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Title: The Diary of John Evelyn, Volume II (of 2)
Author: Evelyn, John, 1620-1706
Language: English
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[Illustration: _THE DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM_

_From an old painting_]


THE DIARY OF JOHN EVELYN

Edited from the Original Mss. by

WILLIAM BRAY

Fellow of the Antiquarian Society

In Two Volumes

VOL. II

With a Biographical Introduction by the Editor

And a Special Introduction by Richard Garnett, Ll.D.
of the British Museum



M. Walter Dunne, Publisher
Washington & London

Copyright, 1901,
by
Walter Dunne,
Publisher



ILLUSTRATIONS


  CHARLES I. IN PRISON                                    _Frontispiece_
  Photogravure after De La Roche.

  LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL TAKING LEAVE OF HIS CHILDREN, 1683           180
  Photogravure after a painting by Bridges.

  OLIVER CROMWELL DICTATING TO JOHN MILTON                          284
  The letter to the Duke of Savoy to stop the persecution
  of the Protestants of Piedmont, 1655.
  Photogravure from an engraving by Sartain after Newenham.


VOLUME II.

  THE DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM                                  _Frontispiece_
  From an old painting.

  NELL GWYNNE                                                        64
  Photogravure after Sir Peter Lely.



VOLUME I.

1620-1664


VOLUME II.

1665-1706



THE DIARY OF JOHN EVELYN.


2d January, 1665.

This day was published by me that part of "The Mystery of Jesuitism"
translated and collected by me, though without my name, containing the
Imaginary Heresy, with four letters and other pieces.

4th January, 1665. I went in a coach, it being excessive sharp frost and
snow, toward Dover and other parts of Kent, to settle physicians,
chirurgeons, agents, marshals, and other officers in all the sea ports,
to take care of such as should be set on shore, wounded, sick, or
prisoners, in pursuance of our commission reaching from the North
Foreland, in Kent, to Portsmouth, in Hampshire. The rest of the ports in
England were allotted to the other Commissioners. That evening I came to
Rochester, where I delivered the Privy Council's letter to the Mayor to
receive orders from me.

5th January, 1665. I arrived at Canterbury, and went to the cathedral,
exceedingly well repaired since his Majesty's return.

6th January, 1665. To Dover, where Colonel Stroode, Lieutenant of the
Castle, having received the letter I brought him from the Duke of
Albemarle, made me lodge in it, and I was splendidly treated, assisting
me from place to place. Here I settled my first Deputy. The Mayor and
officers of the Customs were very civil to me.

9th January, 1665. To Deal.--10th. To Sandwich, a pretty town, about two
miles from the sea. The Mayor and officers of the Customs were very
diligent to serve me. I visited the forts in the way, and returned that
night to Canterbury.

11th January, 1665. To Rochester, when I took order to settle officers
at Chatham.

12th January, 1665. To Gravesend, and returned home. A cold, busy, but
not unpleasant journey.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

25th January, 1665. This night being at Whitehall, his Majesty came to
me standing in the withdrawing-room, and gave me thanks for publishing
"The Mysteries of Jesuitism," which he said he had carried two days in
his pocket, read it, and encouraged me; at which I did not a little
wonder: I suppose Sir Robert Murray had given it to him.

27th January, 1665. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's, who caused me after
dinner to sit two or three hours alone with him in his bedchamber.

2d February, 1665. I saw a Masque performed at Court, by six gentlemen
and six ladies, surprising his Majesty, it being Candlemas day.

8th February, Ash Wednesday, 1665. I visited our prisoners at Chelsea
College, and to examine how the marshal and sutlers behaved. These were
prisoners taken in the war; they only complained that their bread was
too fine. I dined at Sir Henry Herbert's, Master of the Revels.

9th February, 1665. Dined at my Lord Treasurer's, the Earl of
Southampton, in Bloomsbury, where he was building a noble square or
piazza,[1] a little town; his own house stands too low, some noble
rooms, a pretty cedar chapel, a naked garden to the north, but good air.
I had much discourse with his Lordship, whom I found to be a person of
extraordinary parts, but a _valetudinarian_.--I went to St. James's
Park, where I saw various animals, and examined the throat of the
_Onocrotylus_, or pelican, a fowl between a stork and a swan; a
melancholy water-fowl, brought from Astrakhan by the Russian Ambassador;
it was diverting to see how he would toss up and turn a flat fish,
plaice, or flounder, to get it right into his gullet at its lower beak,
which, being filmy, stretches to a prodigious wideness when it devours a
great fish. Here was also a small water-fowl, not bigger than a moorhen,
that went almost quite erect, like the penguin of America; it would eat
as much fish as its whole body weighed; I never saw so unsatiable a
devourer, yet the body did not appear to swell the bigger. The solan
geese here are also great devourers, and are said soon to exhaust all
the fish in a pond. Here was a curious sort of poultry not much
exceeding the size of a tame pigeon, with legs so short as their crops
seemed to touch the earth; a milk-white raven; a stork, which was a
rarity at this season, seeing he was loose, and could fly loftily; two
Balearian cranes, one of which having had one of his legs broken and cut
off above the knee, had a wooden or boxen leg and thigh, with a joint so
accurately made that the creature could walk and use it as well as if it
had been natural; it was made by a soldier. The park was at this time
stored with numerous flocks of several sorts of ordinary and
extraordinary wild fowl, breeding about the Decoy, which for being near
so great a city, and among such a concourse of soldiers and people, is a
singular and diverting thing. There were also deer of several countries,
white; spotted like leopards; antelopes, an elk, red deer, roebucks,
stags, Guinea goats, Arabian sheep, etc. There were withy-pots, or
nests, for the wild fowl to lay their eggs in, a little above the
surface of the water.

    [Footnote 1: The Italians mean simply a square by their _piazzas_.]

23d February, 1665. I was invited to a great feast at Mr. Rich's (a
relation of my wife's, now reader at Lincoln's Inn); where was the Duke
of Monmouth, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishops of London and
Winchester, the Speaker of the House of Commons, divers of the Judges,
and several other great men.

24th February, 1665. Dr. Fell, Canon of Christ Church, preached before
the King, on 15 ch. Romans, v. 2, a very formal discourse, and in blank
verse, according to his manner; however, he is a good man.--Mr. Philips,
preceptor to my son, went to be with the Earl of Pembroke's son, my Lord
Herbert.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d March, 1665. I went with his Majesty into the lobby behind the House
of Lords, where I saw the King and the rest of the Lords robe
themselves, and got into the House of Lords in a corner near the
woolsack, on which the Lord Chancellor sits next below the throne: the
King sat in all the regalia, the crown-imperial on his head, the sceptre
and globe, etc. The Duke of Albemarle bore the sword, the Duke of
Ormond, the cap of dignity. The rest of the Lords robed in their
places:--a most splendid and august convention. Then came the Speaker
and the House of Commons, and at the bar made a speech, and afterward
presented several bills, a nod only passing them, the clerk saying, _Le
Roy le veult_, as to public bills, as to private, _Soit faite commeil
est desirè_. Then, his Majesty made a handsome but short speech,
commanding my Lord Privy Seal to prorogue the Parliament, which he did,
the Chancellor being ill and absent. I had not before seen this
ceremony.

9th March, 1665. I went to receive the poor creatures that were saved
out of the London frigate, blown up by accident, with above 200 men.

29th March, 1665. Went to Goring House, now Mr. Secretary Bennet's,
ill-built, but the place capable of being made a pretty villa. His
Majesty was now finishing the Decoy in the Park.

2d April, 1665. Took order about some prisoners sent from Captain
Allen's ship, taken in the Solomon, viz, the brave men who defended her
so gallantly.

5th April, 1665. Was a day of public humiliation and for success of this
terrible war, begun doubtless at secret instigation of the French to
weaken the States and Protestant interest. Prodigious preparations on
both sides.

6th April, 1665. In the afternoon, I saw acted "_Mustapha_," a tragedy
written by the Earl of Orrery.

11th April, 1665. To London, being now left the only Commissioner to
take all necessary orders how to exchange, remove, and keep prisoners,
dispose of hospitals, etc.; the rest of the Commissioners being gone to
their several districts, in expectation of a sudden engagement.

19th April, 1665. Invited to a great dinner at the Trinity House, where
I had business with the Commissioners of the Navy, and to receive the
second £5,000, impressed for the service of the sick and wounded
prisoners.

20th April, 1665. To Whitehall, to the King, who called me into his
bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to
me from the Duke of York from the fleet, giving me notice of young
Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the
Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war;
I went to know of his Majesty how he would have me treat them, when he
commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of
the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he
should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir
without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being
Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (the Secretary Bennet
lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's;
none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe, formerly Ambassador at
Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

24th April, 1665. I presented young Captain Evertzen (eldest son of
Cornelius, Vice-Admiral of Zealand and nephew of John, now Admiral, a
most valiant person) to his Majesty in his bed-chamber. The King gave
him his hand to kiss, and restored him his liberty; asked many questions
concerning the fight (it being the first blood drawn), his Majesty
remembering the many civilities he had formerly received from his
relations abroad, who had now so much interest in that considerable
Province. Then, I was commanded to go with him to the Holland
Ambassador, where he was to stay for his passport, and I was to give him
fifty pieces in broad gold. Next day I had the Ambassador's parole for
the other Captain, taken in Captain Allen's fight before Calais. I gave
the King an account of what I had done, and afterward asked the same
favor for another Captain, which his Majesty gave me.

28th April, 1665. I went to Tunbridge, to see a solemn exercise at the
free-school there.

Having taken orders with my marshal about my prisoners, and with the
doctor and chirurgeon to attend the wounded enemies, and of our own men,
I went to London again, and visited my charge, several with legs and
arms off; miserable objects, God knows.

16th May, 1665. To London, to consider of the poor orphans and widows
made by this bloody beginning, and whose husbands and relations perished
in the London frigate, of which there were fifty widows, and forty-five
of them with child.

26th May, 1665. To treat with the Holland Ambassador at Chelsea, for
release of divers prisoners of war in Holland on exchange here. After
dinner, being called into the Council-Chamber at Whitehall, I gave his
Majesty an account of what I had done, informing him of the vast charge
upon us, now amounting to no less than £1,000 weekly.

29th May, 1665. I went with my little boy to my district in Kent, to
make up accounts with my officers. Visited the Governor at Dover Castle,
where were some of my prisoners.

3d June, 1665. In my return went to Gravesend; the fleets being just now
engaged, gave special orders for my officers to be ready to receive the
wounded and prisoners.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th June, 1665. To London, to speak with his Majesty and the Duke of
Albemarle for horse and foot guards for the prisoners at war, committed
more particularly to my charge by a commission apart.

8th June, 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, and
moved for another privy seal for £20,000, and that I might have the
disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded; all which was
granted. Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.

Came news of his highness's victory, which indeed might have been a
complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the
cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had,
however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th,
I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester
this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, where I found all in readiness:
but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the
12th, and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and on the 13th, hearing
the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, and on the
14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present
Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine
with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord
General for more guards, and gave his Majesty an account of my journey
to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness,
now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole
history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War."

20th June, 1665. To London, and represented the state of the sick and
wounded to His Majesty in Council, for want of money, he ordered I
should apply to My Lord Treasurer and Chancellor of the Exchequer, upon
what funds to raise the money promised. We also presented to his Majesty
divers expedients for retrenchment of the charge.

This evening making my court to the Duke, I spake to Monsieur
Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his Highness granted me six
prisoners, Embdeners, who were desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a
merchant.

22d June, 1665. We waited on the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and got an
Order of Council for our money to be paid to the Treasurer of the Navy
for our Receivers.

23d June, 1665. I dined with Sir Robert Paston, since Earl of Yarmouth,
and saw the Duke of Verneuille, base brother to the Queen-Mother, a
handsome old man, a great hunter.

The Duke of York told us that, when we were in fight, his dog sought out
absolutely the very securest place in all the vessel.--In the afternoon,
I saw the pompous reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the
Spanish Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties
sitting together under the canopy of state.

30th June, 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord
Sandwich, now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the
Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of
ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for
building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or
shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen,
gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all
sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke, and Prince Rupert. Here
I saw the King knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the
late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and
plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a
hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to
which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his
Majesty, who there held a General Council, which determined that his
Royal Highness should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away
late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We
returned in his Majesty's yacht with my Lord Sandwich and Mr.
Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

5th July, 1665. I took order for 150 men, who had been recovered of
their wounds, to be carried on board the Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus,
and Zealand, ships that had been taken by us in the fight; and so
returned home.

7th July, 1665. To London, to Sir William Coventry; and so to Sion,
where his Majesty sat at Council during the contagion: when business was
over, I viewed that seat belonging to the Earl of Northumberland, built
out of an old nunnery, of stone, and fair enough, but more celebrated
for the garden than it deserves; yet there is excellent wall-fruit, and
a pretty fountain; nothing else extraordinary.

9th July, 1665. I went to Hampton-Court, where now the whole Court was,
to solicit for money; to carry intercepted letters; confer again with
Sir William Coventry, the Duke's secretary; and so home, having dined
with Mr. Secretary Morice.

16th July, 1665. There died of the plague in London this week 1,100; and
in the week following, above 2,000. Two houses were shut up in our
parish.

2d August, 1665. A solemn fast through England to deprecate God's
displeasure against the land by pestilence and war; our Doctor preaching
on 26 Levit. v. 41, 42, that the means to obtain remission of punishment
was not to repine at it; but humbly to submit to it.

3d August, 1665. Came his Grace the Duke of Albemarle, Lord General of
all his Majesty's forces, to visit me, and carried me to dine with him.

4th August, 1665. I went to Wotton with my Son and his tutor, Mr. Bohun,
Fellow of New College (recommended to me by Dr. Wilkins, and the
President of New College, Oxford), for fear of the pestilence, still
increasing in London and its environs. On my return, I called at
Durdans, where I found Dr. Wilkins, Sir William Petty, and Mr. Hooke,
contriving chariots, new rigging for ships, a wheel for one to run races
in, and other mechanical inventions; perhaps three such persons together
were not to be found elsewhere in Europe, for parts and ingenuity.

8th August, 1665. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle, who was resolved to
stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's Park. Died this week in London,
4,000.

15th August, 1665. There perished this week 5,000.

28th August, 1665. The contagion still increasing, and growing now all
about us, I sent my wife and whole family (two or three necessary
servants excepted) to my brother's at Wotton, being resolved to stay at
my house myself, and to look after my charge, trusting in the providence
and goodness of God.

[Sidenote: CHATHAM]

5th September, 1665. To Chatham, to inspect my charge, with £900 in my
coach.

7th September, 1665. Came home, there perishing near 10,000 poor
creatures weekly; however, I went all along the city and suburbs from
Kent Street to St. James's, a dismal passage, and dangerous to see so
many coffins exposed in the streets, now thin of people; the shops shut
up, and all in mournful silence, not knowing whose turn might be next. I
went to the Duke of Albemarle for a pest-ship, to wait on our infected
men, who were not a few.

14th September, 1665. I went to Wotton; and on 16th September, to visit
old Secretary Nicholas, being now at his new purchase of West Horsley,
once mortgaged to me by Lord Viscount Montague: a pretty dry seat on the
Down. Returned to Wotton.

17th September, 1665. Receiving a letter from Lord Sandwich of a defeat
given to the Dutch, I was forced to travel all Sunday. I was exceedingly
perplexed to find that near 3,000 prisoners were sent to me to dispose
of, being more than I had places fit to receive and guard.

25th September, 1665. My Lord Admiral being come from the fleet to
Greenwich, I went thence with him to the Cock-pit, to consult with the
Duke of Albemarle. I was peremptory that, unless we had £10,000
immediately, the prisoners would starve, and it was proposed it should
be raised out of the East India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich. They
being but two of the commission, and so not empowered to determine, sent
an express to his Majesty and Council, to know what they should do. In
the meantime, I had five vessels, with competent guards, to keep the
prisoners in for the present, to be placed as I should think best. After
dinner (which was at the General's) I went over to visit his Grace, the
Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth.

28th September, 1665. To the General again, to acquaint him of the
deplorable state of our men for want of provisions; returned with
orders.

29th September, 1665. To Erith, to quicken the sale of the prizes lying
there, with order to the commissioner who lay on board till they should
be disposed of, £5,000 being proportioned for my quarter. Then I
delivered the Dutch Vice-Admiral, who was my prisoner, to Mr. Lo....
[2]of the Marshalsea, he giving me bond in £500 to produce him at my
call. I exceedingly pitied this brave unhappy person, who had lost with
these prizes £40,000 after twenty years' negotiation [trading] in the
East Indies. I dined in one of these vessels, of 1,200 tons, full of
riches.

    [Footnote 2: Mr. Lowman.]

1st October, 1665. This afternoon, while at evening prayers, tidings
were brought me of the birth of a daughter at Wotton, after six sons, in
the same chamber I had first taken breath in, and at the first day of
that month, as I was on the last, forty-five years before.

4th October, 1665. The monthly fast.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

11th October, 1665. To London, and went through the whole city, having
occasion to alight out of the coach in several places about business of
money, when I was environed with multitudes of poor, pestiferous
creatures begging alms; the shops universally shut up, a dreadful
prospect! I dined with my Lord General; was to receive £10,000, and had
guards to convey both myself and it, and so returned home, through God's
infinite mercy.

17th October, 1665. I went to Gravesend; next day to Chatham; thence to
Maidstone, in order to the march of 500 prisoners to Leeds Castle, which
I had hired of Lord Culpeper. I was earnestly desired by the learned Sir
Roger Twisden, and Deputy-Lieutenants, to spare Maidstone from
quartering any of my sick flock. Here, Sir Edward Brett sent me some
horse to bring up the rear. This country, from Rochester to Maidstone
and the Downs, is very agreeable for the prospect.

21st October, 1665. I came from Gravesend, where Sir J. Griffith, the
Governor of the Fort, entertained me very handsomely.

31st October, 1665. I was this day forty-five years of age wonderfully
preserved; for which I blessed God for his infinite goodness toward me.

23d November, 1665. Went home, the contagion having now decreased
considerably.

27th November, 1665. The Duke of Albemarle was going to Oxford, where
both Court and Parliament had been most part of the summer. There was no
small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich having permitted divers commanders,
who were at the taking of the East India prizes, to break bulk, and to
take to themselves jewels, silks, etc.: though I believe some whom I
could name filled their pockets, my Lord Sandwich himself had the least
share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and
prepossessed the Lord General, for he spoke to me of it with much zeal
and concern, and I believe laid load enough on Lord Sandwich at Oxford.

8th December, 1665. To my Lord of Albemarle (now returned from Oxford),
who was declared General at Sea, to the no small mortification of that
excellent person, the Earl of Sandwich, whom the Duke of Albemarle not
only suspected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant; himself
imagining how easy a thing it were to confound the Hollanders, as well
now as heretofore he fought against them upon a more disloyal interest.

25th December, 1665. Kept Christmas with my hospitable brother, at
Wotton.

30th December, 1665. To Woodcot, where I supped at my Lady Mordaunt's at
Ashsted, where was a room hung with _pintado_, full of figures great and
small, prettily representing sundry trades and occupations of the
Indians, with their habits; here supped also Dr. Duke, a learned and
facetious gentleman.

31st December, 1665. Now blessed be God for his extraordinary mercies
and preservation of me this year, when thousands, and ten thousands,
perished, and were swept away on each side of me, there dying in our
parish this year 406 of the pestilence!

3d January, 1665-66. I supped in Nonesuch House,[3] whither the office
of the Exchequer was transferred during the plague, at my good friend
Mr. Packer's, and took an exact view of the plaster statues and
bass-relievos inserted between the timbers and puncheons of the outside
walls of the Court; which must needs have been the work of some
celebrated Italian. I much admired how they had lasted so well and
entire since the time of Henry VIII., exposed as they are to the air;
and pity it is they are not taken out and preserved in some dry place; a
gallery would become them. There are some mezzo-relievos as big as the
life; the story is of the Heathen Gods, emblems, compartments, etc. The
palace consists of two courts, of which the first is of stone, castle
like, by the Lord Lumleys (of whom it was purchased), the other of
timber, a Gothic fabric, but these walls incomparably beautiful. I
observed that the appearing timber-puncheons, entrelices, etc., were all
so covered with scales of slate, that it seemed carved in the wood and
painted, the slate fastened on the timber in pretty figures, that has,
like a coat of armor, preserved it from rotting. There stand in the
garden two handsome stone pyramids, and the avenue planted with rows of
fair elms, but the rest of these goodly trees, both of this and of
Worcester Park adjoining, were felled by those destructive and
avaricious rebels in the late war, which defaced one of the stateliest
seats his Majesty had.

    [Footnote 3: Of this famous summer residence of Queen Elizabeth not
    a vestige remains.]

12th January, 1666. After much, and indeed extraordinary mirth and
cheer, all my brothers, our wives, and children, being together, and
after much sorrow and trouble during this contagion, which separated our
families as well as others, I returned to my house, but my wife went
back to Wotton. I, not as yet willing to adventure her, the contagion,
though exceedingly abated, not as yet wholly extinguished among us.

29th January, 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty, now returned from
Oxford to Hampton-Court, where the Duke of Albemarle presented me to
him; he ran toward me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to
kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a
time of such great danger, when everybody fled their employments; he
told me he was much obliged to me, and said he was several times
concerned for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my service
most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had
performed it as I ought!). After this, his Majesty was pleased to talk
with me alone, near an hour, of several particulars of my employment,
and ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday following at
Whitehall. Then the Duke came toward me, and embraced me with much
kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would have been so
great, he would not have suffered his Majesty to employ me in that
station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans, Lord Arlington,
Sir William Coventry, and several great persons; after which, I got
home, not being very well in health.

The Court was now in deep mourning for the French Queen-Mother.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d February, 1666. To London; his Majesty now come to Whitehall, where I
heard and saw my Lord Mayor (and brethren) make his speech of welcome,
and the two Sheriffs were knighted.

6th February, 1666. My wife and family returned to me from the country,
where they had been since August, by reason of the contagion, now almost
universally ceasing. Blessed be God for his infinite mercy in preserving
us! I, having gone through so much danger, and lost so many of my poor
officers, escaping still myself that I might live to recount and magnify
his goodness to me.

8th February, 1666. I had another gracious reception by his Majesty, who
called me into his bed-chamber, to lay before and describe to him my
project of an Infirmary, which I read to him, who with great
approbation, recommended it to his Royal Highness.

20th February, 1666. To the Commissioners of the Navy who, having seen
the project of the Infirmary, encouraged the work, and were very earnest
it should be set about immediately; but I saw no money, though a very
moderate expense would have saved thousands to his Majesty, and been
much more commodious for the cure and quartering of our sick and
wounded, than the dispersing them into private houses, where many more
chirurgeons and attendants were necessary, and the people tempted to
debauchery.

21st February, 1666. Went to my Lord Treasurer for an assignment of
£40,000 upon the last two quarters for support of the next year's
charge. Next day, to Duke of Albemarle and Secretary of State, to desire
them to propose it to the Council.

1st March, 1666. To London, and presented his Majesty my book intitled,
"The Pernicious Consequences of the new Heresy of the Jesuits against
Kings and States."

7th March, 1666. Dr. Sancroft, since Archbishop of Canterbury, preached
before the King about the identity and immutability of God, on Psalm
cii. 27.

13th March, 1666. To Chatham, to view a place designed for an
Infirmary.

15th March, 1666. My charge now amounted to near £7,000 [weekly].

22d March, 1666. The Royal Society reassembled, after the dispersion
from the contagion.

24th March, 1666. Sent £2,000 to Chatham.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st April, 1666. To London, to consult about ordering the natural
rarities belonging to the repository of the Royal Society; referred to a
Committee.

10th April, 1666. Visited Sir William D'Oyly, surprised with a fit of
apoplexy, and in extreme danger.

11th April, 1666. Dr. Bathurst preached before the King, from "I say
unto you all, watch"--a seasonable and most excellent discourse. When
his Majesty came from chapel, he called to me in the lobby, and told me
he must now have me sworn for a Justice of Peace (having long since made
me of the Commission); which I declined as inconsistent with the other
service I was engaged in, and humbly desired to be excused. After
dinner, waiting on him, I gave him the first notice of the Spaniards
referring the umpirage of the peace between them and Portugal to the
French King, which came to me in a letter from France before the
Secretaries of State had any news of it. After this, his Majesty again
asked me if I had found out any able person about our parts that might
supply my place of Justice of Peace (the office in the world I had most
industriously avoided, in regard of the perpetual trouble thereof in
these numerous parishes); on which I nominated one, whom the King
commanded me to give immediate notice of to my Lord Chancellor, and I
should be excused; for which I rendered his Majesty many thanks. From
thence, I went to the Royal Society, where I was chosen by twenty-seven
voices to be one of their Council for the ensuing year; but, upon my
earnest suit in respect of my other affairs, I got to be excused--and so
home.

15th April, 1666. Our parish was now more infected with the plague than
ever, and so was all the country about, though almost quite ceased at
London.

24th April, 1666. To London about our Mint-Commission, and sat in the
inner Court of Wards.

8th May, 1666. To Queensborough, where finding the Richmond frigate, I
sailed to the buoy of the Nore to my Lord-General and Prince Rupert,
where was the Rendezvous of the most glorious fleet in the world, now
preparing to meet the Hollander. Went to visit my cousin, Hales, at a
sweetly-watered place at Chilston, near Bockton. The next morning, to
Leeds Castle, once a famous hold, now hired by me of my Lord Culpeper
for a prison. Here I flowed the dry moat, made a new drawbridge, brought
spring water into the court of the Castle to an old fountain, and took
order for the repairs.

22d May, 1666. Waited on my Lord Chancellor at his new palace; and Lord
Berkeley's built next to it.

24th May, 1666. Dined with Lord Cornbury, now made Lord Chamberlain to
the Queen; who kept a very honorable table.

1st June, 1666. Being in my garden at 6 o'clock in the evening, and
hearing the great guns go thick off, I took horse and rode that night to
Rochester; thence next day toward the Downs and seacoast, but meeting
the Lieutenant of the Hampshire frigate, who told me what passed, or
rather what had not passed, I returned to London, there being no noise,
or appearance at Deal, or on that coast of any engagement. Recounting
this to his Majesty, whom I found at St. James's Park, impatiently
expecting, and knowing that Prince Rupert was loose about three at St.
Helen's Point at N. of the Isle of Wight, it greatly rejoiced him; but
he was astonished when I assured him they heard nothing of the guns in
the Downs, nor did the Lieutenant who landed there by five that morning.

3d June, 1666. Whitsunday. After sermon came news that the Duke of
Albemarle was still in fight, and had been all Saturday, and that
Captain Harman's ship (the Henry) was like to be burnt. Then a letter
from Mr. Bertie that Prince Rupert was come up with his squadron
(according to my former advice of his being loose and in the way), and
put new courage into our fleet, now in a manner yielding ground; so that
now we were chasing the chasers; that the Duke of Albemarle was slightly
wounded, and the rest still in great danger. So, having been much
wearied with my journey, I slipped home, the guns still roaring very
fiercely.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th June, 1666. I went this morning to London, where came several
particulars of the fight.

6th June, 1666. Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the General and related the
dreadful encounter, on which his Majesty commanded me to dispatch an
extraordinary physician and more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn
Fast-day when the news came; his Majesty being in the chapel made a
sudden stop to hear the relation, which being with much advantage on our
side, his Majesty commanded that public thanks should immediately be
given as for a victory. The Dean of the chapel going down to give notice
of it to the other Dean officiating; and notice was likewise sent to St.
Paul's and Westminster Abbey. But this was no sooner over, than news
came that our loss was very great both in ships and men; that the Prince
frigate was burnt, and as noble a vessel of ninety brass guns lost; and
the taking of Sir George Ayscue, and exceeding shattering of both
fleets; so as both being obstinate, both parted rather for want of
ammunition and tackle than courage; our General retreating like a lion;
which exceedingly abated of our former joy. There were, however, orders
given for bonfires and bells; but, God knows, it was rather a
deliverance than a triumph. So much it pleased God to humble our late
overconfidence that nothing could withstand the Duke of Albemarle, who,
in good truth, made too forward a reckoning of his success now, because
he had once beaten the Dutch in another quarrel; and being ambitious to
outdo the Earl of Sandwich, whom he had prejudicated as deficient in
courage.

7th June, 1666. I sent more chirurgeons, linen, medicaments, etc., to
the several ports in my district.

8th June, 1666. Dined with me Sir Alexander Fraser, prime physician to
his Majesty; afterward, went on board his Majesty's pleasure-boat, when
I saw the London frigate launched, a most stately ship, built by the
City to supply that which was burnt by accident some time since; the
King, Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, being there with great banquet.

11th June, 1666. Trinity Monday, after a sermon, applied to the
remeeting of the Corporation of the Trinity-House, after the late raging
and wasting pestilence: I dined with them in their new room in Deptford,
the first time since it was rebuilt.

15th June, 1666. I went to Chatham.--16th. In the Jemmy yacht (an
incomparable sailer) to sea, arrived by noon at the fleet at the Buoy at
the Nore, dined with Prince Rupert and the General.

17th June, 1666. Came his Majesty, the Duke, and many Noblemen. After
Council, we went to prayers. My business being dispatched, I returned to
Chatham, having lain but one night in the Royal Charles; we had a
tempestuous sea. I went on shore at Sheerness, where they were building
an arsenal for the fleet, and designing a royal fort with a receptacle
for great ships to ride at anchor; but here I beheld the sad spectacle,
more than half that gallant bulwark of the kingdom miserably shattered,
hardly a vessel entire, but appearing rather so many wrecks and hulls,
so cruelly had the Dutch mangled us. The loss of the Prince, that
gallant vessel, had been a loss to be universally deplored, none knowing
for what reason we first engaged in this ungrateful war; we lost besides
nine or ten more, and near 600 men slain and 1,100 wounded, 2,000
prisoners; to balance which, perhaps we might destroy eighteen or twenty
of the enemy's ships, and 700 or 800 poor men.

18th June, 1666. Weary of this sad sight, I returned home.

2d July, 1666. Came Sir John Duncomb and Mr. Thomas Chicheley, both
Privy Councillors and Commissioners of His Majesty's Ordnance, to visit
me, and let me know that his Majesty had in Council, nominated me to be
one of the Commissioners for regulating the farming and making of
saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were to sit in the
Tower the next day. When they were gone, came to see me Sir John Cotton,
heir to the famous antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton: a pretended great
Grecian, but had by no means the parts, or genius of his grandfather.

3d July, 1666. I went to sit with the Commissioners at the Tower, where
our commission being read, we made some progress in business, our
Secretary being Sir George Wharton, that famous mathematician who wrote
the yearly Almanac during his Majesty's troubles. Thence, to Painters'
Hall, to our other commission, and dined at my Lord Mayor's.

4th July, 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent
discourse before the King on the terrors of God's judgments. After
sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of
Winchester, where the Dean of Westminster spoke to me about putting into
my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of
Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen
since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's to joy him of
his Royal Highness's second son, now born at St. James's; and to desire
the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters'
Hall not being so convenient.

12th July, 1666. We sat the first time in the Star-chamber. There was
now added to our commission Sir George Downing (one that had been a
great ... against his Majesty, but now insinuated into his favor; and,
from a pedagogue and fanatic preacher, not worth a groat, had become
excessively rich), to inspect the hospitals and treat about prisons.

14th July, 1666. Sat at the Tower with Sir J. Duncomb and Lord Berkeley,
to sign deputations for undertakers to furnish their proportions of
saltpetre.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

17th July, 1666. To London, to prepare for the next engagement of the
fleets, now gotten to sea again.

22d July, 1666. Our parish still infected with the contagion.

25th July, 1666. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord Berkeley's, at St.
James's, where dined my Lady Harrietta Hyde, Lord Arlington, and Sir
John Duncomb.

29th July, 1666. The pestilence now fresh increasing in our parish, I
forbore going to church. In the afternoon came tidings of our victory
over the Dutch, sinking some, and driving others aground, and into their
ports.

1st August, 1666. I went to Dr. Keffler, who married the daughter of the
famous chemist, Drebbell,[4] inventor of the bodied scarlet. I went to
see his iron ovens, made portable (formerly) for the Prince of Orange's
army: supped at the Rhenish Wine-House with divers Scots gentlemen.

    [Footnote 4: Cornelius Van Drebbell, born at Alkmaar, in Holland, in
    1572; but in the reign of Charles I. settled in London, where he
    died in 1634. He was famous for other discoveries in science besides
    that mentioned by Evelyn--the most important of which was the
    thermometer. He also made improvements in microscopes and
    telescopes; and though, like many of his scientific contemporaries,
    something of an empiric, possessed a considerable knowledge of
    chemistry and of different branches of natural philosophy.]

6th August, 1666. Dined with Mr. Povey, and then went with him to see a
country house he had bought near Brentford; returning by Kensington;
which house stands to a very graceful avenue of trees, but it is an
ordinary building, especially one part.

8th August, 1666. Dined at Sir Stephen Fox's with several friends and,
on the 10th, with Mr. Odart, Secretary of the Latin tongue.

17th August, 1666. Dined with the Lord Chancellor, whom I entreated to
visit the Hospital of the Savoy, and reduce it (after the great abuse
that had been continued) to its original institution for the benefit of
the poor, which he promised to do.

25th August, 1666. Waited on Sir William D'Oyly, now recovered, as it
were, miraculously. In the afternoon, visited the Savoy Hospital, where
I stayed to see the miserably dismembered and wounded men dressed, and
gave some necessary orders. Then to my Lord Chancellor, who had, with
the Bishop of London and others in the commission, chosen me one of the
three surveyors of the repairs of Paul's, and to consider of a model for
the new building, or, if it might be, repairing of the steeple, which
was most decayed.

26th August, 1666. The contagion still continuing, we had the Church
service at home.

27th August, 1666. I went to St. Paul's church, where, with Dr. Wren,
Mr. Pratt, Mr. May, Mr. Thomas Chicheley, Mr. Slingsby, the Bishop of
London, the Dean of St. Paul's, and several expert workmen, we went
about to survey the general decays of that ancient and venerable church,
and to set down in writing the particulars of what was fit to be done,
with the charge thereof, giving our opinion from article to article.
Finding the main building to recede outward it was the opinion of
Chicheley and Mr. Pratt that it had been so built _ab origine_ for an
effect in perspective, in regard of the height; but I was, with Dr.
Wren, quite of another judgment, and so we entered it; we plumbed the
uprights in several places. When we came to the steeple, it was
deliberated whether it were not well enough to repair it only on its old
foundation, with reservation to the four pillars; this Mr. Chicheley and
Mr. Pratt were also for, but we totally rejected it, and persisted that
it required a new foundation, not only in regard of the necessity, but
for that the shape of what stood was very mean, and we had a mind to
build it with a noble cupola, a form of church-building not as yet known
in England, but of wonderful grace. For this purpose, we offered to
bring in a plan and estimate, which after much contest, was at last
assented to, and that we should nominate a committee of able workmen to
examine the present foundation. This concluded, we drew all up in
writing, and so went with my Lord Bishop to the Dean's.

28th August, 1666. Sat at the Star-chamber. Next day, to the Royal
Society, where one Mercator, an excellent mathematician, produced his
rare clock and new motion to perform the equations, and Mr. Rooke, his
new pendulum.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d September, 1666. This fatal night, about ten, began the deplorable
fire, near Fish street, in London.

3d September, 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing,
after dinner, I took coach with my wife and son, and went to the
Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole
city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the
Bridge, all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside, down to the
Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished
what would become of the rest.

The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night
which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful
manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry
season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part
of the city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along Cornhill
(for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward),
Tower street, Fenchurch street, Gracious street, and so along to
Baynard's Castle, and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which
the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so
universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I
know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it;
so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and
lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all
attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there
was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches,
public halls, Exchange, hospitals, monuments, and ornaments; leaping
after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at
great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of
fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the
materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible
manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames
covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what
some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts,
etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with
movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and
what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous
spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of
it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the
sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light
seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes
may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one
flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the
shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of
towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all
about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach
it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on,
which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The
clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near
fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a
resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind
that passage--"_non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem_"; the ruins
resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I
returned.

4th September, 1666. The burning still rages, and it is now gotten as
far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet street, the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill,
Warwick lane, Newgate, Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and
most of it reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's flew like grenados,
the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very
pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able
to tread on them, and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so
that no help could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetuously
driving the flames forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was
able to stop them; for vain was the help of man.

5th September, 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion
there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty to command me,
among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to
preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the
gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at
another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who
hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and
began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing
up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been
made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some
stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city,
but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not
permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was,
therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being
particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where
I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote
it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating
the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost
infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to
abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor
than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and
night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all
despair. It also broke out again in the temple; but the courage of the
multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and
desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption,
the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly.
There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a
furlong's space.

The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did
infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had
dedicated to his Majesty and published,[5] giving warning what probably
might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked
upon as a prophecy.

    [Footnote 5: The _Fumifugium_.]

The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and
Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under
tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any
necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and
easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now
reduced to extreme misery and poverty.

In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house,
blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine,
who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar,
safe and sound.

6th September, 1666. Thursday. I represented to his Majesty the case of
the French prisoners at war in my custody, and besought him that there
might be still the same care of watching at all places contiguous to
unseized houses. It is not indeed imaginable how extraordinary the
vigilance and activity of the King and the Duke was, even laboring in
person, and being present to command, order, reward, or encourage
workmen; by which he showed his affection to his people, and gained
theirs. Having, then, disposed of some under cure at the Savoy, I
returned to Whitehall, where I dined at Mr. Offley's, the groom-porter,
who was my relation.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th September, 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far
as London Bridge, through the late Fleet street, Ludgate hill by St.
Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to
Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary
difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently
mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even
burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty got to the
Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being
built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White
Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have
beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels
in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for
several miles about the country.

At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church,
St. Paul's--now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure
comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late
King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and
nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing
by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was
astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner
calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and
projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof,
where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by
measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling,
broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books
belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were
all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that
the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the
divers monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in
ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of
early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The
lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought
Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ
Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings,
arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while
the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars,
wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and
dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I
did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were
calcined white as snow.

The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some
dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel
enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures'
bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue,
though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire,
when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces.
Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some
arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast
iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons,
were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat.
Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept
the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so
intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably
surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with
rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the
ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or
pinnacle remaining.

I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen
200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by
their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss;
and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking
one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I
had yet beheld. His Majesty and Council indeed took all imaginable care
for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and
refresh them with provisions.

In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not
how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in
hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was,
in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations
joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town.
This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar
and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they
could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those
nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and
peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they
did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the
people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire
into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left
them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their
spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to
repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or
opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's
proclamation also invited them.

Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger,
adventure to our church.

10th September, 1666. I went again to the ruins; for it was now no
longer a city.

13th September, 1666. I presented his Majesty with a survey of the
ruins, and a plot for a new city, with a discourse on it; whereupon,
after dinner, his Majesty sent for me into the Queen's bed-chamber, her
Majesty and the Duke only being present. They examined each particular,
and discoursed on them for near an hour, seeming to be extremely pleased
with what I had so early thought on. The Queen was now in her cavalier
riding-habit, hat and feather, and horseman's coat, going to take the
air.

16th September, 1666. I went to Greenwich Church, where Mr. Plume
preached very well from this text: "Seeing, then, all these things shall
be dissolved," etc.: taking occasion from the late unparalleled
conflagration to remind us how we ought to walk more holy in all manner
of conversation.

27th September, 1666. Dined at Sir William D'Oyly's, with that worthy
gentleman, Sir John Holland, of Suffolk.

10th October, 1666. This day was ordered a general Fast through the
Nation, to humble us on the late dreadful conflagration, added to the
plague and war, the most dismal judgments that could be inflicted; but
which indeed we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, burning
lusts, dissolute court, profane and abominable lives, under such
dispensations of God's continued favor in restoring Church, Prince, and
People from our late intestine calamities, of which we were altogether
unmindful, even to astonishment. This made me resolve to go to our
parish assembly, where our Doctor preached on Luke xix. 41: piously
applying it to the occasion. After which, was a collection for the
distressed losers in the late fire.

18th October, 1666. To Court. It being the first time his Majesty put
himself solemnly into the Eastern fashion of vest, changing doublet,
stiff collar, bands and cloak, into a comely dress, after the Persian
mode, with girdles or straps, and shoestrings and garters into buckles,
of which some were set with precious stones[6] resolving never to alter
it, and to leave the French mode, which had hitherto obtained to our
great expense and reproach. Upon which, divers courtiers and gentlemen
gave his Majesty gold by way of wager that he would not persist in this
resolution. I had sometime before presented an invective against that
unconstancy, and our so much affecting the French fashion, to his
Majesty; in which I took occasion to describe the comeliness and
usefulness of the Persian clothing, in the very same manner his Majesty
now clad himself. This pamphlet I entitled "_Tyrannus, or the Mode_,"
and gave it to the King to read. I do not impute to this discourse the
change which soon happened, but it was an identity that I could not but
take notice of.

    [Footnote 6: This costume was shortly after abandoned, and laid
    aside; nor does any existing portrait exhibit the King so
    accoutered.]

This night was acted my Lord Broghill's tragedy, called "_Mustapha_,"
before their Majesties at Court, at which I was present; very seldom
going to the public theatres for many reasons now, as they were abused
to an atheistical liberty; foul and indecent women now (and never till
now) permitted to appear and act, who inflaming several young noblemen
and gallants, became their misses, and to some, their wives. Witness the
Earl of Oxford, Sir R. Howard, Prince Rupert, the Earl of Dorset, and
another greater person than any of them, who fell into their snares, to
the reproach of their noble families, and ruin of both body and soul.[7]
I was invited by my Lord Chamberlain to see this tragedy, exceedingly
well written, though in my mind I did not approve of any such pastime in
a time of such judgments and calamities.

    [Footnote 7: Among the principal offenders here aimed at were Mrs.
    Margaret Hughes, Mrs. Eleanor Gwynne, Mrs. Davenport, Mrs. Uphill,
    Mrs. Davis, and Mrs. Knight. Mrs. Davenport (Roxolana) was "my Lord
    Oxford's Miss;" Mrs. Uphill was the actress alluded to in connection
    with Sir R. Howard; Mrs. Hughes ensnared Prince Rupert; and the last
    of the "misses" referred to by Evelyn was Nell Gwynne.]

21st October, 1666. This season, after so long and extraordinary a
drought in August and September, as if preparatory for the dreadful
fire, was so very wet and rainy as many feared an ensuing famine.

28th October, 1666. The pestilence, through God's mercy, began now to
abate considerably in our town.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

30th October, 1666. To London to our office, and now had I on the vest
and surcoat, or tunic, as it was called, after his Majesty had brought
the whole court to it. It was a comely and manly habit, too good to
hold, it being impossible for us in good earnest to leave the Monsieurs'
vanities long.

31st October, 1666. I heard the signal cause of my Lord Cleveland
pleaded before the House of Lords; and was this day forty-six years of
age, wonderfully protected by the mercies of God, for which I render him
immortal thanks.

14th November, 1666. I went my winter circle through my district,
Rochester and other places, where I had men quartered, and in custody.

15th November, 1666. To Leeds Castle.

16th November, 1666. I mustered the prisoners, being about 600 Dutch and
French, ordered their proportion of bread to be augmented and provided
clothes and fuel. Monsieur Colbert, Ambassador at the Court of England,
this day sent money from his master, the French King, to every prisoner
of that nation under my guard.

17th November, 1666. I returned to Chatham, my chariot overturning on
the steep of Bexley Hill, wounded me in two places on the head; my son,
Jack, being with me, was like to have been worse cut by the glass; but I
thank God we both escaped without much hurt, though not without
exceeding danger.

18th November, 1666. At Rochester.

19th November, 1666. Returned home.

23d November, 1666. At London, I heard an extraordinary case before a
Committee of the whole House of Commons, in the Commons' House of
Parliament, between one Captain Taylor and my Lord Viscount Mordaunt,
where, after the lawyers had pleaded and the witnesses been examined,
such foul and dishonorable things were produced against his Lordship, of
tyranny during his government of Windsor Castle, of which he was
Constable, incontinence, and suborning witnesses (of which last, one Sir
Richard Breames was most concerned), that I was exceedingly interested
for his Lordship, who was my special friend, and husband of the most
virtuous lady in the world. We sat till near ten at night, and yet but
half the counsel had done on behalf of the plaintiff. The question then
was put for bringing in of lights to sit longer. This lasted so long
before it was determined, and raised such a confused noise among the
members, that a stranger would have been astonished at it. I admire that
there is not a rationale to regulate such trifling accidents, which
consume much time, and is a reproach to the gravity of so great an
assembly of sober men.

27th November, 1666. Sir Hugh Pollard, Comptroller of the Household,
died at Whitehall, and his Majesty conferred the white staff on my
brother Commissioner for sick and wounded, Sir Thomas Clifford, a bold
young gentleman, of a small fortune in Devon, but advanced by Lord
Arlington, Secretary of State, to the great astonishment of all the
Court. This gentleman was somewhat related to me by the marriage of his
mother to my nearest kinsman, Gregory Coale, and was ever my noble
friend, a valiant and daring person, but by no means fit for a supple
and flattering courtier.

28th November, 1666. Went to see Clarendon House, now almost finished, a
goodly pile to see, but had many defects as to the architecture, yet
placed most gracefully. After this, I waited on the Lord Chancellor, who
was now at Berkshire House, since the burning of London.

2d December, 1666. Dined with me Monsieur Kiviet, a Dutch
gentleman-pensioner of Rotterdam, who came over for protection, being of
the Prince of Orange's party, now not welcome in Holland. The King
knighted him for some merit in the Prince's behalf. He should, if
caught, have been beheaded with Monsieur Buat, and was brother-in-law to
Van Tromp, the sea-general. With him came Mr. Gabriel Sylvius, and Mr.
Williamson, secretary to Lord Arlington; M. Kiviet came to examine
whether the soil about the river of Thames would be proper to make
clinker bricks, and to treat with me about some accommodation in order
to it.

9th January, 1666-67. To the Royal Society, which since the sad
conflagration were invited by Mr. Howard to sit at Arundel-House in the
Strand, who at my instigation likewise bestowed on the Society that
noble library which his grandfather especially, and his ancestors had
collected. This gentleman had so little inclination to books, that it
was the preservation of them from embezzlement.

24th January, 1667. Visited my Lord Clarendon, and presented my son,
John, to him, now preparing to go to Oxford, of which his Lordship was
Chancellor. This evening I heard rare Italian voices, two eunuchs and
one woman, in his Majesty's green chamber, next his cabinet.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th January, 1667. To London, in order to my son's Oxford journey, who,
being very early entered both in Latin and Greek, and prompt to learn
beyond most of his age, I was persuaded to trust him under the tutorage
of Mr. Bohun, Fellow of New College, who had been his preceptor in my
house some years before; but, at Oxford, under the inspection of Dr.
Bathurst, President of Trinity College, where I placed him, not as yet
thirteen years old. He was newly out of long coats.[8]

    [Footnote 8: In illustration of the garb which succeeded the "long
    coats" out of which lads of twelve or thirteen were thus suffered to
    emerge, it may be mentioned that there hung, some years ago, and
    perhaps may hang still, upon the walls of the Swan Inn at
    Leatherhead in Surrey, a picture of four children, dates of birth
    between 1640 and 1650, of whom a lad of about the age of young
    Evelyn is represented in a coat reaching to his ankles.]

15th February, 1667. My little book, in answer to Sir George Mackenzie
on Solitude, was now published, entitled "Public Employment, and an
active Life with its Appanages, preferred to Solitude."[9]

    [Footnote 9: Reprinted in "Miscellaneous Writings," pp. 501-509. In
    a letter to Cowley, 12th March, 1666, Evelyn apologises for having
    written against that life which he had joined with Mr. Cowley in so
    much admiring, assuring him he neither was nor could be serious in
    avowing such a preference.]

18th February, 1667. I was present at a magnificent ball, or masque, in
the theatre at the Court, where their Majesties and all the great lords
and ladies danced, infinitely gallant, the men in their richly
embroidered, most becoming vests.

19th February, 1667. I saw a comedy acted at Court. In the afternoon, I
witnessed a wrestling match for £1,000 in St. James's Park, before his
Majesty, a vast assemblage of lords and other spectators, between the
western and northern men, Mr. Secretary Morice and Lord Gerard being the
judges. The western men won. Many great sums were betted.

6th March, 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor, Monsieur Kiviet's
undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple
to the Tower, as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles,
both lasting and ornamental.--Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious
at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this
nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

14th March, 1667. Saw "The Virgin Queen,"[10] a play written by Mr.
Dryden.

    [Footnote 10: The VIRGIN QUEEN which Evelyn saw was Dryden's MAIDEN
    QUEEN. Pepys saw it on the night of its first production (twelve
    days before Evelyn's visit); and was charmed by Nell Gwynne's
    Florimell. "So great a performance of a comical part was never, I
    believe, in the world before."]

22d March, 1667. Dined at Mr. Secretary Morice's, who showed me his
library, which was a well chosen collection. This afternoon, I had
audience of his Majesty, concerning the proposal I had made of building
the quay.

26th March, 1667. Sir John Kiviet dined with me. We went to search for
brick-earth, in order to a great undertaking.

4th April, 1667. The cold so intense, that there was hardly a leaf on a
tree.

18th April, 1667. I went to make court to the Duke and Duchess of
Newcastle, at their house in Clerkenwell, being newly come out of the
north. They received me with great kindness, and I was much pleased with
the extraordinary fanciful habit, garb, and discourse of the Duchess.

22d April, 1667. Saw the sumptuous supper in the banqueting-house at
Whitehall, on the eve of St. George's day, where were all the companions
of the Order of the Garter.

23d April, 1667. In the morning, his Majesty went to chapel with the
Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, ushered by the
heralds; after the first service, they went in procession, the youngest
first, the Sovereign last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who
had about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and then the
Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic), who wore the purse about
his neck; then the Heralds and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black
Rod. But before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of
the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched; behind them two
doctors of music in damask robes; this procession was about the courts
at Whitehall. Then, returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel,
placed under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second service
began. Then, the King offered at the altar, an anthem was sung; then,
the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded to the
banqueting-house to a great feast. The King sat on an elevated throne at
the upper end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right
hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against them a cupboard
of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, the music; on the balusters
above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. The King was served by
the lords and pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle of
the dinner, the Knights drank the King's health, then the King, theirs,
when the trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going off at
the Tower. At the Banquet, came in the Queen, and stood by the King's
left hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff flung about
the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I
stayed all the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than this
sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each
Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or six high; the
room hung with the richest tapestry.

25th April, 1667. Visited again the Duke of Newcastle, with whom I had
been acquainted long before in France, where the Duchess had obligation
to my wife's mother for her marriage there; she was sister to Lord
Lucas, and maid of honor then to the Queen-Mother; married in our chapel
at Paris. My wife being with me, the Duke and Duchess both would needs
bring her to the very Court.

26th April, 1667. My Lord Chancellor showed me all his newly finished
and furnished palace and library; then, we went to take the air in
Hyde-Park.

27th April, 1667. I had a great deal of discourse with his Majesty at
dinner. In the afternoon, I went again with my wife to the Duchess of
Newcastle, who received her in a kind of transport, suitable to her
extravagant humor and dress, which was very singular.

8th May, 1667. Made up accounts with our Receiver, which amounted to
£33,936 1s. 4d. Dined at Lord Cornbury's, with Don Francisco de Melos,
Portugal Ambassador, and kindred to the Queen: Of the party were Mr.
Henry Jermyn and Sir Henry Capel. Afterward I went to Arundel House, to
salute Mr. Howard's sons, newly returned out of France.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

11th May, 1667. To London; dined with the Duke of Newcastle, and sat
discoursing with her Grace in her bedchamber after dinner, till my Lord
Marquis of Dorchester, with other company came in, when I went away.

30th May, 1667. To London, to wait on the Duchess of Newcastle (who was
a mighty pretender to learning, poetry, and philosophy, and had in both
published divers books) to the Royal Society, whither she came in great
pomp, and being received by our Lord President at the door of our
meeting-room, the mace, etc., carried before him, had several
experiments shown to her. I conducted her Grace to her coach, and
returned home.

1st June, 1667. I went to Greenwich, where his Majesty was trying divers
grenadoes shot out of cannon at the Castlehill, from the house in the
park; they broke not till they hit the mark, the forged ones broke not
at all, but the cast ones very well. The inventor was a German there
present. At the same time, a ring was shown to the King, pretended to be
a projection of mercury, and malleable, and said by the gentlemen to be
fixed by the juice of a plant.

8th June, 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our
fleet at Chatham, by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very
river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but
incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at
anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable
negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused
me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which
they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river,
too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another
place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into
fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more;
everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land
forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle, Lord Middleton, Prince
Rupert, and the Duke, to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying
Upnor Castle, and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke
through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping
up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

14th June, 1667. I went to see the work at Woolwich, a battery to
prevent them coming up to London, which Prince Rupert commanded, and
sunk some ships in the river.

17th June, 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and
combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in
Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower
(it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed
their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief
before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the
accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome
times.

24th June, 1667. The Dutch fleet still continuing to stop up the river,
so as nothing could stir out or come in, I was before the Council, and
commanded by his Majesty to go with some others and search about the
environs of the city, now exceedingly distressed for want of fuel,
whether there could be any peat, or turf, found fit for use. The next
day, I went and discovered enough, and made my report that there might
be found a great deal; but nothing further was done in it.

[Sidenote: CHATHAM]

28th June, 1667. I went to Chatham, and thence to view not only what
mischief the Dutch had done; but how triumphantly their whole fleet lay
within the very mouth of the Thames, all from the North Foreland,
Margate, even to the buoy of the Nore--a dreadful spectacle as ever
Englishmen saw, and a dishonor never to be wiped off! Those who advised
his Majesty to prepare no fleet this spring deserved--I know
what--but[11]--

    [Footnote 11: "The Parliament giving but weak supplies for the war,
    the King, to save charges, is persuaded by the Chancellor, the Lord
    Treasurer, Southampton, the Duke of Albemarle, and the other
    ministers, to lay up the first and second-rate ships, and make only
    a defensive war in the next campaign. The Duke of York opposed this,
    but was overruled." Life of King James II., vol. i., p. 425.]

Here in the river off Chatham, just before the town, lay the carcase of
the "London" (now the third time burnt), the "Royal Oak," the "James,"
etc., yet smoking; and now, when the mischief was done, we were making
trifling forts on the brink of the river. Here were yet forces, both of
horse and foot, with General Middleton continually expecting the motions
of the enemy's fleet. I had much discourse with him, who was an
experienced commander, I told him I wondered the King did not fortify
Sheerness[12] and the Ferry; both abandoned.

