathan steamers of 800, 1,000, 1,500
tons have taken their place; but at the same time that a taste for
immense steamers has driven moderate-sized sailing vessels out of the
field, a taste for small boats, 5-raters, 3-raters, 1/2-raters--I
don't quite understand their rating--has sprung up, and promises
almost to supplant the big steamers themselves.

I believe the increasing popularity of these swallows of the seas--for
turning, wheeling, skimming, doubling, as they do, I can compare them
to nothing else--is a very good omen for yachting; they are expensive
for their size and tonnage, certainly, but, after all, their cost may
be counted in hundreds instead of tens of thousands. They have brought
scientific boat sailing and racing within the reach of hundreds who
cannot afford big racing yachts; and, moreover, the ladies join in
these exciting contests, and of course very often win. In endurance,
and courage, and nerve, and quickness, they are quite the equals of
the other sex; and if they are occasionally a little too pertinacious,
a little too eager to win, and don't always 'go about' exactly when
the rules of the road require, what does it signify? Who grudges them
their little victory?

A flight of these sea swallows skimming over the course at Calshot
Castle, on a fine day with a good working breeze, is one of the
prettiest sights in the world.

Independently of the health-giving and invigorating influences both to
mind and body of a yachting life, it has advantages that in my opinion
raise it above any other sport, if sport it is to be called. There is
neither cruelty nor professionalism in yachting, except when certain
foolish snobs in sheer wantonness shoot the too-confiding gulls that
hover round the sterns of their yachts. There is no professional
element in yachting, I repeat, not even in yacht racing, at least not
enough to speak of, and it is an enormous advantage in its favour that
it brings one into contact with what I believe is without doubt the
best of our working population; for are not the toilers of the sea
workers in the very fullest sense of the word?

Yacht sailors, as a rule, are sober, honest, obliging, good-tempered,
original. During the many years I have yachted, I have had crews from
north, east, west, and south, and I have almost without exception
found them the same. A man must be hard to please indeed, if, after a
three or four months' cruise, he does not part from his crew with
regret, and with a sincere wish that they may meet again.

Amongst yachting skippers, I have come across some of the most
honourable, trustworthy, honest men I have met in any class of life,
men who know their duty, and are always willing and anxious to do it.

The chief peculiarity of all the seafaring class that I have been
brought into contact with is their entire freedom from vulgarity. They
are obliging to the utmost of their power, but never cringing or
vulgar. The winter half of their lives is spent in fishing-boats, or
coasters, or sea voyages where they have to face dangers and hardships
that must be experienced to be realised. As a rule, they are
religious; and their preparations for the Sabbath, their washings and
soapings and brushings, show with what pleasure they welcome its
recurrence. Yacht minstrelsy, with its accordion, its songs of twenty
verses, its never-ending choruses, its pathos, is a thing of itself.
Some day perhaps some Albert Chevalier will make it fashionable. Such
as they are, I know no class of Englishmen superior, if any be equal,
to the sailors who man our yachts. Of course there are sharks, or at
any rate dog-fish, in all waters; but where the good so immensely
outnumber the bad, that man must be a fool indeed who gets into wrong
hands.

To say there is no vulgarity in yachting is not true; there is; but it
is not amongst the men or among the skippers. And, after all, the
vulgarity one sometimes sees amongst yacht-owners does not go for
much; it amuses them and hurts nobody. If the amateur sailor wishes to
be thought more of a sailor than the sailor born, he soon finds out
his mistake, and when he gets into a good club subsides into his
proper position.

To those who are fond of the sea and of yachting, the yacht is the
most 'homey' of residences; everything is cosy, and comfortable, and
within reach; and the sensation of carrying your house and all its
comforts about with you is unique.

The internal economy of a yacht constitutes one of its greatest
charms. Your cook, with only a little stove for which a shore cook
would scarcely find any use, will send you up an excellent dinner
cooked to perfection for any number of guests; and the steward! who
can describe the work of a yacht's steward? I doubt whether Briareus
with his hundred hands could do more than a steward does with two. At
seven in the morning he is ashore for the milk, and the breakfast, and
the letters, and the flowers; he valets half a dozen people, prepares
half a dozen baths, brushes heaven knows how many clothes, gets the
breakfast, makes the beds, cleans the plate, tidies the cabin,
provides luncheon, five-o'clock tea, dinner, is always cheerful,
obliging, painstaking, and more than repaid if occasionally he gets a
_petit mot_ of compliment or congratulation. When he ever sleeps, or
eats, I never can tell; and, far from grumbling at his work, he often
resents the assistance of any shore-going servant.

The introduction of steam launches has added very much to the
pleasures of yachting, and to my mind has greatly lessened the
advantages, if any, that steamers possess over sailing vessels. Every
vessel of 100 tons and over can now carry a steam launch, big or
small, at the davits, or on deck. You _sail_ from port to port, or
loch to loch, in your sailing vessel, and when you have found snug
anchorage, you 'out kettle' and puff away for as long as you like,
enjoying the pleasure of exploring the rivers and creeks and
neighbouring objects of interest. Everywhere this is delightful, at
Plymouth, at Dartmouth, at Falmouth, the Scilly Isles, at St. Malo,
and perhaps especially in Scotland.

To my mind, the West Coast of Scotland is, _par excellence_, the happy
cruising grounds of yachtsmen. I know of none like it--the number and
variety of the lochs, the wild grandeur of some, the soft beauty of
others, the mountains, the rocks, the islands, the solitude, the
forests, the trees.

  Oh! the Oak and the Ash, and the bonny Ivy tree,
  They flourish best at home in the North Countrie.

The heather, especially the white, the ferns, the mosses, the wild
flowers, the innumerable birds and fish, the occasional seals and
whales, the wildness of the surroundings, all combine to give it a
charm that is indescribable. I have seen on the coast of Skye a whale,
thirty or forty feet long, jump clean out of the water three or four
times, like a salmon. Anchored close under a cliff in Loch Hourn, and
happening to look up, I met the wondering eyes of a hind craning over
the edge of the cliffs, and staring right down on the yacht. Go the
world over, you will nowhere find so much varied beauty, above or
below, on land or sea, as on the West Coast of Scotland.

Nobody can explore or appreciate the beauty of the Scotch lochs
without a 'kettle.' It spoils one's pleasure to keep a boat's crew
pulling for eight or ten hours in a hot sun, and therefore, if you
have no steam launch, many expeditions that promise much interest and
pleasure are abandoned; but with your kettle and a man, or a man and a
boy, you don't care how long you are out or how far you go. This to my
mind is the most enjoyable combination of sails and steam--a
comfortable sailing vessel, schooner or ketch for choice, to carry you
from port to port, and a steam launch for exploration when you get
there.

The accommodation of a sailing vessel is, on a rough calculation,
double the accommodation of a steamer of the same tonnage. The Earl of
Wilton, Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, had a schooner of 200
tons, and after sailing in her many years he decided, as so many
others have done, to give up sailing and take to steam. To obtain
exactly the same accommodation that he had on board his 200-ton
schooner, he had to build a steamer, the 'Palatine,' of 400 tons. Of
course in an iron steamer of 400 tons the height between decks is
very much greater than in a wooden schooner of 200 tons. Also the
cabins are larger, but there are no more of them.

I think many people have erroneous ideas of the cost of yachting.
Yacht _racing_, especially in the modern cutters of 150 or 170 tons,
is very expensive. The wear and tear of spars and gear is incredible.
I believe that in the yachting season of 1893 H.R.H. the Prince of
Wales's vessel the 'Britannia' sprang or carried away three masts; and
some of his competitors were not more lucky. Then racing wages are
very heavy: 10_s._ per man when you lose, and 20_s._ when you win,
with unlimited beef, and beer, &c., mount up when you have a great
many hands, and the new type of racer, with booms 90 feet long,
requires an unlimited number; when you look at these boats racing,
they seem actually swarming with men. In addition to 10_s._ or 20_s._
to each man, the skipper gets 5 per cent. or 10 per cent. of the value
of the prize, or its equivalent.

So that a modern racing yacht with a crew of 30 men may, if
successful, easily knock a hole in 1,000_l._ for racing wages alone,
to say nothing of cost of spars, and sails, and gear, &c. Of course,
in comparison with keeping a pack of hounds, or a deer forest, or a
good grouse moor, or to pheasant preserving on a very large scale, the
expense of yacht racing even at its worst is modest; but still in
these days 1,000_l._ or 1,500_l._ is an item.

But yachting for pleasure, yacht cruising in fact, is _not_ an
expensive amusement. The wages of a 100- to a 200-ton cutter or
schooner will vary from 50_l._ to 100_l._ a month at the outside, and
the wear and tear, if the vessel and gear are in good order, is very
moderate; and undoubtedly the living on board a yacht is infinitely
cheaper than living ashore.

Thirty to forty pounds, or as much as fifty pounds, a week may easily
go in hotel bills if there is a largish party. Half the sum will keep
a 100- or 150-ton yacht going, wages, wear and tear, food, &c.,
included, if you are afloat for three or four months. Certainly for a
party of four or five yachting is cheaper than travelling on the
Continent with a courier and going to first-class hotels. Travelling
on the Continent under the best conditions often becomes a bore; the
carriages are stuffy and dusty, the trains are late, the officials are
uncivil or at least indifferent, the hotels are full, the kitchen is
bad, and you come to the conclusion that you would be better at home.
Now, on board a yacht you are never stuffy or dusty, the accommodation
is always good, everyone about you is always civil, anxious for your
comfort, the kitchen is never bad, and you cannot come to the
conclusion that you would be better at home, for you _are_ at
home--the most cosy and comfortable of homes!

The yachting season of 1893 will always be a memorable one. The
victory of H.I.M. the German Emperor's 'Meteor' for the Queen's Cup at
Cowes; the victorious career of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales's
'Britannia' and the 'Valkyrie'; the series of international contests
between the 'Britannia' and 'Navahoe,' with the unexpected victory of
the latter over the cross-Channel course; and, finally, the gallant
attempt of Lord Dunraven to bring back the cup from America, make a
total of yachting incidents, and indeed surprises, that will last for
a very long time. The victory of the 'Meteor' in the Queen's Cup was a
surprise: it was more than a surprise when the 'Navahoe' beat
'Britannia' to Cherbourg and back in a gale of wind. I don't know that
it was a matter of surprise that the Americans kept the Cup; I think,
indeed, it was almost a foregone conclusion. In yachting, as in
everything else, possession is nine points of the law, and a vessel
sailing in her own waters, with pilots accustomed to the local
currents and atmospheric movements, will always have an advantage.
Whether the 'Vigilant' is a better boat than the 'Valkyrie,' whether
she was better sailed, whether her centreboard had anything to do with
her victory, I cannot say. But there is the result: that the
'Vigilant' won by seven minutes, which, at the rate they were sailing,
means about a mile.

It would appear that the Americans are still slightly ahead of us in
designing yachts for speed, but they are not nearly as far ahead of us
as they were forty years ago. I remember the first time the 'America'
sailed at Cowes in 1851. I could not believe my eyes. It was blowing a
stiff breeze, and whilst all the other schooners were laying over ten
or twelve degrees, she was sailing perfectly upright, and going five
knots to their four. It was a revelation--how does she do it? was in
everybody's mouth. Now we are much more on an equality. The 'Navahoe,'
a beautiful vessel, one of the best, comes to England and is worsted:
the 'Valkyrie,' a beautiful vessel, also one of the best, goes over to
America and is worsted.

The moral I think is 'race at home in your own waters.' I do not
believe much in international contests of any kind, gravely doubting
whether they do much to promote international amity.

It is a familiar sight to see H.R.H. the Prince of Wales taking part
in yacht racing, but 1893 was the first occasion, in an English yacht
race at any rate, that the Kaiser donned his flannels and joined
personally in the contest. I suppose there is no monarch who is so
dosed with ceremony and etiquette as the Emperor of Germany. What a
relief, therefore, it must be to him to put aside the cares of
monarchy for a whole week, and sit for hours in two or three inches of
water, hauling away at the mainsheet as if his life depended on it,
happy as the traditional king, if, when he has gone about, he finds he
has gained six feet on his rival!

But beyond all this--the heartiness, the equality, the good feeling,
the absorbing interest that attends yacht racing and yacht
cruising--there are some very interesting questions that suggest
themselves in connection with the great increase of speed lately
developed by the new type of racing yachts.

There is no doubt whatever that whereas the Pleasure Fleet of England
is progressing and improving every year, and is a subject of
congratulation to everyone concerned with it--designers, builders, and
sailors--the Business Fleet, the Royal Navy, is the very reverse: not
only has it not improved, but it appears to have been going steadily
the wrong road; and instead of being a joy to designers and sailors,
it is confusion to the former, and something very like dismay to the
latter.

In James I.'s time the fleet was not held in very high estimation. It
was said of it that 'first it went to Gravesend, then to Land's End,
and then to No End,' and really that appears to be its condition now.
Whilst yachts are developing all the perfections of the sailing ship,
our ironclads seem to be developing most of the imperfections of the
steamship.

Whilst our yachts can do anything but speak, our ironclads can do
anything but float. Of course this is an exaggeration; but
exaggeration is excusable at times, at least if we are to be guided by
the debates in Parliament. At any rate, it is no exaggeration to say
they are very disappointing. If they go slow, they won't steer. If
they go fast, they won't stop. If they collide in quite a friendly
way, they go down. One sinks in twelve minutes, and the other with
difficulty keeps afloat. In half a gale of wind, if the crew remain on
deck, they are nearly drowned; if they go below, they are nearly
asphyxiated.

They have neither stability nor buoyancy. But this does not apply to
English ironclads alone. French, German, Italian, American, are all
the same. Some of these monsters are fitted with machinery as delicate
and complicated as a watch that strikes the hours, and minutes, and
seconds, tells the months, weeks, and days, the phases of the moon,
&c. &c. Some of them have no fewer than thirty to thirty-five
different engines on board. If the vessel containing all this
wonderful and elaborate machinery never left the Thames or Portsmouth
Harbour, all well and good, very likely the machinery would continue
to work; but to send such a complex arrangement across the Atlantic or
the Bay in winter seems to me contrary to common sense.

The biggest ironclad afloat, a monster of 13,000 tons, in mid ocean
is, after all, only as 'a flea on the mountain'; it is nothing; it is
tossed about, and rolled about, and struck by the seas and washed by
them, just as if it were a pilot boat of 60 tons. It is certain that
the concussion of the sea will throw many of these delicate bits of
machinery out of gear: in the 'Resolution' in a moderate gale the
engine that supplied air below decks broke down; the blow that sank
the unfortunate 'Victoria' threw the steering apparatus out of gear,
so that if she had not gone down she would not have steered; more
recently still the water in the hydraulic steering apparatus in a ship
off Sheerness froze, so that she could not put to sea. If such
accidents can happen in time of peace, when vessels are only
manoeuvring, or going from port to port, what would happen if two
13,000-ton ships rammed each other at full speed? Is it not almost
certain that the whole thirty-five engines would stop work?

We have, I suppose, nearly reached the maximum of speed attainable by
steam; have we nearly reached the maximum attainable by sails? By no
means. When Anacharsis the younger was asked which was the best ship,
he said the ship that had arrived safe in port; but even the ancients
were not always infallible. The 'Resolution' did not prove she was the
best ship by coming into port; on the contrary, she would have proved
herself a much better ship if she had been able to continue her
voyage. What we want in a man-of-war, as far as I understand the
common-sense view of the question, is buoyancy, speed, handiness, and
the power of keeping the seas for long periods.

Racing cutters of 150 to 170 tons are now built to sail at a speed
that two years ago was not dreamt of. Where a short time since the
best of them used to take minutes to go about, they now go about in as
many seconds. The racing vessels of the present day will reach
thirteen or fourteen knots an hour, and sail ten knots on a wind; with
hardly any wind at all they creep along eight knots. They do not
appear to be able to go less than eight knots; double their size, and
their speed would be immensely increased.

Now if thirteen and fourteen knots can be got out of a vessel of 170
tons, and seventeen knots out of one double her size, what speed might
you fairly expect to get out of a racing vessel of 10,000 tons? Rather
a startling suggestion certainly; but, if carefully examined, not
without reason.

We have nothing to guide us as to the probable speed of a racing
vessel of that size. Time allowance becomes lost in the immensity of
the question.

I see no reason why a vessel of 10,000 tons, built entirely for speed,
should not, on several points of sailing, go as fast as any torpedo
boat, certainly much faster than any ironclad. Her speed, reaching in
a strong breeze, would be terrific; and if 'Britannia,' 'Navahoe,'
'Valkyrie,' 'Vigilant,' and vessels of that class can sail ten knots
on a wind, why should not she sail fifteen? She would have to be fore
and aft rigged, with an immense spread of canvas, very high masts, and
very long booms; single sticks would be nowhere; but iron sticks and
iron booms can be built up of any length and any strength, and with
wire rigging I see no limit to size. Such a vessel amply provided with
torpedoes of all descriptions, and all the modern diabolisms for
destroying life, would be so dangerous a customer that no ironclad
would attack her with impunity. Of course there would occasionally be
conditions under which she would be at a disadvantage with ironclads;
but, on the other hand, there are many conditions under which
ironclads, even the best of them, would be under enormous
disadvantages with her. She could circumnavigate the globe without
stopping. I believe her passages would be phenomenal, life on board
would be bright and healthy, she would be seaworthy, able to keep the
seas in all weathers, easily handled, no complicated machinery to fail
you at the moment when you were most dependent on it; and then what a
beauty she would be! Why, a fleet of such vessels would be a sight for
gods and men. We have sailing vessels of 3,000 and 4,000 tons,
four-masted, square-rigged; they are built for carrying, not for
speed, but even they make passages that to the merchant seaman of a
hundred years ago would appear incredible.

I probably shall not live to see the clumsy, unwieldy, complicated,
unseaworthy machines called ironclads cast aside, wondered at by
succeeding generations, as we now wonder at the models of antediluvian
monsters at the Crystal Palace; but that such will be their fate I
have no doubt whatever. For our battleships we have gone back to the
times of knights in armour, when men were so loaded with iron that
where they fell there they remained, on their backs or their stomachs,
till their squires came to put them on their legs again. I am certain
that neither the public, nor the naval authorities of the world,
realise what an ironclad in time of war means--positively they will
never be safe out of near reach of a coaling station. Suppose--and
this is tolerably certain to happen--that when they reach a coaling
station they find no coal, or very possibly find it in the hands of
the enemy. What are they to do? Without coal to steam back again, or
to reach another station, they will be as helpless as any derelict on
the ocean: a balloon without gas, a locomotive without steam, a
100-ton gun without powder, would not be so useless as an ironclad
without coal.

But what has all this to do with yachting? it may be asked. Well, it
is the logical and practical result of the recent development of speed
in sailing vessels. It positively becomes the question whether racing
sails and racing hulls may not, in speed even, give results almost as
satisfactory as steam, and in many other matters results far more
favourable.

Of course the model of the racing yacht would have to be altered for
the vessel of 10,000 tons. Vessels must get their stability from beam
and from the scientific adjustment of weights, not merely from depth
of keel--the Channel would not be deep enough for a vessel that drew
twenty fathoms; but this change of design need not affect their speed
or their stability very much.

In the introduction to the Badminton Library volumes on Yachting, a
great deal might be expected about the national importance of the
pastime as a nursery for sailors, a school for daring, and all that
sort of thing. But I think all this 'jumps to the eyes'; those who run
may read it. I have preferred to treat the question of yachting more
as one of personal pleasure and amusement than of national policy; and
besides, I am sure that I may safely leave the more serious aspects of
the sport to the writers whose names are attached to the volumes.

For myself, after yachting for nearly a quarter of a century, I can
safely say that it has afforded me more unmixed pleasure than any
other sport or amusement I have ever tried. Everything about it has
been a source of delight to me--the vessels, the skippers, the crews,
the cruises. I do not think I have ever felt dull or bored on a yacht,
and even now, in the evening of life, I would willingly contract to
spend my remaining summers on board a 200-ton schooner.



CHAPTER II

OCEAN CRUISING

BY LORD BRASSEY, K.C.B.


I fear that I can scarcely hope to contribute to the present volume of
the admirable Badminton Series anything that is very new or original.
Although my voyages have extended over a long period, and have carried
me into nearly every navigable sea, I have for the most part followed
well-known tracks. The seamanship, as practised in the 'Sunbeam,' has
been in conformity with established rule; the navigation has been that
of the master-ordinary.

It would be hardly fair to fill the pages of a general treatise with
autobiography. As an introduction, however, to the remarks which
follow, my career as a yachtsman may be summarised in the most
condensed form.


VOYAGES

Twelve voyages to the Mediterranean; the furthest points reached being
Constantinople, 1874 and 1878; Cyprus, 1878; Egypt, 1882.

Three circumnavigations of Great Britain.

One circumnavigation of Great Britain and the Shetland Islands, in
1881.

Two circumnavigations of Ireland.

Cruises with the fleets during manoeuvres, in 1885, 1888, and 1889.

Voyages to Norway, in 1856, 1874, and 1885. In the latter year Mr.
Gladstone and his family were honoured and charming guests.

Voyages to Holland, in 1858 and 1863.

Round the World, 1876-77.

India, Straits Settlements, Borneo, Macassar, Australia, Cape of Good
Hope, 1886-87.

England to Calcutta, 1893.

Two voyages to the West Indies, 1883 and 1892, the latter including
visits to the Chesapeake and Washington.

[Illustration: 'Sunbeam,' R.Y.S. (Lord Brassey).]

Canada and the United States, 1872.

The Baltic, 1860.

In 1889 the 'Sunbeam' was lent to Lord Tennyson, for a short cruise in
the Channel. The owner deeply regrets that he was prevented by
Parliamentary duties from taking charge of his vessel with a passenger
so illustrious on board.

The distances covered in the course of the various cruises enumerated
may be approximately given:--

_Distances sailed: compiled from Log Books_

  +-------------------------------------------------------------+
   Year | Knots | Year | Knots | Year  |  Knots | Year  |  Knots
  +-----+-------+------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+
   1854 |   150 | 1864 | 1,000 | 1874  | 12,747 | 1884  |  3,087
   1855 |   250 | 1865 | 2,626 | 1875  |  4,370 | 1885  |  6,344
   1856 | 2,000 | 1866 | 4,400 | 1876  }        | 1886  }
   1857 | 1,500 | 1867 | 3,000 | 1877  } 37,000 | 1887  } 36,466
   1858 | 2,500 | 1868 | 1,000 | 1878  |  9,038 | 1888  |  1,175
   1859 | 2,300 | 1869 | 1,900 | 1879  |  5,627 | 1889  |  8,785
   1860 | 1,000 | 1870 | 1,400 | 1880  |  5,415 | 1890  |  8,287
   1861 |   800 | 1871 | 5,234 | 1881  |  5,435 | 1891  |  1,133
   1862 | 3,200 | 1872 | 9,152 | 1882  |  3,345 | 1892  | 11,992
   1863 |   900 | 1873 | 2,079 | 1883  | 13,545 | 1893  |  8,500
  +-------------------------------------------------------------+

  Total, 1854-1893, 228,682 knots.

I turn from the voyages to the yachts in which they were performed,
observing that no later possession filled its owner with more pride
than was felt in the smart little 8-tonner which heads the list.

  +--------+--------------------+------------+---------+---------------------+
   Date    |  Name of yacht     |  Rig       | Tonnage |            --
  +--------+--------------------+------------+---------+---------------------+
   1854-58 | Spray of the Ocean | Cutter     |   8     |   --
   1853    | Cymba (winner of   }            |         |
           |   Queen's Cup in   }    "       |  50     { Fife of Fairlie's
           |   the Mersey, 1857)}            |         { favourite
   1859-60 | Albatross          |            | 118     |   --
   1863-71 | Meteor             { Auxiliary  }         |
           |                    { schooner   } 164     |   --
   1871-72 | Muriel             | Cutter     |   60    { Dan Hatcher's
           |                    |            |         { favourite
   1872    | Eothen             | S.S.       | 340     |
   1874-93 | Sunbeam            { Auxiliary  }         |
           |                    { schooner   } 532     |   --
   1882-83 | Norman             | Cutter     |   40    | Dan Hatcher
   1891    | Lorna              |   "        |   90    { Camper and Nicholson
           |                    |            |         { (1881)
   1892-93 | Zarita             | Yawl       |  115    { Fife of Fairlie
           |                    |            |         { (1875)
  +--------+--------------------+------------+---------+---------------------+
                          _Yachts hired_
   1885    | Lillah             | Cutter     |   20    |   --
   1863    | Eulalie            |   "        |   18    |   --
   1873    | Livonia            | Schooner   |  240    | Ratsey (1871)
  +--------+--------------------+------------+---------+---------------------+

The variety of craft in the foregoing list naturally affords
opportunity for comparison. I shall be glad if such practical lessons
as I have learned can be of service to my brother yachtsmen. And,
first, as to the class of vessel suitable for ocean cruising. As might
be expected, our home-keeping craft are generally too small for long
voyages. Rajah Brooke did some memorable work in the 'Royalist'
schooner, 45 tons; but a vessel of 400 tons is not too large to keep
the sea and to make a fair passage in all weathers, while giving space
enough for privacy and comfort to the owner, his friends, and the
crew. Such vessels as the truly noble 'St. George,' 871 tons, the
'Valhalla,' 1,400 tons, and Mr. Vanderbilt's 'Valiant,' of 2,350 tons
(Mr. St. Clare Byrne's latest production), cannot be discussed as
examples of a type which can be repeated in ordinary practice.
Yachtsmen have been deterred from going to sufficient tonnage by
considerations of expense. When providing a floating home of possibly
many years, first cost is a less serious question than the annual
outlay in maintaining and working.

A cruise on the eastern seaboard of North America, where the business
of coasting has been brought to the highest perfection, would
materially alter the prevailing view as to the complements necessary
for handling a schooner of the tonnage recommended. The coasting trade
of the United States is carried on in large schooners, rigged with
three to five masts. All the sails are fore and aft. In tacking, a
couple of hands attend the headsheets, and these, with a man at the
wheel, are sufficient to do the work of a watch, even in narrow
channels, working short boards. The anchor is weighed and the large
sails are hoisted by steam-power. The crews of the American
fore-and-aft schooners scarcely exceed the proportion of one man to
every hundred tons of cargo carried. For a three-masted schooner of
400 tons, a crew of twelve working hands would be ample, even where
the requirements of a yacht have to be provided for. In point of
safety, comfort, speed in blowing weather, and general ability to keep
the sea and make passages, the 400-ton schooner would offer most
desirable advantages over schooner yachts of half the tonnage,
although manned with the same number of hands.

It is not within the scope of my present remarks to treat of naval
architecture. The volumes will contain contributions from such able
men as Messrs. G. L. Watson, who designed the 'Britannia' and
'Valkyrie,' and Lewis Herreshoff, whose 'Navahoe' and 'Vigilant' have
recently attracted so much attention. I may, however, say that my
personal experience leads me to admire the American models, in which
broad beam and good sheer are always found. In 1886, I had the
opportunity of seeing the International Race for the America Cup, when
the English cutter 'Galatea' (Lieut. Henn, R.N.), with a sail-area of
7,146 feet, and 81 tons of ballast, sailed against the American sloop
'Puritan,' with 9,000 square feet of sail-area and 48 tons of ballast.
On this occasion, the advantages of great beam, combined with a
shallow middle body and a deep keel, were conspicuously illustrated.
The Americans, while satisfied with their type, do not consider their
sloops as seaworthy as our cutters. The development which seems
desirable in our English building was indicated in a letter addressed
to the 'Times' from Chicago in September 1886:--

     Avoiding exaggerations on both sides, we may build up on the
     solid keel of an English cutter a hull not widely differing
     in form from that of the typical American sloop. It can be
     done, and pride and prejudice should not be suffered to bar
     the way of improvement. The yachtsmen of a past generation,
     led by Mr. Weld of Lulworth, the owner of the famous
     'Alarm,' were not slow to learn a lesson from the contests
     with the 'America' in 1851. We may improve our cutters, as
     we formerly improved our schooners, by adaptations and
     modifications, which need not be servile imitations of the
     fine sloops our champion vessels have encountered on the
     other side of the Atlantic.

After the lapse of seven years, we find ourselves, in 1893, at the
termination of a very remarkable year's yachting. The new
construction has included H.R.H. the Prince of Wales's yacht, the
'Britannia,' with 23 feet beam, Lord Dunraven's 'Valkyrie,' Mr.
Clarke's 'Satanita,' and the Clyde champion 'Calluna,' all conspicuous
for development of beam, combined with the deep, fine keel which is
our English substitute for the American centreboard. These vessels
have proved doughty antagonists of the 'Navahoe,' brought over by that
spirited yacht-owner, Mr. Caryll, to challenge all comers in British
waters.

Thus far as to sailing yachts. Though the fashion of the hour has set
strongly towards steam-propelled vessels, the beautiful white canvas,
and the easy motion when under sail, will long retain their
fascination for all pleasure voyaging. It is pleasant to be free from
the thud of engines, the smell of oil, and the horrors of the
inevitable coaling. Owners who have no love for sailing, and to whom a
yacht is essentially a means of conveyance from port to port and a
floating home, do well to go for steam. The most efficient and
cheapest steam yacht is one in which the masts are reduced to two
signal-poles, on which jib-headed trysails may be set to prevent
rolling. As to tonnage, the remarks already offered on the advantages
of large size apply to steamers even more than to sailing yachts. When
space must be given to machinery, boilers, and bunkers, the tonnage
must be ample to give the required accommodation. The cost of building
and manning, and the horse-power of the engines, do not increase in
proportion to the increase of size. The building of steamers for the
work of tramps has now been brought down to 7_l_. per ton. I would
strongly urge yacht-owners contemplating ocean cruising to build
vessels of not less than 600 tons. Let the fittings be as simple and
inexpensive as possible, but let the tonnage be large enough to secure
a powerful sea-boat, with coal endurance equal to 3,000 knots, at ten
knots, capable of keeping up a fair speed against a stiff head wind,
and habitable and secure in all weathers.

Deck-houses are a great amenity at sea, but the conventional yacht
skipper loves a roomy deck, white as snow, truly a marvel of
scrubbing. Considerations of habitability at sea are totally
disregarded by one who feels no need for an airy place of retirement
for reading and writing. The owner, seeking to make life afloat pass
pleasantly, will consider deck cabins indispensable.

There remains a third and very important type for ocean cruising, that
of the sailing yacht with auxiliary steam-power. The 'Firefly,' owned
by Sir Henry Oglander, the pioneer in this class, suggested to the
present writer a debased imitation in the 'Meteor,' 164 tons. About
the same date somewhat similar vessels were brought out, amongst
others by Lord Dufferin, whose earliest experiences under sail had
been given to the world in 'Letters from High Latitudes.' All will
remember the never-varying announcement by a not too cheering steward,
on calling his owner, in response to the inquiry, 'How is the wind?'
'Dead ahead, my lord, dead ahead!'

[Illustration: 'Sunbeam'--midship section.]

The 'Sunbeam' was launched in 1874; following in her wake, the
'Chazalie,' 1875, 'Czarina,' 1877, and the 'Lancashire Witch,' 1878,
appeared in rapid succession. The 'Lancashire Witch' was bought by the
Admiralty for a surveying vessel, as being especially adapted to the
requirements of that particular service. The 'St. George,' 831 tons,
launched 1890, is an enlargement and improvement on her predecessors
already named. She does credit to her owner, Mr. Wythes; the designer,
Mr. Storey; and the builders, Messrs. Ramage. The 'Sunbeam,' as the
first of this class, has been a great success. She was designed by Mr.
St. Clare Byrne, M.I.N.A., as a composite three-masted topsail-yard
screw schooner, constructed at Birkenhead, and launched in 1874. The
following table gives the leading details:--

  Material of hull                 Iron frame, teak skin
  Length of hull                   159 feet, over all 170 feet
  Beam                              27 ft. 6 in.
  Depth of hold                     13 ft. 9 in.
  Displacement in tons             576 tons
  Draught                           13 ft. 6 in.
  Registered tonnage               227 tons
  Engines, compound                   By Laird, of Birkenhead
  Horse-power                         70 nominal, or 350 indicated
  Stowage of coals in bunkers         70 tons
  Sail area                        9,200 square yards
  Weight of port anchor               12 cwt. 2 qr.
    "      starboard anchor           12 cwt. 1 qr. 6 lbs.
  Size of cable on board               1-1/16 inch }
    "      new cable on shore          1-2/16 "    } bower cables
  Stowage of water:
  Fore tanks                           6-1/2 tons  }
  After tanks                          4      "    } total, 16 tons
  Reserve tanks                        5-1/2  "    }
  Lead ballast                        75 tons
  Speed in fine weather                9 knots
  Average consumption of coal daily    6 tons

_Dimensions of Spars_

  +--------------------------------+-------------+-------------------------+
                  --               |  Length     |    Diam.
  +--------------------------------+-------------+-------------------------+
                    FORE           |    ft.      |  in.
   Foremast, from deck to masthead |    69-1/2   |     --
   Below deck                      |    14-1/2   |     --
       Total                       |    84       |  19-1/2
   Top and topgallant-mast         |    45       |  12
   Fore-yard                       |    50-1/2   |  12
   Topsail-yard                    |    42-1/2   |   9
   Topgallant-yard                 |    33       |   7
   Fore-gaff                       |    29-1/2   |   7
   Fore-boom                       |    33-3/4   |   9
                    MAIN           |             |
   Mainmast from deck to masthead  |    74       |     --
   Below deck                      |    14-1/2   |     --
       Total                       |    88-1/2   |  19
   Main-topmast                    |    42-2/3   |   9-1/2
   Main-gaff                       |    29-3/4   |   7-1/2
   Main-boom                       |    35-1/4   |   8-3/4
                    MIZEN          |             |
   Mizenmast from deck to masthead |   78-1/2    |     --
   Below deck                      |    7-1/2    |     --
       Total                       |   86        |  18-1/2
   Mizen-topmast                   |   43-1/2    |   9-1/2
   Mizen-gaff                      |   33        |   9
   Mizen-boom                      |   52-3/4    |  13-1/2
  +--------------------------------+-------------+-------------------------+
   Jibboom, length 49 ft. 9 in., diameter  9-1/2 inches
   Bowsprit   "    21 ft. 9 in.    "      17-1/2 inches (outside knighthead)
  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+

It may be interesting to give some general account of the 'Sunbeam's'
performances at sea.

In making the voyage round the world in 1876-77 the total distances
covered were 15,000 knots under sail and 12,800 knots under steam. The
best run under steam alone was 230 knots. The most successful
continuous performance was on the passage from Penang to Galle, when
1,451 knots were steamed in a week, with a daily consumption of 4-1/4
tons of coal. The best runs under sail, from noon to noon, were 298
and 299 knots respectively. The first was on the passage from Honolulu
to Yokohama, sailing along the 16th parallel of north latitude, and
between 163° and 168° 15' east. The second was in the Formosa Channel.
The highest speed ever attained under sail was 15 knots, in a squall
in the North Pacific. On 28 days the distance under sail alone has
exceeded, and often considerably exceeded, 200 knots. The best
consecutive runs under sail only were:--

1. Week ending August 13, South Atlantic, in the south-east trades,
wind abeam, force 5, 1,456 knots.

2. Week ending November 19, South Pacific, south-east trades, wind
aft, force 5, 1,360 knots.

3. Four days, January 15 to 18, North Pacific, north-east trades, wind
on the quarter, force 5 to 9, 1,027 knots. The average speed in this
case was 10.7 knots an hour.

The following were the average speeds of the longer passages:--

  +-------------------------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  |                         |Days at | Total  |Distance| Daily |
  |           ----          |  sea   |Distance| under  |average|
  |                         |        |        | steam  |       |
  +-------------------------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  |                         |        | miles  | miles  | miles |
  |1. Cape Verdes to Rio    |   18   |  3,336 |   689  |  185  |
  |2. Valparaiso to Yokohama|   72   | 12,333 | 2,108  |  171  |
  |3. Simonosaki to Aden    |   37   |  6,93  | 4,577  |  187  |
  +-------------------------+--------+--------+--------+-------+

On a later voyage to Australia, the total distance covered was 36,709
knots, 25,808 under sail and 10,901 under steam. The runs under sail
included thirty-nine days over 200 knots, fifteen days over 240, seven
days over 260, and three days over 270. The best day was 282 knots.
Between Port Darwin and the Cape the distance covered was 1,047 knots
under steam, and 5,622 knots under sail. The average speed under steam
and sail was exactly eight knots. In the fortnight, October 13 to 27,
1887, 3,073 knots, giving an average speed of nine knots an hour, were
covered under sail alone, with winds of moderate strength. Balloon
canvas was freely used.

On returning from the voyage just referred to, the boilers of the
'Sunbeam' (which are still at work, after nineteen years' service)
required such extensive repairs that it was recommended to remove them
and to replace with new. Hesitating to take this step, we went through
two seasons under sail alone, the propeller being temporarily removed
and the aperture closed. In 1889 a voyage was accomplished to the
Mediterranean under these conditions. Making the passage from
Portsmouth to Naples, in the month of February, we covered a total
distance of 2,303 miles from port to port in ten days and four hours.
The same good luck with the winds followed us in subsequent passages
to Messina, Zante, Patras, and Brindisi, during which we steadily
maintained the high average of ten knots. On the return voyage down
the Mediterranean, the results were very different. As this novel
experiment in running an auxiliary steam yacht under sail alone may be
of interest, a few further details may be added.

The average rate of speed for the distance sailed through the water
was approximately 6.4 knots. The total number of days at sea was 44.
On 23 days the winds were contrary. On 21 days favourable winds were
experienced. With much contrary wind and frequent calms the distances
made good on the shortest route from port to port averaged 123 miles
per day.

For the total distance of 3,020 miles from Portsmouth to Brindisi,
touching at Naples, Messina, Taormina, Zante, and Patras, with fresh
and favourable breezes, the distances made good on the shortest route
averaged 201 miles per day.

On the passage down the Mediterranean, from Brindisi to Gibraltar,
calling at Palermo and Cagliari, against persistent head winds, and
with 60 hours of calm, the distance made good from port to port was
reduced to 67 miles a day.

Homewards, from Gibraltar, against a fresh Portuguese trade, the
distance made good rose to an average of 122 miles through the water
per day, the average rate of sailing being 6-1/4 knots. From a
position 230 miles nearly due west of Cape St. Vincent to Spithead,
the 'Sunbeam' covered the distance of 990 miles in six days, being for
the most part close-hauled.

  +------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------+------+
                                 |  Total  |         |         |          |
                                 |distances|Distances|   Time  |   Fair   |
                                 | port to | sailed  |under way|  winds   | Calms
                                 |  port   |         |         |          |
  +------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------+------+
                                 |  miles  | miles   |days hrs.| days hrs.| hours
   Portsmouth to Naples          |  2,200  | 2,303   |  10   4 |  9   0   |  11
   Naples to Brindisi (calling   }         |         |         |          |
     at Messina, Taormina, Zante,}    820  |   841   |   5   0 |  4   0   |  16
     and Patras)                 }         |         |         |          |
   Brindisi to Palermo           |    400  |   638   |   5   6 |  0   7   |  13
   Palermo to Cagliari           |    224  |   353   |   3  19 |   --     |  11
   Cagliari to Gibraltar         |    730  | 1,188   |  10   5 |  2   2   |  37
   Gibraltar to Portsmouth       |  1,175  | 1,457   |   9  16 |  6   0   |   8
  +------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------+------+
       Total                     |   5,549 | 6,780   |  44   2 | 21   9   |  96
  +------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------+------+

In the course of the voyage numerous gales of wind were experienced,
viz.: on February 12, a severe mistral, on the passage from Minorca
towards Naples; March 28, heavy gale from westward off Stromboli;
April 9 and 10, gale from S.W. at the mouth of the Adriatic; April 17,
gale from S., off south coast of Sardinia; April 29 and 30, gale from
W., off Almeria.

On the days of light winds and calms, balloon topmast staysails, a
jib-topsail, and an extra large lower studsail, were found most
valuable in maintaining the rate of sailing.

In ordinary cruising I find that, as a general rule, one-third of the
distance is covered under steam, and that upon the average we make
passages at the rate of 1,000 miles a week. The consumption of coal is
very moderate. For a voyage round the world, of 36,000 miles, the coal
consumed was only 325 tons.

[Illustration: 'Sunbeam,' R.Y.S. Designed by St. Clare Byrne, 1874.]

If I were dealing with the question of rig, with the long experience
gained on the 'Sunbeam,' I should decidedly adopt the barque rig. In
confirmation of this opinion, it may be interesting to note that when
H.M. brig 'Beagle' was under the command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N., for
a lengthened service in the Straits of Magellan and the coasts of
South America, the mizenmast was stuck through the skylight of the
captain's cabin, an arrangement which, while of service to the ship,
was not unnaturally a source of discomfort to the captain. In making
passages in the Trades, with light winds on the quarter and the usual
swell, fore-and-aft sails are constantly lifting, while sails set on
fixed yards keep asleep. They draw better, and there is no chafe. I
have found great advantage from the use of large studding-sails, made
of light duck. This material was highly esteemed when it was first
brought out. In modern practice a combination of silk and hemp
furnishes a greatly superior material for the huge spinnakers, of
4,000 square feet, carried by the 'Navahoe' and 'Valkyrie.' The new
balloon sails can no longer be called canvas. They may more accurately
be described as muslin.

I will not attempt a recital of nautical adventures in the present
chapter; but a few experiences may be briefly described. The worst
passage I ever made was in the 'Eothen,' s.s., 340 tons, in 1872, from
Queenstown to Quebec, touching at St. John's, Newfoundland. On August
14 we put to sea deeply laden, with bunkers full, and 15 tons of coal
in bags on deck. In this condition we had 2 ft. 9 in. of freeboard. On
the second day out we encountered a summer gale. Shortly after it came
on, we shipped a sea, which broke over the bow and filled us up to the
rail. At the same time the engineer put his head above the engine-room
hatch, and announced that, the bearings having become heated, he must
stop the engines. For a short time we were in danger of falling off
into the trough of the sea. It was a great relief when the engines
once more slowly turned ahead. In the mid-Atlantic, we encountered a
cyclone, passing through the calm but ominous centre into a violent
gale from the north-west, which lasted twenty-four hours. We were
battened down and suffered considerable discomfort. Fortunately, no
heavy sea broke on board as we lay to under double-reefed main
storm-trysail, the engines slowly turning ahead. Two days later we
encountered another sharp gale, in which the barometer fell to 29.14°.
Happily it soon passed over. After this third gale we had a change of
wind to the eastward, and, pushing on, with all sail set, we reached
St. John's in thirteen days from Queenstown, with four inches of water
in the tanks, two tons of coal in the bunkers, the decks leaking in
every seam, cabins in utter disarray, and a perfect wreck aloft and on
deck. After leaving St. John's, where we had confidently hoped that
the worst was over, we encountered a hurricane off Cape Race, which
exceeded in violence anything that had been experienced in these
waters for many years. We lay to for three days, and when the storm
abated put into the French island St. Pierre, almost exhausted. It was
an unspeakable relief when we entered the St. Lawrence.

The lesson to be drawn from my voyage in the 'Eothen' is obvious. It
is a great mistake to attempt to cross the stormiest ocean in the
world in a steam yacht of such small size. For ocean steaming much
more tonnage and power are necessary.

The heaviest gale ever experienced by the 'Sunbeam' was off
Flamborough Head, in 1881. I embarked at Middlesbrough on the evening
of October 13, intending to sail for Portsmouth at daybreak on the
following morning; but, finding the wind from the south and the
barometer depressed, our departure was deferred. At 9 A.M. the
barometer had fallen to 28.87°, but as the wind had changed to W.N.W.,
and was off shore from a favourable quarter, I determined to proceed
to sea. We were towed down the Tees, and as we descended the river I
conferred with the pilot as to what we might anticipate from the
remarkable depression in the barometer. He was of opinion that a
severe gale was at hand, that it would blow from the north-west, and
that there was no reason for remaining in port. The tug was
accordingly cast off at the mouth of the Tees, and we made sail.
Foreseeing a storm, topmasts were housed, boats were secured on deck,
and we kept under close-reefed canvas, setting the main and mizen
jib-headed trysails, double-reefed foresail and forestay-sail, and
reefed standing jib. As the day advanced no change took place in the
weather. The wind blew strongly, but not with the force of a gale, and
the sea was comparatively smooth. Meanwhile the barometer continued to
descend rapidly, and at 2 P.M. had fallen to 28.45°. As nothing had
yet occurred to account for this depression, my sailing-master
remarked that it must have been caused by the heavy showers of rain
which had fallen in the course of the morning. I knew from former
experiences that it was not the rain, but the coming storm, that was
indicated by the barometer. It had needed some resolution to quit the
mouth of the Tees in the morning, and at mid-day, when we were off
Whitby, a still greater effort was required to resist the temptation
to make for a harbour. No further incidents occurred until 3 P.M.,
when we were nearing Flamborough Head. Here we were at last overtaken
by the long impending storm. Looking back to the north-west, over the
starboard quarter, we saw that the sea had suddenly been lashed into a
mass of white foam. The hurricane was rushing forward with a velocity
and a force which must have seemed terrible to the fleet of coasting
vessels around us. Before the gale struck the 'Sunbeam' our canvas had
been reduced to main and mizen trysails and reefed standing-jib; but
even with the small spread of sail, and luffed up close to the wind,
our powerful little vessel careened over to the fury of the blast
until the lee-rail completely disappeared under water--an incident
which had never previously occurred during all the extensive voyages
we had undertaken. Such was the force of the wind that a sailing
vessel near us lost all her sails, and our large gig was stove in from
the tremendous pressure of the gunwale against the davits. We took in
the jib and the mizen-trysail, and, with our canvas reduced to a
jib-headed main-trysail, were soon relieved of water on deck. For an
hour and a half we lay-to on the starboard tack, standing in for the
land below Burlington Bay. We were battened down, and felt ourselves
secure from all risks except collision. The fury of the wind so filled
the air with spoon-drift that we could not see a ship's length ahead,
and in such crowded waters a collision was a far from impossible
contingency. At 6 P.M. we thought it prudent to wear, so as to gain an
offing during the night, and gradually drew out of the line of traffic
along the coast. At 9 P.M. the extreme violence of the hurricane had
abated, and we could see, through occasional openings in the mist,
the masthead lights of several steamers standing, like ourselves, off
the land for the night. At midnight the barometer was rising rapidly,
and the wind gradually settled down into a clear hard gale,
accompanied by a heavy sea, running down the coast from the north.

At 6 A.M. we carefully examined the dead reckoning, and, having fixed
on an approximate position, we determined to bear away, steering to
pass in mid-channel between the Outer Dowsing and the Dudgeon, through
a passage about ten miles in width. We were under easy sail; but,
under the main-trysail, double-reefed foresail, staysail,
fore-topsail, and reefed jib, we scudded at the rate of eleven knots.
A constant look-out had been kept from aloft, and at 10 A.M., having
nearly run the distance down from our assumed position when we bore
away to the north end of the Outer Dowsing, I established myself in
the crosstrees until we should succeed in making something. After a
short interval we saw broken water nearly ahead on the port bow. We at
once hauled to the wind, steering to the south-west, and set the
mizen-trysail. The lead showed a depth of three fathoms, and we were
therefore assured that we had been standing too near to the Outer
Dowsing. The indications afforded by the lead were confirmed by
sights, somewhat roughly taken, and by the circumstance of our having
shortly before passed through a fleet of trawlers evidently making for
the Spurn. In less than an hour after we had hauled to the wind we
found ourselves in the track of several steamers. At 3 P.M. we made
the land near Cromer, and at 5.30 we brought up in the Yarmouth Roads,
thankful to have gained a secure shelter from the gale.

In connection with this experience, it may be remarked that, as a
general rule, our pleasure fleet is over-masted. We are advised in
these matters by sailmakers, who look to the Solent and its sheltered
water as the normal condition with which yachtsmen have to deal. When
we venture forth from that smooth and too-much frequented arm of the
sea into open waters, our vessels have to pass a far more severe
ordeal, and they do not always come out of it to our satisfaction.
Many are compelled to stay in harbour when a passage might have been
made in a snugly rigged yacht.

One of the longest gales experienced in the 'Sunbeam' was on the
passage from Nassau to Bermuda, in November 1883. The gale struck us
south of Cape Hatteras, on November 25, in latitude 31.54° N. The
north-east wind gradually subsided, and we pushed on, under steam, for
Bermuda at 7 knots. The head sea increased, but no change took place
in the force or direction of the wind from 8 P.M. on the 25th till 4
A.M. on the 27th. Meanwhile, the barometer had gradually fallen to
29.82°, giving warning for a heavy gale, which commenced at
north-by-east, and ended on November 30, at 4 P.M., with the wind at
north-west. We lay-to on the 27th, under treble-reefed foresail and
double-reefed mainsail, shipping no water, but driving to the
south-east at the rate of at least one knot an hour. On the 28th we
decided to try the 'Sunbeam' under treble-reefed foresail and
mainsail, double-reefed fore-staysail and reefed mizen-trysail. With
this increased spread of canvas we were able to make two knots an hour
on the direct course to Bermuda, and to keep sufficient steerage way
to luff up to an ugly sea. The behaviour of the vessel elicited the
unqualified approval of our most experienced hands. Bad weather
quickly brings out the qualities of seamen. Our four best men relieved
each other at the wheel, and it was due in no small degree to their
skill that, in a gale lasting three days, no heavy sea broke on board.
I need not say that all deck openings were secured, especially at
night, by means of planks and canvas. Our situation might perhaps
excite sympathy, but we had no cause to complain. Meals could not be
served in the usual manner, but by placing every movable thing on the
floor of the cabins and on the lee side, and by fixing ourselves
against supports, or in a recumbent position, we were secured against
any further effects of the force of gravity, and did our best to enjoy
the novelty of the situation. On the 30th the wind veered to the
north-west, and the weather rapidly improved. The sea turned
gradually with the wind, but for many hours we met a heavy swell from
the north-east.

An acquaintance with the law of storms had proved invaluable on this
occasion. There is no situation in which knowledge is more truly
power, none in which, under a due sense of the providential care of
Heaven, it gives a nobler confidence to man, than at sea, amid the
raging of a hurricane. Mr. Emerson has truly said, 'They can conquer
who believe they can. The sailor loses fear as fast as he acquires
command of sails, and spars, and steam. To the sailor's experience,
every new circumstance suggests what he must do. The terrific chances
which make the hours and minutes long to the mere passenger, he whiles
away by incessant application of expedients and repairs. To him a
leak, a hurricane, a waterspout, is so much work, and no more. Courage
is equality to the problem, in affairs, in science, in trade, in
council, or in action. Courage consists in the conviction that the
agents with which you contend are not superior in strength, or
resources, or spirit, to you.'

As a specimen of a dirty night at sea, I give another extract from the
log-book. During our voyage round the world in 1876-77, after leaving
Honolulu for Japan, as we approached Osima, on January 26, we were
struck by a tremendous squall of wind and rain. We at once took in the
flying square-sail, stowed the topgallant-sail and topsail, reefed the
foresail and mizen, and set mainsail. At 6 P.M., the wind still
blowing a moderate gale, the mizen was double-reefed. We pursued our
way through a confused sea, but without shipping any water. All seemed
to be going well, when, at 8 P.M., shortly after I had taken the
wheel, a sudden squall heeled us over to the starboard side, where the
gig was hung from the davits outboard. At the same time a long
mountainous wave, rolling up from the leeward, struck the keel of the
gig and lifted it up, unshipping the fore davit, and causing the boat
to fall into the boiling sea, which threatened at every instant to
dash it to pieces. We at once brought to. A brave fellow jumped into
the boat and secured a tackle to the bows, and the gig was hoisted on
board and secured on deck intact. It was a very seaman-like
achievement. A heavy gale continued during the night, and at 2 A.M.,
on the 27th, we met with another accident. The boatswain, a man of
great skill and experience, was at the wheel, when a steep wave
suddenly engulfed the jibboom, and the 'Sunbeam,' gallantly springing
up, as if to leap over instead of cleaving through the wave, carried
away the spar at the cap. This brought down the topgallant-mast. The
jibboom was a splendid Oregon spar, 54 feet long, projecting 28 feet
beyond the bowsprit. It was rigged with wire rope, and the martingale
was sawn through with the greatest difficulty.

The record of personal experiences must not be further prolonged. To
the writer yachting has been to some extent part of a public life,
mainly devoted to the maritime interests of the country. To conduct
the navigation and pilotage of his vessel seemed fitting and even
necessary, if the voyages undertaken were to be regarded in any sense
as professional. There is something pleasant in any work which affords
the opportunity for encountering and overcoming difficulties. It is
satisfactory to make a headland or a light with precision after a long
run across the ocean, diversified perhaps by a heavy gale. To be able
to thread the channels of the West Coast of Scotland, the Straits of
Magellan, the Eastern Archipelago, the labyrinths of the Malawalle
Channel of North-East Borneo, or the Great Barrier Reef of Australia,
without a pilot is an accomplishment in which an amateur may perhaps
take legitimate pleasure.

To the yachtsman who truly loves the sea, it will never be
satisfactory to remain ignorant of navigation. Practice of the art is
not a relaxation. It demands constant attention, and is an
interruption to regular reading. It may imply a considerable amount of
night-work. On the other hand, the owner who is a navigator can take
his proper place as the commander of his own ship. All that goes on
around him when at sea becomes more interesting. He is better able to
appreciate the professional skill of others. The confidence which
grows with experience cannot be expected in the beginning. The writer
first took charge of navigation in 1866, on a voyage up the Baltic. It
was a chequered experiment. In the Great Belt we ran ashore twice in
one day. In making Stockholm we had to appeal to a Swedish frigate,
which most kindly clewed up her sails, and answered our anxious
enquiries by writing the course on a black-board. On the return voyage
to England we struck the coast some sixty miles north of our
reckoning. Such a history does not repeat itself now.

It is not in books or at the library table that the art of the seaman
can be acquired. Quickness of eye, nerve, promptitude of judgment, are
the indispensable gifts, which must be gained by long and varied
experience at sea. The seamanship required in a gale of wind on the
open ocean, the seamanship displayed in sailing matches in
over-sparred yachts, sailed mainly in smooth waters, and the
seamanship called for in pilotage waters not previously visited, and
especially at night, are different branches of a wide profession.
There is a skill of a very high order in docking an Atlantic liner at
Liverpool. There is a skill of a different but equally high order in
knocking huge ironclads about in fleet-exercising at sea. There is a
skill in bringing the Channel steamers alongside the pier at Dover.
The skill of every description of nautical specialist will never be
combined in one individual. There is some risk that the more careful
the navigator, the less dashing the same man may be as a seaman.

I must not conclude without some reference to the most attractive
cruising grounds. To begin near home, the Seine, the Meuse, the coast
of Holland, the Baltic, the coast of Norway, the grand West Coast of
Scotland, the East Coast of England (a cruising ground too much
neglected by yachtsmen), and the Channel are all favourite haunts of
mine. Going further afield, in my own case nothing was more
satisfactory than a voyage along the East Coast of North America, in
which every river was ascended to the head of the navigation for
sea-going vessels. Certain parts of the Mediterranean offer a perfect
cruising ground for the winter months. Most suitable waters for
yachting are those bounded by the Straits of Gibraltar on the west and
the Balearic Islands on the north-east. Here the mistral of the Gulf
of Lyons is not felt. The Spanish coast offers many places of shelter
and many points of interest. In westerly winds keep to the eastward of
Cape de Gata; in north-easterly winds to the westward. There is
another charming cruising ground between Corsica and the Italian
coast, as far north as Spezia, and south down to Civita Vecchia.
Sicily is admirable for yachting. A weather shore can be always made
upon its beautiful coasts. In the spring or autumn the Archipelago and
eastern side of the Adriatic can be confidently recommended. In the
winter months the West Indies are a most perfect cruising ground. It
will be well to make Barbados the landfall, then run to Trinidad,
proceeding thence to Grenada, and following on from island to island
down to Jamaica. The return voyage should be by Havana, and thence to
a port in the United States, and by an ocean liner home, or by the
Bahamas, Bermuda and the Azores to England. The Pacific, Japan and
Eastern Archipelago will well repay those who can give the time
required for such distant voyages.

Lastly, let no yachtsman speak contemptuously of the Solent. It is no
exaggeration to say that if the splendid natural breakwater of the
Isle of Wight were removed, half the tonnage of yachts under the
British flag would disappear. The Solent offers a sufficient space of
sheltered water for all but the very largest yachts to manoeuvre in
conveniently. Breezes are seldom wanting, and the shores of the Wight
are most pleasing. In this miniature ocean many have formed tastes for
the sea which have led to more ambitious voyages. The estuary of the
Clyde merits equally high praise, but the puffs off Bute are less
gentle than those off the Wight, and the racing partakes of a
hard-weather character, with streaks of calm.

In the preceding observations it has been assumed that I have been
addressing readers who love the sea in all those varying phases which
have given inspiration to some of the finest creations of poetic
genius. The Greeks were lovers of the sea. We have been reminded of
their admirable descriptions by Mr. Froude, in a brilliant passage:--

  The days pass, and our ship flies past upon her way.

  [Greek: glaukon hyper oidma kyanochroa te kymatôn
  rhothia polia thalassas.]

How perfect the description! How exactly in those eight words
Euripides draws the picture of the ocean; the long grey heaving swell,
the darker steel-grey on the shadowed slope of the waves, and the foam
on their breaking crests. Our thoughts flow back as we gaze to the
times long ago, when the earth belonged to other races, as it now
belongs to us. The ocean is the same as it was. Their eyes saw it as
we see it.

  Time writes no wrinkle on that azure brow.

Nor is the ocean alone the same. Human nature is still vexed with the
same problems, mocked with the same hopes, wandering after the same
illusions. The sea affected the Greeks as it affects us, and was
equally dear to them. It was a Greek who said: 'The sea washes off all
the ills of men,' the 'stainless one,' as Æschylus called it, the
eternally pure.

The Romans had in Virgil a poet of the sea, who could attune his lyre
to perfect harmony, alike with freshening or subsiding breeze:--

  Vela dabant læti et spumas salis ære ruebant.
  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
          ferunt ipsa æquora classem,
  Æquatæ spirant auræ, datur hora quieti.

The sea has been the favoured theme of our English poets. There has
been none in any language who has excelled our own Byron:--

  Oft had he ridden on that wingèd wave,
  And loved its roughness for the speed it gave.

For me, the sea was a dream in my earliest years. I have spent upon
its waters some of the brightest, and, alas! some of the saddest of my
days; and now, in the autumn of my life, the unforgotten past, and the
aims and work of the present, are more than ever bound up with the
sea.

  Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee;
  Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears,
  Our faith, triumphant o'er our fears,
  Are all with thee--are all with thee.



CHAPTER III

CORINTHIAN DEEP-SEA CRUISING

BY C. E. SETH-SMITH, C.B.[1]

(Late commanding London Brigade Royal Naval Volunteers)

[Footnote 1: I am deeply indebted to Mr. D. W. Marsden, late honorary
secretary of the London Corps Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers, for
his assistance in the compilation of these notes.]


The record of Corinthian sailing would not be complete without some
account of deep-sea voyages in yachts manned by amateur seamen. The
cruises of Corinthian yachtsmen are naturally chiefly confined to the
estuaries of rivers and the seas immediately adjacent, and, as a rule,
are within sight of the coast. Considerations of time and expense are
generally sufficient to impose these limits. That the dangers of the
sea and the difficulty of navigation are no impediments is amply
proved by the records of more extended voyages in craft of all sizes,
made public from time to time. There are, however, certain other
difficulties which, as a rule, stand in the way of Corinthian seamen
extending their experience of the sea still further. For an ocean
voyage of any extent a craft of some size is necessary, and it must be
manned by a crew of considerable number. Amateur yachtsmen are
scattered, and find it difficult to take their cruises together in any
large numbers. The yacht-owner, who wished to man his yacht for an
ocean voyage solely or mainly with Corinthian seamen, would not find
it easy to obtain a sufficient number to make up his complement. A
movement was made some twenty years ago to develop and utilise for the
national defence the seafaring instincts and tastes latent in many of
our young countrymen, and until it was abandoned in 1892[2] provided a
body of men, Corinthian yachtsmen and others possessing seafaring
capacities, and formed an exceptional reservoir on which yacht-owners
could draw who desired to give opportunities of more extended
seafaring to the amateur seaman. The more extended voyages of the
schooner 'Hornet' were undertaken to give a pleasurable holiday to the
members of the corps and to increase their efficiency as Naval
Volunteers. The 'Hornet' was a powerful yacht of 101 tons register and
about 140 tons Thames measurement, she was 85 feet on the water-line
and nearly 20 feet beam, and drew about 10 feet of water in sea-going
trim. She was built at Cowes, and was rigged as a topsail-yard
schooner, carrying in addition to her ordinary fore and aft sails a
square foresail, a fore-topsail and topgallant-sail, and fore-topmast
and lower studding-sails.

[Footnote 2: The late corps of Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers of
London, Liverpool, Bristol and Glasgow.]

All her gear was fitted as far as possible in man-of-war fashion, and
both on deck and below she was arranged as one of the small
old-fashioned vessels of Her Majesty's service. A wardroom and four
separate sleeping cabins for her officers were arranged aft, and a
very large forecastle gave ample lower deck accommodation for some
thirty-five or forty petty officers and men.

The majority of the 'Hornet's' voyages were restricted by the limited
holidays of her amateur crew, but she was occasionally manned by crews
not tied in such a degree by business engagements, and during the
summers of 1879, 1880 and 1881 sailed round the coast of Ireland,
visited the Cattegat Sound and Danish Islands, Christiania and some
other Norwegian ports, the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and
Gibraltar, and made a short trip down the coast of Morocco. The latter
terminated in an exciting passage home from Lisbon in stormy weather,
during which the Corinthians were for upwards of three weeks out of
sight of land on a strictly limited scale of provisions, hove to in a
gale of wind for some days, and driven into the vicinity of the
Azores. Since the present chapter is concerned solely with Corinthian
yachting on the ocean, nothing need be said about the many short
cruises round and about the English and French coasts and up and down
the Channel, during which the 'Hornet's' ever-varying crew were
gaining some practical knowledge of seamanship and testing their
individual fitness for their voluntary duties.

About the end of June 1879 the 'Hornet' sailed from the Thames, manned
by thirty-five amateurs, Mr. Edward Dodd, who was rated as boatswain,
and the galley staff being the only professional seamen on board. Mr.
Samuel Brooks (recently thrice mayor of Redhill) acted as chief petty
officer, chief quartermaster and occasional watch-keeper, and Mr. R.
T. Pritchett was borne on the books and drew rations as the 'staff
officer,' the guide, philosopher and friend of the whole ship's
company. The weather of the summer of 1879 is notorious, and the
'Hornet's' first ocean cruise was a trying one for her Corinthian
crew, who experienced to the full the miseries of a month at sea in
bad weather. From the day she left Dartmouth in June to her arrival in
the Solent in July her log-book records no single fine day. The
afternoon of Friday, July 17 (the ship having left Queenstown July 16)
is the only day on which 'light airs and sunshine' are entered even
for a few hours.

Nevertheless the crew expressed themselves as thoroughly delighted
with the experiences of their month's cruise. Some account of this
trip appeared in the 'Graphic' of October 18, 1879, with illustrations
by the Staff Officer, of which the principal represented 'stowing the
foresail off the Longships at midnight in a gale, June 30, 1879.' On
this occasion the 'Hornet' was compelled by a heavy gale from the
south-west to force a passage round the Land's End, and make for the
Bristol Channel, running up to the Mumbles. As the author remarks,
such weather on a dark night was a severe trial for the practical
seamanship of gentlemen sailors, but they proved themselves equal to
it, and were afterwards complimented on their efficiency by the
Admiral, Sir William Dowell, on arrival at Queenstown.

The following year--1880--a much longer and most enjoyable cruise of
six weeks was undertaken on which the Captain, Mr. C. E. Seth-Smith,
was assisted by Messrs. A. B. Woodd and E. Graham as lieutenants. The
crew numbered twenty-five all told; Mr. Dodd again acted as boatswain,
and Mr. Brooks as chief petty officer. The 'Hornet' reached Copenhagen
on July 10, and after cruising among the lovely Danish islands for
some days, her officers and crew were hospitably entertained by the
Royal Danish Yacht Club, then holding their annual regatta at
Svendborg. From Denmark she passed to Christiania, and on July 25 the
ship's company landed in Norway and enjoyed a cariole trip of two days
across the country to the Falls of Hönefos. After cruising for two or
three days along the southern coasts and up the Fjords the 'Hornet'
left Norway and returned to England, arriving at Greenhithe on August
4 after a well-managed and most successful expedition. She was the
largest vessel, manned entirely by amateur sailors, that had appeared
in those seas.

The account from which the above particulars are taken appeared in the
'Illustrated London News' for February 12, 1881, and was accompanied
by illustrations from photographs by Mr. Henry Denison Pender, son of
Mr. (now Sir John) Pender, M.P., who was a member of the crew and an
enthusiastic Royal Naval Artillery Volunteer, and whose lamented death
soon after was the occasion of much grief to his many friends.

The following year--1881--a cruise of even more extended scope was
undertaken. The 'Hornet' left Dover on May 20, and proceeded down
Channel to Dartmouth under the command of Mr. C. E. Seth-Smith,
assisted by Mr. A. B. Woodd, Mr. Dodd again acting as boatswain and
Mr. Brooks at his old post. At Dartmouth all hands signed articles. On
Tuesday, May 24, the steam launch and boiler having been got on
board, the 'Hornet' left England for the South at 9 A.M. and lost
sight of the English coast at 11.15 A.M., Prawl Point being her point
of departure. The weather on her passage out was on the whole
favourable, and on Tuesday, May 31, the Burlings, fifty miles west of
Lisbon, was sighted, the ship's run from noon of the 30th to noon of
the 31st having been 218 knots. On June 3, after a period of light
winds and calm, the ship being about 120 miles west of Gibraltar, it
came on to blow from the eastward, and the square fore-topsail was got
in for the first time since leaving Dartmouth. On June 4, the wind
increasing to a whole gale from the east with heavy sea, they stood in
shore to south of Cape Spartel and lay to 'up and down' in Spartel Bay
all night. Next day, the weather moderating, the 'Hornet' stood over
to the Spanish coast and sighted Gibraltar Rock at 6.15 P.M., for
which she stood steadily in; but at midnight, being becalmed, she was
towed in by the gig, and at 2.30 A.M. the anchor was dropped in six
fathoms off the Ragged Staff in Gibraltar Bay, after a passage from
Dartmouth of thirteen days. The interval between June 6 and 11 was
spent at Gibraltar in necessary cleaning and repairs, in exploring the
Rock and its neighbourhood, and in giving and receiving hospitalities;
and at noon on June 11 a start was made for Tangier, where the
'Hornet' arrived at 5 A.M. There she remained until the afternoon of
June 12, when, the sights of the old Moorish town having been seen and
various Oriental purchases made, the anchor was weighed for Cadiz. At
4 A.M. next day Cadiz was sighted, a pilot taken on board, and at 9.30
A.M. the anchor was let go in Cadiz Bay. At Cadiz a halt was made
until June 17, employed by the ship's company in excursions to Seville
and Jerez, and in seeing at Cadiz the procession of Corpus Christi and
a bull-fight, distinguished on this occasion by the bull-ring taking
fire. At 11.30 on the 17th a start was made for Lisbon. From Cadiz to
Cape St. Vincent was a beat to windward, until on the 20th they were
becalmed off the Cape. A breeze springing up in the afternoon, Cape
Epischol was sighted, and at 9 A.M. on the 22nd a pilot was taken on
board for Lisbon, and the 'Hornet' sailed in with a light breeze by
the south channel, and let go her anchor between Belem and Lisbon at 2
P.M.

The voyage home was destined to prove a much less agreeable
experience. Anchor was weighed at 4 P.M. on June 24, wind blowing
strong from the north-east, which continued next day with a heavy sea.
Standing out to sea some fifty miles, the 'Hornet' was put on the port
tack and sighted the Burlings Light at 8.30 P.M., when she was again
put about for sea room. On the 26th the ship was under three-reefed
mainsail, reefed foresail, staysail, and jib, and on the 27th she was
hove to under three-reefed mainsail and reefed foresail to a strong
north-east gale. The 28th, still hove to, the gale blowing furiously,
with tremendous seas, the mainsail and fore-staysail were taken in,
and the ship put under fore-trysail alone. On the 29th the gale
appeared to be moderating, but at 8 A.M. it was found that the
rudder-head had started, the steering-wheel and gear had to be
unshipped, and the tiller shipped, tended constantly by two helmsmen.
A jib-headed trysail was set on the mainsail to ease the steering
gear. On the 30th the mainsail was again set, and, the stores having
been overhauled, everyone was put on rations, which were further
reduced next day. The weakness of the rudder-head rendered the most
careful steering necessary, which, during the rest of the voyage,
threw more work on the experienced hands. On July 3 she was again
close hauled to a strong breeze from the north-east, which continued
all day, the ship being under three-reefed mainsail and reefed
foresail, and so continued through the whole of the 4th; but on the
5th the wind shifted to the north-west and moderated. All available
sail was gradually made, and by noon of that day, the position having
been verified by observation, under square foresail, topsail, and
topmast stun'sails, topgallant-sail, and main topmast skysail, the
course was set for home. Next day the wind again shifted, and all
hands were called in the morning watch to reduce sail. Their
misfortunes had not ended, for on July 8 it was discovered that the
fore-masthead was sprung, and the cap and crosstrees damaged. A
lashing was, however, put round the heel of the fore-topmast, and the
fore-masthead, and all the rigging and gear carefully overhauled and
made good where possible. The rations, also, were still further
reduced. However, on the 9th, having again got sights, the commander
decided to bear up for the Channel, and at 10.30 sighted Ushant. A
fair wind then sprang up, and the ship ran along gaily at an average
of eight knots. On the 10th, and at 5.45 A.M., the English coast near
Plymouth was sighted, the Start at 6.30, Portland at 2 P.M., and the
Wight at 7. At 6 A.M. next day the anchor was dropped in Shanklin Bay,
but permission to land being refused by the Customs authorities, sail
was again set for Ryde, where the 'Hornet' arrived at 7.30 P.M., thus
terminating an eventful cruise. Although its unexpected prolongation
had been rather trying for some of the ship's company, and their
experience had been of a nature to try severely the physique and
capacity of amateur sailors, they seem to have gone through it well.

Several other yachts, among which may be mentioned the 'Titania,'
belonging to the Marquis of Ailsa, the 'Dawn,' to Mr. Klein, and
'Diligent,' to Mr. C. E. Chadwick Healey and Mr. Sydney Hoare, have
been manned by Naval Volunteers.

It now only remains to add a few considerations on the advantages and
disadvantages of Corinthian crews for ocean-going yachts.

First, then, as to expense: the owner does not save anything by
shipping an amateur crew. It is true he pays no wages to his
Corinthian deck hands, but he must be prepared to incur a considerable
outlay in alterations to the internal arrangements of the vessel, to
buy new bedding and mess traps, and to provide a better class of
ship's cooks and a more numerous galley staff. Good temper will not
prevail, nor can discipline be easily maintained, unless Corinthian
Jack is well fed. If, as is sometimes the case, the amateur crew
arrange to cater for themselves, the owner and captain must
occasionally add to the luxuries of the lower deck mess. Some expense
is also unavoidable from the extra wear and tear arising from the want
of skill of novices who have not yet learned to handle sails and gear
with a view to their preservation.

The safety and comfort of one's ship's company, too, is a double
source of anxiety when some or the whole are not seafaring by
profession. For it must not be forgotten even in the finest weather
that there is no such thing as 'playing at sailors' when at sea. The
risk involved is not appreciably increased by manning the vessel with
amateurs, if the officer in command will take certain precautions; and
this view was endorsed by the insurance companies, who in no instance
increased the premium on the 'Hornet.' The owner must insist on
shipping a due proportion of old hands in each crew, and take care to
train them as helmsmen and leadsmen. He should relieve the 'wheel' and
'look-out' as often as practicable. Above all, he should be careful to
shorten sail in good time, and always at dusk, until he can depend
upon his crew. Active and courageous as the amateur seaman invariably
is, he has not the practice aloft of the professional, he cannot
shorten sail so rapidly, nor does his knowledge of the lead of the
ropes enable him to identify them so readily in the dark. The services
of a good professional boatswain, with an enthusiastic love for his
profession and a cheery sympathetic manner as an instructor, are
absolutely essential for the proper working of a Corinthian ship. A
minute and careful observation of the barometer, and constant
verifying of position by reckoning and by observation, are the duties
of the officer rather than the crew. Unless the yacht-owner be an
enthusiastic navigator, delighting in his sextant and mathematical
formulæ as well as a keen sailor-man, he had better not attempt this
exacting if fascinating method of sailing his ship.

On the other hand, the Corinthian crew is a cheery one, well mannered
and enthusiastic, grateful for any instruction which is given them,
and happy in an exceptional and delightful holiday.

As a Corinthian crew is in general more numerous than one composed of
professional sailors, when they have learnt their stations and become
accustomed to the work, the vessel may be handled with that
old-fashioned man-of-war smartness which is so attractive.

In conclusion, the national aquatic instinct, fostered as it is by the
healthy sea-breezy tone prevailing in so much of our boyhood's
literature, can only be cultivated by the majority of us as Corinthian
seamen. Love for shipping and boats is not necessarily love for the
sea and seafaring. Those who take to the sea as a profession are not
always constant in their love. A voyage in a passenger ship, or even a
trip as an honoured guest on board one of the floating batteries of
Her Majesty's Navy, quite satisfies the still keen boyish aspiration.
It is only as one of the crew of a large yacht on a deep-sea voyage
that the amateur can personally experience that 'life at sea' which
has so fascinated his imagination. Though I dare not advise all
yacht-owners to man their ships with their friends, I should hail with
pleasure an opportunity of sailing again with some of my old
shipmates.



CHAPTER IV

THE EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN RACING YACHT

BY G. L. WATSON


Seven years ago the task of describing the form of racing yachts would
have been a much simpler one than it is to-day. Then even the cruising
vessels were more or less under the influence of the old tonnage rule,
or of its later modification, and big and little were pretty much of a
type;--a model of, say, a 'forty,' representing with sufficient
accuracy a 'ninety,' or a 'five,' if we supposed the scale changed;
and the individual yachts in each class, while presenting differences
to the eye of the amateur, were not to be distinguished apart by the
general yachting public, except perhaps by the racing flag.

Under the present length and sail-area rule, the variety of type is
enormous. Broad, narrow, deep, and shallow; boats with centreboards
and boats without; single boats and double boats; plain keel, fin
keel, and bulb keel, have all their representatives, and each has had
its successes. But few of these types could have been successful under
the old tonnage rule, and few of them may be successful under rules
yet to come. Any history, therefore, of the development of the form of
racing yachts would fail did it not take account of, and run parallel
to, the history of the tonnage rule of the time.

[Illustration: 'BRITANNIA'

_R.Y.S. 151-rater. Designed by G. L. Watson, 1893. Winner of R.
Victoria Gold Cup, September 1893._]

Throughout the modern story of yachting the tonnage question has been
the all-absorbing one. Looking back, through the pages of those
sporting papers and periodicals which forty years ago devoted a
meagre portion of their space to yachting, one is struck by the same
feature that shows prominently in the 'Field' or 'Yachtsman' of
to-day. For one letter on any other subject, there are a dozen on the
measurement question, and the writers handled their pens in much the
same energetic way then as now, in abuse of rival theorists; but, more
merciful than the moderns, spared us their elaborate formulæ. These
controversies happily have served the useful purpose of preserving for
the historian of to-day a good many facts which might otherwise have
been lost; for our dear old friend 'Hunt's Magazine,' in his flowery
youth, is fonder of treating us to an 'Ode to the Yachtsman's Bride,'
or a relation of 'How Miss Delany married an Officer,' than to facts
regarding measurement, or time allowances, and these are only to be
picked up incidentally as it were from the correspondence of the
quarrelsome gentlemen aforesaid. It is to be hoped that the yachting
historian of the twentieth century may reap a like benefit from our
controversialists of to-day, and that those mathematicians who now
brandish their tonnage formulæ to the terror of all quietly disposed
yachtsmen will find a reader in the searcher after facts of 1950.

Yachting, then, may be said to have begun with this century; for
although, as is shown elsewhere in these volumes, yachts are mentioned
long before that date, it was hardly until the century opened, or
indeed until after the Crimean War, that yachting as a sport became
fairly established in this country.

The yachts of those days were round-headed things, of about three
beams in length, in most cases innocent of metal ballast, and kept on
their feet by gravel or by iron ore. What little racing there might
have been was confined to scratch matches between the owners, and time
allowance for tonnage was not thought of, though doubtless the tonnage
rule as then used for the merchant shipping of the country was
recognised as a useful measure for the purchase and sale of these
vessels. Racing became commoner; soon more than two yachts came
together to try conclusions, and it was presently discovered by some
astute yachtsman that a good big ship, other things being the same,
was faster than a good little ship, and therefore, where their purses
admitted of it, owners built yachts as large as could be handled.
'Arrow,' 84 tons; 'Lulworth,' 82 tons; 'Alarm,' 193 tons; and
'Louisa,' 180 tons, were the crack cutters on the Solent about
forty-five years ago, and, as may be well understood, little boats had
a very poor chance with these giants, except perhaps in light and
fluky weather. Mr. Holland-Ackers called attention to this fact, and
proposed a table of time allowances between large and smaller yachts
based on the length of the course and the difference of size between
the vessels. The measure of this size was the tonnage, as ascertained
by the then tonnage law of the land, which had been in force since
1794, or rather a slight modification of this rule, adapted to the
peculiar form of yachts. In this, 'the old 94 rule,' as it was called,
only length of keel and breadth were taken into account, the depth
being assumed as half the breadth. Breadth was thus penalised twice
over in the formula, and perhaps the most extraordinary fact in
connection with this rule is, that it was in force for years before it
seems to have occurred to our yacht-builders that a success was to be
made by increasing those dimensions which were untaxed, or only
moderately taxed, and reducing the beam which was taxed twice over.
This is all the more remarkable, as builders of the mercantile marine
seem to have caught this point much earlier, and were building vessels
with enormously increased depth and reduced beam, though it is true
the slowness of these ships did not invite imitation, as the American
clipper ships, built under a fairer tonnage law, were rapidly sailing
them off the seas. Happily, in 1854 the law was changed for the
present method of measurement by internal cubic capacity, and the
genius of our shipbuilders, thus left unfettered, was equal to the
task of regaining our supremacy on the ocean.

But among the yachts the old {L - B × B × (1/2 B)}/94 prevailed, and
gradually builders discovered that, by increasing draft and amount of
ballast, beam could be pared down, and a boat of nominally the same
tonnage made longer and to carry more sail than her predecessor. Lead
ballast was slowly introduced, despite all sorts of adverse prophecies
from old salts that it would strain the ship and would cause her to
plunge so heavily as to go under; and presently, when some unknown
genius first put lead outside, and from a timid hundredweight or two
this increased to tons, the veterans gave the new type up altogether
as past praying for, and left them to their well-merited fate. I have
been unable to get any definite information as to the first
application of outside ballasts, but in 1834 Messrs. Steele built the
'Wave' for Mr. John Cross Buchanan, and on this vessel a metal keel
was fixed. There may, however, have been earlier instances of this in
the South. But Providence was on the side of the heavy lead keels, and
each year yachts got longer, and deeper, and narrower, and had more
and more lead outside, until there was none left inside at all, while
they more and more nearly approached Euclid's definition of a line as
having length but no breadth. _A propos_ of these proportions, a good,
and it may possibly be true, story is told of an enthusiastic
cutter-man on the other side of the Atlantic, who, intensely
prejudiced against the fine broad ships of America, asked a friend
here to buy, and have sent across to him, a typical British 5-ton
cutter, stipulating only that she should be fast, and at least as
narrow as anything of her class. The little craft was safely brought
across and put in the water in New York Bay, and after a trial sail
the owner invited one or two friends to come off for a day's
pleasuring in the new ship, with the object of showing the advantages
of five feet of beam against ten. But, on coming alongside, the first
to get out of the dinghy took hold of the runner, and taking a nice
wide step, so as to get well into the centre of the boat, stepped
clean into the water on the other side.

But long before the advantage of substituting untaxed depth for the
heavily taxed beam was discovered, and about 1850 Mr. Wanhill, of
Poole, introduced the raking sternpost, thus getting, on a given
length of keel, a much longer water-line. But even this device was
used in moderation, 50° to 60° being the utmost rake given, with the
sternpost showing at the water-line, and such vessels as our modern
cutaway fives, tens, twenties, or forties, with the keel a fourth of
their over-all length, were as yet unthought of, though the direct
inducement to build them was far stronger then than now.

[Illustration: 'Cygnet' cutter, 35 tons. Built by Wanhill, of Poole,
in 1846.]

[Illustration: Midship section.]

I may cite an exception to this, however, in a vessel called the
'Problem,' built at Kirkcaldy about 1850 or 1851, and described in
'Hunt's Magazine' of August 1852. The 'Problem' presented a similar
profile to that of our fashionable fives or 2-1/2 of three or four
years back, the stem and sternpost sloping down and meeting in a point
as in the 'Lily,' 2-1/2-rater; 'Natica,' 5-rater; and 'Varuna,'
40-rater. But the vessel was built without any idea of racing, she
having three masts, square-rigged on each mast, and whatever
advantages she may have possessed seem to have escaped the notice of
the regular yacht-builders. A much likelier idea was struck by
'Vanderdecken,' in a letter to 'Bell's Life' in 1852, where he
proposes a 'tonnage cheater,' in which he had got the sternpost pretty
nearly amidships, with the profile resembling in an exact degree that
of our most modern small craft. But though, if properly designed
otherwise, the proposed vessel would have been a certain success, the
jump was too big a one for our yacht-builders, and 'Vanderdecken's'
idea lay on the shelf for many years.

[Illustration: 'VARUNA'

_40-rater (Capt. J. Towers-Clarke). Designed by G. L. Watson, 1892._]

[Illustration: 'Problem,' 1852.]

[Illustration: Deck plan of 'Problem'.]

[Illustration: Profile of the 'Varuna,' 1892.]

The evasion of length by this method, however, raised a terrible storm
of discussion. 'Bell's Life' and 'Hunt's Magazine' were inundated with
indignant letters on the subject, until, in 1854, the Royal London
Yacht Club, followed by the Royal Thames, arranged to measure the
length on deck, subtracting from this length the whole beam, instead
of three-fifths of the beam, so as not to dis-class those vessels with
excessive rake already built. This rule, under the name of the 'Thames
Rule,' became the recognised method of measuring yachts, and, indeed,
still remains the standard measurement for rates for buying, selling,
and hiring.

[Illustration: Vanderdecken's tonnage cheater.]

Slowly at first, but steadily, yachts became longer, narrower, and
deeper; the crack yacht of one year being displaced the next by
something with more length, less beam, and more ballast. Here and
there, it is true, an occasional vessel of exceptional excellence held
her own for a year or two with the newer ones; but what looked for a
little like high water was but the mark of an exceptional wave which
in its turn was covered, and the true flood seen to be a bit away yet.

To check the growing tendency towards length and depth at the expense
of beam, the New Thames Yacht Club, at a meeting on March 12, 1874,
adopted the following rule:--

     The length shall be the distance from the fore part of the
     main stem to the after part of the main sternpost measured
     in a straight line along the deck.

     The breadth shall be the distance between the outsides of
     the outside planks or wales, measured where that distance is
     largest.

     The depth shall be the distance between the top of the
     covering board and the bottom of the keel at the middle
     point of the length.

     The product of the length, the breadth, and the depth,
     divided by 200, shall be taken as the tonnage of the yacht.

But the influence of this rule was not far-reaching, and confined to
the New Thames Club, and (in a slightly modified form) to the
Queenstown Model Yacht Club; few yachts were built under it, and these
were not conspicuously successful. Nor was the reason of this very far
to seek. The tax on depth induced builders to cut down freeboard, and,
so far as might be, draft, while to make up for this latter deficiency
the amidships draft was carried well forward and aft, and only little
rake given to the post, with the result that the few boats built under
this rule carried an extremely awkward sail-plan, and were abnormally
slow in stays.

The great general effect of the 94, or Thames Rule, has been
described; but among its minor influences may be mentioned the
inducement to have the utmost water-line length on a given deck or
measurement length. One obvious manner of attaining this was by
keeping the sternpost upright or nearly so; while the writer, in a
little cutter called the 'Peg Woffington,' built for himself in 1871,
took a farther advantage of the rule by putting a ram bow on her, thus
getting the water-line even longer than the measurement on deck. An
additional interest attaches to this yacht as being the earliest
sailing yacht, so far as I have been able to ascertain, which had all
her ballast outside.

[Illustration: Dog-legged sternpost.]

In 1873 Mr. James Reid, of Port Glasgow, just then beginning to make
his mark as a yacht designer, devised what was called the 'dog-legged'
sternpost, fitting one in the 10-tonner 'Merle.' This, as will be seen
from the sketch, retained all the advantages of a raked sternpost, and
yet gave as long a water-line length as the length on deck; but the
device had but a short life, as in the spring of 1877 the Yacht
Racing Association, which had been formed the previous year, decreed
that the length should be measured to the fore side of the rudder
stock.

This regulation, made so late in the building season, somewhat
unjustly threw out three yachts built under the existing rule.
Unfortunately, a policy of procrastination seems to have haunted the
Yacht Racing Association since its inception, as in most instances
where the building rules have been changed, these changes have been
decided on so close to the coming season that builders have been
unfairly pushed in the designing and getting ready new vessels.

I would venture to suggest to that body, and this in the interests of
yacht-owners quite as much as of builders, that no rule affecting the
construction of racing yachts should be considered after the end of
October.

[Illustration: Immersed counter of 'Quiraing,' 1877.]

In the fall of 1877, in designing 'Quiraing,' and with the same end in
view, I got the water-line the same length as the length for
measurement by immersing the counter as in the sketch.

[Illustration: 'DORA'

_10-rater, centreboard (R. G. Allan, Esq.) Designed by G. L. Watson,
1891._]

In 1878 the Yacht Racing Association recognised the right of builders
to have the same length on load-water-line as that for which they were
taxed on deck, and that without forcing them into adopting abnormal
shapes, and therefore determined that the length should be measured on
the load-water-line. Though it was at once pointed out that this would
lead to overhang, so strong was prejudice in favour of the
old-fashioned straight stem, that no advantage was taken of this until
the advent of the 10-ton 'Buttercup' in 1880, and in her the outreach
was extremely moderate. Indeed, it was impossible, with the deep,
narrow style of yacht produced by the 94 rule, to use overhang to
excess, this device only becoming objectionable when used in
combination with a flat, shallow section. 'Buttercup' made a most
excellent record; and though this was from causes quite apart from her
clipper stem, yet she marks a stage as being the first cutter to
reintroduce this adornment. 'Buttercup' was the work of an amateur,
Mr. Robert Hewitt, and the following particulars of her may be of
interest:--

_'Buttercup,' launched from yard at Barking, September 1880_

  L.W.L.              42 ft. 3 in.
  Extreme beam         7 ft. 4 in.
  Draught              8 feet
  Least freeboard      2 ft. 9 in.
  Displacement        22 tons
  Lead                14 "
  Ship and gear        8 "
  Sail-area        2,580 feet

     First match, May 9, 1881; sailed 20 starts in 1881, won 15
     firsts, 2 seconds; designed, owned, and sailed by Robert
     Hewitt, Esq., R.T.Y.C, now commodore.

I may mention that the first design for the 90-ton 'Vanduara' was
drawn with a clipper or out-reaching stem; but I had not the heart to
disfigure the boat (as I then considered I should be doing) by
building her in this fashion. The rising generation of yachtsmen,
however, is entirely reconciled to the clipper bow on a cutter-rigged
yacht, and may eventually (though this seems improbable) look with
complacency on such cutwaters as 'Dora's' or 'Britannia's.'

About this date--1875--builders were becoming more and more impressed
with the value of a low centre of gravity got by outside lead, which,
in combination with increased displacement, allowed of beam being
reduced and length added almost indefinitely. Indeed, Mr. Dixon Kemp,
probably the best authority on the subject in this country, declared
somewhat later that there was no limit to this process of drawing out;
and though I never could quite agree with him on that point, the
beginning of the end was approaching, and yachts, more especially in
the smaller classes, were getting most uncomfortably narrow. The
older men, however, were naturally timid about the introduction of
external ballast, and it was left to 'the boys,' with the happy
audacity and confidence of youth, to design 100-tonners with 70-ton
keels, which, perhaps fortunately, did not get beyond the length of
paper. But fives, tens, and twenties were built with nearly all their
lead outside, and did not from that fact tear themselves asunder. Mr.
James Reid, of Port Glasgow, designer of the beautiful 10-tonner
'Florence' and many other fast boats, closely followed by Mr. John
Inglis, of Pointhouse, and later by the writer, put all or nearly all
of the ballast outside, and the practice in a few years became
general.

[Illustration: 'Britannia,' 1893.

'Thistle,' 1887.

Sketch of cutwaters.]

Length and displacement went merrily on, as will be seen from the
following tables and diagrams:--

_Elements of 5-Tonners (94 and 1730 Rules)_

  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Description    | Diamond |  Vril   | Trident|  Olga   |  Doris   |  Oona
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Length on      | 25 ft.  | 28 ft.  | 32 ft. | 33 ft.  |  33 ft.  | 34 ft.
     load-line    |  3 in.  |  4 in.  |        |         |   8 in.  |
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Breadth        |  7 ft.  |  6 ft.  |  6 ft. |   5 ft. |   5 ft.  |  5 ft.
     Extreme      |2-1/4 in.|  7 in.  |        |8-3/4 in.|   7 in.  |  6 in.
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Draught of     |  4 ft.  |  5 ft.  |  6 ft. |  6 ft.  |   7 ft.  |  8 ft.
     water extreme|  6 in.  |  2 in.  |  3 in. |  4 in.  |          |
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Displacement   |4.92 tons|7.18 tons|8.9 tons|10.4 tons|12.55 tons|12.5 tons
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Total          |  671    |  830    |  912   |  985    |  1,116   |
     area of      | sq. ft. | sq. ft. | sq. ft.| sq. ft. |          |
     lower sail   |         |         |        |         |          |
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Designer       | W. Baden| G. L.   | W. E.  | W. E.   | G. L.    | W. E.
                  |  Powell |  Watson |  Paton |  Paton  |  Watson  |  Paton
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+
   Date when      |   1873  |  1876   |  1879  |  1883   |  1885    |  1886
     built        |         |         |        |         |          |
  +---------------+---------+---------+--------+---------+----------+--------+

[Illustration: Chart.]

[Illustration: Profiles of 5-tonners.]

[Illustration: Sections showing decrease of breadth and increase of
depth in 5-tonners--under 94 and 1730 Rules.]

In the autumn of 1881 it was thought a check might be put on this
development by adopting a rule somewhat easier on beam than the
existing 94 one, and in 1882 it was determined that the tonnage should
be reckoned in accordance with the formula:--

((L + B){2} × B) / 1730

[Illustration: Diagram of variation under different rules.]

The incidence of this rule is clearly enough shown by the diagram,
where the possible dimensions for a 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-tonner are
plotted under both rules; the two curves crossing at a point where the
vessel is about 5-1/4 beams in length. Below this point the new rule
was easier on beam, and above it more severe; and it was thought that
the extra beam admissible below the five-beam point would have
induced builders to avail themselves of this quality; but beam, as we
learn by the light of later years, was then altogether undervalued,
and length was taken at any price, with the result that the adoption
of extreme proportions was hastened rather than averted, till in 1886
a radical change in the rule was demanded, and in the autumn of that
year a Committee of the Yacht Racing Association, after taking most
exhaustive evidence from the various experts, decided on the adoption
of a rule proposed by Mr. Dixon Kemp, based solely on length (which
was measured on the load-water-line) and on sail-area.

