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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 230, March 25, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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{261} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 230.]
SATURDAY, MARCH 25. 1854
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Original English Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of
    Malta, by William Winthrop                                 263

  Fata Morgana, by J. Macray                                   267

  On the Destruction of Monumental Brasses                     268

  Original Letter of the Countess of Blessington to
    Sir William Drummond                                       268

  MINOR NOTES:--The late Judge Talfourd--Authors' Trustee
    Society--The Old Clock at Alderley--The Olympic Plain,
    &c.--Electric Telegraph--Irish Law in the Eighteenth
    Century--Gravestone Inscriptions                           269

  QUERIES:--

  MINOR QUERIES:--Paintings of Our Saviour--Heraldic--
    Dedication of Kemerton Church--Consolato del Mare--
    Consonants in Welsh--Atonement--Sir Stephen Fox--
    "Account of an Expedition to the Interior of New
    Holland"--Darwin on Steam--Scottish Female Dress--
    "The Innocents," a Drama--Waugh of Cumberland--
    Norton--De La Fond--"Button Cap"--Cobb Family--
    Prince Charles' Attendants in Spain--Sack                  270

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Ralph Ashton the Commander--
    Christopher Hervie--Dannocks--Brass in All Saints,
    Newcastle-upon-Tyne--Imperfect Bible--The Poem of
    "Helga"--"Merryweather's Tempest Prognosticator"--
    Edward Spencer's Marriage--Yew-tree at Crowhurst           272

  REPLIES:--

  The Electric Telegraph in 1753                               274

  Factitious Pedigrees: Dixon of Beeston, by
    Lord Monson, E. P. Shirley, &c.                            275

  Licences to Crenellate, by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, &c.  276

  Newspaper Folk Lore, by C. Mansfield Ingleby, &c.            276

  French Season Rhymes and Weather Rhymes,
    by Edgar MacCulloch                                        277

  Vault Interments: Burial in an Erect Posture: Interment
    of the Trogloditæ                                          278

  Do Conjunctions join Propositions only? by H. L. Mansel, &c. 279

  Has Execution by Hanging been survived?                      280

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--A Stereoscopic Note--
    Photographic Query--Deepening Collodion Negatives--
    Caution to Photographers                                   282

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Artesian Wells--Prior's Epitaph
    on Himself--Handwriting--"Begging the Question"--When
    and where does Sunday begin or end?--Precious Stones--
    Scotch Grievance--"Corporations have no Souls," &c.--
    Devereux Bowly--Reversible Names--Duval Family, &c.        283

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          288

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 289

  Notices to Correspondents                                    289

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{263}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 25, 1854._

Notes.

ORIGINAL ENGLISH ROYAL LETTERS TO THE GRAND MASTERS OF MALTA.

(_Continued from_ Vol. ix., p. 101.)

It will be remembered that the last English royal letters which we sent
were translations of those from Henry VIII. to L'Isle Adam; and finding
none recorded of Edward VI., Mary I., Elizabeth, James I, Charles I. (or
from Cromwell), we come to the reign of Charles II. We have now before us
ten letters bearing the autograph of this monarch, all of which we hope to
forward in due course according to their dates. The two of the earliest
date are as follow. The first was written to introduce the English Admiral,
Sir Thomas Allen, who had been sent with a squadron into the Mediterranean
to protect English commerce; and the second, to claim from the Order a
large amount of property which belonged to Roger Fowke, the English consul
at Cyprus, and had been seized by a Maltese commander in one of his cruises
against the Turks in the neighbourhood of that island. Their perusal will
serve to show the deep interest taken by Charles II. in all which related
to the commercial affairs or legal rights of his subjects.

WILLIAM WINTHROP.

Malta.

No. VII.

    Charles the Second by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and
    Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c.

To the most illustrious and most high Prince, the Lord Nicholas Cottoner,
Grand Master of the Order of Malta, our well-beloved cousin and
friend--Greeting:

Most illustrious and most high Prince, our well-beloved cousin and friend.

Having deemed it fitting to despatch a squadron of ships under the command
of our well-beloved and valiant Sir Thomas Allen, Knight, for the
protection of the freedom of navigation and commerce of our subjects in the
Mediterranean Sea, which is never too sure, and sometimes becomes
endangered, we have determined to request your highness, by right of amity,
to permit him and our ships under his command, as friends, to touch, in
case of need, at any of the coasts of your highness' dominions; and also to
allow our ships to make use of your highness' harbours, whenever it may
become necessary to refit or re-victual them; and that they may purchase at
a proper price those things which they may require, and experience such
other offices of friendship and humanity as may be needful: and as we no
way doubt of your highness' amicable feelings towards us and ours, we are
desirous that your highness should be assured that on any opportunity
offering, we will reciprocate with equal readiness and benevolence.

It only remains for us to express our wishes for your highness' perfect
health and prosperous success everywhere.

Given in our Palace of Westminster, on the 17th day of the month of
January, in the year of our Lord 1667-68.

  Your Highness' good Cousin and Friend,

  CHARLES REX.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. VIII.

    Charles the Second by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and
    Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c.

To the most illustrious and most high Prince, the Lord Nicholas Cottoner,
Grand Master of the Order of Malta, our well-beloved cousin and
friend--Greeting:

Most illustrious and most high Prince, our well-beloved cousin and friend.

Some years have elapsed since we first addressed letters to your highness
concerning certain goods and merchandise, to the value of 4500 pieces of
eight, which had been unjustly seized by some of the ships which it is
customary to despatch annually from your highness' island to cruise against
the Turks in the neighbourhood of Cyprus, from our subject Roger Fowke, a
person for many reasons by us well beloved, and our consul in the island of
Cyprus; and also concerning the sentence which, after many delays and much
trouble, had been at last unjustly given in favour of your people.

Farther complaints have, however, been received from our subject, stating
that our letters have had little effect with your highness, and that he,
already wearied with long expectation, has not had anything restored, that
his expenses are increasing to a great amount, and that little or no hope
remains of reparation for his loss.

Painful, indeed, was it to us to hear our subject relate such injustice on
the part of the Knights of Malta; we, however, thought is right to make it
clearly appear that nothing has remained untried to bring back to more sane
counsels the generous minds of the Maltese; and therefore, under the advice
of our Privy Council, we deemed proper to refer, without loss of time, the
complaint of our subject, together with the letters which we formerly
addressed to your highness, and those which your highness latterly wrote to
us, to our advocate in our High Court of Admiralty, Sir Robert Wyseman,
Knight; who, having well considered the whole, has expressed his opinion in
the following terms:

    "I have read and seriously pondered the petition of Roger Fowke,
    transmitted to me by your {264} Majesty's special mandate; as also the
    letters written by your Majesty to the Grand Master of the Order of
    Malta in favour of the above-mentioned, and those from the said Grand
    Master in reply; and it is evident to me, after mature examination,
    that your Majesty has done so much, and that it is proved that the
    sentence of the Maltese Tribunal against the said Roger Fowke was
    pronounced contrary to right and justice (as is clearly shown in the
    letters written by your Majesty to the Grand Master); that therefore it
    appears to be incumbent on me only to set forth to your Majesty, and to
    the Lords of the Privy Council, whether it be my opinion that
    sufficient satisfaction has been given by the Grand Master's letters to
    your Majesty, who by the above-cited letters demand restitution; and if
    not, whether in consequence it be lawful to your Majesty to grant the
    so-called letters of reprisal, on which subject I beg humbly to submit
    to your Majesty, and to the singular prudence and judgment of the
    above-mentioned Lords, this my opinion; that is to say, that the
    answers of the Grand Master are so far from being in any way
    satisfactory, that from them it may be easily perceived that the
    above-mentioned Grand Master, although he does not deny in express
    terms reparation for his loss to the above Roger, nevertheless does not
    decree anything certain on this head; from which your Majesty may
    reasonably conclude that the said reparation was refused. Nor does it
    tend to his defence that he asserts that all that was done by his
    tribunal was done by solemn sentence, that the judges were men of great
    reputation, and that it is to be believed that the reasons produced by
    both sides were justly considered; for judicial authority is not of the
    same value as regards foreigners and subjects. It is not lawful for
    subjects to demand a re-examination of the sentence pronounced by their
    superiors, although to foreign princes it entirely appertains to make
    such demand, in cases interesting themselves or their subjects;
    otherwise, if all given sentences were considered as freeing nations
    from reprisals, such decrees might perhaps be obtained in any case,
    even though manifestly unjust; and consequently it is by all agreed to
    be a just cause for reprisals, not only when justice is not rendered,
    but also when in any case, not of a doubtful nature, judgment may have
    been given against right; although certainly, in cases of a doubtful
    nature, the presumption would be in favour of those who may have been
    elected as public judges. Had the Grand Master indicated to your
    Majesty that the said Roger Fowke might have preferred an appeal
    against the sentence pronounced against him to a superior tribunal, and
    that by the negligence of the said Roger the first sentence had become
    affirmed, in that case the remedy demanded by your Majesty would have
    been untenable; but the said Grand Master makes no mention of such
    appeal: I am therefore of opinion that nothing in the law of nations
    could militate against the lawfulness of your Majesty's granting
    letters of reprisal in the manner demanded.

      (Signed) ROBERT WYSEMAN."

Without doubt the law of nations would warrant our extorting from the hands
of your highness' subjects, by issuing letters of reprisal, that which we
have not been able to obtain after so many years by means of the letters
written in favour of our beloved subject and friend; and the deplorable
state of the said Roger requires that we should now exact by our own
authority that which we have in vain sought to obtain by means of simple
communications. But taking into serious consideration the lamentable
present state of Christianity, and the daily augmentation of the large
empire of our common enemy, and how distinguished has been the valour of
the Maltese knights, always constantly exposing themselves as a bulwark to
so pertinacious an enemy, it would be very painful to us to be compelled to
have recourse to reprisals, or to any such severe mode of proceeding, for
the reparation of the loss. The glory also of the Christian name, so often
valiantly defended, has caused us willingly to believe that we must not yet
despair of obtaining from your highness' authority that reparation for his
loss which our subject hopes to obtain by reprisal, and therefore, putting
aside the remedy of right, and our Privy Council persuading us to milder
measures, we have thought proper by this letter to seriously request your
highness, by that justice which is the duty of princes, and of the
defenders of Christianity, to deign to procure without delay to our
trustworthy subject, who has suffered so great an injustice from the
Maltese Tribunal, and who is exhausted by the delays of so many years, full
compensation for all his losses, including also the amount of his expenses;
so that we may never have cause to regret that we, putting aside the law of
nations, have till now abstained from reprisal, and so that henceforth the
world may eulogise the Maltese as not being less just than valiant.

We have only now to recommend your highness and all your Knights to the
most good and most great God.

Given in our Palace of Whitehall on the 29th day of April, of the year of
Human Redemption 1668, and of our reign the twentieth.

  Your Highness'
      Good Cousin and Friend,
              CHARLES REX.

Raphael Cottoner, to whom the last letter was addressed, ascended the
Maltese throne in October, 1663, on the decease of his brother Raphael.
{265} All historians agree in stating that he was a man of a noble
carriage, high and honourable character, and withal a clever diplomatist.
He died in March, 1680, after a happy and glorious rule, in the
seventy-third year of his age, and seventeenth of his reign. The following
letter written by him may be of sufficient interest to excuse its length.
Its perusal will show the great respect which was paid by the Order of St.
John to an English monarch, and the "incorruptible" manner in which justice
was administered at this island nearly two centuries ago.

To the King of Great Britain.

    Most serene and invincible King:

A short time since John Ansely, the attorney of Roger Fowke, delivered to
us your most serene Majesty's gracious letters, in reply to mine regarding
the affair of the said Roger; from which, not without great disturbance of
mind, I perceived how incorrectly what had taken place had been reported to
your Majesty. But my grief was in some measure assuaged by your Majesty's
continued benignant protection of this my Order; through which it came to
pass that it was determined to abstain from granting the letters of
reprisal which it was the opinion of your Majesty's advocate in the High
Court of Admiralty, inserted in the above-mentioned Royal Letters, might
have been granted to the aforenamed Roger, for which I truly return your
Majesty my most sincere and humble thanks. The above Roger still claims of
right the sum of 4,500 pieces of eight, which he asserts had been formerly
seized by some armed ships of this island; from which sum, together with
the expenses incurred, or to be incurred, he forms another greater sum of
about 24,500, which he also claims.

But as it would sufficiently appear from your Majesty's letter, which
contains the above-mentioned opinion of the said advocate, and also from
the verbal report made to me by the said John Ansely, that your Majesty
felt persuaded that the said Roger had both lost his cause before the Judge
of the Prize Court, and subsequently been denied an appeal to the Supreme
Court, and, lastly, that his attorney had been treated with violence,
rather than under any order of right, I, to confess the truth, being much
mortified, cannot but endeavour, with all due respect in my power, to
demonstrate the real state of the case to your Majesty; and hope, by a more
faithful narrative of all that occurred, to convince your Majesty of that
equal distribution of justice which in this place is constantly observed,
both to the inhabitants and foreigners, with incorruptible honesty.

Before, however, beginning to explain the affair from its commencement, it
behoves me to inform your Majesty, that not only subjects of Christian
Princes, but Greeks and Armenians, and other persons subject to the rule of
the Turks, the bitterest enemies of this Order, are continually coming to
these islands for the purpose of instituting or continuing suits at law
against the captains of our ships and other inhabitants, yet we have never
heard from them that justice is either denied or refused. I therefore
humbly beseech your Majesty to consider, and with benignant mind to
reflect, what faith ought to be given to those who have dared to affirm
that any contrary course had been pursued or tolerated by me against the
said Roger; and the more so, as it has been the constant wish of my Order
to deserve well of your Majesty's subjects, and to take particular care of
all foreigners. This we trust will be sufficiently shown from the fact of
our always having employed one of the principal lawyers to undertake the
defence of foreigners; not indeed altogether gratuitously, but under such
laws and restrictions that he must remit to them the third part of the
usual stipend which it is customary to receive from the inhabitants, and
even my knights. From which it may be concluded how well and how honourably
foreigners are treated here, and how unlikely it is that justice should be
denied to any of those who it is proved are favoured with such grace and
love.

But to return to the affair in question, I humbly submit to your Majesty,
that in the year of our salvation 1661, John, called De St. Amand, acting
as attorney in the name of the above-mentioned Roger, appeared before the
aforesaid judge of the Prize Court, demanding the restitution of different
kinds of merchandise, which he asserted had been seized by certain captains
of ships; but it not appearing to the said judge that he had produced
convincing proofs of the fact, they were declared inadequate, and not
sufficiently legal. From this decision the said attorney, as is usual in
such controversies, appealed, on the 10th of July, 1662, to the Supreme
Court of Audience in council, at which I, together with the Chief Grand
Crosses of my Order, assist; but he afterwards of his own accord neglected
to follow up said appeal.

Subsequently, in the year 1665, there appeared another attorney of the said
Roger furnished with letters from your most serene Majesty, to whom I
immediately explained that I had no right to order the actual restitution
of the money demanded; but that if he would act according to law, and seek
it by a judgment, I promised to give my co-operation, which I undoubtedly
would have done; so that he might have been permitted by the said Court of
Audience to recommence the suit, although it had been in a former instance
deserted. But the attorney having replied that he was not furnished with
this authority, left the island of his own free will and accord.

From that time no other person has appeared, except the above-mentioned
John Ansely, who {266} recently delivered to me your Majesty's
above-mentioned letter; which I having thought proper to communicate to my
Council, I procured that the venerable brethren Henry de Estampes Valancay,
the Grand Prior of Campania, and Don Gregory Caraffa, Prior of Rocella,
should be deputed commissioners to examine this case. And they having heard
what the said Ansely had to say, offered to him in any name, and in that of
all my Order, an opportunity to make an appeal which had been deserted; but
the said Ansely, for want of proper authority as he stated, did not accept
the proposition.

Such being the case, I reverently submit to your most serene Majesty the
following arguments, to which I earnestly entreat your Majesty to apply
your Royal attention, and your Majesty's accustomed serenity and clemency.

In the first place, it is possible that the said Roger may have been really
deprived of his property; but it does not follow that the proofs adduced by
him of that fact were perfectly convincing, or entirely in accordance with
the law. And even if they had been such, they might have appeared otherwise
to the said judge of the Prize Court; and it is on this account that the
Superior of Ten rescind the decrees of the Inferior Tribunals.

Secondly, the omission to continue the above-cited appeal, can in no way be
attributed to the judges of this island; neither is it true that any
threats were made use of towards the above-mentioned attorney. Such a
course would have been diametrically opposed to the statutes of my Order;
neither would its members have dared to act in such a manner, either
against foreigners or the inhabitants my subjects, without incurring a
heavy responsibility.

