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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 225, February 18, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 225, February 18, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 225.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Remarkable Imprints                                          143

  Legends of the Co. Clare, by Francis Robert Davies           145

  Canting Arms                                                 146

  MINOR NOTES:--Selleridge--Tombs of Bishops--Lines on
    visiting the Portico of Beau Nash's Palace, Bath--
    Acrostic in Ash Church, Kent--A Hint to Publishers--
    Uhland, the German Poet--Virgilian Inscription for an
    Infant School                                              146


  The Shippen Family--John White, by Thos. Balch               147

  Books issued in Parts and not completed                      147

  MINOR QUERIES:--"Hovd Maet of Laet"--Hand in Church--
    Egger Moths--The Yorkshire Dales--Ciss, Cissle, &c.--
    Inn Signs, &c.--Smiths and Robinsons--Coin of
    Carausius--Verelst the Painter--Latin Treatise on
    whipping School-boys--Whitewashing in Churches--Surname
    "Kynoch"--Dates of published Works--Saw-dust Recipe        148

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Branks, or Gossips' Bridles--
    Not caring a Fig for anything--B. C. Y.--Earl Nugent's
    Poems--Huntbach MSS.--Holy Loaf Money--St. Philip's,
    Bristol--Foreign Universities                              149


  Death-warnings in Ancient Families, by C. Mansfield Ingleby  150

  Starvation, by N. L. Melville, &c.                           151

  Osmotherley in Yorkshire, by T. Gill                         152

  Echo Poetry, by Jas. J. Scott                                153

  Blackguard                                                   153

  "Wurm," in Modern German--Passage in Schiller's
    "Wallenstein"                                              154

  Was Shakspeare descended from a Landed Proprietor?
    by H. Gole, &c.                                            154

  Lord Fairfax                                                 156

    Dr. Diamond on Sensitive Collodion                         156

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Portrait of Alva--Lord Mayor
    of London not a Privy Councillor--New Zealander and
    Westminster Bridge--Cui Bono--Barrels Regiment--Sir
    Matthew Hale--Scotch Grievance--"Merciful Judgments of
    High Church," &c.--Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester--
    Fleet Prison--The Commons of Ireland previous to the
    Union--"Les Lettres Juives"--Sir Philip Wentworth--
    General Fraser--Namby-Pamby--The Word "Miser"--The
    Forlorn Hope--Thornton Abbey--"Quid facies," &c.--
    Christ-Cross-Row--Sir Walter Scott, and his Quotations
    from himself, &c.                                          158


  Notes on Books, &c.                                          162

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 163

  Notices to Correspondents                                    163

       *       *       *       *       *

now open at the Gallery of the Society of British Artists, Suffolk Street,
Pall Mall, in the Morning from 10 A.M. to half-past 4 P.M., admission
_1s._; and in the Evening from 7 to 10 P.M., admission 3d. Catalogue 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea: Two extra Copies
for 10s.


       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price and Description of
upwards of 100 articles consisting of


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       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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       *       *       *       *       *


A LECTURE, illustrated by numerous Coloured Diagrams, will be given upon
the above subject by


At the Beaumont Institution, Beaumont Square, Mile End Road, on WEDNESDAY
EVENING, Feb. 22nd, at a Quarter before Eight.

The Proceeds will be applied for the benefit of the Schools and other
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TICKETS may be procured at Messrs. Hatchard's, 187. Piccadilly; Messrs.
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PRICES.--East of Hall 1s.; Balcony, 2s. 6d.; Centre of Hall, 3s.; Reserved
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       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, crown 8vo., 8s.


London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

GRIMM'S TEUTONIC WORKS.--Jacob Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik, 4 vols. 8vo.,
1822-37 (published at 3l.), sewed, 2 Guineas. Grimm's Geschichte der
Deutschen Sprache, 2 vols. 8vo., 1853, sewed, 10s.

Sold by QUARITCH, 16. Castle Street, Leicester Square.

*** QUARITCH'S CATALOGUES of Valuable, Rare, and Curious Works, many on
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       *       *       *       *       *

SPANISH Dictionaries, Grammars, and all the Principal Works of Spanish
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QUARITCH, 16. Castle Street, Leicester Square.

*** Catalogues Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

BIBLES in One Hundred various Oriental and European Languages constantly on
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*** QUARITCH'S MONTHLY CATALOGUES Gratis, on prepayment of Twelve Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *


Sold by QUARITCH, 16. Castle Street, Leicester Square.

*** QUARITCH'S CATALOGUES of his Extensive Second-hand Stock of French
Works, Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *





THE DARK AGES; being a Series of ESSAYS intended to illustrate the State of
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Reprinted from the "British Magazine," with Corrections, and some
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       *       *       *       *       *


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  Universities and Religious Sects.
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  Remarkable Customs.
  Games, Field Sports.
  Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week.
  Remarkable Localities, &c. &c.


The Third Edition, revised and improved,


    "The additions to this book indicate the editor to be his father's own
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    and has an eye to all things curious and note-worthy. The book tells
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    "The book contains a vast amount of curious information and useful
    memoranda."--_Literary Gazette._

    "An invaluable manual of amusement and information."--_Morning

    "This is a work of great practical usefulness. It is a _Notes and
    Queries_ in miniature.... The revision which the present edition of it
    has undergone has greatly enhanced its original value."--_Era._

London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 85. Queen Street, Cheapside.

       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *





_The XIIIth Part of this Work is now published, price_ 3s. 6d.,

Some Account of the Manor of Apuldrefield, in the Parish of Cudham, Kent,
by G. Steinman Steinman, Esq., F.S.A.

Petition to Parliament from the Borough of Wotton Basset, in the reign of
Charles I., relative to the right of the Burgesses to Free Common of
Pasture in Fasterne Great Park.

Memoranda in Heraldry, from the MS. Pocket-books of Peter Le Neve, Norroy
King of Arms.

Was William of Wykeham of the Family of Swalcliffe? By Charles Wykeham
Martin, Esq., M.P., F.S.A.

Account of Sir Toby Caulfield rendered to the Irish Exchequer, relative to
the Chattel Property of the Earl of Tyrone and other fugitives from Ulster
in the year 1616, communicated by James F. Ferguson, Esq., of the Exchequer
Record Office, Dublin.

Indenture enumerating various Lands in Cirencester, 4 Hen. VII. (1489).

       *       *       *       *       *

Two Volumes of this Work are now completed, which are published in cloth
boards, price Two Guineas, or in Twelve Parts, price 3s. 6d. each. Among
its more important articles are--

    Descent of the Earldom of Lincoln, with Introductory Observations on
    the Ancient Earldoms of England, by the Editor.

    On the Connection of Arderne, or Arden, of Cheshire, with the Ardens of
    Warwickshire. By George Ormerod, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A.

    Genealogical Declaration respecting the Family of Norres, written by
    Sir William Norres, of Speke, co. Lane. in 1563; followed by an
    abstract of charters, &c.

    The Domestic Chronicle of Thomas Godfrey, Esq., of Winchelsea, &c.,
    M.P., the father of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, finished in 1655.

    Honywood Evidences, compiled previously to 1620, edited by B. W.
    Greenfield, Esq.

    The Descendants of Mary Honywood at her death in 1620.

    Marriage Settlements of the Honywoods.

    Pedigrees of the families of Arden or Arderne, Arundell of Aynho,
    Babington, Barry, Bayley, Bowet, Browne, Burton of Coventry, Clarke,
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    Harlakenden, Heneage, Hirst, Honywood, Hodilow, Holman, Horde, Hustler,
    Isley, Kirby, Kynnersley, Marche, Marston, Meynell, Norres, Peirae,
    Pimpe, Plomer, Polhill or Polley, Pycheford, Pitchford, Pole or De la
    Pole, Preston, Viscount Tarah, Thexton, Tregose, Turner of Kirkleatham,
    Ufford, Walerand, Walton, and Yate.

    The Genealogies of more than ninety families of Stockton-upon-Tees, by
    Wm. D'Oyly Bayley, Esq., F.S.A.

    Sepulchral Memorials of the English at Bruges and Caen.

    Many original Charters, several Wills, and Funeral Certificates.

    Survey, temp. Philip and Mary, of the Manors of Crosthole, Landren,
    Landulph, Lightdurrant, Porpehan, and Tynton, in Cornwall; Aylesheare
    and Whytford, co. Devon; Ewerne Courtenay, co. Dorset; Mudford and
    Hinton, West Coker, and Stoke Courcy, co. Somerset; Rolleston, co.
    Stafford; and Corton, co. Wilts.

    Survey of the Marshes of the Medway, temp. Henry VIII.

    A Description of Cleveland, addressed to Sir Thomas Chaloner, temp.
    James I.

    A Catalogue of the Monumental Brasses, ancient Monuments, and Painted
    Glass existing in the Churches of Bedfordshire, with all Names and

    Catalogue of Sepulchral Monuments in Suffolk, throughout the hundreds
    of Babergh, Blackbourn, Blything, Bosmere and Claydon, Carlford,
    Colnies, Cosford, Hartismere, Hoxne, Town of Ipswich, Hundreds of
    Lackford and Loes. By the late D. E. Davy, Esq. of Ufford.

    Published by J. B. NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street, Westminster;
    where may be obtained, on application, a fuller abstract of the
    contents of these volumes, and also of the "Collectanea Topographica et
    Genealogica," now complete in Eight Volumes.

       *       *       *       *       *





More than one pen has considered titles, dedications, and imprints worth a
Note, and as there are still gleanings in their track, I take the liberty
of sending you a few of the latter; some from my common-place book, others
from the fountainheads on my own shelves, but all drawn at random, without
much regard to classification or chronological arrangement.

The horrors of the Star Chamber and the Ecclesiastical Courts produced many
extraordinary imprints, particularly to those seditious books of the
Puritans, better known as the _Marprelate Family_; works which were printed
by ambulatory presses, and circulated by unseen hands, now under the walls
of Archiepiscopal Lambeth, and _presto_! (when the spy would lay his hands
upon them) sprite-like, Martin re-appeared in the provinces! This game at
hide and seek between the brave old Nonconformists and the Church, went on
for years without detection: but the readers of "N. & Q." do not require
from me the history of the Marprelate Faction, so well told already in the
_Miscellanies of Literature_ and elsewhere; the animus of these towards the
hierarchy will be sufficiently exhibited for my purpose in a few of their
imprints. _An Almond for a Parrot_, for example, purports to be--

    "Imprynted at a place not farre from a place; by the Assignes of
    Signior Some-body, and are to be soulde at his shoppe in Trouble-Knave

Again, _Oh read ouer D. John Bridges, for it is a worthy work_, is

    "Printed ouer sea, in Europe, within two forlongs of a Bouncing Priest,
    at the Cost and Charges of Martin Marprelate, Gent, 1589."

_The Return of the renowned Cavaliero Pasquill_ has the following
extraordinary imprint:

    "If my breath be so hote that I burne my mouthe, I suppose I was
    printed by Pepper Allie, 1589."

The original "Marprelate" was John Penri, who at last fell into the hands
of his enemies, and was executed under circumstances of great barbarity in
Elizabeth's reign. "Martin Junior," however, sprung up, and _The
Counter-Cuffe_ to him is--

    "Printed between the Skye and the Grounde, wythin a Myle of an Oake,
    and not many Fields off from the unpriuileged Presse of the Ass-ignes
    of Martin Junior, 1589."

The virulency of this theological warfare died away in James's reign, but
only to be renewed with equal rancour in that of Charles, when Marprelatism
was again called into activity by the high-church freaks of Archbishop
Laud. _Vox Borealis, or a Northerne Discoverie by way of Dialogue between
Jamie and Willie_, is an example of these later attacks upon the
overbearing of the mitre, and affords the imprint--

    "Amidst the Babylonians. Printed by Margery Marprelate, in Thwack-Coat
    Lane, at the Signe of the Crab-Tree Cudgell, without any privilege of
    the Cater-Caps, 1641."

Others of this stamp will occur to your readers: this time the Puritans had
the best of the struggle, and ceased not to push their advantage until they
brought their enemy to the block.

When the liberty of the press was imperfectly understood, the political
satirist had to tread warily; consequently we find that class of writers
protecting themselves by jocular or patriotic imprints. A satirical
pamphlet upon the late _Sicke Commons_ is "Printed in the Happie Year
1641." _A Letter from Nobody in the City to Nobody in the Country_ is
"Printed by Somebody, 1679." _Somebody's Answer_ is "Printed for Anybody."
These were likely of such a tendency as would have rendered both author and
printer amenable to _somebody_, say Judge Jeffries. During the
administration of Sir Robert Walpole, there were many skirmishing satirists
supported by both ministry and people, such as James Miller, whose
pamphlet, _contra, Are these things so?_ is "Printed for the perusal of all
Lovers of their Country, 1740." This was answered by the ministers'
champion, James Dance, _alias_ Love, in _Yes, they are!_ alike addressed to
the "Lovers of their Country." _What of That?_ was the next of the series,
being Miller's reply, who intimated this time that it was "Printed, and to
be had of all True Hearts and Sound Bottoms."

