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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 136, June 5, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 136, June 5, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

Vol. V.--No. 136.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Autobiography of William Oldys, by Charles Bridger           529

  On Cosin's "History of Popish Transubstantiation," edited
    by the Rev. J. S. Brewer                                   531

  Ancient Guildhalls in England                                532

  The Seventh Son of a Seventh Son, by Henry Edwards           532

  Robert Drury                                                 533

  Folk Lore:--Gabriel Hounds--Weather Prophecy--Origin of
    Moles--Mistletoe                                           534

  Minor Notes:--Byron's "Siege of Corinth"--Goldsmith's
    "Poetical Dictionary"--Corrupted Names                     534


  Mr. Halliwell's Annotated Shakspeare Folio                   535

  Restive                                                      535

  Reason and Understanding according to Coleridge, by
    C. Mansfield Ingleby                                       535

  Minor Queries:--Banning or Bayning Family--Ladies styled
    Baronets--St. Christopher and the Doree--Custom of
    Women wearing Masks in the Theatre--Brass of Abbot
    Kirton; Matrices--Lines on Chaucer--The Nacar--Cilgerran
    Castle--Use of Slings by the Early Britons--"Squire
    Vernon's Fox Chase"--The Death Watch--Genealogical
    Queries--Ben Jonson's adopted Sons--Kyrle's Tankard at
    Balliol--Irish Language in the West Indies--"Battle of
    Neville's Cross"--Sir Walter Raleigh's Ring--"Narne; or,
    Pearle of Prayer"--Sir George Howard--"Love me, love my
    Dog"--Mummy Wheat--A Photographic Query--"Stunt with
    false Care"--Winchester College--Old Royal Irish Academy
    House, Grafton Street--Quotations wanted--Shakspeare's
    Seal--The long-lived Countess of Desmond                   536

  MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Temple Church and Lincoln's Inn
    Chapel--Edmund Bohun--"Nimrod"                             539


  The Three Estates of the Realm, by William Fraser            539

  Burials in Woollen, by John Booker and J. B. Colman          542

  Braem's MS. "Memoires touchant le Commerce"                  543

  General Pardons, by John Gough Nichols                       544

  The Dodo, by A. D. Bartlett                                  544

  Whipping of Princes by Proxy                                 545

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Penkenol--Johnny Crapaud--Sir
    John Darnall--Bastides--Compositions under the
    Protectorate--Hoax on Sir Walter Scott--Statute of
    Limitations abroad--Lines on Crawfurd of Kilbirnie--
    Swearing on a Skull--Rhymes on Places--The Silent
    Woman--Serpent with a human Head--Poem on the Burning
    of the Houses of Parliament--Large Families--Frebord--
    Milton's (?) Epitaph--Can Bishops vacate their Sees?--
    Sleekstone, Meaning of--Poems in the Spectator--Line on
    Franklin--St. Christopher--Lines on Woman--Burial--
    Portrait of Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland           545


  Notes on Books, &c.                                          549

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 550

  Notices to Correspondents                                    550

  Advertisements                                               551

       *       *       *       *       *



Previous to receiving the appointment of Norroy King at Arms, Oldys wrote a
short account of his own life, which is now in my possession; and as it
contains some interesting particulars of his connexion with the Earl of
Oxford, in the formation of the magnificent collection of manuscripts now
in the British Museum, I have forwarded a copy of it, which you are at
liberty to make use of, if suited to the pages of "N. & Q."

    "After my unfortunate adventures in the South Sea, my long and
    expensive law-suits for the recovery of my right, and five years'
    retirement to a nobleman's in the country, with whom I had been
    intimate in my youth, I became, in less than two years after my return
    to London, first known to the Earl of Oxford in the year 1731; when he
    invited me to show him my collections of MSS. Historical and Political,
    which had been the Earl of Clarendon's; my collections of Royal
    Letters, and other Papers of State; together with a very large
    collection of English heads in sculpture, which alone had taken me up
    some years to collect, at the expense of at least threescore pounds.
    All these, with the catalogues I drew up of them, at his lordship's
    request, I parted with to him for forty pounds, and the frequent
    intimations he gave me of a more substantial recompense hereafter,
    which intimations induced me to continue my historical researches, as
    what would render me most acceptable to him. Therefore I left off
    writing in the _Universal Spectator_, in which I had then published
    about twenty papers, and was proffered the sole supply thereof; which
    would have returned me fifty-two guineas per annum.

    "Further, when his lordship understood that my printed books consisted
    chiefly of personal history, he desired catalogues of them also: which
    I drew out, and he had several large parcels of the most scarce and
    curious amongst them, in the two years following; for which, though I
    never received more than five guineas, not the fourth part of their
    value, yet his friendly deportment towards me increased my attachment
    and zeal to oblige him. This friendship he further exerted, in the
    {530} assistance he afforded me out of his own library, and procured of
    his friends, towards completing my _Life of Sir Walter Raleigh_; and
    his opinion of the further encouragement I therein deserved may appear
    in the letters he honoured me with upon that occasion. But as to money,
    the five guineas more he gave me upon my presenting him with the
    _Life_, and the _History of the World_ annexed to it, in 1736, was all
    that I ever received from him in five years. In the latter end of the
    year 1737 I published my _British Librarian_; and when his lordship
    understood how unproportionate the advantages it produced were to the
    time and labour bestowed upon it, he said he would find me employment
    better worth my while. Also, when he heard that I was making interest
    with Sir Robert Walpole, through the means of Commissioner Hill, to
    present him with an abstract of some ancient deeds I had relating to
    his ancestors, and which I have still, his lordship induced me to
    decline that application, saying, though he could not do as grand
    things as Sir Robert, he would do that which might be as agreeable to
    me, if I would disengage myself from all other persons and pursuits. I
    had then also had, for several years, some dependence upon a nobleman,
    who might have served me in the government, and had, upon certain
    motives, settled an annuity upon me of twenty pounds a year. This I
    resigned to the said nobleman for an incompetent consideration, and
    signed a general release to him, in May, 1738, that I might be wholly
    independent, and absolutely at my Lord Oxford's command. I was likewise
    then under an engagement with the undertakers of the _Supplement to
    Bayle's Dictionary_. I refused to digest the materials I then had for
    this work under an hundred pounds a year, till it was finished; but
    complied to take forty shillings a sheet for what I should write, at
    such intervals as my business would permit: for this clause I was
    obliged to insert, in the articles then executed between them and
    myself, in March the year aforesaid whereby I reserved myself free for
    his lordship's service. And though I proposed, their said offer would
    be more profitable to me than my own, yet my lord's employment of me,
    from that time, grew so constant, that I never finished above three or
    four lives for that work, to the time of his death. All these
    advantages did I thus relinquish, and all other dependence, to serve
    his lordship. And now was I employed at auctions, sales, and in writing
    at home, in transcribing my own collections or others for his lordship,
    till the latter part of the year 1739; for which services I received of
    him about 150 pounds. In November the same year I first entered his
    library of manuscripts, whereunto I came daily, sorted and methodised
    his vast collection of letters, to be bound in many volumes; made
    abstracts of them, and tables to each volume; besides working at home,
    mornings and evenings, for the said library. Then, indeed, his
    lordship, considering what beneficial prospects and possessions I had
    given up, to serve him, and what communications I voluntarily made to
    his library almost every day, by purchases which I never charged, and
    presents out of whatever was most worthy of publication among my own
    collections, of which he also chose what he pleased, whenever he came
    to my chambers, which I have since greatly wanted, I did thenceforward
    receive of him two hundred pounds a-year, for the short remainder of
    his life. Notwithstanding this allowance, he would often declare in
    company before me, and in the hearing of those now alive, that he
    wished I had been some years sooner known to him than I was; because I
    should have saved him many hundred pounds.

    "The sum of this case is, that for the profit of about 500l. I devoted
    the best part of ten years' service to, and in his lordship's library;
    impoverished my own stores to enrich the same; disabled myself in my
    studies, and the advantages they might have produced from the publick;
    deserted the pursuits which might have obtained me a permanent
    accommodation and procured the prejudice and misconceit of his
    lordship's surviving relations. But the profits I received were
    certainly too inconsiderable to raise any envy or ill will; tho' they
    might probably be conceived much greater than they were. No, it was
    what his lordship made me more happy in, than his money, which has been
    the cause of my greatest unhappiness with them; his favour, his
    friendly reception and treatment of me; his many visits at my chambers;
    his many invitations by letters, and otherwise, to dine with him, and
    pass whole evenings with him; for no other end, but such intelligence
    and communications, as might answer the inquiries wherein he wanted to
    be satisfied, in relation to matters of literature, all for the benefit
    of his library. Had I declined those invitations, I must, with great
    ingratitude, have created his displeasure; and my acceptance of them
    has displeased others. Some survivors would surely, in respect to the
    memory of such a noble and honourable person, not totally disregard
    what he had so distinguished; but think a man worthy of being
    recommended to some provision, whom he, after a very deliberate
    experience, had seen reason so decently to provide for. I look upon
    most places of attendance at Court to be an idle, loytering, empty
    course of life; in which a man is obliged to dress expensively, keep
    frothy, vain, or vicious company, and to have the salary more
    backwardly paid than in other places. Therefore I should prefer some
    office in the Revenue, rather than to be upon the Civil List.

    "Any clerkship, that must double a man down to a desk for a set of
    hours, morning and afternoon, he should be inured to from his youth, to
    be {531} anything dextrous or easy in; but one, who has been the
    greatest part of his life master of his own time and thoughts, has his
    head pre-occupied; at least is commonly fitter for the direction than
    the execution of business; unless it be such in which his head will
    concur with his hand. Besides, not to mention other incongruities, how
    would it fit a man, growing in years, to be company for a pack of young
    clerks? or, how could he hope to be continued, of such honourable
    persons, as should recommend him even to that situation, but might with
    the same trouble to something more convenient for him?

    "I have been assured by persons of experience, that an handsome post is
    not only sooner procured as having less candidates, but a man's
    pretension is more regarded. Whereas, in business of ordinary or mean
    account, his merits and abilities are thought proportionable, and
    therefore his pretension or request is less regarded. Besides, places
    that are something considerable, are generally less slavish and
    engrossing of a man's time; which, God knows, I desire not to be better
    employed than mine is, and may be by myself; only, a part of it more
    profitably: and yet, the convenience of such leisure, with the credit
    attending such a place, I should more value than the profit.

    "There is a common advice, that a man should not put in for everything,
    because it implys too high thoughts of his own sufficiency, as if he
    thought himself fit for everything: which is the character of an
    arrogant and conceited coxcomb. This offering of one's self, without
    latitude or limitation, is indeed one extreme; but the other is, to
    nail one's self down to some one individual place, like a dainty guest,
    that can taste but of one dish, and so wait for the vacancy; wherein he
    is led, by his own election, first to go barefoot (perhaps to his
    grave) in waiting for a dead man's shoes; and when he is dead, then he
    shall probably see another wear them. So that any vacancy which will
    accommodate the candidate with a competency suitable to his condition
    and qualifications; or, at least, equal to what he has appeared in, and
    decently enjoyed, cannot, 'tis presumed, be thought unreasonable.

    "Two or three hundred a year may be thought a very liberal allowance
    from a single person; in places of the government 'tis thought no
    burden, because the publick contributions are settled for the payment:
    there is no new charge or salary created, and they have stood the test
    of various changes or revolutions in the administrations. If I were to
    be restored to a place of two hundred a year now, it would not be by
    one fourth part of the advantage to me that it might have been five
    years since: for I should look upon myself in conscience obliged to
    sequester so much, even though I should live long enough to enjoy such
    a place ten years, to re-imburse such friends as have assisted me in
    all that time, but can no longer now. So that this one act of
    accommodation would indeed save more persons than one from ruin."

If it is not already known that Oldys obtained the appointment of Norroy
through the intercession of Sir Peter Thompson, to whom the above
autobiographic sketch was addressed, I think I can confidently assert such
was the fact. I am collecting materials for biographical notices of the
King's Heralds and Pursuivants-at-Arms. Will you permit me, through the
medium of "N. & Q.," to make known to your correspondents that I have such
a work in hand; and that I should be obliged for any unpublished
particulars, either relative to Oldys, or any other members of the College
of Arms.


       *       *       *       *       *


As every work of value, and likely to live, should be made as correct as
possible, I beg insertion in "N. & Q." of some remarks on a note in Mr.
Brewer's very satisfactory edition of so important a volume as that of
Cosin on the papal doctrine of transubstantiation. The note occurs in p.
130., and is as follows:--

    "++ _Index Expurg. Hispan. D. Gasp. Quirogæ Card. et Inquisit.
    generalis in fine._

    "There is a copy of one edition of this Index in the British Museum,
    but I cannot find the passage to which Bp. Cosin refers. The other
    Index to which he refers is not to be found in the British Museum,
    Bishop Tenison's library, or Sion College."