In this rule, breadth, so sorely taxed by the 94 rule, was left
absolutely unfettered; depth as heretofore being also untaxed, so that
infinite scope was left for experiment in the way of beam.
Simultaneously with this change, the use of the centreboard was
permitted; and, as the pessimists declared, the road made clear for
all manner of skimming dishes and consequent caprices. I ventured to
point out at the time the possible dangers of unlimited beam, and
proposed that the rule should be ((L +B) × sail-area) / constant; but
this limitation was held to be unnecessary, as, indeed, it appeared to
be for a year or two. With the exception of the 'Thistle,' built
immediately on the passing of the rule, and built probably more with a
view to American racing than performance in home waters, builders were
somewhat chary of availing themselves of the advantages of beam, and,
in the larger classes at least, successive yachts, though getting
broader, only 'slowly broadened down from precedent to precedent.' To
Mr. Alfred Payne, of Southampton, is due the credit of showing what
could be done with large beam and moderate displacement.

In 1889 he built the 'Humming Bird,' 2-1/2-rater, for Captain Hughes;
this boat was 26 feet on water-line, 7.5 feet beam--that is, 3.46
beams in length--and was extremely successful against other and
narrower boats, notably 'Thief' and 'Queen Mab', of like rating and
designed by the writer.

_Elements of 40-Raters (Length and Sail Area Rule)_

  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
               |        |         |      |       |      |Centreboard|      |
   Description | Mohawk |Deerhound|Creole| Thalia|Varuna|  cutter-- | Lais |Vendetta
               |        |         |      |       |      | Queen Mab |      |
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
   Length on   } 61.23  |  58.85  |59 ft.| 59.14 |59 ft.|  59 ft.   |59.92 | 59.96
     load line }  ft.   |   ft.   | 6 in.|  ft.  |      |   8 in.   | ft.  |  ft.
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
   Breadth     |  14.5  |  13 ft. |13 ft.| 13.9  |14 ft.|  16 ft.   |      | 17.05
     extreme   |   ft.  |   5 in. | 2-1/4|  ft.  | 7 in.|   4 in.   |17 ft.|  ft.
               |        |         |  in. |       |      |           |      |
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
   Draught of  }  9.5   | 11 ft.  |12 ft.| 12 ft.|13 ft.|  10 ft.   |      |
     water     }   ft.  |6-1/2 in.|      |  6 in.| 4 in.|   9 in.   |  --  |  --
     extreme   |        |         |      |       |      |           |      |
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
   Displacement|  58.8  | 58 tons | 58   |  57   | 55   |   54.8    |  --  |  --
               |  tons  |         | tons |  tons | tons |   tons    |      |
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
   Designer    { C. P.  |  G. L.  |G. L. |W. Fife|G. L. |  G. L.    |W. Fife| A. E.
               { Clayton|  Watson |Watson| jun.  |Watson|  Watson   | jun. | Payne
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+
   Date when   |  1888  |  1889   | 1890 | 1891  | 1892 |   1892    | 1893 |  1893
     built     |        |         |      |       |      |           |      |
  +------------+--------+---------+------+-------+------+-----------+------+--------+

In 1890 'Iverna' was built, of practically the same length as, and
of less beam than, 'Thistle,' and no great advance was made until the
present year (1893) in the adoption of beam in the larger classes; but
the progress in this direction may be easily traced in the 'forty' and
'twenty' rating classes, where the growth of beam and decline in
displacement are very well marked, as the table and diagram show.

[Illustration: Diagram showing variation of dimensions, &c., with
years. 40-raters. L. and S.A. Rule.]

[Illustration: Profiles of 40-raters.]

1893 will be remembered as having produced four notable boats on this
side of the Atlantic, and five in America; and in all nine due
prominence is certainly given to beam, if, indeed, more breadth has
not been taken, in some of these at least, than can be advantageously
used.

The dimensions of these boats, so far as they have been obtainable,
will be of interest.

[Illustration: 'Deerhound,' 1889 'Thalia,' 1891 'Varuna,' 1892 'Queen
Mab,' 1892, C.B.

Midship sections of 40-raters.]

How far under the present rating rule beam may yet be increased with
advantage to speed is still matter for debate and experiment.
Personally I am inclined to think we have pretty nearly approached the
limit. But of this much I am confident, that we have long ago exceeded
the limit where beam improves a yacht as a comfortable sea-going
craft, and that we should have a much more wholesome and useful
vessel for all purposes, except possibly for international racing,
with somewhat less beam and somewhat more displacement.

The diagram given _ante_ may serve to give the reader an idea of the
influence that the various tonnage or rating rules have had on the
proportions and form of yachts.

_British Yachts, 1893_

  +-----------+------+-------+-----------+--------+-----+------+
  |           |Length|Breadth|  Y.R.A.   |Length  |     |Y.R.A.|
  |   Name    |  on  | ext.  |   sail    |over all|Draft|rating|
  |           |L.W.L.|       |   area    |        |     |      |
  +-----------+------+-------+-----------+--------+-----+------+
  |           | feet | feet  |square feet|  feet  | feet|      |
  |Satanita   | 97.7 | 24.7  |   9,923   | 131.0  | 16.5|161.58|
  |Britannia  | 87.8 | 23.66 |  10,328   | 121.5  | 15.0|151.13|
  |Valkyrie   | 86.8 | 22.33 |  10,271   | 117.25 | 16.3|148.58|
  |Calluna    | 82.0 | 24.3  |  10,305   |   --   | 15.0|140.83|
  +-----------+------+-------+-----------+--------+-----+------+

_American Yachts, 1893_

  +------------------+------+-------+-----------+--------+-----+------+
  |                  |Length|Breadth|  Y.R.A.   |Length  |     |Y.R.A.|
  |    Name          |  on  | ext.  |   sail    |over all|Draft|rating|
  |                  |L.W.L.|       |   area    |        |     |      |
  +------------------+------+-------+-----------+--------+-----+------+
  |                  | feet | feet  |square feet|  feet  | feet|      |
  |Navahoe, C.B.     | 86.93| 23.0  |  10,815   |  128   | 13  | 156.7|
  |Vigilant, C.B.    | 86.19| 26.25 |  12,330   |  124   | 14.0| 178  |
  |Colonia, K.       | 85.00| 24.00 |    --     |  124   | 14.0|  --  |
  |Jubilee, C.B. and } 84.00| 22.5  |    --     |  123   | 16.0|  --  |
  |  Fin             }      |       |           |        |     |      |
  |Pilgrim, K.       | 85.00| 23.0  |    --     |  122   | 22.0|  --  |
  +------------------+------+-------+-----------+--------+-----+------+

But an entirely false impression has been conveyed should it be
understood that the only advance made in yacht designing was due to
more or less ingenious methods of evading the existing measurement
rule; and it will be sufficient if the fact has been impressed, that a
designer is as unlikely to make a successful vessel if he ignores the
measurement under which the yacht is to race as by failing to
recognise those laws of nature which govern the stability of bodies in
water and their resistance in passing through it.

What has to be done by the yacht designer, besides getting the very
utmost out of the tonnage rule, has never been more happily put than
by Lord Dunraven in an article on International Yachting, from which
I venture to quote:--

     How most successfully to drive a body through the water by
     the means of the motive power of the wind acting upon the
     sails, is the question that puzzles men and turns them
     grey-headed before Nature should have thinned or whitened
     their locks. The designer has not merely to discover the
     form of solid body which, at various rates of speed, will
     excite the smallest degree of resistance in passing through
     the water, for the body is not solid, it is hollow. It must
     have buoyancy, and suitable accommodation for all the living
     and dead freight on board. It must possess stability, real
     and acquired; that is, natural by means of breadth, and
     artificial by means of ballast, if the expressions are
     allowable. It does not proceed on a level keel or at any
     uniform angle, but at angles varying at every moment, and
     the contour of the body must be adapted to these various
     angles. Neither does the wind exert its force upon it from a
     fixed direction, nor propel it through water uniformly
     smooth or constantly rough. On the contrary, the propelling
     power strikes from various angles on the surface of the
     sails; and the sea, as we all know--and some of us to our
     cost--has a reprehensible habit of becoming, on the shortest
     notice, agitated in the most disagreeable manner.

     Every point of sailing suggests an appropriate and different
     form of hull. The shape that is well adapted for one kind of
     weather is ill adapted for another sort; vessels that move
     as by magic in light airs may be of little use in a whole
     sail breeze; one that is by no means a flier in smooth water
     may be very hard to beat in a sea-way. In short, a vessel
     must be light enough to be driven easily by a moderate
     breeze, stiff enough to stand up to her canvas in a hard
     wind, shallow enough to be docked with ease and to run with
     speed. She must have depth enough to hold her up to
     windward, breadth enough to give her stability; she should
     be long enough to reach well, and short enough to turn well
     to windward; low in the water so as not to hold too much
     wind, with plenty of freeboard to keep the sea off her
     decks. The satisfaction of any one requirement necessitates
     something antagonistic to some other requirement equally
     clamorous for satisfaction. Your vessel, to be perfect, must
     be light, of small displacement, and with the centre of
     gravity brought very low; she must also have large
     displacement, and the ballast must not be too low, in order
     that she may be easy in a sea-way; she must be broad,
     narrow, long, short, deep, shallow, tender, stiff. She must
     be self-contradictory in every part. A sailing ship is a
     bundle of compromises, and the cleverest constructor is he
     who, out of a mass of hostile parts, succeeds in creating
     the most harmonious whole. It is not strange that designers
     pass sleepless nights, and that anything like finality and
     perfection of type is impossible to conceive. No wonder that
     yacht designing is a pursuit of absorbing interest.

It has been shown, then, how from the three beam yachts of fifty years
ago, the proportions drew out, under the 94 rule, to five, five and a
half, and in some instances six beams in length, the 'Evolution'
reaching even 7.8 beams; and even more rapidly, under the length and
sail-area rule, fell back to something like three again. But the
proportions are about all that remain in common to the clippers of
1845 and 1893 and it will be interesting now to trace how form, mode
of construction and equipment have developed, as well as proportions.

Prior to 1820, what yachts there were afloat seem to have presented
but little individuality of form, and showed, in common with the
faster smugglers and fishing vessels of the day, a round barrel-like
bottom, full round bow and fairly clean run, the buttock lines and
after riband lines being generally fair and easy. These yachts were,
one and all, built of timber, were ballasted with stones or gravel,
the more advanced possibly with ore, while the sails and equipment
were of a piece with the hull, the main rigging being of hemp, and no
attempt being made after flatness in the sails.

The original 'Arrow,' of 84 tons, built somewhere about 1823 by Mr.
Joseph Weld, seems to have been a fairly representative craft of that
time, and raced with considerable success, even against much larger
vessels than herself.

This original 'Arrow' was 61 ft. 9-1/2 in. long by 18 ft. 5-1/4 in.
beam, with a depth of hold of 8 ft. 8 in.--that is, she had a
proportion of length to breadth of 3.35--not very much differing in
proportion from our present cutters of 1893: 'Calluna,' the 40-raters
'Lais' and 'Vendetta,' being about 3.4 and 3.5 beams to length, and
the American 'Vigilant' about 3.32.

[Illustration: Midship section.

'Leopard.' Built by Linn Ratsey, Cowes, Isle of Wight, 1807. These
lines are accurately reproduced from the original by his grandson,
Michael E. Ratsey.]

'Arrow' had the usual round barrel-like bottom, and, so far as can
be learned, a round, short bow, the run being fair and easy, the
small midship section lending itself pleasantly to this.

[Illustration: 'ARROW' CUTTER

_Midship Section_

_113 tons. Length on L.W.L., 79' 2"; beam extreme, 18' 9"; draught
extreme, 11' 6"._

[The original 'ARROW,' 84 tons, was built by Mr Joseph Weld about
1823. In 1846 she was bought by Mr. Thomas Chamberlayne and rebuilt;
but it was not until 1852 that her bow was lengthened and she appeared
as shown above.]]

Racing with the 'Arrow,' but without any very conspicuous success, was
the cutter 'Menai,' designed by that famous sportsman, Mr. T.
Assheton-Smith, and memorable from being the first vessel in which
hollow lines were adopted. But little notice seems to have been taken
of this very radical alteration in form, and although Scott Russell in
1840 elaborated a system of construction, based on hollow lines, and
the famous 'Mosquito,' built in 1848, and 'Tiara,' built by Simons of
Renfrew in 1850, all showed this feature strongly, it was not till the
'America' schooner appeared in 1851 that the old round bow was utterly
condemned, and everyone went more or less crazy on the long hollow
bow.

Meanwhile the original old 'Arrow' was being sailed with fair success
against craft much larger than herself, until in 1827 she was laid
aside by her owner in favour of the first 'Lulworth,' of 130 tons,
known for little else than that she was of the same name as the famous
'Lulworth' of 80 tons, also built by Mr. Weld in 1857.

Meantime, Mr. Weld built the famous 'Alarm' of 193 tons in 1834, and
for a long time this enormous cutter was Queen of the Solent.

But the old 'Arrow' was to begin a second career. Bought in 1846 from
a dealer by Mr. Thomas Chamberlayne for a few pounds, that gentleman
had her replanked and some alterations made in the bow and run, indeed
not very much more than the amidship frame seems to have been
preserved. Anyway the resuscitated vessel appeared again in 1847,
recommencing a career which has certainly been an extraordinary one.

In 1848 'Mosquito' was built and fairly tackled the older ship, but
the 'Arrow' was not yet the boat she now is, or as represented in the
plate, as it was not till 1852, and until after the advent of the
'America,' that she appeared with her present long, hollow bow,
having been pulled out some 17 feet in the winter of 1851, as indeed
was pretty well everything else that aspired to be in the fashion. As
is often the case, the pendulum swung too far the other way; bows were
built on old boats, and new boats were designed with fore bodies,
altogether out-Heroding Herod; and the 'America's' graceful,
well-proportioned and moderately hollow bow was caricatured in some
instances to a ridiculous extent. The 'America' showed also a decided
departure in form of midship section, the bottom being much straighter
than in our British-built craft, and the bilge higher and
quicker--altogether a fine form for stability. The run, though
somewhat short, was very fair, the buttock lines especially (as will
be seen by the plate given in the second volume) showing beautifully
easy curves.

But the lesson hinted at by 'Menai,' reiterated by 'Mosquito' and
'Tiara,' insisted upon by Scott Russell, but only brought home to us
by the American schooner, was not the only one to be gleaned from that
graceful vessel. Previous to her advent, our British-made sails were
most baggy productions, kept decently flat only by drenching the luffs
with water, a process called 'skeating.' This defect could not
altogether be laid at the door of our sailmakers, as they did fairly
well, considering the material they had to work with; but flax canvas
at that date was still made by hand and was little firmer in texture,
if indeed as firm, as the unbleached merchant canvas of the present
day. The 'America's' sails were of machine-spun cotton, and, farther,
were laced to the booms as well as the gaffs and masts, the staysail
also being laced to a boom. These flat sails certainly suited the easy
form of the 'America'; but here again the reaction was too strong, and
it is undoubtedly the fact that for some years afterwards sails were
got too flat, at least, for many of the full-bodied boats that they
were put over, and the want of flow of the older-fashioned
loose-footed sails was sadly missed when there came to be any work off
the wind.

For some years then after 1851 (the year of 'America's' _début_ here),
sails were probably flat enough for the forms they had to drive; and
American sailmakers apparently arrived at this conclusion, as they
first of all gave up lacing the head sails, and later cut those
rounder and rounder, until now American head-sails are cut much fuller
than our own, and their mainsails also somewhat fuller. But while the
'America' was undoubtedly the great epoch-making vessel in yacht
designing, the cutter 'Mosquito' possessed quite as many original
features, and had she only come from abroad instead of being a home
production, would have made a far greater stir than the schooner.

[Illustration: 'Mosquito,' 50 tons, 1848.]

The 'Mosquito' was turned out by the Thames Iron Works Shipbuilding
Company. She was designed by that great original genius, Tom Waterman,
who had already produced many successful merchant steamers and sailing
ships: notably the steamer 'Himalaya,' built originally for the
Peninsular and Oriental Company, but afterwards sold to Her Majesty's
Government for a troopship, and still a gem of the ocean and mother of
the troopers.

[Illustration: Midship section.]

The 'Mosquito,' besides presenting novelties in form, in the way of an
easy and hollow bow, large displacement, well-raked post and deep
heel, also upset all preconceived notions of what was yacht fashion,
by being built of iron. Great was the discussion over this departure;
but, among many prophets of evil, a writer in 'Hunt's Magazine,' in
1854, discussing wood _versus_ iron, predicts that 'the "Mosquito" is
likely to be well and hearty when the present wooden craft have gone
to that "bourne from which no traveller returns."'

This prediction has been exactly fulfilled, as 'Mosquito,' after as long
and brilliant a career as has fallen to any yacht, is now, or was a few
years ago, doing good work as a pilot boat off Barrow-in-Furness.

In 1852, Mr. William Fife, of Fairlie, in Ayrshire, who, with his
father before him, had for some years been turning out fast and
weatherly boats, produced 'Cymba,' a notable cutter. His father had
made Scotch-built yachts, well known by his 'Gleam,' built in 1832,
though only fitted out for racing by Sir Robert Gore Booth in 1837;
but 'Cymba' was a marked improvement on this model, having a far
longer and easier bow, larger displacement, considerable rake of post,
and great drag aft.

The dimensions of 'Cymba' are appended, and it will be seen that she
was just under four beams in length.

  _'Cymba', built 1852, by Fife_

  Length of keel                        52 feet
  Length between perpendiculars         59   "
  Breadth, extreme                      15.3 "
  Draft aft                             10   "
  Forward                                5.6 "
  Mast from stem                        23   "
  Length of mast                        56   "
  Boom                                  53   "
  Bowsprit                              32   "
  Lead outside                           3 tons
  Lead in all                           23 to 24 tons

Meanwhile in matters of equipment steady progress was being made.
Wire rope was rapidly ousting hemp for all standing rigging.
Sailmaking, in the hands of Messrs. Lapthorn and of Charles Ratsey,
was rapidly becoming a science. Machine-spun and woven flax canvas was
in universal use, even cotton canvas was fitfully tried, and from the
first strongly upheld by Charles Ratsey, of Cowes; but prejudice was
too strong as yet for this material, and flax held the day for many a
year to come. It is gratifying that Mr. Ratsey should have lived to
see his favourite material triumphant, and to have looked, as he might
have done in 1893, at the finest fleet of racing yachts the world has
seen, clothed, from the Prince of Wales's majestic 'Britannia' to the
tiny half-rater, entirely with cotton.

[Illustration: 'LETHE'

_163 tons, showing lead keel and construction. Designed by G. L.
Watson. Built by Fay & Co., 1889._]

A considerable factor in modifying form was the gradual abolition of
shifting ballast; this, though not yet actually illegal, was being
more and more looked upon with disfavour, and as the use of outside
lead increased, it was found that depth was a more than sufficient
substitute for weather ballast, especially as beam was being squeezed
down by the tonnage rule, and a long lever in this direction rendered
impossible.

Timber was still the favourite material for building ('Mosquito,'
'Torpid,' and one or two others being the sole exceptions to this
rule); but about 1860 a new system of construction was tried in which
an iron framework was combined with a wooden skin or planking. This
system came rapidly into vogue on the Clyde, and was adopted by
several firms there in the building of those beautiful creations, the
China clipper ships. The annual race home with the season's teas was
the subject of discussion in the great Clyde shipyards, and I can well
remember the highest ambition of every spirited lad in the drawing
office was to live to design a China clipper. The Suez Canal closed
for ever this avenue to fame.

Among the most successful builders of these ships were Messrs. Robert
Steele & Co., of Greenock, who had, so early as 1807, built yachts for
the Excise and for various Scotch owners. Mr. William Steele of that
firm being an able designer of yachts as well as of ships, it was
natural that this method of construction should be adopted by him in
the building of 'Nyanza,' 'Oimara,' 'Garrion,' and the majestic
'Selene,' to-day one of the handsomest schooners afloat; while many of
that firm's large steam yachts, notably the 'Wanderer,' 850 tons, the
finest auxiliary yacht of her day, were built on this plan.

Dan Hatcher of Southampton carried out this system in building several
vessels, commencing with a schooner, the 'Bella Donna,' of 119 tons,
in 1867; 'Seabird,' 126 tons, 1868; 'Lizzie,' of 20 tons, 1868; then,
in one of his finest craft, 'Muriel,' which he built for Mr. Bridson
in 1869; and in the famous 'Norman' he also adopted this construction.
But, owing to the steel frame being considerably more expensive than
timber, the composite build has never become popular until within the
last few years, when the naturally weak shape of the modern yacht, the
fact of all the lead being outside, and her enormous stability, have
so increased the racking strains on the structure, that a merely
wooden frame cannot be got to hold together without making the weight
of the hull altogether prohibitive; and the composite racing yacht,
for everything except very small vessels, seems likely to push all the
others from the field. As illustrating this method of construction, a
midship section is given of 'Lethe,' 163-ton yawl, and one of the
finest of our cruising yachts. The photograph shows the lead keel, the
heaviest ever cast, and also the method of securing the same to the
bottom of the ship.

Since 'Mosquito' astonished the yachting world in 1848, until to-day
when 'Navahoe' and other American racing yachts have been constructed
of metal, iron and steel yachts have been more or less successful; but
the difficulty of keeping a smooth and perfectly clean bottom is a
considerable source of expense and worry, although the immense
strength of the steel shell, and in a large yacht its lightness, will
always be a set-off to the trouble of the uncoppered bottom.

[Illustration: 'Lethe,' 163 tons. Built for S. C. Watson, Esq.--Midship
section.]

In a lecture on 'Progress in Yachting and Yacht-building,' which I
delivered early in 1881, in a fanciful specification of the yacht for
the season 2000, I required that the plating below water should be of
manganese bronze. Curiously enough, a few years later saw an attempt
to combine the strength of steel and the smoothness, anti-fouling, and
non-corrosive properties of copper, in the building of a torpedo-boat
of this material; while this year the chosen defender of the America
Cup has been plated with a similar bronze on a steel frame, the
builders claiming, and not without reason, that the additional
smoothness of bottom gives her an advantage of five to seven minutes
on a forty-mile course. But such a practice seems hardly likely to
become general for ordinary racing yachts built for men with a normal
depth of pocket, and whilst, as in the old Mississippi steamboat days,
it sometimes paid to burn hams, most of us have to try and get along
with good coal.

I was going to build the topsides, frames, and beams of my ideal
vessel of aluminium, and the other day a small yacht has been built,
on the Continent, of this lightest of metals; but the present cost of
this material, and, as yet, its unreliability, place it, for the
present at least, outside the range of practical material for
yacht-building. There seems more hope for some of the very beautiful
and immensely strong alloys of aluminium, but they too are expensive,
and also heavy. It may be some years before the complete realisation
of my design is accomplished, and platinum is substituted for lead as
ballast, though when syndicates of millionaires start yacht-building
there seems very little limit to extravagance in construction.

In nickel-steel there is promise of a very perfect material. This is
an alloy of the ordinary Siemens-Martin steel with nickel, and called
by the makers Yolla metal. It can be made to comply with all the
ordinary tests applied to ship steel, in the way of ductility under
stress, and at the same time have a breaking strength of 40 tons to
the square inch as against 27 for ordinary steel. This metal was used
by Mr. Fife in 1893 for the frames and beams of the 20-rater 'Dragon'
(third), and although the few pounds of weight saved by no means
accounted for the phenomenal success of this little ship, yet the gain
was all in the right direction.

Wire standing rigging continued to improve in quality, and very
rapidly pushed out the old hemp rigging. From being made at first of
good charcoal iron wire, it is now manufactured of the very highest
class of steel, of such perfect character that the breaking strength
of each wire is equal to 130 tons per square inch.

Used at first for standing rigging only, flexible wire rope takes the
place of Manilla or hemp for the runners, and runner tackles, topping
lifts, bobstay falls, outhauls, topsail and jib-topsail halliards, and
latterly even for throat and peak halliards.

Other details were also perfected. Instead of the heavy and clumsy
windlass, neat and light capstans are arranged of cast steel and gun
metal, made so that the whole thing can be lifted away and stowed
below while racing.

Right- and left-handed screws have superseded the old dead-eyes and
lanyards, although these held their own desperately for many years.
Introduced first in the 10-tonner 'Verve,' in 1877, the chain-plates
were torn up in an extra heavy squall; but this occurred from the
great stability of the boat and the fastening having been
insufficient; the rigging screws, however, were blamed for all the
trouble, and were laid aside for ten years or thereabouts, until
re-introduced in the 5-tonner 'Doris.' Now no racing boat is without
them.

Attention was also given to the lightening of deck fittings,
skylights, companions, and the like, these in the racing vessels being
kept lower and flatter, and the scantling reduced perhaps rather
farther than advisable, as one certainly thinks on getting a stream of
water down the neck from a leaky skylight.

Bulwarks have been reduced so as to save weight and windage, until in
the smaller yachts they have become a mere ledge or foothold, whilst
even in the largest class the rail is less than a foot from the deck.

Below, fittings have been lightened correspondingly. Cedar, yellow
pine, and cretonnes or tapestries stretched on frames or light panels,
take the place of the good solid oak and mahogany framing of the
years gone by. Indeed, in some of the classes under 40-rating, cabin
fittings have been dispensed with altogether; although this is not
altogether a novelty, as the Marquis of Ailsa, in 'Bloodhound' (built
1874), and 'Sleuthhound' (built 1881), had at first no fittings beyond
a seat along each side. 'Thistle' in 1887 was similarly arranged, nor
had 'Valkyrie' or 'Vigilant' much more inside than a coat of paint
when racing for the America Cup; but these last are of course special
cases, where everything was sacrificed so that the uttermost second of
speed should be taken out of the yachts. In cruising yachts the cabins
are infinitely more elegant and comfortable now than formerly. The
good old birdseye maple panelling with rosewood mouldings and gilded
'egg and dart' cornice has given place to tasteful cabinet-work
designed in many cases by high-class artists. The main cabin of the
'Lethe,' designed by Mr. T. L. Watson, F.R.I.B.A., is a good example
of this, and the 'Thistle,' now called 'Meteor,' the property of the
German Emperor, has since been very beautifully fitted up from designs
by the same gentleman, the photographs reproduced here giving but an
indication of the elegance and richness of the interior.

[Illustration: Profile of 'Valkyrie.' Designed by G. L. Watson.]

[Illustration: Profile of 'Vigilant.' Designed by N. Herreshoff.]

One of the happiest combinations of lightness of structure with
taste and comfort is in the Prince of Wales's 'Britannia.' The
fittings throughout are of polished yellow pine and mahogany, with
tapestries and cretonnes above the polished wood dado, the effect
being extremely bright, cosy, and unostentatious.

[Illustration: SALOON OF 'THISTLE' (NOW 'METEOR').]

To return to the story of the evolution of the modern racing yacht, no
striking change in form was made for some little time after
'America's' advent, beyond, of course, the steady lengthening and
deepening of the model. Dan Hatcher, with the 'Glance' in 1855,
entered on the wonderful series of successes which culminated perhaps
in 'Norman,' 1872. These were all reasonably long boats with nice
bows, fine after ends, and of big mid-area and displacement, but
beautifully fair and easy all over, and showing a slight but not
inordinate hollow forward. In 1866 Mr. Fife, of Fairlie, built the
'Fiona,' and though Clyde builders had already turned out successful
yachts, it was 'Fiona' that put the fame of Scotch builders on a solid
footing. This beautiful vessel was a cutter of 80 tons, of great
length in proportion to beam (73 ft. 6 in. × 15 ft. 9 in.) and of
large displacement for those days (108 tons); but she had singularly
long, fair and easy lines, and, sailed in a masterly manner by John
Houston, of Largs, more than held her own with the Solent-built craft.
However, beyond being exceptionally fair and easy, 'Fiona' presented
no striking novelty in form, nor did the big cutters 'Kriemhilda,'
'Vol-au-Vent,' or 'Formosa,' built by M. Ratsey, of Cowes, in 1872,
1875, and 1878 respectively, and it is an outsider and amateur
yacht-builder that we have to thank for the daring departure in form
that was made in 'Jullanar.'

[Illustration: Cutter yacht 'Britannia'--general arrangement plan.]

Prior to 1870 but little was known of the laws governing the
resistance to bodies moving through water. It is true that eighty
years before this, towards the close of last century, Colonel Beaufoy
had made an elaborate series of experiments in towing bodies through
water, beginning first in one of the tanks of his father's brewhouse.
These were elaborated in the Greenland Dock near London, and
included the determination of the resistance of all manner of shapes,
except unhappily shipshape ones, the nearest approach to these being
double wedges, and double wedges with a straight amidship piece
inserted. But while Colonel Beaufoy also made experiments for the
determination of the value of surface friction on planes pulled
through the water, no great importance seems to have been attached to
these by shipbuilders in general, and the subject of surface friction
was more or less lost sight of by them until again brought forward by
Maquorn Rankine, first in a series of papers in the 'Mechanic's
Magazine,' and more elaborately in his 'Shipbuilding, Theoretical and
Practical,' published in 1866. In this Rankine, basing his deductions
on Weisbach's experiments on the flow of water through pipes,
concluded on mathematical principles that the entire resistance at
moderate speeds of a fair and easy formed vessel was due to surface
friction--i.e. the rubbing of the water against the sides and bottom
of the ship. Rankine showed also that at higher speeds the forming of
waves was a material and ever-increasing element in the resistance.

It is fully twenty years ago that the late Mr. William Froude began to
give to the world the results of his experiments on the resistance of
planes of different lengths, coated with various substances and towed
at varying speeds through the water. These experiments were conducted
under the most favourable conditions, and with the nicest regard for
accuracy, and practically confirmed Maquorn Rankine's deductions,
although it was found that Rankine had somewhat overestimated the
value attachable to surface friction, and had also overestimated the
increase in frictional resistance, due to increased speed. Still the
great fact remained that practically the entire resistance to a fairly
formed body, moving through water at moderate speeds, is due to
friction and to friction alone.

Rankine's reasoning, early in the sixties, had been too subtle for
those fathers of shipbuilding at that date engaged in the art. Able,
honest, practical men, most of them could have handled an adze, or
maul, with the best of their workmen, and were more at home fairing a
sheering batten, or directing a launch, than in analysing speed
curves, or investigating strength calculations.

But one or two of the younger and brighter minds in the profession,
more especially those who had the advantage of Rankine's direct
tuition, felt that the old beliefs as to resistance presented such
anomalous and unreconcilable results that they could not be founded on
any true law of nature. John Inglis, jun., then a mere boy, instituted
in Pointhouse Shipyard Rankine's method of estimating the resistance
of ships, and for many years was alone in this mode of investigation.

[Illustration: Resistance curves

Model of S.S. 'Merkara.'

SPEED IN FEET PER MINUTE RESISTANCE IN LBS.]

But with Froude's experiments all doubt on the matter vanished. It was
no longer a question of 'condemned mathematics.' Froude had the happy
knack of writing so that the proverbial schoolboy could understand
him; and the schoolboy could see the value of resistance to motion
through water weighed out as simply and accurately as a pound of
currant bun. These experiments for the determination of the frictional
resistance of water, published in 1874, were supplemented presently by
experiments on models of actual ships, and also by towing a full-size
ship, the 'Greyhound,' her resistance at various speeds being recorded
by means of a dynamometer on board the 'Active,' the vessel towing
her. The results of the experiments on model and ship were set out in
a curve, when it was found, after the necessary corrections were made,
that both curves were of precisely similar character. A basis of
comparison between model and ship was thus established, the measure of
this being set forth in what is known as Froude's law of comparison,
which may thus be stated. The equivalent speed of a ship and the model
it represents will vary as the square root of their lengths. Thus, in
the case of a ship 100 feet long represented by a model 4 feet long,
the equivalent speed of the ship would be five times that of the
model, and at these equivalent speeds would present similar phenomena
connected with resistance as the model does. This fact enormously
increased the knowledge of investigators, and it was belief in it that
gave the writer absolute confidence in carrying out the design of the
'Vanduara,' though he possessed experience in small boats only. Mr.
Froude also split up the several elements of resistance to motion
through the water into their component parts, assigning a value to
each, and showing what was due to surface friction and eddy-making,
and what to wave-making. Scott Russell had already argued for a given
length of fore and after body for any given speed, and this was
recognised by yacht-builders to some extent by their gradually
lengthening out their vessels; but the disadvantages as well as the
advantages of length could only be thoroughly realised on
investigating Froude's experiments. An example is given of such an
experiment in the diagram, which shows the resistance curve of a model
of the 'Merkara,' built by Messrs. Denny Bros., at Dumbarton, where
the several resistances are shown, each in its place. In this diagram
the resistance due to surface friction is indicated by the dotted
line, and the total resistance by the full line. Up to a speed of 250
feet per minute (for the model) the resistance is almost entirely due
to skin friction, but after that the wave-making becomes more and more
serious until at 370 feet per minute the wave-making takes more power
than the surface friction.

While surface friction thus plays a very large part in the resistance
of all vessels, and more especially in that of ocean-going steamers
and ships, which from their large dimensions seldom attain serious
wave-making speeds, yet undue importance may be placed upon friction,
and, in the smaller yachts, especially, surface may be inordinately
cut away. A notable example of this was the 'Thistle,' built in 1889
to compete for the America Cup; here the surface was so cut down that
sufficient lateral plane was not left to hold her to windward, and
although she sailed the water as fast as the American champion, the
'Volunteer,' she drifted bodily to leeward.

A short history of Mr. Froude's discoveries in resistance was
advisable before touching on 'Jullanar,' as this wonderful vessel,
whether the result of intuition or of early and immediate appreciation
of Froude's investigations, was a remarkable example of the modern
theories regarding naval architecture.

The same year that 'Jullanar' was built, I designed my first racing
yacht, the 5-ton 'Clotilde,' but whilst I had the advantage, through
my friend Mr. John Inglis, jun., of specially early access to
Professor Froude's investigations, I cut her away in a somewhat timid
fashion, though sufficient for her at that time to be compared to a
'cart-wheel,' with the accompanying prediction that she might 'run on
land, but would never sail in salt water.'

Meanwhile, with splendid audacity, and with no timid reverence for
precedent, Mr. Bentall built the 'Jullanar.'

An Essex plough and agricultural implement maker, Mr. E. H. Bentall
had but little training in naval architecture, but from boyhood had
been fond of yachting and of yacht modelling. He fancied he could do
something in the way of improving the form of the existing racing
yacht. After cutting several half-models, he got one that pleased him,
and on a piece of his own property adjoining the Blackwater river in
Essex, the famous yawl, afterwards to be known as 'Jullanar,' was laid
down.

[Illustration: 'JULLANAR'

_126 tons. Built by E. H. Bentall, Esq., 1875._]

Great length was taken in proportion to beam, as length means
capacity for speed, and beam in those days was doubly taxed. Draft was
untaxed, and was used boldly to obtain stability and weatherly
qualities; but while such proportions would have been impossible with
the ordinary form of forefoot and sternpost, as the boat would have
been clogged up with wet surface, this was got over by cutting all
deadwood clean away both forward and aft, in such daring fashion as
was not attempted until 'Thistle' was built, years afterward and I
should not have essayed such a form of profile in her had not
'Jullanar's' success given me a precedent. Add to these features the
fact that every line in the vessel was easy and fair, and the only
wonder is that the famous yawl was not even more phenomenally
successful than she was.

[Illustration: 'Jullanar'--midship section.]

Mr. Hunt, publisher of 'Hunt's Yachting Magazine,' has kindly supplied
the following measurements of the 'Jullanar,' which were given to him
by Mr. Bentall himself, when he would not let anyone else have them.
Coming therefore from the fountain-head they are accurate, and should
be preserved as a register of detail.

  _'Jullanar'[3] 126 tons, yawl_

                                       ft.  in.
  Length over all                      110   6
  Depth of hold                         12   0
  Length on load-line                   99   0
  Beam extreme, one sixth of load-line  16  10
   "  on  water-line                    16   5
   "  on deck                           16   8
  Depth after under load-line           13   6
   "  at forefoot load-line              1   6
   "  at midship                        13   6
  Height of freeboard aft                6   3
         "     "  forward                7   9
         "     "  midships               3   8
  Height of freeboard bulwarks                                       2    0
  Rake of sternpost, upright
  Distance the greatest transverse section is abaft centre of
  vessel at load-line                                               10    6

  Distance of centre of gravity of displacement below water-line     3    4
  Length of mainmast                                                75    0
    "  deck to hounds                                               53    0
    "  masthead                                                      9    6
  Diameter at deck                                                   1    4
  Length of main-topmast, fid to pin                                38    6
    "       main-boom                                               56    6
  Diameter centre of main-boom                                       1    0
  Length of main-gaff                                               40    0
    "       bowsprit outboard                                       24    6
    "       gaff topsail-yards, No. 1                               63    0
    "         "        "        No. 2                               46    0
    "         "        "        No. 3                               22    0
    "       mizzen-mast                                             51    6
    "       deck to hounds                                          36    0
    "       mizzen-boom                                             26    0
    "       mizzen-yard                                             35    0

[Footnote 3: _Vide_ 'Arabian Nights,' the 'Princess Jullanar of the
Sea.']

To my mind the genius, daring, and originality of mind of Mr. Bentall
were even more fully displayed in the design of the unsuccessful
'Evolution' than of the successful 'Jullanar.'

[Illustration: 'Jullanar,' yawl, 126 tons, 1875. Designed by E. H.
Bentall, Esq.]

The 'Evolution,' as her name implied, was the logical outcome of the
then tonnage rule, and of the laws of resistance rediscovered, or at
least popularised, by Froude. It seems self-evident now that with a
belief in these laws only one type of boat could be the result; but
Mr. Froude alone had the courage of his opinions, and built the
extraordinary 10-tonner which, if it did nothing else, scared the
authorities into changing the tonnage rule. 'Evolution' was by far the
longest of the 10-tonners, her dimensions being 51 ft. × 6 ft. 6
in.--indeed about the same water-line length as the twenties. To get
moderate wet surface the ends were cut away; but as 'Jullanar' already
represented the utmost that could be done in that direction, while
preserving a fair line of keel, this was cast aside in 'Evolution,'
and the profile was that of a true 'fin' boat. More than this, it was
found after a trial sail or two that she was very deficient in
stability when the lead slab forming the keel was recast in the form
of a bulb on the bottom of the plate, the completed design simply
forming one of our modern bulb fin keels, but of course, owing to the
94 rule, with vastly less beam. 'Evolution' was not a success because
of her insufficient stability, but with the meagre data in possession
of the designer as to the stability of boats of this class, it would
have been marvellous had the difficulty been overcome in a first
trial. To those able to see the beauties in a design, it matters less
whether the ultimate outcome has been successful or not, and while to
'the general' nothing succeeds like success, a few have a kindly
sympathy and hearty admiration for those who have laboured, that _we_
may enjoy the increase. Many of the best and kindest thoughts and
brightest ideas never reach fruition in this world, and so in the
mechanical arts there is often more genius displayed in a failure than
in a success, with this difference, that a mechanical idea seldom
dies, but, 'blossoming in the dust' of one brain, is plucked and worn
by another. 'Evolution' lay dead for fifteen years. She has had a
striking resurrection on both sides of the Atlantic.

[Illustration:

                FT
       L.W.L.  50.75'
    D°. BEAM.   6.395'
  EXTR. BEAM.   6.50
      DRAUGHT  10.00

'Evolution,' October 12, 1880, 10 tons, Y.R.A. Designed by E. H.
Bentall, Esq.]

In the autumn of 1886, as has been stated, the tonnage rule was
changed to that of rating, the only taxed dimensions being length on
water-line and sail-area. This change, though at once affecting
dimensions, did not materially affect form, though even in the earlier
boats designed under this rule more hollow was given to the sections,
this being of course a necessity, as with the added beam abnormal
displacement would otherwise have been the result. But displacement
was not immediately cut down, and for a given length of
load-water-line yachts had quite as much displacement as formerly;
'Thistle,' 120-rating, and 'Mohawk,' 40-rater, the only two large
yachts built the first year for the new classification, both being
wholesome big-bodied boats, with 130 and 58 tons displacement
respectively. Overhang naturally increased somewhat, as it was
apparent that this could be more usefully adopted with a
shallow-bodied boat than with a narrow one, it being evident that the
natural way of forming the stem and counter was to follow the general
buttock lines of the fore and after body. This overhang on the fairly
deep boats built up till 1890, so far from being objectionable, was a
distinct advantage, as it gave a fine, easy, and at the same time
lifting, bow in a sea, eased the bow riband lines when the boat lay
down and was hard driven reaching, and carried the side fairly out aft
in the long counter.

[Illustration: Midship section

Profile of lines of 'Meteor' (late 'Thistle'). Designed by G. L.
Watson, 1887.]

But beam was now steadily increasing, as untaxed dimensions are apt to
do, while extreme draught also increased, and these two giving ample
stability, displacement was more and more cut down. Length still had
to be got somehow, but length ran up wet surface, and in the 'classes'
for every foot of length a considerable amount of sail-area had to be
given, making, as it were, a direct and indirect tax thereon. With an
ordinary form of profile, the longer yachts would have been clogged up
with wet surface; so profiles first imitated 'Jullanar' and then
'Evolution,' while displacement was cut down to a minimum, to give an
easily driven form, and stability got in another way, by lengthening
the righting lever of the ballast, by giving immense draft of water,
and in the smaller classes concentrating this ballast in the form of a
bulb, as in the altered 'Evolution.' With the shallow body, overhang
has of course increased, the flat section carrying out naturally into
overhangs forward and aft, which almost double the water-line length
of the boat on deck. That such a type of boat sails fast for a given
sail-area and water-line length is beyond dispute, but this exhausts
almost all that can be said in its favour. For 1/2-raters, 1-raters,
and 2-1/2-raters, the type is perhaps suitable enough, as these are
only used as day boats, and extended cruising was never contemplated
in them. But from 5-up to 40-rating the type is nothing like so good
as that of the boats built prior to 1890. Expensive to build,
expensive to handle, without head-room, or indeed room of any kind
inside, they would thrash themselves to pieces in any sea but for the
admirable manner in which they have been put together. A season, or at
most two, sees the end of their success as racers; then they must be
broken up, or sold for a mere song, as they are quite useless for
cruising. So strongly was this felt by the various yacht-builders and
designers, that in the autumn of 1891 they, in response to the
invitation of the Yacht Racing Association, addressed a joint circular
to that body, and, with I think exceptional abnegation of what looked
to be their more immediate interests, pointed out the undesirability
of the present type of yacht, in the following letter:--

                               Langham Hotel, London: October 6, 1892.

     We (C. P. Clayton, William Fife, jun., Charles Nicholson,
     Arthur E. Payne, H. W. Ridsdale, Joseph Soper, and G. L.
     Watson) have met for the consideration of the questions put
     before us in the circular of the Council of the Yacht Racing
     Association, dated September 27, 1892.

     We have considered that, besides the saving in time to the
     Council and to ourselves, it would be more satisfactory for
     many reasons to have such a preliminary meeting for
     interchange of ideas on the important issues raised in this
     circular, and we trust that this course of action will be
     approved of by the Council. We may state that we are
     practically unanimous in the opinions hereinafter expressed,
     the only exception being on the one point of taxing
     overhang, Mr. Ridsdale feeling that he could not go with the
     majority in this.

     We would, then, most respectfully submit to your Council
     that as designers of racing yachts we have no desire
     whatever to interfere with the present rating rule. It has
     the merit of being the existing rule, and is a perfectly
     fair one for racing yachts together by, as indeed is any
     rule whatsoever, so far as designers are concerned, provided
     its conditions are clearly stated beforehand. But as naval
     architects, and, if we may be permitted to say so, as
     trustees for the yachting public, we think it our duty to
     point out any deteriorating tendency in a rule. We cannot
     help fearing that the present length and sail-area rule has
     such a tendency, and is leading, if it has not already led,
     to an unwholesome type of boat.

     We take it that the general yachting public require in a
     yacht: That she shall be safe in all conditions of wind and
     weather; that she shall combine the maximum of room on deck
     and below with the minimum of prime cost; and that she shall
     be driven as fast as may be with the least expenditure of
     labour--i.e. that she shall have a moderate and workable
     sail-area. Therefore, as but few men can afford to build for
     racing, and for racing only, and as the racer of to-day is
     the cruiser of a few years hence, any rating rule should by
     its limitations encourage such a wholesome type of vessel.

     On the above assumptions we have based our advice, and it is
     for your Council, as representing the general body of
     yachtsmen, to determine whether these assumptions are
     correct or not.

     We are all agreed, then, that the present length and
     sail-area rule is a most admirable one for the
     classification and regulation of time allowance of racing
     yachts. But we are also of opinion that the tendency of
     this rule is such as to induce a vessel of so large
     dimensions, relative to displacement and internal capacity
     (i.e. the useful living room on board the ship), that it is
     advisable to so alter or modify this rule that a type of
     vessel having more body may be evolved.

     We suggest that length and sail-area (as being the leading
     elements in speed) should be preserved in some form, but
     modified so as to make it the interest of builders to
     produce a bigger-bodied boat.

     The direct method of doing this would be to introduce
     displacement or register tonnage in some way as a divisor in
     the formula, but we foresee so many difficulties in the
     practical working of this that we are not prepared to advise
     it.

     By taxing breadth and draft or, alternatively, girth, and by
     reducing the tax on sail, we think this result may be
     arrived at indirectly. As to the precise value that each
     element should take in such a formula, we, at this stage,
     are not prepared to venture an opinion.

     [Illustration: 'Florinda,' yawl, 126 tons. Built by Camper
     and Nicholson, 1873.]

     The above on the general principles of the rule.

     But we also feel that the details of measurement, &c.,
     require revision.

     _On the hull._--The overhang, at least forward, should be
     taxed, as it may be carried to such an extent as to be a
     source of danger, but it need not be taxed excessively or to
     extinction.

     The L.W.L. should be marked forward and aft.

     Should girth or draft be used in the formula in centreboard
     vessels, some proportion of the drop of board should be
     added, and a limit should be placed on the weight of the
     board.

     In the smaller classes, at least, the crews should be
     limited.

     [Illustration: 'Kriemhilda,' 106 tons. Built by Ratsey,
     1872.]

     _On the sails._--The perpendicular of fore triangle should
     be measured from top of deck to where the line of luff of
     sail would cut mast.

     That the question of limiting the relative area of mainsail
     to total sail in the various classes be considered.

Mr. Alexander Richardson, of Liverpool, was unable to be present at
this meeting, but this note has been submitted to him, and receives
his endorsation:--

     The Council of the Yacht Racing Association, however, took
     the view that what the yacht-owning public want in a racing
     yacht is speed, and speed at any price, and on the
     yacht-builders clearly understanding this they withdrew
     their objections as having been made under a
     misunderstanding, but asked to be tied down to some extent,
     in a letter dated November 8, and in the following words:--

     'Our opinions, as expressed in that letter of October 6,
     practically remain unaltered; but so far as we are able to
     interpret the wishes of yacht-owners, as stated in the
     public prints, and more especially as expressed by your
     chairman and the majority of your committee, we now take it
     that speed, and speed before other good qualities, is what
     is to be aimed at.

     'We consequently withdraw any suggestions made in that
     letter, as having been made under a misapprehension as to
     your requirements.

     'But while it may be determined to retain a length and
     sail-area rule, either in its present or in some slightly
     altered form, we would most respectfully suggest that, at
     least in the classes above 5-rating (if, indeed, a lower
     line should not be drawn), the tendency toward abnormal and
     un-shipshape form should be curbed in some way. The main
     direction in which we would propose such limitation in form
     would be in the outline of longitudinal section, and we
     would suggest that this should be bounded by a fair line,
     concave, or at least not convex, toward the water-line. That
     the sternpost should show, say, a quarter of an inch above
     the water-line aft, and the rudder be hung thereon. That
     overhang forward and aft should be restricted, as also the
     extreme forward position of mast; but as we deem it
     undesirable to absolutely prohibit any form, we would simply
     propose to tax such variations from this normal one so
     heavily as to make their adoption unprofitable.'

The Yacht Racing Association, however, thought it undesirable to limit
form in any way, and beyond the adoption of the proposed method of
measuring the fore triangle, and marking the L.W.L., the rule remained
unaltered.

[Illustration: 'Florinda,' yawl.]

1893 therefore saw new boats in the classes, fast, it is true, in
fresh breezes, but undesirable from anything but a racing point of
view. In the unclassed vessels above 40-rating things were not quite
so bad, as with a practically unlimited sail-area a fair amount of
body was required to carry it. Besides, men who did not mind
spending two or three thousand on a 'machine' hesitated before putting
down ten or twelve. In America, however, where money is spent like
water when the national honour is at stake, 85-foot machines were
built on the off chance of their being successes; but it is gratifying
alike to American and British yachtsmen that the Cup should have been
defended by such a wholesome type of vessel as 'Vigilant' undoubtedly
is.

In a short chapter showing the evolution of the modern racing yacht,
many links in the chain of descent must be left unnoticed. I have had
to leave almost undescribed Dan Hatcher's wonderful fleet, beginning
in 'Glance' and 'Muriel,' and culminating, perhaps, in 'Norman';
Nicholson's famous schooners and yawls ('Florinda' was a standing
miracle for years); Michael Ratsey's equally fine ships; Richardson's
grand cutters and Clayton's clever 'length classers'; the work
accomplished, and still being accomplished, by the famous William
Fifes, besides many others whose labours are more fully recorded in
other parts of these volumes. But I think no one of all that band who
have loved and worked for the sport of yacht racing cares for the type
of ship which has been evolved by their own ingenuity and the present
Y.R.A. rule, and I am convinced that they would thankfully welcome any
legislation which should protect the yachting public against the
present extravagant, costly, and by no means seaworthy type of boat.

[Illustration: 'Florinda'--midship section.]

[Illustration: H.M. brig 'Lady Nelson,'[4] 60 tons (1797), to
Australia. Three keels, 1798, 1800-1-2.]

[Footnote 4: The first ship to discover that Tasmania was an island.]



CHAPTER V

SLIDING KEELS AND CENTREBOARDS

BY R. T. PRITCHETT[5]

[Footnote 5: The Editor desires to express his acknowledgments to Mr.
Pritchett for much energetic service kindly rendered during the
preparation of these volumes.]


[Illustration: MIDSHIP SECTIONS, DATES, AND TONNAGE OF SCHOONERS,
YAWLS, AND CUTTERS.

_Drawn to scale by J. M. Soper, M.I.N.A._]

Centreboards have been so prominently before the yachting world of
late that, endeavouring carefully to avoid the argumentative phases of
the question, it may be well to notice certain points of their history
which may be generally unknown. Centreboards are essentially American
in general adoption. Their origin was the natural outcome of the
shallow coasts and sand-banks of New York Bay and the New Jersey
coast, where wild fowl flock, and the fowler finds happy hunting
grounds. Sportsmen originally sank boxes in the marshes; in the
course of time these developed in length, and became 'scows' or
floating blinds; then the corners forward were rounded off, to
facilitate their being hauled up on a beach or bank. This mobility led
to their passing into deeper water, the scows were developing into
boats, and then came the practical germ of centreboards. To give
stability to the box, a hand board was dropped through a well slot, as
the simplest way of achieving the object, until they reached land or
some other marsh. The board was not hinged or pivoted in any way, and
when no longer required was pulled up and laid on the floor of the
craft, ready for any emergency. These boards were first known as
'dagger boards,' and as they were likely to touch the sand
unexpectedly, they were rounded off at the bottom, curving aft, so
that notice was given, and before the hull touched the ground the boat
could be put about into deeper water. This was the early form of
American centreboard. On this side of the Atlantic, it is to be noted,
our forefathers were not so prejudiced against their introduction as
many are inclined to assume. In 1774 A.D. Lord Percy had a boat built
in Boston, New England, with one long centreboard, and sent over here
in order that he might try the new system in this country. In 1789 a
boat was built at Deptford with three centreboards or sliding keels.

[Illustration: Built in Boston for Lord Percy, 1774, with one
centreboard.]

[Illustration: Built at Deptford, 1789, with three sliding keels.]

The Admiralty in 1790 A.D. had a revenue cutter called the 'Trial,'
built with three sliding keels. The report was most satisfactory, and
a note on their application describes--

     Use of fore keel in tacking and laying to.

     Use of keels on a wind, raised or depressed according as
     necessary to assist helm or gain the wind.

     Use of after keel, in wearing or scudding in a gale of wind.

     Keels hove up going over shoals or before the wind.

[Illustration: Laying to.]

[Illustration: On a wind.]

[Illustration: Scudding.]

The Admiralty soon after this proceeded to make a bold experiment, and
built a 60-ton brig, the 'Lady Nelson,' with three sliding keels,
designed to perform a voyage of discovery to New South Wales. She was
built in 1797, and began her expedition of 1800-1-2 under the command
of Lieutenant James Grant, R.N., when she first sailed round Tasmania,
at the same time as the 'Flinders's' voyage to Australia. A full
account was published in 1803. The whole report was favourable to the
keels, and H.M. sloop 'Cynthia' was built. Private individuals also
made experiments, and some cargo boats at Teignmouth were fitted with
them for river-work. About this time a very prominent personage in the
yachting world was the Commodore of the Cumberland Sailing Society in
the Thames. Commodore Taylor had a yacht built with five sliding
keels, the illustration here given being his from a photograph of the
model now in possession of Mr. Richard Taylor, his grandson. The
original lines of this vessel have been presented to the Royal Thames
Yacht Club, together with the pennants and ensigns flown by the
Commodore during his period of office, and are now carefully preserved
in the Club House in Albemarle Street; the cups are still retained in
the family, by Messrs. Robert and Richard Taylor. Early in the present
century the sliding keels were pivoted (1809) here in England, by
Captain Shuldham, R.N.

[Illustration: Cumberland Fleet: Commodore Taylor's 'Cumberland,' with
sliding keels.]

[Illustration: Showing the five keels down, as on the wind.]

In America centreboards became general, in fact almost universal, from
scows to catboats, catboats to sloops, sloops to schooners and
coasters. As regards their application to English modern racers, Mr.
Jameson, who is always to the fore either in adopting improvements or
sailing races, built 'Irex' in 1873 with a centreboard; but after
careful trials to thoroughly test its capabilities, it was discarded,
the slot filled up, and 'Irex' became the crack of the season without
it.

'Dora,' 10-tonner, by Mr. G. L. Watson, was a success with a
centreboard. In 1892 'Queen Mab,' 40-rater, designed also by Watson,
had a centreboard, and at first sailed with it in the Thames; but
after Dover it was not used. Still 'Queen Mab' became the 'Queen of
the 40-raters' for the year 1892.

Recent yacht-building in America offers some interesting data. Mr.
Edward Burgess, a very successful designer, planned a keel boat,
'Gossoon,' which was a great success in 1890, and many was the close
tussle between her and Fife of Fairlie's 'Minerva,' built in 1888.
After the death of Edward Burgess, 'Nat' Herreshoff produced a keel
boat, 'the Gloriana,' with new ideas of form and bow, and she
acquitted herself well (1891). In 1892 he followed on with the 'Wasp,'
keel boat, and in 1893 two cup defenders were designed and built by
Messrs. Herreshoffs of Rhode Island, the 'Vigilant,' centreboard, and
'Colonia,' keel boat. The 'Vigilant' was victorious in the best races,
and afterwards won the race for the America Cup; nevertheless
'Colonia,' the keel boat, was the designer's favourite.

The battle of centreboard _v._ keel will doubtless be continued. Among
the cup defenders, General Paine, one of the most scientific and
earnest yachtsmen in America, decided to throw aside all
conventionality, and to have advanced science carried out in a real
racing machine 'up to date.' Full details are not obtainable, but they
are understood to be: Canoe hull, canoe bow, hull drawing 5 feet. Fin
keel of 12 feet with bulb, through both of which drops centreboard; a
small centreboard forward like Commodore Stevens's 'Black Maria'
sloop, and the rudder slung on a small fin. It is a matter of general
regret that the gear of the boat gave way during the trials. The
aluminium blocks were not strong enough, and the jaws of the gaff were
carried away. General Paine may, however, be expected to try again.

The general feeling on this side among the very best authorities on
the subject is certainly that a keel racing cutter can be designed and
built to compete with any centreboard vessel, and the victory of
'Vigilant' in the late races has not yet convinced that excellent
sportsman and practical yachtsman the owner of 'Valkyrie' that nothing
but a centreboard can win the America Cup. One thing must be
remembered: it is neither centreboard nor keel _per se_ that makes a
perfect racer; it is the happy combination and balance of quantities
that get the much-coveted 'gun' at the finish.

It is curious that in the very early days of sliding keels a patent
for a design should have been taken out, not by a practical sailor or
naval architect, but by a London coach-builder. In 1785, Lionel Luken,
who followed that trade, wrote a pamphlet upon the 'invention,
principle, and construction of insubmergible boats'; such boats were
to be protected by bands of cork round the gunwales, to be made
buoyant by using air compartments, especially at bow and stern, and
'to be ballasted with or by an iron keel.' Apparently after much
trouble Luken found an opportunity of testing his idea, and the first
iron-keel boat at Bamborough Head saved lives from shipwreck.

[Illustration: H.M. 'Trial', cutter--sheer draught. Designed by
Captain Schanks, 1791.]

[Illustration: 'Kestrel,' 202 tons (Earl of Yarborough, Commodore
R.Y.S.), 1839.]



CHAPTER VI

RECOLLECTIONS OF SCHOONER RACING

BY LT.-COL. SIR GEORGE LEACH, K.C.B., VICE-PRESIDENT Y.R.A.


Schooner racing has unfortunately for the present become a thing of
the past; but the prominent position it at one time occupied makes it
desirable to refer to the subject in any publication relating to yacht
racing, for the purpose of reviving recollections of the times when
races between the 'two-stickers,' or in which they took part, were
considered a leading feature of the regattas of all the principal
yacht clubs.

The decadence of schooner racing was primarily due to the more
extensive use of steam; wealthy men preferred steam yachts, in which
they had better accommodation and could move with certainty from port
to port, to sailing yachts, in which the accommodation was less
spacious and the powers of locomotion were dependent on the winds and
tides. But to the true lover of the world of waters the pleasures of
steaming do not bear comparison with the pleasures of sailing.

Another reason for schooners going out of fashion was no doubt due to
the improvement of the speed of the cutters and yawls. Formerly
schooners could compete with success in races open to all rigs, for
though their powers of turning to windward were inferior to those of
the single-stickers, their reaching powers, with the wind free, were
generally superior, so that in mixed races they had always a fair
chance of carrying off the prize. No schooner has yet been produced
which could compete successfully with the cutters of the present day,
even with the benefit of the large allowance of two-fifths of her
tonnage made under the rules of the Yacht Racing Association for
difference of rig. The last schooner of note which appeared under
racing colours--the 'Amphitrite'--brought out in tiptop condition by
her owner, with an able skipper in command, though she had some
success, was not on a par with the best of the racing cutters of her
day. Again, the building of large yachts for racing purposes has
declined for some years past, owing to the great increase in the
expense both of building and maintaining them, and because yachting
men found that as much, if not more, pleasure was to be obtained in
racing small vessels, in the handling of which they could take a large
share, than in larger vessels which, as a rule, were sailed wholly by
their skippers.

Under all these circumstances, it is not surprising that schooner
racing should, for the present, have passed away; though it is by no
means impossible that it may hereafter be revived, especially if
further experience shall show that the very large cutters which have
been brought out this year, with sail-areas of over 10,000 square
feet--about a quarter of an acre--are too large for the sometimes
turbulent winds and waters round our coasts.

In the early times of schooner racing the yachts were, as a rule,
vessels of comparatively large tonnage, with raking masts, standing
bowsprits, and jibbooms; and the old salts had then a conviction on
their minds that sails with a good belly in them were the right thing.
In 1851 the American schooner yacht 'America' appeared in our waters.
As compared with our yachts she was remarkable for two things. She had
a much longer and finer bow than was usually given by our designers,
'a cod's head and mackerel's tail' being the principle which in those
days appears to have been accepted; and, secondly, her sails were made
to stand much flatter than ours, so much so that it was remarked that
when by the wind close-hauled her sails were barely visible if seen
edge on.

One peculiarity in the 'America's' sails was that the foot of the
mainsail, instead of being fixed to the boom only at the tack and
clue, its two ends, was laced to the boom along its whole length,
which tended to make the sail stand flatter. This improvement was
quickly adopted by our schooners, but it was many a day before it was
taken to by the cutters, the impression being that cutters would not
sail with laced mainsails, and that a certain amount of curve in the
foot was necessary 'to let the wind out.' Now, however, cutters as
well as schooners have laced mainsails, with appreciable improvement
in their weatherly qualities.

The Royal Yacht Squadron arranged a race without time allowances round
the Isle of Wight for a 100_l._ cup, the 'America' being one of the
competitors, which included both cutters and schooners. The 'America'
quickly showed her superiority over our schooners, being more
weatherly and going more smoothly through the water, and she won the
cup, but would not have done so if the conditions of the race had been
enforced, as she did not go round the Nab Light, thus gaining a
considerable advantage; but she was treated generously and not
disqualified. She would also probably have been beaten by the cutters
'Alarm,' 'Arrow,' and 'Volante' if the two first had not been put out
of the race by the 'Arrow' running aground in Sandown Bay, the 'Alarm'
going to her assistance, and the 'Volante' by the carrying away of her
bowsprit in a collision with the 'Freak.' All these cutters were well
known to be much faster than the 'Aurora,' which came in only eight
minutes after the 'America.'

The cup thus won by the 'America' was presented by her owners to the
New York Yacht Club as a perpetual Challenge Cup to be sailed for by
yachts of all nations, and is known as the 'America Cup.' It has since
been competed for by several English yachts, the 'Cambria' and
'Livonia' schooners, the 'Genesta,' 'Galatea,' and 'Thistle' cutters,
and lastly--up to the time of writing--by the cutter 'Valkyrie,' owned
by Lord Dunraven. The conditions under which the cup is held, however,
appear to unduly favour the holders, and do not commend themselves to
yachtsmen on this side of the Atlantic.

We were not slow to learn and take advantage of the lessons taught us
by the 'America.' In the following year the 'Alarm' cutter, 193 tons,
owned by the veteran yachtsman Mr. Joseph Weld, of Lulworth Castle,
was lengthened, given a longer bow, and converted into a schooner of
248 tons; and for some years, with Jack Nicholls at the helm, was the
fastest schooner in the fleet.

In 1855 the 'Wildfire,' of 59 tons, owned by Sir Percy Shelley, was
brought out as a schooner with a running bowsprit and head-sails like
those of a cutter, in substitution for the usual standing bowsprit and
jibboom of a schooner. She was the first racing schooner so rigged.
The alteration of the head-sails greatly improved her weatherly
qualities, and she was raced with success by Captain John Herbert
against both cutters and schooners.

[Illustration: 'Pantomime,' 1865 (formerly Colonel Markham's
schooner). Designed and built by M. E. Ratsey, Cowes, Isle of Wight.
Length for tonnage, 92 ft. 3 in.; breadth for tonnage 19 ft. 3 in.;
tonnage T.M. 144.]

No further material improvement was made in the schooner rig until
1860, when Camper and Nicholson, of Gosport, built the 'Aline,' 216
tons, for Mr. Charles Thellusson. Up to this time it had been usual to
give the masts of schooners a considerable rake aft with the idea that
it made their sails more lifting, but the 'Aline' came out with masts
nearly upright like the masts of a cutter and quickly dispelled the
illusion. She also, like the 'Wildfire,' had a running bowsprit. In
the hands of her able and experienced owner the 'Aline' proved a great
success, and, with variations in model, was the type on which all the
best schooners which followed her were based. Although several other
schooners were built to beat her, notably the 'Evadne,' 206 tons, by
the same builders, for Mr. John Richardson in 1862, she remained up to
1865 the most successful schooner afloat. In that year two new
schooners, which were destined afterwards to make their mark in the
yacht-racing world and to wrest some of the laurels from the 'Aline,'
made their _début_ in the Royal Yacht Squadron race for Her Majesty's
Cup at Cowes: the 'Egeria,' 153 tons, built by Wanhill, of Poole, for
Mr. John Mulholland (now Lord Dunleath), and the 'Pantomime,' 151
tons, built by Michael Ratsey of Cowes for Lieut.-Colonel Markham. The
'Witchcraft,' 240 tons, built by White of Cowes for Mr. Thomas
Broadwood, also came out this year, and with the 'Alarm,' which had
passed into the hands of Mr. George Duppa, again commissioned, and a
fleet of racing schooners made up of such vessels as 'Aline,' 216
tons; 'Evadne,' 184; 'Titania,' 184; 'Albertine,' 153; 'Galatea,' 143;
'Viking,' 140; 'Gloriana,' 133; 'Circe,' 123; 'Fleur-de-Lys,' 90;
'Iolanthe,' 75; 'Intrigue,' 72; 'Madcap,' 70; 'Fiery Cross,' 51, and
'Reverie,' 43, it probably would not be wrong to date the approach to
the zenith of schooner racing from this period.

The races this year were chiefly of the mixed order, that is to say,
races which included yachts of all rigs, schooners, cutters and yawls.
The principal schooner race of the season was that for the Queen's Cup
at Cowes, for which the entries were the 'Aline,' 216 tons;
'Aquiline,' 55; 'Albertine,' 156; 'Egeria,' 153; 'Galatea,' 143;
'Pantomime,' 151; 'Titania,' 184; and 'Viking,' 142. There was a
strong north-westerly wind, which gave them a reach to the eastward,
and a close haul with some turning to windward when going west, over
the usual Queen's Cup course, round the Nab Lightship and a mark-boat
off Lymington. The 'Egeria' proved a very smart vessel on all points
of sailing, coming in neck and neck with the 'Aline,' and winning the
Cup in her maiden race. Two days afterwards, she again beat all the
schooners in a race round the Isle of Wight.

In the following year the racing season opened early, with a memorable
contest from the Nore to Dover, under the auspices of the Royal Thames
Yacht Club. There was a large entry--six schooners, nine cutters, the
'New Moon,' lugger, 209, and the 'Xantha,' yawl, 135--seventeen in
all. The schooners were 'Evadne,' 206; 'Blue Bell,' 170; 'Egeria,'
153; 'Gloriana,' 140; 'Iolanthe,' 83; and 'Fleur-de-Lys,' 82. The
'Blue Bell' was a new vessel built by Camper and Nicholson for Mr.
Edwards. Among the cutters was the 'Lulworth,' 80, formerly owned by
Mr. Weld, but then recently purchased by Mr. George Duppa. The other
cutters ranged from 65 tons to 40, and included many of the cracks of
the day. A hard E.S.E. wind was blowing, which, with a lee-going tide,
kicked up such a sea as is not often seen in the Thames channels.
Those who sailed in the race will remember it. The 'Xantha' snugly
canvassed though with a jib-headed topsail aloft, went away from all
the other vessels in the beat to windward, but the 'Sphinx' and
'Christabel,' though much smaller, sailed remarkably well against the
heavy head sea. The 'Lulworth,' from which much had been expected,
proved too tender for so strong a wind, and when off the Prince's
Lightship was put out of the race by starting her chain-plates, with
considerable risk of her mast going over the side. The race between
the schooners was a good one, but the new vessel, 'Blue Bell,' did not
come up to expectation. The 'Egeria' was soon in front of all but
'Gloriana,' and eventually passed her just before they reached the
North Sandhead Lightship. When it was rounded sheets were eased off,
the troubles ended, and it was an easy reach along the edge of the
Goodwin Sands, in which the power and weight of the schooners quickly
began to appear by their overhauling the smaller cutters, the 'Egeria'
being carried by the send of a heavy sea past the leading cutter, the
'Christabel,' not more than a few hundred yards from the winning line.
'Xantha' finished 20 min. before any other vessel, 'Egeria' being
second, thus establishing her reputation as one of the fastest of the
schooners. Only seven out of the seventeen were timed, several having
either come to grief or given up. Fortunately the tide was
sufficiently high to let the yachts into dock. 'Egeria' got pooped by
a heavy sea when running in under small canvas, luckily without any
unpleasant consequences beyond a ducking for all in the after part of
the ship.

[Illustration: 'EGERIA'

_153 tons. J. Mulholland, Esq. (Lord Dunleath), 1865._]

'Blue Bell' raced again in the schooner match of the Royal Thames
Yacht Club, and was beaten by the 'Gloriana' and 'Circe.' But in the
R.Y.S. race round the Isle of Wight she was successful against both
'Egeria' and 'Pantomime.' A little later, however, she raced against,
and was beaten by, the 'Aline' at Ryde.

It was not until 1868 that anything noteworthy occurred in schooner
racing. In that year the 'Cambria,' 188 tons, was added to the
schooner fleet. She was built by Michael Ratsey of Cowes for Mr. James
Ashbury, and was destined to obtain some celebrity, not only in our
own waters, but also from winning the race across the Atlantic with
the 'Dauntless,' American schooner, belonging to Mr. Gordon Bennett,
and from being the first to challenge and compete, though
unsuccessfully, for the 'America Cup.' She made her first appearance
in the matches of the Royal Thames, New Thames, and Royal London Yacht
Clubs, but was beaten by both 'Egeria' and 'Gloriana.' The contests
between the 'Cambria' and the 'Egeria' during the time the former was
owned by Mr. Ashbury were frequent, and keenly contested. They met in
most of the principal races, with varying results, but on striking a
balance the 'Egeria' appears to have been the victor. Mr. Charles
Thellusson sold the celebrated 'Aline' to Sir Richard Sutton, and
brought out the 'Guinevere,' 308 tons, which was built for him by
Camper and Nicholson of Gosport. There was good racing in the Solent
among the schooners, in which 'Guinevere,' 'Aline,' 'Cambria,'
'Egeria,' and 'Pantomime' took part. 'Cambria' proved herself to be a
fast and powerful vessel, especially in strong winds, and sailed about
level with the 'Aline.' 'Egeria' also sailed well, but there was
little opportunity of estimating the qualities of 'Guinevere,' as she
was only entered for one race. Two of the races were across the
Channel, one from Ryde to Cherbourg, the other back to Ryde. The
latter was not completed until long after dark, and the night will be
remembered as one of the dirtiest in which a race was ever sailed; a
hard, squally wind, intense darkness, and blinding rain made the
sailing anything but agreeable. 'Cambria' won, beating the 'Aline' by
7 min., but it was not until after their arrival that they were aware
they had been in the darkness such close competitors.

A challenge was given this year by Mr. Baldwin, of New York, on behalf
of the American schooner 'Sappho,' 310 tons, which was promptly taken
up by the schooners 'Aline,' 215 tons, and 'Cambria,' 188 tons, and
the cutters 'Oimara,' 165 tons, and 'Condor,' 129 tons, and a race was
arranged round the Isle of Wight under the direction of the Royal
Yacht Squadron. It took place in August, after the Cowes week. The
yachts were started to the eastward at 10 A.M. before a light
north-westerly breeze. In the run and reach to the Bembridge Ledge
Buoy all the English vessels were ahead of the 'Sappho' except the
'Oimara.' Just after rounding the buoy 'Sappho' carried away her
martingale, and a little further on the 'Oimara' carried away her big
topsail-yard. It was now a beat to St. Catherine's against tide, and
'Oimara' soon passed 'Sappho.' At 1 hr. 15 mins., when 'Sappho' was
going about under Ventnor cliffs, she carried away her jibboom, which
destroyed any winning chance she might otherwise have had. After
rounding St. Catherine's the yachts were all able to lay their course
for the Needles, which were rounded in the following order:--'Oimara,'
'Condor,' 'Cambria,' 'Aline,' and 'Sappho.' In the run back to Cowes
against an ebb tide the two schooners got ahead of the cutters, the
order of arrival being 'Cambria,' 6 hrs. 17 mins. 50 secs.; then the
'Aline,' 'Oimara,' and 'Condor,' the last being 7 mins. behind the
leader. The 'Sappho' did not get in until nearly an hour and a half
after the leader. The breaking of the 'Sappho's' jibboom was
unfortunate, but before the accident it was made tolerably clear that
in a light wind the English vessels had the heels of her, both with
the wind free and sailing close hauled.

In 1869 Count E. Batthyany brought out the 'Flying Cloud,' 75 tons,
which in his hands proved to be one of the fastest of the smaller
class of schooners. The old 'Alarm' was also again in commission, and
with such a fleet of schooners as 'Guinevere,' 308; 'Alarm,' 243;
'Witchcraft,' 221; 'Aline,' 216; 'Pleiad,' 205; 'Cambria,' 188;
'Egeria,' 156; 'Pantomime,' 151; 'Siesta,' 127; 'Gloriana,' 133;
'Flying Cloud,' 75; 'Amy,' 72; and others, the racing could not fail
to be keen and interesting.

One race deserves special notice, because an American schooner, the
'Dauntless,' 336 tons, the property of Mr. Gordon Bennett, was one of
the competitors. The Emperor Napoleon, desirous of encouraging aquatic
sports, gave two prizes to be sailed for by yachts of all nations from
Cherbourg round the Nab Lightship and back, a distance of 130 miles. A
third prize, open to French yachts only, was also given. The entries
were: 'Dauntless,' 336, Mr. Gordon Bennett; 'Guinevere,' 308, Mr.
Charles Thellusson; 'Shark,' 204, the Duke of Rutland; 'Egeria,' 156,
Mr. J. Mulholland; 'Mystère,' 118, Count de Sesmaisons; 'Diane,' 98,
Mons. Bescoit Champy. Bar accidents, the race for the first two prizes
lay between the 'Dauntless,' 'Guinevere,' and 'Egeria.' The yachts
were started at 2 P.M. on August 16. The weather was fine and bright,
with a northerly 7-knot breeze, which enabled them to lay their course
close hauled for the Nab. Every stitch of canvas that would draw was
set, the 'Dauntless' putting up a jib-topsail of a size which made
those carried by the other yachts pale into insignificance. The
jib-topsail having been long known as the 'topmast breaker,' it was
felt that if there came a puff the 'Dauntless' would have a good
chance of losing hers, and this soon afterwards happened, topmast,
jib-topsail, and gaff-topsail all going over the side. The wreck,
however, was very smartly cleared away, and a jury-foretopmast rigged
with a small gaff-topsail upon it. A large balloon jib was also set,
as well as a larger main-topmast staysail. The 'Dauntless' had edged a
good bit up to windward, and she was right in doing so, for when the
Isle of Wight was sighted about 7 o'clock it was broad on the weather
bows of 'Guinevere' and 'Egeria.' The position of the yachts at this
time was, 'Guinevere' leading by about 1-1/2 mile, 'Egeria' second,
with 'Dauntless' on her weather quarter and a little astern; the
others from two to three miles behind. The 'Egeria,' having to luff,
did not go so fast through the water, and the 'Dauntless,' closing up
upon her, the two yachts rapidly approached each other, and then
occurred one of the most interesting incidents of the race. The
'Dauntless' tried to pass the 'Egeria' to windward, but the latter
luffed to prevent her doing so, and it became a neck-and-neck race
between them. In a short time it was evident that 'Egeria' was sailing
a little closer to the wind, and slowly drawing ahead of her powerful
rival; and in the course of an hour she was well clear, and had the
'Dauntless' under her lee, dropping astern fast. The sea was smooth,
which was no doubt much in favour of the smaller vessel. The
'Guinevere,' sailing splendidly, considerably increased her lead
during this little by-play, and was rapidly nearing the Nab Lightship,
which she ultimately rounded without a tack, thus gaining a
considerable advantage, especially as she carried the last of the ebb
tide until she was clear of the island. The 'Egeria' and 'Dauntless'
were not so fortunate; the wind fell lighter and headed them, so that
they had to make several tacks before they could round, and all but
the 'Guinevere' met the flood tide against them after rounding the
Nab. The times taken by a French steamer were as follows: 'Guinevere,'
10 hrs. 17 mins.; 'Egeria,' 11 hrs. 12 mins.; 'Dauntless,' 11 hrs. 22
mins.; 'Diane,' 11 hrs. 57 mins.; 'Mystère,' 12 hrs. 40 mins.

After rounding, sheets were eased well off to the port side, but about
2 A.M. the wind came out from the north-east, and a gybe had to be
made, and square-sails and square-topsails were set. When morning
broke 'Guinevere' was out of sight of the other yachts; 'Dauntless'
and 'Egeria' nearly abeam, the former about a mile and a half further
to the eastward, 'Diane' and 'Mystère' a long way astern. 'Dauntless'
and 'Egeria' had apparently run very evenly all through the night, and
continued to do so to the end. The times of arrival at Cherbourg were:
'Guinevere,' 7 hrs. 1 min.; 'Egeria,' 9 hrs. 43 mins.; 'Dauntless,' 9
hrs. 53 mins.; 'Diane,' 10 hrs. 42 mins.; 'Mystère,' 10 hrs. 52 mins.
'Guinevere' won the Emperor's Cup, a beautiful work of art; the
'Egeria' the second prize and gold medal; and the 'Diane' the prize
for French yachts.

Those who had seen the 'Dauntless' in dock at Cowes were impressed
with the idea that, from her small body, she would run and reach fast,
but that she would not go to windward with our schooners. It was a
surprise, therefore, that in the run back from the Nab she did not
outpace the 'Egeria,' a vessel of so much smaller tonnage. The loss of
the fore-topmast of the 'Dauntless' was to be regretted, but probably
it did not affect the issue of the race, and as these two were never
much more than a mile apart, and there was an average 7-knot breeze,
the race was a fair test of their respective merits in smooth water.

The successes of the 'Egeria' led to her being classed as a sort of
standard or test vessel, and, taken all round, she was probably the
fastest schooner we had, although in strong winds she was often
overpowered by her larger rivals. Year after year vessels were built
to beat her, but, kept up as she was in the best racing condition and
well sailed by her skipper, John Woods, she proved, even to the end of
her racing days, no easy nut to crack.

A memorable race from the Nore to Dover at the beginning of the season
of 1870 showed how good she was even in heavy weather. It was the
Channel Match of the Royal Thames Yacht Club, a mixed race with
fifteen entries, embracing some of the best vessels of the day, and
including the schooners 'Cambria,' 188 tons; 'Pleiad,' 187 tons;
'Gwendolin,' 171; 'Egeria,' 152; 'Gloriana,' 133; and 'Flying Cloud,'
75. The 'Gwendolin' was a new and very handsome vessel, built by
Camper and Nicholson for Major Ewing, her characteristic being
considerably greater depth than any of her predecessors. The Nore to
Dover course is one in which strong winds and heavy short seas may
occasionally be looked for; and those who are in the habit of crossing
the Channel know what a sea in it can be like. On this occasion there
was a strong westerly to south-westerly wind, so that it was running
and reaching to the North Sandhead Light, and from there a dead beat
along the outside edge of the Goodwin Sands against a very heavy head
sea. All were diving their bowsprits deeply into the seas, and taking
in green water over their bows. The 'Pleiad' split the foot of her
staysail and lowered it to reef; while this was being done she was
struck by a sea, and two men were carried overboard. By great good
luck one of them was washed on board again near the counter and saved,
but the other poor fellow was never seen afterwards, although the
'Pleiad' remained about the spot for upwards of an hour. It was
supposed that he was struck by one of the staysail sheet blocks and
went to the bottom at once. The 'Cambria' was overdone with canvas,
but was unable to reef, owing to something having gone wrong with her
peak-halliard blocks. The 'Egeria,' which had wisely started with a
reefed mainsail, also reefed her foresail and staysail, and went
faster for it, riding over the waves in a style which astonished some
old salts who were sailing in her. 'Cambria' passed 'Egeria' in Dover
Bay, but could not save her time. Seven only out of the fifteen
starters crossed the winning line, in the following order: 'Cambria,'
'Oimara,' 'Egeria,' 'Julia,' 'Rose of Devon,' 'Gwendolin,' and
'Fiona.'

'Egeria' won the first prize, taking her time from the 'Cambria,' and
'Julia' the second prize, taking her time from 'Oimara.'

The sea was exceptionally heavy off the South Foreland, and the
casualties were numerous, seven bowsprits having been either broken
short off or sprung, including those of 'Oimara,' 'Egeria,' 'Rose of
Devon,' and 'Fiona.' 'Egeria,' when staying to go off round the
mark-boat, was met by a very big comber which reared her nearly on
end, and it was doubtful for some seconds whether she would pay off or
miss stays with some risk of being carried against the pier-head. All
agreed that the day had been one of the heaviest in their experience.

Two of the American schooners, the 'Dauntless' and 'Sappho,' were in
our waters during the early part of the season, and in order to do
honour to them, and to give them an opportunity of testing their
speed against some of the fastest of our English schooners, as well as
to encourage friendly competition between English and American yachts,
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales liberally offered a cup to be sailed for by
English and American schooners of 100 tons and upwards, on terms and
conditions to be arranged by the Royal Yacht Squadron. The Sailing
Committee of the Squadron decided that it should be a Challenge Cup,
not to become the property of any yacht-owner unless won by him three
times, though not necessarily with the same vessel. The course was to
be from Cowes round the Shambles Lightship off Portland, and thence
round the south side of the Isle of Wight and the Nab Lightship, back
to Cowes, about 120 miles. The first race was fixed for June 22, but
as it did not suit the convenience of the owners of either the
'Sappho' or 'Dauntless' to remain for it, the race was postponed until
the Cowes week, and was sailed on August 5. 'Guinevere,' 295 tons;
'Shark,' 201; 'Pleiad,' 185; 'Gwendolin,' 182; and 'Egeria,' 152, were
entered. They were started at 4 o'clock in the afternoon in a nice
topsail breeze with the wind W.S.W., which made the race a dead beat
all the way to the Shambles. There was some pretty turning to windward
down to the Needles; but, as the chronicler of the day remarked, the
race soon resolved itself into contests between 'Guinevere' and
'Egeria,' and between 'Pleiad' and 'Gwendolin'; 'Shark,' which had not
adopted the running bowsprit, being left far astern. 'Guinevere'
passed the Needles first, with 'Egeria' close in her wake, 'Gwendolin'
and 'Pleiad' being about 10 min. behind in the order named. Outside
the Needles there was a jump of a sea, and the two leaders drew still
further away from their competitors. The night was fine, with a clear
sky, and so far the breeze held true and strong. The Shambles
Lightship was rounded by the 'Guinevere' at 11.20, with 'Egeria' close
up to her, then 'Pleiad,' 'Gwendolin,' and 'Shark.' After this it was
a run of forty miles to St. Catherine's Point, and as the tide had
just turned to the eastward a speedy passage home was anticipated.
But oh, the glorious uncertainties of yachting! The wind fell, and
'Guinevere' did not pass St. Catherine's until 6 o'clock the next
morning, about three-quarters of a mile ahead of 'Egeria,' and from
four to five miles ahead of 'Pleiad' and 'Gwendolin.' Off St.
Catherine's they met the ebb tide, and as the wind was light and dead
aft the progress to the Nab was slow. With varying luck in wooing the
gentle breezes, these two rounded the Nab Lightship together about
half-past 10 o'clock; 'Pleiad' and 'Gwendolin,' bringing up a much
stronger breeze, were rapidly overhauling them. After rounding, it
became a close haul, and 'Guinevere' and 'Egeria' still had the wind
very light while the others were rejoicing in a breeze, and at the
Noman the 'Pleiad' was not more than a mile astern. This state of
things, trying to the patience of the leaders, exhilarating and
enjoyable to the others, continued until they were off Ryde, when,
welcome sight! a breeze from the southward was seen curling the
surface of the water. All hands were immediately at work trimming the
sails for the new wind, which carried the yachts past Osborne and
through Cowes Roads at a spanking pace; the stately 'Guinevere'
leading, the beautiful 'Egeria' closely following her, and the fine
schooners 'Pleiad' and 'Gwendolin' coming in soon after them. The
official timing was 'Guinevere,' 1 hr. 17 mins. 1 sec.; 'Egeria,' 1
hr. 20 mins. 20 secs.; 'Pleiad,' 1 hr. 26 mins. 34 secs.; 'Gwendolin,'
1 hr. 35 mins. 24 secs. 'Egeria' was thus by time the first winner of
the Prince of Wales Challenge Cup. It was a curious coincidence in so
long a race that 'Guinevere' and 'Egeria' rounded all the principal
points--Needles, Shambles, Nab, and winning flag-boat--almost
together. The schooners continued well to hold their own against the
cutters and yawls in the regattas of the season.

The records of this year would be incomplete without some account of
the races of the 'Cambria' with the American schooner yachts.

After much correspondence a series of three races were arranged to
take place in May between the 'Cambria' and the 'Sappho,' then owned
by Mr. Douglas, without time allowance. The first race was to be a
beat of sixty miles to windward, and it was sailed on May 10. The
yachts were towed out to the Nab, and as the wind, a light breeze, was
then south-east, they were instructed to sail sixty miles to windward
on that course, which would bring them to a point in mid-channel about
twenty-eight miles south of Beachy Head. They were started at 8.30,
and when round the Owers worked eastward, not very far off the Sussex
shore, 'Sappho' quickly showing herself to be the faster vessel. Off
Brighton she was about two miles ahead of her opponent, and when they
tacked to the southward off Newhaven, she had considerably increased
her lead. As they stood off, the wind freshened and went round to the
west of south, and with eased sheets they were able to fetch the
terminal point where the steamer ought to have been; but, by an
unfortunate mistake, it was not in position. The 'Sappho' covered the
point about 6.30 P.M., full five miles ahead of the 'Cambria,' and won
the race, having, it was computed, sailed about 89 miles in the ten
hours.

The second race was on May 14. It was agreed by the umpires and
referee, with the consent of the owners, that the course, on this
occasion, should be to a fixed point, provided one could be obtained
not more than two points off the direction from which the wind was
blowing, so as to give a beat to windward. The morning broke with a
strong W.S.W. wind, and every prospect of its increasing to a gale, as
it had done the previous day. The yachts had two reefs in their
mainsails, and other sails snugged down to correspond. Here was
'Cambria's' chance, a strong wind and heavy sea; but unfortunately
when the signal to start was made she refused to go, on the ground
that the fixed point decided on Cherbourg breakwater--was more than
two points off the direction of the wind. The umpires and referee
were, however, of opinion that Cherbourg breakwater, when fixed upon,
complied with the conditions, and, moreover, that it would have been
impossible in such weather to bring up a steamer out at sea, so after
notice to Mr. Ashbury the 'Sappho' was allowed to sail over the
course, and the second race was given in her favour.

The third race was sailed over a triangular course, from the Nab round
a steamer about eight miles off St. Catherine's, thence eastwardly to
another steamer and home to the Nab, about sixty miles in all. It was
a beat along the island shore to the first mark, and in the short
turnings with a light wind the 'Cambria' got rather the better of her
rival, but the 'Sappho' by good handling managed to round the steamer
a few minutes ahead of her. They then had the wind free, but it died
away almost entirely; the 'Sappho,' however, managed to scrape round
the second steamer, and completed the race about 9 o'clock in the
evening, thus winning all the three races. The 'Cambria,' a long way
astern, signalled to the steamer to come and tow her in. The 'Sappho'
had been altered in various ways since she sailed the match round the
island in 1868, and was obviously a very much improved vessel, the
'Cambria' being no match for her except in short turnings to windward.

On July 4 the 'Cambria' and the 'Dauntless' started for a race across
the Atlantic to New York. The 'Cambria' took the northern passage,
going as far north as latitude 55°; the 'Dauntless' a more southerly
and a straighter course. The 'Cambria' passed the Sandy Hook Lightship
a few hours before the 'Dauntless,' and won the race, an account of
which, with a chart of the courses sailed, will be found in the
'Field' of August 13 and 27, 1870. The 'Dauntless' unfortunately lost
two men, who were swept off the jibboom when endeavouring to take in
the flying jib, and this delayed her for some hours. Such a race was
obviously but a poor test of the relative speed of the two yachts, as
throughout they were sailing under different conditions, and it was
curious under these circumstances that they should have reached their
destination so nearly together.

[Illustration: Mr. Ashbury's 'Cambria,' 188 tons, beating 'Dauntless,'
321 tons, 1870 race.]

The race for the America Cup, in which the 'Cambria' took part, was
sailed on Monday, August 8, in New York harbour. She had seventeen
competitors, all the best schooners of the New York Yacht Club, of
sizes varying from 262 down to 83 tons, N.Y.Y.C. measurement; the
'Cambria' being rated at 227 tons. The course was through the Narrows,
round Sandy Hook Lightship, and return. The race was not a
satisfactory one, as in the narrow waters she was much hampered by
other vessels, with one of which she came into collision, carrying
away a fore-port shroud and fore-topmast backstay, and springing the
port arm of her fore-crosstrees. Later on she also carried away her
fore-topmast, losing all chance of even a good place. The race was won
by the 'Magic,' a small schooner of 93 tons, the 'Cambria' being
eighth, and the Cup therefore remained in the possession of the New
York Yacht Club. Even if nothing had gone wrong with the 'Cambria,'
pitted as she was against seventeen other vessels, her chance of
winning the Cup would necessarily have been small.

In 1871 Mr. Ashbury, who was determined to have another try for the
America Cup, brought out the 'Livonia' schooner, of 265 tons. She was
built for him by Michael Ratsey of Cowes, with the express object of
challenging for the Cup. She made her first appearance in the three
Thames River matches, one of which she won, but was beaten in the
other two by the 'Egeria,' and does not seem to have won again during
the season. She, however, sailed a very close and interesting match
with the 'Aline' for the Prince of Wales Cup, the 'Egeria,' the holder
of the cup not competing, owing to a misunderstanding. The race was
started under way at 1 P.M. on Friday, August 4. The wind was strong
from the north-west, with an ebb tide, and smooth water inside the
Needles. Each had whole lower sails set, but no topsails. 'Livonia'
was a little to windward of the 'Aline,' and if the wind held it would
be a beat all the way to the Shambles Lightship. Soon after the start
both set jib-headed main-topsails, but 'Livonia,' obviously the more
tender of the two, was rather overdone with canvas, and in the squalls
had plenty of water in her lee scuppers. They passed out through the
Needles passage together, 'Livonia' leading by about a cable's length.
Outside there was more wind, with a good deal of sea, which did not
seem to suit the 'Livonia,' for the 'Aline' slowly but steadily
gained, and tried to pass her to windward, but this was denied. After
a quarter of an hour's jockeying the 'Aline' suddenly eased her sheets
a trifle, put her helm up, and shot through the other's lee. Off
Darleston they took in topsails and housed topmasts. They had a
roughish time of it in St. Alban's race, 'Aline' going the more easily
through the seas.