When there was a movement for an augmentation of the poor stipends of the
Scots Clergy in 1750, there came out a pamphlet under the title of _The
Presbyterian Clergy seasonably detected_, 1751, which exceeds in
scurrility, if possible, the famous or infamous, _Scotch Presbyterian
Eloquence Displayed_; both author and printer, however, had so much sense
as to remain in the background, and the _thing_ purported to be "Printed
for Mess John in Fleet Street." Under the title of _The Comical History of
the Marriage betwixt Heptarchus and Fergusia_, 1706[1], the Scots figured
the union of the Lord Heptarchus, or England, with the independent, but
coerced, damsel Fergusia, or Scotland; the discontented church of the
latter {144} finding that the former broke faith with her, could not help
giving way to occasional murmurings, and these found vent in (among others)
a poetical Presbyterian tract, entitled _Melancholy Sonnets, or Fergusia's
Complaint upon Heptarchus_, in which the author reduced to rhyme the
aforesaid _Comical History_, adding thereto all the evils this ill-starred
union had entailed upon the land after thirty-five years' experience. This
curious production was "Printed at Elguze? for Pedaneous, and sold by
Circumferaneous, below the Zenith, 1741."[2] Charles II., when crowned at
Scone, took the solemn league and covenant; but not finding it convenient
to carry out that part of his coronation oath, left the Presbyterians at
the Restoration in the lands of their enemies. To mark their sense of this
breach of faith, there was published a little book[3] describing the
inauguration of the _young profligate_, which expressively purports to be
"Printed at Edinburgh in the Year of Covenant-breaking." The Scots folk had
such a horror of anything of a deistical tendency, that John Goldie had to
publish his _Essays, or an Attempt to distinguish true from false Religion_
(popularly called "Goldie's Bible"), at Glasgow, "Printed for the Author,
and sold by him at Kilmarnock, 1779;" neither printer nor bookseller would,
apparently, be identified with the _unclean thing_. Both churchmen and
dissenters convey their exultations, or denouncements, upon political
changes, through the medium of imprints; and your correspondents who have
been discussing that matter, will see in some of these that the "Good Old
Cause" may be "all round the compass," as Captain Cuttle would say,
depending wholly upon the party spectacles through which you view it.
_Legal Fundamental Liberty_, in an epistle from Selburne to Lenthal, is
"Reprinted in the Year of Hypocritical and Abominable Dissimulation, 1649;"
on the other hand, _The Little Bible_ of that militant soldier Captain
Butler is "Printed in the First Year of England's Liberty, 1649." _The Last
Will and Testament of Sir John Presbyter_ is "Printed in the Year of
Jubilee, 1647." _A New Meeting of Ghosts at Tyburn_, in which Oliver,
Bradshaw, and Peters figure, exhibits its royal tendency, being "Printed in
the Year of the Rebellious Phanatick's Downfall, 1660." "Printed at N.,
with Licence," is the cautious imprint of a republication of _Doleman's
Conference_ in 1681. _A proper Project to Startle Fools_ is "Printed in a
Land where Self's cry'd up, and Zeal's cry'd down, 1699." _The Impartial
Accountant, wherein it is demonstratively made known how to pay the
National Debt, and that without a New Tax, or any Inconveniency to the
People_, is "Printed for a Proper Person," and, I may add, can be had of a
_certain person_, if Mr. Gladstone will come down with an adequate
consideration for the secret! These accountants are all mysterious,--you
would think they were plotting to empty the treasury rather than to fill
it; another says his _Essay Upon National Credit_ is "Printed by A. R. in
Bond's Stables!" Thomas Scott, the English minister at Utrecht, published,
among other oddities, _Vox Coelis; or Newes from Heaven, being Imaginary
Conversations there between Henry VIII.(!), Edward VI, Prince Henrie, and
others_, "Printed in Elysium, 1624." Edward Raban, an Englishman, who set
up a press in the far north, published an edition of Lady Culros' _Godlie
Dreame_, and finding that no title commanded such respect among the canny
Scots as that of _Laird_, announced the book to be "Imprinted at Aberdene,
by E. R., Laird of Letters, 1644." _The Instructive Library_, containing a
list of apocryphal books, and a satire upon some theological authors of
that day, is "Printed for the Man in the Moon, 1710." _The Oxford Sermon
Versified_, by Jacob Gingle, Esq., is "Printed by Tim. Atkins at Dr.
Sacheverell's Head, near St. Paul's, 1729." "Printed, and to be had at the
Pamphlett Shops of London and Westminster," was a common way of circulating
productions of questionable morals or loyalty. The Chapmen, or
Flying-Stationers, had many curious dodges of this kind to give a relish to
their literary wares: _The Secret History of Queen Elizabeth and the Earl
of Essex_ derived additional interest in the eyes of their country
customers by its being "Printed at Cologne for Will-with-the-Wisp, at the
Sign of the Moon in the Ecliptic, 1767." The Poems of that hard-headed
Jacobite, Alexander Robertson of Struan, are "Printed at Edinburgh for
Charles Alexander, and sold at his house in Geddes Close, where Subscribers
may call for their Copies, circa 1750."[4] _The New Dialogues of the Dead_
are "Printed for D. Y., at the foot of Parnassus Hill, 1684." Professor
Tenant's poem of _Papistry Stormed_ imitates the old typographers, it being
"Imprentit at Edinbrogh be Oliver and Boyd, anno 1827." A rare old book is
Goddard's {145} _Mastiffe Whelpe_, "Imprinted amongst the Antipodes, and
are to be sould where they are to be bought." Another, by the same author,
is a _Satirical Dialogue_, "Imprinted in the Low Countreyes for all such
Gentlemen as are not altogether idle, nor yet well occupyed." These were
both, I believe, libels upon the fair sex. John Stewart, otherwise _Walking
Stewart_, was in the habit of dating his extraordinary publications "In the
year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by Astronomical Calculation, 5000;"
"In the 7000 year of Astronomical History in the Chinese Tables;" and "In
the Fifth Year of Intellectual Existence." "Mulberry Hill, Printed at Crazy
Castle," is an imprint of J. H. Stevenson. _The Button Makers' Jests_, by
Geo. King. of St. James', is "Printed for Henry Frederick, near St. James'
Square;" a coarse squib upon royalty. One Fisher entitled his play _Thou
shall not Steal; the School of Ingratitude_. Thinking the managers of Drury
Lane had communicated his performance, under the latter name, to Reynolds
the dramatist, and then rejected it, he published it thus: "Printed for the
curious and literary--shall we say? Coincidence! refused by the Managers,
and made use of in the Farce of 'Good Living,'" published by Reynolds in
1797. _Harlequin Premier, as it is daily acted_, is a hit at the ministry
of the period, "Printed at Brentafordia, Capital of Barataria, and sold by
all the Booksellers in the Province, 1769." "Printed Merrily, and may be
read Unhappily, betwixt Hawke and Buzzard, 1641," is the _satisfactory_
imprint of _The Downefall of temporising Poets, unlicensed Printers,
upstart Booksellers, tooting Mercuries, and bawling Hawkers_. Books have
sometimes been published for behoof of particular individuals; old Daniel
Rodgers, in his _Matrimonial Honour_, announces "A Part of the Impression
to be vended for the use and benefit of Ed. Minsheu, Gent., 1650." How full
of interest is the following, "Printed at Sheffield by James Montgomery, in
the Hart's Head, 1795!" A poor man, by name J. R. Adam, meeting with
reverses, enlisted, and after serving abroad for a period, returned but to
exchange the barrack-room for the Glasgow Lunatic Asylum. Possessing a
poetical vein, he indulged it here in soothing his own and his companions'
misery, by circulating his verses on detached scraps, printed by himself.
These on his enlargement he collected together, and gave to the world in
1845, under the title of the _Gartnavel Minstrel_, a neat little square
volume of 104 pages, exceedingly well executed, and bearing the imprint
"Glasgow, composed, printed, and published by J. R. Adam;" under any
circumstances a most creditable specimen, but under those I have described
"a _rara avis_ in literature and art."

The list might be spun out, but I fear I have exceeded limits already with
my dry subject.

J. O.

[Footnote 1: G. Chalmers ascribed this to one "Balantyne." In Lockhart's
_Memoirs_, Lond. 1714, Mr. John Balantyne, the minister of Lanark, is
noticed as the most uncompromising opponent of the Union. I shall therefore
assign the _Comical History_ to him until I find a better claimant.]

[Footnote 2: This resembles in its doggrel style _Scotland's Glory and her
Shame_, and _A Poem on the Burgess Oath_. Can any of your correspondents,
familiar with Scottish typographical curiosities, tell me who was the
author, or authors, of these?]

[Footnote 3: _A Phoenix, or the Solemn League and Covenant, &c._, 12mo. pp.
168, with a frontispiece representing Charles burning the book of the
Solemn League and Covenant, above the flames from which hovers a phoenix.]

[Footnote 4: I have not met with the name of such a bookseller elsewhere,
and would like to hear the history of this book; it was again published
with the addition of _The Martial Achievements of the Robertsons of
Struan_, and in imitation of the original is printed at Edinburgh by and
for Alexander Robertson, in Morison's Close, where subscribers may call for
their copies (1785?).]

       *       *       *       *       *


In the west of Clare, for many miles the country seems to consist of
nothing but fields of grey limestone flags, which gives it an appearance of
the greatest desolation: Cromwell is reported to have said of it, "that
there was neither wood in it to hang a man, nor water to drown him, nor
earth to bury him!" The soil is not, however, by any means as barren as it
looks; and the following legend is related of the way in which an ancestor
of one of the most extensive landed proprietors in the county obtained his

'Twas on a dismal evening in the depth of winter, that one of Cromwell's
officers was passing through this part of the country; his courage and
gallantry in the "good cause" had obtained for him a large grant of land in
Clare, and he was now on his journey to it. Picturing to himself a land
flowing with milk and honey, his disappointment may therefore be imagined
when, at the close of a weary day's journey, he found himself bewildered
amid such a scene of desolation. From the inquiries he had made at the last
inhabited place he had passed, he was led to conclude that he could not be
far distant from the "land of promise," where he might turn his sword into
a pruning-hook, and rest from all his toils and dangers. Could this be the
place of which his imagination had formed so fair a vision? Hours had
elapsed since he had seen a human being; and, as the solitude added to the
dismal appearance of the road, bitterly did the veteran curse the folly
that had enticed him into the land of bogs and "Papistrie." Troublous
therefore as the times were, the tramp of an approaching steed sent a
thrill of pleasure through the heart of the Puritan. The rider soon joined
him, and as he seemed peaceably disposed, they entered into conversation;
and the stranger soon became acquainted with the old soldier's errand, and
the disappointment he had experienced. Artfully taking advantage of the
occasion, the stranger, who professed an acquaintance with the country,
used every means to aggravate the disgust of his fellow-traveller, till the
heart of the Cromwellian, already half overcome by fatigue and hunger, sank
within him; and at last he agreed that the land should be transferred to
the stranger for a butt of Claret and the horse on which he rode. As soon
as this important matter was settled, the stranger conducted his new friend
to a house of entertainment in a neighbouring hamlet, whose ruins are still
called the Claret House of K----. A plentiful, though coarse, entertainment
soon smoked on the board; and as the eye of the Puritan wandered over the
"creature comforts," his heart rose, and he forgot his disappointment and
his fatigue. It is even said that he dispensed with nearly ten of the
twenty minutes which he usually bestowed on the benediction; {146} but be
this as it may, ere he retired to his couch--"vino ciboque gravatus"--the
articles were signed, and the courteous stranger became possessed of one of
the finest estates in the county!


       *       *       *       *       *


In the introduction to a work entitled _A Collection of Coats of Arms borne
by the Nobility and Gentry of the County of Gloucester_, London, J. Good,
159. New Bond Street, 1792, and which I believe was written by Sir George
Nayler, it is asserted that--

    "_Armes parlantes_, or canting arms, were not common till the
    commencement of the seventeenth century, when they prevailed under the
    auspices of King James."

Now doubtless they were _more_ common in the seventeenth century, but I am
of opinion that there are many instances of them _centuries_ previous to
the reign of King James; as, for example, in a roll of arms of the time of
Edward II. (A.D. 1308-14), published by Sir Harris Nicolas from a
manuscript in the British Museum, there are the following:

    "Sire Peres Corbet, d'or, à un _corbyn_ de sable.

    Sire Johan le Fauconer, d'argent, à iii _faucouns_ de goules.

    Sire Johan Heroun, d'azure, à iii _herouns_ d'argent.

    Sire Richard de Cokfeld, d'azure, à une crois e iiii _coks_ d'or.

    Sire Richard de Barlingham, de goules, à iii ours (_bears_) d'argent.

    Sire Johan de Swyneford, d'argent, à un cheveroun de sable, à iii
    testes de _cenglers_ (_swines' heads_) d'or."

Sire Ammon de Lucy bore three _luces_; Sire William Bernak a fers between
three barnacles, &c. There are many other examples in the same work, but as
I think I have made my communication quite long enough, I forbear giving


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Selleridge._--The story of the author who was charged by his publisher for
_selleridge_, and thought it for selling his books, whereas it was storing
them in a cellar, is given by Thomas Moore in his _Diary_, lately
published, upon the authority of Coleridge. It is to be found, much better
told, in Coleridge's _Biographia Literaria_.