The disappointment of Mr. Brewer may not improbably be ascribed to the
unfortunate fact, that in the _English_ translation of Cosin's book, which
is given by Mr. Brewer in the forecited extract, after the word _fine_ are
omitted the words _Lit. O._, which are found in the _Latin_ original. This
additional direction would have led to the passage which the editor was
desirous of verifying. For, in the first edition of the _Index_ referred
to, that of 1584, the particular index at the end, under O, gives the fol.
182, 183 (_falso 171_), where the passage is found exactly as extant in the
Latin of Cosin. The particular _Expurgatory Index_ under view was printed
in 1601 and 1611. In the first of the two, _that_ printed at Saumur, the
passage is found fol. 149. _verso_. I dare say it is so in the other
entitled _Duo Testes, &c._, but that is of no moment. Bp. Cosin does not,
as the note expresses, refer to any "other index." The British Museum is
comparatively scanty in this class of books, but they are all to be found
in the Bodleian Library. {532}

At p. 163. the _Discurs [us] Modest [us] de Jesuit._ referred to, and
occupying several pages of discussion in the "N. & Q." in the early
volumes, is certainly the Latin version of _A Sparing Discoverie of our
English Jesuits_, 4to., Franc. 1601, pp. 70, and to be found in the
_Catalogue of the British Museum_, under "JESU _Societas_."


       *       *       *       *       *


If a history of the ancient Guildhalls of England could be compiled, it
would form an interesting volume; as the ancient fabrics wherein our
forefathers met to transact their civic affairs may almost be said to have
symbolised the _status_ of the municipalities in which they stood at
various epochs of their history. Our old English boroughs cannot boast the
possession of halls equal to the _Hotels de Ville_ of Belgium or France, or
the _Rath-häusen_ of Germany. We cannot show in this country edifices equal
to the Hotel de Ville of Brussels, or Aix-la-Chapelle, or Rouen, in point
of architectural extent or beauty; or of Ratisbon, or other German towns,
in point of venerable and antique interest. But we have buildings yet
standing among us which, if less imposing in their exteriors, are
nevertheless associated with historic memories of no common order, and
secondary in this respect to none of the grander town-halls of ancient

The guildhall of Leicester cannot boast of any outside show. It is plain to
meanness in this respect; it is on one side a mere barn in appearance; yet
it has its claim on the attention of the antiquary.

The first distinct mention of a guildhall in Leicester is in a small
charter, executed in the mayoralty of Peter Rogerson. From this it appears
that in 1250 William Ordriz, the son of Stephen, conveyed to the mayor and
burgesses a building which became the guildhall. The deed is endorsed
_Charta de la Gild Salle_. It contained three bays of buildings, was twenty
yards in length, and about eight yards from front to back. It had solars,
cellars, and dungeons. There was _then_ an older fabric, known as the
guildhall, which was conveyed to a private townsman in the year 1275. The
hall, of which the corporation became the possessors in 1250, remained in
use until the reign of Elizabeth, and even at intervals until the date of
the Commonwealth, being sometimes called the old Moot Hall, and at others
the "Old Shop."

Anterior to the Reformation two religious guilds had halls, known as St.
George's and Corpus Christi Halls. When these fraternities were dissolved,
the buildings remained; one near the east of St. Martin's church, the other
near its western extremity. The first of these fell into entire disuse and
decay; while the latter, Corpus Christi Hall, gradually superseded as a
civic edifice the old Moot Hall. I have found in the hall books of the
borough of Leicester entries as early as the 10th of Henry VIII., in which
the hall of Corpus Christi Guild is referred to as the occasional place of
meeting of the municipal body. A deed, bearing date the 5th of Elizabeth,
states that the queen had conveyed the hall to Cecily Pickerell of Norwich,
widow, who reconveyed it to the recorder of Leicester, Braham, evidently as
the representative of the mayor and burgesses, not then formally

Meanwhile, the old hall seems to have served as a lock-up or gaol, and was
finally sold in 1653 to a maltster, who would undoubtedly convert the roomy
old structure into a malt-house.

The Corpus Christi Hall would appear to have been enlarged when it was
fairly in the hands of the civic authorities, not only in the reign of
Elizabeth (about the year 1586), but in that of Charles I. Many particulars
about the building will be found in the _Handbook of Leicester_.

The guildhall of Leicester is _within_ one of the most picturesque old
structures of the country, and is well described by your correspondent KT.
As you enter, its rude rafters rise directly from the ground on either
hand, and embrace over the head of the visitor, forming pointed arches. As
you advance along the floor the beams widen, and the Tudor timbering and
architectural detail are clearly discernible; two staples still remaining
on one of the braces, which tradition says sustained the scenery of the
players in the time when theatrical performers were allowed to act there,
and when even Shakspeare figured in the histrionic group. Having reached
the western end you find yourself in front of the bench on which the mayor
and magistrates sit to dispense justice, the ancient gilded frame for the
mace (now tenantless) surmounting the chief magistrate's chair. The rich
old mantelpiece of the mayor's parlour, and the fragments of painted glass
in its windows, enhance and complete the antiquarian attractions of this
relic of Edwardian and Elizabethan architecture.


       *       *       *       *       *


Amongst the oddities which cross our path, I recollect one which, at the
time it occurred, caused no small surprise to the young, of which I then
was one. I think it must be about forty-six years ago, a man travelled
about Hampshire professing to cure the blind, sick, and lame; and although
he did not belong to the medical order, yet numerous cures were attributed
to him, and he had quite a collection of crutches and walking-sticks, left
by his patients, who, it was said, no longer required his {533} or their
aid. I well know that he was looked upon by the common sort of people with
wonder, and almost awe. The notion prevalent amongst them was, that, being
the seventh son of a seventh son, he was endowed by nature with
extraordinary healing powers. After a few months his fame, such as it was,
evaporated, and I have not heard of him since, nor have I read of any
pretender acting like him since then. Can any of your readers enlighten my
darkness on the above, or on any other seventh of a seventh? and is there
any account or tradition of a similar impostor in any other county of
England? Also, if ancient or modern history records any such wonderful
attributes in reference to a seventh daughter of a seventh daughter?

The above was written before I saw MR. COOPER's allusion to the subject, in
Vol. iii., p. 148. I hope to be favoured with that gentleman's further
notice of the seventh son of a seventh son.

I should esteem it a favour if some one of your numerous and learned
readers would inform me if that word denoting seven, which is in such
frequent use in the Old and New Testaments, is susceptible of being
rendered "several," "many," or some other indefinite quantity?

Seven appears also to be a favourite number in modern days. I subjoin a few
of the many instances of its popular adoption:--

  Seven ages.
  Seven Champions.
  Seven Churches.
  Seven days in a week.
  Seven days' notice.
  Seven Dials.
  Seven Hills.
  Seven months' child.
  Seven penitential psalms.
  Seven senses.
  Seven-shilling piece.
  Seven Sisters.
  Seven Sleepers.
  Seven Sons.
  Seventh son of the seventh son.
  Seven stars.
  Seven stages of life.
  Seven times.
  Seven times seven years a jubilee.
  Seven wise men.
  A jury of seven matrons.
  Seven wonders of the world.
  Seven years' apprenticeship.
  Seven years, a change.
  Seven years' transportation.
  Seven years' Income-tax,
  Sevenpence in the pound yearly; and these last are two of the
  Seven abominations.


35. Gifford Street, Kingsland Road.

    [The number _seven_ has been a subject of particular speculation with
    some old writers, and every department of nature, science, literature,
    and art has been ransacked for the purpose of discovering septenary
    combinations. In the Year 1502 there was printed at Leipsic a work
    entitled _Heptalogium Virgilii Salzburgensis_, in honour of the number
    seven. It consists of seven parts, each consisting of seven divisions.
    But the most curious work on the subject of numbers is the following,
    the contents of which, as might be expected, are quite worthy of the
    title: _The Secrets of Numbers according to Theological, Arithmetical,
    Geometrical, and Harmonical Computation; drawn, for the better part,
    out of those Ancients, as well as Neoteriques. Pleasing to read,
    profitable to understande, opening themselves to the capacities of both
    learned and unlearned; being no other than a key to lead men to any
    doctrinal knowledge whatsoever._ By William Ingpen, Gent. London, 1624.
    In chap. ix. the author has given many notable opinions from learned
    men, to prove the excellency of the number _seven_:--"First, it neither
    begets nor is begotten, according to the saying of Philo. Some numbers,
    indeed, within the compass of ten, beget, but are not begotten; and
    that is the unarie. Others are begotten, but beget not; as the
    octonarie. Only the septenarie, having a prerogative above them all,
    neither begetteth, nor is begotten. This is its first divinity or
    perfection. Secondly, this is an harmonical number, and the well and
    fountain of that fair and lovely _Digramma_, because it includeth
    within itself all manner of harmony. Thirdly, it is a theological
    number, consisting of perfection. (See _Cruden_.) Fourthly, because of
    its compositure: for it is compounded of one and six; two and five;
    three and four. Now, every one of these being excellent of themselves
    (as hath been remonstrated), how can this number be but far more
    excellent, consisting of them all, and participating, as it were, of
    all their excellent virtues."--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


The credit attachable to _Madagascar: or Robert Drury's Journal during
fifteen Years' Captivity on that Island_, has always appeared to me a
subject worth a Note in your pages; but more particularly since the recent
publication of Burton's _Narratives from the Criminal Trials of Scotland_.

In this latter work the author gives us an interesting account of the trial
of Captain Green and his associates, in Edinburgh, for the murder of one
Captain Drummond (a very memorable case, as it bore upon the Union of the
kingdoms, at the time under discussion); and in course of his inquiries Mr.
Burton has brought forth Drury's _Journal_ to prove the existence of the
said Captain Drury for many years subsequent to Green's execution for his

It becomes, therefore, a serious question to ascertain whether Drury was a
real or a fictitious character, and his book what it pretends to be, or the
speculation of some clever writer, envious of the fame and profit derived
by Defoe from the publication of a similar work. I would not take the
subject out of such good hands as those of MR. CROSSLEY, who has evidently
something to offer us thereon; but would merely observe, by way of
interesting your readers generally in the matter, that Drury, by the old
octavo of 1729, now before me, did not flinch from inquiry, as he announces
the book for sale "by the Author, at Old Tom's Coffee House in Birchin
Lane," where, he says, "I am every day to be spoken with, and where I shall
be ready to gratify any Gentleman with a further Account of any Thing
herein contained; {534} to stand the strictest Examination, or to confirm
those Things which to some may seem doubtful."

"Old Tom's" is still a right good chop-house in the locality named; and it
would be interesting to know if there is any contemporaneous note existing
of an evening with Robert Drury there. But for the misfortune of living a
century and a quarter too late, I should doubtless often have found myself
in the same box with the mysterious man, with his piles of books, and his
maps of Madagascar, invitingly displayed for the examination of the
curious, and the satisfaction of the sceptical.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Gabriel Hounds._--Seeing that MR. YARRELL, the distinguished
ornithologist, is a contributor to "N. & Q.," may I ask that gentleman, or
any other correspondent, what is the species of bird whose peculiar yelping
cry during its nocturnal migrations, has given rise to the superstition of
the "Gabriel Hounds," so common in some rural districts?


_Weather Prophecy._--Can any of your correspondents inform me as to the
truth or falsehood of a proverb I have heard, namely, that the dryness or
wetness of a summer may be prognosticated by observing whether the oak or
the ash tree comes first into leaf? I cannot recollect which denoted which;
but I should much like to know whether there is such a proverb, and whether
there is any truth in it.

G. E. G.


_Origin of Moles._--Meeting with an octogenarian molecatcher a few weeks
since, in the neighbourhood of Bridgwater, the old man volunteered the
following account of the origin of moles, or _wants_ as they are sometimes
called in Somerset. "It was a proud woman, sir, too proud to live on the
face of the earth, and so God turned her into a mole, and made her live
_under_ the earth; and that was the _first mole_." My informant was
evidently much confirmed in his belief, by the fact of "moles having (as he
said) hands and feet like Christians."

W. A. J.

_Mistletoe._--The mistletoe grows upon the _poplar tree_, near the railway
station at Taunton, and likewise at White-Lackington near Ilminster. I have
not seen any upon the oak.

W. A. J.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Byron's "Siege of Corinth."_--In the late Dr. Moir's _Lectures on the
Poetical Literature of the last Half Century_, in commenting on Byron's
_Siege of Corinth_ he mentions "the glorious moonlight scene in which
Francesca and Alp part for the last time, _the one to die of a broken
heart_, the other to perish in his apostasy." From this he evidently
considers that in this celebrated scene it is the still living form of
Francesca that visits her lover; but though Lord Byron has, according to
his frequent practice, left this unexplained, the whole passage seems to me
to show that his intention was, that the visit should be considered as a
supernatural one. Space will not allow of my bringing forward the proofs of
this, but it can be easily verified by any one who reads the passage in
question attentively. A singular mistake occurs in p. 8. of the work above
quoted. Could any one have supposed that a poet, and a writer on poetical
literature, should be ignorant of the best known poetical name of the last
century? Yet Mr. Moir talks of "_William_" Pope. He might as well have
talked of "_Alexander_" Shakspeare.