    [Footnote 12: Since done. Evelyn's note.]

2d July, 1667. Called upon my Lord Arlington, as from his Majesty, about
the new fuel. The occasion why I was mentioned, was from what I said in
my _Sylva_ three years before, about a sort of fuel for a need, which
obstructed a patent of Lord Carlingford, who had been seeking for it
himself; he was endeavoring to bring me into the project, and proffered
me a share. I met my Lord; and, on the 9th, by an order of Council, went
to my Lord Mayor, to be assisting. In the meantime they had made an
experiment of my receipt of _houllies_, which I mention in my book to be
made at Maestricht, with a mixture of charcoal dust and loam, and which
was tried with success at Gresham College (then being the exchange for
the meeting of the merchants since the fire) for everybody to see. This
done, I went to the Treasury for £12,000 for the sick and wounded yet on
my hands.

Next day, we met again about the fuel at Sir J. Armourer's in the Mews.

8th July, 1667. My Lord Brereton and others dined at my house, where I
showed them proof of my new fuel, which was very glowing, and without
smoke or ill smell.

10th July, 1667. I went to see Sir Samuel Morland's inventions and
machines, arithmetical wheels, quench-fires, and new harp.

17th July, 1667. The master of the mint and his lady, Mr. Williamson,
Sir Nicholas Armourer, Sir Edward Bowyer, Sir Anthony Auger, and other
friends dined with me.

19th July, 1667. I went to Gravesend; the Dutch fleet still at anchor
before the river, where I saw five of his Majesty's men-at-war encounter
above twenty of the Dutch, in the bottom of the Hope, chasing them with
many broadsides given and returned toward the buoy of the Nore, where
the body of their fleet lay, which lasted till about midnight. One of
their ships was fired, supposed by themselves, she being run on ground.
Having seen this bold action, and their braving us so far up the river,
I went home the next day, not without indignation at our negligence, and
the nation's reproach. It is well known who of the Commissioners of the
Treasury gave advice that the charge of setting forth a fleet this year
might be spared, Sir W. C. (William Coventry) by name.

1st August, 1667. I received the sad news of Abraham Cowley's death,
that incomparable poet and virtuous man, my very dear friend, and was
greatly deplored.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d August, 1667. Went to Mr. Cowley's funeral, whose corpse lay at
Wallingford House, and was thence conveyed to Westminster Abbey in a
hearse with six horses and all funeral decency, near a hundred coaches
of noblemen and persons of quality following; among these, all the wits
of the town, divers bishops and clergymen. He was interred next Geoffry
Chaucer, and near Spenser. A goodly monument is since erected to his
memory.

Now did his Majesty again dine in the presence, in ancient state, with
music and all the court ceremonies, which had been interrupted since the
late war.

8th August, 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg, a close prisoner in the Tower,
being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an order from Lord
Arlington, Secretary of State, which caused me to be admitted. This
gentleman was secretary to our Society, and I am confident will prove an
innocent person.

15th August, 1667. Finished my account, amounting to £25,000.

17th August, 1667. To the funeral of Mr. Farringdon, a relation of my
wife's.

There was now a very gallant horse to be baited to death with dogs; but
he fought them all, so as the fiercest of them could not fasten on him,
till the men run him through with their swords. This wicked and
barbarous sport deserved to have been punished in the cruel contrivers
to get money, under pretense that the horse had killed a man, which was
false. I would not be persuaded to be a spectator.

21st August, 1667. Saw the famous Italian puppet-play, for it was no
other.

24th August, 1667. I was appointed, with the rest of my brother
commissioners, to put in execution an order of Council for freeing the
prisoners at war in my custody at Leeds Castle, and taking off his
Majesty's extraordinary charge, having called before us the French and
Dutch agents. The peace was now proclaimed, in the usual form, by the
heralds-at-arms.

25th August, 1667. After evening service, I went to visit Mr. Vaughan,
who lay at Greenwich, a very wise and learned person, one of Mr.
Selden's executors and intimate friends.

27th August, 1667. Visited the Lord Chancellor, to whom his Majesty had
sent for the seals a few days before; I found him in his bedchamber,
very sad. The Parliament had accused him, and he had enemies at Court,
especially the buffoons and ladies of pleasure, because he thwarted some
of them, and stood in their way; I could name some of the chief. The
truth is, he made few friends during his grandeur among the royal
sufferers, but advanced the old rebels. He was, however, though no
considerable lawyer, one who kept up the form and substance of things in
the Nation with more solemnity than some would have had. He was my
particular kind friend, on all occasions. The cabal, however, prevailed,
and that party in Parliament. Great division at Court concerning him,
and divers great persons interceding for him.

28th August, 1667. I dined with my late Lord Chancellor, where also
dined Mr. Ashburnham, and Mr. W. Legge, of the bedchamber; his Lordship
pretty well in heart, though now many of his friends and sycophants
abandoned him.

In the afternoon, to the Lords Commissioners for money, and thence to
the audience of a Russian Envoy in the Queen's presence-chamber,
introduced with much state, the soldiers, pensioners, and guards in
their order. His letters of credence brought by his secretary in a scarf
of sarsenet, their vests sumptuous, much embroidered with pearls. He
delivered his speech in the Russ language, but without the least action,
or motion, of his body, which was immediately interpreted aloud by a
German that spoke good English: half of it consisted in repetition of
the Czar's titles, which were very haughty and oriental: the substance
of the rest was, that he was only sent to see the King and Queen, and
know how they did, with much compliment and frothy language. Then, they
kissed their Majesties' hands, and went as they came; but their real
errand was to get money.

29th August, 1667. We met at the Star-chamber about exchange and release
of prisoners.

7th September, 1667. Came Sir John Kiviet, to article with me about his
brickwork.

13th September, 1667. Between the hours of twelve and one, was born my
second daughter, who was afterward christened Elizabeth.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th September, 1667. To London, with Mr. Henry Howard, of Norfolk, of
whom I obtained the gift of his Arundelian marbles, those celebrated and
famous inscriptions, Greek and Latin, gathered with so much cost and
industry from Greece, by his illustrious grandfather, the magnificent
Earl of Arundel, my noble friend while he lived. When I saw these
precious monuments miserably neglected, and scattered up and down about
the garden, and other parts of Arundel House, and how exceedingly the
corrosive air of London impaired them, I procured him to bestow them on
the University of Oxford. This he was pleased to grant me; and now gave
me the key of the gallery, with leave to mark all those stones, urns,
altars, etc., and whatever I found had inscriptions on them, that were
not statues. This I did; and getting them removed and piled together,
with those which were incrusted in the garden walls, I sent immediately
letters to the Vice-Chancellor of what I had procured, and that if they
esteemed it a service to the University (of which I had been a member),
they should take order for their transportation.

This done 21st, I accompanied Mr. Howard to his villa at Albury, where I
designed for him the plot of his canal and garden, with a crypt through
the hill.

24th September, 1667. Returned to London, where I had orders to deliver
the possession of Chelsea College (used as my prison during the war with
Holland for such as were sent from the fleet to London) to our Society,
as a gift of his Majesty, our founder.

8th October, 1667. Came to dine with me Dr. Bathurst, Dean of Wells,
President of Trinity College, sent by the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, in
the name both of him and the whole University, to thank me for procuring
the inscriptions, and to receive my directions what was to be done to
show their gratitude to Mr. Howard.

11th October, 1667. I went to see Lord Clarendon, late Lord Chancellor
and greatest officer in England, in continual apprehension what the
Parliament would determine concerning him.

17th October, 1667. Came Dr. Barlow, Provost of Queen's College and
Protobibliothecus of the Bodleian library, to take order about the
transportation of the marbles.

25th October, 1667. There were delivered to me two letters from the
Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, with the Decree of the Convocation, attested
by the Public Notary, ordering four Doctors of Divinity and Law to
acknowledge the obligation the University had to me for procuring the
_Marmora Arundeliana_, which was solemnly done by Dr. Barlow, Dr.
Jenkins, Judge of the Admiralty, Dr. Lloyd, and Obadiah Walker, of
University College, who having made a large compliment from the
University, delivered me the decree fairly written;

    _Gesta venerabili domo Convocationis Universitatis Oxon.; . . 17.
    1667. Quo die retulit ad Senatum Academicum Dominus
    Vicecancellarius, quantum Universitas deberet singulari benevolentiæ
    Johannis Evelini Armigeri, qui pro eâ pietate quâ Almam Matrem
    prosequitur non solum Suasu et Consilio apud inclytum Heroem
    Henricum Howard, Ducis Norfolciæ hæredem, intercessit, et
    Universitati pretiosissimum eruditæ antiquitatis thesaurum Marmora
    Arundeliana largiretur; sed egregium insuper in ijs colligendis
    asservandisq; navavit operam: Quapropter unanimi suffragio
    Venerabilis Domûs decretum est, at eidem publicæ gratiæ per
    delegatos ad Honoratissimum Dominum Henricum Howard propediem
    mittendos solemnitèr reddantur.

    Concordant superscripta cum originali collatione fâcta per me Ben.
    Cooper,

    Notarium Publicum et Registarium Universitat Oxon._

    "SIR:

    "We intend also a noble inscription, in which also honorable mention
    shall be made of yourself; but Mr. Vice-Chancellor commands me to
    tell you that that was not sufficient for your merits; but, that if
    your occasions would permit you to come down at the Act (when we
    intend a dedication of our new Theater), some other testimony should
    be given both of your own worth and affection to this your old
    mother; for we are all very sensible that this great addition of
    learning and reputation to the University is due as well to your
    industrious care for the University, and interest with my Lord
    Howard, as to his great nobleness and generosity of spirit.

    "I am, Sir, your most humble servant,

    "OBADIAH WALKER, Univ. Coll."

The Vice-Chancellor's letter to the same effect was too vainglorious to
insert, with divers copies of verses that were also sent me. Their
mentioning me in the inscription I totally declined, when I directed the
titles of Mr. Howard, now made Lord, upon his Ambassage to Morocco.

These four doctors, having made me this compliment, desired me to carry
and introduce them to Mr. Howard, at Arundel House; which I did, Dr.
Barlow (Provost of Queen's) after a short speech, delivering a larger
letter of the University's thanks, which was written in Latin,
expressing the great sense they had of the honor done them. After this
compliment handsomely performed and as nobly received, Mr. Howard
accompanied the doctors to their coach. That evening I supped with them.

26th October, 1667. My late Lord Chancellor was accused by Mr. Seymour
in the House of Commons; and, in the evening, I returned home.

31st October, 1667. My birthday--blessed be God for all his mercies! I
made the Royal Society a present of the Table of Veins, Arteries, and
Nerves, which great curiosity I had caused to be made in Italy, out of
the natural human bodies, by a learned physician, and the help of
Veslingius (professor at Padua), from whence I brought them in 1646. For
this I received the public thanks of the Society; and they are hanging
up in their repository with an inscription.

9th December, 1667. To visit the late Lord Chancellor.[13] I found him
in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting in his gout wheel-chair,
and seeing the gates setting up toward the north and the fields. He
looked and spake very disconsolately. After some while deploring his
condition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he was gone;
though I am persuaded that, had he gone sooner, though but to Cornbury,
and there lain quiet, it would have satisfied the Parliament. That which
exasperated them was his presuming to stay and contest the accusation as
long as it was possible: and they were on the point of sending him to
the Tower.

    [Footnote 13: This entry of the 9th December, 1667, is a mistake.
    Evelyn could not have visited the "late Lord Chancellor" on that
    day. Lord Clarendon fled on Saturday, the 29th of November, 1667,
    and his letter resigning the Chancellorship of the University of
    Oxford is dated from Calais on the 7th of December. That Evelyn's
    book is not, in every respect, strictly a diary, is shown by this
    and several similar passages already adverted to in the remarks
    prefixed to the present edition. If the entry of the 18th of August,
    1683, is correct, the date of Evelyn's last visit to Lord Clarendon
    was the 28th of November, 1667.]

10th December, 1667. I went to the funeral of Mrs. Heath, wife of my
worthy friend and schoolfellow.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st December, 1667. I saw one Carr pilloried at Charing-cross for a
libel, which was burnt before him by the hangman.

8th January, 1667-68. I saw deep and prodigious gaming at the
Groom-Porter's, vast heaps of gold squandered away in a vain and profuse
manner. This I looked on as a horrid vice, and unsuitable in a Christian
Court.

9th January, 1668. Went to see the revels at the Middle Temple, which is
also an old riotous custom, and has relation neither to virtue nor
policy.

10th January, 1668. To visit Mr. Povey, where were divers great Lords to
see his well-contrived cellar, and other elegancies.

24th January, 1668. We went to stake out ground for building a college
for the Royal Society at Arundel-House, but did not finish it, which we
shall repent of.

4th February, 1668. I saw the tragedy of "Horace" (written by the
VIRTUOUS Mrs. Philips) acted before their Majesties. Between each act a
masque and antique dance. The excessive gallantry of the ladies was
infinite, those especially on that ... Castlemaine, esteemed at £40,000
and more, far outshining the Queen.

15th February, 1668. I saw the audience of the Swedish Ambassador Count
Donna, in great state in the banqueting house.

3d March, 1668. Was launched at Deptford, that goodly vessel, "The
Charles." I was near his Majesty. She is longer than the "Sovereign,"
and carries 110 brass cannon; she was built by old Shish, a plain,
honest carpenter, master-builder of this dock, but one who can give very
little account of his art by discourse, and is hardly capable of
reading, yet of great ability in his calling. The family have been ship
carpenters in this yard above 300 years.

12th March, 1668. Went to visit Sir John Cotton, who had me into his
library, full of good MSS., Greek and Latin, but most famous for those
of the Saxon and English antiquities, collected by his grandfather.

2d April, 1668. To the Royal Society, where I subscribed 50,000 bricks,
toward building a college. Among other libertine libels, there was one
now printed and thrown about, a bold petition of the poor w----s to Lady
Castlemaine.[14]

    [Footnote 14: Evelyn has been supposed himself to have written this
    piece.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

9th April, 1668. To London, about finishing my grand account of the sick
and wounded, and prisoners at war, amounting to above £34,000.

I heard Sir R. Howard impeach Sir William Penn, in the House of Lords,
for breaking bulk, and taking away rich goods out of the East India
prizes, formerly taken by Lord Sandwich.

28th April, 1668. To London, about the purchase of Ravensbourne Mills,
and land around it, in Upper Deptford, of one Mr. Becher.

30th April, 1668. We sealed the deeds in Sir Edward Thurland's chambers
in the Inner Temple. I pray God bless it to me, it being a dear
pennyworth; but the passion Sir R. Browne had for it, and that it was
contiguous to our other grounds, engaged me!

13th May, 1668. Invited by that expert commander, Captain Cox, master of
the lately built "Charles II.," now the best vessel of the fleet,
designed for the Duke of York, I went to Erith, where we had a great
dinner.

16th May, 1668. Sir Richard Edgecombe, of Mount Edgecombe, by Plymouth,
my relation, came to visit me; a very virtuous and worthy gentleman.

19th June, 1668. To a new play with several of my relations, "The
Evening Lover," a foolish plot, and very profane; it afflicted me to see
how the stage was degenerated and polluted by the licentious times.

2d July, 1668. Sir Samuel Tuke, Bart., and the lady he had married this
day, came and bedded at night at my house, many friends accompanying the
bride.

23d July, 1668. At the Royal Society, were presented divers _glossa
petras_, and other natural curiosities, found in digging to build the
fort at Sheerness. They were just the same as they bring from Malta,
pretending them to be viper's teeth, whereas, in truth, they are of a
shark, as we found by comparing them with one in our repository.

3d August, 1668. Mr. Bramstone (son to Judge B.), my old
fellow-traveler, now reader at the Middle Temple, invited me to his
feast, which was so very extravagant and great as the like had not been
seen at any time. There were the Duke of Ormond, Privy Seal, Bedford,
Belasis, Halifax, and a world more of Earls and Lords.

14th August, 1668. His Majesty was pleased to grant me a lease of a slip
of ground out of Brick Close, to enlarge my fore-court, for which I now
gave him thanks; then, entering into other discourse, he talked to me of
a new varnish for ships, instead of pitch, and of the gilding with which
his new yacht was beautified. I showed his Majesty the perpetual motion
sent to me by Dr. Stokes, from Cologne; and then came in Monsieur
Colbert, the French Ambassador.

19th August, 1668. I saw the magnificent entry of the French Ambassador
Colbert, received in the banqueting house. I had never seen a richer
coach than that which he came in to Whitehall. Standing by his Majesty
at dinner in the presence, there was of that rare fruit called the
king-pine, growing in Barbadoes and the West Indies; the first of them I
had ever seen. His Majesty having cut it up, was pleased to give me a
piece off his own plate to taste of; but, in my opinion, it falls short
of those ravishing varieties of deliciousness described in Captain
Ligon's history, and others; but possibly it might, or certainly was,
much impaired in coming so far; it has yet a grateful acidity, but
tastes more like the quince and melon than of any other fruit he
mentions.

28th August, 1668. Published my book on "The Perfection of Painting,"
dedicated to Mr. Howard.

17th September, 1668. I entertained Signor Muccinigo, the Venetian
Ambassador, of one of the noblest families of the State, this being the
day of making his public entry, setting forth from my house with several
gentlemen of Venice and others in a very glorious train. He staid with
me till the Earl of Anglesea and Sir Charles Cotterell (master of the
ceremonies) came with the King's barge to carry him to the Tower, where
the guns were fired at his landing; he then entered his Majesty's coach,
followed by many others of the nobility. I accompanied him to his house,
where there was a most noble supper to all the company, of course. After
the extraordinary compliments to me and my wife, for the civilities he
received at my house, I took leave and returned. He is a very
accomplished person. He is since Ambassador at Rome.

29th September, 1668. I had much discourse with Signor Pietro Cisij, a
Persian gentleman, about the affairs of Turkey, to my great
satisfaction. I went to see Sir Elias Leighton's project of a cart with
iron axletrees.

8th November, 1668. Being at dinner, my sister Evelyn sent for me to
come up to London to my continuing sick brother.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

14th November, 1668. To London, invited to the consecration of that
excellent person, the Dean of Ripon, Dr. Wilkins, now made Bishop of
Chester; it was at Ely House, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cosin,
Bishop of Durham, the Bishops of Ely, Salisbury, Rochester, and others
officiating. Dr. Tillotson preached. Then, we went to a sumptuous dinner
in the hall, where were the Duke of Buckingham, Judges, Secretaries of
State, Lord-Keeper, Council, Noblemen, and innumerable other company,
who were honorers of this incomparable man, universally beloved by all
who knew him.

This being the Queen's birthday, great was the gallantry at Whitehall,
and the night celebrated with very fine fireworks.

My poor brother continuing ill, I went not from him till the 17th, when,
dining at the Groom Porters, I heard Sir Edward Sutton play excellently
on the Irish harp; he performs genteelly, but not approaching my worthy
friend, Mr. Clark, a gentleman of Northumberland, who makes it execute
lute, viol, and all the harmony an instrument is capable of; pity it is
that it is not more in use; but, indeed, to play well, takes up the
whole man, as Mr. Clark has assured me, who, though a gentleman of
quality and parts, was yet brought up to that instrument from five years
old, as I remember he told me.

25th November, 1668. I waited on Lord Sandwich, who presented me with a
Sembrador he brought out of Spain, showing me his two books of
observations made during his embassy and stay at Madrid, in which were
several rare things he promised to impart to me.

27th November, 1668. I dined at my Lord Ashley's (since Earl of
Shaftesbury), when the match of my niece was proposed for his only son,
in which my assistance was desired for my Lord.

28th November, 1668. Dr. Patrick preached at Convent Garden, on Acts
xvii. 31, the certainty of Christ's coming to judgment, it being Advent;
a most suitable discourse.

19th December, 1668. I went to see the old play of "Cataline" acted,
having been now forgotten almost forty years.

20th December, 1668. I dined with my Lord Cornbury, at Clarendon House,
now bravely furnished, especially with the pictures of most of our
ancient and modern wits, poets, philosophers, famous and learned
Englishmen; which collection of the Chancellor's I much commended, and
gave his Lordship a catalogue of more to be added.

31st December, 1668. I entertained my kind neighbors, according to
custom, giving Almighty God thanks for his gracious mercies to me the
past year.

1st January, 1669. Imploring his blessing for the year entering, I went
to church, where our Doctor preached on Psalm lxv. 12, apposite to the
season, and beginning a new year.

3d January, 1669. About this time one of Sir William Penn's sons had
published a blasphemous book against the Deity of our Blessed Lord.

29th January, 1669. I went to see a tall gigantic woman who measured 6
feet 10 inches high, at 21 years old, born in the Low Countries.

13th February, 1669. I presented his Majesty with my "History of the
Four Impostors;"[15] he told me of other like cheats. I gave my book to
Lord Arlington, to whom I dedicated it. It was now that he began to
tempt me about writing "The Dutch War."

    [Footnote 15: Reprinted in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings."]

15th February, 1669. Saw Mrs. Phillips' "Horace" acted again.

18th February, 1669. To the Royal Society, when Signor Malpighi, an
Italian physician and anatomist, sent this learned body the incomparable
"History of the Silk-worm."

1st March, 1669. Dined at Lord Arlington's at Goring House, with the
Bishop of Hereford.

4th March, 1669. To the Council of the Royal Society, about disposing
my Lord Howard's library, now given to us.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

16th March, 1669. To London, to place Mr. Christopher Wase about my Lord
Arlington.

18th March, 1669. I went with Lord Howard of Norfolk, to visit Sir
William Ducie at Charlton, where we dined; the servants made our
coachmen so drunk, that they both fell off their boxes on the heath,
where we were fain to leave them, and were driven to London by two
servants of my Lord's. This barbarous custom of making the masters
welcome by intoxicating the servants, had now the second time happened
to my coachmen.

My son finally came from Oxford.

2d April, 1669. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, where was (with many noblemen)
Colonel Titus of the bedchamber, author of the famous piece against
Cromwell, "Killing no Murder."

I now placed Mr. Wase with Mr. Williamson, Secretary to the Secretary of
State, and Clerk of the Papers.

14th April, 1669. I dined with the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth,
and saw the library, which was not very considerable.

19th May, 1669. At a Council of the Royal Society our grant was
finished, in which his Majesty gives us Chelsea College, and some land
about it. It was ordered that five should be a quorum for a Council. The
Vice-President was then sworn for the first time, and it was proposed
how we should receive the Prince of Tuscany, who desired to visit the
Society.

20th May, 1669. This evening, at 10 o'clock, was born my third daughter,
who was baptized on the 25th by the name of Susannah.

3d June, 1669. Went to take leave of Lord Howard, going Ambassador to
Morocco. Dined at Lord Arlington's, where were the Earl of Berkshire,
Lord Saint John, Sir Robert Howard, and Sir R. Holmes.

10th June, 1669. Came my Lord Cornbury, Sir William Pulteney, and others
to visit me. I went this evening to London, to carry Mr. Pepys to my
brother Richard, now exceedingly afflicted with the stone, who had been
successfully cut, and carried the stone as big as a tennis ball to show
him, and encourage his resolution to go through the operation.

30th June, 1669. My wife went a journey of pleasure down the river as
far as the sea, with Mrs. Howard and her daughter, the Maid of Honor,
and others, among whom that excellent creature, Mrs. Blagg.[16]

    [Footnote 16: Afterward Mrs. Godolphin, whose life, written by
    Evelyn, has been published under the auspices of the Bishop of
    Oxford. The affecting circumstances of her death will be found
    recorded on pp. 126-27 of the present volume.]

7th July, 1669. I went toward Oxford; lay at Little Wycomb.

[Sidenote: OXFORD]

8th July, 1669. Oxford.

9th July, 1669. In the morning was celebrated the Encænia of the New
Theater, so magnificently built by the munificence of Dr. Gilbert
Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, in which was spent,£25,000, as Sir
Christopher Wren, the architect (as I remember), told me; and yet it was
never seen by the benefactor, my Lord Archbishop having told me that he
never did or ever would see it. It is, in truth, a fabric comparable to
any of this kind of former ages, and doubtless exceeding any of the
present, as this University does for colleges, libraries, schools,
students, and order, all the universities in the world. To the theater
is added the famous Sheldonian printing house. This being at the Act and
the first time of opening the Theater (Acts being formerly kept in St.
Mary's Church, which might be thought indecent, that being a place set
apart for the immediate worship of God, and was the inducement for
building this noble pile), it was now resolved to keep the present Act
in it, and celebrate its dedication with the greatest splendor and
formality that might be; and, therefore, drew a world of strangers, and
other company, to the University, from all parts of the nation.

The Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, and Doctors, being seated in
magisterial seats, the Vice-Chancellor's chair and desk, Proctors, etc.,
covered with _brocatelle_ (a kind of brocade) and cloth of gold; the
University Registrar read the founder's grant and gift of it to the
University for their scholastic exercises upon these solemn occasions.
Then followed Dr. South, the University's orator, in an eloquent speech,
which was very long, and not without some malicious and indecent
reflections on the Royal Society, as underminers of the University;
which was very foolish and untrue, as well as unseasonable. But, to let
that pass from an ill-natured man, the rest was in praise of the
Archbishop and the ingenious architect. This ended, after loud music
from the corridor above, where an organ was placed, there followed
divers panegyric speeches, both in prose and verse, interchangeably
pronounced by the young students placed in the rostrums, in Pindarics,
Eclogues, Heroics, etc., mingled with excellent music, vocal and
instrumental, to entertain the ladies and the rest of the company. A
speech was then made in praise of academical learning. This lasted from
eleven in the morning till seven at night, which was concluded with
ringing of bells, and universal joy and feasting.

10th July, 1669. The next day began the more solemn lectures in all the
faculties, which were performed in the several schools, where all the
Inceptor-Doctors did their exercises, the Professors having first ended
their reading. The assembly now returned to the Theater, where the
_Terræ filius_ (the _University Buffoon_) entertained the auditory with
a tedious, abusive, sarcastical rhapsody, most unbecoming the gravity of
the University, and that so grossly, that unless it be suppressed, it
will be of ill consequence, as I afterward plainly expressed my sense of
it both to the Vice-Chancellor and several Heads of Houses, who were
perfectly ashamed of it, and resolved to take care of it in future. The
old facetious way of rallying upon the questions was left off, falling
wholly upon persons, so that it was rather licentious lying and railing
than genuine and noble wit. In my life, I was never witness of so
shameful an entertainment.

After this ribaldry, the Proctors made their speeches. Then began the
music art, vocal and instrumental, above in the balustrade corridor
opposite to the Vice-Chancellor's seat. Then Dr. Wallis, the
mathematical Professor, made his oration, and created one Doctor of
music according to the usual ceremonies of gown (which was of white
damask), cap, ring, kiss, etc. Next followed the disputations of the
Inceptor-Doctors in Medicine, the speech of their Professor, Dr. Hyde,
and so in course their respective creations. Then disputed the Inceptors
of Law, the speech of their Professor, and creation. Lastly, Inceptors
of Theology: Dr. Compton (brother of the Earl of Northampton) being
junior, began with great modesty and applause; so the rest. After which,
Dr. Tillotson, Dr. Sprat, etc., and then Dr. Allestree's speech, the
King's Professor, and their respective creations. Last of all, the
Vice-Chancellor, shutting up the whole in a panegyrical oration,
celebrating their benefactor and the rest, apposite to the occasion.

Thus was the Theater dedicated by the scholastic exercises in all the
Faculties with great solemnity; and the night, as the former,
entertaining the new Doctor's friends in feasting and music. I was
invited by Dr. Barlow, the worthy and learned Professor of Queen's
College.

11th July, 1669. The Act sermon was this forenoon preached by Dr. Hall,
in St. Mary's, in an honest, practical discourse against atheism. In the
afternoon, the church was so crowded, that, not coming early, I could
not approach to hear.

12th July, 1669. Monday. Was held the Divinity Act in the Theater again,
when proceeded seventeen Doctors, in all Faculties some.

13th July, 1669. I dined at the Vice-Chancellor's, and spent the
afternoon in seeing the rarities of the public libraries, and visiting
the noble marbles and inscriptions, now inserted in the walls that
compass the area of the Theater, which were 150 of the most ancient and
worthy treasures of that kind in the learned world. Now, observing that
people approach them too near, some idle persons began to scratch and
injure them, I advised that a hedge of holly should be planted at the
foot of the wall, to be kept breast-high only to protect them; which the
Vice-Chancellor promised to do the next season.

14th July, 1669. Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church and Vice-Chancellor,
with Dr. Allestree, Professor, with beadles and maces before them, came
to visit me at my lodging. I went to visit Lord Howard's sons at
Magdalen College.

15th July, 1669. Having two days before had notice that the University
intended me the honor of Doctorship, I was this morning attended by the
beadles belonging to the Law, who conducted me to the Theater, where I
found the Duke of Ormond (now Chancellor of the University) with the
Earl of Chesterfield and Mr. Spencer (brother to the late Earl of
Sunderland). Thence, we marched to the Convocation House, a convocation
having been called on purpose; here, being all of us robed in the porch,
in scarlet with caps and hoods, we were led in by the Professor of Laws,
and presented respectively by name, with a short eulogy, to the
Vice-Chancellor, who sat in the chair, with all the Doctors and Heads of
Houses and masters about the room, which was exceedingly full. Then,
began the Public Orator his speech, directed chiefly to the Duke of
Ormond, the Chancellor; but in which I had my compliment, in course.
This ended, we were called up, and created Doctors according to the
form, and seated by the Vice-Chancellor among the Doctors, on his right
hand; then, the Vice-Chancellor made a short speech, and so, saluting
our brother Doctors, the pageantry concluded, and the convocation was
dissolved. So formal a creation of honorary Doctors had seldom been
seen, that a convocation should be called on purpose, and speeches made
by the Orator; but they could do no less, their Chancellor being to
receive, or rather do them, this honor. I should have been made Doctor
with the rest at the public Act, but their expectation of their
Chancellor made them defer it. I was then led with my brother Doctors to
an extraordinary entertainment at Doctor Mewes's, head of St. John's
College, and, after abundance of feasting and compliments, having
visited the Vice-Chancellor and other Doctors, and given them thanks for
the honor done me, I went toward home the 16th, and got as far as
Windsor, and so to my house the next day.

4th August, 1669. I was invited by Sir Henry Peckham to his reading
feast in the Middle Temple, a pompous entertainment, where were the
Archbishop of Canterbury, all the great Earls and Lords, etc. I had much
discourse with my Lord Winchelsea, a prodigious talker; and the Venetian
Ambassador.

17th August, 1669. To London, spending almost the entire day in
surveying what progress was made in rebuilding the ruinous city, which
now began a little to revive after its sad calamity.

20th August, 1669. I saw the splendid audience of the Danish Ambassador
in the Banqueting House at Whitehall.

23d August, 1669. I went to visit my most excellent and worthy neighbor,
the Lord Bishop of Rochester, at Bromley, which he was now repairing,
after the delapidations of the late Rebellion.

2d September, 1669. I was this day very ill of a pain in my limbs, which
continued most of this week, and was increased by a visit I made to my
old acquaintance, the Earl of Norwich, at his house in Epping Forest,
where are many good pictures put into the wainscot of the rooms, which
Mr. Baker, his Lordship's predecessor there, brought out of Spain;
especially the History of Joseph, a picture of the pious and learned
Picus Mirandula, and an incomparable one of old Breugel. The gardens
were well understood, I mean the _potager_. I returned late in the
evening, ferrying over the water at Greenwich.

26th September, 1669. To church, to give God thanks for my recovery.

3d October, 1669. I received the Blessed Eucharist, to my unspeakable
joy.

21st October, 1669. To the Royal Society, meeting for the first time
after a long recess, during vacation, according to custom; where was
read a description of the prodigious eruption of Mount Etna; and our
English itinerant presented an account of his autumnal peregrination
about England, for which we hired him, bringing dried fowls, fish,
plants, animals, etc.

26th October, 1669. My dear brother continued extremely full of pain,
the Lord be gracious to him!

3d November, 1669. This being the day of meeting for the poor, we dined
neighborly together.

26th November, 1669. I heard an excellent discourse by Dr. Patrick, on
the Resurrection, and afterward, visited the Countess of Kent, my
kinswoman.

8th December, 1669. To London, upon the second edition of my "Sylva,"
which I presented to the Royal Society.

6th February, 1669-70. Dr. John Breton, Master of Emmanuel College, in
Cambridge (uncle to our vicar), preached on John i. 27; "whose
shoe-latchet I am not worthy to unloose," etc., describing the various
fashions of shoes, or sandals, worn by the Jews, and other nations: of
the ornaments of the feet: how great persons had servants that took them
off when they came to their houses, and bore them after them: by which
pointing the dignity of our Savior, when such a person as St. John
Baptist acknowledged his unworthiness even of that mean office. The
lawfulness, decentness, and necessity, of subordinate degrees and ranks
of men and servants, as well in the Church as State: against the late
levelers, and others of that dangerous rabble, who would have all alike.

3d March, 1670. Finding my brother [Richard] in such exceeding torture,
and that he now began to fall into convulsion-fits, I solemnly set the
next day apart to beg of God to mitigate his sufferings, and prosper the
only means which yet remained for his recovery, he being not only much
wasted, but exceedingly and all along averse from being cut (for the
stone); but, when he at last consented, and it came to the operation,
and all things prepared, his spirit and resolution failed.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

6th March, 1670. Dr. Patrick preached in Covent Garden Church. I
participated of the Blessed Sacrament, recommending to God the
deplorable condition of my dear brother, who was almost in the last
agonies of death. I watched late with him this night. It pleased God to
deliver him out of this miserable life, toward five o'clock this Monday
morning, to my unspeakable grief. He was a brother whom I most dearly
loved, for his many virtues; but two years younger than myself, a sober,
prudent, worthy gentleman. He had married a great fortune, and left one
only daughter, and a noble seat at Woodcot, near Epsom. His body was
opened, and a stone taken out of his bladder, not much bigger than a
nutmeg. I returned home on the 8th, full of sadness, and to bemoan my
loss.

20th March, 1670. A stranger preached at the Savoy French church; the
Liturgy of the Church of England being now used altogether, as
translated into French by Dr. Durell.

21st March, 1670. We all accompanied the corpse of my dear brother to
Epsom Church, where he was decently interred in the chapel belonging to
Woodcot House. A great number of friends and gentlemen of the country
attended, about twenty coaches and six horses, and innumerable people.

22d March, 1670. I went to Westminster, where in the House of Lords I
saw his Majesty sit on his throne, but without his robes, all the peers
sitting with their hats on; the business of the day being the divorce of
my Lord Ross. Such an occasion and sight had not been seen in England
since the time of Henry VIII.[17]

    [Footnote 17: Evelyn subjoins in a note: "When there was a project,
    1669, for getting a divorce for the King, to facilitate it there was
    brought into the House of Lords a bill for dissolving the marriage
    of Lord Ross, on account of adultery, and to give him leave to marry
    again. This Bill, after great debates, passed by the plurality of
    only two votes, and that by the great industry of the Lord's
    friends, as well as the Duke's enemies, who carried it on chiefly in
    hopes it might be a precedent and inducement for the King to enter
    the more easily into their late proposals; nor were they a little
    encouraged therein, when they saw the King countenance and drive on
    the Bill in Lord Ross's favor. Of eighteen bishops that were in the
    House, only two voted for the bill, of which one voted through age,
    and one was reputed Socinian." The two bishops favorable to the bill
    were Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham, and Dr. Wilkins, Bishop of
    Chester.]

5th May, 1670. To London, concerning the office of Latin Secretary to
his Majesty, a place of more honor and dignity than profit, the
reversion of which he had promised me.

21st May, 1670. Came to visit me Mr. Henry Saville, and Sir Charles
Scarborough.

26th May, 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard, Lord Almoner
to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (who was
now come to Dover to visit the King her brother), was come to town,
greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not
come to me, I went with my brother to meet him at the Tower, where he
was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been
in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on
both sides that, he being to return toward Dover that evening, we could
not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of
Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our
pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

16th June, 1670. I went with some friends to the Bear Garden, where was
cock-fighting, dog-fighting, bear and bull-baiting, it being a famous
day for all these butcherly sports, or rather barbarous cruelties. The
bulls did exceedingly well, but the Irish wolf dog exceeded, which was a
tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who beat a cruel mastiff. One
of the bulls tossed a dog full into a lady's lap as she sat in one of
the boxes at a considerable height from the arena. Two poor dogs were
killed, and so all ended with the ape on horseback, and I most heartily
weary of the rude and dirty pastime, which I had not seen, I think, in
twenty years before.

18th June, 1670. Dined at Goring House, whither my Lord Arlington
carried me from Whitehall with the Marquis of Worcester; there, we found
Lord Sandwich, Viscount Stafford,[18] the Lieutenant of the Tower, and
others. After dinner, my Lord communicated to me his Majesty's desire
that I would engage to write the history of our late war with the
Hollanders, which I had hitherto declined; this I found was ill taken,
and that I should disoblige his Majesty, who had made choice of me to do
him this service, and, if I would undertake it, I should have all the
assistance the Secretary's office and others could give me, with other
encouragements, which I could not decently refuse.

    [Footnote 18: Sir William Howard, created in November, 1640,
    Viscount Stafford. In 1678, he was accused of complicity with the
    Popish Plot, and upon trial by his Peers in Westminster Hall, was
    found guilty, by a majority of twenty-four. He was beheaded,
    December 29, 1680, on Tower Hill.]

Lord Stafford rose from the table, in some disorder, because there were
roses stuck about the fruit when the dessert was set on the table; such
an antipathy, it seems, he had to them as once Lady Selenger also had,
and to that degree that, as Sir Kenelm Digby tells us, laying but a rose
upon her cheek when she was asleep, it raised a blister: but Sir Kenelm
was a teller of strange things.

24th June, 1670. Came the Earl of Huntington and Countess, with the Lord
Sherard, to visit us.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th June, 1670. To London, in order to my niece's marriage, Mary,
daughter to my late brother Richard, of Woodcot, with the eldest son of
Mr. Attorney Montague, which was celebrated at Southampton-House chapel,
after which a magnificent entertainment, feast, and dancing, dinner and
supper, in the great room there; but the bride was bedded at my sister's
lodging, in Drury-Lane.

6th July, 1670. Came to visit me Mr. Stanhope, gentleman-usher to her
Majesty, and uncle to the Earl of Chesterfield, a very fine man, with my
Lady Hutcheson.

19th July, 1670. I accompanied my worthy friend, that excellent man, Sir
Robert Murray, with Mr. Slingsby, master of the mint, to see the
latter's seat and estate at Burrow-Green in Cambridgeshire, he desiring
our advice for placing a new house, which he was resolved to build. We
set out in a coach and six horses with him and his lady, dined about
midway at one Mr. Turner's, where we found a very noble dinner, venison,
music, and a circle of country ladies and their gallants. After dinner,
we proceeded, and came to Burrow-Green that night. This had been the
ancient seat of the Cheekes (whose daughter Mr. Slingsby married),
formerly tutor to King Henry VI. The old house large and ample, and
built for ancient hospitality, ready to fall down with age, placed in a
dirty hole, a stiff clay, no water, next an adjoining church-yard, and
with other inconveniences. We pitched on a spot of rising ground,
adorned with venerable woods, a dry and sweet prospect east and west,
and fit for a park, but no running water; at a mile distance from the
old house.

20th July, 1670. We went to dine at Lord Allington's, who had newly
built a house of great cost, I believe a little less than £20,000. His
architect was Mr. Pratt. It is seated in a park, with a sweet prospect
and stately avenue; but water still defective; the house has also its
infirmities. Went back to Mr. Slingsby's.

[Sidenote: NEWMARKET]

22d July, 1670. We rode out to see the great mere, or level, of
recovered fen land, not far off. In the way, we met Lord Arlington going
to his house in Suffolk, accompanied with Count Ogniati, the Spanish
minister, and Sir Bernard Gascoigne; he was very importunate with me to
go with him to Euston, being but fifteen miles distant; but, in regard
of my company, I could not. So, passing through Newmarket, we alighted
to see his Majesty's house there, now new-building; the arches of the
cellars beneath are well turned by Mr. Samuel, the architect, the rest
mean enough, and hardly fit for a hunting house. Many of the rooms above
had the chimneys in the angles and corners, a mode now introduced by his
Majesty, which I do at no hand approve of. I predict it will spoil many
noble houses and rooms, if followed. It does only well in very small and
trifling rooms, but takes from the state of greater. Besides, this house
is placed in a dirty street, without any court or avenue, like a common
one, whereas it might and ought to have been built at either end of the
town, upon the very carpet where the sports are celebrated; but, it
being the purchase of an old wretched house of my Lord Thomond's, his
Majesty was persuaded to set it on that foundation, the most improper
imaginable for a house of sport and pleasure.

We went to see the stables and fine horses, of which many were here kept
at a vast expense, with all the art and tenderness imaginable.

Being arrived at some meres, we found Lord Wotton and Sir John Kiviet
about their draining engines, having, it seems, undertaken to do wonders
on a vast piece of marsh-ground they had hired of Sir Thomas Chicheley
(master of the ordnance). They much pleased themselves with the hopes of
a rich harvest of hemp and coleseed, which was the crop expected.

Here we visited the engines and mills both for wind and water, draining
it through two rivers or graffs, cut by hand, and capable of carrying
considerable barges, which went thwart one the other, discharging the
water into the sea. Such this spot had been the former winter; it was
astonishing to see it now dry, and so rich that weeds grew on the banks,
almost as high as a man and horse. Here, my Lord and his partner had
built two or three rooms, with Flanders white bricks, very hard. One of
the great engines was in the kitchen, where I saw the fish swim up, even
to the very chimney hearth, by a small cut through the room, and running
within a foot of the very fire.

Having, after dinner, ridden about that vast level, pestered with heat
and swarms of gnats, we returned over Newmarket Heath, the way being
mostly a sweet turf and down, like Salisbury Plain, the jockeys
breathing their fine barbs and racers and giving them their heats.

23d July, 1670. We returned from Burrow Green to London, staying some
time at Audley End to see that fine palace. It is indeed a cheerful
piece of Gothic building, or rather _antico moderno_, but placed in an
obscure bottom. The cellars and galleries are very stately. It has a
river by it, a pretty avenue of limes, and in a park.

This is in Saffron Walden parish, famous for that useful plant, with
which all the country is covered.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

Dining at Bishop Stortford, we came late to London.

5th August, 1670. There was sent me by a neighbor a servant maid, who,
in the last month, as she was sitting before her mistress at work, felt
a stroke on her arm a little above the wrist for some height, the smart
of which, as if struck by another hand, caused her to hold her arm
awhile till somewhat mitigated; but it put her into a kind of
convulsion, or rather hysteric fit. A gentleman coming casually in,
looking on her arm, found that part powdered with red crosses, set in
most exact and wonderful order, neither swelled nor depressed, about
this shape,

          x
      x       x
    x     x     x
      x       x
          x

not seeming to be any way made by artifice, of a reddish color, not so
red as blood, the skin over them smooth, the rest of the arm livid and
of a mortified hue, with certain prints, as it were, of the stroke of
fingers. This had happened three several times in July, at about ten
days' interval, the crosses beginning to wear out, but the successive
ones set in other different, yet uniform order. The maid seemed very
modest, and came from London to Deptford with her mistress, to avoid the
discourse and importunity of curious people. She made no gain by it,
pretended no religious fancies; but seemed to be a plain, ordinary,
silent, working wench, somewhat fat, short, and high-colored. She told
me divers divines and physicians had seen her, but were unsatisfied;
that she had taken some remedies against her fits, but they did her no
good; she had never before had any fits; once since, she seemed in her
sleep to hear one say to her that she should tamper no more with them,
nor trouble herself with anything that happened, but put her trust in
the merits of Christ only.

This is the substance of what she told me, and what I saw and curiously
examined. I was formerly acquainted with the impostorious nuns of
Loudun, in France, which made such noise among the Papists; I therefore
thought this worth the notice. I remember Monsieur Monconys[19] (that
curious traveler and a Roman Catholic) was by no means satisfied with
the _stigmata_ of those nuns, because they were so shy of letting him
scrape the letters, which were Jesus, Maria, Joseph (as I think),
observing they began to scale off with it, whereas this poor wench was
willing to submit to any trial; so that I profess I know not what to
think of it, nor dare I pronounce it anything supernatural.

    [Footnote 19: Balthasar de Monconys, a Frenchman, celebrated for his
    travels in the East, which he published in three volumes. His object
    was to discover vestiges of the philosophy of Trismegistus and
    Zoroaster; in which, it is hardly necessary to add, he was not very
    successful.]

20th August, 1670. At Windsor I supped with the Duke of Monmouth; and,
the next day, invited by Lord Arlington, dined with the same Duke and
divers Lords. After dinner my Lord and I had a conference of more than
an hour alone in his bedchamber, to engage me in the History. I showed
him something that I had drawn up, to his great satisfaction, and he
desired me to show it to the Treasurer.

28th August, 1670. One of the Canons preached; then followed the
offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom; first the
poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in their formalities, the
Dean and Chancellor, then his Majesty (the Sovereign), the Duke of York,
Prince Rupert; and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford, being all the Knights
that were then at Court.

I dined with the Treasurer, and consulted with him what pieces I was to
add; in the afternoon the King took me aside into the balcony over the
terrace, extremely pleased with what had been told him I had begun, in
order to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed vigorously in it. He
told me he had ordered the Secretaries of State to give me all necessary
assistance of papers and particulars relating to it and enjoining me to
make it a LITTLE KEEN, for that the Hollanders had very unhandsomely
abused him in their pictures, books, and libels.

Windsor was now going to be repaired, being exceedingly ragged and
ruinous. Prince Rupert, the Constable, had begun to trim up the keep or
high round Tower, and handsomely adorned his hall with furniture of
arms, which was very singular, by so disposing the pikes, muskets,
pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, breast, and headpieces, as
was very extraordinary. Thus, those huge steep stairs ascending to it
had the walls invested with this martial furniture, all new and bright,
so disposing the bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to represent
festoons, and that without any confusion, trophy-like. From the hall we
went into his bedchamber, and ample rooms hung with tapestry, curious
and effeminate pictures, so extremely different from the other, which
presented nothing but war and horror.

The King passed most of his time in hunting the stag, and walking in the
park, which he was now planting with rows of trees.

13th September, 1670. To visit Sir Richard Lashford, my kinsman, and Mr.
Charles Howard, at his extraordinary garden, at Deepden.

15th September, 1670. I went to visit Mr. Arthur Onslow, at West
Clandon, a pretty dry seat on the Downs, where we dined in his great
room.

17th September, 1670. To visit Mr. Hussey, who, being near Wotton, lives
in a sweet valley, deliciously watered.

23d September, 1670. To Albury, to see how that garden proceeded, which
I found exactly done to the design and plot I had made, with the crypta
through the mountain in the park, thirty perches in length. Such a
Pausilippe[20] is nowhere in England. The canal was now digging, and the
vineyard planted.

    [Footnote 20: A word adopted by Evelyn for a subterranean passage,
    from the famous grot of Pausilippo, at Naples.]

14th October, 1670. I spent the whole afternoon in private with the
Treasurer who put into my hands those secret pieces and transactions
concerning the Dutch war, and particularly the expedition of Bergen, in
which he had himself the chief part, and gave me instructions, till the
King arriving from Newmarket, we both went up into his bedchamber.

21st October, 1670. Dined with the Treasurer; and, after dinner, we
were shut up together. I received other [further] advices, and ten paper
books of dispatches and treaties; to return which again I gave a note
under my hand to Mr. Joseph Williamson, Master of the Paper office.

31st October, 1670. I was this morning fifty years of age; the Lord
teach me to number my days so as to apply them to his glory! Amen.

4th November, 1670. Saw the Prince of Orange, newly come to see the
King, his uncle; he has a manly, courageous, wise countenance,
resembling his mother and the Duke of Gloucester, both deceased.

I now also saw that famous beauty, but in my opinion of a childish,
simple, and baby face, Mademoiselle Querouaille,[21] lately Maid of
Honor to Madame, and now to be so to the Queen.

    [Footnote 21: Henrietta, the King's sister, married to Philip, Duke
    of Orleans, was then on a visit here. Madame Querouaille came over
    in her train, on purpose to entice Charles into an union with Louis
    XIV.; a design which unhappily succeeded but too well. She became
    the King's mistress, was made Duchess of Portsmouth, and was his
    favorite till his death.]

23d November, 1670. Dined with the Earl of Arlington, where was the
Venetian Ambassador, of whom I now took solemn leave, now on his return.
There were also Lords Howard, Wharton, Windsor, and divers other great
persons.

24th November, 1670. I dined with the Treasurer, where was the Earl of
Rochester, a very profane wit.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

15th December, 1670. It was the thickest and darkest fog on the Thames
that was ever known in the memory of man, and I happened to be in the
very midst of it. I supped with Monsieur Zulestein, late Governor to the
late Prince of Orange.

10th January, 1670-71. Mr. Bohun, my son's tutor, had been five years in
my house, and now Bachelor of Laws, and Fellow of New College, went from
me to Oxford to reside there, having well and faithfully performed his
charge.

18th January, 1671. This day I first acquainted his Majesty with that
incomparable young man, Gibbon,[22] whom I had lately met with in an
obscure place by mere accident, as I was walking near a poor solitary
thatched house, in a field in our parish, near Sayes Court. I found him
shut in; but looking in at the window, I perceived him carving that
large cartoon, or crucifix, of Tintoretto, a copy of which I had myself
brought from Venice, where the original painting remains. I asked if I
might enter; he opened the door civilly to me, and I saw him about such
a work as for the curiosity of handling, drawing, and studious
exactness, I never had before seen in all my travels. I questioned him
why he worked in such an obscure and lonesome place; he told me it was
that he might apply himself to his profession without interruption, and
wondered not a little how I found him out. I asked if he was unwilling
to be made known to some great man, for that I believed it might turn to
his profit; he answered, he was yet but a beginner, but would not be
sorry to sell off that piece; on demanding the price, he said £100. In
good earnest, the very frame was worth the money, there being nothing in
nature so tender and delicate as the flowers and festoons about it, and
yet the work was very strong; in the piece was more than one hundred
figures of men, etc. I found he was likewise musical, and very civil,
sober, and discreet in his discourse. There was only an old woman in the
house. So, desiring leave to visit him sometimes, I went away.

    [Footnote 22: Better known by the name of Grinling Gibbon;
    celebrated for his exquisite carving. Some of his most astonishing
    work is at Chatsworth and at Petworth.]

Of this young artist, together with my manner of finding him out, I
acquainted the King, and begged that he would give me leave to bring him
and his work to Whitehall, for that I would adventure my reputation with
his Majesty that he had never seen anything approach it, and that he
would be exceedingly pleased, and employ him. The King said he would
himself go see him. This was the first notice his Majesty ever had of
Mr. Gibbon.

20th January, 1671. The King came to me in the Queen's withdrawing-room
from the circle of ladies, to talk with me as to what advance I had made
in the Dutch History. I dined with the Treasurer, and afterward we went
to the Secretary's Office, where we conferred about divers particulars.

21st January, 1671. I was directed to go to Sir George Downing, who
having been a public minister in Holland, at the beginning of the war,
was to give me light in some material passages.

This year the weather was so wet, stormy, and unseasonable, as had not
been known in many years.

9th February, 1671. I saw the great ball danced by the Queen and
distinguished ladies at Whitehall Theater. Next day; was acted there the
famous play, called, "The Siege of Granada," two days acted
successively; there were indeed very glorious scenes and perspectives,
the work of Mr. Streeter, who well understands it.[23]

    [Footnote 23: Evelyn here refers to Dryden's "Conquest of Granada".]

19th February, 1671. This day dined with me Mr. Surveyor, Dr.
Christopher Wren, and Mr. Pepys, Clerk of the Acts, two extraordinary,
ingenious, and knowing persons, and other friends. I carried them to see
the piece of carving which I had recommended to the King.

25th February, 1671. Came to visit me one of the Lords Commissioners of
Scotland for the Union.

28th February, 1671. The Treasurer acquainted me that his Majesty was
graciously pleased to nominate me one of the Council of Foreign
Plantations, and give me a salary of £500 per annum, to encourage me.

29th February, 1671. I went to thank the Treasurer, who was my great
friend and loved me; I dined with him and much company, and went thence
to my Lord Arlington, Secretary of State, in whose favor I likewise was
upon many occasions, though I cultivated neither of their friendships by
any mean submissions. I kissed his Majesty's hand, on his making me one
of the new-established Council.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st March, 1671. I caused Mr. Gibbon to bring to Whitehall his
excellent piece of carving, where being come, I advertised his Majesty,
who asked me where it was; I told him in Sir Richard Browne's (my
father-in-law) chamber, and that if it pleased his Majesty to appoint
whither it should be brought, being large and though of wood, heavy, I
would take care for it. "No," says the King, "show me the way, I'll go
to Sir Richard's chamber," which he immediately did, walking along the
entries after me; as far as the ewry, till he came up into the room,
where I also lay. No sooner was he entered and cast his eyes on the
work, but he was astonished at the curiosity of it; and having
considered it a long time, and discoursed with Mr. Gibbon, whom I
brought to kiss his hand, he commanded it should be immediately carried
to the Queen's side to show her. It was carried up into her bedchamber,
where she and the King looked on and admired it again; the King, being
called away, left us with the Queen, believing she would have bought it,
it being a crucifix; but, when his Majesty was gone, a French peddling
woman, one Madame de Boord, who used to bring petticoats and fans, and
baubles, out of France to the ladies, began to find fault with several
things in the work, which she understood no more than an ass, or a
monkey, so as in a kind of indignation, I caused the person who brought
it to carry it back to the chamber, finding the Queen so much governed
by an ignorant Frenchwoman, and this incomparable artist had his labor
only for his pains, which not a little displeased me; and he was fain to
send it down to his cottage again; he not long after sold it for £80,
though well worth £100, without the frame, to Sir George Viner.

His Majesty's Surveyor, Mr. Wren, faithfully promised me to employ
him.[24] I having also bespoke his Majesty for his work at Windsor,
which my friend, Mr. May, the architect there, was going to alter, and
repair universally; for, on the next day, I had a fair opportunity of
talking to his Majesty about it, in the lobby next the Queen's side,
where I presented him with some sheets of my history. I thence walked
with him through St. James's Park to the garden, where I both saw and
heard a very familiar discourse between ... and Mrs. Nelly,[25] as they
called an impudent comedian, she looking out of her garden on a terrace
at the top of the wall, and ... standing on the green walk under it. I
was heartily sorry at this scene. Thence the King walked to the Duchess
of Cleveland, another lady of pleasure, and curse of our nation.