_Tombs of Bishops._--The following bishops, whose bodies were interred
elsewhere, had or have tombs in the several cathedrals in which their
hearts were buried:--William de Longchamp, William de Kilkenny, Cardinal
Louis de Luxembourg, at Ely; Peter de Aquâ Blancâ, at Aquablanca, in Savoy;
Thomas Cantilupe, at Ashridge, Bucks (Hereford); Ethelmar (Winton), at
Winchester; Thomas Savage (York), at Macclesfield; Robert Stichelles
(Durham), at Durham.



_Lines on visiting the Portico of Beau Nash's Palace, Bath._--

  And here he liv'd, and here he reign'd,
    And hither oft shall strangers stray;
  To muse with joy on native worth,
    And mourn those pleasures fled for aye.

  Alas! that he, whose days were spent
    In catering for the public weal,
  Should, in the eventide of life,
    Be destin'd sad distress to feel.

  An ever open heart and hand,
    With ear ne'er closed to sorrow's tale,
  Exalts the man, and o'er his faults
    Draws the impenetrable veil.



_Acrostic in Ash Church, Kent._--The following acrostic is from a brass in
Ash Church, Kent. It is perhaps curious only from the fact of its being
unusual to inscribe this kind of verse on sepulchral monuments. The capital
letters at the commencement of each line are given as in the original:

     "J   John Brooke of the parish of Ashe
      O   Only he is nowe gone.
      H   His days are past, his corps is layd
      N   Now under this marble stone.

      B   Brookstrete he was the honor of,
      R   Robd now it is of name,
      O   Only because he had no sede
      O   Or children to have the same;
      K   Knowing that all must passe away,
      E   Even when God will, none can denay.

 "He passed to God in the yere of Grace
  One thousand fyve hundredth ffower score and two it was,
  The sixteenthe daye of January, I tell now playne,
  The five-and-twentieth yere of Elizabeth rayne."



_A Hint to Publishers._--The present period is remarkable for its numerous
reprints of our poets and standard writers. However excellent these may be,
there is often a great drawback, viz. that one must purchase an author's
entire works, and cannot get a favourite poem or treatise separately.

What I would suggest is, that a separate title-page be prefixed to every
poem or treatise in an {147} author's works, and that they be sold
collectively or separately at the purchaser's option. Thus few would
encumber themselves with the entire works of Dryden, but many would gladly
purchase some of his poems if they could be had separately.

These remarks are still more applicable to encyclopædias. The _Encycl.
Metropol._ was a step in the right direction; and henceforth we may hope to
have each article sold separately in _octavo_ volumes. Is there no chance,
amid all these reprints, of our seeing Heywood, Crashaw, Southwell,
Habington, Daniel, or Drummond of Hawthornden?


_Uhland, the German Poet._--Mr. Mitchell, in his speech at New York, is
said to have stated that Uhland, the German poet, had become an exile, and
was now in Ohio. This is a mistake; for Uhland is now living in his native
Würtemberg, and is reported in the papers to have quite recently declined a
civic honour proposed to be conferred on him by the King of Prussia at the
suggestion of Baron Humboldt.

J. M.


_Virgilian Inscription for an Infant School._--

 "... Auditæ voces, vagitus et ingens,
  Infantumque animæ flentes, in limine primo."
                          _Æn._ VI. 426.


       *       *       *       *       *



The Historical Society of Pennsylvania having requested me to edit certain
MSS., I should be very much indebted to any one for information, either
through your columns, or addressed to me directly, concerning the following
persons or their ancestry.

Edward Shippen, son of William, born in Yorkshire, near Pontefract or
Wakefield, as supposed, 1639; emigrated to Boston 1670, was a member of the
Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company, afterwards turned Quaker, was
publicly whipt for his faith (see Thomas Story's _Journal_, quoted in
Southey's _Common-Place Book_), removed to Philadelphia, elected Speaker
1695, first mayor 1701, &c., died 1712. His son's family Bible entries (now
in possession of Colonel Jno. Hare Powel) say that his (the son's)
relations in England were his "uncle William's children," viz. Robert
Shippen, Doctor of Divinity; William Shippen, Doctor of Laws and a
parliament man; Edward, a physician; John, a Spanish merchant.

The uncle William thus mentioned is conjectured to have been the Rector of
Stockport, and the "parliament man" to have been his son, "downright
Shippen" (Lord Mahon's _Hist. Eng._, three vols.)--a conjecture
strengthened by another mem., "John, son of the Rector of St. Mary's
parish, Stockport, was baptized July 5, A.D. 1678.

Edward Shippen's daughter, Margaret, married John Jekyll, collector of the
port of Boston, said to have been a younger brother of Sir Joseph; and a
descendant, daughter of Chief Justice Shippen, married General Benedict
Arnold, then a distinguished officer in the American army.

Mr. Shippen lived in great style (Watson's _Annals_, &c.), and among his
descendants were, and are, many persons of consequence and distinction.

Besides information as to Mr. Shippen's ancestors, I should be glad to
learn something of his kinsfolk, and of the Jekyll and Arnold branches.
Sabine's (_Loyalists_) account of the latter is imperfect, and perhaps not
very just.

John White, Chief Justice Shippen, whilst a law student in London, writes,
1748-50, as though Mr. White was socially a man of dignified position. He
was a man of large fortune; his sister married San. Swift, who emigrated to
this state. His portrait, by Reynolds, represents a gentleman past middle
age, whose costume and appearance are those of a person of refined and
elegant education. His letters were destroyed by fire some years since. The
China and silver ware, which belonged to him, have the following arms:
"Gules, a border sable, charged with seven or eight estoiles gold; on a
canton ermines a lion rampant sable. Crest, a bird, either a stork, a
heron, or an ostrich." The copy inclosed is taken from the arms on the
china; but our Heralds' College (_i.e._ an intelligent engraver, who gave
me the foregoing description) says, that on the silver the crest is "a
stork close."



       *       *       *       *       *


From time to time various productions, many valuable, others the reverse,
have issued from the press in parts or numbers; some have been completed,
while others have only reached a few numbers. It would be desirable to
ascertain what works have been finished, and what have not. I have
therefore transmitted a note as to several that have fallen in my way, and
should be happy for any information about them:

    "1. John Bull Magazine, 8vo., London, 1824. Of this I possess four
    numbers. A friend of mine has also the four numbers, and, like myself,
    attaches great value to them, from the ability of many of the articles.
    One article, entitled "Instructions to Missionaries," is equal to any
    thing from the pen of T. Hood. May it not have been written by him?

    2. Portraits of the Worthies of Westminster Hall, with their
    Autographs, being Fac-Similes of Original Sketches found in the
    Note-Book of a Briefless Barrister. London: Thomas and William Boone,
    480. Strand. Small 8vo.

    Part I. Price Twenty Shillings. Twenty Sketches (very clever).

    3. Dictionary of Terms employed by the French in Anatomy, Physiology,
    Pathology, &c., by Shirley Palmer, M.D. 8vo., 1834. Birmingham: Barlow.
    London: Longman & Co. Two Parts. Stops at the letter H.

    4. Quarterly Biographical Magazine, No. I., May, 1838. 8vo. London:
    Hunt & Hart.

    5. Complete Illustrations of the British Fresh-water Fishes. London: W.
    Wood. 8vo. Three Numbers.

    6. New and Compendious History of the County of Warwick, &c. By William
    Smith, F.R.S.A. 4to. Birmingham: W. Evans. London: J. T. Hinton, 4.
    Warwick Square. 1829. Ten Numbers, to be completed in Twelve. On my
    copy there is written, "Never finished." Is this the case?

    7. Fishes of Ceylon. By John Whitchurch Bennet, Esq., F.H.S. London:
    Longman & Co. 1828. 4to. Two Numbers. A Guinea each.

J. M.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

"_Hovd Maet of Laet._"--Will you kindly give me a translation of the above,
which is in the corner of an old Dutch panel painting in the style of
Ostade and Teniers, jun., in my possession?


_Hand in Church_ (Vol. viii., p. 454.).--What is the hand projecting under
chancel arch, Brighton old church?

A. C.

_Egger Moths._--What is the derivation of the word "egger," as applied to
several species of moths?


_The Yorkshire Dales_ (Vol. ii., p. 220.).--Is the Guide to the above by J.
H. Dixon published?

R. W. D.

_Ciss, Cissle, &c._--Can any of your readers give me any authority for a
written usage of these words, or any one of them: _ciss_, _siss_, _cissle_
or _cizzle_? They are often heard, but I have never seen them written, nor
can I find them in any dictionary.


_Inn Signs, &c._--Can any reader of "N. & Q." supply information respecting
inn and other signs; or refer to any printed books, or accessible MSS.,
relating to the subject?


_Smiths and Robinsons._--Could any of your correspondents inform me what
are the arms of Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester, those of the Smiths of
Willoughby, those of the Smiths of Crudely, in Lancashire, and those of the
Robinsons of the North Riding of Yorkshire? Also, in what church, and in
what year, did Lady Elizabeth Robinson, otherwise known as Betty of the
Boith, serve the office of churchwarden?


_Coin of Carausius._--A brass coin has lately come into my possession,
bearing on the obverse the head and inscription:


And on the reverse, a female figure, with spear and a branch:

    "PAX. AUG. S. P. MLXXI."

I believe it to have been struck by Carausius, an usurper of the end of the
third century, and my Query is as to the meaning of the letters MLXXI. Some
friends assert them to be the Roman numerals, making the year 1071, and
conclude it to have been struck at that date.

C. G.


_Verelst the Painter._--Can any of your readers inform me who was Jo.
Verelst? I have in my possession a picture bearing the signature, with the
addition of P. 1714. The celebrated artists of that name mentioned in the
_Dictionary of Painters_ cannot be the same.


_Latin Treatise on whipping School-boys._--What is the name of a modern
Latin author, who has written a treatise on the antiquity of the practice
of whipping school-boys? The work is alluded to in the _History of the
Flagellants_, p. 134., edit. 1777, but the author's name is not given.



_Whitewashing in Churches._--Can any of your correspondents inform me at
what period, and about what year it became the custom to cover over with
whitewash the many beautiful works of art, both in stone and wood, which
have of late years been brought to light in our cathedrals and churches in
the course of renovation?


_Surname "Kynoch."_--Can any of your correspondents supply any heraldic or
genealogical information regarding this name, a few families of which are
to be found in Moray and Aberdeen shires, North Britain?


_Dates of published Works._--Is it possible to ascertain the exact time of
publication of any book, for instance in the year 1724, either at
Stationers' Hall or elsewhere?


_Saw-dust Recipe._--There is a recipe existing somewhere for converting
saw-dust into palatable {149} human food. Can you tell me what it is, or
where it is to be found?

G. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Branks, or Gossips' Bridles._--Walton Church contains one of those strange
instruments with which our ancestors used to punish those dames who were
too free with the use of their tongues. They were called hanks [branks], or
gossips' bridles, and were intended to inclose the head, being fastened
behind by a padlock, and having attached to it a small piece of iron which
literally "held the tongue." Thus accoutred, the unhappy culprit was
marched through the village till she gave unequivocal signs of repentance
and humiliation. Can any one give some account of this curious instrument?



    [Fosbroke says that "the brank is a sugar-loaf cap made of iron
    hooping, with a cross at top, and a flat piece projecting inwards to
    lie upon the tongue. It was put upon the head of scolds, padlocked
    behind, and a string annexed, by which a man led them through the
    towns." (See also Brand's _Popular Antiquities_, vol. iii. p. 108.,
    Bohn's edition.) Engravings of them will be found in Plot's _History of
    Staffordshire_, p. 389., and in Brands _History of Newcastle_, vol. ii.
    p. 192. In the _Historical Description of the Tower of London_, p. 54.,
    edit. 1774, occurs the following libellous squib on the fair sex:
    "Among the curiosities of the Tower is a collar of torment, which, say
    your conductors, used formerly to be put about the women's neck that
    cuckolded their husbands, or scolded them when they came home late; but
    that custom is left off now-a-days, to prevent quarrelling for collars,
    there not being smiths enough to make them, as most married men are
    sure to want them at one time or another." Waldron, in his _Description
    of the Isle of Man_, p. 80., thus notices this instrument of
    punishment: "I know nothing in the Manx statutes or punishments in
    particular but this, which is, that if any person be convicted of
    uttering a scandalous report, and cannot make good the assertion,
    instead of being fined or imprisoned, they are sentenced to stand in
    the market-place, on a sort of scaffold erected for that purpose, with
    their tongue in a noose made of leather, which they call a _bridle_,
    and having been exposed to the view of the people for some time, on the
    taking off this machine, they are obliged to say three times, 'Tongue,
    thou hast lyed.'"]

_Not caring a Fig for anything._--What is the origin of this expression?