The Shambles Light was weathered by 'Aline' at 6.18, and by 'Livonia'
a minute afterwards. 'Gybe oh! Up topsails and square-sails,' was then
the order of the day, and with the young flood tide in their favour
they made quick tracks homewards. About seven o'clock the 'Aline'
carried away her square-sail-yard, which might have seriously damaged
her chance of winning, but fortunately for her the wind about the same
time became so much more northerly that 'Livonia' had to take in her
square-sail also. Off Darleston the wind backed to the old quarter
N.W. by W., and 'Livonia' at once got up her square-sail again and
gradually lessened the distance, previously about half a mile, between
herself and the 'Aline.' They rounded St. Catherine's at ten o'clock,
the 'Aline' being then about half a mile astern. When round, they came
again upon even terms, as 'Livonia' had to luff and to lower her
square-sail. The wind continued strong, and in the reach to the Nab
they tore along at great speed. Nearing the Nab both prepared for the
beat back to Cowes, and took in fore-topsails and main-topmast
staysails; 'Aline' also took in her main topsail. 'Livonia' passed the
Nab at 11 o'clock, 4 mins. ahead of the 'Aline,' when sheets were
hauled taut in all round for the beat to windward. 'Aline' was rather
the quicker in stays, and, as she kept gaining little, by little she
was close up to 'Livonia' by the time they had reached the Stourbridge
Shoal. 'Aline' continued to work the Island shore by short boards, but
'Livonia' made one or two longer tacks over to the north shore, and
when they again neared each other off Osborne, 'Aline' just cleared
her rival to windward, immediately went round, and planted herself on
her opponent's weather-bow. This was fatal to 'Livonia's' chance, even
of the honour of coming in first, for 'Aline' had her pinned and never
let her go in the few more tacks which were made before they crossed
the winning line, 'Aline' at 1.45 A.M., and 'Livonia' a minute and a
half later. It was a remarkably closely contested and fast-sailed
race, the wind being strong, and the tide favourable both ways. The
time occupied was 12-3/4 hrs., and the length of course was 120 miles;
but as it was a beat all the way to the Shambles, and again from the
Nab to Cowes, the distance actually sailed was considerably greater,
and the average speed over the bottom could not have been less than
11 knots an hour, which was exceptionally fast. The performance of
'Livonia,' however, was disappointing, as it was considered that,
being so much the larger vessel, and built expressly for speed, she
ought in such a wind and sea to have easily given the 'Aline' a fair
and square beating all round.

Her defeat by the 'Aline' led to the insertion of the following
amusing couplet in 'Punch':--

  Oh! 'Livonia,' I wouldn't own yer
  Now I've seen the grand 'Aline.'

Though a more beamy vessel than the 'Aline,' she had comparatively
small displacement, and did not carry her canvas so well. The result
of the race did not augur favourably for her success in America, and
there was little chance of her winning the America Cup unless she
could be given more canvas, with an increased weight of ballast placed
lower down to enable her to carry it.

Soon after the race for the Prince of Wales Cup, the 'Livonia' went to
New York to compete for the cup, and had a very boisterous passage
across the Atlantic, but proved a first-rate sea-boat, and arrived
safely without material damage. Subsequently to the race by the
'Cambria' in 1870 against seventeen American schooners, the New York
Yacht Club, owing to representations made by the surviving donor of
the cup, had decided that, in accordance with the intention of the
deed of gift, only one vessel should in future matches compete against
the challenger; but they reserved the power to select the defender of
the cup on the morning of the race, according to the state of the
weather, a light-weather vessel for a light day, a more powerful
vessel if the wind was strong. This was so manifestly giving an undue
advantage to the holders of the cup that it was surprising such good
sportsmen as the Americans should not have seen the one-sidedness of
the reservation.

After some not very satisfactory correspondence with the New York
Yacht Club, it was ultimately arranged that there should be five
matches, the Club naming four yachts from which to select the defender
of the cup in each match; namely, the 'Sappho' and 'Dauntless,' keel
boats, and the 'Palmer' and 'Columbia,' centreboard schooners.

[Illustration: 'Dauntless,' N.Y.Y.C, 268 tons, 1871]

The first match was sailed on Monday, October 16, over what was known
as the New York Yacht Club course, from the head of the Narrows round
the S.W. Spit Buoy and Sandy Hook Lightship, and return, about 36
miles. The wind being very light from the N.W., the Club selected the
'Columbia,' a light-weather centreboarder, as 'Livonia's' opponent.
The tide had just begun to ebb when the yachts were started at 10.40.
There were not so many steamers or other vessels out as on the
occasion when the 'Cambria' raced. It was a run nearly all the way to
the Lightship, and in the light airs the 'Columbia,' drawing little
water with her centreboard up, slipped away from the 'Livonia' and
rounded the Lightship about 15 mins. ahead of her. There they came on
a wind, and it was a beat as far as the Spit Buoy, about 8-1/2 miles.
'Columbia' both weathered and fore-reached 'Livonia,' and at the Spit
Buoy led by 29 mins. After rounding the buoy the wind became abeam and
freshened for a short time, but died away again in the Narrows. The
'Columbia' completed and won the race about 5 o'clock, beating
'Livonia' by 25 mins.

The second race was on the following Wednesday, Oct. 18, and the
'Columbia' was again selected to defend the cup. There was a good
breeze from the W.N.W., and the course was intended to be 20 miles to
leeward from Sandy Hook Lightship, and return; but the Committee,
contemplating a change of wind, decided to send the steamer, which was
to mark the turning point, 20 miles E.N.E. instead of E.S.E., with the
result that there was no beating to windward either going or
returning. There was also a misunderstanding as to the way in which
the turning mark was to be rounded. The point was not referred to in
the sailing instructions, but as the usual practice in American waters
was to leave the turning marks on the starboard hand, and this had
been done in rounding Sandy Hook Lightship in the previous race, no
doubt was felt on board the 'Livonia' that the same course was to be
followed. The owner of the 'Columbia,' however, more wary, put the
question to the Committee, and was informed in reply that he might
round as he pleased; but this instruction was not given to the
'Livonia,' and in consequence 'Livonia' gybed, and 'Columbia' stayed
round the steamer, the latter gaining thereby a considerable
advantage. In the broad reach out the 'Livonia' gained a little and
rounded the steamer nearly 2 mins. ahead of 'Columbia,' but from the
fact that the former rounded to leeward, and the latter to windward,
'Columbia' quickly became the leading vessel. After rounding they were
nearly close hauled, and in consequence felt the wind more, and all
flying kites were taken in. On the way home they were struck by a
squall, 'Columbia' had to lower her foresail, and 'Livonia' was a good
deal pressed; but it soon passed over, and they were able to hold
their reach without a tack back to the starting line, 'Columbia'
arriving at 3 hrs. 7 mins., 3 mins. ahead of 'Livonia.' Mr. Ashbury
protested against the race being given in favour of 'Columbia' on the
ground that she had rounded the steamer on the wrong side, but the
Committee disallowed the protest.

The third race was sailed on Friday, October 20, over the New York
Yacht Club course. The wind was fresh from W.S.W., blowing pretty
straight up the Narrows. The Committee had some difficulty in
selecting their representative vessel. The 'Dauntless' had been named,
but Mr. Gordon Bennett declined to sail owing to some mishap which had
befallen her. The 'Palmer' and 'Sappho' were also disabled, and the
'Columbia' had started the hounds of her foremast; the Committee were
therefore considering whether the 'Livonia' should be allowed a sail
over alone, when Mr. Osgood, rather than that such should be the case,
said he would again start the 'Columbia,' but it was not until
half-past one that the vessels were ready and given the signal to go.
At this time the wind was strong, and they were able to lay their
course close hauled through the Narrows. The 'Livonia' rounded the S.
W. Spit buoy 6 mins. before the 'Columbia,' and then stood away with
freed sheets for the Lightship, which was tacked round at 3 hrs. 20
mins. 30 secs., about the same distance separating the two vessels.
Coming back, something went wrong with 'Columbia's' steering-wheel,
the clew of her main-topmast staysail, foresheet, and her fore-gaff
topsail split, and shortly after she lowered her mainsail and gave up,
the 'Livonia' finishing the race alone at 5 hrs. 18 mins., her first
win.

The fourth match was against the 'Sappho,' 20 miles to windward from
Sandy Hook Lightship, and return. The wind was fresh from S.S.E. The
yachts were started at twelve o'clock, and 'Sappho' beat the 'Livonia'
as easily as she had done the 'Cambria' in our waters in 1870,
rounding the turning point 27 mins. ahead of her, and rather
increasing her lead in the run home, eventually winning by over half
an hour.

The fifth and last match was again against the 'Sappho,' over the
inside course. There was a good topsail breeze from the S.W. which
gave them a reach through the Narrows to the S.W. Spit Buoy, and a run
from there to the Lightship. 'Livonia' got the start of the big
vessel, and at one time was about half a mile ahead, but the 'Sappho'
was not long in overhauling her, and rounded the Lightship 12 mins.
ahead. In the beat back to the Spit Buoy, and in the reach from there
home, the 'Sappho' continued to gain, and ended the race 26 mins.
ahead of 'Livonia.' The result of the matches was, therefore, that the
America Cup remained in the possession of the New York Yacht Club.
This was the last occasion on which an English schooner competed for
the cup, though there have since been several contests for it by
English cutters.

There was another good race for the Prince of Wales's Cup the next
year, 1872, in which the following yachts took part: the 'Livonia,'
265 tons; 'Aline,' 215; 'Gwendolin,' 179; and 'Egeria,' 152,
schooners, and the 'Dauntless,' yawl, 162 tons. They were started at 2
o'clock, with a good topsail breeze from the W.S.W., and an ebb tide.
The 'Gwendolin' had been altered and fined at both ends, and was much
improved this year. She and 'Egeria' were first off, and they made a
close race of it out to the Needles. There was a pretty little bit of
sailing between them off Newtown; both were standing in to the Island
shore, 'Gwendolin' to windward, 'Egeria' a little ahead. The latter
hailed for water, and was so much more nimble in coming round, that
she managed to get on 'Gwendolin's' weather before she had gathered
way, and gave her such a complete blanketing as left her almost in
irons. This left 'Egeria' the lead, and she was first to pass through
the Needles, with the others not far astern. All but 'Aline' and
'Dauntless' held on towards Swanage; these two stood off from the land
on the other tack, but lost a good deal by doing so, as the wind
chopped round to the southward, enabling all to lay their course
easily for the Shambles. 'Gwendolin' passed 'Egeria' off Darleston
Head, and 'Livonia' did the same in the lumpy water off St. Alban's.
As they neared the Shambles the wind went further round to S.S.E., and
sheets were eased well off. 'Gwendolin' luffed round the Lightship at
6 hrs. 33 mins., closely followed by 'Livonia' at 6 hrs. 34 mins.,
'Egeria' 6 hrs. 39 mins., 'Aline' 6 hrs. 42 mins., and 'Dauntless' 6
hrs. 47 mins. It then became a close haul for St. Catherine's, but as
the breeze kept steadily increasing in strength and the ebb tide was
pretty well done, the yachts travelled fast through the water. The
'Aline' collared the 'Egeria' before they reached the Needles, but all
were surprised at the speed of the smaller ship in such a breeze and
sea. The night closed in very dark, and the wind continued to freshen,
backing round again when the yachts were crossing Scratchell's Bay to
the west of south, which admitted of the sheets being eased
considerably. Off St. Catherine's they were caught in a heavy squall,
and 'Egeria' lost her main-topmast, and of course supposed that her
chances of the race were gone; but she kept on, and as after rounding
the point the wind became more aft, the wreckage was got in and
secured. 'Livonia' in the run to the Nab had got a good lead of
'Gwendolin' and 'Aline,' but when within about two miles of the Nab
she also came to grief like the 'Egeria,' her main-topmast going, and
in its fall damaging the gaff. She hauled round the Nab at 11 hrs. 20
mins., and it was then a reach to Cowes with a beam wind so strong
that she made very rapid progress, notwithstanding her crippled state.
The night was so dark that the yachts could not see each other, but
'Gwendolin' was supposed to have passed 'Livonia' off Ryde. The times
of arrival were: 'Gwendolin,' 12 hrs. 38 mins. 30 secs.; 'Livonia,' 12
hrs. 40 mins.; 'Aline,' 12 hrs. 42 mins.; 'Egeria,' 12 hrs. 50 mins.;
and 'Dauntless,' 1 hr. 20 mins. In the morning it was reported that
'Gwendolin' had run down the mark-boat, and was thereby disqualified,
and that as 'Egeria' had saved her time from 'Livonia' and 'Aline,'
she was again the winner of the cup. Major Ewing, however,
represented that, as the lesser of two evils, he had run down the
mark-boat in order to avoid a gig which was bringing ladies and others
out from the Squadron Ball to the American yacht 'Sappho.' The
Squadron considered that under the circumstances the 'Gwendolin' ought
not to be disqualified, and Major Ewing accordingly became the third
holder of the cup.

The race was sailed in even a shorter time than that of the previous
year; but this was to be expected, as the conditions were quite as
favourable as to tide and strength of wind, with less turning to
windward, so that the yachts had not to sail over so long a distance.

The 'Egeria' won the Queen's Cup at Cowes, but in the races of the
Royal Victoria Yacht Club the schooners found a strong opponent in the
'Corisande,' yawl, 140 tons, built by Michael Ratsey of Cowes, for Mr.
John Richardson, which beat them in the races both for the Commodore's
and the Vice-Commodore's Cups. In those days it was the practice to
class schooners and yawls together simply from the fact that both had
two masts, and without reference to their relative sailing powers. In
order to give the yawl as large a mainsail as possible, the mizen was
placed at the extreme end of the counter, the yawl became in fact a
cutter with a short boom, and like the cutter was superior to the
schooner in going to windward and running, though not in reaching with
the wind abeam.

In 1873 another yawl appeared which was also destined to prove a thorn
in the side of the schooners, namely the 'Florinda,' 140 tons, built
by Camper and Nicholson for Mr. Lessop. She was a very successful
vessel, and a worthy rival of the 'Corisande,' and subsequently of Mr.
Rowley's 'Latona,' 160 tons, and other fast yawls. These yawls took
many prizes from the schooners in the schooner and yawl races, as well
as in the mixed matches. The 'Kriemhilda' cutter, 105 tons, built by
Michael Ratsey and brought out by Count Batthyany in the latter part
of last season, also made her mark this year, beating the old
'Arrow.' She was the first material advance both in size and speed in
the cutter class, and with the improved yawls made it hot work for the
schooners in the mixed races.

[Illustration: 'EGERIA'

_153 tons. (F. Mulholland, Esq.) Built by Wanhill, 1865_.

'OIMARA'

_163 tons. 1867_.]

In the schooner racing the contests were very keen, but the most
successful vessels were the 'Egeria,' 152, and 'Pantomime,' 140. The
latter had passed into the hands of Mr. F. Starkey, and with Captain
John Herbert at the helm was hard to beat.

The race this year round the Shambles for the Prince of Wales's
Challenge Cup was practically a match between the 'Morna,' 257, and
'Egeria,' 152 tons. The 'Shark,' 201, was also entered, but had no
chance. The 'Morna' was built in the early part of the year by Camper
and Nicholson for Mr. W. Houldsworth, and was intended, as the
Americans say, to 'lick creation,' but though a very fine vessel she
did not turn out a success as a racer. They were started at 8 A.M. on
August 9, the weather being all that could be desired for pleasant
sailing, fine and bright with a nice topsail breeze from the westward.
'Egeria' kept ahead of the 'Morna' in the beat to the Needles, which
she passed at 11 o'clock, with 'Morna' about a quarter of a mile
astern. Outside the wind was fresher from the S.W., with a gentle
swell. Here was a chance for the big vessel, but she did not improve
her position, and when they cross-tacked off Darleston Head she was
some two miles to the bad, with 'Shark' about a mile astern of her. As
they progressed the wind fell lighter, and when within a short
distance of the Shambles they were enveloped in a fog. Beating to
windward in a fog was not an easy or a pleasant task; however, all
managed without much difficulty to pick up the Lightship, which was
rounded by 'Egeria' about 3.45, when she received the welcome news
that she was the first vessel; 'Morna' rounded about a quarter of an
hour, and 'Shark' half an hour, after. Shortly afterwards the fog
lifted a little and the competitors were able to make out their
respective positions, but it soon returned and they were again lost
to sight. The wind being aft and very light, little progress was made,
and at 10 o'clock, when about six miles from St. Catherine's, the tide
again turned to the westward. It now became very doubtful whether the
progress over the ground was ahead or astern, so the hand-lead was
dropped to the bottom, and quickly showed that it was time to anchor,
and kedges were accordingly let go. The full moon, bright and clear,
had, as the sailors expressed it, squandered the fog; the night was
beautifully fine and the sea smooth as glass. All quietly turned in to
await events, leaving a trusty watch on deck. At 4 o'clock A.M. the
tide began to flow and kedges were hauled in, but there was scarcely a
breath of air, and drift, drift was all that could be done. However,
about 8 o'clock a light breeze came out from the N.E., which 'Egeria,'
being most to the eastward, was the first to feel, and so considerably
increased her lead. The Nab was rounded by the 'Egeria' at a little
past 9 A.M. and by the 'Morna' at 9.50, 'Shark' a long way astern.
From the Nab to Cowes the wind continued very light and variable, with
the sun scorchingly hot, but with a strong tide in their favour they
reached and were timed at Cowes: 'Egeria,' 12 hrs. 3 mins. 30 secs.,
and 'Morna,' 1 hr., the former becoming for the second time the holder
of the cup.

In 1874 three new schooners of heavy metal appeared upon the
scene--the 'Cetonia,' 203 tons, built by Michael Ratsey for Mr.
William Turner; the 'Corinne,' 162, by the same builder, for Mr.
Nicholas Wood; and the 'Seabelle,' 142, built by John Harvey at
Wivenhoe for Mr. Harry Taylor. They were all fast vessels, and with
such a splendid fleet of schooners as 'Morna,' 257 tons; 'Modwena,'
223; 'Aline,' 215; 'Cetonia,' 203; 'Gwendolin,' 182; 'Corinne,' 162;
'Egeria,' 152; 'Pantomime,' 142; and 'Seabelle,' 142, besides others,
schooner racing continued at its zenith. 'Guinevere' was not raced
this year. It would be difficult to say with certainty which was the
fastest vessel without a much more critical examination and record of
their respective merits than it is the object of this chapter to
give; but, on the whole, probably the 'Cetonia' would have been
considered to have carried off the palm.

Challenge cups are not popular with English yachtsmen, and some
satisfaction was felt when the 'Egeria' won the Prince of Wales's
Challenge Cup for the third time, thus making it the absolute property
of her owner, Mr. J. Mulholland, M.P. The race had an interest of its
own, from the fact that for the first time an American yacht, the
'Enchantress,' 329 tons, the property of Mr. Lubat, competed for it.
Mr. Fish, the well-known American yacht-builder, had been brought over
to superintend the preparation of the yacht for the contest. The
entries were 'Enchantress,' 'Egeria,' and 'Shark.' The Cowes week this
year was characterised by blustering winds and rain. The 'Egeria' had
sailed for the Town Cup on the Wednesday, and as the weather was bad,
and she had got everything soaked, the race was postponed by consent
from Thursday until Friday, the 7th, to give her a chance of drying
her sails. The morning broke with a strong S.W. wind, and as
'Egeria's' skipper knew well what he was to expect in the Channel, he
reefed mainsail and bowsprit, and housed topmasts. Although the
'Enchantress' had to allow the 'Egeria' a lot of time, being more than
double her tonnage, it was felt on board the latter that, if the
'Enchantress' got round the Shambles first, she would in all
probability reach clean away and save her time: therefore that
'Egeria's' chance was to beat her adversary in the turn to windward,
and so if possible increase the time she would have to receive from
the Shambles home. The race was to be started at 6 A.M., and 'Egeria'
was early under way, prepared, with such a wind, which kept increasing
every minute, for a hard fight. To the great satisfaction of those on
board 'Egeria,' the 'Enchantress' was observed soon after coming down
with a cloud of canvas over her. 'Hurrah!' was the word; 'something
must go before long!'

'Egeria' gained five minutes at the start, and as in coming round
after the first board on the Calshot shore her opponent got in irons,
she gained full another five minutes. They had not made many tacks
before the man who was looking out on 'Egeria's' lee side cried,
'There goes "Enchantress's" jibboom!' which made 'Egeria's' crew feel
that, although the weather was getting more stormy and dull, their
prospects had considerably brightened. Without her jibboom
'Enchantress' was no match for 'Egeria' in the beat to windward, and
when the latter was well outside the Needles, and had passed the
Shingles Buoy, 'Enchantress' had hardly reached Hurst Castle. Just
before she got opposite Yarmouth, 'Egeria's' second jib was blown
clean out of the bolt-rope. This will give some idea of the strength
of the wind, which made the sea outside exceedingly heavy. 'Egeria'
was standing in for Christchurch Bay with the view of smoothing the
water, when she observed that the 'Enchantress' was put before the
wind, and turned back for Cowes, having carried away her forestay. Her
competitor being placed _hors de combat_, 'Egeria' was immediately put
under snug canvas, and sailed easily until she rounded the Shambles
Lightship at 4 o'clock. The run and reach home to Cowes round the
Island were comparatively easy sailing, and she showed her blue light
passing the Squadron Castle at 11 hrs. 50 mins., thus winning the cup
for the third time.

[Illustration: 'SEABELLE'

_153 tons. (M. F. Taylor, Esq.) Built by Harvey, 1874._]

A race was sailed at the beginning of the season of 1875 between the
two schooners 'Egeria' and 'Seabelle,' in a stronger wind than had
probably ever been experienced in a race on the Thames. It blew a gale
from the S.W.; the ground tackle which had been put down in the Lower
Hope for the yachts to start from would not hold them. 'Egeria'
dropped her anchor, and 'Seabelle' got under canvas; the others all
drifted, got up head-sails and sailed away, and the steamer carrying
the Committee of the Royal London Yacht Club, which gave the prize,
did not make its appearance. What was to be done? 'Seabelle' sailed
close by the 'Egeria,' and asked Mr. Mulholland if he would start
under way. The reply was, 'Yes, but stay round the Mouse instead of
gybing.' 'Egeria' had previously got both her topmasts on deck, and
all hands were at once at work getting up the sails, two reefs in the
mainsail, reefed foresail, reefed staysail, and small jib. 'Seabelle'
was also under reduced canvas, and had her fore-topmast on deck,
main-topmast being only housed. The start was a very even and fair
one. Soon afterwards the Club steamer was observed in the distance,
but she had little chance of catching the racers before they reached
the Mouse. They tore away before the wind without attempting to set
any additional sail, and as they stayed round the Mouse got in sheets
for the beat back, 'Egeria' with a lead of about 2 mins. 'Seabelle'
was a trifle the quicker in rounding, but she could not prevent
'Egeria' getting on her weather, and it was a case of tack and tack
for at least twenty tacks, 'Seabelle' doing all she knew by feints and
otherwise to shake off her rival, and 'Egeria' doing her best to get
sufficiently ahead to properly smother 'Seabelle,' which she
eventually succeeded in doing, and then reached away from her,
increasing her lead little by little every tack. Presently the wind
southerned, and they were able to start sheets for a long reach to the
Lower Hope, through which they had another beat, but were able to lay
their course up Gravesend Reach, crossing the winning line, 'Egeria'
at 5 hrs. 31 mins. 20 secs., and 'Seabelle' at 5 hrs. 37 mins. 52
secs. 'Egeria,' having to allow 'Seabelle' about five minutes, saved
her time by a minute and a half, and won the 100_l._ prize, a very
beautifully designed silver salver. The 'Egeria' had been altered and
given more stability in the early part of the year, without which she
might not have won in so strong a wind against so good and powerful a
vessel as the 'Seabelle.'

In 1876 the 'Phantom,' 176 tons, was built for Mr. Arthur Wilkinson,
from designs by Mr. Weymouth. She was a handsome, roomy vessel, and
was entered for a few races in 1876 and 1877, but as a racer was not a
success.

Mr. C. Thellusson also brought out the 'Boadicea,' 378 tons, this
year. She was built by Camper and Nicholson, but was intended for a
cruiser rather than a racer, though she raced occasionally. One of
the races in which she sailed was the memorable one from Torquay round
the Eddystone and return, when the weather was so tempestuous and the
seas so steep and heavy, that even 'Boadicea' and 'Latona' were
compelled to run for shelter under the Start headland, and it was some
hours before they were able to continue the race. 'Boadicea' beat the
'Latona' by two hours. Their competitors, unable to face the weather,
were disabled, or retired very soon after they got round the Start and
fairly into the Channel.

The following year--1877--the 'Miranda,' 139 tons, was built by
Harvey, of Wivenhoe, for Mr. G. E. Lampson, and with Lemon Cranfield
in charge proved one of the fastest and most weatherly of the schooner
fleet. Her specialities were that she had large displacement, with a
fine run aft, a considerable weight of ballast in proportion to her
tonnage, and the mainmast placed far forward, so as to increase the
size of her mainsail, and make her as near an approach to a cutter as
practicable. She was raced for several seasons, and frequently
competed both in the schooner and mixed races, with varying results.

In 1879 the schooner 'Fiona,' 150 tons, was built for Mr. E. Boutcher,
the owner of the famous cutter of the same name; and the following
year the 'Waterwitch,' 160 tons, was commissioned by Mr. E. Baring,
afterwards Lord Revelstoke. Both were by the same builders, Camper and
Nicholson.

They did not race for long, but sufficiently to show that they were
powerful and fast vessels, though they did not make any great
reputation in the racing world.

Schooner racing began to decline in the early eighties, and indeed the
building and racing of all large yachts rapidly fell off, for the
reason given in the early part of this chapter. But a race took place
in 1887 which is worthy of record.

[Illustration: RACING FLAGS.

SCHOONERS, CUTTERS, YAWLS, 40's, 20's, 10's.]

In commemoration of Her Majesty's Jubilee, the Royal Yacht Squadron
gave large prizes to be raced for by schooners, cutters, and yawls.
The match was open to all yachts above 30 tons, English and foreign,
but no foreign yachts entered. The prizes were 500_l._ for the first
vessel within her time allowance, 200_l._ for the second vessel of a
different rig within her time, and 100_l._ for the winning vessel of
the third rig. The course was from Cowes round the Nab Lightship,
Cherbourg Breakwater, and the Eddystone Lighthouse, returning to Cowes
round the south side of the Isle of Wight and the Nab Light, a
distance of about 330 miles.

The entries were:--

  SCHOONERS

                               Rating        Owner

  Enchantress                    281         General Owen Williams
  Aline                          149         H.R.H. the Prince of Wales
  Cetonia                        157         Sir Edward Guinness
  Egeria                         118         Mr. John Mulholland

  CUTTERS

  Irex                            93         Mr. John Jameson
  Lorna                           90         Mr. S. Hope Morley
  Genesta                         88         Sir Richard Sutton
  Moina                           85         Captain Bainbridge, R.N.
  Sleuthhound                     54         Lord Francis Cecil
  Arethusa                        54         Mr. Stuart Lane

  YAWLS

  Atlantis                       ---         Mr. L. M. Ames
  Dauntless (ketch)              108         Mr. F. L. Popham
  Anemone                         58         Mr. E. Liddell
  Viking                         ---         Earl of Caledon

The ratings are those of the yachts under the new length and sail-area
rule of measurement, which is altogether different to the old tonnage
rule.

The time allowances settled by the Royal Yacht Squadron were as
follows:--

              h.   m.  s.
  Irex        0    0   0
  Lorna       0    4  57
  Genesta     0    6  15
  Enchantress 0   59  22
  Sleuthhound 1   31   8
  Cetonia     2   28  21
  Aline       2   36  36
  Moina       2   43  32
  Egeria      3   13  50
  Arethusa    4   15  10
  Dauntless   5   29  21
  Viking      5   43   6
  Anemone     6   30  30

[Illustration: 'Cetonia,' 203 tons (now belonging to Lord Iveagh;
1892). Designed and built (1873) by M. E. Ratsey, Cowes, Isle of
Wight.]

The yachts were started at 10 o'clock on the morning of August 8
before a light W.S.W. breeze, making it a run to the Nab, which the
cutters rounded about 2 hrs. after the start, some 10 mins. ahead of
the schooners. The day being beautifully fine and the sea smooth, the
sail across the Channel close hauled on the starboard tack was very
enjoyable. The east end of Cherbourg Breakwater was rounded by the
'Irex' at 7.30, just at dinner-time, with 'Genesta' and 'Lorna' only a
few minutes astern.

Then followed 'Egeria' at 7.50 with 'Cetonia' in close attendance, and
'Moina' and 'Aline' respectively 16 and 35 mins. behind. The 'Irex,'
as soon as she passed the west end of the breakwater, stood away
close hauled for the English coast, and the other cutters followed her
lead; but 'Egeria' and 'Cetonia' tacked to the westward along the
French coast with the view of getting an easier tide when working to
the westward, and it was not until about 11 P.M. that they started off
to cross the Channel. The yachts had a nice breeze all night, and in
the morning 'Irex' struck the English coast somewhere to the west of
Portland. 'Egeria' found herself about 1-1/2 mile to windward and
nearly abeam of 'Cetonia,' both heading a good deal further to the
westward. Unfortunately 'Egeria' had to bear down upon 'Cetonia' to
request Sir Edward Guinness to allow his steamer 'Ceto,' which was
accompanying the race, to take one of the former's passengers, who had
broken his arm by a fall, back to Cowes, which he very kindly did.
This delayed 'Egeria' fully an hour, and more than lost her the
advantage she had gained, but she picked it up again during the day.
The weather throughout was fine and bright, but the wind very paltry.
The yachts were widely scattered, and as there was a good deal of haze
it was difficult to make each other out. 'Irex' did not get round the
Eddystone until about 10 P.M., 'Egeria' and 'Cetonia' about 11.30, and
the other two schooners some time afterwards.

The next day the wind continued light, but the 'Irex' being lucky with
the wind, managed to save the tide round all the headlands, and
reached Cowes at 3 hrs. 51 mins., nearly 8 hrs. before any other
vessel. 'Egeria' and 'Cetonia' made an exceedingly close race of it
the whole day, never being as much as a gunshot apart. The wind had
headed them when off the Isle of Wight, and several tacks had to be
made after they passed Dunnose. The 'Egeria,' when making her last
board off on the port tack to round the Nab, found she could not quite
weather 'Cetonia,' and had to bear away under her stern. 'Cetonia' was
also obliged to tack, and when they again crossed was in the same
predicament, which put 'Egeria' round the Nab a minute or two before
her. The 'Aline,' which had not been seen by the others for some
time, had stood more out to sea, got a better wind, and, to the
surprise of the others, rounded the Nab only a short distance astern
of them. The run to Cowes was an exciting one, as they were all very
evenly matched, but 'Egeria' managed to keep the pride of place and
crossed the winning line at 1.15 A.M., 1 min. ahead of the 'Cetonia'
and 6 mins. ahead of the 'Aline.' The 'Enchantress' arrived about 2
hrs. later. It was a curious sight to see the three schooners come in
so close together after so long a race, and the fact of 'Egeria' and
'Cetonia' rounding the three principal points, Cherbourg Breakwater,
the Eddystone, and the Nab, almost together was also remarkable.
'Egeria' of course thought she had won the schooner prize, but to the
surprise of her owner he was told that the 'Dauntless' ketch had been
classed with the schooners, and that, as she arrived at 2 hrs. 56
mins. within her time, she had been awarded the prize for the schooner
rig. It was pointed out to the Sailing Committee that no intimation
had been given that the 'Dauntless' was to sail as a schooner, that
the race was sailed under the rules of the Yacht Racing Association,
and that a recent decision had been given by the Council of that
Association, that ketches were to be classed as yawls; but the Sailing
Committee adhered to their decision, and declined to refer the
question to the Association.

The 'last of the schooners' was the 'Amphitrite,' 161 tons, by Camper
and Nicholson, brought out in 1889 by Colonel Macgregor, but by that
time schooner racing had practically ceased, and she only sailed in
mixed races. Her performances in these, however, were so good that
competent judges believed that, had schooner racing been in vogue, she
would have been one of the fastest of the class.

It may probably be considered that on the whole the 'Egeria' was the
most successful of the schooners. She made her _début_ in 1865 in the
race for the Queen's Cup at Cowes, beating the 'Aline,' the crack of
the day, and her last race was sailed in 1889. She has had a longer
career than any other schooner, won seven Queen's Cups at Cowes, and
about 70 other cups and prizes, each of which has an interesting story
of its own.

The writer sailed in many of the races described, and of these the
accounts are chiefly from personal recollection; but he must not
conclude without recognising the admirable descriptions of the races
published in the 'Field,' which has done so much to encourage and
improve yacht racing.



CHAPTER VII

THE RACING RULES AND THE RULES OF RATING

By 'THALASSA'


PART I. THE RACING RULES

We race yachts in home waters under the rules of the Yacht Racing
Association.

For a long time yacht racing was conducted without any central
authority or court of appeal, and the difficulties which arose in
consequence enabled a few racing owners to start the Association ('For
the promotion of the interests of yacht racing,'--General Rule 1) in
the year 1875; since which it has gradually and surely increased its
authority until, at the present time, it is acknowledged by clubs and
owners alike as the ruler of the sport, owing much to the energy and
ability of Mr. Dixon Kemp, the secretary of the Association, and to
the solid work done by many of the older councillors, among whom
should be specially mentioned the Marquis of Exeter, Sir George
Lampson, Bart., Sir William Forwood, Sir George Leach, K.C.B., Major
Frank Willan, Colonel Fitzroy Clayton, Major Percy Hewitt, Mr. E. R.
Tatchell, Mr. F. Cox, Mr. A. Manning, and, last but not least, Captain
J. W. Hughes, who, with Prince Batthyany Strattmann, took a most
active part in starting the Association.

The qualification for the Association embraces 'the owners of racing
yachts, and such other gentlemen interested in yacht racing as the
Council may elect'; ... 'also the representatives appointed by
recognised yacht clubs' (General Rule 2). It is astonishing to find,
by an examination of the list of members, how few racing owners belong
to the Association and how many old cruisers and steam-whistlers show
their active interest in the sport of yacht racing by paying two
guineas a year to support the court of appeal. We touch our caps to
them for doing so--but pray them to allow the men actually engaged in
the sport to settle the details as far as possible. Indeed, it would
appear desirable that the Council should be mainly composed of racing
owners, and that each class of racing yacht should be represented,
say, by two councillors. Thus--two for racing cruisers of the
'Columbine' type, two for the large class of racers, two for each
Y.R.A. class, and two for each of the 'Minima' classes (1 and
1/2-raters), or 18 in all. The other six members of the Council might
with advantage be selected from the appointed representatives of the
yacht clubs (General Rule 3).

At present the Council is practically a self-elected body, General
Rule 4 stating that 'vacancies occurring between the annual meetings
_shall_ be filled by the Council.' Evidently the word 'shall' should
be replaced by _may_.

Four councillors retire annually by rotation (General Rule 4), but are
eligible for re-election, and changes seldom occur from this cause,
except through compulsory retirement due to non-attendance for an
entire year. Quite right; when you have a good man keep him if you
can; but the self-election clause is wrong in principle, and quite
unnecessary in a council beginning each year with 24 members.

General Rule 5 describes the procedure for electing councillors.

General Rules 6 and 7 refer to the Annual General and Special General
Meetings, and No. 8 to the annual subscription--which is two guineas.

General Rule 9 should form part of the measurement rules. It refers
to the payment of measurement fees, and their non-payment is mingled
in a most curious manner with the non-payment of subscriptions to the
Y.R.A., on which latter point there is a penalty in Rule 8. So far as
measurement fees are concerned all owners should be on the same
footing. The general rules are of course only binding on the members
of the Association.

[Illustration: The Start.]

General Rule 10, concerning the meetings of the Council, is vague,
and might well have another rule, to be spoken of presently,
incorporated with it.

General Rule 11 describes the duties of the Council which are
tantamount to the objects of the Association, and might with advantage
be mentioned in Rule 1. The measurement of yachts for racing and the
issue of certificates of rating should be added to the rule, as now
being duties which are governed by the Council.

General Rule 12 describes the procedure necessary for effecting any
alterations in the rules (general or racing), a two-thirds majority of
the Council, and, subsequently, of a general meeting, or of a general
vote, being necessary for any _amendment or addition_ to the rules. A
member may, however, persevere in a proposal, although the Council
report unfavourably upon it; in which case it is brought before a
general meeting, or a general vote, and then requires a favourable
majority of three-quarters to pass it into law.

This rule is perhaps too stringent in its conservative tendencies, a
two-thirds majority being ample under any circumstances. When such a
majority is obtained in face of the Council's opposition the case must
be very strong. Nothing of the kind has ever occurred; but in 1891
certain alterations, recommended by the Council, failed to obtain the
requisite two-thirds majority at the Annual General Meeting.


_The Rules for the Guidance of the Council_

have never been passed by a General Meeting, although some of them
(like No. 7) are important. All of them should be incorporated with
the General Rules. These unauthorised Rules are:--

No. 1, that the Council may be assembled by the president, or by a
vice-president, or by a requisition of three councillors addressed to
the secretary.

No. 2, that five shall be a quorum.

No. 3 refers to the chairman; and

No. 4 to the minute book of the proceedings.

No. 5, that a quorum of three may be assembled at any time and notice,
to settle questions on the measurement of yachts.

No. 6 regulates the procedure on General Rule 4, last paragraph, the
election of councillors.

No. 7 regulates the procedure on General Rule 2, first paragraph, the
election of members of the Association.


_The Racing Rules_

There are thirty-two 'sailing rules' under which yacht racing in
British waters is conducted. Many of these rules have nothing to do
with 'sailing,' but refer to the measurements for rating, entries,
sailing committees' work ashore, and cognate matters; the rules and
paragraphs of rules connected with any one subject being dotted about
in the most bewildering manner, and the whole forming a general
hotch-potch, no great credit to the yachting Fathers.

The rules, being numerous and complex, must always be difficult to
follow; but this difficulty is increased tenfold by unmethodical
arrangement, and by the absence of any code whereby the law-making
decisions of the Council can be discovered and kept in view by racing
owners, by 'sailing' committees, and by the Council itself.

The rules have been examined and explained with much ability by Mr.
Dixon Kemp, in his book on 'Yacht and Boat Sailing,' chapter viii.
being devoted to the subject. Every racing owner should possess this
book: it is, therefore, unnecessary to repeat the treatment of the
rules therein contained. Nor is a criticism of the rules necessary, as
this has been done by the present writer in a series of articles
published in that excellent paper 'The Yachtsman,' on April 28, and
May 5, 12, 19, and 26, 1892; which back numbers can be obtained for a
few pence by applying to the publisher, 143 Strand, London. Moreover,
a summary of the rules was given in the Almanac for the Solent Racing,
published by King & Co., Southampton, in 1893, and will probably be
repeated in succeeding years.

An attempt will therefore be made in these pages to treat the Racing
Rules in a different manner, by an examination and description of the
duties of each important actor in connection with a yacht race.


_Duties of a Designer_

The principal object and duty of a designer is to build yachts capable
of winning prizes fairly. He must, therefore, study every peculiarity
and custom of the sport, the average climate during the racing season,
and, above all, he must study the rule of rating and measurement (Rule
3), to be examined at the end of this chapter. Other rules must not
escape his attention; for instance, the designer of Mr. Carrol's
yacht, when building in America for races in British waters, would
note that by Rule 9 shifting keels may only be moved by manual power,
and, consequently, that if any hydraulic appliance be used, anything
in the nature of an accumulator would be contrary to the spirit of the
rule, and would be matter for protest. The same remark applies to
working and hoisting the sails (Rule 13).

A designer must note that, by Rule 15, yachts over 10-rating must be
fitted below deck as yachts, including two wooden transverse
bulkheads. Also that, by Rule 16, yachts of 30 to 90-rating must carry
on deck a boat not less than 10 feet by 3-1/2 feet, and yachts of
90-rating, or more, a boat not less than 12 feet by 3-1/2 feet.

Designers must also consider Rule 33, which defines 'cruising
trim'--especially Clause 2, which prohibits the placing of 'sails or
other gear' 'in the main cabin' of yachts which race in this trim; and
Clauses 3 and 4, concerning the anchors and chains, and boats.


_Private Match_

A yacht race can only be said to occur when the competitors have
carefully prepared for it, and when it is under the direction of some
competent nautical authority. In arranging a private match, it is
therefore important to appoint both a race officer and a referee, the
latter having the power to decide any dispute or to refer the same to
the Y.R.A., should he think fit to do so.


_Club and Open Matches_

Private matches are less frequent than of yore, and modern racing is
generally for prizes given by yacht clubs or by town regattas.


_Duties of a Yacht Club_

The object of a yacht club is usually defined somewhat as follows:--

R.S.Y.C.--The encouragement of yacht sailing in the Southampton Water
and Solent.

R.P.C.Y.C.--To encourage amateur yacht racing in the Solent.

C.Y.C.--To encourage the racing of yachts in the small classes Y.R.A.

B.S.C.--To promote the interests of amateur boat-sailing.

The executives of such clubs should keep these objects in view by
choosing flag officers who are keen sportsmen and patrons of yachting;
by appointing sailing committees well versed in details; by raising
funds for the prizes; and, generally, by constantly endeavouring to
further the yachting interests of the club members.

Unfortunately the development of a yacht club only too frequently
produces a dual government, the house being governed by a committee
mainly consisting of habitués who are not yachtsmen, and the yachting
by a sailing committee.


_Duties of a Sailing Committee_

The first duty of a sailing committee is to perfect itself. Each
member should study, and be well acquainted with, the racing rules.
The chairman should be a good business man, and well versed in the
intricacies and dodges of yacht racing. If one of the flag officers
fulfil these conditions, so much the better. The chairman should be
elected by the committee, not by the club.

The committee should discover the amount of cash available for racing,
the average cost of a regatta, and consequently the balance which can
be devoted to prizes.

Other clubs whose regattas are held at the same period of the season
should be addressed, and dates arranged to suit both clubs and owners.

The committee is then in a position to settle its programme, which
should be done as early in the year as possible, in order that owners
may prepare their yachts' programmes for the season. A summary of the
club programme should then be published or advertised; and this should
be strictly adhered to, if possible.

A clause is frequently inserted stating that the committee reserves
the right to alter the programme; but it should be remembered that no
change in the conditions of a race can be made after an entry has been
received, because, by Rule 8, Y.R.A., the yacht is then 'entitled to a
prize of not less than half the value of the first prize offered for
competition,' if she 'sail over the course' under the conditions.

The advertisement may conveniently take the following form:

  The ... Yacht Club will hold a Regatta on the ... day of ... 189. at ....

  _Race I._--Fee .... Prizes £.., £.., £.., for yachts exceeding ...,
  and not exceeding ...R.

  _Race II._--Fee .... Prizes £.., £.., for yachts exceeding ...,
  and not exceeding ... R.

  And so on.

  Open to yachts owned by members of recognised yacht clubs.

  Entries close at noon on the ... of ... 189..

  For full programme apply to the Club Secretary.

This summary is sufficient. It is better to insert a short notice
twice than a long notice once.

The full programme should be drawn up with much care, and everything
mentioned, thus avoiding numerous inquiries and much correspondence.

_The programme_ should state the matters already mentioned in the
summary, and, in addition, the time of start for each race; the method
of starting; the course of each race; the starting line; the finishing
line (Rule 17); time limit (if any) for finishing race or shortening
course; the exact length of each course in sea miles and decimals, for
time allowance (if any); and the regulations special to the club or
town regatta (Rule 4. Also Rec. 6 of Appendix).

Some good sportsmen on the Solent hope soon to see a code of
regulations universally adopted for the Solent classes, in which event
it will only be necessary to state on the programme or the race card
that the Y.R.A. rules and the Solent class regulations will be
observed.

The regulations might deal with the following matters:--

The sailing-over rule; the conditions on which second or third prizes
(if any) will be awarded; the payment of entrance fees; the
certificate of rating (Rule 3); the declaration at entry (Rule 5); the
declaration at end of race (Rule 10); the deposit (if any) on a
protest (Rule 30); the owner; the helmsman; rig allowances (if any).
(Rec. 1 of Appendix.)

_The race card_ can only be drawn up at the last moment, after the
entries have closed. It is similar to the programme, but contains the
names of the yachts which have entered, their colours, their recall
numerals, and sometimes the names of their owners (Rule 12). It also
generally contains the names of the flag officers, and the names of
the race officers for the day.


_Duties of the Secretary_

As the date of a regatta approaches, entries will be received, and the
secretary should acquaint the sailing committee of any irregularity
(Rule 5). He should also discover if the sailing committee wishes to
'refuse any entry.' An entry by telegram should finish thus: _Written
entry follows_; and this should be made in strict accordance with Rule
5, Y.R.A. The entry (when filled in) and the declaration amount to
nearly 150 words, which cost an owner 12_s._ 6_d._ if sent entirely by
telegram. It was never intended that an entry by telegram should
relieve an owner from making the declaration.

The secretary must see that the race cards are printed promptly as
soon as the entries are closed, and one should be sent to each yacht
in accordance with Rule 12, Y.R.A., which states that 'written or
printed instructions as to the conditions of the race, the course to
be sailed, marks, &c., shall be supplied at the time of entry, or as
soon after as possible, to every yacht entered for a race.'

The secretary must see that recall numerals, 'white on a black ground,
and the figures not less than 2 ft. 6 in. in height,' are placed
conveniently for use by the race officers (Rule 12); also that the
white peter, the blue peter (Rule 4), the commercial code flags B, C,
D, F, and so on (Rule 17), and the means and trained labour for
hoisting them promptly are similarly provided.

He must also have a care that the gun, or guns, and the ammunition are
in good order and position, and properly manned, in order that Rules 4
and 17 may be complied with.

He must see that the two inner marks for the alignment of the starting
line are correctly fixed, and that the outer mark is moored as nearly
as practicable in the same alignment.

He must take measures for having the mark-boats (if any) correctly
moored, in good time.

He should see that the race officers are provided with a chronograph,
a book of the Y.R.A. rules, a race card, a chart showing the courses,
a coloured diagram showing the racing colours of each competing yacht,
and a description of each yacht giving any peculiarity by which she
may be identified, such as the colour of the hull, the rig, the shape
of the bow or stern, &c.

He should provide lanterns for use at the winning line in the event of
a finish after sunset.

After the racing he should endeavour to obtain the declarations from
the owners (or their representatives) on board the winning yachts
(Rule 10).

During these stirring times a secretary must not rely on receiving any
assistance; on the contrary, everyone expects help from him; and
should anything go wrong his broad shoulders must carry the blame.

Yet there are some men who do all this and much more a dozen times in
a season, and toil year by year 'for the good of the club,' and 'the
fun of the thing,' as honorary secretaries.


_The Duties of Race Officers_

It is customary, and a good plan, for the sailing committee to appoint
two race officers for each day of a regatta (Rule 1). If the services
of a flag officer, or of an active member of the sailing committee,
can be obtained, well and good; but anyone, whether a member of the
club or not, may be appointed.

A race officer should be at his post _at least_ half an hour before
the first race begins (Rule 1). This gives him only fifteen minutes to
see that things are 'shipshape' before flag B is hoisted (Rule 17).
During this time he must decide whether the regatta or any race must
be postponed on account of bad weather, in which case letter N is
hoisted over the flag denoting the race or races so postponed (Rule
2). He should discover from the secretary that the marks are all
correctly moored, the flags and guns ready, and everything in order.
It is a great convenience to sailing masters to have a _time gun_
fired half an hour before the start for the first race; but this
should not be done unless it be mentioned on the race card. The race
officer should time this gun to the fraction of a second, and start
all the races in strict accordance therewith. The officer should also
make himself acquainted with the racing colours (Rule 11), and, if
possible, with any peculiarities in the appearance of the yachts which
are about to compete, in order that they may be easily identified at
the start. As the time for hoisting flag B (race 1) approaches, the
officer should warn the man at the signal halliards, who will hoist
the flag, _furled_, at the peak, and the instant the officer gives the
time signal the flag should be 'broken out' by a sharp jerk on the
halliard.

As the time for _first gun_ approaches, the blue peter is hoisted
similarly by another halliard, and is 'broken out' the instant the
officer gives the time signal; the gun is fired simultaneously, and
should it miss fire the blue peter is the signal. The 'preparative
flag' is also lowered.

The yachts in the race are under the rules at first gun (Rule 17). The
only apparent exception being that a _paid_ hand may join or leave a
yacht before the 'signal to start' (Rule 14), but not afterwards.
N.B.--Corinthians may join or leave a yacht at any time during a race.
The race officer should recall any yacht at the start which breaks any
racing rule, such as being towed or propelled by any means other than
her sails, after first gun (Rule 25).

The 'member of a recognised yacht club' (Rule 10) must be on board at
_first_ gun, and so with all the other racing rules.

One of the race officers must very carefully watch the alignment as
the starting time (_precisely_ five minutes after first gun)
approaches, and the other officer should watch the chronograph and
shout the word 'fire' at the fraction of a second. 'Should the gun
miss fire the simultaneous lowering of the blue peter is the signal to
start' (Rule 17). The officer attending to the starting line should
carefully note whether 'any part of the hull, spars, or other
equipment' (Rule 17) of any of the yachts 'be on or across the line
_before_ the signal to start is made.' If so, the recall numerals of
such boats should be at once displayed, and kept displayed until they
return and recross the line or give up the race (Rule 12). The second
race is started in the same way, the preparative flag C being hoisted
when the starting gun for the first race is fired.

Sometimes there is an interval of time between these actions; but
there is no difficulty in starting races every fifteen minutes in
strict accordance with the rules, if the officers know their duties
and the signalmen are well trained.

The work of starting shows the necessity of appointing _two_ race
officers; and, subsequently, during the racing it enables at least one
officer to be always on duty. The officers should watch the racing as
much as possible, and should they see or learn that any yacht has
broken any rule, they should disqualify her whether she be protested
against or not (Rule 30).

'Should it be necessary during a race to shorten the course' (Rule 4),
the officers will order 'the signal flag denoting the race' (or races)
to be 'hoisted under the white peter; or, in case of fog or darkness,
two guns' to be 'fired,' to show that the race is to finish with the
round about to be completed, 'or at such mark as the sailing committee
or officer of the day may appoint.' In practice, the sailing committee
never interferes with the race officers.

Of course the time allowance, if any, is adjusted to the altered
distance (Rule 4).

If there be more than one round in a course, each yacht should be
timed at the end of each round; but there is no rule to this effect.
The time at the end of a round or race is taken when any part of a
yacht's hull or equipment _first_ cuts the line. When the competing
yachts pass the race officer, he should also notice whether any of
them 'show an ensign conspicuously in the main rigging' (Rule 30),
this being the preparative signal of a protest; and consequently, the
race officers must be prepared to receive such protest 'within two
hours of the arrival of the protesting yacht,' but they cannot decide
it. This rests with the sailing committee.

Race officers must also be prepared to receive from a yacht, or
yachts, a claim for a resailed race under the 'man overboard' rule
(Rule 29), which states that competing yachts 'shall use their utmost
endeavours to render assistance in case of a man falling overboard
from a competing yacht; and if it should appear that any yacht was
thereby prevented from winning the race, the committee shall have
power to order it to be resailed between any yacht or yachts so
prevented, and the actual winner.'

By the wording of the rule the race officers can only report the
matter to the committee, and cannot settle it themselves.
Nevertheless, they have the power to 'award the prizes' (Rule 1) in
the absence of any such claim, or protest; but this is seldom done in
practice, because owners rarely send their declaration (in accordance
with Rule 10) to the secretary of the club until it is demanded. _See_
Duties of Owners.

Practically, therefore, race officers can only declare the probable
winners; and in some clubs, where the same yachts race frequently,
this is done at the termination of the racing, by hoisting the colours
of the apparent winners under the signal flags denoting their races.


_Duties of Owners_

The principal duty of a racing owner is to see that everything in
connection with the racing of his yacht is done in a perfectly fair
and honourable manner. An owner who breaks or infringes any racing
rule flagrantly 'may be disqualified by the Council, for such time as
the Council may think fit, from sailing his yacht in any race held
under the rules of the Y.R.A.' (Rule 33).

When a yacht is officially measured, the owner should be on board, or
have an experienced racing friend on board to represent him. He should
note the position of the inside ballast, ship's stores, unbent sails,
and other gear, entering same in his note-book. He should see that the
crew is properly placed, viz. 'amidships' (Council's instructions to
official measurer, March 1, 1883), as, by a resolution passed December
6, 1892, a yacht (Rule 3, December 1892) must now be marked by the
owner, such marks being clear above the water surface in smooth water
in 'racing trim,' which evidently means with crew and all weights
(live or dead) carried in a race on board.

The taxable length will in future be officially measured to the
'outer edges' of said marks, a length somewhat greater than the
yacht's L.W.L.

An owner should take the greatest care to see for himself that his
yacht's taxable length is never increased, and that any alteration to
her ballast trim, sanctioned by a recent addition to Rule 15, is never
made after 9 P.M. of the day previous to a race.

As regards the sail-area, an owner should hand the sailmaker's
certificate to the official measurer and give him every assistance in
measuring the yacht's spars, &c.; and, subsequently, should any
alteration be made to the sails or spars affecting the yacht's rating,
the owner should at once inform the secretary Y.R.A. in writing, and
return the certificate if required (Rule 3). In short, an owner is
held responsible for the rating of his yacht being absolutely correct.

His next duty is to enter her properly for any race he may wish to
compete in. 'Entries shall be made ... _at least_ forty-eight hours
previous to noon of the race day'--twenty-four hours being added for a
Sunday. Clubs have asserted the right to close entries at a longer
interval. Owners must therefore note these times for closing the
entries, and act accordingly (Rule 5).

Post entries are not provided for in the Y.R.A. rules, and must
therefore be considered irregular, whether sanctioned by the other
competitors or not.

The long declaration given in the rule is a nuisance, and should be
cut out, as there is no reason for mentioning one rule more than
another on this declaration. So long, however, as the Y.R.A thinks it
necessary, it must be enforced, and owners should help the clubs to do
so by carrying it out. As before stated, an entry by telegram (_sent
off_ before the hour of closing entries) should be followed at once by
this written declaration.

An owner should know that if a race be postponed or resailed all the
yachts _entered_ may start; but the entry is closed to other yachts
(Rule 5).

[Illustration: ROYAL SOUTHAMPTON YACHT CLUB.

"BRAMBLES AND LEPE COURSE."]

An owner must belong to some 'recognised yacht club' or his entry is
void. A hired yacht cannot be entered for any race under Y.R.A. rules
(Rule 6).

An owner cannot enter two yachts to compete for one prize, but he can
enter one yacht for two simultaneous races (Rule 7).

An owner who has entered his yacht for a prize may sail over the
course for half the value of the prize should no other competitor
start (Rule 8), and should the race officer not postpone the race for
bad weather (Rule 2).

The owner (or a member of a recognised yacht club, to represent him)
must be on board during a race, and after the race he should sign a
declaration that the yacht has been sailed in strict conformity with
the Y.R.A. rules and with the conditions on the programme (Rule 10),
and forward same to the race officer at once, or to the secretary if
later.

An owner (or his representative) should see that his yacht is supplied
in good time with the written or printed instructions for a race (Rule
12).

Should an owner (or his representative) decide to protest against a
competitor, or otherwise (removal of a mark, for instance), the
protest-flag should be displayed at the proper time, and the protest
in writing lodged without delay. Certain time-limits are given in Rule
30.

An owner having flown a protest flag should continue the protest, as
it is often unfair to other competitors to withdraw it. Moreover, it
may be fairly argued that an owner who observes an infringement of the
rules by a competitor, and does not protest as ordered in Rule 30,
himself breaks the rules by such omission, and subjects himself to
disqualification by the sailing committee. If there were more protests
there would soon be far less necessity for them.


_Duties of a Sailing Master_

A skipper is responsible to the owner, his employer, for the
correctness of the yacht's rating, as shown on her certificate; he
must also see that she is properly prepared for each race, and
properly raced; thus:--

He should not start unless the owner or a qualified representative is
on board (Rule 10).

He should have the yacht's colours carried properly (Rule 11).

He should carefully study the written or printed instructions and
follow them in every detail (Rule 12).

At the start he should look out for his recall numeral (Rule 12).

He should prevent any paid hand joining or leaving the yacht after the
signal to start (Rule 14).

He should be careful to comply with the ballast rule, and see that the
dead-weight is not altered after 9 P.M. of the day previous to a race
(Rule 15).

He should see that boats and life-buoys are carried in accordance with
Rule 16.

He should be specially careful not to infringe any sailing rule
between the guns at the start (Rule 17).

If late at the start, he should know that the yacht is not
disqualified (Council Y.R.A., 1881).

A good skipper will know Rules 18 to 29 by heart. By Rule 18:--

(_a_) _A yacht going free keeps clear of a yacht close hauled._

(_b_) _A yacht close hauled port keeps clear of a yacht close hauled
starboard._

(_c_) _When going free on opposite tacks the yacht with wind on port
keeps clear._

(_d_) _When going free on same tack the windward yacht keeps clear._

(_e_) _A yacht with wind aft keeps clear of all others._

By (_b_) a yacht on port tack can be disqualified: first, if she
strike or be struck by a yacht on starboard tack; secondly, if the
latter luff, tack, or bear away to avoid being struck.

When yachts which overlap are rounding a mark or passing an
obstruction, the outside yacht must give room to and keep clear of
the inside yachts (Rules 19 and 20).

When yachts approach an obstruction close-hauled, and the leeward
yacht cannot tack and clear the windward yacht, the helmsman of the
former should 'hail for water' when required, and the two yachts must
then tack together (Rule 22).

An overtaking yacht must keep clear of an overtaken yacht, which may
luff, but must not bear away out of her course to obstruct the passage
on her leeward side (Rule 21).

'A yacht running ashore or foul of a vessel or other obstruction may
use her own anchors, boats, warps, &c., to get off,' but must take
them on board again, and must receive no assistance except from the
crew of a vessel fouled (Rule 23).

A yacht which touches a mark or competitor, or which wrongfully causes
another yacht to do so, forfeits all claim to the prize (Rule 24).

A yacht must be propelled by her sails alone after first gun (except
as stated in Rule 23). She may anchor, but not slip. She must not make
fast to buoys, &c. She must not send an anchor out in a boat (except
as stated in Rule 23). Any sounding must be done with lead and line
alone (Rules 25, 26, and 27).

Yachts racing at night must carry lights by Board of Trade rules (Rule
28).

When accidents occur, competing yachts must help to save life (Rule
29).

A skipper should also remember that, 'should a flagrant breach of the
racing rules be proved' against him, 'he may be disqualified by the
Council,' for any stated period, 'from sailing in any race held under
the Y.R.A. rules' (Rule 32).


_Duties of the Official Measurer_

An official measurer should be prepared to measure a yacht promptly at
short notice. Consequently no person should accept the post whose time
is much engaged in other business or pursuits.

The measurement of a racing-yacht's _sails_ is left very much in the
hands of the sailmakers. The only check usually applied is the
measurement of the spars on which the sails are set. The secretary of
the Y.R.A. is then able to check the accuracy of the sailmaker's
measurements as recorded on a 'sailmaker's certificate,' which is
guarded afterwards by the secretary, Y.R.A.

For instance, to check a cutter's mainsail, the boom and gaff are
measured.

It would occupy too much space to describe the whole of the sail
measurements, which are detailed on six or seven pages of the Y.R.A.
book of rules--under Rule 3. Let it suffice to say that the actual
area of each sail abaft a mast is found, and that the head-sail tax is
obtained by the measurement of the fore-triangle; which will be done
in 1894 as follows:--

'The perpendicular will be taken from the deck at the foreside of the
mast to where the line of the luff of the foremost head-sail when
extended cuts such perpendicular, and the base will be taken from
foreside of mast to where the line of luff of foremost head-sail cuts
the bowsprit, other spar, or hull' (General Meeting, Y.R.A., December
6, 1892).

The instructions to the measurer issued by direction of the Council on
May 8, 1889, are, briefly, as follows:--

He must not measure a yacht in which he is interested as owner,
designer, builder, or otherwise.

The taxable length must be obtained at slack water by measuring the
L.O.A. on deck, and deducting the O.H. at stem and stern, found by
hanging a lead-line from the bow and taffrail and measuring its
distances from the outer edges of the owner's marks on the stem and
stern. He must ascertain that the yacht is in correct racing trim, and
the crew amidships (mid over-all length) when measuring these
overhangs.

Sails, spinnaker gear, tackles, &c., may be put amidships at this
time.

He should note and record the position of any movable ballast.

Each measurement should be taken twice, and recorded twice in the
book, and a third time if there be material disagreement. The mean
should be adopted. [This is wrong mathematically. The 'mean adopted'
should be that of the observations which agree, the one with a
'material disagreement' being cancelled.]

       *       *       *       *       *

By a new rule passed on December 6, 1892, 'owners are required to mark
the rating length of their yachts at the bow and stern, which marks
shall at all times be clear above the surface of the water when the
yacht is lying in smooth water in her usual racing trim,' i.e. with
crew amidships. See previous instructions.

The following matters connected with measurements are contained in
Rule 3, and should be remembered:--

Notches cut away from the fair-line of the stem or stern post are not
allowed for when the rating length is measured.

The segmental area bounded by the bent yard of a lug or other sail,
and its chord, is included in the sail-area.

If the length of the spinnaker boom when shipped in its place square
to the keel, and measured from its outer end to the fore-and-aft line
of the mast, be greater than the base of the yacht's fore-triangle, it
is substituted therefor in calculating the taxed area of head-sails.

The perpendicular for same triangle has already been referred to.

       *       *       *       *       *

A measurer should send his measurements to the secretary, Y.R.A., by
the first post in order that the owner may receive his yacht's
certificate of rating as soon as possible.

       *       *       *       *       *

At present the regulations on measurements are divided, some being
placed in Rule 3, and some in the printed instructions to measurers.
It would be far better to combine them into one appendix, which
measurers, builders, designers, and owners alike could then refer to,
and note precisely how matters should be arranged. Rule 3 should
simply describe the rule for rating racing yachts and the Y.R.A.
certificate of rating.

The remarks on the Y.R.A. rules end here, but the writer has been
requested to include in this chapter a short examination of the
various Rating Rules of different nationalities.


PART II. THE RATING RULES

     _Extract from Letter to the FIELD in 1892._--'With shame I
     confess that the problems and calculations, the combinations
     of straight and crooked lines, with large and small numerals
     and Latin and Greek letters, the mathematical contortions
     and algebraic hieroglyphics ... are meaningless to my
     uncultured eyes. They are fascinating; I admire their
     beauty, and can well understand that inventing rules for
     rating must be a most charming pursuit for intellectual
     yachtsmen....

                                                           'DUNRAVEN.'

An attempt will be made to treat the subject as simply as possible, so
that anyone who knows a little arithmetic may follow it.

The following 'hieroglyphics' will be used:--

  B.       Beam
  D.       Draught
  F.       Freeboard
  G.       Girth
  L.       Length
  L.O.A.   Length over all
  L.O.M.   Length between official marks
  L.W.L.   Length on W.L.
  M.       Area of immersed mid-section
  M.S.     Mid section
  R.       Rating, whether Y.R.A., or corrected length, or other
  S.       Sail area
  T.       Tonnage
  U.Y.F.   Union des Yachts Français
  W.       Weight of yacht complete in English tons dead weight same as her displacement
  W.L.     Water level
  Y.R.A.   Yacht Racing Association

If the subject of rating were treated historically, it would be
necessary to begin with the old tonnage rules; but we live in the
present, and the more important of the existing rules will therefore
be examined first. The old tonnage rules will more conveniently be
described at the end of the chapter, with existing tonnage rules.

England and America have used rating rules for some years, and France
determined to do the same in October 1892.

The efficiency of a sailing yacht can be calculated very similarly to
that of a steam yacht, the sails being the motor in one, the engines
in the other. But we know that the efficiency of a steamer should vary
directly as her indicated horse-power, and inversely as her
displacement. The same idea should apply to sailing yachts. It is, in
fact, almost impossible to rate a sailing yacht satisfactorily without
taking into account both her sail-area and her displacement--or
something very closely allied with the latter.

A length and sail-area rule proposed by Mr. Dixon Kemp in 1880 was
adopted in 1883 for second-class racing, and in 1886 this alternative
rule was adopted as the sole rule. It is--

  English R = L × S ÷ 6,000 (I.)

This important step was taken after a careful and exhaustive inquiry
conducted by a special committee appointed by the Council, Y.R.A., and
presided over by Sir William Forwood. The committee took the evidence
of our most noted yacht architects, and finally reported in favour of
Rule (I), and of the present classification (except 2-1/2 rating,
which was afterwards added by the Council). The report met with
general approval; the Y.R.A. put its seal upon it, and gave it a
tenure of seven years; subject, however, to General Rule 12, by which
any change at any time can be made by the requisite majorities.

The tonnage time scale in use before 1886 was altered to agree with
the new rating, which cannot be said to represent anything but what it
really is--viz. the product of a yacht's taxable length and her
sail-area.

The classification and the divisor do not alter the rule one iota.
They are purely arbitrary, as was very clearly stated in an excellent
letter by Mr. G. B. Thompson, published in the 'Field' of December 17,
1892. He said very truly that the 5-rating class is in reality the
30,000 class, and the 10-rating class is the 60,000 class. If the
divisor 6,000 be altered alone, the result is precisely the same as
altering the rating itself in like ratio, and in the same direction.
Thus (R. × divisor) and (L. × S.) must each equal 120,000 in the 20-R.
class, and must each equal 240,000 in the 40-R. class, and so on. In
short, the Y.R.A. rule may be regarded thuswise:--In each class L. ×
S. = a constant, for boats at the top of the class.

By a recent decision in general meeting, Y.R.A., December 6, 1892, L.
will in future be measured between the outer edges of the official
marks, which must be affixed by the owner and always show clear above
W.L. when a yacht lies in smooth water in racing trim.

L., therefore, is no longer L.W.L., but L.O.M. (length by owner's
marks), rather longer than L.W.L.

By Rule 3, Y.R.A., in calculating a yacht's R., a fraction of or
exceeding 0.01 counts as 1.0 in classes exceeding 10 R.; but in
classes exceeding 1.0 R. and not exceeding 10 R., a fraction less than
0.1 counts as 0.1; and in classes not exceeding 1.0 R. fractions from
0.01 to 0.99 inclusive count for their value.

Example: 'Dacia's' certificate, June 1892, recorded S. = 887.6 and L.
= 33.83 and R. = 5.00. But her S. × L. ÷ 6,000 = 5.005 and 0.005 is 'a
fraction smaller than 0.1'; consequently, by the wording of Rule 3,
her R. = 5.01, and she was over-rating; but the secretary, Y.R.A.,
when questioned, stated that the 'Y.R.A. only recognises two places of
decimals,' and words to this effect were added to Rule 3 at the
general meeting February 22, 1893.


_The Time Allowance_

The time scale for differences of R. under Rule 1. was based on the
conception that a racing yacht's 'capability for speed varies as the
fifth root of the rating,' the argument leading to this being that--

  speed varies as [V¯]L                                       (1)

  and that sail varies as L[V¯]B                              (2)

  and by the rating rule, R varies as S × L

  it therefore follows from (2) that R varies as L{2}[V¯]B

  and, assuming that B varies as L                            (3)

  it follows that R varies as L{2}[V¯]L or L{5/2}

                   therefore ... L varies as R{2/5}

  Hence, by (1), speed varies as [V¯]R{2/5} or [5V¯]R.--Q.E.D.

The Y.R.A. time scale therefore rests not only on the two assumptions
(1) and (2) mentioned in the book, but on the further assumption (3),
which we know to be incorrect.

However, the 5th root of R. gives a time scale which is found to act
fairly well in practice, and this being so, the theory of the time
curve is a matter of minor importance.

At first (1886 and 1887) the adoption of the unrestricted rule met
with some opposition, especially in the small classes, where a few of
the most experienced yachtsmen advocated restrictions in L.W.L. or
L.O.A., and in mainsail area. But the majority determined, and
rightly, to give the rule free scope; and the results on the whole
have been highly satisfactory, fine seaworthy vessels, driven by a
small sail-area at great speed, having been produced in the large
classes. The evolution in the small classes has been more rapid, and
in 1892 some rather undesirable types were prize-winners, and
yachtsmen who wished to protect themselves against similar vessels in
the large classes induced the Y.R.A. to appoint a special committee to
consider whether the unrestricted and unaltered rule should be
continued beyond the seven-years period, terminating in 1893. This
committee, under the presidency of Sir George Lampson, obtained the
opinions of our leading designers, as was done in 1886, and the
designers themselves met in conference twice, and jointly addressed
two letters to the Rule Committee in which they finally recommended
the adoption of the Seawanhaka rule for rating racing yachts and a
classification of corrected lengths suitable for our existing racing
fleet; also other details, the most important being a proposal to tax
overhang above the W.L. and cut away keels below it.

The Rule Committee adopted the recommendation as to change of rating
rule, but proposed a modification whereby the British rating and time
scale could be retained.

When this report was brought before the Council it was upset, some of
the committee themselves voting against their own report. But the
action of the Council has since been justified by the production of
several splendid specimens of yacht architecture to race under the
Y.R.A. rule of rating.

The elements of the fastest types which have developed in small yachts
under the rule can be studied in the tables given in the chapter on
Racing in the Solent Classes.

One of our ablest designers has consistently advocated the
introduction of a tax on beam into the formula. He did so in 1886, and
again in 1892, when he proposed to tax draught also.

Unfortunately the mathematics of the rule make it difficult, if not
impossible, to do so, because the blow on L. is lessened when it is
shared by other quantities.

Thus by Mr. Watson's modification of the rating rule, proposed in
October 1892, viz.

  English R = (2L + 2B + D) × S ÷ {constant, say 17,000}     (II.)

'Doreen' is of smaller rating, although both longer and more beamy
than 'Decima.' They are of the same rating for racing by the Y.R.A.
rule. Mr. Watson's formula would therefore encourage even greater
length of hull than the Y.R.A. rule. No such difficulty is encountered
by the introduction of such taxes into the Seawanhaka rule, where the
plus sign replaces the multiplying sign used by us. This rule was
adopted by the American Yacht Club of its name in 1882, the form being

  American R = (L + [V¯]S) ÷ 2    (III.)

The New York Yacht Club has raced for a number of years under a
similar rule for time allowance,[6] viz.

  American R = (2L + [V¯]S) ÷ 3     (IV.)

and just as the Y.R.A. rule can take the form

  L × S = constant in any class,

so these rules can take the forms

  L + [V¯]S = constant, in any class           III.

  2L + [V¯]S = constant, in any class          IV.

It then becomes evident that any sacrifice of S. to obtain greater L.
under Rule IV. is only half as effective as the same process under
Rule III. Conversely, any sacrifice of L. to obtain more S. is twice
as effective under Rule IV. as under Rule III.

[Footnote 6: But not for classification, which latter has been simply
the length of hull on water-line. Hence, yachts built for the same
class have varied much in their sail-area; 'Vigilant' and 'Valkyrie'
for instance.]

Again, as comparisons between L. and S. must be brought to some common
measure, the Y.R.A. form ... L. × S. = constant in any class, may be
read L. × [V¯]S. × [V¯]S. = constant, and it then becomes clear that
any sacrifice of S. to get L. is twice as effective as in Rule III.,
and four times as effective as in Rule IV.; and conversely, that any
sacrifice of L. to get more S. is half as effective as in Rule III.,
and one-fourth as effective as in Rule IV.

The author of the Y.R.A. rule has pointed out that it can be converted
into the American form of 'corrected length,' thus:--

  American R = [3V¯]L × S               (V.)

See his second edition of 'Yacht Architecture.' The sail curve is
precisely the same as that from the Y.R.A. rule.

An examination of this form of the Y.R.A. rule is interesting. By
cubing V. and comparing it with I., it will be seen that six thousand
times the English rating equals the cube of the American rating
derived from formula V.

[Illustration: Diagram of sail curves, showing the relation of sail to
L.W.L. in the Y.R.A., New York, and Seawanhaka Rules. 40-rating
class.]

When English and American rules are examined diagraphically, the
sail-curves take three positions that differ considerably in their
steepness--the Y.R.A. rule giving a curve nearest to the horizontal
which indicates R. = S. ÷ constant, proposed by Mr. Richardson in 1886
(or R. = [V¯]S ÷ constant if expressed in American measure; or R. = S.
[V¯]S divided by a constant if expressed in English measure); and the
New York rule taking a position nearest to the vertical denoting R. =
L., under which the Solent Length Classes used to sail.

The Seawanhaka rule gives an intermediate curve--perhaps the 'happy
medium.'

The curves have been plotted for yachts of 40-rating by our rule, and
the following table gives the actual numbers:--

  +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |       |                  Sail-area allowed to                       |
  |       +------------------------+------------------+-----------------+
  |L.W.L. | 40-raters, Y.R.A. Rule | 61.5 Corrected L.| 61 Corrected L. |
  |       |                        |  Seawanhaka Rule |   New York Rule |
  +-------+------------------------+------------------+-----------------+
  |  ft.  |          ft.           |       ft.        |       ft.       |
  |       |                        |                  |                 |
  |  54   |         4,444          |      4,761       |       --        |
  |  56   |         4,286          |      4,489       |      5,041      |
  |  58   |         4,139          |      4,225       |       --        |
  |  59   |         4,068          |      4,096       |      4,096      |
  |  60   |         4,000          |      3,969       |       --        |
  |  62   |         3,871          |      3,721       |      3,481      |
  |  64   |         3,750          |      3,481       |       --        |
  +-------+------------------------+------------------+-----------------+


_The Turning-point of Maximum Efficiency, or best Length_

Each L. and S. rule for rating racing yachts must have a
turning-point, or best length, in each class for winning prizes in a
given climate. It depends far more upon the average wind-pressure
during the racing season than on any assumed connection between L. and
[V¯]S. It will vary on different days, and for different seasons, and
for different localities. The average wind-force is stronger on the
Solent than on the Clyde, and stronger at Rothesay than at Sandy Hook.
But type is another matter. Type is governed by the racing rule, and
differences of climate have very little effect upon it. The best
proportional length also varies in different classes, the water being
rougher and the wind harder, comparatively speaking, on small than on
large yachts, thus causing the former to develope L. and sacrifice S.
to the utmost. Under the tonnage rules it is true that the small
yachts carried the larger comparative sail-plan, but this was due to
other causes, such as their greater comparative draught and ballast.

The _best length_ under L. and S. rules also varies with the rating
rule, those rules having sail-curves nearest to the line R. = S.
developing the greatest length, and those having sail-curves nearest
to the line R. = L. developing the greatest sail.

Still another factor governs the _best length_ in any class, viz.
lightness of construction; and this depends on four other factors:
cost, design, workmanship, and strength of materials.

We are therefore met by quite a crowd of considerations when
endeavouring to determine _best length_; but in comparing the rating
rules we can eliminate many of them by making a few assumptions and
reasoning therefrom.

_First_, assume that a new boat is built with the lightest possible
hull consistent with strength, and of the best possible design for the
40-R. class 1894, and that her L.=62 ft., therefore S=3,871. (See
preceding table.)

_Second_, assume that a longer boat and a shorter boat equally well
built and designed are tried and are beaten, and that 62 ft. is then
acknowledged to be _best length_ for 40-ratings in our climate.

_Third_, assume that the class is converted in 1895 into one rated at
61.5 American R., 'Queen Mab' being thereby placed at the top of the
class by the Seawanhaka rule without alteration. The 62-ft. yacht,
however, must clip to 3,721, or 150 off her S. as a 40-rater.

But the shorter boat, say a 'Queen Mab' 59 ft. L.W.L., which we
assumed to fail when racing under our rule, could now _add_ 30 ft. and
sail against the crack 62-footer with an advantage of no less than 180
sq. ft. of canvas.

Evidently, the best length under our rule being 62, the best length
under the American rule is something less; how much less being only
determined by trial, and depending on the numerous factors before
mentioned. Moreover, an arbitrary limit of L.W.L. is thus shown to be
less necessary under the American rule than under ours; and with L. so
greatly developed in our racers at the present time, it may be that we
have already gone beyond the best length for the American rule,
especially in the small classes. This was carefully pointed out by the
present writer in two letters to 'Land and Water,' October 5 and 9,
1892. Mr. R. E. Froude also stated the case very clearly in the
'Field,' December 31, 1892; but it is very difficult to convince the
defenders of the Y.R.A. rule that any other rule is superior.

Mr. Dixon Kemp, in his excellent work on 'Yacht Architecture,' says
(p. 15, 2nd edition) in comparing rules I., III., IV.: 'Of these
rules, that of the Y.R.A. admits of the employment of the greatest
length for any given rating'; and the length referred to was evidently
_best length_ in a given climate.

The Seawanhaka rule is therefore superior to ours if excessive length
be feared; and being a plus formula, it lends itself readily to the
adoption of any desired tax on other linear dimensions.

For instance, Mr. Watson's proposal (II.) might be put into the plus
form, thus:--

  American R = (2L + 2B + D + [V¯]S) ÷ 3.8     (VI.)

This shows the value of a plus rule over a multiplying rule and the
value is not lost when a plus rule is converted into an English rating
rule by cubing the former and dividing by a constant. Thus, the recent
Rule Committee proposed to convert the Seawanhaka rule into an English
rating rule by cubing it and dividing by 6,000, the result being:

  English R = (L + [V¯]S){3} ÷ constant, say 48,000   (VII.)

The variable within brackets in VI. can be cubed and divided by a
constant in a similar manner. But the cubic forms of the 'plus' rules
are clumsy, and seem difficult to those who cannot compute by
logarithms. No real advantage is gained by adhering to the English
rating and time scale and classification. In fact, the American time
scale is simpler. If, therefore, a 'plus form' of rating be ever
adopted, it would be much better to adopt 'corrected length' as the
rating, together with the American time scale. The classification
could, of course, be chosen in such a manner that our own racing
yachts would be at the top of the classes without any important
alterations.

Another rule was proposed in a leading article of the 'Field' on
October 15, 1892. It is:--

  English R = L{2}[V¯]S ÷ constant, say 6,000   (VIII.)

It gives a sail-curve nearly parallel to the one produced by the New
York rule, and may almost be regarded as that rule dressed in Y.R.A.
uniform; but the advantages of a plus rule are lost, whereas in the
conversion of the Seawanhaka rule proposed by the Y.R.A. Committee
1892 they are retained.

Similarly, the Y.R.A. rule--varying as [3V¯]L.S. (see V.), or
as [3V¯]L. × [V¯]S. × [V¯]S.--may be considered as equivalent
to the plus formula L. + 2 [V¯]S. ÷ constant, and the English and
American rules may therefore be regarded to vary as follows:

                             In linear measure
  New York as                  2 L + [V¯]S
  Seawanhaka as                L + [V¯]S
  Y.R.A. as                    L + 2[V¯]S

Mr. Herreshoff has recently proposed a rule of rating based on L. [V¯]
S., which is an area, but the cube root of tonnage is placed in the
divisor; and this being linear, it converts the rating into linear
measure, an area divided by a line being a line. The result being
linear, it is translatable into American rating and time allowance.

Mr. Herreshoff's proposed rule is:--

  American R = ( L [V¯]S / [3V¯]T ) ÷ constant, say 15      (IX.)

A critique on this rule by the editor of the 'Field,' December 17,
1892, suggests that the cube root of 100 T. should be taken, as there
are 100 cubic feet in a registered ton. This is unnecessary. So long
as S. is superficial, and T. cubic, the [V¯]S. and the [3V¯]T. will be
linear; and a constant can be selected which will convert the quotient
resulting from the rule into corrected feet or inches, or metres, as
required for the linear rating adopted.

Mr. Herreshoff's rule when tested is not encouraging; 'Doreen's'
length so corrected being 2-1/2 per cent. smaller than 'Decima's.' The
rule evidently does not encourage that compactness of hull-dimension
which Mr. Watson considers desirable. It also appears to put a
premium on abnormal freeboard, so as to increase T. by means of a
large body over the water-level.

This was pointed out by the editor of the 'Field,' December 24, 1892,
and an improved rule suggested in which displacement was used as a
divisor in place of tonnage. W. the total weight of yacht in English
tons dead weight is of course her displacement, and the rule proposed
may be written:--

  English R = ( L{2}S / [3V¯]W ) ÷ 10,000    (X.)

So far as L. and S. are concerned this rule would produce a similar
sail-curve to the Y.R.A. rule (see diagram); but the divisor would
encourage a large powerful hull, and the rule would therefore produce
a shorter type with more sail than now exists in English racers. The
practical difficulty of discovering W., either by measurement or by
some system of weighing the yacht complete, has to be considered in
connection with this rule.

The most important point to be noted about these rules (IX. and X.) is
the fact that Mr. Herreshoff and Mr. Dixon Kemp proposed them--showing
that two of the leading experts consider it necessary to encourage
greater displacement by means of the rating rules. The question,
therefore, arises whether the desired result cannot be effected in a
less objectionable manner; and it appears to the writer that dividing
the present Y.R.A. rule by some area proportional to that of the
immersed mid-section would have the desired effect, and would avoid
the difficulties already mentioned. The actual area of M.S. cannot be
found without encroaching on the secrets of a yacht's design; but M.
the area of immersed mid-section can be easily found if measured
internally, and the Y.R.A. rule may take the form:--

  American R = LS ÷ constant (say 72)    (XI.)
               --
               M

L.S. being cubic, and the variable divisor M. being superficial, the
quotient is linear, and a constant divisor can be chosen which will
convert the result into American rating, which is expressed in
'corrected' feet.

The general tendencies of the Y.R.A. rule would be modified by the
introduction of M. as proposed in XI., a large immersed M.S. being
encouraged, without the necessity of employing a deep narrow body, as
may be seen on the following table, where 'Bedouin' figures out very
well owing to her large but not deep immersed M.S. The author claims
with some confidence that this modified rule presents the best
solution of the problem yet suggested. But there is really no problem
requiring solution at present. So long as yachts like 'Britannia' and
'Satanita' are built for racing under the Y.R.A. existing rule of
rating, grumblers will not command an audience. In the event, however,
of yachts like 'Pilgrim' or 'Jubilee' winning in our waters a change
of some sort will be required.

The measurement of M. can be easily done in a few minutes, with yacht
afloat, as described on p. 87 of the 'Field,' January 21, 1893.

The Seawanhaka rule (III.) can be treated similarly, the divisor 2
being thereby avoided. It becomes

  American R = L + [V¯]S - [V¯]72M   (XII.)

The action of these rules may be seen from the table on p. 180; column
headed XI. giving the rating under the modified Y.R.A. rule, and
column headed XII. giving the rating under the modified Seawanhaka
rule. Each result is in 'corrected length.'

The dimensions in above were obtained from the drawings in Dixon
Kemp's 'Yacht Architecture,' 2nd ed., except 'Decima's' and
'Doreen's,' which were kindly given by their designers.

It will be found on trial that 72 M. is approximately equal to the
mean value of S and L{2} in successful yachts.


_The New French Rule_

On November 5, 1892, it was announced in the 'Field' that the Union
des Yachts Français had decided to adopt a hull-and sail-area rating,
it being considered by the 'active element in French yacht racing'
that 'the type ... produced by the French length and girth rule is
inferior to the type produced by the British and American rules ...
British yachts having defeated those of France, although handicapped
by the French rule of rating.' The conclusion was scarcely a logical
sequence from the premisses. It should have been that French racing
yachts were not the correct evolution of the French rule of rating.
But we are now concerned with the new French rule (proposed by M.
Godinet) in which sail is an important factor.

  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  | Name of yacht |   L   |   S   | [V¯]S  |    M   |   XI.  |  XII. |
  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  | Genesta       |  81.0 |  7,643| 101.40 |  91.27 |  94.21 | 87.39 |
  | Volunteer     |  85.9 | 10,270|  87.43 | 105.42 | 100.24 | 93.30 |
  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  | Chiquita      |  45.5 |  2,636|  51.36 |  31.32 |  53.20 | 49.35 |
  | Ghost         |  46.5 |  2,577|  50.77 |  34.60 |  48.10 | 47.38 |
  | Minerva       |  40.0 |  2,700|  52.00 |  29.73 |  50.39 | 46.00 |
  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  | Dis           |  36.0 |  1,658|  40.71 |  22.37 |  36.23 | 36.00 |
  | Decima        |  35.67|  1,679|  40.94 |  22.17 |  37.23 | 36.71 |
  | Doreen        |  38.05|  1,572|  39.62 |  21.67 |  38.34 | 38.23 |
  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  | Oread         |  28.2 |  1,063|  32.60 |  13.33 |  31.25 | 29.82 |
  | Quinque       |  33.0 |    900|  30.00 |  13.33 |  30.93 | 32.02 |
  | Valentine     |  29.8 |    996|  31.56 |  14.47 |  28.50 | 29.08 |
  | Bedouin       |  30.0 |  1,000|  31.62 |  14.96 |  28.00 | 28.92 |
  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+
  | Madcap        |  21.0 |    714|  26.72 |   9.97 |  20.89 | 20.97 |
  | Lady Nan      |  23.0 |    653|  25.55 |   8.63 |  24.16 | 23.63 |
  | Dolphin       |  25.7 |    581|  24.10 |   8.27 |  25.07 | 25.41 |
  +---------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+--------+-------+

In its simplest form, it is:--

  English R = (4L - G) G[V¯]S ÷ 520     (XIII.)

G. being the greatest girth from top of deck planking port, round keel
to ditto starboard, plus extreme beam. Each of the three factors L. G.
[V¯]S. being linear (metric measure) the result is given in cubic
form, and is converted into English rating by the divisor selected,
and the Y.R.A. time scale has been adopted by the Union des Yachts
Français.

The editor of the 'Field' considers that 'the rule is calculated to
produce a poor kind of vessel for match sailing or anything else'; but
it is hazardous to prophesy the evolution of any rule, more especially
one which taxes L., B., D., bilge, and S. No doubt the tax on D. is
doubtful policy, and it seems very unnecessary when we consider the
small depth of water in many French harbours, which is the most
efficient check on D. it is possible to conceive for large yachts, and
in the small classes D. gives grip and power to windward, and
seaworthiness.

A careful analysis of the rule by the writer leads him to believe that
the conclusion arrived at by the editor of the 'Field' is correct. It
certainly appears that the rule has a sail-curve nearly as steep as
the New York rule, which has been abandoned because it encouraged such
large sail-plans. For this reason, therefore, if for no other, the new
French rule seems to be inferior to the Y.R.A. and the Seawanhaka
rules. A good letter on the subject of girth, by one of our leading
designers, was published in the 'Yachtsman,' September 8, 1892.

On the whole, English yachtsmen would probably feel very disinclined
to adopt the new French rule for British yacht-racing.

       *       *       *       *       *

This concludes the examination of the more important national rules in
which sail-area and some hull dimension or dimensions are combined in
the formula for the rating, whether the result be cubic, linear, or
otherwise.

We therefore now pass to the simple sail-area rule proposed by Mr.
Richardson in 1886, viz.

  R = S ÷ 100     (XIV.)A

The rating so obtained being neither cubic nor linear, but
superficial, difficulties as regards time scale arose, and neither Mr.
Richardson nor the Council appeared to notice that the rule could
easily be made linear by putting it in the form

  American R = [V¯]S     (XIV.)B

when American rating and time scale could have been adopted. Also that
it might have been rendered

  English R = S [V¯]S ÷ constant     (XIV.)C

which is the cubic form, suitable for the Y.R.A. rating and time
allowance.

The graphic result in the sail-diagram is the same in each case, viz.
a horizontal line for any given class, the limit for each class being
one of sail-area alone.

It was not adopted because the Council considered that the type
evolved from it would be one of excessive length and small
displacement; and our experience with the Y.R.A. rule, which
approaches it more nearly than any other hull- and sail-area rule, has
shown that this estimate was correct.

       *       *       *       *       *

We will now examine a few of the rules which rate yachts entirely by
hull-measurement. The simplest of the kind is the pure length rule,
used for some years on the Solent for racing small yachts up to 30 ft.
of L. _See_ chapter on Solent Racing.

  American R = L    (XV.) A

Some trouble was taken in 1884 to produce a special time scale for
this formula. It was quite unnecessary, because the time scale for
tonnage (see XVIII.) then in use could have been employed, (XV.) A
being modified to

  R = L{3} ÷ constant (XV.) B

and by adjusting the constant this form of the length rule can be
adapted to the time scale of _any_ cubic rule. Thus, the divisor 5,000
adapts it to the Y.R.A. time scale for _rating_.

The type resulting from the length rule was, of course, a very fast and
powerful boat for its L., carrying an enormous sail-spread--somewhat
costly to build and race.

Our grandfathers raced their yachts under the old tonnage rule,

  Tonnage R = L × B × H ÷ 96 (XVI.)

H. being depth of hull to deck beam, and L. being measured in various
ways at different times. After 1854 it was taken on deck from
stem-head to sternpost, and certain deductions made for rake.
Eventually the Thames Rule,

      (L - B) × B × 1/2B ÷ 94
      or B{2}(L - B) ÷ 188               (XVII.)

_The Rating Rules and Proposals_

  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+-------------+
  |     |  No.  |   Name of rule or proposal   | Rule or proposal    |  Examples   |
  | Date|  in   +------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |     |  text |       Cubic rules            | Variable÷constant   |Decima|Doreen|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1886?|   I.  |Y.R.A. rule (Dixon Kemp)      |  LS       ÷  6,000  |  9.98|  9.96|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1892 |  II.  |Ditto modified (Watson)       |(2L+2B÷D)S ÷ 17,000  | 10.06|  9.89|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1892 | VIII. |New York modified (Dixon Kemp)|L{2} [V¯]S ÷  6,000  |  8.69|  9.56|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1892 |   X.  |Y.R.A. modified (Dixon Kemp)  |(L{2}S)/[3V¯]W÷10,000|  8.80|   ?  |
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1892 |  VII. {Seawanhaka modified           }(L+ [V¯]S){3}÷48,000 |  9.39|  9.75|
  |     |       {Y.R.A. Committee's rule       }                     |      |      |
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1892 | XIII. |U.Y.F. rule (Godinet)         |G(4L-G) [V¯]S ÷ 520  |  8.57|  9.02|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1892?|  XIX. |Old French rule               |G{2}(2L-B)    ÷ 176  | 12.58| 13.53|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1876?|  XVI. |Old English tonnage rule      |L B H         ÷  96  |   ?  | 10.60|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1876-| XVII. |Thames tonnage rule           |B{2}(L-B)     ÷ 188  | 15.9 |   ?  |
  |  80 |       |                              |                     |      |      |
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1880-| XVIII.|Y.R.A. tonnage rule           |B(L+B){2}   ÷ 1,730  | 13.8 | 17.9 |
  |  86 +-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |     | XIV. C|Richardson's rule, cubic form |S [V¯]S     ÷ 6,000  |  9.97| 15.7 |
  |     +-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |     | XV. B |Length rule, cubic form       |L{3}        ÷ 5,000  |  9.08| 11.01|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+

  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+-------------+
  |     |  No.  |   Name of rule or proposal   |   Rule or proposal  |   Examples  |
  | Date|  in   +------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |     |  text |       Linear rules           | Variable ÷ constant |Decima|Doreen|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |1882?|  III. |Seawanhaka rule               | L+ [V¯]S        ÷ 2 | 38.33| 38.82|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |    ?|  IV.  |New York rule                 | 2L+ [V¯]S       ÷ 3 | 37.45| 38.57|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  |    ?|   V.  |Y.R.A. Rule (Dixon Kemp)      | [3V¯]LS         ÷ 1 | 39.12| 39.11|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  | 1893|  XI.  |Y.R.A. modified (Thalassa)    | LS/M           ÷ 72 | 37.23| 38.34|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  | 1893|  XII. |Seawanhaka ditto (Thalassa)   | L+ [V¯]S-[V¯]72M÷ 1 | 36.71| 38.23|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  | 1893|  IX.  |Herreshoff's new rule         | L [V¯]S / [3V¯]T÷15 | 38.69| 37.01|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  | 1892|  VI.  |Watson's rule, linear form    | 2L+2B+D+[V¯]S ÷ 3.8 | 37.60| 38.58|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  | ?-86| XV. A |Length rule                   | L              ÷  1 | 35.65| 38.05|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+
  | 1886| XIV. B|Richardson's rule, linear form| [V¯]S          ÷  1 | 41.00| 39.60|
  +-----+-------+------------------------------+---------------------+------+------+

_The following Dimensions were used in the Examples_

  +--------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+----+------+------+
  |  ----  |   L   | L{2} |  S   |[V¯]S |  B   |  D  | G  |  M   |W tons|
  +--------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+----+------+------+
  | Decima | 35.67 | 1272 | 1679 | 41.0 | 11.0 | 8.5 | 36 | 22.2 | 14.3 |
  | Doreen | 38.05 | 1448 | 1572 | 39.6 | 11.2 | 8.5 | 36 | 21.7 |   ?  |
  +--------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+----+------+------+

N.B.--G is only approximately correct. It is measured in the French
way was evolved and adopted by the Y.R.A. in 1876. And in 1878 it was
decided to measure L. on the water-line. In 1880 the Y.R.A. altered
the rule to

  English T = B(L + B){2} ÷ 1730 (XVIII.)