    [Footnote 24: The carving in the choir, etc., of St. Paul's
    Cathedral was executed by Gibbon.]

    [Footnote 25: Nell Gwynne: there can be no doubt as to the name with
    which we are to fill up these blanks. This familiar interview of
    Nelly and the King has afforded a subject for painters.]

5th March, 1671. I dined at Greenwich, to take leave of Sir Thomas
Linch, going Governor of Jamaica.

10th March, 1671. To London, about passing my patent as one of the
standing Council for Plantations, a considerable honor, the others in
the Council being chiefly noblemen and officers of state.

[Illustration: _NELL GWYNNE_

_Photogravure after Sir Peter Lely_]

2d April, 1671. To Sir Thomas Clifford, the Treasurer, to condole with
him on the loss of his eldest son, who died at Florence.

2d May, 1671. The French King, being now with a great army of 28,000 men
about Dunkirk, divers of the grandees of that Court, and a vast number
of gentlemen and cadets, in fantastical habits, came flocking over to
see our Court and compliment his Majesty. I was present, when they first
were conducted into the Queen's withdrawing-room, where saluted their
Majesties the Dukes of Guise, Longueville, and many others of the first
rank.

10th May, 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's,[26] in company with Monsieur
De Grammont and several French noblemen, and one Blood, that impudent,
bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial
crown itself out of the Tower, pretending only curiosity of seeing the
regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly
went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of
his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received
into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as
daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some
believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the
sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty services that way, which
none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest
attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This
man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false
countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

    [Footnote 26: This entry of 10th May, 1671, so far as it relates to
    Blood, and the stealing of the crown, etc., is a mistake. Blood
    stole the crown on the 9th of May, 1671--the very day before; and
    the "not long before" of Evelyn, and the circumstance of his being
    "pardoned," which Evelyn also mentions, can hardly be said to relate
    to only the day before.]

11th May, 1671. I went to Eltham, to sit as one of the commissioners
about the subsidy now given by Parliament to his Majesty.

17th May, 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's [Sir Thomas Clifford] with
the Earl of Arlington, Carlingford, Lord Arundel of Wardour, Lord
Almoner to the Queen, a French Count and two abbots, with several more
of French nobility; and now by something I had lately observed of Mr.
Treasurer's conversation on occasion, I suspected him a little warping
to Rome.

25th May, 1671. I dined at a feast made for me and my wife by the
Trinity Company, for our passing a fine of the land which Sir R. Browne,
my wife's father, freely gave to found and build their college, or
almshouses on, at Deptford, it being my wife's after her father's
decease. It was a good and charitable work and gift, but would have been
better bestowed on the poor of that parish, than on the seamen's widows,
the Trinity Company being very rich, and the rest of the poor of the
parish exceedingly indigent.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th May, 1671. The Earl of Bristol's house in Queen's Street
[Lincoln's Inn Fields] was taken for the Commissioners of Trade and
Plantations, and furnished with rich hangings of the King's. It
consisted of seven rooms on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc.
This day we met the Duke of Buckingham, Earl of Lauderdale, Lord
Culpeper, Sir George Carteret, Vice-Chamberlain, and myself, had the
oaths given us by the Earl of Sandwich, our President. It was to advise
and counsel his Majesty, to the best of our abilities, for the
well-governing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little
differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then took our places
at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a very large room furnished with
atlases, maps, charts, globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir
Orlando Bridgeman, Earl of Arlington, Secretary of State, Lord Ashley,
Mr. Treasurer, Sir John Trevor, the other Secretary, Sir John Duncomb,
Lord Allington, Mr. Grey, son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir
Humphrey Winch, Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller, and Colonel Titus, of the
bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary to the Council, and two Clerks
of the Council, who had all been sworn some days before. Being all set,
our Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in which was
recited this new establishment; then, was delivered to each a copy of
the Patent, and of instructions: after which, we proceeded to business.

The first thing we did was, to settle the form of a circular letter to
the Governors of all his Majesty's Plantations and Territories in the
West Indies and Islands thereof, to give them notice to whom they should
apply themselves on all occasions, and to render us an account of their
present state and government; but, what we most insisted on was, to know
the condition of New England, which appearing to be very independent as
to their regard to Old England, or his Majesty, rich and strong as they
now were, there were great debates in what style to write to them; for
the condition of that Colony was such, that they were able to contest
with all other Plantations about them, and there was fear of their
breaking from all dependence on this nation; his Majesty, therefore,
commended this affair more expressly. We, therefore, thought fit, in the
first place, to acquaint ourselves as well as we could of the state of
that place, by some whom we heard of that were newly come from thence,
and to be informed of their present posture and condition; some of our
Council were for sending them a menacing letter, which those who better
understood the peevish and touchy humor of that Colony, were utterly
against.

A letter was then read from Sir Thomas Modiford, Governor of Jamaica;
and then the Council broke up.

Having brought an action against one Cocke, for money which he had
received for me, it had been referred to an arbitration by the
recommendation of that excellent good man, the Chief-Justice Hale,[27]
but, this not succeeding, I went to advise with that famous lawyer, Mr.
Jones, of Gray's Inn, and, 27th of May, had a trial before Lord Chief
Justice Hale; and, after the lawyers had wrangled sufficiently, it was
referred to a new arbitration. This was the very first suit at law that
ever I had with any creature, and oh, that it might be the last!

    [Footnote 27: Sir Matthew Hale, so famous as one of the justices of
    the bench in Cromwell's time. After the Restoration, he became Chief
    Baron of the Exchequer; then Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and
    died in 1676. The author of numerous works, not only on professional
    subjects, but on mathematics and philosophy.]

1st June, 1671. An installation at Windsor.

6th June, 1671. I went to Council, where was produced a most exact and
ample information of the state of Jamaica, and of the best expedients as
to New England, on which there was a long debate; but at length it was
concluded that, if any, it should be only a conciliating paper at first,
or civil letter, till we had better information of the present face of
things, since we understood they were a people almost upon the very
brink of renouncing any dependence on the Crown.

19th June, 1671. To a splendid dinner at the great room in Deptford
Trinity House, Sir Thomas Allen chosen Master, and succeeding the Earl
of Craven.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

20th June, 1671. To carry Colonel Middleton to Whitehall, to my Lord
Sandwich, our President, for some information which he was able to give
of the state of the Colony in New England.

21st June, 1671. To Council again, when one Colonel Cartwright, a
Nottinghamshire man, (formerly in commission with Colonel Nicholls) gave
us a considerable relation of that country; on which the Council
concluded that in the first place a letter of amnesty should be
dispatched.

24th June, 1671. Constantine Huygens, Signor of Zuylichem, that
excellent learned man, poet, and musician, now near eighty years of age,
a vigorous, brisk man,[28] came to take leave of me before his return
into Holland with the Prince, whose Secretary he was.

    [Footnote 28: He died in 1687, at the great age of 90 years and 6
    months. Constantine and his son, Christian Huygens, were both
    eminent for scientific knowledge and classical attainments;
    Christian, particularly so; for he was the inventor of the pendulum,
    made an improvement in the air-pump, first discovered the ring and
    one of the satellites of Saturn, and ascertained the laws of
    collision of elastic bodies. He died in 1695. Constantine, the
    father, was a person of influence and distinction in Holland, and
    held the post of secretary to the Prince of Orange.]

26th June, 1671. To Council, where Lord Arlington acquainted us that it
was his Majesty's proposal we should, every one of us, contribute £20
toward building a Council chamber and conveniences somewhere in
Whitehall, that his Majesty might come and sit among us, and hear our
debates; the money we laid out to be reimbursed out of the contingent
moneys already set apart for us, viz, £1,000 yearly. To this we
unanimously consented. There came an uncertain bruit from Barbadoes of
some disorder there. On my return home I stepped in at the theater to
see the new machines for the intended scenes, which were indeed very
costly and magnificent.

29th June, 1671. To Council, where were letters from Sir Thomas
Modiford, of the expedition and exploit of Colonel Morgan, and others of
Jamaica, on the Spanish Continent at Panama.

4th July, 1671. To Council, where we drew up and agreed to a letter to
be sent to New England, and made some proposal to Mr. Gorges, for his
interest in a plantation there.

24th July, 1671. To Council. Mr. Surveyor brought us a plot for the
building of our Council chamber, to be erected at the end of the Privy
garden, in Whitehall.

3d August, 1671. A full appearance at the Council. The matter in debate
was, whether we should send a deputy to New England, requiring them of
the Massachusetts to restore such to their limits and respective
possessions, as had petitioned the Council; this to be the open
commission only; but, in truth, with secret instructions to inform us of
the condition of those Colonies, and whether they were of such power, as
to be able to resist his Majesty and declare for themselves as
independent of the Crown, which we were told, and which of late years
made them refractory. Colonel Middleton, being called in, assured us
they might be curbed by a few of his Majesty's first-rate frigates, to
spoil their trade with the islands; but, though my Lord President was
not satisfied, the rest were, and we did resolve to advise his Majesty
to send Commissioners with a formal commission for adjusting boundaries,
etc., with some other instructions.

19th August, 1671. To Council. The letters of Sir Thomas Modiford were
read, giving relation of the exploit at Panama, which was very brave;
they took, burned, and pillaged the town of vast treasures, but the best
of the booty had been shipped off, and lay at anchor in the South Sea,
so that, after our men had ranged the country sixty miles about, they
went back to Nombre de Dios, and embarked for Jamaica. Such an action
had not been done since the famous Drake.

I dined at the Hamburg Resident's, and, after dinner, went to the
christening of Sir Samuel Tuke's son, Charles, at Somerset House, by a
Popish priest, and many odd ceremonies. The godfathers were the King,
and Lord Arundel of Wardour, and godmother, the Countess of Huntingdon.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th August, 1671. To London, with some more papers of my progress in
the Dutch War, delivered to the Treasurer.

1st September, 1671. Dined with the Treasurer, in company with my Lord
Arlington, Halifax, and Sir Thomas Strickland; and next day, went home,
being the anniversary of the late dreadful fire of London.

13th September, 1671. This night fell a dreadful tempest.

15th September, 1671. In the afternoon at Council, where letters were
read from Sir Charles Wheeler, concerning his resigning his government
of St. Christopher's.

21st September, 1671. I dined in the city, at the fraternity feast in
Ironmongers' Hall, where the four stewards chose their successors for
the next year, with a solemn procession, garlands about their heads, and
music playing before them; so, coming up to the upper tables where the
gentlemen sat, they drank to the new stewards; and so we parted.

22d September, 1671. I dined at the Treasurer's, where I had discourse
with Sir Henry Jones (now come over to raise a regiment of horse),
concerning the French conquests in Lorraine; he told me the King sold
all things to the soldiers, even to a handful of hay.

Lord Sunderland was now nominated Ambassador to Spain.

After dinner, the Treasurer carried me to Lincoln's Inn, to one of the
Parliament Clerks, to obtain of him, that I might carry home and peruse,
some of the Journals, which were, accordingly, delivered to me to
examine about the late Dutch War. Returning home, I went on shore to see
the Custom House, now newly rebuilt since the dreadful conflagration.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

9th and 10th October, 1671. I went, after evening service, to London,
in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer, to Newmarket,
where the King then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we
changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford, and last, at Chesterford;
so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry Jermain (nephew to
the Earl of St. Alban) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately
to Court, the King and all the English gallants being there at their
autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day,
after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run
between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King, and to Mr. Eliot,
of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race
had not been run for many years.

This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer to Euston, a palace of
Lord Arlington's, where we found Monsieur Colbert (the French
Ambassador), and the famous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle
Querouaille, now coming to be in great favor with the King. Here was
also the Countess of Sunderland, and several lords and ladies, who
lodged in the house.

During my stay here with Lord Arlington, near a fortnight, his Majesty
came almost every second day with the Duke, who commonly returned to
Newmarket, but the King often lay here, during which time I had twice
the honor to sit at dinner with him, with all freedom. It was
universally reported that the fair lady ----, was bedded one of these
nights, and the stocking flung, after the manner of a married bride; I
acknowledge she was for the most part in her undress all day, and that
there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said,
I was at the former ceremony; but it is utterly false; I neither saw nor
heard of any such thing while I was there, though I had been in her
chamber, and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself
observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it was with
confidence believed she was first made _a Miss_, as they called these
unhappy creatures, with solemnity at this time.

On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an excellent sermon in the
chapel, the King and the Duke of York being present.

16th October, 1671. Came all the great men from Newmarket, and other
parts both of Suffolk and Norfolk, to make their court, the whole house
filled from one end to the other with lords, ladies, and gallants; there
was such a furnished table, as I had seldom seen, nor anything more
splendid and free, so that for fifteen days there were entertained at
least 200 people, and half as many horses, besides servants and guards,
at infinite expense.

In the morning, we went hunting and hawking; in the afternoon, till
almost morning, to cards and dice, yet I must say without noise,
swearing, quarrel, or confusion of any sort. I, who was no gamester, had
often discourse with the French Ambassador, Colbert, and went sometimes
abroad on horseback with the ladies to take the air, and now and then to
hunting; thus idly passing the time, but not without more often recess
to my pretty apartment, where I was quite out of all this hurry, and had
leisure when I would, to converse with books, for there is no man more
hospitably easy to be withal than my Lord Arlington, of whose particular
friendship and kindness I had ever a more than ordinary share. His house
is a very noble pile, consisting of four pavilions after the French,
beside a body of a large house, and, though not built altogether, but
formed of additions to an old house (purchased by his Lordship of one
Sir T. Rookwood) yet with a vast expense made not only capable and
roomsome, but very magnificent and commodious, as well within as
without, nor less splendidly furnished. The staircase is very elegant,
the garden handsome, the canal beautiful, but the soil dry, barren, and
miserably sandy, which flies in drifts as the wind sits. Here my Lord
was pleased to advise with me about ordering his plantations of firs,
elms, limes, etc., up his park, and in all other places and avenues. I
persuaded him to bring his park so near as to comprehend his house
within it; which he resolved upon, it being now near a mile to it. The
water furnishing the fountains, is raised by a pretty engine, or very
slight plain wheels, which likewise serve to grind his corn, from a
small cascade of the canal, the invention of Sir Samuel Morland. In my
Lord's house, and especially above the staircase, in the great hall and
some of the chambers and rooms of state, are paintings in fresco by
Signor Verrio, being the first work which he did in England.

[Sidenote: NORWICH]

17th October, 1671. My Lord Henry Howard coming this night to visit my
Lord Chamberlain, and staying a day, would needs have me go with him to
Norwich, promising to convey me back, after a day or two; this, as I
could not refuse, I was not hard to be pursuaded to, having a desire to
see that famous scholar and physician, Dr. T. Browne, author of the
"_Religio Medici_" and "Vulgar Errors," now lately knighted. Thither,
then, went my Lord and I alone, in his flying chariot with six horses;
and by the way, discoursing with me of several of his concerns, he
acquainted me of his going to marry his eldest son to one of the King's
natural daughters, by the Duchess of Cleveland; by which he reckoned he
should come into mighty favor. He also told me that, though he kept that
idle creature, Mrs. B----, and would leave £200 a year to the son he had
by her, he would never marry her, and that the King himself had
cautioned him against it. All the world knows how he kept his promise,
and I was sorry at heart to hear what now he confessed to me; and that a
person and a family which I so much honored for the sake of that noble
and illustrious friend of mine, his grandfather, should dishonor and
pollute them both with those base and vicious courses he of late had
taken since the death of Sir Samuel Tuke, and that of his own virtuous
lady (my Lady Anne Somerset, sister to the Marquis); who, while they
lived, preserved this gentleman by their example and advice from those
many extravagances that impaired both his fortune and reputation.

Being come to the Ducal palace, my Lord made very much of me; but I had
little rest, so exceedingly desirous he was to show me the contrivance
he had made for the entertainment of their Majesties, and the whole
Court not long before, and which, though much of it was but temporary,
apparently framed of boards only, was yet standing. As to the palace, it
is an old wretched building, and that part of it newly built of brick,
is very ill understood; so as I was of the opinion it had been much
better to have demolished all, and set it up in a better place, than to
proceed any further; for it stands in the very market-place, and, though
near a river, yet a very narrow muddy one, without any extent.

Next morning, I went to see Sir Thomas Browne (with whom I had some
time corresponded by letter, though I had never seen him before); his
whole house and garden being a paradise and cabinet of rarities; and
that of the best collection, especially medals, books, plants, and
natural things. Among other curiosities, Sir Thomas had a collection of
the eggs of all the fowl and birds he could procure, that country
(especially the promontory of Norfolk) being frequented, as he said, by
several kinds which seldom or never go further into the land, as cranes,
storks, eagles, and variety of water fowl. He led me to see all the
remarkable places of this ancient city, being one of the largest, and
certainly, after London, one of the noblest of England, for its
venerable cathedral, number of stately churches, cleanness of the
streets, and buildings of flint so exquisitely headed and squared, as I
was much astonished at; but he told me they had lost the art of squaring
the flints, in which they so much excelled, and of which the churches,
best houses, and walls, are built. The Castle is an antique extent of
ground, which now they call Marsfield, and would have been a fitting
area to have placed the Ducal palace in. The suburbs are large, the
prospects sweet, with other amenities, not omitting the flower gardens,
in which all the inhabitants excel. The fabric of stuffs brings a vast
trade to this populous town.

Being returned to my Lord's, who had been with me all this morning, he
advised with me concerning a plot to rebuild his house, having already,
as he said, erected a front next the street, and a left wing, and now
resolving to set up another wing and pavilion next the garden, and to
convert the bowling green into stables. My advice was, to desist from
all, and to meditate wholly on rebuilding a handsome palace at Arundel
House, in the Strand, before he proceeded further here, and then to
place this in the Castle, that ground belonging to his Lordship.

I observed that most of the church yards (though some of them large
enough) were filled up with earth, or rather the congestion of dead
bodies one upon another, for want of earth, even to the very top of the
walls, and some above the walls, so as the churches seemed to be built
in pits.

18th October, 1671. I returned to Euston, in Lord Henry Howard's coach,
leaving him at Norwich, in company with a very ingenious gentleman, Mr.
White, whose father and mother (daughter to the late Lord Treasurer
Weston, Earl of Portland) I knew at Rome, where this gentleman was born,
and where his parents lived and died with much reputation, during their
banishment in our civil broils.

21st October, 1671. Quitting Euston, I lodged this night at Newmarket,
where I found the jolly blades racing, dancing, feasting, and reveling;
more resembling a luxurious and abandoned rout, than a Christian Court.
The Duke of Buckingham was now in mighty favor, and had with him that
impudent woman, the Countess of Shrewsbury, with his band of fiddlers,
etc.

Next morning, in company with Sir Bernard Gascoyne, and Lord Hawley, I
came in the Treasurer's coach to Bishop Stortford, where he gave us a
noble supper. The following day, to London, and so home.

14th November, 1671. To Council, where Sir Charles Wheeler, late
Governor of the Leeward Islands, having been complained of for many
indiscreet managements, it was resolved, on scanning many of the
particulars, to advise his Majesty to remove him; and consult what was
to be done, to prevent these inconveniences he had brought things to.
This business staid me in London almost a week, being in Council, or
Committee, every morning till the 25th.

27th November, 1671. We ordered that a proclamation should be presented
to his Majesty to sign, against what Sir Charles Wheeler had done in St.
Christopher's since the war, on the articles of peace at Breda. He was
shortly afterward recalled.

6th December, 1671. Came to visit me Sir William Haywood, a great
pretender to English antiquities.

14th December, 1671. Went to see the Duke of Buckingham's ridiculous
farce and rhapsody, called the "The Recital,"[29] buffooning all plays,
yet profane enough.

    [Footnote 29: The well-known play of "The Rehearsal" is meant.]

23d December, 1671. The Councillors of the Board of Trade dined together
at the Cock, in Suffolk street.

12th January, 1671-72. His Majesty renewed us our lease of Sayes Court
pastures for ninety-nine years, but ought, according to his solemn
promise[30] (as I hope he will still perform), have passed them to us in
fee-farm.

    [Footnote 30: The King's engagement, under his hand, is now at
    Wotton.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

23d January, 1672. To London, in order to Sir Richard Browne, my
father-in-law, resigning his place as Clerk of the Council to Joseph
Williamson, Esq., who was admitted, and was knighted. This place his
Majesty had promised to give me many years before; but, upon
consideration of the renewal of our lease and other reasons, I chose to
part with it to Sir Joseph, who gave us and the rest of his brother
clerks a handsome supper at his house; and, after supper, a concert of
music.

3d February, 1672. An extraordinary snow; part of the week was taken up
in consulting about the commission of prisoners of war, and instructions
to our officers, in order to a second war with the Hollanders, his
Majesty having made choice of the former commissioners, and myself among
them.

11th February, 1672. In the afternoon, that famous proselyte, Monsieur
Brevall, preached at the Abbey, in English, extremely well and with much
eloquence. He had been a Capuchin, but much better learned than most of
that order.

12th February, 1672. At the Council, we entered on inquiries about
improving the plantations by silks, galls, flax, senna, etc., and
considered how nutmegs and cinnamon might be obtained and brought to
Jamaica, that soil and climate promising success. Dr. Worsley being
called in, spoke many considerable things to encourage it. We took order
to send to the plantations, that none of their ships should adventure
homeward single, but stay for company and convoys. We also deliberated
on some fit person to go as commissioner to inspect their actions in New
England, and, from time to time, report how that people stood affected.
In future, to meet at Whitehall.

20th February, 1672. Dr. Parr, of Camberwell, preached a most pathetic
funeral discourse and panegyric at the interment of our late pastor, Dr.
Breton (who died on the 18th), on "Happy is the servant whom, when his
Lord cometh," etc. This good man, among other expressions, professed
that he had never been so touched and concerned at any loss as at this,
unless at that of King Charles our martyr, and Archbishop Usher, whose
chaplain he had been. Dr. Breton had preached on the 28th and 30th of
January: on the Friday, having fasted all day, making his provisionary
sermon for the Sunday following, he went well to bed; but was taken
suddenly ill and expired before help could come to him.

Never had a parish a greater loss, not only as he was an excellent
preacher, and fitted for our great and vulgar auditory, but for his
excellent life and charity, his meekness and obliging nature,
industrious, helpful, and full of good works. He left near £400 to the
poor in his will, and that what children of his should die in their
minority, their portion should be so employed, I lost in particular a
special friend, and one that had an extraordinary love for me and mine.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

25th February, 1672. To London, to speak with the Bishop, and Sir John
Cutler, our patron, to present Mr. Frampton (afterward Bishop of
Gloucester).

1st March, 1672. A full Council of Plantations, on the danger of the
Leeward Islands, threatened by the French, who had taken some of our
ships, and began to interrupt our trade. Also in debate, whether the new
Governor of St. Christopher should be subordinate to the Governor of
Barbadoes. The debate was serious and long.

12th March, 1672. Now was the first blow given by us to the Dutch convoy
of the Smyrna fleet, by Sir Robert Holmes and Lord Ossory, in which we
received little save blows, and a worthy reproach for attacking our
neighbors ere any war was proclaimed, and then pretending the occasion
to be, that some time before, the Merlin yacht chancing to sail through
the whole Dutch fleet, their Admiral did not strike to that trifling
vessel. Surely, this was a quarrel slenderly grounded, and not becoming
Christian neighbors. We are likely to thrive, accordingly. Lord Ossory
several times deplored to me his being engaged in it; he had more
justice and honor than in the least to approve of it, though he had been
over-persuaded to the expedition. There is no doubt but we should have
surprised this exceeding rich fleet, had not the avarice and ambition of
Holmes and Spragge separated themselves, and willfully divided our
fleet, on presumption that either of them was strong enough to deal with
the Dutch convoy without joining and mutual help; but they so warmly
plied our divided fleets, that while in conflict the merchants sailed
away, and got safe into Holland.

A few days before this, the Treasurer of the Household, Sir Thomas
Clifford, hinted to me, as a confidant, that his Majesty would SHUT UP
THE EXCHEQUER (and, accordingly, his Majesty made use of infinite
treasure there, to prepare for an intended rupture); but, says he, it
will soon be open again, and everybody satisfied; for this bold man, who
had been the sole adviser of the King to invade that sacred stock
(though some pretend it was Lord Ashley's counsel, then Chancellor of
the Exchequer), was so over-confident of the success of this unworthy
design against the Smyrna merchants, as to put his Majesty on an action
which not only lost the hearts of his subjects, and ruined many widows
and orphans, whose stocks were lent him, but the reputation of his
Exchequer forever, it being before in such credit, that he might have
commanded half the wealth of the nation.

The credit of this bank being thus broken, did exceedingly discontent
the people, and never did his Majesty's affairs prosper to any purpose
after it, for as it did not supply the expense of the meditated war, so
it melted away, I know not how.

To this succeeded the King's declaration for an universal toleration;
Papists and swarms of Sectaries, now boldly showing themselves in their
public meetings. This was imputed to the same council, Clifford warping
to Rome as was believed, nor was Lord Arlington clear of suspicion, to
gratify that party, but as since it has proved, and was then evidently
foreseen, to the extreme weakening of the Church of England and its
Episcopal Government, as it was projected. I speak not this as my own
sense, but what was the discourse and thoughts of others, who were
lookers-on; for I think there might be some relaxations without the
least prejudice to the present establishment, discreetly limited, but to
let go the reins in this manner, and then to imagine they could take
them up again as easily, was a false policy, and greatly destructive.
The truth is, our Bishops slipped the occasion; for, had they held a
steady hand upon his Majesty's restoration, as they might easily have
done, the Church of England had emerged and flourished, without
interruption; but they were then remiss, and covetous after advantages
of another kind while his Majesty suffered them to come into a harvest,
with which, without any injustice he might have remunerated innumerable
gallant gentlemen for their services who had ruined themselves in the
late rebellion.

21st March, 1672. I visited the coasts in my district of Kent, and
divers wounded and languishing poor men, that had been in the Smyrna
conflict. I went over to see the new-begun Fort of Tilbury; a royal
work, indeed, and such as will one day bridle a great city to the
purpose, before they are aware.

23d March, 1672. Captain Cox, one of the Commissioners of the Navy,
furnishing me with a yatch, I sailed to Sheerness to see that fort also,
now newly finished; several places on both sides the Swale and Medway to
Gillingham and Upnore, being also provided with redoubts and batteries
to secure the station of our men-of-war at Chatham, and shut the door
when the steeds were stolen.

24th March, 1672. I saw the chirurgeon cut off the leg of a wounded
sailor, the stout and gallant man enduring it with incredible patience,
without being bound to his chair, as usual on such painful occasions. I
had hardly courage enough to be present. Not being cut off high enough
the gangrene prevailed, and the second operation cost the poor creature
his life.

Lord! what miseries are mortal men subject to, and what confusion and
mischief do the avarice, anger, and ambition of Princes, cause in the
world!

25th March, 1672. I proceeded to Canterbury, Dover, Deal, the Isle of
Thanet, by Sandwich, and so to Margate. Here we had abundance of
miserably wounded men, his Majesty sending his chief chirurgeon,
Sergeant Knight, to meet me, and Dr. Waldrond had attended me all the
journey. Having taken order for the accommodation of the wounded, I came
back through a country the best cultivated of any that in my life I had
anywhere seen, every field lying as even as a bowling-green, and the
fences, plantations, and husbandry, in such admirable order, as
infinitely delighted me, after the sad and afflicting spectacles and
objects I was come from. Observing almost every tall tree to have a
weathercock on the top bough, and some trees half-a-dozen, I learned
that, on a certain holyday, the farmers feast their servants; at which
solemnity, they set up these cocks, in a kind of triumph.

[Sidenote: ROCHESTER]

Being come back toward Rochester, I went to take order respecting the
building a strong and high wall about a house I had hired of a
gentleman, at a place called Hartlip, for a prison, paying £50 yearly
rent. Here I settled a Provost-Marshal and other officers, returning by
Feversham. On the 30th heard a sermon in Rochester cathedral, and so got
to Sayes Court on the first of April.

4th April, 1672. I went to see the fopperies of the Papists at
Somerset-House and York-House, where now the French Ambassador had
caused to be represented our Blessed Savior at the Pascal Supper with
his disciples, in figures and puppets made as big as the life, of
wax-work, curiously clad and sitting round a large table, the room nobly
hung, and shining with innumerable lamps and candles: this was exposed
to all the world; all the city came to see it. Such liberty had the
Roman Catholics at this time obtained.

16th April, 1672. Sat in Council, preparing Lord Willoughby's commission
and instructions as Governor of Barbadoes and the Caribbee Islands.

17th April, 1672. Sat on business in the Star Chamber.

19th April, 1672. At Council, preparing instructions for Colonel
Stapleton, now to go Governor of St. Christopher's, and heard the
complaints of the Jamaica merchants against the Spaniards, for hindering
them from cutting logwood on the mainland, where they have no pretense.

21st April, 1672. To my Lord of Canterbury, to entreat him to engage Sir
John Cutler, the patron, to provide us a grave and learned man, in
opposition to a novice.

30th April, 1672. Congratulated Mr. Treasurer Clifford's new honor,
being made a Baron.

2d May, 1672. My son, John, was specially admitted of the Middle Temple
by Sir Francis North, his Majesty's Solicitor-General, and since
Chancellor. I pray God bless this beginning, my intention being that he
should seriously apply himself to the study of the law.

10th May, 1672. I was ordered, by letter from the Council, to repair
forthwith to his Majesty, whom I found in the Pall-Mall, in St. James's
Park, where his Majesty coming to me from the company, commanded me to
go immediately to the seacoast, and to observe the motion of the Dutch
fleet and ours, the Duke and so many of the flower of our nation being
now under sail, coming from Portsmouth, through the Downs, where it was
believed there might be an encounter.

11th May, 1672. Went to Chatham. 12th. Heard a sermon in Rochester
Cathedral.

13th May, 1672. To Canterbury; visited Dr. Bargrave, my old
fellow-traveler in Italy, and great virtuoso.

14th May, 1672. To Dover; but the fleet did not appear till the 16th,
when the Duke of York with his and the French squadron, in all 170 ships
(of which above 100 were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who
were newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I think,
spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet terrible sight, to behold
them as I did, passing eastward by the straits between Dover and Calais
in a glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go
aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, having
visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted the Governor, I took
horse for Margate. Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which
is a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle of iron, in
which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when the
nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors), we could see our fleet
as they lay at anchor. The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of
sight to the N. E.

[Sidenote: MARGATE]

19th May, 1672. Went to Margate; and, the following day, was carried to
see a gallant widow, brought up a farmeress, and I think of gigantic
race, rich, comely, and exceedingly industrious. She put me in mind of
Deborah and Abigail, her house was so plentifully stored with all manner
of country provisions, all of her own growth, and all her conveniences
so substantial, neat, and well understood; she herself so jolly and
hospitable; and her land so trim and rarely husbanded, that it struck me
with admiration at her economy.

This town much consists of brewers of a certain heady ale, and they deal
much in malt, etc. For the rest, it is raggedly built, and has an ill
haven, with a small fort of little concernment, nor is the island well
disciplined; but as to the husbandry and rural part, far exceeding any
part of England for the accurate culture of their ground, in which they
exceed, even to curiosity and emulation.

We passed by Rickborough, and in sight of Reculvers, and so through a
sweet garden, as it were, to Canterbury.

24th May, 1672. To London and gave his Majesty an account of my journey,
and that I had put all things in readiness upon all events, and so
returned home sufficiently wearied.

31st May, 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so
I went to Rochester, where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners,
newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl
of Sandwich, that incomparable person and my particular friend, and
divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the
Blue) was in the "Prince," which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war
that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man,
a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son of
Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's Surveyor-General), two valiant and
most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have
saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored
and loved above their own lives.

Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things past. It was not
above a day or two that going to Whitehall to take leave of his
Lordship, who had his lodgings in the Privy-Garden, shaking me by the
hand he bid me good-by, and said he thought he would see me no more, and
I saw, to my thinking, something boding in his countenance: "No," says
he, "they will not have me live. Had I lost a fleet (meaning on his
return from Bergen when he took the East India prize) I should have
fared better; but, be as it pleases God--I must do something, I know not
what, to save my reputation." Something to this effect, he had hinted to
me; thus I took my leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle,
and my now Lord Clifford, had, I know not why, no great opinion of his
courage, because, in former conflicts, being an able and experienced
seaman (which neither of them were), he always brought off his Majesty's
ships without loss, though not without as many marks of true courage as
the stoutest of them; and I am a witness that, in the late war, his own
ship was pierced like a colander. But the business was, he was utterly
against this war from the beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the
Smyrna fleet; he did not favor the heady expedition of Clifford at
Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident as was the Duke of
Albemarle, who believed he could vanquish the Hollanders with one
squadron. My Lord Sandwich was prudent as well as valiant, and always
governed his affairs with success and little loss; he was for
deliberation and reason, they for action and slaughter without either;
and for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich was not so gallant,
because he was not so rash, and knew how fatal it was to lose a fleet,
such as was that under his conduct, and for which these very persons
would have censured him on the other side. This it was, I am confident,
grieved him, and made him enter like a lion, and fight like one too, in
the midst of the hottest service, where the stoutest of the rest seeing
him engaged, and so many ships upon him, dared not, or would not, come
to his succor, as some of them, whom I know, might have done. Thus, this
gallant person perished, to gratify the pride and envy of some I named.

Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished persons, not
only of this nation, but of any other. He was learned in sea affairs, in
politics, in mathematics, and in music: he had been on divers embassies,
was of a sweet and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, a
true nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince; nor has he left
any behind him who approach his many virtues.

He had, I confess, served the tyrant Cromwell, when a young man, but it
was without malice, as a soldier of fortune; and he readily submitted,
and that with joy, bringing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at
the first tidings of his Majesty's restoration. I verily believe him as
faithful a subject as any that were not his friends. I am yet heartily
grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I call it to my thoughts without
emotion.

[Sidenote: ROCHESTER]

2d June, 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, on the 5th,
there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of
the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he
received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with
all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in
their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there with his guards; and the
Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral
oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the
choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day;
Colonel Reymes, my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind
as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for
indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any
of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnore
Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.

Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore,"
where I met his Majesty, the Duke, Lord Arlington, and all the great
men, in the "Charles," lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord
Sandwich redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so
brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that
the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.

At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty and his Royal Highness an account of my
charge, and returned to Queenborough; next day dined at Major Dorel's,
Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day,
home.

12th June, 1672. To London to his Majesty, to solicit for money for the
sick and wounded, which he promised me.

19th June, 1672. To London again, to solicit the same.

21st June, 1672. At a Council of Plantations. Most of this week busied
with the sick and wounded.

3d July, 1672. To Lord Sandwich's funeral, which was by water to
Westminster, in solemn pomp.

31st July, 1672. I entertained the Maids of Honor (among whom there was
one I infinitely esteemed for her many and extraordinary virtues[31]) at
a comedy this afternoon, and so went home.

    [Footnote 31: Mrs. Blagg whom Evelyn never tires of instancing and
    characterizing as a rare example of piety and virtue, in so rare a
    wit, beauty, and perfection, in a licentious court, and depraved
    age. She was afterward married to Mr. Godolphin, and her life,
    written by Evelyn, has been edited and published by the Bishop of
    Oxford.]

1st August, 1672. I was at the betrothal of Lord Arlington's only
daughter (a sweet child if ever there was any[32]) to the Duke of
Grafton, the King's natural son by the Duchess of Cleveland; the
Archbishop of Canterbury officiating, the King and the grandees being
present. I had a favor given me by my Lady; but took no great joy at the
thing for many reasons.

    [Footnote 32: She was then only fifteen years old.]

18th August, 1672. Sir James Hayes, Secretary to Prince Rupert, dined
with me; after dinner I was sent to Gravesend to dispose of no fewer
than 800 sick men. That night I got to the fleet at the buoy of the
"Nore," where I spoke with the King and the Duke; and, after dinner next
day, returned to Gravesend.

1st September, 1672. I spent this week in soliciting for moneys, and in
reading to my Lord Clifford my papers relating to the first Holland war.
Now, our Council of Plantations met at Lord Shaftesbury's (Chancellor of
the Exchequer) to read and reform the draft of our new Patent, joining
the Council of Trade to our political capacities. After this, I returned
home, in order to another excursion to the seaside, to get as many as
possible of the men who were recovered on board the fleet.

8th September, 1672. I lay at Gravesend, thence to Rochester, returning
on the 11th.

15th September, 1672. Dr. Duport, Greek Professor of Cambridge, preached
before the King, on 1 Timothy vi. 6. No great preacher, but a very
worthy and learned man.

25th September, 1672. I dined at Lord John Berkeley's, newly arrived
out of Ireland, where he had been Deputy; it was in his new house, or
rather palace; for I am assured it stood him in near £30,000. It was
very well built, and has many noble rooms, but they are not very
convenient, consisting but of one _Corps de Logis_; they are all rooms
of state, without closets. The staircase is of cedar, the furniture is
princely: the kitchen and stables are ill placed, and the corridor
worse, having no report to the wings they join to. For the rest, the
fore-court is noble, so are the stables; and, above all, the gardens,
which are incomparable by reason of the inequality of the ground, and a
pretty piscina. The holly hedges on the terrace I advised the planting
of. The porticos are in imitation of a house described by Palladio; but
it happens to be the worst in his book, though my good friend, Mr. Hugh
May, his Lordship's architect, effected it.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th September, 1672. I carried with me to dinner my Lord H. Howard (now
to be made Earl of Norwich and Earl Marshal of England) to Sir Robert
Clayton's, now Sheriff of London, at his new house, where we had a great
feast; it is built indeed for a great magistrate, at excessive cost. The
cedar dining room is painted with the history of the Giants' War,
incomparably done by Mr. Streeter, but the figures are too near the eye.

6th October, 1672. Dr. Thistlethwaite preached at Whitehall on Rev. v.
2,--a young, but good preacher. I received the blessed Communion, Dr.
Blandford, Bishop of Worcester, and Dean of the Chapel, officiating.
Dined at my Lord Clifford's, with Lord Mulgrave, Sir Gilbert Talbot, and
Sir Robert Holmes.

8th October, 1672. I took leave of my Lady Sunderland, who was going to
Paris to my Lord, now ambassador there. She made me stay to dinner at
Leicester House, and afterward sent for Richardson, the famous
fire-eater. He devoured brimstone on glowing coals before us, chewing
and swallowing them; he melted a beer-glass and ate it quite up; then,
taking a live coal on his tongue, he put on it a raw oyster, the coal
was blown on with bellows till it flamed and sparkled in his mouth, and
so remained till the oyster gaped and was quite boiled. Then, he melted
pitch and wax with sulphur, which he drank down as it flamed; I saw it
flaming in his mouth a good while; he also took up a thick piece of
iron, such as laundresses use to put in their smoothing boxes, when it
was fiery hot, held it between his teeth, then in his hand, and threw it
about like a stone; but this, I observed, he cared not to hold very
long; then he stood on a small pot, and, bending his body, took a
glowing iron with his mouth from between his feet, without touching the
pot, or ground, with his hands; with divers other prodigious feats.

13th October, 1672. After sermon (being summoned before), I went to my
Lord Keeper's, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, at Essex House, where our new
patent was opened and read, constituting us that were of the Council of
Plantations, to be now of the Council of Trade also, both united. After
the patent was read, we all took our oaths, and departed.

24th October, 1672. Met in Council, the Earl of Shaftesbury, now our
president, swearing our secretary and his clerks, which was Mr. Locke,
an excellent learned gentleman, and student of Christ Church, Mr. Lloyd,
and Mr. Frowde. We dispatched a letter to Sir Thomas Linch, Governor of
Jamaica, giving him notice of a design of the Dutch on that island.

27th October, 1672. I went to hear that famous preacher, Dr. Frampton,
at St. Giles's, on Psalm xxxix. 6. This divine had been twice at
Jerusalem, and was not only a very pious and holy man, but excellent in
the pulpit for the moving affections.

8th November, 1672. At Council, we debated the business of the consulate
of Leghorn. I was of the committee with Sir Humphry Winch, the chairman,
to examine the laws of his Majesty's several plantations and colonies in
the West Indies, etc.

15th November, 1672. Many merchants were summoned about the consulate of
Venice; which caused great disputes; the most considerable thought it
useless. This being the Queen-Consort's birthday, there was an
extraordinary appearance of gallantry, and a ball danced at Court.

30th November, 1672. I was chosen secretary to the Royal Society.

21st December, 1672. Settled the consulate of Venice.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st January, 1672-73. After public prayers in the chapel at Whitehall,
when I gave God solemn thanks for all his mercies to me the year past,
and my humble supplications to him for his blessing the year now
entering, I returned home, having my poor deceased servant (Adams) to
bury, who died of pleurisy.

3d January, 1673. My son now published his version of "_Raptinus
Hortorum_."

28th January, 1673. Visited Don Francisco de Melos, the Portugal
Ambassador, who showed me his curious collection of books and pictures.
He was a person of good parts, and a virtuous man.

6th February, 1673. To Council about reforming an abuse of the dyers
with _saundus_, and other false drugs; examined divers of that trade.

23d February, 1673. The Bishop of Chichester preached before the King
on Coloss. ii. 14, 15, admirably well, as he can do nothing but what is
well.

5th March, 1673. Our new vicar, Mr. Holden, preached in Whitehall
chapel, on Psalm iv. 6, 7. This gentleman is a very excellent and
universal scholar, a good and wise man; but he had not the popular way
of preaching, nor is in any measure fit for our plain and vulgar
auditory, as his predecessor was. There was, however, no comparison
between their parts for profound learning. But time and experience may
form him to a more practical way than that he is in of University
lectures and erudition; which is now universally left off for what is
much more profitable.

15th March, 1673. I heard the speech made to the Lords in their House by
Sir Samuel Tuke, in behalf of the Papists, to take off the penal laws;
and then dined with Colonel Norwood.

16th March, 1673. Dr. Pearson, Bishop of Chester, preached on Hebrews
ix. 14; a most incomparable sermon from one of the most learned divines
of our nation. I dined at my Lord Arlington's with the Duke and Duchess
of Monmouth; she is one of the wisest and craftiest of her sex, and has
much wit. Here was also the learned Isaac Vossius.

During Lent there is constantly the most excellent preaching by the most
eminent bishops and divines of the nation.

26th March, 1673. I was sworn a younger brother of the Trinity House,
with my most worthy and long-acquainted noble friend, Lord Ossory
(eldest son to the Duke of Ormond), Sir Richard Browne, my
father-in-law, being now Master of that Society; after which there was a
great collation.

29th March, 1673. I carried my son to the Bishop of Chichester, that
learned and pious man, Dr. Peter Gunning, to be instructed by him before
he received the Holy Sacrament, when he gave him most excellent advice,
which I pray God may influence and remain with him as long as he lives;
and O that I had been so blessed and instructed, when first I was
admitted to that sacred ordinance!

30th March, 1673. Easter day. Myself and son received the blessed
Communion, it being his first time, and with that whole week's more
extraordinary preparation. I beseech God to make him a sincere and good
Christian, while I endeavor to instill into him the fear and love of
God, and discharge the duty of a father.

At the sermon _coram Rege_, preached by Dr. Sparrow, Bishop of Exeter,
to a most crowded auditory; I stayed to see whether, according to
custom, the Duke of York received the Communion with the King; but he
did not, to the amazement of everybody. This being the second year he
had forborne, and put it off, and within a day of the Parliament
sitting, who had lately made so severe an Act against the increase of
Popery, gave exceeding grief and scandal to the whole nation, that the
heir of it, and the son of a martyr for the Protestant religion, should
apostatize. What the consequence of this will be, God only knows, and
wise men dread.

11th April, 1673. I dined with the plenipotentiaries designed for the
treaty of Nimeguen.

17th April, 1673. I carried Lady Tuke to thank the Countess of Arlington
for speaking to his Majesty in her behalf, for being one of the Queen
Consort's women. She carried us up into her new dressing room at Goring
House, where was a bed, two glasses, silver jars, and vases, cabinets,
and other so rich furniture as I had seldom seen; to this excess of
superfluity were we now arrived and that not only at Court, but almost
universally, even to wantonness and profusion.

Dr. Compton, brother to the Earl of Northampton, preached on 1 Corinth.
v. 11-16, showing the Church's power in ordaining things indifferent;
this worthy person's talent is not preaching, but he is likely to make a
grave and serious good man.

I saw her Majesty's rich toilet in her dressing room, being all of massy
gold, presented to her by the King, valued at £4,000.

26th April, 1673. Dr. Lamplugh preached at St. Martin's the Holy
Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation of the late Act
of Parliament, enjoining everybody in office, civil or military, under
penalty of £500, to receive it within one month before two authentic
witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterward produced in the
Court of Chancery, or some other Court of Record; which I did at the
Chancery bar, as being one of the Council of Plantations and Trade;
taking then also the oath of allegiance and supremacy, signing the
clause in the said Act against Transubstantiation.

25th May, 1673. My son was made a younger brother of the Trinity House.
The new master was Sir J. Smith, one of the Commissioners of the Navy, a
stout seaman, who had interposed and saved the Duke from perishing by a
fire ship in the late war.

28th May, 1673. I carried one Withers, an ingenious shipwright, to the
King to show him some new method of building.

29th May, 1673. I saw the Italian comedy at the Court, this afternoon.

10th June, 1673. Came to visit and dine with me my Lord Viscount
Cornbury and his Lady; Lady Frances Hyde, sister to the Duchess of York;
and Mrs. Dorothy Howard, maid of Honor. We went, after dinner, to see
the formal and formidable camp on Blackheath, raised to invade Holland;
or, as others suspected for another design. Thence, to the Italian
glass-house at Greenwich, where glass was blown of finer metal than that
of Murano, at Venice.

13th June, 1673. Came to visit us, with other ladies of rank, Mrs.
Sedley,[33] daughter to Sir Charles, who was none of the most virtuous,
but a wit.

    [Footnote 33: The Duke of York's mistress, afterward created by him
    Countess of Dorchester.]

19th June, 1673. Congratulated the new Lord Treasurer, Sir Thomas
Osborne, a gentleman with whom I had been intimately acquainted at
Paris, and who was every day at my father-in-law's house and table
there; on which account I was too confident of succeeding in his favor,
as I had done in his predecessor's; but such a friend shall I never
find, and I neglected my time, far from believing that my Lord Clifford
would have so rashly laid down his staff, as he did, to the amazement of
all the world, when it came to the test of his receiving the Communion,
which I am confident he forbore more from some promise he had entered
into to gratify the Duke, than from any prejudice to the Protestant
religion, though I found him wavering a pretty while.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

23d June, 1673. To London, to accompany our Council who went in a body
to congratulate the new Lord Treasurer, no friend to it because promoted
by my Lord Arlington, whom he hated.

26th June, 1673. Came visitors from Court to dine with me and see the
army still remaining encamped on Blackheath.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

6th July, 1673. This evening I went to the funeral of my dear and
excellent friend, that good man and accomplished gentleman, Sir Robert
Murray, Secretary of Scotland. He was buried by order of his Majesty in
Westminster Abbey.

25th July, 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, to visit my Lord Clifford,
late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his
body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke, that
rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding
any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am
confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though
he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to
see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from
him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and
ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought
on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch
war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of
the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not
support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my
Lord to return.

In my way, I saw my Lord of Dorset's house at Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a
great old-fashioned house.

30th July, 1673. To Council, where the business of transporting wool was
brought before us.

31st July, 1673. I went to see the pictures of all the judges and
eminent men of the Long Robe, newly painted by Mr. Wright, and set up in
Guildhall, costing the city £1,000. Most of them are very like the
persons they represent, though I never took Wright to be any
considerable artist.

13th August, 1673. I rode to Durdans, where I dined at my Lord
Berkeley's of Berkeley Castle, my old and noble friend, it being his
wedding anniversary, where I found the Duchess of Albemarle, and other
company, and returned home on that evening late.

15th August, 1673. Came to visit me my Lord Chancellor, the Earl of
Shaftesbury.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th August, 1673. My Lord Clifford, being about this time returned
from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of
him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were
of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting,
etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of
state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on
engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War," with other
private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington, who from a
private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune,
had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in
Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick
and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death
of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy
Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord
Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord
Arlington, which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain
it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with
such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen
any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made
one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty inclining to put
it into one hand, my Lord Clifford, under pretense of making all his
interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington, cut the grass under his
feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King that Lord Arlington
did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington protested to me that his
confidence in Lord Clifford made him so remiss and his affection to him
was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord
Clifford, all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet,
now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the
great ingratitude Lord Clifford showed, keeping my Lord Arlington in
ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which
was the Duke's into whose great favor Lord Clifford was now gotten; but
which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so
irrevocably far in his interest.

For the rest, my Lord Clifford was a valiant, incorrupt gentleman,
ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, a most constant, sincere
friend, to me in particular, so as when he laid down his office, I was
at the end of all my hopes and endeavors. These were not for high
matters, but to obtain what his Majesty was really indebted to my
father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and which I had
undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had stood. Sir Thomas Osborn, who
succeeded him, though much more obliged to my father-in-law and his
family, and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more haughty and
far less obliging nature, I could hope for little; a man of excellent
natural parts; but nothing of generous or grateful.

Taking leave of my Lord Clifford, he wrung me by the hand, and, looking
earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, adding, "Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see
thee more." "No!" said I, "my Lord, what's the meaning of this? I hope I
shall see you often, and as great a person again." "No, Mr. Evelyn, do
not expect it, I will never see this place, this city, or Court again,"
or words of this sound. In this manner, not without almost mutual tears,
I parted from him; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was
dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he made himself
away, after an extraordinary melancholy. This is not confidently
affirmed, but a servant who lived in the house, and afterward with Sir
Robert Clayton, Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when
I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his trustees, he was
not willing to enter into that discourse.

It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to
leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled
himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the
manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I
remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite
dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard
to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God,
a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is
dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all
that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and
that whole quarrel.

This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury
affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren the Council of Foreign
Plantations, when not long after, this accident being mentioned as we
were one day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable
passage: that, being one day discoursing with him when he was only Sir
Thomas Clifford, speaking of men's advancement to great charges in the
nation, "Well," says he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in
England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity; I am
certain that I shall be a mighty man; but it will not last long; I shall
not hold it, but die a bloody death." "What," says my Lord, "your
horoscope tells you so?" "No matter for that, it will be as I tell you."
"Well," says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, "if I were of that opinion,
I either would not be a great man, but decline preferment, or prevent my
danger."

This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several gentlemen and
noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. And I the rather am confident
of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (Garter King-at-Arms) had
likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made
a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on his being created
a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert
himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some
things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table,
his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where
he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state
that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it,
but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot
confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and
Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary
passage in these memoirs.

14th September, 1673. Dr. Creighton, son to the late eloquent Bishop of
Bath and Wells, preached to the Household on Isaiah, lvii. 8.

15th September, 1673. I procured £4,000 of the Lords of the Treasury,
and rectified divers matters about the sick and wounded.

16th September, 1673. To Council, about choosing a new Secretary.

17th September, 1673. I went with some friends to visit Mr. Bernard
Grenville, at Abs Court in Surrey; an old house in a pretty park.

23d September, 1673. I went to see Paradise, a room in Hatton Garden
furnished with a representation of all sorts of animals handsomely
painted on boards or cloth, and so cut out and made to stand, move, fly,
crawl, roar, and make their several cries. The man who showed it, made
us laugh heartily at his formal poetry.

15th October, 1673. To Council, and swore in Mr. Locke, secretary, Dr.
Worsley being dead.

27th October, 1673. To Council, about sending succors to recover New
York: and then we read the commission and instructions to Sir Jonathan
Atkins, the new Governor of Barbadoes.

5th November, 1673. This night the youths of the city burned the Pope in
effigy, after they had made procession with it in great triumph, they
being displeased at the Duke for altering his religion and marrying an
Italian lady.

30th November, 1673. On St. Andrew's day I first saw the new Duchess of
York, and the Duchess of Modena, her mother.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st December, 1673. To Gresham College, whither the city had invited the
Royal Society by many of their chief aldermen and magistrates, who gave
us a collation, to welcome us to our first place of assembly, from
whence we had been driven to give place to the City, on their making it
their Exchange on the dreadful conflagration, till their new Exchange
was finished, which it now was. The Society having till now been
entertained and having met at Arundel House.

2d December, 1673. I dined with some friends, and visited the sick;
thence, to an almshouse, where was prayers and relief, some very ill and
miserable. It was one of the best days I ever spent in my life.

3d December, 1673. There was at dinner my Lord Lockhart, designed
Ambassador for France, a gallant and sober person.

9th December, 1673. I saw again the Italian Duchess and her brother, the
Prince Reynaldo.

20th December, 1673. I had some discourse with certain strangers, not
unlearned, who had been born not far from Old Nineveh; they assured me
of the ruins being still extant, and vast and wonderful were the
buildings, vaults, pillars, and magnificent fragments;[34] but they
could say little of the Tower of Babel that satisfied me. But the
description of the amenity and fragrancy of the country for health and
cheerfulness, delighted me; so sensibly they spoke of the excellent air
and climate in respect of our cloudy and splenetic country.

    [Footnote 34: The remarkable discoveries of Mr. Layard give now a
    curious interest to this notice by Evelyn.]

24th December, 1673. Visited the prisoners at Ludgate, taking orders
about the releasing of some.

30th December, 1673. I gave Almighty God thanks for his infinite
goodness to me the year past, and begged his mercy and protection the
year following; afterward, invited my neighbors to spend the day with
me.

5th January, 1673-74. I saw an Italian opera in music, the first that
had been in England of this kind.

9th January, 1674. Sent for by his Majesty to write something against
the Hollanders about the duty of the Flag and Fishery. Returned with
some papers.

25th March, 1674. I dined at Knightsbridge, with the Bishops of
Salisbury, Chester, and Lincoln, my old friends.

29th May, 1674. His Majesty's birthday and Restoration. Mr. Demalhoy,
Roger L'Estrange, and several of my friends, came to dine with me on the
happy occasion.

27th June, 1674. Mr. Dryden, the famous poet and now laureate, came to
give me a visit. It was the anniversary of my marriage, and the first
day I went into my new little cell and cabinet, which I built below
toward the south court, at the east end of the parlor.

9th July, 1674. Paid £360 for purchase of Dr. Jacombe's son's share in
the mill and land at Deptford, which I bought of the Beechers.