Finally, as it is impossible for my knights, putting aside the order of
right, and neglecting the rule of our statutes, to restore to the
above-mentioned Roger that which he claims, nothing remains in our power
but to grant him the faculty of again prosecuting his right before the
above-mentioned Court of Audience as in law so often and earnestly offered
to the aforenamed attorney. Nor certainly can it be presumed, that your
Majesty in your clemency and justice can desire anything farther. To this
conclusion I am the more drawn from the decision of the advocate of the
Admiralty himself, for he proposes the granting of letters of reprisal not
for any other reason than that he supposed justice had been denied to the
said Roger, and that he had been precluded from the remedy of a Court of
Appeal. This having been an erroneous conclusion, the entire foundation of
the above-mentioned opinion is wholly removed. And it is the more to be
hoped that this decision will be approved of by your most serene Majesty,
as my necessary subjection to the Apostolic See and to the Roman Pontiff
cannot be unknown to your Majesty. From which it necessarily results that
so large a sum could not be taken arbitrarily or by force from the parties
concerned, without grave reprehension and prejudice, and also without
infringing the forms of right as prescribed in the statutes above alluded
to.

Confiding therefore in the singular clemency of your Majesty, I entertain a
hope that your Majesty, moved by so many and such valid reasons, and
considering also the high respect of this my Order towards your Majesty,
will be pleased to direct the said Roger not to prosecute his right by
other means than by action at law before the said Court of Audience. And
that he at length will cease to excite the mind of your Majesty against the
innocent by any such vain and unjust complaints; and that he refrain from
any more seeking so inopportune and final a remedy of right, as the
concession of letters of reprisal against an Order obediently subject to
the wishes of your Majesty, and most ready to do anything for the advantage
and utility of your Majesty's subjects, as those who daily touch at these
islands to re-victual or refit their ships can testify. And now, in my own
name, and in that of my Order, I humbly submit all this to your Majesty by
these letters, as I shall also do shortly by a Nuncio, whom I shall send to
your Majesty with the necessary documents, in _order more clearly to prove
the truth of my statements_.

In the mean time, most submissively kissing your Majesty's most serene
hands, I devotedly implore the benignity of the Most High and the Most
Great God to grant to your Majesty prosperity in all things.

Given at Malta, on the eighteenth day of February, in the year 1669.

  Your Serene Majesty's
      Most obedient Servant,
              COTTONER.

To the above submissive letter the following reply was sent:

No. IX.

    Charles the Second by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and
    Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. &c. &c.

To the most illustrious and most high Prince, the Lord Nicholas Cottoner,
Grand Master of the Order of Malta. Our well-beloved cousin and friend,
Greeting:

Most illustrious and most high Prince, our well-beloved cousin and friend.

Your highnesses letters of ---- February, having been delivered to us by
the Nuncio selected by your highness for that purpose, we caused Roger
Fowke, our subject and Consul in the island of Cyprus, in whose favour we
sometimes since addressed your highness, to be summoned before {267} Us,
and having well pondered the grounds and reasons in which your highness'
replies are based, we judged it right to announce farther to our said
subject, that in our opinion the power of appeal to the Supreme Court of
Audience offered to him by your highness, after his attorney's previous
neglect in the first instance, ought not by any means to be slighted; and
that it did not seem to Us there remained, all things considered, any other
hope of future remedy. This we did the more willingly, in order to prove to
your highness more clearly, that being so dear, and so highly esteemed by
Us, as is your highness personally, and all your knights, that we have
preferred accepting any mode of properly settling this affair, rather than,
by recurring to any harsher measures, diminish our friendship and affection
towards so celebrated an Order. This, our determination, We have also made
known by our letters to the Grand Prior of France; and of which testimony
may be borne by the bearer of the present, to whom we have thought proper
particularly to recommend the urging of your highness, in Our name, to see
that such certain and speedy method of justice be established in the affair
of our subject as may be lawful, and as was offered; and such as may afford
new and sound proof of our ancient amity, and establish and affirm a mutual
faith worthy of the Christian name.

In the mean time, We, from our heart, recommend your highness, and all your
knights, to the safeguard of the Most Good and Most Great God.

Given from our Palace of Westminster on the 7th day of June, in the year of
our Lord 1669, and of our reign the twenty-first.

  Your Highness' good Cousin and Friend,
              CHARLES REX.

No. X.

    Charles by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland,
    King, Defender of the Faith, &c. &. &c.

To the most eminent Prince, the Lord Nicholas Cottoner, Grand Master of the
Order of Malta, our very dear cousin and friend, Greeting:

We apprehend that long since it must have come to the knowledge of your
eminence, that a vessel of war of our Royal fleet, named the "Sapphire,"
went ashore some months ago on the coasts of Sicily; and was so much
damaged, that she became entirely unseaworthy. We have however heard, that
some guns which belonged to the said ship have been taken to the island of
Malta, and there preserved. Having, in consequence, ordered our
well-beloved and faithful subject Rudolf Montague, the Master of the Horse
of our most serene Consort, and our Minister near his most Christian
Majesty, to send there some fitting person to inquire after any remains of
the said wreck, and to depose of them in a manner most advantageous to Us,
we, as friends, beg your eminence to be pleased to interpose your
authority; so that the persons already sent, or hereafter to be sent by our
said Minister, may experience no delays nor impediments, but rather find
all favour and due aid from each and every chief of the arsenal, ports and
customs, and other officers to whom it may appertain; which we, in a
similar case, will endeavour fully to reciprocate to your eminence.

In the mean time we recommend, with all our heart, your eminence to the
protection of the Most Good and Most Great God.

Given from our Palace of Whitehall, on the 28th day of November, 1670.

  Your Eminence's good Cousin and Friend,
              CHARLES REX.

       *       *       *       *       *

FATA MORGANA.

Not having met with the following account in any English newspaper, of a
phenomenon said to have been witnessed quite recently in Germany, I beg to
send you a translation from the _Allgemeine Zeitung_ (generally quoted in
England by the name of the _Augsburgh Gazette_) of February 13, detailing,
in a communication from Westphalia, the particulars of a phenomenon, new,
perhaps, to your pages, but by no means new to the world.

    "WESTPHALIA.--If the east has its _Fata Morgana_, we, in Westphalia,
    have also quite peculiar natural phenomena, which, hitherto, it has
    been as impossible to explain satisfactorily, as to deny. A rare and
    striking appearance of this description forms now the subject of
    universal talk and comment in our province. On the 22nd of last month a
    surprising prodigy of nature was seen by many persons at Büderich, a
    village between Unna and Werl. Shortly before sunset, an army, of
    boundless extent, and consisting of infantry, cavalry, and an enormous
    number of waggons, was observed to proceed across the country in
    marching order. So distinctly seen were all these appearances, that
    even the flashing of the firelocks, and the colour of the cavalry
    uniform, which was white, could be distinguished. This whole array
    advanced in the direction of the wood of Schafhauser, and as the
    infantry entered the thicket, and the cavalry drew near, they were hid
    all at once, with the trees, in a thick smoke. Two houses, also, in
    flames, were seen with the same distinctness. At sunset the whole
    phenomenon vanished. As respects the fact, government has taken the
    evidence of fifty eye witnesses, who have deposed to a universal
    agreement respecting this most remarkable appearance. Individuals are
    not wanting who affirm that similar phenomena were observed in former
    times in this region. As the fact is so well attested as to place the
    phenomenon beyond the possibility of successful disproof, people have
    not been slow in giving a meaning to it, and in referring it to the
    great battle of the nations at Birkenbaum, to which the old legend,
    particularly since 1848, again points."

J. MACRAY.

{268}

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE DESTRUCTION OF MONUMENTAL BRASSES.

Any person might naturally be led to suppose, on seeing the many costly and
learned works which, within the last few years, have appeared on the
subject of monumental brasses, that their value was now fully appreciated,
and that all due care was taken to ensure their preservation, or at least
prevent their wanton destruction. But, unhappily, such is far from being
the case; and though rubbings of brasses are to be found in every
antiquarian society, and in the possession of very many private
individuals, the churchwardens and other parties on whom their preservation
principally depends, are for the most part wilfully blind to their
importance as historical memorials, and with impunity allow them to be
mutilated or stolen. In many of our country, and I may also add town
churches, are these interesting records of the dead stowed away as useless
lumber in the vestry, or hidden by some ugly modern pew. The writer wishes
to make known, through the medium of your valuable journal, some instances
which have fallen under his own observation, in the hope that those who
read may make some exertions to rectify such acts of desecration were they
have already occurred, and to prevent their future recurrence.

To begin, then, with the most important as regards the loss incurred by the
antiquary, though all show an equal want of good feeling and neglect of
things sacred, I will first offer the substance of a few notes taken during
a recent excursion to Cobham, Kent. The brasses in this church have long
been noted as presenting some of the most interesting early examples of
this species of monument, extending from the year 1320 to 1529. They
exemplify almost every variety of costume that prevailed during that
period, executed with the most artistic skill, and accompanied with the
most elegant accessories in the shape of canopies, brackets, and
allegorical designs. Imagine, then, the feelings of the antiquary, who,
upon approaching the chancel where most of these brasses lie, finds that it
is flooded with water! The roof has gradually fallen to decay, and the Earl
of Darnley, whose property the chancel is, has refused to repair it. And
yet this same nobleman can spend thousands of pounds in adorning his seat,
Cobham Hall, the ancient domain of the family, in whose commemoration most
of these brasses are laid down. I may also here mention that part of the
rood-screen which forms the back of the earl's pew has been glazed, in
order, I suppose, to keep out the damp of the chancel, while a portion on
the other side has been entirely cut away. This is by far the most flagrant
case of neglect which I have ever witnessed; but there are several minor
instances which well demand exposure. At Mendlesham, Suffolk, is a fine
large figure of John Knyvet, Esq., in armour, almost entirely concealed by
a pew passing up the whole length of the brass. Now, for a very little
expense, the slab might be removed and laid down again the chancel. At
Polstead, in the same county, is a small brass of a civilian and family,
date about 1490, hidden in the same manner; and a figure of a priest in the
chasuble, lying loose in the vestry. Also at Little Waldingfield is a brass
in memory of Robert Appleton and wife, 1526, of which the male figure is
covered by a pew. In Upminster Church, Essex, were found, not very long
since, during the progress of some alterations, two loose female figures
under the flooring of a pew, which are still left to be tossed about in the
vestry. One is an elegant figure of a lady in heraldic mantle and horned
head-dress, with a dog at her feet, date about 1450, the other about 1630.
At St. James's, Colchester, the head of a figure was long left loose, till
at last it has been stolen. And, to conclude, pews have lately been built
over two brasses at Margate, one of which is an early example of a
skeleton. To these instances, which have fallen under my own observation, I
doubt not that every collector can add several others of the same
description; but these are sufficient to show the wide extent of the evil,
and the necessity of correction.

F. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

ORIGINAL LETTER OF THE COUNTESS OF BLESSINGTON TO SIR WILLIAM DRUMMOND.

MY DEAR SIR WILLIAM DRUMMOND.--The perusal of your beautiful poem _Odin_
has delighted me so much, that I cannot deny myself the gratification of
expressing my thanks to its author; and at the same time demanding, why so
exquisite a poem remains unfinished?

It is cruel to your readers, and unjust to England, to leave such a work
incomplete; it is like the unfinished statues of Michael Angelo, which no
hand has ever been found hardy enough to touch, for I am persuaded that we
have no living poet who could write a sequel to _Odin_.

Do not think me presumptuous for venturing to give my opinion on poetry; I
have studied it from my infancy, and my admiration for it is so
enthusiastic, that I feel more strongly than I can reason on the subject.
With this passion for poetry, you can more easily imagine than I can
describe, the delight that _Odin_ gave me. I have copied many passages from
it in my Album under different heads: such as Contemplation; Love of
Country; Liberty; Winter; Morning; Meditation on a Future State;
Immortality of the Soul; Superstition; Vanity of Life; Jealousy; and many
others too numerous to mention. And they are of such transcendent merit, as
to be above all comparison, except with Shakspeare or {269} Milton. In the
sublimity and harmony of your verses, you have equalled, if not surpassed,
the latter; and in originality of ideas and variety, you strikingly
resemble the former; but neither call boast of anything superior to your
beautiful episode of "Skiold and Nora."

Hitherto, my dear Sir William Drummond, I have looked on you as one of the
first scholars and most elegant prose writers of the age; but, at present,
permit me to say that I regard you as the _first poet_.

When I have been charmed with the productions of writers, who were either
personally unknown to me, or unhappily dead, how have I regretted not being
able to pour out my thanks for the pleasure they had afforded me: in this
instance I rejoice that I have the happiness of knowing you, and of being
able to express, though feebly, the admiration with which your genius
inspires me; and of offering up my fervent prayers that you may be long
spared to adorn and do honour to the age which is, and ought to be, proud
to claim you. In writing to you I abandon my pen to the guidance of my
heart, which feels with all the warmth for which _Irish hearts_ are so
remarkable. A _poet_ can understand and pardon this Irish warmth, though a
_philosopher_ might condemn it; but in addressing you, I forget that I am
writing to one of the most eminent of the last class, and only remember
that I am talking of _Odin_ to the most admirable of the first.

I am at present reading _Academical Questions_, which, if _I dare_ take
possession of, should not again find their way to Chiaja; _Odin_ I shall
most _unwillingly_ resign, as I find it belongs to Lady Drummond; but if
you have any other of your works by you, will you have the goodness to lend
them to me? Pray name what day you will dine with us, accompanied by Mr.
Stewart, to whom I owe my best acknowledgments for having lent me _Odin_.

  Believe me,
      My dear Sir William Drummond, to be
          With unfeigned esteem,
                  Sincerely yours,
              MARGUERITE BLESSINGTON.
  Villa Gallo, April 24th, 1825.

The above Letter is copied from the original in my possession.

A. G.

Edinburgh.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_The late Judge Talfourd._--Some years since I ventured to request
information as to the proper way of pronouncing the _Elia_, from the
talented and kind-hearted Judge Talfourd, whose days have just been brought
to a close under such truly awful circumstances. The ready reply which he
gave to an unknown inquirer, whilst it illustrates the courtesy and
cordiality of his character, may prove interesting to your readers.

Temple, June 15, 1838.

  Sir,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 11th,
and to express my pleasure at finding that you sympathise with me in genial
admiration of the delightful person to whom it refers. All I know
respecting the signature of _Elia_ will be found at p. 65 of the second
volume of Lamb's Letters. It was the real name of a coxcombical clerk
thirty years dead, whom Lamb remembered at the South Sea House, and
prefixed to his first essay (which was on the "Old South Sea House") in the
_London Magazine_. The editor afterwards used it to distinguish Lamb's
articles, and he finally adopted it. The _i_ is short (_El[)i]a_). It is an
Italian name.

      I have the honour to be,
              Sir,
  Your obedient and faithful servant,
                      T. N. TALFOURD.

C. W. B.

_Authors' Trustee Society._--Authors, as a class, are perhaps the most
unfit men in the world to make the most of their own property; and were
they ever so competent, it will often happen that their works do not attain
to any great value as copyrights till after the poor author is laid in his
grave. It is then, when his family are sometimes exposed to severe
distress, that more favourable terms might be obtained from publishers; but
there is no one left who is capable of acting for the benefit of the widow
or children.

A Society might be formed to take charge as trustees of the property of an
author in his works, to make engagements with booksellers for the privilege
of publishing future editions as they may be required, and to take care
that the _honorarium_ for each edition be duly paid into the hands of the
person who is entitled to receive it.

No expense would attend the formation of such a Society. Its meetings could
be held at scarcely any cost. The advertisements, to announce from time to
time what works are open for offers from printers, booksellers, and
publishers, would amount to a very small sum in the course of the year--I
dare say the Editor of "N. & Q." would insert them gratuitously. But, if
necessary, a small percentage on the fees paid would cover all the
disbursements of the Society.

L. P. K.

_The Old Clock at Alderley._--In the investigation of this very old and
curious piece of mechanism by the Rev. Joseph Bockett, in the year 1833, an
inscription was found signifying that it was presented to the church of
Alderley by the great Sir Matthew Hale. It was copied, _verbatim_ {270} _et
literatim_, by the said reverend gentleman, and is as follows:

    "This is the Guift of the Right Honourable the Lord Cheif Justice Heale
    to the Parish Church of Alderly. John Mason, Bristol, Fecit, Nov[=e]m.
    1^{st} 1673."

It appears, by this inscription, to have been presented on his birth-day;
which, from his tomb, was found to be November 1. Alderley is the family
place of the Hale family to this day.

JULIA R. BOCKETT.

Southcote Lodge.

_The Olympic Plain, &c._--The success which has attended the excavations of
Dr. Layard at Nineveh, has rekindled the curiosity of the antiquary and the
classical scholar with regard to the buried remains of ancient Greece and
Rome:

    "The Tiber at Rome," Dodwell says, "is supposed to contain a vast
    assemblage of ancient sculpture; and thoughts are entertained of
    turning its course, in order to explore its hidden treasures."

The same distinguished traveller remarks (_Classical and Topog. Tour
through Greece_) that--

    "It was a favourite plan of the learned Winkelmann to raise a
    subscription for the excavation of the Olympic plain. If such a project
    should ever be consummated, we may confidently hope that the finest
    specimens of sculpture, as well as the most curious and valuable
    remains, will be brought to light. No place abounded with such numerous
    offerings to the gods, and with such splendid and beautiful
    representations in marble and in bronze."

ALPHA.

Oxford.

_Electric Telegraph._--Might not the telegraph be made serviceable in
remote country districts, by connecting detached residences with the
nearest police station; to which an alarm might be conveyed in cases of
danger from thieves or fire? There are many who would willingly incur the
expense for the sake of the security, and no doubt all details could be
easily arranged.