The type evolved, as might have been anticipated, had a long, narrow,
heavily ballasted, deep-bodied, wall-sided hull, possessing little
beauty, small _initial_ stability, and no great speed, considering the
sail-area employed to drive it. There was little scope for
improvement, and the energies of our best designers were directed to
producing yachts which carried large sail-plans on narrow hulls, their
L.W.L. often approaching and sometimes exceeding six beams.
Nevertheless, this '1730 Rule,' as it is often called, governed
first-class racing in British waters from 1880 to 1886.

Another hull-measurement rule is the one used for some time in France,
and often called the 'Girth Rule.' In its simplest form, it was:--

  French T = G{2}(2L - B) ÷ 176 (XIX.)

G., the girth, is taken as in Rule XIII. The rule taxes draught
heavily, and does not appear to have given satisfaction, or it would
not have been changed last October to No. XIII.

Many other hull-measurement rules might be mentioned; in fact, a short
time ago the yachting press was full of such proposals; but those who
make them must be aware of the general feeling among sportsmen in
England, France, and America, viz. that sail-area should be taxed in
the formula for rating. Any lengthy discussion on rules which do not
conform with this opinion is, therefore, a waste of time and energy,
and the hull rules just described have been noticed principally on
account of their historical interest.

       *       *       *       *       *

The rules are numbered consecutively in the order in which they have
been examined; the tonnage rules last, although some of them are the
most ancient. But it may be convenient for the student to have them
grouped somewhat differently and this has been done in the tables on
pp. 183, 184, which also afford an opportunity to compare two yachts
of similar hull-dimensions, but differing in regard to their length
and sail-area, except that the product is equal. 'Doreen' and 'Decima'
make an excellent pair for such a comparison, being each 10-rating by
the Y.R.A. rule, and of nearly the same beam, draught, girth, and
depth of hull, but differing in length and sail-area.

The tendencies of those rules which aim at encouraging larger body,
like Mr. Herreshoff's, or larger immersed body, like X., XI., and
XII., are shown in the tables on pp. 183 and 184, and the student is
invited to work out some examples for himself to test their action, as
the New York committee has reported in favour of some such
modification of existing rules.



CHAPTER VIII

YACHT'S SAILING BOATS

BY THE EARL OF PEMBROKE AND MONTGOMERY


'Why in the world do not yachting people make more use of their
sailing boats?' I have often thought, while gazing on a bright breezy
morning at some great steam yacht, capable of carrying one or more
fine sailing boats, and presently observing her owners and their
guests, all arrayed in faultless yachting costume, departing for the
shore in their steam launch to spend their time pottering about some
dull and dirty little seaport town, when they might, some or all of
them, be enjoying the most glorious sail, with who knows what
possibilities in the way of fishing thrown in. Even landing and
putting off to the ship become a pleasure when they are done under
sail instead of steam or oars. I have had many an interesting and
exhilarating day's sailing which has been made up entirely of trips
between the yacht and the shore with passengers, luggage, provisions,
telegrams, and what not. Yet, though in these days large yachts may be
numbered by the hundred, and many of them carry fine sailing boats, I
can count on the fingers of one hand the vessels I happen to have met
which both carry and habitually use a sailing boat for the purposes of
cruising, landing, and fishing. It is really very curious; and I can
only account for it by supposing that many people who go to sea in
large yachts do not know how much amusement there is to be got out of
such a boat, and the ease and nicety with which she can be handled.
For when there is any wind at all a sailing cutter can land anywhere
where it is safe to take a steam launch, and with a little practice it
is as easy to take her alongside a ship's ladder as a six-oared gig.
And when a yacht is on a cruise, moving daily from port to port, a
sailing cutter takes considerably less time to get ready than a steam
launch. Anywhere on the coast she can generally be carried in the
davits with her mast stepped and rigged, so that there is nothing to
do but to lower the ballast into her and loose the sails, and she is
ready to start. Of course there are places and days when the steam
launch is of use and the sailing boat is not; but they are not so
numerous as one might suppose. One year when, after a severe illness,
I spent all the spring and early summer cruising in the Mediterranean,
and the autumn on the coast of Scotland, I thought it advisable to
take a steam launch as well as my sailing cutter. I found that at the
end of this long cruise I had used her just three times. I have never
carried one since. It is not advisable on vessels of less than 400
tons (yacht measurement) to carry two such heavy boats. They are not
safe in the davits on an ocean voyage, and two of them carried inboard
completely block the deck amidships; but a yacht of 500 tons or more
can perfectly carry both, if a steam launch is considered necessary.

As for the fun to be got out of her, a good sailing boat simply
doubles the pleasure of yachting. It combines the amusement of small
yacht sailing with all the advantages and comforts of a large vessel
to sail in from port to port. When the anchor goes down, and fires are
banked or put out, your fun begins rather than ends. In less than half
an hour you are off in your cutter, to sail, to fish, or to explore;
perhaps, when you are tired of sailing, to land in some snug, inviting
cove, and to feel the fascination of a ramble in strange and beautiful
ground; to sit on the hillside and watch the sun go down in glory, and
to make your way back to the ship as the rosy light dies out and the
purple hills grow black.

And the next day, let us suppose, is a fine one. Sea and sky are of a
rapturous blue, and a pleasant summer breeze is blowing in from the
sea. The great yachting question of the morning, 'What shall we do
to-day?' is scarcely debated at breakfast at all. It is pre-eminently
a day for sailing. The cutter is got ready at once, and you beat out
towards the open water. In all probability there are fish to be
caught, for you noted a quantity of birds fishing off the mouth of the
bay when you steamed in yesterday--but you really hardly care whether
there are fish or not, it is so good simply to be alive and sailing
the sea on such a day. The sun warms you through in your shirt
sleeves, the steady breeze is balmy to feel, and though it is the
coast of Scotland you are vaguely reminded of coral islands and trade
winds.

[Illustration: Whales.]

As you work out to seaward it becomes evident that you are in a fishy
sea, for the foolish confidential little guillemots and razorbills (he
that shooteth such knoweth not how to live nor the nature and object
of things) are squeaking and croaking and ducking under water all
round. And lo! close ahead appear two whales, not mere black fish
(whatever they may be), but great fellows looking 40 feet long on a
moderately calm computation, spouting and showing their black backs
at intervals. You go as close to them as they will let you and watch
with breathless fascination their oily movements so full of lazy
strength and sensuous enjoyment; and you call them bottle-noses or
finbacks or rorquals according to your individual taste and fancy; for
the scientific classification of whales is in an extraordinarily
imperfect state, and even the Encyclopædia, that settler of disputes
and averter of quarrels that no yacht should ever be without, will
give you but little assistance.

But you must tear yourself away from the whales, for half a mile to
windward there you sight a cloud of birds fishing furiously, the
gannets swooping and soaring, and then suddenly shutting their wings
and dropping in quick succession, pop, pop, pop, like bullets into the
sea; and a dense mass of gulls flying and swimming, screaming and
squattering, and flapping their wings on the surface of the water. How
a gull ever gets a living is a wonder; he seems so dainty and
hesitating and afraid to commit himself. A gannet will soar, plunge,
dive under water, and swallow half a dozen little fish while a gull is
apparently making up his mind whether it is worth while to risk
wetting his feet.

As soon as your boat will fetch, you go about and stand straight for
the birds, overhauling meanwhile the 'whiffing' or 'railing' lines
that are towing astern, to make sure that there is nothing foul, and
that there is no seaweed on your silvery spinners. You are all keen,
but not too sanguine, for there is never a certainty of catching fish
like this. Sometimes you may sail backwards and forwards till you are
sick of it through a mob of feeding seabirds, trying every sort of
bait and never getting a ghost of a bite. Either it is herring that
they are after, or else it is that the unknown big fish who are
hunting up the small fry to the birds from below will not take a bait.
You are close now, and there is a noise not unlike that of the
parrot-house in the Zoological Gardens. Mackerel is what you hope for;
gurnard you will put up with; pollack will not be caught in any
numbers so far from the shore. You shake your sails to reduce your
pace, and then, filling them again, stand straight in amongst the
screaming gulls, and as they reluctantly rise from the water and the
little guillemots squatter away and dive, you get a rapid vision of
fish shooting about near the top of the water and little tiny silver
things rippling its surface and hopping feebly above.

A moment more and the lines tauten: 'Mackerel it is, by Jingo!' and as
soon as the lines are out again and no one feels another bite, round
goes the boat again, and back through the school. So you go on,
sometimes catching them slowly and singly, sometimes two at once as
fast as the lines can be got out, until you have several dozen in the
bottom of the boat. All of a sudden the fish cease to bite and the
birds fly away. They gather again into a new cluster half a mile off,
and away you go for it as fast as you can sail, and begin catching
fish once more. Once more the fish stop biting, and the birds move
off, and you can see no more of them fishing except a very few a long
way to windward. It seems a sin to go home on such a day, and it is
too early to try for pollack with so bright a sun. But your chart
shows you a fishing-bank close to, and you have got a few herrings for
bait; so you make for this place, and get the exact spot by the
relative bearings of points and islands, and drop your anchor in
twenty fathoms.

Hardly are the lines down before it becomes evident that you are in
the right place. Whiting, haddock, and gurnard come up with rapidity,
varied by an occasional cod, skate, or bream. You have caught quite a
lot before the dog-fish set in. Then it is all over. First comes one,
then another, and then nothing else. In vain you despatch them with
knives and throw their bleeding corpses back into the sea to terrify
the rest. Dogfish have no nerves that you can work upon in this way.
The sight and smell of their murdered relations and friends only whet
their appetites and make them the more greedy. You give it up in
despair, haul your anchor up, and get under sail once more.

It is now late in the afternoon. The day has changed for the
worse--weather changes quick in these latitudes--and looks rather
wild and windy, with promise of more to come before long. But your
port is to leeward, so you need not be anxious, and you make up your
minds to fish for pollack round the headlands and the islands at the
mouth of the bay; for just before sundown is the best time of all,
especially if it is about half flood. You take a reef down in both
sails to make the boat slower and easier to handle, for you do not
want to have to devote all your attention to keeping her right side up
when you are fishing for pollack close in to the rocks. The tack is
triced up so as to let the steerer see under it; a crutch is shipped
on each side of the boat, and a couple of oars are cleared and made
ready for instant use if required. One man stands up in the bows to
look out for rocks, and also to attend to the peak halliards when
called upon; two others handle the lines on which a red or a white
india-rubber sand-eel has been substituted for the spinners; while the
steerer takes tiller in one hand and mainsheet in the other, and
concentrates all his faculties on regulating the pace of the boat, and
going as near as he can to the rocks without incurring shipwreck or
fouling the lines.

[Illustration: The swoop of the gannet.]

In this order you coast slowly along about twenty yards from the
steep cliffs, running out occasionally to avoid reefs and shoal
places, the steerer keeping the speed to something under three knots
an hour by slacking the mainsheet and spilling the sail when the wind
is abeam, and hauling it right in when it is aft, occasionally
dropping the peak as well. Every now and then, generally off a point,
you catch a fish, and when you do you go about to see if there are
more in the same place. But fish seem scarce, and the sport is rather
slow until you sail through a narrow channel between two islands. Then
in a moment there is a heavy fish on each line, and no sooner are they
hauled on board and the lines thrown out again than the same thing
happens. You have struck fish at last in earnest. While the hooks are
being disengaged up goes the peak, and you stand back close-hauled
through the narrow channel. Backwards and forwards you go, again and
again, with varying luck. Now you haul in two at a time, now you give
a groan of dismay as a monster gets off as you are in the act of
swinging him in. Sometimes the boat will not go fast enough to make
the fish bite, and there is agony of mind; sometimes it _will_ go too
fast. But on the whole the fishing is fast and furious, and you are
all wild with excitement; and then--snap goes a snooding with a
particularly big fish, and you must fish with one line till the other
is refitted. The wind heads the boat off standing back through the
channel this time; the centreboard hits a rock and bumps up into its
case; there is no harm done, but alas! the remaining line gets foul of
the rock before it can be shortened up, and snaps above the lead, and
there is nothing for it but to stand off until the tackle is repaired;
the steersman, who has to look on, grinding his teeth with impatience
as the precious moments slip away. But, though minutes seem hours, you
are soon at work again, and by the time that darkness brings the sport
to an end you have caught some four dozen fine pollack, the larger
ones 9 lb. or 10 lb. apiece. And you sail home full of that sense of
physical well-being and mental contentment that comes of a long day
spent in pure air, healthy enjoyment, and freedom from care. And,
somehow, it is not on days like these that one looks back with the
keenest sense of having wasted time.

Or imagine a morning of quite another sort. The sky is gloomy; the sun
is quite invisible; it is raining occasionally, and a strong searching
wind is blowing. The seas are running up in magnificent white masses
on the islands outside the mouth of the loch. It is too cold to sit on
deck; indeed it seems cold everywhere on board. It is impossible to do
anything with the yacht, for you want to go south, and it is evidently
blowing a gale outside from the south-west. It is the sort of day on
which, if you had no boat, and there was nothing to do on shore, you
would sit shivering most of the time below, trying to read, thinking
what a miserable business yachting is in bad weather, and feeling ill
from defective circulation. But if you have a good boat such a day has
positive charms. You and your boating pal look in each other's eyes
and say, almost in a breath, 'Let's beat out round the islands and see
what the sea is like.' Indeed you almost persuade yourselves that it
is a duty to do so with a view to the possibility of getting away
to-morrow. So your boat is hauled alongside, and a little extra
ballast is put in, and you and your mate get your oilskins, and,
dropping into her, double reef your mainsail and foresail, and shove
off. And by the time you have got your sheets trimmed, your halliards
coiled away, and everything made snug, you are already as warm as any
reasonable men can wish to be.

It is a long leg and a short one out of the harbour, and you get a
heavy puff now and again from over the high land that brings your
lee-rail level with the water, and makes you luff in a hurry. Three or
four tacks bring you to the headlands of the bay, and as you stand out
from under the weather-shore you begin to feel the real wind and sea.
There is plenty of both, and you have to do all you know with tiller
and sheet to negotiate the big seas that roll up on the weather-bow
and to keep the lee-gunwale out of the water at the same time. It is
just a little more than you can manage. A couple of steep combers
that you have to luff up to knock all the way out of the boat and make
her stagger; the next sea throws her head off the wind, while at the
same time a heavy puff forces her lee-side under water. You put the
helm down, but she has had no time to gather much way, and is slow
coming to; you are forced to let go the sheet, but she has taken a
good drop on board before she comes up, and there are more big seas
coming. 'It won't do,' you say to your mate; 'we must have another
reef in.' So you drop your peak, and wear, and run back under the
shelter of the point, and take your third reef down. Then you stand
out and try again; and it is wonderful what a difference the reduction
of canvas has made. She stands well up, and rides beautifully over the
big seas, hardly shipping a cupful of water as she rears up and lets
them pass under her. It is an art, if a simple one, steering a boat to
windward in a big sea. You have to put her almost straight at the
worst seas, and yet you must never let her lose way, or she will fall
off broadside to the sea, and perhaps be too 'sick' to come to again
in time to prevent a vicious wave from breaking on board or capsizing
her. And there are few things more exhilarating. Every big sea
successfully surmounted is a triumph in itself, and the winning of
ground to windward foot by foot against wind and sea feels like an
arduous but steadily victorious struggle against a sturdy foe.

And now you find you can weather the island, and, choosing a 'smooth,'
go about for the last time. If the seas breaking on it looked fine
from the yacht nearly three miles off, they look awe-inspiring now
close under your lee with their roar thundering in your ears. Now you
are no longer riding head first over the seas, but running free at a
slashing pace, sheet in hand, watching the sea narrowly over your
shoulder, ready to luff instantly if some specially dangerous monster
should make it necessary.

And when you are well clear of the rocks you bear up and run before
it--most glorious and exulting sensation of all. The big seas come
hissing and growling up in pursuit, and lift up her stern on high,
and the boat seems positively to fly as she tears down their steep
faces. You have to use all your strength at the tiller to keep her
straight, and your mate keeps the peak halliards in hand and lowers
the peak now and again to ease your task and avert a possible broach
to. In less than half an hour you are back on board the yacht; a
little wet, maybe, but tingling with exhilaration, and warmed through
for the rest of the day.

These are but two typical sails out of many that might be sketched,
for the variations of weather and sea and coast are nearly endless,
and the yachtsman who is a persistent boat-sailer will find his memory
stocked with glowing recollections of rapturous sails and fascinating
explorations wherever his yacht has taken him--in breezy English
waters, and on the wild west coasts of Scotland and Ireland; in Greece
and Italy, and many a pleasant land in the Mediterranean Sea; perhaps
even the Coral Islands of the South Pacific, and the wooded bays of
far New Zealand.

Of course there is a reverse side to the picture--days when storms
make sailing too dangerous to be quite pleasant, and more often, days
when want of wind makes it almost intolerably tiresome. To row, or be
rowed in, a heavy boat halfway across the Bay of Naples by night is
certainly an experience in tediousness. Though even such an ordeal as
that is not quite without its compensations. But I feel it is rash of
me to say so.

Like so many things material and other in the world we live in, every
boat is necessarily a compromise between inconsistent objects. In
building a boat you must compromise somewhere between speed and
stability, weatherliness and the advantages of light draught. And in
the case of a yacht's boat freedom of choice in design is limited by
some special considerations. She must not be too heavy to carry in the
davits; she must not exceed a certain length, say 25 feet; she must
not be too broad in the beam to be carried inboard; and her draught of
water must be somewhat shallow for the sake of convenience in
landing. Subject to these conditions, stability is, I am sure, the
object that should principally be aimed at in the construction of a
yacht's boat. The ever-present and the most serious danger of
boat-sailing is that of being overpowered by weather: that is to say,
of being overtaken by a wind so strong that the boat will not carry
any canvas sufficient to work her without instantly capsizing or
filling with water. And a very ordinary gale of wind, such as occurs
on our coasts once at least in most months of the year, will be enough
for this, and will, especially if combined with sea, so overpower any
open boat, of a size that can be carried on a yacht, that is exposed
to its full strength, that she will be unable to show any canvas to it
except just to scud before it.

I am aware that this statement will be felt a little startling,
perhaps even by some sailors; but I have tried a good many experiments
in sailing boats in rough weather, and I am sure it is true of any
boat that the yacht-owner is likely to carry.

Builders of yachts' sailing boats are not, somehow, usually very
successful in making boats 'stiff.' They will not make them flat
enough in the floor, or, if they do, do not make it the right shape.
Their idea, generally, is to build a boat that will beat boats of a
similar class in regattas, and sail fast on a fine day in the smooth
waters of a harbour; and if you allow them their own way, they will
generally provide you with a crank boat, over-masted and
over-canvassed, that may sail very fast in a light wind and smooth
water, but which will be overpowered at once in a fresh breeze and a
choppy sea. And some day, even perhaps after you have done your best
to make her more seaworthy by lightening her mast and cutting down her
canvas, you may have the mortification of seeing a fishing-boat no
larger than your own craft making a good passage and standing up like
a stake under her close-reefed sail, whilst you are unable to show a
rag to the wind without being at once overpowered. And remember that
you cannot make an open boat stiff by the simple process of loading
her with ballast, as even some sailors vainly suppose. Beyond the
amount which brings her to her best sailing trim in a good breeze, and
which experience of the boat will teach you, additional ballast hardly
makes her appreciably stiffer, and does make her very appreciably
slower. Make stability, then, your primary object, and impress on your
builder that he must not sacrifice it to speed; and that, as it is out
of the question to obtain it by means of a lead or iron keel, the
weight of such a thing in the case of a large boat being quite
prohibitory (not to speak of inconvenience in landing), he must make
her flat in the floor and give her plenty of beam.

With the same object in mind, her spread of canvas should be moderate
but sufficient, and her masts and spars no heavier than is really
necessary. These are generally quite needlessly stout. If the mast is
strong enough to capsize the boat without breaking, it is as strong as
it need be; anything beyond this merely means additional topweight,
decreasing the stability of the boat, and doing no service. A very
light mast, if properly stayed by a couple of wire shrouds on each
side, will stand an immense strain.

It is a disputable question whether such a boat should be a lifeboat.
The air-tight compartments, usually made of copper, certainly add to
her weight, and, some say, make her less stiff. On the other hand, it
is pleasant to feel that your boat is unsinkable, and that if you
knock a hole through her bottom with a rock, or ship an unlucky sea,
she will not go down. But if you decide, as I should do, on a
lifeboat, be sure that she really is one, and that her air-tight
compartments are large enough to float her with ballast and crew on
board. A 25-ft. cutter, such as is built by White of Cowes, will carry
more than half a ton of ballast and half a dozen people quite
comfortably when she is full of water. But I have seen small
steam-launches, nominally lifeboats, that would undoubtedly, with
their engines and boilers on board, sink like stones if they were
filled with water.

Wooden air-tight compartments are lighter than copper tanks, but they
are apt to warp and become leaky. Twenty-two years ago, in New
Zealand, I had a lifeboat sailing-cutter sent out to me by long sea
that I had had built for me in England. As soon as she arrived I took
a friend out for a sail on a rough day and filled her with water, just
to show him her marvellous properties. The result was ignominious. The
water-tight (!) compartments filled, and we drifted helplessly home,
thanking the Fates that we had nothing but water ballast on board.

The shape of the stern is another point on which opinions may
reasonably differ. There is much to be said in favour of a boat being
sharp at both ends. A sharp stern is undoubtedly safer when running
through broken water or before a heavy sea, and when a boat 'squats'
in running before a strong wind it does not drag dead water behind it,
and makes a cleaner wake. But unless increased length can be given to
the boat it diminishes stiffness. The square-sterned boat carries her
bearings farther aft, and so, if both are of the same length, the
square-sterned boat, other things being equal, will be the stiffest of
the two. But if you decide for a square stern let the boat have a fine
run aft, and let the square surface of the stern be small and well up
out of the water.

Any sort of a counter is an abomination, dangerous to a boat in a
sea-way.

She should have a good side; that is, a high side above water. It adds
to her stability, as well as making her much drier. If her side is
rather low, washboards fixed along the top of the gunwale will be
found advantageous in rough weather. She should be higher out of water
at both ends than amidships, and the line of her rail should describe
a graceful curve from bow to stern. A boat that looks quite level from
end to end is generally a poor sea-boat, and, if her bottom
corresponds with her top, a bad steerer besides.

I think she should certainly have a centreboard. Several of the
smartest yachts' cutters use instead a half-moon-shaped keel of
galvanised iron, clamped on to the keel of the boat. I cannot see that
this contrivance, which makes a boat useless for anything but
deep-water sailing, has any advantages of its own over a centreboard,
and its disadvantages are serious. It makes it impossible to beach the
boat, or to attempt any landing-place when the water may be shallow,
and whenever the boat runs aground or hits a rock, as she is sure to
do sometimes when fishing or exploring, it is nearly certain to get
broken or bent; and whenever it is left behind, a boat of this kind
will cease to be very weatherly, and may even miss stays. Moreover, it
must be rather an awkward thing to put on and take off when the boat
is in the davits.

[Illustration: 'Black Pearl's' cutter, midship section.]

A wooden false keel of more graduated shape, deep in the middle and
tapering to nothing at the ends, is a better contrivance, but it is
open to some of the same objections about landing, in a minor degree.

It is hardly necessary at the present day to combat the prejudice
against centreboards. But for many years there was a curious dislike
and distrust of them among British boat-sailers and builders. They
were excluded altogether from most regattas; and not one in twenty of
the boats that would have been vastly improved by them were ever
fitted with them. They were regarded, for some mysterious reason, as
unseaworthy, unsportsmanlike, and unfair; and when the average boating
man found his craft beaten out of sight in going to windward by a
centreboard boat, he considered the discovery that she had a
centreboard a satisfactory explanation of his defeat, and seldom drew
the further conclusion that a centreboard was an excellent thing.

And yet, after nearly twenty-five years' experience of them, I have
never been able to discover what the objections to them are. The case
of the centreboard is said to get in the way; but unless you want to
load your whole boat with very bulky cargo, I am unable to conceive
what it can get in the way of. And the merits of a centreboard are
many and obvious. It enables you to combine the advantages of deep and
shallow draught. You can run your boat up on a beach, and be holding
your own to windward against a deep-keeled yacht ten minutes
afterwards. It makes the most ordinary boat weatherly, smart, and
handy to steer. It gives you timely warning of shallow water, and the
only result of its touching the bottom or striking a rock is to send
it up into its case. I have never had my centreboard either bent or
broken by such contact. But it is well to have it lowered on a chain
or wire rather than on an iron shank, with a joint or two near the
handle, as in most of White's boats. Because when the centreboard hits
the bottom and is forced up into the case, these joints will double up
inside the case, and the solid part of the shank be driven through the
top of it; which would be unpleasant for anyone who happened to be
sitting there.

A centreboard, except in so far as its weight makes ballast, does not
make a boat stiffer, as the uninitiated often suppose, but in the case
of a broad, shallow boat, rather the reverse, as it prevents her from
being blown away to leeward. And in a boat such as is being here
considered, it should not be too heavy for one man to haul up. It
should be made of a thin sheet of galvanised iron.

As regards her rig, nothing is really so handy and capable as the
cutter, or, to speak more accurately, the sloop rig; consisting of
mainsail and foresail, as ordinary working canvas. I prefer the sloop
rig of a single foresail on a short iron bumpkin, to the end of which
the forestay is attached, to the cutter rig of staysail and jib with a
regular bowsprit; for a bowsprit is an awkward thing in rounding to
and coming alongside a ship, under all sorts of conditions of wind and
tide, and a second head-sail gives you more gear to attend to when you
are single-handed. And on a boat of this size a single foresail is not
too large to be easily handled.

What makes this rig so suitable for the peculiar and varied purposes
of a yacht's boat is, that, with mainsheet and peak halliards kept in
hand, it gives such absolute control over the pace and direction of
the boat at a moment's notice. In whiffing round the rocks after
pollack, for instance, in a flawy wind, by lowering and raising the
peak, and easing off and hauling in the mainsheet, it is easy to
maintain a perfectly level pace of two or three knots. In a squall, or
in going alongside a ship or a landing-place, the peak can be dropped
and the boat eased or checked at once without becoming unsailable.
This constitutes, in my opinion, a very important advantage over the
standing lugsail, of which, of course, the peak cannot be lowered. A
downhaul should be attached to the end of the gaff, as the peak will
not always drop when the wind is pressing the sail against the topping
lift.

[Illustration: Mainsheet on iron horse.]

The foresheets should lead aft and be made fast round cleats or pins
within reach of the steersman for convenience when sailing
single-handed; the mainsheet should travel on an iron horse across the
stern; but care should be taken that the shackle, A, that attaches
the block to the horse, should be of a size and shape that will not
jam when the block hangs down loosely, and perhaps takes a turn, as it
may in going about. One squally day this year, the writer, who had
always wondered how people could be so foolish as to get drowned
through their mainsheets being foul, found himself, after going about,
with the lower block of his mainsheet twisted and jammed under the
horse, at such an angle that the sheet would not run: while, to make
the mischief complete, the tiller was jammed by the block as well, so
that he could neither luff nor ease the sheet.

[Illustration: Sail-plan, 'Black Pearl's' cutter.]

A jackyard topsail that requires no topmast can be set, and a
spinnaker will be found very useful for running in light weather. A
bowsprit can also be run out and a jib set; but this will probably be
found to upset the balance of sail on the centreboard, and make her
carry lee-helm, in which case it will be of no use.

If a standing lugsail is preferred, the peak should be cut high, and
the long yard should be as light as is consistent with the necessary
strength. I can see no advantage over the cutter mainsail, except that
the halliards are rather simpler. Old sailors and fishermen will tell
you that a boat with a yard is always stiffer than one with a gaff.
With a dipping lug, such as fishermen use, or a balance lug, this
seems not improbable, as in these rigs a considerable part of the yard
and sail is to windward or in front of the mast; but with a standing
lugsail, which, if it has a boom, is practically identical in shape
with a cutter's mainsail, it is hard to believe that there is much in
it--the peak halliards can hardly make much difference.

A balance lug, however excellent for racing or for fine-weather
sailing in protected waters, is unsuited for the varied purposes of a
yacht's cutter, and the rough experiences to which she will be
exposed. For it is not possible either to lower the peak, or to trice
up the tack, or to brail up the sail by means of the topping-lift, and
in a squall it is not unlikely to jam against the mast and refuse to
come down.

Though the yawl may not be quite so handy as the cutter-rig in the
matter of instantaneous control of pace and direction--for there is
the mizzen as well as the mainsail to think about--it has certain
special and important advantages of its own. When it is necessary to
shorten sail, to strike the mizzen is equivalent to taking a reef in
the mainsail without any of the difficulty and delay involved in that
operation; or you can lower the mainsail and reef it at leisure whilst
you sail under foresail and mizzen. To lower the mainsail of a cutter
in order to reef it involves losing way and falling off to leeward.
Moreover, whether the sail be up or down, it is much easier to take
reefs down on the main-boom of a yawl, which is well inside the boat,
than on that of a cutter, which is right out over the stern. To haul
down and secure the earing on the main-boom of a cutter when she is
plunging in a sea-way and burying her rail with the force of the wind
is a difficult and even dangerous operation, which is not unlikely to
end, if you are not careful, in your finding yourself in the sea and
your boat careering gaily away without you.

The tiller of a yawl must be shaped or placed so that the mizzen-mast
does not get in its way; there are several ways of contriving this. A
yoke with lines does not give sufficient power, unless so large as to
be inconvenient.

[Illustration: 'Aline's' cutter (Colonel Gamble).]

The amount of ballast required will depend somewhat on the shape of
the boat, but about 11 cwt. will probably be found to be about the
right amount for a 25-ft. boat with three or four men on board under
ordinary circumstances. When there is a very strong wind and fewer
hands on board, an extra 2 cwt. or 3 cwt. may be added. But much extra
ballast makes a boat slow--much more so, oddly enough, than the same
amount of weight in people--without adding very much to her stability.

Blocks of lead about 1/2 cwt. each make the best ballast. These should
be cast so as to fit two long boxes along the floor on each side of
the keel in the centre of the boat. But it is well to have some of the
ballast in the form of shot-bags weighing about 40 lbs. each, which
can be placed further aft and shifted about as required.

Water ballast is unsatisfactory. Its bulk is not the only objection.
Its specific gravity is so small that it will not make a boat stiff,
and so even a boat that has no water-tight compartments will be safer
in a strong wind with lead or iron ballast. A lifeboat that will float
3/4 ton of lead or iron is, of course, much more so.

I give here dimensions, drawings, and diagrams of two typical yachts'
sailing boats, well suited for knocking about in all sorts of weather,
one belonging to the writer, the other to Colonel Gamble of the
'Aline.' The former, the 'Black Pearl's' cutter, is a 25-ft. lifeboat,
with copper air-tanks, built by Messrs. Fay & Co., from a design of T.
Soper's, with a centreboard, and sloop-rigged. She has a high side,
and a good deal of shear, while her forefoot is somewhat cut away. She
is fairly fast, and weatherly, fairly stiff, and a beautiful sea-boat.
She carries usually 11 cwt. of ballast, occasionally as much as 14
cwt.

[Illustration: s.s. 'Aline's' lifeboat (Colonel Gamble, C.B.)]

Colonel Gamble's boat is a 22-ft. lifeboat, with wooden air-tight
compartments, of the Lamb & White pattern, built by Hansen & Sons. She
has no centreboard, but a 9-in. wooden false keel, deepest in the
middle, and tapering to nothing at the ends, is screwed on to her
keel. She carries a standing lug mainsail, and a foresail. The peak of
her lugsail is cut very high, and her mast, yard, and boom are very
light and workmanlike. Her side and ends are less high out of the
water, and she is in every way a smaller boat than the 'Black Pearl's'
cutter, and probably less of a boat in a sea-way: but she can sail
round the latter in a light wind, and in a strong one is very nearly
as fast, and stands up like a stake. The reader will please to notice
the flatness of her floor in the drawing of her midship section on p.
207. She has been, I believe, very successful in races against boats
of her class, showing that speed and stability are not quite so
incompatible as they are sometimes supposed to be. She carries usually
about 9 cwt. of ballast in shot-bags, and when full of water will
float 4 in. clear of the sea, with that ballast and four men on board.

  'BLACK PEARL'S' CUTTER              | 'ALINE'S' CUTTER
                            ft.   in. |                           ft.   in.
  Length                    25      0 | Length                     22     0
  Beam                       7      1 | Beam                        6     3
  Depth amidships from                | Depth inside                2     7
    gunwale to outside                | Depth of keel from outside
    garboard                 3  2-3/4 |   garboard                    3-1/2
  Depth of keel from outside          | Depth of additional false
    of garboard                 5-1/4 |   keel                            9
  Draught of water with               | Draught of water with
    11 cwt. of ballast and            | 9 cwt. of ballast and
    crew                     2  0-1/2 |   crew                      1    10
  Draught with centreboard            | Ditto with false keel
    down                     5      0 |   added                     2     7
                                      |
                                      |
        _Sail plan_                   |
                                      |
  Length of mast from                 |
    step to hounds          16      0 |            _Sail plan_
  Ditto from step to                  |
    masthead                19      7 | Length of mast             14     0
  Length of main-boom       20      4 | Length of main-boom        16     9
  Length of gaff            11      3 | Length of yard             19     0

It does not come within the scope of this chapter to give a full and
elementary manual of the art of boat-sailing. Descriptions of the
thousand and one things belonging to a yacht and the sailing of her,
a glossary of nautical terms and their meaning, and a full account of
the art of sailing are given in another portion of this work. The
leading principles of boat-sailing are the same as those for sailing a
larger vessel. The gear of a boat, as far as it goes, is identical,
and the knots, bends, and hitches that are most used are common to
both. I need not, therefore, describe them, nor waste space by
repetition in giving such elementary directions as that a boat should
be luffed in a squall, or in explaining what is meant by 'gybing' a
boat or 'putting her about.' But there are some things in the art of
sailing that have a special application to open boats, so perhaps I
may be allowed, even at the cost of an occasional repetition of what
has been said elsewhere, to give a few hints and directions, based
upon practical experience, as to the handling of a boat, together with
some of the simple rules that experience has taught me are the most
important to remember, even though some of these may seem to be of a
very elementary character.

[Illustration: Earl of Pembroke's 'Black Pearl's' cutter.]

The yachtsman who is inexperienced, or much out of practice in the
management of a boat, had far better take a sailor or a couple of
sailors with him. By observing what they do he will learn or remember
how to do things properly, and the tiro will pick up in a day or two,
from watching an expert, many things that he would take long to learn
for himself. Indeed, I think that in dangerous weather it is always as
well to have a seaman on board. He will be unnecessary, probably, if
nothing happens--that is to say, if nothing carries away or gets
jammed; but it is just on such days that things do happen, and it is
in such emergencies that the difference between a sailor and an
ordinary amateur becomes widest. A good sailor has some resource for
almost everything that can happen, and if one thing will not do he
tries something else. Even if the amateur is as quick to know what
should be done, he is usually far slower and more clumsy in the doing
of it. Suppose, to take a very simple instance, the peak halliards
carry away. How many amateurs are there who could make a long splice
and re-reeve them with reasonable expedition? In a tumble of a sea,
with a lee shore imminent, the mere reeving of them, if no splice is
required, will very likely bother him considerably.

Still no one will ever be a passable boat-sailer, or will ever enjoy
boat-sailing as it can be enjoyed, until he learns to dispense with
professional assistance and to manage his boat single-handed if
necessary. So, when he has learnt with his eyes, as far as a man can,
how things should be done, other than steering and giving orders, let
him go out alone or with an amateur like himself and learn his
business. Let him choose a fine day and sail away if possible out of
sight of the most powerful glasses on his ship, and then deliberately
and of set purpose practise everything essential that is comprised in
the art of boat-sailing. He will instantly discover that between
knowing how things are done and doing them there is an extraordinary
difference, and he will find himself curiously awkward in doing what
he has seen his men do a hundred times. He will make acquaintance with
the malign tendency of all ropes to get foul of each other, and the
strange law that whenever you are trying to put something right on a
boat something else always goes wrong. When he first tries to reef his
sails--he will do it at anchor if he is wise--he will find that the
foretack is horribly inconvenient to get at, and that the foresail
will keep running up the stay and muffling his head, while the
main-boom seems to be possessed by a devil and tries to push him
overboard whichever side of it he gets. When he gets under way again
he finds that he has got the anchor-line foul of the foresheets, and
while he is clearing these and re-reeving them through their
fairleads, a puff of wind knocks the boat nearly flat and sends him
scrambling aft to the tiller and the mainsheet. He will bruise his
shins and bark his knuckles all manner of ways--he hardly knows how;
he will get hot and blown, and go near to tumbling overboard in the
violence of his exertions; he will do things and he will forget to do
things that it will make him blush in bed to remember afterwards. But
let him not feel too deeply humiliated. For even experienced sailors
will make the most monstrous blunders in a boat when they are strange
to her, and to boatwork; and he will find that his awkwardness seems
to vanish miraculously after a few lessons, and it will not be long
before he has the satisfaction of feeling that he can handle his boat
as well as any man on the ship.

It is foolish to go far, and especially far to leeward, when there is
every appearance of bad weather coming on, and a low glass. You may do
it many times with impunity, but some day you are sure to get caught,
and the consequences may be serious. Remember that you are always
liable to meet with an amount of wind that your boat will not be able
to bear under the shortest canvas that you can work her with. Many
people do not realise this; and indeed it requires some powers of
imagination, when a boat is standing stiffly up under her full canvas
in a good breeze, to realise that in a few hours, or even minutes,
there may come an amount of wind which will make it impossible to keep
her lee-rail out of the water even with close-reefed sails and sheets
flying loose. But a few rough and unpleasant experiences will soon
convince the young boat-sailer of the fact, and teach him that a boat
has no business to be out in a gale of wind, and that when he is
caught in one the thing to do, if it is possible, is to gain shelter
at once. If he sails much he will come across plenty of bad weather
without courting it, and when he does he will probably meet it with
more coolness and confidence if he is free from the depressing
sensation that the scrape into which he has got himself, and perhaps
others as well, is entirely due to his own wanton folly.

It is always best, if possible, to reef down and make everything snug
before the squall or storm comes upon you; but you cannot be
continually reefing down for every threatening cloud, so this is not
always practicable. When the wind has become too strong for the sail
you are carrying, you will have to act according to circumstances. It
is not always wise to attempt to reef at once. There may not be
sea-room enough to lower down the sails to reef them, and to attempt
to reef a cutter's mainsail in a squall when she is nearly
overpowered by wind is extremely dangerous. For the sheet must be
hauled right in, and cannot be eased while the earing is being made
fast. It is better under such circumstances to lower your peak
altogether, taking up any slack in the topping-lift so as to support
the boom. This will ease the boat immensely, and gives you a capital
leg-of-mutton sail. Possibly this will be a sufficient reduction, and
you may stand on under this canvas until you get shelter, or sea-room
to reef in, or there comes a lull in the squall. If it is not, and the
boat is still overpowered, haul down the foresail as well and double
reef it, and when it is set again you can, if you have then got
sea-room, take down the reefs in your mainsail, keeping the peak down
all the time.

There are generally three reefs in a cutter's mainsail. If when these
are taken down you have still too much canvas, let the throat run
down, and lash the jaws of the gaff down to the boom. It is well to
have a line of reef points running from the throat of the mainsail to
the cringle of the third reef on the after-leach to make this
arrangement snug. It is then called a balance reef.

Most boats will stand rather more wind when it is on the beam than
they will when they are close hauled. For while they do not feel it
quite so hard, it is easier to keep good way on, and you can spill the
sails by slacking the sheets as much as you like without fear of
losing it. So that in smooth water you will be as safe in a blow with
the wind abeam as you are when sailing close to it and luffing up into
the puffs. But a beam sea is the most dangerous sea of all, and when
it is heavy you must always be ready either to luff up towards it, or
to keep right away before it, as may be best. But if you do the former
be careful not to have too much way on, or you will run your boat's
nose right into the sea. If your course gives you a dangerous beam sea
the best plan is to keep your luff until your port is well to leeward,
and then up helm and run for it.

In running before a strong wind and a dangerous sea do not attempt to
carry much sail. It is a common belief among the inexperienced,
founded upon nautical literature absorbed in youth, and even amongst
some who ought to know better, that you must carry plenty of sail in
order to run away from the sea and avoid being pooped. But, in the
first place, you cannot run away from the sea, which travels more than
twice as fast as any boat can sail, and a press of canvas which buries
the boat's stern as it drags her through the water increases the
danger of being pooped. Moreover, it makes her harder to steer, and
increases the much greater risks of broaching to or running the boat
under water in those desperate rushes on the steep front of the big
seas, which are at once the danger and the delight of running before a
wind. So far from its being desirable to emulate the pace of the sea,
the sooner the wave passes the boat, and the shorter, therefore, these
rushes are, the less is the danger.

I learned this once by experience. Many years ago, on the coast of New
Zealand, I was caught out at sea by a gale of wind in a 13-ft. sailing
dinghy, and had to run home before it in a short, dangerous, rapidly
rising sea. The little boat tore before the wind under a reefed
mainsail and jib, running her nose and stern alternately level with
the water, until it became evident that we should be swamped in a few
minutes. I ordered the man who was with me to haul down the sail. The
moment he did so the little boat, which was sharp at both ends and was
steered with an oar, began to ride the seas like a duck, and we ran
home before the gale with ease and safety under a bare stick and a
fragment of head-sail.

A boat with a sharp stern, steered with an oar, has a great advantage
under such circumstances. For the rudder is sometimes right out of the
water and useless; and though the water of a great wave does not
really move forward with the wave as it appears to do, the breaking
top of it does, and when the rudder is in this water, which is going
faster than the boat, it is useless for the moment. It is well to have
a place for a crutch in the gunwale far aft, so that an oar can be
used to steer with if necessary.

There is generally less wind under the shelter or lee of the land.
But this is not always the case, and the most experienced seaman
cannot always foretell whether this will be so or not. Sometimes the
wind seems to belong to the land, and there may be little or none of
it out at sea. Under high land--cliffs or mountains--you may lose the
wind altogether; you may find it blowing in occasional baffling puffs
of great violence and uncertain direction, or you may find it blowing
much harder, not in puffs merely but altogether. It is not an uncommon
experience, especially in the Mediterranean, to run down a coast
before a fresh breeze, and to find a perfect tornado blowing when you
turn a corner and luff up under the land. This is one of nature's
paradoxes--one of the undoubted facts that one occasionally meets
which seem opposed to all reason and probability. I do not know how
far it has ever been scientifically explained.

Some places where there is high land seem to brew their own wind. Loch
Scavaig, in Skye, under the Coolin hills, is an instance of this. It
may be fine and almost calm outside, but as you sail into its gloomy
waters you may find a perfect tempest blowing in or out. It staggers
one to think what it must be like in a real gale of wind.

In Carlingford Lough, Ireland, last autumn, when there was but a
fine-weather breeze blowing outside, the puffs off the mountain on the
south of the lough took the form of a succession of regular
waterspouts, any one of which would have twisted the mast out of the
boat or capsized her if it had struck her. We kept as far to leeward
as we could, and most of them died away before they crossed our track,
but they felt very uncanny.

Speaking generally, high land is always dangerous for boat-sailing, as
well as trying to the temper. On a day when there is nothing but a
fine-weather breeze elsewhere, under high land you are liable to get
puffs as violent while they last as a gale of wind. It is as though
the hills bottled up and concentrated the wind, so that when it is let
loose it comes with double force; and these puffs are specially
dangerous to a boat apart from their force: first, because the angle
at which they will strike is so uncertain, and secondly, because,
coming from above and striking downwards, a boat does not relieve the
pressure on her sails by heeling over as she does when the wind blows
horizontally along the water. This is the reason why you will probably
find that the squalls that go nearest capsizing your boat are not
those that you have seen tearing towards you turning the water into
smoke as they come, violent as these may be, but those which you have
hardly seen a sign of on the water at all, and which strike the sails
with a downward blow straight from the mountain side. The Sound of
Raasay, outside Portree Harbour, when a westerly wind is blowing over
the tremendous cliffs of Skye, is a fine place for the study of these
phenomena.

When the wind is blowing up or down a channel with high land on either
hand, the fiercest puffs will be near the sides which seem to
concentrate the wind, and the safest place will be the middle of the
channel. One day, in Loch Scavaig, beating out of that inferno of
furious winds against the usual succession of tearing puffs, with
double-reefed sails and all passengers down in the bottom of the boat,
I stood rather far over one tack under the high mountain on the west
side. Just as I was preparing to go about a furious blast struck the
boat like a cannon-shot. I thrust the helm down, letting fly the
mainsheet. The foresheet fortunately carried away of itself, but for a
few seconds a volume of water poured over the rail, and I thought we
should go over or fill. A minute later, as we were standing off on the
other tack, setting things to rights and pruning our ruffled plumes,
my coxswain, a most excellent boat-sailer but a man of a somewhat
sardonic humour, remarked grimly, 'I should think that would be a
lesson to you in future not to stand over too far under high land.' It
has been.

Here follow a few of the things which it is well to remember when
boat-sailing, whether you are acting as captain or crew, or both in
one.

As soon as your sails are set and properly trimmed, coil away the ends
of all your halliards, topping-lift, &c., in the bottom of the boat,
capsizing the coil after you have made it so that the part of the rope
that has to go up first becomes uppermost, and so will not get foul
when the halliards are let go.

See that all your blocks are clear. A reef pendant (earing) getting
drawn into the mainsheet block, or a bit of bunting or spunyarn into
the block of the peak halliards, may easily cause an accident.

[Illustration: The squall in Loch Scavaig, Skye.]

See that boathooks, oars, and crutches are all ready for use if
required.

Never make fast your sheets in any way that can possibly jam, or that
a single pull will not set free. The same is advisable with your
halliards also.

Always see that your mainsheet is clear, and that it cannot get foul
of anything in running out. The most favoured lady passenger should
not be allowed to put her feet on it.

When you have passengers on board in dangerous, squally weather, try
to get them to sit down in the bottom of the boat. It adds greatly to
stability, besides getting them out of the way. But if there is much
water in the boat already, they may require some persuasion.

Always carry an anchor or grapple and a line to attach to it, and see
that both are ready for instant use if you are likely to want them.
The anchor for a 25-ft. boat should weigh about 30 lbs. If it is
heavier it will tax your wind severely to get it up quickly in deep
water.

[Illustration: 'Excuse me.']

Always carry a knife. A sheath-knife is best: there is no difficulty
about opening it when fingers are cold, and it will not shut on them
when you are using it.

Always carry a pocket-compass in case of fog.

In what is called a temperate climate always carry oilskins and a
sou'wester.

Always carry some spare rope, particularly odds and ends of small
rope; you may always want it for something. Your spinnaker gear will
probably do at a pinch to replace a broken halliard or sheet.

When you are exploring and have ladies on board, do not forget to
take a landing-board.

Always carry some water and biscuits when you may be out many hours.

Always have the centreboard down in coming alongside a ship. The boat
will answer her helm better and steer more accurately with the
centreboard down, as the wind and sea cannot push her about on the
surface.

If it is ever necessary to leave your boat untended, take great care
that she can neither damage herself nor get adrift when the tide
rises. Nothing will make you feel so intolerably foolish as to come
back and find your boat damaged or gone, perhaps still in sight
bobbing away without you. The writer was once left stranded on a small
island in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand, owing to his man having
considered a round stone a suitable object to make a boat fast to.

[Illustration: Self-unmoored.]

Keep out of the way of steamers and big ships when you can, even when
by the rule of the road it is their business to keep out of yours.
They will probably expect you to keep clear of them, and, when in
narrow waters, are justified in doing so.

[Illustration: Never 'moon.']

Finally, never 'moon,' or think about such things as politics,
philosophy, or people, when boat-sailing. Frivolous conversation on
subjects unconnected with the boat or the weather should be sternly
discouraged in any but the most familiar waters and the finest of
weather. Distraction is a real danger in boat-sailing, and is probably
the commonest cause of fatal accidents. The attention of the
boat-sailer should always be concentrated on his business. He has
plenty to attend to and think about. He must always have an eye on his
sails, and at the same time must keep watching the wind on the water
before it reaches him, and the general appearance of the weather. And
in spite of these preoccupations he should be continually noting the
features of the coast. If he is leaving a place to which he is going
to return, he should be constantly taking note of the relative
bearings of rocks and headlands by which to remember the proper
channel when he comes back, not forgetting that the state of the tide
will be different, and carefully observing, therefore, if the tide is
low, the position of rocks and shoals that may be submerged on his
return, or if it is near high water, the bearing of places which his
chart tells him will have to be avoided when the tide is out. In
short, it is an engrossing occupation, permitting of no distraction,
except perhaps fish, and even _then_ one man must continue to give his
attention almost entirely to the boat. There is a time for all
things, and the man who wants to talk or to read his book in the boat
has no business there. Shelley used to read, it is true, and he was an
ardent boat-sailer. But Shelley's case is a bad one to quote as an
example, for his boat-sailing came to an unlucky end, and we shall
never know now how much or how little that little volume of poetry had
to do with it.

I have said a good deal in these pages of the dangers of boat-sailing.
It has been necessary to insist upon them, because the price of safety
in boat-sailing is eternal vigilance and a little knowledge. The
careless man may drown himself any day, and there is no saying what
mess the complete duffer may not get into. But given the habit of
carefulness, which soon becomes instinctive and unconscious, together
with a little experience, and a moderate amount of prudence as regards
weather, and boat-sailing is certainly not a dangerous sport as sports
go.

[Illustration: There is no place like home.]



CHAPTER IX

SMALL YACHT RACING ON THE SOLENT

By 'THALASSA'


As Lord's is to the cricketer, St. Andrews to the golfer, Newmarket to
the lover of the Turf, so is the Solent to the yachtsman--the Solent
in its largest sense, not the West Channel only, but the whole of the
waters inside the Wight, bounded by fifty miles of shore line, and
covering an area of over fifty square sea miles. The West Channel,
twelve miles long, is nearly twenty-four square miles; the East
Channel, eight miles long, is equal in area; and Southampton Water,
six miles long, covers three square miles. Nearly all of it is
navigable to yachts, the Brambles being the only midwater shoal which
interferes with small vessels of moderate draught.

The water of the Solent is clear as crystal, the air healthy as
Switzerland, the scenery nearly as beautiful; here are watering places
with mirth and music; cities with docks and shipping; men of war and
men of peace; clubs and hotels; piers, slips, jetties, and hards;
building and repairing sheds; yacht designers and agents; skippers and
'hands'; sail, flag, and rope makers; yachts' ironmongers and
purveyors, &c. &c. &c., which etceteras include several snug
anchorages and small harbours for those who wish to escape from the
general hubbub during the yachting and excursion season. And the whole
of this within a two hours' journey of London!

Curiously enough, the advantages of the Solent for yachting have only
been fully appreciated during the past few years. It is true that the
Royal Yacht Squadron was started early in the century, and the Royal
Southern and Royal Victoria Yacht Clubs early in the forties; but
yachting on the Solent as we know it now was not dreamt of, and the
Thames held for many years the leading position as the centre of this
essentially English sport.

Many things have combined to drive yachts from the Thames. Manure,
marmalade, cement, gas, and other manufactories now line its banks;
the Barking outfall fouls its waters, and an enormous steamer and
barge traffic obstructs them. No wonder the yachtsmen deserted the
Thames. But this is not all; a new sport has been born--the racing of
small yachts, for which the Thames is peculiarly unsuited. Steam
yachting has caused this development of small yacht racing. Men who
would otherwise have built or purchased large sailing yachts now
prefer steam, and, although they may themselves race but little in any
craft, their action has destroyed our fleet of large sailing yachts,
and with it the market for outclassed racers of any considerable size.
Moreover, the very perfection to which racing has been brought tells
in the same direction, because few men can afford to build large
racers year by year to replace those which are outclassed. Yacht clubs
have increased both in numbers and wealth, and the executives find
that racing brings grist to the mill and repays the cost and the
trouble. This especially applies to small yacht races, the prizes for
which are not a severe tax on a club's exchequer, and can therefore be
given more frequently.

Owners were not slow to avail themselves of the sport offered, which
on trial proved to possess many advantages over large yacht racing.

In small craft an owner is more his own master, and frequently steers
and sails his own boat. Corinthian hands can form all or a large
portion of the crew; ladies can take an active part; the sport is
less costly and better fun than with large craft; there are more
races; fouls and accidents are less dangerous; and people can get home
to dinner.

In short, the advantages are so numerous and real that one marvels at
any men preferring to act as passengers on board their own yachts in
the more ancient sport. Even this adjective belongs really to the
boats, as prehistoric men no doubt owned and raced canoes for ages
prior to the existence of larger vessels. But we as moderns are
concerned with the nineteenth century, during which sailing boats have
certainly raced frequently on the Solent. The square stem and stern
boat used by the Itchen ferrymen for fishing in Southampton Water and
the E. and W. channels is still a favourite type, and during the
seventies became almost a class for small yacht racing, inside lead
ballast, moulded, being first introduced, then lead keels, until in
1878 heavy lead keels, with fore and aft overhang, became the fashion
with racing owners, and the Solent 'Length Classes' were introduced to
the yachting world; 21 feet, 25 feet, and 30 feet L.W.L. being the top
limits of each class.

A scale of time allowance for length was made by the Y.R.A., and the
boats developed into great 'brutes' which were efficient sail-carriers
if nothing else, the final outcome being over 70 square feet of canvas
to each foot of L.W.L., whereas a modern rater in the small classes is
driven almost as effectively with 20 square feet per foot of similar
hull length.

There being no limit to sail in the length classes, it was not a
difficult matter to outbuild the crack boat of the year every winter.
Each succeeding boat had longer overhang, greater beam, draught, and
displacement than her predecessor, and consequently won, being a
larger boat and carrying more sail. The table of Solent racers prior
to 1886, appended to this chapter, gives some details of interest.

A few races were given every year for what was termed the 27-ft. class
('Sorella,' 'Whimbrel,' &c.), also for Itchen punts and for
fishermen's boats; and, early in the eighties, races under various
conditions were provided for small yachts by the Royal Southampton
and Royal Portsmouth Corinthian Yacht Clubs, under the energetic
direction of their respective Honorary Secretaries, Mr. Wolff and the
late Mr. McCheane. These clubs may fairly claim to have started that
small yacht racing on the Solent which now employs so many hands in
building boats in the winter and sailing them in the summer, and
affords so many people a healthy pastime for their leisure hours. The
rest of the Solent clubs were not long in following suit, first one
then another giving races for small yachts, until in 1891 'The
Squadron' so far forgot the distich:

  Nothing less than 30 T
  Must ever race with _our_ Burgee,

as to permit two 'extra' races for 5- and 2-1/2-raters, the prizes
having been subscribed for 'privately' by some sporting members of
this distinguished club. The same recurred in 1892 and 1893, but it is
impossible to feel overwhelmed with gratitude, as the manner of
granting the concession was too like that of an old lady introduced
sorely against her will to people and things she deems _infra dig_.

On the other hand, the Royal Victoria, or the 'Red Squadron,' as its
friends delight to call it, has since 1890 taken to the sport with
becoming enthusiasm, the committee being said to possess more
knowledge of the requirements of yacht racing than the Y.R.A. itself.
This has produced some strange realities which the racing owner may
see for himself at Ryde, in the shape of drums, time-post and
semaphores galore, together with a 500-guinea cup and other remarkable
'Gold cups in waiting,' if he step ashore and can make friends with
the good-natured secretary. The club gave several special days in 1892
and 1893 for matches in the Solent classes, and the Royal Albert did
the same at Southsea, in addition to similar races at their annual
regatta--a two days' affair. The Royal London and the Royal Southern
Yacht Clubs followed suit. In short, these elderly dames of the Solent
are acting in a very proper spirit by adopting and assisting to
support the offspring of their younger relatives, requiring them
simply to belong to something 'Royal _or_ Recognised'--a peculiar
distinction somewhat rough on the former word.

One caution to the unwary. Some of the senior clubs are very proud of
their ordnance, but racing boats of _modern_ construction should give
them a clear berth, or the concussion may cause damage. One of the
cracks had to proceed to the builder's for repair soon after a race at
which that great artillerist the hall porter of the Royal London Yacht
Club shook Cowes to its foundations. Certain it is that some racing
boats are now built far too light for safety if caught in a gale on
the open sea.

Returning to the clubs, the table at the end of the chapter gives some
prominent facts at a glance, so it will not be necessary to repeat
them.

An aspirant to fame in any of the small classes should belong to the
Royal Southampton Yacht Club. It has plenty of members, of vitality,
and 'go.' Its house is good and comfortable, with a fair cuisine and
attendance, and its position is excellent for the racing sailor-man.
The fees are not heavy,[7] and the sport is good.

[Footnote 7: This club has raised its fees this year (1894), finding
it impossible to exist on the income derived from nearly seven hundred
members, whereas formerly it lived joyously on half the amount.]

The beginner will do well to make the acquaintance of the leading
members of the committee, for their sound advice and local knowledge may
be of service to him; but he may be cautioned not to disturb them after
the racing with written memoranda about rounding buoys; the soul of man
is not to be worried by such frivolities when absorbed in the worship of
crab, tap, or Nap in the cosy cabin of the Committee-boat--and this
applies with more or less force to all sailing committees and club
secretaries. Some shrug the shoulder and vent an expletive, the more
pious sigh deeply and glance to the zenith, while many impose a heavy
fine on that enemy of peace and quiet who dares to protest against a
breach of the regulations. An exception, however, is said to prove a
rule; and the committee of the Castle Yacht Club administers the law
with strictness, and perhaps severity. If this policy were general, many
of the difficulties connected with yacht racing would disappear, as a
large percentage is due to irregularities which sailing committees might
easily correct, instead of scanning them with a blind eye at the
telescope end. Real sportsmen like rules to be strictly observed and
administered, and the discipline enforced at the Calshot racing has, if
possible, increased the popularity of the club which was started in 1887
by some eccentric enthusiasts who considered that small yacht racing
required further encouragement. At that date the idea was not so
preposterous as it now appears; but whether this and other clubs
assisted materially in the production of modern racing, or were
themselves the products, is a problem for the Macaulay of sport to solve
in the dim future, when he writes on the pursuit of pleasure in the
nineteenth century.

The adoption of the present Y.R.A. rating rule in the winter of 1886
practically killed the 'Length' classes; for, although the Solent
clubs continued to support them for another year, no more 'lengthers'
were built, and, the existing boats gradually dropping out, the racing
with 'footers' collapsed.

       *       *       *       *       *

The year 1887 was a turning point in small yacht racing on the Solent,
as elsewhere.

There was much diversity of opinion as to the suitability of the new
rule for small yachts. Mr. Clayton declared in January that
2-1/2-raters would soon be 29 or 30 feet long. Mr. Dixon Kemp, on the
other hand, so late as 1881, when the sixth edition of his book was
published, gave 'the lengths of water-line ... possible in the classes
... as follows':--

  60 raters, 60 to 70 feet, their 1892 developments being 68 feet
  40    "    50 "  60  "           "          "           59  "
  20    "    40 "  50  "           "          "           46  "
  10    "    30 "  40  "           "          "           38  "
   5    "    20 "  30  "           "          "           34  "
  2-1/2 "    16 "  20  "           "          "           28  "
   1    "    10 "  12  "           "          "           21  "

This forecast erred in the three smallest classes, where prophetic
utterances, if only for six months, are extremely hazardous. The fact
gives additional piquancy to small yacht racing.

The Solent clubs most interested in this racing began the year 1887
with a conference on January 28 at Southampton, and another on
February 2 at Portsmouth, when it was finally agreed to recommend:--

     I. The continuation of length class racing for the season of
     1887.

     II. The adoption of two new classes of square-sterned boats
     to race under the new rule, viz.--

     _(a)_ 2-1/2-raters not exceeding 21 feet L.W.L.

     _(b)_ 1-1/4   "     "       "    17   "    "

     In both classes an overhang limit of 1 foot and a mainsail
     limit of 55 per cent. of the total sail-area.


SPECIAL RACING, 1887

Two new boats were built for class (_a_), Miss Cox's 'Madcap' and
Colonel Bucknill's 'Thalassa' (see table). They were well matched, the
rig being the same, viz. sloop with a small topsail of about 80 square
feet. They were capital 'day boats,' with roomy wells, and fairly good
performers in a sea-way. At first 'Madcap' proved the faster, but
towards the end of the season 'Thalassa' won most prizes, and captured
the class medal of the R.S.Y.C.

Mr. Campbell's 'Merrythought' was the only new boat in class (_b_),
but she failed to beat 'Tootsie' (afterwards named 'Minnow'), which
belonged to Mr. Payne, and was altered to fit the class. On the whole,
the racing in the new classes was somewhat disappointing, owing to the
small number of competitors and of races. See the following table,
which also includes the races for the 'Solent Classes' in 1888 and
1892, and shows the great development of the sport during the past
five years.

The actual races only are recorded, as clubs deserve but little
credit for offering prizes hedged in by such conditions that owners
will not compete for them.

_Races in the Solent Classes_

  +----------------------+--------------------------------------------------------+
                         |    1887    ||      1888      ||          1892          |
  +----------------------+------------++----------------++------------------------|
   Yacht Clubs and       |21'2-1/2    ||   |   |2-1/2   ||   |   |2-1/2  |   |    |
   Sailing Clubs         |   |17'1-1/4||   | 5 |   |    ||   | 5 |   |   |1/2|    |
                         |   |   |Tot.|| 10|   |   |Tot.|| 10|   |   | 1 |   |Tot.|
  +----------------------+------------++----------------++------------------------|
   Royal Yacht Squadron  |  0|  0|   0||  0|  0|  0|   0||  1|  1|  1|  0|  0|   3|
   Royal London          |  1|  0|   1||  3|  0|  3|   6||  0|  1|  2|  2|  2|   7|
   Royal Southern        |  1|  1|   2||  2|  2|  2|   6||  0|  2|  2|  2|  2|   8|
   Royal Victoria        |  0|  0|   0||  0|  0|  0|   0||  1|  3|  9|  7|  7|  27|
   Royal Albert          |  0|  0|   0||  2|  0|  2|   4||  0|  6|  6|  6|  6|  24|
   Royal Southampton     |  7|  6|  13||  4|  2|  8|  14||  4|  8|  8|  8|  8|  36|
   Solent Yacht Club     |  0|  0|   0||  1|  0|  1|   2||  0|  3|  3|  1|  3|  10|
   Royal Portsmouth      |   |   |    ||   |   |   |    ||   |   |   |   |   |    |
     Corinthian          |  1|  0|   1||  7|  1|  7|  15||  0|  4|  9|  7|  9|  29|
   Castle Yacht Club     |  (started) ||  5|  0|  8|  13||  1| 12| 12|  9|  7|  41|
   Island Sailing Club   | --| --|  --|| --| --| --|  --||  0|  0|  9|  9|  9|  27|
   Minima Sailing Club   | --| --|  --|| --| --| --|  --||  0|  0|  2| 12|  9|  23|
   Bembridge Sailing Club| --| --|  --|| --| --| --|  --||  0|  0|  2|  1| 13|  16|
  +----------------------+------------++----------------++------------------------+
   Totals                | 10|  7|  17|| 26|  6| 34|  66||  7| 40| 65| 64| 75| 251|
  +----------------------+--------------------------------------------------------+


CLASS RACING, 1888.

Early in 1888, delegates from several of the Solent clubs met at the
house of the Royal Southampton, to settle the difficult question of
the classes of small racing yachts to be encouraged on the Solent, it
having become clear that racing under a rating of length alone was
played out.

The Y.R.A. recommended that 10-, 5-, and 2-1/2-rating, by the new
formula L. × S.A. ÷ 6,000, should be encouraged as the small classes,
but the Scotch and Irish clubs favoured 6- and 3-raters as better
suiting their 3-tonners, which had been produced under the 1730 rule,
and were about 6-rating. After a lively correspondence in the 'Field,'
in which the Editor steered a middle course between the Southern buoys
and the Northern shallows, the conference at Southampton decided to
adopt the classes recommended by the Y.R.A., and there has been no
cause to regret this decision.

10-, 5-, and 2-1/2-raters consequently became known as the 'Solent
Classes,' and the limits on S.A. in mainsail and on L.O.A. were
quashed, no objection being raised by vested interests.


_The 10-Raters, 1888._

The 10 class racing this year mainly consisted of a duel between Mr.
Clarke's new 10, the 'Dis,' and Mr. Arabin's 6-1/2-rater, the
'Lollypop,' built for cruising, but a very fast and capable boat (see
table opposite).

The lengthers 'Verena' and 'Frolic,' each about 7-rating, tried their
luck on a few occasions, but they were soon proved to be outclassed
under the rating rule. 'Little Nell,' 'Raven,' 'Ina,' and 'Jenny Wren'
also competed. 'Dis' finished the season with the excellent figure of
merit 52.2, and 'Lollypop' with 34.6. This figure of merit is found by
the formula proposed by Colonel F. J. Smith, R.E., in 1890, viz.:

  M = 100P ÷ (N + [V¯]N + 2)

  where M is the figure of merit
        N is the number of starts
        P is the number of first prizes,

all referring to class races only. Colonel Smith subsequently
elaborated the formula by allowing points for sails over, and for
second prizes when three boats started; but it is practically
impossible to get such records with accuracy, and the resulting order
of merit is the same whichever figure of merit be adopted. Hence it is
best to employ the simplest formula in which first prizes alone count,
as in the one just given, which will be adopted in these pages.

Further details of the 10-rater racing will be found in a tabulated
form on p. 488 of 'Land and Water,' Oct. 20, 1888.


_The 5-Raters, 1888._

Mr. L. M. Ames attempted to start the 5-rating class by building 'Fair
Geraldine' (see table of dimensions), but the class received but
little encouragement from the clubs this year, and there were very few
purely class races. The 'Flutterby,' 4-rater, designed by her owner,
Mr. Fred. Hughes, Mr. Farmer's 'Chittywee,' and Mr. Newton-Robinson's
'Rose' were the only competitors available.


_The 2-1/2-Raters, 1888._

Mr. Waller's 'Lady Nan,' Mr. Manning's 'Ada,' and the late Mr. Sidney
Watson's 'Chipmunk' were the new boats in this class, the first named
being a great success at a moderate cost, the usual oak timbers, bent
ash frames, and pine planking being used in her construction. Her
lines are given in Mr. Dixon Kemp's 'Yacht Architecture,' second
edition. 'Madcap,' her chief opponent, had been slightly lengthened
during the winter, and a counter added; thus improved, she was able to
turn the tables on 'Thalassa' (see following table).


_Racing Records, 1888._

  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         |        |        Prizes         | Figure |
  |         1888            | Starts |-------+-------+-------|   of   |
  |                         |        | First | Other | Total |  merit |
  |-------------------------+--------+-------+-------+-------+--------|
  | _10-Rating Class_       |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Dis                      |   29   |   19  |    6  |   25  |   52   |
  |Lollypop                 |   17   |    8  |    4  |   12  |   34   |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |_2-1/2-Rating Class_     |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Lady Nan                 |   31   |   19  |    9  |   28  |   49   |
  |Madcap                   |   24   |    8  |   10  |   18  |   26   |
  |Tottie                   |    6   |    2  |    0  |    2  |   19   |
  |Thalassa                 |   34   |    3  |   11  |   14  |    7   |
  |Fairy                    |   21   |    2  |    3  |    5  |    7   |
  |Minnow                   |   10   |    1  |    2  |    3  |    6   |
  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

The feature this year was the birth of the heavy lead fin-keel. Mr.
Payne tried it in 'Lady Nan,' and Captain Hughes had a similar keel
placed on 'Fairy,' thereby improving both her speed and power.

Another excitement was caused by Mr. Simpson very gamely sailing his
'Tottie' (4.5 feet beam) round from the Thames, so as to try the
Solent 2-1/2-raters. 'Tottie' was designed by Mr. G. L. Watson for a
special class, 21 feet L.W.L. and 500 S.A. She won easily in this
class on the Thames, but only scored on the Solent in light weather,
and soon found it expedient to return to her muddy headquarters.
'Minnow' also won a few prizes in light weather by means of her time
allowance; but 'Chipmunk' 12 starts, 'Ada' 4, 'Titu' 2, and
'Cormorant' 1 start, failed to score for their figure of merit.

The season's racing was good, and the class evidently established
itself in public favour. The Castle Club, then at Hamble, gave a
number of races for the class, and several members of the club agreed
to build 2-1/2-raters for the coming season.

For the results see the record table for 1888 (p. 231).


CLASS RACING, 1889

_The 10-Raters, 1889._

The owner of 'Lollypop' being encouraged by her performances in 1888,
commissioned Mr. Arthur Payne to design a racing 10-rater; whence it
came about that the swift and handsome 'Decima' was launched from the
Belvidere yard in the following spring. She was a few inches shorter
than 'Dis,' but in every other respect a more powerful boat--more
beam, draught, and displacement, also a larger mainsail.

The 'Drina' was built at Cowes about the same time, but she was
designed simply as a 32-ft. L.W.L. day boat, and her owner, Prince
Batthyany Strattmann, only decided to race her when she was already in
frame. The lead keel was then dropped 1.8 foot and the sail increased
400, to 1,800 square feet. Unfortunately for 'Drina' it was a windy
summer.

Mr. Ratsey tuned up his fine square-sterned yacht 'Dolly Varden' with
a lovely suit of sails. Captain Montagu lengthened 'Lil' and converted
her into the 9-rater 'Nety'; and Mr. Clarke brought out 'Dis' from her
padlocked abode and did all that he could to make her win--but in this
he was disappointed, though when beaten he stuck to the fight as only
a true sportsman can.

Towards the end of the season the attention of Clydesiders was drawn
to 'Decima's' long string of successes, and the sporting owners of the
old 'Doris' and the new 'Yvonne' sailed them round to do battle in the
Solent lists.


_Racing Records, 1889._

  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         |        |        Prizes         | Figure |
  |         1889            | Starts |-------+-------+-------|   of   |
  |                         |        | First | Other | Total |  merit |
  |-------------------------+--------+-------+-------+-------+--------|
  | _10-Rating Class_       |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Decima                   |   39   |   28  |    6  |   34  |   59   |
  |Yvonne                   |   32   |   13  |   12  |   25  |   33   |
  |Doris                    |   38   |   12  |    7  |   19  |   26   |
  |Dis                      |   28   |    3  |    9  |   12  |    8   |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |  _5-Rating Class_       |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Lollypop                 |   10   |    5  |    3  |    8  |   33   |
  |Thief                    |    3   |    2  |    0  |    2  |   29   |
  |Thalassa                 |   12   |    5  |    3  |    8  |   28   |
  |Fair Geraldine           |    3   |    1  |    0  |    1  |   15   |
  |Cock-a-Whoop             |    5   |    1  |    2  |    3  |   10   |
  |Blue Bell                |    9   |    1  |    3  |    4  |    7   |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |_2-1/2-Rating Class_     |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Humming Bird             |   38   |   25  |    4  |   29  |   54   |
  |Queen Mab                |   12   |    5  |    2  |    7  |   28   |
  |Cosette                  |   19   |    4  |    6  |   10  |   15   |
  |G.G.                     |   13   |    2  |    3  |    5  |   11   |
  |Nadador                  |   21   |    2  |    8  |   10  |    7   |
  |Madcap                   |   26   |    2  |    5  |    7  |    6   |
  |Thalassa                 |   13   |    1  |    3  |    4  |    6   |
  |Thief                    |   16   |    1  |    3  |    4  |    5   |
  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

'Yvonne,' designed by the famous son of Fife, was narrower and shorter
than 'Decima,' and had 45 square feet more sail, which placed her in
the van in light weather. But 'Decima' beat her five times in eight
starts, and beat 'Doris' eleven times in fourteen starts.

The results for the season are given in the record table.

It was a red-letter year for the 10's on the Solent, nothing like it
having occurred either before or since.


_The 5-Raters, 1889._

Energy in one class is often accompanied by stagnation in another, and
the 5's were certainly slow enough during 1889 to satisfy the most
exacting Puritan.

[Illustration: 'Cock-a-Whoop,' 2-1/2-rater. Designed by A. E. Payne,
M.I.N.A., 1889.]

The clubs did their duty, as fifteen races were given to the class on
the Solent. 'Lollypop,' cut down to a 5, was the most successful boat.
Next came 'Thief' (of which boat more anon); then 'Thalassa,' 'Fair
Geraldine,' 'Cock-a-Whoop,' 'Blue Bell,' 'Gleam,' 'Ada,' 'Dorothy,'
and 'Tar Baby' made up the motley crowd--the four last-named scoring a
'duck' for their figure of merit. 'Gleam,' however, caused a little
excitement by capsizing in one race, pitching her owner, Mr. Clayton,
with several of his friends, into the sweet waters of Southampton,
from which they were fortunately rescued with much promptitude by the
blue gig carried on board her Majesty's letter-bag boat, which was
steaming past at the time of the accident. The class was nothing more
nor less than a harbour of refuge for outclassed boats; and, as the
yachts differed in their ratings, the race officers were ever busy
calculating their time allowances, and growling inwardly at 'those
confounded decimals.' 'Fair Geraldine' was the only boat built for the
class, but, curiously enough, when she tried conclusions at the end of
the season she found herself 'between the devil and the deep sea,' the
2-1/2-rater 'Cock-a-Whoop,' with extra sail to qualify for the class,
beating her in light weather on September 14, and the cruiser
'Lollypop' beating her in a breeze on the 21st.

The broad results of the racing can be seen in the table of records
for 1889.


_The 2-1/2-Raters, 1889._

Now began small yacht-racing in earnest, and a determined attempt was
made to lower Mr. Payne's colours. Mrs. Schenley, the Earl of
Dunraven, and Mr. T. B. C. West all joined the class, all cared but
little what it cost to win, all sailed their boats well, all engaged
good crews, and all went to Mr. G. L. Watson for the designs. He gave
them enlarged 'Totties' (one with a C.B.), excellent boats in their
way, but distinctly inferior to the type developing on the Solent
under the motto, 'Payne and Pleasure.' Such a boat was 'Humming Bird,'
often called the 'Hummer,' nearly 3 feet longer than 'Lady Nan,' and
about 17 inches longer on W.L. than her Watsonite competitors, but
with little O.H. at either end. The fin-keel became more pronounced,
the M.S. and scantling were further reduced, and the lug sloop rig was
adopted--a combination which made her wonderfully fast on all points
of sailing in any but light winds. She was sailed faultlessly by her
owner, Captain J. W. Hughes, and made the excellent M. of 54 at the
end of the season (see table of records).

Another boat of the year deserves mention--the 26-ft. C.B. sloop
built and designed by Stephens of Southampton. She was purchased by
Mr. Garrett of plunging boat fame, and named the 'G.G.' She had 10
feet beam, and did best on courses where she could avoid a tide by
sailing over the shallows. 'Thalassa' was raced in the class during
June and July, after which she raised her R. and joined the 5's. She
had been lengthened 2 feet aft during the winter, and greatly improved
thereby, her speed now being equal to 'Madcap' and 'Lady Nan' (see
record table for 1889, p. 233).

[Illustration: 'Humming Bird,' Payne, 1889.]

'Heathen Chinee,' a yawl of peculiar design, and 'Minnow' and
'Chipmunk' raced on a few occasions, but failed to win any first
prizes.


SOLENT SAILORESSES.

This year was noticeable for the activity of ladies on the Solent.
Miss Cox continued to race 'Madcap'; her sister, Mrs. Rudston-Read,
purchased 'Lady Nan,' and raced her under the new name 'Nadador'; Mrs.
Schenley raced her new 2-1/2 'Thief'; Mrs. Sidney Watson, Miss Harvey
(now Mrs. A. Heygate), and the Misses Hughes occasionally steered in
the races, and the daughters of 'Thalassa' helped to work their
father's boat, and sometimes steered her.

Late in the season--in the series of matches, 'ladies up,' between
'Cosette' and 'Queen Mab'--the Earl got two 'daughters of the sea' to
help him, and Miss Harvey steered the 'Queen' for Mr. West.

It really looked as if ladies were about to take an active part in
Solent racing; but next year, although races for ladies were specially
provided in the programme of the Castle Club, some owners objected,
and this form of sport received a somewhat rude and unexpected check
from which it has never quite recovered.

Two sailing clubs were started on the Solent in 1889--the Island
Sailing Club at West Cowes, and a branch of the Minima Sailing Club at
Hamble. The former club arose during the winter of 1888, and Mr.
Barrow, its present hon. secretary, states that it was 'the outcome of
much boat-sailing talk in Cowes and in the "Field" ... on the superior
charms and advantages of open-boat sailing'; but, 'like many season
fashions, open boating soon found its level, and the I.S.C. has had an
uphill fight to get open boats together for racing.'... 'The influence
of small raters seems to have been too much for the open craft, and
though the club has offered very good prizes and a 20-guinea challenge
cup, ... yet the open-boat racing has been so poorly supported that
most probably next year' (1893) 'the racing will be entirely confined
to small raters, which have given much sport during the past season'
(1892). The first 'Commodore, the late General Baring, taking much
interest in the club, bought land adjoining the Customs watch, and
built thereon the present small but very convenient club house, with
its slipway, &c., where it has since passed a ... busy existence,
holding in the season its fortnightly races, which have been well
supported by 2-1/2-, 1-, and 1/2-raters.'[8]

[Footnote 8: The above was penned at the end of 1892, and applies to
that year. In 1893 the programme was enlarged by including races on
alternating days for the 5-raters and for handicaps with boats up to
19-rating, not being class racers. A few races were given in 1891 to
2-1/8-raters.--[Greek: theta].]

The Minima Sailing Club was established in the same year, 1889:

     1st. To encourage the building, improvement, and sailing of
     small boats, and to promote seamanship and sport amongst
     amateur boat-sailers.

     2nd. To arrange cruises and races both on the coast and
     inland waters.

     3rd. To give to members who may wish to visit a coast,
     river, or lake which is new to them, facilities for
     obtaining information as to harbourage, boatmen, housing of
     boats, carriage of boats, and other local matters.

     4th. To form branches or out-stations, and to affiliate
     local clubs as such, or otherwise.

This club has adopted the motto 'Per Mare per Terram,' very
appropriate for an institution which encourages the transport of boats
by rail.

Commodore Hallowes is an Admiral, and settles disputes admirably. To
him and to Mr. Herbert Ridsdale, the hon. secretary for the Solent,
the success of the club in these waters is principally due.
Unfortunately for the Solent, Mr. Ridsdale departed for fresh seas and
outlets new in 1892.

A little club-house was erected in 1891 on the Hamble river-bank,
opposite Warsash village, and the races now start and finish at this
point, everything being done by miniature flags, &c., in strict accord
with the Y.R.A. rules--altogether a nice little club, well managed,
and possessing an excellent general programme which deserves to
succeed.

The Castle Club also jumped ahead with a fair breeze in 1889, and a
convenient house was built close to Calshot Castle, permission having
been obtained from the Admiralty and War Office after much
negotiation.

Ladies are encouraged to join the club. A room is set apart for them,
and the near relatives of members can join on specially easy terms.
This, a somewhat novel experiment, has succeeded admirably, and many
ladies now attend the races and take a lively interest in the club.
Tea at the club-house has become an afternoon function on race-days.
Intoxicating liquors are not sold, but the housekeeper can generally
put a square meal before a hungry mariner. The race officers have a
tower-room to themselves. The starting gun--a heavy double-barrelled
4-bore--gives as excellent a report in its way as Mr. Parsons, the
courteous correspondent for the 'Field'--sharp, clear, distinct, and
never a hang fire or a doubtful meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *

We now pass to another year, but adhere to our present subject,
because in 1890 the Bembridge Sailing Club first attracted notice by
its energy under the diligent direction of its hon. secretary, Mr.
Blair Onslow Cochrane, to whom we are indebted for the following
characteristic account, which begins by claiming that--

     ... The Bembridge Sailing Club was started in 1886 under the
     name of the Isle of Wight Corinthian Sailing Club, changed
     in 1890 to the present name in order to avoid confusion with
     the Isle of Wight Corinthian Yacht Club (Ryde) since
     defunct.... Many men of moderate means, but fond of
     boat-racing, thought a club whose leading features were:--

     1st. Racing in boats of uniform pattern.

     2nd. Racing in boats of small Y.R.A. rating (2 and under)
     ... would be a success, and in order to keep down expense
     and to suit the harbour, draught was limited to 3 feet.

     The first feature, which consisted of club boats,
     sloop-rigged, with rolling jibs and mainsails so as to reef
     easily, has been very popular; races in this class, both
     single-handed and otherwise, taking place almost daily. The
     subscription to these boats being only 1_l._, a member is
     enabled to have a summer's racing and cruising for this
     small sum, and can, if he be a fair hand in a boat, win good
     prizes. The boats are as nearly as possible equal, and, lots
     being drawn for them before racing, the best man wins as a
     rule. These boats are moored just under the club-house, and
     amusing incidents frequently occur.

     A well-known man from the Emerald Isle, who is a keen and
     successful yacht-sailer, was the cause of a hearty laugh.
     Getting into a club boat, he set the mainsail, and, after
     letting go the moorings, he jumped aft to the helm, but
     unfortunately for him the hook of the mooring chain caught
     in the bobstay and held the boat fast. Advice was freely
     showered upon him from the club-house. 'Haul your port jib
     sheet aft.' 'Push the boom over.' 'Roll up the jib.' 'Steady
     your helm.' 'Get your hair cut,' &c., &c., amid roars of
     laughter; but it was a good ten minutes before he found out
     what was wrong, the boat sheering wildly all the time!

     Races are also held in which each helmsman has to set sail,
     pick up moorings, &c. &c.

     The classes under Y.R.A., 1-raters and 1/2-raters, also
     afford great sport, but resulted in the development of a
     very expensive type of boat, the natural consequence of the
     ascendency of the 'almighty dollar'; but these boats are
     exceedingly capable and safe. In 1891 the racing was only
     stopped one day on account of weather, and that summer was
     peculiarly stormy.

     These small yachts afford an admirable school ... which will
     do more for the real sport of yacht-racing than anything
     else. A man who can sail a 1- or a 1/2-rater will never be
     out of place in a larger ship, or become a mere passenger,
     for he won't race a small boat unless he loves the sport.

     At Bembridge the club has a slipway and cradle, and members
     can haul up their boats at any time, either for repairs or
     drying, at no cost. This is a great boon to a small
     boat-owner.

     There are generally about forty races each season, of from 5
     to 10 knot course. The starting is by semaphore, and recalls
     are effected by blowing a fog-horn to attract attention and
     then exposing the boat's racing flag painted on zinc ...
     thus doing away with cards and enabling post entries.

     The harbour, capable of much improvement, is in the hands of
     a ... company....

     There are two good boat-builders, a good sail-maker, and a
     ship-chandler.

     Tides run very slack, and the railway station, telegraph
     office, steamboat pier, and first-class hotel are all within
     fifty yards.

     Classes for 2-1/2-raters and deep draught 1-raters have now
     (1892) been started, and will race outside....

Further details concerning this excellent and flourishing Club will
be found in table on p. 286.


CLASS RACING, 1890

may be described in the words fives and two-point fives. 'Dis' and
'Decima' were sold and went away, the 10-R. class collapsed, and the
ones and halves were only talked about, not built. The 5-rating class
was thoroughly started this year, and a boat which devoured the cakes
for two seasons was launched in the 2-1/2-rating class.

_Racing Records, 1890._

  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         |        |        Prizes         | Figure |
  |         1890            | Starts |-------+-------+-------|   of   |
  |                         |        | First | Other | Total |  merit |
  |-------------------------+--------+-------+-------+-------+--------|
  |  _5-Rating Class_       |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Glycera                  |   43   |   19  |   12  |   31  |   37   |
  |Alwida                   |   40   |   14  |   16  |   30  |   29   |
  |Archee                   |   14   |    4  |    5  |    9  |   20   |
  |Valentine                |   26   |    5  |    4  |    9  |   15   |
  |Quinque                  |   39   |    2  |   10  |   12  |    4   |
  |Fair Geraldine           |   13   |    0  |    1  |    1  |    0   |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |_2-1/2-Rating Class_     |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |The Babe                 |   27   |   15  |    6  |   21  |   44   |
  |Humming Bird             |   33   |   12  |    3  |   15  |   29   |
  |Dolphin                  |   26   |    7  |    6  |   13  |   21   |
  |Cock-a-Whoop             |   33   |    4  |   18  |   22  |   10   |
  |Thalassa                 |   10   |    1  |    0  |    1  |    6   |
  |Mliss                    |   34   |    2  |   10  |   12  |    5   |
  |Troublesome              |   22   |    1  |    5  |    6  |    3   |
  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

Lord Dunraven became Commodore of the Castle Club in the spring. He
was already an avowed champion for and a generous supporter of small
yacht racing, and during the winter--to be precise, on November 23,
1889--he wrote an epoch-marking letter to the 'Field' which produced
good fruit. In it he said:--

     May I add a word about the small classes on the Solent? Your
     remarks in your issue of the 9th inst. were, I think, rather
     unfair upon the 5's. Roughly speaking, I suppose the cost of
     a 20 is about three-fifths more than the cost of a 10; a 10
     costs nearly two-thirds more than a 5, and a 5 would come
     to about double the expense of a 2-1/2. The proportional
     initial expense diminishes according to size; but the
     converse is the case in respect of working expenses.

     The crew of a 2-1/2 can sail a 5, but double the crew of a 5
     will be found in a 10, and a 20 will require another couple
     of hands and a pilot in addition to the crew of a 10.

     The 5's and 20's appear to be the cheapest classes. Nothing
     can be more delightful than a 2-1/2. It is the perfection of
     racing of its kind; but the absence of any accommodation
     below is a serious drawback under certain circumstances,
     especially to persons living at a distance.

     In a 5 you can change clothes, boil a kettle, and, on a
     pinch, sleep.


_The 5-Raters, 1890._

Lord Dunraven's boat 'Alwida' and Mr. P. Perceval's boat 'Glycera'
were designed by Payne and built at Southampton; Col. Bucknill's
'Quinque' was designed by her owner and built at Hamble in a very
substantial manner by Luke & Co.

[Illustration: 'Quinque,' 5-rater.

(Lt.-Col. Bucknill, R.E.).]

Two new boats were designed by Mr. G. L. Watson--the 'Valentine' for
Mrs. Schenley, and the 'Archee' for Mr. McNish. The elements of all
these boats will be found in the table for 5-raters, and detailed
drawings of 'Valentine' are given in the sixth edition of Dixon Kemp's
'Yacht Architecture.' 'Archee,' the more capable of the two
Watsonites, was built at Wivenhoe. She was beaten on the Solent when
she first tried conclusions, but her sail-plan was improved and 5 cwt.
of lead transferred from inside to out, after which she made some good
matches with 'Glycera' and 'Alwida.' She scored four firsts for
fourteen starts in the Solent, and three more firsts in four ex-Solent
races. Her speed probably astonished her designer as much as other
people, and this surprise, combined with the success of the
2-1/2-rater C.B. boats on the Clyde in 1891, may account for the best
Watsonite in the large classes 1892 belonging to this reviled type.
(See Mr. Watson's evidence before the Y.R.A. Committee, 1886.)

But we live to learn. Mr. McNish deserves some credit in this matter,
as he thoroughly believed in the centreboard when others (including
the designer he employed) were sceptical.

At the end of the season Mr. Payne's boats again headed the list, as
will be seen in the table of records (p. 241). They were built
lighter, they drew more water, and they were sailed better than the
other boats in the class; 5/8-inch mahogany planking was employed, but
they leaked freely at the garboards, and their floors had to be
strengthened.

'Fair Geraldine' only scored one third prize in thirteen starts.


_The 2-1/2-Raters, 1890._

This may be termed 'Babe's' year, as a boat of that name built for Mr.
W. A. Beauclerk from a design by Mr. Payne won fifteen firsts in
twenty-seven starts on the Solent. She was not the longest boat in the
class, but had a foot more than 'Hummer.' She had fairly good depth
and displacement, and in some respects was like her principal
rival--especially in the faultless manner in which she was sailed and
prepared for every race. Her owner a good helmsman and keen sportsman,
her skipper first-rate in every way, she came out of the builder's
yard as smooth as a bottle, and after two years' racing everything
about her was in the same high-class racing condition.

The 'Dolphin,' designed by Mr. Clayton, proved to be fast and capable.
In addition, she had the germs of a new type in her--viz. the
overhanging end to evade the measurement of length, which has since
developed such startling proportions. Drawings of this boat are given
in 'Yacht Architecture.' It is difficult to point to any defect in her
lines or general design.

'Camilla' and 'Janetta,' 26-1/2 feet, and 'Mliss,' 25 feet, were
designed by Mr. Payne, 'Mliss' only doing well. She belonged to Miss
Cox, whose sister, Mrs. Rudston-Read, had the 'Troublesome' built at
Fay's, from a design by Mr. Soper--a somewhat ugly boat with a counter
and flare bow. She was fast in light weather, and won the Challenge
Plate given by Mr. George Schenley to the Castle Yacht Club.

[Illustration: 'The Babe,' 2-1/2-rater. Designed by A. E. Payne,
1890.]

'Cock-a-Whoop,' built in 1889 for Captain Hughes's two sons, from a
design by Mr. Payne, was raced, as already stated, in the 5-rater
class at first, but in 1890 she was rearranged to fit the 2.5 class,
in which she raced.

[Illustration: 'SAVOURNA'

_5-rater. (H. L. Mulholland, Esq.) Designed by A. E. Payne, 1891_.]

Two of the narrow boats, 'Cosette' and 'Thief,' did not fit out for
the Solent racing, and the third, 'Queen Mab,' did not succeed in
winning a single first prize in six starts. The same remark applies to
'Camilla' with nineteen starts, to 'Janetta' with ten starts, and to
'G.G.' with five starts. Four boats, two being new boats by Payne, and
one a 'last year's boat' by Watson, failed to score a single point for
their figure of merit! These boats are consequently omitted in the
table of records, but full particulars of the racing can be found in a
table published October 20, in 'Land and Water.'

We now pass to 1891, which will be remembered as the 1/2-raters' year.


CLASS RACING, 1891

The 10-raters 'Dis' and 'Decima' raced in a few matches on the Solent;
but it was tame work, the old story being constantly retold. In the
end, however, 'Decima' was found to be over her rating and had to
disgorge her prizes. Hence the final results are only misleading, and
are not entered in the record table on p. 246.


_The 5-Raters, 1891._

'Valentine' was replaced by the 'Windfall,' and 'Glycera,' by the
'Savourna,' the two new boats being designed by Mr. Payne and built by
the new firm of Summers & Payne, which like a phoenix had risen from
the ashes of a disastrous fire at the Belvidere yards of A. R. Payne &
Sons and Black & Co. (late Hatcher & Co.).

Mr. Summers, having command of capital, bought up both these firms,
took Mr. Arthur Payne into partnership, erected labour-saving
machinery, rebuilt the premises in a very substantial manner, and
brought a good business capacity to bear upon the whole concern.

In the two new 5-raters the fin-keel, the lug, and the general
arrangements on the 'Babe' and 'Hummer' were carried into the larger
class with complete success. Mr. Langrishe joined the class with a new
boat, the 'Iernia,' built at Gosport and designed by the son of Fife.
She differed from Mr. Payne's boats in possessing considerable
overhang, in a flare bow, and a long counter. Her hull was somewhat
similar to 'Valentine,' and she was rigged as a lug sloop like
'Savourna.' 'Windfall,' however, sported the divided skirt in front of
the mast.