22d July, 1674. I went to Windsor with my wife and son to see my
daughter Mary, who was there with my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his
Majesty. Next day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's at
Cranbourne Lodge, in the Forest; there were his Majesty, the Queen,
Duke, Duchess, and all the Court. I returned in the evening with Sir
Joseph Williamson, now declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor
clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College,
Oxford, of which he came to be a fellow; then traveled with ... and
returning when the King was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr.
Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (now Lord Arlington) succeeding,
Williamson is transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business
(though sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to
his man Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the secret of
affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) there was a kind of
necessity to advance him; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and
insinuation, he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord
Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of
this obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their original.
Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at _Jeu de Goblets_, exceedingly
formal, a severe master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord
O'Brien, that after a few months of that gentleman's death, he married
his widow,[35] who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Richmond,
brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they lived not so kindly
after marriage as they did before. She was much censured for marrying so
meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family.

    [Footnote 35: Lady Catherine Stuart, sister and heir to Charles
    Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, the husband of Mrs. Frances
    Stuart, one of the most admired beauties of the Court, with whom
    Charles II. was so deeply in love that he never forgave the Duke for
    marrying her, having already, it is thought, formed some similar
    intention himself. He took the first opportunity of sending the Duke
    into an honorable exile, as Ambassador to Denmark, where he shortly
    after died, leaving no issue by the Duchess.]

[Sidenote: GROOMBRIDGE]

6th August, 1674. I went to Groombridge, to see my old friend, Mr.
Packer; the house built within a moat, in a woody valley. The old house
had been the place of confinement of the Duke of Orleans, taken by one
Waller (whose house it then was) at the battle of Agincourt, now
demolished, and a new one built in its place, though a far better
situation had been on the south of the wood, on a graceful ascent. At
some small distance, is a large chapel, not long since built by Mr.
Packer's father, on a vow he made to do it on the return of King Charles
I. out of Spain, 1625, and dedicated to St. Charles, but what saint
there was then of that name I am to seek, for, being a Protestant, I
conceive it was not Borromeo.

I went to see my farm at Ripe, near Lewes.

19th August, 1674. His Majesty told me how exceedingly the Dutch were
displeased at my treatise of the "History of Commerce;" that the Holland
Ambassador had complained to him of what I had touched of the Flags and
Fishery, etc., and desired the book might be called in; while on the
other side, he assured me he was exceedingly pleased with what I had
done, and gave me many thanks. However, it being just upon conclusion of
the treaty of Breda (indeed it was designed to have been published some
months before and when we were at defiance), his Majesty told me he must
recall it formally; but gave order that what copies should be publicly
seized to pacify the Ambassador, should immediately be restored to the
printer, and that neither he nor the vender should be molested. The
truth is, that which touched the Hollander was much less than what the
King himself furnished me with, and obliged me to publish, having caused
it to be read to him before it went to press; but the error was, it
should have been published before the peace was proclaimed. The noise of
this book's suppression made it presently to be bought up, and turned
much to the stationer's advantage. It was no other than the preface
prepared to be prefixed to my "History of the Whole War;" which I now
pursued no further.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st August, 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long
Terrace below the Castle [Windsor], works were thrown up to show the
King a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the
French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works,
counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of
Monmouth (newly come from the real siege) and the Duke of York, with a
little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made
their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the
counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on
both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of
raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the
circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most
strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction
of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The
siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys back to London, where we arrived
about three in the morning.

15th September, 1674. To Council, about fetching away the English left
at Surinam, etc., since our reconciliation with Holland.

21st September, 1674. I went to see the great loss that Lord Arlington
had sustained by fire at Goring House, this night consumed to the
ground, with exceeding loss of hangings, plate, rare pictures, and
cabinets; hardly anything was saved of the best and most princely
furniture that any subject had in England. My lord and lady were both
absent at the Bath.

6th October, 1674. The Lord Chief Baron Turner, and Sergeant Wild,
Recorder of London, came to visit me.

20th October, 1674. At Lord Berkeley's, I discoursed with Sir Thomas
Modiford, late Governor of Jamaica, and with Colonel Morgan, who
undertook that gallant exploit from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the
Continent of America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all the
Spanish Indies, they were so secure. They took great booty, and much
greater had been taken, had they not been betrayed and so discovered
before their approach, by which the Spaniards had time to carry their
vast treasure on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men,
who had no boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and ravaged the
country sixty miles about. The Spaniards were so supine and unexercised,
that they were afraid to fire a great gun.

31st October, 1674. My birthday, 54th year of my life. Blessed be God!
It was also preparation day for the Holy Sacrament, in which I
participated the next day, imploring God's protection for the year
following, and confirming my resolutions of a more holy life, even upon
the Holy Book. The Lord assist and be gracious unto me! Amen.

15th November, 1674. The anniversary of my baptism: I first heard that
famous and excellent preacher, Dr. Burnet, author of the "History of the
Reformation" on Colossians iii. 10, with such flow of eloquence and
fullness of matter, as showed him to be a person o£ extraordinary parts.

Being her Majesty's birthday, the Court was exceeding splendid in
clothes and jewels, to the height of excess.

17th November, 1674. To Council, on the business of Surinam, where the
Dutch had detained some English in prison, ever since the first war,
1665.

19th November, 1674. I heard that stupendous violin, Signor Nicholao
(with other rare musicians), whom I never heard mortal man exceed on
that instrument. He had a stroke so sweet, and made it speak like the
voice of a man, and, when he pleased, like a concert of several
instruments. He did wonders upon a note, and was an excellent composer.
Here was also that rare lutanist, Dr. Wallgrave; but nothing approached
the violin in Nicholao's hand. He played such ravishing things as
astonished us all.

2d December, 1674. At Mr. Slingsby's, master of the mint, my worthy
friend, a great lover of music. Heard Signor Francisco on the
harpsichord, esteemed one of the most excellent masters in Europe on
that instrument; then, came Nicholao with his violin, and struck all
mute, but Mrs. Knight, who sung incomparably, and doubtless has the
greatest reach of any English woman; she had been lately roaming in
Italy, and was much improved in that quality.

15th December, 1674. Saw a comedy at night, at Court, acted by the
ladies only, among them Lady Mary and Ann, his Royal Highness' two
daughters, and my dear friend Mrs. Blagg, who, having the principal
part, performed it to admiration. They were all covered with jewels.

22d December, 1674. Was at the repetition of the "Pastoral," on which
occasion Mrs. Blagg had about her near £20,000 worth of jewels, of which
she lost one worth about £80, borrowed of the Countess of Suffolk. The
press was so great, that it is a wonder she lost no more. The Duke made
it good.

20th January, 1674-75. Went to see Mr. Streeter, that excellent painter
of perspective and landscape, to comfort and encourage him to be cut for
the stone, with which that honest man was exceedingly afflicted.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

22d March, 1675. Supped at Sir William Petty's, with the Bishop of
Salisbury, and divers honorable persons. We had a noble entertainment in
a house gloriously furnished; the master and mistress of it were
extraordinary persons. Sir William was the son of a mean man somewhere
in Sussex, and sent from school to Oxford, where he studied Philosophy,
but was most eminent in Mathematics and Mechanics; proceeded Doctor of
Physic, and was grown famous, as for his learning so for his recovering
a poor wench that had been hanged for felony; and her body having been
begged (as the custom is) for the anatomy lecture, he bled her, put her
to bed to a warm woman, and, with spirits and other means, restored her
to life. The young scholars joined and made a little portion, and
married her to a man who had several children by her, she living fifteen
years after, as I have been assured. Sir William came from Oxford to be
tutor to a neighbor of mine; thence, when the rebels were dividing their
conquests in Ireland, he was employed by them to measure and set out the
land, which he did on an easy contract, so much per acre. This he
effected so exactly, that it not only furnished him with a great sum of
money; but enabled him to purchase an estate worth £4,000 a year. He
afterward married the daughter of Sir Hardress Waller; she was an
extraordinary wit as well as beauty, and a prudent woman.

Sir William, among other inventions, was author of the double-bottomed
ship, which perished, and he was censured for rashness, being lost in
the Bay of Biscay in a storm, when, I think, fifteen other vessels
miscarried. This vessel was flat-bottomed, of exceeding use to put into
shallow ports, and ride over small depths of water. It consisted of two
distinct keels cramped together with huge timbers, etc., so as that a
violent stream ran between; it bore a monstrous broad sail, and he still
persists that it is practicable, and of exceeding use; and he has often
told me he would adventure himself in such another, could he procure
sailors, and his Majesty's permission to make a second Experiment; which
name the King gave the vessel at the launching.

The Map of Ireland made by Sir William Petty is believed to be the most
exact that ever yet was made of any country. He did promise to publish
it; and I am told it has cost him near £1,000 to have it engraved at
Amsterdam. There is not a better Latin poet living, when he gives
himself that diversion; nor is his excellence less in Council and
prudent matters of state; but he is so exceedingly nice in sifting and
examining all possible contingencies, that he adventures at nothing
which is not demonstration. There was not in the whole world his equal
for a superintendent of manufacture and improvement of trade, or to
govern a plantation. If I were a Prince, I should make him my second
Counsellor, at least. There is nothing difficult to him. He is, besides,
courageous; on which account, I cannot but note a true story of him,
that when Sir Aleyn Brodrick sent him a challenge upon a difference
between them in Ireland, Sir William, though exceedingly purblind,
accepted the challenge, and it being his part to propound the weapon,
desired his antagonist to meet him with a hatchet, or axe, in a dark
cellar; which the other, of course, refused.

Sir William was, with all this, facetious and of easy conversation,
friendly and courteous, and had such a faculty of imitating others, that
he would take a text and preach, now like a grave orthodox divine, then
falling into the Presbyterian way, then to the fanatical, the Quaker,
the monk and friar, the Popish priest, with such admirable action, and
alteration of voice and tone, as it was not possible to abstain from
wonder, and one would swear to hear several persons, or forbear to think
he was not in good earnest an enthusiast and almost beside himself;
then, he would fall out of it into a serious discourse; but it was very
rarely he would be prevailed on to oblige the company with this faculty,
and that only among most intimate friends. My Lord Duke of Ormond once
obtained it of him, and was almost ravished with admiration; but by and
by, he fell upon a serious reprimand of the faults and miscarriages of
some Princes and Governors, which, though he named none, did so sensibly
touch the Duke, who was then Lieutenant of Ireland, that he began to be
very uneasy, and wished the spirit laid which he had raised, for he was
neither able to endure such truths, nor could he but be delighted. At
last, he melted his discourse to a ridiculous subject, and came down
from the joint stool on which he had stood; but my lord would not have
him preach any more. He never could get favor at Court, because he
outwitted all the projectors that came near him. Having never known such
another genius, I cannot but mention these particulars, among a
multitude of others which I could produce. When I, who knew him in mean
circumstances, have been in his splendid palace, he would himself be in
admiration how he arrived at it; nor was it his value or inclination for
splendid furniture and the curiosities of the age, but his elegant lady
could endure nothing mean, or that was not magnificent. He was very
negligent himself, and rather so of his person, and of a philosophic
temper. "What a to-do is here!" would he say, "I can lie in straw with
as much satisfaction."

He is author of the ingenious deductions from the bills of mortality,
which go under the name of Mr. Graunt; also of that useful discourse of
the manufacture of wool, and several others in the register of the Royal
Society. He was also author of that paraphrase on the 104th Psalm in
Latin verse, which goes about in MS., and is inimitable. In a word,
there is nothing impenetrable to him.

26th March, 1675. Dr. Brideoak was elected Bishop of Chichester, on the
translation of Dr. Gunning to Ely.

30th March, 1675. Dr. Allestree preached on Romans, vi. 3, the necessity
of those who are baptized to die to sin; a very excellent discourse from
an excellent preacher.

25th April, 1675. Dr. Barrow, that excellent, pious, and most learned
man, divine, mathematician, poet, traveler, and most humble person,
preached at Whitehall to the household, on Luke xx. 27, of love and
charity to our neighbors.

29th April, 1675. I read my first discourse, "Of Earth and Vegetation,"
before the Royal Society as a lecture in course, after Sir Robert
Southwell had read his, the week before, "On Water." I was commanded by
our President and the suffrage of the Society, to print it.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

16th May, 1675. This day was my dear friend, Mrs. Blagg, married at the
Temple Church to my friend, Mr. Sidney Godolphin, Groom of the
Bedchamber to his Majesty.

18th May, 1675. I went to visit one Mr. Bathurst, a Spanish merchant, my
neighbor.

31st May, 1675. I went with Lord Ossory to Deptford, where we chose him
Master of the Trinity Company.

2d June, 1675. I was at a conference of the Lords and Commons in the
Painted Chamber, on a difference about imprisoning some of their
members; and on the 3d, at another conference, when the Lords accused
the Commons for their transcendent misbehavior, breach of privilege,
Magna Charta, subversion of government, and other high, provoking, and
diminishing expressions, showing what duties and subjection they owed to
the Lords in Parliament, by record of Henry IV. This was likely to
create a notable disturbance.

15th June, 1675. This afternoon came Monsieur Querouaille and his lady,
parents to the famous beauty and ... favorite at Court, to see Sir R.
Browne, with whom they were intimately acquainted in Bretagne, at the
time Sir Richard was sent to Brest to supervise his Majesty's sea
affairs, during the latter part of the King's banishment. This
gentleman's house was not a mile from Brest; Sir Richard made an
acquaintance there, and, being used very civilly, was obliged to return
it here, which we did. He seemed a soldierly person and a good fellow,
as the Bretons generally are; his lady had been very handsome, and
seemed a shrewd understanding woman. Conversing with him in our garden,
I found several words of the Breton language the same with our Welsh.
His daughter was now made Duchess of Portsmouth, and in the height of
favor; but he never made any use of it.

27th June, 1675. At Ely House, I went to the consecration of my worthy
friend, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's College, Oxford, now
made Bishop of Lincoln. After it succeeded a magnificent feast, where
were the Duke of Ormond, Earl of Lauderdale, the Lord Treasurer, Lord
Keeper, etc.

8th July, 1675. I went with Mrs. Howard and her two daughters toward
Northampton Assizes, about a trial at law, in which I was concerned for
them as a trustee. We lay this night at Henley-on-the Thames, at our
attorney, Mr. Stephens's, who entertained us very handsomely. Next day,
dining at Shotover, at Sir Timothy Tyrill's, a sweet place, we lay at
Oxford, where it was the time of the Act. Mr. Robert Spencer, uncle to
the Earl of Sunderland, and my old acquaintance in France, entertained
us at his apartment in Christ Church with exceeding generosity.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th July, 1675. The Vice Chancellor Dr. Bathurst (who had formerly
taken particular care of my son), President of Trinity College invited
me to dinner, and did me great honor all the time of my stay. The next
day, he invited me and all my company, though strangers to him, to a
very noble feast. I was at all the academic exercises.--Sunday, at St.
Mary's, preached a Fellow of Brasen-nose, not a little magnifying the
dignity of Churchmen.

11th July, 1675. We heard the speeches, and saw the ceremony of creating
doctors in Divinity, Law and Physic. I had, early in the morning, heard
Dr. Morison, Botanic Professor, read on divers plants in the Physic
Garden; and saw that rare collection of natural curiosities of Dr.
Plot's, of Magdalen Hall, author of "The Natural History of
Oxfordshire," all of them collected in that shire, and indeed
extraordinary, that in one county there should be found such variety of
plants, shells, stones, minerals, marcasites, fowls, insects, models of
works, crystals, agates, and marbles. He was now intending to visit
Staffordshire, and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give us the natural,
topical, political, and mechanical history. Pity it is that more of this
industrious man's genius were not employed so to describe every county
of England; it would be one of the most useful and illustrious works
that was ever produced in any age or nation.

I visited also the Bodleian Library and my old friend, the learned
Obadiah Walker, head of University College, which he had now almost
rebuilt, or repaired. We then proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived
the next day.

In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Graham (since Privy
Purse to the Duke), a young gentleman exceedingly in love with Mrs.
Dorothy Howard, one of the maids of honor in our company. I could not
but pity them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady was not
only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and excellent creature, and
worthy to have been wife to the best of men. My advice was required, and
I spoke to the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity than
that she deserved no better match; for, though he was a gentleman of
good family, yet there was great inequality.

14th July, 1675. I went to see my Lord Sunderland's Seat at Althorpe,
four miles from the ragged town of Northampton (since burned, and well
rebuilt). It is placed in a pretty open bottom, very finely watered and
flanked with stately woods and groves in a park, with a canal, but the
water is not running, which is a defect. The house, a kind of modern
building, of freestone, within most nobly furnished; the apartments very
commodious, a gallery and noble hall; but the kitchen being in the body
of the house, and chapel too small, were defects. There is an old yet
honorable gatehouse standing awry, and out-housing mean, but designed to
be taken away. It was moated round, after the old manner, but it is now
dry, and turfed with a beautiful carpet. Above all, are admirable and
magnificent the several ample gardens furnished with the choicest fruit,
and exquisitely kept. Great plenty of oranges, and other curiosities.
The park full of fowl, especially herons, and from it a prospect to
Holmby House, which being demolished in the late civil wars, shows like
a Roman ruin shaded by the trees about it, a stately, solemn, and
pleasing view.

15th July, 1675. Our cause was pleaded in behalf of the mother, Mrs.
Howard and her daughters, before Baron Thurland, who had formerly been
steward of Courts for me; we carried our cause, as there was reason, for
here was an impudent as well as disobedient son against his mother, by
instigation, doubtless, of his wife, one Mrs. Ogle (an ancient maid),
whom he had clandestinely married, and who brought him no fortune, he
being heir-apparent to the Earl of Berkshire. We lay at Brickhill, in
Bedfordshire, and came late the next day to our journey's end.

This was a journey of adventures and knight-errantry. One of the lady's
servants being as desperately in love with Mrs. Howard's woman, as Mr.
Graham was with her daughter, and she riding on horseback behind his
rival, the amorous and jealous youth having a little drink in his pate,
had here killed himself had he not been prevented; for, alighting from
his horse, and drawing his sword, he endeavored twice or thrice to fall
on it, but was interrupted by our coachman, and a stranger passing by.
After this, running to his rival, and snatching his sword from his side
(for we had beaten his own out of his hand), and on the sudden pulling
down his mistress, would have run both of them through; we parted them,
not without some blood. This miserable creature poisoned himself for her
not many days after they came to London.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th July, 1675. The Lord Treasurer's Chaplain preached at Wallingford
House.

9th August, 1675. Dr. Sprat, prebend of Westminster, and Chaplain to the
Duke of Buckingham, preached on the 3d Epistle of Jude, showing what the
primitive faith was, how near it and how excellent that of the Church of
England, also the danger of departing from it.

27th August, 1675. I visited the Bishop of Rochester, at Bromley, and
dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, at Frogpoole [Frognall].

2d September, 1675. I went to see Dulwich College, being the pious
foundation of one Alleyn, a famous comedian, in King James's time. The
chapel is pretty, the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet
maintains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy part of
Camberwell parish. I came back by certain medicinal Spa waters, at a
place called Sydenham Wells, in Lewisham parish, much frequented in
summer.

10th September, 1675. I was casually shown the Duchess of Portsmouth's
splendid apartment at Whitehall, luxuriously furnished, and with ten
times the richness and glory beyond the Queen's; such massy pieces of
plate, whole tables, and stands of incredible value.

29th September, 1675. I saw the Italian Scaramuccio act before the King
at Whitehall, people giving money to come in, which was very scandalous,
and never so before at Court diversions. Having seen him act before in
Italy, many years past, I was not averse from seeing the most excellent
of that kind of folly.

14th October, 1675. Dined at Kensington with my old acquaintance, Mr.
Henshaw, newly returned from Denmark, where he had been left resident
after the death of the Duke of Richmond, who died there Ambassador.

15th October, 1675. I got an extreme cold, such as was afterward so
epidemical, as not only to afflict us in this island, but was rife over
all Europe, like a plague. It was after an exceedingly dry summer and
autumn.

I settled affairs, my son being to go into France with my Lord Berkeley,
designed Ambassador-extraordinary for France and Plenipotentiary for the
general treaty of peace at Nimeguen.

24th October, 1675. Dined at Lord Chamberlain's with the Holland
Ambassador L. Duras, a valiant gentleman whom his Majesty made an
English Baron, of a cadet, and gave him his seat of Holmby, in
Northamptonshire.

27th October, 1675. Lord Berkeley coming into Council, fell down in the
gallery at Whitehall, in a fit of apoplexy, and being carried into my
Lord Chamberlain's lodgings, several famous doctors were employed all
that night, and with much ado he was at last recovered to some sense, by
applying hot fire pans and spirit of amber to his head; but nothing was
found so effectual as cupping him on the shoulders. It was almost a
miraculous restoration. The next day he was carried to Berkeley House.
This stopped his journey for the present, and caused my stay in town. He
had put all his affairs and his whole estate in England into my hands
during his intended absence, which though I was very unfit to undertake,
in regard of many businesses which then took me up, yet, upon the great
importunity of my lady and Mr. Godolphin (to whom I could refuse
nothing) I did take it on me. It seems when he was Deputy in Ireland,
not long before, he had been much wronged by one he left in trust with
his affairs, and therefore wished for some unmercenary friend who would
take that trouble on him; this was to receive his rents, look after his
houses and tenants, solicit supplies from the Lord Treasurer, and
correspond weekly with him, more than enough to employ any drudge in
England; but what will not friendship and love make one do?

31st October, 1675. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's, with my son. There
were the learned Isaac Vossius, and Spanhemius, son of the famous man of
Heidelberg; nor was this gentleman less learned, being a general
scholar. Among other pieces, he was author of an excellent treatise on
Medals.

10th November, 1675. Being the day appointed for my Lord Ambassador to
set out, I met them with my coach at New Cross. There were with him my
Lady his wife, and my dear friend, Mrs. Godolphin, who, out of an
extraordinary friendship, would needs accompany my lady to Paris, and
stay with her some time, which was the chief inducement for permitting
my son to travel, but I knew him safe under her inspection, and in
regard my Lord himself had promised to take him into his special favor,
he having intrusted all he had to my care.

Thus we set out three coaches (besides mine), three wagons, and about
forty horses. It being late, and my Lord as yet but valetudinary, we got
but to Dartford, the first day, the next to Sittingbourne.

At Rochester, the major, Mr. Cony, then an officer of mine for the sick
and wounded of that place, gave the ladies a handsome refreshment as we
came by his house.

[Sidenote: DOVER]

12th November, 1675. We came to Canterbury: and, next morning, to Dover.

There was in my Lady Ambassadress's company my Lady Hamilton, a
sprightly young lady, much in the good graces of the family, wife of
that valiant and worthy gentleman, George Hamilton, not long after slain
in the wars. She had been a maid of honor to the Duchess, and now turned
Papist.

14th November, 1675. Being Sunday, my Lord having before delivered to me
his letter of attorney, keys, seal, and his Will, we took a solemn leave
of one another upon the beach, the coaches carrying them into the sea to
the boats, which delivered them to Captain Gunman's yacht, the "Mary."
Being under sail, the castle gave them seventeen guns, which Captain
Gunman answered with eleven. Hence, I went to church, to beg a blessing
on their voyage.

2d December, 1675. Being returned home, I visited Lady Mordaunt at
Parson's Green, my Lord, her son, being sick. This pious woman delivered
to me £100 to bestow as I thought fit for the release of poor prisoners,
and other charitable uses.

21st December, 1675. Visited her Ladyship again, where I found the
Bishop of Winchester, whom I had long known in France; he invited me to
his house at Chelsea.

23d December, 1675. Lady Sunderland gave me ten guineas, to bestow in
charities.

20th February, 1675-76. Dr. Gunning, Bishop of Ely, preached before the
King from St. John xx. 21, 22, 23, chiefly against an anonymous book,
called "Naked Truth," a famous and popular treatise against the
corruption in the Clergy, but not sound as to its quotations, supposed
to have been the Bishop of Hereford's and was answered by Dr. Turner, it
endeavoring to prove an equality of order of Bishop and Presbyter.

27th February, 1676. Dr. Pritchard, Bishop of Gloucester, preached at
Whitehall, on Isaiah v. 5, very allegorically, according to his manner,
yet very gravely and wittily.

29th February, 1676. I dined with Mr. Povey, one of the Masters of
Requests, a nice contriver of all elegancies, and exceedingly formal.
Supped with Sir J. Williamson, where were of our Society Mr. Robert
Boyle, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir William Petty, Dr. Holden, subdean of
his Majesty's Chapel, Sir James Shaen, Dr. Whistler, and our Secretary,
Mr. Oldenburg.

4th March, 1676. Sir Thomas Linch was returned from his government of
Jamaica.

16th March, 1676. The Countess of Sunderland and I went by water to
Parson's Green, to visit my Lady Mordaunt, and to consult with her about
my Lord's monument. We returned by coach.

19th March, 1676. Dr. Lloyd, late Curate of Deptford, but now Bishop of
Llandaff, preached before the King, on 1 Cor. xv. 57, that though sin
subjects us to death, yet through Christ we become his conquerors.

23d March, 1676. To Twickenham Park, Lord Berkeley's country seat, to
examine how the bailiffs and servants ordered matters.

24th March, 1676. Dr. Brideoake, Bishop of Chichester, preached a mean
discourse for a Bishop. I also heard Dr. Fleetwood, Bishop of Worcester,
on Matt. xxvi. 38, of the sorrows of Christ, a deadly sorrow caused by
our sins; he was no great preacher.

30th March, 1676. Dining with my Lady Sunderland, I saw a fellow swallow
a knife, and divers great pebble stones, which would make a plain
rattling one against another. The knife was in a sheath of horn.

Dr. North, son of my Lord North, preached before the King, on Isaiah
liii. 57, a very young but learned and excellent person. Note. This was
the first time the Duke appeared no more in chapel, to the infinite
grief and threatened ruin of this poor nation.

2d April, 1676. I had now notice that my dear friend Mrs. Godolphin, was
returning from Paris. On the 6th, she arrived to my great joy, whom I
most heartily welcomed.

28th April, 1676. My wife entertained her Majesty at Deptford, for which
the Queen gave me thanks in the withdrawing room at Whitehall.

The University of Oxford presented me with the "_Marmora Oxoniensia
Arundeliana_"; the Bishop of Oxford writing to desire that I would
introduce Mr. Prideaux, the editor (a young man most learned in
antiquities) to the Duke of Norfolk, to present another dedicated to his
Grace, which I did, and we dined with the Duke at Arundel House, and
supped at the Bishop of Rochester's with Isaac Vossius.

7th May, 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York about my Lord Berkeley's
going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House,
about Mrs. Godolphin's lease of Spalding, in Lincolnshire.

11th May, 1676. I dined with Mr. Charleton, and went to see Mr.
Montague's new palace, near Bloomsbury, built by Mr. Hooke, of our
Society, after the French manner.[36]

    [Footnote 36: Now the British Museum.]

13th May, 1676. Returned home, and found my son returned from France;
praised be God!

22d May, 1676. Trinity Monday. A chaplain of my Lord Ossory's preached,
after which we took barge to Trinity House in London. Mr. Pepys
(Secretary of the Admiralty) succeeded my Lord as Master.

[Sidenote: ENFIELD]

2d June, 1676. I went with my Lord Chamberlain to see a garden, at
Enfield town; thence, to Mr. Secretary Coventry's lodge in the Chase. It
is a very pretty place, the house commodious, the gardens handsome, and
our entertainment very free, there being none but my Lord and myself.
That which I most wondered at was, that, in the compass of twenty-five
miles, yet within fourteen of London, there is not a house, barn,
church, or building, besides three lodges. To this Lodge are three great
ponds, and some few inclosures, the rest a solitary desert, yet stored
with no less than 3,000 deer. These are pretty retreats for gentlemen,
especially for those who are studious and lovers of privacy.

We returned in the evening by Hampstead, to see Lord Wotton's house and
garden (Bellsize House), built with vast expense by Mr. O'Neale, an
Irish gentleman who married Lord Wotton's mother, Lady Stanhope. The
furniture is very particular for Indian cabinets, porcelain, and other
solid and noble movables. The gallery very fine, the gardens very large,
but ill kept, yet woody and chargeable. The soil a cold weeping clay,
not answering the expense.

12th June, 1676. I went to see Sir Thomas Bond's new and fine house by
Peckham; it is on a flat, but has a fine garden and prospect through the
meadows to London.

2d July, 1676. Dr. Castillion, Prebend of Canterbury, preached before
the King, on John xv. 22, at Whitehall.

19th July, 1676. Went to the funeral of Sir William Sanderson, husband
to the Mother of the Maids, and author of two large but mean histories
of King James and King Charles I. He was buried at Westminster.

1st August, 1676. In the afternoon, after prayers at St. James's Chapel,
was christened a daughter of Dr. Leake's, the Duke's Chaplain:
godmothers were Lady Mary, daughter of the Duke of York, and the Duchess
of Monmouth: godfather, the Earl of Bath.

15th August, 1676. Came to dine with me my Lord Halifax, Sir Thomas
Meeres, one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty, Sir John Clayton, Mr.
Slingsby, Mr. Henshaw, and Mr. Bridgeman.

25th August, 1676. Dined with Sir John Banks at his house in Lincoln's
Inn Fields, on recommending Mr. Upman to be tutor to his son going into
France. This Sir John Banks was a merchant of small beginning, but had
amassed £100,000.

26th August, 1676. I dined at the Admiralty with Secretary Pepys, and
supped at the Lord Chamberlain's. Here was Captain Baker, who had been
lately on the attempt of the Northwest passage. He reported prodigious
depth of ice, blue as a sapphire, and as transparent. The thick mists
were their chief impediment, and cause of their return.

2d September, 1676. I paid £1,700 to the Marquis de Sissac, which he had
lent to my Lord Berkeley, and which I heard the Marquis lost at play in
a night or two.

The Dean of Chichester preached before the King, on Acts xxiv. 16; and
Dr. Crichton preached the second sermon before him on Psalm xc. 12, of
wisely numbering our days, and well employing our time.

3d September, 1676. Dined at Captain Graham's, where I became acquainted
with Dr. Compton (brother to the Earl of Northampton), now Bishop of
London, and Mr. North, son to the Lord North, brother to the Lord
Chief-Justice and Clerk of the Closet, a most hopeful young man. The
Bishop had once been a soldier, had also traveled in Italy, and became a
most sober, grave, and excellent prelate.

6th September, 1676. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's, where also supped
the famous beauty and errant lady, the Duchess of Mazarine (all the
world knows her story), the Duke of Monmouth, Countess of Sussex (both
natural children of the King by the Duchess of Cleveland[37]), and the
Countess of Derby, a virtuous lady, daughter to my best friend, the Earl
of Ossory.

    [Footnote 37: Evelyn makes a slip here. The Duke of Monmouth's
    mother was, it is well known, Lucy Walters, sometimes called Mrs.
    Barlow, and heretofore mentioned in the "Diary." Nor is he more
    correct as to the Countess of Sussex. Lady Anne Fitzroy, as she is
    called in the Peerage books, was married to Lennard Dacre, Earl of
    Sussex, by whom she left a daughter only, who succeeded on her
    father's death to the Barony of Dacre. On the other hand, the Duke
    of Southampton, the Duke of Grafton, and the Duke of Northumberland,
    were all of them children of Charles II. by the Duchess of
    Cleveland.]

10th September, 1676. Dined with me Mr. Flamsted, the learned astrologer
and mathematician, whom his Majesty had established in the new
Observatory in Greenwich Park, furnished with the choicest instruments.
An honest, sincere man.

12th September, 1676. To London, to take order about the building of a
house, or rather an apartment, which had all the conveniences of a
house, for my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin and lady, which I undertook to
contrive and survey, and employ workmen until it should be quite
finished; it being just over against his Majesty's wood-yard by the
Thames side, leading to Scotland Yard.

19th September, 1676. To Lambeth, to that rare magazine of marble, to
take order for chimney-pieces, etc., for Mr. Godolphin's house. The
owner of the works had built for himself a pretty dwelling house; this
Dutchman had contracted with the Genoese for all their marble. We also
saw the Duke of Buckingham's glasswork, where they made huge vases of
metal as clear, ponderous, and thick as crystal; also looking-glasses
far larger and better than any that come from Venice.

9th October, 1676. I went with Mrs. Godolphin and my wife to Blackwall,
to see some Indian curiosities; the streets being slippery, I fell
against a piece of timber with such violence that I could not speak nor
fetch my breath for some space; being carried into a house and let
blood, I was removed to the water-side and so home, where, after a day's
rest, I recovered. This being one of my greatest deliverances, the Lord
Jesus make me ever mindful and thankful!

31st October, 1676. Being my birthday, and fifty-six years old, I spent
the morning in devotion and imploring God's protection, with solemn
thanksgiving for all his signal mercies to me, especially for that
escape which concerned me this month at Blackwall. Dined with Mrs.
Godolphin, and returned home through a prodigious and dangerous mist.

9th November, 1676. Finished the lease of Spalding, for Mr. Godolphin.

16th November, 1676. My son and I dining at my Lord Chamberlain's, he
showed us among others that incomparable piece of Raphael's, being a
Minister of State dictating to Guicciardini, the earnestness of whose
face looking up in expectation of what he was next to write, is so to
the life, and so natural, as I esteem it one of the choicest pieces of
that admirable artist. There was a woman's head of Leonardo da Vinci; a
Madonna of old Palma, and two of Vandyke's, of which one was his own
picture at length, when young, in a leaning posture; the other, an
eunuch, singing. Rare pieces indeed!

4th December, 1676. I saw the great ball danced by all the gallants and
ladies at the Duchess of York's.

10th December, 1676. There fell so deep a snow as hindered us from
church.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

12th December, 1676. To London, in so great a snow, as I remember not
to have seen the like.

17th December, 1676. More snow falling, I was not able to get to church.

8th February, 1676-77. I went to Roehampton, with my Lady Duchess of
Ormond. The garden and perspective is pretty, the prospect most
agreeable.

15th May, 1677. Came the Earl of Peterborough, to desire me to be a
trustee for Lord Viscount Mordaunt and the Countess, for the sale of
certain lands set out by Act of Parliament, to pay debts.

12th June, 1677. I went to London, to give the Lord Ambassador Berkeley
(now returned from the treaty at Nimeguen) an account of the great trust
reposed in me during his absence, I having received and remitted to him
no less than £20,000 to my no small trouble and loss of time, that
during his absence, and when the Lord Treasurer was no great friend [of
his] I yet procured him great sums, very often soliciting his Majesty in
his behalf; looking after the rest of his estates and concerns entirely,
without once accepting any kind of acknowledgment, purely upon the
request of my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin. I returned with abundance of
thanks and professions from my Lord Berkeley and my Lady.

29th June, 1677. This business being now at an end, and myself delivered
from that intolerable servitude and correspondence, I had leisure to be
somewhat more at home and to myself.

3d July, 1677. I sealed the deeds of sale of the manor of Blechingley to
Sir Robert Clayton, for payment of Lord Peterborough's debts, according
to the trust of the Act of Parliament.

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

16th July, 1677. I went to Wotton.--22d. Mr. Evans, curate of Abinger,
preached an excellent sermon on Matt. v. 12. In the afternoon, Mr.
Higham at Wotton catechised.

26th July, 1677. I dined at Mr. Duncomb's, at Sheere, whose house stands
environed with very sweet and quick streams.

29th July, 1677. Mr. Bohun, my Son's late tutor, preached at Abinger, on
Phil., iv. 8, very elegantly and practically.

5th August, 1677. I went to visit my Lord Brounker, now taking the
waters at Dulwich.

9th August, 1677. Dined at the Earl of Peterborough's the day after the
marriage of my Lord of Arundel to Lady Mary Mordaunt, daughter of the
Earl of Peterborough.

28th August, 1677. To visit my Lord Chamberlain, in Suffolk; he sent his
coach and six to meet and bring me from St. Edmund's Bury to Euston.

29th August, 1677. We hunted in the Park and killed a very fat buck.

31st August, 1677. I went a hawking.

4th September, 1677. I went to visit my Lord Crofts, now dying at St.
Edmunds Bury, and took the opportunity to see this ancient town, and the
remains of that famous monastery and abbey. There is little standing
entire, save the gatehouse; it has been a vast and magnificent Gothic
structure, and of great extent. The gates are wood, but quite plated
over with iron. There are also two stately churches, one especially.

5th September, 1677. I went to Thetford, to the borough-town, where
stand the ruins of a religious house: there is a round mountain
artificially raised, either for some castle, or monument, which makes a
pretty landscape. As we went and returned, a tumbler showed his
extraordinary address in the Warren. I also saw the Decoy; much pleased
with the stratagem.

7th September, 1677. There dined this day at my Lord's one Sir John
Gaudy, a very handsome person, but quite dumb, yet very intelligent by
signs, and a very fine painter; he was so civil and well bred, as it was
not possible to discern any imperfection in him. His lady and children
were also there, and he was at church in the morning with us.

9th September, 1677. A stranger preached at Euston Church, and fell into
a handsome panegyric on my Lord's new building the church, which indeed
for its elegance and cheerfulness, is one of the prettiest country
churches in England. My Lord told me his heart smote him that, after he
had bestowed so much on his magnificent palace there, he should see
God's House in the ruin it lay in. He has also rebuilt the
parsonage-house, all of stone, very neat and ample.

[Sidenote: EUSTON]

10th September, 1677. To divert me, my Lord would needs carry me to see
Ipswich, when we dined with one Mr. Mann by the way, who was Recorder of
the town. There were in our company my Lord Huntingtower, son to the
Duchess of Lauderdale, Sir Edward Bacon, a learned gentleman of the
family of the great Chancellor Verulam, and Sir John Felton, with some
other knights and gentlemen. After dinner came the bailiff and
magistrates in their formalities with their maces to compliment my Lord,
and invite him to the town-house, where they presented us a collation of
dried sweetmeats and wine, the bells ringing, etc. Then, we went to see
the town, and first, the Lord Viscount Hereford's house, which stands in
a park near the town, like that at Brussels, in Flanders; the house not
great, yet pretty, especially the hall. The stews for fish succeeded one
another, and feed one the other, all paved at bottom. There is a good
picture of the blessed virgin in one of the parlors, seeming to be of
Holbein, or some good master. Then we saw the Haven, seven miles from
Harwich. The tide runs out every day, but the bedding being soft mud, it
is safe for shipping and a station. The trade of Ipswich is for the most
part Newcastle coals, with which they supply London; but it was formerly
a clothing town. There is not any beggar asks alms in the whole place, a
thing very extraordinary, so ordered by the prudence of the magistrates.
It has in it fourteen or fifteen beautiful churches: in a word, it is
for building, cleanness, and good order, one of the best towns in
England. Cardinal Wolsey was a butcher's son of Ipswich, but there is
little of that magnificent Prelate's foundation here, besides a school
and I think a library, which I did not see. His intentions were to build
some great thing. We returned late to Euston, having traveled about
fifty miles this day.

Since first I was at this place, I found things exceedingly improved.
It is seated in a bottom between two graceful swellings, the main
building being now in the figure of a Greek II with four pavilions, two
at each corner, and a break in the front, railed and balustered at the
top, where I caused huge jars to be placed full of earth to keep them
steady upon their pedestals between the statues, which make as good a
show as if they were of stone, and, though the building be of brick, and
but two stories besides cellars and garrets covered with blue slate, yet
there is room enough for a full court, the offices and outhouses being
so ample and well disposed. The King's apartment is painted _à fresco_,
and magnificently furnished. There are many excellent pictures of the
great masters. The gallery is a pleasant, noble room; in the break, or
middle, is a billiard table, but the wainscot, being of fir, and
painted, does not please me so well as Spanish oak without paint. The
chapel is pretty, the porch descending to the gardens. The orange garden
is very fine, and leads into the greenhouse, at the end of which is a
hall to eat in, and the conservatory some hundred feet long, adorned
with maps, as the other side is with the heads of the Cæsars, ill cut in
alabaster; above are several apartments for my Lord, Lady, and Duchess,
with kitchens and other offices below, in a lesser form; lodgings for
servants, all distinct for them to retire to when they please and would
be in private, and have no communication with the palace, which he tells
me he will wholly resign to his son-in-law and daughter, that charming
young creature.

The canal running under my Lady's dressing room chamber window, is full
of carps and fowl, which come and are fed there. The cascade at the end
of the canal turns a cornmill that provides the family, and raises water
for the fountains and offices. To pass this canal into the opposite
meadows, Sir Samuel Morland has invented a screw bridge, which, being
turned with a key, lands you fifty feet distant at the entrance of an
ascending walk of trees, a mile in length,--as it is also on the front
into the park,--of four rows of ash trees, and reaches to the park pale,
which is nine miles in compass, and the best for riding and meeting the
game that I ever saw. There were now of red and fallow deer almost a
thousand, with good covert, but the soil barren and flying sand, in
which nothing will grow kindly. The tufts of fir, and much of the other
wood, were planted by my direction some years before. This seat is
admirably placed for field sports, hawking, hunting, or racing. The
mutton is small, but sweet. The stables hold thirty horses and four
coaches. The out-offices make two large quadrangles, so as servants
never lived with more ease and convenience; never master more civil.
Strangers are attended and accommodated as at their home, in pretty
apartments furnished with all manner of conveniences and privacy.

There is a library full of excellent books; bathing rooms, elaboratory,
dispensary, a decoy, and places to keep and fat fowl in. He had now in
his new church (near the garden) built a dormitory, or vault, with
several repositories, in which to bury his family.

In the expense of this pious structure, the church is most laudable,
most of the houses of God in this country resembling rather stables and
thatched cottages than temples in which to serve the Most High. He has
built a lodge in the park for the keeper, which is a neat dwelling, and
might become any gentleman. The same has he done for the parson, little
deserving it for murmuring that my Lord put him some time out of his
wretched hovel, while it was building. He has also erected a fair inn at
some distance from his palace, with a bridge of stone over a river near
it, and repaired all the tenants' houses, so as there is nothing but
neatness and accommodations about his estate, which I yet think is not
above £1,500 a year. I believe he had now in his family one hundred
domestic servants.

His lady (being one of the Brederode's daughters, grandchild to a
natural son of Henry Frederick, Prince of Orange) is a good-natured and
obliging woman. They love fine things, and to live easily, pompously,
and hospitably; but, with so vast expense, as plunges my Lord into debts
exceedingly. My Lord himself is given into no expensive vice but
building, and to have all things rich, polite, and princely. He never
plays, but reads much, having the Latin, French, and Spanish tongues in
perfection. He has traveled much, and is the best bred and courtly
person his Majesty has about him, so as the public Ministers more
frequent him than any of the rest of the nobility. While he was
Secretary of State and Prime Minister, he had gotten vastly, but spent
it as hastily, even before he had established a fund to maintain his
greatness; and now beginning to decline in favor (the Duke being no
great friend of his), he knows not how to retrench. He was son of a
Doctor of Laws, whom I have seen, and, being sent from Westminster
School to Oxford, with intention to be a divine, and parson of
Arlington, a village near Brentford, when Master of Arts the Rebellion
falling out, he followed the King's Army, and receiving an HONORABLE
WOUND IN THE FACE, grew into favor, and was advanced from a mean
fortune, at his Majesty's Restoration, to be an Earl and Knight of the
Garter, Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and first favorite for a long
time, during which the King married his natural son, the Duke of
Grafton, to his only daughter and heiress, as before mentioned, worthy
for her beauty and virtue of the greatest prince in Christendom. My Lord
is, besides this, a prudent and understanding person in business, and
speaks well; unfortunate yet in those he has advanced, most of them
proving ungrateful. The many obligations and civilities I have received
from this noble gentleman, extracts from me this character, and I am
sorry he is in no better circumstances.

Having now passed near three weeks at Euston, to my great satisfaction,
with much difficulty he suffered me to look homeward, being very earnest
with me to stay longer; and, to engage me, would himself have carried me
to Lynn-Regis, a town of important traffic, about twenty miles beyond,
which I had never seen; as also the Traveling Sands, about ten miles
wide of Euston, that have so damaged the country, rolling from place to
place, and, like the Sands in the Deserts of Lybia, quite overwhelmed
some gentlemen's whole estates, as the relation extant in print, and
brought to our Society, describes at large.

13th September, 1677. My Lord's coach conveyed me to Bury, and thence
baiting at Newmarket, stepping in at Audley-End to see that house again,
I slept at Bishop-Stortford, and, the next day, home. I was accompanied
in my journey by Major Fairfax, of a younger house of the Lord Fairfax,
a soldier, a traveler, an excellent musician, a good-natured, well-bred
gentleman.

18th September, 1677. I preferred Mr. Phillips (nephew of Milton) to the
service of my Lord Chamberlain, who wanted a scholar to read to and
entertain him sometimes.

12th October, 1677. With Sir Robert Clayton to Marden, an estate he had
bought lately of my kinsman, Sir John Evelyn, of Godstone, in Surrey,
which from a despicable farmhouse Sir Robert had erected into a seat
with extraordinary expense. It is in such a solitude among hills, as,
being not above sixteen miles from London, seems almost incredible, the
ways up to it are so winding and intricate. The gardens are large, and
well-walled, and the husbandry part made very convenient and perfectly
understood. The barns, the stacks of corn, the stalls for cattle, pigeon
house, etc., of most laudable example. Innumerable are the plantations
of trees, especially walnuts. The orangery and gardens are very curious.
In the house are large and noble rooms. He and his lady (who is very
curious in distillery) entertained me three or four days very freely. I
earnestly suggested to him the repairing of an old desolate dilapidated
church, standing on the hill above the house, which I left him in good
disposition to do, and endow it better; there not being above four or
five houses in the parish, besides that of this prodigious rich
Scrivener. This place is exceedingly sharp in the winter, by reason of
the serpentining of the hills: and it wants running water; but the
solitude much pleased me. All the ground is so full of wild thyme,
marjoram, and other sweet plants, that it cannot be overstocked with
bees; I think he had near forty hives of that industrious insect.

14th October, 1677. I went to church at Godstone, and to see old Sir
John Evelyn's DORMITORY, joining to the church, paved with marble, where
he and his Lady lie on a very stately monument at length; he in armor of
white marble. The inscription is only an account of his particular
branch of the family, on black marble.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

15th October, 1677. Returned to London; in the evening, I saw the Prince
of Orange, and supped with Lord Ossory.

23d October, 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange; his marriage with the
Lady Mary, eldest daughter to the Duke of York, by Mrs. Hyde, the late
Duchess, was now declared.

11th November, 1677. I was all this week composing matters between old
Mrs. Howard and Sir Gabriel Sylvius, upon his long and earnest addresses
to Mrs. Anne, her second daughter, maid of honor to the Queen. My
friend, Mrs. Godolphin (who exceedingly loved the young lady) was most
industrious in it, out of pity to the languishing knight; so as though
there were great differences in their years, it was at last effected,
and they were married the 13th, in Henry VII.'s Chapel, by the Bishop of
Rochester, there being besides my wife and Mrs. Graham, her sister, Mrs.
Godolphin, and very few more. We dined at the old lady's, and supped at
Mr. Graham's at St. James's.

15th November, 1677. The Queen's birthday, a great ball at Court, where
the Prince of Orange and his new Princess danced.

19th November, 1677. They went away, and I saw embarked my Lady Sylvius,
who went into Holland with her husband, made Hoffmaester to the Prince,
a considerable employment. We parted with great sorrow, for the great
respect and honor I bore her, a most pious and virtuous lady.

27th November, 1677. Dined at the Lord Treasurer's with Prince Rupert,
Viscount Falkenburg, Earl of Bath, Lord O'Brien, Sir John Lowther, Sir
Christopher Wren, Dr. Grew, and other learned men.

30th November, 1677. Sir Joseph Williamson, Principal Secretary of
State, was chosen President of the Royal Society, after my Lord Viscount
Brouncker had possessed the chair now sixteen years successively, and
therefore now thought fit to CHANGE, that prescription might not
prejudice.

4th December, 1677. Being the first day of his taking the chair, he gave
us a magnificent supper.

20th December, 1677. Carried to my Lord Treasurer an account of the Earl
of Bristol's Library, at Wimbledon, which my Lord thought of purchasing,
till I acquainted him that it was a very broken collection, consisting
much in books of judicial astrology, romances, and trifles.

25th December, 1677. I gave my son an office, with instructions how to
govern his youth; I pray God give him the grace to make a right use of
it!

23d January, 1677-78. Dined with the Duke of Norfolk, being the first
time I had seen him since the death of his elder brother, who died at
Padua in Italy, where he had resided above thirty years. The Duke had
now newly declared his marriage to his concubine, whom he promised me he
never would marry. I went with him to see the Duke of Buckingham, thence
to my Lord Sunderland, now Secretary of State, to show him that rare
piece of Vosterman's (son of old Vosterman), which was a view, or
landscape of my Lord's palace, etc., at Althorpe in Northamptonshire.

8th February, 1678. Supping at my Lord Chamberlain's I had a long
discourse with the Count de Castel Mellor, lately Prime Minister in
Portugal, who, taking part with his master, King Alphonso, was banished
by his brother, Don Pedro, now Regent; but had behaved himself so
uncorruptly in all his ministry that, though he was acquitted, and his
estate restored, yet would they not suffer him to return. He is a very
intelligent and worthy gentleman.

18th February, 1678. My Lord Treasurer sent for me to accompany him to
Wimbledon, which he had lately purchased of the Earl of Bristol; so
breaking fast with him privately in his chamber, I accompanied him with
two of his daughters, my Lord Conway, and Sir Bernard Gascoyne; and,
having surveyed his gardens and alterations, returned late at night.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

22d February, 1678. Dr. Pierce preached at Whitehall, on 2 Thessalonians
iii. 6, against our late schismatics, in a rational discourse, but a
little over-sharp, and not at all proper for the auditory there.

22d March, 1678. Dr. South preached _coram Rege_, an incomparable
discourse on this text, "A wounded spirit who can bear!" Note: Now was
our Communion table placed altarwise; the church steeple, clock, and
other reparations finished.

16th April, 1678. I showed Don Emmanuel de Lyra (Portugal Ambassador)
and the Count de Castel Mellor, the Repository of the Royal Society, and
the College of Physicians.

18th April, 1678. I went to see new Bedlam Hospital, magnificently
built, and most sweetly placed in Moorfields, since the dreadful fire in
London.

28th June, 1678. I went to Windsor with my Lord Chamberlain (the castle
now repairing with exceeding cost) to see the rare work of Verrio, an
incomparable carving of Gibbons.

29th June, 1678. Returned with my Lord by Hounslow Heath, where we saw
the newly raised army encamped, designed against France, in pretense, at
least; but which gave umbrage to the Parliament. His Majesty and a world
of company were in the field, and the whole army in battalia; a very
glorious sight. Now were brought into service a new sort of soldiers,
called GRENADIERS, who were dexterous in flinging hand grenades,
everyone having a pouch full; they had furred caps with coped crowns
like Janizaries, which made them look very fierce, and some had long
hoods hanging down behind, as we picture fools. Their clothing being
likewise piebald, yellow and red.

8th July, 1678. Came to dine with me my Lord Longford, Treasurer of
Ireland, nephew to that learned gentleman, my Lord Aungier, with whom I
was long since acquainted; also the Lady Stidolph, and other company.

19th July, 1678. The Earl of Ossory came to take his leave of me, going
into Holland to command the English forces.

20th July, 1678. I went to the Tower to try a metal at the
Assay-master's, which only proved sulphur; then saw Monsieur Rotière,
that excellent graver belonging to the Mint, who emulates even the
ancients, in both metal and stone;[38] he was now molding a horse for
the King's statue, to be cast in silver, of a yard high. I dined with
Mr. Slingsby, Master of the Mint.

    [Footnote 38: Doubtless Philip Rotière, who introduced the figure of
    Britannia into the coinage, taking for his model the King's
    favorite, Frances Stewart, Duchess of Richmond.]

23d July, 1678. Went to see Mr. Elias Ashmole's library and curiosities,
at Lambeth. He had divers MSS., but most of them astrological, to which
study he is addicted, though I believe not learned, but very
industrious, as his History of the order of the Garter proves. He showed
me a toad included in amber. The prospect from a turret is very fine, it
being so near London, and yet not discovering any house about the
country. The famous John Tradescant bequeathed his Repository to this
gentleman, who has given them to the University of Oxford, and erected a
lecture on them, over the laboratory, in imitation of the Royal Society.

Mr. Godolphin was made master of the robes to the King.

25th July, 1678. There was sent me £70; from whom I knew not, to be by
me distributed among poor people; I afterward found it was from that
dear friend (Mrs. Godolphin), who had frequently given me large sums to
bestow on charities.

16th August, 1678. I went to Lady Mordaunt, who put £100 into my hand to
dispose of for pious uses, relief of prisoners, poor, etc. Many a sum
had she sent me on similar occasions; a blessed creature she was, and
one that loved and feared God exemplarily.

[Sidenote: WEYBRIDGE]

23d August, 1678. Upon Sir Robert Reading's importunity, I went to visit
the Duke of Norfolk, at his new palace at Weybridge, where he has laid
out in building near £10,000, on a copyhold, and in a miserable, barren,
sandy place by the street side; never in my life had I seen such expense
to so small purpose. The rooms are wainscotted, and some of them richly
pargeted with cedar, yew, cypress, etc. There are some good pictures,
especially that incomparable painting of Holbein's, where the Duke of
Norfolk, Charles Brandon and Henry VIII., are dancing with the three
ladies, with most amorous countenances, and sprightly motion exquisitely
expressed. It is a thousand pities (as I told my Lord of Arundel, his
son), that that jewel should be given away.

24th August, 1678. I went to see my Lord of St. Alban's house, at
Byfleet, an old, large building. Thence, to the papermills, where I
found them making a coarse white paper. They cull the rags which are
linen for white paper, woolen for brown; then they stamp them in troughs
to a pap, with pestles, or hammers, like the powder mills, then put it
into a vessel of water, in which they dip a frame closely wired with
wire as small as a hair and as close as a weaver's reed; on this they
take up the pap, the superfluous water draining through the wire; this
they dexterously turning, shake out like a pancake on a smooth board
between two pieces of flannel, then press it between a great press, the
flannel sucking out the moisture; then, taking it out, they ply and dry
it on strings, as they dry linen in the laundry; then dip it in alum
water, lastly, polish and make it up in quires. They put some gum in the
water in which they macerate the rags. The mark we find on the sheets is
formed in the wire.

25th August, 1678. After evening prayer, visited Mr. Sheldon (nephew to
the late Archbishop of Canterbury), and his pretty melancholy garden; I
took notice of the largest _arbor thuyris_ I had ever seen. The place is
finely watered, and there are many curiosities of India, shown in the
house.