_Goldsmith's "Poetical Dictionary."_--It has not been noticed by any of
Goldsmith's biographers that, in addition to _The Art of Poetry_, in 2
vols. 12mo., 1762, published by Newbery, and _The Beauties of the English
Poets_, in 2 vols. 12mo., 1767, published by Griffin, he also edited for
Newbery an useful work entitled _A Poetical Dictionary, or the Beauties of
the English Poets alphabetically displayed_, in 4 vols., 1761, 12mo. The
Preface is evidently written by Goldsmith, and with his usual elegance and
spirit, and the selection which follows is one of the best which has ever
yet been made. It certainly deserves more notice than it seems hitherto to
have received; and were it only that it contains Goldsmith's favourite
passages, and may possibly have been a preparation and incentive to the
composition of the _Traveller_ and the _Deserted Village_, it ought not to
be forgotten in the list of his compilations. In examining it I have
frequently been struck by the appearance of lines and passages, and
sometimes epithets, which were evidently in Goldsmith's mind when he wrote
his two beautiful poems. Some, but not all, have been quoted as parallel
passages by his editors.


_Corrupted Names._--In Vol. i., pp. 215. and 299., are some notes on the
ordinary corruptions of Christian names. One came once in my way which, as
the name corrupted is not by any means an ordinary one, may not have
occurred to many of your readers. I was called on to baptize a child by the
name _Nucky_: fortunately it is my practice to ascertain the sponsor's
intention in the vestry, before proceeding to the font; and I was able,
with much difficulty, to make out that the name meant was _Ursula_, of
which _Nucky_ was their ordinary corruption. Passing from names of
_persons_ to those of _places_, I would add two corruptions to those named
in your current volume: Wiveliscombe, pronounced Willscombe; {535}
Minehead, Minyard--both in Somerset; and Kenilworth, sometimes called
Killingworth, in Warwickshire.


       *       *       *       *       *



    "This volume contains several hundred very curious and important
    corrections, amongst which I may mention an entirely new reading of the
    difficult passage at the commencement of _Measure for Measure_, which
    carries conviction with it; and shows, what might have been reasonably
    expected, that _that to_ is a misprint for _a verb_."--MR. HALLIWELL in
    _Notes & Queries_, p. 485.

In common, doubtless, with many other of your readers, I am curious to know
what this _verb_ can be, which, while _carrying conviction with it_, is yet
so mysteriously withheld from publication.

In a small pamphlet, published a month or two since by MR. HALLIWELL, in
opposition to _Mr. Collier's_ folio, he lays down at p. 7. "a canon in
philology;" from which he deduces the following as one of the
"_circumstances under which no manuscript emendation of so late a date as
1632 will be admissible_."

    "It will not be admissible in any case where good sense can be
    satisfactorily made of the passage as it stands in the original, even
    although the correction may appear to give greater force or harmony to
    the passage."

Now, in the case referred to from _Measure for Measure_, I had previously
("N. & Q." Vol. v., p. 410.) shown to MR. HALLIWELL that "_good sense can
be satisfactorily made of the passage as it stands in the original_;" and
therefore I feel the greater curiosity to know what _this verb_ can be
which carries conviction to him _even in the face of his own canon_?

A. E. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


Can the editor, or any of the readers of "N. & Q." account for the very
prevalent misuse of the word _restive_ or _restiff_? Of course, everybody
knows that the affix _ive_ or _iff_ does not imply "privation," but the
opposite; and that therefore _restive_ means--as we find it defined in our
dictionaries--"unwilling to stir," "inclined or determined to rest," &c.;
but yet the most common use of the word now would require it to mean
"unwilling to rest," "rest_less_," "unquiet," &c. As the word is most
frequently employed in newspaper paragraphs, in describing accidents
arising from the _restiveness_, or much more frequently _restlessness_, of
horses, we can easily account for the misuse of the word in such cases: as
the free use of the whip, which is sure to follow the restiveness of a
horse or ass, is almost as surely followed by a sudden restlessness, at
least when the nobler animal is under chastisement; what ends in
restlessness and running away has thus got confounded with what it only has
become, in some cases; while in others nothing is more common than to find
the sudden shying and starting off of a horse, which has been anything but
_restive_, described as such by some forgetfulness of the meaning of the
word. Were the misuse of the word confined to such cases, however, it might
not be worthy of notice in "N. & Q.", but I think it will be found to
extend further: for instance, in _The Eclipse of Faith_ (recently
published), although evidently written by a scholar, and one who weighs the
meaning of words, I find the following passage:

    "'But,' said Fellowes, rather warmly, for he felt rather _restive_ at
    this part of Harrington's discourse," &c.

Here the word is evidently employed (instead of _restless_[1]) figuratively
for _impatient_; although I am not aware that a "bumptious" person might
defend the word actually used, in the sense that the listener _refused to
go along further_ with the speaker. Still I think _restlessness_ was the
idea intended to be conveyed in the above passage, and that "impatient"
would have been the better word, considering that it follows "he _felt_."

J. R.


[Footnote 1: Or instead of "fidgetty," as one would likely have expressed
it in familiar conversation.]

       *       *       *       *       *


There is a remarkable discrepancy in the statements of Coleridge respecting
reason and understanding.

(1.) _Friend_, vol. i. pp. 207-8. (Pickering.)--

    "That many animals possess a share of understanding perfectly
    distinguishable from mere instinct we all allow. Few persons have a
    favourite dog, without making instances of its intelligence an
    occasional topic of conversation. They call for our admiration of the
    individual animal, and not with exclusive reference to the wisdom in
    nature, as in the case of [Greek: storgê], or maternal instinct: or of
    the hexangular cells of the bees.... We hear little or nothing of the
    instincts of the 'half-reasoning elephant,' and as little of the
    understanding of caterpillars and butterflies."

_Aids to Reflection_, vol. i. pp 171-3. (Pickering.) Here, after quoting
two instances from Hüber about bees and ants, he says,--

    "Now I assert that the faculty in the acts here narrated does not
    differ _in kind_ from understanding."

Does Coleridge mean to tell us that bees and ants have the same faculty
(understanding) as dogs and elephants?


(2.) _Friend_, vol. i. pp. 216-7.--

    "For a moment's steady self-reflection will show us that, in the simple
    determination 'black is not white,' or 'that two straight lines cannot
    include a space,' all the powers are implied that distinguish man from
    animals; first, the power of reflection; second, of comparison; third,
    and therefore suspension of the mind; fourth, therefore of a
    controlling will, and the power of acting from notions, instead of mere
    images exciting appetites; from motives, and not from mere dark

And after relating a story about a dog who appeared to have employed the
disjunctive syllogism (in relation to which see Cottle's _Reminiscences_,
vol. i. pp. 48-9.), Coleridge remarks,--

    "So awful and almost miraculous does the simple act of concluding 'take
    three from four, and there remains one,' appear to us, when attributed
    to one of the most sagacious of all brute animals."

_Aids to Reflection_, vol. i. p. 175.--

    "Understanding is the faculty of reflection, reason of contemplation."
    And p. 176.--"The understanding, then, considered exclusively as an
    organ of human intelligence, is the faculty by which we reflect and
    generalise.... The whole process [of the understanding] may be reduced
    to three acts, all depending on, and supposing a previous impression
    on, the senses: first, the appropriation of our attention; second (and
    in order to the continuance of the first), abstraction, or the
    voluntary withholding of the attention; and, third, generalisation; and
    these are the proper functions of the understanding."

_Aids to Reflection_, vol. i. p. 182. _note_.--

    "So far, and no further, could the understanding carry us; and so far
    as this, 'the faculty judging according to sense' conducts many of the
    inferior animals, if not in the same, yet in instances analogous and
    fully equivalent."

Does Coleridge, then, mean us to understand him as saying, that many of the
brutes can reflect, abstract, and generalise?

(3.) _Friend_, vol. i. p. 259.--

    "Reason! best and holiest gift of God, and bond of union with the
    Giver; the high title by which the majesty of man claims precedence
    above all other living creatures--mysterious faculty, the mother of
    conscience, of language...."

_Aids to Reflection_, vol. i. pp. 176-182.--Coleridge here gives his
reasons for considering language a property of the understanding; and, in
p. 195., adds,--

    "It is, however, by no means equally clear to me that the dog may not
    possess an _analogon_ of words which I have elsewhere shown to be the
    proper objects of the 'faculty judging according to sense.'"

Does Coleridge mean that the inferior animals may have language?

Who, of your many able correspondents, will assist me in unravelling this
complicated tissue?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Banning or Bayning Family._--I am desirous of knowing if there was a
family of the name of _Banning_ or _Bayning_ seated in Ireland at the close
of the sixteenth century; and whether there was any other branch in England
excepting that in Essex.


_Ladies styled Baronets._--An ancestor of mine, Sir Anthony Chester, Bart.,
of Chichley Hall, Bucks, in his will, dated Nov. 26, 1635, and proved in
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Dec. 9, 1635 [128 Sadler], desires "to
be buried in the north part of Chichley Church, in the same vault with Dame
Elizabeth Chester, Baronet, his first wife." Are there any other instances
of ladies of the same rank being styled Baronet about this time? I may
mention that this Lady Chester was daughter to Sir Henry Boteler, of
Hatfield Woodhall, Herts, and sister to John Lord Boteler, of Bramfeld.


_St. Christopher and the Doree._--Brand, in his _Popular Antiquities_, vol.
iii. p. 194., says that the fish called the Doree is traditionally said to
have derived the spots on its sides frown the fact of St. Christopher, in
wading through the arm of the sea, having caught a fish of this description
_en passant_, and having left as an eternal memorial of the fact an
impression on its sides to be transmitted to all posterity.

Can any of your readers inform me from what source Brand derived this idea?

E. A. H. L.

_Custom of Women wearing Masks in the Theatre._--When did this custom
originate? It was not common before the civil wars, nor in fashion till
some time after the Restoration. Masked ladies are often mentioned in the
prologues and epilogues to the plays of Dryden, Lee, Otway, &c. The custom
probably originated in France. A dispute which ended in a duel (concerning
a Mrs. Fawkes) caused the entire prohibition of women's wearing masks in
the playhouse. This was about the 5th of Queen Anne.


_Brass of Abbot Kirton; Matrices._--When was the brass of Abbot Kirton, in
Westminster Abbey, removed? Have there been any brasses taken away (of
which the _matrices_ have been also removed); and if so, in whose
possession are they at the present time?


_Lines on Chaucer._--

 "Swan-like, in dying
  Famous old Chaucer
  Sang his last song."

Who is the author of the above lines?


_The Nacar._--What species of shell-fish is the _Nacar_, said to be found
in some of the islands of the Mediterranean, and off the east coast of
{537} Spain. Is it not the same fish from which what is called
mother-of-pearl is taken? Has not some part of it, the beard or otherwise,
been spun and wove? Is the _Nacar_ the true name, or only local; and, if
so, what is the scientific appellation?


_Cilgerran Castle._--I shall be much obliged to any correspondent of "N. &
Q." who will direct me to any charters or other early records relating to
this castle of Kilgarran, or Cilgerran, which is situated near Cardigan.


_Use of Slings by the Early Britons._--In the course of the very
interesting operations at present in progress on Weston Hill, there have
been frequently found in the hut-pits small accumulations of shore-pebbles,
of the size most convenient for slings, for which it is supposed they were
intended. Any information on this topic will be received with many thanks.
It is worth noting that to this day the boys of the obscure village of
Priddy, on the Mendips, are notorious for the skill with which they can hit
a bird on the wing with a stone thrown by the hand.


Weston super Mare.

"_Squire Vernon's Fox Chase._"--Can any of your correspondents refer me to
a copy of the ballad called "Squire Vernon's Fox Chase?" I am anxious to
meet with an original copy, and also to know if it has been reprinted in
any modern collection.

R. S.

_The Death Watch._--Has there appeared in any of your former Numbers a Note
upon the popular, but now exploded "death watch?" In earlier life, an
instance of it occurred in my presence, which did at the time, and does
even now, "puzzle the sense." The noise (like the ticking of a watch) was
so painfully distinct, that I endeavoured twice to discover the source of
it, but in vain. I made a note of it at the time, but the narrative
(although perfectly correct) reads so much like the speculation of a sick
brain, that I hesitate to send it. If you would put this Query (however
briefly), I should much like to see it discussed in your interesting pages.