THINKS I TO MYSELF.

_Irish Law in the Eighteenth Century._--I send, for the information of the
readers of "N. & Q.," the following extract from Reilly's _Dublin News
Letter_, Aug. 9, 1740:

    "Last week, at the assizes of Kilkenny, a fellow who was to be tried
    for robbery not pleading, a jury was appointed to try whether he was
    wilfully mute, or by the hands of God; and they giving a verdict that
    he was wilfully mute, he was condemned to be pressed to death. He
    accordingly suffered on Wednesday, pursuant to his sentence, which was
    as follows: that the criminal shall be confined in some low dark room,
    where he shall be laid on his back, with no covering except round his
    loins, and shall have as much weight laid upon him as he can bear, and
    more; that he shall have nothing to live upon but the worst bread and
    water; and the day that he eats, he shall not drink; and the day that
    he drinks, he shall not eat; and so shall continue till he dies."

Is it to be believed that, so late as the 1740, such barbarity (to call it
nothing worse) was practised according to law within the limits of Great
Britain and Ireland? I would be glad to hear from some correspondent upon
the subject.

ABHBA.

_Gravestone Inscriptions._--In the churchyard of Homersfield (St. Mary,
Southelmham), Suffolk, was the gravestone of Robert Crytoft, who died Nov.
17, 1810, aged ninety, bearing the following epitaph:

                 "_Myself._
  As I walk'd by myself I talk'd to myself,
    And thus myself said to me,
  Look to thyself and take care of thyself,
    For nobody cares for thee.
  So I turn'd to myself, and I answer'd myself
    In the self-same reverie,
  Look to myself or look not to myself,
    The self-same thing will it be."

This stone was some years since taken up, and has remained standing in the
church tower. I know not whether the lines be original, but I have never
seen them elsewhere.

The following were and may be now in St. Stephen's churchyard, Ipswich, on
the stone of one Stephen Manister, clerk to Mr. Baron Thompson, who died in
1731, and by his will desired the following words to be there inscribed:

 "What I gave I have, w^t I spent I had,
  What I left I lost for want of giving it."

G. A. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Paintings of Our Saviour._--In Mrs. Jameson's _Legends of the Monastic
Orders_, it is stated that "The painter, Andrea Vanni, was among the devout
admirers of St. Catherine;" and that "among his works was a head of Christ,
said to have been painted under the immediate instruction of St. Catherine;
representing the Saviour as she had, in her visions, beheld him. Unhappily
this has perished." Also, on the authority of Mr. Sterling, that St. Juan
de la Cruz, the friend of St. Theresa, "on one occasion when the Saviour
appeared to him, made an uncouth sketch of the divine apparition; which was
long preserved as a relique in the Convent of the Incarnation at Avila."

Can any of your readers supply particulars of, or references to, other
similar portraitures, especially of any still in existence?

J. P.

{271}

_Heraldic._--Can any of your heraldic correspondents inform me to what
families the following coat of arms belongs:--Gules, a fess sanguine
between three trefoils slipped proper? There is in this the not very
frequent occurrence of a coloured charge upon a coloured field. The only
similar instance I now remember is Denham, Suffolk: Gules, a cross vert.

LOCCAN.

_Dedication of Kemerton Church._--The church at Kemerton, Gloucestershire,
was, until a few years ago, marked by the authorities with a blank, just as
the church of Middleton ("N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 372.); but it has now been
discovered, it would appear, to have been dedicated to _St. Nicholas_. How,
or where?

I. R. R.

_Consolato del Mare._--The maritime code of the Venetians derived from
Barcelona, observed also by the Genoese and Pisans, was called "Consolato
del Mare," A.D. 1200. Why was it so called?

R. H. G.

_Consonants in Welsh._--It has often been asserted that the Welsh language
is remarkable for the number of its consonants. Can any of your readers
acquainted with that language inform me whether there is a larger
proportion of consonants in Welsh than in English? Messrs. Chambers, in a
recent number of their _Repository_, say:

    "On the road to Merthyr, we heard a drunken Welshman swear; oh for
    words to describe the effect! His mouth seemed full of consonants,
    which cracked and cracked, and ground and exploded, in an extraordinary
    way," &c.

Is this a true representation of the case?

J. M.

_"Initiative" and "Psychology."_--

    " ... a previous act and conception of the mind, or what we have called
    an _initiative_, is indispensably necessary, even to the mere semblance
    of method."--Coleridge's _Treatise on Method_.

Am I to understand from this sentence that this word was an original
adaptation of Coleridge's? If not, when was it first introduced, and by
whom?

In the same treatise, Coleridge employs the word _psychological_, and
apologises for using an _insolens verbum_. Was this the first occasion of
the familiar use of this word? I find _psychology_ in Bailey.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Atonement._--Can you or any of your readers inform me when the word
"atonement" first came into use, and when it was first applied to the work
of reconciliation wrought by our Lord Jesus Christ? It is used once only in
the New Testament (Romans v. 11.), and there the word does not quite convey
the meaning of the original [Greek: katallagê]. The etymology of it seems
so purely English, that one would hardly expect to find the present use, or
rather adaptation, of the word, so very modern as it appears to be.

J. H. B.

_Sir Stephen Fox._--Chambers' _Journal_, No. 515., Nov. 12, 1853, p. 320.,
says:

    "Charles James Fox, who died in 1806, at the age of fifty-seven, had an
    uncle who was paymaster of the forces in 1679, the year of the battle
    of Bothwell Bridge, and his grandfather was on the scaffold with
    Charles I."

After consulting several books on the subject, I find that this latter
statement is just possible; but I cannot learn under what circumstances Sir
Stephen Fox accompanied Charles I. to the scaffold. Can any of your readers
give me the desired information?

N. J. A.

_"Account of an Expedition to the Interior of New Holland."_--Can any one
tell me the name of the writer of a book with the title I have here given?
It was edited by Lady Mary Fox, and published, in one vol. 8vo., by
Bentley, in the year 1837. I may be mistaken, but I think I can recognise
the style of a well-known writer.

ABHBA.

_Darwin on Steam._--Where are the prophetic lines by Dr. Darwin to be
found, commencing:

 "Soon shall thy power, unrivalled _steam_, from far
  Drag the slow barge, and urge the rapid car."

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Scottish Female Dress._--When did ladies cease to use hair-powder,
face-patches, hoops, and high-heeled shoes? An old lady of about seventy
recollects perfectly that her mother wore then all (so, she thinks, did her
visitors, who came to a dish of tea) except the hoop, which was reserved
for grand occasions. On the introduction of the new-fangled low-heeled
shoes, she recollects her mother tottering about on them like a novice on
skates, and groaning with pains in her legs, a victim to a change of
fashion! At this time, she adds, was in every-day use the _milk tally_ and
_bread-nick-stick_. The first, that represented in Hogarth's picture; the
second, a stick about a foot long, four-sided, on which each loaf was
registered by a notch or nick in the stick; the servant kept a similar
_nick-stick_ as a check on the baker; but during the flirtation, common
_then_ as _now_ on such occasions, the old lady slyly remarks, the baker
often gallantly nicked the check-stick, as well as his own, with a couple
of notches for one. Hence, possibly, the decline and fall of the use of
this wooden system of book-keeping by double notch. Is any date assigned to
the ceasing of the practice of using the wooden tally and nick-stick?

C. D. LAMONT.

Greenock.

{272}

_"The Innocents," a Drama._--Who is the author of a small volume of poetry,
published anonymously about the year 1825, and which is very favourably
noticed in the _New Monthly Magazine_ for January, 1826, vol. xviii. The
title of the volume is, _The Innocents, a Sacred Drama; Ocean and the
Earthquake at Aleppo, Poems_.

S. N.

_Waugh of Cumberland._--Can you inform a Waugh, the family arms of Waugh of
Cumberland; to whom they were first granted, and why?

A SUBSCRIBER.

_Norton._--Wanted, the origin of, or the sources of information respecting,
this name, the appellation of so many villages, &c. in Oxfordshire. A
family of the name of Norton, after residing in those districts for many
generations, have long moved to London, and are not possessed of the
information sought by the inquirer.

N.

_De La Fond._--Can any of your readers explain the following inscription on
an engraving by P. Lombart of De La Fond, and its application?

             "In effigiem De La Fond, Galli
  Festivissimi, apud Batavos, Ephemeridum Historicarum Scriptoris,
                        Distichon.

         Mille oculis videt hic Fondus mille auribus audit;
             Plus audit naso, plus videt ille, suo."

A. F. B.

Diss.

_"Button Cap."_--In the north of Ireland there is a belief that just before
a war breaks out, the spirit of an ancient warder of Carrickfergus Castle
is heard examining the arms stored there, and, if they are not entirely to
his satisfaction, he shows his displeasure by making an awful clatter among
them. Has old "Button Cap" (for that is his name) been inspecting the arms
lately? What is the legend connected with him? If I mistake not, he is said
to be the spirit of a warder who was drowned in the castle well in the
reign of Elizabeth.

FRAS. CROSSLEY.

_Cobb Family._--Richard Cobb, Esq., and his wife Joan, were painted by Sir
Peter Lely between 1641 and 1680. These portraits are now in my possession.
Elizabeth Cobb, granddaughter of the above, married, _circa_ 1725, the Rev.
Thos. Paget, at that time Fellow of Corpus Christi, Oxford. Thus, Richard
Cobb would be born _circa_ 1634, his son _circa_ 1667, and his
granddaughter _circa_ 1700. I shall be obliged for any clue to the arms,
residence, &c. of this Mr. Cobb.

ARTHUR PAGET.

_Prince Charles' Attendants in Spain._--The assistance of your antiquarian
correspondents is particularly requested towards the making out of a
complete list of all the persons who were in attendance on Prince Charles
on his romantic visit to Spain. Of course it is well known that the Prince
and Buckingham started accompanied only by Sir Francis Cottington, Endymion
Porter, and Sir R. Graham. Of the members of his household who afterwards
joined him, the principal of course are also well known. But of the
gentlemen and grooms of the Privy Chamber, pages, &c., I have been unable
to discover a complete list, although notices of individuals are
occasionally met with. Any references to such notices are much desired.

E. O. P.

_Sack._--What wine was this? Is it still existing and known to the wine
trade by any other name? If so, when and why was the name changed?

FALSTAFF.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Ralph Ashton the Commander._--In an ancient record I met with a year or
two ago (two centuries old, I suppose), the name of a Ralph Ashton,
"Commander," occurred. The record related to Lancashire, and it spoke of
"Isabella, the wife of Ralph the Commander." I believe that a gentleman of
this name was commander of the Lancashire forces under the Commonwealth.
Will any of your readers oblige me (should they have access to any ancient
pedigree of the Ashton family) by saying whether any mention is made of
this "Isabella," and what her name was before her marriage to Ralph the
Commander?

JAYTEE.

    [The pedigree of the family of Ashton, or Assheton, of Middleton, is
    given in Baines's _Lancaster_, vol. ii. p. 596., which states that
    Ralph Ashton, Esq., M.P. for Clithero, temp. Chas. I., for the county,
    16 Chas. I., died 17th Feb. 1650, married Elizabeth, daughter of John
    Kaye of Woodsome, co. York. In old documents Isabella and Elizabeth are
    used for one and the same name.]

_Christopher Hervie._--M. ZACHARY (Vol. ix., p. 184.) obligingly replies to
my question as to the quotation--

 "One while I think, and then I am in pain,
  To think how to unthink that thought again."

Would he be kind enough to say where I may find any notice of Christopher
Hervie? as I have been unable to find mention of him or his work in any
biography to which I have access.

W. M. M.

    [A biographical notice of Christopher Harvie, or Harvey, is given by
    Anthony à Wood in his _Athenæ Oxonienses_, vol. iii. p. 538. (Bliss),
    from which it appears he was "a minister's son of Cheshire, was born in
    that county, became a batler of Brasen-nose College in 1613, aged
    sixteen years, took the degrees in Arts, that of Master being completed
    1620, holy orders, and at length was made vicar of Clifton in
    Warwickshire." Wood, however (_Ath. Oxon._, vol. i. {273} p. 628.),
    attributes _The Synagogue_ to Thomas Harvey, first Master of Kington
    School in Herefordshire. "There can be no doubt," adds Mr. Bliss, "but
    a Ch. Harvie was the author of this poem, particularly as Walton
    contributed some commendatory verses to it, which were repaid by
    another copy prefixed to the _Compleat Angler_ by Harvie; but whether
    this was Christopher Harvey, the vicar of Clifton, or some other,
    remains to be decided. If it was, it is at least singular that Wood,
    who was so inquisitive in these matters, should have been ignorant of
    the circumstance." Harvey died before the 4th Sept. 1663, as on that
    day Samuel Bradwall was instituted to the vicarage of Clifton, void by
    the death of the last incumbent.--See Sir John Hawkins' edition of _The
    Complete Angler_, p. 186.; also "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., pp. 463. 591.]

_Dannocks._--Hedging-gloves made of whit-leather (untanned leather), and
used by workmen in cutting and trimming fences, are called in this part of
Norfolk _dannocks_. Can any of your correspondents say whence the word is
derived?

J. L. S.

Edingthorpe.

    ["It should rather be _Dornecks_," says Forby, "which is the proper
    Flemish name of _Tournai_, a Frenchified name, long since universally
    substituted. Two hundred years ago it was celebrated for its coarse
    woollen manufactures, principally of carpets and hangings, mentioned in
    some of our old comedies. Probably thick gloves were another article of
    importation. Our modern _dannocks_, indeed, are of thick leather, and
    made at home by our own glovers. Dan. _dorneck_."]

_Brass in All Saints, Newcastle-upon-Tyne._--In the Church of All Saints,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (an erection dating at some period of the Protestant
dark ages), there is a magnificent Flemish brass, of which the incumbent
refuses to allow a rubbing to be taken, on the ground that the process
would _injure_ it! Can any of your correspondents tell me if it has been
engraved, and where?

J. H. B.

    [There is a beautiful representation of the very curious plate of brass
    inlaid on the table monument of Roger Thornton, the celebrated patron
    of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, temp. Henry IV., and still preserved in the
    Church of All Saints in that town, engraved in Brand's _History of
    Newcastle-upon-Tyne_, vol. i. p. 382. Mention is also made by that
    author of another work containing it, entitled _Monuments in the
    Churches of St. Nicholas and All Saints_.]

_Imperfect Bible._--A Bible has lately come into my possession in an
imperfect state. It is in black letter, 4to., with the capitals commencing
the chapters in Roman letters. I wish to know the date and printer. It
begins at fol. 7., at the end of the 6th verse of xvth chapter of Genesis,
"counted that to him for righteousness." There are a number of engravings
representing the instruments used in the temple and tabernacle, at fol. 36.
38. 40. 62. 160. &c. There is no date, but I think it is about 1590 or
1600.

AN IGNORAMUS ON THE SUBJECT.

    [This imperfect Bible is one of the very numerous series of editions of
    the Genevan or Puritan version, commonly called the Breeches Bible. It
    is not a 4to. but a pot folio, having six leaves to the sheet or
    signature, "Imprinted at London by the Deputies of Christopher Barker,
    printer to the Queen's most excellent Maiestie, Anno Dom. 1595. _Cum
    privilegio._" Our correspondent's copy wants the title and preface
    (three leaves), six leaves of Genesis, the title to the N. Testament,
    and at the end eleven leaves, including the two tables. The translation
    may be identified by the last word of 1 Cor. vi. 9., or by 1 Tim. i.
    10. There is another edition by the same printer, and of similar size,
    in the year 1602; but the title to the second part has "conteineth,"
    instead of "conteining."]

_The Poem of "Helga."_--At what date was this poem, by Herbert, written?

SELEUCUS.

    [This poem was commenced, as the author states in his preface, "soon
    after the publication of the translations which he made from the relics
    of ancient Icelandic and Scandinavian poetry," issued in 1805.]

_"Merryweather's Tempest Prognosticator."_--I wish to know if there be a
book published entitled "Merryweather's Weather Prognostication?" I think,
if I mistake not, I saw it among the nautical instruments, &c. in the naval
department of the London Exhibition in 1851. I cannot find here if there be
any such book extant.

J. T. C.

Dublin.

    [The work is entitled _An Essay explanatory of the Tempest
    Prognosticator in the Building of the Great Exhibition for the Works of
    Industry of all Nations_, read before the Whitby Philosophical Society,
    Feb. 27, 1851, by George Merryweather, M.D., the Designer and Inventor:
    London, John Churchill, Princes Street, Soho, 1851.]

_Edward Spencer's Marriage._--Can any reader supply me with particulars of
the marriage of Edward Spencer of Rendlesham, co. Suffolk, and Grosvenor
Square, who lived in the early part of the last century, and whose
daughters married the Duke of Hamilton and Sir James Dashwood?

CHARLES BRIDGER.

Keppel St., Russell Sq.

    [The following entry is given in Davy's Suffolk Collections (Add. MSS.
    19,097., p. 272.): "Edward Spencer, son of John Spencer, Esq., ob.
    1718. Edward, now living at Naunton Hall, is a barrister-at-law. He
    married Anne, the only daughter of William Baker of Layham, clerk, by
    whom he had issue Henry Spencer, who died an infant, and Ann Spencer,
    their only daughter, and now living." This extract is copied from
    Hawes's MSS., the date of which, unfortunately, is not given.]