    [Nares informs us that the real origin of this expression may be found
    in Stevens and Pineda's Dictionaries under _Higa_; and, in fact, the
    same phrase and allusion pervaded all modern Europe: as, _Far le
    fiche_, Ital.; _Faire la figue_, Fr.; _Die Feigen weisen_, Germ., _De
    vÿghe setten_, Dutch. (See Du Cange, in _Ficha_.) Johnson says, "To
    _fig_, in Spanish, _higas dar_, is to insult by putting the thumb
    between the fore and middle finger. From this Spanish custom we yet say
    in contempt, _A fig for you_." To this explanation Mr. Douce has added
    the following note: "Dr. Johnson has properly explained this phrase;
    but it should be added, that it is of Italian origin. When the Milanese
    revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, they placed the
    Empress his wife upon a mule with her head towards the tail, and
    ignominiously expelled her their city. Frederick afterwards besieged
    and took the place, and compelled every one of his prisoners, on pain
    of death, to take with his teeth a _fig_ from the posteriors of a mule.
    The party was at the same time obliged to repeat to the executioner the
    words _Ecco la fica_. From this circumstance _far la fica_ became a
    term of derision, and was adopted by other nations. The French say
    likewise, _faire la figue_."]

_B. C. Y._--Can you give me any information respecting the famous B. C. Y.
row, as it was called, which occurred about fifty years ago? A newspaper
was started expressly to explain the meaning of the letters, which said it
was "Beware of the Catholic Yoke;" but it was wrong.

H. Y.

    [These "No-Popery" hieroglyphics first appeared in the reign of Charles
    II. during the debates on the Exclusion Bill, and were chalked over all
    parts of Whitehall and the Houses of Parliament. O B. C. Y. was then
    the inscription, which meant, "O Beware of Catholic York." On their
    re-appearance in 1809 the Y. was much taller than the B. C.; but the
    use and meaning at this time of these initials still remains a query.]

_Earl Nugent's Poems._--I would be much obliged for any information
relating to the poems written by Robert, afterwards Earl Nugent, between
the years 1720 and 1780. It is supposed that they were first published in
some periodical, and afterwards appeared in a collected form.



    [A volume of his poems was published anonymously by Dodsley, and
    entitled _Odes and Epistles_; containing an Ode on his own Conversion
    from Popery: London, 1739, 8vo., 2nd edit. There are also other pieces
    by him in Dodsley's Collection, and the _New Foundling Hospital for
    Wit_. He also published _Faith_, a Poem; a strange attempt to overturn
    the Epicurean doctrine by that of the Trinity; and _Verses to the
    Queen_; with a New Year's Gift of Irish Manufacture, 1775, 4to.]

_Huntbach MSS._--Can you tell me where the Huntbach MSS. now lie? Shaw, in
his _History of Staffordshire_, drew largely from them.


    [Dr. Wilkes's Collections, with those of Fielde, Huntbach, Loxdale, and
    Shaw, as also the engraved plates and drawings, published and
    unpublished, relative to the _History of Staffordshire_, were, in the
    year 1820, in the possession of William Hamper, F.S.A., Deritend House,


_Holy Loaf Money._--In Dr. Whitaker's _Whalley_, p. 149., mention is made
of holy loaf money. What is meant by this?

T. I. W.

    [This seems to be some ecclesiastical due payable on Hlaf-mass, or
    Loaf-mass, commonly called Lammas-Day (August 1st). See Somner and
    Junius. It was called Loaf or Bread-mass, because it was a day of
    oblation of grain, or of bread made of new wheat; and was also the
    holiday of St. Peter ad Vincula, when Peter-pence were paid. Du Cange
    likewise mentions the _Panis benedictus_, and that money was given by
    the recipients of it on the following occasion:--"Since the
    catechumens," says he, "before baptism could neither partake of the
    Divine Mysteries, nor consequently of the Eucharist, a loaf was
    consecrated and given to them by the priest, whereby they were prepared
    for receiving the body of Christ."]

_St. Philip's, Bristol._--Can you inform me when the Church of St. Philip,
Bristol, was made parochial, and in what year the Priory of Benedictines,
mentioned by William de Worcester in connexion with this church, was
dissolved, and when founded?


    [Neither Dugdale nor Tanner could discover any notices of this priory,
    except the traditionary account preserved in William of Worcester, p.
    20.: "---- juxta Cimiterium et Ecclesiam Sancti Philippi, ubi quondam
    ecclesia religiosorum et Prioratus scituatur." It was probably a cell
    to the Tewkesbury monastery; and the historians of Bristol state, that
    the exact time when it became parochial is not known; but it was very
    early, being mentioned in Gaunt's deeds before the year 1200; and, like
    St. James's, became a parish church through the accession of

_Foreign Universities._--Is there any history of the University of Bologna?
or where can be found any account of the foundation and constitution of the
foreign universities in general?

J. C. H. R.

    [Our correspondent will find some account of the foreign universities,
    especially of Bologna, in the valuable article "Universities,"
    _Encyclopædia Britannica_, vol. xxi., with numerous references to other
    works containing notices of them. Consult also "A Discovrse not
    altogether vnprofitable nor vnpleasant for such as are desirous to know
    the Situation and Customes of Forraine Cities without trauelling to see
    them: containing a Discovrse of all those Citties which doe flourish at
    this Day priuiledged Vniuersities. By Samuel Lewkenor. London, 1594,

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix. p. 55.)

The remarks of JOHN O' THE FORD of Malta deserve to be followed up by all
your correspondents who, at least, admit the possibility of "communications
with the unseen world." In order to facilitate the acquisition of the
requisite amount of facts, I beg to apprise JOHN O' THE FORD, and your
other correspondents and readers generally, that a Society was founded
about a year ago, and is now in existence, composed of members of the
University of Cambridge; the objects of which will be best gleaned from the
following extract from the Prospectus:

    "The interest and importance of a serious and earnest inquiry into the
    nature of the phenomena which are vaguely called 'supernatural,' will
    scarcely be questioned. Many persons believe that all such apparently
    mysterious occurrences are due, either to purely natural causes, or to
    delusions of the mind or senses, or to wilful deception. But there are
    many others who believe it possible that the beings of the unseen world
    may manifest themselves to us in extraordinary ways; and also are
    unable otherwise to explain many facts, the evidence for which cannot
    be impeached. Both parties have obviously a common interest in wishing
    cases of supposed 'supernatural' agency to be thoroughly sifted.... The
    main impediment to investigations of this kind is the difficulty of
    obtaining a sufficient number of clear and well-attested cases. Many of
    the stories current in tradition, or scattered up and down in books,
    may be exactly true; others must be purely fictitious; others again,
    probably the greater number, consist of a mixture of truth and
    falsehood. But it is idle to examine the significance of an alleged
    fact of this nature, until the trustworthiness, and also the extent of
    the evidence for it, are ascertained. Impressed with this conviction,
    some members of the University of Cambridge are anxious, if possible,
    to form an extensive collection of authenticated cases of supposed
    'supernatural' agency.... From all those who may be inclined to aid
    them, they request written communications, with full details of
    persons, times, and places."

The Prospectus closes with the following classification of phenomena:

    "I. Appearances of Angels. (1.) Good. (2) Evil.--II. Spectral
    appearances of--(1.) The beholder himself (_e.g._ 'Fetches' or
    'Doubles'). (2.) Other men, recognised or not. (i.) Before their death
    (_e.g._ 'second sight.') (a.) To one person. (b.) To several persons.
    (ii.) At the moment of their death. (a.) To one person. (b.) To several
    persons. 1. In the same place. 2. In several places. i. Simultaneously.
    ii. Successively. (iii.) After their death. In connexion with--(a.)
    Particular places remarkable for--1. Good deeds. 2. Evil deeds. (b.)
    Particular times (_e.g._ on the anniversary of any event, or at fixed
    seasons). (c.) Particular events (_e.g._ before calamity or death).
    (d.) Particular persons (_e.g._ haunted murderers).--III. 'Shapes'
    falling under neither of the former classes. (1.) Recurrent. In
    connexion with--(i.) Particular families (_e.g._ the 'Banshee'). (ii.)
    Particular places (_e.g._ the 'Mawth Dog'). (2.) Occasional. (i.)
    Visions signifying events, past, present, or future. (a.) By actual
    representation (_e.g._ 'second sight'). (b.) By symbol. (ii.) Visions
    of a fantastical nature.--IV. Dreams remarkable for {151} coincidences.
    (1.) In their occurrence. (i.) To the same person several times. (ii.)
    In the same form to several persons. (a.) Simultaneously. (b.)
    Successively. (2.) With facts. (i.) Past. (a.) Previously unknown. (b.)
    Formerly known, but forgotten. (ii.) Present, but unknown. (iii.)
    Future.--V. Feelings. A definite consciousness of a fact. (1.) Past: an
    impression that an event has happened. (2.) Present: sympathy with a
    person suffering or acting at a distance. (3.) Future:
    presentiment.--VI. Physical effects. (1.) Sounds. (i.) With the use of
    ordinary means (_e.g._ ringing of bells). (ii.) Without the use of any
    apparent means (_e.g._ voices). (2.) Impressions of touch (_e.g._
    breathings on the person).

    "Every narrative of 'supernatural' agency which may be communicated,
    will be rendered far more instructive if accompanied by any particulars
    as to the observer's natural temperament (_e.g._ sanguine, nervous,
    &c.), constitution (_e.g._ subject to fever, somnambulism, &c.), and
    state at the time (_e.g._ excited in mind or body, &c.)."

As I have no authority to give names, I can do no more than say that,
though not a member of the Society, I shall be happy to receive
communications and forward them to the secretary.



    [_The Night Side of Nature_ would seem to indicate that its ingenious,
    yet sober and judicious, authoress had forestalled the "Folk-lore"
    investigations of the projected Cambridge Society. Probably some of its
    members will not rest satisfied with a simple collection of phenomena
    relating to communications with the unseen world, but will exclaim with

     "Thou com'st in such a questionable shape,
      That I will _speak_ to thee!"

    and will endeavour to ascertain the _philosophy_ of those
    communications, as Newton did with the recorded data and phenomena of
    the mechanical or material universe. Whether the transcripts of some of
    the voluminous unpublished writings of Dionysius Andreas Freher,
    deposited in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 5767-5792.), will assist the
    inquirer in his investigations, we cannot confidently state; but in
    them he will find continual references to what Jacob Böhme terms "the
    eternal and astral magic, or the laws, powers and properties of the
    great Universal Will-Spirit of the two co-eternal worlds of darkness
    and light, and of this third or temporary principle." Freher was the
    principal illustrator of the writings of the celebrated Jacob Böhme,
    now exciting so much interest among the German literati; and, if we may
    credit William Law, it was from the principles of this remarkable man
    that Sir Isaac Newton derived his theory of fundamental powers. (See
    "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 247.) But on this and other matters we may
    doubtless expect to be well informed by Sir David Brewster, in his new
    "Memoir of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton."
    According to Law, the two-fold spiritual universe stands as near, and
    in a similar relation to this material mixed world, of darkness and
    light, evil and good, death and life, or rather the latter to the
    former, as water does to the gases of which it is essentially

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 54.)

Until your correspondent Q. designated the word _starvation_ as "an
Americanism," I never had the least suspicion that it was obtained from
that source. On the contrary, I remember to have heard some thirty or forty
years ago, that it was first employed by Harry Dundas, the first Viscount
Melville, who might have spoken with a brogue, but whose despatches were in
good intelligible English. I once asked his son, the second Viscount, whose
correctness must be fresh in the recollection of many of your readers, if
the above report was true, and he seemed to think that his father had
coined the word, and that it immediately got into general circulation. My
impression is, that it was already current during the great scarcity at the
end of the last, and the commencement of this century; but the dictionary
makers, those "who toil at the lower employments of life," as old Sam
Johnson termed it, are not apt to be alert in seizing on fresh words, and
"starvation" has shared in the general neglect.

If you permit me I will, however, afford them my humble aid, by
transcribing some omitted words which I find noted in a little Walker's
_Dictionary_, printed in 1830, and which has been my companion in many
pilgrimages through many distant lands. Many of them may by this time have
found their way even into dictionaries, but I copy them as I find them.

  Compete (verb).
  Cupel (_see_ test).
  Stationery (writing materials).
  Mister (form of address).
  Growl (substantive).
  Avadavat (School for Scandal).
  Celt (formed of touchstone).
  Curry (substantive).
  Resile (verb).


However "strange it may appear, it is nevertheless quite true," that this
word, "_Starvation_ {152} (from the verb), state of perishing from cold or
hunger," is to be found, and thus defined, in "An Appendix to Dr. Johnson's
English Dictionary," published along with the latter, by William Maver, in
2 vols. 8vo., Glasgow, 1809, now forty-five years ago. In his preface to
this Appendix he says:

    "In the compilation the editor is principally indebted to Mr. Mason,
    whose labours in supplying the deficiencies of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary
    have so much enriched the vocabulary of our language, that every
    purchaser of the quarto edition should avail himself of a copy of Mr.
    Mason's Supplement."

Whether or not Mr. Maver drew the word "starvation" from Mr. Mason's
Supplement, I cannot say; but from old date in the west of Scotland it has
been, and is still, popularly and extensively used in the exact senses
given to it by Mr. Maver as above. I think it much more likely to be of
Scottish than of American origin, and that Mr. Webster may have picked it
up from some of our natives in this country.

I may add, that in early life I often spoke with Mr. Maver, who was a most
intelligent literary man. In 1809 he followed the business of a bookseller
in Glasgow, but from some cause was not fortunate, and afterwards followed
that of a book auctioneer, and may be dead fully thirty years ago. His
edition of, and Appendix to, Johnson were justly esteemed; the latter
"containing several thousand words omitted by Dr. Johnson, and such as have
been introduced by good writers since his time," with "the pronunciation
according to the present practice of the best orators and orthoepists" of
the whole language.