M. W. B.

_Genealogical Queries._--I beg to trouble you with the following Queries:--

On what day of the year 1690 did Elizabeth Bayning, created Countess of
Sheppy for life, die? and where was she buried?

Where was buried Anne Palmer, alias Fitzroy, Countess of Sussex? She died
16th May, 1722. The Earl was buried at Chevening.

Was Sir John Mason, who died Treasurer of the Chamber, &c., 21st April,
1566, Chancellor of _the Duchy of Lancaster_? He is so designated in one of
the Harl. MSS. He was twice Chancellor of _Oxford_.


_Ben Jonson's adopted Sons._--They are said to be twelve in number.
Alexander Brome was one; Bishop Morley another. Can any of your
correspondents give the names of the other ten? By doing so, it will oblige


_Kyrle's Tankard at Balliol._--A very beautiful silver tankard, bearing the
following inscription, with the arms of the donor engraved in the centre of
the body of the cup; the first two words above, the others beneath the
arms, was presented to Balliol College, Oxford, by that celebrated and
excellent man, John Kyrle, Esq., better known by his world-wide
appellation, "The Man of Ross." It will be perceived from the inscription
that he was a gentleman commoner of that society:

                  "Poculum Charitatis.
  Ex dono Johannis Kyrle, de Rosse, in agro Herefordiens, et
             hujus Collegii Socio Commensalis."

It weighed upwards of five pounds, and the cover was lifted up by his
crest, a hedgehog. It is said to have been always produced at table when a
native of Herefordshire favoured the society with his company. Can any of
your correspondents favour me with the following particulars:--Is the
tankard still in existence, and has it been ever engraved? If so, in what
work? Is there any record in the college books to show in what year, and
upon what occasion, it was presented?


_Irish Language in the West Indies._--The atrocities which Oliver Cromwell
committed in Ireland are fresh in the memory of the poorest Irishman, and
his memory held in the deepest execration: every ruined fortress that we
pass is ascribed to the great castle-killer, and the peasant's bitterest
malediction is, "_Mallachd Crumwell ort_" (The curse of Cromwell on you).

The particular atrocity of Oliver's that we have to do with at present is
thus stated by Dodd, vol. iii. p. 58.:

    "At Drogheda all were put to the sword together with the inhabitants,
    women and children, only about thirty persons escaping, who, with
    several hundreds of the Irish nation, were shipped off to serve as
    slaves in the island of Barbadoes, as I have frequently heard the
    account from Captain Edw. Molyneux, one of that number, who died at St.
    Germains, whither he followed the unfortunate King James II."

The following note occurs in a paper on the Irish language, read by Mr.
Scurry before the Royal Irish Academy, Oct. 1826:

    "It is now ascertained that the Irish language is spoken in the
    interior of many of the West India islands, in some of which it may be
    said to be almost vernacular. This curious fact is satisfactorily
    explained by documents in the possession of my respected friend James
    Hardiman, Esq., author of the _History of Galway_. After the reduction
    of Ireland by Cromwell and his {538} myrmidons, the thousands who were
    'shipped to the Caribbees,' so these islands were then called, 'and
    sold as slaves,' carried with them their language. _That_ they
    preserved, and there it remains to this day."

Will some of your correspondents acquainted with the West Indies inform me
if the Irish language be still spoken there, or if it be degenerated and
merged into the _talkee-talkee_, or negro jargon?


"_Battle of Neville's Cross._"--Can any of your correspondents inform me
the name of the author of the "Battle of Neville's Cross," a prize poem,
published about thirty or forty years ago?


_Sir Walter Raleigh's Ring._--Can any of your correspondents inform me what
has become of the ring Sir Walter Raleigh wore at his execution, and in
whose possession it now is, as I have reason to believe it is still in
existence as a heir-loom?


"_Narne; or, Pearle of Prayer._"--I should feel obliged to any of your
correspondents if they could give me any information of the following work,
which I am unable myself to trace in any catalogue or bibliographical

    "Narne (by William P. of Dysart), Pearle of Prayer most Pretious and
    Powerful, &c. 18mo. Dedicated to Charles First (dated from Dysart the
    28th May, 1630), and afterward to the Right Virtuous and Worshipfull
    Patrons of this famous Citie of Edinburgh, David Aikenhead most Worthie
    Lord Provost, &c., and to the whole Counsell, &c., of Edinburgh, &c.
    (dated from Dysart the last of May, 1630), 456 pp. (Concluding with a
    part of a page of 'Faults escaped' on the recto of last leaf.)
    Edinburgh, printed by John Wreittoun, 1630."


_Sir George Howard._--Sir N. W. Wraxall (_Historical Memoirs_, vol. iv. p.
614.) says of Field-Marshal Sir George Howard--

    "His legitimate descent from, or alliance by consanguinity with, the
    Dukes of Norfolk, notwithstanding the apparent evidence of his name,
    was I believe not established on incontestable grounds."

Now it is well known that the Effingham branch of the house of Howard, to
which Sir George Howard is reputed to belong, is a genuine one: so Wraxall
must be understood as casting a slight on the legitimacy of Sir George. Are
there traces of any scandals confirming this suspicion?


"_Love me, love my Dog._"--Whence comes this proverb? It is quoted by St.
Bernard: "Dicitur certe vulgari quodam proverbio: Qui me amat, amat et
canem meum."--_In Festo S. Michaelis, Sermo Primus_, sect. iii. p. 1026.
vol. i. Parisiis, 1719, fol.



_Mummy Wheat._--In January, 1843, a near relative of mine, related by
marriage to Mr. Martin Tupper, gave my father some grains of wheat, which
he had the authority of Sir G. Wilkinson, direct or indirect, to believe to
have been taken out of a mummy case, and to be in fact ancient Egyptian
wheat, perhaps a couple of thousand years old at least. These were planted
in a flower-pot, took root, grew, and had attained the height of many
inches, when a cow got into the place where the pot was and ate the plants
down. From the roots sprouted again a second crop of stems and leaves, and
a similar catastrophe befell the second growth, frustrating the hopes of
several anxious young amateur agriculturists, so that we never saw more
than the leaves of this crop. In making the inquiries necessary to certify
myself that these facts are true, I met with a lady who had seen a small
quantity of wheat plants, the produce alleged of mummy wheat, and who spoke
of it as a beautiful looking plant, with several stems from each root, and
several ears on each stem. I could not ascertain whether this was the fruit
of mummy wheat in the first or in the second generation. There was no
question that it was sprung from grains taken out of a mummy. I believe
that in the case of which I speak as having occurred within the range of my
own acquaintance, the wheat was some of the same that Mr. M. F. Tupper


_A Photographic Query._--Is it probable that the number of stones and
marbles which, without the aid of art, represent human and other figures,
may have been natural photographs from the reflection of objects in a
strong glare of sunlight? Some of those mentioned by D'Israeli in the
_Curiosities of Literature_ are so singular, that if this interpretation be
not admitted, we must suspect them to be factitious. One particular example
will serve as an illustration:

    "Pancirollus, in his _Lost Antiquities_, attests that in a church at
    Rome, a marble perfectly represented a priest celebrating mass and
    raising the host. Paul III. conceiving that art had been used, scraped
    the marble to discover whether any painting had been employed: but
    nothing of the kind was discovered."

Its classification amongst _Lost Antiquities_ seems to imply that the
operation destroyed it, which proves that the figures were only on the
surface; an argument in favour of its being a natural photograph. Any
powerful die would have penetrated the pores of the stone for some
considerable distance.



"_Stunt with false care._"--Where are the following lines, quoted by
Charles Villiers in one of his corn-law speeches, to be found?

 "Stunt with false care what else would flourish wild,
  And rock the cradle till they bruise the child."

J. N. O.


_Winchester College._--Who wrote the account of Winchester College in
Ackermann's _History of the Public Schools_?


_Old Royal Irish Academy House, Grafton Street._--This interesting building
is now some two months abandoned, and bills on the windows announcing it
"to be let, or the interest in the lease to be sold," I wish to ask through
"N. & Q." if any person intends to make a drawing or other memoranda of the
house, ere it undergoes a thorough alteration, as it certainly will, if
taken for commercial purposes. I am not aware of any sketch of the house,
except one in the fourth volume of the _Dublin Penny Journal_, p. 129.; but
I do not think that this, or its accompanying description, are well suited
to the character of the institution.

R. H.


_Quotations wanted._--

 "Chords that vibrate sweetest pleasures
    Thrill the deepest notes of woe."

 "Like a fair lily on a river floating,
  She floats upon the river of his thoughts."


_Shakspeare's Seal._--Some years ago, when in Warwickshire, a wax
impression of a seal was given to me by a gentleman as that of William
Shakspeare. The gentleman had no means of verifying its authenticity,
beyond the bare but positive assurances of the person from whom he had
received it, an inhabitant of Stratford.

The appearance of the seal is not against the hypothesis of its
genuineness. It is circular: the device is the well-known ornament called
the _True Lover's Knot_, cut somewhat rudely in intaglio, apparently in
steel; a favourite ornament in Tudor architecture from the time of Anne
Boleyn downwards.

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." encourage me to believe in the
genuineness of this relic?


_The long-lived Countess of Desmond._--An acknowledgment is due to THE
KNIGHT OF KERRY for his recent interesting communication respecting the
portraits of this remarkable old lady: and, at the same time, the KNIGHT
may be requested to cause the portrait in the possession of Mr. Herbert,
M.P., to be inspected; for it is respectfully suggested that the date on
that picture is 1604, and not 1614.

This first date will correspond more closely with the age usually ascribed
to the aged Countess.

It is said that an engraving of the portrait in THE KNIGHT OF KERRY's
possession stated that she was "born in 1464." Can any of your
correspondents refer to this engraving, and say whether there is such an
inscription on it, and if any authority is given for that date?

H. F. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries Answered.

_Temple Church and Lincoln's Inn Chapel._--Why is it, and whence results
the practice of putting ladies on one side of the church and chapel, or in
a separate place by themselves, in these societies? Are the lawyers so
attractive that the devotions of the fair sex would be interrupted?

L. I.

    [The lawyers no doubt are lovers of hoar antiquity and primitive
    customs. "Let the doorkeepers attend upon the entrance of the men; and
    the deaconesses upon the entrance of the women." (_Apost. Const._, lib.
    ii. can. lvii.; see also lib. vii. can. xxvi.) In the First Book of
    King Edward, A.D. 1549, the following rubric occurs: "As many as shall
    be partakers of the Holy Communion shall tarry still in the quire; the
    men on the one side, and the women on the other side."--See Wheatly on
    the _Common Prayer_, chap. vi. sect. 13.]

_Edmund Bohun._--In Bright's Catalogue appears, "No. 2939. _Historical
Collections_, 1675-1692. 8 vols. folio; formed by Edmund Bohun." Has this
collection been dispersed? or where is it now? Bohun refers to it
repeatedly in his private diary, which I am printing.

S. W. RIX.


    [From the article "Bohun" in Rose's _Biographical Dictionary_ it
    appears that these _Historical Collections_ have been used in the
    following work: "_The great Historical, Geographical, and Poetical
    Dictionary_, Lond. 1694, folio, wherein are inserted the last Five
    Years' Historical and Geographical Collections, which the said Edm.
    Bohun, Esq., designed for his own Geographical Dictionary, and never
    extant till in this work."]

"_Nimrod._"--Will some of your correspondents be good enough to tell me who
is the author of a very remarkable book entitled _Nimrod: a Discourse upon
certain Passages of History and Fable_, London: Priestley, 1828, 4 vols.;
and can any one inform me for what purpose or with what intention the book
was written? I believe it was suppressed soon after its publication. I have
only met with two other copies, besides my own.

H. G.

    [We believe that this work, for some reason or other, was suppressed,
    but not till after about one hundred copies had been circulated. It is
    attributed to the Hon. Algernon Herbert, author of _Cyclops
    Christianus; Antiquity of Stonehenge_.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iv., pp. 115. 196. 278.; Vol. v., p. 129.)

The quotations I have produced on the question, Which are _the Three
Estates of the Realm_? appear {540} to CANON. EBOR. "quite to support his
own positions." I must therefore again ask leave to defend the view which I
advanced in Vol. iv., p. 115., and will endeavour, whether it be a right or
wrong one, to express my arguments in support of it so definitely and
distinctly as not again to leave room for any misapprehension of them. To
adopt CANON. EBOR.'s threefold division:--

1. _The Three Estates of the Realm are the Nobility, the Clergy in
Convocation, and the Commons._ In this order they are ranked in the collect
I quoted, and in which they are described as "assembled in parliament;" i.
e. _en plein parlement_. The following extract plainly bears out my view:

    "And that this doctrine (viz. that the Clergy are an _extrinsic part_
    of Parliament, or an _Estate of the Realm_) was still good, and the
    language much the same, as low as the Restoration of Charles II., the
    _Office_ then anew set out for the 5th of November shews, where mention
    is made of 'the Nobility, Clergy, and Commons of this realm, then
    assembled in Parliament:' for to say that by 'the Clergy of this
    realm,' my Lords the Bishops only are intended, were so absurd a gloss,
    that even Dr. Wake's pen would, I believe, be ashamed of it. And if
    they were then rightly said to be 'assembled in Parliament,' they may
    as rightly be said to be so assembled still: and if 'assembled in
    Parliament,' why not 'a member of Parliament?' to those intents and
    purposes, I mean, for which they are assembled in it."--Atterbury's
    _Rights, Powers, and Privileges of Convocation_, 2nd edit., p. 305.