There was at Weybridge the Duchess of Norfolk, Lord Thomas Howard (a
worthy and virtuous gentleman, with whom my son was sometime bred in
Arundel House), who was newly come from Rome, where he had been some
time; also one of the Duke's daughters, by his first lady. My Lord
leading me about the house made no scruple of showing me all the hiding
places for the Popish priests, and where they said mass, for he was no
bigoted Papist. He told me he never trusted them with any secret, and
used Protestants only in all businesses of importance.

I went this evening with my Lord Duke to Windsor, where was a
magnificent Court, it being the first time of his Majesty's removing
thither since it was repaired.

27th August, 1678. I took leave of the Duke, and dined at Mr. Henry
Bruncker's, at the Abbey of Sheene, formerly a monastery of Carthusians,
there yet remaining one of their solitary cells with a cross. Within
this ample inclosure are several pretty villas and fine gardens of the
most excellent fruits, especially Sir William Temple's (lately
Ambassador into Holland), and the Lord Lisle's, son to the Earl of
Leicester, who has divers rare pictures, above all, that of Sir Brian
Tuke's, by Holbein.

After dinner I walked to Ham, to see the house and garden of the Duke of
Lauderdale, which is indeed inferior to few of the best villas in Italy
itself; the house furnished like a great Prince's; the parterres,
flower-gardens, orangeries, groves, avenues, courts, statues,
perspectives, fountains, aviaries, and all this at the banks of the
sweetest river in the world, must needs be admirable.

Hence, I went to my worthy friend, Sir Henry Capel [at Kew], brother to
the Earl of Essex; it is an old timber-house; but his garden has the
choicest fruit of any plantation in England, as he is the most
industrious and understanding in it.

29th August, 1678. I was called to London to wait upon the Duke of
Norfolk, who having at my sole request bestowed the Arundelian Library
on the Royal Society; sent to me to take charge of the books, and remove
them, only stipulating that I would suffer the Herald's chief officer,
Sir William Dugdale, to have such of them as concerned heraldry and the
marshal's office, books of armory and genealogies, the Duke being Earl
Marshal of England. I procured for our Society, besides printed books,
near one hundred MSS. some in Greek of great concernment. The printed
books being of the oldest impressions, are not the less valuable; I
esteem them almost equal to MSS. Among them, are most of the Fathers,
printed at Basil, before the Jesuits abused them with their expurgatory
Indexes; there is a noble MS. of Vitruvius. Many of these books had been
presented by Popes, Cardinals, and great persons, to the Earls of
Arundel and Dukes of Norfolk; and the late magnificent Earl of Arundel
bought a noble library in Germany, which is in this collection. I should
not, for the honor I bear the family, have persuaded the Duke to part
with these, had I not seen how negligent he was of them, suffering the
priests and everybody to carry away and dispose of what they pleased; so
that abundance of rare things are irrecoverably gone.

Having taken order here, I went to the Royal Society to give them an
account of what I had procured, that they might call a Council and
appoint a day to wait on the Duke to thank him for this munificent gift.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d September, 1678. I went to London, to dine with Mrs. Godolphin, and
found her in labor; she was brought to bed of a son, who was baptized in
the chamber, by the name of Francis, the susceptors being Sir William
Godolphin (head of the family), Mr. John Hervey, Treasurer to the Queen,
and Mrs. Boscawen, sister to Sir William and the father.

8th September, 1678. While I was at church came a letter from Mr.
Godolphin, that my dear friend his lady was exceedingly ill, and
desiring my prayers and assistance. My wife and I took boat immediately,
and went to Whitehall, where, to my inexpressible sorrow, I found she
had been attacked with a new fever, then reigning this excessive hot
autumn, and which was so violent, that it was not thought she could last
many hours.

9th September, 1678. She died in the 26th year of her age, to the
inexpressible affliction of her dear husband, and all her relations, but
of none in the world more than of myself, who lost the most excellent
and inestimable friend that ever lived. Never was a more virtuous and
inviolable friendship; never a more religious, discreet, and admirable
creature, beloved of all, admired of all, for all possible perfections
of her sex. She is gone to receive the reward of her signal charity, and
all other her Christian graces, too blessed a creature to converse with
mortals, fitted as she was, by a most holy life, to be received into the
mansions above. She was for wit, beauty, good nature, fidelity,
discretion, and all accomplishments, the most incomparable person. How
shall I ever repay the obligations to her for the infinite good offices
she did my soul by so often engaging me to make religion the terms and
tie of the friendship there was between us! She was the best wife, the
best mistress, the best friend, that ever husband had. But it is not
here that I pretend to give her character, HAVING DESIGNED TO CONSECRATE
HER WORTHY LIFE TO POSTERITY.

Her husband, struck with unspeakable affliction, fell down as dead. The
King himself, and all the Court, expressed their sorrow. To the poor and
miserable, her loss was irreparable; for there was no degree but had
some obligation to her memory. So careful and provident was she to be
prepared for all possible accidents, that (as if she foresaw her end)
she received the heavenly viaticum but the Sunday before, after a most
solemn recollection. She put all her domestic concerns into the exactest
order, and left a letter directed to her husband, to be opened in case
she died in childbed, in which with the most pathetic and endearing
expressions of the most loyal and virtuous wife, she begs his kindness
to her memory might be continued by his care and esteem of those she
left behind, even to her domestic servants, to the meanest of which she
left considerable legacies, as well as to the poor. It was now seven
years since she was maid of honor to the Queen, that she regarded me as
a father, a brother, and what is more, a friend. We often prayed,
visited the sick and miserable, received, read, discoursed, and
communicated in all holy offices together. She was most dear to my wife,
and affectionate to my children. But she is gone! This only is my
comfort, that she is happy in Christ, and I shall shortly behold her
again. She desired to be buried in the dormitory of his family, near
three hundred miles from all her other friends. So afflicted was her
husband at this severe loss, that the entire care of her funeral was
committed to me. Having closed the eyes, and dropped a tear upon the
cheek of my dear departed friend, lovely even in death, I caused her
corpse to be embalmed and wrapped in lead, a plate of brass soldered
thereon, with an inscription, and other circumstances due to her worth,
with as much diligence and care as my grieved heart would permit me; I
then retired home for two days, which were spent in solitude and sad
reflection.

17th September, 1678. She was, accordingly, carried to Godolphin, in
Cornwall, in a hearse with six horses, attended by two coaches of as
many, with about thirty of her relations and servants. There accompanied
the hearse her husband's brother, Sir William, two more of his brothers,
and three sisters; her husband was so overcome with grief, that he was
wholly unfit to travel so long a journey, till he was more composed. I
went as far as Hounslow with a sad heart; but was obliged to return upon
some indispensable affairs. The corpse was ordered to be taken out of
the hearse every night, and decently placed in the house, with tapers
about it, and her servants attending, to Cornwall; and then was
honorably interred in the parish church of Godolphin. This funeral cost
not much less than £1,000.

With Mr. Godolphin, I looked over and sorted his lady's papers, most of
which consisted of Prayers, Meditations, Sermon-notes, Discourses, and
Collections on several religious subjects, and many of her own happy
composing, and so pertinently digested, as if she had been all her life
a student in divinity. We found a diary of her solemn resolutions,
tending to practical virtue, with letters from select friends, all put
into exact method. It astonished us to see what she had read and
written, her youth considered.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st October, 1678. The Parliament and the whole Nation were alarmed
about a conspiracy of some eminent Papists for the destruction of the
King and introduction of Popery, discovered by one Oates and Dr.
Tongue,[39] WHICH LAST I KNEW, BEING THE TRANSLATOR OF THE "Jesuits'
Morals"; I went to see and converse with him at Whitehall, with Mr.
Oates, one that was lately an apostate to the church of Rome, and now
returned again with this discovery. He seemed to be a bold man, and, in
my thoughts, furiously indiscreet; but everybody believed what he said;
and it quite changed the genius and motions of the Parliament, growing
now corrupt and interested with long sitting and court practices; but,
with all this, Popery would not go down. This discovery turned them all
as one man against it, and nothing was done but to find out the depth of
this. Oates was encouraged, and everything he affirmed taken for gospel;
the truth is, the Roman Catholics were exceedingly bold and busy
everywhere, since the Duke forbore to go any longer to the chapel.

    [Footnote 39: Ezrael Tonge was bred in University College, Oxford,
    and being puritanically inclined, quitted the University; but in
    1648 returned, and was made a Fellow. He had the living of Pluckley,
    in Kent, which he resigned in consequence of quarrels with his
    parishioners and Quakers. In 1657, he was made fellow of the
    newly-erected College at Durham, and that being dissolved in 1660,
    he taught school at Islington. He then went with Colonel Edward
    Harley to Dunkirk, and subsequently took a small living in
    Herefordshire (Lentwardine); but quitted it for St. Mary Stayning,
    in London, which, after the fire in 1666, was united to St. Michael,
    Wood Street. These he held till his death, in 1680. He was a great
    opponent of the Roman Catholics. Wood mentions several publications
    of his, among which are, "The Jesuits Unmasked," 1678; "Jesuitical
    Aphorisms," 1678; and "The Jesuits' Morals," 1680 (1670); the two
    latter translated from the French. (Wood's "_Athenæ, Oxon._" vol.
    ii. p. 502.) Evelyn speaks of the last of these translations as
    having been executed by his desire: and it figures in a notable
    passage of Oates's testimony. Oates said, for example, "that Thomas
    Whitbread, a priest, on 13th of June, 16 . . did tell the rector of
    St. Omer's that a Minister of the Church of England had scandalously
    put out the 'Jesuits' Morals' in English, and had endeavored to
    render them odious, and had asked the Rector whether he thought
    Oates might know him? and the Rector called, the deponent, who heard
    these words as he stood at the chamber door, and when he went into
    the chamber of the Provincial, he asked him 'If he knew the author
    of the "Jesuits' Morals?"' deponent answered, 'His person, but not
    his name.' Whitbread then demanded, whether he would undertake to
    poison, or assassinate the author; which deponent undertook, having
    £50 reward promised him, and appointed to return to England."]

16th October, 1678. Mr. Godolphin requested me to continue the trust his
wife had reposed in me, in behalf of his little son, conjuring me to
transfer the friendship I had for his dear wife, on him and his.

21st October, 1678. The murder of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, found
strangled about this time, as was manifest, by the Papists, he being the
Justice of the Peace, and one who knew much of their practices, as
conversant with Coleman (a servant of the ... now accused), put the
whole nation into a new ferment against them.

31st October, 1678. Being the 58th of my age, required my humble
addresses to Almighty God, and that he would take off his heavy hand,
still on my family; and restore comforts to us after the death of my
excellent friend.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th November, 1678. Dr. Tillotson preached before the Commons at St.
Margaret's. He said the Papists were now arrived at that impudence, as
to deny that there ever was any such as the gunpowder-conspiracy; but he
affirmed that he himself had several letters written by Sir Everard
Digby (one of the traitors), in which he gloried that he was to suffer
for it; and that it was so contrived, that of the Papists not above two
or three should have been blown up, and they, such as were not worth
saving.

15th November, 1678. The Queen's birthday. I never saw the Court more
brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and consternation. Coleman
and one Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this,
Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen of intending to poison
the King; which certainly that pious and virtuous lady abhorred the
thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my
opinion. He probably thought to gratify some who would have been glad
his Majesty should have married a fruitful lady; but the King was too
kind a husband to let any of these make impression on him. However,
divers of the Popish peers were sent to the Tower, accused by Oates; and
all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act forever excluded the
Parliament; which was a mighty blow. The King's, Queen's, and Duke's
servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who
pretended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would not be
suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William Godolphin, a member of the
Commons' House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning), to be resolved
whether masses were idolatry, as the text expressed it, which was so
worded, that several good Protestants scrupled, and Sir William, though
a learned man and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it.
The Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he wished it had
been otherwise worded in the text.

15th January, 1678-79. I went with my Lady Sunderland to Chelsa, and
dined with the Countess of Bristol [her mother] in the great house,
formerly the Duke of Buckingham's, a spacious and excellent place for
the extent of ground and situation in a good air. The house is large but
ill-contrived, though my Lord of Bristol, who purchased it after he sold
Wimbledon to my Lord Treasurer, expended much money on it. There were
divers pictures of Titian and Vandyke, and some of Bassano, very
excellent, especially an Adonis and Venus, a Duke of Venice, a butcher
in his shambles selling meat to a Swiss; and of Vandyke, my Lord of
Bristol's picture, with the Earl of Bedford's at length, in the same
table. There was in the garden a rare collection of orange trees, of
which she was pleased to bestow some upon me.

16th January, 1679. I supped this night with Mr. Secretary at one Mr.
Houblon's, a French merchant, who had his house furnished _en Prince_,
and gave us a splendid entertainment.

25th January, 1679. The Long Parliament, which had sat ever since the
Restoration, was dissolved by persuasion of the Lord Treasurer, though
divers of them were believed to be his pensioner. At this, all the
politicians were at a stand, they being very eager in pursuit of the
late plot of the Papists.

30th January, 1679. Dr. Cudworth preached before the King at Whitehall,
on 2 Timothy iii. 5, reckoning up the perils of the last times, in
which, among other wickedness, treasons should be one of the greatest,
applying it to the occasion, as committed under a form of reformation
and godliness; concluding that the prophecy did intend more particularly
the present age, as one of the last times; the sins there enumerated,
more abundantly reigning than ever.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d February, 1679. Dr. Durell, Dean of Windsor, preached to the
household at Whitehall, on 1 Cor. xvi. 22; he read the whole sermon out
of his notes, which I had never before seen a Frenchman do, he being of
Jersey, and bred at Paris.

4th February, 1679. Dr. Pierce, Dean of Salisbury, preached on 1 John,
iv. 1, "Try the Spirits, there being so many delusory ones gone forth of
late into the world"; he inveighed against the pernicious doctrines of
Mr. Hobbes.

My brother Evelyn, was now chosen Knight for the County of Surrey,
carrying it against my Lord Longford and Sir Adam Brown, of Bechworth
Castle. The country coming in to give him their suffrages were so many,
that I believe they ate and drank him out near £2,000, by a most
abominable custom.

1st April, 1679. My friend, Mr. Godolphin, was now made one of the Lords
Commissioners of the Treasury, and of the Privy Council.

4th April, 1679. The Bishop of Gloucester preached in a manner very like
Bishop Andrews, full of divisions, and scholastical, and that with much
quickness. The Holy Communion followed.

20th April, 1679. EASTER DAY. Our vicar preached exceedingly well on 1
Cor. v. 7. The Holy Communion followed, at which I and my daughter, Mary
(now about fourteen years old), received for the first time. The Lord
Jesus continue his grace unto her, and improve this blessed beginning!

24th April, 1679. The Duke of York, voted against by the Commons for his
recusancy, went over to Flanders; which made much discourse.

4th June, 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys in the Tower, he having been
committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when
he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my
Lords Stafford and Petre, who were committed for the Popish plot.

7th June, 1679. I saw the magnificent cavalcade and entry of the
Portugal Ambassador.

17th June, 1679. I was godfather to a son of Sir Christopher Wren,
surveyor of his Majesty's buildings, that most excellent and learned
person, with Sir William Fermor, and my Lady Viscountess Newport, wife
of the Treasurer of the Household.

Thence to Chelsea, to Sir Stephen Fox, and my lady, in order to the
purchase of the Countess of Bristol's house there, which she desired me
to procure a chapman for.

19th June, 1679. I dined at Sir Robert Clayton's with Sir Robert Viner,
the great banker.

22d June, 1679. There were now divers Jesuits executed about the plot,
and a rebellion in Scotland of the fanatics, so that there was a sad
prospect of public affairs.

25th June, 1679. The new Commissioners of the Admiralty came to visit
me, viz, Sir Henry Capell, brother to the Earl of Essex, Mr. Finch,
eldest son to the Lord Chancellor, Sir Humphry Winch, Sir Thomas Meeres,
Mr. Hales, with some of the Commissioners of the Navy. I went with them
to London.

1st July, 1679. I dined at Sir William Godolphin's, and with that
learned gentleman went to take the air in Hyde Park, where was a
glorious _cortège_.

3d July, 1679. Sending a piece of venison to Mr. Pepys, still a
prisoner, I went and dined with him.

6th July, 1679. Now were there papers, speeches, and libels, publicly
cried in the streets against the Dukes of York and Lauderdale, etc.,
obnoxious to the Parliament, with too much and indeed too shameful a
liberty; but the people and Parliament had gotten head by reason of the
vices of the great ones.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

There was now brought up to London a child, son of one Mr. Wotton,
formerly amanuensis to Dr. Andrews, Bishop of Winton, who both read and
perfectly understood Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac, and most of
the modern languages; disputed in divinity, law, and all the sciences;
was skillful in history, both ecclesiastical and profane; in politics;
in a word, so universally and solidly learned at eleven years of age,
that he was looked on as a miracle. Dr. Lloyd, one of the most deeply
learned divines of this nation in all sorts of literature, with Dr.
Burnet, who had severely examined him, came away astonished, and they
told me they did not believe there had the like appeared in the world.
He had only been instructed by his father, who being himself a learned
person, confessed that his son knew all that he himself knew. But, what
was more admirable than his vast memory, was his judgment and invention,
he being tried with divers hard questions, which required maturity of
thought and experience. He was also dexterous in chronology,
antiquities, mathematics. In sum, an _intellectus universalis_, beyond
all that we read of Picus Mirandula, and other precocious wits, and yet
withal a very humble child.

14th July, 1679. I went to see how things stood at Parson's Green, my
Lady Viscountess Mordaunt (now sick in Paris, whither she went for
health) having made me a trustee for her children, an office I could not
refuse to this most excellent, pious, and virtuous lady, my long
acquaintance.

15th July, 1679. I dined with Mr. Sidney Godolphin, now one of the Lords
Commissioners of the Treasury.

18th July, 1679. I went early to the Old Bailey Sessions House, to the
famous trial of Sir George Wakeman, one of the Queen's physicians, and
three Benedictine monks; the first (whom I was well acquainted with, and
take to be a worthy gentleman abhorring such a fact), for intending to
poison the King; the others as accomplices to carry on the plot, to
subvert the government, and introduce Popery. The bench was crowded with
the judges, Lord Mayor justices, and innumerable spectators. The chief
accusers, Dr. Oates (as he called himself), and one Bedlow, a man of
inferior note. Their testimonies were not so pregnant, and I fear much
of it from hearsay, but swearing positively to some particulars, which
drew suspicion upon their truth; nor did circumstances so agree, as to
give either the bench or jury so entire satisfaction as was expected.
After, therefore, a long and tedious trial of nine hours, the jury
brought them in not guilty, to the extraordinary triumph of the Papists,
and without sufficient disadvantage and reflections on witnesses,
especially Oates and Bedlow.

This was a happy day for the lords in the Tower, who, expecting their
trial, had this gone against the prisoners at the bar, would all have
been in the utmost hazard. For my part, I look on Oates as a vain,
insolent man, puffed up with the favor of the Commons for having
discovered something really true, more especially as detecting the
dangerous intrigue of Coleman, proved out of his own letters, and of a
general design which the Jesuited party of the Papists ever had and
still have, to ruin the Church of England; but that he was trusted with
those great secrets he pretended, or had any solid ground for what he
accused divers noblemen of, I have many reasons to induce my contrary
belief. That among so many commissions as he affirmed to have delivered
to them from P. Oliva[40] and the Pope,--he who made no scruple of
opening all other papers, letters, and secrets, should not only not open
any of those pretended commissions, but not so much as take any copy or
witness of any one of them, is almost miraculous. But the Commons (some
leading persons I mean of them) had so exalted him that they took all he
said for Gospel, and without more ado ruined all whom he named to be
conspirators; nor did he spare whoever came in his way. But, indeed, the
murder of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey, suspected to have been compassed by
the Jesuits' party for his intimacy with Coleman (a busy person whom I
also knew), and the fear they had that he was able to have discovered
things to their prejudice, did so exasperate not only the Commons, but
all the nation, that much of these sharpnesses against the more honest
Roman Catholics who lived peaceably, is to be imputed to that horrid
fact.

    [Footnote 40: Padrè Oliva, General of the Order of Jesuits.]

The sessions ended, I dined or rather supped (so late it was) with the
judges in the large room annexed to the place, and so returned home.
Though it was not my custom or delight to be often present at any
capital trials, we having them commonly so exactly published by those
who take them in short-hand, yet I was inclined to be at this signal
one, that by the ocular view of the carriages and other circumstances of
the managers and parties concerned, I might inform myself, and regulate
my opinion of a cause that had so alarmed the whole nation.

22d July, 1679. Dined at Clapham, at Sir D. Gauden's; went thence with
him to Windsor, to assist him in a business with his Majesty. I lay that
night at Eton College, the Provost's lodgings (Dr. Craddock), where I
was courteously entertained.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

23d July, 1679. To Court: after dinner, I visited that excellent
painter, Verrio, whose works in _fresco_ in the King's palace, at
Windsor, will celebrate his name as long as those walls last. He showed
us his pretty garden, choice flowers, and curiosities, he himself being
a skillful gardener.

I went to Clifden, that stupendous natural rock, wood, and prospect, of
the Duke of Buckingham's, and buildings of extraordinary expense. The
grots in the chalky rocks are pretty: it is a romantic object, and the
place altogether answers the most poetical description that can be made
of solitude, precipice, prospect, or whatever can contribute to a thing
so very like their imaginations. The stand, somewhat like Frascati as to
its front, and on the platform is a circular view to the utmost verge of
the horizon, which, with the serpenting of the Thames, is admirable. The
staircase is for its materials singular; the cloisters, descents,
gardens, and avenue through the wood, august and stately; but the land
all about wretchedly barren, and producing nothing but fern. Indeed, as
I told his Majesty that evening (asking me how I liked Clifden) without
flattery, that it did not please me so well as Windsor for the prospect
and park, which is without compare; there being but one only opening,
and that narrow, which led one to any variety; whereas that of Windsor
is everywhere great and unconfined.

Returning, I called at my cousin Evelyn's, who has a very pretty seat in
the forest, two miles by hither Clifden, on a flat, with gardens
exquisitely kept, though large, and the house a staunch good old
building, and what was singular, some of the rooms floored dove
tail-wise without a nail, exactly close. One of the closets is pargeted
with plain deal, set in diamond, exceeding staunch and pretty.

7th August, 1679. Dined at the Sheriff's, when, the Company of Drapers
and their wives being invited, there was a sumptuous entertainment,
according to the forms of the city, with music, etc., comparable to any
prince's service in Europe.

8th August, 1679. I went this morning to show my Lord Chamberlain, his
Lady, and the Duchess of Grafton, the incomparable work of Mr. Gibbon,
the carver, whom I first recommended to his Majesty, his house being
furnished like a cabinet, not only with his own work, but divers
excellent paintings of the best hands. Thence, to Sir Stephen Fox's,
where we spent the day.

31st August, 1679. After evening service, to see a neighbor, one Mr.
Bohun, related to my son's late tutor of that name, a rich Spanish
merchant, living in a neat place, which he has adorned with many
curiosities, especially several carvings of Mr. Gibbons, and some
pictures by Streeter.

13th September, 1679. To Windsor, to congratulate his Majesty on his
recovery; I kissed the Duke's hand, now lately returned from
Flanders[41] to visit his brother the King, on which there were various
bold and foolish discourses, the Duke of Monmouth being sent away.

    [Footnote 41: He returned the day before, the 12th of September.
    This is another of the indications that the entries of this Diary
    were not always made on the precise days they refer to.]

19th September, 1679. My Lord Sunderland, one of the principal
Secretaries of State, invited me to dinner, where was the King's natural
son, the Earl of Plymouth, the Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Essex, Earl
of Mulgrave, Mr. Hyde, and Mr. Godolphin. After dinner I went to prayers
at Eton, and visited Mr. Henry Godolphin, fellow there, and Dr.
Craddock.

25th September, 1679. Mr. Slingsby and Signor Verrio came to dine with
me, to whom I gave China oranges off my own trees, as good, I think, as
were ever eaten.

6th October, 1679. A very wet and sickly season.

23d October, 1679. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's, the King being now
newly returned from his Newmarket recreations.

4th November, 1679. Dined at the Lord Mayor's; and, in the evening, went
to the funeral of my pious, dear, and ancient learned friend, Dr. Jasper
Needham, who was buried at St. Bride's Church. He was a true and holy
Christian, and one who loved me with great affection. Dr. Dove preached
with an eulogy due to his memory. I lost in this person one of my
dearest remaining sincere friends.

5th November, 1679. I was invited to dine at my Lord Teviotdale's, a
Scotch Earl, a learned and knowing nobleman. We afterward went to see
Mr. Montague's new palace near Bloomsbury, built by our curator, Mr.
Hooke, somewhat after the French; it was most nobly furnished, and a
fine, but too much exposed garden.[42]

    [Footnote 42: Now the British Museum.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

6th November, 1679. Dined at the Countess of Sunderland's, and was this
evening at the remarriage of the Duchess of Grafton to the Duke (his
Majesty's natural son), she being now twelve years old. The ceremony was
performed in my Lord Chamberlain's (her father's) lodgings at Whitehall
by the Bishop of Rochester, his Majesty being present. A sudden and
unexpected thing, when everybody believed the first marriage would have
come to nothing; but, the measure being determined, I was privately
invited by my Lady, her mother, to be present. I confess I could give
her little joy, and so I plainly told her, but she said the King would
have it so, and there was no going back. This sweetest, most hopeful,
most beautiful, child, and most virtuous, too, was sacrificed to a boy
that had been rudely bred, without anything to encourage them but his
Majesty's pleasure. I pray God the sweet child find it to her advantage,
who, if my augury deceive me not, will in a few years be such a paragon
as were fit to make the wife of the greatest Prince in Europe! I staid
supper, where his Majesty sat between the Duchess of Cleveland (the
mother of the Duke of Grafton) and the sweet Duchess the bride; there
were several great persons and ladies, without pomp. My love to my Lord
Arlington's family, and the sweet child made me behold all this with
regret, though as the Duke of Grafton affects the sea, to which I find
his father intends to use him, he may emerge a plain, useful and robust
officer: and were he polished, a tolerable person; for he is exceedingly
handsome, by far surpassing any of the King's other natural issue.

8th November, 1679. At Sir Stephen Fox's, and was agreeing for the
Countess of Bristol's house at Chelsea, within £500.

18th November, 1679. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, being desired by the
Countess of Sunderland to carry her thither on a solemn day, that she
might see the pomp and ceremony of this Prince of Citizens, there never
having been any, who for the stateliness of his palace, prodigious
feasting, and magnificence, exceeded him. This Lord Mayor's acquaintance
had been from the time of his being apprentice to one Mr. Abbot, his
uncle, who being a scrivener, and an honest worthy man, one who was
condemned to die at the beginning of the troubles forty years past, as
concerned in the commission of array for King Charles I. had escaped
with his life; I often used his assistance in money matters. Robert
Clayton, then a boy, his nephew, became, after his uncle Abbot's death,
so prodigiously rich and opulent, that he was reckoned one of the
wealthiest citizens. He married a free-hearted woman, who became his
hospitable disposition; and having no children, with the accession of
his partner and fellow apprentice, who also left him his estate, he grew
excessively rich. He was a discreet magistrate, and though envied, I
think without much cause. Some believed him guilty of hard dealing,
especially with the Duke of Buckingham, much of whose estate he had
swallowed, but I never saw any ill by him, considering the trade he was
of. The reputation and known integrity of his uncle, Abbot, brought all
the royal party to him, by which he got not only great credit, but vast
wealth, so as he passed this office with infinite magnificence and
honor.

20th November, 1679. I dined with Mr. Slingsby, Master of the Mint, with
my wife, invited to hear music, which was exquisitely performed by four
of the most renowned masters: Du Prue, a Frenchman, on the lute; Signor
Bartholomeo, an Italian, on the harpsichord; Nicholao on the violin;
but, above all, for its sweetness and novelty, the _viol d'amore_ of
five wire strings played on with a bow, being but an ordinary violin,
played on lyre-way, by a German. There was also a _flute douce_, now in
much request for accompanying the voice. Mr. Slingsby, whose son and
daughter played skillfully, had these meetings frequently in his house.

21st November, 1679. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, to accompany my
worthiest and generous friend, the Earl of Ossory; it was on a Friday, a
private day, but the feast and entertainment might have become a King.
Such an hospitable costume and splendid magistrature does no city in the
world show, as I believe.

23d November, 1679. Dr. Allestree preached before the household on St.
Luke xi. 2; Dr. Lloyd on Matt. xxiii. 20, before the King, showing with
how little reason the Papists applied those words of our blessed Savior
to maintain the pretended infallibility they boast of. I never heard a
more Christian and excellent discourse; yet were some offended that he
seemed to say the Church of Rome was a true church; but it was a
captious mistake; for he never affirmed anything that could be more to
their reproach, and that such was the present Church of Rome, showing
how much it had erred. There was not in this sermon so much as a shadow
for censure, no person of all the clergy having testified greater zeal
against the errors of the Papists than this pious and most learned
person. I dined at the Bishop of Rochester's, and then went to St.
Paul's to hear that great wit, Dr. Sprat, now newly succeeding Dr.
Outram, in the cure of St. Margaret's. His talent was a great memory,
never making use of notes, a readiness of expression in a most pure and
plain style of words, full of matter, easily delivered.

26th November, 1679. I met the Earl of Clarendon with the rest of my
fellow executors of the Will of my late Lady Viscountess Mordaunt,
namely, Mr. Laurence Hyde, one of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and
lately Plenipotentiary-Ambassador at Nimeguen; Andrew Newport; and Sir
Charles Wheeler; to examine and audit and dispose of this year's account
of the estate of this excellent Lady, according to the direction of her
Will.

27th November, 1679. I went to see Sir John Stonehouse, with whom I was
treating a marriage between my son and his daughter-in-law.

28th November, 1679. Came over the Duke of Monmouth from Holland
unexpectedly to his Majesty; while the Duke of York was on his journey
to Scotland, whither the King sent him to reside and govern. The bells
and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke of Monmouth
publishing their joy, to the no small regret of some at Court. This
Duke, whom for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though the
son of an abandoned woman), the people made their idol.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

4th December, 1679. I dined, together with Lord Ossory and the Earl of
Chesterfield, at the Portugal Ambassador's, now newly come, at Cleveland
House, a noble palace, too good for that infamous.... The staircase is
sumptuous, and the gallery and garden; but, above all, the costly
furniture belonging to the Ambassador, especially the rich Japan
cabinets, of which I think there were a dozen. There was a billiard
table, with as many more hazards as ours commonly have; the game being
only to prosecute the ball till hazarded, without passing the port, or
touching the pin; if one miss hitting the ball every time, the game is
lost, or if hazarded. It is more difficult to hazard a ball, though so
many, than in our table, by reason the bound is made so exactly even,
and the edges not stuffed; the balls are also bigger, and they for the
most part use the sharp and small end of the billiard stick, which is
shod with brass, or silver. The entertainment was exceedingly civil;
but, besides a good olio, the dishes were trifling, hashed and condited
after their way, not at all fit for an English stomach, which is for
solid meat. There was yet good fowls, but roasted to coal, nor were the
sweetmeats good.

30th December, 1679. I went to meet Sir John Stonehouse, and give him a
particular of the settlement on my son, who now made his addresses to
the young lady his daughter-in-law, daughter of Lady Stonehouse.

25th January, 1679-80. Dr. Cave, author of "Primitive Christianity,"
etc., a pious and learned man, preached at Whitehall to the household,
on James iii. 17, concerning the duty of grace and charity.

30th January, 1680. I supped with Sir Stephen Fox, now made one of the
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

19th February, 1680. The writings for the settling jointure and other
contracts of marriage of my son were finished and sealed. The lady was
to bring £5,000, in consideration of a settlement of £500 a year present
maintenance, which was likewise to be her jointure, and £500 a year
after mine and my wife's decease. But, with God's blessing, it will be
at the least £1,000 a year more in a few years. I pray God make him
worthy of it, and a comfort to his excellent mother, who deserves much
from him!

21st February, 1680. SHROVE-TUESDAY. My son was married to Mrs. Martha
Spencer, daughter to my Lady Stonehouse by a former gentleman, at St.
Andrew's, Holborn, by our Vicar, borrowing the church of Dr.
Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's, the present incumbent. We afterward
dined at a house in Holborn; and, after the solemnity and dancing was
done, they were bedded at Sir John Stonehouse's lodgings in Bow Street,
Convent Garden.

26th February, 1680. To the Royal Society, where I met an Irish Bishop
with his Lady, who was daughter to my worthy and pious friend, Dr.
Jeremy Taylor, late Bishop of Down and Connor; they came to see the
Repository. She seemed to be a knowing woman, beyond the ordinary talent
of her sex.

3d March, 1680. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, in order to the meeting of
my Lady Beckford, whose daughter (a rich heiress) I had recommended to
my brother of Wotton for his only son, she being the daughter of the
lady by Mr. Eversfield, a Sussex gentleman.

16th March, 1680. To London, to receive £3,000 of my daughter-in-law's
portion, which was paid in gold.

26th March, 1680. The Dean of Sarum preached on Jerem. xlv. 5, an hour
and a half from his common-place book, of kings and great men retiring
to private situations. Scarce anything of Scripture in it.

[Sidenote: CASHIOBURY]

18th April, 1680. On the earnest invitation of the Earl of Essex, I went
with him to his house at Cashiobury, in Hertfordshire. It was on Sunday,
but going early from his house in the square of St. James, we arrived by
ten o'clock; this he thought too late to go to church, and we had
prayers in his chapel. The house is new, a plain fabric, built by my
friend, Mr. Hugh May. There are divers fair and good rooms, and
excellent carving by Gibbons, especially the chimney-piece of the
library. There is in the porch, or entrance, a painting by Verrio, of
Apollo and the Liberal Arts. One room pargeted with yew, which I liked
well. Some of the chimney mantels are of Irish marble, brought by my
Lord from Ireland, when he was Lord-Lieutenant, and not much inferior to
Italian. The tympanum, or gable, at the front is a bass-relievo of Diana
hunting, cut in Portland stone, handsomely enough. I do not approve of
the middle doors being round: but, when the hall is finished as
designed, it being an oval with a cupola, together with the other wing,
it will be a very noble palace. The library is large, and very nobly
furnished, and all the books are richly bound and gilded; but there are
no MSS., except the Parliament Rolls and Journals, the transcribing and
binding of which cost him, as he assured me, £500.

No man has been more industrious than this noble Lord in planting about
his seat, adorned with walks, ponds, and other rural elegancies; but the
soil is stony, churlish, and uneven, nor is the water near enough to the
house, though a very swift and clear stream runs within a flight-shot
from it in the valley, which may fitly be called Coldbrook, it being
indeed excessively cold, yet producing fair trouts. It is a pity the
house was not situated to more advantage: but it seems it was built just
where the old one was, which I believe he only meant to repair; this
leads men into irremediable errors, and saves but a little.

The land about is exceedingly addicted to wood, but the coldness of the
place hinders the growth. Black cherry trees prosper even to
considerable timber, some being eighty feet long; they make also very
handsome avenues. There is a pretty oval at the end of a fair walk, set
about with treble rows of Spanish chestnut trees.

The gardens are very rare, and cannot be otherwise, having so skillful
an artist to govern them as Mr. Cooke, who is, as to the mechanic part,
not ignorant in mathematics, and pretends to astrology. There is an
excellent collection of the choicest fruit.

As for my Lord, he is a sober, wise, judicious, and pondering person,
not illiterate beyond the rate of most noblemen in this age, very well
versed in English history and affairs, industrious, frugal, methodical,
and every way accomplished. His Lady (being sister of the late Earl of
Northumberland) is a wise, yet somewhat melancholy woman, setting her
heart too much on the little lady, her daughter, of whom she is over
fond. They have a hopeful son at the Academy.

My Lord was not long since come from his Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland,
where he showed his abilities in administration and government, as well
as prudence in considerably augmenting his estate without reproach. He
had been Ambassador-extraordinary in Denmark, and, in a word, such a
person as became the son of that worthy hero his father to be, the late
Lord Capel, who lost his life for King Charles I.

We spent our time in the mornings in walking, or riding, and contriving
[alterations], and the afternoons in the library, so as I passed my time
for three or four days with much satisfaction. He was pleased in
conversation to impart to me divers particulars of state, relating to
the present times. He being no great friend to the D---- was now laid
aside, his integrity and abilities being not so suitable in this
conjuncture. 21st. I returned to London.

30th April, 1680. To a meeting of the executors of late Viscountess
Mordaunt's estate, to consider of the sale of Parson's Green, being in
treaty with Mr. Loftus, and to settle the half year's account.

1st May, 1680. Was a meeting of the feoffees of the poor of our parish.
This year I would stand one of the collectors of their rents, to give
example to others. My son was added to the feoffees.

This afternoon came to visit me Sir Edward Deering, of Surrendon, in
Kent, one of the Lords of the Treasury, with his daughter, married to my
worthy friend, Sir Robert Southwell, Clerk of the Council, now
Extraordinary-Envoy to the Duke of Brandenburgh, and other Princes in
Germany, as before he had been in Portugal, being a sober, wise, and
virtuous gentleman.

13th May, 1680. I was at the funeral of old Mr. Shish, master-shipwright
of his Majesty's Yard here, an honest and remarkable man, and his death
a public loss, for his excellent success in building ships (though
altogether illiterate), and for breeding up so many of his children to
be able artists. I held up the pall with three knights, who did him that
honor, and he was worthy of it. It was the custom of this good man to
rise in the night, and to pray, kneeling in his own coffin, which he had
lying by him for many years. He was born that famous year, the
Gunpowder-plot, 1605.

14th June, 1680. Came to dine with us the Countess of Clarendon, Dr.
Lloyd, Dean of Bangor (since Bishop of St. Asaph), Dr. Burnet, author of
the "History of the Reformation," and my old friend, Mr. Henshaw. After
dinner we all went to see the Observatory, and Mr. Flamsted, who showed
us divers rare instruments, especially the great quadrant.

[Sidenote: WINDSOR]

24th July, 1680. Went with my wife and daughter to Windsor, to see that
stately court, now near finished. There was erected in the court the
King on horseback, lately cast in copper, and set on a rich pedestal of
white marble, the work of Mr. Gibbons, at the expense of Toby Rustate, a
page of the back stairs, who by his wonderful frugality had arrived to a
great estate in money, and did many works of charity, as well as this of
gratitude to his master, which cost him £1,000. He is very simple,
ignorant, but honest and loyal creature.

We all dined at the Countess of Sunderland's, afterward to see Signor
Verrio's garden, thence to Eton College, to salute the provost, and
heard a Latin speech of one of the alumni (it being at the election) and
were invited to supper; but took our leave, and got to London that night
in good time.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th July, 1680. My most noble and illustrious friend, the Earl of
Ossory, espying me this morning after sermon in the privy gallery,
calling to me, told me he was now going his journey (meaning to Tangier,
whither he was designed Governor, and General of the forces, to regain
the losses we had lately sustained from the Moors, when Inchiquin was
Governor). I asked if he would not call at my house (as he always did
whenever he went out of England on any exploit). He said he must embark
at Portsmouth, "wherefore let you and me dine together to-day; I am
quite alone, and have something to impart to you; I am not well, shall
be private, and desire your company."

Being retired to his lodgings, and set down on a couch, he sent to his
secretary for the copy of a letter which he had written to Lord
Sunderland (Secretary of State), wishing me to read it; it was to take
notice how ill he resented it, that he should tell the King before Lord
Ossory's face, that Tangier was not to be kept, but would certainly be
lost, and yet added that it was fit Lord Ossory should be sent, that
they might give some account of it to the world, meaning (as supposed)
the next Parliament, when all such miscarriages would probably be
examined; this Lord Ossory took very ill of Lord Sunderland, and not
kindly of the King, who resolving to send him with an incompetent force,
seemed, as his Lordship took it, to be willing to cast him away, not
only on a hazardous adventure, but in most men's opinion, an
impossibility, seeing there was not to be above 300 or 400 horse, and
4,000 foot for the garrison and all, both to defend the town, form a
camp, repulse the enemy, and fortify what ground they should get in.
This touched my Lord deeply, that he should be so little considered as
to put him on a business in which he should probably not only lose his
reputation, but be charged with all the miscarriage and ill success;
whereas, at first they promised 6,000 foot and 600 horse effective.

My Lord, being an exceedingly brave and valiant person, and who had so
approved himself in divers signal battles, both at sea and land; so
beloved and so esteemed by the people, as one they depended on, upon all
occasions worthy of such a captain;--he looked on this as too great an
indifference in his Majesty, after all his services, and the merits of
his father, the Duke of Ormond, and a design of some who envied his
virtue. It certainly took so deep root in his mind, that he who was the
most void of fear in the world (and assured me he would go to Tangier
with ten men if his Majesty commanded him) could not bear up against
this unkindness. Having disburdened himself of this to me after dinner,
he went with his Majesty to the sheriffs at a great supper in
Fishmongers' Hall; but finding himself ill, took his leave immediately
of his Majesty, and came back to his lodging. Not resting well this
night, he was persuaded to remove to Arlington House, for better
accommodation. His disorder turned to a malignant fever, which
increasing, after all that six of the most able physicians could do, he
became delirious, with intervals of sense, during which Dr. Lloyd (after
Bishop of St. Asaph) administered the Holy Sacrament, of which I also
participated. He died the Friday following, the 30th of July, to the
universal grief of all that knew or heard of his great worth, nor had
any a greater loss than myself. Oft would he say I was the oldest
acquaintance he had in England (when his father was in Ireland), it
being now of about thirty years, contracted abroad, when he rode in the
Academy in Paris, and when we were seldom asunder.

His Majesty never lost a worthier subject, nor father a better or more
dutiful son; a loving, generous, good-natured, and perfectly obliging
friend; one who had done innumerable kindnesses to several before they
knew it; nor did he ever advance any that were not worthy; no one more
brave, more modest; none more humble, sober, and every way virtuous.
Unhappy England in this illustrious person's loss! Universal was the
mourning for him, and the eulogies on him; I stayed night and day by his
bedside to his last gasp, to close his dear eyes! O sad father, mother,
wife, and children! What shall I add? He deserved all that a sincere
friend, a brave soldier, a virtuous courtier, a loyal subject, an honest
man, a bountiful master, and good Christian, could deserve of his prince
and country. One thing more let me note, that he often expressed to me
the abhorrence he had of that base and unworthy action which he was put
upon, of engaging the Smyrna fleet in time of peace, in which though he
behaved himself like a great captain, yet he told me it was the only
blot in his life, and troubled him exceedingly. Though he was commanded,
and never examined further when he was so, yet he always spoke of it
with regret and detestation. The Countess was at the seat of her
daughter, the Countess of Derby, about 200 miles off.

30th August, 1680. I went to visit a French gentleman, one Monsieur
Chardin, who having been thrice in the East Indies, Persia, and other
remote countries, came hither in our return ships from those parts, and
it being reported that he was a very curious and knowing man, I was
desired by the Royal Society to salute him in their name, and to invite
him to honor them with his company. Sir Joseph Hoskins and Sir
Christopher Wren accompanied me. We found him at his lodgings in his
eastern habit, a very handsome person, extremely affable, a modest,
well-bred man, not inclined to talk wonders. He spoke Latin, and
understood Greek, Arabic, and Persian, from eleven years' travels in
those parts, whither he went in search of jewels, and was become very
rich. He seemed about 36 years of age. After the usual civilities, we
asked some account of the extraordinary things he must have seen in
traveling over land to those places where few, if any, northern
Europeans used to go, as the Black and Caspian Sea, Mingrelia, Bagdad,
Nineveh, Persepolis, etc. He told us that the things most worthy of our
sight would be, the draughts he had caused to be made of some noble
ruins, etc.; for that, besides his own little talent that way, he had
carried two good painters with him, to draw landscapes, measure and
design the remains of the palace which Alexander burned in his frolic at
Persepolis, with divers temples, columns, relievos, and statues, yet
extant, which he affirmed to be sculpture far exceeding anything he had
observed either at Rome, in Greece, or in any other part of the world
where magnificence was in estimation. He said there was an inscription
in letters not intelligible, though entire. He was sorry he could not
gratify the curiosity of the Society at present, his things not being
yet out of the ship; but would wait on them with them on his return from
Paris, whither he was going the next day, but with intention to return
suddenly, and stay longer here, the persecution in France not suffering
Protestants, and he was one, to be quiet.

He told us that Nineveh was a vast city, now all buried in her ruins,
the inhabitants building on the subterranean vaults, which were, as
appeared, the first stories of the old city, that there were frequently
found huge vases of fine earth, columns, and other antiquities; that the
straw which the Egyptians required of the Israelites, was not to burn,
or cover the rows of bricks as we use, but being chopped small to mingle
with the clay, which being dried in the sun (for they bake not in the
furnace) would else cleave asunder; that in Persia are yet a race of
Ignicolæ, who worship the sun and the fire as Gods; that the women of
Georgia and Mingrelia were universally, and without any compare, the
most beautiful creatures for shape, features, and figure, in the world,
and therefore the Grand Seignor and Bashaws had had from thence most of
their wives and concubines; that there had within these hundred years
been Amazons among them, that is to say, a sort or race of valiant
women, given to war; that Persia was extremely fertile; he spoke also of
Japan and China, and of the many great errors of our late geographers,
as we suggested matter for discourse. We then took our leave, failing of
seeing his papers; but it was told us by others that indeed he dared not
open, or show them, till he had first showed them to the French King;
but of this he himself said nothing.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d September, 1680. I had an opportunity, his Majesty being still at
Windsor, of seeing his private library at Whitehall, at my full ease. I
went with expectation of finding some curiosities, but, though there
were about 1,000 volumes, there were few of importance which I had not
perused before. They consisted chiefly of such books as had from time to
time been dedicated, or presented to him; a few histories, some Travels
and French books, abundance of maps and sea charts, entertainments and
pomps, buildings and pieces relating to the navy, some mathematical
instruments; but what was most rare, were three or four Romish
breviaries, with a great deal of miniature and monkish painting and
gilding, one of which is most exquisitely done, both as to the figures,
grotesques, and compartments, to the utmost of that curious art. There
is another in which I find written by the hand of King Henry VII., his
giving it to his dear daughter, Margaret, afterward Queen of Scots, in
which he desires her to pray for his soul, subscribing his name at
length. There is also the process of the philosophers' great elixir,
represented in divers pieces of excellent miniature, but the discourse
is in high Dutch, a MS. There is another MS. in quarto, of above 300
years old, in French, being an institution of physic, and in the
botanical part the plants are curiously painted in miniature; also a
folio MS. of good thickness, being the several exercises, as Themes,
Orations, Translations, etc., of King Edward VI., all written and
subscribed by his own hand, and with his name very legible, and divers
of the Greek interleaved and corrected after the manner of schoolboys'
exercises, and that exceedingly well and proper; with some epistles to
his preceptor, which show that young prince to have been extraordinarily
advanced in learning, and as Cardan, who had been in England affirmed,
stupendously knowing for his age. There is likewise his journal, no less
testifying his early ripeness and care about the affairs of state.

There are besides many pompous volumes, some embossed with gold, and
intaglios on agates, medals, etc. I spent three or four entire days,
locked up, and alone, among these books and curiosities. In the rest of
the private lodgings contiguous to this, are divers of the best pictures
of the great masters, Raphael, Titian, etc., and in my esteem, above
all, the "_Noli me tangere_" of our blessed Savior to Mary Magdalen
after his Resurrection, of Hans Holbein; than which I never saw so much
reverence and kind of heavenly astonishment expressed in a picture.

There are also divers curious clocks, watches, and pendules of exquisite
work, and other curiosities. An ancient woman who made these lodgings
clean, and had all the keys, let me in at pleasure for a small reward,
by means of a friend.

6th September, 1680. I dined with Sir Stephen Fox, now one of the Lords
Commissioners of the Treasury. This gentleman came first a poor boy from
the choir of Salisbury, then he was taken notice of by Bishop Duppa, and
afterward waited on my Lord Percy (brother to Algernon, Earl of
Northumberland), who procured for him an inferior place among the clerks
of the kitchen and Greencloth side, where he was found so humble,
diligent, industrious, and prudent in his behavior, that his Majesty
being in exile, and Mr. Fox waiting, both the King and Lords about him
frequently employed him about their affairs, and trusted him both with
receiving and paying the little money they had. Returning with his
Majesty to England, after great want and great sufferings, his Majesty
found him so honest and industrious, and withal so capable and ready,
that, being advanced from clerk of the kitchen to that of the
Greencloth, he procured to be paymaster of the whole army, and by his
dexterity and punctual dealing he obtained such credit among the
bankers, that he was in a short time able to borrow vast sums of them
upon any exigence. The continual turning thus of money, and the
soldiers' moderate allowance to him for keeping touch with them, did so
enrich him, that he is believed to be worth at least £200,000, honestly
got and unenvied; which is next to a miracle. With all this he continues
as humble and ready to do a courtesy as ever he was.

He is generous, and lives very honorably, of a sweet nature,
well-spoken, well-bred, and is so highly in his Majesty's esteem, and so
useful, that being long since made a knight, he is also advanced to be
one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and has the reversion of
the Cofferer's place after Harry Brouncker. He has married his eldest
daughter to my Lord Cornwallis, and gave her £12,000, and restored that
entangled family besides. He matched his son to Mrs. Trollop, who brings
with her (besides a great sum) near, if not altogether, £2,000 per
annum. Sir Stephen's lady (an excellent woman) is sister to Mr. Whittle,
one of the King's chirurgeons. In a word, never was man more fortunate
than Sir Stephen; he is a handsome person, virtuous, and very religious.

23d September, 1680. Came to my house some German strangers and Signor
Pietro, a famous musician, who had been long in Sweden in Queen
Christina's Court; he sung admirably to a guitar, and had a perfect good
tenor and bass, and had set to Italian composure many of Abraham
Cowley's pieces which showed extremely well. He told me that in Sweden
the heat in some part of summer was as excessive as the cold in winter;
so cold, he affirmed, that the streets of all the towns are desolate, no
creatures stirring in them for many months, all the inhabitants retiring
to their stoves. He spoke high things of that romantic Queen's learning
and skill in languages, the majesty of her behavior, her exceeding wit,
and that the histories she had read of other countries, especially of
Italy and Rome, had made her despise her own. That the real occasion of
her resigning her crown was the nobleman's importuning her to marry, and
the promise which the Pope had made her of procuring her to be Queen of
Naples, which also caused her to change her religion; but she was
cheated by his crafty Holiness,[43] working on her ambition; that the
reason of her killing her secretary at Fontainebleau, was, his revealing
that intrigue with the Pope. But, after all this, I rather believe it
was her mad prodigality and extreme vanity, which had consumed those
vast treasures the great Adolphus, her father, had brought out of
Germany during his [campaigns] there and wonderful successes; and that,
if she had not voluntarily resigned, as foreseeing the event, the
Estates of her kingdom would have compelled her to do so.

    [Footnote 43: Pope Alexander VII., of the family of Chighi, at
    Sienna.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

30th October, 1680. I went to London to be private, my birthday being
the next day, and I now arrived at my sixtieth year; on which I began a
more solemn survey of my whole life, in order to the making and
confirming my peace with God, by an accurate scrutiny of all my actions
past, as far as I was able to call them to mind. How difficult and
uncertain, yet how necessary a work! The Lord be merciful to me, and
accept me! Who can tell how oft he offendeth? Teach me, therefore, so to
number my days, that I may apply my heart unto wisdom, and make my
calling and election sure. Amen, Lord Jesus!

31st October, 1680. I spent this whole day in exercises. A stranger
preached at Whitehall[44] on Luke xvi. 30, 31. I then went to St.
Martin's, where the Bishop of St. Asaph preached on 1 Peter iii. 15; the
Holy Communion followed, at which I participated, humbly imploring God's
assistance in the great work I was entering into. In the afternoon, I
heard Dr. Sprat, at St. Margaret's, on Acts xvii. 11.

    [Footnote 44: Probably to the King's household, very early in the
    morning, as the custom was.]

I began and spent the whole week in examining my life, begging pardon
for my faults, assistance and blessing for the future, that I might, in
some sort, be prepared for the time that now drew near, and not have the
great work to begin, when one can work no longer. The Lord Jesus help
and assist me! I therefore stirred little abroad till the 5th of
November, when I heard Dr. Tenison, the now vicar of St. Martin's; Dr.
Lloyd, the former incumbent, being made Bishop of St. Asaph.

7th November, 1680. I participated of the blessed Communion, finishing
and confirming my resolutions of giving myself up more entirely to God,
to whom I had now most solemnly devoted the rest of the poor remainder
of life in this world; the Lord enabling me, who am an unprofitable
servant, a miserable sinner, yet depending on his infinite goodness and
mercy accepting my endeavors.

15th November, 1680. Came to dine with us Sir Richard Anderson, his
lady, son and wife, sister to my daughter-in-law.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

30th November, 1680. The anniversary election at the Royal Society
brought me to London, where was chosen President that excellent person
and great philosopher, Mr. Robert Boyle, who indeed ought to have been
the very first; but neither his infirmity nor his modesty could now any
longer excuse him. I desired I might for this year be left out of the
Council, by reason my dwelling was in the country. The Society according
to custom dined together.

The signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) of my Lord
Viscount Stafford, (for conspiring the death of the King), second son to
my Lord Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of
England, and grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk, whom I so well
knew, and from which excellent person I received so many favors. It was
likewise his birthday, The trial was in Westminster Hall, before the
King, Lords, and Commons, just in the same manner as, forty years past,
the great and wise Earl of Strafford (there being but one letter
differing their names) received his trial for pretended ill government
in Ireland, in the very same place, this Lord Stafford's father being
then High Steward. The place of sitting was now exalted some
considerable height from the paved floor of the hall, with a stage of
boards. The throne, woolsacks for the Judges, long forms for the Peers,
chair for the Lord Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of Lords.
The sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof for the members of
the House of Commons. At the upper end, and on the right side of the
King's state, was a box for his Majesty, and on the left others for the
great ladies, and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public
ministers. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and place for the
prisoner, the Lieutenant of the Tower of London, the ax-bearer and
guards, my Lord Stafford's two daughters, the Marchioness of Winchester
being one; there was likewise a box for my Lord to retire into. At the
right hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood the witnesses; at the
left, the managers, in the name of the Commons of England, namely,
Serjeant Maynard (the great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause
against the Earl of Strafford forty years before, being now near eighty
years of age), Sir William Jones, late Attorney-General, Sir Francis
Winnington, a famous pleader, and Mr. Treby, now Recorder of London, not
appearing in their gowns as lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, as
representing the Commons of England: to these were joined Mr. Hampden,
Dr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel Titus, Sir Thomas Lee, all gentlemen
of quality, and noted parliamentary men. The first two days, in which
were read the commission and impeachment, were but a tedious entrance
into matter of fact, at which I was but little present. But, on
Thursday, I was commodiously seated among the Commons, when the
witnesses were sworn and examined. The principal witnesses were Mr.
Oates (who called himself Dr.), Mr. Dugdale, and Turberville. Oates
swore that he delivered a commission to Viscount Stafford from the Pope,
to be Paymaster-General to an army intended to be raised; Dugdale, that
being at Lord Aston's, the prisoner dealt with him plainly to murder his
Majesty; and Turberville, that at Paris he also proposed the same to
him.