G. N.

This word was first introduced into the English language by Mr. Dundas, in
a debate in the House of Commons on American affairs, in 1775. From it he
obtained the nick-name of "Starvation Dundas." (Vide the _Correspondence
between Horace Walpole and Mason_, vol. ii. pp. 177. 310. 396., edition
1851.) The word is of irregular formation, the root starve being Old
English, while the termination _-ation_ is Latin.

E. G. R.

The word may perhaps be originally American; but if the following anecdote
be correct, it was introduced into this country long before Webster
compiled his _Dictionary_:

    "The word _starvation_ was first introduced into the English language
    by Mr. Dundas, in a speech in 1775 on an American debate, and hence
    applied to him as a nickname, 'Starvation Dundas.' 'I shall not,' said
    he, 'wait for the advent of starvation from Edinburgh to settle my
    judgment.'"--_Letters of Horace Walpole and Mason_, vol. ii. p. 396.

J. R. M., M.A.

Throughout this part of the country, "starved" always refers to cold, never
to hunger. To express the latter the word "hungered" is always used: thus,
many were "like to have been hungered" in the late severe weather and hard
times. This is clearly the scriptural phrase "an hungred." To "starve" is
to perish; and it is a common expression in the south, "I am quite perished
with cold;" which answers to our northern one, "I am quite starved."

H. T. G.


I cannot ascertain the period of the adoption of the unhappily common word
"starvation" in our language, but it is much older than your correspondent
Q. supposes. It occurs in the _Rolliad_:

 "'Tis but to fire another Sykes, to plan
  Some new _starvation_ scheme for Hindostan."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 617.)

R. W. CARTER gives an account of folk lore in reference to Osmotherley, and
expresses a desire to know if his statement is authentic. I have
endeavoured to make myself acquainted with Yorkshire folk lore, and beg to
inform MR. CARTER that his statement approaches as near the truth as
possible. In my early days I frequently had recited to me, by a respectable
farmer who had been educated on the borders of Roseberry (and who obtained
it from the rustics of the neighbourhood), a poetical legend, in which all
the particulars of this curious tradition are embodied. It is as follows:

 "In Cleveland's vale a village stands,
  Though no great prospect it commands;
  As pleasantly for situation
  As any village in the nation.
  Great Ayton it is call'd by name;
  But though I am no man of fame,
  Yet do not take me for a fool,
  Because I live near to this town;
  But let us take a walk and see
  This noted hill call'd Roseberry,
  Compos'd of many a cragged stone,
  Resembling all one solid cone,
  Which, monumental-like, have stood
  Ever since the days of Noah's flood.
  Here cockles ... petrified,
  As by the curious have been tried,
  Have oft been found upon its top,
 'Tis thought the Deluge had cast up.
 'Tis mountains high (you may see that),
  Though not compar'd with Ararat.
  Yet oft at sea it doth appear,         }
  To ships that northern climates steer, }
  A land-mark, when the weather's clear. }
  If many ships at sea there be,
  A charming prospect then you'll see;
  Don't think I fib, when this you're reading,
  They look like sheep on mountains feeding.
  Then turn your eyes on the other hand,
  As pleasing views you may command.
  For thirty miles or more, they say,      }
  The country round you may survey,        }
  When the air's serene and clear the day. }
  There is a cave near to its top,
  Vulgarly call'd the Cobbler's Shop,
  By Nature form'd out of the rock,
  And able to withstand a shock.
  On the north side there is a well,
  Relating which this Fame doth tell:
  Prince Oswy had his nativity        }
  Computed by astrology,              }
  That he unnatural death should die. }
  His mother to this well did fly     }
  To save him from sad destiny;       }
  But one day sleeping in the shade,
  Supposing all secure was made,
  Lo! sorrow soon gave place to joy;
  This well sprung up and drown'd the boy."

It is confidently stated, in the neighbourhood of Osmotherley and
Roseberry, that Prince Oswy and his mother were both interred at
Osmotherley, from whence comes the name of the place, Os-by-his-mother-lay,
or Osmotherley.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 51.)

As another and historically-interesting specimen of echo poetry, perhaps
the readers of "N. & Q." may not dislike to see preserved in your pages the
following translation from the French. The original publication, it is
said, exposed the bookseller, Palm of Nuremberg, to trial by court-martial.
He was sentenced to be shot at Braunau in 1807--a severe retribution for a
few lines of echo poetry. It is entitled

 "_Bonaparte and the Echo._

  _Bon._ Alone, I am in this sequestered spot not overheard.

  _Echo._ Heard!

  _Bon._ 'Sdeath! Who answers me? What being is there nigh?

  _Echo._ I.

  _Bon._ Now I guess! To report my accents Echo has made her task.

  _Echo._ Ask.

  _Bon._ Knowest thou whether London will henceforth continue to resist?

  _Echo._ Resist.

  _Bon._ Whether Vienna and other Courts will oppose me always?

  _Echo._ Always.

  _Bon._ O, Heaven! what must I expect after so many reverses?

  _Echo._ Reverses.

  _Bon._ What? should I, like a coward vile, to compound be reduced?

  _Echo._ Reduced.

  _Bon._ After so many bright exploits be forced to restitution?

  _Echo._ Restitution.

  _Bon._ Restitution of what I've got by true heroic feats and martial

  _Echo._ Yes.

  _Bon._ What will be the fate of so much toil and trouble?

  _Echo._ Trouble.

  _Bon._ What will become of my people, already too unhappy?

  _Echo._ Happy.

  _Bon._ What should I then be, that I think myself immortal?

  _Echo._ Mortal.

  _Bon._ The whole world is filled with the glory of my name, you know.

  _Echo._ No.

  _Bon._ Formerly its fame struck this vast globe with terror.

  _Echo._ Error.

  _Bon._ Sad Echo, begone! I grow infuriate! I die!

  _Echo._ Die!"

It may be added that Napoleon himself (_Voice from St. Helena_, vol. i. p.
432.), when asked about the execution of Palm, said:

    "All that I recollect is, that Palm was arrested by order of Davoust, I
    believe, tried, condemned, and shot, for having, while the country was
    in possession of the French and under military occupation, not only
    excited rebellion amongst the inhabitants, and urged them to rise and
    massacre the soldiers, but also attempted to instigate the soldiers
    themselves to refuse obedience to their orders, and to mutiny against
    their generals. _I believe_ that he met with a fair trial."



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 15.)

In a curious old pamphlet of twenty-three pages, entitled _Everybody's
Business is Nobody's Business answer'd Paragraph by Paragraph_, by a
Committee of Women-Servants and Footmen, London, printed by T. Read for the
author, and sold by the booksellers of London, and ... price one penny
(without date), the following passage occurs:

    "The next great Abuse among us is, that under the Notion of cleaning
    our Shoes, above ten Thousand Wicked, Idle, Pilfering Vagrants are
    permitted to stroll about our City and Suburbs. These are called the
    _Black-Guard_, who Black your Honour's Shoes, and incorporate
    themselves under the Title of the _Worshipful Company of Japanners_.
    But the Subject is so low that it becomes disagreeable even to myself;
    give me leave therefore to propose a Way to clear the streets of those
    Vermin, and to substitute as many honest and industrious persons in
    their stead, who are now starving for want of bread, while these
    execrable {154} villains live (though in Rags and Nastiness) yet in
    Plenty and Luxury."

    "A(nswer). _The next Abuse you see is_, Black your shoes, your Honour,
    _and the_ Japanners _stick in his Stomach. We shall not take upon us to
    answer for these pitiful Scrubs, but in his own words_; the Subject is
    so low, that it becomes disagreeable even to us, _as it does_ even to
    himself, _and he may_ clear the Streets of these Vermin _in what Manner
    he pleases if the Law will give him leave, for we are in no want of
    them; we are better provided for already in that respect by our Masters
    and their Sons_."

G. N.

The following lines by Charles, Earl of Dorset and Middlesex (the writer of
the famous old song "To all you ladies now at land"), are an instance of
the application of this term to the turbulent link-boys, against whom the
proclamation quoted by MR. CUNNINGHAM was directed. Their date is probably
a short time before that of the proclamation:

 "Belinda's sparkling wit and eyes,
    United cast so fierce a light,
  As quickly flashes, quickly dies;
    Wounds not the heart, but burns the sight.
  Love is all gentleness, Love is all joy;
    Sweet are his looks, and soft his pace:
  _Her_ Cupid _is a black-guard boy,_
    _That runs his link full in your face_."

F. E. E.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 464. 624.; Vol. ix., p. 63.)

I believe MR. KEIGHTLEY is perfectly right in his conjecture, so far as
Schiller is concerned. _Wurm_, without any prefix, _had_ the sense of
serpent in German. Adelung says it was used for all animals without feet
who move on their bellies, serpents among the rest. Schiller does not seem
to have had Shakspeare in his thoughts, but the proverb quoted by Adelung:

    "Auch das friedlichste Würmchen _beiszt_, wenn man es treten will."

In this proverb there is evidently an allusion to the serpent, as if of the
same nature with the worm; which, as _we_ know, neither _stings_ nor
_bites_ the foot which treads on it. Shakspeare therefore says "will turn,"
making a distinction, which Schiller does _not_ make. In the translation
Coleridge evidently had Shakspeare in his recollection; but he has not lost
Schiller's idea, which gives the worm a serpent's _sting_. _Vermo_ is
applied both by Dante and Ariosto to the Devil, as the "great serpent:"

                     "... I' mi presi
  Al pel del _vermo_ reo, che 'l mondo fora."
                          _Inferno_, C. XXXV.

 "Che al gran _vermo_ infernal mette la briglia."
              _Orlando furioso_, C. XLV. st. 84.

E. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

With deference to C. B. d'O., I consider that _Wurm_ is used, in poetry at
least, to designate any individual of the tribe of _reptiles_. In the
_Kampf mit dem Drachen_, the rebuke of the "Master" is thus conveyed:

 "Du bist ein Gott dem Volke worden,
  Du kommst ein Feind zurück dem Orden,
  Und einen schlimmern _Wurm_ gebar.
  Dein Herz, als deiser _Drache_ war,
  Die _Schlange_ die das Herz vergiftet,
  Die Zwietracht und Verderben stiftet!"

The monster which had yielded to the prowess of the disobedient son of the
"Order" is elsewhere called "der _Wurm_:"

 "Hier hausete _der Wurm_ und lag,
  Den Raub erspähend Nacht und Tag;"

while the "counterfeit presentment" of it--"Alles _bild ich nach
genau_"--is delineated in the following lines:

 "In eine _Schlange_ endigt sich,
  Des Rückens ungeheure Länge
  Halb _Wurm_ erschien, halb Molch und Drache."

The word in question is in this passage applicable perhaps to the _serpent_
section, but we have seen that it is used to denote the entire living

A. L.

Middle Temple.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 75.)

I am inclined to think that MR. HALLIWELL has been misled by his old
law-books, for upon looking at the principal authorities upon this point, I
cannot find any such interpretation of the term _inheritance_ as that
quoted by him from Cowell. The words "the inheritance," in the passage
"heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, Gent., deceased," would
most certainly appear to imply that Shakspeare inherited the lands as
heir-at-law to some one. But, however, it must not be concluded upon this
alone that the poet's father was a landed proprietor, as the inheritance
could proceed from any other ancestor to whom Shakspeare was by law heir.

Blackstone, in his _Commentaries_, has the following:

    "Descent, or hereditary succession, is the title whereby a man on the
    death of his ancestor acquires his estate by right of representation,
    as his heir-at-law. An heir, therefore, is he upon whom the law casts
    the estate immediately on the death of the ancestor: and an estate, so
    descending to the heirs, is in Law called _the inheritance_."--Vol. ii.
    p. 201.

{155} Again:

    "Purchase, _perquisitio_, taken in its largest and most extensive
    sense, is thus defined by Littleton; the possession of lands and
    tenements which a man hath by his own act or agreement, and not by
    descent from any of his ancestors or kindred. In this sense it is
    contra-distinguished from acquisition by right of blood, and includes
    every other method of coming to an estate, _but merely that by
    inheritance_: wherein the title is vested in a person, not by his own
    act or agreement, but by the single operation of law."--Vol. ii. p.

Thus it is clear the possession of an estate by inheritance is created only
by a person being heir to it; and the mere purchase of it, though it vests
the fee simple in him, can but make him the _assign_ and not the _heir_.
The nomination (as it would be in the case of a purchase) of an heir to
succeed to the inheritance, has no place in the English law; the maxim
being "Solus Deus hæredem facere potest, non homo;" and all other persons,
whom a tenant in fee simple may please to appoint as his successors, are
not his heirs but his assigns. (See _Williams on the Law of Real


MR. HALLIWELL is perfectly right in his opinion as to the expression
"heretofore the _inheritance_ of William Shakspeare." All that that
expression in a deed means is, that Shakspeare was the absolute owner of
the estate, so that he could sell, grant, or devise it; and in case he did
not do so, it would descend to his heir-at-law. The term has no reference
to the mode by which the estate came to Shakspeare, but only to the nature
of the estate he had in the property. And as a man may become possessed of
such an estate in land by gift, purchase, devise, adverse possession, &c.,
as well as by descent from some one else, the mere fact that a man has such
an estate affords no inference whatever as to the mode in which he became
possessed of it. The authorities on the subject are Littleton, section ix.,
and Co. Litt., p. 16. (a), &c. A case is there mentioned so long ago as the
6 Edw. III., where, in an action of waste, the plaintiff alleged that the
defendant held "de hæreditate suâ," and it was ruled that, albeit the
plaintiff had purchased the reversion, the allegation was sufficient.