The same order is observed in Sir Edward Coke's speech on Garnet's trial:--

    "For the persons offended, they were these:--the King ... the Queen ...
    the noble Prince; ... then the whole royal issue. The Council, _the
    Nobility_, _the Clergy_; nay, our whole religion itself," &c.

And if CANON. EBOR. wishes for a more decisive authority on the matter, he
will find it in _An Act for granting Royal Aid unto the King's Majesty_,
passed in 1664.

2. _The Convocations of the Clergy_ ARE _a part of the Parliament._ This
fact, and its importance, has been generally overlooked or disregarded by
writers on Convocation. They have almost uniformly, while endeavouring to
substantiate its synodical authority and purely ecclesiastical influence,
omitted to point out its position as a part of our parliamentary
constitution: the result has been a degree of vagueness and uncertainty on
the subject.

The clearest and most distinct way of demonstrating this proposition, that
the Convocation is a part of Parliament, will be, after noting that in our
early historians _Convocatio_ and _Parliamentum_ are synonymous, first, to
bring forward evidences that it was often regarded as being so somewhat
late in our history, that is, just before its sessions were suppressed;
and, in the next place, to produce facts, documents, and extracts which
display this parliamentary character in the earlier stages of its
existence. To begin, then, with Burnet, whose statements must be taken with
allowance, as those of a hot anti-convocational partisan, as he had indeed
good reasons for being:--

    "When the Bill (Act of Comprehension) was sent down to the House of
    Commons, it was let lie on the table; and, instead of proceeding in it,
    they made an address to the King for summoning a Convocation of the
    Clergy, _to attend, according to custom, on the session of Parliament_.
    The party against the Government ... were much offended with the Bill
    of Comprehension, as containing matters relating to the Church, _in
    which the representative body of the clergy had not been so much as
    advised with_."--Burnet's _History of his own Times_, book v.

In his account of the Convocation of 1701, the facts which he details are
important. After saying that "the clergy fancied they had _a right to be a
part of the Parliament_," he continues:--

    "The things the Convocation pretended to were, first, that they had a
    right to sit whenever the Parliament sate; so that they could not be
    prorogued, but when the two Houses were prorogued. Next they advanced
    that they had no need of a licence to enter upon debates and to prepare
    matters, though it was confessed that the practice for a hundred years
    was against them; but they thought the Convocation lay under no further
    restraint than that the Parliament was under; and as they could pass no
    Act without the Royal assent, so they confessed that they could not
    enact or publish a Canon without the King's licence. _Antiently the
    Clergy granted their own subsidies apart_, but, ever since the
    Reformation, the grant of the Convocation was not thought good till it
    was ratified in Parliament.... _In the writ that the bishops had,
    summoning them to Parliament, the clause, known by the first word of
    it,_ 'Præmunientes,' _was still continued. At first, by virtue of it,
    the inferior clergy were required to come to Parliament, and to consent
    to the aids there given_: but after the archbishops had the provincial
    writ for a Convocation of the province, the other was no more executed,
    _though it was still kept in the writ_, and there did not appear the
    least shadow of any use that had been made of it, for some hundreds of
    years; _yet now some bishops were prevailed on to execute this writ,
    and to summon the clergy by virtue of it_."--Book vi.

With this last extract from Burnet, let the following from Lathbury be

    "This clause, it appears, was inserted in the bishops' writ in the
    twenty-third year of Edward I. When assembled by this writ, the Clergy
    constituted a State Convocation, not the Provincial Synod. When the
    clause was inserted, there was a danger of invasion from France; and it
    is clear that the Clergy were not assembled by this clause as an
    Ecclesiastical Council, but to assist the King in his necessities. This
    is evident from the words '_hujus modi periculis et excogitatis
    malitiis obviandum_.' The clause was, however, continued in the writ
    after the cause for its insertion had ceased to exist: _but whenever
    they were summoned by virtue of this writ, they constituted a part of
    the {541} Parliament_. The clause, with a slight variation, _is still
    retained_ in the writ by which the bishops are summoned to
    Parliament."--Lathbury's _History of the Convocation of the Church of
    England_, p. 121.

It will be obvious, then, and plain to the reader of the above passage,
that when the clergy were summoned by this clause _Præmunientes_, in the
writ directed to the archbishops, they were summoned _to be a part of
Parliament_; but the King's writ was that which made Convocation what it
was--which made it a legal, constitutional, parliamentary assembly, with
definite power and authority--instead of a simple synodical meeting of the
clergy, whose influence would be solely moral or ecclesiastical.
Convocation, from the time of Edward I., that is, from its first beginning,
has been a part of parliament, being "an assembly of ecclesiastics for
civil purposes, called to parliament by the King's writ" to the
archbishops; and before the time of Henry VIII. it voted subsidies to the
King independently of the Houses of Lords and Commons. Of this clause
_Præmunientes_, CANON. EBOR. has taken no notice whatever, although in the
extract from Collier it was expressly stated that the proctors of the
clergy were "summoned to parliament" and "sent up to parliament" by it,
and, when assembled in the Lower House of Convocation, they were esteemed
_the Spiritual Commons_ of the realm, and a constituent part of "the great
Council of the nation assembled in parliament." But as mere assertions, or
even uncorroborated deductions, are but of little value without facts, I
must establish this much by producing authorities.

The design of Edward I. for reducing the clergy to be a part of the Third
Estate, by means of this præmunitory clause, is sufficiently known, as is
also the fact that the clergy were unwilling to give up their own synods;
and though, in obedience to the King's summons, they came to parliament
from both provinces, yet shortly after they met by themselves, and
constituted a body which was at once synodical and parliamentary.

    "Now, then, though the _Præmunientes_ was obeyed nationally, yet the
    clergy that met with the Parliament acted provincially, _i. e._ the
    clergy of that province where the Parliament was held acted as a Synod
    convened by their metropolitan, and the clergy of the other province
    sent their deputies to the Lay Assembly to consult for them; but taxed
    themselves, and did all manner of ecclesiastical business, at home in
    their own province. _And this was pitched upon as a means of complying
    with the Canons of the Church, which required frequent Provincial
    Councils, and yet paying their attendance in Parliament; the
    Archbishop's mandate summoned them to the one, and the præmunitory
    clause to the other_, and both were obeyed."--_Atterbury on
    Convocation_, p. 243.

The same view is taken by Kennet in his _Ecclesiastical Synods and
Parliamentary Convocations in the Church of England_.

Here, then, is the origin of Convocation, strictly so called, viz. the
Clergy withdrawing themselves from the Commons into a separate chamber for
purposes of debate, and for transacting their own business independently,
but yet not ceasing thereby at all to be a part of that parliament, to
their being summoned to which they owed the opportunity of meeting in their
provincial synod, which was _Congregatio tempore Parliamenti_.

We hear of the clerical proctors being occasionally present in the House of
Commons in the earlier part of our history; and we may reasonably infer
that they would not have been so present unless they had _a right_ to have
been there. If they had that right, then they were a part of parliament.
They certainly had that right by the clause _Præmunientes_ so often
referred to, "according to antient usage;" but they waived the exercise of
it, on finding it more advantageous to deliberate by themselves. At a later
period they wished to resume their right, and therefore petitioned "to be
admitted to sit in parliament WITH _the House of Commons_, according to
antient usage," of which Commons they had of usage considered themselves
the _spiritual_ part. An instance in point we shall find in a petition of
Parliament to Henry IV.:--

    "Supplient humblement _les Communes_ de vostre Roialme, sibien
    _Espirituelz_ come _Temporelz_."--_Rot. Parl._ 7 & 8 Henry IV. n. 128.

And again, in a proclamation of the 35 Henry VIII.:--

    "The Nobles and _Commons_ both _Spirituall_ and Temporall, _assembled
    in our Court of Parliament_, have, upon good, lawful, and virtuous
    grounds," &c.

And "Direction to Justices of Peace," by the same King:--

     "HENRY R.

    "Trusty and right well-beloved,--We grete you well ... and also by the
    deliberate advice, consultation, consent, and agreement, _as well of
    the_ Bishops _and Clergie_ as by the Nobles and Commons Temporal of
    this our Realme _assembled in our High Courte of Parliament_, and by
    authoritie of the same, the abuses of the Bishop of Rome, ... but also
    the same our Nobles and _Commons_ bothe of _the Clergie_ and
    Temporaltie, by another several acte," &c.--Weever's _Fun. Mon._, p.
    83., quoted by Atterbury.

For multitudinous examples of the Convocation Clergy, "Prælati et clerus,"
being spoken of as not only of the parliament, but present _in_ it, I must
refer CANON. EBOR. to Atterbury's work, pp. 61, 62, 63.

And it is certain that, before the Commons can be proved to have been
summoned to parliament at all, the inferior clergy sat there. In the
parliament of Henry III. held at Westminster, 1228, there sat "the
Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Templars, Hospitallers, Earls,
Barons, {542} _Rectors of churches_, and they that held of the King in
chief" (_Mat. Paris_, p. 361.), in which the order of precedence is worth

One more argument of CANON. EBOR.'s has to be met. He says (Vol. iv., p.
197.), "The Convocation of the Clergy never met either the sovereign or the
parliament." The following quotations will destroy this position:--

    "Though sometimes the King himself has vouchsafed to appear and sit in
    Convocation, when it was called for some extraordinary cause; as in
    Arundel's Register _Henry IV. is remembered to have done_ (in Conv.
    habitâ 23 Jul. 1408, causâ Uniones)."--_Atterbury_, p. 20.


    "'Until the reign of Henry VII., there is a doubt whether the
    Convocation of the Clergy, then in separate existence from the
    Parliament since Edward I., had transacted purely ecclesiastical
    business not connected with the Government, or where the King was not
    present in person. (Henry IV., _Wilkins_, p. 310.) In the reign of
    Henry VIII., _who also sat in Convocation_, no Church Provincial Synod
    was held, and the House of Lords met and adjourned on the days on which
    Convocation transacted business in consideration to the bishops, who
    were barons of Parliament, and also members of the Upper House of
    Convocation. (_Wake._)'"--_Diocesan Synods_, by Rev. W. Pound, M.A.

3. _The Clergy were not, and are not, represented in parliament by the
Spiritual Lords._ The bishops are called to the House of Lords as barons;
just in the same manner as the abbots and priors were formerly summoned,
_not as representing any body of men_, but as holding _in capite_ of the
King. The prelates have sat in the House of Lords since William I., not as
peers or nobles by blood, nor as representatives, but by virtue of this
tenure. They certainly were not considered as _representatives_ before the
Reformation; and that the same opinions respecting them prevailed still
later, will appear from the decision of the House of Commons in 1 Mary,
that a clerk could not be chosen into that House, "because he was
_represented_ already in another House;" and again, from a speech in the
Commons by Mr. Solicitor St. John on the "Act to take away Bishops' Votes
in Parliament:"

    "1. Because they have no such inherent right and liberty of being there
    as the Lords Temporal and Peers of the Realm have; _for they are not
    there representative of any body else; no, not of the clergy_; for if
    so, then the clergy were twice represented by them, viz. the Lords'
    House and in the Convocation; for their writ of election is to send two
    clerks _ad consentiendum_, &c. Besides, none are there representative
    of others, but those that have their suffrages from others; _and
    therefore only the clerks in Convocation do represent them_.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "3. If they were representative of the clergy, as a third estate and
    degree, no act of parliament could be good if they did wholly
    disassent; and yet they have disassented, and the law good and in
    force, as in the Act for establishing the Book of Common Prayer in
    Queen Elizabeth's time. They did disassent from the confirming of that
    law, which could not have been good if _they_ had been a third estate,
    and disassented."--Rapin's _History of England_, book xx.

And in the same parliament Lord Falkland--

    "Had heard many of the clergy protest, that they could not acknowledge
    _that they were represented by the bishops_. However, we might presume
    that, if they could make that appear, _that they were a third estate_,
    the House of Peers, amongst whom they sat, and yet had their votes,
    would reject it."--Clarendon's _History of the Rebellion_, book iii.

That the Clergy in Convocation make statements to the House of Peers
through the bishops, only proves that the latter were a medium of
communication between the two; as does also, that on March 18th, 1662, "the
President informed the Convocation that the Lord Chancellor had desired
_the Bishops_ to thank them _in the name of the Peers_." CANON. EBOR.
admits that the bishops do _not_ represent the clergy, except by a fiction;
the Canons declare _that Convocation does represent_ them. His position
therefore falls at once to the ground.