_Racing Records, 1891._

  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         |        |        Prizes         | Figure |
  |         1891            | Starts |-------+-------+-------|   of   |
  |                         |        | First | Other | Total |  merit |
  |-------------------------+--------+-------+-------+-------+--------|
  |  _5-Rating Class_       |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Windfall                 |   40   |   22  |   12  |   34  |   45   |
  |Savourna                 |   40   |   14  |   20  |   34  |   29   |
  |Alwida                   |   29   |    6  |    8  |   14  |   16   |
  |Iernia                   |   29   |    3  |    4  |    7  |    8   |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |_2-1/2-Rating Class_     |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |The Babe                 |   45   |   36  |    3  |   39  |   67   |
  |Avadavat                 |   40   |   12  |   17  |   29  |   25   |
  |Fiera                    |   33   |    7  |    9  |   17  |   17   |
  |Janetta                  |   36   |    1  |   11  |   12  |    2   |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  | _1/2-Rating Class_      |        |       |       |       |        |
  |                         |        |       |       |       |        |
  |Spruce                   |   12   |    6  |    2  |    8  |   35   |
  |Tiny                     |   33   |   14  |    7  |   21  |   34   |
  |Narua                    |   25   |    9  |    6  |   15  |   28   |
  |Bairn                    |   29   |    9  |   11  |   20  |   25   |
  |Dee Dee                  |   38   |    8  |   19  |   27  |   17   |
  |Jeanie                   |   50   |    5  |   17  |   22  |    8   |
  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

'Katherine,' a new 5, built, designed, and sailed by Mr. Black (who
had retired from business), was a capable boat of 31 L.W.L., with a
straight stem and a pretty counter; but she failed to score.

'Quinque' had been altered during the winter, but was not improved.
'Alwida' was not changed until in August the lug was adopted, when the
same was done for 'Quinque.' Their sailing was improved, but not
enough to win.

[Illustration: THE 'BABE'

_2-1/2-rater. Designed by A. E. Payne, 1890._]

The racing proved the superiority of Mr. Payne's designs, which now
and for the third year headed this class. See table of records, which
shows that 'Windfall' and 'Savourna' competed in no less than forty
class matches. This was due to the senior yacht clubs like the
Squadron, Royal London, Royal Victoria, and Royal Albert giving extra
match days for the Solent classes. Coincident with this fashion of
giving numerous races there arose in some quarters a desire to do it
economically, one club being specially noticeable. For instance, at
its annual regatta, 1891, the second prize was not awarded to Lord
Dunraven, as only three boats started, although the prize was given to
the club by another owner and several rather heavy entrance fees had
been collected. In fact, the club cleared 7_l._ 15_s._ by the race.
This, and other cases of the kind, may cheer those who tremble at the
cost of giving races, and may even point a way whereby less wealthy
clubs may 'turn an honest penny.'


_The 2-1/2-Raters, 1891._

'Humming Bird,' 'Mliss,' 'Dolphin,' and 'Camilla' did not race,
'Hummer' eventually going to Ireland and 'Camilla' to the East coast,
'Mliss' and 'Dolphin' to Plymouth. The new boat 'Fiera' was designed
for Miss Cox by Mr. Payne, who also turned out the 'Avadavat,' 28 feet
L.W.L., for Mr. Wilson Hoare. Mr. E. N. Harvey had the 'Undine' built
at Cowes from a design by Mr. Clayton, and Sir G. Pearce the
'Squirrel,' designed by Stone. 'Janetta' was raced again.

Not one of them could touch the 'Babe,' which seemed to go faster than
ever now that her principal antagonist, the 'Hummer,' was out of the
way.

The record for the season will be found in the table, and 'Babe's'
figure of merit--67--obtained by thirty-six first prizes in forty-five
starts, was a wonderful performance.


_The 1/2-Raters, 1891._

Just as the 2-1/2-raters had been the outcome of an agreement among
some members of the Castle Club to build and start the class in 1888,
so the 1/2-rating class in 1891 was produced by a similar agreement
among certain enthusiastic boat-sailers of the Bembridge Sailing Club.
Mr. Payne was consulted, and quite a fleet of these little ships was
built in the Belvidere yards during the winter of 1890-91--viz.
'Narua,' 'Eileen,' 'Otokesan,' 'Dee Dee,' 'Idono,' 'Ladybird,'
'Kittiwake.' These were all capital little boats--miniature yachts, in
fact--with rather heavy lead keels of the fin type, and with good
displacement--some 11 or 12 cwt.--about three-quarters of it being
ballast.

Two more of similar type--viz. 'Tiny' and 'Dancing Girl'--were built
at Hamble from designs by Mr. Herbert Ridsdale, and the 'Coquette' was
built at Gosport from a design by Mr. C. Nicholson. A boat designed by
Fife, the 'Jeanie,' had a counter 4.6 feet long. Their L.W.L. usually
varied from 15-1/2 to 17 feet. The 'Mosquito,' designed by Mr. Soper,
was built of cedar; the others were planked with mahogany, and all
were good specimens of the modern art of boat-building.

Most of the sail-plans consisted of a large lug and a spitfire jib
secured to a roller which could be revolved on the forestay as an axle
by means of cords led aft to the well of the boat. Thus the sail could
be reefed by rolling it up like a blind. This was the invention of
Captain Du Bowlay. It is very convenient, especially for single-handed
sailing. By a further contrivance, the roller can be carried on the
end of an iron or steel arm pivoted in a goose-neck secured to the
front of the mast and worked by guys from the well; in which event the
forestay is rigged in front of the roller. Thus the jib can be reefed
or unreefed, or set at an angle, and converted into a spinnaker in a
few seconds. (See illustration on opposite page).

These little craft are wonderful sea-boats, and created quite a furore
of enthusiastic excitement throughout the season, several ladies
taking an active interest in the sport, and some of them steering
their own boats in the roughest weather. But they were not destined to
have all the fun to themselves. In the middle of the season a spruce
young gentleman arrived from the metropolitan waters with a
contrivance termed a 'canoe yawl'--a shallow, light, buoyant thing
having little or no ballast except the crew, who sat in a canvas-bag
arrangement to be emptied as occasion required on rough days. The
craft was as easily upset as righted; but the crew combined the
acrobat with the water-rat, and showed great skill in keeping the
little ship right side up.

[Illustration: 'Mosquito,' with roll foresail. Designed by Soper,
1892.]

The 'Torpedo,' another device of the kind, and owned by Mr. Stewart,
came from Oxford.

The owners of the Solent half-raters were not too well pleased to see
some of the prizes going into the lockers of these canoe yawls, and a
fine string of letters appeared in the 'Field'; but the excitement
moderated when it was found that the raters usually scored honours.

One other type was tried--the C.B. dinghy. 'Bairn,' however, was the
only example in this class. Many of the clubs limited the crew of
half-raters to two hands. This did not suit the 'Bairn' type, which
requires three or four hands to windward as 'ballast' in the usual
Solent weather.

It is impossible to give a summary of the racing in this class,
because it is very imperfectly reported in the sporting press, and the
club secretaries do not invariably retain correct records even of the
starters and winners.

'Kittiwake' was generally considered the best boat of the year; but
several others ran her close. The only boats recorded in the
'Yacht-racing Calendar' are 'Tiny,' 'Narua,' 'Bairn,' and 'Jeanie,'
and for these the figures are given in our table of records.
'Spruce's' record includes her Solent races only. She won numerous
prizes in other waters.


CLASS RACING, 1892

began, so to speak, with a conference of club delegates under the
hospitable roof of the Royal Southampton Yacht Club, on the last
Saturday in February. An amicable meeting agreed to encourage as many
open races as possible by withdrawing the restriction that owners and
helmsmen should be members of the clubs.[9] It was also decided that
the classes 'not exceeding 1/2-rating,' and 'exceeding 1/2-rating but
not exceeding 1-rating,' should be added to 'the Solent classes,' and
be supported by the yacht and sailing clubs on the Solent. Dates for
match days were agreed to, and the meeting separated.

[Footnote 9: The Royal Portsmouth Corinthian Yacht Club, however,
still continues to give races only to those owners who are members of
the club; and the Royal Southampton adheres to the condition that the
yachts in the small classes shall be steered by members of the club.]

The result was satisfactory, as better sport in the small classes was
seen on the Solent in 1892 than in any previous year.

_Racing Records, 1892._

  +-------------------------------------------------------+
  |                    |      |      Prizes     |         |
  |      1892          |Starts|-----------------|Figure of|
  |                    |      |First|Other|Total|  merit  |
  |--------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+---------|
  |_5-Rating Class_    |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  | Dacia              |   31 |  23 |   4 |  27 |    59   |
  | Cyane              |   12 |   6 |   4 |  10 |    34   |
  | Windfall           |    9 |   4 |   4 |   8 |    29   |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_2-1/2-Rating Class_|      |     |     |     |         |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  | Gareth             |    9 |   5 |   1 |   6 |    36   |
  | Faugh-a-Ballagh    |   49 |  15 |  15 |  30 |    26   |
  | Polynia            |   25 |   7 |   5 |  12 |    22   |
  | Papoose            |   41 |  10 |  15 |  25 |    20   |
  | Hoopoo             |   44 |   9 |  17 |  26 |    17   |
  | Cockatoo           |   40 |   7 |   8 |  15 |    14   |
  | Molly              |   41 |   5 |  14 |  19 |    10   |
  | Stork              |   36 |   4 |   5 |   9 |     9   |
  | Bud                |   33 |   2 |   8 |  10 |     5   |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_1-Rating Class_    |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  | Doushka            |   23 |  13 |   3 |  16 |    44   |
  | Nansheen           |   32 |  15 |   8 |  23 |    38   |
  | Pup                |   23 |   7 |   8 |  15 |    23   |
  | Rogue              |   45 |  11 |  11 |  22 |    20   |
  | Mahatma            |    ? |  12 |  18 |  30 |     ?   |
  | Barbet             |    ? |   1 |  12 |  13 |     ?   |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_1/2-Rating Class_  |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                    |      |     |     |     |         |
  | No complete records|      |     |     |     |         |
  +-------------------------------------------------------+


_The 10-Raters, 1892._

An attempt to revive the 10-R. class was made by Mr. J. Gretton, jun.,
who built the 'Doreen' from a design by Mr. W. Fife, jun. She forms a
startling exponent of the modern racer.

Her mainsail, a lug, contains 1,061 square feet of canvas by Y.R.A.
measurement, her total S.A. being 1,572, her L.W.L. 38 feet, and her
L.O.A. 56.5 feet (see table for 10-raters). A fine, seaworthy craft,
fast in a breeze, but not so good in light winds owing to the absence
of a sky-scraper. She has the divided skirt forward, but the forestay
is taken through the deck some distance inside the stem-head, this
having an O.H. of 8.2 feet. This arrangement was used for a similar
reason on the cutter yacht 'Margaret,' 265 tons, illustrated in the
'Field,' 1853.

[Illustration: 'Doreen,' 20 (J. Gretton, Jun., Esq.). Designed by
Fife, 1892.]

The present owner of 'Dis,' Mr. Sparks, came forward very pluckily to
battle for some of the class prizes on the Solent and the South Coast,
and scored on a few occasions in light weather; in a heeling breeze,
however, 'Doreen' romped away from him.

[Illustration: 'DACIA'

_5-rater (Earl of Dudley). Designed by C. Nicholson, jun., 1892._]

Although the 10's form one of the 'Solent classes,' they do not
flourish. If men built to the class they would get plenty of racing,
as in 1889, but Lord Dunraven's letter, already quoted on p. 241,
gives ample reasons for the 5- and the 20-raters being preferred.


_The 5-Raters, 1892._

This may be termed 'Dacia's' year, when a young and comparatively
unknown designer succeeded in lowering the colours of Mr. Payne where
others had so signally failed.

[Illustration: Lord Dunraven's 'Cyane,' 1892.]

'Dacia' was built at Gosport for Mr. R. H. Langrishe from a design by
Mr. C. Nicholson (jun.). For her dimensions, &c., see table for
5-raters (p. 274). She carries her sail well, but is probably built
too light. In the middle of the racing season she had to lay up for a
time and have a new stem fitted, presumably because the bow was
straining. She carries a _deep_ fin-keel, which draws about 8.5 feet.
It is coppered. Her O.H. both fore and aft is extreme, and her sailing
length is thereby considerably increased when sailing even at moderate
speeds. But her success must also be due to a well-considered design
as a whole, because her strongest point is clawing to windward, which
she does in a marvellous way, blow high blow low, and her great length
cannot assist her much on this point of sailing.

She cost no more than other boats of the same rating, but when the
Earl of Dudley took a fancy to her, Mr. Langrishe sold her early in
the season for 'four figures,' it is said; and she was worth it, for
it is better to have one successful than two unsuccessful racers.
Early in September she raced a rubber of matches against the Clyde
crack 'Natica,' Tor Bay being selected as the 'neutral water.' The
stakes were heavy, and she won two out of the three races, being
steered to victory by her designer.[10] During the season Lord Dudley
generally steered her himself, but her designer steered at Tor Bay.

[Footnote 10: She subsequently lost the match on a protest, which was
referred for settlement to the Council Y.R.A.]

[Illustration: 'Windfall,' 5-rater. Designed by A. E. Payne, 1891.]

The 'Cyane,' about the same L.W.L. as the 'Dacia,' was built from a
design by Mr. Payne for the Earl of Dunraven, who, as commodore of the
Castle Club, and one of the first supporters of 5-raters, takes a
great interest in the class. 'Cyane' started well before 'Dacia' and
'Windfall' were launched, but afterwards only succeeded in beating
'Dacia' once. She was laid up in the middle of the season.

'Squall,' a sister 5, built for Mr. A. F. S. Crawford, was not so
fast, and failed to win pride of place in any race on the Solent.

'Windfall,' with her new owner, Mr. Gubbins, at the helm, did better
against 'Dacia' than any other yacht on the Solent, but she left for
the Emerald Isle early in the season.

'Savourna' was also raced by her owner, the Hon. H. L. Mulholland,
M.P., before going to Ireland, but she did not succeed so well as when
Mr. Perceval had her, or it may be that 'Windfall' went better than in
1891.

'Quinque' had been lengthened during the winter, and was greatly
improved thereby, but she failed to score until in July her keel was
lowered, after which she beat 'Dacia' twice in light weather, and won
twelve prizes before the end of the season.

The full history of 'Quinque' during her four years' racing is most
instructive to the student on account of her numerous alterations,
each of which afforded more trustworthy information on some special
point than it is possible to obtain from the examination of new boats,
however successful they may be; but the story is too long for these
pages.[11]

[Footnote 11: For further information and drawings of 'Quinque,' see
the _Yachtsman_ of July 20 and October 5, 1893.]

The records of the Solent racing are entered in the table, wherein it
will be found that 'Dacia' made the excellent figure of merit 59, in
spite of first two prizes lost by minor infractions of the rules,
before Lord Dudley raced her.


_The 2-1/2-Raters, 1892._

This year was full of surprises in the 2-1/2-rating class, as indeed
in all the small classes.

These were mainly due to two gentlemen, Mr. Nat Herreshoff of Rhode
Island, U.S., and Mr. C. Nicholson (jun.) of Gosport, G.B.

The success of their boats was largely owing to their long overhangs,
producing a sailing length greatly in excess of the length measured
for their rating.

[Illustration: 'Faugh-a-Ballagh,' 2-1/2-rater, 1892.]

Mr. Herreshoff also took full advantage of the power given by the
bulb-keel to give great stability to a boat of very small
displacement. He was therefore content to apply long overhangs to
boats of moderate L.W.L. as compared with the English boats in the
same class.

Mr. Nicholson, however, placed his long overhangs on boats of long
L.W.L., and used fin-keels. Complete success crowned both these types.

Unfortunately the 'Gareth' never met 'Wenonah,' and the crack 2-1/2 of
the year is therefore still a matter of doubt.

'Wenonah's' elements, so far as known, are added to this list of
boats, in order to facilitate comparison. She never raced on the
Solent. She is sloop-rigged, with a very short gaff, and a
fore-triangle, about the same as 'Faugh-a-Ballagh.'

[Illustration: Old Fashion.]

[Illustration: 'Quinque.']

[Illustration: 'Cyane.']

[Illustration: 'Dacia.']

'Gareth' is 3 feet longer on the L.W.L., but 0.8 foot shorter than
'Wenonah' in L.O.A. She is, therefore, a fairer boat than 'Wenonah,' a
greater percentage of her length being taxed for rating. It is an
insult to the intelligence of a designer to suppose that any portion
of the hull is useless. Consequently we must assume that all the 37.5
feet of L.O.A. in 'Wenonah' is useful, and, as the sailing length was
that which the Y.R.A. intended to tax for rating in 1886, the
'Wenonah' cannot be regarded as a 'short boat.'

[Illustration: Old Fashion.]

[Illustration: 'Lady Nan.']

[Illustration: 'Dolphin.']

[Illustration: 'Molly.']

[Illustration: 'Dacia.']

The ability of a designer is legitimately employed in evading a
measurement rule as far as possible, as did Mr. Edward Hammond Bentall
in designing 'Jullanar' in 1875, but the experience that is found at
the council table of the Y.R.A. should checkmate such evasions of the
spirit in which their rules are framed.

'Gareth' is not so excessive in type as 'Molly' and 'Stork' by the
same designer, which came out earlier in the season and won a good
many prizes before Mr. Payne's boats of the 'Cockatoo' type were
launched. When this occurred, 'Molly's' keel was recast and lowered,
after which she was less successful in any weather.

Mr. Payne built a number of 2-1/2-raters for this year's racing; three
of them--the 'Papoose,' 'Polynia,' and 'Cockatoo'--have a canoe-shaped
M.S., and fin-keels which taper upwards--not quite bulb-keels, but
nearly so. The lead was also shaped like half a dumb-bell in
longitudinal elevation. They were beamy boats of small displacement
and great stability, and beat the rest of the fleet easily in a
heeling breeze until 'Gareth' appeared. In light weather they were
generally beaten by 'Hoopoo,' 'Mynah,' 'Faugh-a-Ballagh,' 'Molly,' and
'Stork.' 'Faugh-a-Ballagh' perhaps possessed the highest _average_
speed of any boat in the class, and seemed to go very much like the
'Babe,' which is high praise. At the end of the season her string of
flags was the longest, but this is often rather deceptive--especially
when better boats are launched late, and when contests are
occasionally selected for winning flags rather than the highest class
honours.

'Hoopoo' was well raced; but the owner picked his weather,
occasionally refusing to start in a strong wind when he thought he
'hadn't a chance.' No doubt this is correct if the 'Yachtsman's' medal
be the object sought for; but few men possess the strength of mind to
stand out with their boat at the starting line, crew eager for the
fray, and everything all-a-taut-oh.

[Illustration: Design for 1-rater by J. M. Soper, 1892.]

'Mynah,' another fast boat, was well sailed by her owner, Lieutenant
F. Elwes, of the 68th Light Infantry, whenever he could escape from
the duties of camp life, inspections, and summer manoeuvres.

'Bud,' designed by Mr. Soper for the Earl of Desart, did nothing so
long as she stuck to her heavy C.B. made of gun-metal. When it was
discarded, and a triangular lead keel fitted, she went better and led
the fleet at the finish on two occasions when the weather suited her.

'Calva,' a new boat by Mr. Payne, also 'Modwen' and 'Walrus' by other
designers, were failures as prize-winners on the Solent.

There were no less than 66 races for 2-1/2-raters _on the Solent_ in
1892, and the records of the best boats are given in the table,
'Gareth' leading with a figure of merit, 36.


_The 1-Raters, 1892._

This class had a half-hearted existence in 1890 and 1891, when Mr. T.
Ratsey's 'Pup' (see table) won most of the races, easily defeating the
yachts' cutters of about the same rating, and generally succeeding in
giving the time allowance to the 1/2-raters in the few mixed races
open to her. The club conference, already described, having in 1892
added this class to the 'Solent classes,' a good programme and a full
entry resulted.

'Pup' still competed, and went well in light weather. She is one of
the 'Bairn' or C.B. dinghy type, with plenty of beam and little
ballast, depending upon her crew for much of her stability. A good
type, and much less costly than the modern 1-rater, as, for example,
the crack 'Doushka,' built by Payne for Mr. Perceval. This boat is
probably like 'Cockatoo' in type. She stands up to her canvas well,
and claws to windward in a wonderful way. The harder it blows the
better she goes, but she fails in light weather.

'Nansheen,' another fast boat designed by the son of Fife for Mr.
Burrowes, is a good sample of the 'weighted centreboard' type. She
was built in Ireland by Doyle, and is a fine specimen of sound work.
The C.B. is supported by a wire rope on a drum, worked by worm and
wheel so that it is always supported in any position without keying,
and can rise if it strike the ground with force.

The 'Rogue' was another good boat, designed by Mr. Ridsdale for Mr. R.
Vogan. At first she failed in windward work, but a bulb-keel was put
upon her which quite cured the defect, and she then won plenty of
prizes, her racing with 'Nansheen' being close and exciting.

[Illustration: Design for a centreboard 1-rater by J. M. Soper, 1892.]

'Mahatma,' designed by her owner Mr. Flemmich, also went well. She now
belongs to the Ladies Fanny and Blanche Stanhope.

The 'Argula,' built at Gosport from a design by Mr. C. Nicholson, was
a fast boat, but proved to be over rating. She was similar to the
2-1/2-rater 'Molly' in general arrangement and appearance.

'Barbet' was a good boat designed by Mr. Payne for Mr. Wilson Hoare.

All these boats have the fashionable rig, Ratsey's lug, and a
small--very small--foresail. Dr. Hughes, of East Cowes, however,
re-introduced the split lug in his 1-rater 'Cariad,' and she went well
when this severe handicap is allowed for.

The 'Kitten,' built by Mr. Sibbick for the Hon. W. Ruthven, won a few
second prizes; but 'Oretta' and 'Minuet,' built at Cowes for Mr.
Lancaster Owen and his son, were not so successful, and the other
boats which occasionally started--viz. 'Query,' 'Anaconda,' 'Dorothy,'
and 'Tramp'--failed to score.

Nearly twenty 1-raters competed during the season--pretty good for the
first year of a class, and indicative that the class is popular.

A 1-rater is, or ought to be, a good wholesome boat, costing but
little more than a 1/2-rater, either to build or maintain.

Most of the clubs limit the crew to three hands--an excellent rule--to
prevent the introduction of a racing canoe with the Malays' system of
ballasting.[12]

[Footnote 12: This (and other limits of crew for the classes of
5-rating and under) has since been embodied in the Y.R.A. rules.]

The racing in the 1-rater class is not fully reported in the sporting
press, and the records given in our table have been obtained from the
owners.


_The 1/2-Raters, 1892._

This class suffered from the attention bestowed on the 1-raters.
'Kittiwake' had been sold to H.R.H. Prince Henry of Prussia, and
'Eileen,' 'Jeanie,' 'Bairn,' 'Narua,' 'Spruce,' and 'Torpedo' dropped
out of the racing from one cause or another. 'Coquette,' 'Dancing
Girl,' 'Tiny,' 'Dee Dee,' 'Mosquito,' and 'Ladybird' continued,
however, to race on the Solent, thus forming an 'exhibition of Old
Masters' and young mistresses, only one having changed hands during
the winter, and Miss Sutton replaced her with the 'Pique,' a new boat
by Mr. Payne.

The late Mr. Sidney Watson also purchased a new boat from Mr. Payne,
and called her the 'Lilliput.' She was the last boat he ever sailed
in. He much enjoyed racing her, and not infrequently led the little
fleet. His sudden death in the prime of life was a great shock to all
his numerous friends on the Solent.

English men and women are born lovers of sport, and attached to the
tools they employ: the huntsman to his horse and hounds, the shooter
to his dogs and guns, the turfman to his thoroughbred, and the sailing
man to his yacht. A real devotion may exist for inanimate pieces of
wood and metal. Especially is there poetry, and plenty of it, in a
boat--that dancing, playful, wilful thing that only obeys the skilful
hand. Ask any old crab-catcher. Yet racing seems to blunt the feeling.
Many owners part with their boats and crews at the end of every
season, and allow themselves no time really to care for any one of
them.

Rather late in the season a new boat appeared designed by Mr.
Herreshoff. She belonged to Miss W. Sutton, and was named very
appropriately 'Wee Winn.' She and her owner certainly did win, in even
a more decisive manner than 'Wenonah' on the Clyde. There was no
mistake about it. The boat showed a clean pair of heels to the rest of
the class in every sort of weather. She is a long boat, the true
length being concealed in an excessive overhang--15.6 L.W.L., 23.9
L.O.A., M.S. like a canoe, small displacement, bulb-keel 3 cwt.,
draught under 3 ft. An approximate representation of her lines is
given on p. 266, and the illustration on opposite page gives an idea
of her appearance when racing.

Towards the end of the season Mr. Soper of Fay's designed and built a
fast boat, 'The Daisy,' of somewhat similar type; about the same
L.O.A., but longer L.W.L., and having more beam, depth, draught, and a
heavier bulb-keel than 'Wee Winn.' They only met twice, and 'Daisy'
was beaten; but she got away from the rest easily enough, and these
two boats are certainly the fastest 1/2-raters on the Solent at the
present time.[13]

[Footnote 13: The 'Daisy' was exhibited at the Royal Aquarium in 1893,
and sold to some gentleman in the Antipodes; so that her keel, instead
of her stern, is now pointing at the Solent 1/2-raters.]

[Illustration: Miss Sutton's 'Wee Winn,' 1/2 rater. Designed by
Herreshoft, 1892.]


CLASS RACING, 1893

The racing on the Solent (apart from the large classes) during the
season of 1893 will be principally remembered by the advent of the
20-rater class. It was not adopted at the Conference of Clubs held at
the Club House of the R.P.C.Y.C, in February as one of the Solent
Classes, which remained at 1/2-raters, 1-raters, 2-1/2-raters,
5-raters, and 10-raters; but the 10-rater class being practically
defunct on the Solent during this year, the clubs were enabled to
offer a capital programme to the 20-raters, for which class the Earl
of Dunraven built the 'Deirdre' (L. 46.2, S. 2,590) from a design by
Mr. G. L. Watson, the Earl of Dudley built the 'Vigorna' (L. 46.7, S.
2,569) at Gosport from a design by Mr. C. Nicholson (jun.), and Mr. F.
C. Hill built the 'Dragon III.' (L. 45.3, S. 2,593) from a design by
Mr. Fife (jun.); Mr. E. Jessop also purchased Mr. Hill's 'Dragon II.'
(L. 45.7, S. 2,624), and raced her on the Solent for the first half of
the season under the new name of 'Molly.' The 'Maladetta' (L.46, S.
2,608), designed by her owner, Mr. J. E. McGildowny, also competed in
a few races in August, but without much success. The most extreme
boat, Lord Dudley's, proved a complete failure as a racing machine. In
type she was similar to the 'Pilgrim,' built in America for the Cup
competition. 'Deirdre' was also a highly developed machine, but she
was beaten by 'Dragon III.,' the more moderate design. However, both
she and 'Dragon III.' generally found no difficulty in defeating
'Molly,' and on several occasions during the season 'Deirdre' was able
to win the principal prize, as will be seen in the table on p. 268.

[Illustration: 'Wee Winn,' 1/2-rater. Designed by Herreshoff for Miss
Sutton, 1892.]

[Illustration: 'Daisy.' Designed by J. M. Soper, 1892.]


_The 5-Raters, 1893._

'Red Lancer's' record of 11 first prizes in 13 starts is exceedingly
good. The start for the Squadron race on Aug. 3 is not counted against
her, as the first prize should have been awarded to her. She always
won easily in light weather, and it required half a gale for 'Dacia'
to get in front of her. Before 'Red Lancer's' arrival, at the end of
July, 'Dacia' scored by far the best of the Solent trio, the other two
boats ('Quinque' and 'Fleur-de-Lis') being a good match _inter se_.

'Valentine' was sailed capitally, and made a good fight for a place in
light weather; but she never won first honours, and was as clearly
outclassed as she was in 1890 when she competed against 'Alwida,'
'Glycera,' 'Quinque,' and 'Archee.'


_Racing Records for 1893._

  +--------------------------------------------------------+
  |                     |      |      Prizes     |         |
  |      1893           |Starts|-----------------|Figure of|
  |                     |      |First|Other|Total|  merit  |
  |---------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+---------|
  |_20-Rating Class_    |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |Dragon III           |  29  |  19 |   8 |  27 |   52    |
  |Deirdre              |  29  |   9 |  10 |  19 |   25    |
  |Molly (Dragon II.)   |  19  |   1 |   5 |   6 |    4    |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_5-Rating Class_     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |Red Lancer           |  13  |  11 |   1 |  12 |   59    |
  |Dacia                |  27  |  12 |  10 |  22 |   35    |
  |Fleur-de-Lis (Squall)|  41  |  11 |   9 |  20 |   22    |
  |Quinque              |  37  |   9 |  11 |  20 |   20    |
  |Valentine            |  12  |   0 |   2 |   2 |    0    |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_2-1/2-Rating Class_ |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |Meueen               |  49  |  26 |  14 |  40 |   44.8  |
  |Gareth               |  53  |  25 |  17 |  42 |   40.1  |
  |Elf                  |  34  |   6 |   5 |  11 |   14.3  |
  |Manx Cat (Polynia)   |  46  |   3 |  16 |  19 |    5.4  |
  |Papoose              |  48  |   3 |  16 |  19 |    5.1  |
  |Kismet               |  34  |   2 |   6 |   8 |    4.8  |
  |Faugh-a-Ballagh      |  10  |   1 |   6 |   7 |    4.5  |
  |Gavotte              |  26  |   1 |   2 |   3 |    3.0  |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_1-Rating Class_     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |Morwena              |  36  |  20 |   8 |  28 |   45.4  |
  |Sacharissa           |  49  |  21 |  14 |  35 |   36.2  |
  |Scud                 |  20  |   6 |   7 |  13 |   22.6  |
  |Tipcat               |  33  |   8 |  13 |  21 |   19.6  |
  |Tartar               |  34  |   6 |  12 |  18 |   14.3  |
  |Wolfhound            |  32  |   5 |   5 |  10 |   12.6  |
  |Whisper              |   4  |   1 |   1 |   2 |   12.5  |
  |Doushka              |  12  |   2 |   5 |   7 |   11.4  |
  |Hark Holla           |   5  |   1 |   1 |   2 |   10.7  |
  |Whoo Whoop           |  18  |   2 |   3 |   5 |    8.2  |
  |Kitten               |  10  |   1 |   2 |   3 |    6.5  |
  |Roulette             |  11  |   1 |   2 |   3 |    6.1  |
  |Javelin              |  33  |   1 |   5 |   6 |    2.5  |
  |Fantasy              |  36  |   1 |  11 |  12 |    2.3  |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |_1/2-Rating Class_   |      |     |     |     |         |
  |                     |      |     |     |     |         |
  |Wee Winn             |  11  |   8 |   3 |  11 |   49.1  |
  |Coquette             |  52  |  25 |  14 |  39 |   40.8  |
  |Koodoo               |   7  |   4 |   2 |   6 |   34.5  |
  |Ragamuffin           |  12  |   5 |   4 |   9 |   28.6  |
  |Pique                |  14  |   3 |   8 |  11 |   15.2  |
  |Mosquito             |  51  |   9 |  18 |  27 |   14.97 |
  |Queen Bee            |   3  |   1 |   1 |   2 |   14.92 |
  |Ladybird             |  37  |   6 |   7 |  13 |   13.3  |
  |Humming-top          |  20  |   3 |   5 |   8 |   11.3  |
  |Spruce               |  18  |   2 |   3 |   5 |    8.2  |
  |Lady Grizel          |  21  |   2 |   6 |   8 |    7.2  |
  |Idono                |  18  |   1 |   6 |   7 |    4.1  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------+


_The 2-1/2-Raters, 1893._

The racing in this class soon became principally interesting in the
duel for first honours between the Gosport boat 'Gareth,' owned by Mr.
Henderson, and frequently sailed by Mr. Collingwood Hughes, and the
Herreshoff boat 'Meueen,' owned and sailed by Mr. Hardie Jackson, who
did so well with 'Faugh-a-Ballagh' in 1892. 'Meueen' was fully 'up to
date' except her rig, which was sloop with a gaff-mainsail. This,
however, she soon discarded for the more fashionable rig in the small
classes, and she always made a fine race with 'Gareth,' except in the
hardest weather. Even in strong winds and heavy seas she did well
after her lead was increased. She has great overhang, like 'Wenonah'
and 'Wee Winn'; but there is nothing excessive in beam or in
shallowness of body. Her elements are not at present obtainable,
except L.W.L. 24.82 feet, and sail-area 596 square feet. 'Gareth'
raced this year on a length for rating of 29.15, and a sail-area of
533 square feet, which together produced a rating of 2.58, and she had
to allow time for the excess of rating over 2.5, in accordance with
Rule 3, Y.R.A., as revised in 1893.

The 'Elf,' a new boat built at Gosport for Mr. Dudley Ward from a
design by Mr. C. Nicholson (jun.), was rather too advanced in type.
She did fairly well at first, but fell off as the other boats were
gradually tuned up to their maxima of efficiency. Her figure of merit
was 14.3, 'Gareth's' being 40.1, and 'Meueen' heading the class with
44.8. 'Kismet,' another new boat, built and designed by Payne for Miss
Cox, proved to be a disappointment, as the record table indicates.

Mr. Gurtside Tipping, R.N., purchased 'Polynia' during the winter of
1892, and raced her in '93 under the new name 'Manx Cat.' She did very
well until her keel and attached rudder were removed and replaced by a
fin with bulb and a 'disconnected' rudder. This made her very hard on
the helm, and she rarely scored afterwards.

Mr. Paul Ralli stuck to his good boat 'Papoose,' and tried to invade
the 5-rater class with her; but this was frustrated mainly by the
clubs promptly adopting conditions to stop this form of inter-class
racing.

The 'Faugh-a-Ballagh' started in 16 races and scored one first prize;
as did 'Gavotte,' which started 26 times on the Solent. 'Undine'
started twice, 'Fiera' and 'Cassowary' seven times, but no prizes came
to the lockers of these three boats.

It is questionable whether this class will retain its popularity. The
2-1/2-rater is decidedly an expensive boat; the first cost and
maintenance being nearly as much as a 5-rater, and the comfort very
much less. Moreover, it is severely pressed by the class below of
1-rating, which is becoming very popular, and deservedly so. A 1-rater
can be built complete for 100 to 150 guineas, whereas some of the new
2-1/2-raters cost nearly 400_l._; and a 5-rater can be built for
500_l._, although it is stated that some of them cost 600_l._


_The 1-Raters, 1893._

It has been very difficult to draw up a record of the class racing in
the two smaller classes, because many of the sailing clubs and some of
the yacht clubs do not send full reports of their numerous matches to
the press. The winners only are mentioned in some reports, but it is
necessary to know the number of starts for each boat if her figure of
merit is to be calculated. The figures given in the table of winners
in the Y. R. Calendar are not trustworthy; first, because the owners
often make mistakes in sending in their returns; and, secondly,
because some of the results are taken from mixed races, not class
races, and some from races outside the Solent.

The record table is compiled from the reports of the regattas given in
the Y. R. Calendar, and in the 'Yachtsman.' Two of the Portsmouth
match days were omitted, and the winners only were mentioned on one of
the Royal Albert days, one of the Victoria days, and on the Squadron
day.

There may, therefore, be a small decimal error in the figure of merit
of a few of the boats, but the order of merit may be regarded to be
correct as it stands in the table.

The best 1-rater was the Yankee boat 'Morwena' with the high M. of
45.4. She is similar to the other Herreshoff boats in the small
classes, and has been well sailed.

'Sacharissa' came next with the excellent M. of 36.2. She was sailed
faultlessly by Mr. P. Perceval (jun.), and was the best boat turned
out by Payne in 1893.

'Scud' came third with an M. of 22.6. She is one of the wide and
shallow type, answering well to her name when going over rather than
through the water.

'Tipcat' went well; also 'Tartar' and 'Wolfhound.' 'Whisper' was not
seen often enough to judge of her merits accurately, but the old 1892
crack 'Doushka' went as well as ever when Mr. Perceval brought her out
at the end of the season.

'Fantasy,' a novelty built at Hamble for Mr. Randal Vogan from his own
design, went far better than anyone expected. She has a ram bow, long
counter, and fin-bulb keel, with narrow beam and sides that tumble
home above the water-line. She often scored second honours.

'Mahatma,' 'Viva,' 'Cariad,' 'Rogue,' 'Vlekendor,' 'Leading Article'
did not race often on the Solent, and did not score any first prizes.

'Roulette,' 'Dona,' and 'Rogue' did most of their racing on the
Thames, which has been tabulated by Mr. Winser, and published in the
'Field' of November 11, 1893.


_The 1/2-Raters, 1893._

The smallest class suffered from the extreme popularity of the 1-rater
class, and it often occurred that only two or three 1/2-raters started
in a race. 'Wee Winn' again proved herself to be the champion boat in
the class, but she only competed about a dozen times. She made the
fine M. of 49.1. 'Coquette,' which was raced hard all the season,
also did remarkably well, and made a fine figure of merit, 40.8.
'Koodoo' and 'Ragamuffin,' which came out late, also did well.
'Sagamore,' 'Nautilus,' 'Tiny,' 'Vega,' 'Khistie,' 'Coral,' and 'Haha'
raced occasionally, but failed to score first honours.

       *       *       *       *       *

When this chapter was begun the writer feared that designers would
refuse to give any information about successful boats, but the tables
have been filled in by many of them in a most liberal manner; and the
author begs to tender them his thanks, and he hopes those of his
readers, for so doing. The elements thus recorded are hull-dimensions,
but the sail-dimensions are often equally interesting and instructive.
These are given on the certificates and are public property; but they
become more valuable for comparison when collected in a tabular form.
The table has therefore been made.

At present the lugsail, invented by Mr. Tom Ratsey of Cowes, reigns
supreme in the small classes, 'Doreen' leading the list with a
mainsail about 1,000 sq. ft. in area. Nevertheless, we find 'Wee Winn'
beating the other 1/2-raters with a cutter mainsail; but all our
experience points to the belief that she would go still better with a
lug. The table deserves careful study, and it will be seen that the
proportion of head-sail to total S.A. has steadily decreased, until in
some boats it has almost reached the vanishing point, and 'Coquette'
came out with all her sail in the lug. This tendency is bad, and will
be still further encouraged if the actual area of head-sail be
measured as proposed by the Council of the Y.R.A.[14]

[Footnote 14: The resolution to measure the actual area of head-sails
in yachts of 10-rating and under, as proposed by the Council, was lost
at the general meeting of the Association held December 6, 1892.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Here ends the summary of the Solent racing under the Y.R.A. rule of
rating. The type of boat which was produced up to the end of 1891 is
excellent, being dry, seaworthy, fast, and easily driven with small
sails; but it is easy to see that the most recent developments are not
equally satisfactory. In the words of the 'Field,' October 29,
1892:--'It seems that all which is good has been got out of the
present rating rule, and there is nothing more to be derived from it
but an increase of speed, with a possible decrease of weight, internal
space, and sail-spread.'

This sums up the much-debated rule question in a single sentence.

What the next period will bring depends greatly, perhaps entirely,
upon some small mathematical sign in the form for the rule of rating.
For instance, the American rules use a sign indicating addition where
we use one indicating multiplication, the consequence being that the
former is a more adjustable rule than ours--more easily controlled by
coefficients. But it is not necessary to enter into these matters now,
as they are specially treated in Chapter VII. The racing man on the
Solent or the Clyde cares more for the sport than the science involved
in questions of displacement, length, and what not; and we may rest
assured that whatever the Council of the Y.R.A. do, or leave undone,
the sport will proceed in the same enthusiastic manner.

There cannot be the smallest doubt that an immense advantage to
yachting would be gained if England, France, and America raced under
the same rule of rating and a similar classification; and if an
international conference were invited to meet in London the thing
would be done without much difficulty.

The table of Clubs on p. 286 shows that 2,761_l._ in cash and 933_l._
in cups, plate, &c. were won on the Solent in 1892, or a total of
3,723_l._ This does not include the prizes won at the Town
Regattas--Cowes, Southampton, Lymington, Yarmouth, Totland Bay, Ryde,
and Portsmouth. Good prizes are offered to the raters at several of
these regattas, probably increasing the above total to nearly
4,000_l._[15]

[Footnote 15: These amounts were all larger in 1893.]

_Table of Rig, Dimensions, &c._

  +-------------------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----------+------------+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
  |                         |         |             |      |      |    Sail   |    Areas   |     Spars       |                     Lines                      |
  |      Name of Yacht      |   Rig   |    Date     |Rating|L.W.L.+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |                         |         |             |      |      |Total| Main| Head | Top |Boom |Gaff |Yard | Luff |   A  |   B  |   C  |   D  |  I   |  J   |
  +--------+----------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |  10-   |Yvonne          | Cutter  |         1889| 9.80 | 34.10|1,726|  813|  658 |254  |34.00|21.6 | --  | 22.85| 44.3 | 19.2 | 40.2 | 19.3 | 46.2 | 28.5 |
  |  raters|Doreen          | Lugger  |July 15, 1892| 9.96 | 38.05|1,572|1,061|  511 |  -- |38.38| --  |33.38| 18.75| 57.8 | 24.3 | 42.4 | 16.9 | 34.4 | 29.7 |
  +--------+----------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |        |Alwida          | Cutter  | May 15, 1890| 4.95 | 29.66|1,002|  684|  318 |  -- |29.7 |19.5 | --  | 22.1 | 41.1 | 13.3 | 36.0 | 18.3 | 28.8 | 22.1 |
  |        |Glycera         | Cutter  | May 15, 1890| 4.93 | 30.97|  957|  657|  300 |  -- |29.3 |19.3 | --  | 21.5 | 40.7 | 16.7 | 35.8 | 17.7 | 28.0 | 21.4 |
  |        |Archee          | Cutter  |Aug. 21, 1890| 4.96 | 30.43|  980|  675|  305 |  -- |30.5 |19.5 | --  | 21.4 | 40.5 | 17.25| 36.0 | 18.1 | 29.0 | 21.0 |
  |        |Quinque         | Cutter  | May 29, 1890| 4.99 | 31.56|  951|  645|  306 |  -- |28.8 |19.0 | --  |   ?  | 40.0 | 16.7 | 35.3 | 17.6 | 25.9 | 23.6 |
  |  5-    |Windfall        |Lug. cut.| May 19, 1891| 4.97 | 32.89|  909|  659|  250 |  -- |30.4 | --  |27.0 | 17.7 | 47.0 | 19.1 | 33.8 | 12.4 | 25.0 | 20.0 |
  |  raters|Savourna        |Lug. slp.|June  2, 1891| 4.94 | 33.40|  888|  669|  219 |  -- |31.65| --  |28.6 | 12.0 | 47.0 | 20.5 | 34.0 | 11.0 | 26.5 | 16.53|
  |        |Iernia          |Lug. slp.|June  5, 1891| 4.99 | 31.48|  953|  774|  179 |  -- |35.75| --  |29.3 | 12.0 | 48.0 | 22.6 | 37.5 | 11.5 | 26.05| 13.75|
  |        |Cyane           |Lug. slp.|June  3, 1892| 4.95 | 33.75|  880|  668|  212 |  -- |35.5 | --  |28.0 | 13.25| 46.0 | 19.5 | 33.0 | 12.2 | 29.2 | 14.5 |
  |        |Quinque         |Lug. slp.|July 21, 1892| 4.96 | 33.15|  898|  677|  221 |  -- |35.95| --  |29.6 | 12.75| 46.3 | 21.0 | 33.5 | 11.4 | 27.45| 16.1 |
  |        |Dacia           |Lug. slp.|June 15, 1892| 5.00 | 33.83|  888|  700|  188 |  -- |31.87| --  |31.6 | 13.0 | 49.4 | 20.2 | 33.0 | 12.2 | 28.13| 13.33|
  +--------+----------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |        |Thalassa        |  Sloop  |         1887| 2.46 | 20.94|  706|  422|  208 | 76  |22.58|15.82| --  |   ?  | 31.5 |   ?  | 27.8 | 14.5 | 25.41| 16.33|
  |        |Thalassa        |  Sloop  | May 17, 1889| 2.49 | 22.95|  652|  452|  200 |  -- |22.6 |14.8 | --  |   ?  | 34.8 | 12.5 | 29.8 | 15.7 | 24.9 | 16.1 |
  |        |Humming Bird    |Lug. slp.|July 12, 1889| 2.44 | 25.90|  567|  432|  135 |  -- |23.46| --  |23.2 | 11.5 | 39.0 | 15.2 | 26.5 | 10.2 | 23.54| 12.0 |
  |        |Mliss           |  Sloop  | May 15, 1890| 2.50 | 24.97|  603|  448|  155 |  -- |24.5 |16.0 | --  | 17.7 | 32.5 | 14.2 | 29.5 | 14.7 | 22.2 | 14.0 |
  |        |Cock-a-Whoop    |Lug. slp.|June 18, 1890| 2.50 | 25.00|  600|  438|  162 |  -- |24.1 | --  |23.0 |   ?  | 36.2 | 16.8 | 26.8 | 10.0 | 24.1 | 13.4 |
  |        |Babe            |Lug. slp.|1890 and 1891| 2.48 | 26.76|  557|  429|  127 |  -- |23.6 | --  |22.9 | 11.6 | 36.5 | 15.6 | 25.4 | 10.5 | 21.7 | 11.7 |
  |        |                |         {June 12, 1891| 2.49 | 28.00|  536}     {  111 }     |     |     |     |      |      |      |      |      |      { 10.8 |
  |        |Fiera           |Lug. slp.{             |      |      |     }  425{      }  -- |23.8 | --  |23.0 | 11.3 | 38.0 | 15.5 | 26.2 | 10.0 | 20.5 {      |
  |        |                |         {June 18, 1892| 2.45 | 27.36|  539}     {  114 }     |     |     |     |      |      |      |      |      |      { 11.1 |
  | 2-1/2- |Avadavat        |Lug. slp.|June 10, 1891| 2.49 | 28.00|  536|  425|  111 |  -- |23.8 | --  |23.0 | 11.3 | 38.0 | 15.5 | 26.2 | 10.0 | 20.5 | 10.8 |
  | raters |Janetta         |Lug. slp.|Aug. 14, 1891| 2.48 | 26.45|  563|  430|  133 |  -- |23.8 | --  |23.0 | 11.6 | 38.0 | 15.5 | 28.8 | 10.5 | 22.6 | 11.8 |
  |        |Molly           |Lug. slp.|         1892| 2.49 | 28.26|  531|  439|   92 |  -- |25.3 | --  |24.5 |  9.5 | 38.0 | 17.0 | 26.7 |  8.7 | 17.1 | 10.7 |
  |        |Stork           |Lug. slp.|         1892| 2.50 | 28.52|  527|  442|   85 |  -- |25.3 | --  |24.5 |  9.1 | 38.4 | 17.0 | 27.0 |  8.5 | 15.7 | 10.8 |
  |        |Faugh-a-Ballagh |Lug. slp.| May 30, 1892| 2.48 | 27.48|  543|  433|  110 |  -- |23.8 | --  |23.7 | 11.3 | 38.5 | 15.3 | 25.8 | 10.3 | 20.0 | 11.0 |
  |        |Cockatoo        |Lug. slp.|June 28, 1892| 2.41 | 27.24|  533|  436|   97 |  -- |23.3 | --  |24.0 | 12.3 | 40.3 | 14.5 | 25.6 |   ?  | 20.1 |  9.7 |
  |        |Papoose         |Lug. slp.|June 11, 1892| 2.50 | 27.65|  543|  446|   97 |  -- |23.6 | --  |24.0 | 12.5 | 40.5 | 14.8 | 26.2 | 11.2 | 20.1 |  9.7 |
  |        |Polynia         |Lug. slp.|July     1892| 2.47 | 28.15|  528|  431|   97 |  -- |23.6 | --  |24.6 | 10.75| 39.4 | 15.4 | 25.4 | 10.0 | 18.5 | 10.5 |
  |        |Gareth          |Lug. slp.|July 30, 1892| 2.48 | 28.02|  533|  442|   91 |  -- |24.9 | --  |24.5 | 10.6 | 40.3 | 15.4 | 26.2 | 10.0 | 10.7 |  9.7 |
  |        |Wenonah         |  Sloop  | Aug. 3, 1892| 2.40 | 25.05|  577|  449|  128 |  -- |27.4 |14.9 | --  |   ?  |   ?  |   ?  |   ?  |   ?  | 19.6 | 13.1 |
  +--------+----------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |        |                |         {         1890| 0.99 | 18.21|  328|     }      |     |     |     |     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  |        |Pup             |Lug. slp.{             |      |      |     |  272}   72 |  -- |20.0 | --  |18.4 |  7.8 | 29.5 | 13.2 | 21.2 |  7.3 | 15.2 |  9.4 |
  |        |                |         {July     1892| 0.99 | 17.37|  344|     }      |     |     |     |     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  |        |Rogue           |Lug. slp.|Aug. 18, 1892| 0.99 | 20.91|  285|  238|   47 |  -- |18.5 | --  |18.3 |  7.00| 28.0 | 12.5 | 19.4 |  6.5 | 13.5 |  7.0 |
  |  1-    |Barbet          |Lug. slp.|Aug. 23, 1892| 0.97 | 20.27|  288|  249|   39 |  -- |19.0 | --  |18.9 |  6.25| 29.0 | 12.9 | 20.0 |  6.2 | 10.2 |  7.6 |
  |  raters|Doushka         |Lug. slp.|June 30, 1892| 0.98 | 21.07|  281|  245|   36 |  -- |  ?  | --  |19.0 |  5.75| 28.8 | 13.2 | 20.0 |  5.5 | 10.0 |  7.2 |
  |        |Nansheen        |Lug. slp.| May 28, 1892| 0.99 | 20.24|  297|  251|   46 |  -- |19.5 | --  |17.0 |  8.00| 28.0 | 12.4 | 20.5 |  7.5 | 12.8 |  7.2 |
  |        |Mahatma         |Lug. slp.|Apr. 27, 1892| 0.99 | 20.61|  289|  242|   47 |  -- |18.4 | --  |17.7 |  6.5 | 27.0 | 13.1 | 20.0 |  5.9 | 14.7 |  6.5 |
  +--------+----------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |        |Coquette        |Lug. slp.| May 14, 1891| 0.50 | 15.58|  192|  192|   -- |  -- |16.8 | --  |14.9 |  7.6 | 25.2 | 10.3 | 17.8 |  7.0 |  --  |  --  |
  |        |Dee Dee         |Lug. slp.|July 14, 1891| 0.50 | 17.17|  177|  149|   28 |  -- |14.8 | --  |14.9 |  4.6 | 21.5 | 10.8 | 15.8 |  4.2 | 11.00|  5.1 |
  |        |Jeanie          |Lug. slp.|June 18, 1891| 0.50 | 16.25|  187|  162|   25 |  -- |  ?  | --  |12.7 |  6.1 | 22.9 |  9.7 | 17.0 |  5.6 | 12.3 |  4.1 |
  |        |Spruce          |   Yawl  |Aug. 27, 1891| 0.41 | 16.20|  154|  123|   -- |  -- |  ?  |12.9 | --  |  4.75| 17.0 | 10.4 | 13.8 |  4.4 |  --  |  --  |
  | 1/2-   |Eileen          |Lug. slp.| May 13, 1891| 0.49 | 15.90|  185|  144|(mizz.|30.5)| 5.95| 7.0 |     |  2.83|  8.5 |  5.2 |  6.5 |  2.6 |mizzen|  --  |
  |  raters|Narua           |Lug. slp.| May 19, 1891| 0.49 | 15.97|  183|  143|   41 |  -- |14.5 | --  |14.9 |  4.8 | 20.3 | 11.0 | 15.0 |  4.3 | 12.6 |  6.5 |
  |        |                |         {         1891|      |      |     |     }   40 |  -- |14.6 | --  |14.8 |  4.8 | 20.0 | 11.0 | 15.0 |  4.3 | 12.6 |  6.4 |
  |        |Dancing Girl    |Lug. slp.{             | 0.50 | 15.99|  189|  167}      |     |     |     |     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  |        |                |         {July 13, 1892|      |      |     |     }   22 |  -- |16.4 | --  |15.0 |  4.8 | 23.4 | 11.0 | 17.1 |  4.5 | 11.1 |  4.0 |
  |        |Daisy           |Lug. slp.| Aug. 26 1892| 0.50 | 17.10|  176|  152|   24 |  -- |15.6 | --  |14.1 |  5.3 | 22.2 | 10.0 | 16.0 |  5.1 |  9.0 |   ?  |
  |        |Wee Winn        | Sloop   |July 23, 1892| 0.46 | 15.61|  178|  141|   37 |  -- |15.1 | 9.16| --  |  8.6 | 18.8 |  8.2 | 16.6 |  7.7 | 10.9 |  6.7 |
  +--------+----------------+---------+-------------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

Some of these town regattas are managed in a most remarkable manner,
the fireworks at night being perhaps the most important matter for
consideration in the eyes of the Committee.

A year or two back, the raters at Cowes were started in a line with
the committee vessel, with no outside limit! On the day of the race it
was a lee shore; consequently Lord Dunraven, Mr. Perceval, and one or
two others who were wider awake than the rest, started in the dim
distance, well to windward, and romped down full and bye to the first
mark.

At Lymington the 5-raters are started from a line at the river-mouth
from a little boat, by a little man, with a little gun and a big flag,
and the finish is right up the river, in a narrow place thronged with
small boats, with probably a four-oared race in progress. After an
accident has taken place and a few people are drowned, this may be
altered.

At Totland Bay in 1892 there was a handicap for which two very unequal
boats had entered. The sailing committee could not agree about the
handicap; some bright genius therefore proposed that the difference of
time between the boats at the end of the first round should be
multiplied by 3 for the handicap on the three rounds, and it is said
that this was actually done! And so on. These regattas are very good
fun, if only because the unexpected usually occurs.

The men who have made the Solent racing what it is must now be
mentioned:--

Mr. Wolff, the Hon. Sec. of the R.S.Y.C., and the late Mr. McCheane,
Hon. Sec. of the R.P.C.Y.C., have already been alluded to. Colonel
Bucknill, Hon. Sec. of the Castle Yacht Club; Mr. Blair Onslow
Cochrane, Hon. Sec. of the Bembridge Sailing Club; Mr. Barrow, Hon.
Sec. of the Island Sailing Club; Mr. Herbert Ridsdale, Hon. Sec. of
the Hamble Branch of the Minima Sailing Club, have in like manner
worked hard and very successfully in the cause. So also have many of
the flag officers in the various clubs, and especially should be
mentioned Mr. Frederick Cox, who for years has been a persevering
patron of the sport--both in the Solent length classes and
afterwards in the present Solent classes (Y.R.A. rating). Mr. Cox's
sons and daughters have raced a number of yachts: 'Lil,' 'Verena,'
'Madcap,' 'Merrythought,' 'Kitten,' 'Ethel,' 'Mliss,' 'Troublesome,'
'Fiera,' 'Mosquito,' all under the protecting wing of the head centre,
typified by the steamer 'Zinaida.' Mr. Cox is Commodore of the Royal
Southampton, Rear Commodore (or is it Rear Admiral now?) of the Royal
London, and Rear Commodore of the Castle Yacht Clubs. He is also a
member of the Council Y.R.A.

[Illustration: SOLENT OWNERS' RACING COLOURS.]

Captain Hughes and his family of sons and daughters have followed the
sport for a long time in the same enthusiastic way, and have raced the
following boats: 'Lil,' 'Fairy,' 'Jenny Wren,' 'Madcap,' 'Flutterby,'
'Humming Bird,' 'Cock-a-Whoop,' and 'Cockatoo.' Captain Hughes was
most active in starting the Castle Yacht Club, and for a short time
was the Hon. Sec.

In addition to the above, the chief patrons and promoters of the sport
during the past few years have been the Marquis of Exeter, the Marquis
of Ailsa, the Earl of Dunraven, the Earl of Desart, the Earl of
Dudley, the late Mr. Sidney Watson, Colonel the Hon. H. G. L.
Crichton, Captain the Hon. J. M. Yorke, Colonel F. Dugmore, Captain J.
R. F. Fullerton, R.N., Admiral the Hon. Victor Montagu, R.N., Mr. W.
H. Forster, Mr. R. S. Hankinson, Mr. P. Perceval, jun., Mr. George
Schenley, the Hon. G. Colville, Captain Cecil Drummond, Captain Du
Boulay, Captain Davenport, Mr. Wilson Hoare, R.N., Mr. Granville
Keele, Admiral Hallowes, R.N., Mr. Paul Ralli, Mr. W. A. Beauclerk,
Mr. A. D. Clarke, Mr. H. R. Langrishe, Captain C. E. Haynes, R.E.,
Lieut.-Colonel Moreton, Mr. F. L. Popham, Mr. E. F. Quilter, Mr. W. S.
Nicholson, Mr. J. P. Ranwell, Mr. L. M. Ames, Captain R. Alexander,
Mr. G. F. Flemmich, Mr. H. L. Hewitt, Mr. A. Manning, Mr. R. Vogan,
and a number more, whose names would fill a page.

The ladies who have taken an active part in the racing should also be
mentioned, as their presence has done much to make the sport popular
and fashionable.

Prominent among them are Ladies Fanny and Blanche Stanhope, Mrs.
Sidney Watson, Mrs. Schenley and her sisters the Misses Hughes, Mrs.
Rudston-Read and her sister Miss Cox, Mrs. H. Duff-Gordon and her
sister Miss Hammersley, Mrs. Arthur Heygate, Mrs. Blair Onslow
Cochrane, the Misses Sutton, and Colonel Bucknill's daughters.

Oilskins and sou'-westers are really very becoming, and if this fact
were generally known, the ranks of the ladies might gain recruits, and
this word leads to the next division of our subject:--


HINTS TO THE NOVICE

If a beginner wish to learn the art of small-yacht racing he cannot do
better than start with a second-hand 1-rater, costing say from 50_l._
to 80_l._ Such a boat if new would cost from 100_l._ to 150_l._

The next step is to hire a good lad (sixteen or seventeen years old)
for the crew, wages from 16 _s._ to 20_s._ a week, and some racing
money, say 5_s._ for a first, and 2_s._ 6_d._ for a second or third
prize. No prize, no racing money. The lad will ask for a suit of
clothes, and if he seem likely to suit, the suit may be given on the
distinct understanding that, should he leave the job voluntarily or on
account of misbehaviour, the clothes will be kept by the owner. The
clothes are part of the equipment of the yacht, and belong to the
owner, who should see that they are worn on board, and not kept
entirely for shore service. Nothing looks worse than a ramshackle,
untidy fellow on a smart little yacht. Racing boats and crews should
be as smart at the starting line as guns and gunners on parade.

The young owner must then settle how much racing he can manage, and on
what days it will be most convenient. 'Thalassa's' Almanac, published
by King & Co., High Street, Southampton, may be consulted with
advantage, as an attempt is made therein to give the whole of the club
programmes for the season, so far as they are known by the secretaries
at the beginning of the year.

It will be found that Saturdays are practically secured by the Royal
Southampton and the Royal Portsmouth Clubs; Mondays by the Royal
London and the Castle Clubs; Wednesdays by the Royal Albert Yacht Club
and the Island Sailing Club; Thursdays are chosen by the Royal
Victoria Yacht Club, and Fridays by the Solent Yacht Club and the
Minima Sailing Club.

Examine the Almanac again, note which of the clubs give 'open' races
and which 'club' races; and then it will be easy to settle which clubs
are most convenient, and to take the necessary steps for being entered
as a candidate.

The next point to settle is the best headquarters for the little ship,
and this depends on so many personal considerations that advice is
impossible. Remember, however, that a 1-rater requires a sheltered
anchorage, and that moorings keep mud off the decks, and save time and
bother. The best anchorages for _small_ boats are: (1) the Itchen
river, at or above the Floating Bridge; (2) the Hamble river, at or
above the Salterns; (3) Calshot, up the Creek; (4) Portsmouth Harbour,
especially up Haslar Creek; (5) Bembridge Harbour; (6) Wooton Creek;
(7) Cowes, above the ferry; (8) Beaulieu river, inside the coastguard
station; (9) Newtown river; (10) Yarmouth, the harbour; (11) Lymington
river; (12) Keyhaven.

Do _not_ anchor for the night, or moor so small a boat as a 1-rater
off the pier at Southampton, off Hythe, at Calshot (except up the
creek), in Cowes Harbour (except up the river), off Ryde, off
Southsea, in Yarmouth Roads, or in Totland Bay. If you do so, you will
wake some stormy morning to find her more or less damaged, and
possibly wrecked. The boy will have very strong opinions concerning
the best place for moorings. Don't listen to him. Fix on the place
that suits yourself and your friends best.

Next decide where you will go for the everlasting scrub, paint up, and
frequent repairs. If on the Itchen, there are Fay & Co., Summers &
Payne, and Field close to the Floating Bridge to choose from. If on
the Medina, either White, Ratsey, or Sibbick. If on the Hamble, there
are Luke & Co. If in Portsmouth Harbour, Camper & Nicholson at
Gosport, or Reid on the Portsmouth basin. If sails give out, repairs
can be quickly done at reasonable charges by Beaton of Bugle Street,
Southampton; but new sails for racing should be obtained from Ratsey
at Cowes or Lapthorn at Gosport.

The next step to take is very interesting. Collect your lady friends,
and ask each of them to design a racing flag; paint each design full
size, and examine them simultaneously from a distance, say one cable
at least, as a flag should be easily distinguished at this distance in
any weather. Two colours are generally sufficient. Black, or some dark
colour, with white or yellow; also red, with white or yellow. If three
colours be used, separate the red from the dark colours by white or
yellow. Employ strong contrasts. Remember that a simple design shows
best and costs least. Also that a flag with horizontal seams flies
better than any other, except one with no seams at all. However small
the boat, the racing flag should never be less than 10 inches wide by
8-1/2 inches high. The winning flags may be smaller, say 6 or 7 inches
square, for a 1/2- or a 1-rater. The following dimensions may be
regarded as 'suitable sizes' (see Rule 11, Y.R.A.) for the racing
flags in the 'Solent classes':--

                                height       width
  1/2-raters and 1-raters     8 inches by 10 inches
  2-1/2-raters               10    "    " 12   "
  5-raters                   12    "    " 14   "
  10-raters                  14    "    " 17   "

Having settled on the size and pattern of flag, proceed to Mr. Wolff,
High Street, Southampton, and order two or three, and (say) a dozen of
the smaller size to hoist as winning flags. Make a solemn vow to win a
dozen flags in the season, and if you fail the first year, stick to
your colours and try again.

The boat must now be prepared for the racing; all ropes and gear
carefully examined, her top sides and bottom carefully rubbed down,
painted, and varnished, until everything is as fit as a fiddle, and
the bottom smooth as a bottle.

Next buy a copy of the Y.R.A. Rules, Dixon Kemp's book on 'Yacht and
Boat Sailing,' and King's 'Channel Pilot.' Study each carefully,
especially Chapter VIII. of Kemp's book. More than half the
difficulties and troubles connected with the sport are due to
ignorance of the rules.[16] In every other sport such ignorance is
regarded with the contempt it deserves, but in yacht and boat racing
the rules are somewhat complex and difficult--all the more reason for
learning them carefully.

[Footnote 16: See chapter on the Racing Rules and Rules of Rating.]

Every racing owner should enter his yacht strictly in accordance with
Rule 5, Y.R.A., and it saves trouble if an owner has a card with the
declaration at entry, his personal address, and the yacht's racing
flag printed upon it.

Care should be taken to post this 'entry' so that the club secretary
receives it in proper time. Do not rely on the 48 hours' clause, but
examine the club programme, as the entries are not unfrequently closed
earlier.

The day before the race give the most distinct instructions to crew as
to the time and place of meeting on the morrow, and keep the
appointment punctually.

Provide yourself with a chronograph, and it may help you to win prizes
by means of good starts.

Get to the starting line half an hour before your start if you can,
and get a card of the races if one has not already reached you through
the post. Read it carefully, and, should anything appear to be
doubtful, have it cleared up by the race officer, or by the club
secretary.

If other races start before you, do not get in the way of the starting
boats.

Note when the ten minutes preparatory flag for your own race is
hoisted; you will then be the better prepared to start your
chronograph at the first gun. See Rule 17.

After first gun, stand off and on _near_ the starting line. Remember
that you are now 'under the rules.' Have Rule 18 by heart, and
understand each clause of it. During the last half-minute before the
second or starting gun, manoeuvre for the place you wish to secure,
be there at the flash of gun, and if possible just to windward, or
just ahead of your most dangerous antagonist. If you think you are
over the line at gunfire, keep a sharp look out for your recall
numeral (Rule 12), and directly it is displayed return, and cross the
line; but keep clear of other competitors in doing so. After the start
do not go in for a luffing match or allow yourself to be luffed by a
yacht you do not fear. Stick to the boat you fear most. Remember Rule
19 in rounding the marks. If the weather be light, keep your weather
eye open for every cat's-paw, and do not lose an inch during the whole
race by careless steering. Be careful when you come to the run to put
spinnaker up on the best side; and, if you run by the lee, shift it
over at once without parleying with the boy. After the finish, if you
win, sign the declaration (Rule 10, Y.R.A.) and send it ashore as soon
as possible. If you have any cause for protest against another yacht,
or should any protest be lodged against your own yacht, go ashore at
once and see the matter through. After the race it has been customary
for the second yacht to cheer the winner--like shaking hands after a
boxing match--but this old custom is now dying out. Never permit your
crew to bandy remarks with the hands on other yachts, either during a
race or after it. If your boat wins, lower the racing flag, and hoist
the club burgee with your winning flag one fathom below it. If she do
not win, sail home with the racing flag still flying, this being the
label of your boat's _raison d'être_. Never accept a prize unless you
feel that every rule and regulation has been properly followed; see
that your opponents follow them too; cut those men who do not race
honourably, and show them up if you can. Keep a log, and enter upon it
everything of interest concerning the boat and the racing. Every
little change of gear should be carefully noted; the position of crew
when the boat goes best, and every detail which may help to point the
way to any improvement, either in the boat herself or in the type
which she represents. Such a log enables you to draw up an accurate
record at the end of the season, and is valuable in later years as a
reminder of past pleasures and adventures.

[Illustration: ROYAL SOUTHAMPTON YACHT CLUB EST. 1875. "BRAMBLES
COURSE."

F. S. Weller.]

At the end of the first or second season you may decide to have a
larger boat and crew. If so, consider carefully whether you will not
skip the 2-1/2 rating class and start a 5-rater.

Two paid hands are required with a 2-1/2, and a 5 can be managed with
the same crew if Corinthian help be obtainable. The maintenance of a
2-1/2 is not much smaller than that of a 5, and the latter is a little
ship in which you can sleep with comfort and cook a meal. A modern 5
is 11 tons Thames measurement, and can go anywhere when properly
built, like the 'Windfall,' 'Quinque,' and 'Savourna.'

As Lord Dunraven truly said, 'the 5's and the 20's are the cheapest
classes'; and to these I would add the 1's. The 1/2-, 2-1/2-, and
10-raters are the dearest classes. Many men may, like yourself, be
wishing to go a class higher, and you may therefore pick up a good
boat at a low price towards the end of the racing season. If not, you
must build; and the great question then arises, who to go to?

The most successful designers on the Solent in the 2-1/2 and the
5-rater classes are Mr. Arthur Payne and Mr. Charles Nicholson; but
Mr. G. L. Watson and Mr. Willie Fife were equally invincible on the
Clyde, until the appearance in 1892 of Mr. Herreshoff's 2-1/2
'Wenonah.' Mr. C. P. Clayton and Mr. A. Richardson are also designers
of great ability, while Mr. G. M. Soper and Mr. Herbert Ridsdale have
produced some fast boats for the orders they have received. Whomsoever
you select, have your boat built under his very eye. If a Scotch
designer, build in Scotland; if a Solent designer, build there.
Moreover, look after the boat yourself when she is building, and learn
the tricks of the trade--if you can. Insist upon having your boat
fitted out at least a fortnight before the first race, as a new boat
often requires no end of doctoring before her best trim is discovered.
Her new sails also require to be carefully stretched, in suitable
weather; and finally she should be officially measured before she
races. For these several reasons it is necessary to specify date of
completion in the contract, and to have a clause whereby the builder
can be heavily fined week by week for non-fulfilment--such fines being
deducted from the final payment. There should also be a clause
empowering the owner to complete the work in the builder's yard
himself in the event of the builder, from any cause whatever, being
unable to carry out the contract. An arbitration clause in the event
of a disagreement is very desirable. Insure the yacht against fire to
the full amount of the work done as it proceeds. A 5-rater, complete
with sails, properly 'found' in every way, should not cost more than
500l., including the designer's fee, and a modern 2-1/2 rater should
not cost more than 300_l._ They cost less than 260_l._ in 1887-8 and
1888-9. The difference is due to higher pay per hour for labour, the
Societies now refusing to permit piecework, also to more expensive
materials, higher finish, and greater length of hull.

As for the crew, the owner of a 5 may consider himself fortunate if he
can secure the services of a good man as skipper for 30_s._ a week,
clothes (about 5_l._ worth), 20_s._ racing money for a first prize,
and 10_s._ for a second or a third prize.

It is a mistake to give racing money for losing. At present it is only
done by a few wealthy and thoughtless owners, who will soon ruin the
sport unless the majority combine to put a stop to their extravagance.

Losing money is legitimate enough in the large racers, where the
yachts make long passages by night and day in all weathers from
regatta to regatta. By such crews the losing money is earned, but the
crews of small Solent racers, who sleep comfortably at home in their
beds, and often have little or nothing to do between the races, should
not get it.

It costs from 100_l._ to 150_l._ to maintain and race a 5- or a 2-1/2
rater for the twenty weeks of the season, from which may be deducted
the value of the prizes won, less entrance fees and racing money. This
sum covers a crew of two paid hands, and the owner of a 5 must enlist
two or three Corinthians to help at each race. Unfortunately, there is
a lamentable deficiency of these mariners on the Solent.

DETAILS OF YACHT CLUBS AND SAILING CLUBS ON THE SOLENT

  +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                    |          |  Royal     | Royal   | Royal    | Royal  | Royal       |        | Royal      |         |           |         |         |         |
  |          ----      |  Royal   |  London    | Southern| Victoria | Albert | Southampton | Solent | Portsmouth | Castle  | Bembridge | Island  | Minima  | Totals  |
  |                    |  Yacht   |  Yacht     | Yacht   | Yacht    | Yacht  | Yacht       | Yacht  | Corinthian | Yacht   | Sailing   | Sailing | Sailing |         |
  |                    | Squadron |  Club      | Club    | Club     | Club   | Club        | Club   | Yacht Club | Club    | Club      | Club    | Club    |         |
  |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  | Established        |  1812    | 1838       |   1843  |  1844    |  1864  |   1875      |  1878  |  1880      |  1887   |  1886     | 1889    |  1889   |         |
  | Head-quarters      |  Cowes   | 1882 Cowes | Sthmptn |  Ryde    | Sthsea |  Sthmptn    |  Yrmth |  Prtsmth   | Calshot | Bmbrdg    | Cowes   | Hamble  |         |
  | Entrance Fee       | £ 100    |  ...       |   2g.   |    5g.   |   4g.  |     2g.     |    1g. |     2g.    |   £ 3   |    2g.    |   1g.   |  1/2 g. |         |
  | Ann. subscription  |  £ 11    | {4g.       |  {3g.   |    6g.   |   4g.  |  {1-1/2g.   |    1g. |     2g.    |   £ 3   |    1g.    |   1g.   |  1/2 g. |         |
  |                    |          | {6g.       |  {4g.   |          |        |  {2g.       |        |            |         |           |         |         |         |
  |       1892.        |          |            |         |          |        |             |        |            |         |           |         |         |         |
  | No. of members     |   224    |   650      |   300   |   300    |   300  |   711       |   90   |   500      |   100   |   150     |   140   |   250   |         |
  | Prizes, cash, won  | £ 409    | £ 128      | £ 207   | £ 400    | £ 227  | £ 435       | £ 40   | £ 434      | £ 204   |  £ 85     | £ 105   |  £ 87   | £ 2,761 |
  | Cups, Value     "  | £ 110    |   ...      |  £ 75   | £ 235    | £ 207  |  Medals     | £ 20   |  £ 10      | £ 148   |  £ 85     |  £ 25   |  £ 18   |   £ 933 |
  | Races   }          |          |            |         |          |        |             |        |            |         |           |         |         |         |
  |  sailed } 60-R. &c.|     4    |     1      |   1     |     3    |     1  |     1       |  ...   |    ...     |   ...   |    ...    |   ...   |   ...   |      12 |
  |     "     40-R.    |     1    |     1      |   2     |     4    |     1  |     4       |  ...   |     1      |   ...   |    ...    |   ...   |   ...   |      14 |
  |     "     20-R.    |   ...    |    ...     |   1     |    ...   |   ...  |     2       |  ...   |    ...     |     2   |    ...    |   ...   |   ...   |       5 |
  |     "     10-R.    |     1    |    ...     |  ...    |     1    |   ...  |     4       |  ...   |    ...     |     1   |    ...    |   ...   |   ...   |       7 |
  |     "      5-R.    |     1    |     1      |   2     |     3    |     6  |     8       |    3   |     4      |    12   |    ...    |   ...   |   ...   |      40 |
  |     "  2-1/2-R.    |     1    |     2      |   2     |     9    |     6  |     8       |    3   |     9      |    12   |     2     |     9   |     2   |      65 |
  |     "      1-R.    |    ...   |     2      |   2     |     7    |     6  |     8       |    1   |     7      |     9   |     1     |     9   |    12   |      64 |
  |     "    1/2-R.    |    ...   |     2      |   2     |     7    |     6  |     8       |    3   |     9      |     7   |    13     |     9   |     9   |      75 |
  | Yachts' cutters    |    ...   |    ...     |   2     |    ...   |   ...  |    ...      |  ...   |     1      |     2   |    ...    |   ...   |   ...   |       5 |
  | Handicaps sailed   |     2    |     1      |   2     |     2    |     2  |     4       |    1   |     2      |     2   |    ...    |   ...   |     1   |      19 |
  | Other races  "     |    ...   |   ...      |  ...    |    ...   |   ...  |    ...      |  ...   |    ...     |    ...  |    22     |     4   |     6   |      32 |
  | Total races  "     |    10    |    10      |  16     |    36    |    28  |    47       |   11   |    34      |    47   |    38     |    31   |    30   |     338 |
  | Race days          |     4    |     3      |   2     |    10    |     6  |    11       |    3   |    11      |    12   |    33     |     9   |    12   |     116 |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+


SOME SOLENT RACERS, PRIOR TO 1886

  +--------------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |    O.H.   |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Rig |  Yacht  |   Owner and Designer   | R. | S.A.|L.W.L.|-----+-----|L.O.A.|  B. |  D. |Drght.|Displ.|Ballast| When |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |Fwrd.| Aft |      |     |     |      | tons |  tons | built|
  +----|---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |                                                                                                                     |
  |                                 21-FOOTERS                                                                          |
  |                                                                                                                     |
  | S. | Fairy   |{Capt. J. W. Hughes    }|2.5 |  717| 20.8 |  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 8.5 | 3.4 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1881 |
  |    |         |{Stockham              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Bird-o' |{Mr. H. L. Popham      }| ?  |  ?  |  21  |  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 6.3 | 5.0 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1883 |
  |    | Freedom |{Feltham               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Tootsie |{M. A. E. Payne        }|1.25|  ?  | 16.5 | .25 | .16 |   ?  | 6.6 | 4.5 |  4.0 | 2.25 |  1.5  | 1885 |
  |    | (Minnow)|{Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Minima  |{Mr. St. J. Arabin     }|4.65|1,333| 20.8 |  ?  |  ?  | 33.0 | 8.4 | 6.6 |  6.7 | 6.0  |  4.0  | 1886 |
  |    |         |{Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Volador |{Lt. A. H. Oliver, R.N.}| ?  |1,300|  21  | 4.5 |  8  | 33.5 | 8.5 | 6.6 |  6.5 | 6.6  |  3.2  | 1886 |
  |              |{Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Scylla  |{Mr. L. Ergremont      }| ?  |  ?  |  21  |  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 8.9 | 5.3 |   ?  |  ?   |   ?   | 1886 |
  |              |{Luke                  }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |                                                                                                                     |
  |                                25-FOOTERS                                                                           |
  |                                                                                                                     |
  | C. | Frolic  |{Mr. E. Bridges Webb   }|7.26|1,741|  25  |  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 9.0 |  ?  |   ?  |  ?   |   ?   | 1882 |
  |    |         |{Hatcher               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Lil     |{Mr. F. Cox            }|7.26|1,742|  25  | 4.6 | 6.3 | 35.9 | 9.1 | 6.8 |  6.7 | 8.6  |  5.3  | 1884 |
  |    |         |{Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Verena  |{Mr. R. H. Cox         }|7.96|1,910|  25  | 5.5 | 8.4 | 38.9 | 9.8 |  ?  |  7.2 | 9.4  |  5.3  | 1886 |
  |    |         |{Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |                                                                                                                     |
  |                                30-FOOTERS                                                                           |
  |                                                                                                                     |
  | C. | Bonina  |{Mr. A. O. Baylay      }|9.14|1,830|  30  |  ?  |  ?  | 41   | 9.7 | 7.4 |  7.3 | 13.1 |  7.5  | 1882 |
  |    |         |{Dixon Kemp            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Keepsake|{Mr. H. W. Forster     }|8.66|1,730|  30  | 4.4 | 6.3 | 40.7 | 9.7 |  ?  |  7.0 | 13.7 |  7.8  | 1882 |
  |    |         |{Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Eclipse |{Mr. A. Manning        }|9.4 |2,090|  30  | 5.2 | 8.0 | 43.2 |10.1 | 7.5 |  7.7 | 13.5 |  8.0  | 1884 |
  |    |         |{Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Curtsey |{Mr. H. W. Forster     }|10.8|2,180|  30  | 6.0 | 8.3 | 44.3 |10.5 | 8.0 |  7.8 | 13.8 |  7.6  | 1885 |
  |    |         |{Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+


10-RATERS, 1882-92

  +----+---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |    O.H.   |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Rig |  Yacht  |   Owner and Designer   | R. | S.A.|L.W.L.|-----+-----|L.O.A.|  B. |  D. |Drght.|Displ.|Ballast| When |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |Fwrd.| Aft |      |     |     |      | tons |  tons | built|
  +----+---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Dolly   |{Mr. T. W. Ratsey      }|9.99|1,663| 36.09| 0.5 | 0.4 | 37   | 11.3| 4.6 | 6.10 |  13  |  6.5  | 1872 |
  |    | Varden  |{   J. S. White        }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Frolic  |{Mr. Bridges Webb      }|7.21|1,704| 25.41|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 9.0 |  ?  |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1882 |
  |    |         |{   Hatcher            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Doris   |{Messrs. R. & B. Allan }|9.48|1,681| 33.86|  ?  |     |  ?   | 5.6 | 6.6 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1885 |
  |    |         |{   Watson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Jenny   |{Mr. R. E. Froude      }|9.59|1,705| 33.79|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 5.5 | 6.8 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1885 |
  |    | Wren    |{   Owner              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Verena  |{Mr. R. H. Cox         }|7.10|1,716| 24.85| 5.6 | 8.4 | 38.9 | 9.8 | 7.2 | 7.2  |  9.4 |  5.3  | 1886 |
  |    |         |{   Clayton            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Wanderer|{Mr. J. Lee Barber     }|9.00|1,580| 34.15|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 9.0 | 5.0 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1886 |
  |    |         |{   Brighton           }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Lollipop|{Mr. Arabin            }|6.49|1,325| 29.3 | 0.2 | 8.0 | 37.5 | 9.2 | 7.3 |   ?  | 10.7 |   ?   | 1888 |
  |    |         |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Dis     |{Mr. A. D. Clarke      }|9.94|1,658| 36.0 | 6.0 | 9.1 | 51.1 | 9.1 | 7.1 | 7.7  | 14.8 |   8   | 1888 |
  |    |         |{   Soper              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Decima  |{Mr. Arabin            }|9.98|1,679| 36.0 | 1.0 | 9.4 | 46.4 |11.0 | 7.5 | 8.5  | 14.3 |   ?   | 1889 |
  |    |         |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Yvonne  |{Mr. P. Donaldson      }|9.80|1,726| 34.10| 5.5 | 8.5 | 48.1 | 8.9 | 6.6 | 8.1  | 12.9 |  7.75 | 1889 |
  |    |         |{   Fife               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Drina   |{Prince B. Strattmann  }|9.95|1,801| 33.17| 0.48| 7.80| 41.45| 9.8 | 6.7 | 8.4  | 15.0 |  7.2  | 1889 |
  |    |         |{   Dixon Kemp         }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |         |{Admiral the Hon.      }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Nety    |{Victor Montagu, R.N.  }|8.82|1,764| 30.0 | 4.5 | 6.2 | 40.7 | 9.5 | 6.8 | 6.8  |  8.6 |   ?   | 1884 |
  |    | (Lil)   |{   Clayton             |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       | 1889 |
  |    |         |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.C.| Doreen  |{Mr. J. Gretton        }|9.96|1,572| 38.05| 8.2 |10.3 | 56.5 |11.2 | 7.5 | 8.5  | 14   |   8   | 1892 |
  |    |         |{   Fife               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+---------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+


5-RATERS, 1888-92

  +---------------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |    O.H.   |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Rig |  Yacht   |   Owner and Designer   | R. | S.A.|L.W.L.|-----+-----|L.O.A.|  B. |  D. |Drght.|Displ.|Ballast| When |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |Fwrd.| Aft |      |     |     |      | tons |  tons | built|
  +----|----------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. |Chittywee |{Mr. H. Farmer         }|4.8 |1,213| 28.2 |  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 4.8 |  ?  |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1882 |
  |    |          |{   Ash                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Fair     |{Mr. L. M. Ames        }|4.98|1,000| 30.0 | 4.5 | 7.5 | 42.0 | 7.5 | 5.5 | 5.3  | 8.0  | 4.6   | 1888 |
  |    |Geraldine |{   Clayton            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. |Flutterby |{Mr. F. Hughes         }|3.98|  938| 25.5 |  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 8.1 | 4.5 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1888 |
  |    |          |{   Owner              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. |Lollipop  |{Mr. Perceval          }|4.98|1,000| 29.5 | 0.21| 8.08| 37.79| 9.2 | 7.3 | 7.0  |   ?  |   ?   | 1888 |
  |    |          |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Alwida   |{Earl of Dunraven      }|4.97|1,003| 29.75| 1.31| 1.79| 32.85| 8.4 | 6.0 | 7.2  | 8.2  |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |          |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Glycera  |{Mr. Perceval          }|4.98|  967| 31.16| 1.04| 1.41| 33.61| 8.6 | 5.6 | 7.0  | 8.3  |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |          |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Quinque  |{Col. Bucknill         }|4.99|  948| 31.61| 1.34|  ?  |  ?   | 9.0 | 6.1 | 6.6  | 8.6  | 5.3   | 1890 |
  |    |          |{   Owner              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.|  Ditto   |    Ditto               |4.98|  997| 30.02| 1.34| 1.9 | 33.26| 9.0 | 6.1 | 7.0  | 8.7  | 5.0   | 1891 |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.|  Ditto   |    Ditto               |4.96|  898| 33.15| 1.45| 2.5 | 37.1 | 9.0 | 6.1 | 7.5  | 8.7  | 4.7   | 1892 |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Archee   |{Mr. J. McNish         }|4.96|  980| 30.43| 6.67| 7.9 | 45.0 | 9.3 | 4.4 |{5.1} | 8.8  | 4.5   | 1890 |
  |    | (C.B.)   |{   Watson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |{8.0} |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. |Valentine |{Mrs. Schenley         }|4.95|  997| 29.83| 6.17| 8.0 | 44.0 | 7.2 | 6.3 | 7.4  | 8.2  |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |          |{   Watson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.C.| Windfall |{Mrs. Schenley         }|4.97|  909| 32.89| 1.11| 1.3 | 35.3 | 8.66| 6.0 | 7.0  |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |          |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Savourna |{Mr. Perceval          }|4.94|  888| 33.4 | 1.18| 1.22| 35.80| 8.75| 6.0 | 7.2  |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |          |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. |Katherine |{Mr. W. A. Black       }|4.99|  969| 30.94|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 7.5 |  ?  | 6.5  |  ?   | 5.4   | 1891 |
  |    |          |{   Owner              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Iernia   |{Mr. H. R. Langrishe   }|4.99|  953| 31.48| 6.0 | 8.42| 45.9 | 8.0 | 6.0 | 7.2  | 8.7  | 5.4   | 1891 |
  |    |          |{   Fife               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Cyane    |{Earl of Dunraven      }|4.95|  880| 33.75| 3.1 | 1.5 | 38.35| 8.4 | 5.5 | 7.75 |  ?   |   ?   | 1892 |
  |    |          |{   Payne              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |          |                        |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Dacia    |{Mr. H. R. Langrishe   }|5.00|  888| 33.83| 5.14| 9.17| 48.14| 8.3 |  ?  | 8.6  |  ?   |   ?   | 1892 |
  |    |          |{   Nicholson          }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+----------+------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+


2-1/2-RATERS, 1887-92

  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |    O.H.   |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Rig |  Yacht    |   Owner and Designer      | R. | S.A.|L.W.L.|-----+-----|L.O.A.|  B. |  D. |Drght.|Displ.|Ballast| When |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |Fwrd.| Aft |      |     |     |      | tons |  tons | built|
  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Heathen   |{Mr. W. A. Beauclerk      }|2.34| 571 | 24.70|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 6.0 | 3.2 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1879 |
  |    | Chinee    |{   Mackenzie             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Bird-o'-  |{Mr. H. S. Popham         }|    |     | 21.00|     |     |  ?   | 6.3 | 5.0 |   ?  |   ?  | altd. | 1883 |
  |    | Freedom   |{      Feltham            }|2.5 | 625 |      |  ?  |  ?  |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |{                         }|    |     | 24.00|     |     |      | 6.3 | 6.0 |      |      |       | 1886 |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Fairy     |{Captain J. W. Hughes     }|2.5 | 723 | 20.77|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 8.4 | 3.3 |   ?  |   ?  | altd. | 1881 |
  |    |           |{   Pickett               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       | 1887 |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Thalassa  |{Col. Bucknill            }|2.49| 714 | 20.94|  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 7.4 | 4.9 | 5.8  |   ?  |   ?   | 1887 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Madcap    |{Miss Cox                 }|2.49| 714 | 21.0 |  ?  |  ?  |  ?   | 7.3 | 4.0 |      |      |       | 1887 |
  |    |           |{   Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     | 5.4  |  4.1 | 2.7   |      |
  |    |           |{                         }|2.49| 694 | 21.62| 0.2 | 6.3 | 27.5 | 7.3 | 4.0 |      |      |       | 1888 |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Ada       |{Mr. A. Manning           }|2.5 | 612 | 24.48| 3.5 | 4.35| 32.33| 7.0 | 5.0 | 5.0  |   ?  |   ?   | 1888 |
  |    |           |{   Owner                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Chipmunk  |{Mr. Sidney C. Watson     }|2.48| 749 | 19.87| 4   | 8   | 32   | 7.7 | 4.5 | 6    |  3.2 | 2.5   | 1888 |
  |    |           |{   Luke                  }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Lady Nan  |{Mr. W. Waller            }|2.5 | 653 | 22.97| 0.5 | 1.25| 24.65| 8.3 | 4.7 | 5.7  |  4.1 |   ?   | 1888 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Trixy     |{Mr. G. Sibbick           }|2.4 | 600 | 20.0 | 3.95| 6.25| 30.0 | 8.0 | 5.0 | 5.2  |  4.0 | 2.5   | 1888 |
  |    |           |{   Ratsey                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Tottie    |{Mr. Simpson              }|1.75| 500 | 21.00| 4.2 | 4.6 | 29.8 | 4.5 | 4.3 |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1888 |
  |    |           |{   Watson                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. |Queen Mab  |{Mrs. J. B. C. West       }|2.49| 619 | 24.21| 5.0 | 6.2 | 35.4 | 5.1 | 4.7 | 6.0  |  4.3 |   ?   | 1889 |
  |    |           |{   Watson                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Thief     |{Mrs. G. A. Schenley      }|2.45| 606 | 24.34| 4.9 | 6.2 | 35.4 | 5.1 | 4.7 | 6.0  |  4.3 |   ?   | 1889 |
  |    |           |{   Watson                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Cosette,  |{Earl of Dunraven         }|2.48| 609 | 24.46| 4.8 | 6.0 | 35.3 | 5.7 | 4.0 |  4.5 |  4.5 |    ?  | 1889 |
  |    |  C.B.     |{   Watson                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | G.G.      |{Capt. G. W. Garrett      }|2.48| 574 | 25.94| 2.9 | 2.0 | 30.8 |10.0 | 4.0 | {2.} |  3.5 |  2.1  | 1889 |
  |    |           |{   Stevens               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     | {7.} |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Humming   |{Capt. J. W. Hughes       }|2.44| 567 | 25.90| 0.75| 0.72| 27.35| 7.41| 4.2 |  6.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1889 |
  |    | Bird      |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Cock-a-   |{Lt. F. & Mr. A. C. Hughes}|2.50| 600 | 25.00| 1.25| 0.91| 27.16| 8.6 | 4.5 |  5.75|   ?  |    ?  | 1889 |
  |    | Whoop     |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Babe      |{Mr. W. A. Beauclerk      }|2.46| 553 | 26.76| 0.75| 1.25| 28.76| 6.7 | 4.25|  6.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | C. | Camilla   |{Mr. G. Keele             }|2.47| 563 | 26.45| 0.91| 1.16| 28.52| 7.2 | 4.0 |  4.8 |   ?  |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Janetta   |{Mr. Newton Robinson      }|2.49| 566 | 26.51| 0.92| 1.10| 28.53| 7.5 | 4.3 |  5.8 |   ?  |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Mliss     |{Mrs. R. Read & Miss Cox}  |2.50| 603 | 24.97| 1.0 | 1.25| 27.22| 7.0 | 4.5 |  5.8 |   ?  |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Dolphin   |{Mr. A. C. Kennedy        }|2.48| 581 | 25.08| 2.7 | 2.6 | 30.4 | 7.5 | 4.5 |  5.8 |  3.6 |   ?   | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. |Troublesome|{Mrs. Rudston Read        }|2.47| 566 | 26.3 | 4.8 | 6.2 | 37.3 | 7.3 | 5.8 |  5.8 |  5.7 |   3   | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Soper                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Avadavat  |{Mr. Wilson Hoare         }|2.49| 536 | 28.00| 0.75| 1.23| 29.98| 6.5 | 4.5 |  6.4 |   ?  |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Fiera     |{Miss Cox                 }|2.49| 535 | 28.00|  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 6.5 | 4.5 |  6.4 |   ?  | altd. | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|2.44| 536 | 27.36| 2.7 | 1.23| 31.29|     |     |      |      |       | 1892 |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Squirrel  |{Sir W. G. Pearce         }|2.50| 578 | 25.95|  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 6.5 |  ?  |   ?  |   ?  |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Stone                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Undine    |{Mr. E. N. Harvey         }|2.49| 577 | 25.99| 2.5 | 3.2 | 30.7 | 7.2 | 4.5 |  6.0 |  3.8 |  2.3  | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Calva     |{Mr. F. B. Jameson        }|2.50| 565 | 26.55| 4.0 | 1.29| 31.84| 7.25| 4.0 |  6.0 |   ?  |   ?   | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Cockatoo  |{Lt. F. and Mr. A. C.     }|2.47| 545 | 27.24| 3.66| 1.24| 32.14| 8.0 | 5.0 |  6.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{       Hughes            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |{    Payne                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Hoopoo    |{Capt. Britten, R.N., &   }|2.49| 539 | 27.83| 2.5 | 1.20| 31.53| 6.8 | 5.0 |  6.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{  the Hon. G. Colville   }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |{    Payne                }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Papoose   |{Mr. Paul Ralli           }|2.50| 543 | 27.65| 3.5 | 1.25| 32.4 | 7.0 | 4.5 |  6.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Polynia   |{Mr. W. S. Armitage       }|2.47| 528 | 28.15| 3.7 | 1.22| 33.1 | 7.2 | 4.5 |  6.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Faugh-a-  |{Mr. A. Hardie Jackson    }|2.48| 542 | 27.48| 2.25| 1.16| 30.9 | 7.0 | 4.25|  6.5 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |  Ballagh  |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Mynah     |{Lieut. F. Elwes          }|2.50| 544 | 27.65| 2.25| 1.3 | 31.2 | 7.0 | 4.25|  6.5 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Molly     |{Mr. Jessop               }|2.41| 531 | 28.26| 3.98| 5.99| 38.23| 6.6 |  ?  |  6.5 |  3.7 |   2.3 | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Nicholson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Stork,    |{Capt. S. Y. H. Davenport }|2.43| 527 | 28.52| 3.66| 6.08| 38.26| 7.0 |  ?  |{3.7} |  3.6 |   2.2 | 1892 |
  |    |  C.B.     |{   Nicholson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |{ ? } |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Gareth    |{Mr. Henderson            }|2.48| 533 | 28.02| 3.78| 4.9 | 36.7 |  ?  |  ?  |   ?  |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Nicholson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Bud       |{Earl of Desart           }|2.47| 534 | 28.0 | 1.8 | 2.7 | 32.5 | 7.3 |  ?  |  6.4 |  4.3 |   2.4 | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Soper                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Modwen    |{Mr. C. Mac Iver          }|2.50| 564 | 26.69| 2.59| 5.99| 35.27| 7.33| 3.8 |  3.2 |  3.6 |   2.1 | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Livingstone           }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Wenonah   |{Mr. H. Allan             }|2.40| 577 | 25.05|  ?  |  ?  | 37.5 | 7.5 | 3.0 |  6.1 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Herreshoff            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+


1-RATERS, 1891-92

  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |    O.H.   |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Rig |  Yacht    |   Owner and Designer      | R. | S.A.|L.W.L.|-----+-----|L.O.A.|  B. |  D. |Drght.|Displ.|Ballast| When |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |Fwrd.| Aft |      |     |     |      | cwt. |  cwt. | built|
  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Pup (C.B.)|{Mr. T. W. Ratsey         }|0.99| 343 | 17.37| 1.46| 2.32| 21.12| 6.6 | 2.9 | {1.9}|  22  |   7.5 | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     | {5.0}|      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | -- | Unit      |{Mr. G. F. Flemmich       }|0.94| 308 | 18.40|  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 5.4 | 4.0 |   ?  |   ?  |    ?  | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Owner                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | -- | Cobweb    |{Mr. B. O. Cochrane       }|0.75|  ?  |   ?  |  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 5.8 | 4.5 |   ?  |   ?  |    ?  | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   ? Designer            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  Split| Cariad    |{Dr. P. W. Hughes         }|1.00| 285 | 21.00|  ?  |  ?  | 26.6 | 6.6 | 2.6 |   ?  |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  | L. |           |{   Sibbick               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Barbet    |{Mr. Wilson Hoare         }|0.97| 288 | 20.97| 3.05| 1.00| 24.32| 5.95| 2.5 |  4.0 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Argula    |{Mr. H. R. Langrishe      }| over  rating    |  ?  |  ?  |   ?  | 5.9 |  ?  |  2.6 |  34  |  15   | 1892 |
  |    |           |{  and E. K. B. Tighe     }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |{   Nicholson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Nansheen  |{Mr. T. C. Burrowes       }|0.99| 297 | 20.24| 4.18| 3.38| 27.80| 6.6 | 2.3 |  2.5 |  30  |  17   | 1892 |
  |    |  (C.B.)   |{   Fife                  }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Rogue     |{Mr. R. Vogan             }|0.99| 285 | 20.91| 5.06| 2.51| 28.48| 5.75| 2.2 |  4.5 |  21  |  13   | 1892 |
  |    |(Bulb Keel)|{   Ridsdale              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Doushka   |{Mr. P. Perceval          }|0.98| 281 | 21.07| 3.1 | 1.7 | 25.87| 6.0 | 2.5 |  4.5 |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | -- | Mahatma   |{Mr. G. F. Flemmich       }|0.99| 289 | 20.61| 2.67| 1.36| 24.64| 5.3 | 2.7 |   ?  |   ?  |    ?  | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Owner                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+


1/2-RATERS, 1890-92

  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |    O.H.   |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Rig |  Yacht    |   Owner and Designer      | R. | S.A.|L.W.L.|-----+-----|L.O.A.|  B. |  D. |Drght.|Displ.|Ballast| When |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |Fwrd.| Aft |      |     |     |      | cwt. |  cwt. | built|
  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Tiny      |{Mr. Vogan                }|0.50| 193 | 15.52| 1.25| 0.4 | 17.17| 5.0 | 2.45|  3.0 | 18   |  14   | 1890 |
  |    |           |{   Ridsdale              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Bairn     |{Mr. E. F. Quilter        }|0.49| 185 | 16.10| 1.65| 1.0 | 18.75| 6.1 | 1.3 |  1.3 | 14   |   4   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Clayton               }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Coquette  |{Mr. E. Jessop            }|0.49| 191 | 15.58| 1.53| 1.97| 19.08| 4.5 | 3.0 |  3.0 | 15   |   9   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Nicholson             }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Eileen    |{Miss Sutton              }|0.48| 185 | 15.90| 0.82| 0.61| 17.33| 4.8 | 2.7 |  3.0 |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Jeanie    |{Mr. Cochrane             }|0.48| 182 | 15.94| 0.88| 4.51| 21.33| 5.2 | 3.0 |  2.9 | 22   |  12   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Fife                  }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Narua     |{Mr. Perceval             }|0.48| 183 | 15.97| 0.81| 0.58| 17.36| 5.0 | 2.8 |  3.0 |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Dancing   |{Mr. Hewitt               }|0.50| 189 | 15.99| 1.03| 0.7 | 17.72| 4.8 | 2.4 |  3.0 | 16   |  12   | 1891 |
  |    |  Girl     |{   Ridsdale              }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Kittiwake |{Lt. L. C. Elwes          }|0.50| 178 | 17.16| 1.25| 0.5 | 18.91| 5.0 | 2.7 |  3.0 |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Dee Dee   |{Mr. Paul Ralli           }|0.50| 177 | 17.17| 0.25| 0.71| 19.13| 4.41| 2.7 |  3.0 |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Mosquito  |{Mr. Rudston Read         }|0.49| 179 | 16.6 | 0.9 | 2.1 | 19.6 | 4.9 |  ?  |  2.9 | 20   |   6   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Soper                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Ladybird  |{Miss Hammersley          }|0.49| 176 | 17.04| 1.00| 0.4 | 18.65| 5.0 | 2.5 |  2.9 |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | L. | Spruce    |{Mr. Brand                }|0.41| 154 | 16.20| 0.15| 1.75| 18.1 | 5.0 | 1.5 |  0.5 |  ?   | nil   | 1891 |
  |Ywl.|           |{   T. L. Smith           }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |Ywl.| Torpedo   |{Mr. Stewart              }|0.5 | 170 | 17.30|  ?  |  ?  |   ?  |  ?  |  ?  |   ?  |  ?   |   ?   | 1891 |
  |    |           |{   ?                     }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Daisy     |{Mr. Soper                }|0.5 | 176 | 17.10| 4.23| 2.65| 23.98| 5.8 |  ?  |  3.3 | 15   |   7   | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Soper                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  | S. | Wee Winn  |{Miss W. Sutton           }|0.46| 178 | 15.61| 3.78| 4.53| 23.92| 4.8 | 1.3 |  2.9 |  8   |   3   | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Herreshoff            }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Lilliput  |{The late Mr. S. Watson   }|0.5 | 180 | 16.5 | 3.0 | 0.5 | 20.0 | 4.9 | 2.0 |  3.0 |  ?   |   ?   | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |    |           |                           |    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  |L.S.| Pique     |{Miss Sutton              }|0.5 | 176 | 17.0 | 3.12| 0.66| 20.78| 5.0 | 2.0 |  2.9 |  ?   |   ?   | 1892 |
  |    |           |{   Payne                 }|    |     |      |     |     |      |     |     |      |      |       |      |
  +----+-----------+---------------------------+----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------+-------+------+



CHAPTER X

FITTING OUT A FIFTY-TONNER TO GO FOREIGN

BY E. F. KNIGHT


There is no reason why ocean cruising should be confined to those who
are fortunate enough to possess big steam yachts, or schooners of
considerable tonnage. A good 50-tonner, or even a smaller craft, is
probably as safe under any circumstances as the larger vessel; she can
go where the latter cannot, and in many ways gives her owner better
sport.