In very ancient deeds the word is very commonly used where it _cannot_ mean
an estate that has descended to an heir, but _must_ mean an estate that may
descend to an heir. Thus, in a grant I have (without date, and therefore
probably before A.D. 1300), Robert de Boltone grants land to John, the son
of Geoffrey, to be held by the said John and his heirs "in feodo et
hæreditate in perpetuum." This plainly shows that _hæreditas_ is here used
as equivalent to "fee simple." I have also sundry other equally ancient
deeds, by which lands were granted to be held "jure hæreditaris," or
"liberè, quietè, _hæreditariè_, et in pace." Now these expressions plainly
indicate, not that the land has descended to the party as heir, but that it
is granted to him so absolutely that it may descend to his heir; in other
words, that an _estate of inheritance_, and not merely for life or for
years, is granted by the deed.

S. G. C.

MR. HALLIWELL'S exposition of the term "inheritance," quoted from the
Shakspeare deed, is substantially correct, and there can be no question but
that the sentence "heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, Gent.,
deceased," was introduced in such deed, simply to show that Shakspeare was
formerly the _absolute owner in fee simple_ of the premises comprised
therein, and not to indicate that he had acquired them by descent, either
as heir of his father or mother, although he might have done so. As MR.
HALLIWELL appears to attach some importance to the word "purchase," as used
by Cowell in his definition of the term "inheritance," the following
explanation of the word "purchase" may not prove unacceptable to him.

Purchase--"Acquisitum, perquisitum, purchasium"--signifies the _buying_ or
acquisition of lands and tenements, with _money_, or by taking them by deed
or agreement, and _not by descent or hereditary right_. (Lit. xii.; Reg.
Orig., 143.) In Law a man is said to come in by purchase when he acquires
lands by legal conveyance, and he hath a lawful estate; and a purchase is
always intended by title, either from some consideration or by gift (for a
gift is in Law a purchase), whereas descent from an ancestor cometh of
course by act of law; also all contracts are comprehended under this word
purchase. (Coke on _Littleton_, xviii., "Doctor and Student," c. 24.)
Purchase, in opposition to descent, is taken largely: if an estate comes to
a man from his ancestors without writing, that is a descent; but where a
person takes an estate from an ancestor or others, by deed, will, or gift,
and _not as heir-at-law_, that is a purchase. This explanation might be
extended, but it is not necessary to carry it farther for the purpose of
MR. HALLIWELL'S inquiry.


The word "inheritance" was used for hereditament, the former being merely
the French form, the latter the Latin. Littleton (§ 9.) says:

    "Et est ascavoir que cest parol (enheritance) nest pas tant solement
    entendus lou home ad terres ou tenementes per discent de heritage, mes
    auxi chescun fee simple ou taile que home ad per son purchase puit
    estre dit enheritance, pur ceo que ses heires luy purront enheriter.
    Car en briefe de droit que home portera de terre, que fuit de son
    purchase demesne, le briefe dira: Quam clamat esse jus et
    hereditamentum suum. Et issint serra dit en divers auters briefes, que
    home ou feme portera de son purchase demesne, come il appiert per le


The word is still in use, and signifies what is capable of being inherited.

H. P.

Lincoln's Inn.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 10.)

Your correspondent W. H. M. has called my attention to his Note, and
requested me to answer the third of his Queries.

The present rightful heir to the barony of Fairfax, should he wish to claim
it, is a citizen of the United States, and a resident in the State of
Virginia. He is addressed, as any other American gentleman would be, Mr.,
when personally spoken to, and as an Esquire in correspondence.

A friend of mine, Captain W., has thus kindly answered the other Queries of
W. H. M.:

1. Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton in Yorkshire was employed in several
diplomatic affairs by Queen Elizabeth, and particularly in negotiations
with James VI. of Scotland. By Charles I. he was created a peer of
Scotland, his patent having been dated at Whitehall on Oct. 18, A.D. 1627.

2. The family of Fairfax never possessed property, or land, in Scotland,
and had no connexion with that country beyond their peerage. Many English
gentlemen were created peers of Scotland by the Stuart kings, although
unconnected with the nation by descent or property. I may cite the
following instances:--The old Yorkshire House of Constable of Burton
received a peerage in the person of Sir Henry Constable of Burton and
Halsham; by patent, dated Nov. 14, 1620, Sir Henry was created Viscount
Dunbar and Lord Constable. Sir Walter Aston of Tixal in Staffordshire,
Bart., was created Baron Aston of Forfar by Charles I., Nov. 28, 1627. And,
lastly, Sir Thomas Osborne of Kineton, Bart., was created by Charles II.,
Feb. 2, 1673, Viscount Dumblane.

3. Answered.

4. William Fairfax, fourth son of Henry Fairfax of Tolston, co. York,
second son of Henry, fourth Lord Fairfax, settled in New England in
America, and was agent for his cousin Thomas, sixth lord, and had the
entire management of his estates in Virginia. His third and only surviving
son, Bryan Fairfax, was in holy orders, and resided in the United States.
On the death of Robert, seventh Lord Fairfax, July 15, 1793, this Bryan
went to England and preferred his claim to the peerage, which was
determined in his favour by the House of Lords. He then returned to
America. Bryan Fairfax married a Miss Elizabeth Cary, and had several
children. (Vide Douglas, and Burke's _Peerage_.)

There are several English families who possess Scottish peerages, but they
are derived from Scottish ancestors, as Talmash, Radclyffe, Eyre, &c.

Perhaps the writer may be permitted to inform your correspondent W. H. M.
that the term "subject" is more commonly and correctly applied to a person
who owes allegiance to a crowned head, and "citizen" to one who is born and
lives under a republican form of government.

W. W.


1. Thomas, first Lord Fairfax (descended from a family asserted to have
been seated at Towcester, co. Northampton, at the time of the Norman
invasion and subsequently of note in Yorkshire), accompanied the Earl of
Essex into France, temp. Eliz., and was knighted by him in the camp before
Rouen. He was created a peer of Scotland, 4th May, 1627; but why of
Scotland, or for what services, I know not.

2. I cannot discover that the family ever possessed lands in Scotland. They
were formerly owners of Denton Castle, co. York (which they sold to the
family of Ibbetson, Barts.), and afterwards of Leeds Castle, Kent.

3. Precise information on this point is looked for from some transatlantic

4. The claim of the Rev. Bryan, eighth Lord Fairfax, was admitted by the
House of Lords, 6th May, 1800 (_H. L. Journals_). He was, I presume, born
before the acknowledgment of independence.

5. The title seems to be erroneously retained in the Peerages, as the
gentleman now styled Lord Fairfax cannot, it is apprehended, be a
natural-born subject of the British Crown, or capable of inheriting the
dignity. It seems, therefore, that the peerage, if not extinct, awaits
another claimant. As a direct authority, I may refer to the case of the
Scottish earldom of Newburgh, in the succession to which the next heir (the
Prince Gustiniani), being an alien, was passed over as a legal nonentity.
(See _Riddell on Scottish Peerages_, p. 720.) There is another case not
very easily reconcilable with the last, viz. that of the Earl of Athlone,
who, though a natural-born subject of the Prince of Orange, was on 10th
March, 1795, permitted to take his seat in the House of Lords in Ireland
(_Journals H. L. I._). Perhaps some correspondent will explain this case.

H. G.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Mr. Lyte on Collodion._--When I had the pleasure of meeting you in London,
I promised that I would write to you from this place, and give you a
detailed account of my method of making the collodion, of which I left a
sample with you; but since then have been making a series of experiments,
with a view, first, to simplifying my present formulæ, and next, to produce
two collodions, one of great sensibility, the other of rather slower
action, but producing better half-tones. I have also been considering the
subject of {157} printing, and the best methods of producing those
beautiful black tints which are so much prized; and I think that, although
the processes formerly given all of them produce this effect with tolerable
certainty, yet many operators, in common with myself, have met with the
most provoking failures on this head, where they felt the most certain of
good results.

I do not pretend to make a collodion which is different in its ingredients
from that compounded by others. The only thing is that I am anxious to
define the best proportions for making it, and to give a formula which even
the most unpractised operator may work by. First, to produce the collodion
I always use the soluble paper prepared according to the method indicated
by MR. CROOKES, and to which I adverted in "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 252.
Take of colourless nitric acid of 1.50, and sulphuric acid of 1.60, equal
quantities by measure, and mix them; then plunge into the mixture as much
of the best Swedish filtering paper (Papier Joseph is also very good) as
the liquid will cover; it must be placed in it a single piece at a time.
Cover the basin, and let it remain a night, or at least some hours. Then
pour off the liquid, and wash the paper till its washings cease to taste
the least acid, or to redden litmus paper. Then dry it. Of this paper I
take 180 grains to one pint of ether, and having placed them together, I
add alcohol drop by drop, till the ether begins to dissolve the paper,
which will be denoted by the paper becoming quite transparent. I have
rather increased the quantity of paper to be added, as the after treatment
rather thins the collodion. This, when shaken up and completely dissolved,
forms the collodion. To sensitize I use two preparations, one prepared with
potassium, the other with ammonium compounds; and, contrary to what many
operators find the case, I find that the potassium gives the most rapid
results. To prepare the potassium sensitizer, I take two bottles of, we
will suppose, 6 oz. each; into one of these I put about half an ounce of
iodide of potassium in fine powder, and into the other an equal quantity of
bromide of potassium, also pounded; we will call these No. 1. and No. 2. I
fill the bottle No. 1. with absolute alcohol, taking great care that there
is no oxide of amyle in it, as that seriously interferes with the action of
the collodion. After leaving the alcohol in No. 1. for two hours, or
thereabouts, constantly shaking it, let it settle, and then quite clear
decant it off into No. 2., where leave it again, with constant shaking, for
two hours, and when settled decant the clear liquid into a third bottle for
use. The oxide of amyle may be detected by taking a portion of the alcohol
between the palms of the hands, and rubbing them together, till the alcohol
evaporates, after which, should oxide of amyle be present, it will easily
be detected by its smell, which is not unlike that exhaled by a diseased
potato. Of the liquid prepared, take one part to add to every three parts
of collodion. The next, or ammonium sensitizer, is made as follows. Take

  Absolute alcohol     10 oz.
  Iodide of ammon.    100 grs.
  Bromide of ammon.    25 grs.

Mix, and when dissolved, take one part to three of collodion, as before. I
feel certain that on a strict adherence to the correct proportion depends
all the success of photography; and as we find in the kindred process of
the daguerrotype, that if we add too much or too little of the bromine
sensitizer, we make the plate less sensitive, so in this process. When
making the first of these sensitizers, I always in each case let the
solution attain a temperature of about 60º before decanting, so as to
attain a perfectly equable compound on all occasions.

In the second, or ammonium sensitizer, the solution may be assisted by a
moderate heat, and when again cooled, may advantageously be filtered to
separate any sediment which may exist; but neither of these liquids should
ever be exposed to great cold.

I dissolve in my bath of nitrate of silver as much freshly precipitated
bromide of silver as it will take up. Next, as to the printing of positives
to obtain black tints, the only condition necessary to produce this result
is having an acid nitrate bath; whether the positive be printed on albumen
paper, or common salted paper, the result will always be the same. I have
tried various acids in the bath, viz. nitric, sulphuric, tartaric, and
acetic, and prefer the latter, as being the most manageable, and having a
high equivalent. The paper I now constantly use is common salted paper,
prepared as follows. Take

  Chloride of barium        180 grs.
  Chloride of ammon.        100 grs.
  Chloride of potassium     140 grs.
  Water                      10 oz.

Mix, and pour into a dish and lay the paper on the liquid, wetting only one
side; when it has lain there for about five minutes if French paper has
been used, if English paper till it ceases to curl and falls flat on the
liquid, let it be hung up by a bent pin to dry. These salts are better than
those generally recommended, as they do not form such deliquescent salts
when decomposed as the chloride of sodium does, and for this reason I
should have even avoided the chloride of ammonium, only that it so much
assists the tints; however, in company with the other salts, the nitrate of
ammon. formed does not much take up the atmospheric moisture, and I have
never found it stain an even unvarnished negative. To sensitize this paper

  Nitrate of silver        500 grs.
  Acetic acid, glacial       2 drs.
  Water                      5 oz.

Mix, and lay the paper on this solution for not less than five minutes, and
if English paper, double that time. The hyposulphite to be used may be a
very strong solution of twenty to twenty-five per cent., and this mode of
treatment will always be found to produce fine tints. After some time it
will be found that the nitrate bath will lose its acidity, and a drachm of
acetic acid may be again added, when the prints begin to take a red tone:
this will again restore the blacks. Lastly, the bath may of itself get too
weak, and then it will be best to place it on one side, and recover the
silver by any of the usual methods, and make a new bath. One word about the
addition of the bromide of {158} silver to the double iodide, as
recommended by DR. DIAMOND. I tried this, and feel most confident that it
produces no difference; as soon as the bromide of silver comes in contact
with the iodide of potassium, double decomposition ensues, and iodide of
silver is formed. Indeed, farther, this very double decomposition, or a
similar one, is the basis of a patent I have just taken for at the same
time refining silver and manufacturing iodide of potassium; a process by
which I much hope the enormous present price of iodide of potassium will be
much lowered.