I have set down the arguments necessary for maintaining my first position
against CANON. EBOR., whether they be good or bad, with sufficient
positiveness and distinctness to prevent their being again mistaken. I
would close the subject with the words of Atterbury:

    "If I should affirm that the Convocation attended the Parliament as
    _One of the Three States of the Realm_, I should say no more than the
    Rolls have in express terms said before me; where the King is mentioned
    as calling _Tres status Regni_ ad Palatium suum Westm., viz. _Prælatos
    et Clerum_, Nobiles et Magnates, necnon Communitates dicti
    _Regni_."--_Rot. Parl._ 9 Henry V. n. 15.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 414.)

Your correspondent the Rev. E. S. TAYLOR is referred to 30 Car. II. c. 3.,
and 32 ejusdem c. 1., for an answer to his inquiry respecting burials in
woollen. The former Act is entitled, "An Acte for the lessening the
importation of linnen from beyond the seas, and the encouragement of the
woollen and paper manufactures of the kingdome." It prescribes that the
curate of every parish shall keep a register, to be provided at the charge
of the parish, wherein to enter all burials, and affidavits of persons
being buried in woollen; the affidavit to be taken by any justice of peace,
mayor, or such like chief officer in the parish where the body was
interred: and if there be no officer, then by any {543} curate within the
county where the corpse was buried (except him in whose parish the corpse
was buried), who must administer the oath and set his hand gratis. No
affidavit to be necessary for a person dying of the plague. It imposes a
fine of 5l. for every infringement; one half to go to the informer, and the
other half to the poor of the parish.

I have not been able to ascertain when this act was repealed, but imagine
it to have been of but short continuance. Is there no mistake in the date
of the affidavit quoted by Mr. Taylor? Is 1769 a _lapsus_ for 1679? The
first entry in the book provided for such purposes in this parish bears
date August, 1678, and there is no entry later than 1681, which appears
also to be the limit of the Act's observance in the adjacent parish of
Radcliffe. There, the entries immediately follow the record of the burial
itself in the registers, and not in a separate book, as with us.

Under the year 1679 occurs the following memorandum in the parish registers
of Radcliffe:

    "An orphan of Ralph Mather's, of Radcliffe, was buried y^e 9th day of
    April, and sertefied to be wounde uppe in woollen onely, under the hand
    of M^r William Hulme."

In the churchwardens' accounts of this parish (Prestwich) for the year 1681
is found the following item of receipt:

    "Received a fine of James Crompton ffor buringe his son and not
    bringinge in an affidavitt according to the Acte for burying in
    woollin, 02.10.00."


Prestwich, Manchester.

The act of parliament imposing a penalty upon burials, where any material
but wool was made use of was 30 Car. II. stat. 1. c. 3., afterwards
repealed by the 54 Geo. III. c. 108. I am able to adduce an instance of the
act being enforced, in the following extract from the churchwardens' book
of the parish of Eye for the year 1686-7:

 "Rec. for Mi^s Grace Thrower beeinge buried in Linnen 02 10 00."



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 126.)

In the hope of satisfying the curiosity of J. M., I will communicate the
information concerning Daniel Braams which I find in my family papers.

According to a genealogical tree in my possession, confirmed and delivered
13th September, 1661, by the kings-at-arms and heralds of Brabant[2],
Daniel Braems descended from an illustrious family of Brabant, a younger
branch of the Vilains, of the house of the burgraves, or viscounts of

During the Spanish religious persecutions, about 1550, his ancestors
emigrated from Flanders, and settled at Dover.

His father was Daniel Braams[3], keeper of the regalia of Charles I., and
in high favour at court. On Cromwell's coming to power he fled, and soon
after died, leaving an only son in childhood, by his widow, Mary, daughter
of the well-known navigator Jacob le Maire.

Mary, with her youthful son Daniel, settled in Holland, where she had many
relatives, and contracted a second marriage with Andreas Schnellingwouw.
She soon after went to the East Indies with her husband, who had been
appointed secretary to the _Schepenen_ at Batavia. Thus, Daniel Braams went
very early to the Indies, where he passed a great part of his life. He
became General Accomptant of the East India Company at Batavia, and for his
services received a gold chain and a medal.

In the family papers in his own hand now before me, he writes:

    "The 29th November, A^o 1686, I set sail with my family from Batavia,
    in the ship Kastricum, to return to Europe, after I had been
    thirty-four years and a half in India. The 21st March, 1687, we arrived
    at the Cape of Good Hope; and on the 19th April proceeded thence, with
    thirteen ships. When we had reached the ... degree of north latitude,
    having Ireland to the east, it pleased the Most High to call my dear
    and virtuous wife to His eternal rest, on the 9th of July, A^o 1687.
    The dead body was, by my orders, enclosed in a coffin and placed behind
    the ship. At Amsterdam she was buried in the vault of my grandfather in
    the N. Capel."

Daniel Braams was twice married in Batavia; first, with Clara Reijers, and
secondly, with a daughter of Anthonio Paviloen, Councillor Extraordinary of
India. Besides several children who died young, he left the following, all
born in the East Indies:--By his first marriage: 1. Maria, b. 1667; d.
1743; m. Philip David Uchelen, governor of Banda and Ternate. 2. Abigail,
b. 1672; d. 1753; m. Cornelis Heinsius, _Landschrijver_ of the land of
Cuyk. 3. Clara Sara, b. 1681; d. 1750; m. at Amsterdam Jan van der Burgh.
By his second marriage: 4. Johannes Jacobus, b. 1683; d. 1743. His
godfather was Cornelis Speelman, governor of India; he m. Maria
Uijlenbroek, and died S. P.

J. F. L. C.


P.S.--Mr. J. F. L. Coenen would feel happy if, {544} through the medium of
the "N. & Q." and the NAVORSCHER, he could learn in whose possession the
MS. now is, and whether the owner would be inclined to dispose of it for a
moderate price.

[Footnote 2: This document is quoted by Kok in his _Vaderl. Woordenboek_,
vol. viii. p. 899.; and by Scheltema, _Geschied. en letterk. Mengelwerk_,
vol. iii. p. 183.]

[Footnote 3: An excellent family portrait of him, painted by A. Vandyk, is
now in the possession of Mevr. de douairière Coenen, van 's Gravesloot, at

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 496.)

In reference to the pardon to John Trenchard, Esq., here communicated in
answer to me, I request permission, in the first place, to present my
acknowledgments to MR. E. S. TAYLOR for his courtesy; and, in the next, to
explain the motive of my inquiry. I was about to print a very long document
of this nature, which was issued on the 2nd Jan., 12 Car. II. (1660-1), in
favour of Colonel Richard Beke, who had married a cousin of the Protector
Cromwell. It appeared to me probable that some general pardon had been
already printed, and I wished either to avoid the needless repetition
should the pardon to Colonel Beke prove to be in the ordinary form, or, at
least, to make a comparison between that and other records of the same
class. I could not, however, ascertain that any general pardon had been
printed, nor have I hitherto heard of any. The pardon to Colonel Beke has
been printed for _The Topographer and Genealogist_, but is not yet
published. It occupies nearly seven large octavo pages, and consequently is
much longer than that granted to Mr. Trenchard: speaking freely, it is
between three and four times as long. It is evidently formed on a different
and more ample precedent; but perhaps the main difference consists in its
having relation to the tenure of landed property, and not merely to the
simple pardon of offences conferred in the grant made to Trenchard, though,
from the enumeration introduced in it of all imaginable offences and
crimes, political and moral, it is certainly more quaint and extraordinary.

I much regret that the pardon to Trenchard has not been presented _in
extenso_ to the readers of "N. & Q.;" for the contractions and very
irregular punctuation will render it almost unintelligible to those who are
not conversant with other documents of the kind. The following words are
actually misprinted. In line 3. "he" for l're (literæ); line 12.
"nuncupabatur" (one word); col. 2. line 1. "Jud'camenta" for Indictamenta,
and "condempnac'onas" for condempnationes; line 3. and again line 14.
"fforisfutur" for forisfactiones; line 23. "n're" for nostri; line 34.
"existim't" for existunt; line 37. "p'lite^r" for placitetur; line 39. "mea
parte" for in ea parte; last line, "p'rato" for privato.

It is also necessary to correct the error into which MR. TAYLOR has fallen
in supposing that this pardon was granted on the 7th of December, 1688. The
date it bears, "decimo septimo die Decembris anno regni nostri tertio,"
refers to a year earlier, viz., the 7th of December, 1687. The Revolution
occurred in the _fourth_ year of the reign of James II. "Mr. Trenchard of
the Middle Temple" was clearly the same who was afterwards Sir John, and
Secretary of State to King William. See the biographical notice of him
appended to the pedigree of Trenchard in Hutchins's _History of
Dorsetshire_, in which work two portraits of him are given. He had been
engaged in Monmouth's rebellion; and it is said that he was at dinner with
Mr. William Speke at Ilminster, when the news arrived of Monmouth's defeat
at Sedgmoor. Speke was shortly after hung before his own door; whilst at
the same time, having secreted himself, Trenchard had the good fortune to
be embarking for the continent. The other John Trenchard mentioned by MR.
TAYLOR as occurring among the regicides, was great-uncle to Sir John, who
was only forty-six at his death in 1694.


Macaulay may be right about the great seal notwithstanding Trenchard's
pardon. It is just possible such documents may have been kept ready "cut
and dried" for filling up. Charles I. began to reign March 27, 1625. I know
of a pardon dated Feb. 10th in the first year of his reign, with the great
seal of _James I._ appended. Surely it did not take eleven months to cut a
new great seal, which seems the likeliest way of accounting for the use of
the old one.

P. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., pp. 463. 515.)

I beg to inclose the copy of a letter received by me in reply to my inquiry
respecting the specimen of a _dodo_ said to be at the house of _Sir John
Trevelyan, Bart., Nettlecombe Park, Somersetshire_, a notice of which
appeared in "N. & Q." published on the 15th ultimo. I shall feel much
obliged if you will have the kindness to publish the same as an answer to
MR. WINN's Query.



    "I wish I could confirm the truth of the information given to MR. WINN,
    which I think it is scarcely necessary for me to say is _entirely
    incorrect_: and how such a report could have originated it is difficult
    to understand; unless by supposing that a member of the family when at
    Nettlecombe, in their childhood, had seen a stuffed specimen of the
    large _bustard_; and that this, in the course of years, had been
    magnified in their imaginative and indistinct recollection into a
    _dodo_. I admired much your restoration of the dodo at the Great
    Exhibition; which, judging from the old pictures and known remains of
    the bird, gives, I think, a very good idea of what it was. I do not
    know of {545} any other remains of the _dodo_ than those enumerated by
    Mr. Strickland; and had there been any at Nettlecombe, they would long
    ago have been known to naturalists.

                 "I remain, Sir,
                     "Yours faithfully,
                         "W. C. TREVELYAN.

          To Mr. A. D. Bartlett,
      12. College Street, Camden Town."

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 468.)

Your correspondent who makes inquiry about Whipping-boys of Princes, I
would refer to a very scarce old play from which I give an extract, and in
which the whipping-boy was _knighted_, _When You see Mee You know Mee_, as
it was played by the High and Mighty Prince of Wales his Servants, by
Samuel Rowley, London, 1632:

    "_Prince_ (Ed. VI.). Why, how now, Browne; what's the matter?

    _Browne._ Your Grace loyters, and will not plye your booke, and your
    tutors have whipt me for it.

    _Prince._ Alas, poore Ned! I am sorrie for it. I'll take the more
    paines, and entreate my tutors for thee; yet, in troth, the lectures
    they read me last night out of Virgil and Ovid I am perfect in, onely I
    confesse I am behind in my Greeke authors.

    _Will_ (Summers). And for that speech they have declined it uppon his
    breech," &c.--Pages 48-53.

He will also find the subject noticed by Sir Walter Scott, _Fortunes of
Nigel_, ch. vi. p. 114. vol. xxvi. of Waverley Novels, Edinburgh, 1833,
8vo.; and also by Burnet in _The History of his own Time_. The latter, in
speaking of Elizabeth, Countess of Dysart, whom he describes as an
_intrigante_, and who afterwards became Duchess of Lauderdale, says her
father, _William Murray_, had been page and _whipping-boy_ to Charles I. We
hear nothing of such office being held by any one in the household of
Prince Henry, the elder brother of Charles I.; nor, if we can believe
Cornwallis and others, can we suppose that "incomparable and heroique"
prince infringed the rules of discipline, in any respect, to justify any
castigation. It does not appear that it was the practice to have such a
_substitute_ in France; for Louis XIV., who was cotemporary with our
Charles I., on one occasion, when he was sensible of his want of education,
exclaimed, "Est-ce qu'il n'y avait point de verges dans mon royaume, pour
me forcer à étudier?" And Mr. Prince (_Parallel History_, 2nd edition in 3
vols. 8vo., London, 1842-3, at p. 262. vol. iii.) states, that George III.,
when Dr. Markham inquired "how his Majesty would wish to have the princes
treated?"--"Like the sons of any private English gentleman," was the
sensible reply; "if they deserve it, let them be flogged: do as you used to
do at Westminster." This is very like the characteristic and judicious
language of the honest monarch.