When a man really fond of the sea--and he must be so to undertake the
task--sets to work to fit out a 50-tonner for a lengthy voyage, to the
South Atlantic for example, his method must necessarily be somewhat
different from that of the owner of the large yacht. He has to rely a
good deal on his own wits, for much of the work of preparation is
quite out of the line of his shipwright and of the ordinary nautical
tradesmen with whom he has to deal. He is not likely to employ one of
the regular ocean-going skippers, who would of course know exactly
what was required, and the yachtsman making ready for his first
expedition of this nature is sure to do some things wrong; but he will
gradually pick up many wrinkles to help him on another occasion.

Such a voyage must to a great extent be an amateur business, by which
I mean one to be undertaken only by a pleasure sailor of experience,
accompanied by friends of like tastes; for I can imagine nothing so
remote from an amusement as for a novice to sail away on a vessel of
this size with a purely professional skipper and crew on whom he has
to implicitly rely. He is completely at the mercy of his servants;
hands who are well enough when carrying their employer about in home
waters and on short foreign cruises are apt, unless they are
exceptional men indeed, to take advantage of his ignorance and
helplessness in many ways when the vessel is thousands of miles from
home and on coasts where--and they are thoroughly well aware of
this--he cannot discharge them, since it would be impossible
satisfactorily to replace them. To travel in such a fashion would be
productive of so much annoyance and anxiety as to sicken one for ever
of the sea. With a larger vessel it is of course a different matter; a
first-class skipper is engaged, the crew is carefully picked, all is
properly ordered, and a discipline not altogether feasible on the
small craft is maintained; and yet I have heard it whispered that
discord and trouble are not always absent even from the big vessel on
a lengthened cruise.

There is no man I would rather have at sea with me than the honest
British yachting tar of the right sort; but it is difficult to get him
to ship for a long voyage on a small craft, and as a rule one has to
put up with an inferior article. The owner of our roaming 50-tonner
therefore, if he wish to enjoy any comfort and have an easy mind, must
know sufficient to be entirely independent of his crew; and if he is
not his own skipper--which he ought to be--he should at any rate be
entered on the ship's papers as captain, and every man on board should
sign articles under him. Should the skipper choose to leave the
vessel, the owner must be capable of taking his place. The men must be
made to understand that their employer can do without them; that, in
case of their attempting any nonsense, he is quite prepared to put all
hands on shore and ship a crew of any sort of foreigners in any port
if necessary; if he cannot do this, he had far better stay on shore,
or only cruise in home waters. But when once the owner has attained
this absolute independence, he will find there is no more fascinating
pursuit than that of navigating his little vessel across the seas from
country to country, to whatsoever corner of the world he may fancy to
betake himself.

It is important that our cruiser should be so rigged and fitted out
generally as to be capable of being handled by as small a crew as
possible. Every trick of tackle, purchase, and what not that can
economise labour should be taken advantage of, and it is astonishing
how few men can then work a vessel. One does not do everything in
recognised yachting fashion when making ocean runs; there is
comparatively little work to do, and the large crew that is required
on the Channel cruise is not necessary on the long voyage. For several
good reasons the owner should keep his crew as small as is compatible
with the safety of the vessel. Crowding is thus avoided, a matter of
moment when one is sailing the tropical seas; for there the
confinement of several men on a small yacht is unhealthy for them,
despite all arrangements that may be made for their comfort. When the
mouths are few, it will be easier to carry a sufficiency of supplies,
and the question of water, more especially, will not be so difficult
to deal with; it will moreover be a much less troublesome business to
get one's complement of men made up in a foreign port in the event of
desertion or dismissal.

It must be remembered that the owner is very likely to have a few
disturbances and to get rid of some of his men in the course of such a
cruise. It would be strange if it were otherwise. It is a monotonous
life for the hands cooped up in the small vessel. If they have no
other reason for becoming discontented, they will do so merely because
they have too much to eat and too little to do; there will be
dissensions; each man will reveal what bad qualities he may possess;
there may be that fearful thing a sea lawyer on board, but he should
not be permitted to stay long. This period of trouble, however, will
probably be only of short duration--else such a cruise would be a
purgatory; the worthless are weeded out, others are shipped; and it is
a man's own fault if he has not soon gathered around him a compact if
miscellaneous crew, willing, cheery, ready to go anywhere he may
choose to take them.

It is my opinion that there should not be a single yacht sailor on
board the foreign-cruising 50-tonner. It is difficult, as I have said,
to get the right ones, and it will be bad for the owner if he fall in
with the wrong ones--men who have been spoilt by foolish employers,
for instance; a numerous class, I fear. We all know them.
Smart-looking fellows enough may-be, but shirkers of honest work, they
prefer to ship on show yachts belonging to owners who like to exhibit
themselves and their vessels in the fashionable yachting ports each
season, but who are not sailors in any sense of the word, and have no
real love of the sport, following it only for the swagger of the
thing. Men who have served such owners would prove a great nuisance on
an ocean cruise, and would not be likely to go far. I have heard such
hands grumbling on a friend's yacht because they were to pass one
night at sea instead of in some port where they happened to have
friends. They look to frequent tips from the 'governor's' visitors,
and to other less legitimate perquisites; these they cannot get in
mid-Atlantic, so it is not the place for them.

Hands from fishing-boats, sailing barges, and small coasters are the
best men for the foreign cruiser of small tonnage. Among these one is
not likely to come across spoilt and pampered mariners, and they are
accustomed to roughing it, and to the shifts of short-handed craft.
But were I undertaking a lengthened tropical voyage, I think I should
ship my English crew simply for the run over to my first West Indian
or South American port, and there engage a negro crew. These blacks
are excellent fore-and-aft sailors, easy to manage, and always happy
and ready for any amount of hard work if kindly but firmly treated;
while they are, of course, far better fitted than white men to
withstand the debilitating influence of sultry climates, an influence
which, as everyone knows, has caused the ruin of many a good British
sailor, driving hitherto sober men to injure their health by excess
whenever they get shore leave.

And now for our vessel, of what sort should she be? She must, of
course, be of fair beam. We are beginning to believe in beam again,
and are returning to the wisdom of our ancestors, recognising the fact
that beam is not incompatible with speed, whilst it is indispensable
for comfort both on deck and below on an ocean cruise. I remember,
when we sailed away in the 'Falcon' to South America twelve years ago,
yachting men shook their heads at our beam; I was assured that I
should never get more than six knots an hour out of such a tubby
craft, more especially as she was snugly sparred and could fly so
little canvas. She had a length of 42 feet to a beam of 13 feet. As it
turned out, we often got nine knots out of her, and made one voyage of
2,000 nautical miles in ten days, the current, it must be said, being
favourable to us on this occasion. But the proportionate beaminess of
the 'Falcon' is not necessary for the bigger craft, and the beam of
our 50-tonner should be about a quarter of her length.

When choosing my vessel I should prefer, for other reasons than
economy, to buy an old one that had been well cared for to building or
purchasing a new one. Tropical climates soon develop defects in wood,
and though it may be impossible to detect any flaws or signs of early
decay in a new vessel, the timber of which she is constructed may have
been put in sappy, and she may be ready to break out into dry rot on
the slightest provocation. Tough old human beings who have weathered
the ailments of youth are not likely to fall into consumption, and so
it is with the ship. If she has knocked about for years and shown no
symptoms of decay, then she has proved herself to have been put
together of the right stuff, and she will remain sound in her good old
age.

If one came across some old teak vessel, such as my 'Alerte' was, a
quarter of a century old, constructed by a good builder in the strong,
honest fashion of those days, not put together in a hurry, but
leisurely; with not a plank in her that was not well seasoned and
selected, and that had not been lying in the builder's loft for a year
before it was used, and with timbers and deadwood stouter than are
employed now, and if, after careful examination, she proved from stem
to stern, from deck to keel, as sound as when she was put on the
stocks, even in those treacherous and usually ill-ventilated corners
inside the counter, then that vessel is the one to be possessed of by
the man who would go foreign; for she can be more safely trusted than
many a brand-new craft, scamped, pleasing to the eye, but of unsound
constitution, like some fair pulmonary with the germs of disease
latent in her bones. The 'Alerte' was a vessel of this good old
sort--I say was, for after I had left her, this yawl, which properly
cared for would have completed her century of cruising, was lost by a
piece of wicked negligence off the West Indian island of Trinidad, and
is now lying at the bottom in one hundred fathoms of water.

A yawl is the favourite rig for the cruising 50-tonner; personally, I
should prefer a ketch, the easiest vessel afloat to handle. A 50-ton
ketch requires a very small crew indeed; a couple of men on deck can
tackle any job that turns up. But a yawl is nearly as handy as the
ketch. Two of us used to knock about for days at a time on the
'Alerte' in the South Atlantic, and she was a 56-ton yawl, with
somewhat heavy spars. We never had any difficulty with her; but when
we were short-handed, we used to employ 'un-yachty' methods. We could
only hoist our mainsail by using our mast-winch, which we also
employed for hauling out the reefing tackle when shortening sail.
There are many little dodges that soon occur to a sailor, and I have
no doubt that if one man who knew what he was about were left alone in
mid ocean on such a vessel, he would have little difficulty in taking
her into port.

There should, of course, be a good supply of sails on board, not
omitting a stout storm trysail and a handy spinnaker. The latter
should have a boom short enough to pass under the forestay when topped
up, so that it has not to be unshipped for a gybe. Such a spinnaker
will be more effective than a big one on an ocean cruise. It can be
carried when the wind is strong and the sea high--an important matter;
for how often one has seen a fore-and-after, that has been rolling
gunwales under when running under mainsail and head-sail alone, skim
along steadily with dry decks as soon as the little spinnaker is put
on her to balance the other canvas? When we left England with the
'Alerte,' we had with us her racing spinnaker only. We soon discovered
we had made a mistake. Short-handed as we were, we often refrained
from using it when it would have been of service; for the unshipping
of its mighty boom was a heavy bit of work. Then we had a small boom
made, and used the balloon-foresail as the working spinnaker. One man
could handle this, and it was seldom allowed to lie idle when the
breeze was aft.

It is better thus to provide oneself with a sail that can serve both
as balloon-foresail and spinnaker, according to how the wind may be,
than to encumber oneself with a large square-sail, such as yachts were
wont to carry, and such as one still sees on revenue cutters.[17] But
there is a square-sail of another sort that should be found in the
sail-locker of every little foreign cruiser; this is the small stout
storm square-sail, a sail which would be seldom used, it is true, but
which, on certain occasions, would prove of inestimable advantage.

[Footnote 17: The 'Navahoe,' before returning to America, ordered a
square-sail from Tilley, of Southampton.]

With the 'Falcon' we once ran on before a favourable gale till the
gale became a hurricane--a River Plate pampero--and then the sea was
dangerously high, so that we were unable to do what should have been
done hours before; that is, bring her up into the wind and heave to.
Not daring to attempt this now, we had to make the best of the
position, and run on under trysail and storm jib. The steering was a
most difficult and anxious matter; there was considerable danger of
broaching to, and our lives depended upon the watchful skill of the
helmsman. The trysail had no boom, and was ever violently gybing,
while so low was the body of the sail that it lost the wind when we
were in the trough of those great seas. Now that was the very time
when we needed the little storm square-sail. Under that snug bit of
canvas the vessel would have steered with far greater ease and safety;
there would have been no risk of a gybe; the tendency to broach to
would have been much lessened, and a topsail of this sort, moreover,
is, like a jib, a lifting sail, and helps to keep a vessel afloat.
Hoisted well up, as it should be, right under the forestay, it is high
enough to catch the wind between the seas.

If the owner does not carry a storm square-sail, he should have a boom
to his trysail.

When the yachtsman, having purchased his 50-tonner, begins to fit her
out for the ocean cruise, he is certain to discover that he will have
to make considerable alterations in the arrangement of her ballast.
The vessel that hitherto has been cruising in home waters only is sure
to have a great deal more ballast in her than is necessary or
advisable for his purpose. In the first place, when on a long voyage,
he is not going to crack on as if he were racing for a cup. He will
most probably have reduced his vessel's spars before starting, and has
no ambition, when he is on the ocean for weeks at a stretch, to carry
the huge spread of canvas under which his craft was wont to stagger in
the Solent.

The ocean rover, who loves blue water for its own sake, is a quiet
plodding sort of person, in no extreme hurry to reach his port. He
wishes to be as comfortable and free from anxiety as possible, and,
like the master of an East Indiaman of the olden time, is more likely
than not to make things snug each sunset and take in his kites--the
big topsail for example--as he does not approve of the watch below
having to be summoned on deck at each squall.

So our foreign cruiser, snugly sparred and moderately canvased, need
not be nearly so stiff as when she used to fly up and down the
Channel, straining and quivering as if acutely jealous lest any other
craft should outstrip her; and she can now be relieved of a
considerable portion of her ballast. It is of such importance that the
50-tonner should be light and buoyant, so that she may leap over the
Atlantic storm waves and not plunge into their curling crests, that I
think the less ballast one can do with the better. I lay stress on
this, because I know that the usual wiseacres and others, who frequent
the shipwright's yard to proffer all manner of advice to the yachtsman
while he is preparing for his voyage, will shake their heads if he
speaks of lightening his craft to the extent I should advocate, and
warn him that a perilous crankiness will be the result. There is, of
course, a limit to this lightening process which must not be
overstepped; but that limit--at any rate so far as my practice is
concerned--does not, as a rule, find favour in the eyes of the
forementioned advisers.

If the vessel be ballasted with lead when she comes into one's
possession, the weight can be reduced to the exact amount that is
required by selling a sufficient quantity of the lead and substituting
the same bulk of iron, the specific gravity of one metal to the other
being roughly as 11 to 7. A spare chain, spare anchors, and any iron
implements not liable to be damaged by damp, can with advantage be
employed as ballast in this way, but must, of course, be stowed so
that they can be got at without difficulty. Whilst adjusting the
ballast it is necessary to remember that, unlike the coasting yacht,
the ocean cruiser will have to be laden with a considerable quantity
of water and other stores--probably some six tons weight of these.

The question of what boats should be carried on the ocean-going
50-tonner is one to be considered carefully. The ordinary yacht's gig,
that does very well to land passengers in Channel ports, is not
adapted for our purpose; she would be cumbersome, occupying too much
room on deck, and, most probably, would not be a sufficiently good
sea-boat. A shorter dinghy of lifeboat shape, with plenty of sheer and
a pointed stern, will be found much more serviceable, especially if
one has to effect a landing on small oceanic islands or at other
exposed spots where access is rendered difficult by heavy surf. The
boat should be beamy and rather shallow; for if she is too deep she is
likely, while lying on deck, to get very much in the way of the main
boom, which will have to be topped up to an awkward height to clear
her; or, worse still, she may even make it impossible for the main
boom to be swung sufficiently forward when the vessel is running
before the wind--a terrible nuisance on which it is unnecessary to
dilate. I believe one of the principal reasons why the revenue cutters
carry their large square-sails is that they could not otherwise get
any speed out of them before a fair wind, to such an extent do their
boats cramp the boom and prevent the easing off of the mainsheet.

In my opinion one cannot do better than carry a medium-sized Berthon
collapsible in addition to one's big dinghy. A Berthon occupies very
little room, and is so easily dropped into the water and hoisted on
board again that she is sure to be used on many occasions when one
would not take the trouble to put the heavier boat out. I was once
shipmate with a delightful Berthon which had an iron centreboard and a
balance lugsail. We gave her plenty of work in every port, creek, or
river we entered; for she sailed admirably, and was one of the
handiest little craft possible. She contributed a great deal to our
enjoyment of the cruise.

A few remarks on that most important subject, the commissariat, may
not be amiss. When fitting an ocean-going 50-tonner for the first
time, one asks oneself with considerable misgiving how it will be
possible to find room for all the necessary stores. I remember coming
down to the 'Falcon' one morning, when we were getting her ready for
her South Atlantic voyage, to find the quay, alongside which she lay,
covered with barrels, sacks, cases, &c., the provisions for five men
for nine months, which I had ordered from London. I stood aghast
before this mighty mass, the bulk of which appeared to exceed by far
the capacity of my vessel's hold; but it is wonderful what an amount
of stowage room there is in the lockers and corners of a beamy
vessel; however much is put into her, there seems to be place for
more. I was much relieved in my mind to get my tons of stores snugly
stowed out of sight, and all below the water-line too, so serving as
good ballast. On the 'Alerte' we found no difficulty in carrying
nearly a year's supply of provisions for thirteen hands.

As for water, extra tanks will have to be fitted up in all convenient
places. On the 'Alerte' we had a gallon tank under the saloon table,
while the cabin fireplace was removed and a large tank was built into
the space thus gained. We carried 600 gallons in all, which ought to
suffice for the longest run one is likely to make, allowing for calms
in the doldrums and unforeseen delays. All the drinking water should
be in tanks below. To carry any weight of water in casks on deck is a
mistake for various reasons; but of course it is well to have some
breakers on deck to hold any rain-water that may be caught on the
voyage.

It is my firm opinion that one should carry plenty of good salt meat
when bound on a long cruise, and rely as little as possible on tinned
provisions. The temperature is very high on small vessels in the
tropics, and this does undoubtedly in time set up some sort of
chemical change in tinned meat--a change which, though it may not be
perceptible to the senses, can be productive of much ill health. The
salt meat should be of the right sort too. It is not advisable to go,
as I myself once did, to even the best of butchers in a seaport town
and have fresh meat salted down. This is excellent at first, but it
will not keep long on the small vessel. It is far better to procure
the older, much-travelled, well-tested salt meat, less tasty though it
be. The good firms of purveyors empty the cask, examine each piece of
beef, and repickle it, before sending it on board; such beef will keep
through the longest voyage and in any climate.

It is certain that no sort of food will remain sweet and wholesome so
long on a small as on a big craft. It is amongst other things
essential to have the supply of biscuit divided into a number of
hermetically sealed tins. The best made bread locker will not prevent
maggots, weevils, and other loathsome insects from swarming among the
biscuit as soon as the 50-tonner reaches the tropics, and the better
the quality of the biscuit the more rapid and complete will be the
spoiling of it. It must not be forgotten that tinned ship's bread can
only be procured in England, so a sufficient supply must be laid in
before one sails.

This brings me to another point. It is not only advisable to take from
England all the biscuit wanted, but also, if possible, all the tinned
meats and suchlike stores. If more be needed in the course of the
voyage, it should be sent out from England and transshipped. In the
ports of the West Indies, of the Indian Ocean, or indeed on any
tropical coast, though one may come across honest ship-chandlers--I
have frequently been lucky enough to do so myself--it will be found
that, even with them, prices are apt to be exorbitant; while their
goods are often of inferior quality, or, when of good brands, old and
damaged. With the dishonest ship-chandlers, who are not rare, one is
likely to have still worse experiences. Were I again to fit out a
yacht for a lengthy cruise, I should take everything of this sort with
me, or make arrangements with a good English firm to send me out
relays of supplies to certain places at which it was my intention to
call. I should only rely on the ports for fresh meat, vegetables,
fruit and suchlike perishable commodities.

Neither should one go to the ship-chandler of the foreign harbour for
rope, blocks, canvas, or boatswain's necessaries of any description.
Provision should be carefully made against running short of these;
plenty and to spare should be taken from home.

On an English 50-ton yacht it is usual to carry on all the cooking in
the forecastle; but when the vessel is on tropical seas it is very
uncomfortable for the hands forward to have a fire burning for the
greater part of the day in their close quarters. On the 'Alerte' the
fire was only lit once a day in order to cook the dinner, a large
spirit stove being employed for the preparation of breakfast and tea,
to boil water, and so forth. A good spirit stove is indispensable on
our 50-tonner. On the 'Falcon' we used even to cook our dinner with
one. Spirits-of-wine is among the few things that can always be got of
satisfactory quality and at moderate cost in every foreign port. I
have never found difficulty in procuring this in any part of the
world, and as a rule considerably cheaper than methylated spirits in
England.

I have always preferred a spirit to a paraffin stove. I have never
come across a sea cook yet who could deal satisfactorily with the
latter. The lampblack is apt to make a terrible mess of the pots and
pans and everything else, including the sea cook. I know that, if the
lamp is properly trimmed and the stove is carefully looked after, this
should not happen. But somehow or other it generally does happen;
consequently paraffin is not suitable fuel for the sea-going stove,
and the cleanly alcohol, though a little more expensive, is far better
for the purpose.

On plenty of smart West Indian and other foreign sloops and schooners
of about the size of our 50-tonners, it is customary to do all the
cooking on deck; and I do not see why this method should not be
adopted on our small ocean-going yacht when she is at sea in fine
weather or lying at anchor. A tiny temporary galley or fireplace--very
'un-yachty,' it must be confessed--might be fitted up on deck forward,
and if the cook be a West Indian negro of the right sort, he will
probably be found as clever as an Indian 'bobbachee' on the march at
turning out a capital meal without the aid of cumbersome stove or
oven--and that, too, without making any mess whatever, so that the
skipper need feel no anxiety for his spotless deck and sails.

[Illustration: The Drogue, off the Kullen Head.]



CHAPTER XI

BALTIC CRUISING

BY E. F. KNIGHT


A few English sailing yachts visit the Baltic every year, but that
wind-swept sea can scarcely be termed one of the favourite cruising
grounds of our pleasure fleet. This is not altogether strange; for the
voyage is a long and rough one round the Skaw into the squally
Cattegat; chilly gales and choppy seas in many summers form the rule
rather than the exception among the Danish Islands, and the principal
seaports of the inland sea are singularly dull and uninteresting.

Nevertheless--and the reader will soon understand that what I am about
to say is in no wise inconsistent with my opening sentence--I am
confident that the yachtsman who undertakes a summer's cruise on the
Baltic in a _small_ vessel will afterwards remember it as one of his
very pleasantest experiences. This is a sea which is often coldly
repelling to the cursory traveller, but it is strangely fascinating to
him who takes the trouble to explore it, and the charm of it increases
with further knowledge.

How interesting, to begin with, is the voyage out! For, with the small
vessel I am speaking of, the yachtsman does not double the stormy
Skaw, but sails in and out along all the winding coasts that were the
cradle of our race, the lands of the Frisians, Saxons, Jutes, Angles,
and Danes. Having waited for a slant in one of our Eastern
ports--Harwich, for example--he crosses the North Sea to a Dutch
harbour, follows the shores of the Zuider Zee, picks his way up the
narrow channels that divide the sandy Frisian Islands from the
mainland, enters the river Eider, and passes up the ship canal to
Kiel.

And that port once reached, what possibilities of glorious cruising
are before him! He has now left behind the discoloured waves of the
North Sea, and his keel is cleaving water so limpid that every stone
and weed is visible fathoms beneath. He can sail up narrow sounds
between park-like glades and forests of pines and magnificent oaks and
beeches; or up long winding fiords which take him beyond the coast
belt of forest and pasture, and past the undulating corn lands, into
the very heart of the Cimbrian peninsula, where the desolate moorlands
of the Ahl, grand in their northern savagery, spread far on either
side of the sinuous creek. There is the long Slie, a succession of
lakes and narrows that leads to old Schleswig; there are the deep
inlets of Flensborg, Apenrade, Veile, and many-islanded Liim; Ise
Fiord, perhaps the fairest of all, with its promontories of noble
forest; the lovely sounds of Svendborg and the Little Belt; and a
score of other straits and lochs that make this in many respects the
finest cruising ground in Europe. I do not know where else, when the
sun shines out between the rain squalls, the sea appears so blue, the
grass and the foliage seem so green and luxuriant, as in this land of
Denmark. It is pleasant to sail, as one often does, suddenly out of
the choppy windy open Baltic into the shelter of these narrows, where
the great trees dip their branches into the smooth water, where one
comes upon scene after scene of tender and restful beauty, and where
the traveller knows, too, that whenever he may choose to land, at some
trim village or opposite some snug old farmhouse, he is sure of a
welcome from the kindly people. Then, if the yachtsman wishes for more
open water, he can sail out of the fiord mouth and steer for one of
the many delightful little islands that stud the Baltic. Remote many
of them are, set in the middle of that treacherous sea, inhabited by a
few primitive fishermen. The advent of a stranger is rare in the
extreme. I spent two summers in these waters, and found that no
British yacht had ever come before to most of the fiords and islets I
explored.

For it happens that nearly all the charms I speak of are lost to him
who sails these waters in a big vessel. It is a coasting voyage in a
small craft I am advocating here. Of the fiords that penetrate the
Cimbrian peninsula and the larger islands, only a few are available
for a yacht of deep draught, and in order to visit some of the most
beautiful of the inland waters one's vessel should not draw more than
two feet. Again, though harbours that will admit coasters of even
light tonnage are far apart on much of the iron-bound coast of the
Baltic, there are to be found everywhere, at short intervals, little
artificial havens that have been built for the accommodation of the
craft of the herring fishermen; while the only shelter afforded by
many of the islets consists of similar havens, frequented solely by
the fishing and ferry boats. At the entrance of most of these
miniature harbours there is a depth of about four feet of water at
high tide.

Now bad weather springs up frequently and with wonderful suddenness in
the Baltic, and a dangerous sea soon rises on those shallow waters. It
is therefore of great advantage to have a boat of so light a draught
as to be able to run for refuge into any of these little havens. Such
a craft has nearly always a snug port not far under her lee while
coasting here; whereas a larger craft can find no harbour for many
leagues, and has to make the best she can of it on the open sea. The
shallow boat is the safest for such a cruise, besides being the only
one with which the most interesting inlets and islets can be visited.
She must be small, but at the same time she must be as good a sea-boat
as is possible for her size; for she is not likely to escape bad
weather altogether on the Baltic.

[Illustration: Danske fishing-boat and anchor.]

To some it may appear foolhardy to go so far on a small yacht like the
one I am speaking of; but as a matter of fact it will be found that it
is nearly always the cautious sailor and not the reckless one who
succeeds in sailing his little vessel to distant shores. The imprudent
and thoughtless man soon encounters such experiences, soon gets into
such scrapes, on attempting a foreign cruise as will keep him for the
future in the home waters he happens to know something about.

A voyage from England to the uttermost ends of the Baltic does not
necessitate any really long runs for a yacht of small draught, and it
is seldom that one need remain out at sea at night. It is well that it
is so; for these are surely the most wind-vexed waters of Europe;
violent north-westers rise in the most unexpected manner, and the
stillest of summer mornings will as likely as not be succeeded by a
howling wintry afternoon. It behoves the skipper of the small yacht to
watch his weather very carefully in this treacherous region. Whenever
a run of some distance is before him, from isle to isle, or along some
portion of the coast where the havens of refuge are rare, he must
patiently wait for a slant, and the advice of the aneroid in the cabin
must be implicitly followed.

It is this last precaution that makes what otherwise would certainly
be a dangerous cruise for a small craft an amusement less risky than
are the majority of sports. It ought to be unnecessary to repeat such
trite admonition as this; but in my experience it is the skipper of
the small vessel who pays the least attention to his glass; and in all
cases that have come under my notice when small yachts that have
started to cross the North Sea or the Channel, or to make some other
run of a dozen hours or so, have come to grief in any way in
consequence of having encountered weather dangerously heavy for them,
it is for the one reason that the skipper, possibly an excellent
sailor in other respects, has neglected his aneroid. One may indeed
make occasional runs in this blind fashion, trusting to the appearance
of the sky alone, and yet no harm come of it; but on the sort of
Baltic cruise I am describing there will, of course, be a number of
such short runs; short, but quite long enough to make disaster a
probability sooner or later if proper precautions be not taken, and it
may be found that the pitcher has gone to the well once too often.

The life of the man who undertakes long coasting voyages in small
craft depends more on his knowledge of the use of the barometer, and
on his close observation of it, than it does on his good seamanship. A
man I know had his dinghy carried away, and nearly lost his little
yacht and his life, on a run from Ryde to Havre. The longshore
wiseacres shook their heads when they heard of it, and spoke of the
foolhardiness of sailing across Channel in so tiny a vessel. In this I
maintain the wiseacres were wrong; the foolhardiness lay in the
skipper's blinking at the heavens to windward and lee, and putting
absolute faith in their deceptive appearance, while he entirely
omitted to see what the glass was doing before he tripped his anchor.
It is possible to practically insure for oneself fine weather, or at
any rate the absence of dangerously bad weather, for a run of say a
day and night, provided one have the patience to wait for it.

[Illustration: Roskilde from the Fiord.]

I cannot recall an instance of having experienced really bad weather
when my reading of the barometer had told me that it would be fine;
but I have seen the weather-wisdom of many an old sea-dog at fault. In
the Baltic the fishermen fail signally to read the signs of their own
skies, as the following incident will show. I had sailed into a
fishing-haven on Zeeland called Gillelie. I found a fête in progress
which had detained the fishermen who would otherwise have sailed on
that day to the distant island of Anholt for the autumn herring
fishery. 'But we will all be off to-morrow,' said one to me. 'I do not
think any of you will sail to-morrow or the day after; it will be
blowing a gale of wind from the north-west,' I remarked, for my glass
had been falling in most ominous fashion for some days. But my friends
thought they knew better. 'You are a stranger here,' said they; 'we
fishing-folk know the signs of the sky in our country. The wind is
south-west, and it will remain fine. The barometer is not to be
trusted in the Baltic.' Well, at midnight the wind had shifted to
north-west, and was howling through the bending pines; by dawn the
gale had burst upon us, for two days it blew a very hurricane, and
there was much loss of life and shipping on the Cattegat. Had it not
been for the fête the fishermen would have put to sea, and few would
ever have been seen again. I converted the fishermen of Gillelie to a
belief in the barometer, and I believe that they forthwith applied to
the Danish Government for one of those glasses which it supplies to
seaports for the public use.

Having given my reasons for recommending a small vessel of light
draught for Baltic cruising, I will now explain what I consider that
vessel should be like. I am about to preach rank heresy, but I should
certainly act up to my preaching were I ever again to make
preparations for a similar voyage.

The craft that last carried me about those seas was an old teak P. &
O. lifeboat, 29 feet in length, which had been decked, rigged as a
ketch, provided with six inches of false keel, and so converted into a
yacht of three tons register. A boat something like this one appears
to me to be the best adapted for the purpose in question--a boat with
pointed stern and considerable sheer, such as my lifeboat was, and
such, too, as are the herring fishing boats of the Cattegat. Her beam
should be about one-quarter of her length, her draught should not
exceed 2 ft. 6 in., and she should have less ballast by a good deal
than is generally put into a boat of her tonnage; for she must be
comfortable when in rough water, be light and lively, and leap over
the steep seas of the Baltic instead of driving herself through them.

My old lifeboat was the best sea-boat of her size I have ever come
across. Once I was caught with her in a north-wester in the Gulf of
Heligoland, and had to run to Cuxhaven before a really heavy sea. That
little boat acquitted herself in a way that astonished us; presenting
as she did a sharp stern to the steep following seas, she showed no
tendency to broach to, but steered with beautiful ease, rising like a
duck to every roller. Why more of our little cruisers are not
constructed with these lifeboat sterns I could never understand.
Anyone who has run before a high breaking sea in both styles of craft
will appreciate the enormous difference between the behaviour of the
long-countered vessel and the one with the pointed stern. The latter
is undoubtedly the boat for comfort and safety in a sea-way.

[Illustration: A Danske craft.]

In such a boat as I am describing one could sail, single-handed, if
one was so minded, to Finland or to the furthest depths of the Gulf of
Bothnia, and run less risk than one would in most vessels four times
her size.

We have now got a good sea-boat almost as safe as a lifeboat--but the
next question is, how will she sail? A double-ended craft like the one
I am speaking of will run or reach as well as anything of her size;
but, being of such light draught, though she will turn to windward
well enough, maybe, in smooth water, she will be a very slow boat,
making scarcely any headway, but considerable leeway, when she
encounters the tumbling waters of the Zuider Zee or Baltic on a breezy
day. This, of course, must be remedied by some means; for we cannot
always have fair winds and smooth waters. And now I am coming to my
greatest heresy--I would not make a hole in the bottom of my boat and
pass the orthodox centreboard through it; but I should sling on either
side of her the heterodox leeboard.

In this country we are not accustomed to see leeboards on pleasure
craft, and they are considered to be ugly. In Holland, where they also
know something about small yachts, elegant polished oak brass-bound
leeboards are invariably attached to the brightly polished little
oaken vessel. One soon comes to consider a leeboard as an ornament.
The appearance of a long double-ended boat is distinctly improved by
these wing-like appendages. Finding that my lifeboat was so
unsatisfactory on a wind, I got a Dutch shipwright at Harlingen to fit
two shapely oaken leeboards upon her, which suited her well, for she
herself was of polished teak. I remember that when her leeboards were
once temporarily removed we felt quite ashamed of her, so lank and
naked did she appear in our eyes. But the leeboards were still more
useful than they were beautiful. When I put out with them into the
choppy Zuider Zee I was astounded at the success of my plan. The
vessel turned to windward as she had never done before, and I soon
came to the conclusion that I had almost arrived at the ideal of a
shallow-water cruiser.

Leeboards have many undoubted advantages over centreboards. To make a
long hole through the bottom of a boat cannot but weaken her. The
trunk of a centreboard is ever in the way in a small cabin. In rough
water a centreboard must strain a boat more than a leeboard does. On a
little vessel like the one in question the leeboards are not
cumbersome, but can be readily unshipped and stowed on deck or below
when there is a leading wind, or when one is hove-to in bad weather,
or rolling about at anchor. And, most important of all, if the boat
runs ashore, the leeboards will come gently up, whereas a centre-plate
may become jammed, and so bend or break. A leeboard never refuses to
be hauled up or dropped down.

[Illustration: A good craft for the Baltic.]

In many of the shallow Baltic fiords one is apt to run ashore pretty
frequently, and sometimes on rough ground that would subject a boat to
severe strain unless the centreboard were pulled up very smartly.
Again, some portions of these fiords in summer present the appearance
of green fields, so thickly are they overgrown with weeds whose
branches float on the surface of the brackish water. It is impossible
to bring a centreboard boat into this tangle. The weeds gather round
the plate, choke the trunk, and cannot be cleared in many cases until
the boat has been hauled up on dry land. But leeboards can be lifted
and cleared in a moment, and the boat provided with them can sail over
meadows of aquatic growth that would effectually bar the approach of
the orthodox yacht. To reach the inland _brednings_ or 'broads' of the
Baltic, far larger and as fair as those of Norfolk, one must often
pass through these weedy passages, and this is not one of the least of
my reasons for advocating the leeboard.

I should like to see leeboards more employed in this country. I
remember as a small boy coming into possession of my first boat, some
old ship's dinghy. I put sails in her, but, to my disgust, not a bit
would she turn to windward. I tried to fix a false keel on her, but my
appliances were few, and I was unsuccessful. Now, had I known of the
simple expedient of the leeboard, limited as was my carpentering
skill, I should have had no trouble in making my boat tack. The
pleasure of sailing was thus denied to me for several years
afterwards, and all through my ignorance of the leeboard. There must
be plenty of boys at the present time in similar plight, in parts of
the Far West for instance, where, as I discovered the other day, the
very name of leeboard is unknown. In an hour or so anyone can convert
almost anything that will float into something that will sail by means
of leeboards; and this is a fact well worth knowing when one finds
oneself in some wild corner of the earth and wishes to extemporise a
sailing-craft. I have done something of the sort on more than one
occasion. Once I was living by the shores of a lake in Florida. I
started at short notice for a fortnight's cruise inside the keys that
line the coast of the Gulf of Mexico above Tampa. Nothing else being
procurable, I borrowed one of the canoes of the country, a
flat-bottomed punt with no more lines than a horse-trough. I
manufactured a sail, and one leeboard which I could throw over from
one side to the other according to the tack I was on; and away I went
with rod and gun down the shallow passes, up winding bayous and
across broad lakes; a delightful little cruise; and my strange craft,
to the astonishment of the crackers, sailed like a witch. It was the
very coast for a leeboard; for the channels between the keys and the
mainland are often very shallow--so shallow, indeed, that when the
tempestuous north wind blew and the rising waves poured into my
vessel, so that she would soon have filled and settled to the bottom,
I was sometimes enabled to lighten her, and so save her, by stepping
overboard; and then I would walk ahead of her, painter in hand, and
tow her against wind and sea until the weather moderated--a manoeuvre
that can be recommended under such circumstances.

[Illustration: Towing head to wind.]

To return to our little Baltic cruiser--I have only given the broad
features of what I consider to be the most fitting craft. As for the
details of rig, cabin arrangements, and so forth, each man knows best
what he requires. But were I having such a boat made ready for myself,
she should be built of oak. Her sides and leeboard should not be
painted, but be varnished and kept brightly polished after the Dutch
fashion--boiled oil and rosin is the mixture for the purpose. She
should have a small well. There should be the usual hatch on the
cabin-roof to slide back and facilitate entrance to the cabin; but,
instead of the usual cabin-doors, I should have a water-tight
bulkhead between the well and cabin, with only a small square opening
at the top, which could be closed with a sliding shutter when
necessary. The cabin would then be kept snug and dry.

It is, of course, the right thing for the skipper of a small vessel to
run for a port when bad weather is coming on; but this cannot always
be done, and it is by far the wiser policy to remain on the open sea
and make the best of it than to rush blindly before the gale towards a
harbour whose dangers and difficulties are unknown to one. I remember
once being with some men who, because the sea was rather ugly, were
very anxious to run into a most dangerous river mouth, to the almost
certain perdition of our vessel. This was the suggestion of panic, but
they called it prudence. Some small vessels, even though they be
rather shallow, like the one I am speaking of, can claw off a lee
shore in pretty heavy weather. Unless one have the misfortune to be
embayed, there is generally one tack on which the boat can keep off
the land--despite the leeway--well snugged down, with as little
head-sail as possible on her, and forging slowly ahead all the time.
But on such occasions there must be a good man at the tiller. Mr.
----, the most skilful sailor of small craft we have ever had, who
used to knock about single-handed in all sorts of weather, and who, it
will be remembered, at last died alone of heart-disease on his vessel
in mid-channel--a fitting death for such a man--made it a rule to beat
to sea instead of running for a port on the appearance of bad weather.
He proved what can be done with a tiny yacht properly handled. But
then he was a consummate seaman--so much so, indeed, that those who
knew him affirm that no other man than he could have performed some of
his exploits.

A little vessel may be blown away from the land, or have plenty of
sea-room to leeward when the storm attacks her. Then it is not so
difficult to know and to do the right thing. If the craft be such as I
am imagining her to be, she should be able to ride out almost any
weather with drogue out, and possibly a bit of trysail or mizzen set,
sheeted well amidships. Every small yacht should be provided with one
of these drogues or sea-anchors when a long cruise is to be
undertaken. I have never seen one employed; but I was in the habit of
carrying one, which consisted of an iron ring some 3 feet broad, to
which was bent a stout canvas bag with a pointed end. A bridle was
attached to the ring by which it could be made fast to a 20-fathom
grass-rope. A very good drogue, which serves as a breakwater as well,
can be extemporised with a spar. If one side of a small strong jib be
bent on the spar, and a weight be attached to the lower corner of the
jib, this ought to form a very efficient drag.

[Illustration: Sketch.]

To sum up--for cruising on the charming inland waters of the Baltic,
and for getting about from one part of that sea to another, the most
fitting craft is, I believe, such a one as I have sketched out,
sharp-sterned, with ample freeboard, with good sheer, of shallow
draught, lightly ballasted, and provided with leeboards. With a boat
constructed on these lines, a man who neglects not his aneroid should
be able to make a very delightful voyage along the coasts of our
Viking ancestors, and very much further from home, too, if he wishes
it; while she would also be found a capital craft for sailing about
the mouth of the Thames, the Norfolk Broads, and Dutch waters. But at
Cowes they might stare at her with the eye of prejudice.



CHAPTER XII

FIVE-TONNERS AND FIVE-RATERS IN THE NORTH

BY G. L. BLAKE


A few years ago a great sportsman, whose privilege it had been to take
an active part in nearly every form of sport known to the British
Isles, was asked which of them all he thought should be placed at the
head of the list as being most conducive to make its follower manly,
and at the same time least open to the criticism of those who are
always inclined to find fault with their neighbours' methods of
employing their spare time. There was some little hesitation before he
gave an answer, but at length he expressed an opinion that yachting
excelled all others. To enumerate a few of his reasons will not be out
of place here.

The first and foremost was the utter absence of any possibility of
cruelty, as calls could only be made on inanimate materials and the
yachtsmen themselves. Then it was quite out of the question for a man
to be a thorough yachtsman without courage and endurance being brought
into play. Quickness of action, or the ability to think and act at the
same time, was also a necessity in yachting, as it was in most other
sports; but it was an absolute one here, because the elements were an
unknown force, and sudden contingencies, not to be equalled in
intensity or severity by any possible emergency ashore, had frequently
to be faced. This quality--quickness of resource--was, of all others,
the characteristic of the sailor.

Two more points were added, which certainly tend to place yachting,
and yacht racing especially, in the fore rank of sports. The first was
that yacht racing and cruising are carried on by those who enter upon
them, not in any way as a business, but solely for the love of the
sea. The prizes, such as they are, when bestowed in money are so small
in comparison with the outlay and cost in building and sailing a
racing crack, that in most of the recognised classes they only go a
very little way towards lessening the general expenditure, whilst as
for betting on the races, such a thing was rare in the extreme.

The last argument was that 'unfair sailing' was a thing almost, if not
quite, unknown, and if there was an argument in favour of extra money
for yachts' crews on racing days, it was that it helped to encourage
all hands to do their utmost to make their vessels, let the look-out
be ever so bad, come in and win.

To one desirous not only of enjoying the sport, but also of really
understanding every detail connected with it, from splicing, knotting,
sail-making, varnishing, painting, cleaning brasswork, setting, taking
in, reefing or shifting sail, to steering a clean full-and-bye against
a head-sea, or learning to make himself comfortable on the smallest
possible fit-out, an old yachtsman's advice is, the smaller the boat
chosen to begin with the better; and after a quarter of a century's
experience of small yachts in all weathers, seas, and climates, he
believes the vessel of about 30 feet in length, with a moderate beam
and draught of water, is the smallest capable of keeping the sea with
any degree of comfort and safety. There are no more suitable yachts of
the size referred to than those built under the old Thames Rule of
Measurement, or the late Rule of the Yacht Racing Association, to sail
in the class for yachts of 5 tons and under. A restriction might be
added to the exclusion of such yachts as were the extreme outcome of
the rule; but as only three were built--one designed by Mr. G. L.
Watson and the late Mr. Payton's two vessels, both of which were
lost--there is no need for the limitation; and on looking back into
the eighties it will be found that the 3-ton class in the South and
the 3-1/2-ton class in the North altogether monopolised the true
plank-on-edge model entirely for themselves. Though the extreme types
under the old rule were long, narrow, and deep, they were fine
weatherly little sea-boats to the practised hand, but as a school for
the tiro, except in racing, too heavily sparred and too narrow.

The main point in favour of the 5-ton yacht built under the old
rule--for the 5-rater of to-day is almost as large as the former
10-tonner, and requires quite as many, if not more, hands to work her
on a racing day with her present lugsail rig--is that she is easily
worked with one good hand, can be raced with three, or easily with
four; and those whose early practical yachting experience was gained
as small yacht sailors and yacht-owners will agree in this, that their
happiest hours were spent in the boat that required fewest paid hands,
or when their ship was of such a size that they were able to put to
sea single-handed, or perhaps in company with a friend who could make
himself useful. There are many who will say that a 10-ton or even a
20-ton yacht is too small to stand out to sea in; but when a yacht is
of such a size that she requires more hands than one to work her there
will be little or nothing learned, whereas, if the yacht is just a
little too much for one man to handle, the owner is bound to do his
portion of work each day, and what he does not know will soon be
taught him by his man, so that he may enjoy his fair share of rest and
not have to be called up in the middle of his watch below. Besides, if
the cost is a consideration, a 5-ton yacht can be built for just half
the price of a 10-tonner, and the keeping it up is very much smaller
in proportion.

It is not quite twenty years since the racing yachts of 5 tons were
formed into a class, and prizes awarded them. The Clyde yachtsmen were
the first to appreciate the value and capabilities of the little ships
for affording good all-round sport, and the small expenditure
entailed at that date in building them was a consideration in their
favour. It has been a favourite class ever since.

In Dublin Bay small yacht racing is far from a novelty, but it is only
within the last few years that boats have been built to the class
adopted in the seventies, viz., for 'yachts of 6 tons and under,' time
allowance having previously been used to bring the small fry together.
At that time Liverpool had two pet classes, the 20-ton and 10-ton, and
such small yachts as were located on the Sloyne entered in the latter
class.

It was about the middle of the summer of 1873 that the writer's
attention was first drawn to small racing yachts under 7 tons, and the
way in which they could face almost all weathers. It had been, as it
is at the present day, the custom to decry and run down racing yachts
as unfit to be made into cruisers. 'The scantlings were light,' 'the
framework was weak,' 'the plank, especially at the garboards and
towards the run under the counter, may have been dubbed down to almost
the thickness of brown paper.' This latter process was often resorted
to some twenty-five years ago, so that ballast in the form of lead
sheeting might be padded on to the keel and garboards. More than one
large yacht at that period had been so treated that she was supposed
to have not much more than half-an-inch planking at her two lowest
strakes. 'I would not buy an old racing yacht if I were you.' Such
were the comments and never-ceasing advice dinned into the ear;
'besides, they are fearfully wet in a sea-way, and most
uncomfortable,' and, therefore, at that time the writer's vessel was a
strong, able, high free-boarded schooner of 11 tons. In that year
there could not have been a dozen yachts, taking our coasts round,
which were being raced as 5-tonners, but there were classes made up of
yachts of 7 tons and under, which took in some stray 3- and 4-tonners,
and here and there a casual 5- or 6-tonner. One of the best of these
6-ton yachts (and this is including all the Scotch and South-country
boats) was a little vessel built in 1871 for Mr. W. A. Tomlinson, by
Mr. Dickenson, of Birkenhead, the well-known builder and designer of
the principal pioneer Liverpool 10-tonners. Unfortunately her
dimensions cannot be correctly stated, but she was about 32 feet
between stem and sternpost on deck, some 6 ft. 6 in. in beam, and had
a draught of 5 feet or a little more--that is, she was as nearly as
possible the size of the 5-tonner of a five or six years' later date.

The occasion on which the 'Wyvern' came under the writer's special
notice was one long to be remembered on account of the anxiety created
among the little yacht's admirers at Kingstown, owing to the severity
of the gale that blew after she had left that port for Liverpool.
There had been a regatta in Dublin Bay, where, as is usual, all the
small boats of the St. George's Channel had collected to do battle.
The 'Wyvern' had come over from the Mersey, and having won, her owner
(at that time Mr. Colin Napier, of Liverpool) had left her in the
hands of his two men, that he might hurry back to his business by
steamer. The men were ordered to make the best of their way to
Birkenhead, as the yacht had been entered for a local regatta the same
week.

They started early on a Wednesday, but unfortunately ran aground on
the rocks at the end of the eastern breakwater on which the lighthouse
is built. For the greater part of the day the boat was standing high
and dry some feet above the low-water mark, but she sustained no
damage, was floated off at the return of the tide, and left at once
for her destination. The hour of her departure was about three or four
o'clock in the afternoon. Three yachts left the harbour in company
with her, bound for the same port, all three being at least
25-tonners.

As the barometer had been falling ever since the morning, and there
was every indication of bad weather, the skipper in charge of the
'Wyvern' was repeatedly advised to postpone his start till the
following day, or till a change in the weather should take place; but
it was to no purpose, since he was very anxious to reach the Mersey as
soon as possible.

[Illustration: DUBLIN, KINGSTOWN AND MERSEY

_F. S. Weller_.]

Towards 6 P.M. the north-westerly breeze, which had been blowing
since noon, increased considerably, so much so, that first one and
then the other of the larger yachts gave up and turned tail before it
might become too late, the last to say good-bye being the largest of
the three. This yacht, a well-known hard-weather vessel of over 40
tons measurement, after trying to signal a last advice to the little
'Wyvern' to return, put her helm down (though she was well past the
Kish Lightship), and made herself snug for the dusting she was in for
on the journey back to Kingstown.

On shore, at both club-houses, the greatest alarm was being felt not
only for the 'Wyvern's' safety, but also for the welfare of her three
larger sisters, and the anxiety on the 'Wyvern's' account increased
still more when her three companions put in their appearance again at
their moorings. During the evening and through the night the wind
increased to a whole gale, and the meteorological report next morning
proved anything but pleasant reading, whilst among the old salts and
those best acquainted with the capabilities of small yachts little
hope was felt of ever seeing the 'Wyvern' again.

On the evening of the next day the writer left Kingstown for Liverpool
in his yacht, and fell in with the Mersey 10-tonners making the best
of their way down river. The nearest yacht hailed informed him that
the 'Wyvern' had arrived all safe, and had made a very fast passage
across to the Sloyne. A few days after, meeting the skipper, a full
account of the trip was given, and there was no limit to the eulogies
he had to bestow on the yacht. During the night the sea had increased
the further they sailed from under the lee of the land, but for all
that the only time any seas were shipped was when off Holyhead. Twice
only had they to free the yacht of water, and on those occasions very
little had gone into the cabin.

The 'Wyvern' was not a yacht of large displacement; she inclined,
indeed, rather the other way. Those who have seen the 'Naiad' or
'Pastime' hauled up out of water (two of Dickenson's old crack
10-tonners which now frequent the South Coast ports) will have a
better idea than any words can give of the 'Wyvern's' style of model
and midship section. Built for length on deck, there was no necessity
for shortening up the water-line, and her sternpost had no very great
rake. Her buttock lines were as easy and fair as could be, giving her
a slightly hollowed entrance with a nice clean run aft. Her extreme
draught was not much over 5 feet, and her keel ran almost straight
from the heel of the sternpost to the foot of the stem--that is, with
very little if any rocker (or rounding) to it. Dickenson had a very
admirable method of finishing off the after end of his yachts, and
their counters were all light, and neatly put on. The 'Wyvern's'
counter was particularly so. She was flush-decked save a large
cockpit, which opened into the cabin, and which was surrounded by a
5-inch combing. This was the only weak or vulnerable part about her;
for if a really heavy lump of water had filled it, there was nothing
to prevent the cabin being swamped. Her fittings below were of the
simplest description, though very comfortable. The sofas on each side
of the saloon formed lockers and berths, and beyond these a pantry and
a fitting for a lavatory, which was forward on the starboard side,
with the usual two square lockers at the after ends of the sofas, were
all the furniture of any consequence she contained. She had wood
floors, iron not having come into fashion at that time, and carried
the greater part of her ballast inside to the tune of 3 tons of lead
and 10 cwt. of iron. Her outside ballast consisted of a 14-cwt. lead
keel, which was considered in those days a very heavy keel for so
small a yacht. She was one of the first small yachts of 6 tons or
under that was fitted with a flush deck and ordinary skylight, and in
every way she looked the picture of smartness. When she was first
built her principal antagonists about her own size were the 'Adèle,' a
small 5-ton yacht also by Dickenson, the 'Pet,' 5 tons, built at
Douglas, Isle of Man, in 1871, and a very fast 3-tonner, the
'Barracouta,' built by Bishop in 1860, for Mr. J. M. Hannay. She was
altered in 1874 into a yawl in order to race in the 5-ton class, which
was at that time just beginning to be popular.

Among the most celebrated of the early 5-tonners were three yachts,
the 'Pearl,' 'Torment,' and 'Arrow.' Of the three, the 'Pearl' and
'Torment' were the best known, and are still held in loving memory by
many a yachting enthusiast. The 'Torment,' owned by that well-known
yachtsman the late Secretary to the Royal Irish Yacht Club, was raced
from the day of her birth, some time about the year 1850, and was
always a leader of the van. Her racing career lasted not much less
than twenty years, and it was only the lead keels and the deep bodies
given to the later yachts that brought it to a close. It is when
looking back on such good old warriors as the 'Torment' and the
'Mosquito,' among the larger racers, that lovers of the sport whose
incomes are limited must agree that the old days were good indeed. It
was not necessary then to be the fortunate possessor of a new vessel
each season to enable the lover of yacht racing to win prizes and keep
well in with the flyers of the year. When an old boat appeared to be
not quite up to the mark, or lacking in the requisite turn of speed,
little was done to make her beat some new comer beyond a few
alterations, which as a rule took the form of doctoring up one or
other of her ends, or, perhaps, lengthening her out amidships. The
most remarkable example of how a yacht's racing life could be made to
outlive many competitors and leave her a winner to the last, by
effecting alteration after alteration on her hull, was that of the old
'Arrow,' which belonged to Mr. Tankerville Chamberlayne. Alas! the
days when an alteration was quite sufficient to keep a yacht
successful have long since passed away, and from the present outlook
seem as if they will never again return.

The 'Pearl,' like the 'Torment,' was a hard nut to crack for all the
new aspirants to fame which were built to beat her, and she kept her
position as the fastest of the 'Mosquito' fleet for an untold number
of years. She hailed from Fairlie, that birthplace of hundreds of
fast, powerful winners, so dear to the hearts of all Scotch yachtsmen,
and so well known in almost, every corner of the globe. She was owned
and built by Mr. Fife early in the sixties, and after ending her
racing career in the Clyde has found her way over to France, where she
is as much appreciated as she was in the height of her day in Scotch
waters, and has kept up her reputation of being a difficult boat to
beat. Her dimensions were: length, 25 feet; beam, 7 feet; and draught,
4 feet. There were many yachts built to beat her, among them being the
5-tonners 'Hilda' and 'Viola,' designed, owned, and built by Mr.
Inglis. This well-known yachtsman also launched a very pretty schooner
of 8 tons called the 'Cordelia,' now, unhappily, lying at the bottom
of the sea. She, like his other two ventures, was designed to race in
the 5-ton class, and also to put the wee 'Pearl's' nose out of joint.
They were all three big boats, fully decked, and veritable ships when
compared with the 'Pearl.' They drew a foot or two more water, had big
midship sections, and were in every way larger and more powerful
yachts. Their success, however, was only partial, and it was a
question whether, after all, the old boat did not in the long run hold
her own.

The 'Arrow's' reputation was only of short duration in comparison with
the 'Torment' and 'Pearl,' but she was a remarkably small boat, and
very like them in the main features of her design. She was got out
originally to play a part very different from that in which she proved
herself so successful, having been built and launched for a
fishing-boat to trawl in the Thames; but her speed, like that of the
Liverpool 10-tonner 'Wonderful,' showed up so conspicuously when
sailing in company with other fast boats that she was forthwith
bought, turned into a yacht, and made to fly a racing burgee. As may
be supposed, both the 'Torment' and 'Arrow,' as well as the 'Pearl,'
were only half-decked boats with waterways round them.

In the year 1873, Mr. Stowe, of Shoreham, built the 'Diamond' to the
design of her owner, Mr. W. Baden-Powell. She won some few races under
his flag, but the chief reason of her name appearing in these pages
is that she was, if the writer is not very much mistaken, the first of
all the yachts of 5 tons and under in the south of England to go from
port to port and race, her owner and his friends living on board. The
'Diamond' was a decided advance on the boats of her tonnage stationed
between the Thames and Southampton; yet she looked small indeed when
moored alongside the yachts of a year or two later date. Her length
was 26 feet, with a beam of 7 feet, and an extreme draught of 4 ft. 6
in. She ran her fore and aft lines right fair to her taffrail, and had
a long counter, part of which was submerged when she was down to her
load-water-line. With such a small draught of water her height under
the deck was necessarily low; she had however a high fixed coach roof,
which helped her out of that difficulty to a certain extent. The cabin
was roomy and made up four berths, but her weak point, like that of
the 'Wyvern,' was her immense cockpit, which was almost as capacious
as her cabin.

In 1874 the late Mr. Charles Weguelin illustrated in a prophetical
manner what were to be the dimensions and proportion of length to beam
of the yacht of the future. The 'Alouette' was a 5-tonner, 33 ft. 7
in. in length from stem to sternpost on deck, 5 ft. 9 in. in beam, and
with an extreme draught of 6 feet. She was built from Mr. Weguelin's
design by Robertson, of Ipswich, but was not a great beauty to look at
out of the water. Her body was long and full, and her displacement
naturally large, though nothing like that given to vessels constructed
on similar dimensions during the ensuing decade. Her chief antagonists
were yachts of quite an opposite design, beamy, and of no great
draught, besides being of a greater tonnage, such as the 'Virago,' 6
tons, 'Rayonette,' 8 tons, and 'Zephyr,' 9 tons. Against these the
'Alouette' was very successful, but her course was run as a successful
racer when the season of 1876 ushered in one of the late Mr. Dan
Hatcher's most triumphant achievements. Mr. Weguelin was so satisfied
with what his 5-tonner had done that he set to work, and in 1875
placed the design of a 40-tonner in the late Mr. Ratsey's hands, who
launched from his yard the 'Christine,' the counterpart of the
'Alouette,' only twice her size; that is, by doubling all the
dimensions of the 5-tonner, the 'Christine,' a 40-tonner, was the
result. The 'Christine,' however, did not fulfil the expectations of
her designer, and though her length approached as nearly as possible
to that of the 60-tonners of her date, still she could do nothing with
them.

Before saying farewell to the 'Alouette,' it is as well to remember
that, notwithstanding her small amount of beam, she was a grand
sea-boat. On one occasion she sailed from Southampton to Algiers and
made a very good passage, considering that she had to face some very
heavy weather on her journey. It has become the custom to run down the
seaworthiness of the yachts built under the old rule, but the number
of examples that could be produced, if time and space permitted, of
what the old 5-tonner would go through, and that at her ease and
without any fuss, would more than astonish many who now, in the faith
they bestow on the boat with three beams to her length, forget the
comfort and safety in which they were carried about by the old boats
of five to six beams to their length. The 'Alouette' was wrecked at
Algiers in 1890. She broke adrift from her moorings during a gale of
wind, and was smashed up into matchwood. Nothing was saved from her.

The season of 1876 was one especially to be remembered among those
interested in the now established 5-ton class, as it witnessed the
advent of three grand additions to the greatly increased fleet sailing
in that class. Each yacht was from the well-thought-out drawing of a
master-hand, and each was the representative of the three several
schools of yacht-design, the 'Freda' being the work of the late Mr.
Dan Hatcher of Belvidere, Northam, near Southampton; the 'Camellia'
the offspring of Mr. William Fife, jun., of Fairlie, on the Clyde;
while the 'Vril' was built from the design of Mr. G. L. Watson, of
Glasgow.

The 'Vril' holds the right of precedence in that she was not only
designed, but built and sailed, by her three owners, Messrs. G. L.
Watson, John Lawrence and J. B. Hilliard, who, assisted by two
carpenters, put her together in the Messrs. Henderson's yard at
Partick, Glasgow. She was a fine, round-bodied little vessel, with a
large sectional area and great sail-carrying powers. She had less
waste surface for friction and skin resistance in proportion to her
size than many a yacht of a much smaller tonnage. In several ways she
might be said to have been a novelty, as she was the first yacht that
was fitted with a heavy lead keel consisting of the whole of her
ballast. Her counter was short and tucked up with a knuckle on the
quarter. She had no bulkheads, and her fittings were only such as were
absolutely necessary; still very little goes a long way towards making
a small yacht comfortable, and her head-room under her deck made her
'tween decks look like a palace. She was about the last yacht that was
supplied with the fore and aft studding-sail (or stu'n's'l, as it is
called) known as the 'ringtail'; but it was seldom, if ever, called
into use. For small yachts such wind scrapers are more trouble than
they are worth, to say nothing of the room the extra spars take up.
The 'Vril's' record was remarkably good, and though the three friends,
assisted by an amateur or two, were her only crew during her first
season--for her owners would not have a paid hand on board--she won a
full quantum of first prizes, and with the clever boats she had for
rivals praise must be meted out not only to the little yacht herself,
but to those who sailed her for the smart manner in which she was
handled.

The 'Camellia' and 'Vril' were, with the exception of their draught,
almost identical in their dimensions, the 'Vril' being 28 ft. 3 in.
long and the 'Camellia' 28 feet. Their respective beams were the same,
6 ft. 6 in., and they drew, the 'Vril' 6 feet and 'Camellia' about 5
feet of water. The 'Vril' at the end of her third season was sold and
turned into a fast cruiser. Her fittings, as they are now, are very
elaborate and are well illustrated and explained in the seventh
edition of that handy and serviceable book, 'A Manual of Yacht- and
Boat-Sailing.' She has been laid up for some time at Mr. Robertson's
yard at Sandbank in the Holy Loch, where her proximity to many new
yachts makes the signs of the sere and yellow-leaf stage of her
existence, which is creeping upon her, very apparent. But there is
life in the old boat yet, and her owner has in the 'Vril' a fine,
able, comfortable little cruiser.

It is now some six years since the writer had the pleasure of seeing
the 'Camellia.' She had just been sold to a gentleman to go to
Stranraer, where she is at the present time. She was hauled up on
Fairlie beach in charge of the late Mr. Boag, and was awaiting a
suitable tide for being launched. The 'Camellia,' though of like
dimensions to the 'Vril,' was altogether different in form, and to
those acquainted with the Fairlie type was as pretty an example of
what the Messrs. Fife were in the habit of turning out at that period
as it was possible to select. She and her sister ship the 'Clio' were
both built from the same drawing, and were the first boats in which
Mr. William Fife, jun., whose name is now a household word among men
interested in yachting matters, played the conspicuous part of
designer. The 'Camellia' was a smaller-bodied boat altogether, more
compact than either the 'Vril' or 'Freda,' with a powerful entrance
and fine run, and ribbands as fair as they could be. Messrs. Craig and
Lawson, for whom she was built, possessed in her a little sea-boat
capable of being driven in all weathers, and the harder it blew the
more she seemed to like it. With less bilge and somewhat higher floor
than 'Vril,' she was fitted, like her predecessor the 'Pearl,' with
simply a half-deck and waterways, and was strengthened by a strong
beam running across her to which the pump was attached. Of course in
smooth water it was a great advantage being able to work the yacht
from below, but in anything like very heavy weather she carried
hatches for covering in the open space. Both the 'Vril' and 'Freda'
were fitted with topmasts, but giving the 'Camellia' the same fitting
was only an afterthought, for when she was launched, like the 'Clio,'
she was supplied with a polemast. Three or four years after her
appearance she was decked in and provided with a very neat coach roof,
or booby hatch, but her head-room below in her cabin could not have
been more than 4 feet. She makes a very good cruiser now, and from the
grand work put into her, as into all yachts which hail from the great
Fairlie yard, her sides looked when last seen as fresh and as smooth
as on the day when she first saw the water.

[Illustration: 'Freda.']

The 'Freda' is (for she is still hale, strong, and fit to show her
tail to many a vessel of her size on cruising terms) a fine able boat,
some 30 ft. 4 in. on the L.W.L., with a beam of 6 ft. 1-1/4 in. and
draught of water 6 ft. 6 in. She is, like all the Belvidere yachts of
those days, a boat of large displacement with a grand midship section,
with Hatcher's well-known entrance, and a rather lighter quarter than
usual. Her sternpost has very little rake in it; in fact, excessive
rake of sternpost was a rarity during the seventies, and her keel was
only slightly rockered. Most of her ballast, about 2 tons 14 cwt., was
carried inside, and the lead on her keel was under 2 tons. She was
built for Mr. Freake, her planking being altogether of mahogany. All
the wood, dead woods, ribs, and planking were got out in Mr. Hatcher's
yard and then taken to Mr. Freake's estate, where she was put together
and finished off. As a model yacht she is a perfect picture both above
and below water, as well as on deck and in the cabin. With a flush
deck and a small water-tight cockpit, after the fashion of the
10-tonners, and a neat skylight, the 'Freda' looks all over fit to go,
and equal to all emergencies. She has proved herself quite as much at
home when cutting her way through a head sea as when smooth water and
dry decks have been the rule. She was the home of her racing crew, and
Mr. Beavor Webb, who sailed her during her racing career, and
afterwards bought her from Mr. Freake, could spin many a yarn of the
little boat's great weatherly capabilities.

No three yachts were more unlike each other, and after all the 'Freda'
had done down South, and the 'Vril' and 'Camellia's' successes in the
Clyde, so much attention was attracted to them that at last a series
of matches was arranged to take place between them off Holyhead the
following season of 1877. The place was well chosen, as in bringing
the several matches off on the coast of Holyhead Island there was no
chance of favouritism, since the locality was strange to all
concerned, and the yachts had to prove their worth in a sea quite
different from that to which any of them had been accustomed. It is
not too much to say that, owing to the distance that had to be covered
before the three yachts could reach Holyhead, and the fame of their
doings in the yacht-racing world, no more interesting racing has since
taken place, either in America or in our own home waters, than the
matches that were sailed off by these little opponents.

The arrangement was that 'Freda' should sail 'Camellia' and 'Vril'
separately, and the yacht that pulled off two out of each three races
was to be declared the winner. The weather for some days prior to and
during the race week was anything but inviting, and the manner in
which the yachts worked their way to their port showed at once what
kind of stuff they were. The 'Vril' was unfortunate, for owing to some
gross carelessness the men who brought the yacht round from the Clyde
allowed her mainsail to get damaged to such an extent that during the
trials it could scarcely be made to stand. The stakes were for 100_l_.
a side. The first match between 'Freda' and 'Vril' took place on May
14, 1877. The courses on each occasion were arranged by Messrs. G. L.
Watson and Dixon Kemp. On the first day the course lay from the New
Harbour across a line between the 20-ton yacht 'Challenge' and a buoy,
round the end of the breakwater westward, rounding a flag-boat outside
the inner end of the breakwater, thence eastward three miles round the
Bolivar buoy; thence to a mark-boat off the old pier, twice round,
finishing between the 'Challenge' and the starting buoy, 14 miles.
There could not have been a finer trial than these three matches
afforded. The wind on the 14th was light from E.S.E., shifting to the
eastward, accompanied by rain, whilst on the second day it veered
round between S.W. and N.W., and brought up with it the usual sea that
most yachtsmen frequenting St. George's Channel know so well and hate
so cordially. Space will not permit a full account of the races to be
given here, but should details be required, they will be found most
faithfully recorded in an article in 'Hunt's Magazine' for the year
1877, which has greatly assisted the writer in refreshing his memory,
or in the 'Field' newspaper that was published on the Saturday
following the races.

The first match was the 'Vril's.' She was the first over the line, and
though the 'Freda' very soon after passed her to leeward, she soon
regained her original position, and gradually so increased her lead
that at the end of the first round she was 1 min. 30 secs. ahead of
her rival. The two little flyers had donned for the occasion all
plain lower sail with working topsails aloft. On the run out for the
breakwater the second time spinnakers were set, when the 'Vril' was
unfortunate enough to carry away the goose-neck of her spinnaker boom.
This was followed by the boom slipping into the water and at once
snapping in two. Her crew smartly cleared the wreck, the outer end of
the boom was lashed to the weather rigging, and the spinnaker set once
more. Those familiar with such matters will readily understand how
well things must have been done on board the Scotch yacht, when it is
said that 50 seconds were all that the 'Freda' made out of the mishap.
Before reaching the Bolivar buoy, the 'Vril' had more than made up her
lost ground; and though on the journey home the 'Freda' gained a
little, she was decidedly beaten, as she came in nearly 6 minutes
astern of the 'Vril,' the times being--'Vril,' 3 hrs. 40 mins. 40
secs., and 'Freda,' 3 hrs. 46 mins. 10 secs.

[Illustration: 'Challenge,' 20 tons, 1876.]

The second match on the following day was sailed in about as dirty
weather as it was possible for the concentrated energy of the
elements to provide, and the result was that 'Freda' turned the tables
on 'Vril' and beat her by about the same amount of time. The start was
made at 10.20 A.M., and this time the 'Freda' got away first. Both
yachts were reefed down, the 'Freda' showing a single-reefed mainsail
and foresail with the third jib, while the 'Vril' carried a whole
foresail with a double-reefed mainsail and second jib. The 'Vril' also
started with her topmast housed. Outside the breakwater the little
boats had to face a bad wind-against-tide sea, and quite a third part
of the trip was made under water. For the run to the Bolivar buoy the
'Freda' set her spinnaker with a Paddy's reef in it, which gave her a
tremendous lead, because, though her extra length told, still the
'Vril' had no spinnaker boom on board, having left it ashore, and
could therefore only boom out her balloon foresail. On the thrash to
windward, however, the 'Vril' gained twelve seconds on her antagonist,
so that the first round finished 'Freda,' 1 hr. 49 mins. 2 secs.;
'Vril,' 1 hr. 54 mins. For the second round, the 'Vril' sent her
topmast on end and set a topsail, but her mainsail had been so badly
treated before the races began that it was found impossible to make it
stand properly, and the remarkable thing is that the little yacht
worked as well as she did under the trying circumstances. The 'Freda'
kept to the sail she started with. The sea smoothed down considerably
during the second round, which made the sailing somewhat easier. With
the exception of a slight miscalculation in distance on the part of
the 'Vril,' and a consequent extra board on the beat up for the
harbour buoy, nothing of any importance took place, and the two yachts
came in, 'Freda' first at 2 hrs. 44 mins. 40 secs., followed by
'Vril,' 5 mins. 15 secs. after her.

The interest occasioned by the third day's sailing was extraordinary.
All over the country an eagerness was displayed for news of the match
almost equal to that seen on a Derby day. The wind was at about the
same force, and blowing from the same quarter as on the previous day,
with the addition of a harder feel in it. Both yachts, therefore, set
the same amount of sail and had their topmasts housed. At the time of
the start, which was made at 11 A.M., the sea was breaking over the
lighthouse, and made the journey look anything but inviting.

Both yachts, keeping a sharp look out on each other, were too keen on
crossing the line, and had to return and make a fresh start, which
they did side by side. There were not 10 seconds between them when
they jibbed round the first mark, the 'Vril' leading, and the
difference was further shortened by 5 seconds at the Bolivar buoy,
this run having been made under boomed-out balloon foresails. The time
between the yachts might have been lessened still more had not the
'Freda' been obliged to busy herself about her boom, which came
adrift. From the Bolivar buoy home the little vessels danced it
merrily to the tune of 'Blow, breezes blow.'

The 'Freda,' before she made a fresh start, had placed herself 30
seconds ahead of her rival, but going out again, the 'Vril,' owing to
the 'Freda's' not being able to make use of her balloon foresail,
passed her before they had rounded the first mark-boat, only to be
repassed on the running-reach to the Bolivar. The 'Freda's' best point
of sailing brought her to the Bolivar 1 min. 30 secs. ahead, and
though for the last time the 'Vril' showed her superior power in
beating to windward, the 'Freda' had made up her mind to walk off with
the dollars, and win she did by a few seconds over the minute.
Considering the sea that was running, and the amount of broken water
that was throwing itself about, this last race is one to be long
remembered and handed down in the annals of small-yacht racing; and
now and hereafter, when racing and cruising men feel a tendency
arising in them to croak and speak ill of the little yachts that were
built under the old rule of measurement, let them call to mind their
mighty deeds, their racing and their voyages under circumstances and
in weather that would frighten many a 50-tonner into harbour and to
her moorings.

The fourth day ushered in a new competitor, and the 'Freda' had to
cross the line with the 'Camellia,' which she did five minutes after
the second gun. The wind and weather had changed during the night, an
unfortunate circumstance for the 'Camellia,' a hard-weather boat. The
wind was unsettled, hung about between N. and N.E., and was at times
very shy. The 'Freda' at first, not being able to hold the wind that
the 'Camellia' did, lost ground considerably in the beat up to the
Bolivar buoy, and the latter had reached on her so cleverly that the
'Freda' was fully a minute astern on rounding for the run into the
harbour. The 'Freda' here had the pull over the Fairlie clipper, for
she was provided with two spinnakers, while the 'Camellia' had but
one, and as a shift had to be made (since they had left the Bolivar
with spinnakers set on the bowsprit end) before setting off for the
second round, the 'Camellia' was left in the lurch, her one spinnaker
having to be taken in and boomed out. Standing out again, the
'Camellia' tried her best to pass the 'Freda' to windward, but to no
purpose, as the 'Freda' was always ready for her each time the attempt
was made, and at the Bolivar the 'Freda' was first round by 30
seconds. Coming into the harbour, the 'Freda,' again at her best, kept
increasing her lead, and finally won by 1 min. 40 secs. Hunt's
correspondent writes: 'This was a closely sailed race, in which the
English boat owed much of, if not all, her success to smart handling.'

The fifth day's race was sailed under something like the 'Vril' and
'Freda' weather. The wind had hardened up and freshened during the
early morning, and kept increasing as the day went on. Both yachts
started with housed topmasts, single-reefed mainsails, and No. 2 jibs,
the 'Freda' running up and booming out her balloon foresail as she
crossed the line. During the first round the 'Freda' showed herself
the better boat when on a reach as well as in beating to windward in
the teeth of the heavy, solid sea which was running. She, however, was
only 1 min. 30 secs. ahead at the mark-boat. On the second round the
boats were literally more under water than above; they were simply
smothered in their efforts to windward, and had the 'Camellia' not
been so persistently squeezed in order to make her look up closer to
the wind than her rival, she might have gained more than she did. As
it was, what she gained on one point she lost on the other, and
allowed the 'Freda' to come in a winner by 1 min. 45 secs.

On the sixth and last day the umpires were obliged to alter the course
owing to the heavy sea running outside the breakwater. There had been
no lull during the night, and with the northerly gale blowing it was
thought too dangerous a matter to allow the small yachts to face the
hazards of a lee shore. The mark-boat outside was therefore brought
within the breakwater, the other was left in its place off the Old
Harbour, and the course made nine miles, or three times round the two
marks, which lay now in more or less smooth water. The start was made
at 11.50 A.M. under double-reefed mainsails and small jibs, 'Freda'
having sent her topmast on deck. The 'Camellia' got away 45 seconds
ahead of the 'Freda' owing to the latter not having heard the gun, and
increased her lead till she came to the mark-boat. Her lead, however,
did not last long, for in the beat to the next mark she missed stays
and allowed the 'Freda' so to gain upon her that by the time the mark
was rounded the 'Freda' had put herself 1 min. 5 secs. ahead. The
yachts had quite as much as they could do, the next time they had to
haul their wind, to stagger under their small canvas, as the wind blew
harder than ever and with more real venom in it. The 'Freda' finished
the nine miles in 1 hr. 30 mins.--quick work taking everything into
consideration--but the 'Camellia,' having again missed stays, up helm
and made for her anchorage. This last match exhibited the powers of
the two yachts in a different way, perhaps, and under conditions other
than any met with in the previous races. If the third and fifth
matches showed what fine sea-boats these small 5-tonners were, and how
capable, handy, and powerful, when driven in a big, broken, heavy sea,
the sixth day's racing proved that they could stand up to their canvas
and bear pressing when many a much larger yacht would have had to be
close-reefed. No apology need be offered for introducing these six
matches into this work, because not only do they form a good
precedent in the manner in which all the arrangements and the choice
of fighting ground were made, but it is impossible in any other way to
discover how one stay-at-home small yacht compares with another at a
distance, unless they are brought right away from their respective
localities and allowed to fight it out in open water unfamiliar to
both. Before bidding adieu to the above three little beauties, it may
not be amiss to add that the 'Freda' was sailed on all six occasions
by Mr. Beavor Webb with a professional crew, the 'Camellia' was in the
hands of Tom Dudley, of Southampton fame, and the 'Vril' piloted by
one of her owners, Mr. Hilliard.

Each year now introduces new aspirants to the Blue Ribbon fame of the
well-established 5-ton class, and though few methods, if any, had been
resorted to up to this time for the purpose of cheating the tonnage
rule, which then took the length on deck between stem and sternpost as
its measure, instead of the length along the L.W.L., still the year
1878 saw a notable tonnage-cheater launched from the Cheshire side of
the Mersey in the formidable 5-tonner 'Lorelei,' designed by Mr. Wynne
Eyton, her owner, and built by Messrs. Buckley & Sherlock. The
'Lorelei' was a yacht worked out purely and simply on the wave-line
theory, as defined by Mr. Colin Archer, of Christiania, and her
counter was partly submerged, not only to enable the lines of her
after body to be carried out fair, but at the same time, without
adding to her tonnage, to give her a foot and a half more length on
the L.W.L., since she was 31 ft. 6 in., whether the measurement was
taken on deck or along the L.W.L. Her beam was 6 feet, and she drew 5
ft. 6 in. Like the 'Vril,' her ballast, 4 tons in all, was on her
keel, and her sail area 770 square feet, or 30 square feet less than
that of the 'Freda.' The displacement of both these yachts was almost
identically the same; yet the 'Freda' would have had a very hard
struggle to keep within sight of the 'Lorelei' on an ordinary 5-ton
yacht course. Frequently the 'Lorelei' very nearly beat her 10-tonner
competitors on even terms, and was always fit and ready to save her
time. In the smaller class, such as she would race in at Kingstown or
Liverpool, there was not one boat that she could not beat. Mr.
Richardson designed for the Messrs. Anderson, who used to own
Hatcher's old crack the 'Queen,' 15-tonner, a 5-tonner called the
'Urchin.' She was intended to beat the 'Lorelei,' but she never could
do anything when sailing against her. The 'Lorelei' carried rather a
deep bilge, and her keel was well rockered. After Mr. Wynne Eyton
parted with her, she went up to the Clyde, where she has done little
or no racing, but has proved herself a first-class little cruiser. Her
fittings below, when she was in the height of her racing career, were
very good and rather unique. She had no bulkhead, but was entirely
open fore and aft. She was flush-decked, and her main cabin was partly
divided off by a double set of rails made of 3-inch planks, which
formed an open, but double, partition to hold all her kites and other
sails. This open sail locker or pen stretched right across from side
to side, and was about 2 feet deep. It formed a good roomy receptacle
for the sails, kept the weight amidships, and sails well aired.
Something of the same kind of fitting has been applied to one or two
10-tonners, the open gratings in their case being carried right up to
the deck on the starboard side, leaving the door and pantry in its
usual place. The upper half of the grating facing the main cabin was
on hinges, and could be removed altogether to allow of sails being
taken out or replaced quickly, as, for instance, on a racing day.

As regards tonnage cheaters, the chief method employed for walking
through the 'length on deck' rule was that of bending up the
sternpost. The first yacht built with a knuckle in her sternpost came
from Messrs. Buckley & Sherlock's yard at Tranmere, on the Mersey, and
belonged to the Sloyne. She was a 10-tonner, and with the others,
which followed after her, very soon brought the authorities' attention
to the rule, which was promptly altered to the L.W.L. measurement.
Those who wish to know more about the 'Lorelei' will find a very good
description of her, with drawings, as they will also of the 'Freda,'
in the third edition of Mr. Dixon Kemp's work on 'Yacht and Boat
Sailing.'

In 1879 and 1880 two yachts were turned out which perhaps did more
fighting as first-class 5-ton racers, and lasted throughout a greater
number of seasons at the top of the tree, than any others had done
since the days of the 'Torment' and 'Pearl.' The 'Cyprus' and 'Nora,'
the one designed and built by Mr. William Fife, jun., the other
parented on Mr. George Watson, were as distinct types in their way as
were the 'Vril' and the 'Camellia' three years before. They were,
besides, equally interesting, if not more so, since in them the
practised eye could see how wonderfully the Fife and Watson designs
had respectively developed and improved. The 'Nora,' built in 1880 for
those keen racing yachtsmen of the Clyde, the Messrs. Allan, with 32
ft. 4 in. length on deck, 6 ft. 2 in. beam, and a rather deeper
draught, was a veritable ship in comparison with her predecessor. More
cut away forward and with greater rake of sternpost, big body and
large sail-area, long counter and straight stem, nothing could touch
her in light winds. The only antagonist that gave her any trouble was
the 'Cyprus,' built the previous year.

This yacht, designed to sail under either measurement, length on deck,
or L.W.L., was exactly 30 feet when measured along the one, and 29.5
when measured along the other. Her beam was 6 ft. 4 in., draught 5 ft
4 in., with a displacement barely equal to that of the 3-tonners,
which between the years 1880 and 1884 gave so much sport and became so
popular. She was one of the smartest of the small fry Fairlie had ever
turned out. Certainly few would gainsay the fact that the 'Cyprus' was
by far the prettiest of her class at that date afloat, and at the same
time looked a racer all over. Out of the water she was a perfect study
to the lover of gentle curves and fine lines, and as sweet a model as
any connoisseur would wish to feast his eye on. Without a straight
line up or down, diagonal or horizontal, to be found about her, to all
appearance, looking at her from a beam view, she presented a longer
and finer entrance than had up to that time been given to any of the
Fairlie small yachts. Such an increase had been meted out to her that
at first sight it was difficult to free the mind of the impression
that she must be a regular diver. An end-on view, however, soon
dispelled all misgivings on that score, for her vertical sections
showed a round floaty bow of extraordinary power. With a low freeboard
of 1 ft. 9 in. at the waist, and a grand midship section, there was no
wall-sidedness about the 'Cyprus,' whilst her run was fine and clean,
and her buttock lines beautifully easy. Perhaps the prettiest features
about the little yacht were her shear and the sit of her counter. This
latter was light and long, and had a spring upwards towards the
taffrail, rather after the fashion of a duck desirous of keeping her
tail dry, though the yacht was a little more moderate as regards the
height necessary for so carrying her appendage.

The 'Cyprus' was kept in the family during her career in the Clyde,
and was very successful during those seasons that her racing flag was
seen at her topmast head, being always piloted by that prince of
helmsmen, her designer and owner. In the winter of 1884 this yacht
became the property of the writer, when she began a most successful
career of a more all-round character than she had up to that time
undergone, and it is principally from the practical experience derived
from racing and cruising in her that he has been enabled to form his
ideas and recommend the 5-ton yacht of ordinary dimensions as the best
size and class of vessel for an inexperienced yachtsman to ship
himself aboard as owner, captain, and hand.

When the 'Cyprus' came into his possession her fittings below were
practically _nil_. Like the 'Vril' in her early days, she had only
such contrivances as were absolutely essential for one living on board
during a time bounded by hours rather than weeks or months. He was
therefore obliged to make a few alterations below, such as turning her
sofas into lockers, having iron bed-frames fitted in the cabin on
hooks so as to be easily removable, and a box made to stand in
between the after-provision sideboards and under the ladder to hold a
bucket, washing basin, and lavatory conveniences. On deck the fittings
were almost perfect. The jib, throat, and peak halliards led below
through brass fairleads let into the deck a few inches on either side
of the mast.