3d December, 1680. The depositions of my Lord's witnesses were taken, to
invalidate the King's witnesses; they were very slight persons, but,
being fifteen or sixteen, they took up all that day, and in truth they
rather did my Lord more injury than service.

4th December, 1680. Came other witnesses of the Commons to corroborate
the King's, some being Peers, some Commons, with others of good quality,
who took off all the former day's objections, and set the King's
witnesses _recti in curiâ_.

6th December, 1680. Sir William Jones summed up the evidence; to him
succeeded all the rest of the managers, and then Mr. Henry Poule made a
vehement oration. After this my Lord, as on all occasions, and often
during the trial, spoke in his own defense, denying the charge
altogether, and that he had never seen Oates, or Turberville, at the
time and manner affirmed: in truth, their testimony did little weigh
with me; Dugdale's only seemed to press hardest, to which my Lord spoke
a great while, but confusedly, without any method.

One thing my Lord said as to Oates, which I confess did exceedingly
affect me: That a person who during his depositions should so vauntingly
brag that though he went over to the Church of Rome, yet he was never a
Papist, nor of their religion, all the time that he seemed to apostatize
from the Protestant, but only as a spy; though he confessed he took
their sacrament; worshiped images, went through all their oaths and
discipline of their proselytes, swearing secrecy and to be faithful, but
with intent to come over again and betray them; that such a hypocrite,
that had so deeply prevaricated as even to turn idolater (for so we of
the Church of England termed it), attesting God so solemnly that he was
entirely theirs and devoted to their interest, and consequently (as he
pretended) trusted; I say, that the witness of such a profligate wretch
should be admitted against the life of a peer,--this my Lord looked upon
as a monstrous thing, and such as must needs redound to the dishonor of
our religion and nation. And verily I am of his Lordship's opinion: such
a man's testimony should not be taken against the life of a dog. But the
merit of something material which he discovered against Coleman, put him
in such esteem with the Parliament, that now, I fancy, he stuck at
nothing, and thought everybody was to take what he said for Gospel. The
consideration of this, and some other circumstances, began to stagger
me; particularly how it was possible that one who went among the Papists
on such a design, and pretended to be intrusted with so many letters and
commissions from the Pope and the party,--nay, and delivered them to so
many great persons,--should not reserve one of them to show, nor so much
as one copy of any commission, which he who had such dexterity in
opening letters might certainly have done, to the undeniable conviction
of those whom he accused; but, as I said, he gained credit on Coleman.
But, as to others whom he so madly flew upon, I am little inclined to
believe his testimony, he being so slight a person, so passionate, ill
bred, and of such impudent behavior; nor is it likely that such piercing
politicians as the Jesuits should trust him with so high and so
dangerous secrets.

7th December, 1680. On Tuesday, I was again at the trial, when judgment
was demanded; and, after my Lord had spoken what he could in denying the
fact, the managers answering the objections, the Peers adjourned to
their House, and within two hours returned again. There was, in the
meantime, this question put to the judges, "whether there being but one
witness to any single crime, or act, it could amount to convict a man of
treason." They gave an unanimous opinion that in case of treason they
all were overt acts for though no man should be condemned by one witness
for any one act, yet for several acts to the same intent, it was valid;
which was my Lord's case. This being past, and the Peers in their seats
again, the Lord Chancellor Finch (this day the Lord High-Steward)
removing to the woolsack next his Majesty's state, after summoning the
Lieutenant of the Tower to bring forth his prisoner, and proclamation
made for silence, demanded of every Peer (who were in all eighty-six)
whether William, Lord Viscount Stafford, were guilty of the treason laid
to his charge, or not guilty.

Then the Peer spoken to, standing up, and laying his right hand upon his
breast, said guilty, or not guilty, upon my honor, and then sat down,
the Lord Steward noting their suffrages as they answered upon a paper:
when all had done, the number of not guilty being but 31, the guilty 55;
and then, after proclamation for silence again, the Lord Steward
directing his speech to the prisoner, against whom the ax was turned
edgeways and not before, in aggravation of his crime, he being ennobled
by the King's father, and since received many favors from his present
Majesty: after enlarging on his offense, deploring first his own
unhappiness that he who had never condemned any man before should now be
necessitated to begin with him, he then pronounced sentence of death by
hanging, drawing, and quartering, according to form, with great
solemnity and dreadful gravity; and, after a short pause, told the
prisoner that he believed the Lords would intercede for the omission of
some circumstances of his sentence, beheading only excepted; and then
breaking his white staff, the Court was dissolved. My Lord Stafford
during all this latter part spoke but little, and only gave their
Lordships thanks after the sentence was pronounced; and indeed behaved
himself modestly, and as became him.

It was observed that all his own relations of his name and family
condemned him, except his nephew, the Earl of Arundel, son to the Duke
of Norfolk. And it must be acknowledged that the whole trial was carried
on with exceeding gravity: so stately and august an appearance I had
never seen before; for, besides the innumerable spectators of gentlemen
and foreign ministers, who saw and heard all the proceedings, the
prisoner had the consciences of all the Commons of England for his
accusers, and all the Peers to be his judges and jury. He had likewise
the assistance of what counsel he would, to direct him in his plea, who
stood by him. And yet I can hardly think that a person of his age and
experience should engage men whom he never saw before (and one of them
that came to visit him as a stranger at Paris) POINT BLANK to murder the
King: God only, who searches hearts, can discover the truth. Lord
Stafford was not a man beloved especially of his own family.

12th December, 1680. This evening, looking out of my chamber window
toward the west, I saw a meteor of an obscure bright color, very much in
shape like the blade of a sword, the rest of the sky very serene and
clear. What this may portend, God only knows; but such another
phenomenon I remember to have seen in 1640, about the trial of the great
Earl of Strafford, preceding our bloody Rebellion. I pray God avert his
judgments! We have had of late several comets, which though I believe
appear from natural causes, and of themselves operate not, yet I cannot
despise them. They may be warnings from God, as they commonly are
forerunners of his animadversions. After many days and nights of snow,
cloudy and dark weather, the comet was very much wasted.

17th December, 1680. My daughter-in-law was brought to bed of a son,
christened Richard.

22d December, 1680. A solemn public Fast that God would prevent all
Popish plots, avert his judgments, and give a blessing to the
proceedings of Parliament now assembled, and which struck at the
succession of the Duke of York.

29th December, 1680. The Viscount Stafford was beheaded on Towerhill.

10th February, 1680-81. I was at the wedding of my nephew, John Evelyn
of Wotton, married by the Bishop of Rochester at Westminster, in Henry
VII.'s chapel, to the daughter and heir of Mr. Eversfield, of Sussex,
her portion £8,000. The solemnity was kept with a few friends only at
Lady Beckford's, the lady's mother.

8th March, 1681. Visited and dined at the Earl of Essex's, with whom I
spent most of the afternoon alone. Thence to my (yet living) godmother
and kinswoman, Mrs. Keightley, sister to Sir Thomas Evelyn and niece to
my father, being now eighty-six years of age, sprightly, and in perfect
health, her eyes serving her as well as ever, and of a comely
countenance, that one would not suppose her above fifty.

27th March, 1681. The Parliament now convened at Oxford. Great
expectation of his Royal Highness's case as to the succession, against
which the House was set.

An extraordinary sharp, cold spring, not yet a leaf on the trees, frost
and snow lying: while the whole nation was in the greatest ferment.

11th April, 1681. I took my leave of Dr. Lloyd (Bishop of St. Asaph) at
his house in Leicester Fields, now going to reside in his diocese.

12th April, 1681. I dined at Mr. Brisbane's, Secretary to the Admiralty,
a learned and industrious person, whither came Dr. Burnet, to thank me
for some papers I had contributed toward his excellent "History of the
Reformation."

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th April, 1681. I dined at Don Pietro Ronquillo's, the Spanish
Ambassador, at Wild House, who used me with extraordinary civility. The
dinner was plentiful, half after the Spanish, half after the English
way. After dinner, he led me into his bedchamber, where we fell into a
long discourse concerning religion. Though he was a learned man in
politics, and an advocate, he was very ignorant in religion, and unable
to defend any point of controversy; he was, however, far from being
fierce. At parting, he earnestly wished me to apply humbly to the
blessed virgin to direct me, assuring me that he had known divers who
had been averse from the Roman Catholic religion, wonderfully
enlightened and convinced by her intercession. He importuned me to come
and visit him often.

29th April, 1681. But one shower of rain all this month.

5th May, 1681. Came to dine with me Sir William Fermor, of
Northamptonshire, and Sir Christopher Wren, his Majesty's architect and
surveyor, now building the Cathedral of St. Paul, and the column in
memory of the city's conflagration, and was in hand with the building of
fifty parish churches. A wonderful genius had this incomparable person.

16th May, 1681. Came my Lady Sunderland, to desire that I would propose
a match to Sir Stephen Fox for her son, Lord Spencer, to marry Mrs.
Jane, Sir Stephen's daughter. I excused myself all I was able; for the
truth is, I was afraid he would prove an extravagant man: for, though a
youth of extraordinary parts, and had an excellent education to render
him a worthy man, yet his early inclinations to extravagance made me
apprehensive, that I should not serve Sir Stephen by proposing it, like
a friend; this being now his only daughter, well-bred, and likely to
receive a large share of her father's opulence. Lord Sunderland was much
sunk in his estate by gaming and other prodigalities, and was now no
longer Secretary of State, having fallen into displeasure of the King
for siding with the Commons about the succession; but which, I am
assured, he did not do out of his own inclination, or for the
preservation of the Protestant religion, but by mistaking the ability of
the party to carry it. However, so earnest and importunate was the
Countess, that I did mention it to Sir Stephen, who said it was too
great an honor, that his daughter was very young, as well as my Lord,
and he was resolved never to marry her without the parties' mutual
liking; with other objections which I neither would or could contradict.
He desired me to express to the Countess the great sense he had of the
honor done him, that his daughter and her son were too young, that he
would do nothing without her liking, which he did not think her capable
of expressing judiciously, till she was sixteen or seventeen years of
age, of which she now wanted four years, and that I would put it off as
civilly as I could.

20th May, 1681. Our new curate preached, a pretty hopeful young man, yet
somewhat raw, newly come from college, full of Latin sentences, which in
time will wear off. He read prayers very well.

25th May, 1681. There came to visit me Sir William Walter and Sir John
Elowes: and the next day, the Earl of Kildare, a young gentleman related
to my wife, and other company. There had scarce fallen any rain since
Christmas.

2d June, 1681. I went to Hampton Court, when the Surrey gentlemen
presented their addresses to his Majesty, whose hand I kissed,
introduced by the Duke of Albemarle. Being at the Privy Council, I took
another occasion of discoursing with Sir Stephen Fox about his daughter
and to revive that business, and at least brought it to this: That in
case the young people liked one the other, after four years, he first
desiring to see a particular of my Lord's present estate if I could
transmit it to him privately, he would make her portion £14,000, though
to all appearance he might likely make it £50,000 as easily, his eldest
son having no child and growing very corpulent.

12th June, 1681. It still continued so great a drought as had never been
known in England, and it was said to be universal.

14th August, 1681. No sermon this afternoon, which I think did not
happen twice in this parish these thirty years; so gracious has God been
to it, and indeed to the whole nation: God grant that we abuse not this
great privilege either by our wantonness, schism, or unfaithfulness,
under such means as he has not favored any other nation under Heaven
besides!

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

23d August, 1681. I went to Wotton, and, on the following day, was
invited to Mr. Denzil Onslow's at his seat at Purford, where was much
company, and such an extraordinary feast, as I had hardly seen at any
country gentleman's table. What made it more remarkable was, that there
was not anything save what his estate about it did afford; as venison,
rabbits, hares, pheasants, partridges, pigeons, quails, poultry, all
sorts of fowl in season from his own decoy near his house, and all sorts
of fresh fish. After dinner we went to see sport at the decoy, where I
never saw so many herons.

The seat stands on a flat, the ground pasture, rarely watered, and
exceedingly improved since Mr. Onslow bought it of Sir Robert Parkhurst,
who spent a fair estate. The house is timber, but commodious, and with
one ample dining-room, the hall adorned with paintings of fowl and
huntings, etc., the work of Mr. Barlow, who is excellent in this kind
from the life.

30th August, 1681. From Wotton I went to see Mr. Hussey (at Sutton in
Shere), who has a very pretty seat well watered, near my brother's. He
is the neatest husband for curious ordering his domestic and field
accommodations, and what pertains to husbandry, that I have ever seen,
as to his granaries, tacklings, tools, and utensils, plows, carts,
stables, wood piles, wood houses, even to hen roosts and hog troughs.
Methought, I saw old Cato, or Varro, in him; all substantial, all in
exact order. The sole inconvenience he lies under, is the great quantity
of sand which the stream brings along with it, and fills his canals and
receptacles for fish too soon. The rest of my time of stay at Wotton was
spent in walking about the grounds and goodly woods, where I have in my
youth so often entertained my solitude; and so, on the 2d of September,
I once more returned to my home.

6th September, 1681. Died my pretty grandchild, and was interred on the
8th [at Deptford].

14th September, 1681. Dined with Sir Stephen Fox, who proposed to me the
purchasing of Chelsea College, which his Majesty had sometime since
given to our Society, and would now purchase it again to build a
hospital; or infirmary for soldiers there, in which he desired my
assistance as one of the Council of the Royal Society.

15th September, 1681. I had another opportunity of visiting his
Majesty's private library at Whitehall.

To Sir Samuel Morland's, to see his house and mechanics.

17th September, 1681. I went with Monsieur Faubert about taking the
Countess of Bristol's house for an academy, he being lately come from
Paris for his religion, and resolving to settle here.

23d September, 1681. I went to see Sir Thomas Bond's fine house and
garden at Peckham.

2d October, 1681. I went to Camberwell, where that good man Dr. Parr
(late chaplain to Archbishop Usher) preached on Acts xvi. 30.

11th October, 1681. To Fulham, to visit the Bishop of London, in whose
garden I first saw the _Sedum arborescens_ in flower, which was
exceedingly beautiful.

5th November, 1681. Dr. Hooper preached on Mark xii. 16, 17, before the
King, of the usurpation of the Church of Rome. This is one of the first
rank of pulpit men in the nation.

15th November, 1681. I dined with the Earl of Essex who, after dinner
in his study, where we were alone, related to me how much he had been
scandalized and injured in the report of his being privy to the marriage
of his Lady's niece, the rich young widow of the late Lord Ogle, sole
daughter of the Earl of Northumberland; showing me a letter of Mr.
Thynn's, excusing himself for not communicating his marriage to his
Lordship. He acquainted me also with the whole story of that unfortunate
lady being betrayed by her grandmother, the Countess of Northumberland,
and Colonel Bret, for money; and that though, upon the importunity of
the Duke of Monmouth, he had delivered to the grandmother a particular
of the jointure which Mr. Thynn pretended he would settle on the lady,
yet he totally discouraged the proceeding as by no means a competent
match for one that both by birth and fortune might have pretended to the
greatest prince in Christendom; that he also proposed the Earl of
Kingston, or the Lord Cranburn, but was by no means for Mr. Thynn.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th November, 1681. I dined with my worthy friend, Mr. Erskine, Master
of the Charter House, uncle to the Duchess of Monmouth; a wise and
learned gentleman, fitter to have been a privy councillor and minister
of state than to have been laid aside.

24th November, 1681. I was at the audience of the Russian Ambassador
before both their Majesties in the Banqueting House. The presents were
carried before him, held up by his followers in two ranks before the
King's State, and consisted of tapestry (one suite of which was
doubtlessly brought from France as being of that fabric, the Ambassador
having passed through that kingdom as he came out of Spain), a large
Persian carpet, furs of sable and ermine, etc.; but nothing was so
splendid and exotic as the Ambassador who came soon after the King's
restoration. This present Ambassador was exceedingly offended that his
coach was not permitted to come into the Court, till, being told that no
King's Ambassador did, he was pacified, yet requiring an attestation of
it under the hand of Sir Charles Cotterell, the Master of the
Ceremonies; being, it seems, afraid he should offend his Master, if he
omitted the least punctilio. It was reported he condemned his son to
lose his head for shaving off his beard, and putting himself in the
French mode at Paris, and that he would have executed it, had not the
French King interceded--but qy. of this.

30th November, 1681. Sir Christopher Wren chosen President [of the Royal
Society], Mr. Austine, Secretary, with Dr. Plot, the ingenious author of
the "History of Oxfordshire." There was a most illustrious appearance.

11th January, 1681-82. I saw the audience of the Morocco Ambassador,
his retinue not numerous. He was received in the Banqueting House, both
their Majesties being present. He came up to the throne without making
any sort of reverence, not bowing his head, or body. He spoke by a
renegado Englishman, for whose safe return there was a promise. They
were all clad in the Moorish habit, cassocks of colored cloth, or silk,
with buttons and loops, over this an _alhaga_, or white woolen mantle,
so large as to wrap both head and body, a sash, or small turban,
naked-legged and armed, but with leather socks like the Turks, rich
scymetar, and large calico sleeved shirts. The Ambassador had a string
of pearls oddly woven in his turban. I fancy the old Roman habit was
little different as to the mantle and naked limbs. He was a handsome
person, well featured, of a wise look, subtle, and extremely civil.
Their presents were lions and ostriches; their errand about a peace at
Tangier. But the concourse and tumult of the people was intolerable, so
as the officers could keep no order, which these strangers were
astonished at first, there being nothing so regular, exact, and
performed with such silence, as is on all these public occasions of
their country, and indeed over all the Turkish dominions.

14th January, 1682. Dined at the Bishop of Rochester's, at the Abbey, it
being his marriage day, after twenty-four years. He related to me how he
had been treated by Sir William Temple, foreseeing that he might be a
delegate in the concern of my Lady Ogle now likely come in controversy
upon her marriage with Mr. Thynn; also how earnestly the late Earl of
Danby, Lord Treasurer, sought his friendship, and what plain and sincere
advice he gave him from time to time about his miscarriages and
partialities; particularly his outing Sir John Duncomb from being
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Sir Stephen Fox, above all, from being
Paymaster of the Army. The Treasurer's excuse and reason was, that Fox's
credit was so over great with the bankers and monied men, that he could
procure none but by his means, "for that reason," replied the Bishop, "I
would have made him my friend, Sir Stephen being a person both honest
and of credit." He told him likewise of his stateliness and difficulty
of access, and several other miscarriages, and which indeed made him
hated.

24th January, 1682. To the Royal Society, where at the Council we
passed a new law for the more accurate consideration of candidates, as
whether they would really be useful; also concerning the honorary
members, that none should be admitted but by diploma.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

This evening I was at the entertainment of the Morocco Ambassador at the
Duchess of Portsmouth's glorious apartments at Whitehall, where was a
great banquet of sweetmeats and music; but at which both the Ambassador
and his retinue behaved themselves with extraordinary moderation and
modesty, though placed about a long table, a lady between two Moors, and
among these were the King's natural children, namely, Lady Lichfield and
Sussex, the Duchess of Portsmouth, Nelly, etc., concubines, and cattle
of that sort, as splendid as jewels and excess of bravery could make
them; the Moors neither admiring nor seeming to regard anything,
furniture or the like, with any earnestness, and but decently tasting of
the banquet. They drank a little milk and water, but not a drop of wine;
they also drank of a sorbet and jacolatt;[45] did not look about, or
stare on the ladies, or express the least surprise, but with a courtly
negligence in pace, countenance, and whole behavior, answering only to
such questions as were asked with a great deal of wit and gallantry, and
so gravely took leave with this compliment, that God would bless the
Duchess of Portsmouth and the Prince, her son meaning the little Duke of
Richmond. The King came in at the latter end, just as the Ambassador was
going away. In this manner was this slave (for he was no more at home)
entertained by most of the nobility in town, and went often to Hyde Park
on horseback, where he and his retinue showed their extraordinary
activity in horsemanship, and flinging and catching their lances at full
speed; they rode very short, and could stand upright at full speed,
managing their spears with incredible agility. He went sometimes to the
theaters, where, upon any foolish or fantastical action, he could not
forbear laughing, but he endeavored to hide it with extraordinary
modesty and gravity. In a word, the Russian Ambassador, still at Court
behaved himself like a clown compared to this civil heathen.

    [Footnote 45: Sherbet and chocolate.]

27th January, 1682. This evening, Sir Stephen Fox acquainted me again
with his Majesty's resolution of proceeding in the erection of a Royal
Hospital for emerited soldiers on that spot of ground which the Royal
Society had sold to his Majesty for £1,300, and that he would settle
£5,000 per annum on it, and build to the value of £20,000 for the relief
and reception of four companies, namely, 400 men, to be as in a college,
or monastery. I was therefore desired by Sir Stephen (who had not only
the whole managing of this, but was, as I perceived, himself to be a
grand benefactor, as well it became him who had gotten so vast an estate
by the soldiers) to assist him, and consult what method to cast it in,
as to the government. So, in his study we arranged the governor,
chaplain, steward, housekeeper, chirurgeon, cook, butler, gardener,
porter, and other officers, with their several salaries and
entertainments. I would needs have a library, and mentioned several
books, since some soldiers might possibly be studious, when they were at
leisure to recollect. Thus we made the first calculations, and set down
our thoughts to be considered and digested better, to show his Majesty
and the Archbishop. He also engaged me to consider of what laws and
orders were fit for the government, which was to be in every respect as
strict as in any religious convent.

After supper, came in the famous treble, Mr. Abel, newly returned from
Italy; I never heard a more excellent voice; one would have sworn it had
been a woman's, it was so high, and so well and skillfully managed,
being accompanied by Signor Francesco on the harpsichord.

28th January, 1682. Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to the Admiralty, showed
me a large folio containing the whole mechanic part and art of building
royal ships and men-of-war, made by Sir Anthony Dean, being so accurate
a piece from the very keel to the lead block, rigging, guns, victualing,
manning, and even to every individual pin and nail, in a method so
astonishing and curious, with a draught, both geometrical and in
perspective, and several sections, that I do not think the world can
show the like. I esteem this book as an extraordinary jewel.

7th February, 1682. My daughter, Mary, began to learn music of Signor
Bartholomeo, and dancing of Monsieur Isaac, reputed the best masters.

Having had several violent fits of an ague, recourse was had to bathing
my legs in milk up to the knees, made as hot as I could endure it: and
sitting so in it in a deep churn, or vessel, covered with blankets, and
drinking _carduus_ posset, then going to bed and sweating, I not only
missed that expected fit, but had no more, only continued weak, that I
could not go to church till Ash Wednesday, which I had not missed, I
think, so long in twenty years, so gracious had God been to me.

After this warning and admonition, I now began to look over and
methodize all my writings, accounts, letters, papers; inventoried the
goods, and other articles of the house, and put things into the best
order I could, and made my will; that now, growing in years, I might
have none of these secular things and concerns to distract me, when it
should please Almighty God to call me from this transitory life. With
this, I prepared some special meditations and devotions for the time of
sickness. The Lord Jesus grant them to be salutary for my poor soul in
that day, that I may obtain mercy and acceptance!

1st March, 1682. My second grandchild was born, and christened the next
day by our vicar at Sayes Court, by the name of John.[46] I beseech God
to bless him!

    [Footnote 46: Who became his successor, and was created a baronet in
    1713.]

2d March, 1682. ASH WEDNESDAY. I went to church: our vicar preached on
Proverbs, showing what care and vigilance was required for the keeping
of the heart upright. The Holy Communion followed, on which I gave God
thanks for his gracious dealing with me in my late sickness, and
affording me this blessed opportunity of praising him in the
congregation, and receiving the cup of salvation with new and serious
resolutions.

Came to see and congratulate my recovery, Sir John Lowther, Mr. Herbert,
Mr. Pepys, Sir Anthony Deane, and Mr. Hill.

10th March, 1682. This day was executed Colonel Vrats, and some of his
accomplices, for the execrable murder of Mr. Thynn, set on by the
principal Koningsmark. He went to execution like an undaunted hero, as
one that had done a friendly office for that base coward, Count
Koningsmark, who had hopes to marry his widow, the rich Lady Ogle, and
was acquitted by a corrupt jury, and so got away. Vrats told a friend of
mine who accompanied him to the gallows, and gave him some advice that
he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped and believed God would deal
with him like a gentleman. Never man went, so unconcerned for his sad
fate.

24th March, 1682. I went to see the corpse of that obstinate creature,
Colonel Vrats, the King permitting that his body should be transported
to his own country, he being of a good family, and one of the first
embalmed by a particular art, invented by one William Russell, a
coffin-maker, which preserved the body without disboweling, or to
appearance using any bituminous matter. The flesh was florid, soft, and
full, as if the person were only sleeping. He had now been dead near
fifteen days, and lay exposed in a very rich coffin lined with lead, too
magnificent for so daring and horrid a murderer.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

At the meeting of the Royal Society were exhibited some pieces of amber
sent by the Duke of Brandenburg, in one of which was a spider, in
another a gnat, both very entire. There was a discourse of the tingeing
of glass, especially with red, and the difficulty of finding any red
color effectual to penetrate glass, among the glass-painters; that the
most diaporous, as blue, yellow, etc., did not enter into the substance
of what was ordinarily painted, more than very shallow, unless
incorporated in the metal itself, other reds and whites not at all
beyond the superfices.

5th April, 1682. To the Royal Society, where at a Council was regulated
what collections should be published monthly, as formerly the
transactions, which had of late been discontinued, but were now much
called for by the curious abroad and at home.

12th April, 1682. I went this afternoon with several of the Royal
Society to a supper which was all dressed, both fish and flesh, in
Monsieur Papin's digestors, by which the hardest bones of beef itself,
and mutton, were made as soft as cheese, without water or other liquor,
and with less than eight ounces of coals, producing an incredible
quantity of gravy; and for close of all, a jelly made of the bones of
beef, the best for clearness and good relish, and the most delicious
that I had ever seen, or tasted. We ate pike and other fish, bones and
all, without impediment; but nothing exceeded the pigeons, which tasted
just as if baked in a pie, all these being stewed in their own juice,
without any addition of water save what swam about the digestor, as _in
balneo_; the natural juice of all these provisions acting on the grosser
substances, reduced the hardest bones to tenderness; but it is best
descanted with more particulars for extracting tinctures, preserving and
stewing fruit, and saving fuel, in Dr. Papin's book, published and
dedicated to our Society of which he is a member. He is since gone to
Venice with the late Resident here (and also a member of our Society),
who carried this excellent mechanic, philosopher, and physician, to set
up a philosophical meeting in that city. This philosophical supper
caused much mirth among us, and exceedingly pleased all the company. I
sent a glass of the jelly to my wife, to the reproach of all that the
ladies ever made of their best hartshorn.[47]

    [Footnote 47: Denys Papin, a French physician and mathematician, who
    possessed so remarkable a knowledge of mathematics, that he very
    nearly brought the invention of the steam engine into working order.
    He assisted Mr. Boyle in his pneumatic experiments, and was
    afterward mathematical professor at Marburg. He died in 1710.]

The season was unusually wet, with rain and thunder.

25th May, 1682. I was desired by Sir Stephen Fox and Sir Christopher
Wren to accompany them to Lambeth, with the plot and design of the
college to be built at Chelsea, to have the Archbishop's approbation. It
was a quadrangle of 200 feet square, after the dimensions of the larger
quadrangle at Christ church, Oxford, for the accommodation of 440
persons, with governor and officers. This was agreed on.

The Duke and Duchess of York were just now come to London, after his
escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland.

28th May, 1682. At the Rolls' chapel preached the famous Dr. Burnet on
2 Peter, i. 10, describing excellently well what was meant by election;
viz, not the effect of any irreversible decree, but so called because
they embraced the Gospel readily, by which they became elect, or
precious to God. It would be very needless to make our calling and
election sure, were they irreversible and what the rigid Presbyterians
pretend. In the afternoon, to St. Lawrence's church, a new and cheerful
pile.

29th May, 1682. I gave notice to the Bishop of Rochester of what
Maimburg had published about the motives of the late Duchess of York's
perversion, in his "History of Calvinism;" and did myself write to the
Bishop of Winchester about it, who being concerned in it, I urged him to
set forth his vindication.

31st May, 1682. The Morocco Ambassador being admitted an honorary member
of the Royal Society, and subscribing his name and titles in Arabic, I
was deputed by the Council to go and compliment him.

19th June, 1682. The Bantam, or East India Ambassadors (at this time we
had in London the Russian, Moroccan, and Indian Ambassadors), being
invited to dine at Lord George Berkeley's (now Earl), I went to the
entertainment to contemplate the exotic guests. They were both very
hard-favored, and much resembling in countenance some sort of monkeys.
We ate at two tables, the Ambassadors and interpreter by themselves.
Their garments were rich Indian silks, flowered with gold, viz, a close
waistcoat to their knees, drawers, naked legs, and on their heads caps
made like fruit baskets. They wore poisoned daggers at their bosoms, the
hafts carved with some ugly serpents' or devils' heads, exceedingly
keen, and of Damascus metal. They wore no sword. The second Ambassador
(sent it seems to succeed in case the first should die by the way in so
tedious a journey), having been at Mecca, wore a Turkish or Arab sash, a
little part of the linen hanging down behind his neck, with some other
difference of habit, and was half a negro, bare legged and naked feet,
and deemed a very holy man. They sat cross-legged like Turks, and
sometimes in the posture of apes and monkeys; their nails and teeth as
black as jet, and shining, which being the effect, as to their teeth, of
perpetually chewing betel to preserve them from the toothache, much
raging in their country, is esteemed beautiful.

The first ambassador was of an olive hue, a flat face, narrow eyes,
squat nose, and Moorish lips, no hair appeared; they wore several rings
of silver, gold and copper on their fingers, which was a token of
knighthood, or nobility. They were of Java Major, whose princes have
been turned Mahometans not above fifty years since; the inhabitants are
still pagans and idolaters. They seemed of a dull and heavy
constitution, not wondering at any thing they saw; but exceedingly
astonished how our law gave us propriety in our estates, and so thinking
we were all kings, for they could not be made to comprehend how subjects
could possess anything but at the pleasure of their Prince, they being
all slaves; they were pleased with the notion, and admired our
happiness. They were very sober, and I believe subtle in their way.
Their meat was cooked, carried up, and they attended by several fat
slaves, who had no covering save drawers, which appeared very uncouth
and loathsome. They ate their pilaw, and other spoon-meat, without
spoons, taking up their pottage in the hollow of their fingers, and very
dexterously flung it into their mouths without spilling a drop.

17th July, 1682. Came to dine with me, the Duke of Grafton and the young
Earl of Ossory, son to my most dear deceased friend.

30th July, 1682. Went to visit our good neighbor, Mr. Bohun, whose whole
house is a cabinet of all elegancies, especially Indian; in the hall are
contrivances of Japan screens, instead of wainscot; and there is an
excellent pendule clock inclosed in the curious flowerwork of Mr.
Gibbons, in the middle of the vestibule. The landscapes of the screens
represent the manner of living, and country of the Chinese. But, above
all, his lady's cabinet is adorned on the fret, ceiling, and
chimney-piece, with Mr. Gibbons's best carving. There are also some of
Streeter's best paintings, and many rich curiosities of gold and silver
as growing in the mines. The gardens are exactly kept, and the whole
place very agreeable and well watered. The owners are good neighbors,
and Mr. Bohun has also built and endowed a hospital for eight poor
people, with a pretty chapel, and every necessary accommodation.

1st August, 1682. To the Bishop of London at Fulham, to review the
additions which Mr. Marshall had made to his curious book of flowers in
miniature, and collection of insects.

4th August, 1682. With Sir Stephen Fox, to survey the foundations of the
Royal Hospital begun at Chelsea.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

9th August, 1682. The Council of the Royal Society had it recommended
to them to be trustees and visitors, or supervisors, of the Academy
which Monsieur Faubert did hope to procure to be built by subscription
of worthy gentlemen and noblemen, for the education of youth, and to
lessen the vast expense the nation is at yearly by sending children into
France to be taught military exercises. We thought to give him all the
encouragement our recommendation could procure.

15th August, 1682. Came to visit me Dr. Rogers, an acquaintance of mine
long since at Padua. He was then Consul of the English nation, and
student in that University, where he proceeded Doctor in Physic;
presenting me now with the Latin oration he lately made upon the famous
Dr. Harvey's anniversary in the College of Physicians, at London.

20th August, 1682. This night I saw another comet, near Cancer, very
bright, but the stream not so long as the former.

29th August, 1682. Supped at Lord Clarendon's, with Lord Hyde, his
brother, now the great favorite, who invited himself to dine at my house
the Tuesday following.

30th October, 1682. Being my birthday, and I now entering my great
climacterical of 63, after serious recollections of the years past,
giving Almighty God thanks for all his merciful preservations and
forbearance, begging pardon for my sins and unworthiness, and his
blessing on me the year entering, I went with my Lady Fox to survey her
building, and give some directions for the garden at Chiswick; the
architect is Mr. May,--somewhat heavy and thick, and not so well
understood: the garden much too narrow, the place without water, near a
highway, and near another great house of my Lord Burlington, little land
about it, so that I wonder at the expense; but women will have their
will.

25th November, 1682. I was invited to dine with Monsieur Lionberg, the
Swedish Resident, who made a magnificent entertainment, it being the
birthday of his King. There dined the Duke of Albemarle, Duke of
Hamilton, Earl of Bath, Earl of Aylesbury, Lord Arran, Lord Castlehaven,
the son of him who was executed fifty years before, and several great
persons. I was exceedingly afraid of drinking (it being a Dutch feast),
but the Duke of Albemarle being that night to wait on his Majesty,
excess was prohibited; and, to prevent all, I stole away and left the
company as soon as we rose from table.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

28th November, 1682. I went to the Council of the Royal Society, for the
auditing the last year's account, where I was surprised with a fainting
fit that for a time took away my sight; but God being merciful to me, I
recovered it after a short repose.

30th November, 1682. I was exceedingly endangered and importuned to
stand the election,[48] having so many voices, but by favor of my
friends, and regard of my remote dwelling, and now frequent infirmities,
I desired their suffrages might be transferred to Sir John Hoskins, one
of the Masters of Chancery; a most learned virtuoso as well as lawyer,
who accordingly was elected.

    [Footnote 48: For President of the Royal Society.]

7th December, 1682. Went to congratulate Lord Hyde (the great favorite)
newly made Earl of Rochester, and lately marrying his eldest daughter to
the Earl of Ossory.

18th December, 1682. I sold my East India adventure of £250 principal
for £750 to the Royal Society, after I had been in that company
twenty-five years, being extraordinarily advantageous, by the blessing
of God.

23d January, 1682-83. Sir Francis North, son to the Lord North, and Lord
Chief Justice, being made Lord Keeper on the death of the Earl of
Nottingham, the Lord Chancellor, I went to congratulate him. He is a
most knowing, learned, and ingenious man, and, besides being an
excellent person, of an ingenious and sweet disposition, very skillful
in music, painting, the new philosophy, and politer studies.

29th January, 1683. Supped at Sir Joseph Williamson's, where was a
select company of our Society, Sir William Petty, Dr. Gale (that learned
schoolmaster of St. Paul's), Dr. Whistler, Mr. Hill, etc. The
conversation was philosophical and cheerful, on divers considerable
questions proposed; as of the hereditary succession of the Roman
Emperors; the Pica mentioned in the preface to our Common Prayer, which
signifies only the Greek _Kalendarium_. These were mixed with lighter
subjects.

2d February, 1683. I made my court at St. James's, when I saw the sea
charts of Captain Collins, which that industrious man now brought to
show the Duke, having taken all the coasting from the mouth of the
Thames, as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island,
rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intending next spring to
proceed till he had finished the whole island, and that measured by
chains and other instruments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He
affirmed, that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant so
true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen
Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous.

12th February, 1683. This morning I received the news of the death of my
father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne, Knt. and Bart., who died at my house
at Sayes Court this day at ten in the morning, after he had labored
under the gout and dropsy for nearly six months, in the 78th year of his
age. The funeral was solemnized on the 19th at Deptford, with as much
decency as the dignity of the person, and our relation to him, required;
there being invited the Bishop of Rochester, several noblemen, knights,
and all the fraternity of the Trinity Company, of which he had been
Master, and others of the country. The vicar preached a short but proper
discourse on Psalm xxxix. 10, on the frailty of our mortal condition,
concluding with an ample and well-deserved eulogy on the defunct,
relating to his honorable birth and ancestors, education, learning in
Greek and Latin, modern languages, travels, public employments, signal
loyalty, character abroad, and particularly the honor of supporting the
Church of England in its public worship during its persecution by the
late rebels' usurpation and regicide, by the suffrages of divers
Bishops, Doctors of the Church, and others, who found such an asylum in
his house and family at Paris, that in their disputes with the Papists
(then triumphing over it as utterly lost) they used to argue for its
visibility and existence from Sir R. Browne's chapel and assembly there.
Then he spoke of his great and loyal sufferings during thirteen years'
exile with his present Majesty, his return with him in the signal year
1660; his honorable employment at home, his timely recess to recollect
himself, his great age, infirmities, and death.

He gave to the Trinity Corporation that land in Deptford on which are
built those almshouses for twenty-four widows of emerited seamen. He was
born the famous year of the Gunpowder Treason, in 1605, and being the
last [male] of his family, left my wife, his only daughter, heir. His
grandfather, Sir Richard Browne, was the great instrument under the
great Earl of Leicester (favorite to Queen Elizabeth) in his government
of the Netherland. He was Master of the Household to King James, and
Cofferer; I think was the first who regulated the compositions through
England for the King's household, provisions, progresses,[49] etc.,
which was so high a service, and so grateful to the whole nation, that
he had acknowledgments and public thanks sent him from all the counties;
he died by the rupture of a vein in a vehement speech he made about the
compositions in a Parliament of King James. By his mother's side he was
a Gunson, Treasurer of the Navy in the reigns of Henry VIII., Queen
Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and, as by his large pedigree appears,
related to divers of the English nobility. Thus ended this honorable
person, after so many changes and tossings to and fro, in the same house
where he was born. "Lord teach us so to number our days, that we may
apply our hearts unto wisdom!"

    [Footnote 49: Notice was taken of this in a previous passage of the
    "Diary." The different counties were bound to supply provisions of
    various kinds, and these were collected by officers called
    purveyors, whose extortions often excited the attention of
    Parliament.]

By a special clause in his will, he ordered that his body should be
buried in the churchyard under the southeast window of the chancel,
adjoining to the burying places of his ancestors, since they came out of
Essex into Sayes Court, he being much offended at the novel custom of
burying everyone within the body of the church and chancel; that being a
favor heretofore granted to martyrs and great persons; this excess of
making churches charnel houses being of ill and irreverend example, and
prejudicial to the health of the living, besides the continual
disturbance of the pavement and seats, and several other indecencies.
Dr. Hall, the pious Bishop of Norwich, would also be so interred, as may
be read in his testament.

16th March, 1683. I went to see Sir Josiah Child's prodigious cost in
planting walnut trees about his seat, and making fish ponds, many miles
in circuit, in Epping Forest, in a barren spot, as oftentimes these
suddenly monied men for the most part seat themselves. He from a
merchant's apprentice, and management of the East India Company's stock,
being arrived to an estate (it is said) of £200,000; and lately married
his daughter to the eldest son of the Duke of Beaufort, late Marquis of
Worcester, with £50,000 portional present, and various expectations.

I dined at Mr. Houblon's, a rich and gentle French merchant, who was
building a house in the Forest, near Sir J. Child's, in a place where
the late Earl of Norwich dwelt some time, and which came from his lady,
the widow of Mr. Baker. It will be a pretty villa, about five miles from
Whitechapel.

18th March, 1683. I went to hear Dr. Horneck preach at the Savoy Church,
on Phil. ii. 5. He was a German born, a most pathetic preacher, a person
of a saint-like life, and hath written an excellent treatise on
Consideration.

20th March, 1683. Dined at Dr. Whistler's, at the Physicians' College,
with Sir Thomas Millington, both learned men; Dr. W. the most facetious
man in nature, and now Censor of the college. I was here consulted where
they should build their library; it is a pity this college is built so
near Newgate Prison, and in so obscure a hole, a fault in placing most
of our public buildings and churches in the city, through the avarice of
some few men, and his Majesty not overruling it, when it was in his
power after the dreadful conflagration.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st March, 1683. Dr. Tenison preached at Whitehall on 1 Cor. vi. 12; I
esteem him to be one of the most profitable preachers in the Church of
England, being also of a most holy conversation, very learned and
ingenious. The pains he takes and care of his parish will, I fear, wear
him out, which would be an inexpressible loss.

24th March, 1683. I went to hear Dr. Charleton's lecture on the heart in
the Anatomy Theater at the Physicians' College.

30th March, 1683. To London, in order to my passing the following week,
for the celebration of the Easter now approaching, there being in the
Holy Week so many eminent preachers officiating at the Court and other
places.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

6th April, 1683. GOOD FRIDAY. There was in the afternoon, according to
custom, a sermon before the King, at Whitehall; Dr. Sprat preached for
the Bishop of Rochester.

17th April, 1683. I was at the launching of the last of the thirty ships
ordered to be newly built by Act of Parliament, named the "Neptune," a
second rate, one of the goodliest vessels of the whole navy, built by my
kind neighbor, young Mr. Shish, his Majesty's master shipwright of this
dock.

1st May, 1683. I went to Blackheath, to see the new fair, being the
first procured by the Lord Dartmouth. This was the first day, pretended
for the sale of cattle, but I think in truth to enrich the new tavern at
the bowling-green, erected by Snape, his Majesty's farrier, a man full
of projects. There appeared nothing but an innumerable assembly of
drinking people from London, peddlars, etc., and I suppose it too near
London to be of any great use to the country.

March was unusually hot and dry, and all April excessively wet.

I planted all the out limits of the garden and long walks with
holly.[50]

    [Footnote 50: Evelyn adds a note: "400 feet in length, 9 feet high,
    5 in diameter, in my now ruined garden, thanks to the Czar of
    Muscovy."--"_Sylva_," book ii. chap. vi.]

9th May, 1683. Dined at Sir Gabriel Sylvius's and thence to visit the
Duke of Norfolk, to ask whether he would part with any of his cartoons
and other drawings of Raphael, and the great masters; he told me if he
might sell them all together he would, but that the late Sir Peter Lely
(our famous painter) had gotten some of his best. The person who desired
me to treat for them was Vander Douse, grandson to that great scholar,
contemporary and friend of Joseph Scaliger.

16th May, 1683. Came to dinner and visited me Sir Richard Anderson, of
Pendley, and his lady, with whom I went to London.

8th June, 1683. On my return home from the Royal Society, I found Mr.
Wilbraham, a young gentleman of Cheshire.

11th June, 1683. The Lord Dartmouth was elected Master of the Trinity
House; son to George Legge, late Master of the Ordnance, and one of the
grooms of the bedchamber; a great favorite of the Duke's, an active and
understanding gentleman in sea affairs.

13th June, 1683. To our Society, where we received the Count de
Zinzendorp, Ambassador from the Duke of Saxony, a fine young man; we
showed him divers experiments on the magnet, on which subject the
Society were upon.

16th June, 1683. I went to Windsor, dining by the way at Chiswick, at
Sir Stephen Fox's, where I found Sir Robert Howard (that universal
pretender), and Signor Verrio, who brought his draught and designs for
the painting of the staircase of Sir Stephen's new house.

That which was new at Windsor since I was last there, and was surprising
to me, was the incomparable fresco painting in St. George's Hall,
representing the legend of St. George, and triumph of the Black Prince,
and his reception by Edward III.; the volto, or roof, not totally
finished; then the Resurrection in the Chapel, where the figure of the
Ascension is, in my opinion, comparable to any paintings of the most
famous Roman masters; the Last Supper, also over the altar. I liked the
contrivance of the unseen organ behind the altar, nor less the
stupendous and beyond all description the incomparable carving of our
Gibbons, who is, without controversy, the greatest master both for
invention and rareness of work, that the world ever had in any age; nor
doubt I at all that he will prove as great a master in the statuary art.

Verrio's invention is admirable, his ordnance full and flowing, antique
and heroical; his figures move; and, if the walls hold (which is the
only doubt by reason of the salts which in time and in this moist
climate prejudice), the work will preserve his name to ages.

There was now the terrace brought almost round the old castle; the
grass made clean, even, and curiously turfed; the avenues to the new
park, and other walks, planted with elms and limes, and a pretty canal,
and receptacle for fowl; nor less observable and famous is the throwing
so huge a quantity of excellent water to the enormous height of the
castle, for the use of the whole house, by an extraordinary invention of
Sir Samuel Morland.

17th June, 1683. I dined at the Earl of Sunderland's with the Earls of
Bath, Castlehaven, Lords Viscounts Falconberg, Falkland, Bishop of
London, the Grand Master of Malta, brother to the Duke de Vendôme (a
young wild spark), and Mr. Dryden, the poet. After evening prayer, I
walked in the park with my Lord Clarendon, where we fell into discourse
of the Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Seth Ward), his subtlety, etc. Dr.
Durell, late Dean of Windsor, being dead, Dr. Turner, one of the Duke's
chaplains was made dean.

I visited my Lady Arlington, groom of the stole to her Majesty, who
being hardly set down to supper, word was brought her that the Queen was
going into the park to walk, it being now near eleven at night; the
alarm caused the Countess to rise in all haste, and leave her supper to
us.

By this one may take an estimate of the extreme slavery and subjection
that courtiers live in, who had not time to eat and drink at their
pleasure. It put me in mind of Horace's "Mouse," and to bless God for my
own private condition.

Here was Monsieur de l'Angle, the famous minister of Charenton, lately
fled from the persecution in France, concerning the deplorable condition
of the Protestants there.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th June, 1683. I was present, and saw and heard the humble submission
and petition of the Lord Mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen, on behalf of the
city of London, on the _quo warranto_ against their charter which they
delivered to his Majesty in the presence chamber. It was delivered
kneeling, and then the King and Council went into the council chamber,
the mayor and his brethren attending still in the presence chamber.
After a short space they were called in, and my Lord Keeper made a
speech to them, exaggerating the disorderly and riotous behavior in the
late election, and polling for Papillon and Du Bois after the Common
hall had been formally dissolved: with other misdemeanors, libels on the
government, etc., by which they had incurred his Majesty's high
displeasure: and that but for this submission, and under such articles
as the King should require their obedience to, he would certainly enter
judgment against them, which hitherto he had suspended. The things
required were as follows: that they should neither elect mayor,
sheriffs, aldermen, recorder, common Serjeant town clerk, coroner, nor
steward of Southwark, without his Majesty's approbation; and that if
they presented any his Majesty did not like, they should proceed in
wonted manner to a second choice; if that was disapproved, his Majesty
to nominate them; and if within five days they thought good to assent to
this, all former miscarriages should be forgotten. And so they tamely
parted with their so ancient privileges after they had dined and been
treated by the King. This was a signal and most remarkable period. What
the consequences will prove, time will show. Divers of the old and most
learned lawyers and judges were of opinion that they could not forfeit
their charter, but might be personally punished for their misdemeanors;
but the plurality of the younger judges and rising men judged it
otherwise.

The Popish Plot also, which had hitherto made such a noise, began now
sensibly to dwindle, through the folly, knavery, impudence, and
giddiness of Oates, so as the Papists began to hold up their heads
higher than ever, and those who had fled, flocked to London from abroad.
Such sudden changes and eager doings there had been without anything
steady or prudent, for these last seven years.

19th June, 1683. I returned to town in a coach with the Earl of
Clarendon, when passing by the glorious palace of his father, built but
a few years before, which they were now demolishing, being sold to
certain undertakers, I turned my head the contrary way till the coach
had gone past it, lest I might minister occasion of speaking of it;
which must needs have grieved him, that in so short a time their pomp
was fallen.

28th June, 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as
they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and
others should design the assassination of the King and the Duke as they
were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and
especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government.
Upon which were committed to the Tower, the Lord Russell, eldest son of
the Earl of Bedford, the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney, son to the
old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick,
and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of
Monmouth, Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond
sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King, others for only
seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of
the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again
admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex and
Russell were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention
against the King, or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn
in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management
relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters,
etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false
brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken
effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to
unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!

Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and christened by the name of
Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she
choose the better part!

[Sidenote: LONDON]

13th July, 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady,
in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of
Essex having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in
the Tower, and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord
Russell was on his trial, and had sentence of death. This accident
exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex being so well known by me to be a
person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and
so much obliged to the King. It is certain the King and Duke were at the
Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when
my Lord asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated
the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he
should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and
wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the
jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head
held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the
razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that
having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far,
that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were
odd reflections upon it.

The fatal news coming to Hicks's Hall upon the article of my Lord
Russell's trial, was said to have had no little influence on the Jury
and all the Bench to his prejudice. Others said that he had himself on
some occasions hinted that in case he should be in danger of having his
life taken from him by any public misfortune, those who thirsted for his
estate should miss of their aim; and that he should speak favorably of
that Earl of Northumberland,[51] and some others, who made away with
themselves; but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent
conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. What might
instigate him to this devilish act, I am not able to conjecture. My Lord
Clarendon, his brother-in-law, who was with him but the day before,
assured me he was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect
of his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty had no
severe intentions against him, though he was altogether inexorable as to
Lord Russell and some of the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and
ambitious Earl of Shaftesbury had brought them into some dislike of the
present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design of destroying
the monarchy (which Shaftesbury had in confidence and for unanswerable
reasons told me he would support to his last breath, as having seen and
felt the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps of setting
up some other whom he might govern, and frame to his own platonic fancy,
without much regard to the religion established under the hierarchy, for
which he had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he had engaged
to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, reproaching his
accomplices that a second day for an exploit of this nature was never
successful, he gave them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox
died, three months before these unhappy Lords and others were discovered
or suspected. Every one deplored Essex and Russell, especially the last,
as being thought to have been drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring
to rescue the King from his present councilors, and secure religion from
Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, now so much
apprehended; while the rest of those who were fled, especially Ferguson
and his gang, had doubtless some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth,
and turn all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is
Sydney.

    [Footnote 51: Henry Percy, eighth Earl of Northumberland, shot
    himself in the Tower, to which he had been committed on a charge of
    high treason in June, 1585.]

I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, son to the famous
and wise prime President of Bordeaux. This gentleman was owner of that
excellent _vignoble_ of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the
choicest of our Bordeaux wines; and I think I may truly say of him, what
was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much learning had made him mad.
He had studied well in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and was
exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador
[romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance of the extravagant
Eastern Jews. He spoke all languages, was very rich, had a handsome
person, and was well bred, about forty-five years of age.

14th July, 1683. I visited Mr. Fraser, a learned Scotch gentleman, whom
I had formerly recommended to Lord Berkeley for the instruction and
government of his son, since dead at sea. He had now been in Holland at
the sale of the learned Heinsius's library, and showed me some very rare
and curious books, and some MSS., which he had purchased to good value.
There were three or four Herbals in miniature, accurately done, divers
Roman antiquities of Verona, and very many books of Aldus's impression.

15th July, 1683. A stranger, an old man, preached on Jerem. vi. 8, the
not hearkening to instruction, portentous of desolation to a people;
much after Bishop Andrew's method, full of logical divisions, in short
and broken periods, and Latin sentences, now quite out of fashion in the
pulpit, which is grown into a far more profitable way, of plain and
practical discourses, of which sort this nation, or any other, never had
greater plenty or more profitable (I am confident); so much has it to
answer for thriving no better on it.

The public was now in great consternation on the late plot and
conspiracy; his Majesty very melancholy, and not stirring without double
guards; all the avenues and private doors about Whitehall and the Park
shut up, few admitted to walk in it. The Papists, in the meantime, very
jocund; and indeed with reason, seeing their own plot brought to
nothing, and turned to ridicule, and now a conspiracy of Protestants, as
they called them.

The Turks were likewise in hostility against the German Emperor, almost
masters of the Upper Hungary, and drawing toward Vienna. On the other
side, the French King (who it is believed brought in the infidels)
disturbing his Spanish and Dutch neighbors, having swallowed up almost
all Flanders, pursuing his ambition of a fifth universal monarchy; and
all this blood and disorder in Christendom had evidently its rise from
our defections at home, in a wanton peace, minding nothing but luxury,
ambition, and to procure money for our vices. To this add our irreligion
and atheism, great ingratitude, and self-interest; the apostacy of some,
and the suffering the French to grow so great, and the Hollanders so
weak. In a word, we were wanton, mad, and surfeiting with prosperity;
every moment unsettling the old foundations, and never constant to
anything. The Lord in mercy avert the sad omen, and that we do not
provoke him till he bear it no longer!

This summer did we suffer twenty French men-of-war to pass our Channel
toward the Sound, to help the Danes against the Swedes, who had
abandoned the French interest, we not having ready sufficient to guard
our coasts, or take cognizance of what they did; though the nation never
had more, or a better navy, yet the sea had never so slender a fleet.

19th July, 1683. George, Prince of Denmark, who had landed this day,
came to marry the Lady Anne, daughter to the Duke; so I returned home,
having seen the young gallant at dinner at Whitehall.

20th July, 1683. Several of the conspirators of the lower form were
executed at Tyburn; and the next day,

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st July, 1683. Lord Russell was beheaded in Lincoln's Inn Fields, the
executioner giving him three butcherly strokes. The speech he made, and
the paper which he gave the Sheriff declaring his innocence, the
nobleness of the family, the piety and worthiness of the unhappy
gentleman, wrought much pity, and occasioned various discourses on the
plot.

25th July, 1683. I again saw Prince George of Denmark: he had the Danish
countenance, blonde, of few words, spoke French but ill, seemed somewhat
heavy, but reported to be valiant, and indeed he had bravely rescued and
brought off his brother, the King of Denmark, in a battle against the
Swedes, when both these Kings were engaged very smartly.

28th July, 1683. He was married to the Lady Anne at Whitehall. Her Court
and household to be modeled as the Duke's, her father, had been, and
they to continue in England.

1st August, 1683. Came to see me Mr. Flamsted, the famous astronomer,
from his Observatory at Greenwich, to draw the meridian from my pendule,
etc.