MR. LAWRENCE has overlooked King Edward's most celebrated whipping-boy,
Barnaby Fitzpatrick (as to whom see Fuller, _Church History_, ed. 1837, ii.
342.; Strype's _Ecclesiastical Memorials_, ii. 287. 331. 460. 503.; Burnet,
_History of the Reformation_, ed. 1841, 456.; Tytler's _Edward VI. and
Queen Mary_, ii. 85.). I confess I do not recollect having before heard
either of Brown or Mungo Murray, and hope MR. LAWRENCE will give
particulars respecting them.

It seems very clear that Henry VI. was chastised _personally_; see a record
cited (from Rymer, x. 399.) in _History of England and France under the
House of Lancaster_, p. 418.



       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Penkenol_ (Vol. v., p. 490.).--Head of a family or tribe, from the Celtic:
see _penkenedl_, Welsh; _ceanncinnidh_, or _cineal_, Gaelic; of which
_ken-kenal_ is a Lowland corruption. The inference drawn from the three
crescents (borne as a difference) almost explains the meaning of the word.
Aubrey was a Welshman.


_Penken_o_l_ was probably written in error for _pencen_edl, the head of a
sept or family. Pennant so uses the word in his _Whiteford and Hollywell_,
p. 33. The Welsh pronunciation of _dl_ as _thl_ will point to an obvious
Greek analogy, which Davies's _Dictionary_ carries to an earlier source.


_Johnny Crapaud_ (Vol. v., pp. 439. 523.).--I cannot but think that the
solution of MR. PHILIP S. KING's Query about "Johnny Crapaud" will be found
in the circumstance that three frogs are the old arms of France, and I
would refer him if he needs it, to the Rev. E. B. Elliott's _Horæ
Apocalypticæ_, where the reasons for believing that such were the arms of
France are fully given and illustrated by a plate, vol. iv. p. 64. ed.
1847. I may add that, for what reason I don't know, but perhaps Mr.
Metivier does, the natives of Jersey are called _crapauds_ by Guernsey men,
who in return are honoured by the title of _ânes_, asses.


_Sir John Darnall_ (Vol. v., p. 489.).--Sir John Darnall, Serjeant-at-Law
1714, knighted 1724, died Sept. 5, 1731, and was buried at Petersham,
leaving by Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Jenner, two daughters and
coheirs: _Mary_ the elder married in 1727 Robert Orde, Esq., Lord Chief
Baron of Scotland; and _Anne_ the younger married in 1728 Henry Muilman of
London, Esq., {546} whose only daughter and heir married John Julius
Angerstein, Esq.

The above Sir John Darnall was the only surviving son of Sir John Darnall
of the Inner Temple, King's Sergeant-at-law 1698, knighted at Kensington
June 1, 1699, died in Essex Street 1706, and was buried in the chancel
vault of St. Clement's Danes, co. Middlesex (see the _English Post_,
Monday, Dec. 23, 1706). He was son of Ralph Darnall, of Loughton's Hope,
co. Hereford, and his will was proved in the Prerogative Court of
Canterbury in Jan. 1707.

The arms assumed by Sir John Darnall, who died 1706, were--Gules on a pale
argent, a lion rampant azure impaling Gules a boar passant.


_Bastides_ (Vol. v., pp. 150. 206.).--Dumas, in his _Pictures of Travel in
the South of France_, says, that Louis XIV. while at Marseilles, observing
the charming houses which surrounded the town, with their white walls, red
tops, and green blinds, inquired by what name they were called in the
language of the country: "They call them _Bastides_," replied Fostea de
Piles. "Good!" says the King; "I will have a Bastide." He built a fort to
check the Marseillaise.

Again, Tarver, in his _Dictionary_, has:

    "BASTIDE, a small country house (this word is used in the south of
    France, in Provence especially.)"

Did Louis intend a pun between _Bastide_ and _Bastille_?

E. H. B.


_Compositions under the Protectorate_ (Vol. v., p. 68.).--Such is the name
of a heading to one of your recent Notes; and such is the formula of the
very common error that Dring's _List_, and the lists of his re-editors,
represent the fines levied by Cromwell when he decimated the incomes (not
the estates) of the Royalists, in consequence of Penruddock's rising.
Dring's _List_ has reference to the compositions during the years
1646-1648, when the fines were based on a totally different calculation.
The error has arisen from Dring's catalogue having been published in 1655,
the year after Penruddock's affair. I have compared a great number of the
compositions as they are stated in the Lord's Journals, 1646, _et seq._,
with Dring's account; and though there are discrepancies, their average
resemblance is sufficient to show that they refer to one and the same
affair. Indeed, any one acquainted with the actors in those events will see
in a moment that Dring's _List_ contains many who had repented of and
acknowledged their "delinquency."


_Hoax on Sir Walter Scott_ (Vol. v., p. 438.).--The reperusal of Mr.
Drury's hoax upon Sir Walter reminds me of another, which having escaped
the industry of, or been intentionally overlooked by Mr. Lockhart, may be
appropriately noticed in your pages, as pleasantly showing that even
"ANSELMO's" black-letter sagacity might be deceived; and that, with the
simple credulity of his own Monkbarns, he could mistake the "bit bourock of
the mason-callants" for a Roman Pretorium.

I allude to a small stitchlet, or brochure, of five pages, entitled "The
Raid of Featherstonehaugh: a Border Ballad." It was really written by Sir
Walter's early friend, Mr. Robert Surtees of Mainsforth, author of the
_History of Durham_, some of whose other impositions upon the poet were
printed in the _Border Minstrelsy_, or inserted in notes to his _Metrical
Romances_. Of this poem in particular, Sir Walter entertained so high an
opinion, that he has incorporated a verse from it into _Marmion_, and given
it entire in a note as a genuine relic of antiquity; gravely commenting
upon it in the most elaborate manner, and pointing out its exemplifications
of the then state of society. It will be found in _Marmion_, Canto I.,
verse 13.:

 "The whiles a northern harper rude."



_Statute of Limitations abroad_ (Vol. iv., p. 256.).--In this colony, which
is governed by the old Dutch law, the time at which prescription prevails
is one-third of a century, but some Dutch authorities hold that thirty
years is sufficient in personal actions. In Holland there were various
charters respecting prescription, such as those of Alkmaar of 1254,
Medemblik of 1288, Waterland of 1288, and others; these were cases of
possession with the knowledge of the authorities. In Holland immovable
property was acquired by prescription, without the knowledge of the
authorities, in the third of a century. In Zealand it was twenty years. By
the law of the Feudal Court, the period was a third of a century for any
property; and in the territory of Voorn, from times of old, and classed
among the laws of the year 1519, peaceable possession of any immovable
property for thirty years was held good; but there was an exception in
favour of minors and absentees.

E. H. B.


_Lines on Crawfurd of Kilbirnie_ (Vol. v., p. 404.).--These lines are
evidently merely an adaptation of the well-known epigram on Austria:

 "Bella gerant alii--tu felix Austria nube,
  Nam quæ Mars aliis dat tibi regna Venus."

S. L. P.

_Swearing on a Skull_ (Vol. v., p. 485.).--In the "Historical Memoirs of
the Clan McGregor," prefixed to the _Life of Rob Roy_, by K. Macleay, M.D.,
Glasgow, 1818, is the following story:--On the arrival of Anne of Denmark
in Scotland, {547} immediately after her marriage to James VI., the king
ordered Lord Drummond of Perth, who was "principal forester of Glenartney,"
to provide venison for a feast. His deputy, Drummond of Drummondernoch,
found in the forest some trespassers of clan Donald of Glenco, whose ears
he cropped and let them go. The Macdonalds, however, returned with others
of their clan, killed Drummond, and cut off his head. The atrocious acts of
barbarism which followed need not be told here. They ultimately took the
head with them, and proceeded to Balquhidder, among their friends the
McGregors, whose conduct is best described in the words of the king's
proclamation against their clan, which, after denouncing the "manifest
reifs, and stouths" committed by them, and the murder of Drummond, proceeds

    "Likeas after ye murther committed, ye authors yrof cutted aff ye said
    umqll Jo. Drummond's head, and carried the same to the Laird of
    McGregor, who, and his haill surname of McGregors, purposely conveined
    upon the next Sunday yrafter, at the kirk of Buchquhidder; qr they
    caused ye said umqll John's head be pnted to them, and yr avowing ye sd
    murder, laid yr hands upon the pow, and in Ethnic and barbarous manner,
    swear to defend ye authors of ye sd murder."


Weston super Mare.

_Rhymes on Places_ (Vol. v., pp. 293. 374. 500.).--Roger Gale, in a letter
dated August 17, 1739, states that he saw the following lines in a window
at Belford (between Newcastle and Berwick):

 "Cain, in disgrace with heaven, retired to Nod,
  A place, undoubtedly, as far from God
  As Cain could wish; which makes some think he went
  As far as Scotland, ere he pitch'd his tent;
  And there a city built of ancient fame,
  Which he, from Eden, Edinburgh did name."
                  _Reliquiæ Galeanæ_, 67*

Charles Mathews, in a letter directed to his son at Mold N. W., dated 4th
November [1825], says:

    "Lord Deerhurst, who franked this letter, laughed at the idea of your
    being condemned to be at Mold, and told me an impromptu of Sheridan's,
    upon being compelled to spend a day or two there:

     "'Were I to curse the man I hate
        From youth till I grow old,
      Oh might he be condemn'd by fate
        To waste his days in Mold!'"
              _Memoirs of Charles Mathews_, v. 504.



_The Silent Woman_ (Vol. v., p. 468.).--A very similar sign to this is one
called "The Honest Lawyer," who is represented in exactly the same position
as "The Silent Woman." The interpretation seems tolerably obvious in both
cases, such a state being one in which the lady could not be otherwise than
silent, nor the gentleman than honest.

S. L. P.

Oxford and Cambridge Club.

_Serpent with a human Head_ (Vol. iv., pp. 191. 331.).--Perhaps the most
ancient representations of this figure are to be found in those papyri of
the ancient Egyptians, called the Ritual, or prayers of the dead, in which
are depicted the progress or peregrination of the soul through the regions
of the nether world, or Hades, to a future state of existence. Fac-similes
of the Ritual have been published in Rosellini's _Monumenti dell' Egitto_,
Dr. Lepsius's _Todten-Buch_, the plates of Lord Belmore's _Collection of
Hieroglyphic Monuments_, and in the great French work entitled _Description
de l'Egypte_. A similar form occurs also in several of the woodcuts
inserted in the _prose_ version, (printed at Paris by Antoine Verard in
1499) of Guillaume de Guileville's poem entitled _Le Pélerinaige de l'Ame_,
a monastic legend of the fourteenth century, evidently founded on the old
Egyptian belief. At the end of the pilgrimage represented in the Egyptian
papyri, the soul is conducted by her guardian angel into the great Hall of
Judgment, where the deeds done in the body are placed in the balance in the
presence of Osiris, the judge of the assize, who passes sentence. A
representation of the same scene became a favourite decoration in mediæval
Christian churches, of which many vestiges have been discovered of late
years in this country; with this difference, that in these fresco-paintings
St. Michael was substituted, as judge of the tribunal, for Osiris. In the
woodcuts above mentioned, published by Verard, _the woman-headed serpent_
pursues the soul, like an accusing spirit, into the Hall of Judgment, seats
herself even in one of the scales of the balance to counterpoise the good
deeds placed in the opposite scale by the soul, telling her at the same
time that her name is Sinderesis, or the WORM _of Conscience_. Thus, by a
circuitous route, we arrive at the signification of the original Egyptian


_Poem on the Burning of the Houses of Parliament_ (Vol. v., p. 488.).--As
this doggerel is written on the same plan as our old friend "This is the
House that Jack built," it will be sufficient to give the last paragraph,
which of course embraces the whole. I copy from a newspaper cutting, but
from what newspaper I am ignorant. It is printed consecutively (as I send
it), and not with reference to the metre.