The forestay, instead of coming down through the stem-head along the
deck, and being purchased up to the bits, was led through the stem
close under the deck and set up by tackles to the mast. In place of
the regular tackles to the bowsprit shrouds, two sets of selvagee
strops were used, the one short and the other long. The long strops
were doubled round the forearm of the belaying rail on each side,
abreast of the rigging, and the standing part of the bowsprit shroud
shackled on and set up with galvanised rigging screws. The short strop
was employed whenever the bowsprit was reefed in. It was found strong
and neat, and much better altogether than the old plan of tackles,
which formed the original fitting. The 'Cyprus' was not entirely
flush-decked--that is, she had a low very neat-looking 'booby hatch,'
which fitted on a combing some three inches high. The combing ran from
about two feet abaft the mast to within a couple of feet of the
rudder-head. The after part enclosed a small water-tight lead-lined
cockpit, then a foot of deck, ahead of which came the hatch,
containing the after sliding hatch into the cabin and a low skylight.
The width between the combings was 2 ft. 4 in. A transparent compass
and binnacle fitted into the deck space ahead of the cockpit, and this
was lighted by a lamp below in the cabin. This arrangement was
excellent, as it prevented any of the troubles which so often arise in
small yachts from the lights being washed out. At sea the boat was
stowed below in the cabin, and as the hatch was very simple and easy
to adjust, it was always taken off for the boat to be lowered down
into its place. Another point in favour of this hatch was that on fine
sunny days it could be removed and the yacht kept well-aired and
sweet. A narrow strip of india-rubber, doubled, was nailed round,
close up to the combing, and this proved a thoroughly effective method
for keeping the hatch tight and preventing any water from coming into
the cabin.

The 'Cyprus' was a particularly handy boat. As the writer had to take
her round to Plymouth from Scotland, he invited an old friend, and
with the help of a boy of seventeen years of age out of one of the
Plymouth trawlers, left the Clyde for Kingstown, the port of call,
after enjoying a few days' cruising about by way of letting everything
shake into its place. It was a Tuesday morning when the start was made
from Lamlash, in Arran, and the 'Camellia,' which was on her way to
Stranraer, left about half an hour before. The wind was N.W. and came
down off the hills in strong squalls; but the water was smooth, and
under all plain sail the little vessel simply flew along.

After leaving Ailsa Craig astern, the sea began to show signs of
getting up, and about 5 P.M., before reaching Corsewall Point, it had
begun to take such liberties, and make such encroachments on deck
whenever a big curler chose to break over aft, sometimes to the depth
of three inches to four inches, that it was thought advisable to heave
her to and shorten sail. About 6 P.M. the helm was put down and the
foresail hauled to windward, whilst a reef was taken in the mainsail,
No. 3 jib set, and our ship made snug.

It was a treat to see how well the yacht lay to, and it is impossible
to describe the feeling of confidence it inspired, for not a drop of
water was shipped, and she rode like a duck the whole time, coming up
and falling off as each sea passed under her. From the time the
foresheet was let draw to the time she dropped anchor in Kingstown
Harbour all went well, the only incident being the writer's coming on
deck at 6 A.M. to find that the boy, who was on watch, had mistaken
the Morne Mountains to the north of Dundalk Bay for the south of
Ireland, on the strength of which he had given up steering by compass,
and was taking a course into Dundalk, which would have soon led to a
disastrous end. The compass, though a spirit one, was rather sluggish,
and his idea of safety was steering by the land. Wednesday night was
spent at Kingstown, and with the first of the ebb the 'Cyprus' was
again on her way with gaff-topsail set over all. Light flukey airs
from the southward and westward helped the yacht along during the
greater part of the forenoon, but these were eaten up by the sun as
the day wore on, and gradually died out altogether, leaving us to
drift along till the tide began to make, when, being in easy soundings
on the edge of the Arklow Bank, the anchor was let go, and the yacht
brought up to await the beginning of the ebb or the wooing of a
breeze. The next morning--Friday--there was no wind of any kind; but
the tides run strong on the east coast of Ireland, and a whole ebb
meant many miles to the good. The time during this drifting was well
employed in having a thorough clean down, in opening up the cabin,
airing the bedding, and improving the stowage of the general cargo
shipped on board, consisting of sails, luggage, provisions, and
numerous other necessary items. In the afternoon the yacht was again
brought to an anchor, and remained so till Saturday, about 4 A.M.,
when a breeze springing up from the southward, her head was pointed
towards the Welsh coast. Travelling was very slow, for the wind was
very light, and not at all true. Two short boards were made on
reaching the other side, and about 8 A.M. on Sunday the yacht was
laying up on the port tack for the Smalls. The wind had now some
westing in it, but not sufficient to let a course be laid for the
Longships; and as long rollers were coming in from the south-west, it
was settled to go well away to windward in order to make Land's End in
one tack and obtain a clear offing.

The Smalls was left behind about 3 P.M., and at 5 P.M. the whole face
of the sky was beginning to look so threatening, and the clouds to
drive past at such a rate from the southward, while the quiet rollers
had already begun to break up and require such extra attention, that
at 6 P.M. the 'Cyprus' was hove to, and made ready for a dirty night.
The mainsail was taken off her and trysail set, the topmast housed and
bowsprit reefed in, the second jib shifted for a spitfire, and the
foresail double-reefed. Two hours later, the wind having sprung up
into something near akin to a gale, and the yacht dancing with a light
heart and by no means wet deck away out to sea, everyone on board was
glad that she was under snug canvas and that time had been taken by
the forelock. She could not have been more comfortable or cozy had she
been a sea-going rocking-chair. On going about, the first land sighted
was Cape Cornwall, but the wind, having had its say, again went down,
till the yacht was left with just sufficient to keep her going, but
not enough to make her steady, or prevent her knocking about in the
choppy sea that remained. About noon, however, a breeze sprang up, and
the Seven Stones Lightship was passed close to about 3 o'clock on
Tuesday morning. Towards 8 A.M. the wind had veered round to the N.W.,
coming off the land in strong puffs; sail was made once more, and with
fairly smooth water all the way the yacht lay herself down to her
work, and finally brought to off the Hoe at 10 P.M. the same night.
The lesson learnt during this cruise was a useful one--viz. that if
sail is attended to in time, a 5-ton yacht is fit to face almost any
weather, provided she has sea-room. During the whole trip round the
crew were never without hot water when they required it, so easy was
the yacht's motion to those below, even during the most disagreeable
part of the journey; and no water went below even when it lay thick on
deck, as, for instance, off Stranraer, and once or twice before sail
was taken off her when near the Smalls.

The 'Cyprus' was raced, whenever an opportunity presented itself, in
the then A, B, and C classes, and in every case the racing was against
yachts larger than herself. Any amount of Channel groping had to be
undertaken, both from one English port to another, as well as between
the French coast and England, ocean racing being quite as much in her
line as the 'Meteor's.' Her best performances took place in strong
breezes, and it was a sight worth seeing to watch the wonderful manner
in which she could drive through a head-sea. At Bembridge Regatta the
'Cyprus' sailed the course round the Nab on a day when the 30-ft.
class of yachts (15-tonners in reality) begged to have their course,
which was identically the same, altered. No matter on what point of
sailing she was engaged (and she is only given in these pages as a
very fair type of the 5-tonner built to sail under the old Y.R.A.
Rule), blow high or blow low, a lady might have handled her tiller
without experiencing any of that muscular arm exercise so common in
boats built under the length and sail-area rule, or even the slightest
inconvenience. The 'Cyprus' was sent out to Toronto on board an Allan
Liner from London, and became an ornament to Lake Ontario, where she
is at the present time.

Between the years 1880 and 1886 four 5-tonners were built from the
designs of one of the most rising young naval architects the Clyde has
ever produced--Mr. Payton. The first of this team was the 'Trident,'
which, though not by any means a successful racer, was a fine able
boat and moderately fast. She is mentioned here on account of her
having made a long ocean voyage to the South of France. She was
altogether bigger and a much heavier boat than the 'Nora' or 'Cyprus,'
but could be worked just as easily. Five Frenchmen, however, were
employed to take her South. Her behaviour under a very trying state of
the weather, while crossing the Bay of Biscay, was highly spoken of,
and the men who went in her declared their faith in her to such an
extent as to be quite willing to take her out to the Cape.

The 'Olga' was Mr. Payton's next attempt at a flyer. She was 32 feet
long, with a beam of 5.73 feet, and had a great draught of water. She
was a very large-bodied boat, was built on the most advanced
scientific principles, and, what is more to the point, was a complete
success; but she was a most unfortunate yacht. With a very wide keel
her midships section was anything but shapely, and ran down almost in
a straight line from her bilge, which was very low and square, to the
bottom of the lead. At the Royal Irish Yacht Club Regatta, Mr. Power's
steam yacht ran into her and sank her in Kingstown Harbour, but she
was brought up and floated again, Mr. Power having bought her as she
lay under water. The 'Olga' after this mishap won her full share of
races, and ended her first season flying 18 winning flags, of which 15
were firsts. Mr. G. B. Thompson bought her during the winter, and the
following season won four first prizes with her; but before the season
was half over she was again unlucky, and on June 22 was once more run
into and sent to the bottom, whilst in the Mersey. She was fished out,
and put up for auction, but who bought her or what became of her is
not generally known.

The third yacht of 5 tons was the 'Luath.' She, however, was not such
a phenomenon as the 'Olga,' and after the 'Olga's' short but brilliant
existence, what was expected of her did not come off. She was, as may
be supposed, very much like the 'Olga' in looks and of about the same
dimensions, though of rather larger displacement. The last of the four
was the 'Oona.' Her melancholy end is still fresh in the memory of
many a small-yacht sailor. She was built in 1886 at Wivenhoe, in
Messrs. Harvey & Co.'s yard, for Mr. Plunket, of Belfast, and was an
extreme example of what could be designed under the old Y.R.A. Rule.
Her length was 33 ft. 10 in. on the L.W.L., her beam 5 ft. 6 in., and
draught 8 feet, but her chief characteristic was her marvellous body,
which displaced 12 tons, both displacement and sail-area of 2,000
square feet and more being greater than many racing 10-tonners, and
the latter over 1,300 square feet more than 'Freda' or 'Nora's'
sail-spread. What she might have done as a prize-winner it is
impossible to say, for she never reached her station. Coming from the
eastward, she put into Southampton to effect some small repairs, and
after remaining there a few days, on May 4, with her owner Mr. Payton,
her designer, and a crew of three men on board, left for Belfast. It
appeared that shortly after passing Dublin Bay--for she did not put
into Kingstown, as might have been expected--her owner must have
intended to make the best of his way up Channel, but, unhappily,
terrible weather set in about the night of the 12th, and the general
opinion was that, from some weakness in or lack of roping, the trysail
was burst up, and that becoming unmanageable, or through her crew
having been swept overboard, the yacht was driven on to the sands off
Malahide and so became a wreck. Her hull was washed up without its
lead keel and its fastenings or the iron floors; in fact, the whole of
her keel and lower garboards had gone.

Mr. Payton's name will always be associated more especially with the
3-tonner 'Currytush.' She was a more brilliant success than even the
'Olga'; but the old 3-tonners do not come within the scope of this
paper.

The last of the race of 5-tonners, if the 'Oona' be left out, is the
'Doris,' one of Mr. Watson's greatest successes in small-yacht design.
She was built in 1885 for the Messrs. Allan, who had owned and sailed
the little 'Nora' so pluckily and so well. Her length is 33.6 feet on
the load-water-line, beam 5.6 feet, and draught about 7 feet, or a
little more. The 'Doris,' like the 'Oona,' is an extreme
representative of the old rule. Her displacement is very large, but
there is far more shape and comeliness about her body plan than was to
be found in any of Mr. Payton's designs. She has proved herself a
clever boat in all weathers, and in light winds particularly so. Her
chief rival, had she not been lost, would have been the 'Oona,' for
there was no other 5-tonner afloat capable of tackling her, and her
principal racing was against boats of a larger tonnage. She could
always save her time on the crack 10-tonners of her day, such as the
'Uleerin,' 'Queen Mab,' and 'Malissa,' and the only matches of any
interest that she was mixed up in were three that came off between her
and Mr. Froude's 5-tonner 'Jenny Wren.' This yacht, designed by her
owner, and built at Messrs. Simpson & Dennison's yard at Dartmouth,
was made double-skinned for the sake of lightness. She, like the
'Doris,' was a large, big-bodied boat, but her form did not give that
idea of power with which a look at the 'Doris' at once inspired the
observer. Both the 'Doris' and 'Jenny Wren' are cut away forward, and
carry the curve of the keel up to the water-line, finishing at the
deck-line in a fiddle-head. The 'Jenny Wren' had shown herself
remarkably fast in light winds and smooth water, and on certain days
could leave the length classes to follow her up. Bad weather, however,
was her weak point, and even in strong breezes and smooth water she
did not always appear to be sailing at her best. At Plymouth, then,
when the 'Doris' and 'Jenny Wren' met, everything depended on certain
conditions what kind of a fight the latter would make. As the 'Doris'
beat her, there is every reason to believe that it was either blowing
hard or that the wind was shy and there was a certain amount of roll
outside the breakwater.

[Illustration: GOOD START OF SMALL RATERS IN THE CLYDE.]

Since the measurement rule was altered, the 'Doris' has been improved
by being spread out and given more beam. She still races, but cannot
do much against the 10-raters, the class to which she now belongs, and
has lately been sold to spend the rest of her days as a cruiser.
Should she race in the future, it will be in the many Clyde handicap
cruising races. With such bodies and draught there was no lack of
head-room in the cabins of the latter day 'plank on edge' 'lead
mines,' but the want of beam made the accommodation not exactly as
grateful as it might have been had there been a little more
elbow-room. The alteration in the 'Doris' has given her the requisite
amount of beam, and she ought to make a very comfortable fast and able
boat for cruising purposes.


THE Y.R.A. RULE AND ITS 5-RATERS

In the year 1886 the Yacht Racing Association brought in a new rule
for yacht measurement, or, more properly speaking, for rating yachts
to be used in racing. There is no other reason why a rule for rating
should be required at all, as under the old rule, or any true capacity
measurement, a naval architect or yacht designer would be sure to
produce a good, serviceable vessel for cruising purposes, and
according as the owner's requirements might be speed, accommodation,
or light draught, so the several dimensions and design would be
arranged to suit.

With regard to this rule of rating by 'length and sail-area,' and the
boats which are the result of it, there appear to be many and diverse
opinions; and prior to noticing any particular yacht built under it,
it will be as well to look at all its points before declaring for or
against it. Experience declares them to be good sea-boats, in that
they rarely ship solid water, and they are very fast when sailing on a
wind. Their spoon and fiddle-headed bows would help to throw the water
off, while their mast being stepped almost in the eyes of the yacht,
would make them eat up into the wind, because it permits of most of
the driving power being concentrated in one big sail.

Their sailmaker's bill is a small item, on account of the tendency to
keep the sail-area down. For instance, the 'Archee,' Mr. Lepper's
5-rater, of Belfast, with a length of 30.4 feet, a beam of 9.2 feet,
and a draught of nearly 5 ft. 6 in., a length on deck of 39.5 feet,
the tonnage of which, by the last rule, would have been a little over
6-1/2 tons, has a sail-area of 979 square feet against the 1,680
square feet of the 'Doris' 5-tonner.

They are bigger boats than the old 5-tonners, but then they have so
much more beam. The 'Cyprus' was the same length as two-thirds of the
5-raters that have been built, but she had only 6 ft. 4 in. beam
against the raters' 8 feet to 9 feet. They have very little gear with
the lugsail rig, and the decks are always clear.

They can lay to, but it is on the same principle as that of a Una
boat, and they would not remain on one tack all the time but for the
little jib they carry, while they forge ahead at a great speed, and
cannot be stopped unless a man is left at the helm to look after it.

If properly trimmed the rater can be steered by the lightest hand when
beating to windward and close hauled, and she is remarkably quick in
stays.

Experience, however, shows that, though the rater rarely ships a sea,
still, when she does put her nose in the water, it becomes a general
question on board her whether she will ever bring it out again. This
is not altogether enjoyable, and such sensations were never
experienced in boats built under the old rule. The one large lugsail,
too, and little jib form a most unhandy rig.

Experience has also proved that, with regard to the two factors,
sail-area and length, the tendency is to make the body of as small
displacement as possible, taking the length into account, so that with
the small area of canvas employed there may be very little weight to
propel. Thus, though the early raters were big-bodied and roomy boats,
with good head-room below, the boats built lately are inferior in
those qualities, and those which will be put on the stocks in the
future will be merely big canoes with bulb-keels.

Experience prefers for Channel seas a boat that can be driven through
the water when necessity compels without any sense of danger, and
that, if allowed to do so, will ride over the waves when no object is
to be gained by making a short cut through. A yacht of four beams to
her length or more will do this far more comfortably and with less
commotion and fuss than one of three beams or less to her length.

Experience furthermore says that, though the lugsail requires very
little gear, and can be hoisted with a certain amount of ease, yet if
sail has to be shortened, or the lugsail to be taken in hurriedly, it
requires more than three men to do it smartly; at no time is the job
an easy one, but if any sea is running, or the weather squally, three
men have as much as they can do to handle it. This is never the case
with the gaff-mainsail. In a 5-tonner a man and a boy could have
shortened sail easily, and though the sail-area was great, one man and
the owner could always sail her from port to port.

Money may be saved through a small sailmaker's bill, but it must go
out in wages to the crew and extra hands.

It is a good point to have very little gear about, but the 'Wenonah'
and 'Wee Winn' both prove that a gaff-mainsail is quite as suitable as
the lug and a better all-round sail.

_Experientia docet_ that the rater, though she can lay to, cannot be
hove to and have her way stopped. And the risk with her is, that in a
sudden rush, caused by her aftersail filling, she may bury herself by
jumping right into a head-sea--a most dangerous performance when the
weather is so bad and the seas so high that travelling can only be
carried on at peril.

Again, experience tells a tale that raters are not all so very tender
on the helm even when sailing on their best point, and are what would
be called in horsey phraseology very hard-mouthed; and that whilst off
the wind they are like star-gazers, all over the place, and ready to
rush anywhere and everywhere rather than straight ahead or where the
helmsmen want them to go. Some of the small yachts built latterly
under the old rule had a similar inclination, but it was generally at
a time when they were being very heavily pressed, carrying too much
sail, or when badly trimmed.

Of the two kinds of overhang forward, the spoon-shaped bow, which Mr.
G. L. Watson has given his new boats, is the best, because it adds
flotation as well as length on the L.W.L. when the yacht is sailing
down to her bearings, and fairs all her longitudinal curves. The
fiddle-headed bow may be thought by some to look prettier, but it is
not so effective, unless it helps by its flam, or flare out (which
some new yachts with this kind of bow do not have), to keep the decks
clear of water. The overhang bow means an extra top weight, which has
to be provided for and counteracted when the calculation is being made
for the ballasting; but, on the other hand, it gives enlarged
deck-room. It also saves having a long outboard spar in the shape of a
bowsprit, and so does away with any need of reefing. This is really
only a small matter after all, since even with a rough sea there is
never very much difficulty in reefing in the bowsprit providing it is
properly fitted. Years ago in American waters there was scarcely a
sloop built that had not an Aberdeen stem or fiddle-headed bow, but
for some years they were discarded, and it is only lately they have
been brought into fashion again. No American would give up anything
that he had pinned his faith to unless he saw some real advantage to
be gained by so doing. It is quite easy to understand why Americans
should come back to the old stem now, for their waters like it, and it
helps to cheat the rating for length.

The main design so common in the rating classes is perfect when
regarded from two points of view only. The long, very gentle curve
that runs up from the heel of the sternpost to the stem-head, and the
excessive rake of the sternpost itself, allow of no more outside
deadwood than is absolutely necessary to keep the yacht together, hang
the rudder, and fix the lead keel on, so that whatever surface there
may be to cause friction is doing its duty--that is, is caused by the
skin or planking. The form thus given has its drawbacks; this
experience has shown us and they are far more prominent and,
therefore, serious when met with in the smaller raters than when seen
in a 40- or 100-rater.

The second point is the quickness with which yachts of this new design
'stay' and 'get away.' This is a more practical benefit to large
yachts than to small ones; for vessels like the 'Doris' or the old
'Solent,' 30-ft. and 25-ft. classes, could all stay and move off quite
quickly enough, although they might not have manifested a desire to
spin round twice when not stopped on their wild career, which is a
marked peculiarity with the modern mosquitos. In the large classes a
few years ago it was a common thing to make use of the time occupied
in going about to take in or shake out a reef when circumstances
demanded it; at the present day the skipper or sailing-master has to
keep his wits about him, otherwise he may find his beauty turning
round and looking him in the face; for the large rater can whip round
like a top.

Now, in regard to the courses round Great Britain, two-thirds are what
may be called reaching courses--that is, there is more running and
reaching to be done than there is beating to windward--and though the
distance to be sailed over in tacks may be only a third of the whole
course, still the tacks that have to be taken will make the distance
almost as long as two-thirds of the whole course itself; hence comes
the advantage of having a yacht that will travel the distance quickly
on a wind. Nevertheless it seems foolish to place the eggs all in one
basket, and as it is an absolutely useless accomplishment for a yacht
to be able to go round two or three times to the once putting down of
the helm, the question may be asked whether she would not be equally
quick and a better racing, to say nothing of a cruising, yacht if she
were not quite so much cut away forward, or, better still, if her
sternpost were not quite so much raked; and could not this be done
without materially affecting the speed? If the idea is to give the
yacht a great hold of the water by a deep draught, then it is easy to
understand that the present fin-shaped keel is necessary; but Mr.
Herreshoff has given practical proof that such a shaped keel or such
excessive draught is by no means necessary to make a boat weatherly or
a successful prize-winner. With a straighter sternpost a certain
length of horizontal keel might be required to keep the centre of
lateral resistance in the best place, but that again would only be
following Mr. Herreshoff at a near distance, and would make the boats
run and reach better and under a steadier helm, whilst a very
imperceptible difference would be found in their rate of travelling to
windward.

The two Herreshoff boats that have been sent over to England have
certainly shown their tails to our smartest raters in the two rating
classes, viz. the 2-1/2 and 1/2. Both the 'Wenonah' and 'Wee Winn' are
fitted with bulb-keels, which run their length horizontally to their
L.W.L., and they are good on all points of sailing as well as
remarkably quick in stays. These two boats are rigged with regular
gaff-mainsails too, so that notwithstanding the craze for lugsails,
they are not essential to make a boat sail past the winning marks
first. To the cruising yachtsman who lives on board his little vessel,
with such an alteration or improvement as the one referred to above
there would be the comfort and satisfaction, when hauled alongside the
pier of a tidal harbour, of knowing, after the yacht had begun to
take the ground, that he had not to sit up all night watching her, or
waiting till her bow started to lift before he could turn in to his
bunk, because his yacht would take the ground on a more even keel. It
is no child's play looking after a fin-keeled yacht taking the ground,
and the very greatest of care and most subtle precautions have to be
used to avoid a fall over on the side.

[Illustration: 'WENONAH'

_2-1/2-rater (Mr. H. Allen). Designed by Nat. Herreshoff, 1893._]

In designing a small yacht there are matters that have to be
considered which scarcely affect larger vessels except when comparing
them, again, with larger vessels still. One of these points almost
makes it worth while looking back at the reasons why certain types of
small yachts have become so prominent and so much sought after and
believed in. The great American designer, Mr. Herreshoff, and our own
clever yacht architects here, are taking the canoe of the savage as
their model; and as this is the case, it may be interesting to see
how, starting from the canoe, all yachts have taken their form (no
matter how deep or beamy they may have been), and perhaps, too, by so
doing, it will be easier to discern and arrive at the kind of form
best suited to meet special requirements, apart from the trammels of
the rules, measurements, or ratings such as are or have been laid down
for yachtsmen and yacht-owners by the Royal Thames, the Yacht Racing
Association, the American and French yacht clubs, or other societies
and authorities.

The canoe of the South Seas or the kyak of the Greenlander could not
have been better chosen, had they been worked out on the most scientific
principles, for the work they have to do. The shape is that best adapted
for speed, lightness (which means light displacement), and, under
certain conditions, for sea-going qualities. Those conditions are, of
course, smooth water or big ocean rollers, which seldom if ever break,
and a propulsion easy, strong, and yet not exaggerated, longitudinal and
not transverse in its tendency (as in propulsion by sail). Now if this
model be taken, which invariably possesses a U-shaped section, there
will be no great difficulty in understanding the whys and wherefores of
the several transformations it has undergone.

If it is desired that a small boat should keep the sea, the nearer she
approaches to the canoe form, as far as is compatible with the limited
requirements, the better able will she be to cope with the
difficulties which she ought, under the circumstances, to be ready to
encounter. Hence it is that those men who make great ocean voyages,
as, for instance, across the Atlantic, in boats about 15 feet or
thereabouts, always have their boats built as round and floaty in form
as it is possible to design them, taking into account that they must
be decked, have sufficient depth of hold to allow of stowage for
provision and water, which act as the greater part of the ballast,
with the addition of just sufficient room for lying down at full
length under deck covering: 2 ft. 6 in. to 3 feet is the outside depth
under the deck of any of these diminutive ocean cruisers. The entrance
given to such boats is always full and buoyant, though not bluff.
Rarely do they have a vertical stem, but one rather rounded up, with a
slight overhang. The after-body is generally whale-shaped, with the
sternpost at a somewhat less angle than the stem. Both stem and
stern-posts have this inclination given them, not with the idea of
making them quick in stays, but rather for the purpose of meeting and
throwing off head or following seas, and adding buoyancy to both ends.
The main principle in these boats is to obtain buoyancy and speed,
while great sail-carrying power for driving at abnormal speeds does
not so much as receive a thought. This is why it so seldom occurs that
any of these little vessels fail in reaching their destination. They
go over the seas and not through them, owing to lack of weight and
want of power. Their worst experiences during their long,
uninteresting, and perilous voyages generally begin on nearing our
shores and the chops of the Channel, where the seas begin to assume a
broken, short, uneven, or at the best a deep ridge and furrow, shape.
These boats may be considered the first remove from the early canoe
form.

The general requirements, however, in a yacht are speed,
accommodation, sail-carrying power, and weight. This latter property
means, in other words, the ability to drive through a sea which, from
its wall-sidedness, makes it an impracticable barrier to get over.
When a vessel has not the weight or power to meet such a sea, as a
rule, it spells disaster, or, to say the least, very disagreeable
consequences; whereas if she can climb a part of the way up and then
send her nose through the top, all is sure to end well.

Accommodation is very near akin to weight, for it is impossible to
have a roomy boat without weight being concerned in it as a factor of
some consequence. Accommodation in a yacht of 30 feet length and 6
feet to 7 feet beam means that there should be a height between the
cabin floor and the deck beams of 4 ft. 6 in. to 5 ft. 6 in. at least,
and this will demand a big-bodied boat of rather large displacement,
otherwise the deepening in the water of the original U shape. Such
a boat will require a large sail-spread to propel her. Supposing,
however, that such height between decks is not required--that is to
say, the boat is to be only partially decked with a large open
cockpit--in that case the designer can, if he chooses, give the boat
very much less displacement, which, in its turn, will require less
driving power. The tendency, as it has been shown, of the Length and
Sail-Area Rule is to provide just such a small displacement yacht, and
accordingly a large yacht will some day be launched without any
accommodation whatever.

Sail-carrying power is almost entirely a matter of displacement, for
it is only a large-bodied boat that will have buoyancy sufficient to
carry a great weight of ballast, and the deeper that ballast is
placed, the more leverage will there be to counter-balance the sail,
and hence the greater may be the sail-spread. Under the new system of
deep plates, with the whole of the ballast bolted on at the bottom of
the plate in the shape of a cigar or Whitehead torpedo, it is
impossible to say how much area of sail could not be given to a boat
of a certain length, beam, and depth of hull, and the only
questionable difficulty that would come in the way would be the weight
of the mast and spars necessary to carry the sail. For instance, take
the three principal methods of stowing ballast, inboard, outboard, as
in the ordinary keel, and the plate with a bulb. The dimensions of the
boat to be supplied with sails are, length 30 feet, beam 7 feet,
draught to bottom of wooden keel 4 feet. If the ballast is stowed
inboard (lead ballast is presumed in all the cases), and the
displacement permits, the sail-area may be 800 square feet. If the
ballast is taken out and moulded in a keel, the sail-area may be
increased to close upon 900 square feet. Should the lead be taken out
and a plate some 2 feet or 3 feet deep be fitted, with the lead in the
form of a bulb fixed at the bottom, the weight of the spars and the
sails would be the only obstacle to the great increase of canvas that
might be spread. Suppose, again, another hull be employed for
experiments, having the length the same, but the beam increased to
make up for the smaller depth of body below L.W.L. of 3 feet, the new
hull may have the same displacement, and therefore the power to
support the same weight of ballast as the last example. If this hull
were supplied with a plate 4 feet or 5 feet deep, with the same bulb
of lead, she would carry a still greater amount of sail; but with such
a shallow boat there would be no accommodation.

Speed, that element in design which everybody cries after, whether
they be practical scientific yachting men (and there is one thing
Great Britain can boast of in her yacht designers, professional or
amateur, and that is, they are all, without exception, first-rate
helmsmen and seamen), or only graduating in the first principles of
yacht-racing, is dependent on many conditions. In the first place, it
forbids the presence of all superfluous deadwood, so that the outside
surface presented to the water may be all of a useful description
(that is, by being part of the planking or skin, or only as much
deadwood as is necessary for the strength of the vessel), and the
friction caused thereby may be reduced to a minimum. With a hull of
large displacement there must naturally be very much greater surface
friction than in one of smaller body, and therefore the question will
arise--Will not the smaller yacht be the faster of the two? This
involves still deeper sifting, because sometimes the smaller yacht
will beat the one built on the same length and beam, though she may be
very much larger. Before we can choose which of the two kinds of boat
will be the better to have for a successful racer, a second great
condition has to be looked into and satisfactorily settled. This is
nothing less than what kind of waters the yacht will have to race or
cruise in. The question of the element water is one very frequently
forgotten and lost sight of by those buying yachts, especially
second-hand ones; and the purchaser, who perhaps buys a most
successful small vessel in the South, is astonished to find that when
he has tried her against the local Scotch cracks, her performances
prove of a very poor description in comparison, and disappointment is
the consequence. Water may be in the eyes of some all the same,
wherever it may be, and so it is round our coasts in its smooth state;
but when it is set in motion there are scarcely two of our great
yachting stations alike, while the seas in our three Channels all vary
in form. At the mouth of the English Channel the seas, as soon as the
'chops' are left astern, become regular, are long and deep, and more
or less easy for a small yacht to negotiate; that is, she has room to
work in and out of them, and at the same time avoid receiving a comber
aboard as passenger. As she sails farther up and the channel narrows,
the seas become more of the deep ridge and furrow order, steep,
narrow, and difficult to sail over, whilst each sea will contain its
full weight of water. On nearing Calais the seas have less water in
them, but are very short and steep; the consequence is they are more
inclined to break. In the North Sea the sea disturbance takes another
and larger form, and sailing North becomes still larger, and, of
course, wider and deeper, till the Northern Ocean is opened out. St.
George's Channel is very much like the English Channel, except that
between Port Patrick in Scotland and the Irish coast the waves are
more regular than between Calais and Dover, where currents and banks
tend to make dangerous cross seas. So it is found that off Plymouth
and Falmouth and outside Dartmouth there is often an ocean swell
running, especially after there has been a south-westerly gale. The
Solent, again, is different from the Clyde in its sea disturbance, and
when acted upon by a south-easterly gale the seas off Spithead, owing
to the shallowness of its water, have not nearly so much weight of
water in them as those of the Scotch estuary when worked up by a
northerly or southerly breeze. The Liverpool and London rivers are
very much alike, though perhaps of the two the Liverpool has the
greater sea disturbance, owing to the strength of its tides, which at
some seasons are very rapid.

To large yachts of 40 tons and over the difference in character of the
seas just spoken of is not a matter of great importance. What a large
yacht may treat as a mere ripple to a 5-tonner may be a 'nasty sea';
and as these pages are dealing with the smaller craft of about 30 feet
length, the sea disturbance must be regarded as it affects them. On
rivers and inland waters the waves, as a rule, have not much weight in
them, and there is no reason why the small yacht should not be able to
go through the waves she is unable to rise over. Yachts of large
displacement are more likely to do that at better speed than a small
vessel of the same beam and length, because they have more weight.
Where ocean rollers are concerned, or a heavy swell, while there is
wind both types may be equal; but when the wind is shy and light, then
the yacht of large displacement will walk past her small rival. It
would be noticed that the heavy displacement vessel would forge ahead
apparently moved by no other force than the 'send' of her weight as
she lazily pitches to the movement of each succeeding wave. The
courses for small yachts where such conditions are met with are
Plymouth, Dartmouth, and Queenstown, and some parts of the Clyde and
St. George's Channel to a very much lessened degree. Then, if a
thought be cast across the Atlantic and a look be taken at the
characteristics of the waters of Long Island Sound, that favourite
haunt of all American racing and cruising yachtsmen, as on our own
inland waters, the seas that much disturb the small fry are, it will
be observed, scarcely noticeable to the large schooners and cutters of
which so much is heard. The principal form in America laid down for
all yachts used to be a long flat floor with very small displacement,
great beam with a centreboard--the immense beam giving great initial
stability. Large as well as small yachts were built to this design,
and much used to be heard about their remarkable speed. A few years
ago, however, two or three small yachts, amongst them the little
'Delvin' 5-tonner, built by Mr. W. Fife, jun., were sent over, all of
fairly large displacement. These, without exception, put the
extinguisher on all the American small yachts, by beating them time
after time. The reason of it was that the English-built yachts could
drive through what broken water or sea disturbance they met with,
while the 'skim-dishes' could do little against it. Since those days
the Americans have very materially altered their model, and both large
and small yachts have been given more power; _vide_ the examples
brought out to compete with our yachts for the 'America Cup,' and
those to which the 'Minerva' has so lately shown her tail.

Where, therefore, great speed is required, and there is no limitation
to sail-carrying power, a large displacement vessel is the best type
to choose. Some small-yacht racing men do not like to be always
remaining in their home waters, but prefer to go round to the regattas
at other ports, and try their luck against the small yachts that
gather at these meetings. They live on board, and sail their yachts
round the coast. To such the large bodied boat is a regular frigate.
The head-room is good, no lack of space is wanted for a comfortable
lie down, and the owner and two friends, with racing sails and all
other yacht paraphernalia, can stow away in the main cabin as cosily
as can be.

[Illustration: 'Minerva,' 23 tons. Designed by W. Fife, 1888.]

During the last six years yacht designers have been spending their
time in perfecting a vessel to be rated by length and sail-area alone.
Boats of large displacement and moderate length, with good
sail-spread, limited so that the boats might be rated under their
several classes, gradually, but surely, gave place to boats of greater
length, smaller bodies, and a smaller sail-spread. It does not appear,
from the opinions of many who have published their views, that there
is at the present time any particular desire to have good
accommodation in racing yachts. The owners of the greater number of
the 5-raters do not live in them, and the owners of the 40-raters have
been so accustomed to great head-room in their vessels, that now,
when, instead of having 7 feet to 8 feet, they still find they can
walk about in the cabins, no complaints are heard; but with the
lessons that Mr. Herreshoff has been teaching, there is every reason
to believe that we may live to see a 40-rater launched with about 3 to
4 feet depth of body under water, and then perhaps there may come a
reaction, and a return may be made to a moderately large displacement.
Up to the present time the 5-raters have been kept fairly large, and
owing to their beam, as far as internal accommodation is concerned,
have room enough and to spare; but the raters of 1893 were not nearly
of such large displacement as the boats of two years before, and they
are wonderful to look at outside.

The fin-keel requires great depth if it is to be of any real use, and
it is in this particular point that small yachts suffer. If a 5-rater
is to sail in all waters, and go the round of the coast regattas, then
her draught should be limited; of course, if the sole intention of the
owner is that his yacht is never to race in any other locality than
his own home waters, then, if the home waters be the Clyde, or
Windermere, or Kingstown, there is no reason why depth should not be
unlimited. On the other hand, should the yacht be intended for a
sea-going vessel, then a heavy draught of water is not altogether
desirable.

There are times when a 5-tonner or rater may be overtaken by bad
weather while making a passage, and when a comfortable harbour under
the lee would be a most acceptable refuge to make for. There are
scores of snug little places round the coast where a small craft could
lie peacefully enough, provided her draught of water allowed her to
make use of any one of them. The average depth of water at these bays
or harbours is about 6 feet at low-water spring tides. Hence no yacht
or rater of 30 feet or under should have a draught of more than 6
feet. The writer remembers only too well an occasion when, after
leaving Campbeltown, in Cantyre, for a northern port in Ireland, a
north-westerly gale sprang up, bringing with it rain and a sea fog.
The distance across from the Mull is not more than a few miles, but
when his yacht made the land it was blowing so hard he had to run for
the nearest shelter. Alas! when he sighted the little tidal harbour he
was steering for, it was low water, and his yacht, which drew 7 feet 6
in., could not enter. He had to lie at two anchors outside in the
Roads with some half-a-dozen coasters, expecting, with every shift of
the wind, that the anchorage might become one on a lee shore. The
'Humming Bird,' in 1891, left the Solent for Queenstown. She is a
2-1/2-rater. After leaving Land's End the weather, which had been more
or less fine, changed, and the sea getting up, it was decided to take
her into St. Ives Harbour. She unfortunately drew more than 6 feet;
the consequence was, though only 25 feet on the water-line, she was
compelled to take her chance and drop anchor in the bay outside,
because there was only 6 feet of water in the harbour.

None know the value of a moderate draught of water better than those
who have cruised or raced afar from home, and groped their way into
all kinds of out-of-the-way bays and harbours in small craft. The
yachtsman who builds for racing only, possesses the means, and is
ready to launch a new yacht to his name every other year, should (if
he be a sensible man and proposes to himself to sell the yachts he has
no further use for) think of the requirements of the market and his
ability to sell. Soon the yacht mart will be flooded with a number of
cast-off 5-and 2-1/2-raters, all with a draught of water which would
limit their sale to only a few places.

There are many living at the present moment who will remember the time
when even the large yachts of 100 to 200 tons were never given more
than 12 feet draught. This was done to enable them to enter tidal
harbours, the greater number of which only have a depth of 15 feet at
high-water neeps. But there is another argument in favour of not
having too great a draught of water, and that is, it is not an element
of speed, beyond helping the sail power; and the existence of yachts
like the old 'Fiery Cross,' which only drew 8 feet and was a most
successful winner, and of the Herreshoff boats, which do not draw so
much as the English-built raters and are the cracks of the day, points
the lesson that it is well to put a limit where a limit may be
altogether an advantage.

Great care is necessary in apportioning out beam, no matter whether
the yacht is to be of large or small displacement; great beam in the
case of a yacht of small displacement is only suitable for waters such
as Long Island Sound, or long rolling seas, and is useless in heavy
broken water like that met with in our channels; because it is a
difficult matter, without weight, to drive through the seas. When
great beam is given to a yacht of large displacement, she may be able
to fight her way through the water, but it will not be at the greatest
speed for the given length, since it was proved by the old Solent
30-ft. and 25-ft. classes that when beating through a head sea a yacht
of the same length, but of small beam, such as the 'Currytush' and the
late Lord Francis Cecil's little 3-tonner 'Chittywee,' were able to
travel faster through the water whenever it was a hard thrash to
windward. The general opinion of those competent to judge is, that
3-1/2 to 4-1/2 beams to the length on L.W.L. is about the most
advantageous proportion, some going even so far as to assert that
three beams may be given; but, in dealing with small yachts, 5-raters
and 5-tonners, as this chapter does, the writer believes that four
beams to length is a good proportion to meet all kinds of weather
with; and if 30 feet be the length 7 ft. 6 in. the beam, and 5 ft. 6
in. the draught, such proportions will be found to give quite
sufficient scope to any designer in order that a remarkably fast
weatherly little ship may be the result of his calculations. The
height between the decks with a large displacement would give 4 ft. 6
in. to 5 feet head-room. Nothing has been said about the sail-area,
which should not be taxed.

The element sail-area appears to be the stumbling-block in the present
rating rule. It is limited, and the consequence is the cart is put
before the horse, and the hull is built to the sail-spread. Thus the
hull is being minimised to carry the small area allotted to certain
lengths.

There have been so many raters built since the present rule came in
that it would take too much space to mention them all with their
several points, but there is this fact to notice, which backs up what
has been said before, that South-country designed boats seem to do
well in their own waters, while those brought out in the Clyde fare
best there. When Clyde 5-raters have gone South, they have performed
badly--though the 'Red Lancer' in 1893 proved the exception to the
rule--and the Solent raters that have found their way up North have
made but a poor show. Mr. Arthur Payne is the king of draughtsmen on
the Solent, and his yachts, with those designed by Mr. Clayton, also a
prince among naval architects, have all had their turn at winning
prizes when they have been properly sailed. Mr. Payne's designs mostly
favour a fair amount of displacement, and 'Alwida,' built by him for
Lord Dunraven in 1890, is a very fine example of the kind of craft he
can produce. The workmanship is fit to compare with the very neatest
cabinet work. The following year the beam was increased by some
inches, the length underwent a drawing out, and at the same time the
body was tucked up to decrease the displacement. The next movement, if
it is possible to judge by the 2-1/2-raters, will be to follow in the
steps of Mr. Herreshoff--who speaks for himself in other chapters. The
'Cyane,' another of Mr. Payne's 5-raters and an improvement on the
'Alwida,' has few fittings below, but there is great height between
decks, and if she were changed into a cruiser, she has enough room to
make her everything that can be desired, without greatly decreasing
her speed. To describe all the 5-raters sent out to do battle by those
Northern champions, Messrs. Fife and G. L. Watson, would be equally
out of place here. Their boats are too well known all over the world
both for speed and beauty of design, and if there is a point peculiar
to either of them that marks their vessels and makes their meetings
interesting and exciting, it is that while Mr. Watson's are extra
smart in topsail breezes, Messrs. Fife's yachts are specially good in
strong winds.

[Illustration: 'RED LANCER'

_11 tons T.M., 5-rater (Capt. Sharman-Crawford). Designed by Fife of
Fairlie, 1892._]

In mentioning these well-known names, it would be impossible to forget
a name which will always be linked with the year 1892--viz. Mr. J. H.
Nicholson, jun., of the firm of Messrs. Nicholson & Sons, Gosport, the
successful designer of the 5-rater 'Dacia' and the 2-1/2-rater
'Gareth.' His boats are unique, and though they partake of the canoe
form, still it is the shape adopted by Mr. Nicholson for his keel, and
the design itself, which brought his name so prominently forward
during the season of 1892 as one of the most successful designers in
England. The 5-rater 'Dacia,' which he designed and built in 1892 for
Mr. H. R. Langrishe, and which now belongs to Lord Dudley, proved
herself far superior in all weathers to the yachts of her rating in
the South. Most of the raters were designed with a square stern above
water, whatever their shape might have been below; but the 'Dacia' is
counter-sterned, and carries her ribbands fair from stem to taffrail,
as far as can be judged from a long-distance view when she was hauled
up. Whatever her length may be on the L.W.L., it must with a large
crew aboard be so considerably increased as to almost make her another
boat. At all events, she is a fine specimen of the advanced type of
rater, and is good in all weathers.

The 'Natica' and 'Red Lancer,' 5-raters by Mr. Watson and Mr. Fife,
jun., must not be passed over unmentioned. Both these yachts belong to
Belfast, which is at present the home of 5-rater racing. In the Clyde,
where 5-tonners and 5-raters were once the fashionable classes, there
is now not a single representative. The 'Red Lancer' is a fin-keel
shaped vessel with great angle of sternpost, from the heel of which to
the stem-head the line is run in a very easy curve. She has a very
long counter, more than a third of which is submerged; but she is very
pretty as a design, and though not of large displacement, is very
roomy both on deck and below. She was originally fitted with a
centreboard, but as it was not considered of any material benefit to
her, this was taken out and the hole in the keel filled up with lead.
The 'Natica' has a spoon bow, and is one of Mr. Watson's prettiest
models as far as the modern racer can be termed pretty. She has been
very successful in the North, and as great curiosity was felt
regarding her capabilities when compared with the South-country boats,
she sailed round, and met the 'Dacia' at Torquay Regatta, where the
best of three matches were won by 'Dacia.' It would have been better,
perhaps, had the matches taken place off Holyhead--_vide_ the case of
the 'Vril,' 'Camellia,' and 'Freda'; however, there is no reason to
disparage them as not giving a true indication of the respective
merits of both yachts. So many races come off, both on the Solent and
on the Clyde, in numerical comparison with what took place a few years
ago, that the owners of small yachts rarely care now to go far away
from home on the chance of obtaining sport when it lies comfortably to
hand; but it is a thing to be encouraged, and when yachts have proved
themselves champions in any particular waters, a trysting place should
be chosen for the little winners to meet and try conclusions. This
would also make yachtsmen anxious to possess not merely a racing
machine, but a boat capable of going from port to port with a certain
amount of comfort to her crew.

[Illustration: 'Natica.' Designed by G. L. Watson, 1892.]


PRACTICAL HINTS

_Buying_

In choosing a yacht there is, as with most other occupations, a right
and a wrong way of going about it. First of all, the size has to be
determined upon; but this can soon be done by referring to the length
of the purse out of which the funds for keeping the yacht in
commission are to be supplied. Yachts are very much like houses, and
it is quite possible to buy a yacht or a house for such an
insignificantly small outlay that to all unconcerned in the bargain it
will appear a ridiculously cheap purchase. But this might not really
be the case, because, though the original outlay may have been small,
if a large number of servants or hands are required to keep either the
one or the other up, it would be dear at any price should money not be
forthcoming to meet the annual expenditure. It is, therefore,
necessary, before making a purchase, to look ahead at the probable
annual cost. At a rough estimate it may be laid down that each extra
hand required (this does not refer to those necessary on racing days)
will cost at least 25_l._ per season. A skipper may for his wages,
clothes, &c., make a hole in any sum from 30_l._ to 100_l._ per annum.
In a 5-tonner, or a yacht of 30 feet and under, provided she has a
gaff-mainsail and not a lugsail, one hand will be quite crew
sufficient, with the owner, to take her about. The writer worked a
10-tonner with one hand for two seasons without finding her too heavy,
but the addition of a boy made all the difference in the comfort.

The cost of sails, gear, and the many small items of equipment which
have to be renewed from time to time, cannot or should not be treated
as if such casual expenses could only come about in some dim vista of
futurity; for where in the case of sails 60_l._ might see the
fortunate owner of a racing 5 in possession of a brand-new suit, the
man with a 20 would find that sum barely sufficient to supply his
yacht with a new mainsail and topsail.

In making a purchase, it is as well if it be possible to find out what
kind of a yachtsman the owner of the yacht for sale is--that is, if he
is a man who has made yachts and yachting his sole hobby, and has
therefore been in the habit of keeping his vessels in the best
condition. It makes all the difference whether you purchase from such
a man, or from one who, having extracted all the good out of his
yacht's gear and sails, has placed her in the market rather than go to
the expense of giving her a new fit-out. In the case of a 5-tonner the
difference in price between the purchase money of vessels owned by the
two men might be from 50_l._ to 80_l._ or 100_l._; but then in the
case of the one there will only be one expense, viz.--that of the
purchase money, whereas with the other it might be difficult to say
how much might be required as outlay before the yacht could be made
ready for sea. The Clyde and Southampton are the best and most likely
places to find yachts for sale which have been well kept up and cared
for. Buying from a thorough yachtsman who is known to spare no expense
on his yacht will mean an absence of all bitterness and wrath, whereas
in making the purchase from the skinflint, until a small fortune has
been paid away the new owner will find that he has no satisfaction.

In buying a small yacht, in fact any yacht, unless the purchaser has
met with a vessel that combines all his requirements, it is always the
wisest plan for him to spend as little as possible the first season on
his new purchase--of course it is taken for granted that her sails and
gear are in thoroughly good order--in altering any of her fittings to
suit his own private fads; for if he changes his mind about his
yacht's points, or sees a vessel he may like better, he should
remember that he must not expect to get his money back again when
wanting to sell. By the end of the first season, he will most likely
have found out whether he will keep the yacht, and therefore whether
she really suits him, when he can do what he likes to her. It must be
borne in mind, too, that the inside fittings of a yacht's cabin form
the most expensive part of her hull; and alterations below always mean
a goodly expenditure.

Avoid all yachts which are either coated outside or filled in at the
garboards inside with cement, as water will leak in between the cement
and skin, and rot must ensue.


_Fitting out._

In fitting out, two very important points have to be thought of--viz.,
if the yacht is not coppered, what is the best paint to coat her with,
and what is the best method of treating the decks? With regard to the
first question, there are two paints which the writer has never yet
seen used in the yachting world, except on his own boat, and which can
be highly recommended. One is the black priming varnish used on iron
ships, and especially in the Navy. He gave this, some years ago on the
Clyde, four months' good trial. It was used on a boat kept out for
winter work which lay in a little harbour well-known for its fouling
propensities. At the end of the four months there was absolutely no
growth or sign of weed of any kind. Where it is to be obtained he is
unable to say, as the coat of paint that was put on his boat was given
him by a naval officer. The other paint is called after the inventor,
'Harvey's Patent.' The writer's experience of this is as follows:--A
friend sent him a tin to try, and to give his opinion upon.
Accordingly his boat, which had been lying up Portsmouth Harbour some
six months at her moorings, was brought down to Priddy's Hard and
hauled up. She had, though coated with a very well-known patent, from
7 to 10 feet of weed floating astern of her at the time, which had to
be removed. After being thoroughly cleaned, left to dry for a few
days, and having her paint burnt off, a coat of priming was given,
followed by two coats of the Harvey. The boat was then launched and
towed back to her moorings, where she was left for over 20 months. At
the end of that time she was hauled up, prior to being put into
commission; and there was no sign of grass or weed; slime, with an
almost imperceptible shell-fish growth, being all that was visible on
her bottom. The boat was seen by a good many naval and other men
during the time she was at her moorings, and they remarked on the
quality of the paint. One great point about the Harvey must be
mentioned, and that is, it dries very quickly when put on. It is a
good thing to warm it before using, as it is apt to get hard and soak
up the oil; but it soon softens, and after being properly mixed works
well.

Before touching the decks, the spars and blocks will always require to
have the old varnish of the past season scraped off them, and will
have then to be re-varnished. In scraping the spars care should be
taken that the knife, scraper, or glass be drawn with, and not
against, the grain of the wood. The scraping will always be achieved
with greater facility if the spar or block in hand is slightly damped,
and the scraper or knife-blade employed has its edge turned over a
little. This latter is done by drawing the side of the edge along the
back of a knife or steel tool. After scraping, the whole spar should
be rubbed down with sand-paper, prior to its receiving a coat of
varnish. The brushes employed should be either well-used ones, or, if
new, ought to be well soaked in water prior to use, as this will
prevent the bristles falling out during the process of varnishing.
Nothing is so provoking as to have to be continually picking out
bristles from the varnish; of course, what holds good about varnishing
holds good in the matter of painting. When using copal varnish, it is
as well to pour out only as much as may be wanted for the time being
into an old tin or jar, because it very soon hardens on exposure to
the air, and then becomes useless. For the same reason the varnish
bottle or can should never be left uncorked. Two coats of varnish
thinly laid on ought to suffice at the beginning of the season, and a
third coat may be given as the season progresses.

With regard to the decks. Everything depends on the state of the
decks themselves and how they are laid. If they are made of wide
planking, which is rarely, if ever, the case when the workmanship is
that of a yacht-builder, they should be painted; if, however, the
decks are laid with narrow planking fined off with the deck curves at
the bow and stern, then, notwithstanding the beauty of white decks, it
is better to varnish them. Varnishing keeps them hard, and saves many
a heart pang when the little yacht is visited by a friend with nails
in his boots or a lady in small heels. If the decks be worn at all, a
coat of varnish is a capital thing. After trying decks varnished and
unvarnished, experience confesses that the joys of beholding a white,
spotless deck in a small yacht are more than outweighed by the sorrow
and annoyance of seeing deep nail-marks imprinted on it.

As decks, when cared for, are always varnished when a yacht is laid up
for the winter, this varnish has necessarily to be removed prior to a
start on a season's yachting. The best method by which this can be
carried out is as follows:--Black ashes, Sooji Mooji, or one of the
many preparations of caustic potash, should be procured from a
ship-chandler, and mixed in an iron bucket with warm water in the
proportion of one-third black ashes to two-thirds water, according to
the strength required. As soon as the sun has set the mixture must be
poured over the deck, which must be left well covered with it till an
hour before sunrise. The mixture, which will have dried during the
night, must now be treated with hot water and well rubbed into the
varnish, and fresh buckets of water must be kept applied till every
particle of the mixture with the varnish has been cleared off and out
of the deck planking. If the mixture is applied or allowed to remain
on the deck while the sun is up, it will be certain to eat into and
burn it.

There are two or three ways of laying decks. One is to have the planks
nailed down to the beams, the nails countersunk, and the holes filled
up with wood plugs to hide the nail-heads. This is generally done by
men who have not had much to do with yacht-building. The common method
employed is to drive the nails diagonally through the edge of the
plank into the beam. Nails let in horizontally and driven into the
next plank, two or three cotton threads having been placed between,
keep the two planks in position. Each plank is similarly treated, and
when all the planks have been fitted and jammed together, marine glue
is poured into the seams. As soon as the glue has set and hardened the
decks are planed, and finished off. The third method is not so pretty
perhaps, but is believed from practical experience to be the best. The
planks are mortised together, varnished, and then brought tight up.
The whole deck is often built and made ready to fit before it is put
into position, so that when it is laid on the beams, all that is
required is to nail it down into its place. The writer has had
experience with the second kind of deck mentioned here in nearly all
of his yachts, and of the third method of laying decks in the
'Cyprus.' She was about five years old when he bought her, and that is
a good age for a racing 5-tonner's decks to last sound and without a
leaky spot to be found anywhere. Her decks were certainly kept
varnished, for the simple reason stated above, that visitors might be
always welcome, no matter what description of foot-gear had been
supplied to them by their bootmakers.

It is not an uncommon practice to have a yacht recoppered, though her
copper may be in good condition and even new. When such a proposition
is made, which is not infrequently done by skippers wishing to play
into the yacht-builder's hands, and thinking more of their own pockets
than their master's interests, the yachtsman must remember that every
time his yacht is coppered her skin is made more porous, and she
herself heavier in the water, since the planking will naturally sodden
with greater rapidity.

If the incipient yachtsman has bought the hull and spars of a yacht
that is only partially built or finished off, a few more hints must be
added, which will give him food for reflection, and may prove of
service.

When a yacht likely to suit has been heard of, nothing being known of
the owner, the next thing should be to try to discover whether she is
sound or possesses any weak places. The purchaser should overhaul her
outside just below the channels, and examine if the yacht has been
frequently caulked between the seams of the planking, or if there are
any signs of weeps of any kind about that part or elsewhere. The weeps
will be shown most likely by a rusty discolouration. If the yacht is
coppered, wrinkles must be looked for under the channels, runners, and
about the bilge. They will show if the yacht has been strained at all.
A knife should next be taken, and the point driven into the planking
about the water-line, where it joins the sternpost and stem, and then
along the two lower garboard strakes, especially if cement has been
used to fill in between the keel and planking, to discover if there is
any sign of dry rot, sap rot, &c. Inside, under the cabin floor, the
timbers, deadwoods, and the garboard strakes if the yacht be coppered,
should be tested in the same way. If the yacht has iron floors, these
should be carefully examined for galvanic action or decay. The heads
of the bolts which go through the lead keel should be scraped to see
whether they are made of iron, metal composition, or copper. If they
are iron or steel, most likely they will require to be renewed,
because galvanic action is very soon set up between the lead and
steel. Outside, copper shows wear and tear more quickly near the stem
and sternpost and along the water-line. In the cabin itself the deck
ceiling should be examined for weeps and leaks, especially about the
bits forward and near the mast, also wherever a bolt-head is visible.
On deck, a look round the covering board will discover whether it has
been often recaulked, by the seam being extra wide. The heat of a
stove below is frequently the cause of the deck forward leaking. The
deck seams should not be wider there than at any other part. All the
spars should be examined, and if there are no transverse cracks,
longitudinal ones may be held of no consequence. The weak parts of the
mast are generally to be found between the yoke and cap, where the
eyes of the rigging rest. Rot is often found there, and strains are
met with up the masthead. The boom shows its weakness at the outer end
by small cracks, and the bowsprit by the gammon iron and stem-head. If
the above rough survey proves all correct, attention must be given
next to the rigging, sails, and gear. Wear in the wire rigging is
shown by its being rusty, the strands stretched, or by the broken
threads of a strand appearing here and there. If the jib, throat, peak
halliards, and mainsheet are new, or have seen the work of one season
only, they will not require much overhauling. With the other running
rigging the strands should be untwisted, just enough to see whether
the heart of the rope is fresh and not rotten. The blocks ought to be
of a light colour without cracks in them, and iron strapped inside.
The sails will not show either mildew marks or discolouration if they
are in good condition. The chain and anchors to be in good order
should not be rusty, but clean and well galvanised. They should be
looked at to discover whether they have ever been regalvanised. This
will be noticed by the links presenting a rough, uneven surface, where
there was rust or decay before the repetition of the process of
galvanising.

Sometimes at fitting-out time an owner finds that he has to provide
his yacht with a new anchor. It may help him, therefore, in his choice
if the writer gives his experience in the matter of ground tackle or
mud-hooks. There are a number of patents in the market, the most
patronised of which are Trotman's, Martin's, Smith's, and Thomas &
Nicholson's. All these have many good points, with a weak one here and
there to keep the competition in anchor designing open to improvement.

Trotman's anchor has movable arms and stock, stows away well, and is a
fine holding anchor when once it bites; but it is often very slow at
catching hold, and this is dangerous when the anchorage happens to be
close and crowded, as, for instance, is frequently the case at
Kingstown, Cowes, &c., during regatta time. If the anchor does not
catch at once on such occasions the yacht may drift some distance
before she is brought up, and with little room this operation is
performed, more often than not, by collision with some vessel astern.

The Martin anchor and the Smith both work on a different principle
from any of the others, in that their arms move together so as to
allow both flukes to act at the same time. Of the two the Smith, which
has no stock, is preferable for yacht work. The Martin has a stock
which is fixed on the same plane with the arms. Both anchors catch
quickly and hold well as long as the bottom is not rocky or very
uneven, when they are apt to get tilted over and lose any hold they
may have at first obtained. Their worst failing is that of coming home
under the following conditions. If the yacht yaws about, owing to
strong tides, winds, or boisterous weather, the flukes of the anchor
are prone, when working in their holes, to make them so large that
they gradually meet each other and finally become one big hole; the
anchor then invariably trips, comes home, and the yacht drags. On the
other hand, the Smith and Martin anchors stow away better than any
others, and when on deck lie flat and compact. The Smith anchor makes
a capital kedge. Its holding power is so great that it is not
necessary to carry one of anything like the weight that would be
required were any other patent anchor employed.

The great point in favour of Smith's over that of Martin's anchor is
that, should it foul a mooring or warp, it can be easily tripped. The
tripping is done by letting the bight of a bowline slip down the chain
and anchor till it reaches the arms, and then hauling on it.

The best of the patents, however, is an anchor that was brought out
some years ago by Messrs. Thomas & Nicholson, of Southampton and
Gosport. It can be stowed away in a very small space, since the arms
are removable. It is a quick catcher, and is, at the same time, very
powerful and trustworthy.

The arms stand out at the most effective angle for insuring strength
of grip, while the shank is long, and, though light and
neat-looking--it is flat-sided--has sufficient weight and substance in
it to stand any ordinary crucial test. The flukes from their shape
appear somewhat longer in proportion to their width than the usual
patterns; but this arises from the sides being slightly bent back,
with the object of making the fluke more penetrating, which it
certainly is.

The old fisherman's anchor with a movable stock is, after all, as good
an anchor as any yachtsman need want. It is not a patent, and is
accordingly very much less expensive. Should necessity ever compel the
making of a small anchor, then the two great points which it must
possess are, length of shank (because greater will be the leverage),
and the placing of the arms so that they do not make a less angle with
the stock than, say, 53°. After a long practical experience with
almost every kind of anchor, the writer believes that two good,
old-pattern fisherman's anchors, with movable stocks (the movable
stock was a Mr. Rogers' patent), are all that any yacht need require
or her mud-hooks; but if it is thought fit to have patent anchors,
then either a couple of Thomas & Nicholson's anchors, or one of these
and a Smith, ought to form the yacht's complement.

All being satisfactory, if the yacht is a 5-rater the first thing to
be done will be to have the lugsail altered into a gaff-mainsail for
handiness sake. This will be only a small expense, since the great
peak of the lugsail will allow of its head being squared. Very little
if anything need be taken off the head of a high-peaked lugsail when
the gaff employed is hinged on to the jaws, as such a gaff can be
peaked with far greater ease and to a much greater extent than when
fitted in the ordinary. The writer has employed the following method
for fitting up the interior accommodation of a 5-ton yacht, and he can
highly recommend it as most convenient, and at the same time handy to
clear out either on a racing day or when about to lay the yacht
up:--All woodwork, such as lockers or fore-and-aft boards (used for
turning the sofas into lockers), should be fixed in their places by
hooks, or at any rate by screws. Nothing should be a fixture except
the two sofa-seats in the main cabin, the one forward of the mast, and
the two sideboards fitted aft at each end of the sofas. If the yacht
has to race, these sideboards should be made self-contained, and to
shape, so that they may fit into their places and be kept there by
hooks or catches. There should be only a curtain forward between the
forecastle and main cabin, and instead of a regular solid bulkhead
aft, gratings should take its place, with one wide grating as a door.
This will keep the store room aft ventilated. If there is sufficient
length to permit of transverse gratings about 20 inches apart and 2
feet high by the mast, as before explained when describing the
'Lorelei,' by all means let these form one of the fittings to hold the
sail bags. In the locker astern of the after bulkhead gratings, the
skin should be protected by battens 2-1/2 to 3 inches wide and from 1
to 2 inches apart. This will keep whatever is stowed there dry from
any little weep or leakage that may occur in the planking. There
should be no ceiling either in the main or fore cabin, and if battens
are thought necessary to prevent damp getting to the beds when left
folded up in the bed-frames, then three, or at the outside four, some
4 or 5 inches apart, should be screwed up just in the position where
the shoulders of a sitter would be likely to rest against them. Four
or five may be fitted up on each side of the forecastle. The upper
batten should be higher up than the top one in the main cabin, as it
may be useful for screwing hooks into. The writer, however, prefers in
the main cabin, instead of any battens, clean pieces of duck, or, what
is better still, Willesden cloth (waterproof), made to hang loosely
from hooks, reaching down to the sofas, and cut to the shape of the
after sideboards, holes being sewn in to allow the iron hooks which
carry the bed-frames to come through. This fitting always lightens up
the cabin, and is easily taken down and scrubbed.

For beds, the iron frames supplied to all yachts' forecastles for the
men, with canvas bottoms to them, are far the best and most
comfortable. They take up less room than a hammock, and stow away
nicely against the cabin's side when not in use. With these frames the
writer has used quilted mattresses, the heads of which have ticking
covers large enough to hold a pillow, and the whole is sewn on to
strong American or waterproof cloth, which forms a covering when the
bed and its blankets are rolled up and have to be stowed away.

In the forecastle, a movable pantry may be screwed up against the
battens on the port side (the bed will be on the starboard side). This
should be an open case with three shelves and two drawers underneath.
The upper shelf must be divided off to take the three sizes--dinner,
soup, and small plates. Between the plates, outside the divisions,
there can be uprights on which to thread double egg-cups. On the lower
shelf there should be holes cut to carry tumblers, and between the
tumblers slots for wineglasses. The bottom shelf is for cups and
saucers. One of the drawers ought to be lined with green baize to hold
silver plate and knives. If the sideboards aft are fixtures, a tin
case made to the shape of the yacht's side, to rest on the part of the
sideboard on which the lid hinges, and reaching up to the deck, is a
capital fitting to have. The inside should be arranged in partitions
to hold tea, coffee, sugar, biscuit, and other square canisters, also
Dutch square spirit bottles. The door may be double, or if single,
should open from the bottom and trice up to a hook overhead, so that
it may not in any way hinder the opening of the sideboard lid at the
same time. Two or three movable shelves placed right in the eyes of
the yacht forward make useful stowage room for a man to keep his
clothes, as there they stand less chance of getting wet. Between the
sideboards aft a removable box ought to be fixed with screws, of
sufficient depth to hold an iron bucket, washing basin, and all the
conveniences of a lavatory. This will be directly under the cabin
hatch, and from 8 to 10 inches abaft it. The lid should leave a few
inches space clear to receive it when opened back. Curtains made of
duck or Willesden cloth, to hang down loose over the sideboards at
each side to the depth of 6 inches, and hung from hooks in the deck
above, will be found useful for keeping all stray splashes, that may
fall inboard, from going on the sideboard lids, and thence among the
dry goods and provisions stowed away in them. At the back of the
lavatory box will be the after-grating and locker, and standing out
from the grating, about 10 inches to a foot square, and 15 to 18
inches deep from the deck, there should be a cupboard, painted white
inside, or, better still, lined with copper silver-plated to reflect
the light, and a transparent spirit compass should then be fitted to
hang through the deck above it. The brass rim for carrying the gimbles
and binnacle lid outside must be screwed down to the deck on doubled
india-rubber to prevent leakage. The cupboard door must have
ventilating holes in it at the top and bottom, and a square hole to
hold the lamp should be cut in the door between the upper and lower
ventilators. On the opposite side from that on which the tin case is
fixed, and coming out from the grating the same distance as the
compass box, two bookshelves can be fitted, which will prove most
useful. On deck, the fittings and leads that are mentioned in the
description of the 'Cyprus' cannot be improved upon, except that
rigging screws are neater, and give less trouble than dead-eyes and
lanyards, which have to be continually set up. Lanyards, however, give
more life to a mast, though it may appear almost imperceptible, and by
so doing ought to render it less liable to be carried away. The
sliding lid of the companion hatch should padlock on to a transverse
partition between the combings, and it is a good plan to have this
partition on hinges, so that at night, when the hatch-cover is drawn
over, the partition may lie on the deck and so leave an aperture for
ventilation. The windows of the skylight will be all the better for
being fixtures and should not open; if ventilation be required, the
whole skylight can be taken off; this will prevent the leakage so
common with hinged windows. A mainsheet horse and traveller with two
quarter leading blocks are better than a double block shackled on to
an eyebolt amidships, because a more direct up and down strain can be
obtained when the boom is well in.

In any yacht of 25 feet in length or under, the wisest plan to adopt
with regard to a forehatch is to do away with it and only have a large
screw deadlight; if a small deadlight be preferred, then it ought to
be placed about 12 to 18 inches ahead of the bits, and a copper cowl,
to screw into the deadlight frame, should form part of the fittings,
for use when the yacht is laid up, in order to let air into and so
ventilate the cabin. It is certainly a great advantage to have the
spinnaker ready in the forecastle for sending up through a hatch, but
as this is the only good reason why a hatch should be thought
requisite in a small yacht, and since it is a fruitful source of
leakage and danger, especially when, as is sometimes the case, the lid
has not been fastened down and a sea sweeps it off the deck, it is
better to abolish the fitting altogether. A small rail ahead of the
mast, bolted through the deck and stayed to the mast below (in order
to take off all weight from the deck and beams), and a rail abreast of
the lee and weather rigging, should form all that is required for
belaying halliards, purchases, tacks, &c. In most of the 5- and
2-1/2-raters the halliard for the lugsail is led below the deck, and
the purchase is worked by taking turns round a small mast-winch in the
cabin. It is a great advantage to have a clear deck free from ropes,
and it would be a saving of labour to have all a cutter's purchases
led below to a winch.

For a small yacht it is as well to have the jib, throat, and peak
halliards of four-strand Manilla rope, but wire topsail halliards are
a very decided improvement on hemp or Manilla. Wire has little or no
stretch in it, and a topsail halliard is the last rope a seaman cares
to disturb after it has once been belayed, it may be to lower and take
in the sail. All purchases ought to be made of European hemp-rope,
with the exception of that attached to the copper rod bobstay. All
headsheets should lead aft and belay on cleats bolted on to the
combing of the cockpit. It is becoming the custom to have all the
bowsprit fittings fixtures. A steel or copper rod from the stem to the
cranze iron at the bowsprit end serves as a bobstay, which, with the
shrouds, are screwed up with rigging screws. No such thing as reefing,
or bringing the useless outside weight of the spar inboard, is thought
of by many racing men now-a-days. Fiddle-headed and spoon bows have
introduced this fashion, but 14 to 16 feet of a 5-1/2-inch spar is no
trifle to have bobbing into seas, and making the boat uneasy, when
half the length, or less, would be quite sufficient to carry all the
jib that can be set. No bowsprit belonging to a straight-stemmed
cutter should be a fixture, and the best and neatest fitting for the
bobstay is a rod with a steel wire purchase at the end. The shrouds
should be in two lengths of wire shackled together, as in topmast
backstays, and, leading through the bulwark, should screw up to bolts
in the deck especially formed to take a horizontal strain. Selvagee
strops can be used for setting up the intermediate lengths.

If the eyes of the rigging are covered with leather which has not been
painted, then the bight of each eye ought to be left standing in a
shallow dish of oil. The leather will thus soak itself, and the oiling
will preserve it from perishing.

In sending up rigging it must always be remembered that the lengths of
the port and starboard rigging are arranged so as to allow of the
starboard fore rigging being placed into position first, then that to
port, the starboard backstay rigging going up next, followed by that
to port, after which the eye of the forestay will go over the masthead
and will rest on the throat halliard eyebolt in the masthead.

All block-hooks should be moused. A mousing is made by taking two or
three turns of spunyarn round the neck and lip of the hook followed by
a cross turn or two to finish off. This prevents the hook from
becoming disengaged.

In some yachts double topmasts and double forestays are used. The
former are only fitted where the yacht carries two sizes of
jib-topsail, one for reaching and the other for beating to windward.
Whilst one is up, the other can be hooked on, so that no time need be
lost in setting. A medium-sized sail, however, capable of being used
for reaching or beating, is all that is really required. The shifting
of two jib-topsails entails the presence for some time of one man at
least forward on the bowsprit end, and the less the men are forward of
the mast the better, if it is desired to get the best work out of a
small yacht, and the yacht herself is in proper trim. There is more to
be said, however, in favour of double forestays, since they allow of a
foresail being sent up whilst another is already set and drawing, and
the work is done inboard, while the difference between a working and a
balloon foresail is far greater than in that of two jib-topsails. The
writer has never used double forestays, but he believes so thoroughly
in the foresail, as a sail, that he has always carried three--a
working, reaching, and a balloon. He has the luff of each foresail
fitted with loops at regular intervals, after the manner of gaiter
lacings, otherwise called 'lacing on the bight.' These are made either
of light wire or small roping. The upper loop reaches down to the next
below it, so that the loop below may be passed through, and so on,
till the tack is reached. When setting a foresail the upper loop is
passed over the forestay before the lower one is threaded through it,
and so on with all the loops in turn. The tack has a single part,
which, after it has been passed through the lowest loop, is made fast
to the tack-downhaul. When shifting foresails, the sail is lowered,
tack let go, and the lacing comes away by itself; then the new sail
can be hooked on to the halliards and laced to the forestay as quickly
as it can be hauled up. When the sea is smooth there may be no
necessity for unlacing the working foresail should the shift have to
be made from that sail, especially if it has soon to be called into
use again. The above method will be found far superior to that of
hanks, which are always getting out of order and not infrequently
refuse to do their duty altogether.

In mentioning the shifting of sails, there is one point to which
nothing like sufficient attention is paid, and that is to the lead of
sheets. Many a good jib has been destroyed and pulled out of shape
through a bad lead, and more than one race has been lost through the
bad lead of a reaching or balloon foresail sheet. When jibs or
foresails are changed, the greatest care should be taken to see that
the leads told off for their sheets are really fair--that is, that the
pull on the sheet does not favour the foot more than the leach of the
sail, or _vice versâ_. In the case of a balloon-foresail its sheet
leads outside the lee rigging and belays somewhere aft. The man
attending the sheet should take it as far aft as a direct strain will
permit, and not belay it to the first cleat that comes to hand;
otherwise the sail will simply prove a windbag taking the yacht to
leeward rather than ahead.

There is a fitting which must not be passed over that is now almost
universally adopted on large yachts, but is equally important on small
ones--that is, an iron horse at the main-boom end for the mainsail
outhaul to travel on. It was originally invented by that most skilful
helmsman Mr. W. Adams, of Greenock, to obviate a difficulty so common
in square stern boats with booms stretching to _n_ length over the
transom. He fitted the boom of his little racing boat with a horse,
which came from the boom end to within easy reach for unhooking the
clew of the sail, and so saved the trouble of having to use a dinghy
for the purpose. The idea was soon taken up by Clyde yachtsmen, for it
was found so much easier to get the mainsail out on the boom than with
the traveller working on the boom itself.

Whilst on a subject connected with mainsails, the writer can recommend
for the gaff and head of the mainsail, instead of the ordinary long
rope lacing commonly in use, separate stops or seizings to each
eyelet-hole. The seizing can be done in half the time it takes to
properly lace the head of the sail to the spar; it looks quite as well
and does its work better. For fastening the luff of the mainsail to
the mast-hoops, instead of seizings he has used hanks, and has found
them very handy and neat. The hanks used are riveted on to the
mast-hoops. He has now had them in constant use for over twelve years,
and has never had occasion to find any fault whatever with them. In
one yacht he kept two mainsails in use for cruising and racing, and
thus preserved the racing mainsail in good condition for a
considerably longer period than would otherwise have been the case,
and with the fittings just named the shift of sails was a small
matter.

Topsails, perhaps, are the sails which require renewing more
frequently than any other, as they get out of shape so quickly if very
much is demanded from them. For a small yacht, if she carries a
topmast, three topsails are a sufficient outfit. They should be a
jibheader, a gaff, and a balloon or jackyarder. One yard ought to
serve for both the gaff and jackyard topsail, and these sails should
be made the same length on the head. This will save having to carry
about a deckload of timber.


OUTFIT

It is frequently a question of great moment, what kind and what amount
of outfit it is necessary to take away on a summer's cruise, and the
writer finds it a great convenience to keep a list of everything that
goes to form not only his sea kit, but stores and necessaries as well.
Such a list prevents one from forgetting small necessaries.

A small air-tight 'uniform tin case' and a painted seaman's bag are
the best equipment for carrying clothes. The lists are as follows:--

FIRST LIST: THE KIT

The tin case holds--

  A dress suit and shoes
  A shore-going suit
  3 linen shirts
  6 collars
  White ties
  Gloves
  Ink, blotting paper, paper and envelopes
  Mr. Lloyd's Euxesis

As may be seen, the tin box only contains the shore-going outfit. The
Euxesis mentioned is for those who shave, as with it there is no need
of hot water to perform the operation.

In the bag should be--

  4 flannel shirts
  2 pairs of flannel pygamas
  1/2 doz. pairs of socks, 2 pairs of which should be thick
  2 pairs of thick warm stockings
  1 pair of warm slippers
  2 pairs of common blue india-rubber solid shoes
  1 pair of brown leather shoes
  2 blue guernseys, hand knit
  4 bath towels and 1/2 doz. others
  Sponge bag
  Dressing case
  1 suit of thick pilot cloth
  1 old pair of thick blue trousers
  1 large thick square comforter
  1 common serge suit
  1 pair of mittens
  1 pair of tanned leather boots

For comfort in a small yacht it is impossible to do with less. Of
course it may be thought foolish taking the tin case stocked as it is,
but experience has taught that even in the wildest and most
out-of-the-way spots occasions arise when all pleasure is spoiled by
not having the evening change of kit at hand.

SECOND LIST: GROCERIES, ETC.

  Matches
  1/2 doz. boxes of floats for oil lamp
  1/2 doz. boxes of night-lights
  6 lbs. of candles 8 to the lb. and
  2 bedroom candlesticks
  1 doz. tins of unsweetened tinned milk
  1 lb. of tea
  1/2 doz. coffee and milk in tins
  1/2 doz. tins of chocolate and milk
  Plate powder
  Varnish for yellow leather shoes
  Corkscrew
  Sardine-box opener
  3-lb. tin of marmalade
  Pepper
  Mustard
  Jar of salt
  1 doz. tins of sardines
  3 tins of herring à la sardines
  2 lb. captain's biscuits
  1 doz. packages of jelly powder
  6 doz. tinned soups
  Soap, 1 bar of common brown
  Soap, 1 bar of scented
  Wicks for stoves
  Plate, clothes, and boot brushes
  2 chamois leathers. Cheese, butter, bread, 1/2 loaf per diem per man

THIRD LIST: YACHT NECESSARIES

  Marlinespike
  Pricker
  Mop and twiddlers
  Hatchet
  Heavy hammer
  Small hammer
  Screw-driver
  Gimlet
  Bradawl
  Pincers
  Brass screws
  Copper nails
  Brass hooks
  1 tin of black paint
  1 tin of Harvey's Anti-fouling Paint
  1 tin of Copal varnish
  Spare shackles, clip hooks, hooks and thimbles
  1 4-lb. lead and line
  1 can of methylated spirits
  1 can of mineral oil
  1 can of colza oil
  _Lamp_ showing red, white, or green, as required
  Riding light
  Binnacle and light
  1 small-sized patent log
  20 fathoms of Kaia grass warp
  1 tail 4-in. block
  2 spare blocks with hooks or thimbles
  1 canvas bucket, medium size
  1 iron bucket
  2 brass holders for oil glass lamp, and to hold tumbler if required for flowers

  4 thick common cups and saucers
  1/2 doz. tumblers
  1/2 doz. wineglasses
  3 sodawater tumblers
  1/2 doz. enamel plates
  1/2 doz. enamel soup plates
  2 enamel slop basins
  2 enamel flat dishes
  1 enamel double vegetable dish
  1 deep dish for stews, &c.

  3 tablespoons
  3 table forks
  3 table knives
  1/2 doz. small forks
  1/2 doz. dessert spoons
  1/2 doz. teaspoons
  1/2 doz. small knives
  Fish knife and fork
  2 kitchen knives and forks
  2 kitchen table- and 2 teaspoons

  Binocular glasses
  Parallel rulers
  Compasses
  Isle of Man almanac
  Charts: Irish Sea, West Scotland, English Channel, &c.
  Books of sailing directions
  Channel pilot
  Flags: Club Burgee, Pilot Jack,
    and Ensign. The Pilot Jack
    is useful in case a pilot be
    required, and the Ensign to
    hoist upside down in case of
    distress, or in the rigging as a
    protest when racing
  Fishing tackle


Medicine:--

  Brandy
  Friar's balsam
  Lint
  Bottle of Condy's fluid
  Carlsbad salts

[Illustration: COMMERCIAL CODE OF SIGNALS.

_Code Signal._

_When used as the Code Signal this Pennant is to be hoisted under the
Ensign._]

Such lists as are given above should be kept in a small book labelled
'Fitting-out Necessaries,' because they save much time at that season,
and all alterations in them that experience dictates should be noted
before or at the period of laying the yacht up.


_Racing._

The yacht, let it be supposed, is fitted out. She has a racing outfit,
and was the crack boat of the past season. There is a smart young
fellow engaged to look after her, and the only thing that remains to
be settled now is the question--Shall I give myself up to racing or
shall I cruise this year? If it is to be racing, here are two or three
words of advice well worth noting. The first is, never pinch the yacht
when sailing on a wind. Always keep a clean full and bye--_i.e._ the
yacht must be headed, as near as she will go, to the point whence the
wind is blowing, but the sails must be kept well full. Then the yacht
will travel. Do not, because some other yachts seem to be lying closer
to the wind, try to make the little vessel head in the same direction,
if she will not do so without her sails shaking. Many races are lost
through this form of bad sailing. The next point to be noted is, 'mind
your jibsheet.' No sheet requires such tender handling. The foresheet
can be left to a tiro. All he has to do when on a wind is to take and
harden in all he can, and belay. The mainsheet can also be hauled in
pretty close; but when that is all done, the sailing-master must not
think that he can go any closer to the wind by treating his jibsheet
after the same simple fashion; for if he does he will find himself
very much at fault, as it will take all the life out of the yacht, and
the jib will make her bury her head in the seas. He will only stop
his ship. The best plan to adopt is to get the sheet in before the
yacht's head is pointed as close as it will go to the wind, and then
check out inch by inch till the luff of the sail near the tack has a
slight inclination to lift. At first, it is somewhat astonishing to
see how much jibsheet a vessel will stand when close hauled. Pinning
in the sheet tends to stop the boat, whilst, on the other hand, giving
her as much as she can stand will make her fairly jump ahead. The
helmsman who knows his duties ought to keep an eye open for this, and
watch, in the excitement of going about or hauling round a buoy, that
the poor jibsheet is not pinned in or unfairly treated.

Another piece of advice is about that other jib and yachtsman's
friend, called the spinnaker. Of the two jibs, this latter suffers
most at the hands of the racing sailing-master. When he sees his
antagonist carrying his spinnaker with the boom right forward on the
bow, only too frequently does he leave his up with the boom in the
same position, too fearful lest, should he take his in, or shift it to
the bowsprit end, the other yacht may steal an advantage over him. The
writer has seen more than one race lost through this hanging on to the
boomed-out spinnaker too long. It is a safe and wise plan to take the
sail in as soon as the wind obliges the boom to be pointed forward at
an angle very much under a right angle to the beam. Some years ago
this was brought before the writer's notice in a clear, unmistakable
way. He happened to be on the Breakwater at Plymouth on a Regatta day,
when the yachts were making the harbour. They were running with the
wind right aft and their booms squared off. As each yacht neared the
Breakwater, the wind came round gradually on the beam, and one by one
the spinnaker-booms were allowed to go right over the bow to an acute
angle with the bowsprit. The spinnakers were certainly all kept full,
but as each yacht's after-guy was checked, she gradually ceased to
travel and almost stopped dead. Her spinnaker bellied against the
topmast stay and forestay, and formed at once a backsail, if anything.
Those on board a yacht do not notice the faults of the moment so
quickly as those looking on, and only when the race is over does the
sailing-master regret that he has not acted differently. Frequently
since then has the writer, having taken note of what he saw, managed
to make up a considerable amount of time by having the courage to take
in his spinnaker as soon as it refused to stand without the boom going
well forward. If the balloon-foresail jib and jib-topsails sheets are
ready belayed, so that the sails may take the weight of the wind as
soon as the spinnaker is taken in, there will be no fear whatever of
the yacht losing ground, but rather she will spring into life, and
most likely leave her antagonists behind. The method adopted by
American yachtsmen for setting the spinnaker has many points in its
favour. Instead of bringing the tack close in to the mast, the sail is
taken outside the forestay and the tack downhaul belayed on the
opposite side to which the sail is set. By setting the sail in this
way the back draught from it goes into the jib-topsail and
balloon-jib, so keeping them full and drawing. The spinnaker boom can
also be allowed to range further forward on the bow than under our
system. In hoisting the spinnaker it will be found a great saving of
labour to send it up in stops ready for breaking out when the pull at
the outhaul is taken. It can be stopped up before the race begins.

When running before the wind, it is no uncommon sight to see all hands
sent aft, and as many as possible on the counter. Now there is a vast
amount of 'follow my leader' in this practice. Because one crack yacht
does well under this trim, therefore others are supposed to steer and
sail better with the weight aft too, so that when witnessing a number
of yachts sailing before the wind with spinnaker set, frequently yacht
after yacht may be seen struggling along with her taffrail about level
with the water, and the whole counter being sucked back by the wave
raised in the yacht's run. Some yachts are bad to steer when running;
this is, to say the least of it, a fault or gross peculiarity in their
design, for there is no use in the helm unless it is answered, and to
help to keep boats steady all available weight is fleeted aft. These
must, therefore, bear the penalty and lose ground on this particular
point of sailing; but there are others with fine runs, which require
no weight aft, and placing weight there causes the counter to go into
the water and lie flat on it. These would steer equally well with the
weight forward of the helmsman, and instead of being kept back by the
drag put upon them, would leave their heavy-quartered rivals away in
the rear. 'Keep the counter as much as possible out of water' is a
maxim to be laid to heart by all, on all points of sailing. Of course,
in yachts designed to have part of the counter immersed, the maxim
applies only to that part above water. A fine run is a most valuable
form for a vessel large or small, especially when sailing on any point
with the wind abaft the beam; and the man who is wise will do his best
to keep it fine, in order that the water may be left clean and without
so much as a ripple.

Before naming good cruising grounds and touching on cruising, just a
word must be said about dinghies. A dinghy is a big piece of furniture
for a small yacht, and at times becomes almost a white elephant,
especially if the yacht has to make passages or go foreign. The writer
has no hesitation in recommending the Berthon dinghy as the most
useful, compact, and stow-awayable of any at present in use. After
having had practical experience of nearly all sizes of Mr. Berthon's
boats, from the 40-ft. launch supplied to the Navy down to the small
7-ft. dinghy, the size found to be most useful is the boat of 8 feet
in length. A boat of 7 feet which he has, and which has been in use
for fifteen years in all parts of the world, is a most clever little
contrivance. She has carried on many occasions two big men with a
portmanteau and other baggage, and when sitting on the bottom boards
is hard to capsize--in fact, she has never turned turtle as yet. She
is very easy to pull and light to carry, but is a little too small to
ask a lady to take passage in. The odd foot, however, makes a great
difference. A 9-ft. boat was the lifeboat complement of the 'Cyprus,'
and this is the largest size of any real value to a small yacht, as
the larger boats take too long to open out, and when in the water,
unless well filled up and almost brought down to the gunwale, are too
light to pull against a head wind. The 9-ft. boat is sometimes
difficult to move when it is blowing very hard from the quarter to
which it is desired to go, but this occurs seldom, and she is opened
out so easily that there may be a question whether a 9-ft. boat might
not be, after all, the best to have. The boats will stand any amount
of sea, and they travel under sail or oar propulsion, when not too
much pressed, very dry and easily. Should the canvas happen to get
cut, the best stitch with which to sew up the wound is that known as
the 'Cobbler's.' An awl is required to make the holes for the stitches
and a couple of ends similar to those used by a cobbler. This stitch
is not so likely to tear the canvas, and brings it closer together
than the sailmaker's stitch called 'herring-boning,' which is no use
at all for making a water-tight mend. The outer skin may want a coat
of paint once a year, and if so, the paint should be mixed up with
boiled oil; then, when it is put on, the canvas will remain flexible
and will not harden up and crack. Mr. Berthon supplies a special paint
for his boats, but it is not always procurable, and any paint mixed
with boiled oil will serve the purpose.


_Cruising._

Fitted out with an old 5-tonner, or a yacht about the size already
recommended, the whole world lies before the cruising yachtsman. She
can easily be shipped on board a steamer, and can, for the sum of
50_l._ to 70_l._ or less, be launched off New York, whence there is
nothing to hinder a most enjoyable cruise on the lakes (which can be
reached by canal) or in the vicinity of Long Island, and along the
coast. Racing can be done in the American waters should it so please
the voyageur, and a hearty welcome will be met with wherever he goes.
There is great scope for cruising and racing in Australia and New
Zealand (as set forth at length in another chapter); but the expenses
of shipping and taking out the yacht will not be much less than
100_l._ Sydney Harbour and Port Phillip are both great yachting
centres, while the coast of New Zealand is a complete network of bays,
inland seas, and natural harbours. The Mediterranean is a much
puffed-up yachtsman's cruising ground, but during the best time of
year, which is winter, it is as nasty and treacherous an expanse of
water as it is possible to meet with in any part of the world. In the
summer the great drawback there is lack of wind during the daytime,
and calms prevail most days of the week. Among the islands of the
Grecian Archipelago, however, and off the coast of Asia Minor, a
breeze is always certain to spring up after sunset. There is no
difficulty in reaching the Mediterranean, as a yacht drawing 5 to 6
feet can go through France by canal without any trouble, or else she
can sail round. Five-tonners, it must be remembered, are serviceable
for an ocean cruise should it be necessary, as has already been shown
in two cases.

There are cruising grounds on the West Coast of Scotland which may
well make yachtsmen in England envious, and some lovely harbours and
rivers along the South Coast of England, which would delight the heart
of many a Clyde yachtsman, whilst Ireland, on her West and South
coasts, has very beautiful and well-sheltered bays. To a yachtsman who
lives in the South, and to whom time is an object, the best plan to
adopt, if a Scotch cruise be on the cards, is either to put the yacht
on a truck and send her up to Gourock, or ship a second hand for the
trip and let the men sail her round. Of the two ways, the latter is
much to be preferred, since it will cost less money, and the yacht
will not be so likely to get knocked about. If time permitted, the
owner might meet the yacht at Kingstown, near Dublin. This is always a
good starting point, as he can make for Campbeltown, in Cantyre, stay
a night there, and go on to Gourock Bay, near Greenock, which he
should make his base of operations, and where he should pick up a
mooring if possible rather than drop his own anchor.

If St. George's Channel is to be the cruising ground, then Kingstown,
Belfast (Bangor Bay), or the Sloyne (Liverpool) are the best ports to
start from. Between Belfast and Kingstown the yachtsman will find Loch
Strangford (although it has strong tides), Ardglass, and Carlingford
Lough, with little Howth, all places worth peeping into; and a run
over to the Isle of Man will well repay any time taken up in a visit.
The best ports in the island are Ramsey and Douglas, and of the two
Ramsey is to be preferred, because the yacht can always lie at anchor,
and it is well sheltered from all winds with any westing in them; but
Douglas ought not to be left out on that account, and the yacht, when
there, should be sailed up the harbour, where she will have to take
the ground. It is a first-rate place to clean a yacht's copper, as
there is something in the mud which is very conducive to brightening
up the metal. Peel can be seen by crossing the island. Castletown,
also, is a very quaint old town, and coaches run regularly between it
and Douglas. Anyone visiting the Isle of Man ought to read Sir Walter
Scott's novel 'Peveril of the Peak,' for the main portion of the story
lies at Peel and Castletown.

If interest is taken in iron and smelting works, from Douglas to
Barrow is about 70 miles; but as the roughest sea in the Channel is
met with on a line between Mougold Head (between Douglas and Ramsey)
and Liverpool, where the north and south currents meet, perhaps it
will be as well, unless the weather be favourable, to keep clear of
that part of the English coast.

Kingstown itself is the finest artificial harbour in the world, and to
anyone anchoring there for the first time there will be found plenty
to occupy at least a week. The clubs are most hospitably inclined, and
Dublin being so near makes it a very pleasant spot to frequent.

For the South of Ireland, Queenstown must be the centre from which to
work. There are good fishing and lovely bays all round the coast
westward, and nothing can equal Bantry Bay, with Glengariff, which are
practically land-locked.

The Shannon and West are in no way inferior to the South coast, and
there are many nooks and anchorages, too numerous to mention here,
where a yacht such as the one described can very comfortably lie,
fearless of ocean billows. Now and then seals are to be met with on
the West coast, and care should be taken to avoid rowing into any of
the numerous caves, which abound round that coast, and are frequented
by them, when the tide is on the rise and at three-quarters flood;
more than one shooting party has been caught in a trap through the
egress having been blocked up.

The North coast is a wild one; but there, again, Port Rush and
Londonderry are very safe, and Port Rush is an especially snug little
harbour. Care should be taken to work Rathlin Island Sound with the
tide, whichever way it is wished to sail, as the tide rush there is
very strong. Between Rathlin and Belfast are bays, each of which has
its small tidal harbour, and, if the weather is threatening, the
distances between them are so short that opportunities can be snatched
for going from one to the other. Larne itself is a fine harbour.