  Hôtel de l'Europe,
  à Pau, Basses Pyrénées.

P.S.--Since writing the former part of this letter, I see in _La Lumière_ a
paper on the subject of printing positives, in part of which the addition
of nitric acid is recommended to the bath; but as my experiments have been
quite independent of theirs, and my process one of a different nature, I
still send it to you. When I have an opportunity, I will send a couple of
specimens of my workmanship. I had prepared some for the Exhibition, but
could not get them off in time. I may add that the developing agent I use
is the same in every way as that I have before indicated through the medium
of your pages; but where formic acid cannot be got, the best developer is
made as follows:

  Pyrogallic acid  27 grs.
  Acetic acid       6 drs.
  Water             9 oz.

_On Sensitive Collodion._--As I have lately received many requests from
friends upon the subject of the most sensitive collodion, I am induced to
send you a few words upon it.

Since my former communication, I believe a greater certainty of manufacture
has been attained, whereby the operator may more safely rely upon
uniformity of success.

I have not only tried every purchasable collodion, but my experiments have
been innumerable, especially in respect to the ammoniated salts, and I may,
I think, safely affirm that all preparations containing ammonia ought to be
rejected. Often, certainly, great rapidity of action is obtained; but that
collodion which acted so well on one day may, on the following, become
comparatively useless, from the change which appears so frequently to take
place in the ammoniacal compounds. That blackening and fogging, of which so
much has been said, I much think is one of the results of ammonia; but not
having, in my own manipulations, met with the difficulty, I have little
personal experience upon the subject.

The more simple a collodion is the better; and the following, from its
little varying and active qualities, I believe to be equal to any now in

A great deal has also been said upon the preparation of the simple
collodion, and that some samples, however good _apparently_, never
sensitize in a satisfactory manner. I have not experienced this difficulty
myself, or any appreciable variation.

The collodion made from the Swedish filtering paper, or the papier Joseph,
is preferable, from the much greater care with which it is used.

If slips of either of these papers be carefully and completely immersed for
four hours in a mixture of an equal part (by weight) of strong nitric acid
or nitrous acid (the aqua fortis of commerce) and strong sulphuric acid,
then _perfectly_ washed, so as to get entirely rid of the acids, the result
will be an entirely soluble material. About 100 grains of dry paper to a
pint (twenty ounces) of ether will form a collodion of the desired
consistence for photographic purposes. If too thick, it may be reduced by
pure ether or alcohol. However carefully this soluble paper or the gun
cotton is prepared, it is liable to decompose even when kept with care. I
would therefore advise it to be mixed with the ether soon after
preparation, as the simple collodion keeps exceedingly well. Excellent
simple collodion is to be procured now at the reasonable price of eight
shillings the pint, which will to many be more satisfactory than trusting
to their own operations.

_To make the sensitizing Fluid._--Put into a clean stoppered bottle,
holding more than the quantity required so as to allow of free shaking, six
drachms of iodide of potassium and one drachm of bromide of potassium; wet
them with one drachm of distilled water first, then pour into the bottle
ten ounces of spirits of wine (not alcohol); shake frequently until
dissolved. After some hours, if the solution has not taken place, add a few
more drops of water, the salts being highly soluble in water, though
sparingly so in rectified spirits; but care must be taken not to add too
much, as it prevents the subsequent adhesion of the collodion film to the

A drachm and a half to two drachms, according to the degree of intensity
desired, added to the ounce of the above collodion, which should have
remained a few days to settle before sensitizing, I find to act most
satisfactorily; in fine weather it is instantaneous, being, after a good
shake, fit for immediate use. If the sensitive collodion soon assumes a
reddish colour, it is improved by the addition of one or two drops of a
saturated solution of cyanide of potassium; but great care must be used, as
this salt is very active.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Portrait of Alva_ (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--There is a fine portrait of the
Duke of Alva in the Royal Museum at Amsterdam, by D. Barendz (No. 14. in
the _Catalogue_ of 1848); and MR. WARDEN will find a spirited etching of
him, decorated with the Order of the Golden Fleece, in the _Historia
Belgica_ of Meteranus (folio, 1597), at p. 63. The latter portrait is very
Quixotic in aspect at the first glance, but the expression becomes more
Satanic as the eye rests on it.


_Lord Mayor of London not a Privy Councillor_ (Vol. iv. _passim_; Vol. ix.,
p. 137.).--L. HARTLY a little misstates Mr. Serjeant Merewether's evidence.
The learned serjeant only said that "he believed" the fact was so. But he
was undoubtedly mistaken, probably from confounding {159} the Privy Council
(at which the Lord Mayor _never_ appeared) with a meeting of other persons
(nobility, gentry, and others), who assemble on the same occasion in a
different room, and to which meeting (altogether distinct from the Privy
Council) the Lord Mayor is always summoned, as are the sheriffs, aldermen,
and a number of other notabilities, not privy councillors. This matter is
conclusively explained in Vol. iv., p.284.; but if more particular evidence
be required, it will be found in the _London Gazette_ of the 20th June,
1837, where the names of the privy councillors are given in one list to the
number of eighty-three, and in another list the names of the persons
attending the meeting to the number of above 150, amongst whom are the
local mayor, sheriffs, under-sheriffs, aldermen, common sergeants, city
solicitor, &c. As "N & Q." has reproduced the mistake, it is proper that it
should also reproduce the explanation.


_New Zealander and Westminster Bridge_ (Vol. ix., p. 74.).--Before I saw
the thought in Walpole's letter to Sir H. Mann, quoted in "N. & Q.," I
ventured to suppose that Mrs. Barbauld's noble poem, _Eighteen Hundred and
Eleven_, might have suggested Mr. Macaulay's well-known passage. The
following extracts extracts describe the wanderings of those who--

 "With duteous zeal, their pilgrimage shall take,
  From the blue mountains on Ontario's lake,
  With fond adoring steps to press the sod,
  By statesmen, sages, poets, heroes, trod."

 "Pensive and thoughtful shall the wanderers greet
  Each splendid square, and still untrodden street;
  Or of some crumbling turret, mined by time,
  The broken stairs with perilous step shall climb,
  Thence stretch their view the wide horizon round,
  By scatter'd hamlets trace its ancient bound,
  And choked no more with fleets, fair Thames survey,
  Through reeds and sedge pursue his idle way.
    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Oft shall the strangers turn their eager feet,
  The rich remains of ancient art to greet,
  The pictured walls with critic eye explore,
  And Reynolds be what Raphael was before,
  On spoils from every clime their eyes shall gaze,
  Egyptian granites and the Etruscan vase;
  And when, 'midst fallen London, they survey
  The stone where Alexander's ashes lay,
  Shall own with humble pride the lesson just,
  By Time's slow finger written in the dust."

J. M.

Cranwells, near Bath.

The beautiful conception of the New Zealander at some future period
visiting England, and giving a sketch of the ruins of London, noticed in
"N. & Q." as having been suggested to Macaulay by a passage in one of
Walpole's letters to Sir H. Mann, will be found more broadly expressed in
Kirke White's Poem on Time. Talking of the triumphs of Oblivion, he says:

 "Meanwhile the Arts, in second infancy,
  Rise in some distant clime; and then, perchance,
  Some bold adventurer, fill'd with golden dreams,
  Steering his bark through trackless solitudes,
  Where, to his wandering thoughts, no daring prow
  Had ever plough'd before,--espies the cliffs
  Of fallen Albion. To the land unknown
  He journeys joyful; and perhaps descries
  Some vestige of her ancient stateliness:
  Then he with vain conjecture fills his mind
  Of the unheard-of race, which had arrived
  At science in that solitary nook,
  Far from the civil world; and sagely sighs,
  And moralises on the state of man."

This hardly reads like a borrowed idea; and I should lean to a belief that
it was not. Kirke White's _Poems and Letters_ are but too little read.

J. S.


_Cui Bono_ (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--Reference to a dictionary would have
settled this. According to Freund, "Cui bono fuit=Zu welchem Zwecke, or
Wozu war es gut?" That is, To what purpose? or, For _whose_ good?


The syntax of this common phrase, with the ellipses supplied, is, "Cui
homini fuerit bono negotio?" To what person will it be an advantage?
Literally, or more freely rendered, Who will be the gainer by it? It was
(see _Ascon. in Cicer. pro Milone_, c. xii.) the usual query of Lucius
Cassius, the Roman judge, implying that the person benefiting by any crime
was implicated therein. (Consult Facciolati's _Dict. in voce_ BONUM.)


The correct rendering of this phrase is undoubtedly that given by F.
NEWMAN, "For the benefit of whom?" but it is generally used in such a
manner as to make it indifferent whether that, or the corrupted
signification "For what good?" was intended by the writer making use of it.
The latter is, however, the idea generally conveyed to the mind, and in
this sense it is used by the best writers. Thus, _e.g._:

    "The question '_cui bono_,' to what practical end and advantage do your
    researches tend? is one," &c.--Herschel's _Discourse on Nat.
    Philosophy_, p. 10.



_Barrels Regiment_ (Vol. viii., p. 620.; Vol. ix., p. 63.).--I am obliged
to H. B. C. for his attention to my Query, though it does not quite answer
my purpose, which was to learn the circumstances which occasioned a print
in my possession, entitled "The Old Scourge returned to Barrels." It
represents a regiment, the body of each {160} soldier being in the form of
a barrel, drawn up within view of Edinburgh Castle. A soldier is tied up to
the halberts in order to be flogged; the drummer intercedes: "Col., he
behaved well at Culloden." An officer also intercedes: "Pray Col. forgive
him, he's a good man." The Col.'s reply is, "Flog the villain, ye rascal."
Under the print--"And ten times a day whip the Barrels." I want to know who
this flogging Col. was; and anything more about him which gained for him
the unenviable title of Old Scourge.

E. H.

_Sir Matthew Hale_ (Vol. ix., p. 77.).--From Sir Matthew Hale, who was born
at Alderley, descends the present family of Hale of Alderley, co.
Gloucestershire. The eldest son of the head of the family represents West
Gloucestershire in parliament. The Estcourts of Estcourt, co.
Gloucestershire, are, I believe, also connexions of the family of Hale.


The descendants of Sir Matthew Hale still live at Alderley, near Wotton
Underedge, in Gloucestershire. I believe a Mr. Blagdon married the heiress
of Hale, and took her name. The late Robert Blagdon Hale, Esq., married
Lady Theodosia Bourke, daughter of the late Lord Mayo, and had two sons.
Robert, the eldest, and present possessor of Alderley, married a Miss
Holford. Matthew, a clergyman, also married; who appears by the Clergy List
to be Archdeacon of Adelaide, South Australia. Mr. John Hale, of
Gloucester, is their uncle, and has a family.


Southcote Lodge.

The Hales of Alderley in Gloucestershire claim descent from Sir Matthew
Hale, born and buried there. (See Atkins, p. 107.; Rudder, p. 218., and
Bigland, p. 30.) When Mr. Hale of Alderley was High Sheriff of
Gloucestershire in 1826, the judge then on circuit made a complimentary
allusion to it in court. The descent is in the female line, and the name
was assumed in 1784.


_Scotch Grievance_ (Vol. ix., p. 74.).--The Scottish coins of James VI.,
Charles I., William, have on the reverse a shield, bearing 1. and 4.
Scotland; 2. France and England quarterly; 3. Irish harp.


Under this head A DESCENDANT OF SCOTTISH KINGS asks: "Can any _coin_ be
produced, from the accession of James VI. to the English throne, on which
the royal arms are found, with Scotland in the first quarter, and England
in the second?"

Will you kindly inform your querist, that in my collection I have several
such coins, viz. a shilling of Charles I.; a mark of Charles II., date
1669; a forty-shilling piece of William III., date 1697: on each Scotland
is _first_ and _third_. I shall be most happy to submit these to your
inspection, or send them for the satisfaction of your correspondent.


24. Mark Lane.

_"Merciful Judgments of High Church," &c._ (Vol. ix., p. 97.).--The author
of this tract, according to the Bodleian Catalogue, was Matthew Tindal.

[Greek: Halieus].


_Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester_ (Vol. ix., p. 105.).--I can refer A. S.
to Camden's _History of Elizabeth_, where, under the year 1588, it

    "Neither was the publick joy anything abated by Leicester's death, who
    about this time, namely, on the 4th day of September, died of a
    continuall fever upon the way as he went towards Killingworth."

I can also refer him to Sir William Dugdale's _Baronage of England_, vol.
ii. p. 222., where I find it stated that he--

    "Design'd to retire unto his castle at Kenilworth. But being on his
    journey thitherwards, at Cornbury Park in Com. Oxon., he died upon the
    fourth of September, an. 1588, of a feaver, as 'twas said, and was
    buried at Warwick, where he hath a noble monument."