    "This is the Peer, who in town being resident, signed the report for
    the absent Lord President, and said that the history, was cleared of
    its mystery, by Whitbread the waiter, adding his _negatur_, to that of
    John Riddle, who laugh'd and said 'Fiddle!' when told Mr. Cooper of
    Drury Lane, had been down to Dudley and back again, and had heard the
    same day, a bagman say, that the house was a-blazing, a thing quite
    {548} amazing, even to John Snell, who knew very well, by the smoke and
    the heat, that was broiling his feet, through his great thick boots in
    the Black Rod's seat, that Dick Reynolds was right, that the fires were
    too bright, heaped up to such an unconscionable height, in spite of the
    fright, they gave poor Mistress Wright, when she sent to Josh. Cross,
    so full of his sauce, both to her and to Weobly, who'd heard so feebly,
    the directions of Phipps, when he told him the chips, might be burnt in
    the flues, yet never sent the news, as he ought to Milne, who'd have
    burnt in a kiln, these confounded old sticks, and not heated the
    bricks, nor set fire to the house that Josh. burnt."


_Large Families_ (Vol. v., pp. 204. 357.).--In a MS. commonplace-book of
the year 1787 _et seq._, I find two notes which may be added to your
curious collection of large families.

    "In the church of Abberconway is a stone with this inscription: 'Here
    lyeth the body of Nich^{las} Hooker, who was the one and fortieth child
    of his father by Alice his only wife, and the father of seven and
    twenty children by one wife. He died the 20^{th} of March, 1637.'"

The other entry is as follows:--

    "The following well-attested fact is copied from Brand's _History of

    "'A weaver in Scotland had by one wife (a Scotch-woman) sixty-two
    children, all living till they were baptized; of whom four daughters
    only lived to be women, and forty six sons attained to man's estate.'"


The following instance of a large family by one woman is gravely related by
Master Richard Verstegan, in his _Restitution of Decayed Intelligence in
Antiquities_, p. 3. edit. 1655; and which, it must be confessed, is enough
to frighten any day labourer "out of his seven senses:"--

    "There died in the city of Paris in the year of our Lord 1514, a woman
    named Yoland Baillie, at the age of eighty-eight years, and in the
    eighth year of her widowhood, who there lieth buried in the churchyard
    of St. Innocents; by whose epitaph it appeareth, that there were two
    hundred, fourscore and fifteen children issued from herself, _while
    herself yet lived_!"

J. Y.

_Frebord_ (Vol. v., p. 440.).--Your correspondent P. M. M. desires
information on this matter. He may be glad to know that, in the adjoining
manor from whence I write, the claim is sixteen feet and a half from the
set of the hedge; and this claim has been ever allowed, and is still
enforced. It is supposed to depend on a right of free-warren which the
manor in question possesses under a grant of Henry III. Is there any reason
to believe that there is any connexion between _frebord_ and free-warren? I
have heard it explained as reserved for the use of the lord for the purpose
of preserving the game.


_Milton's (?) Epitaph_ (Vol. v., p. 361.).--Your correspondent is possibly
not acquainted with the Rev. Charles Wordsworth's very beautiful epitaph on
his first wife. It is in the College Chapel at Winchester, and is
remarkably similar in idea to the one he gives. The words are:

  I nimiùm dilecta! vocat Deus: i bona nostræ
  Pars animæ: moerens altera disce sequi."

Both authors are doubtless indebted to Horace's--

 "Ah! te meæ si partem animæ rapit
  Maturior vis," &c.

S. L. P.

Oxford and Cambridge Club.

_Can Bishops vacate their Sees?_ (Vol. iv., p. 293.)--As an instance of
bishops vacating their sees I find in the account of Twysden's _Hist.
Anglicanæ Scrip. decem_, that, speaking of the Epistle of Simeon Archbishop
of York, it says, _inter alia_, "the names after Thurstan, who resigned
A.D. 1139, must have been added," &c.

E. H. B.


_Sleekstone, Meaning of_ (Vol. iii., p. 241.; Vol. iv., p. 394.; Vol. v.,
p. 140.).--I can confirm what R. C. H. says respecting this word, having
had one in my possession. It was of glass, of the same shape as described
by R. C. H., and was used for giving a gloss to silk stockings. It is
called here (Demerary) a _sleeking stone_.

E. H. B.


_Poems in the Spectator_ (Vol. v., p. 439.).--The three poems mentioned are
unquestionably by Addison. Captain Thompson, in the Preface to his edition
of Andrew Marvell's works in three vols. 4to., 1766, states that he found
them in a manuscript collection of Marvell's poems; but the fact no doubt
was, that the manuscript he refers to was a miscellaneous collection by
different writers, and not by Marvell exclusively (see Preface, p. xiv.)
Thus, "William and Margaret," Mallet's ballad, was found in the same
manuscript, and is likewise ascribed by Capt. Thompson to Marvell, and with
as little reason. Hartley Coleridge observes (_Biog. Borealis_, p. 64.)
with respect to the three poems alluded to:

    "As to their being Marvell's, it is just as probable that they are
    Chaucer's. They present neither his language, his versification, nor
    his cast of thought."

While on the subject of Marvell, let me express a hope that we may soon
have a new and better edition of his works than the cumbrous but incorrect
and incomplete edition published by Thompson. His admirable prose works
deserve editing with care, and amongst them should be included the tract
omitted in his works, but worthy of him in every respect, _Remarks upon a
late Disingenuous Discourse writ by one T. D. under the Pretence De Causa
Dei_, 1678, 8vo.; and which has now become exceedingly rare.



_Line on Franklin_ (Vol. iv., 443.; Vol. v., p. 17.).--I have read, but do
not remember where, that this line was _immediately_ taken from one in the
_Anti-Lucretius_ of Cardinal Polignac:

 "Eripuitque Jovi fulmen, Phoeboque sagittas."

But it is obvious that the Cardinal must have, in turn, borrowed from


_St. Christopher_ (Vol. v., p. 295.).--E. A. H. L., who asks "if there are
any representations of St. Christopher in painted glass; and if so, where?"
is informed that there is a picture of the Saint in a green vestment,
painted on glass, in the window of the side chapel of King's Chapel, which
is used as a vestry by the Conduct. The picture is on the internal, not the
external window of the side chapel, in the western corner, upper
compartment, about a foot in height.

F. H. L.

_Lines on Woman_ (Vol. v., p. 490.).--The uxorious lines your correspondent
J. T. is in search of, were written by _Bird_. They are copied from his
"Poetical Memoirs" in Carey's _Beauties of the Modern Poets_, p. 284.,
London, 1826. From thence I extract them, and, by so doing, entitle myself
to the good graces of the lady readers of "N. & Q."

 "Oh, woman, woman! thou art formed to bless
    The heart of restless man; to chase his care,
  And charm existence by thy loveliness;
    Bright as the sunbeam, as the morning fair,
  If but thy foot fall on a wilderness,
    Flowers spring, and shed their roseate blossoms there,
  Shrouding the thorns that in thy pathway rise,
  And scattering o'er it hues of paradise.

 "Thy voice of love is music to the ear,
    Soothing, and soft, and gentle as the stream
  That strays 'mid summer flowers; thy glittering tear
    Is mutely eloquent; thy smile a beam
  Of life ineffable, so sweet, so dear,
    It wakes the heart from sorrow's darkest dream,
  Shedding a hallowed lustre o'er our fate,
  And when it beams, we are not desolate.

 "No, no! when woman smiles, we feel a charm
    Thrown bright around us, binding us to earth;
  Her tender accents, breathing forth the balm;
    Of pure affection, give to transport birth;
  There life's wide sea is billowless and calm.
    Oh! lovely woman! thy consummate worth
  Is far above thy frailty--far above
  All earthly praise--thou art the light of love!"



_Burial_ (Vol. v., pp. 320. 404.).--MR. GATTY says that a clergyman is
inhibited from reading the burial service in unconsecrated ground. Is this
so? Irregular as the practice would be, have not other irregularities
equally glaring--baptisms, for instance--too often taken place in
drawing-rooms? It might not be uninteresting, to have instances given of
spots, not consecrated, which have been chosen for burial; as the
individuals who selected them have possibly been marked by some
peculiarities of character worthy of observation.

Baskerville, the celebrated printer, directed that he should be buried
under a windmill near his garden; this direction proceeded, alas! from
disbelief in Revelation. A few years previously (viz. in 1772) Mr. Hull, a
bencher of the Inner Temple, was buried underneath Leith Hill Tower, in
Surrey, which he had erected on that beautiful and commanding spot, shortly
before his death.

In the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of last month, we have a curious inscription
on a monument, which once existed in a field or garden near Twickenham.
Mrs. Joan Whitrow, to whom it was raised, though said to be "favoured with
uncommon gifts," appears to have been very crazy.

Was not Mrs. Van Butchell, to whom MR. GATTY refers, to be seen some years
ago in her glass case in the College of Surgeons?

J. H. M.

_Portrait of Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland_ (Vol. v., p.
490.).--There is a portrait of this nobleman in Petworth House, Sussex,
representing him kneeling on a cushion before a low stand, on which is
placed a missal, his hands joined as in prayer. Written on the canvas
itself is the following, in capital letters:


Again is written:

    "Thomas, 7th Earl of Northumberland, Ætatis--suæ--38, An^o Dom. 1566,
    et Die Dec^o Juni."

This is copied word for word from the picture.

P. W.

       *       *       *       *       *



Every attempt, undertaken in a reverential spirit, to facilitate the
labours of the inquirer after Scripture truth, deserves especial favour at
the hands of those who may have the opportunity of directing public
attention to such endeavours. _The Emphatic New Testament, according to the
Authorized Version, compared with the various Readings of the Vatican
Manuscripts. The Four Gospels. Edited, with an Introductory Essay on Greek
Emphasis_, by John Taylor; which is an attempt to represent to the English
reader certain peculiarities in the Greek text, is a work of this class,
and therefore, without entering into any minute detail of the manner in
which Mr. Taylor carries out his endeavour, we will let him speak for
himself on the subject of its results. "If any one were known," says Mr.
Taylor "to be in possession of a copy of the Greek Testament so marked by
its inspired writers as they would wish to have it read; and if the system
of notation, when applied to the English translation, were found to be
{550} equally efficacious in conferring distinction on the corresponding
words in that language, should we not deem it a great treasure, and be
eager to obtain a _marked copy_, esteeming it next to hearing the words in
the tone adopted by Our Lord and His Apostles? Yet something of this kind
is offered to our notice in the present work; without altering the
expression, it often makes the meaning clearer; it adds certainty to many
readings, which before could only be founded on conjecture; and it may
altogether be considered as a kind of running commentary of no less
authority than the original text."

We have received the first Part of Mr. Akerman's _Remains of Pagan
Saxondom_, which contains engravings of some beautiful _Personal Ornaments
from a Barrow near Devizes_; _of a Gold Buckle found at Ickworth, Suffolk_;
and of the curious _Glass Vase found at Reculver_, now preserved in the
Canterbury Museum. The price of the Part, half-a-crown to subscribers, is
apparently a high one; but it must be remembered that all the objects are
represented of their natural size, so that the plates become in some
measure a substitute for the antiquities themselves.

The Society of Antiquaries having, on the ballot taken on Thursday week,
adopted the proposal to return to the old rate of subscription, we can only
hope that all parties--those who so strenuously and honestly advocated the
measure, and those who as strenuously and as honestly opposed it--will now
meet on the common principle by which both were actuated, a desire to
promote the well-being of the Society, and co-operate in bringing forward
those judicious reforms, without which the present step would only be

We are very glad to find, from the recently published Report of the
Commissioners appointed to inquire and report concerning the ancient laws
and institutes of Ireland, that Lord Eglintoun, the present Lord Lieutenant
of Ireland, has recommended to the Treasury the immediate publication of
the Brehon Laws. In a very interesting letter from Dr. Jacob Grimm, which
is appended to the Commissioners' Report, he well describes the benefits
which will result from this measure of justice to the literature of
Ireland. "To the historians and philologists of Europe," observes Dr.
Grimm, "a valuable and important monument of Irish antiquity remains as yet
shut up. It is only suitable to the dignity of the Irish and British nation
to effect the publication of the Brehon Laws, as has been already
accomplished in the case of the laws of Wales."

After this mention of Irish antiquities, we may remind such of our readers
as may be desirous of promoting the very praiseworthy objects of _The
Kilkenny Archæological Society_, that they may still be supplied with
complete copies of its Transactions upon payment of the four years'
subscription; and we scarcely know how they could better employ twenty

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Sketches in Canada, and Rambles among the Red Men_, by
Mrs. Jameson, which forms two Parts of Longman's _Traveller's Library_, is
a reprint, with the omission of all that was of a merely transient or
merely personal nature, or that has become obsolete in politics or
criticism, of this accomplished writer's _Winter Studies and Summer Rambles
in Canada_. This graphic work will supply pleasant reading for a railway
journey, and not be hastily thrown aside when the journey and its perusal
are completed.--_The Valiant Little Tailor, and other Stories_; forming the
second Part of the very satisfactory translation of Grimm's _Household
Stories_, which Addey and Co. are publishing, with admirable illustrations
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