2d August, 1683. The Countesses of Bristol and Sunderland, aunt and
cousin-german of the late Lord Russell, came to visit me, and condole
his sad fate. The next day, came Colonel Russell, uncle to the late Lord
Russell, and brother to the Earl of Bedford, and with him Mrs.
Middleton, that famous and indeed incomparable beauty, daughter to my
relation, Sir Robert Needham.

19th August, 1683. I went to Bromley to visit our Bishop, and excellent
neighbor, and to congratulate his now being made Archbishop of York. On
the 28th, he came to take his leave of us, now preparing for his journey
and residence in his province.

28th August, 1683. My sweet little grandchild, Martha Maria, died, and
on the 29th was buried in the parish church.

2d September, 1683. This morning, was read in the church, after the
office was done, the Declaration setting forth the late conspiracy
against the King's person.

3d September, 1683. I went to see what had been done by the Duke of
Beaufort on his lately purchased house at Chelsea, which I once had the
selling of for the Countess of Bristol, he had made great alterations,
but might have built a better house with the materials and the cost he
had been at.

Saw the Countess of Monte Feltre, whose husband I had formerly known,
he was a subject of the Pope's, but becoming a Protestant he resided in
England, and married into the family of the Savilles, of Yorkshire. The
Count, her late husband, was a very learned gentleman, a great
politician, and a goodly man. She was accompanied by her sister,
exceedingly skilled in painting, nor did they spare for color on their
own faces. They had a great deal of wit.

9th September, 1683. It being the day of public thanksgiving for his
Majesty's late preservation, the former Declaration was again read, and
there was an office used, composed for the occasion. A loyal sermon was
preached on the divine right of Kings, from Psalm cxliv. 10. "Thou hast
preserved David from the peril of the sword."

15th September, 1683. Came to visit me the learned anatomist, Dr.
Tyson,[52] with some other Fellows of our Society.

    [Footnote 52: Doctor Edward Tyson, a learned physician, born at
    Clevedon, Somersetshire, in 1649, who became reader of the
    anatomical lecture in Surgeons' Hall, and physician to the hospitals
    of Bethlehem and Bridewell, which offices he held at his death, Aug.
    1, 1708. He was an ingenious writer, and has left various Essays in
    the Philosophical Transactions and Hook's Collections. He published
    also "The Anatomy of a Porpoise Dissected at Gresham College," and
    "The Anatomy of a Pigmy Compared with a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man,"
    4to., 1698-99.]

16th September, 1683. At the elegant villa and garden of Mr. Bohun, at
Lee. He showed me the zinnar tree, or platanus, and told me that since
they had planted this kind of tree about the city of Ispahan, in Persia,
the plague, which formerly much infested the place, had exceedingly
abated of its mortal effects, and rendered it very healthy.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th September, 1683. I went to London to visit the Duchess of Grafton,
now great with child, a most virtuous and beautiful lady. Dining with
her at my Lord Chamberlain's, met my Lord of St. Alban's, now grown so
blind, that he could not see to take his meat. He has lived a most easy
life, in plenty even abroad, while his Majesty was a sufferer; he has
lost immense sums at play, which yet, at about eighty years old, he
continues, having one that sits by him to name the spots on the cards.
He ate and drank with extraordinary appetite. He is a prudent old
courtier, and much enriched since his Majesty's return.

After dinner, I walked to survey the sad demolition of Clarendon House,
that costly and only sumptuous palace of the late Lord Chancellor Hyde,
where I have often been so cheerful with him, and sometimes so sad:
happening to make him a visit but the day before he fled from the angry
Parliament, accusing him of maladministration, and being envious at his
grandeur, who from a private lawyer came to be father-in-law to the Duke
of York, and as some would suggest, designing his Majesty's marriage
with the Infanta of Portugal, not apt to breed. To this they imputed
much of our unhappiness; and that he, being sole minister and favorite
at his Majesty's restoration, neglected to gratify the King's suffering
party, preferring those who were the cause of our troubles. But perhaps
as many of these things were injuriously laid to his charge, so he kept
the government far steadier than it has proved since. I could name some
who I think contributed greatly to his ruin,--the buffoons and the
MISSIS, to whom he was an eye-sore. It is true he was of a jolly temper,
after the old English fashion; but France had now the ascendant, and we
were become quite another nation. The Chancellor gone, and dying in
exile, the Earl his successor sold that which cost £50,000 building, to
the young Duke of Albemarle for £25,000, to pay debts which how
contracted remains yet a mystery, his son being no way a prodigal. Some
imagine the Duchess his daughter had been chargeable to him. However it
were, this stately palace is decreed to ruin, to support the prodigious
waste the Duke of Albemarle had made of his estate, since the old man
died. He sold it to the highest bidder, and it fell to certain rich
bankers and mechanics, who gave for it and the ground about it, £35,000;
they design a new town, as it were, and a most magnificent piazza
[square]. It is said they have already materials toward it with what
they sold of the house alone, more worth than what they paid for it. See
the vicissitudes of earthly things! I was astonished at this demolition,
nor less at the little army of laborers and artificers leveling the
ground, laying foundations, and contriving great buildings at an expense
of £200,000, if they perfect their design.

19th September, 1683. In my walks I stepped into a goldbeater's
workhouse, where he showed me the wonderful ductility of that spreading
and oily metal. He said it must be finer than the standard, such as was
old angel-gold, and that of such he had once to the value of £100
stamped with the _agnus dei_, and coined at the time of the holy war;
which had been found in a ruined wall somewhere in the North, near to
Scotland, some of which he beat into leaves, and the rest sold to the
curiosi in antiquities and medals.

23d September, 1683. We had now the welcome tidings of the King of
Poland raising the siege of Vienna, which had given terror to all
Europe, and utmost reproach to the French, who it is believed brought in
the Turks for diversion, that the French King might the more easily
swallow Flanders, and pursue his unjust conquest on the empire, while we
sat unconcerned and under a deadly charm from somebody.

There was this day a collection for rebuilding Newmarket, consumed by an
accidental fire, which removing his Majesty thence sooner than was
intended, put by the assassins, who were disappointed of their
rendezvous and expectation by a wonderful providence. This made the King
more earnest to render Winchester the seat of his autumnal field
diversions for the future, designing a palace there, where the ancient
castle stood; infinitely indeed preferable to Newmarket for prospects,
air, pleasure, and provisions. The surveyor has already begun the
foundation for a palace, estimated to cost £35,000, and his Majesty is
purchasing ground about it to make a park, etc.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

4th October, 1683. I went to London, on receiving a note from the
Countess of Arlington, of some considerable charge or advantage I might
obtain by applying myself to his Majesty on this signal conjuncture of
his Majesty entering up judgment against the city charter; the proposal
made me I wholly declined, not being well satisfied with these violent
transactions, and not a little sorry that his Majesty was so often put
upon things of this nature against so great a city, the consequence
whereof may be so much to his prejudice; so I returned home. At this
time, the Lord Chief-Justice Pemberton was displaced. He was held to be
the most learned of the judges, and an honest man. Sir George Jeffreys
was advanced, reputed to be most ignorant, but most daring. Sir George
Treby, Recorder of London, was also put by, and one Genner, an obscure
lawyer, set in his place. Eight of the richest and chief aldermen were
removed and all the rest made only justices of the peace, and no more
wearing of gowns, or chains of gold; the Lord Mayor and two sheriffs
holding their places by new grants as _custodes_, at the King's
pleasure. The pomp and grandeur of the most august city in the world
thus changed face in a moment; which gave great occasion of discourse
and thoughts of hearts, what all this would end in. Prudent men were for
the old foundations.

Following his Majesty this morning through the gallery, I went with the
few who attended him, into the Duchess of Portmouth's DRESSING ROOM
within her bedchamber, where she was in her morning loose garment, her
maids combing her, newly out of her bed, his Majesty and the gallants
standing about her; but that which engaged my curiosity, was the rich
and splendid furniture of this woman's apartment, now twice or thrice
pulled down and rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive pleasures,
while her Majesty's does not exceed some gentlemen's ladies in furniture
and accommodation. Here I saw the new fabric of French tapestry, for
design, tenderness of work, and incomparable imitation of the best
paintings, beyond anything I had ever beheld. Some pieces had
Versailles, St. Germains, and other palaces of the French King, with
huntings, figures, and landscapes, exotic fowls, and all to the life
rarely done. Then for Japan cabinets, screens, pendule clocks, great
vases of wrought plate, tables, stands, chimney-furniture, sconces,
branches, braseras, etc., all of massy silver and out of number, besides
some of her Majesty's best paintings.

Surfeiting of this, I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's and went contented home
to my poor, but quiet villa. What contentment can there be in the riches
and splendor of this world, purchased with vice and dishonor?

10th October, 1683. Visited the Duchess of Grafton, not yet brought to
bed, and dining with my Lord Chamberlain (her father), went with them to
see Montague House, a palace lately built by Lord Montague, who had
married the most beautiful Countess of Northumberland. It is a stately
and ample palace. Signor Verrio's fresco paintings, especially the
funeral pile of Dido, on the staircase, the labors of Hercules, fight
with the Centaurs, his effeminacy with Dejanira, and Apotheosis or
reception among the gods, on the walls and roof of the great room
above,--I think exceeds anything he has yet done, both for design,
coloring, and exuberance of invention, comparable to the greatest of the
old masters, or what they so celebrate at Rome. In the rest of the
chamber are some excellent paintings of Holbein, and other masters. The
garden is large, and in good air, but the fronts of the house not
answerable to the inside. The court at entry, and wings for offices seem
too near the street, and that so very narrow and meanly built, that the
corridor is not in proportion to the rest, to hide the court from being
overlooked by neighbors; all which might have been prevented, had they
placed the house further into the ground, of which there was enough to
spare. But on the whole it is a fine palace, built after the French
pavilion-way, by Mr. Hooke, the Curator of the Royal Society. There were
with us my Lady Scroope, the great wit, and Monsieur Chardine, the
celebrated traveler.

13th October, 1683. Came to visit me my old and worthy friend, Mr.
Packer, bringing with him his nephew Berkeley, grandson to the honest
judge. A most ingenious, virtuous, and religious gentleman, seated near
Worcester, and very curious in gardening.

17th October, 1683. I was at the court-leet of this manor, my Lord
Arlington his Majesty's High Steward.

26th October, 1683. Came to visit and dine with me, Mr. Brisbane,
Secretary to the Admiralty, a learned and agreeable man.

30th October, 1683. I went to Kew to visit Sir Henry Capell, brother to
the late Earl of Essex; but he being gone to Cashiobury, after I had
seen his garden and the alterations therein, I returned home. He had
repaired his house, roofed his hall with a kind of cupola, and in a
niche was an artificial fountain; but the room seems to me
over-melancholy, yet might be much improved by having the walls well
painted _á fresco_. The two green houses for oranges and myrtles,
communicating with the rooms below, are very well contrived. There is a
cupola made with pole-work between two elms at the end of a walk, which
being covered by plashing the trees to them, is very pretty; for the
rest there are too many fir trees in the garden.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

17th November, 1683. I took a house in Villiers Street, York Buildings,
for the winter, having many important concerns to dispatch, and for the
education of my daughters.

23d November, 1683. The Duke of Monmouth, till now proclaimed traitor on
the pretended plot for which Lord Russell was lately beheaded, came this
evening to Whitehall and rendered himself, on which were various
discourses.

26th November, 1683. I went to compliment the Duchess of Grafton, now
lying-in of her first child, a son, which she called for, that I might
see it. She was become more beautiful, if it were possible, than before,
and full of virtue and sweetness. She discoursed with me of many
particulars, with great prudence and gravity beyond her years.

29th November, 1683. Mr. Forbes showed me the plot of the garden making
at Burleigh, at my Lord Exeter's, which I looked on as one of the most
noble that I had seen.

The whole court and town in solemn mourning for the death of the King of
Portugal, her Majesty's brother.

30th November, 1683. At the anniversary dinner of the Royal Society the
King sent us two does. Sir Cyril Wych was elected President.

5th December, 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs.
Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband,
a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a
broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God
so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest
man; he was sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him.
Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this
daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord
Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all,
Sir George Jeffreys, newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr.
Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry.
These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night,
in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the
gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Mr.
Algernon Sidney, who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill, on the single
witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, and some
sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's study, pretended to be written by
him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been
written before his Majesty's Restoration, and then pardoned by the Act
of Oblivion; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person
obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper
was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very
hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an
inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him;
a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both
at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a
speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he
came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's
hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace,
laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.

The Duke of Monmouth, now having his pardon, refuses to acknowledge
there was any treasonable plot; for which he is banished Whitehall. This
is a great disappointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, Hampden,
etc., that for want of a second witness were come out of the Tower upon
their _habeas corpus_.

The King had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who
carried also grenades, and were habited after the Polish manner, with
long peaked caps, very fierce and fantastical.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th December, 1683. I went to the Tower, and visited the Earl of Danby,
the late Lord High Treasurer, who had been imprisoned four years: he
received me with great kindness. I dined with him, and stayed till
night. We had discourse of many things, his Lady railing sufficiently at
the keeping her husband so long in prison. Here I saluted the Lord
Dumblaine's wife, who before had been married to Emerton, and about whom
there was that scandalous business before the delegates.

23d December, 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames
frozen.

26th December, 1683. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, where I was to meet
that ingenious and learned gentleman, Sir George Wheeler, who has
published the excellent description of Africa and Greece, and who, being
a knight of a very fair estate and young, had now newly entered into
holy orders.

27th December, 1683. I went to visit Sir John Chardin, a French
gentleman, who traveled three times by land into Persia, and had made
many curious researches in his travels, of which he was now setting
forth a relation. It being in England this year one of the severest
frosts that has happened of many years, he told me the cold in Persia
was much greater, the ice of an incredible thickness; that they had
little use of iron in all that country, it being so moist (though the
air admirably clear and healthy) that oil would not preserve it from
rusting, so that they had neither clocks nor watches; some padlocks they
had for doors and boxes.

30th December, 1683. Dr. Sprat, now made Dean of Westminster, preached
to the King at Whitehall, on Matt. vi. 24. Recollecting the passages of
the past year, I gave God thanks for his mercies, praying his blessing
for the future.

1st January, 1683-84. The weather continuing intolerably severe, streets
of booths were set up on the Thames; the air was so very cold and thick,
as of many years there had not been the like. The smallpox was very
mortal.

2d January, 1684. I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's: after dinner came a
fellow who ate live charcoal, glowingly ignited, quenching them in his
mouth, and then champing and swallowing them down. There was a dog also
which seemed to do many rational actions.

6th January, 1684. The river quite frozen.

9th January, 1684. I went across the Thames on the ice, now become so
thick as to bear not only streets of booths, in which they roasted meat,
and had divers shops of wares, quite across as in a town, but coaches,
carts, and horses passed over. So I went from Westminster stairs to
Lambeth, and dined with the Archbishop: where I met my Lord Bruce, Sir
George Wheeler, Colonel Cooke, and several divines. After dinner and
discourse with his Grace till evening prayers, Sir George Wheeler and I
walked over the ice from Lambeth stairs to the Horse-ferry.

10th January, 1684. I visited Sir Robert Reading, where after supper we
had music, but not comparable to that which Mrs. Bridgeman made us on
the guitar with such extraordinary skill and dexterity.

16th January, 1684. The Thames was filled with people and tents selling
all sorts of wares as in the city.

24th January, 1684. The frost continues more and more severe, the Thames
before London was still planted with booths in formal streets, all sorts
of trades and shops furnished, and full of commodities, even to a
printing press, where the people and ladies took a fancy to have their
names printed, and the day and year set down when printed on the Thames:
this humor took so universally, that it was estimated that the printer
gained £5 a day, for printing a line only, at sixpence a name, besides
what he got by ballads, etc. Coaches plied from Westminster to the
Temple, and from several other stairs to and fro, as in the streets,
sleds, sliding with skates, a bull-baiting, horse and coach-races,
puppet-plays and interludes, cooks, tippling, and other lewd places, so
that it seemed to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on the water,
while it was a severe judgment on the land, the trees not only splitting
as if the lightning struck, but men and cattle perishing in divers
places, and the very seas so locked up with ice, that no vessels could
stir out or come in. The fowls, fish, and birds, and all our exotic
plants and greens, universally perishing. Many parks of deer were
destroyed, and all sorts of fuel so dear, that there were great
contributions to preserve the poor alive. Nor was this severe weather
much less intense in most parts of Europe, even as far as Spain and the
most southern tracts. London, by reason of the excessive coldness of the
air hindering the ascent of the smoke, was so filled with the fuliginous
steam of the sea-coal, that hardly could one see across the street, and
this filling the lungs with its gross particles, exceedingly obstructed
the breast, so as one could scarcely breathe. Here was no water to be
had from the pipes and engines, nor could the brewers and divers other
tradesmen work, and every moment was full of disastrous accidents.

4th February, 1684. I went to Sayes Court to see how the frost had
dealt with my garden, where I found many of the greens and rare plants
utterly destroyed. The oranges and myrtles very sick, the rosemary and
laurels dead to all appearance, but the cypress likely to endure it.

5th February, 1684. It began to thaw, but froze again. My coach crossed
from Lambeth, to the Horse-ferry at Milbank, Westminster. The booths
were almost all taken down; but there was first a map or landscape cut
in copper representing all the manner of the camp, and the several
actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory of so signal a frost.

7th February, 1684. I dined with my Lord Keeper, [North], and walking
alone with him some time in his gallery, we had discourse of music. He
told me he had been brought up to it from a child, so as to sing his
part at first sight. Then speaking of painting, of which he was also a
great lover, and other ingenious matters, he desired me to come oftener
to him.

8th February, 1684. I went this evening to visit that great and knowing
virtuoso, Monsieur Justell. The weather was set in to an absolute thaw
and rain; but the Thames still frozen.

10th February, 1684. After eight weeks missing the foreign posts, there
came abundance of intelligence from abroad.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

12th February, 1684. The Earl of Danby, late Lord-Treasurer, together
with the Roman Catholic Lords impeached of high treason in the Popish
Plot, had now their _habeas corpus_, and came out upon bail, after five
years' imprisonment in the Tower. Then were also tried and deeply fined
Mr. Hampden and others, for being supposed of the late plot, for which
Lord Russell and Colonel Sidney suffered; as also the person who went
about to prove that the Earl of Essex had his throat cut in the Tower by
others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the author of that famous piece called
Julian.

15th February, 1684. News of the Prince of Orange having accused the
Deputies of Amsterdam of _crimen læsæ Majestatis_, and being pensioners
to France.

Dr. Tenison communicated to me his intention of erecting a library in
St. Martin's parish, for the public use, and desired my assistance, with
Sir Christopher Wren, about the placing and structure thereof, a worthy
and laudable design. He told me there were thirty or forty young men in
Orders in his parish, either governors to young gentlemen or chaplains
to noblemen, who being reproved by him on occasion for frequenting
taverns or coffeehouses, told him they would study or employ their time
better, if they had books. This put the pious Doctor on this design; and
indeed a great reproach it is that so great a city as London should not
have a public library becoming it. There ought to be one at St. Paul's;
the west end of that church (if ever finished) would be a convenient
place.

23d February, 1684. I went to Sir John Chardin, who desired my
assistance for the engraving the plates, the translation, and printing
his History of that wonderful Persian Monument near Persepolis, and
other rare antiquities, which he had caused to be drawn from the
originals in his second journey into Persia, which we now concluded
upon. Afterward, I went with Sir Christopher Wren to Dr. Tenison, where
we made the drawing and estimate of the expense of the library, to be
begun this next spring near the Mews.

Great expectation of the Prince of Orange's attempts in Holland to bring
those of Amsterdam to consent to the new levies, to which we were no
friends, by a pseudo-politic adherence to the French interest.

26th February, 1684. Came to visit me Dr. Turner, our new Bishop of
Rochester.

28th February, 1684. I dined at Lady Tuke's, where I heard Dr. Walgrave
(physician to the Duke and Duchess) play excellently on the lute.

7th March, 1684. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester, preached an
incomparable sermon (the King being now gone to Newmarket), on Heb. xii.
15, showing and pathetically pressing the care we ought to have lest we
come short of the grace of God. Afterward, I went to visit Dr. Tenison
at Kensington, whither he was retired to refresh, after he had been sick
of the smallpox.

15th March, 1684. At Whitehall preached Mr. Henry Godolphin, a prebend
of St. Paul's, and brother to my dear friend Sydney, on Isaiah 1v. 7. I
dined at the Lord Keeper's, and brought him to Sir John Chardin, who
showed him his accurate drafts of his travels in Persia.

28th March, 1684. There was so great a concourse of people with their
children to be touched for the Evil, that six or seven were crushed to
death by pressing at the chirurgeon's door for tickets. The weather
began to be more mild and tolerable; but there was not the least
appearance of any spring.

30th March, 1684. Easter day. The Bishop of Rochester preached before
the King; after which his Majesty, accompanied with three of his natural
sons, the Dukes of Northumberland, Richmond, and St. Alban (sons of
Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Nelly), went up to the altar; the three boys
entering before the King within the rails, at the right hand, and three
bishops on the left: London (who officiated), Durham, and Rochester,
with the subdean, Dr. Holder. The King, kneeling before the altar,
making his offering, the Bishops first received, and then his Majesty;
after which he retired to a canopied seat on the right hand. Note, there
was perfume burned before the office began. I had received the Sacrament
at Whitehall early with the Lords and household, the Bishop of London
officiating. Then went to St. Martin's, where Dr. Tenison preached
(recovered from the smallpox); then went again to Whitehall as above. In
the afternoon, went to St. Martin's again.

4th April, 1684. I returned home with my family to my house at Sayes
Court, after five months' residence in London; hardly the least
appearance of any spring.

30th April, 1684. A letter of mine to the Royal Society concerning the
terrible effects of the past winter being read, they desired it might be
printed in the next part of their "Transactions."

[Sidenote: SURREY]

10th May, 1684. I went to visit my brother in Surrey. Called by the way
at Ashted, where Sir Robert Howard (Auditor of the Exchequer)
entertained me very civilly at his newly-built house, which stands in a
park on the Down, the avenue south; though down hill to the house, which
is not great, but with the outhouses very convenient. The staircase is
painted by Verrio with the story of Astrea; among other figures is the
picture of the painter himself, and not unlike him; the rest is well
done, only the columns did not at all please me; there is also Sir
Robert's own picture in an oval; the whole in _fresco_. The place has
this great defect, that there is no water but what is drawn up by horses
from a very deep well.

11th May, 1684. Visited Mr. Higham, who was ill, and died three days
after. His grandfather and father (who christened me), with himself, had
now been rectors of this parish 101 years, viz, from May, 1583.

12th May, 1684. I returned to London, where I found the Commissioners of
the Admiralty abolished, and the office of Admiral restored to the Duke,
as to the disposing and ordering all sea business; but his Majesty
signed all petitions, papers, warrants, and commissions, that the Duke,
not acting as admiral by commission or office, might not incur the
penalty of the late Act against Papists and Dissenters holding offices,
and refusing the oath and test. Every one was glad of this change, those
in the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, to the
great damage of the Navy.

The utter ruin of the Low Country was threatened by the siege of
Luxemburg, if not timely relieved, and by the obstinacy of the
Hollanders, who refused to assist the Prince of Orange, being corrupted
by the French.

16th May, 1684. I received £600 of Sir Charles Bickerstaff for the fee
farm of Pilton, in Devon.

26th May, 1684. Lord Dartmouth was chosen Master of the Trinity Company,
newly returned with the fleet from blowing up and demolishing Tangier.
In the sermon preached on this occasion, Dr. Can observed that, in the
27th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, the casting anchor out of the
fore ship had been caviled at as betraying total ignorance: that it is
very true our seamen do not do so; but in the Mediterranean their ships
were built differently from ours, and to this day it was the practice to
do so there.

Luxemburg was surrendered to the French, which makes them master of all
the Netherlands, gives them entrance into Germany, and a fair game for
universal monarchy; which that we should suffer, who only and easily
might have hindered, astonished all the world. Thus is the poor Prince
of Orange ruined, and this nation and all the Protestant interest in
Europe following, unless God in his infinite mercy, as by a miracle,
interpose, and our great ones alter their counsels. The French fleet
were now besieging Genoa, but after burning much of that beautiful city
with their bombs, went off with disgrace.

11th June, 1684. My cousin, Verney, to whom a very great fortune was
fallen, came to take leave of us, going into the country; a very worthy
and virtuous young gentleman.

12th June, 1684. I went to advise and give directions about the building
of two streets in Berkeley Garden, reserving the house and as much of
the garden as the breadth of the house. In the meantime, I could not but
deplore that sweet place (by far the most noble gardens, courts, and
accommodations, stately porticos, etc., anywhere about the town) should
be so much straitened and turned into tenements. But that magnificent
pile and gardens contiguous to it, built by the late Lord Chancellor
Clarendon, being all demolished, and designed for piazzas and buildings,
was some excuse for my Lady Berkeley's resolution of letting out her
ground also for so excessive a price as was offered, advancing near
£1,000 per annum in mere ground rents; to such a mad intemperance was
the age come of building about a city, by far too disproportionate
already to the nation:[53] I having in my time seen it almost as large
again as it was within my memory.

    [Footnote 53: What would Evelyn think if he could see what is now
    called London?]

22d June, 1684. Last Friday, Sir Thomas Armstrong was executed at Tyburn
for treason, without trial, having been outlawed and apprehended in
Holland, on the conspiracy of the Duke of Monmouth, Lord Russell, etc.,
which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in regard it was
on an outlawry that judgment was given and execution.[54]

    [Footnote 54: When brought up for judgment, Armstrong insisted on
    his right to a trial, the act giving that right to those who came in
    within a year, and the year not having expired. Jefferies refused
    it; and when Armstrong insisted that he asked nothing but law,
    Jefferies told him he should have it to the full, and ordered his
    execution in six days. When Jefferies went to the King at Windsor
    soon after, the King took a ring from his finger and gave it to
    Jefferies. BURNET, ii. 989.]

[Sidenote: GREENWICH]

2d July, 1684. I went to the Observatory at Greenwich, where Mr.
Flamsted took his observations of the eclipse of the sun, now almost
three parts obscured.

There had been an excessively hot and dry spring, and such a drought
still continued as never was in my memory.

13th July, 1684. Some small sprinkling of rain; the leaves dropping
from the trees as in autumn.

25th July, 1684. I dined at Lord Falkland's, Treasurer of the Navy,
where after dinner we had rare music, there being among others, Signor
Pietro Reggio, and Signor John Baptist, both famous, one for his voice,
the other for playing on the harpsichord, few if any in Europe exceeding
him. There was also a Frenchman who sung an admirable bass.

26th July, 1684. I returned home, where I found my Lord Chief Justice
[Jefferies], the Countess of Clarendon, and Lady Catherine Fitzgerald,
who dined with me.

10th August, 1684. We had now rain after such a drought as no man in
England had known.

24th August, 1684. Excessively hot. We had not had above one or two
considerable showers, and those storms, these eight or nine months. Many
trees died for the want of refreshment.

31st August, 1684. Mr. Sidney Godolphin was made Baron Godolphin.

26th September, 1684. The King being returned from Winchester, there was
a numerous Court at Whitehall.

At this time the Earl of Rochester was removed from the Treasury to the
Presidentship of the Council; Lord Godolphin was made first Commissioner
of the Treasury in his place, Lord Middleton (a Scot) made Secretary of
State, in the room of Lord Godolphin. These alterations being very
unexpected and mysterious, gave great occasion of discourse.

There was now an Ambassador from the King of Siam, in the East Indies,
to his Majesty.

22d October, 1684. I went with Sir William Godolphin to see the
rhinoceros, or unicorn, being the first that I suppose was ever brought
into England. She belonged to some East India merchants, and was sold
(as I remember) for above £2,000. At the same time, I went to see a
crocodile, brought from some of the West India Islands, resembling the
Egyptian crocodile.

24th October, 1684. I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's with the Duke of
Northumberland. He seemed to be a young gentleman of good capacity, well
bred, civil and modest: newly come from travel, and had made his
campaign at the siege of Luxemburg. Of all his Majesty's children (of
which he had now six Dukes) this seemed the most accomplished and worth
the owning. He is extraordinarily handsome and well shaped. What the
Dukes of Richmond and St. Alban's will prove, their youth does not yet
discover; they are very pretty boys.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th October, 1684. Dr. Goodman preached before the King on James ii.
12, concerning the law of liberty: an excellent discourse and in good
method. He is author of "The Prodigal Son," a treatise worth reading,
and another of the old religion.

27th October, 1684. I visited the Lord Chamberlain, where dined the
BLACK BARON and Monsieur Flamerin, who had so long been banished from
France for a duel.

28th October, 1684. I carried Lord Clarendon through the city amid all
the squibs and bacchanalia of the Lord Mayor's show, to the Royal
Society, where he was proposed a member; and then treated him at dinner.

I went to St. Clement's, that prettily built and contrived church where
a young divine gave us an eloquent sermon on 1 Cor. vi. 20, inciting to
gratitude and glorifying God for the fabric of our bodies and the
dignity of our nature.

2d November, 1684. A sudden change from temperate warm weather to an
excessive cold rain, frost, snow, and storm, such as had seldom been
known. This winter weather began as early and fierce as the past did
late; till about Christmas there then had been hardly any winter.

4th November, 1684. Dr. Turner, now translated from Rochester to Ely
upon the death of Dr. Peter Gunning, preached before the King at
Whitehall on Romans iii. 8, a very excellent sermon, vindicating the
Church of England against the pernicious doctrines of the Church of
Rome. He challenged the producing but of five clergymen who forsook our
Church and went over to that of Rome, during all the troubles and
rebellion in England, which lasted near twenty years; and this was to my
certain observation a great truth.

15th November, 1684. Being the Queen's birthday, there were fireworks
on the Thames before Whitehall, with pageants of castles, forts, and
other devices of girandolas, serpents, the King and Queen's arms and
mottoes, all represented in fire, such as had not been seen here. But
the most remarkable was the several fires and skirmishes in the very
water, which actually moved a long way, burning under the water, now and
then appearing above it, giving reports like muskets and cannon, with
grenades and innumerable other devices. It is said it cost £1,500. It
was concluded with a ball, where all the young ladies and gallants
danced in the great hall. The court had not been seen so brave and rich
in apparel since his Majesty's Restoration.

30th November, 1684. In the morning, Dr. Fiennes, son of the Lord Say
and Seale, preached before the King on Joshua xxi. 11.

3d December, 1684. I carried Mr. Justell and Mr. Slingsby (Master of the
Mint), to see Mr. Sheldon's collection of medals. The series of Popes
was rare, and so were several among the moderns, especially that of John
Huss's martyrdom at Constance; of the Roman Emperors, Consulars some
Greek, etc., in copper, gold, and silver; not many truly antique; a
medallion of Otho Paulus Æmilius, etc., ancient. They were held at a
price of £1,000; but not worth, I judge, above £200.

7th December, 1684. I went to see the new church at St. James's,
elegantly built; the altar was especially adorned, the white marble
inclosure curiously and richly carved, the flowers and garlands about
the walls by Mr. Gibbons, in wood: a pelican with her young at her
breast; just over the altar in the carved compartment and border
environing the purple velvet fringed with I. H. S. richly embroidered,
and most noble plate, were given by Sir R. Geere, to the value (as was
said) of £200. There was no altar anywhere in England, nor has there
been any abroad, more handsomely adorned.

17th December, 1684. Early in the morning I went into St. James's Park
to see three Turkish, or Asian horses, newly brought over, and now first
shown to his Majesty. There were four, but one of them died at sea,
being three weeks coming from Hamburg. They were taken from a Bashaw at
the siege of Vienna, at the late famous raising that leaguer. I never
beheld so delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat a bright
bay, two white feet, a blaze; such a head, eyes, ears, neck, breast,
belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, and feet, in all regards, beautiful,
and proportioned to admiration; spirited, proud, nimble, making halt,
turning with that swiftness, and in so small a compass, as was
admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as called to mind what
I remember Busbequius, speaks of them, to the reproach of our grooms in
Europe, who bring up their horses so churlishly, as makes most of them
retain their ill habits. They trotted like does, as if they did not feel
the ground. Five hundred guineas was demanded for the first; 300 for the
second; and 200 for the third, which was brown. All of them were
choicely shaped, but the two last not altogether so perfect as the
first.

It was judged by the spectators, among whom was the King, Prince of
Denmark, Duke of York, and several of the Court, noble persons skilled
in horses, especially Monsieur Faubert and his son (provost masters of
the Academy, and esteemed of the best in Europe), that there were never
seen any horses in these parts to be compared with them. Add to all
this, the furniture consisting of embroidery on the saddle, housings,
quiver, bow, arrows, scymitar, sword, mace, or battle-ax, _à la
Turcisq_; the Bashaw's velvet mantle furred with the most perfect ermine
I ever beheld; all which, ironwork in common furniture being here of
silver, curiously wrought and double gilt to an incredible value. Such
and so extraordinary was the embroidery, that I never saw anything
approaching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson silk, covered
with chains of silver gilt. There was also a Turkish royal standard of a
horse's tail, together with all sorts of other caparisons belonging to a
general's horse, by which one may estimate how gallantly and
magnificently those infidels appear in the field; for nothing could be
seen more glorious. The gentleman (a German) who rode the horse, was in
all this garb. They were shod with iron made round and closed at the
heel, with a hole in the middle about as wide as a shilling. The hoofs
most entire.

18th December, 1684. I went with Lord Cornwallis to see the young
gallants do their exercise. Mr. Faubert having newly railed in a manage,
and fitted it for the academy. There were the Dukes of Norfolk and
Northumberland, Lord Newburgh, and a nephew of (Duras) Earl of
Feversham. The exercises were, 1, running at the ring; 2, flinging a
javelin at a Moor's head; 3, discharging a pistol at a mark; lastly
taking up a gauntlet with the point of a sword; all these performed in
full speed. The Duke of Northumberland hardly missed of succeeding in
every one, a dozen times, as I think. The Duke of Norfolk did exceeding
bravely. Lords Newburgh and Duras seemed nothing so dexterous. Here I
saw the difference of what the French call "_bel homme à cheval_," and
"_bon homme à cheval_"; the Duke of Norfolk being the first, that is
rather a fine person on a horse, the Duke of Northumberland being both
in perfection, namely, a graceful person and an excellent rider. But the
Duke of Norfolk told me he had not been at this exercise these twelve
years before. There were in the field the Prince of Denmark, and the
Lord Lansdowne, son of the Earl of Bath, who had been made a Count of
the Empire last summer for his service before Vienna.

20th December, 1684. A villainous murder was perpetrated by Mr. St.
John, eldest son to Sir Walter St. John, a worthy gentleman, on a knight
of quality, in a tavern. The offender was sentenced and reprieved. So
many horrid murders and duels were committed about this time as were
never before heard of in England; which gave much cause of complaint and
murmurings.

1st January, 1684-85. It proved so sharp weather, and so long and cruel
a frost, that the Thames was frozen across, but the frost was often
dissolved, and then froze again.

11th January, 1685. A young man preached upon St. Luke xiii. 5, after
the Presbyterian tedious method and repetition.

24th January, 1685. I dined at Lord Newport's, who had some excellent
pictures, especially that of Sir Thomas Hanmer, by Vandyke, one of the
best he ever painted; another of our English Dobson's painting; but,
above all, Christ in the Virgin's lap, by Poussin, an admirable piece;
with something of most other famous hands.

25th January, 1685. Dr. Dove preached before the King. I saw this
evening such a scene of profuse gaming, and the King in the midst of his
three concubines, as I have never before seen--luxurious dallying and
profaneness.

27th January, 1685. I dined at Lord Sunderland's, being invited to hear
that celebrated voice of Mr. Pordage, newly come from Rome; his singing
was after the Venetian recitative, as masterly as could be, and with an
excellent voice both treble and bass; Dr. Walgrave accompanied it with
his THEORBO LUTE, on which he performed beyond imagination, and is
doubtless one of the greatest masters in Europe on that charming
instrument. Pordage is a priest, as Mr. Bernard Howard told me in
private.

There was in the room where we dined, and in his bedchamber, those
incomparable pieces of Columbus, a Flagellation, the Grammar school, the
Venus and Adonis of Titian; and of Vandyke's that picture of the late
Earl of Digby (father of the Countess of Sunderland), and Earl of
Bedford, Sir Kenelm Digby, and two ladies of incomparable performance;
besides that of Moses and the burning bush of Bassano, and several other
pieces of the best masters. A marble head of M. Brutus, etc.

28th January, 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel's, of Wardour (now
newly released of his six years' confinement in the Tower on suspicion
of the plot called Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr.
Pordage entertained us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous
artist, Signor John Baptist, playing to it on the harpsichord. My
daughter Mary being with us, she also sang to the great satisfaction of
both the masters, and a world of people of quality present.

She did so also at my Lord Rochester's the evening following, where we
had the French boy so famed for his singing, and indeed he had a
delicate voice, and had been well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer
(daughter to my old friend) sing before his Majesty and the Duke,
privately, that stupendous bass, Gosling, accompanying her, but hers was
so loud as took away much of the sweetness. Certainly never woman had a
stronger or better ear, could she possibly have governed it. She would
do rarely in a large church among the nuns.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

4th February, 1685. I went to London, hearing his Majesty had been the
Monday before (2d February) surprised in his bedchamber with an
apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that
excellent chirurgeon as well as physician) had not been accidentally
present to let him bleed (having his lancet in his pocket), his Majesty
had certainly died that moment; which might have been of direful
consequence, there being nobody else present with the King save this
Doctor and one more, as I am assured. It was a mark of the extraordinary
dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Doctor, to let him
bleed in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other
physicians, which regularly should have been done, and for want of which
he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me. This rescued his Majesty
for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complained,
and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms,
till Wednesday, for which he was cupped, let bleed in both jugulars, and
both vomit and purges, which so relieved him, that on Thursday hopes of
recovery were signified in the public "Gazette," but that day about
noon, the physicians thought him feverish. This they seemed glad of, as
being more easily allayed and methodically dealt with than his former
fits; so as they prescribed the famous Jesuit's powder; but it made him
worse, and some very able doctors who were present did not think it a
fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp
operations used by them about his head, so that probably the powder
might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made
him very weak. Thus he passed Thursday night with great difficulty, when
complaining of a pain in his side, they drew twelve ounces more of blood
from him; this was by six in the morning on Friday, and it gave him
relief, but it did not continue, for being now in much pain, and
struggling for breath, he lay dozing, and, after some conflicts, the
physicians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at half an hour after
eleven in the morning, being the sixth of February, 1685, in the 36th
year of his reign, and 54th of his age.

Prayers were solemnly made in all the churches, especially in both the
Court Chapels, where the chaplains relieved one another every half
quarter of an hour from the time he began to be in danger till he
expired, according to the form prescribed in the Church offices. Those
who assisted his Majesty's devotions were, the Archbishop of Canterbury,
the Bishops of London, Durham, and Ely, but more especially Dr. Ken, the
Bishop of Bath and Wells.[55] It is said they exceedingly urged the
receiving Holy Sacrament, but his Majesty told them he would consider of
it, which he did so long till it was too late. Others whispered that the
Bishops and Lords, except the Earls of Bath and Feversham, being ordered
to withdraw the night before, Huddleston, the priest, had presumed to
administer the Popish offices. He gave his breeches and keys to the Duke
who was almost continually kneeling by his bedside, and in tears. He
also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the
Duke of Monmouth, now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He entreated
the Queen to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had
sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in regard
of her excessive grief, and withal that his Majesty would forgive it if
at any time she had offended him. He spoke to the Duke to be kind to the
Duchess of Cleveland, and especially Portsmouth, and that Nelly might
not starve.

    [Footnote 55: The account given of this by Charles's brother and
    successor, is, that when the King's life was wholly despaired of,
    and it was time to prepare for another world, two Bishops came to do
    their function, who reading the prayers appointed in the Common
    Prayer Book on that occasion, when they came to the place where
    usually they exhort a sick person to make a confession of his sins,
    the Bishop of Bath and Wells, who was one of them, advertised him,
    IT WAS NOT OF OBLIGATION; and after a short exhortation, asked him
    if he was sorry for his sins? which the King saying he was, the
    Bishop pronounced the absolution, and then, asked him if he pleased
    to receive the Sacrament? to which the King made no reply; and being
    pressed by the Bishop several times, gave no other answer but that
    it was time enough, or that he would think of it.

    King James adds, that he stood all the while by the bedside, and
    seeing the King would not receive the Sacrament from them, and
    knowing his sentiments, he desired the company to stand a little
    from the bed, and then asked the King whether he should send for a
    priest, to which the King replied: "For God's sake, brother, do, and
    lose no time." The Duke said he would bring one to him; but none
    could be found except Father Huddleston, who had been so assistant
    in the King's escape from Worcester; he was brought up a back
    staircase, and the company were desired to withdraw, but he (the
    Duke of York) not thinking fit that he should be left alone with the
    King, desired the Earl of Bath, a Lord of the Bedchamber, and the
    Earl of Feversham, Captain of the Guard, should stay; the rest being
    gone, Father Huddleston was introduced, and administered the
    Sacrament.--"Life of James II."]

Thus died King Charles II., of a vigorous and robust constitution, and
in all appearance promising a long life. He was a prince of many
virtues, and many great imperfections; debonair, easy of access, not
bloody nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice great, proper of
person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skillful in
shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew
of many empirical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathematics; he
loved planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living,
which passed to luxury and intolerable expense. He had a particular
talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had
innumerable; this made some buffoons and vicious wretches too
presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favor they abused. He took
delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his
bedchamber, where he often suffered the bitches to puppy and give suck,
which rendered it very offensive, and indeed made the whole court nasty
and stinking. He would doubtless have been an excellent prince, had he
been less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, and always in want to
supply their immeasurable profusion, to the detriment of many indigent
persons who had signally served both him and his father. He frequently
and easily changed favorites to his great prejudice.

As to other public transactions, and unhappy miscarriages, 'tis not
here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious
opportunities to have made himself, his people, and all Europe happy,
and prevented innumerable mischiefs, had not his too easy nature
resigned him to be managed by crafty men, and some abandoned and profane
wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplined as he
had been by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much
experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures
took him from off all application becoming so great a King. The history
of his reign will certainly be the most wonderful for the variety of
matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages: the sad tragical
death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous
restoration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues,
fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand
other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all
occasions, and therefore I cannot without ingratitude but deplore his
loss, which for many respects, as well as duty, I do with all my soul.

His Majesty being dead, the Duke, now King James II., went immediately
to Council, and before entering into any business, passionately
declaring his sorrow, told their Lordships, that since the succession
had fallen to him, he would endeavor to follow the example of his
predecessor in his clemency and tenderness to his people; that, however
he had been misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they should
find the contrary; for that the laws of England had made the King as
great a monarch as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain
the Government both in Church and State, as by law established, its
principles being so firm for monarchy, and the members of it showing
themselves so good and loyal subjects;[56] and that, as he would never
depart from the just rights and prerogatives of the Crown, so he would
never invade any man's property; but as he had often adventured his life
in defense of the nation, so he would still proceed, and preserve it in
all its lawful rights and liberties.

    [Footnote 56: This is the substance (and very nearly the words
    employed) of what is stated by King James II. in the MS. printed in
    his life; but in that MS. are some words which Evelyn has omitted.
    For example, after speaking of the members of the Church of England
    as good and loyal subjects, the King adds, "AND THEREFORE I SHALL
    ALWAYS TAKE CARE TO DEFEND AND SUPPORT IT." James then goes on to
    say, that being desired by some present to allow copies to be taken,
    he said he had not committed it to writing; on which Mr. Finch (then
    Solicitor-General and afterward Earl of Aylesford) replied, that
    what his Majesty had said had made so deep an impression on him,
    that he believed he could repeat the very words, and if his Majesty
    would permit him, he would write them down, which the King agreeing
    to, he went to a table and wrote them down, and this being shown to
    the King, he approved of it, and it was immediately published. The
    King afterward proceeds to say: "No one can wonder that Mr. Finch
    should word the speech as strong as he could in favor of the
    Established Religion, nor that the King in such a hurry should pass
    it over without reflection; for though his Majesty intended to
    promise both security to their religion and protection to their
    persons, he was afterward convinced it had been better expressed by
    assuring them he never would endeavor to alter the Established
    Religion, than that he would endeavor to preserve it, and that he
    would rather support and defend the professors of it, than the
    religion itself; they could not expect he should make a conscience
    of supporting what in his conscience he thought erroneous: his
    engaging not to molest the professors of it, nor to deprive them or
    their successors of any spiritual dignity, revenue, or employment,
    but to suffer the ecclesiastical affairs to go on in the track they
    were in, was all they could wish or desire from a Prince of a
    different persuasion; but having once approved that way of
    expressing it which Mr. Finch had made choice of, he thought it
    necessary not to vary from it in the declarations or speeches he
    made afterward, not doubting but the world would understand it in
    the meaning he intended.----'Tis true, afterward IT WAS pretended
    he kept not up to this engagement; but had they deviated no further
    from the duty and allegience which both nature and repeated oath
    obliged them to, THAN HE DID FROM HIS WORD, they had still remained
    as happy a people as they really were during his short reign in
    England."--"Life of James II.," ii. 435. The words printed in small
    caps in this extract are from the interlineations of the son of King
    James II.]

This being the substance of what he said, the Lords desired it might be
published, as containing matter of great satisfaction to a jealous
people upon this change, which his Majesty consented to. Then were the
Council sworn, and a Proclamation ordered to be published that all
officers should continue in their stations, that there might be no
failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be known.
Then the King rose, the Lords accompanying him to his bedchamber, where,
while he reposed himself, tired indeed as he was with grief and
watching, they returned again into the Council chamber to take order for
the PROCLAIMING his Majesty, which (after some debate) they consented
should be in the very form his grandfather, King James I., was, after
the death of Queen Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, etc., should
proceed in their coaches through the city for the more solemnity of it.
Upon this was I, and several other gentlemen waiting in the Privy
gallery, admitted into the Council chamber to be witness of what was
resolved on. Thence with the Lords, Lord Marshal and Heralds, and other
Crown officers being ready, we first went to Whitehall gate, where the
Lords stood on foot bareheaded, while the Herald proclaimed his
Majesty's title to the Imperial Crown and succession according to the
form, the trumpets and kettledrums having first sounded three times,
which ended with the people's acclamations. Then a herald called the
Lords' coaches according to rank, myself accompanying the solemnity in
my Lord Cornwallis's coach, first to Temple Bar, where the Lord Mayor
and his brethren met us on horseback, in all their formalities, and
proclaimed the King; hence to the Exchange in Cornhill, and so we
returned in the order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all went
and kissed the King and Queen's hands. He had been on the bed, but was
now risen and in his undress. The Queen was in bed in her apartment, but
put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she was,
having deported herself so decently upon all occasions since she came
into England, which made her universally beloved.

Thus concluded this sad and not joyful day.

I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and profaneness, gaming, and
all dissoluteness, and as it were total forgetfulness of God (it being
Sunday evening), which this day se'nnight I was witness of, the King
sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, and
Mazarin, etc., a French boy singing love songs[57] in that glorious
gallery, while about twenty of the great courtiers and other dissolute
persons were at Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2,000 in
gold before them; upon which two gentlemen, who were with me, made
reflections with astonishment. Six days after, was all in the dust.

    [Footnote 57: _Ante_, p. 204.]

It was enjoined that those who put on mourning should wear it as for a
father, in the most solemn manner.

10th February, 1685. Being sent to by the Sheriff of the County to
appear and assist in proclaiming the King, I went the next day to
Bromley, where I met the Sheriff and the Commander of the Kentish Troop,
with an appearance, I suppose, of about 500 horse, and innumerable
people, two of his Majesty's trumpets, and a Sergeant with other
officers, who having drawn up the horse in a large field near the town,
marched thence, with swords drawn, to the market place, where, making a
ring, after sound of trumpets and silence made, the High Sheriff read
the proclaiming titles to his bailiff, who repeated them aloud, and
then, after many shouts of the people, his Majesty's health being drunk
in a flint glass of a yard long, by the Sheriff, Commander, Officers,
and chief gentlemen, they all dispersed, and I returned.

13th February, 1685. I passed a fine on selling of Honson Grange in
Staffordshire, being about £20 per annum, which lying so great a
distance, I thought fit to part with it to one Burton, a farmer there.
It came to me as part of my daughter-in-law's portion, this being but a
fourth part of what was divided between the mother and three sisters.

14th February, 1685. The King was this night very obscurely buried in a
vault under Henry VII.'s Chapel at Westminster, without any manner of
pomp, and soon forgotten after all this vanity, and the face of the
whole Court was exceedingly changed into a more solemn and moral
behavior; the new King affecting neither profaneness nor buffoonery. All
the great officers broke their staves over the grave, according to form.

15th February, 1685. Dr. Tenison preached to the household. The second
sermon should have been before the King; but he, to the great grief of
his subjects, did now, for the first time, go to mass publicly in the
little Oratory at the Duke's lodgings, the doors being set wide open.

16th February, 1685. I dined at Sir Robert Howard's, auditor of the
exchequer, a gentleman pretending to all manner of arts and sciences,
for which he had been the subject of comedy, under the name of Sir
Positive; not ill-natured, but insufferably boasting. He was son to the
late Earl of Berkshire.

17th February, 1685. This morning his Majesty restored the staff and key
to Lord Arlington, Chamberlain; to Mr. Savell, Vice-chamberlain; to
Lords Newport and Maynard, Treasurer and Comptroller of the household.
Lord Godolphin made Chamberlain to the Queen; Lord Peterborough groom of
the stole, in place of the Earl of Bath; the Treasurer's staff to the
Earl of Rochester; and his brother, the Earl of Clarendon, Lord Privy
Seal, in the place of the Marquis of Halifax, who was made President of
the Council; the Secretaries of State remaining as before.

19th February, 1685. The Lord Treasurer and the other new officers were
sworn at the Chancery Bar and the exchequer.

The late King having the revenue of excise, customs, and other late
duties granted for his life only, they were now farmed and let to
several persons, upon an opinion that the late King might let them for
three years after his decease; some of the old commissioners refused to
act. The lease was made but the day before the King died;[58] the major
part of the Judges (but, as some think, not the best lawyers),
pronounced it legal, but four dissented.

    [Footnote 58: James, in his Life, makes no mention of this lease,
    but only says HE continued to collect them, which conduct was not
    blamed; but, on the contrary, he was thanked for it, in an address
    from the Middle Temple, penned by Sir Bartholomew Shore, and
    presented by Sir Humphrey Mackworth, carrying great authority with
    it; nor did the Parliament find fault.]

The clerk of the closet had shut up the late King's private oratory next
the Privy-chamber above, but the King caused it to be opened again, and
that prayers should be said as formerly.

22d February, 1685. Several most useful tracts against Dissenters,
Papists and Fanatics, and resolutions of cases were now published by the
London divines.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

4th March, 1685. ASH WEDNESDAY. After evening prayers, I went to London.

5th March, 1685. To my grief, I saw the new pulpit set up in the Popish
Oratory at Whitehall for the Lent preaching, mass being publicly said,
and the Romanists swarming at Court with greater confidence than had
ever been seen in England since the Reformation, so that everybody grew
jealous as to what this would tend.

A Parliament was now summoned, and great industry used to obtain
elections which might promote the Court interest, most of the
corporations being now, by their new charters, empowered to make what
returns of members they pleased.

There came over divers envoys and great persons to condole the death of
the late King, who were received by the Queen-Dowager on a bed of
mourning, the whole chamber, ceiling and floor, hung with black, and
tapers were lighted, so as nothing could be more lugubrious and solemn.
The Queen-Consort sat under a state on a black foot-cloth, to entertain
the circle (as the Queen used to do), and that very decently.

6th March, 1685. Lent preachers continued as formerly in the Royal
Chapel.

7th March, 1685. My daughter, Mary, was taken with smallpox, and there
soon was found no hope of her recovery. A great affliction to me: but
God's holy will be done!

10th March, 1685. She received the blessed sacrament; after which,
disposing herself to suffer what God should determine to inflict, she
bore the remainder of her sickness with extraordinary patience and
piety, and more than ordinary resignation and blessed frame of mind. She
died the 14th, to our unspeakable sorrow and affliction, and not to
our's only, but that of all who knew her, who were many of the best
quality, greatest and most virtuous persons. The justness of her
stature, person, comeliness of countenance, gracefulness of motion,
unaffected, though more than ordinarily beautiful, were the least of her
ornaments compared with those of her mind. Of early piety, singularly
religious, spending a part of every day in private devotion, reading,
and other virtuous exercises; she had collected and written out many of
the most useful and judicious periods of the books she read in a kind of
common-place, as out of Dr. Hammond on the New Testament, and most of
the best practical treatises. She had read and digested a considerable
deal of history, and of places. The French tongue was as familiar to her
as English; she understood Italian, and was able to render a laudable
account of what she read and observed, to which assisted a most faithful
memory and discernment; and she did make very prudent and discreet
reflections upon what she had observed of the conversations among which
she had at any time been, which being continually of persons of the best
quality, she thereby improved. She had an excellent voice, to which she
played a thorough-bass on the harpsichord, in both which she arrived to
that perfection, that of the scholars of those two famous masters,
Signors Pietro and Bartholomeo, she was esteemed the best; for the
sweetness of her voice and management of it added such an agreeableness
to her countenance, without any constraint or concern, that when she
sung, it was as charming to the eye as to the ear; this I rather note,
because it was a universal remark, and for which so many noble and
judicious persons in music desired to hear her, the last being at Lord
Arundel's, at Wardour.

What shall I say, or rather not say, of the cheerfulness and
agreeableness of her humor? condescending to the meanest servant in the
family, or others, she still kept up respect, without the least pride.
She would often read to them, examine, instruct, and pray with them if
they were sick, so as she was exceedingly beloved of everybody. Piety
was so prevalent an ingredient in her constitution (as I may say), that
even among equals and superiors she no sooner became intimately
acquainted, but she would endeavor to improve them, by insinuating
something religious, and that tended to bring them to a love of
devotion; she had one or two confidants with whom she used to pass whole
days in fasting, reading, and prayers, especially before the monthly
communion, and other solemn occasions. She abhorred flattery, and,
though she had abundance of wit, the raillery was so innocent and
ingenious that it was most agreeable; she sometimes would see a play,
but since the stage grew licentious, expressed herself weary of them,
and the time spent at the theater was an unaccountable vanity. She never
played at cards without extreme importunity and for the company; but
this was so very seldom, that I cannot number it among anything she
could name a fault.