{274}

_Yew-tree at Crowhurst._--Could any of your readers inform me of the age of
the yew-tree in Crowhurst Churchyard, Sussex?

C. BOWMER.

    [Decandolle assigns an antiquity of fourteen and a half centuries to
    this remarkable yew. See a valuable article on the "Age of Trees" in
    our fourth volume, p. 401.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH IN 1753.

(Vol. viii., p. 364.)

As no reply has yet been given to the Query of INQUIRENDO as to who was C.
M., who described in the _Scots Magazine_, vol. xv. p. 73., as long since
as 1753, the electric telegraph, and as the article itself is one of great
interest in the history of an invention which is justly considered one of
the greatest wonders of our own times, I send a transcript of it, by way of
satisfying the natural curiosity of many readers who may not have an
opportunity of consulting it in the magazine in which it originally
appeared, and also because the doing so may stimulate farther inquiry, and
lead to the discovery of its ingenious writer, C. M. of Renfrew.

    "Renfrew, February 1, 1753.

     "Sir,

    "It is well known to all who are conversant in electrical experiments,
    that the electric power may be propagated along a small wire, from one
    place to another, without being sensibly abated by the length of its
    progress. Let, then, a set of wires, equal in number to the letters of
    the alphabet, be extended horizontally between too given places,
    parallel to one another, and each of them about an inch distant from
    that next to it. At every twenty yards' end let them be fixed in glass,
    or jeweller's cement, to some firm body, both to prevent them from
    touching the earth, or any other non-electric, and from breaking by
    their own gravity. Let the electric gun-barrel be placed at right
    angles with the extremities of the wires, and about an inch below them;
    also let the wires be fixed in a solid piece of glass at six inches
    from the end; and let that part of them which reaches from the glass to
    the machine have sufficient spring and stiffness to recover its
    situation after having been brought in contact with the barrel. Close
    by the supporting glass let a ball be suspended from every wire, and
    about a sixth or an eighth of an inch below the ball place the letters
    of an alphabet, marked on bits of paper, or any other substance that
    may be light enough to rise to the electrified ball, and at the same
    time let it be so contrived that each of them may reassume its proper
    place when dropt. All things constructed as above, and the minute
    previously fixed, I begin the conversation with my distant friend in
    this manner:--Having set the electrical machine a-going, as in ordinary
    experiments, suppose I am to pronounce the word _sir_; with a piece of
    glass, or any other _electric per se_, I strike the wire _s_, so as to
    bring it in contact with the barrel, then _i_, then _r_, all in the
    same way; and my correspondent, almost in the same instant, observes
    these several characters rise in order to the electrified balls at his
    end of the wires. Thus I spell away as long as I think fit, and my
    correspondent, for the sake of memory, writes the characters as they
    rise, and may join or read them afterwards as often as he inclines.
    Upon a signal given, or from desire, I stop the machine, and taking up
    the pen, in my turn I write down whatever my friend at the other end
    strikes out.

    "If anybody should think this way tiresome, let him, instead of the
    balls, suspend a range of bells from the roof, equal in number to the
    letters of the alphabet, gradually decreasing in size from the bell _a_
    to _z_; and from the horizontal wires let there be another set reaching
    to the several bells; one, viz., from the horizontal wire _a_ to the
    bell _a_, another from the horizontal wire _b_ to the bell _b_, &c.
    Then let him who begins the discourse bring the wires in contact with
    the barrel, as before, and the electric spark, breaking on bells of
    different size, will inform his correspondent by the sound what wires
    have been touched. And thus, by some practice, they may come to
    understand the language of the chimes in whole words, without being put
    to the trouble of noting down every letter.

    "The same thing may be otherwise effected. Let the balls be suspended
    over the characters, as before, but instead of bringing the ends of the
    horizontal wires in contact with the barrel, let a second set reach
    from the electrificator, so as to be in contact with the horizontal
    ones; and let it be so contrived, at the same time, that any of them
    may be removed from its corresponding horizontal by the slightest
    touch, and may bring itself again into contact when left at liberty.
    This may be done by the help of a small spring and slider, or twenty
    other methods which the least ingenuity will discover. In this way the
    characters will always adhere to the balls, excepting when any of the
    secondaries is removed from contact with its horizontal; and then the
    letter at the other end of the horizontal will immediately drop from
    its ball. But I mention this only by way of variety.

    "Some may perhaps think that, although the electric fire has not been
    observed to diminish sensibly in its progress through any length of
    wire that has been tried hitherto; yet, as that has never exceeded some
    thirty or forty yards, it may be reasonably supposed, that in a far
    greater length it would be remarkably diminished, and probably would be
    entirely strained off in a few miles by the surrounding air. To prevent
    this objection, and save longer argument, lay over the wires, from one
    end to the other, with a thin coat of jeweller's cement. This may be
    done for a trifle of additional expense; and as it is an electric _per
    se_, will effectually secure any part of the fire from mixing with the
    atmosphere.

     "I am, &c.,
             "C. M."

Surely among the numerous readers of "N. & Q." some one will be found to
tell us who C. M. was.

J. Y.

{275}

       *       *       *       *       *

FACTITIOUS PEDIGREES: DIXON OF BERSTON.

(Vol. ix., p. 221.)

The inquiry of MR. R. W. DIXON is one that I feel should not remain
unanswered; and a few circumstances that I can detail will be sufficient to
prove that his brother Mr. J. H. Dixon only exercised a just discretion in
rejecting the information offered by William Sidney Spence.

On 4th March, 1848 (a few months, therefore, earlier than the letter which
has been quoted), a communication was forwarded to me by Mr. Spence so
similar, as to warrant the supposition that a set form was kept on hand to
be copied in different applications with such variations as each case might
demand, though even then a discrepancy has crept in that would render the
evidence suspicious.

The first paragraph is the same, except that Mr. Spence states he was
engaged by the "_widow_ of Sir John Cotgreave," instead of the "_sister_."

In the second the pedigree is said to be the "work of Randle Holme, 1672,
from documents by William Camden," instead of the work of "the great
Camden." Monsons, of course, are substituted instead of Dixons. Four
generations from Sir John Monson temp. Edward III., instead of five
generations from Ralph Dixon temp. Henry VI. And this Sir John is slain
fighting under Lord Audley at the battle of Poictiers, 1356, as a
counterpart to Ralph Dixon, slain at the battle of Wakefield, 1460.

The third paragraph is word for word the same, except that, to be
consistent with the descents, four shields with sixteen quarterings are
offered instead of five shields with twelve.

Lady Cotgreave is to vouch for the authenticity instead of Miss Cotgreave.

The quarterings promised in the next paragraph are only partially the same,
and the conclusion merely differs in wording by the substitution of the
names of "Sir John Monson" and "his mother Elinor, daughter and coheir of
Sir John Sutton, de Sutton and Congleton," in place of "Ralph Dixon and his
mother Maude, daughter and coheiress of Sir Ralph Fitz Hugh," &c.

I acknowledge that from the first I did not believe a word of this
ingenious tale; in fact I was rather an unfortunate subject for Mr.
Spence's purpose, having for years made the early history of my family my
especial study; but having a friend resident at Birkenhead (a clergyman), I
applied to him out of curiosity to find out something of my informant, who
at least had shown some ingenuity. The answer was by no means in favour of
Mr. Spence; and one fact was decidedly ascertained, that he neither lived
nor was known in Priory Place, whence his letters were dated. I answered
his letter, declining to give the remuneration of five pounds which he had
asked; and on taxing him with the falsity of his residence, he said he had
his letters left there for convenience.

MR. DIXON must now himself judge of the credit to be placed on the
informant. As for the information in my own case, it bore internal proofs
of being worthless; and if such a pedigree as is described should exist, I
feel assured it is not the work of Camden, but more probably of a
cotemporary, of rather discreditable notoriety among genealogists, of the
name of Dakyns.

MONSON.

Gatton Park.

I can give no information on the Dixon family, but having some years ago
received a letter from the same Mr. Spence, with an account of my own
family, every word of which is not only entirely without authority, but a
gross invention opposed to the facts, I thought MR. DIXON might like to
know that Mr. Spence founds the romance in question on a "Pedigree of
Cotgreave de Hargrave, the work of the celebrated Randle Holme, anno 1672,
from documents compiled by that learned antiquary William Camden, in the
year 1598," evidently the same veracious authority with that mentioned in
the letter to MR. DIXON.

EV. PH. SHIRLEY.

Eatington Park, Stratford-on-Avon.

The following note will, I think, satisfy your correspondent R. W. DIXON
that the letter of William Sidney Spence which you inserted for him was an
imposture, and that Mr. J. H. Dixon was not without reason in rejecting the
information offered.

A friend of mine, assuming descent from "a good old" family of the same
name, which he was unable to prove, received, about the same time as MR.
DIXON did, a communication from Mr. William Sidney Spence to precisely the
same effect, and having no cautious brother to consult, readily took the
bait, and paid some pounds for a specious pedigree, setting forth his
"distinguished progenitors," with their armorial bearings, &c., purporting
to be authenticated as a true copy of one in Miss Cotgreave's possession
under that lady's own hand. The information so received being subsequently
submitted to a genealogical friend, some doubt was excited of its
genuineness in proving too much; and an inquiry, which I made through a
correspondent in Cheshire, tending to confirm this suspicion, a reference
was had to Miss Cotgreave herself, when it turned out that the whole was an
ingenious fabrication. Mr. Spence was then dead, and my friend, whose name
I do not mention, as the subject is rather a sore one, was obliged to be
content with the practical experience he had bought.

The probability is, that whenever Mr. Spence read in Burke's _Landed
Gentry_ that Mr. A. or {276} Mr. B., in preference to being considered as
the founder of a new family, supposed himself, or wished to be supposed by
others, to be descended from an old stock of the same name, he kindly
offered to supply the desired information, and was ready to execute a
pedigree to order.

G. A. C.

    [The Editor has been informed by a person on whose accuracy he can
    rely, that a lady who received a letter from Mr. Spence offering
    certain information respecting his family taken from the Cotgreave
    pedigree, and who imprudently sent money for the same, got nothing but
    the most absurd rubbish in return, and having been induced to make
    inquiries into the subject, was fully satisfied that the whole thing
    was a fraud.]

       *       *       *       *       *

LICENCES TO CRENELLATE.

(Vol. ix., p. 220.)

The subjoined list of names and places will supply MR. PARKER with the
_counties_ of all the places named in his inquiry, except two in which I
suspect some error. If farther references to authorities are desired, they
will be given with pleasure in reply to a private application, but would
crowd your pages inconveniently.

    1. Cokefield for Melton--Cokefeud for Moulton, Suffolk.

    2. Grisnak for Molun--Query this?

    3. Langeton for Newton in Makerfield.--L. for Newton Hall or Castle,
    the head of the Palatine Barony of Newton, in Lancashire.

    4. Esselynton for Esselynton--E. in Northumberland.

    5. Trussel for Cubleston--C. in Staffordshire.

    6. De la Beche for De la Beche--De la Beche Castle. Aldworth, Berks.

    7. The same for Beaumes--Beaumys Castle, Shinfield, Berks.

    8. Cobham for Pringham--P. _alias_ Sterborough Castle, Surrey.

    9. The same for Orkesdene--O. in Kent.

    10. "Burghchier" for Stanstede--Bourchier for Stansted, Essex.

    11. Dalham for "Credonio"--"Fortalicium in loco _de_ Crodonio." Printed
    Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 143.

    12. Lengleys for Heyheved--Highhead Castle, in Cumberland.

    13. _A_eton for Chevelyngham--_H_eton for Chillingham, Northumberland.

GEO. O.

Sedbury Park, Chepstow.

There can, I think, be little doubt that _Stansstede_, in MR. J. H.
PARKER'S list, is Stanstead Hall, near Halstead in Essex. I have never seen
Stanstead Hall, but about a month since I was in company with the late
occupant; from whom I learned, in casual conversations, that it was an
ancient house, with moat and fortifications. In addition to this I may
state, that there are monuments in the old church (St. Andrew) of Halstead
to some of the Bourchier family. These facts, taken together, seem to fix
the locality with sufficient precision. One of the monuments just referred
to is a brass, commemorating Sir Bartholomew Bourchier and his two wives;
which, when I copied it in 1847, was under the flooring of a pew in the
south aisle. He died May 8, 1409; and was previously the possessor of
Stanstead Hall: so I learn from my own MS. Catalogue of brass rubbings in
my collection, but I am not able to give any better reference to
authenticate the statement.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

_Heyheved_, mentioned in MR. PARKER'S list, is _Highhead Castle_ in
Cumberland. In the reign of Edward II. it was a _peel house_ (pelum de
Heyheved) possessed by Harcla, Earl of Carlisle. In modern times it became
the property of a family named Richmond, one of whom erected the present
house, after a plan by Inigo Jones. But he died before it was finished,
leaving co-heirs, who quarrelled about the partition of the estate, and
actually put a hedge through the centre of the house. Eventually one-half
came into the hands of Lord Brougham, who is understood to have purchased
the other, and will probably restore the whole.

K.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEWSPAPER FOLK LORE.

(Vol. vi., pp. 221. 338. 466.; Vol. ix., pp. 29. 84.)

It may be instructive to collate the four stories recorded in the above
references, and compare them with a case that was brought before Mr.
Jardine at Bow Street Police Court; and which was reported in _The Times_
for February 22, 1854. Let the following extract suffice: it is descriptive
of the operations of extracting a worm from the body of one Harriet Gunton,
by a female quack of the name of Jane Browning:

    "I laid myself on the bed as she desired, and she told Mrs. Jones to
    hold my mouth to prevent my breathing. Mrs. Jones held me from behind,
    and nearly suffocated me. She kept me down, while the prisoner tried to
    get the worms out of my body with her hands. This lasted for about a
    quarter of an hour, and caused me dreadful pain. The prisoner told me
    that one of the worms had bit her finger, and slipped away again, and
    she could not get at it. She tried a second time, and said the worm had
    bit her again. I then begged her to leave off, if she could not succeed
    in getting it away; for I believed I should die under the operation.
    She tried a third time, and said she had broken two skins of it, which
    would prevent it getting up my body. ... She then put her hand under
    the clothes. I felt something touch me like a cloth, and she drew away
    her hand; throwing something into the pan, which sounded {277} with a
    heavy splash. She said she had been trying at it all night, and had got
    it away at last."

Mr. Robert Biggs, the medical attendant, pronounced the "reptile" to be a
fine conger eel, which he believed had often done duty in the same way.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

It would be well if every popular error were hunted down, as your
correspondents have done in the case of the snake-vomiting at Portsmouth.
The public need to be told, that no animal can live in the alimentary canal
but the parasites which belong to that part of the animal economy. Of these
the _Lumbricus intestinalis_ is the largest, and is discharged by children
even of the size mentioned in the case of Jonathan Smith.

Two years ago I met with a curious illustration of the popular ignorance of
that branch of natural history which treats of our own reptiles, as well as
of the mode of growth of a popular marvel. During the hot weather of the
summer before last, I was asked by a respectable farmer, if I had seen the
"serpent" which was lately killed in an adjoining parish. "Serpent!" I
replied; "I suppose you mean some overgrown common snake--perhaps a female
full of eggs?" "Well, it might have been a snake at first, but it was grown
into a serpent; and pursued a boy through the hedge, but was fortunately
encountered and killed by the father."

It is a moot point, whether the parasites of animals are engendered or not
within the body. In the case of the bots of horses, they are known to be
the larvæ of a fly which deposits its eggs on the skin; from whence they
are licked off, and conveyed into the animal's stomach, where they are
hatched and prepared for their other metamorphoses.

I believe the only parasite taken in with water in tropical climates is the
Guinea Worm; an animal which burrows under the skin of the arms or legs,
and is extremely difficult of extraction, and often productive of great
inconvenience. But whether the egg of this worm be taken into the stomach,
and conveyed by the blood into the limbs, there to be hatched into life, or
whether it enter through the pores of the skin, I believe is not
determined.

The popular delusion respecting the swallowing of young snakes, and of
their continuance in the stomach, is a very old one, and is still frequent.
A medical friend of mine, not long since, was called on to treat a poor
hysterical woman, who had exhausted the skill of many medical men (as she
asserted) to rid her of "a snake or some such living creature, which she
felt confident was and had been for a long time gnawing in her stomach." I
suggested the expediency of working on the imagination of this poor
hypochondriac, as was done in the well-known facetious story of the man who
fancied he had swallowed a cobbler; and who was cured by the apparent
discharge first of the awls and strap, then of the lapstone, and, finally,
of Crispin himself.

M. (2)

       *       *       *       *       *

FRENCH SEASON RHYMES AND WEATHER RHYMES.

(Vol. ix., p. 9.)

The following weather rules are taken from a work which is probably but
little known to the generality of English readers. It is entitled:

    "Contes populaires, Préjugés, Patois, Proverbes, Noms de Lieux, de
    l'Arrondissement de Bayeux, recueillis et publiés par Frédéric Pluquet,
    &c.: Rouen, 1834."