But neither in the above writers, nor in any more recent account of his
life, have I seen his death ascribed to poison. The ground on which
Stanfield Hall has been regarded as the birthplace of Amy Robsart is, that
her parents Sir John and Lady Elizabeth Robsart resided at Stanfield Hall
in 1546, according to Blomefield in his _History of Norfolk_, though where
he resided at his daughter's birth does not appear.

[Greek: Halieus].


_Fleet Prison_ (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--A list of the wardens will be found in
Burn's _History of Fleet Marriages_, 2nd edit., 1834. Occasional notices of
the under officers will also there be met with, and a list of wardens' and
jailors' fees.


_The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union in 1801_ (Vol. ix.,
p.35.).--Allow me to inform C. H. D. that I have in my possession a copy
(with MS. notes) of _Sketches of Irish Political Characters of the present
Day, showing the Parts they respectively take on the Question of the Union,
what Places they hold, their Characters as Speakers, &c._, 8vo. pp. 312,
London, 1799. Is this the book he wants? I know nothing of its author nor
of the Rev. Dr. Scott.


_"Les Lettres Juives"_ (Vol. viii., p. 541.).--The author of _Les Lettres
Juives_ was Jean Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, one of the most
prolific and amusing writers of the eighteenth century. {161} His principal
works are, _Histoire de l'Esprit Humain_, _Les Lettres Juives_, _Les
Lettres Chinoises_, _Les Lettres Cabalistiques_, and his _Philosophie du
bons Sens_. Perhaps your correspondent may be interested to learn that a
reply to the _Lettres Juives_ was published in 1739, La Haye, three vols.
in twelve, by Aubert de la Chenaye Des-Bois under the title of
_Correspondence historique, philosophique et critique, pour servir de
réponse aux Lettres Juives_.


_Sir Philip Wentworth_ (Vol. vii., p. 42.; Vol. viii., pp. 104. 184.).--In
Wright's _Essex_, vol. i. p. 645., Sir Philip Wentworth is said to have
married Mary, daughter of John, Lord Clifford. I do not recollect that
Wright cites authority. I know he has more than one error respecting the
Gonsles, who are in the same pedigree.


_General Fraser_ (Vol. viii., p. 586.).--Simon Fraser, Lieut.-Colonel, 24th
Regiment, and Brigadier-General was second in command under Burgoyne when
he advanced from Canada to New York with 7000 men in 1777. He fell at
Stillwater, a short time before the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga. He
was struck by a shot from a tree, as he was advancing at the head of his
troops; and died of his wound October 7, 1777. He was buried, as he had
desired, in the redoubt on the field, in the front of the American army
commanded by General Gates. During his interment, the incessant cannonade
of the enemy covered with dust the chaplain and the officers who assisted
in performing the last duties to his remains, they being within view of the
greatest part of both armies. An impression long prevailed among the
officers of Burgoyne's army, that if Fraser had lived, the issue of the
campaign, and of the whole war, would have been very different from what it
was. Burgoyne is said to have shed tears at his death. General Fraser's
regiment had been employed under Wolfe in ascending the Heights of Abraham,
Sept. 12, 1759; where, both before and after the fall of Wolfe, the
Highlanders rendered very efficient service. His regiment was also engaged
with three others under Murray at the battle of Quebec in 1760. Some
incidental mention of General Fraser will be found in Cannon's _History of
the 31st Regiment_, published by Furnivall, 30. Whitehall; but I am not
aware of any memoirs or life of him having been published.

J. C. B.

_Namby-Pamby_ (Vol. viii., pp 318. 390.).--Henry Carey, the author of
_Chrononhotonthologos_, and of _The Dragoness of Wantley_, wrote also a
work called _Namby-Pamby_, in burlesque of Ambrose Phillips's style of
poetry; and the title of it was probably intended to trifle with that
poet's name. Mr. Macaulay, in his Essay on _Addison and his Writings_,
speaks of Ambrose Phillips, who was a great adulator of Addison, as--

    "A middling poet, whose verses introduced a species of composition
    which has been called after his name, _Namby-Pamby_."

D. W. S.

_The Word "Miser"_ (Vol. ix., p. 12.).--Cf. the use of the word _miserable_
in the sense of miserly, mentioned amongst other Devonianisms at Vol. vii.,
p. 544. And see Trench's remarks on this word (_Study of Words_, p. 38. of
2nd edit.).

H. T. G.


_The Forlorn Hope_ (Vol. viii, p. 569.), _i.e._ the advanced guard.--This
explains what has always been to me a puzzling expression in Gurnall's
_Christian in Complete Armour_ (p. 8. of Tegg's 8vo. edit., 1845):

    "The fearful are _in the forlorn_ of those that march for hell."

See Rev. xxi. 8., where "the fearful and unbelieving" stand at the head of
the list of those who "shall have their part in the lake which burneth with
fire and brimstone."

H. T. G.


The true origin and meaning of _forlorn hope_ has no doubt been fully
explained in "N & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 569. Richardson's _Dictionary_ does
not countenance this view, but his example proves it conclusively. He only
gives one quotation, from North's _Plutarch_; and as it stands in the
dictionary, it is not easy to comprehend the passage entirely. On comparing
it, however, with the corresponding passage in Langhorne (Valpy's edition,
vol. iii. p. 97.), and again with Pompei's Italian version (vol. iii. p.
49.), I have no doubt that, by the term _forlorn hope_, North implied
merely an advanced party; for as he is describing a pitched battle and not
a siege, a modern forlorn hope would be strangely out of place.

Is _enfans perdus_ the idiomatic French equivalent, or is it only
dictionary-French? And what is the German or the Italian expression?



_Thornton Abbey_ (Vol. viii., p. 469.).--In the _Archæological Journal_,
vol. ii. p. 357., may be found not only an historical and architectural
account of this building, but several views; with architectural details of
mouldings, &c.

H. T. G.


_"Quid facies," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 539. Vol. ix., p. 18.).--In a curious
work written by the Rev. John Warner, D.D., called _Metronariston_, these
lines (as printed in Vol. ix., p. 18.) are quoted, and stated to be--

    "A punning Epigram on _Scylla as a type of Lust_, cited by Barnes."

{162} I have not the _Metronariston_ with me, and therefore cannot refer to
the page.

D. W. S.

_Christ-Cross-Row_ (Vol. iii., pp. 330. 465.; Vol. viii., p. 18.).--Quarles
(_Embl._ ii. 12.) gives a passage from St. Augustine commencing,--"Christ's
cross is the Christ-cross of all our happiness," but he gives no exact

Wordsworth speaks of

 "A look or motion of intelligence
  From infant conning of the Christ-cross-row."
                          _Excurs._ viii. p. 305.

These lines suggest the Query, Is this term for the alphabet still in use?
and, if so, in what parts of the country?


_Sir Walter Scott, and his Quotations from himself_ (Vol. ix, p. 72.).--I
beg to submit to you the following characteristic similarity of expression,
occurring in one of the poems and one of the novels of Sir Walter Scott. I
am not aware whether attention has been drawn to it in the letters of Mr.
Adolphus and Mr. Heber, as I have not the work at hand to consult:

 "His grasp, as hard as glove of mail,
  Forced the red blood-drop from the nail."
                  _Rokeby_, Canto I. Stan. 15.

    "He wrung the Earl's hand with such frantic earnestness, that his grasp
    forced the blood to start under the nail."--_Legend of Montrose._

N. L. T.

_Nightingale and Thorn_ (Vol. viii., p. 527.).--Add Young's _Night
Thoughts_, Night First, vers. 440-445.:

 "Griefs sharpest thorn hard pressing on my breast,
  I strive with wakeful melody to cheer
  The sullen gloom, sweet Philomel! like thee,
  And call the stars to listen--every star
  Is deaf to mine, enamour'd of thy lay."

H. T. G.


_Female Parish Clerks_ (Vol. viii., p. 474.).--Within the last
half-century, a Mrs. Sheldon discharged the duties of this post at the
parish church of Wheatley, five miles from Oxford, and near Cuddesdon, the
residence of the Bishop of Oxford. This clerkship was previously filled by
her husband; but, upon his demise, she became his successor. It is not a
week since that I saw a relation who was an eye-witness of this fact.



_Hour-glass Stand_ (Vol. ix., p. 64.).--There is an hour-glass stand of
very quaintly wrought iron, painted in various colours, attached to the
pulpit at Binfield, Berks.

J. R. M., M.A.

       *       *       *       *       *



The Rev. Edward Trollope, F.S.A., wisely conceiving that an illustrated
work, comprising specimens of the arms, armour, jewellery, furniture,
vases, &c., discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum, might be acceptable to
those numerous readers to whom the magnificent volumes, published by the
Neapolitan government, are inaccessible, has just issued a quarto volume
under the title of _Illustrations of Ancient Art, selected from Objects
discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum_. The various materials which he has
selected from the _Museo Borbonico_, and other works, and a large number of
his own sketches, have been carefully classified; and we think few will
turn from an examination of the forty-five plates of Mr. Trollope's
admirable outlines, without admiring the good taste with which the various
subjects have been selected, and acknowledging the light which they throw
upon the social condition, the manners, customs, and domestic life, of the
Roman people.

As the great Duke of Marlborough confessed that he acquired his knowledge
of his country's annals in the historical plays of Shakspeare, so we
believe there are many who find it convenient and agreeable to study them
in Miss Strickland's _Lives of the Queens of England_. To all such it will
be welcome news that the first and second volumes of a new and cheaper
edition, and which comprise the lives of all our female sovereigns, from
Matilda of Flanders to the unfortunate Anne Boleyn, are now ready; and will
be followed month by month by the remaining six. At the close of the work,
we may take an opportunity of examining the causes of the great popularity
which it has attained.

Mr. M. A. Lower has just published a small volume of antiquarian gossip,
under the title of _Contributions to Literature, Historical, Antiquarian,
and Metrical_, in which he discourses pleasantly on Local Nomenclature, the
Battle of Hastings, the Iron Works of the South-East of England, the South
Downs, Genealogy, and many kindred subjects; and tries his hand, by no
means unsuccessfully, at some metrical versions of old Sussex legends.
Several of the papers have already appeared in print, but they serve to
make up a volume which will give the lover of popular antiquities an
evening's pleasant reading.

We beg to call the attention of our readers to the opportunity which will
be afforded them on Wednesday next of hearing Mr. Layard lecture on his
recent _Discoveries at Nineveh_. As they will see by the advertisement in
our present Number, Mr. Layard has undertaken to do so for the purpose of
contributing to the schools and other parochial charities of the poor but
densely populated district of St. Thomas, Stepney.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--Mantell's _Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight,
&c._ This reprint of one of the many valuable contributions to geological
knowledge by the late lamented Dr. Mantell, forms the new volume of Bohn's
_Scientific Library_.--_Retrospective Review, No. VI._, containing
interesting articles on Drayton, Lambarde, Penn, Leland, and other writers
of note in English literature.--Dr. Lardner's _Museum of_ {163} _Science
and Art_, besides a farther portion of the inquiry, "The Planets, are they
inhabited Worlds?" contains essays on latitudes and longitudes, lunar
influences, and meteoric stones and shooting stars.--_Gibbon's Rome, with
Variorum Notes_, Vol. II. In a notice prefixed to the present volume, which
is one of Mr. Bohn's series of British Classics, the publisher, after
describing the advantages of the present edition as to print, paper,
editing, &c., observes: "The publisher of the unmutilated edition of
Humboldt's Cosmos hopes he has placed himself beyond the suspicion of
mutilating Gibbon."

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Notices to Correspondents.

J. B. WHITBORNE. _Where shall we address a letter to this Correspondent?_

OXFORD JEU D'ESPRIT. _We hope next week to lay before our Oxford friends a
reprint of a clever_ jeu d'esprit, _which amused the University some
five-and-thirty years since._

B. H. C. _Will this Correspondent, who states_ (p. 135.) _that he has found
the termination_ -by _in Sussex, be good enough to state the place to which
he refers?_

C. C. _The ballad of "Fair Rosamond" is printed in Percy's Reliques, in
the_ Pictorial Book of British Ballads, _and many other places; but the
lines quoted by our Correspondent--_

 "With that she dash'd her on the mouth,
    And dyed a double wound"--

_do not occur in it._

T. [Phi]. _Biographical notices of the author of_ Drunken Barnaby _will be
found in Chalmers' and Rose's Dictionaries. The best account of Richard
Brathwait is that by Joseph Haslewood, prefixed to his edition of_ Barnabæ
Itinerarium.--_Gurnall has been noticed in our_ Sixth Volume, pp. 414. 544.

W. FRASER. _Bishop Atterbury's portrait, drawn by Kneller, and engraved by
Vertue, is prefixed to vol. i. of the Bishop's_ Sermons and Discourses,
_edit. 1735. The portrait is an oval medallion; face round, nose prominent,
with large eye-brows, double chin, and a high expansive forehead, features
regular and pleasant, and indicative of intellect. He is drawn in his
episcopal habit, with a full-dress curled wig; beneath are his arms,
surmounted by the mitre._

I. R. R. _The song "O the golden days of good Queen Bess!" will be found
in_ The British Orpheus, a Selection of Songs and Airs, _p. 274., with the

TRENCH ON PROVERBS. _We cannot possibly find space for any further
discussion of the translation of_ Ps. cxxvii. 2.

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