Coming from the North to the South of England, a yacht of 30 ft. and 5
ft. 6 in. draught can be taken by train and launched with the greatest
ease in Southampton Dock, and Southampton being so near London makes
it the rendezvous of many cruising yachts. A good cruise from there is
to run across to Havre (Rouen is easily reached by train from Havre,
and well worth a visit), thence to Cherbourg, thence through the
Alderney Race, between Cape La Hogue and the back of Sark, to
Guernsey.

At Guernsey the yacht's copper should be cleaned, if necessary. It is
the best harbour in the English Channel for scrubbing the bottom, as
there is good mud and a capital supply of running water close and
handy at low water. From Guernsey, weather permitting, with the aid of
a fisherman or pilot, the yacht can be taken across to Sark one day
and to Herm another. Sark is one of the loveliest and most picturesque
islands on our coasts. Any trip to Jersey ought to be made by steamer,
as it is an abominable harbour for a yacht, the rise and fall of the
tide being over 40 feet.

The next sea run may be to Falmouth, thence to Fowey, Polperro (this
port had better not be entered except by dinghy, but it is a very
quaint little fishing village and not much frequented except by
trawlers), Looe (this is an open anchorage), and Plymouth. All these
places have beautiful rivers, with the exception of Polperro, and the
Fal and Tamar are both navigable at high water some considerable
distance up.

Leaving Plymouth, the yacht might very well touch at the mouth of the
Yalme, and the dinghy be rowed up the river. Salcomb and Dartmouth
should not be left out, and both have rivers, the heads of which
should be seen. Dartmouth is a well-known yachting station, and its
club is very prettily situated, so that the members have a full view
of the anchorage. The tide there is strong, and two anchors will prove
better than one.

Torbay comes next in order, working back to Southampton, with Brixham
and Torquay; both so often described that it would be wasting space to
add anything to what has already been said.

The only gauntlets to be run are West Bay, which can be very
troublesome at times, and the Race off Portland Bill, which can
generally be avoided by hugging the shore of the Bill. Weymouth,
again, requires no words of encomium. It is as well to anchor off
Portland or go right up Weymouth Harbour, where the yacht will have to
take the ground.

From Weymouth to Swanage is an afternoon's sail, but it is scarcely
worth while going into the bay, unless the weather is boisterous from
the west or south-west, when the yacht will find a very good berth
free from the turmoil of the elements. There is a race off St. Alban's
Head, which can always be avoided by keeping well out a couple of
miles. When Swanage has been left behind, the course should be steered
for the Needles. Once inside the Solent, Yarmouth in the Isle of
Wight, and Lymington on the Hampshire coast, Cowes, Ryde, Bembridge,
and Portsmouth all open up ports and land, not only different in
scenery from any that is visible in the North, but spots and
localities interesting on account of the history attached to them.

The Dutch coast with its canals, Norway with its fiords, and Sweden
with its canal running from Christiania to Stockholm, all merit a
description did these pages permit, and are well worth the time taken
up in a summer cruise; but whichever way the yacht's head may be
turned, or whatever seas may be chosen to be cruised over, the
following few hints may prove serviceable.

In cruising along an unknown coast, it is always well to keep a good
look out for buoys or boats at anchor inshore. It may be a great help
in cheating tides. For instance if the yacht is struggling against a
strong tide, an inshore eddy may be discovered from the way the boats
are lying, and so, by making use of it, a long journey may be
shortened and time saved.

Barges and coasters, especially small ones, should be watched. They,
in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, know the tides, currents, and
eddies thoroughly, and the best course to be steered from one point to
another. If a short cut can be taken, the coaster is sure to know it,
and he can be followed through narrow channels with the greatest
safety. A coaster rarely draws less than 6 feet when full up with
cargo, or a barge less than 4 to 5 feet.

When sailing along the bight of a bay, with the wind off the shore and
close-hauled, because in the bight itself the wind may come off a
point or so free, the yacht's sheets should not therefore be checked,
but she should be still kept a clean full and bye; for, as the further
point of the bay is reached, the wind will be sure to head and come
off the land, and instead of being able to round the head close in
shore, most likely the yacht will have to be kept away, and much
valuable time and distance lost.

When passing high land, with the wind off the shore, care should be
exercised should a gully, valley, or ravine open out, for fear a
sudden squall may take the yacht aback, and a topsail and topmast be
sent flying. The wind is very much influenced by the lay of the land,
not only in the matter of the direction in which it blows, but also
the power of its gusts.

Regard should always be paid, on entering land-locked waters from the
open sea, to the force of the wind. Many open-sea sailors, from being
accustomed to a fair amount of wave disturbance whenever the wind has
any strength in it, are misled when sailing in enclosed lochs by the
smoothness of the water, and so, misjudging the force of the wind, are
apt to carry on longer than is desirable, to the danger of spars.

When cruising in the vicinity of yachts racing, the yacht should be
kept well out of the way to leeward; and if by chance she happens to
find herself to windward of an approaching racing yacht, her head
should be turned in whatever direction will seem the best for not
taking the wind out of the racer's sails.

When coming to in unknown or any other roads or anchorage, the
prevailing wind should not be forgotten, and the spot chosen for
letting go the killick should be one from which a speedy retreat can
be made should necessity compel. An outside berth in a close-crowded
anchorage is therefore always the safest, though, perhaps, not always
the most agreeable. The writer hopes that these few wrinkles may prove
as serviceable to the readers of these pages as they have been from
time to time to himself.

It must be remembered that, when the yachtsman is caught out in a
breeze of wind and is obliged to take in a couple of reefs in the
mainsail, house his topmast, and shift his jibs, it does not
necessarily mean the presence of 'great guns.' It takes very little
wind to raise a sea in the channels round our coasts, and to make the
small yachtsman sniff a hurricane. In order, therefore, to become
accurate about the force of the wind or sea, the writer recommends the
'Meteorological Notes,' supplied (at 5_s._ per annum) by Mr. Scott
from the Meteorological Office, London, as being most useful for the
purpose, and most interesting for reference. His principle is to have
the papers sent to his home address, where they remain till the
yacht's return to lay up. Then the log or note-book is brought out,
notes of the dates on which he relieved his bark and had been more
severely knocked about than usual are referred back to, and a very
fair idea as to the true local weather is obtained. A knowledge of
wind and weather is soon acquired thus.

[Illustration: In the Channel.]



CHAPTER XIII

YACHT INSURANCE

BY G. L. BLAKE


A book on yachting would not be complete without a few words relating
to yacht insurance. There are hundreds of owners who never think of
taking out a Marine policy on their boats, simply because they do not
know how easy it is; twenty-five years ago indeed only a few insured
because it was not generally understood that Lloyd's Agents were
willing to underwrite their names against all yachting risks. All
yachts should be insured, and therefore the writer will endeavour to
explain some of the special clauses contained under a yachting policy.

The ordinary form for a Marine policy, printed and supplied by
Government prior to August 1887, is in the main only suitable for
merchant shipping; hence clauses have to be added to make that form of
service in the case of yachts. Thus the time and dates between which
the policy is to hold good must be stated, after which should come
what may be called the--

No. 1 Yachting Clause, taking in the following conditions under which
Lloyd's hold themselves liable. It runs thus:--

     In port and at sea, in docks and graving docks, and on ways,
     gridirons, and pontoons, and / or on the mud, and / or hard,
     at all times, in all places, and on all occasions, services
     and trades whatsoever and wheresoever, under steam or sail,
     with leave to sail with or without pilots, to tow and
     assist vessels or craft in all situations, and to be towed,
     and to go trial trips. Including all risks and accidents
     arising from navigation by steam or otherwise. To include
     the risk of launching.

No. 2 Yachting Clause should allow the yacht to 'touch and stay at any
ports or places whatsoever and wheresoever, and for any and all
purposes.'

The No. 3 Yachting Clause makes the liability cover the hulls, spars,
sails, materials, fittings, boats (including launch, steam or
otherwise, if any), &c.

The No. 4 Yachting Clause is a promise to return a certain sum for
every fifteen consecutive days cancelled, and for every fifteen
consecutive days laid up dismantling, overhauling, repairing,
altering, or fitting out.

No. 5 the Collision Clause.

No. 6 the Twenty-pound Clause.

No. 7 the Prevention Clause, No. 1.

No. 8 the Prevention Clause, No. 2.

With regard to the main clauses of the original Government form, it
will be specially noticed that not one makes it necessary for the
owner or skipper, or whoever may be in charge of the yacht, to be the
holder of a Board of Trade Certificate. Then, after enumerating all
the perils from which a vessel may run the risk of total loss, the
form finishes up by stating that where only partial damage takes
place, the underwriters are ready to pay an average for the repair of
such damage at the rate of 3 per cent. That is to say, supposing a
10-tonner is insured at 900_l._ and she splits her mainsail and
carries away her mast, which in its fall smashes up the boat, the
policy will cover up to 27_l._ of the average value only, and the
difference between that and the true value will become a loss to the
insurer. This is known as the Average Clause.

To enable the insurer to claim on a partial loss to the full amount of
that loss the Twenty-pound Clause is added, and for this in all
policies over the value of 700_l._ a small extra premium has to be
paid. This clause is decidedly in favour of the man who insures a
large yacht, but is of little use to the owner of a small craft. In
the first place, it leaves the underwriters liable only for losses
above the value of 20_l._ and nothing under. It must be remembered
that the general casualties on board a cruising yacht, _when cruising
only_, are the carrying away of a bowsprit or topmast, the splitting
of a topsail or spinnaker jib, and the whole lot would have to come to
grief in a 10-tonner, for instance, before the owner would find his
bill for damages sufficiently large to present to the underwriters for
payment. With a 60-ton yacht it would be otherwise, as a topmast and
topsail would alone run into 20_l._; so it follows that the larger the
yacht the more advantageous will be the addition of the Twenty-pound
Clause, since the less will be the difficulty to make out a claim for
a sum above that amount.

In a small 5-ton yacht for which the policy need not exceed 500_l._,
the addition of this clause naturally lies in favour of the
underwriters, for it is next to impossible for the yacht to receive
such damage as will necessitate the outlay of 20_l._ to put her all to
rights again. That is, such a catastrophe as must happen to oblige
such an expenditure does not occur to one small yacht in a thousand,
unless it brings with it at the same time very nearly, if not
altogether, total loss. Some agents, however, are willing to lower the
twenty and make the clause ten pounds, but of course this risk will
mean again a slight extra payment. It is better for the small
yacht-owner to pay for a ten-pound clause than have an extra clause
which will be of no practical use to him.

The No. 1 Yachting Clause contains some very useful matter. A few
years ago, for example, a 20-tonner left by the tide high and dry on
the mud at one of our West of England ports, with a leg at each side
to support her (her copper required cleaning), fell over and was
considerably damaged. On the owner, who had insured his yacht at the
beginning of the season, claiming for the damage she had sustained,
the claim was disallowed, and after the powers that be had been
invoked, the case was given against the owner, the accident not having
taken place on the high seas. The form under which the 20-tonner was
insured could not have contained the No. 1 Yachting Clause, otherwise
the claim would have been in favour of the owner. All contingencies of
that kind are met under this clause.

The No. 2 Yachting Clause allows the yacht to voyage to any part of
the world and over any seas.

The No. 3 and No. 4 Clauses explain themselves.

The Collision Clause is a very necessary addition to all Marine
policies. In case of a collision with another vessel, although the
yacht may be in fault, the underwriters are liable under the clause to
pay up to three-fourths of the value of the policy towards the repairs
of the damaged vessel or the general repairs. The writer has a policy
before him for 1,000_l._ with the Collision Clause inserted. Let it be
supposed that the yacht for which this policy was taken out has run
into another vessel, which has received damage to the amount of
800_l._, then the underwriters are responsible up to the amount of
750_l._

Collisions with piers or the removal of obstructions do not come under
this clause, and if thought worth insuring against, have to be freed
by what has been termed in this notice No. 7, or the Prevention Clause
No. 1. This clause enables the insurer to claim for the fourth quarter
over and above the three quarters for which the underwriters are
liable under the Collision Clause. It will enable him to hand over the
business and cost of raising and removing from a fairway, for example,
any vessel that he may have sunk through collision with his yacht, or
repair any piers that may have been damaged through contact with the
boat. Few, however, have this clause inserted in their policies, as so
small a risk can safely be borne by an owner.

No. 8, or the Prevention Clause No. 2, only concerns yachtsmen who
race their vessels. Its correct title is 'The Racing Clause.' This
wipes out those few words from the policy that free the underwriters
from all liability in the Twenty-pound Clause, and makes them
responsible for total or other loss, should such take place, while the
yacht is in the act of racing; for no simple policy or ordinary form
provides against '_racing risks_.'

The above remarks refer to policies of insurance on yachts of all
sizes; the following will be interesting to the owners of small craft,
as giving the average premiums that should be paid under the several
conditions named.

For a 250_l._ policy covering five months, two guineas per cent. This
policy should include the Twenty-pound and Collision Clauses.

The Protection Clause to cover five months should be added for the
payment of 5 per cent. extra.

The Racing Protection Clause covering a similar length of time should
be inserted at the rate of 10 per cent. extra.

A laying-up policy freeing the owner of all risks during the winter
months should cost 6_s._ 8_d._ or about that sum, for a policy worth
350_l._ This policy will cover risks from fire, falling over, and all
such accidents as may take place whilst a yacht is hauled up in a yard
or elsewhere.

A laying-up policy to cover the winter months ought to be obtained at
the rate of 2_s._ 6_d._ to 5_s._ for a like policy of 350_l._ This
policy will cover all risks that may be incurred by a yacht laid up,
dismantled, and left at her moorings, such as from fire, dragging
ashore, being run into, &c.

Of course insurances differ as to the amount of premium to be paid
according to the age of the yacht, her size, and the amount of the
policy. Thus for a 100_l._ policy on an old worn-out 5-tonner, to
cover summer sailing risks, as much as 5 per cent. has been paid,
while for a 150_l._ policy for an old but well-kept-up yacht of a
similar tonnage, 50_s._ has been the premium covering the five summer
months.

In conclusion, it may be as well to mention that on no account is it a
wise plan for the yacht-owner to insure his vessel for a less amount
than her full value, including gear, furniture, such valuables as he
keeps on board, stores, &c. There are times when, a yacht having
suffered partial disablement, the underwriters may propose a
composition, owing to there having been no fixed expense incurred in
carrying out the repairs. Should a certain sum be agreed upon, and the
owner happen to have only insured for a portion of the yacht's true
value, whatever ratio that portion bears to the actual value, as laid
down by him to the agents, will be deducted from the sum given as
compensation. For instance, a friend of the writer insured his small
yacht for 200_l._, her true value as given in by him at the time to
Lloyd's agent being 250_l._ During the season, owing to a heavy gale
of wind, she dragged her anchor, and, no one being on board, was
picked up out at sea by a fishing-boat and towed back a derelict. The
owner agreed to accept 25_l._ in compensation for the expenses
incurred; but he was astonished when the amount handed over to him
only proved to be 20_l._ On going into the matter, he was told that he
had undertaken a fifth part of the risk on the yacht himself, in that
he had insured for 200_l._, the yacht's real worth being 250_l._, and
therefore he would have to bear a fifth part of the expense; and since
he had agreed that 25_l._ was sufficient compensation, so the
underwriters could only be liable to the amount of 20_l._ The case was
brought into court and judgment given in favour of the underwriters.
The yachting clauses described above are inserted on the usual Marine
policy form, and the yacht insurer cannot do better than have the
clauses as given in this chapter inserted in any policy form he may
accept.

Attempts have been made from time to time to launch a Mutual Yacht
Insurance Company, by which yachtsmen would be able to undertake their
own risks by mutual co-operation and without reference to Lloyd's; but
there are points, where a system of mutual insurance may benefit
householders, who may be said to be localised, which would create
difficulties almost sufficient to prevent any general Mutual Yacht
Insurance from covering its expenses. The changes that occur in
yacht-ownership are very many and frequent, and it must be often the
case, that when a yacht-owner ceases to be such, any interest he may
have had in a Mutual Insurance Company would have to cease too. Such
changes rarely take place among the members of a Mutual House
Insurance Company, and it thrives accordingly; but the constant shift
of ownership, which may be seen annually by anyone who will take the
trouble to study the 'Yacht List,' would surely prove a serious
drawback to a Mutual Yacht Insurance Company.

In localities like the Clyde, however, where a yacht is almost as
great a necessity as the possession of a stone frigate (house ashore),
there seems no reason why Mutual Insurance among the local
yacht-owners should not do well and prove a most successful
undertaking; but then great judgment would have to be exercised as to
the kind of risks such a company should incur, and many would have to
be excluded, which Lloyd's agents up to the present time have been
very willing to accept, such as the insurance of all yachts whose
crews do not live on board while in commission, and the like. If the
above remarks prove of use as well as interesting to yacht-owners, it
must in justice be said that the writer is much indebted for the
kindly help given him by his friend Mr. York, the secretary of the
Royal Clyde Yacht Club, when compiling the information given.



INDEX TO THE FIRST VOLUME

  Accommodation in a yacht defined, 363

  'Active,' used by Froude in experimenting on the resistance of ships
        through water, 86

  'Ada' (2-1/2-rater), 231, 232;
    (5-rater), 234

  Adams, W., of Greenock, his iron horse for yachts, 391

  'Adèle' (5-tonner), 328

  Admiralty, the, build the cutter 'Trial' (1790) and the brig 'Lady
        Nelson' (1797) with three sliding keels, 104

  Adriatic, the, yachting in, 38

  Advertisements and cards of races, 153, 154

  Æschylus, quoted, 39

  Ahl, the moorlands of, 309

  Ailsa, Marquis of, owner of 'Titania,' 47, 82

  'Alarm' (193 tons), 22, 52, 73, 110, 111;
    (243 tons), 116

  'Albatross' (118-tonner), 20

  'Albertine' (153 tons), 113

  Alderney Race, 402

  'Alerte' (E. F. Knight's), yawl, 299, 300, 301;
    commissariat, 305;
    cooking on board, 306

  Algiers, wreck of the 'Alouette' at, 333

  'Aline' (216 tons), construction, 111;
    successes, 112, 113, 115, 116;
    race against the 'Livonia' for the Prince of Wales's Cup in
        1871, 126;
    and 1872, 132; 136, 141;
    her lifeboat, 206;
    dimensions and sail-plan of cutter, 208

  Allan, Messrs., owners of the 'Nora' (5-tonner), 346;
    and of the 'Doris' (5-tonner), 354

  Almanac for the Solent Racing, King & Co.'s, summary of racing
        rules in, 151

  'Alouette' (5-tonner), dimensions of, 332;
    wreck, 333

  Aluminium, as a material for yacht-building, 80

  'Alwida' (5-rater), 241, 242, 246, 372

  America, adoption of centreboards in, 102, 103, 105;
    centreboard v. keel, 106

  'America,' American schooner, her début in English waters, 12;
    characteristics of her build, 74;
    sails, 74;
    epoch-making vessel in yacht-designing, 75;
    in the race round the Isle of Wight for the Royal Yacht Squadron
        100_l._ cup, 110

  America Cup, 107;
    first competition for, 110;
    holders unduly favoured, 111;
    the 1870 race, 124;
    the 1871 race, 129

  America, North, the eastern seaboard of, 21;
    schooners and crews employed in the coasting trade, 21;
    as a cruising ground, 37

  American pre-eminence in yacht-building, 11

  Ames, L. M., owner of the 'Atlantis,' 141, 230

  'Amphitrite,' schooner, 109, 144

  'Amy' (72 tons), 116

  Anchors, yacht, 218, 382-384

  'Anemone,' yawl, E. Liddell's, 141

  Aneroid, the, 312-314, 321

  Anholt, Island of, 314

  Apenrade, 309

  'Aquiline' (55 tons), 113

  Arabin, Mr., 230

  'Archee' (5-rater), 241, 242, 563

  Archer, Colin, of Christiania, 344

  Ardglass, 401

  'Arethusa,' Stuart Lane's cutter, 141

  'Arrow,' the original, 52;
    her dimensions, 71;
    bought and altered by T. Chamberlayne, 73; 110, 134, 330, 331

  Ashbury, James, has the 'Cambria' built, 115;
    refuses the second race against 'Sappho,' 124;
    brings out the 'Livonia' schooner, 126; 131

  Ashes, black, for removing varnish, 379

  Asia Minor, cruising off the coast of, 400

  Assheton-Smith, T., characteristics of his cutter 'Menai,' 73

  'Atlantis,' L. M. Ames's yawl, 141

  'Aurora,' in the race round the Isle of Wight for the Royal Yacht
        Squadron 100_l._ cup, 111

  Australia, voyage to, time occupied by 'Sunbeam' under sail and
        steam, 26;
    racing and cruising on the coast of, 399

  'Avadavat' (2-1/2-rater), 246, 247

  Average clause, Insurance, 408

  Azores, the, 38, 43


  'Babe,' the (2-1/2-rater), 241, 243-247

  Baden-Powell, W., his designs for the 'Diamond'
        (5-tonner), 61-64; 331

  Bags for clothes on a voyage, 392

  Bahamas, the, 38

  Bainbridge, Captain, R.N., 141

  'Bairn' (2-1/2-rater), 246, 250

  Baldwin, Mr., of New York, 116

  Balearic Islands, 38

  Ballast, gradual abolition of shifting, 77;
    for a yacht's sailing boat, 205, 206, 208;
    for yachts, 302, 303

  Baltic, cruising in the, 37, 308;
    interest and pleasure of, 309;
    the voyage from England, 309;
    character of the coast scenery, 309;
    the coast of Denmark and its people, 310;
    coasting in a small craft, 310;
    bad weather, 310, 311;
    shallow craft advocated, 311;
    consulting the aneroid, 312;
    fishermen, 313;
    character of vessel for cruising in, 314;
    old P. & O. lifeboat, 314, 315;
    use of leeboards, 316;
    advantage of leeboards over centreboards, 317, 318;
    boats suited for, 319;
    running for a port in a storm, 320;
    use of the drogue, 321

  Bangor Bay, Belfast, 401

  Bantry Bay, 401

  Barbados, 38

  'Barbet' (10-rater), 251

  Baring, E. (afterwards Lord Revelstoke), 140

  Baring, General, 237

  Barking Outfall, 223

  Barometers, 312-314

  'Barracouta' (3-tonner, 1860), 328;
    yawl (5-tonner, 1874), 329

  Barrow, Mr., hon. sec. Island Sailing Club, 237

  Barrow-in-Furness, 76, 401

  Batthyany, Count E., brings out the 'Flying Cloud,' 116;
    and the 'Kriemhilda,' 134;
    (Prince) his share in starting the Y.R.A., 146;
    his 'Drina,' 232

  'Beagle,' H.M. brig, rig of, 29

  Beam, appreciation of the value of, 65, 93

  Beauclerk, W. A., 243

  Beaufoy, Colonel, his experiments in towing bodies through
        water, 83

  'Bedouin,' 179, 180

  Beds, yacht, 385

  Belfast, 373, 401

  'Bella Donna' (119 tons), 78

  'Bell's Life,' cited, 55, 56

  Belvidere yard, the, 232

  Bembridge, 403

  Bembridge Regatta, 351

  Bembridge Sailing Club, 229, 239, 248

  Bennett, Gordon, 115, 117, 131

  Bentall, E. H., builder of the 'Jullanar,' 88;
    and of the 'Evolution,' 90

  Bermuda, 38

  Berthon collapsible boat, the, 304

  Berthon dinghy, the, 398

  Berthon's paint, 399

  Biscuits, ship's, 305

  Bishop, Mr., builder of the 'Barracouta,' 328

  Black & Co. (late Hatcher & Co.), 245

  Black ashes for removing varnish, 379

  'Black Maria' (American sloop), 106

  Black, Mr., 246

  'Black Pearl,' cutter of, midship section of, 200;
    sail-plan, 203;
    description of, 206;
    dimensions, &c., 208

  Black priming varnish, 377

  Blackwater River, Essex, 88

  Blake, G. L., on 5-tonners and 5-raters in the North, 322
        _et seq._;
    owner of the 'Cyprus' (5-tonner), 347;
    on yacht insurance, 407 _et seq._

  'Bloodhound' (1874), built without fittings, 82

  'Blue Bell' (170 tons), 113, 114;
    (5-rater), 233, 234

  'Boadicea' (378 tons), 139

  Boag, Mr., 335

  Board of Trade certificates, 408

  Boats, yacht's, 187 _et seq._; 303

  Booth, Sir Robert Gore, 76

  Boston, New England, centreboard building at, in 1774, 103

  Boutcher, E. (owner of the 'Fiona'), 140

  Brassey, Lord, on ocean cruising, 18 _et seq._; his voyages, 18;
    distances sailed, 20;
    vessels in which he voyaged, 20;
    on American models, 22;
    on steam versus sailing yachts, 23;
    on sailing yachts with auxiliary steam power, 24;
    record of voyages made by 'Sunbeam' under sail, steam, and sail
        and steam, 26-29;
    calculation of time under sail and under steam in ordinary
        cruising, 28;
    on the question of rig, 29;
    his personal experience of yachting, 30-36;
    on the 'Eothen' from Queenstown to Quebec, 30;
    on the 'Sunbeam' in a storm off Flamborough Head, 31-33;
    on the overmasting of the pleasure fleet, 33;
    in a long gale on the 'Sunbeam' from Nassau to Bermuda, 34;
    a dirty night on board the 'Sunbeam' between Honolulu and
        Japan, 35;
    on the pleasures of navigating a yacht, 36;
    his first navigation charge, 37;
    on seamanship, 37;
    on pleasant cruising grounds, 37, 38;
    on the love of the sea, 39

  Bridson, Mr., 78

  Bristol Channel, 43

  'Britannia,' H.R.H. the Prince of Wales's (151.13 Y.R.A. rating),
        loss of three masts by, 10;
    victorious career, 11;
    rate of speed, 15; 22, 23, 59;
    sketch of her cutwater, 60;
    dimensions, 69; 77;
    fittings, 82;
    plan of general arrangement, 84; 179

  British sailors, character of, 296

  Brixham, 403

  Broadwood, Thomas, his 'Witchcraft' (240 tons), 113

  Bronze, manganese, for plating purposes, 79

  Brooke, Rajah, his 'Royalist' (schooner, 45 tons), 21

  Brooks, Samuel, R.N.A.V., 43, 44

  Brushes for varnishing, 378

  Buchanan, John Cross, his 'Wave' fixed with a metal keel, 53

  Buckley & Sherlock, builders of the 'Lorelei' (5-tonner), 344, 345

  Bucknill, Colonel, designs the 'Thalassa,' 228;
    and 'Quinque,' 242

  'Bud' (2-1/2-rater), 251

  Burgess, Edward, American boatbuilder, designs a keel-boat, 106

  Burlings Light, 45, 46

  Bute, 38

  'Buttercup' (1880), character of build, 58;
    her excellent record, 59

  Buying a yacht, advice concerning, 375;
    probable annual cost, 375;
    expense of crew, 375;
    cost of sails, gear, &c., 375;
    best men to buy of, 376;
    places to buy at, 376;
    caution in early days of ownership, 376

  Byrne, St. Clare. _See_ St. Clare Byrne

  Byron, quoted, on the sea, 39


  Cadiz, 45

  Calais, character of the sea near, 365

  Caledon, Earl of, 141

  'Calluna,' the Clyde champion, 23;
    her dimensions, 69, 71

  Calshot, racing at, 227

  'Cambria,' schooner, and the America Cup, 111;
     wins the race across the Atlantic in 1870, 115, 124; 116, 119,
        120, 122;
     her races against the 'Sappho,' 123;
     eighth for the America Cup in 1870, 125; 131

  'Camellia' (5-tonner), 333;
    dimensions, 334;
    matches with 'Freda,' 341-343; 349

  'Camilla' (2-1/2-rater), 244, 245, 247

  Campbeltown, Cantyre, 369, 400

  Camper & Nicholson, Messrs., of Gosport, 20;
    build the 'Aline,' 111;
    the 'Blue Bell,' 113; 115;
    the 'Gwendolin,' 119; 134, 135, 139, 140, 144

  Canoe of the South Seas, the, 361

  Cape de Gata, 38

  Cape La Hogue, 402

  Cape St. Vincent, 45

  Cape Spartel, 45

  Cape Verdes to Rio, from, time occupied by 'Sunbeam,' 26

  Capstans, improvement in, 81

  Card, the race, 154

  Carlingford Lough, Ireland, 215;
    phenomena of the wind in, 215;
    as a cruising ground, 401

  Carroll, R. P. owner of the 'Navahoe,' 23, 151

  Castle Yacht Club, 227, 229, 237, 238, 241, 244, 247

  Castletown, Isle of Man, 401

  Cattegat, the, 42, 308, 314

  Caustic potash for removing varnish, 379

  Cecil, the late Lord Francis, owner of the 'Chittywee'
        (3-tonner), 141, 371

  Cedar fittings, 81

  Centreboards, origin of, 102;
    American, 103;
    dagger boards, 103;
    early form, 103;
    Lord Percy's boat in 1774, 103;
    at Deptford, 104;
    general adoption of, in America, 105;
    application to English racers, 105;
    battle of centreboard _v._ keel, 106;
    to a cutter, 199-201, 219

  'Cetonia' (203 tons), 136, 137, 141

  'Challenge' (20-tonner), 338

  Chamberlayne, Tankerville, owner of 'Arrow' (5-tonner), 330

  Chamberlayne, Thomas, buys and alters the original 'Arrow'
        (84 tons), 73

  Champy, Bescoit, his 'Diane' (98 tons), 117

  Channel, English, as a cruising ground, 37

  'Chazalie,' 24

  China clipper ships, the, 77

  'Chipmunk' (2-1/2-rater), 231, 232, 236

  'Chiquita,' 180

  'Chittywee' (3-tonner), 230, 371

  Christiania, 42, 44

  'Christabel,' 114

  'Christine' (40-tonner), 333

  Cimbrian Peninsula, 309, 310

  'Circe' (123 tons), 113, 114

  Civita Vecchia, 38

  Clarke, Mr., owner of the 'Satanita,' 23, 230, 232

  Clayton, Colonel Fitzroy, 146

  Clayton, C. P., 66, 96, 101, 227, 234, 243, 247, 372

  'Clio' (5-tonner), 335

  'Clotilde' (5-tonner), G. L. Watson's first racing yacht, 88

  Club and open matches, 152

  Clyde, estuary of the, yachting in, 38;
    the China clipper ships, 77;
    yacht-builders, 83;
    wind-force, 174;
    early appreciation of small racing craft, 324;
    sea disturbance at, 366;
    5-raters, 371;
    racing in the, 374, 400

  Cochrane, Blair Onslow, hon. sec. Bembridge Sailing Club, 239

  'Cockatoo' (2-1/2-rater), 251

  'Cock-a-Whoop' (2-1/2-rater), diagram of her lines, 234; 235,
        241, 244;
    (5-rater), 233, 234, 235

  Collapsible boat, Berthon, 304

  Collision clause, Insurance, 410

  'Colonia' (American keel boat), 69, 106

  'Columbia,' American centreboard schooner, beats the 'Livonia'
        in the first match for the race for the America Cup in
        1871, 129;
    and in the second, 130;
    breaks down in the third, 131

  'Columbine' type of racing cruisers, 147

  Commissariat for foreign cruises, 304, 305

  'Condor' (129 tons), 116

  Cooking on a yacht, 306, 307

  Coolin Hills, Skye, 215

  'Coquette,' 248

  'Cordelia' (18-ton schooner), 331

  'Corinne' (162 tons), 136

  Corinthian deep-sea cruising, 41;
    difficulties in the way of amateurs undertaking long voyages, 41;
    voyages of the 'Hornet,' 42;
    cruise of the 'Hornet' in 1879, 43;
    in 1880 and 1881, 44;
    expense of amateur crew, 47;
    precautions in handling crew at sea, 48;
    privileges of, at regattas, 157

  'Corisande' (yawl), wins the Commodore and Vice-Commodore cups of
        the Royal Victoria Yacht Club in 1872, 134

  'Cormorant' (2-1/2-rater), 232

  Corsica, 38

  'Cosette' (2-1/2-rater), 233, 237, 244

  Cost, annual, of a yacht, 375, 376

  Cowes, 11, 112, 113, 119, 121, 127, 133, 134, 136, 141, 143, 144,
        226, 403

  Cox, F., 146

  Cox, Miss, 228, 236, 244, 247

  Craig, Mr., part owner of the 'Camellia' (5-tonner), 335

  Cranfield, Lemon, skipper of the 'Miranda,' 140

  Crawford, A. F. S., his 'Squall' (5-rater), 254

  'Creole' (40-rater), her dimensions, 66-68

  Cruiser, a sailing, of 10,000 tons, speculative career of, 15, 16

  Cruising grounds, 37, 38, 399-405

  Cruising, precautions to be observed on unknown coasts, 404, 405

  Cumberland Sailing Society in the Thames, 104

  'Cumberland,' Commodore Taylor's, with five sliding keels, 305

  'Currytush' (3-tonner), 354, 371

  Cutters, modern racing, 14, 198

  Cuxhaven, 315

  'Cyane' (5-rater), 251, 253, 254, 372

  'Cygnet' (35 tons), plan of, 54

  'Cymba' (Queen's Cup winner, 1857), 20;
    her dimensions, 76

  'Cynthia' (H.M. sloop), 104

  'Cyprus' (5-tonner), dimensions and lines of, 346;
    fittings, 347, 348;
    her voyage from Scotland to Plymouth, 349-351;
    racing performances, 351, 352;
    on Lake Ontario, 352;
    compared with 5-raters, 356; 380, 387, 398

  'Czarina,' 24


  'Dacia' (5-rater), her 1892 certificate, 169; 251, 253, 254, 255,
        372, 373

  Dagger-boards, 103

  'Dancing Girl,' 248

  Danish Islands, 42

  Danske fishing-boat, 311

  Dartmouth, 8, 43, 44, 45, 403;
    sea disturbance at, 365, 366

  'Dauntless' (336 tons), loses the race across the Atlantic,
        in 1870, 115; 117, 124;
    third in the race for the Emperor Napoleon III.'s Cup, 118;
        119, 120, 121, 129, 131;
    in the race for the Prince of Wales's Cup in 1872, 132

  'Dauntless' (ketch), wins the first prize in the Royal Yacht
        Squadron Jubilee race, 141

  'Dawn,' the, 47

  'Decima' (10-rater), 171, 177, 179, 180, 183, 184, 186, 233, 241,
        245

  Deck-houses, 23

  'Dee Dee' (1/2-rater), 246, 248

  'Deerhound' (40-rater), her dimensions, 66-68

  'Delvin' (5-tonner), 367

  Denmark, 44;
    pleasant cruising coasts of, 310

  Denny Brothers, Messrs., of Dumbarton, 87

  Deptford, centreboards built at, in 1789, 104

  Designer, duties of a, 151

  'Diamond' (5-tonner), tables and diagrams showing length and
        displacement, 61-63; 331, 332

  'Diane' (98 tons), 117, 118

  Dickenson, Mr., of Birkenhead, builder of the 'Wyvern'
        (6-tonner), 325, 328;
    of the 'Naiad' and 'Pastime' (10-tonners), 327;
    of the 'Adèle' (5-tonner), 328

  'Diligent,' 47

  Dinghies, 303, 318, 398

  'Dis' (10-rater), 180, 230, 231, 232, 233, 241, 245, 252

  Dodd, Edward, R.N.A.V., 43

  Dogfish, 191

  'Dog-legged' sternpost, 57

  'Dolly Varden,' Ratsey's, 232

  'Dolphin' (2-1/2-rater), 180, 241, 243, 247

  'Dora,' G. L. Watson's centreboard, 59, 105

  'Doreen' (10-rater), 171, 177, 179, 180, 183, 184, 186, 251, 252

  'Doris' (5-tonner), tables and diagrams showing length and
        displacement, 61-63; 81, 233;
    her dimensions, 354;
    her matches with 'Jenny Wren,' 354, 355, 359

  'Dorothy' (5-rater), 234

  Douglas, Isle of Man, 401

  Douglas, Mr., 123

  'Doushka' (1-rater), 251

  Dowell, Admiral Sir William, 44

  'Dragon' (20-rater), 80

  'Drina' (10-rater), 232

  Drogues, use of, 320, 321

  Du Bowlay, Captain, 248

  Dublin Bay, small yacht racing in, 325, 326

  Dudley, Lord, owner of the 'Dacia' (5-rater), 253, 254, 255, 373

  Dudley, Tom, sails the 'Camellia' in her matches with 'Freda,' 344

  Dufferin, Lord, his adoption of sailing yachts with auxiliary
        steam power, 24

  Dunraven, Earl of, his efforts to bring back the cup from
        America, 11;
    his 'Valkyrie,' 23;
    on international yachting, 69, 111;
    on the rating rules, 167; 235, 241, 242, 253, 254;
    owner of the 'Alwida,' 372

  Duppa, George, 113, 114


  Eastern Archipelago, the, as a cruising ground, 38

  Edwards, Mr., 113

  'Egeria' (153 tons), 112;
    wins the Queen's Cup at Cowes in 1865, 113;
    second in R.T.Y.C. race from the Nore to Dover in 1866, 114;
        115, 116, 117;
    second in the race for the Emperor Napoleon III.'s Cup, 118;
    classed as a standard or test vessel, 119;
    wins the Channel Match of the R.T.Y.C, 120, 121;
    wins the Prince of Wales's Challenge Cup, 122;
    beats the 'Livonia,' in the Thames, 126;
    in the race for the Prince of Wales's Cup in 1872, 132;
      in 1873, 835;
      and in 1874, 138;
    wins the Queen's Cup at Cowes, 134; 135, 136, 137;
    her race against the 'Seabelle' in 1875, 138;
    in the race of the Jubilee year, 140;
    the most successful of the schooners, 144

  'Eileen' (1/2-rater), 248

  Emerson, quoted, 35

  'Enchantress,' American yacht, enters for the Prince of Wales's
        Cup in 1874, 137, 141

  England, East Coast of, as a cruising ground, 37

  England, South Coast of, as a cruising ground, 400

  English Channel, the sea in the, 365

  Entries, 160

  'Eothen' (340 tons), 20;
    Lord Brassey's experience of a storm on board, from Queenstown
        to Quebec, 30

  'Eulalie' (18 tons), 20

  Euripides, on the ocean, 39

  'Evadne' (206 tons), 112, 113

  'Evolution' (10 tons), her broad beam, 71;
    the largest of the 10-tonners, 90;
    cause of her failure, 91;
    diagram, 92; 95

  Ewing, Major, his 'Gwendolin' (171 tons), 119; 133, 134

  Exeter, Marquis of, 146

  Eyton, Wynne, designer and owner of 'Lorelei' (5-tonner), 344, 345


  'Fair Geraldine' (5-rater), 230, 233, 234, 235, 241, 243

  'Fairy' (2-1/2-rater), 231

  Fal river, 403

  'Falcon' (E. F. Knight's), her voyage to South America, 299;
    in a hurricane, 301;
    commissariat, 304;
    cooking on board, 307

  Falmouth, 8;
    sea disturbance at, 365; 403

  Farmer, Mr., 230

  'Faugh-a-Ballagh' (2-1/2-rater), 251, 256

  Fay & Co., builders of the 'Black Pearl's' cutter, 206

  'Field,' cited, 51; on the rating rules, 169; 175-181, 229, 237,
        239, 241, 250

  'Fiera' (2-1/2-rater), 246, 247

  'Fiery Cross' (51 tons), 113, 370

  Fife, Messrs. William, of Fairlie, yacht builders and
        designers, 20, 66;
    the 'Cymba' (1852), 76;
    their use of nickel steel in the 'Dragon' (1893), 80;
    the 'Fiona,' 83; 96, 101;
    the 'Minerva,' 106; 233, 246, 252;
    the 'Pearl' (5-tonner), 330;
    'Camellia' and the 'Clio,' 333, 335;
    'Cyprus' (5-tonner), 346;
    the 'Delvin,' 367;
    their 5-raters, 372;
    the 'Red Lancer' (5-rater), 373

  Fifty-tonners, fitting out, to go foreign, 295;
    selection and discipline of the crew, 296;
    rig and fit out, 297;
    small crew advised, 297;
    dealing with dissensions on board, 297;
    best men for foreign cruisers of small tonnage, 298;
    negro crews, 298;
    choice of vessel, 299;
    yawl rig, 300;
    sails, 300;
    spinnaker, 300;
    storm square-sail, 301, 302;
    ballast, 302, 303;
    boats, 303, 304;
    commissariat, 304;
    water, 305;
    salt meat, 305;
    biscuits, 305;
    tinned meats, 306;
    dealing with ship-chandlers, 306;
    cooking, 306;
    spirit stoves, 307;
    paraffin stoves, 307

  Fin-keels, 369

  'Fiona' (80 tons), establishes the fame of Scotch
        yacht-builders, 83; 120, 140

  Fiords, Norwegian, 44

  'Firefly,' 24

  Fish, Mr., 137

  Fisherman's anchor, the, 384

  Fishing, sea, 190-193

  Fitting out a yacht, 377;
    paint to be used, 377;
    scraping and revarnishing, 378;
    best method of treating the decks, 378;
    removing varnish, 379;
    laying decks, 379;
    recoppering, 380;
    finding out weak places, 381, 382;
    overhauling the rigging, 382;
    the anchor, 382-384;
    the interior accommodation, 384-388;
    beds, 385;
    movable pantry, 386;
    deadlights, 388;
    ropes and sails, 388-392;
    foresails, 390;
    lead of sheets, 391;
    mainsails, 391;
    the iron horse, 391;
    topsails, 392.
    _See_ also Fifty-tonners

  Fitzroy, Captain, R.N., commander of 'Beagle,' 29

  Five-raters in the North. _See_ Five-tonners, &c.

  Five-raters, the Y.R.A. rule of measurement, 355;
    sail-area and length, 356, 357;
    best boats for Channel seas, 357;
    'hard-mouthed,' 358; overhang forward, 358;
    fiddle-head and overhang bow, 358;
    main design, 359;
    'staying' and 'getting away,' 359;
    reaching courses, 359;
    sternpost, fin and bulb keels, 360, 361;
    the Herreshoff boats the 'Wenonah' and 'Wee Winn,' 360;
    lugsails, 360;
    canoe models, 361;
    ocean travelling, 362;
    general requirements in a yacht, 362;
    weight, 363;
    accommodation, 363;
    sail-carrying power, 363;
    dimensions of yacht to be supplied with sails, 364;
    speed, 364;
    question of kind of waters small yachts will race in, 365, 366;
    principal form in America for all yachts, 367;
    large displacement, 367, 368;
    the fin-keel, 369;
    suitable harbours, 369;
    value of a moderate draught of water, 370;
    beam, 370, 371;
    sail-area, 371;
    Clyde boats, 371;
    Solent raters, 372;
    Messrs. Fife and G. L. Watson's yachts, 372;
    J. H. Nicholson's designs, 372;
    the 'Natica' and 'Red Lancer,' 373;
    buying, 375-377;
    fitting out, 377-392;
    altering the lugsail, 384;
    interior accommodation, 384-392;
    outfit, 392-395;
    racing, 395-398;
    cruising, 399-406

  Five-tonners (and five-raters) in the North, 322;
    yachts built under the Thames rule of measurement and the rule
        of the Y.R.A., 323;
    cost of building and keeping up, 324;
    classed and prizes awarded, 324;
    prejudice against, 325;
    voyage of the 'Wyvern' from Kingstown to Liverpool, 326;
    the 'Pearl,' 'Torment,' and 'Arrow,' 330;
    'Diamond,' 331;
    'Alouette,' 332, 333;
    'Vril,' 334, 335;
    'Camellia,' 334, 335;
    'Freda,' 335-337;
    matches between three last-named off Holyhead Island, 337-344;
    cheating the tonnage rule, 344;
    'Lorelei,' 344;
    'Urchin,' 345;
    chief method employed for walking through the 'length on deck
        rule,' 345;
    'Nora,' 346;
    'Cyprus,' 346-352;
    'Trident,' 352;
    'Olga,' 352;
    'Luath,' 353;
    'Oona,' 353;
    'Doris,' 354, 355;
    'Jenny Wren,' 354, 355;
    'Delvin,' 367;
    buying, 375-377;
    crew sufficient for, 375;
    cost of sails, gear, &c., 375;
    men and places to buy of and at, 376;
    fitting out, 377-392;
    interior accommodation, 384-392;
    outfit, 392-395;
    racing, 395-398;
    cruising, 399-406

  Flags, 394

  Flamborough Head, 31-33

  Flensborg, 309

  'Fleur-de-Lys' (90 tons), 113

  Floating blinds, 103

  'Florinda,' yawl, diagrams of lines, 97;
    plans, 100;
    midship section, 101, 134

  'Flutterby' (4-rater), 230

  'Flying Cloud' (75 tons), 116, 119

  Forecastle pantry, the, 380

  Foreign cruises in vessels of small tonnage. _See_ Fifty-tonners

  'Formosa,' cutter, 83

  Formosa Channel, 'Sunbeam's' performance under sail in, 26

  Forwood, Sir William, 146, 168

  Fowey, 403

  'Freak,' cutter, 110

  Freake, Mr., first owner of the 'Freda' (5-tonner), 337

  'Freda' (5-tonner), 333, 335;
    dimensions, 336;
    matches with 'Vril,' 337-341;
    matches with 'Camellia,' 341-343

  French rating rules, 179, 180, 181, 185

  Frisian Islands, 309

  'Frolic' (7-rater), 230

  Froude, Mr., quoted, on the ocean, 39

  Froude, R. E., on the rating rules, 175;
    owner and designer of 'Jenny Wren' (5-tonner), 354

  Froude, William, his experiments on the resistance of planes
        through water, 85, 86;
    his law of comparison, 86, 87, 88, 90


  'G.G.' (2-1/2-rater), 233, 236

  'Galatea,' cutter, in the International Race for the America
        Cup, 22; 111, 113

  Gamble, Colonel, his lifeboat to the 'Aline,' 206-208

  Gannets, 190

  'Gareth' (2-1/2-rater), 251, 256, 372

  Garret, Mr., his 'G.G.' (2-1/2-rater), 223, 236

  'Garrion,' 78

  'Genesta,' and the America Cup, 111, 141, 180

  German Emperor William, his 'Meteor,' 11, 82;
    his yacht racing, 12

  'Ghost,' 180

  Gibraltar, 42, 45

  Girth rating rule, 185

  Gladstone, W. E., his cruise in the 'Sunbeam,' 19

  'Glance,' 83, 101

  'Gleam,' 76

  'Gleam' (5-rater), 234

  Glengariff, 401

  'Gloriana' (133 tons), 106, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119

  'Glycera' (5-rater), 241, 242, 245

  Godinet, M., his new rating rule, 180

  'Gossoon' (American keel boat), 106

  Gourock, 400

  Graham, E., R.N.A.V., 44

  Grant, Lieutenant James, R.N., 104

  'Graphic,' quoted, on  the voyage of the 'Hornet' in 1879, 43

  Gravesend Reach, 139

  Grecian Archipelago, 400

  Greeks, the, as lovers of the sea, 39

  Greenland Dock, near London, Colonel Beaufoy's experiments in
        the, 83

  Grenada, 38

  Gretton, J., jun., 251, 252

  'Greyhound,' used in experimenting on the resistance of ships
        through water, 86

  Groceries, &c., for yachting, 393

  Gubbins, Mr., success of his 'Windfall' against the 'Dacia,' 255

  Guernsey, 402

  'Guinevere' (308 tons), 115, 116, 117;
    wins the Emperor Napoleon III.'s Cup, 118; 121, 122

  Guinness, Sir Edward, 141, 143

  Gulf of Bothnia, 315

  Gulf of Heligoland, 315

  Gulf of Lyons, 38

  Gulf of Mexico, 318

  Gulls, 190

  'Gwendolin' (171 tons), 119, 121, 122, 132, 136


  Hallowes, Commodore, Admiral of the Minima Sailing Club, 238

  Hannay, J. M., owner of the 'Barracouta,' 328

  Hansen & Sons, builders of the 'Aline's' lifeboat, 206

  Harbours suitable for small yachts, 369

  Harlingen, 316

  Harvey & Co., Wivenhoe, builders of the 'Oona' (5-tonner), 353

  Harvey, E. N., 247

  Harvey, John, of Wivenhoe, 136, 140

  Harvey, Miss (afterwards Mrs. A. Heygate), 237

  'Harvey's Patent' paint, 377, 378

  Harwich to the Baltic, cruise from, 309, 310

  Hatcher & Co. (now Black & Co.), 245

  Hatcher, Dan, of Southampton, 20;
    adopts the composite method of construction in several
        vessels, 78; 83, 101;
    builder of the 'Freda,' 332, 333

  Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand, 219

  Havana, 38

  Havre, 402

  Healey, C. E. Chadwick, 47

  'Heathen Chinee,' yawl, 236

  Henderson, Messrs., of Partick, 334

  Henn, Lieutenant, R.N., races his 'Galatea' against the 'Puritan'
        for the America Cup in 1886, 22

  Herbert, Captain John, his success with the 'Wildfire'
        (59 tons), 111;
    and the 'Pantomime' (140 tons), 135

  Herm, 402

  Herreshoff, Mr., on rating rules, 177, 178, 186

  Herreshoff, Messrs. (of Rhode Island), design and build their
        'Vigilant' (centreboard) and 'Colonia' (keel boat), 106

  Herreshoff, N. G., designer of the 'Navahoe' and
        'Vigilant,' 22, 82;
    his 'Gloriana' and 'Wasp,' keel boats, 106; 255, 256;
    'Wee Winn,' and the 'Wenonah,' 360;
    takes his model for small yachts from the canoe, 361

  Hewitt, Major Percy, 146

  Hewitt, Robert, designer of the 'Buttercup' (1880), 59

  Heygate, Mrs. A., 237

  'Hilda' (5-tonner), 331

  Hilliard, J. B., part owner and designer of the 'Vril,' 334;
    sails her in her matches with 'Freda,' 344

  'Himalaya,' troopship, 75

  Hired yachts, 162

  Hoare, Sydney, 47

  Hoare, Wilson, his 'Avadavat,' 247

  Holland, coast of, as a cruising ground, 37, 404;
   use of leeboards in, 316

  Holland-Ackers, Mr., initiates the system of time allowances, 52

  Home versus international racing, 12

  Hönefos, Falls of, 44

  Honolulu to Yokohama, the 'Sunbeam's' performances under sail
        from, 26

  'Hoopoo' (2-1/2-rater), 251

  'Hornet,' build and gear of the, 42;
    cruise in 1879, 43;
    in 1880, 44;
    in 1881, 44-47;
    expense of and precautions concerning crew, 47, 48

  Houldsworth, W., his 'Morna' not successful as a racer, 135

  Houston, John, of Largs, skipper of the 'Fiona,' 83

  Howth, 400

  Hughes, Captain J. W., 65, 146;
    tries the heavy lead fin-keel, 231; 235, 244

  Hughes, Fred, 230

  Hughes, the Misses, 237

  Hull-measurement rating rules, 182, 185

  'Humming Bird' (2-1/2-rater), her build, 65; 235, 236, 241, 243,
        245, 247, 369

  Hunt, Mr., the publisher of 'Hunt's Yachting Magazine,' 89

  'Hunt's Magazine,' cited, 51, 54, 56, 76, 338, 342

  Hydraulic steering apparatus, 14


  'Idono' (1/2-rater), 248

  'Iernia' (5-rater), 246

  'Illustrated London News,' quoted on the cruise of the 'Hornet'
        in 1880, 44

  'Ina' (10-rater), 230

  Inglis, John, of Pointhouse, in favour of outside ballast, 60

  Inglis, John, jun., institutes in Pointhouse shipyard Rankine's
        method of estimating the resistance of ships, 86; 88

  Inglis, Mr., designer, builder, and owner of the 'Hilda' and
        'Viola' (5-tonners), 331;
    his 8-ton schooner, 331

  Insurance of yachts, 407;
    ordinary form for a marine policy, 407;
    clauses under a yachting policy, 407-411;
    Board of Trade certificates, 408;
    average clause, 408;
    twenty-pound clause, 408, 409;
    No. 1 clause, 407, 409;
    No. 2 clause, 408, 410;
    Nos. 3 and 4 clauses, 408, 410;
    collision clause (No. 5), 410;
    prevention clauses (Nos. 7 and 8), 410;
    racing clause, 410, 411;
    laying-up policies, 411;
    premiums, 411;
    insuring for full amount, 411;
    mutual co-operation, 412

  International race for the America Cup (1886), 22

  International versus home racing, 12

  'Intrigue' (72 tons), 113

  'Iolanthe' (75 tons), 113

  Ireland, 42;
    North coast of, as a cruising ground, 402;
    South coast, 400, 401;
    West coast, 400, 402

  'Irex' (centreboard), Mr. Jameson's, 105, 141

  Iron, introduced into the construction of ships, 77

  Ise Fiord, 309

  Island Sailing Club, 229, 237

  Isle of Man, 401

  Isle of Wight, as a cruising ground, 38, 47

  Italy, coast of, as a cruising ground, 38

  Itchen ferrymen, 224; punts, 224

  Iveagh, Lord, 142

  'Iverna,' 65


  Jamaica, 38

  James I., condition of the fleet in his time, 13

  Jameson, John, result of his trial of the 'Irex' as a
        centreboard, 105; 141

  'Janetta' (2-1/2-rater), 244, 246, 247

  Japan, coasts of, yachting round, 38

  'Jeanie' (1/2-rater), 246, 248, 250

  'Jenny Wren' (5-tonner), 230;
    matches with 'Doris,' 354, 355

  Jersey, 402

  Johnson, Dr., quoted, on the sea, 2

  'Jubilee,' American yacht, her dimensions, 69; 179

  'Julia,' 120

  'Jullanar' (120 tons), E. H. Bentall's yawl, 83;
    principles on which laid down, 88;
    measurements, 89;
    diagram, 91; 95


  'Katherine' (5-rater), 246

  Keels, sliding, Admiralty adoption of, in 1790, 104;
     the 'Lady Nelson' and 'Cynthia,' 104;
     Commodore Taylor's yacht, 104;
     recent American keel-boats, 106;
     General Paine's 'up to date' racer, 106;
     Luken's pamphlet on, 107;
     iron, to a yacht's cutter, 200

  Kemp, Dixon, on the length of yachts, 59;
    proposes a new rule regarding tonnage, 65;
    secretary to the Y.R.A., 146;
    on the rules of racing, 150;
    on rating rules, 176, 178, 179; 227, 231, 242;
    his 'Yacht and Boat Sailing,' 346

  'Kestrel' (202 tons), 108

  Ketches (50-ton), 300

  Kiel, 309

  Kingstown, small yacht racing at, 326, 327, 401

  Kirkcaldy, 54

  Kit, the, for yachting, 392

  'Kittiwake' (1/2-rater), 248, 250

  Klein, Mr., owner of 'Dawn,' 47

  Knight, E. F., on fitting out a 50-tonner to go foreign, 295
        _et seq._;
    on Baltic cruising, 308 _et seq._

  Knives, sailors', 218

  'Kriemhilda,' cutter, 83, 98, 134

  Kyak, the Greenlander's, 361


  'Lady Nan' (2-1/2-rater), 180, 231, 235, 236

  'Lady Nelson' (H.M. brig, 1797), the first ship to discover
        Tasmania to be an island, 102;
    her three sliding keels, 104

  'Ladybird' (1/2-rater), 248

  Laird, Mr., of Birkenhead, constructor of the compound engines
        of the 'Sunbeam,' 25

  'Lais' (40-rater), her dimensions, 66-68, 71

  Lamb & White, their wooden air-tight compartments, 206

  Lampson, G. E., specialities of his 'Miranda' (139 tons), 140

  Lampson, Sir George, Bart., 146

  'Lancashire Witch,' 24

  'Land and Water' on rating rules, 175; 230, 245

  Lane, Stuart, 141

  Langrishe, Mr., 245, 253;
    first owner of 'Dacia' (5-tonner), 373

  Lapthorn, Messrs., sailmakers, 77

  Larne, 402

  'Latona,' yawl, 134, 140

  Lawrence, John, part owner and designer of the 'Vril,' 334

  Lawson, Mr., part owner of the 'Camellia' (5-tonner), 335

  Laying-up policies, 411

  Leach, Sir George, K.C.B., on schooner racing, 108 _et seq._, 146

  Lead ballast, introduction of, 53

  Leeboards, 316-319

  Length and sail-area, rating by, 356

  Length and sail-area rule, 168

  'Leopard' (1807), lines of the, 72

  Lepper, Mr., of Belfast, his 5-rater 'Archee,' 356

  Lessop, Mr., 134

  'Lethe' (163-ton yawl), midship section, 78, 79;
    fittings of main cabin, 82

  'Letters from High Latitudes,' quoted, 24

  Liddell, E., 141

  Lifeboats, 198

  Lights, yachts', when racing at night, 164

  Liim, the, 309

  'Lil' (afterwards 'Nety'), 232

  'Lillah' (20 tons), 20

  'Lily' (2-1/2-rater), 54

  Lisbon, 45, 46

  Little Belt, the, 309

  'Little Nell' (10-rater), 230

  Liverpool, 325

  'Livonia' (240 tons), schooner, 20, 111;
    brought out by Mr. Ashbury, 126;
    beaten in the Thames by the 'Egeria,' 126;
    her race against the 'Aline' for the Prince of Wales's Cup
        in 1871, 126;
    loses the first two matches of the race for the America Cup
        in 1871, 129;
    wins the third, 131;
    loses the fourth, 132;
      and the fifth, 132;
    in the race for the Prince of Wales's Cup in 1872, 132

  'Lizzie' (20 tons), 78

  Lloyd's and Insurance, 407, 412

  Loch Hourn, 9

  Loch Scavaig, Skye, phenomenal squalls in, 215, 216

  'Lollypop' (5-rater), 233, 234, 235;
    (10-rater), 230, 231, 232

  Londonderry, 402

  Long Island Sound, sea disturbance at, 366; 370;
    as a cruising ground, 399

  Looe, 403

  'Lorelei' (5-tonner), dimensions of, 344;
    fittings, 345; 385

  Lorna (90 tons), 20, 141

  Lough Strangford, 401

  'Louisa,' 52

  'Luath' (5-tonner), 353

  Lubat, Mr., 137

  Luken, Lionel (coach-builder), his pamphlet on insubmergible
        boats, 107

  'Lulworth' (80 tons), 52, 73, 113

  Lymington, Hants, 403


  McCheane, Mr., hon. sec. Royal Portsmouth Corinthian Yacht
        Club, 225

  Macgregor, Colonel, 144

  McNish, Mr., 242, 243

  'Madcap' (2-1/2-rater), 228, 231, 233, 236

  'Madcap' (70 tons), 113, 180

  'Magic' (93 tons), wins the America Cup in 1870, 125

  'Mahatma' (1-rater), 251

  'Malissa' (10-tonner), 354

  'Man overboard' rule, 158

  Manning, A., 146, 231

  'Margaret' (265 tons), 252

  Marine insurance policy forms, 407, 412

  Markham, Lieut.-Col., 113

  Marsden, D. W., late hon. sec. of London Corps Royal Naval
        Artillery Volunteers, 41 _note_

  Martin anchor, 383

  Matches, private, 151; club and open, 152

  Measurements, rules concerning, 164-166

  Measurers, official, duties of, 164-166

  'Mechanic's Magazine,' cited, 85

  Medicines, 395

  Mediterranean, the, as a cruising ground, 38;
    phenomenal squalls in, 215, 400

  'Menai,' first vessel in which hollow lines were adopted, 73, 74

  'Merkara,' diagram of the resistance curves of the model of the, 87

  'Merle' (10-tonner), fitted with a 'dog-legged' sternpost, 57

  'Merrythought' (1-1/4-rater), 228

  'Meteor' (164 tons), her victory for the Queen's Cup at
        Cowes, 11; 20, 24;
    fittings, 82;
    diagram of profile of lines, 94

  'Meteorological Notes,' Scott's, 405

  Meuse, the, as a cruising ground, 37

  'Minerva' (23 tons), Fife of Fairlie's, 106, 180, 367, 368

  Minima Sailing Club, 229, 237;
    objects of, 238

  'Minnow' (2-1/2-rater), 228, 231, 232, 236

  'Miranda' (139 tons), specialities in her build, 140

  'Mliss' (2-1/2-rater), 241, 244, 247

  'Modwena' (223 tons), 136

  'Mohawk' (40-rater), dimensions, 66-68; 93

  'Moina' (85-rater), 141

  'Molly' (2-1/2-rater) 251

  Montagu, Captain, 232

  Morley, S. Hope, 141

  'Morna' (257 tons), 135, 136

  Morocco, coast of, 42

  'Mosquito' (50 tons), system of construction, 73-75;
    built of iron, 76-78; 248, 249, 330

  Mousing, 389

  Mulholland, Hon. H. L., M.P., 255

  Mulholland, John, M.P. (afterwards Lord Dunleath), 112, 117, 137

  'Muriel' (60 tons), 20, 78, 101

  Mutual Yacht Insurance Company, attempts to launch, 412, 413

  'Mystère' (118 tons), 117, 118


  Nab Lightship, the, 110, 113, 117-119, 121-124, 127, 133, 136,
        141, 143, 144

  'Nadador' ('Lady Nan'), 2-1/2-rater, 233, 237

  'Naiad' (10-tonner), 327

  'Nansheen' (1-rater), 251

  Napier, Colin, owner of the 'Wyvern,' 326

  Napoleon III., his encouragement of yachting, 117

  'Narna' (1/2-rater), 246, 248, 250

  Nassau to Bermuda, from, the 'Sunbeam' in a gale, 34

  'Natica' (5-rater), 54, 254, 373

  'Navahoe' (156.7 Y.R.A. rating), American yacht, beats the
        'Britannia' over the cross-Channel course, 11;
    worsted in English waters, 12;
    rate of speed, 15; 22, 23;
    spinnakers, 30;
    dimensions, 69; 78; 301 _note_

  Negro crews, 298

  'Nety' (9-rater), 232

  New Jersey, coast of, 102

  'New Moon' (209 tons), lugger, 113

  New Thames Yacht Club, rule adopted by, in 1874, for measurement, 56

  New York Bay, 102, 124, 125, 128

  New York Yacht Club, 111, 125;
    alter the conditions for the America Cup, 128, 129;
    rating rules, 172

  New Zealand, racing and cruising on the coast of, 399, 400

  Newton-Robinson, Mr., 230

  Nicholls, Jack, skipper of the 'Alarm,' 111

  Nicholson & Sons, of Gosport, 101, 372

  Nicholson, Charles, 96, 248, 256

  Nicholson, J. H., designer of the 'Dacia' (5-rater) and of the
        'Gareth' (2-1/2-rater), 372

  Nicholson, Mr., jun., 253, 255

  'Nora' (5-tonner), dimensions of, 346

  'Norman' (40 tons), 20, 78, 83, 101, 122

  North Pacific, 26

  North Sea, the, 309;
    sea disturbance in, 365

  Norway, coast of, as a cruising ground, 37, 44, 404

  'Nyanza,' 78


  Ocean cruising, precautions requisite for, 295 _et seq._

  Officers, race. _See_ Race officers

  Oglander, Sir Henry, owner of the 'Firefly,' 24

  'Oimara' (165 tons), 78;
    in the race round the Isle of Wight in 1868, 116;
    and the race from the Nore to Dover in 1870, 120

  Old tonnage rating rule, 182

  'Olga' (5 tonner), dimensions, 61-63;
    career of, 352, 353

  'Oona' (5-tonner), dimensions of, 61-63, 353;
    melancholy end of, 354

  'Oread,' 180

  Osgood, Mr., success of his centreboard schooner 'Columbia'
        against the 'Livonia' for the America Cup, 129-131

  'Otokesan' (1/2-rater), 248

  Outfit for a yacht, 392;
    clothes bags, 392;
    the kit, 392;
    groceries, &c., 393;
    yacht necessaries, 394, 395

  Owners of yachts, duties of, in races, 159;
    disqualification for breach of racing rules, 159;
    protests, 162


  Pacific, the, yachting in, 38

  Paine, General, his 'up to date' centreboard, 106

  Paint for yachts, 377, 378;
    Berthon's, 399

  'Palatine' (steam yacht), 9

  'Palmer,' American centreboard schooner, 129, 131

  'Pantomime' (151 tons), 112-116, 135, 136

  'Papoose' (2-1/2-rater), 251

  'Paradise,' ancient and modern notions of, 1, 2

  Paraffin stoves, 307

  Parsons, Mr., 239

  Passengers in sailing boats, 218

  'Pastime' (10-tonner), 327

  Payne, A. E., builds the 'Humming Bird,' 65;
    the 'Vendetta,' 66;
    circular to Y.R.A., 96;
    'Tootsie,' 228;
    tries the heavy lead fin-keel in 'Lady Nan,' 231;
    designs 'Decima,' 232;
    effort in 1889 to lower his colours, 235;
    his boats again head the list, 243;
    'Mliss,' 244;
    two new five-raters, 245;
    'Fiera,' 247;
    'Avadavat,' 247;
     half-raters, 248;
    'Cyane,' 254, 372;
    'Alwida,' 372

  Payton, W. E., his designs for the 'Trident' (1879), 'Olga' (1883),
        and 'Oona' (1886), 61-64;
    owner of the 'Oona,' 353;
    designer of the 'Luath,' 353;
    perishes in the 'Oona,' 354;
    his 3-tonner 'Currytush,' 354

  Pearce, Sir G., 247

  'Pearl' (5-tonner), 330; dimensions, 331

  Peel, Isle of Man, 401

  'Peg Woffington,' G. L. Watson's little cutter, characteristics
        of, 57

  Pembroke and Montgomery, Earl of, on yacht's sailing boats, 187
        _et seq._

  Penang to Galle, from, time occupied by 'Sunbeam,' 26

  Pender, Henry Denison, R.N.V., 44

  Peninsular and Oriental Company build the 'Himalaya,' 75

  Perceval, P., his 'Glycera' (5-rater), 242; 255

  Percy, Lord, centreboard boat built for him at Boston, U.S.,
        in 1774, 103

  'Pet' (5-tonner), 328

  'Phantom' (176 tons), 139

  'Pilgrim' (American yacht), her dimensions, 69, 179

  Platinum as ballast, 80

  Pleasure fleet of England, progress of the, 12

  'Pleiad,' 116, 119-122

  Plunket, Mr., of Belfast, 353

  Plymouth, 8;
    sea disturbance at, 365; 366, 403

  Policies, insurance, laying up, 411

  Polperro, 403

  'Polynia' (2-1/2-rater), 251

  Popham, F. L., 141

  Port Darwin to the Cape, from, time occupied by 'Sunbeam' under
        sail and steam, 27

  Port Patrick, 365

  Port Phillip, 400

  Port Rush, 402

  Portland Bill, 403

  Portsmouth to Brindisi, from, time occupied by 'Sunbeam' to, 27;
    to Naples, 'Sunbeam's' performance under sail, 27

  Portsmouth, conference of Solent clubs at, in 1887, 228, 403

  Portsmouth Harbour, 377

  Portugal, coast of, 42

  Post entries, 160

  Potash, caustic, for removing varnish, 379

  Powell, W. Baden. _See_ Baden-Powell

  Power, Mr., owner of the 'Olga' (5-tonner), 352

  Premiums in insurance, 411

  Prevention clauses, insurance, 410, 411

  Priddy's Hard, 377

  Prince of Wales's Cup, race for, in 1871, 126;
     in 1872, 132;
     in 1873, 135;
    becomes the absolute property of Mr. J. Mulholland, in 1874, 137

  Pritchett, R. T., staff officer of the 'Hornet,' 43;
    on sliding keels and centreboards, 102 _et seq._

  Private matches, 151

  'Problem,' built at Kirkcaldy in the early fifties, plan of, 54

  Programmes, race, 153, 154

  Protection clauses, insurance, 411

  Protests, 158, 159, 162

  'Punch,' quoted, 128

  'Pup' (1-rater), 251

  Pure length rating rule, 182

  'Puritan' (American sloop), in the International Race for the
        America Cup, 22


  'Queen' (15-tonner), 345

  Queen's Cup, Cowes, 11, 113

  'Queen Mab' (centreboard cutter), 65;
    dimensions, 66-68; 105;
    'Queen of the 40-raters' for 1892, 105, 106; 175;
    (2-1/2-rater), 233, 237, 245, 354

  Queenstown, 43, 44;
    sea disturbance at, 366, 401

  Queenstown Model Yacht Club, 57

  'Quinque' (5-rater), 180, 241, 242, 246, 255

  'Quiraing,' plan of her immersed counter, 58


  Race Officers, Duties of, 156-159

  Racing, advice upon, 395;
    the jibsheet, 395;
    the spinnaker, 396;
    weight aft, 397;
    insurance clauses, 410, 411

  Racing rules, summary of, in King & Co.'s Almanac for the Solent
        Racing, 151. _See_ Y.R.A.

  Racing yachts, evolution of the modern, 50 _et seq._

  Ramsey, Isle of Man, 401

  Rankine, Maquorn, his papers on surface friction, 85

  Rathlin Island Sound, 402

  Rating-cheaters, 359

  Rating rules and proposals, tables of, 183, 184.
    _See_ Y.R.A.

  Rating supersedes tonnage rule, 93

  Ratsey, Charles, advocates cotton sails, 77

  Ratsey, Linn, yacht-builder, 72

  Ratsey, Michael, 20, 72, 83, 101, 113, 115;
    builds the 'Livonia' schooner, 126;
    the 'Corisande,' 134;
    the 'Cetonia,' 136, 141

  Ratsey, Mr., 232

  'Raven' (10-rater), 230

  'Rayonette' (8-tonner), 332

  Reaching courses, 359

  'Red Lancer' (5-rater), 371, 373

  Reid, James, of Port Glasgow, devises the 'dog-legged'
        sternpost, 57;
    designs the 'Florence,' 60

  'Resolution,' H.M.S., accident to, 14

  'Reverie' (43 tons), 113

  Richardson, Alexander, of Liverpool, 98, 101

  Richardson, John, his 'Evadne' (206 tons), 112;
    and 'Corisande' (140 tons), 134

  Richardson, Mr., on rating rules, 173, 181

  Richardson, Mr., designer of the 'Urchin' (5-tonner), 345

  Ridsdale, H. W., 96, 238, 248

  Robertson, Mr., of Ipswich, builder of the 'Alouette'
        (5-tonner), 332

  Robertson, Mr., of Sandbank, Holy Loch, 335

  Rogers's movable anchor stock, 384

  'Rogue' (1-rater), 251

  Romans, the, as lovers of the sea, 39

  'Rose' (5-rater), 230

  'Rose of Devon,' in the race from the Nore to Dover, of 1870, 120

  Roskilde, from the fiord, 313

  Rothesay, wind-force at, 174

  Rouen, 402

  Rowley, Mr., 134

  Royal Albert Yacht Club, 225, 229, 247

  Royal Clyde Yacht Club, 413

  Royal Danish Yacht Club, 44

  Royal Irish Yacht Club Regatta, 352

  Royal London Yacht Club, rule arranged for measurement in
        1854, 56; 138, 225, 226, 229, 247

  Royal Navy, condition of the, 12, 13

  Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers of London, Liverpool, Bristol,
        and Glasgow, 42 _note_

  Royal Portsmouth Corinthian Yacht Club, 224, 229, 250

  Royal Southampton Yacht Club, 224;
    its excellence, 226; 229, 250

  Royal Southern Yacht Club, 223, 225, 229

  Royal Thames Yacht Club, rule adopted by, for measurement in
        1854, 56;
    possessors of Commodore Taylor's pennants and ensigns, 105;
    open the 1866 season, 113;
    the Channel match of 1870, 119; 361

  Royal Victoria Yacht Club, 223, 225, 229, 247

  Royal Yacht Squadron, one of its original objects to encourage
        seamanship, 4;
    arrange a race without time allowances round the Isle of
        Wight, 110;
    the races arranged for the Jubilee year, 140;
    dates from early in the century, 223; 229, 247

  'Royalist,' 21

  Rudston Read, Mrs., 236, 244

  Russell, Scott, his system of construction, 73, 74;
    on speed, 87

  Rutland, Duke of, 117

  Ryde, 115, 122, 133, 225, 403

  Ryde to Havre, from, 312


  Sail-area, 160;
    rating rule, 181

  Sailing boats, a yacht's, pleasures and advantages of, 187;
    two typical sails, 189-196;
    best build, 196;
    stability, 197;
    the lifeboat question, 198;
    copper and wooden air-tight compartments, 198;
    shape of stern, 199;
    counter and side, 199;
    centreboard, 199-201;
    wooden false keel, 200;
    sloop rig, 201-205;
    yawl rig, 204;
    tiller, 205;
    ballast, 205;
    Earl of Pembroke's 'Black Pearl's' cutter, 200, 203, 206, 208;
    description of Colonel Gamble's 'Aline' lifeboat, 206-208;
    handling and management, 210;
    professional assistance, 210;
    handling single-handed, 211;
    in rough weather, 212;
    reefing, 212;
    balance reefs, 213;
    in a beam sea, 213;
    running before a strong wind and a dangerous sea, 214;
    steering, 214;
    in wind squalls under the lee of the land, 215;
    things worth remembering in handling, 217-219;
    mooring, 219;
    never 'moon,' 219

  Sail-carrying power defined, 363

  Sailing committees, duties of, 152;
    making of programmes, 153, 154;
    form of race advertisements, 153;
    Solent class regulations, 154;
    the race card, 154;
    dealing with protests, 158

  Sailing masters, duties of, 162-164

  Sailing rules. _See_ Y.R.A.

  Sailing yachts with auxiliary steam power, 24

  Sails, character of British-made, previous to 1851, 74

  St. Clare Byrne, Mr., M.I.N.A., his 'Valiant,' 21;
    designer of the 'Sunbeam,' 24

  'St. George' (871 tons), 21

  St. George's Channel, character of the sea in, 365, 366

  St. Ives harbour, 370

  St. Malo, 8

  Salcomb, 403

  Salt meat for foreign cruises, 305

  Sandy Hook, wind-force at, 174

  'Sappho' (American schooner), 116, 120, 121;
    her races against the 'Cambria,' 123; 129, 131;
    beats the 'Livonia' in the fourth match of the race for the
        America Cup in 1871, 131, 134

  Sark, 402

  'Satanita' (161.58-rating, Y.R.A.), 23;
    dimensions, 69; 179

  'Savourna' (5-rater), 245, 246, 255

  Schanks, Captain, designer of the 'Trial' revenue cutter, 104, 107

  Schenley, George, 244

  Schenley, Mrs., 235, 237, 242

  Schooner racing, reasons for the decadence of, 108, 109;
    large tonnage of yachts in early times, 109

  Schooners, inability to compete with cutters, 109;
    new method of rigging, in 1855, 111

  Scilly Isles, 8

  Scotland to Plymouth, from, voyage of 'Cyprus,' 349-351

  Scotland, West Coast of, 8, 9;
    as a cruising ground, 37, 400

  Scott's 'Meteorological Notes,' 405

  Scows, or floating blinds, 103, 105

  'Seabelle' (153 tons), 136;
    her race against the 'Egeria' in 1875, 138

  'Seabird' (126 tons), 78

  Sea-fishing, 190-193

  Seamanship, 37

  Secretary, club, duties of, at regattas, 154

  Secretary, Y.R.A., checking a sailmaker's measurements, 165

  Seine, the, as a cruising ground, 37

  'Selene,' 78

  Sesmaisons, Count de, 117

  Seth-Smith, C. E., C.B., R.N.A.V., on  Corinthian deep-sea
        cruising, 41 _et seq._;
    captain of the 'Hornet' in 1880 and 1881, 44

  Sewanhaka Yacht Club, on the rating rules, 171, 173, 176, 179, 181

  Shanklin Bay, 47

  Shannon, the, as a cruising ground, 401

  'Shark' (204 tons), 117, 121, 137

  Shelley, Sir Percy, 111

  'Shipbuilding, Theoretical and Practical,' cited, 85

  Ship-chandlers, home and foreign, 306

  Shuldham, Captain, R.N., pivots sliding keels (1809), 105

  Sicily, yachting round, 38

  Siemens-Martin steel, 80

  'Siesta' (127 tons), 116

  Simonosaki to Aden, from, time occupied by 'Sunbeam,' 26

  Simons, of Renfrew, 73

  Simpson & Dennison, of Dartmouth, builders of 'Doris'
        (5-tonner), 354

  Simpson, Mr., success of his 'Tottie' on the Thames, 231

  Skaw, the, 308, 309

  Skippers, yacht, 7

  Skye, 9, 215, 216

  'Sleuthhound' (54-rater), built without fittings, 82, 141

  Sliding keels and centreboards, 102-107

  Slie, the, 309

  Sloyne, the, 325, 327, 401

  Smith, Colonel F. J., R.E., his merit-formula, 230

  Smith's anchor, 382, 383

  Solent, the, as a cruising ground, 38;
    crack cutters of forty-five years ago, 52;
    wind-force on, 174;
    small yacht racing on the, 222 _et seq._;
    attractive features, 222;
    advantages for yachting, 223;
    'length classes' introduced, 173, 224;
    their collapse, 227;
    classes, 227;
    (10-raters), in 1889, 233; 237, 359;
    sea disturbance in, 366;
    racing in, 374

  Solent Yacht Club, 229

  Sooji Mooji, for removing varnish, 379

  Soper, J. M., 96; designer of the 'Black Pearl's' cutter, 206, 248

  'Sorella,' 224

  Sound of Raasay, phenomenal squalls in, 216

  South Atlantic, 26, 295, 300, 304

  South Pacific, 26

  Southampton, conference of Solent clubs at, in 1887, 228, 402

  Southampton Water, 222, 224

  Southsea, 225

  Spain, coast of, as a cruising ground, 38, 42

  Sparks, Mr., 252

  Spartel Bay, 45

  Spezia, 38

  'Sphinx,' 114

  Spirit stoves, 307

  Spithead, sea disturbance at, 366

  'Spray of the Ocean' (cutter), 20

  'Spruce' (1/2-rater), 246, 250

  'Squirrel,' Sir G. Pearce's, 247

  Starkey, F., 135

  Start, the, at races, 157, 158

  Steam launches, as adjuncts to sailing yachts, 8; 188, 198

  Steam versus sail yachting, 3-5, 223

  Steam yachts, cost of building and manning, 23

  Steamship hands, 4

  Steele, Messrs., build the 'Wave' with a metal keel, 53; 77

  Steele, William, designs the 'Nyanza,' 'Oimara,' 'Garrion,'
        and 'Selene,' 77

  Stephens, Mr., of Southampton, 235

  Sternpost, the raking, introduced, 54;
    'dog-legged,' 57

  Stevens, Commodore, his 'Black Maria,' 106

  Stewart, Mr., 249

  Stone, Mr., designer of the 'Squirrel,' 247

  Storey, Mr., designer of the 'St. George,' 24

  'Stork' (2-1/2-rater), 251

  Storms, law of, 35

  Stoves for cooking, 307

  Stowe, Mr., of Shoreham, builder of the 'Diamond' (5-tonner), 331

  Straits of Gibraltar, 38

  Studding-sails, duck, 30

  Suez Canal, the, closes the era of China clipper ships, 77

  Sullivan, Sir Edward, Bart., on yachting, 1 _et seq._

  Summers, Mr., 245

  Summers & Payne, 245

  'Sunbeam,' 20;
    date of launch, 24;
    designer, 24;
    details of construction, 24;
    dimensions of spars, 25;
    performances at sea, 26;
    best run under steam, 26;
    most successful continuous performance, 26;
    best runs under sail, 26;
    average speeds of longer passages, 26;
    boilers, 27;
    cruises in the Mediterranean, 27;
    table of distances, times, and winds, 28;
    in a storm off Flamborough Head, 31-33;
    in a long gale from Nassau to Bermuda, 34;
    in a dirty night between Honolulu and Japan, 35

  Sutton, Sir Richard, 115, 141

  Svendborg, 44, 309

  Swanage, 132, 403

  Sweden as a cruising ground, 404

  Sydney Harbour, 400


  Tamar River, 403

  Tangier, 45

  Tanks, water, 305

  'Tar Baby' (5-rater), 234

  Tasmania, discovered to be an island, 102 _note_, 104

  Tatchell, E. R., 146

  Taylor, Commodore, of the Cumberland Sailing Society, his yacht
        'Cumberland' with five sliding keels, 104

  Taylor, Harry, 136

  Taylor, Richard, 104, 105

  Taylor, Robert, 105

  Teignmouth, cargo boats fitted with sliding keels at, 104

  Tennyson, Lord, his cruise in the 'Sunbeam,' 19

  'Thalassa,' on racing rules and the rules of rating, 146 _et seq._;
    on small yacht racing in the Solent, 222 _et seq._

  'Thalassa' (2-1/2-rater), 228, 231, 233, 234, 236, 241

  'Thalia' (57 tons), her dimensions, 66-68

  Thames, for many years the centre of yachting, 223

  Thames Iron Works Shipbuilding Company, build the 'Mosquito'
        (1848), 75

  'Thames Rule' of 1854, the recognised method of measuring
        yachts, 56;
    minor influences, 57; 182, 323

  Thellusson, Charles, 111, 115, 117, 139

  'Thief,' 65, 233, 234, 237, 245

  'Thistle' (of 1887), sketch of her cutwater, 60;
    her advantages of beam, 65;
    built without fittings, 82;
    her displacement, 93;
    competes for the America Cup, 111

  'Thistle' (of 1889), disadvantage of the sacrifice of surface
        in the, 88, 89

  Thomas & Nicholson, Messrs., of Southampton and Gosport,
        characteristics of their anchor, 383, 384

  Thompson, G. B., on the rating rules, 168;
    owner of the 'Olga' (5-tonner), 353

  'Tiara' (of 1850), system of construction, 73, 74

  Tilley, of Southampton, 301 _note_

  Time allowance, 15;
    rules concerning, 169-174

  Timing yachts at races, 158

  Tinned meats, 305, 306

  'Tiny' (1/2-rater), 246, 248, 250

  'Titania' (184 tons), the Marquis of Ailsa's, 47, 113

  'Titu' (2-1/2-rater), 232

  Tomlinson, W. A., his 6-ton yacht 'Wyvern,' 325

  Tonnage-cheaters, 344, 345

  Tonnage rule, all-absorbing question of, in modern yachting, 50;
    changed to that of rating, 93

  'Tootsie' (afterwards 'Minnow'), Mr. Payne's, 228

  Torbay, 403

  'Torment' (5-tonner), 330, 331

  'Torpedo,' Mr. Stewart's, 249

  'Torpid,' 77

  Torquay, 140, 403

  Torquay Regatta, 373

  'Tottie' (2-1/2-rater), 231

  'Trial' (Admiralty revenue cutter), 104;
    sheer draught of, 107

  'Trident' (5-tonner), tables and diagrams showing length and
        displacement, 61-63;
    a handy boat, 352

  Trinidad, 38

  Trotman's anchor, 382

  'Troublesome' (2-1/2-rater), 241, 244

  Turner, William, 136

  Turning-point of maximum efficiency, or best length, 174

  Twenty-pound clause, Insurance, 408, 409


  'Ulerin' (10-tonner), 354

  'Undine' (2-1/2-rater), 247

  Union des Yachts Français, its new rating rule, 179, 180


  'Valentine' (5-rater), 180, 241, 242, 245

  'Valhalla' (1,400 tons), 21

  'Valiant' (2,350 tons), 21

  'Valkyrie,' Lord Dunraven's, victorious career of, 11;
    her defeat in American waters, 11, 12; 22;
    development of beam in, 23;
    spinnakers, 30;
    dimensions, 69;
    minus fittings when racing for the America Cup, 82;
    profile, 82;
    the question of superiority of centreboard, 107;
    unduly handicapped by American conditions, 111;
    sail-area, 172 _note_

  Valparaiso to Yokohama, from, time occupied by 'Sunbeam,' 26

  Vanderbilt, Mr., his 'Valiant,' 21

  'Vanderdecken's' tonnage-cheater, 55;
    design, 56

  'Vanduara' (90 tons), first design for, 59;
    G. L. Watson's belief in carrying it out, 87

  Varnishing, 378, 379

  'Varuna' (40-rater), diagram of profile, 55;
    dimensions, 66-68

  Veile, 309

  'Vendetta' (40-rater), dimensions, 66-68;
    beam, 71

  'Verena' (7-rater), 230

  'Verve' (10-tonner), 81

  'Victoria' (H.M.S.), loss of, 14

  'Vigilant,' American yacht, defeats the 'Valkyrie' of Lord
        Dunraven, 11, 22;
    dimensions, 69, 71;
    minus fittings when racing for the America Cup, 82;
    profile, 82;
    a wholesome type of vessel, 101;
    her designers, 106;
    sail area, 172 _note_

  'Viking' (140 tons), 113, 141

  'Viola' (5-tonner), 331

  'Virago' (6-tonner), 332

  Virgil, quoted, on the sea, 39

  'Volante,' loses her bowsprit by collision while racing against
        the 'America,' 110

  'Vol-au-Vent,' cutter, of 1875, 83

  'Volunteer,' American yacht, compared with the 'Thistle' of
        1889, 88; 180

  'Vril' (5-tonner), dimensions, 61-63, 334;
    designed by G. L. Watson, 333;
    turned into a fast cruiser, 334;
    matches with 'Freda,' 337-341


  Wages, racing, of a yacht's crew, 10

  Wales, H.R.H. Prince of, accidents to his yacht 'Britannia' in
        1893, 10;
    victorious career of his vessel, 11;
    H.R.H. a familiar sight in yacht-racing, 12, 22, 82;
    offers a cup for 100-tonners in 1870, 121; 141

  Waller, Mr., 231

  'Wanderer' (850 tons), steam yacht, method of construction, 78

  Wanhill, Mr., of Poole, introduces the raking sternpost, 54;
    builds the 'Egeria,' 112

  Warsash village, 238

  'Wasp' (American keel boat), 106

  Water ballast, 206;
    for foreign cruisers, 305

  Waterman, Tom, designer of the 'Mosquito' (50 tons), 75;
    and of the troopship 'Himalaya,' 75

  'Waterwitch' (160 tons), 140

  Watson, G. L., designer of the 'Britannia' and 'Valkyrie,' 22;
    on the evolution of the modern racing yacht, 50 _et seq._;
    elements of his 5-tonners 'Vril' and 'Doris,' 61-64;
    and of his 40-raters 'Deerhound,'
    'Creole,' 'Varuna,' and 'Queen Mab,' 66, 82, 96;
    builds 'Dora' and 'Queen Mab' with centreboard, 105;
    on rating rules, 171, 176, 177;
    his 'Tottie' (2-1/2-rater), 231;
    his 2-1/2-raters, 235;
    5-raters, 242, 245, 323, 346, 372;
    part owner and designer of the 'Vril,' 333;
    designer of the 'Doris,' 354;
    his spoon-shaped bow, 358;
    designer of the 'Natica' (5-rater), 373

  Watson, S. C., owner of the 'Lethe' (163 tons), 79

  Watson, Sidney, owner of the 'Chipmunk' (2-1/2-rater), 231

  Watson, Mrs. Sidney, 237

  Watson, T. L., F.R.I.B.A., 82

  'Wave,' John Cross Buchanan's, fitted with a metal keel, 53

  Webb, Beavor, owner of the 'Freda' (5-tonner), 337;
    sails her in her matches with 'Camellia' and 'Vril,' 344

  'Wee Winn,' rig of, 357;
    bulb keel, 360

  Weguelin, Charles, designer of the 'Alouette' (5-tonner), 332

  Weisbach's experiments on the flow of water through pipes, 85

  Weld, Joseph, 22, 71, 73, 111, 113

  'Wenonah,' rig of, 357;
    bulb keel, 360

  West Indian negro crews, 298, 307

  West Indies as a cruising ground, 38;
    ports of the, 298, 306

  West, T. B. C., 235, 237

  Weymouth, 403

  Weymouth, Mr., designer of the 'Phantom' (176 tons), 139

  Whales, 189

  'Whimbrel,' 224

  White, Mr., boatbuilder, of Cowes, 113, 198, 201

  'Wildfire' (59 tons), her rigging, 111

  Wilkinson, Arthur, owner of the 'Phantom' (176 tons), 139

  Willan, Major Frank (Y.R.A.), 146

  Williams, General Owen, owner of the 'Enchantress' 141

  Wilton, Earl of, his steam yacht 'Palatine,' 9

  'Windfall' (5-rater), 245, 246, 251, 254, 255

  Wire rope, 76, 80

  'Witchcraft' (240 tons), 113, 116

  Wivenhoe, 136, 140, 453

  Wolff, Mr., hon. sec. Royal Southampton Yacht Club, 225

  'Wonderful' (10-tonner), 331

  Wood, Nicholas, owner of the 'Corinne' (162 tons), 136

  Woodd, A. B., R.N.A.V., 44

  Woods, John, skipper of the 'Egeria,' 119

  Wythes, Mr., owner of the 'St. George,' 24

  'Wyvern' (6-tonner), her voyage from Kingstown to
        Liverpool, 326, 327;
    build and dimensions, 328, 329


  'Xantha' (135 tons), yawl, 113;
    wins the R.T.Y.C. race from the Nore to Dover in 1866, 114


  'Yacht and Boat Sailing,' Dixon Kemp's, on the rules of
        racing, 150, 335, 346

  'Yacht Architecture,' Dixon Kemp's, quoted, 172;
    on racing rules, 176;
    on rating rules, 179, 231

  Yacht-building, American pre-eminence in, 11

  Yacht club, object and duties of a, 152

  Yacht, internal economy of a, 8;
    minstrelsy, 7;
    sailors, 6;
    and their wages, 10;
    necessaries, list of, 394

  Yacht Racing Association, the, procrastination of, 58;
    their new rule regarding tonnage, 65;
    their circular to yacht-builders and designers
        in 1892, 95; 99, 109;
    the object of its foundation, 146;
    secretary and councillors, 146;
    qualifications of membership, 146;
    election of councillors, 147;
    measurement fees and subscriptions, 147, 148;
    alterations in rules, 149;
    rules for the guidance of the council, 149;
    racing rules, 150;
    duties of a designer, 151;
    private matches, 151;
    club and open matches, 152;
    duties of a yacht club, 152;
    duties of a sailing committee, 152;
    duties of a club secretary, 154;
    duties of race officers, 156;
    duties of owners, 159;
    duties of a sailing master, 162;
    duties of an official measurer, 164;
    rating rules, 167;
    length and sail-area rule, 168;
    the time allowance, 169;
    turning point of maximum efficiency, 174;
    the new French rule, 179;
    sail-area rule, 181;
    the pure length rule, 182;
    tables of rating rules and proposals, 183, 184;
    girth rating rule, 185; 224, 225, 227, 229, 238;
    rule for 5-tonners and under, 323;
    for 5-raters, 355;
    rating by length and sail-area, 356, 357, 363

  Yacht racing, expense of, 10

  Yacht racing, small, development of, 223;
    profitable to clubs, 223

  Yachting, compared economically with Continental travelling, 11;
    began with this century, 51;
    reasons for its pre-eminence as a manly sport, 322;
    clauses concerning insurance, 407-411

  Yachts, little individuality of form previous to 1820, 71;
    equipment subsequent to that date, 76;
    variety of type under present length and sail-area rule, 50;
    advantages of racing in small, 223

  'Yachtsman,' cited, 51;
    on the rules of racing, 150;
    on girth, 181; 255 _note_

  Yachtsmen, qualities of, 322

  Yalme, the, 403

  Yarborough, Earl of, 108

  Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, 403

  Yawls, 300

  Yolla metal, 80

  York, Mr., secretary of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club, 413

  'Yvonne' (10-rater), 233


  'Zarita' (115 tons), 20

  'Zephyr' (9-tonner), 332

  Zuider Zee, cruising in the, 309, 316


END OF THE FIRST VOLUME


  PRINTED BY
  SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE
  LONDON





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