Where saints' days are mentioned, I have added the day of the month on
which they fall, as far as I have been able to ascertain it; but as it
sometimes happens that there is more than one saint of the same name, and
that their feasts fall on different days, I may perhaps, in some cases,
have fixed on the wrong one:

       "Année venteuse,
        Année pommeuse."

     "Année hannetonneuse,
      Année pommeuse."

    "L'hiver est dans un bissac; s'il n'est dans un bout, il est dans
    l'autre."

           "Pluie du matin
            N'arrête pas le pélerin."

             "À Noël au balcon,
              À Pàques au tison."

           "À Noël les moucherons,
            À Pàques les glaçons."

               "Pàques pluvieux,
                An fromenteux."

         "Le propre jour des Rameaux
          Sème oignons et poreaux."

       "Après Pàques et les Rogations,
        Fi de prêtres et d'oignons."

               "Fêves fleuries
                Temps de folies."

     "Rouge rosée au matin,
      C'est beau temps pour le pélerin."

             "Pluie de Février
              Vaut jus de fumier."

           "Février qui donne neige
            Bel été nous plège."

               "Février
                L'anelier" [anneau].

    This saying has probably originated in the number of marriages
    celebrated in this month; the season of Lent which follows being a time
    in which it is not {278} usual, in Roman Catholic countries, to
    contract marriage.

     "Février emplit les fosses;
      Mars les sèche."

         "Mars martelle,
          Avril coutelle."

    An allusion to the boisterous winds of March, and the sharp, cutting,
    easterly winds which frequently prevail in April.

                 "Nul Avril
                  Sans épi."

     "Avril le doux,
      Quand il se fàche, le pis de tout."

       "Bonne ou mauvaise poirette,
        Il faut que Mars a trouve faite."

    Poirette, in the dialect of Bayeux, means a leek.

             "Froid Mai et chaud Juin
              Donnent pain et vin."

               "En Juignet [Juillet],
                La faucille au poignet."

         "À la Saint-Vincent [Jan. 22],
          Tout dégèle, ou tout fend."

     "Saint-Julien brise glace [Jan. 27],
      S'il ne la brise, il l'embrasse."

           "À la Chandeleur [Feb. 2],
            La grande douleur."

    Meaning the greatest cold.

     "À la Chandeleur,
      Où toutes bêtes sont en horreur."

    Probably alluding to the rough state of their coats at this season.

             "À la Saint-George [April 23],
              Sème ton orge."

     "Quand il pleut le jour Saint-Marc [April 25],
      Il ne faut ni pouque ni sac."

           "À la Saint-Catherine [April 29],
            Tout bois prend racine."

               "À la Saint-Urbain [May 25],
                Le froment porte grain."

               "À la Saint-Loup [May 28?],
                La lampe au clou."

         "S'il pleut le jour Saint-Médard [June 8],
          Il pleuvra quarante jours plus tard."

             "À la Saint-Barnabé [June 11]
              La faux au pré."

       "À la Saint-Sacrement [this year, June 15]
        L'épi est au froment."

     "Quand il pleut à la Saint-Gervais [June 19],
      Il pleut quarante jours après."

               "À la Madeleine [July 22],
                Les noix sont pleines."

             "À la Saint-Laurent [Aug. 10],
              La faucille au froment."

             "Passé la Saint-Clément [Nov. 23?],
              Ne sème plus le froment."

     "Si le soleil rit le jour Sainte-Eulalie [Dec. 10],
      Il y aura pommes et cidre à folie."

         "À la Sainte-Luce [Dec. 13?],
          Les jours croissent du saut d'une puce."

           "À la Saint-Thomas [Dec. 21],
            Les jours sont au plus bas."

EDGAR MACCULLOCH.

Guernsey.

VAULT INTERMENTS (Vol. ii., p. 21.): BURIAL IN AN ERECT POSTURE (Vol.
viii., pp. 329. 630.): INTERMENT OF THE TROGLODITÆ (Vol. ii., p. 187.).

In the 4th book of Evelyn's _Sylva_ there is much interesting matter on
this subject, besides what has been quoted above; and, to those herein
interested, the following extract from Burn's _History of Parish Registers
in England_ will doubtless be acceptable:

    "Many great and good men have entertained scruples on the practice of
    interment in churches. The example of the virtuous and primitive
    confessor, Archbishop Sancroft, who ordered himself to be buried in the
    churchyard of Fresingfield in Suffolk, thinking it improper that the
    house of God should be made the repository of sinful man, ought to
    command the imitation of less deserving persons: perhaps it had an
    influence over the mind of his successor, Archbishop Secker, who
    ordered himself to be buried in the churchyard of Lambeth. The Bishops
    of London in succession, from Bishop Compton to Bishop Hayter, who died
    in 1762, inclusive, have been buried in Fulham Churchyard."[1]

Of the same opinion were Dr. Edward Rainbow, Bishop of Carlisle; Sir
Matthew Hale, who used to say that churches were for the living and to
churchyards for the dead[2]; Joseph Hall, Bishop of Norwich, who "did not
hold God's house a meet repository for the greatest saint;" and William
Bedell, Bishop of Kilmore, who made a canon in his synod to the following
effect:

    "IX. Ut corpora defunctorum deinceps in Ecclesiis non humentur, sed nec
    intra quintum pedem a pariete extrorsum."

Sir Thomas Latymer, of Braibroke in Northamptonshire, by his will directed
thus:

    I, Thomas Latymer of Braybroke, a fals knyghte to God, &c., my wrecchyd
    body to be buried where that ever I die in the next chirche yerde, God
    vouchsafe, and naut in the chirche, but in the utterist corner, as he
    that is unworthy to lyn therein, save the merci of God."

{279}

Dr. Isaac Barrow, Bishop of St. Asaph, was buried in a churchyard,
although, from his having generously repaired and endowed his cathedral, he
might be considered to have a claim of interment within its walls; and
Baldwin, the great civilian, severely censures this indecent liberty, and
questions whether he shall call it a superstition or an impudent ambition.
Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first who made vaults under the
chancel, and even under the altar, when he rebuilt the choir of Canterbury,
about 1075.[3]

    "The Irish long retained an attachment to their ancient customs and
    pagan superstitions; and the custom of burying in consecrated ground
    was not universal in Ireland in the twelfth century on the arrival of
    the English, as we find it enjoined in the Council of Cashel, held in
    1172, mentioned by Cambrensis. A short time since some small earthen
    tumuli were opened on the Curragh of Kildare, under which skeletons
    were found standing upright on their feet, and in their hands, or near
    them, spears with iron heads. The custom of placing their dead erect
    was general among all the northern nations, and is still retained in
    Lapland and some parts of Norway; and the natives of North America bury
    their dead sitting in holes in the ground, and cover them with a mound
    of earth."--_Transactions of the R. Irish Academy_, vol. iii.

A Query I proposed (Vol. ii., p. 187.) in reference to the Trogloditæ never
having been answered, I shall, perhaps, be allowed to use this opportunity
myself to furnish an apposite and explanatory quotation, viz.--

    "Troglodytæ mortui cervicem pedibus alligabant et _raptim cum risu et
    jocis efferebant_, nullaque loci habita cura mandabant terræ; ac ad
    caput cornu caprinum affigebant."--Coelii Rhodigini, _Lectiones
    Antiquæ_, p. 792.

I shall conclude with the _rationale_ of the erect posture, as illustrated
by Staveley in his _History of Churches in England_:

    "It is storied to be a custom among the people of Megara in Greece, to
    be buried with their faces downwards; Diogenes gave this reason why he
    should be buried after the same way, that seeing all things were
    (according to his opinion) to be turned upside down in succeeding
    times, he, by this posture, would at last be found with his _face
    upwards, and looking towards heaven_."

BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

[Footnote 1: Cole's MSS. vol. iv. p. 100.]

[Footnote 2: The Assembly at Edinburgh, in 1588, prohibited the burying in
kirks.]

[Footnote 3: Cole's MSS., vol. iv.]

In _Much Ado about Nothing_, Act III. Sc. 2., Don Pedro says:

 "She shall be buried with her face upwards."

Theobald, Johnson, and Steevens have left notes upon this line. The
following passage is part of Steevens' note:

    "Dr. Johnson's explanation may likewise be countenanced by a passage in
    an old black-letter book, without date, intitled, 'A merye Jest of a
    Man that was called Howleglas, &c.: How Howleglas was buryed:

    "'Thus as Howleglas was deade, then they brought him to be buryed. And
    as they would have put the coffyn into the pytte with 2 cordes, the
    corde at the fete brake, so that the fote of the coffyn fell into the
    botome of the pyt, and the coffyn stood bolt upryght in the middes of
    the grave. Then desired y^e people that stode about the grave that
    tyme, to let the coffyn to stande bolt upryght. _For in his lyfe tyme
    he was a very marvelous man, &c., and shall be buryed as marvailously._
    And in this maner they left Howleglas,' &c.

    "Were not the Claphams and Mauleverers buried _marvailously_, because
    they were _marvelous_ men?"--Johnson and Steevens' _Shakspeare_, vol.
    ii. p. 310.

J. W. FARRER.

"In Oliver Heywood's Register is the following entry [Oct. 28, 1684]:

    'Capt. Taylor's wife of Brig House, buried in her garden with head
    upwards, standing upright, by her husband, daughter, &c.
    Quakers.'"--Watson's _History of Halifax_, p. 233.

CERVUS.

    "Some Christians [Russians?] decline the figure of rest, and make
    choice of an erect posture in burial."--Browne's _Hydriotaphia_, ch.
    iv. p. 246.

Query, With the desire of meeting the Judge, face to face, when He cometh?

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

       *       *       *       *       *

DO CONJUNCTIONS JOIN PROPOSITIONS ONLY?

(Vol. ix., p. 180.)

PROFESSOR BOOLE'S communication on the above question reminds me of some
remarks of mine, published in an article on Sir John Stoddart's _Philosophy
of Language_, in the _North British Review_ for November, 1850. In
reference to the opinion maintained by Sir John Stoddart and Dr. Latham,
that the conjunction always connects sentences, the preposition words, it
is observed:

    "It does not apply to cases where the conjunction unites portions of
    the _predicate_, instead of the _subject_, of a proposition. If I
    assert that a gentleman of my acquaintance drinks brandy _and_ water,
    he might not relish the imputation of imbibing separate potations of
    the neat spirit and the pure element. Stradling _versus_ Stiles is a
    case in point: 'Out of the kind love and respect I bear to my much
    honoured and good friend, Mr. Matthew Stradling, Gent., I do bequeath
    unto the said Matthew Stradling, Gent., _all my black and white
    horses_.' The testator had six black horses, six white horses, and six
    pied horses. The whole point at issue turns upon the question whether
    the copulative _and_ joins sentences or words. If the former, the
    plaintiff is entitled to the black horses, and also to the {280} white,
    but not to the pied. If the latter he has a right to the pied horses
    but must forego his claim to the rest. And if the latter interpretation
    be adopted, must we say that _and_ is a preposition, not a conjunction,
    or must we modify the definitions of these two parts of speech?"

The following definitions are finally proposed in place of the ordinary
ones:

    "A preposition is a part of speech annexed to a noun or verb in a
    proposition, and serving to connect it with a noun or pronoun by which
    it is limited, as the subject or predicate of that proposition."

    "A conjunction is a part of speech serving to unite two propositions as
    parts of the same complex assertion, or two words as similar parts of
    the subject or predicate of one proposition. By _similar parts_ it is
    meant that the words so united stand in similar relations to the term
    to which they belong. For example, 1. As attributes, both qualifying a
    subject, 'Sic bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus.' 2. As
    prepositions, both introducing limiting nouns 'without money and
    without price.' 3. As substantives, both forming parts of a collective
    subject, 'two and three are five.' Whereas with the preposition, the
    words united are not similar, but opposed, the _limiting_ and the
    _limited_ notion."

While differing from some of PROFESSOR BOOLE'S views on the relation of
logic to mathematics, I fully agree with him that the true functions of the
several parts of speech must be determined by an analysis of the laws of
thought. Both grammar and logic might be considerably improved by an
accurate development on psychological principles.

H. L. MANSEL, B.D.

St. John's College, Oxford.

Has not your correspondent G. BOOLE fallen into an inaccuracy whilst
contending about the accuracy of another's logic? He seems to employ the
proposition, _all trees are endogens or exogens_, as an example of an
accurate proposition.

I forget the technicalities in which the objection to such a proposition
would be properly expressed; but it cannot well be denied that _all_
comprehends the whole genus, and expresses that whole collectively. If so,
the proposition affirms that the whole genus of trees must either be
acknowledged to be endogens, or else to be _all_ exogens. Does not such an
affirmation require the word _every_ to clear it from ambiguity? Will it be
cleared of ambiguity by saying, "Every tree is endogen or exogen?" Or must
we say "Every tree is either endogen or exogen?"

If your correspondents should happen to take down the second volume of
_Locke on Human Understanding_, b. III. ch. iii. § 11., on "Universals,"
his note will supply them with another knot to unravel, of which I would
gladly see their solution. For he has there said, "Three Bobaques are all
true and real Bobaques, supposing the name of that species of animals
belongs to them." Is this name formed in jest? For the philosopher
sometimes puts on an awkward affectation of humour in his replies to Bishop
Stillingfleet, to whom this note is addressed.

H. W.

       *       *       *       *       *

HAS EXECUTION BY HANGING BEEN SURVIVED?

(Vol. ix., p. 174.)

Two instances of criminals being restored to life after having been hanged
are recorded, on good authority, to have occurred in this town. Henry of
Knighton (who was a Canon of Leicester Abbey) relates in his _Chronicle_
(col. 2627), under the year 1363, that--

    "One Walter Wynkeburn having been hanged at Leicester, on the
    prosecution of Brother John Dingley, Master of Dalby, of the order of
    Knights Hospitallers, after having been taken down from the gallows as
    a dead man, was being carried to the cemetery of the Holy Sepulchre of
    Leicester, to be buried, began to revive in the cart, and was taken
    into the church of the Holy Sepulchre by an ecclesiastic, and there
    diligently guarded by this Leicester ecclesiastic to prevent his being
    seized for the purpose of being hanged a second time. To this man King
    Edward granted pardon in Leicester Abbey, and gave him a charter of
    pardon, thus saying in my hearing, 'Deus tibi dedit vitam, et nos
    dabimus tibi Cartam?"

We learn, on the authority of a cotemporary record, preserved in the
archives of this borough, and quoted in Thompson's _History of Leicester_,
p. 110., that in June, 1313, Matthew of Enderby, a thief, was apprehended
and imprisoned in the king's gaol at Leicester; and that being afterwards
convicted, he was sentenced by Sir John Digby and Sir John Daungervill, the
king's justices, to be hanged; that he was led to the gallows by the
frankpledges of Birstall and Belgrave, and by them suspended; but on his
body being taken down, and carried to the cemetery of St. John's Hospital
for interment, he revived and was subsequently exiled. Three instances are
narrated in Wanley's _Wonders of Man_, vol. i. pp. 125, 126., and another
will be found in Seward's _Spirit of Anecdote and Wit_, vol. iii. p. 88.,
quoted from Gamble's _Views of Society, &c. in the North of Ireland_;
whilst in vol. ii. p. 220. of the same work, another restoration to life is
stated to have taken place in the dissecting-room of Professor Junker, of
Halle: but I know not how far these last-mentioned anecdotes are
susceptible of proof.

WILLIAM KELLY.

Leicester.

There appears to be no reason to doubt the truth of individuals having
survived execution by hanging.

Margaret Dickson was tried, convicted, and executed in Edinburgh, in the
year 1728. After {281} the sentence had been accomplished, her body was cut
down and delivered to her friends, who placed it in a coffin, and conveyed
the same in a cart towards her native place for the purpose of interment.
On her journey the dead came to life again, sat up in her coffin, and
alarmed her attendants. She was, however, promptly bled, and by the next
morning had perfectly recovered. She lived for twenty-five years
afterwards, and had several children.

In 1705 one John Smith was executed at Tyburn; after he had hung fifteen
minutes a reprieve arrived. He was cut down and bled, and is said to have
recovered. (Paris and Fonblanque, _Med. Jur._, vol. ii. p. 92.)

When it is considered that death takes place after hanging, in most cases
by asphyxia, in very rare instances by dislocation of the spine, we can
understand the possibility of recovery within certain limits.

That artificial means have been adopted to ensure recovery, the case of
Gordon, which occurred in the early part of the seventeenth century,
satisfactorily establishes.

This evil-doer had been condemned for highway robbery, and with a view to
escape from his penalty, succeeded in obtaining the following friendly
assistance.

A young surgeon named Chovell (concerning whose motives we will not inquire
too curiously) introduced a small tube through an opening which he made in
the windpipe. The hangman, having accomplished his part of the tragedy,
Gordon's body was handed over to his friends. Chovell bled him, and the
highwayman sighed deeply, but subsequently fainted and died. The want of
success was attributed to the great weight of the culprit, who consequently
dropped with unusual violence. (_Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Surgery in
France_, Sydenham Society Publications, p. 227.)

How far the mechanical contrivance by which Bouthron, in Scott's _Fair Maid
of Perth_, was kept alive after hanging, was founded on successful
experience, I know not. Nor do I know whether Hook, in his _Maxwell_, had
any farther authority than his imagination for his story of resuscitation,
though I have heard it said to be founded on the supposed recovery of a
distinguished forger, who had paid the last penalty for his offences, and
who was said to have really died only a short time since.

OLIVER PEMBERTON.

Birmingham.

The _Cork Remembrancer_, a chronicle of local events, which I recollect
seeing among my late father's (a Cork man) books, relates the fact of a men
who was hanged in that city, and on the evening of the same day appeared,
not in the _spirit_, but in _body_, in the theatre. I regret I have not the
book, but it is to be had somewhere. Undoubtedly your late venerable
correspondent, James Roche, Esq., could have authenticated my statement,
and with fuller particulars, as I only relate the record of it from memory,
after a lapse of many years. I think the occurrence, of which there is no
doubt, took place somewhere about the year 1782 or 1784; and after all
there is nothing very extraordinary about it, for the mode of execution by
hanging at that time presented many chances to the culprit of escaping
death; he ascended a ladder, upon which he stood until all the arrangements
were completed, and then was quietly turned off, commonly in such a manner
as not to break the neck or hurt the spinal marrow. It was most likely so
in the case I relate and the man having been suspended the usual time, and
not having been a murderer, was handed over to his friends, who took prompt
measures, and successfully, to restore animation, and so effectually, that
the man, upon whom such little impression by the frightful ordeal he had
passed was made, mixed in the world again, and was at the theatre that
evening.

Little chance is there of escaping death by the present mode of executing.

UMBRA.

Dublin.

The _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. x. p. 570., after giving the names of
those executed on Nov. 24, says:

    "And William Duell, for ravishing, robbing, and murdering Sarah Griffin
    at Acton. The body of this last was brought to Surgeons' Hall to be
    anatomised; but after it was stripped and laid on the board, and one of
    the servants was washing him in order to be cut, he perceived life in
    him, and found his breath to come quicker and quicker; on which a
    surgeon took some ounces of blood from him: in two hours he was able to
    sit up in his chair, and in the evening was again committed to
    Newgate."

And at p. 621. of the same volume,--

    "Dec. 9th. Wm. Duell (p. 570.) ordered to be transported for life."

Other instances will be found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. i. p.
172., and vol. xxxvii. p. 90; and in vol. lxx. pt. i. p. 107. is the very
curious case of Anne Green of Oxford, quoted from Dr. Plot's _Natural
History of Oxfordshire_, p. 197., which is well worth reading. Also, in
vol. lvii. pt. i. p. 33., is a letter, containing the two following
quotations from Cardan, in explanation of the phenomenon of surviving death
by hanging:

    "Is qui diu suspensus Bononiæ jacuit, vivus inventus est, quod asperam
    arteriam non cartilagineam sed osseam habuit."--_Cardanus_, lib. ii.
    tr. 2. contr. 7.

    "Constat quendam bis suspensum servatum miraculi specie; inde cum
    tertio Judicis solertiâ periisset, {282} inventam osseam asperam
    arteriam."--_Cardanus_, lib. xiv., De rerum variet., cap. 76.

In the _Newgate Calendar, or Malefactors' Bloody Register_, vol. ii. p.
233., is the account of Margaret Dickson, who was executed for child-murder
at Edinburgh, June 19, 1728, with an engraving of her "rising from her
coffin near Edinburgh, as she was carrying from the place of execution in
order for interment."

    "By the Scottish law," says the author, "every person on whom the
    judgment of the court has been executed has no more to suffer, but must
    be for ever discharged; and the executed person is dead at law, so that
    the marriage is dissolved. This was exactly the case with Margaret
    Dickson, for the king's advocate could not pursue her any farther, but
    filed a bill in the High Court of Justiciary against the sheriff for
    not seeing the judgment executed. And her husband being a good-natured
    man, was publicly married to her within a few days after the affair
    happened."

ZEUS.

For the information of your correspondent I send an extract from the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for February, 1767:

    "_Saturday_ 24th (Jan.).--One Patrick Redmond having been condemned at
    Cork, in Ireland, to be hanged for a street robbery, he was accordingly
    executed, and hung upwards of twenty-eight minutes, when the mob
    carried off the body to a place appointed, where he was, after five or
    six hours, actually recovered by a surgeon, and who made the incision
    in his windpipe called _bronchotomy_, which produced the desired
    effect. The poor fellow has since received his pardon, and a genteel
    collection has been made for him."

C. R.

I would refer your correspondent [Sigma]., who has put a Query whether
persons who have suffered execution by hanging have outlived the
infliction, to a case of a woman named Anne Green, which appears to be
authenticated upon the most unequivocal testimony of two very estimable
authors. The event to which I allude is described in Dr. Robert Plot's
_History of Oxfordshire_, folio, Oxford, 1705, p. 201.; and also in the
_Physico-Theology_ of Rev. W. Derham, F.R.S., 3rd edit., 8vo., London,
1714, p. 157. The above-mentioned Anne Green was executed at Oxford,
December 14, 1650.

I will not trespass upon your space, which appears pretty well occupied,
with a lengthened detail from the authors pointed out, as their works are
to be found in most libraries; and thinking Polonius's observation that
"brevity is the soul of wit" may be more extensively applied than to what
relates to fancy and imagination. I would, however, crave one word, which
is, that you would suggest to your correspondents generally that in
referring to works they would give, as distinctly as possible, the heads of
the title, the name of the author, the edition, if more than one, the place
of publication, date, and page. I have experienced much loss of time from
incorrect and imperfect references, not to mention complete disappointment
in many instances, which I trust may plead my apology for this remark.[4]

[Gamma].

[Footnote 4: As our pages are frequently consulted for literary purposes,
the suggestion of [Gamma] is extremely valuable, and we trust his hints
will be adopted by our numerous correspondents.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_A Stereoscopic Note._--I possess a small volume entitled _A Disquisition
about the Final Causes of Natural Things_, by T. H., B.B., Fellow of the
Royal Society, 1688. "To which are subjoined, by way of Appendix, some
uncommon observations about vitiated sight." In this strange appendix, one
of the uncommon observations is worth the notice of your correspondents who
write on stereoscopic subjects. I give you an extract from it:

"It has been of late the opinion of very learned men, that though both our
eyes are open, and turned towards an object, yet 'tis but one of them at a
time that is effectually employed in giving us the representation of it:
which opinion, in this place where I am writing but observations, it were
not proper to discuss, especially because what is suppos'd to be observed
will not always uniformly happen, but may vary in particular persons
according to their several customs, and the constitution of their eyes: for
I have, by an experiment purposely made, several times found, that my two
eyes together see an object in another situation than either of them apart
would do." And in giving instances for and against binocular vision, the
author says: "A yet more considerable instance of such mistakes I
afterwards had from a noble person, who, having in a fight, where he play'd
the _hero_, had one of his eyes strangely shot out by a musquet bullet,
that came out at his mouth, answered me, that not only he could not well
pour drink out of one vessel into another, but had broken many glasses by
letting them fall out of his hand, when he thought he had put them into
another's, or set them down upon a table." The whole book is a very curious
one, and I should be obliged if the Editor of "N. & Q." could tell me who
T. H. was?[5]

J. LAWSON SISSON.

Edingthorpe.

[Footnote 5: The Hon. Robert Boyle.]

_Photographic Query._--I think many amateur photographers would be thankful
for plain and simple directions how to mount their positives on cardboard.
Would the Editor of "N. & Q." assist us in this?

J. L. S.

_Deepening Collodion Negatives._--I have lately been trying a method of
deepening collodion negatives, so as to render instantaneous impressions
capable of being printed from, which I have found to answer admirably;
{283} and although it is but a slight modification of MR. LYTE'S process
described in "N. & Q.," it is a very important one, and will be found to
produce far better results. The picture having been developed in the usual
way, with a solution of pyrogallic acid, is whitened by means of MR.
ARCHER'S solution of bichloride of mercury. The plate is then washed with
water and a solution of _iodide of cadmium_ poured on. This converts the
white chloride of mercury, which constitutes the picture, into the yellow
iodide, in the same manner as the solution of iodide of potassium
recommended by MR. LYTE; but is much to be preferred, as it produces a more
uniform deposit. The solution of iodide of potassium dissolves the iodide
of mercury as soon as it is formed, and therefore cannot be left on the
plate until the decomposition of the chloride is complete, without injury
resulting to the picture, as the half-tones are thereby lost, and those
parts over which the solution first flows become bleached before the other
parts have attained their highest tone; whereas the solution of iodide of
cadmium may be allowed to remain for any length of time on the plate,
without any fear of its injuring the negative.

J. LEACHMAN.

_Caution to Photographers._--About six months since, I procured some gun
cotton from a chemist which appeared very good, being quite soluble, and
the collodion produced by it was excellent. That which I did not use I
placed in what I believed to be a clean dry-stopped bottle, and put the
bottle in a dark cupboard. I was much surprised the other day, upon going
to the cupboard, to find the stopper blown out, and the cotton giving out
dense red fumes of nitrous acid. It appears to me to be almost upon the
point of combustion, and I have, accordingly, placed it under a bell-glass
in a porcelain dish to watch the result. I feel satisfied, however, that
there is some risk, and, as it may often be near ether, spirits of wine, or
other inflammable chemicals, that caution is necessary not only in
preserving it at home, but especially in its transmission abroad, which is
now done to some extent.

AN AMATEUR.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Artesian Wells_ (Vol. ix., p.222.).--Wells are often so called without
just pretence to a similarity with those in Artois, whence this name is
derived. There are some natural springs in the northern slope of the chalk
in Lincolnshire, near the Humber, called _blow-wells_, which may be
considered naturally Artesian. The particular character by which an
Artesian well may be known is, that the water, if admitted into a tube,
will rise above the level of the ground in its immediate vicinity up to the
level of its sources in the basin of the district; this basin being usually
gravel, lying betwixt two strata impervious to water, formed the
surrounding hills, and extending often over many miles of the earth's
surface. If we conceive the figure of a large bowl, inclosing a somewhat
smaller one, the interstice being filled with gravel, and the rain falling
on the earth being collected within such interstice, then this interstice
being tapped by boring a well, the water will rise up from the well to the
same height as it stands in the interstice, or rim of the natural basin.
Such is an Artesian well. Supposing this huge mineral double bowl to be
broken by a geological _fault_, the same hydrostatic principle will act
similarly.

The question of _preferable_ put by STYLITES must be governed by the _cui
bono_. Universal adoption is forbidden, first, by the absence of a gravelly
stratum betwixt two strata impervious to water; and secondly, by the
excessive expense of boring to such great depths. Where expense is not in
excess of the object to be attained, and where the district is geologically
favourable, the Artesian wells are preferable to common ones derived from
natural tanks or water caverns, first, for the superabundant supply;
secondly, for the height to which the water naturally rises above the
ground; and thirdly, because boring Artesian wells, properly so called,
does not rob a neighbour's well for your own benefit, afterwards to be lost
when any neighbour chooses to dig a little deeper than you. This is a
matter with which London brewers are familiar.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

_Prior's Epitaph on Himself_ (Vol. i., p. 482.).--MR. SINGER quotes an
epitaph on "John Carnegie," and says it is the prototype of Prior's epitaph
on himself. I have looked among Prior's poems for this epitaph, and have
not been able to discover anything that can be said to answer MR. SINGER'S
description of it. Would your correspondent oblige me with a copy of the
epitaph to which he alludes? My edition of Prior is a very old one; and
this may account for the omission, if such it be.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

    [The following is a copy of the epitaph:

     "Nobles and heralds, by your leave,
        Here lies what once was Matthew Prior,
      The son of Adam and of Eve;
        Can Bourbon or Nassau claim higher?"]

_Handwriting_ (Vol. viii., p. 639.).--In your concluding Number of last
year, E. B. requested information as to any work in English, French,
German, or Spanish, giving a standard alphabet for the various kinds of
writing now in use, with directions for teaching the same. I fear I shall
not satisfy all your correspondent's inquiries; but the following may be of
some service. I have in my possession a German work, nearly of the kind he
requires. The title is, _Gründliche Anweisung zum Schönschreiben_, by
Martin Schüssler, Wiesbaden, 1820. It is of an oblong shape, and consists
entirely of engraved plates, in number thirty-two. It begins with some
directions for the form {284} and inclination of letters; then follows an
explanation of five rules for writing, which are given in the German
handwriting. After exhausting the German, the author proceeds to English
letters and handwriting, followed by engrossing hand. Then he gives the
_fractur_, or black-letter characters, with some elaborate and beautiful
capitals. He next gives specimens of French handwriting, and ends with
Greek current hand, and plates of large capitals of ornamental patterns;
all different.

If this work would at all answer the purpose of E. B., and he would wish to
see it, it shall be sent to him by post on his giving his address to the
writer, whose card is enclosed.

F. C. H.

I have in my possession for sale, a scarce old work, folio, a good clean
copy of Geo. Bickman's _Universal Penman_, 1733; with numerous engravings.

D. H. STRAHAN.

10. Winsly Street, Oxford Street.

"_Begging the Question_" (Vol. viii., p. 640.; Vol. ix., p. 136.).--It may
interest your logical readers to be informed of the fact that this fallacy
was called the _petition of the principle_, this being, of course, a
literal rendering of the Latin phrase. The earliest English work on logic
in which I have found this Latinism is, _The Arte of Logike, plainelie set
foorth in our English Tongue, easie both to be understoode and practised_,
1584. Here occurs the following passage:

    "Now of the default of Logike, called Sophisme. It is eyther
    { Generall. } / { Speciall. } The generall are those which cannot be
    referred to any part of Logike. They are eyther { Begging of the
    question, called the petition of the principle. } / { Bragging of no
    proof. } Begging of the question is when nothing is brought to prooue,
    but the question, or that which is as doubtfull."

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_When and where does Sunday begin or end?_ (Vol. ix., p. 198.).--The
Christian festival, commonly called Sunday, named by the ancient church
"The Lord's Day," because that thereon the resurrection was accomplished,
and the new creation, the work of Messias, commenced, this feast, I say,
begins at six o'clock in the evening of Saturday, the last day of the week,
at the close of that Hebrew fast; and the end of Sunday arrives at six
o'clock in the evening of that first day of the week. When time was
measured out, the count began with "the evening," which was created first;
and which, with the succeeding morning, reckoned as the first day.

H. OF MORWENSTOW.

This question has been, to a certain extent, before debated by Mr. Johnson
in his addenda to his _Clergyman's Vade Mecum_, pp. 106, 107., and
_Ecclesiastical Law_, as quoted by Wheatly, who combated his reasoning of
Sunday beginning at six o'clock on the Saturday evening. Johnson rests his
argument upon Deuteronomy xvi. 6., where the sacrifice of the passover is
ordered "at even, on the going down of the sun;" upon Exodus xii. 6., where
the whole "congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening;" and I
think he might have also taken Genesis i. 5., "And the evening and the
morning were the first day." Johnson says that

    "The Church of England has divided her nights and days according to the
    Scriptural, not the civil account: and that though our civil day begins
    from midnight, yet our ecclesiastical day begins at six in the
    evening.... The proper time for vesper, or evening song, is six of the
    clock, and from that time the religious day begins."

Wheatly admits that "the festival is not past till evensong is ended," but
does not agree to its commencing on the preceding evensong; for if it does,
he cannot reconcile the rubric at the end of the Table of Vigils.

On the whole, I think Johnson has the best of the argument: and that Sunday
begins ecclesiastically at six in the evening on Saturday; civilly, at
midnight.

R. J. S.

_Precious Stones_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.; Vol. ix., pp. 37. 88.).--Respecting
precious stones, some information may be gleaned from the notes to Sir John
Hill's translation of Theophrastus' _History of Stones_ (8vo., 2nd edit.,
London, 1774).

J. M.

Oxford.

_Scotch Grievance_ (Vol. ix., p. 160.).--Your correspondents refer to coins
of a period when the Scotch do not complain. Their grievance, as alleged,
is as to the mode of bearing the lion _since_ the Union in 1707; to which
the instances quoted, between the time of James I. and William III., have
no reference.

G.

_"Corporations have no Souls," &c._ (Vol. viii, p. 587.).--The following,
which I extract from Hone's _Table-Book_, is probably the remark to which
your correspondent B. alludes:

    "Mr. Howel Walsh, in a corporation case tried at the Tralee assizes,
    observed that a corporation cannot blush. It was a body, it was true;
    had certainly a head--a new one every year--an annual acquisition of
    intelligence in every new lord mayor. Arms he supposed it had, and long
    ones too, for it could reach at anything. Legs, of course, when it made
    such long strides. A throat to swallow the rights of the community, and
    a stomach to digest them! But who ever yet discovered, in the anatomy
    of any corporation, either bowels or a heart?"

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

{285}

_Devereux Bowly_ (Vol. ix., p. 173.).--In reply to UNEDA'S inquiry,
Devereux Bowly, watchmaker, of Lombard Street, London, died Mar. 15, 1773,
in his seventy-eighth year.

He was a member of the Society of Friends, and being at the time of his
decease a widower, and without family, he left a large portion of his
property to their school, then at Clerkenwell, in the neighbourhood of
which he resided.

T. S. N.

_Reversible Names_ (Vol. viii., pp. 244. 655.).--There is a gentleman in
this island who bears the name and surname of _Xuaved Devaux_, which are
mutually reversible.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

Your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS, in speaking of reversible or palindromic
English names, seems to have overlooked the names of _Hannah_ and _Anna_.

X.

_Duval Family_ (Vol. viii., pp. 318. 423.).--A grant was made by the crown
in Ireland on the 4th July, 1 James II., to Garret Wall, _alias_ Duvall,
sen., Esq.; Garret Wall, _alias_ Duvall, jun.; Jas. Wall, _alias_ Duvall;
and Michael Wall of the manor, town, and lands of Culenemucky, co.
Waterford.

J. F. FERGUSON.

_Member of Parliament electing Himself_ (Vol. viii., p. 536.).--In the
article forwarded by H. M. are many gross errors. William McLeod Bannatyne,
Esq., was Sheriff of Buteshire from Dec. 22, 1775, till May 28, 1799;
during which period there were only two county elections in Buteshire, viz.
April 22, 1784, and June 27, 1796 (the counties of Bute and Caithness being
represented only in alternate parliaments), and on _neither_ of those
occasions was he the _sole_ freeholder present. The statement in question
can therefore only refer to the election on Nov. 13, 1806, when, owing to
some accidental circumstances, he was the only freeholder present. In 1799
he was raised to the Bench of the Court of Session by the title of Lord
Bannatyne; and consequently he neither _did_ nor _could_ act as sheriff
seven years after he ceased to hold that office. It is true that, as a
technical formality, he nominated himself chairman of the meeting to enable
him to sign the minute of the election in that capacity; but it is _not
true_ that he either administered the oaths to himself, or signed the
return of the election as sheriff. I was then a lad, and was present as a
spectator on that occasion, when I saw Mr. Blain the sheriff-substitute
administer the oaths to Lord Bannatyne; and, of course, Mr. Blain also made
the election return, certifying that "the Honorable James Stuart Wortley
Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, &c. (a relation of the family of Bute) had been
duly elected." Thus you see that the title of the article is quite
erroneous, and is not even borne out by the original account, as the
freeholder did not elect _himself_, but another person; and he did not act
in any other capacity than that of a freeholder: the case being
extraordinary enough of only _one_ freeholder attending at a county
election, without the addition of those marvellous circumstances.

J. McK.

_Gresebrok, in Yorkshire_ (Vol. viii., p. 389.).--To assist your
correspondent [Greek: Hêraldikos], I may tell him that the family he
inquires about now resides at Horton Castle and Audenham in Staffordshire.
Many years ago, when I took some interest in genealogy, I had the pleasure
of being a guest of this family; and I then heard it said, that they could
trace a very ancient and brilliant line from one Osbert, who married a
great heiress at the Conquest, and that they were direct descendants of the
ancient kings of England. Some of Mr. Burke's publications I think would
assist [Greek: Hêraldikos]; not having them by me, I cannot give the exact
reference; but some months ago I saw, either in the _Landed Gentry_, or in
the _Visitations_, a note of the family.[6] But I think, if your
correspondent could by any means see Mr. Grazebrook's papers (as above
noted), he would obtain all the particulars he may require.

HOSPES.

Charlotte Street, London.

[Footnote 6: Ferdinando Smith, Esq., of Halesowen, born March 26, 1779, a
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant, and Lieut.-Colonel of the Worcester
Militia, married first, in July, 1802, Eloisa Knudson, who died _s. p._
Sept. 14, 1805; and, secondly, Oct. 5, 1830, Elizabeth, fourth daughter of
Michael Grazebrook, Esq., of Audnam, co. Stafford, by whom he left two
surviving sons, Ferdinando Dudley Lea, now of Halesowen, and William Lea,
born Feb. 27, 1836. Colonel Smith died July 20, 1841.--Burke's _Landed
Gentry_, p. 1248.--ED.]

_Sir Anthony Fitzherbert not Chief Justice_ (Vol. viii., pp. 576.
631.).--The accompanying extract will resolve the difficulty which M. W. R.
proposes:

    "But here our author objects against himself: That once upon a time the
    archbishop called a synod by his own authority, without the king's
    licence; and was thereupon prohibited by Fitzherbert, Lord Chief
    Justice; but the archbishop regarded not his prohibition. What this is
    to his purpose I cannot tell, nor do I see wherefore he brought it in,
    unless it were to blame Rolle for quoting Speed for it. And therefore,
    in behalf of both, I shall take the liberty to say thus much. That I
    know not what harm it is for a man in his own private collections--for
    such Rolle's _Abridgment_ was, though afterwards thought worthy of a
    public view--to note a memorable passage of history, and make a remark
    of his own upon it, out of one of the most faithful and judicious of
    all our modern historians.

    "I have before taken notice of this passage, and that not from Speed,
    but from Roger Hoveden; from {286} whom I suppose Speed may also have
    taken the relation. I shall therefore only beg to set this gentleman,
    to whom all our historians are I doubt equally unknown, right in two
    particulars; by telling him, that _neither was Fitzherbert the man who
    prohibited the archbishop, neither was he Chief Justice when he did it.
    His name was Geoffrey Fitz-Peter._ He was Earl of Essex, and a very
    eminent man in those days; and his place was much greater than this
    author represents it; even Lord Justice of England, which he was first
    made by King Richard, anno 1198; and held in the King's absence to his
    death, anno 1213; in which year King John, going over into France,
    constituted Peter, Bishop of Winchester, Lord Justice in his
    place."--Wake's _Authority of Christian Princes asserted_, pp. 284-6.

WM. FRASER, B.C.L.

Tor-Mohun.

_The Privileges of the See of Canterbury_ (Vol. viii., p. 56.).--As no one
has yet volunteered to solve MR. FRASER'S question, How the letter of Pope
Boniface ordaining that, _however human circumstances might be changed_,
the city of Canterbury should ever thereafter be esteemed the metropolitan
see, can be reconciled with the creation of the archiepiscopal see of
Westminster,--I may suggest as a solution this maxim:

    "Nihil tam conveniens est naturali æquitati, unumquodque dissolvi eo
    ligamine quo ligatum est."

It is possible, too, that Pope Pius IX. may have considered that a case had
arisen for applying this principle,--

    "Necessitas publica major est quam privata."

But be this as it may (and you will excuse me in observing, by the way,
that I do not concur in the correctness of this hypothetical view if taken
by his holiness), I hope we shall hear from MR. FRASER whether the former
of the above maxims has been effectual to remove his difficulties, which,
as I presume from their insertion in "N. & Q.," are not of a purely
theological nature.

RESPONDENS.

_Chauncy or Chancy_ (Vol. ix., p. 126.).--Your correspondent J. Y. will
find an account of Charles Chauncey, B.D., and Fellow of Trinity College,
Cambridge, born in 1589, and died in 1671, in vol. iii. p. 451. of Brook's
_Lives of the Puritans_. See also Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_.

[Greek: Halieus]

Dublin.

_"Three cats," &c._ (Vol. ix., P. 173.).-MISS BOCKETT wishes for the
remainder of the "old ballad" beginning with "Three cats;" and I beg to
inform her, that there never was any more than what she mentions. The
object of the singer was, to cause fun by an elaborately modulated cadenza
on the word _coal-dust_, and then to call on the company to join in chorus.
He next continued with some significant word, as "notwithstanding;" and,
after a pause of some bars rest, he went on with "Three cats," as before,
_ad infinitum_, changing the initial word each time. It required some tact
to give it effect; but, if sung by a clever humorist, was sure to keep the
room in a roar of laughter. But its day is gone by.

GRIMALKIN.

Halliwell, in his _Collection of Nursery Rhymes_, does not mention "Three
cats by the fire-side," &c.; but I have in my possession several not named
by him, and "Three cats," &c. amongst the number, which I have much
pleasure in transcribing for the benefit of JULIA R. BOCKETT'S ancient
friend:

 "Three cats sat by the fire-side,
  In a basket full of coal-dust,
  One cat said to the other
  In fun, pell mell, 'Queen Anne's dead.'
 'Is she,' said Grimalkin, 'then I'll reign queen in her stead,'
  Then up, up, up, they flew up the chimney."

ANON.

Probably this is the song of "The Turnspits:"

 "Two little dogs sat by the fire-side,
    In a basket full of coal-dust;
  Says one little dog to the other little dog,
   'If you don't go in, I must.'"

N.B.--Into the wheel.

SMOKEJACK.

_Officers of Charles I._ (Vol. ix., p. 74.).--SIR T. METCALFE mentions, as
among the "curious stray sheets" in his possession, "a list of all the
gentlemen and officers who fell in the cause of Charles I." As I have long
wished to see a list of King Charles's officers, but have never, as yet,
met with anything like a complete catalogue of those who fell, or of those
who survived, it would be interesting to me, as I doubt not it would be
interesting to many of your readers, to see this "curious stray sheet"
transferred to the pages of "N. & Q."

Can you refer me to any published, or otherwise accessible, list of the
officers who fought _against_ Charles I., whether by sea or land?

Is there any printed list of officers at the time of the Restoration?

* *

_D. O. M._ (Vol. iii., p. 173.; Vol. ix., p. 137.).--Would R. W. D. state
his reasons for rendering these letters "Datur omnibus mori?" Such an
inscription would of course be _à propos_ in the case of a tombstone; but
the ordinary interpretation, "Deo Optimo Maximo," would likewise be
fitting, and it is not probable that the same initials should have two
distinct meanings.

W. M. N.

_Whitewashing in Churches_ (Vol. ix., p. 148.).--Mr. Hudson Turner informs
us (_Domestic {287} Architecture in England_, vol. i. p. 246.) that as
early as the thirteenth century the practice of the whitewashing buildings
was universal; and that "the process, so vehemently denounced by modern
antiquaries, was liberally applied also to ecclesiastical edifices."

WILLIAM KELLY.

Leicester.

Mr. Hudson Turner says:

    "We are not to consider the practice of whitewashing stonework as a
    vice peculiar to modern times. Our ancestors had as great an objection
    to the natural surface of stone, whether in churches or other
    buildings, as any church wardens or bricklayers of the nineteenth
    century. Several writs of Henry III. are extant, directing the Norman
    Chapel in the Tower to be whitewashed. Westminster Hall was whitewashed
    for the coronation of Edward I.; and many other ancient examples might
    be cited. In fact it seems to have been the rule to plaster ordinary
    stonework."--_Domestic Architecture in England_, p. xxvi.

A far earlier instance of the practice appears in Deuteronomy xxvii. 2.

K's question, however, is scarcely answered by the above, as it cannot be
supposed that delicate sculpture was clogged with whitewash until it became
obnoxious on religious grounds.

C. R. M.

_Enfield Church_ (Vol. viii., p. 352.).--Your correspondent is quite wrong
as to the date of this building. The nave is separated from the north and
south aisles by an arcade of five arches of undoubted Middle Pointed work;
not later than the beginning of the fourteenth century, to which date also
belongs the east window of the chancel: the "clere-story," which has the
device of a rose and wing (not _ring_), is probably of the date assigned to
the whole church by your correspondent. The south aisle was much altered
about forty years ago, the windows of which are a bad imitation of those in
the north aisle. In making alterations to the chancel in 1852 the piscina,
and a portion of the sedilia, a drawing of which is given in _The Builder_,
vol. x. p. 797., with a window over, were brought to light. They belong to
the First Pointed period, or about the latter part of the twelfth century;
clearly showing that a portion, at least, of the church is of the
last-mentioned date.

I have always understood that the wing and rose, on the walls of the
clere-story, was the cognizance of Abbot Wingrose of Waltham.

JAS. P. ST. AUBYN.

_Coin of Carausius_ (Vol. ix., p. 148).--C. G. is right in considering his
coin as of Carausius, who reigned from 1040 to 1046 A.U.C. I would suggest
P. F. for Pius Felix, as preferable to P. P.

The dates will show that the letters MLXXI have nothing to do with the year
1071. On other coins of Carausius we find the signs ML, _Moneta
Londinensis_, or _Moneta Londini_ (_percussa_); and MSL, _Moneta signata
Londini_. These interpretations are justified by analogy with the Roman
coins, and by the signs on coins of Constantine, MSL, which must be
interpreted as on the coins of Carausius, MLON, and MLN, _Moneta Londini_
(_percussa_). The abbreviation LN for LON is analogous to RV for _Ravenna_,
which is undoubted.

As for the letters XXI, they occur very frequently, either alone or with
others, on coins of Aurelian and his successors. They have evidently
relation to the value of the coin, and are replaced by the Greek letters
[Greek: KA], which have the same numerical value, on coins of Diocletian,
&c. As analogous signs, I may quote LXXII and OB, the corresponding Greek
letters, on amei respectively of Constantine and Valentinian, showing the
_ameus_ = 1/72 of a pound; LX on silver coins of Constantius = 1/60 of a
pound; and XCVI on denarii of Diocletian = 1/96 of a pound.

It has not yet been explained, however, in what relation these copper coins
stood to the others, so as to justify the XXI, unless Mommsen may have done
so in a book I have not seen, _Ueber den Verfall des Münzwesens in der
Kaiserzeit_, 1851. See for the particulars of the above-cited coins, Pinder
and Friedländer's _Beiträge zur Münzkunde_, p. 17. and following.

W. H. SCOTT.

Torquay.

_Society for Burning the Dead_ (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--

    "The Pioneer Metropolitan Association for Promoting the Practice of
    Decomposing the Dead by the Agency of Fire. W. H. Newman, Hon. Sec., to
    whom all communications are to be addressed, post paid, at the City of
    London Mechanics' Institute, Gould Square, Crutched Friars, or at 7.
    Cleveland Street, Mile End Road.

    "January, 1850.

     "ARTHUR TREVELYAN,
             "Associate."

ANON.

_Map of Dublin_ (Vol. ix., p. 171.).--Your querist C. H. will be shown with
pleasure, at my house, a very ancient map of Dublin, styled "An Exact Copy
of a Map of the City and Harbour of Dublin, from a Survey by John Rocque."
There is no date to it, but I observe that the street I live in was called
"Fleet Alley."

JOHN H. POWELL.

15. Westmoreland Street, Dublin.

_Pettifogger_ (Vol. vii., p. 354.).--One who "would cast a mist before,"
and around, his clients. He makes it his constant practice to raise a
"petty-fog."

    "And thus much for this cloud, I cannot say rather than _petty-fog_ of
    witnesses, with which Episcopal men would cast a mist before us, to
    deduce their exalted {288} Episcopacy from Apostolick Times."--Milton,
    of _Prelatical Episcopacy_, Ed. Col. Amst., 1698, vol. i. p. 245.

Is not this a more probable origin of the word than the _pettivogueur_ of
our etymologists? And MR. KEIGHTLEY will, I am sure, permit me to suggest
that it is a derivation at least as obvious and expressive as
_pettyfolker_.

WILLIAM BEAL.

Brooke Vicarage, Norfolk.

_Views in London by Canaletto_ (Vol. ix., p. 106.).--In reply to the Query
of your correspondent GONDOLA, I beg to say that I have long had the
pleasure of possessing one of Canaletto's London views, that of the Thames
from the Temple Gardens, in which the hand that painted gondolas and masks
may be traced in Thames wherries and grave Templars. I believe there are
others in the collections of the Dukes of Buccleugh and Northumberland.

EDMUND PHIPPS.

Park Lane.

During the residence of Antonio Canaletto at Venice, he painted a number of
pictures, at low prices, for Joseph Smith, Esq., the British consul; but
that gentleman retailed those paintings at an enormous profit to English
travellers. Canaletto finding this out, was induced to visit a country
where his talents were so much appreciated. He accordingly came to England
in the year 1746, being then about fifty years of age. He remained with us
six or seven years (not _two_, as stated by Walpole), and during that
period received great encouragement from the English nobility. His
delineations of London and its environs, especially those of Thames scenery
(of which he seems to have been very fond), are deservedly admired. Two of
these are at Goodwood, and another (Parliament Street, looking towards
Charing Cross) is in the Buccleuch Collection. Several London paintings
were, at the beginning of the present century, in the possession of the
Hon. Percy Wyndham. Some others are to be found in the royal collections,
and in those of many noblemen and gentlemen of fortune.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_London Fortifications_ (Vol. ix., pp. 174. 207.).--During the last civil
war a fortification was erected at the Brill Farm, near old St. Pancras
Church, where, 120 years after, Somers Town was built. A view of it is
extant, and may be obtained for a few shillings. The Brill is also stated
to have been a Roman station, but, I believe, without foundation.

G. J. S.

Tavistock Terrace, Holloway.

_What Day is it at our Antipodes?_ (Vol. viii., pp 102. 649.).--After the
able way in which this subject has been treated by A. E. B., I will only
add an extract from _A Complete System of Geography_, by Emanuel Bowen,
London, 1747, vol. iii. p. 250.:

    "One thing more is worth observing concerning this place (Macao),
    namely, that the Portuguese Sunday here is the Saturday with the
    Spaniards of the Philippine Islands, and so forward through all the
    days of the week, although there be scarce any difference in the
    longitude of both places. But the reason is, the Portuguese, in coming
    to Europe, pass eastward, whereas the Spaniards, coming from America,
    pass westward; so that between both, they have sailed round the globe:
    in doing which there is necessarily one day lost, as we have taken
    occasion to show in the introduction to this work."

JOHN P. STILWELL.

Dorking.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

When Dr. Ure tells us that from the year 1804, when he conducted the
schools of chemistry and manufactures in the Andersonian Institution, up to
the present day, he has been assiduously engaged in the study and
improvement of most of the chemical, and many of the mechanical, arts; that
during that period he has been habitually consulted professionally by
proprietors of factories, workshops, and mines, to rectify what was amiss
in their establishments, and to supply what was wanting, he shows clearly
how great were his qualifications for the preparation of _A Dictionary of
Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, containing a clear exposition of their
principles and practice_: and it is therefore little wonder that a work
undertaken with such advantages should have reached what is now before us,
a "fourth edition, corrected and greatly enlarged." Dr. Ure has, in this
edition, turned to good account the many novelties of an interesting and
useful nature first displayed in the Great Exhibition, and his two portly
volumes may be consulted with advantage not only by manufacturers and
professional men, but by lawyers, legislators, and, in short, all who take
an interest in those achievements of science to which this great country
owes its pre-eminence.

Unnoticed by reviewers, and unaided by favour or influence, Mr. Keightley
tells us that his _Mythology of Ancient Greece and Italy_ has reached its
third edition. So much the better, for it proves that the book has merits
of its own, and those merits have won for it a place which will keep Mr.
Keightley's name in memory as long as a love for classical literature and
tasteful learning remains; and this, we suspect, will be longer than Mr.
Keightley anticipates. As the success which has attended this valuable and
original exposition of classical mythology renders it unnecessary to say
one word as to its merits, we may content ourselves with stating that this
edition has been carefully revised, has received numerous additions, and,
although it is beautifully got up, is published at lower price than its
predecessor. {289}

The children of Lady Falmouth are blessed with a mother who possesses that
invaluable gift, the art of making learning a pleasure; and we doubt not
many a loving mother will be glad to find her labours lightened by the
recently published _Conversations on Geography, or the Child's first
introduction to where He is, what He is, and what else there is_, by
Viscountess Falmouth, Baroness Le Despencer. These conversations strongly
remind one of Mrs. Marcet's, and we can give them no higher praise.

Whatever difference of opinion may exist as to the partial or impartial
character of M. de Custine's work upon _Russia_, it contains much matter
which will be read at the present important crisis with considerable
interest; and in reprinting it in their _Traveller's Library_, at a price
which will place it within the reach of all classes of readers, Messrs.
Longman have taken steps for securing to _Russia by_ M. De Custine a
wide-spread popularity.

Our valued correspondent MR. SINGER has kindly sent us a copy of a little
offering to the manes of Shakspeare and Tieck, of which he has printed a
few copies for private distribution. It is _The Midsummer Night, or
Shakspeare and the Fairies, from the German of Ludwig Tieck_, by Mary C.
Rumsay. The work, one of exuberant fancy, was written when Tieck was only
sixteen, but only published by his friend Bulow in 1851. It is translated
with great ability; and we regret, for the sake of the many who would wish
to possess it, that MR. SINGER did not carry out his original intention,
and publish it in aid of the funds for the monument to Tieck.

_The Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology_, No. I., March, 1854, is
the first of a very valuable periodical, the nature and object of which are
plainly indicated by its title. One very useful feature is its _Contents of
Foreign Journals_, in which it records all the important contributions on
sacred and classical philology inserted in the chief periodicals of the
Continent.

We have before us the publications of _The Arundel Society_, or _Society
for Promoting the Knowledge of the Fine Arts_, for the fourth year: and
they are indeed of a nature to effect the great object for which the
Society was instituted. They consist of eight engravings on wood from
drawings made by Mr. Williams, who was sent by the Society to Padua
expressly for the purpose, from the frescos of Giotto in the Arena Chapel.
The woodcuts have been executed by Messrs. Dalziel. With the rest of these
prints will be issued a short description of the chapel and its frescos,
prepared by Mr. Ruskin.

The Second Part of Mr. Netherclift's _Autograph Miscellany_ contains
fac-similes of the original depositions of their marriage by James II. and
Anne Hyde; of an original letter from Luther to Cromwell, afterwards Earl
of Essex; of a letter from Glover, Somerset Herald, to the Earl of
Leicester; and of that portion of Sterne's _Sentimental Journey_ in which
is related the episode of "The Dead Ass."

The success which has attended the publication of Miss Burney's _Diary_,
or, to give the work its more correct title, _The Diary and Letters of
Madame D'Arblay_, has induced Mr. Colburn to commence a new edition of it
in seven three-shilling volumes.

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HENRY'S (Phillip) LIFE, by Sir J. B. Williams. Royal 8vo.

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FRESENIUS' QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. Last Edition.

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Two Volumes of PLATES TO GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURE. Parker, Oxford. 1850.

  Wanted by _Ed. Appleton_, Torquay.

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Notices to Correspondents.

_In consequence of the great length of_ MR. WINTHROP_'s valuable
communication, and the number of articles waiting for insertion, we have
this week the pleasure of presenting our readers with an extra eight
pages_.

_We are compelled to postpone until next week Replies to several
Correspondents and Notices of several books._

AN OLD F.A.S., F.R.S., F.S.A. _We have not yet been favoured with a reply
to our request for the name of this Correspondent, who states that "he
selected the Eyre drawings from a large mass of papers" in 1847, and "is
satisfied they are authentic drawings." We therefore repeat our request._

MATHEW, A CORNISH FAMILY (Vol. ix., p. 22.).--Excuse my troubling you again
about _real_ names, but it is extraordinary how shy some men seem to be of
their _cognomen_ and habitat. In a late Number, p. 222., B. of Birkenhead
asks about the family of Mathew. A great-great-grandmother of mine was of
that Devon family, and I should be delighted to learn more than I know of
her, and perhaps B. Birkenhead might instruct me. Do try to draw him from
his _cover_.

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

Rectory, Clyst St. George, Topsham, Devon.

{290}

ZETA. _For notices of Mother Shipton, see_ "N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 419.

C. W. B. _Is our Correspondent quite certain there was a naval engagement,
as the words of the pedigree simply state that he was on board when he
died, in command of a body of Marines?_

J. D. _The wedge-shaped baths of glass, originally recommended by_ MR.
ARCHER, _are certainly the best. They are economical in use and very
cleanly. They may, no doubt, be procured from_ MR. ARCHER. _The one we have
in we got at Hockin's. There is little doubt that if, when properly
constructed, they were sold at a reasonable price, they would entirely
supersede baths of gutta percha._

B. P. (Warrington). _We have often answered the question before.
Precipitate the silver in the form of a chloride by means of common salt;
put this into a crucible with twice or thrice the quantity of common
carbonate of soda: The crucible being exposed to a strong heat, the
metallic silver will form in a button at the bottom of the crucible. 2. Use
a bath of thirty grains of nitrate of silver to the ounce, and drop into it
a few drops of nitric acid, sufficient to turn litmus paper red. 3. A glass
bath is far preferable to gutta percha._

E. W. (A Beginner). _1. In all printing of positives it is needful to salt
the paper; when albumenized paper is used it is combined with the albumen.
2. We have for many reasons entirely discarded the ammonio-nitrate of
silver. We have seen very few positives produced by it which are permanent.
3. Sel d'or causes a sort of plum colour, which is much admired by some;
intensity of light alone will not produce certain tints. We have met with
uniform success by trusting to the formula given in_ "N. & Q." _by_ DR.
DIAMOND (Vol. viii., p. 324.), _and its ease in manipulation has alone much
to recommend it. 4. Proofs should be left in the hypo, until they are quite
clear and transparent when held up to the light, looking like a piece of
Chinese rice-paper. They at first change to a reddish-brown upon immersion,
but if sufficiently printed that soon departs and becomes a very rich tint,
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OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d.,
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NOTES ON AQUATIC MICROSCOPIC SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, selected from the
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Also, in 8vo., pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

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{291}

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COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainly
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail maintained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and its extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHUBB'S FIRE-PROOF SAFES AND LOCKS.--These safes are the most secure from
force, fraud, and fire. Chubb's locks, with all the recent improvements,
cash and deed boxes of all sizes. Complete lists, with prices, will be sent
on application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool;
16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARUNDEL SOCIETY.--The Publication of the Fourth Year (1852-3), consisting
of Eight Wood Engravings by MESSRS. DALZIEL. from Mr. W. Oliver Williams'
Drawings after GIOTTO'S Frescos at PADUA, is now ready; and Members who
have not paid their subscriptions are requested to forward them to the
Treasurer by Post-Office Order, payable at the Charing Cross Office.

          JOHN J. ROGERS,
              Treasurer and Hon. Sec.
  13. & 14. Pall Mall East.
      March, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *

SURPLICES.

GILBERT J. FRENCH, Bolton, Lancashire, has prepared his usual large Supply
of SURPLICES, in Anticipation of EASTER.

PARCELS delivered FREE at Railway Stations.

       *       *       *       *       *

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
               T. Grissell, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289, Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s., per
Post, 1s., 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE. MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the
TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical
Profession, may be produced in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the
most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being
specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 26. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial,
aligned by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E.
F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lamm, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osbourne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright." &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price and Description of
upwards of 100 articles consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS

Ladies' Portmanteaus,

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES and other travelling
requisites, Gratis on application or sent free by Post on receipt of Two
Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *

{292}

NEW AND IMPORTANT

WORKS FOR THE YOUNG,

PUBLISHED BY

VARTY AND OWEN,

EDUCATIONAL DEPOSITORY, 31. STRAND, LONDON.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRECEPTIVE ILLUSTRATIONS of the BIBLE: a Series of Fifty-two New Coloured
Prints to aid Scriptural Instruction. Selected, in part, by the Author of
"Lessons on Objects." From Original Designs, by S. BENDIXEN, Artist, made
expressly for this Work. The Fifty-two Prints, coloured, in one vol.,
half-bound, morocco, 3l.; in paper wrapper, 2l. 12s.; single prints, 1s.
6d., coloured; in plain oak frame, with glass, 3l.; rosewood and gold
frame, and glass, 3l. 6s. Size of the prints, 12½ in. by 10½.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

    "A valuable help in home education."

    "Admirably adapted for the purpose of instructing the young. Suitable
    either for schools or for private families."

    "To aid parents on the Sunday they are invaluable."

CHRONOLOGICAL PICTURES OF ENGLISH HISTORY, from the Ancient Britons to
Queen Victoria. Designed and Lithographed by JOHN GILBERT. In Eight Parts.
Every Part contains Five Plates, with Fac-similes of the Autographs of the
Sovereigns and most distinguished characters, accompanied with Tabular
Sheets of Letterpress, carefully compiled. Each Plate illustrates a reign.
Price, complete in one vol., imperial folio, half-bound morocco, gilt tops,
3l. 13s. 6d.; or in Eight Parts, each Part 7s. 6d., beautifully tinted. In
a serial portfolio frame, with glass, 3l. 18s.

VARTY'S GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF ANIMALS: showing their Utility to Man in
their Services during Life, and Uses after Death. The size of the Prints is
15 inches by 12. Single Prints may be had.

To present accurate drawings and pleasing pictures is not the only or
primary object of this work, but rather to impart lessons of practical
importance and daily application in an attractive form, and to open up a
subject which, judiciously applied, is calculated to prove to the young a
most interesting and instructive study. The design is to show the "Utility
of Animals to Man," both in their services during life, and in their uses
after death; and to deduce results calculated to excite interest and
admiration, and evince the wisdom and goodness of God in the subsistence,
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folio, exhibiting nearly Sixty Animals, in upwards of 200 Coloured
Illustrations, half-bound in morocco, and lettered, 2l. 12s.

VARTY & CO.'S SELECT SERIES OF DOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS. In Thirty-six
carefully coloured Plates. Size 12½ inches by 9. Price 1l. 4s. The
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instruction and application. The set of Outlines for Drawings, 9s.

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM at ONE VIEW. Clearly exhibiting the Relative Sizes of
Animals to Man, and their Comparative Sizes with each other. Arranged in
Divisions, Orders, &c., according to the Method of Baron Cuvier. Carefully
and beautifully coloured after Nature. On Four Imperial Sheets. 30 inches
by 22, in Sheets, beautifully coloured, with a Key, 1l. 5s. 6d.

THE ILLUSTRATED EDITION.

THE EARTH AND MAN; or, Comparative Physical Geography, according to the
Principals laid down by Karl Ritter, Humboldt, Steffens, Elie, Beaumont,
&c. With ten illustrative coloured Maps and Plates. By ARNOLD GUYOT.
Professor of Physical Geography and History at Neufchatel. Second Edition,
bound in cloth, demy 12mo. 4s.

ILLUSTRATED OUTLINE MAPS to the ILLUSTRATED ATLAS. By DR. VOGEL. Seven
Maps, each beautifully embellished with a Border, exhibiting the Animals,
Plants, &c., according to their Geographical Distribution. Imp. 4to., in a
cover, 3s. the Set.

NEW SCRIPTURE PRINTS. Six Illustrations from the Parables. Drawn by W. J.
MONTAIGNE. Size 15 inches by 12. In a wrapper. 3s.

VOGEL'S ILLUSTRATED ATLAS of POLITICAL and ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
In Eleven Coloured Maps and Plates. Embellished with upwards of 300
Engravings of the Races of Man, Animals, Plants, &c. By DR. KARL VOGEL.
Director of Schools, Berlin. With Descriptive Letter-press, by the Editor
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AN EASY INTRODUCTION to the STUDY of the ANIMAL KINGDOM. Price, in cloth,
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THE TREASURY HARMONY of the FOUR EVANGELISTS: having Scripture
Illustrations, Expository Notes, Practical Reflections, Geographical
Notices, &c. Bound in cloth, 2 vols., 1l. 1s.

*** A few copies only remain on hand.

VOGEL'S ILLUSTRATED PHYSICAL MAPS, beautifully coloured, with Letter-press
Descriptions, 5s.

PICTORIAL BIBLE ATLAS. Demy 8vo., covered cloth, containing Six Quarto
Maps, with numerous interesting Illustrations of Important Events, Manners,
Customs, Religious Rites and Ceremonies, &c. Full coloured, 2s.

EUROPE. A New Map. divided Politically, exhibiting the Mountain Ranges, and
much useful Information. Four Sheets, atlas size, 5 feet by 4 feet 4
inches. On cloth and rollers, coloured, 16s.

Now ready, the Third Edition.

CHRIST an EXAMPLE for the YOUNG. Illustrated by 55 Engravings on tinted
Papers, to aid the Chronology of Our Lord's Life and Ministry. With a Map.
Bound, cloth lettered, 7s. 6d.

HAND ATLAS FOR BIBLE READERS. By E. HUGHES. New Edition, with very
considerable additions, cloth lettered, 2s. 6d.

VARTY'S EARLY LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY. In Fourteen Lessons, in very bold type.
There are numerous questions on each lesson. 2s. 6d. Second edit.

A LARGE PHYSICAL MAP OF THE WORLD. Showing its various Physical Features
and Phenomena. Cloth and roller, coloured, 1l. 1s.; varnished, 1l. 8s.
Size, 5 feet 6 inches by 5 feet.

A LARGE PHYSICAL MAP OF EUROPE. Exhibiting its Physical Features, &c.
Coloured. Cloth and roller, 18s., varnished, 1l. 4s. Size, 5 feet by 4 feet
4 inches.

PHYSICAL EARTH, IN HEMISPHERES. Without the lines of latitude and
longitude, or any names of places. Cloth and roller, 16s. Size 5 feet 4
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A LARGE NEW MAP OF THE WORLD. Showing its Civil Divisions, and other useful
information. In Hemispheres. Cloth and roller, 16s. Size, 4 feet 4 inches
by 3 feet 3 inches.

HISTORICAL MAPS OF ENGLAND--Middle Ages. Two beautifully executed Maps,
with copious Index Sheets, Map I. Engla Land, Anglo-Saxon Period, from A.D.
450 to A.D. 1066. Map II. England, Anglo-Norman Period, from A.D. 1066 to
A.D. 1485. Price, in Sheets, 5s.; on cloth and roller, 8s.

EDUCATIONAL MAPS (Varty's Cheap Series), coloured and mounted on cloth and
roller.

THE WORLD (Mercator's), 12s.; in Hemispheres, 10s.

THE BRITISH ISLANDS (One Map), 14s.

  Europe                                 6s.
  Asia                                   6s.
  Africa                                 6s.
  America                                6s.
  Australia and New Zealand              6s.
  England                                6s.
  Scotland                               6s.
  Ireland                                6s.
  India                                  6s.
  Roman Empire                           7s.
  The Journeys of Israel                 6s.
  Heathen Palestine, or Canaan           6s.
  Jewish Palestine, in Twelve Tribes     6s.
  Palestine in the Time of Our Saviour   6s.
  St. Paul's Voyages and Travels         6s.
  Jerusalem, the City of the Lord        6s.

Outline Maps to Correspond, 1s. 6d. each plain; 2s. coloured; 5s. cloth and
roller.

A detailed Catalogue of these Works, Maps, and Apparatus, may be had on
application. A very Liberal Discount to Schools.

       *       *       *       *       *

London: VARTY & OWEN, Educational Depository, York House, 31. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the
    Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
    Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE
    BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
    West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet Street
    aforesaid.--Saturday, March 25, 1854.





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