No one could read prose or verse better or with more judgment; and as
she read, so she wrote, not only most correct orthography, with that
maturity of judgment and exactness of the periods, choice of
expressions, and familiarity of style, that some letters of hers have
astonished me and others, to whom she has occasionally written. She had
a talent of rehearsing any comical part or poem, as to them she might be
decently free with; was more pleasing than heard on the theater; she
danced with the greatest grace I had ever seen, and so would her master
say, who was Monsieur Isaac; but she seldom showed that perfection, save
in the gracefulness of her carriage, which was with an air of sprightly
modesty not easily to be described. Nothing affected, but natural and
easy as well in her deportment as in her discourse, which was always
material, not trifling, and to which the extraordinary sweetness of her
tone, even in familiar speaking, was very charming. Nothing was so
pretty as her descending to play with little children, whom she would
caress and humor with great delight. But she most affected to be with
grave and sober men, of whom she might learn something, and improve
herself. I have been assisted by her in reading and praying by me;
comprehensive of uncommon notions, curious of knowing everything to some
excess, had I not sometimes repressed it.

Nothing was so delightful to her as to go into my Study, where she would
willingly have spent whole days, for as I said she had read abundance of
history, and all the best poets, even Terence, Plautus, Homer, Virgil,
Horace, Ovid; all the best romancers and modern poems; she could compose
happily and put in pretty symbols, as in the "_Mundus Muliebris_,"
wherein is an enumeration of the immense variety of the modes and
ornaments belonging to the sex. But all these are vain trifles to the
virtues which adorned her soul; she was sincerely religious, most
dutiful to her parents, whom she loved with an affection tempered with
great esteem, so as we were easy and free, and never were so well
pleased as when she was with us, nor needed we other conversation; she
was kind to her sisters, and was still improving them by her constant
course of piety. Oh, dear, sweet, and desirable child, how shall I part
with all this goodness and virtue without the bitterness of sorrow and
reluctancy of a tender parent! Thy affection, duty and love to me was
that of a friend as well as a child. Nor less dear to thy mother, whose
example and tender care of thee was unparalleled, nor was thy return to
her less conspicuous. Oh! how she mourns thy loss! how desolate hast
thou left us! To the grave shall we both carry thy memory! God alone (in
whose bosom thou art at rest and happy!) give us to resign thee and all
our contentments (for thou indeed wert all in this world) to his blessed
pleasure! Let him be glorified by our submission, and give us grace to
bless him for the graces he implanted in thee, thy virtuous life, pious
and holy death, which is indeed the only comfort of our souls, hastening
through the infinite love and mercy of the Lord Jesus to be shortly with
thee, dear child, and with thee and those blessed saints like thee,
glorify the Redeemer of the world to all eternity! Amen.

It was in the 19th year of her age that this sickness happened to her.
An accident contributed to this disease; she had an apprehension of it
in particular, which struck her but two days before she came home, by an
imprudent gentlewoman whom she went with Lady Falkland to visit, who,
after they had been a good while in the house, told them she has a
servant sick of the smallpox (who indeed died the next day): this my
poor child acknowledged made an impression on her spirits. There were
four gentlemen of quality offering to treat with me about marriage, and
I freely gave her her own choice, knowing her discretion. She showed
great indifference to marrying at all, for truly, says she to her mother
(the other day), were I assured of your life and my dear father's, never
would I part from you; I love you and this home, where we serve God,
above all things, nor ever shall I be so happy; I know and consider the
vicissitudes of the world, I have some experience of its vanities, and
but for decency more than inclination, and that you judge it expedient
for me, I would not change my condition, but rather add the fortune you
design me to my sisters, and keep up the reputation of our family. This
was so discreetly and sincerely uttered that it could not but proceed
from an extraordinary child, and one who loved her parents beyond
example.

At London, she took this fatal disease, and the occasion of her being
there was this: my Lord Viscount Falkland's Lady having been our
neighbor (as he was Treasurer of the Navy), she took so great an
affection to my daughter, that when they went back in the autumn to the
city, nothing would satisfy their incessant importunity but letting her
accompany my Lady, and staying some time with her; it was with the
greatest reluctance I complied. While she was there, my Lord being
musical, when I saw my Lady would not part with her till Christmas, I
was not unwilling she should improve the opportunity of learning of
Signor Pietro, who had an admirable way both of composure and teaching.
It was the end of February before I could prevail with my Lady to part
with her; but my Lord going into Oxfordshire to stand for Knight of the
Shire there, she expressed her wish to come home, being tired of the
vain and empty conversation of the town, the theaters, the court, and
trifling visits which consumed so much precious time, and made her
sometimes miss of that regular course of piety that gave her the
greatest satisfaction. She was weary of this life, and I think went not
thrice to Court all this time, except when her mother or I carried her.
She did not affect showing herself, she knew the Court well, and passed
one summer in it at Windsor with Lady Tuke, one of the Queen's women of
the bedchamber (a most virtuous relation of hers); she was not fond of
that glittering scene, now become abominably licentious, though there
was a design of Lady Rochester and Lady Clarendon to have made her a
maid of honor to the Queen as soon as there was a vacancy. But this she
did not set her heart upon, nor indeed on anything so much as the
service of God, a quiet and regular life, and how she might improve
herself in the most necessary accomplishments, and to which she was
arrived at so great a measure.

This is the little history and imperfect character of my dear child,
whose piety, virtue, and incomparable endowments deserve a monument more
durable than brass and marble. Precious is the memorial of the just.
Much I could enlarge on every period of this hasty account, but that I
ease and discharge my overcoming passion for the present, so many things
worthy an excellent Christian and dutiful child crowding upon me. Never
can I say enough, oh dear, my dear child, whose memory is so precious to
me!

This dear child was born at Wotton, in the same house and chamber in
which I first drew my breath, my wife having retired to my brother there
in the great sickness that year upon the first of that month, and the
very hour that I was born, upon the last: viz, October.

[Sidenote: SAYES COURT]

16th March, 1685. She was interred in the southeast end of the church at
Deptford, near her grandmother and several of my younger children and
relations. My desire was she should have been carried and laid among my
own parents and relations at Wotton, where I desire to be interred
myself, when God shall call me out of this uncertain transitory life,
but some circumstances did not permit it. Our vicar, Dr. Holden,
preached her funeral sermon on Phil. i. 21. "For to me to live is
Christ, and to die is gain," upon which he made an apposite discourse,
as those who heard it assured me (for grief suffered me not to be
present), concluding with a modest recital of her many virtues and
signal piety, so as to draw both tears and admiration from the hearers.
I was not altogether unwilling that something of this sort should be
spoken, for the edification and encouragement of other young people.

Divers noble persons honored her funeral, some in person, others
sending their coaches, of which there were six or seven with six horses,
viz, the Countess of Sunderland, Earl of Clarendon, Lord Godolphin, Sir
Stephen Fox, Sir William Godolphin, Viscount Falkland, and others. There
were distributed among her friends about sixty rings.

Thus lived, died, and was buried the joy of my life, and ornament of her
sex and of my poor family! God Almighty of his infinite mercy grant me
the grace thankfully to resign myself and all I have, or had, to his
divine pleasure, and in his good time, restoring health and comfort to
my family: "teach me so to number my days, that I may apply my heart to
wisdom," be prepared for my dissolution, and that into the hands of my
blessed Savior I may recommend my spirit! Amen!

On looking into her closet, it is incredible what a number of
collections she had made from historians, poets, travelers, etc., but,
above all, devotions, contemplations, and resolutions on these
contemplations, found under her hand in a book most methodically
disposed; prayers, meditations, and devotions on particular occasions,
with many pretty letters to her confidants; one to a divine (not named)
to whom she writes that he would be her ghostly father, and would not
despise her for her many errors and the imperfections of her youth, but
beg of God to give her courage to acquaint him with all her faults,
imploring his assistance and spiritual directions. I well remember she
had often desired me to recommend her to such a person; but I did not
think fit to do it as yet, seeing her apt to be scrupulous, and knowing
the great innocency and integrity of her life.

It is astonishing how one who had acquired such substantial and
practical knowledge in other ornamental parts of education, especially
music, both vocal and instrumental, in dancing, paying and receiving
visits, and necessary conversation, could accomplish half of what she
has left; but, as she never affected play or cards, which consume a
world of precious time, so she was in continual exercise, which yet
abated nothing of her most agreeable conversation. But she was a little
miracle while she lived, and so she died!

26th March, 1685. I was invited to the funeral of Captain Gunman, that
excellent pilot and seaman, who had behaved himself so gallantly in the
Dutch war. He died of a gangrene, occasioned by his fall from the pier
of Calais. This was the Captain of the yacht carrying the Duke (now
King) to Scotland, and was accused for not giving timely warning when
she split on the sands, where so many perished; but I am most confident
he was no ways guilty, either of negligence, or design, as he made
appear not only at the examination of the matter of fact, but in the
vindication he showed me, and which must needs give any man of reason
satisfaction. He was a sober, frugal, cheerful, and temperate man; we
have few such seamen left.

8th April, 1685. Being now somewhat composed after my great affliction,
I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison (it being on a Wednesday in Lent)
at Whitehall. I observed that though the King was not in his seat above
in the chapel, the Doctor made his three congees, which they were not
used to do when the late King was absent, making then one bowing only. I
asked the reason; it was said he had a special order so to do. The
Princess of Denmark was in the King's closet, but sat on the left hand
of the chair, the Clerk of the Closet standing by his Majesty's chair,
as if he had been present.

I met the Queen Dowager going now first from Whitehall to dwell at
Somerset House.

This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow were candidates for Surrey
against Sir Adam Brown and my cousin, Sir Edward Evelyn, and were
circumvented in their election by a trick of the Sheriff's, taking
advantage of my brother's party going out of the small village of
Leatherhead to seek shelter and lodging, the afternoon being
tempestuous, proceeding to the election when they were gone; they
expecting the next morning; whereas before and then they exceeded the
other party by many hundreds, as I am assured. The Duke of Norfolk led
Sir Edward Evelyn's and Sir Adam Brown's party. For this Parliament,
very mean and slight persons (some of them gentlemen's servants, clerks,
and persons neither of reputation nor interest) were set up; but the
country would choose my brother whether he would or no, and he missed it
by the trick above mentioned. Sir Adam Brown was so deaf, that he could
not hear one word. Sir Edward Evelyn was an honest gentleman, much in
favor with his Majesty.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th April, 1685. I went early to Whitehall to hear Dr. Tillotson, Dean
of Canterbury, preaching on Eccles. ix. 18. I returned in the evening,
and visited Lady Tuke, and found with her Sir George Wakeman, the
physician, whom I had seen tried and acquitted, among the plotters for
poisoning the late King, on the accusation of the famous Oates; and
surely I believed him guiltless.

14th April, 1685. According to my custom, I went to London to pass the
holy week.

17th April, 1685. GOOD FRIDAY. Dr. Tenison preached at the new church at
St. James, on 1 Cor. xvi. 22, upon the infinite love of God to us, which
he illustrated in many instances. The Holy Sacrament followed, at which
I participated. The Lord make me thankful! In the afternoon, Dr. Sprat,
Bishop of Rochester, preached in Whitehall chapel, the auditory very
full of Lords, the two Archbishops, and many others, now drawn to town
upon occasion of the coronation and ensuing Parliament. I supped with
the Countess of Sunderland and Lord Godolphin, and returned home.

23d April, 1685. Was the coronation of the King and Queen. The solemnity
was magnificent as is set forth in print. The Bishop of Ely preached;
but, to the sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have been.
However, the King begins his reign with great expectations, and hopes of
much reformation as to the late vices and profaneness of both Court and
country. Having been present at the late King's coronation, I was not
ambitious of seeing this ceremony.

3d May, 1685. A young man preached, going chaplain with Sir J. Wiburn,
Governor of Bombay, in the East Indies.

7th May, 1685. I was in Westminster Hall when Oates, who had made such
a stir in the kingdom, on his revealing a plot of the Papists, and
alarmed several Parliaments, and had occasioned the execution of divers
priests, noblemen, etc., was tried for perjury at the King's bench; but,
being very tedious, I did not endeavor to see the issue, considering
that it would be published. Abundance of Roman Catholics were in the
hall in expectation of the most grateful conviction and ruin of a person
who had been so obnoxious to them, and as I verily believe, had done
much mischief and great injury to several by his violent and
ill-grounded proceedings; while he was at first so unreasonably blown up
and encouraged, that his insolence was no longer sufferable.

Mr. Roger L'Estrange (a gentleman whom I had long known, and a person of
excellent parts, abating some affectations) appearing first against the
Dissenters in several tracts, had now for some years turned his style
against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they called Whigs and
Trimmers, under the title of "Observator," which came out three or four
days every week, in which sheets, under pretense to serve the Church of
England, he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by several
passages which rather kept up animosities than appeased them, especially
now that nobody gave the least occasion.[59]

    [Footnote 59: In the first Dutch war, while Evelyn was one of the
    Commissioners for sick and wounded, L'Estrange in his "Gazette"
    mentioned the barbarous usage of the Dutch prisoners of war:
    whereupon Evelyn wrote him a very spirited letter, desiring that the
    Dutch Ambassador (who was then in England) and his friends would
    visit the prisoners, and examine their provisions; and he required
    L'Estrange to publish that vindication in his next number.]

10th May, 1685. The Scots valuing themselves exceedingly to have been
the first Parliament called by his Majesty, gave the excise and customs
to him and his successors forever; the Duke of Queensberry making
eloquent speeches, and especially minding them of a speedy suppression
of those late desperate Field-Conventiclers who had done such unheard of
assassinations. In the meantime, elections for the ensuing Parliament in
England were thought to be very indirectly carried on in most places.
God grant a better issue of it than some expect!

16th May, 1685. Oates was sentenced to be whipped and pilloried with the
utmost severity.

21st May, 1685. I dined at my Lord Privy Seal's with Sir William
Dugdale, Garter King-at-Arms, author of the "MONASTICON" and other
learned works; he told me he was 82 years of age, and had his sight and
memory perfect. There was shown a draft of the exact shape and
dimensions of the crown the Queen had been crowned withal, together with
the jewels and pearls, their weight and value, which amounted to
£100,658 sterling, attested at the foot of the paper by the jeweler and
goldsmith who set them.

22d May, 1685. In the morning, I went with a French gentleman, and my
Lord Privy Seal to the House of Lords, where we were placed by his
Lordship next the bar, just below the bishops, very commodiously both
for hearing and seeing. After a short space, came in the Queen and
Princess of Denmark, and stood next above the archbishops, at the side
of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim, divers of
the Lords, who had not finished before, took the test and usual oaths,
so that her Majesty, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind
the throne, heard the Pope and the worship of the Virgin Mary, etc.,
renounced very decently, as likewise the prayers which followed,
standing all the while. Then came in the King, the crown on his head,
and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full,
he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly
enough, to this effect: "That he resolved to call a Parliament from the
moment of his brother's decease, as the best means to settle all the
concerns of the nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himself and
his subjects; that he would confirm whatever he had said in his
declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the
principles of the Church of England, for their loyalty, and would defend
and support it, and preserve its government as by law now established;
that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart
from his own prerogative; and, as he had ventured his life in defense of
the nation, so he would proceed to do still; that, having given this
assurance of his care of our religion (his word was YOUR religion) and
property (which he had not said by chance, but solemnly), so he doubted
not of suitable returns of his subjects' duty and kindness, especially
as to settling his revenue for life, for the many weighty necessities of
government, which he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might
possibly suggest that it were better to feed and supply him from time to
time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments; but that
that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best
way to engage him to meet oftener would be always to use him well, and
therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this session being
but short, they might meet again to satisfaction."

At every period of this, the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted
them with that morning's news of Argyle's being landed in the West
Highlands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he
had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should
take the best care he could it should meet with the reward it deserved,
not questioning the Parliament's zeal and readiness to assist him as he
desired; at which there followed another "_Vive le Roi_," and so his
Majesty retired.

So soon as the Commons were returned and had put themselves into a grand
committee, they immediately put the question, and unanimously voted the
revenue to his Majesty for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against
many elections, and would have had those members who (he pretended) were
obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had cleared the matter of their being
legally returned; but no one seconded him. The truth is, there were many
of the new members whose elections and returns were universally
censured, many of them being persons of no condition, or interest, in
the nation, or places for which they served, especially in Devon,
Cornwall, Norfolk, etc., said to have been recommended by the Court, and
from the effect of the new charters changing the electors. It was
reported that Lord Bath carried down with him [into Cornwall] no fewer
than fifteen charters, so that some called him the Prince Elector:
whence Seymour told the House in his speech that if this was digested,
they might introduce what religion and laws they pleased, and that
though he never gave heed to the fears and jealousies of the people
before, he was now really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed list of
members of 505, there did not appear to be above 135 who had been in
former Parliaments, especially that lately held at Oxford.

In the Lords' House, Lord Newport made an exception against two or three
young Peers, who wanted some months, and some only four or five days, of
being of age.

The Popish Lords, who had been sometime before released from their
confinement about the plot, were now discharged of their impeachment, of
which I gave Lord Arundel of Wardour joy.

Oates, who had but two days before been pilloried at several places and
whipped at the cart's tail from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day placed
on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and
dragged from prison to Tyburn, and whipped again all the way, which some
thought to be severe and extraordinary; but, if he was guilty of the
perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents (as I fear he was), his
punishment was but what he deserved. I chanced to pass just as execution
was doing on him. A strange revolution!

Note: there was no speech made by the Lord Keeper [Bridgman] after his
Majesty, as usual.

It was whispered he would not be long in that situation, and many
believe the bold Chief Justice Jefferies, who was made Baron of Wem, in
Shropshire, and who went thorough stitch in that tribunal, stands fair
for that office. I gave him joy the morning before of his new honor, he
having always been very civil to me.

24th May, 1685. We had hitherto not any rain for many months, so as the
caterpillars had already devoured all the winter fruit through the whole
land, and even killed several greater old trees. Such two winters and
summers I had never known.

4th June, 1685. Came to visit and take leave of me Sir Gabriel Sylvius,
now going Envoy-extraordinary into Denmark, with his secretary and
chaplain, a Frenchman, who related the miserable persecution of the
Protestants in France; not above ten churches left them, and those also
threatened to be demolished; they were commanded to christen their
children within twenty-four hours after birth, or else a Popish priest
was to be called, and then the infant brought up in Popery. In some
places, they were thirty leagues from any minister, or opportunity of
worship. This persecution had displeased the most industrious part of
the nation, and dispersed those into Switzerland, Burgundy, Holland,
Germany, Denmark, England, and the Plantations. There were with Sir
Gabriel, his lady, Sir William Godolphin and sisters, and my Lord
Godolphin's little son, my charge. I brought them to the water side
where Sir Gabriel embarked, and the rest returned to London.

14th June, 1685. There was now certain intelligence of the Duke of
Monmouth landing at Lyme, in Dorsetshire, and of his having set up his
standard as King of England. I pray God deliver us from the confusion
which these beginnings threaten!

Such a dearth for want of rain was never in my memory.

17th June, 1685. The Duke landed with but 150 men; but the whole kingdom
was alarmed, fearing that the disaffected would join them, many of the
trained bands flocking to him. At his landing, he published a
Declaration, charging his Majesty with usurpation and several horrid
crimes, on pretense of his own title, and offering to call a free
Parliament. This declaration was ordered to be burnt by the hangman, the
Duke proclaimed a traitor, and a reward of £5,000 to any who should kill
him.

At this time, the words engraved on the monument in London, intimating
that the Papists fired the city, were erased and cut out.

The exceeding drought still continues.

18th June, 1685. I received a warrant to send out a horse with twelve
days' provisions, etc.

28th June, 1685. We had now plentiful rain after two years' excessive
drought and severe winters.

Argyle taken in Scotland, and executed, and his party dispersed.

2d July, 1685. No considerable account of the troops sent against the
Duke, though great forces sent. There was a smart skirmish; but he would
not be provoked to come to an encounter, but still kept in the
fastnesses.

Dangerfield whipped, like Oates, for perjury.

8th July, 1685. Came news of Monmouth's utter defeat, and the next day
of his being taken by Sir William Portman and Lord Lumley with the
militia of their counties. It seems the Horse, commanded by Lord Grey,
being newly raised and undisciplined, were not to be brought in so short
a time to endure the fire, which exposed the Foot to the King's, so as
when Monmouth had led the Foot in great silence and order, thinking to
surprise Lieutenant-General Lord Feversham newly encamped, and given him
a smart charge, interchanging both great and small shot, the Horse,
breaking their own ranks, Monmouth gave it over, and fled with Grey,
leaving their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 2,000. The
whole number reported to be above 8,000; the King's but 2,700. The slain
were most of them MENDIP-MINERS, who did great execution with their
tools, and sold their lives very dearly, while their leaders flying were
pursued and taken the next morning, not far from one another. Monmouth
had gone sixteen miles on foot, changing his habit for a poor coat, and
was found by Lord Lumley in a dry ditch covered with fern-brakes, but
without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might have passed for some
countryman, his beard being grown so long and so gray as hardly to be
known, had not his George discovered him, which was found in his pocket.
It is said he trembled exceedingly all over, not able to speak. Grey was
taken not far from him. Most of his party were Anabaptists and poor
cloth workers of the country, no gentlemen of account being come in to
him. The arch-_boutefeu_, Ferguson, Matthews, etc., were not yet found.
The £5,000 to be given to whoever should bring Monmouth in, was to be
distributed among the militia by agreement between Sir William Portman
and Lord Lumley. The battle ended, some words, first in jest, then in
passion, passed between Sherrington Talbot (a worthy gentleman, son to
Sir John Talbot, and who had behaved himself very handsomely) and one
Captain Love, both commanders of the militia, as to whose soldiers
fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another.
Sherrington was wounded to death on the spot, to the great regret of
those who knew him. He was Sir John's only son.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

9th July, 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall, a
little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire standing very near his
Majesty's bedchamber door in the lobby, came Colonel Culpeper, and in a
rude manner looking at my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a
time and place for excluders to appear; my Lord at first took little
notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hotheaded fellow, but he
reiterating it, my Lord asked Culpeper whether he meant him; he said
yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as
indeed he was not); the other affirming it again, my Lord told him he
lied; on which Culpeper struck him a box on the ear, which my Lord
returned, and felled him. They were soon parted, Culpeper was seized,
and his Majesty, who was all the while in his bedchamber, ordered him to
be carried to the Greencloth officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea, as
he deserved. My Lord Devon had nothing said to him.

I supped this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. Elias Ashmole's,
with my Lady Clarendon, the Bishop of St. Asaph, and Dr. Tenison, when
we were treated at a great feast.

10th July, 1685. The Count of Castel Mellor, that great favorite and
prime minister of Alphonso, late King of Portugal, after several years'
banishment, being now received to grace and called home by Don Pedro,
the present King, as having been found a person of the greatest
integrity after all his sufferings, desired me to spend part of this day
with him, and assist him in a collection of books and other curiosities,
which he would carry with him into Portugal.

Mr. Hussey, a young gentleman who made love to my late dear child, but
whom she could not bring herself to answer in affection, died now of the
same cruel disease, for which I was extremely sorry, because he never
enjoyed himself after my daughter's decease, nor was I averse to the
match, could she have overcome her disinclination.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

15th July, 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's library [in St. Martin's].

Monmouth was this day brought to London and examined before the King,
to whom he made great submission, acknowledged his seduction by
Ferguson, the Scot, whom he named the bloody villain. He was sent to the
Tower, had an interview with his late Duchess, whom he received coldly,
having lived dishonestly with the Lady Henrietta Wentworth for two
years. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauched
woman to be no sin; whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his
last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to
administer the Holy Communion to him. For the rest of his faults he
professed great sorrow, and so died without any apparent fear. He would
not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying down, bid the
fellow to do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave
him gold; but the wretch made five chops before he had his head off;
which so incensed the people, that had he not been guarded and got away,
they would have torn him to pieces.

The Duke made no speech on the scaffold (which was on Tower Hill), but
gave a paper containing not above five or six lines, for the King, in
which he disclaims all title to the Crown, acknowledges that the late
King, his father, had indeed told him he was but his base son, and so
desired his Majesty to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I
had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's), who, with the Bishops of
Ely and Bath and Wells, were sent to him by his Majesty, and were at the
execution.

Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and the ladies,
being extremely handsome and adroit, an excellent soldier and dancer, a
favorite of the people, of an easy nature, debauched by lust; seduced by
crafty knaves, who would have set him up only to make a property, and
taken the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to gather a
party of discontented men. He failed and perished.

He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought
him great riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the
Horse, General of the King his father's army, Gentleman of the
Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word,
had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles
brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday, 14th of July. His mother,
whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very mean creatures, was a
beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seen at Paris; she died miserably
without anything to bury her; yet this Perkin had been made to believe
that the King had married her, a monstrous and ridiculous forgery! And
to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father
(if his father he really was, for he most resembled one Sidney who was
familiar with his mother) publicly and most solemnly renounced it, to be
so entered in the Council Book some years since, with all the Privy
Councillors' attestation.[60]

    [Footnote 60: The "Life of James II." contains an account of the
    circumstances of the Duke of Monmouth's birth, which may be given in
    illustration of the statements of the text. Ross, tutor to the Duke
    of Monmouth, is there said to have proposed to Bishop Cosins to sign
    a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own
    name was Walters: but this the Bishop refused. She was born of a
    gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace,
    came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sydney, then a Colonel
    in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her fifty broad pieces (as he
    told the Duke of York); but being ordered hastily away with his
    regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she
    fell into the hands of his brother, Colonel Robert Sydney, who kept
    her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him.
    On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her, she is
    already sped; and, after being with the King, she was so soon with
    child, that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and
    the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the
    Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wart on his face.
    However, the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved
    so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester he would
    have no further commerce with her, and she became a common
    prostitute at Paris.]

Had it not pleased God to dissipate this attempt in the beginning, there
would in all appearance have gathered an irresistible force which would
have desperately proceeded to the ruin of the Church and Government; so
general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my
own part, I looked upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an
inundation of fanatics and men of impious principles must needs have
caused universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and
confusion, an unavoidable civil war, and misery without end. Blessed be
God, the knot was happily broken, and a fair prospect of tranquillity
for the future, if we reform, be thankful, and make a right use of this
mercy!

18th July, 1685. I went to see the muster of the six Scotch and English
regiments whom the Prince of Orange had lately sent to his Majesty out
of Holland upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, there
having been no occasion for their use. They were all excellently clad
and well disciplined, and were encamped on Blackheath with their tents:
the King and Queen came to see them exercise, and the manner of their
encampment, which was very neat and magnificent.

By a gross mistake of the Secretary of his Majesty's Forces, it had
been ordered that they should be quartered in private houses, contrary
to an Act of Parliament, but, on my informing his Majesty timely of it,
it was prevented.

The two horsemen which my son and myself sent into the county troops,
were now come home, after a month's being out to our great charge.

20th July, 1685. The Trinity Company met this day, which should have
been on the Monday after Trinity, but was put off by reason of the Royal
Charter being so large, that it could not be ready before. Some
immunities were superadded. Mr. Pepys, Secretary to the Admiralty, was a
second time chosen Master. There were present the Duke of Grafton, Lord
Dartmouth, Master of the Ordnance, the Commissioners of the Navy, and
Brethren of the Corporation. We went to church, according to custom, and
then took barge to the Trinity House, in London, where we had a great
dinner, above eighty at one table.

[Sidenote: CHELSEA]

7th August, 1685. I went to see Mr. Watts, keeper of the Apothecaries'
garden of simples at Chelsea, where there is a collection of innumerable
rarities of that sort particularly, besides many rare annuals, the tree
bearing Jesuit's bark, which had done such wonders in quartan agues.
What was very ingenious was the subterranean heat, conveyed by a stove
under the conservatory, all vaulted with brick, so as he has the doors
and windows open in the hardest frosts, secluding only the snow.

15th August, 1685. Came to visit us Mr. Boscawen, with my Lord
Godolphin's little son, with whose education hitherto his father had
intrusted me.

27th August, 1685. My daughter Elizabeth died of the smallpox, soon
after having married a young man, nephew of Sir John Tippett, Surveyor
of the Navy, and one of the Commissioners. The 30th, she was buried in
the church at Deptford. Thus, in less than six months were we deprived
of two children for our unworthiness and causes best known to God, whom
I beseech from the bottom of my heart that he will give us grace to make
that right use of all these chastisements, that we may become better,
and entirely submit in all things to his infinitely wise disposal. Amen!

3d September, 1685. Lord Clarendon (Lord Privy Seal) wrote to let me
know that the King being pleased to send him Lord-Lieutenant into
Ireland, was also pleased to nominate me one of the Commissioners to
execute the office of Privy Seal during his Lieutenancy there, it
behoving me to wait upon his Majesty to give him thanks for this great
honor.

5th September, 1685. I accompanied his Lordship to Windsor (dining by
the way of Sir Henry Capel's at Kew), where his Majesty receiving me
with extraordinary kindness, I kissed his hand, I told him how sensible
I was of his Majesty's gracious favor to me, that I would endeavor to
serve him with all sincerity, diligence, and loyalty, not more out of my
duty than inclination. He said he doubted not of it, and was glad he had
the opportunity to show me the kindness he had for me. After this, came
abundance of great men to give me joy.

6th September, 1685. SUNDAY. I went to prayer in the chapel, and heard
Dr. Standish. The second sermon was preached by Dr. Creighton, on 1
Thess. iv. 11, persuading to unity and peace, and to be mindful of our
own business, according to the advice of the apostle. Then I went to
hear a Frenchman who preached before the King and Queen in that splendid
chapel next St. George's Hall. Their Majesties going to mass, I withdrew
to consider the stupendous painting of the Hall, which, both for the art
and invention, deserve the inscription in honor of the painter, Signor
Verrio. The history is Edward III. receiving the Black Prince, coming
toward him in a Roman triumph. The whole roof is the history of St.
George. The throne, the carvings, etc., are incomparable, and I think
equal to any, and in many circumstances exceeding any, I have seen
abroad.

I dined at Lord Sunderland's, with (among others) Sir William Soames,
designed Ambassador to Constantinople.

About 6 o'clock came Sir Dudley and his brother Roger North, and
brought the Great Seal from my Lord Keeper, who died the day before at
his house in Oxfordshire. The King went immediately to council;
everybody guessing who was most likely to succeed this great officer;
most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief Justice
Jefferies, who had so vigorously prosecuted the late rebels, and was now
gone the Western Circuit, to punish the rest that were secured in
several counties, and was now near upon his return. I took my leave of
his Majesty, who spoke very graciously to me, and supping that night at
Sir Stephen Fox's, I promised to dine there the next day.

15th September, 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys to Portsmouth, whither his
Majesty was going the first time since his coming to the Crown, to see
in what state the fortifications were. We took coach and six horses,
late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. While supper was
making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham, some time maid of
honor to the Queen Dowager, now wife to James Graham, Esq., of the privy
purse to the King; her house being a walk in the forest, within a little
quarter of a mile from Bagshot town. Very importunate she was that I
would sup, and abide there that night; but, being obliged by my
companion, I returned to our inn, after she had shown me her house,
which was very commodious, and well furnished, as she was an excellent
housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a park full of red deer
about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the smallpox, but in a
likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among
the infected, which she said she let them do on purpose that they might
while young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one
time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this
cruel distemper so lately in my poor family confirming much of what she
affirmed.

[Sidenote: WINCHESTER]

16th September, 1685. The next morning, setting out early, we arrived
soon enough at Winchester to wait on the King, who was lodged at the
Dean's (Dr. Meggot). I found very few with him besides my Lords
Feversham, Arran, Newport, and the Bishop of Bath and Wells. His Majesty
was discoursing with the bishops concerning miracles, and what strange
things the Saludadors[61] would do in Spain, as by creeping into heated
ovens without hurt, and that they had a black cross in the roof of their
mouths, but yet were commonly notorious and profane wretches; upon which
his Majesty further said, that he was so extremely difficult of
miracles, for fear of being imposed upon, that if he should chance to
see one himself, without some other witness, he should apprehend it a
delusion of his senses. Then they spoke of the boy who was pretended to
have a wanting leg restored him, so confidently asserted by Fr. de Santa
Clara and others. To all of which the Bishop added a great miracle
happening in Winchester to his certain knowledge, of a poor, miserably
sick and decrepit child (as I remember long kept unbaptized) who
immediately on his baptism, recovered; as also of the salutary effect of
King Charles his Majesty's father's blood, in healing one that was
blind.

    [Footnote 61: Evelyn subjoins this note:--"As to that of the
    Saludador (of which likewise I remember Sir Arthur Hopton, formerly
    as Ambassador at Madrid, had told me many like wonders), Mr. Pepys
    passing through Spain, and being extremely inquisitive of the truth
    of these pretended miracles of the Saludadors, found a very famous
    one at last, to whom he offered a considerable reward if he would
    make a trial of the oven, or any other thing of that kind, before
    him; the fellow ingenuously told him, that finding he was a more
    than ordinary curious person, he would not deceive him, and so
    acknowledged that he could do none of the feats really, but that
    what they pretended was all a cheat, which he would easily discover,
    though the poor superstitious people were easily imposed upon; yet
    have these impostors an allowance of the Bishops to practice their
    jugglings. This Mr. Pepys affirmed to me; but said he, I did not
    conceive it fit to interrupt his Majesty, who so solemnly told what
    they pretended to do.

    J. E."]

There was something said of the second sight happening to some persons,
especially Scotch; upon which his Majesty, and I think Lord Arran, told
us that Monsieur ... a French nobleman, lately here in England, seeing
the late Duke of Monmouth come into the playhouse at London, suddenly
cried out to somebody sitting in the same box, "_Voilà Monsieur comme il
entre sans tete!_" Afterward his Majesty spoke of some relics that had
effected strange cures, particularly a piece of our blessed Savior's
cross, that healed a gentleman's rotten nose by only touching. And
speaking of the golden cross and chain taken out of the coffin of St.
Edward the Confessor at Westminster, by one of the singing-men, who, as
the scaffolds were taken down after his Majesty's coronation, espying a
hole in the tomb, and something glisten, put his hand in, and brought it
to the dean, and he to the King; his Majesty began to put the Bishop in
mind how earnestly the late King (his brother) called upon him during
his agony, to take out what he had in his pocket. "I had thought," said
the King, "it had been for some keys, which might lead to some cabinet
that his Majesty would have me secure"; but, says he, "you will remember
that I found nothing in any of his pockets but a cross of gold, and a
few insignificant papers"; and thereupon he showed us the cross, and was
pleased to put it into my hand. It was of gold, about three inches long,
having on one side a crucifix enameled and embossed, the rest was graved
and garnished with goldsmiths' work, and two pretty broad table
amethysts (as I conceived), and at the bottom a pendant pearl; within
was enchased a little fragment, as was thought, of the true cross, and a
Latin inscription in gold and Roman letters. More company coming in,
this discourse ended. I may not forget a resolution which his Majesty
made, and had a little before entered upon it at the Council Board at
Windsor or Whitehall, that the negroes in the plantations should all be
baptized, exceedingly declaiming against that impiety of their masters
prohibiting it, out of a mistaken opinion that they would be _ipso
facto_ free; but his Majesty persists in his resolution to have them
christened, which piety the Bishop blessed him for.

I went out to see the new palace the late King had begun, and brought
almost to the covering. It is placed on the side of the hill, where
formerly stood the old castle. It is a stately fabric, of three sides
and a corridor, all built of brick, and cornished, windows and columns
at the break and entrance of free-stone. It was intended for a
hunting-house when his Majesty should come to these parts, and has an
incomparable prospect. I believe there had already been £20,000 and more
expended; but his now Majesty did not seem to encourage the finishing it
at least for a while.

Hence to see the Cathedral, a reverend pile, and in good repair. There
are still the coffins of the six Saxon Kings, whose bones had been
scattered by the sacrilegious rebels of 1641, in expectation, I suppose,
of finding some valuable relics, and afterward gathered up again and put
into new chests, which stand above the stalls of the choir.

[Sidenote: PORTSMOUTH]

17th September, 1685. Early next morning, we went to Portsmouth,
something before his Majesty arrived. We found all the road full of
people, the women in their best dress, in expectation of seeing the King
pass by, which he did, riding on horseback a good part of the way. The
Mayor and Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, were
standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of the town,
where the Mayor made a speech to the King, and then the guns of the fort
were fired, as were those of the garrison, as soon as the King was come
into Portsmouth. All the soldiers (near 3,000) were drawn up, and lining
the streets and platform to God's House (the name of the Governor's
residence), where, after he had viewed the new fortifications and
shipyard, his Majesty was entertained at a magnificent dinner by Sir ...
Slingsby, the Lieutenant Governor, all the gentlemen in his train
sitting down at table with him, which I also had done, had I not been
before engaged to Sir Robert Holmes, Governor of the Isle of Wight, to
dine with him at a private house, where likewise we had a very sumptuous
and plentiful repast of excellent venison, fowl, fish, and fruit.

After dinner, I went to wait on his Majesty again, who was pulling on
his boots in the Town Hall adjoining the house where he dined, and then
having saluted some ladies, who came to kiss his hand, he took horse for
Winchester, whither he returned that night. This hall is artificially
hung round with arms of all sorts, like the hall and keep at Windsor.
Hence, to see the shipyard and dock, the fortifications, and other
things.

Portsmouth, when finished, will be very strong, and a noble quay. There
were now thirty-two men-of-war in the harbor. I was invited by Sir R.
Beach, the Commissioner, where, after a great supper, Mr. Secretary and
myself lay that night, and the next morning set out for Guildford, where
we arrived in good hour, and so the day after to London.

I had twice before been at Portsmouth, the Isle of Wight, etc., many
years since. I found this part of Hampshire bravely wooded, especially
about the house and estate of Colonel Norton, who though now in being,
having formerly made his peace by means of Colonel Legg, was formerly a
very fierce commander in the first Rebellion. His house is large, and
standing low, on the road from Winchester to Portsmouth.

By what I observed in this journey, is that infinite industry,
sedulity, gravity, and great understanding and experience of affairs, in
his Majesty, that I cannot but predict much happiness to the nation, as
to its political government; and, if he so persist, there could be
nothing more desired to accomplish our prosperity, but that he was of
the national religion.

30th September, 1685. Lord Clarendon's commission for Lieutenant of
Ireland was sealed this day.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d October, 1685. Having a letter sent me by Mr. Pepys with this
expression at the foot of it, "I have something to show you that I may
not have another time," and that I would not fail to dine with him. I
accordingly went. After dinner, he had me and Mr. Houblon (a rich and
considerable merchant, whose father had fled out of Flanders on the
persecution of the Duke of Alva) into a private room, and told us that
being lately alone with his Majesty, and upon some occasion of speaking
concerning my late Lord Arlington dying a Roman Catholic, who had all
along seemed to profess himself a Protestant, taken all the tests, etc.,
till the day (I think) of his death, his Majesty said that as to his
inclinations he had known them long wavering, but from fear of losing
his places, he did not think it convenient to declare himself. There
are, says the King, those who believe the Church of Rome gives
dispensations for going to church, and many like things, but that is not
so; for if that might have been had, he himself had most reason to make
use of it. INDEED, he said, as to SOME MATRIMONIAL CASES, THERE ARE NOW
AND THEN DISPENSATIONS, but hardly in any cases else.

This familiar discourse encouraged Mr. Pepys to beg of his Majesty, if
he might ask it without offense, and for that his Majesty could not but
observe how it was whispered among many whether his late Majesty had
been reconciled to the Church of Rome; he again humbly besought his
Majesty to pardon his presumption, if he had touched upon a thing which
did not befit him to look into. The King ingenuously told him that he
both was and died a Roman Catholic, and that he had not long since
declared that it was upon some politic and state reasons, best known to
himself (meaning the King his brother), but that he was of that
persuasion: he bid him follow him into his closet, where opening a
cabinet, he showed him two papers, containing about a quarter of a
sheet, on both sides written, in the late King's own hand, several
arguments opposite to the doctrine of the Church of England, charging
her with heresy, novelty, and the fanaticism of other Protestants, the
chief whereof was, as I remember, our refusing to acknowledge the
primacy and infallibility of the Church of Rome; how impossible it was
that so many ages should never dispute it, till of late; how unlikely
our Savior would leave his Church without a visible Head and guide to
resort to, during his absence; with the like usual topic; so well penned
as to the discourse as did by no means seem to me to have been put
together by the late King yet written all with his own hand, blotted and
interlined, so as, if indeed it was not given him by some priest, they
might be such arguments and reasons as had been inculcated from time to
time, and here recollected; and, in the conclusion, showing his looking
on the Protestant religion (and by name the Church of England) to be
without foundation, and consequently false and unsafe. When his Majesty
had shown him these originals, he was pleased to lend him the copies of
these two papers, attested at the bottom in four or five lines under his
own hand.

These were the papers I saw and read. This nice and curious passage I
thought fit to set down. Though all the arguments and objections were
altogether weak, and have a thousand times been answered by our divines;
they are such as their priests insinuate among their proselytes, as if
nothing were Catholic but the Church of Rome, no salvation out of that,
no reformation sufferable, bottoming all their errors on St. Peter's
successors' unerring dictatorship, but proving nothing with any reason,
or taking notice of any objection which could be made against it. Here
all was taken for granted, and upon it a resolution and preference
implied.

I was heartily sorry to see all this, though it was no other than was
to be suspected, by his late Majesty's too great indifference, neglect,
and course of life, that he had been perverted, and for secular respects
only professed to be of another belief, and thereby giving great
advantage to our adversaries, both the Court and generally the youth and
great persons of the nation becoming dissolute and highly profane. God
was incensed to make his reign very troublesome and unprosperous, by
wars, plagues, fires, loss of reputation by an universal neglect of the
public for the love of a voluptuous and sensual life, which a vicious
Court had brought into credit. I think of it with sorrow and pity, when
I consider how good and debonair a nature that unhappy Prince was; what
opportunities he had to have made himself the most renowned King that
ever swayed the British scepter, had he been firm to that Church for
which his martyred and blessed father suffered; and had he been grateful
to Almighty God, who so miraculously restored him, with so excellent a
religion; had he endeavored to own and propagate it as he should have
done, not only for the good of his kingdom, but of all the Reformed
Churches in christendom, now weakened and near ruined through our
remissness and suffering them to be supplanted, persecuted, and
destroyed, as in France, which we took no notice of. The consequence of
this, time will show, and I wish it may proceed no further. The
emissaries and instruments of the Church of Rome will never rest till
they have crushed the Church of England, as knowing that alone to be
able to cope with them, and that they can never answer her fairly, but
lie abundantly open to the irresistible force of her arguments,
antiquity and purity of her doctrine, so that albeit it may move God,
for the punishment of a nation so unworthy, to eclipse again the
profession of her here, and darkness and superstition prevail, I am most
confident the doctrine of the Church of England will never be
extinguished, but remain visible, if not eminent, to the consummation of
the world. I have innumerable reasons that confirm me in this opinion,
which I forbear to mention here.

In the meantime, as to the discourse of his Majesty with Mr. Pepys, and
those papers, as I do exceedingly prefer his Majesty's free and
ingenuous profession of what his own religion is, beyond concealment
upon any politic accounts, so I think him of a most sincere and honest
nature, one on whose word one may rely, and that he makes a conscience
of what he promises, to perform it. In this confidence, I hope that the
Church of England may yet subsist, and when it shall please God to open
his eyes and turn his heart (for that is peculiarly in the Lord's hands)
to flourish also. In all events, whatever does become of the Church of
England, it is certainly, of all the Christian professions on the earth,
the most primitive, apostolical, and excellent.

8th October, 1685. I had my picture drawn this week by the famous
Kneller.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

14th October, 1685. I went to London about finishing my lodgings at
Whitehall.

15th October, 1685. Being the King's birthday, there was a solemn ball
at Court, and before it music of instruments and voices. I happened by
accident to stand the very next to the Queen and the King, who talked
with me about the music.

18th October, 1685. The King was now building all that range from east
to west by the court and garden to the street, and making a new chapel
for the Queen, whose lodgings were to be in this new building, as also a
new Council chamber and offices next the south end of the banqueting
house. I returned home, next morning, to London.

22d October, 1685. I accompanied my Lady Clarendon to her house at
Swallowfield, in Berks, dining by the way at Mr. Graham's lodge at
Bagshot; the house, newly repaired and capacious enough for a good
family, stands in a park.

Hence, we went to Swallowfield; this house is after the ancient
building of honorable gentlemen's houses, when they kept up ancient
hospitality, but the gardens and waters as elegant as it is possible to
make a flat by art and industry, and no mean expense, my lady being so
extraordinarily skilled in the flowery part, and my lord in diligence of
planting; so that I have hardly seen a seat which shows more tokens of
it than what is to be found here, not only in the delicious and rarest
fruits of a garden, but in those innumerable timber trees in the ground
about the seat, to the greatest ornament and benefit of the place. There
is one orchard of 1,000 golden, and other cider pippins; walks and
groves of elms, limes, oaks, and other trees. The garden is so beset
with all manner of sweet shrubs, that it perfumes the air. The
distribution also of the quarters, walks, and parterres, is excellent.
The nurseries, kitchen-garden full of the most desirable plants; two
very noble orangeries well furnished: but, above all, the canal and fish
ponds, the one fed with a white, the other with a black running water,
fed by a quick and swift river, so well and plentifully stored with
fish, that for pike, carp, bream, and tench, I never saw anything
approaching it. We had at every meal carp and pike of a size fit for the
table of a Prince, and what added to the delight was, to see the
hundreds taken by the drag, out of which, the cook standing by, we
pointed out what we had most mind to, and had carp that would have been
worth at London twenty shillings a piece. The waters are flagged about
with _Calámus aromaticus_, with which my lady has hung a closet, that
retains the smell very perfectly. There is also a certain sweet willow
and other exotics: also a very fine bowling-green, meadow, pasture, and
wood; in a word, all that can render a country seat delightful. There is
besides a well-furnished library in the house.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th October, 1685. We returned to London, having been treated with all
sorts of cheer and noble freedom by that most religious and virtuous
lady. She was now preparing to go for Ireland with her husband, made
Lord Deputy, and went to this country house and ancient seat of her
father and family, to set things in order during her absence; but never
were good people and neighbors more concerned than all the country (the
poor especially) for the departure of this charitable woman; everyone
was in tears, and she as unwilling to part from them. There was among
them a maiden of primitive life, the daughter of a poor laboring man,
who had sustained her parents (some time since dead) by her labor, and
has for many years refused marriage, or to receive any assistance from
the parish, besides the little hermitage my lady gives her rent-free;
she lives on four pence a day, which she gets by spinning; says she
abounds and can give alms to others, living in great humility and
content, without any apparent affectation, or singularity; she is
continually working, praying, or reading, gives a good account of her
knowledge in religion, visits the sick; is not in the least given to
talk; very modest, of a simple not unseemingly behavior; of a comely
countenance, clad very plain, but clean and tight. In sum, she appears a
saint of an extraordinary sort, in so religious a life, as is seldom met
with in villages now-a-days.

27th October, 1685. I was invited to dine at Sir Stephen Fox's with my
Lord Lieutenant, where was such a dinner for variety of all things as I
had seldom seen, and it was so for the trial of a master-cook whom Sir
Stephen had recommended to go with his Lordship into Ireland; there were
all the dainties not only of the season, but of what art could add,
venison, plain solid meat, fowl, baked and boiled meats, banquet
[dessert], in exceeding plenty, and exquisitely dressed. There also
dined my Lord Ossory and Lady (the Duke of Beaufort's daughter), my Lady
Treasurer, Lord Cornbury, and other visitors.

28th October, 1685. At the Royal Society, an urn full of bones was
presented, dug up in a highway, while repairing it, in a field in
Camberwell, in Surrey; it was found entire with its cover, among many
others, believed to be truly Roman and ancient.

Sir Richard Bulkeley described to us a model of a chariot he had
invented, which it was not possible to overthrow in whatever uneven way
it was drawn, giving us a wonderful relation of what it had performed in
that kind, for ease, expedition, and safety; there were some
inconveniences yet to be remedied--it would not contain more than one
person; was ready to take fire every ten miles; and being placed and
playing on no fewer than ten rollers, it made a most prodigious noise,
almost intolerable. A remedy was to be sought for these inconveniences.

31st October, 1685. I dined at our great Lord Chancellor Jefferies', who
used me with much respect. This was the late Chief-Justice who had newly
been the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had
formerly done such severe justice among the obnoxious in Westminster
Hall, for which his Majesty dignified him by creating him first a Baron,
and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past been conversant in
Deptford; is of an assured and undaunted spirit, and has served the
Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel, and a
slave of the Court.

3d November, 1685. The French persecution of the Protestants raging
with the utmost barbarity, exceeded even what the very heathens used:
innumerable persons of the greatest birth and riches leaving all their
earthly substance, and hardly escaping with their lives, dispersed
through all the countries of Europe. The French tyrant abrogated the
Edict of Nantes which had been made in favor of them, and without any
cause; on a sudden demolishing all their churches, banishing,
imprisoning, and sending to the galleys all the ministers; plundering
the common people, and exposing them to all sorts of barbarous usage by
soldiers sent to ruin and prey on them; taking away their children;
forcing people to the Mass, and then executing them as relapsers; they
burnt their libraries, pillaged their goods, ate up their fields and
substance, banished or sent the people to the galleys, and seized on
their estates. There had now been numbered to pass through Geneva only
(and that by stealth, for all the usual passages were strictly guarded
by sea and land) 40,000 toward Switzerland. In Holland, Denmark, and all
about Germany, were dispersed some hundred thousands; besides those in
England, where, though multitudes of all degree sought for shelter and
welcome as distressed Christians and confessors, they found least
encouragement, by a fatality of the times we were fallen into, and the
uncharitable indifference of such as should have embraced them; and I
prey it be not laid to our charge. The famous Claude fled to Holland;
Allix and several more came to London, and persons of great estates came
over, who had forsaken all. France was almost dispeopled, the bankers so
broken, that the tyrant's revenue was exceedingly diminished,
manufactures ceased, and everybody there, save the Jesuits, abhorred
what was done, nor did the Papists themselves approve it. What the
further intention is, time will show; but doubtless portending some
revolution.

I was shown the harangue which the Bishop of Valentia on Rhone made in
the name of the Clergy, celebrating the French King, as if he was a God,
for persecuting the poor Protestants, with this expression in it, "That
as his victory over heresy was greater than all the conquests of
Alexander and Cæsar, it was but what was wished in England; and that God
seemed to raise the French King to this power and magnanimous action,
that he might be in capacity to assist in doing the same here." This
paragraph is very bold and remarkable; several reflecting on Archbishop
Usher's prophecy as now begun in France, and approaching the orthodox in
all other reformed churches. One thing was much taken notice of, that
the "Gazettes" which were still constantly printed twice a week,
informing us what was done all over Europe, never spoke of this
wonderful proceeding in France; nor was any relation of it published by
any, save what private letters and the persecuted fugitives brought.
Whence this silence, I list not to conjecture; but it appeared very
extraordinary in a Protestant country that we should know nothing of
what Protestants suffered, while great collections were made for them in
foreign places, more hospitable and Christian to appearance.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th November, 1685. It being an extraordinarily wet morning, and myself
indisposed by a very great rheum, I did not go to church, to my very
great sorrow, it being the first Gunpowder Conspiracy anniversary that
had been kept now these eighty years under a prince of the Roman
religion. Bonfires were forbidden on this day; what does this portend!

9th November, 1685. Began the Parliament. The King in his speech
required continuance of a standing force instead of a militia, and
indemnity and dispensation to Popish officers from the Test; demands
very unexpected and unpleasing to the Commons. He also required a supply
of revenue, which they granted; but returned no thanks to the King for
his speech, till farther consideration.

12th November, 1685. The Commons postponed finishing the bill for the
Supply, to consider the Test, and Popish officers; this was carried but
by one voice.

14th November, 1685. I dined at Lambeth, my Lord Archbishop carrying me
with him in his barge; there were my Lord Deputy of Ireland, the Bishops
of Ely and St. Asaph, Dr. Sherlock, and other divines; Sir William
Hayward, Sir Paul Rycaut, etc.

20th November, 1685. The Parliament was adjourned to February, several
both of Lords and Commons excepting against some passage of his
Majesty's speech relating to the Test, and continuance of Popish
officers in command. This was a great surprise in a Parliament which
people believed would have complied in all things.

Popish pamphlets and pictures sold publicly; no books nor answers to
them appearing till long after.

21st November, 1685. I resigned my trust for composing a difference
between Mr. Thynn and his wife.

22d November, 1685. Hitherto was a very wet, warm season.

4th December, 1685. Lord Sunderland was declared President of the
Council, and yet to hold his Secretary's place. The forces disposed into
several quarters through the kingdom are very insolent, on which are
great complaints.

Lord Brandon, tried for the late conspiracy, was condemned and pardoned;
so was Lord Grey, his accuser and witness.

Persecution in France raging, the French insolently visit our vessels,
and take away the fugitive Protestants; some escape in barrels.

[Sidenote: GREENWICH]

10th December, 1685. To Greenwich, being put into the new Commission of
Sewers.

13th December, 1685. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterborough, preached at
Whitehall, before the Princess of Denmark, who, since his Majesty came
to the Crown, always sat in the King's closet, and had the same bowings
and ceremonies applied to the place where she was, as his Majesty had
when there in person.

Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer showed us an experiment of a wonderful
nature, pouring first a very cold liquor into a glass, and superfusing
on it another, to appearance cold and clear liquor also; it first
produced a white cloud, then boiling, divers coruscations and actual
flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a little shaken
together, fixed divers suns and stars of real fire, perfectly globular,
on the sides of the glass, and which there stuck like so many
constellations, burning most vehemently, and resembling stars and
heavenly bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhibit a
theory of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and the fixing or
gathering of the universal light into luminous bodies. This matter, or
phosphorus, was made out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital
flame, or heat in animal bodies. A very noble experiment!

16th December, 1685. I accompanied my Lord-Lieutenant as far as St.
Alban's, there going out of town with him near 200 coaches of all the
great officers and nobility. The next morning taking leave, I returned
to London.

18th December, 1685. I dined at the great entertainment his Majesty gave
the Venetian Ambassadors, Signors Zenno and Justiniani, accompanied with
ten more noble Venetians of their most illustrious families, Cornaro,
Maccenigo, etc., who came to congratulate their Majesties coming to the
Crown. The dinner was most magnificent and plentiful, at four tables,
with music, kettledrums, and trumpets, which sounded upon a whistle at
every health. The banquet [dessert] was twelve vast chargers piled up so
high that those who sat one against another could hardly see each other.
Of these sweetmeats, which doubtless were some days piling up in that
exquisite manner, the Ambassadors touched not, but leaving them to the
spectators who came out of curiosity to see the dinner, were exceedingly
pleased to see in what a moment of time all that curious work was
demolished, the comfitures voided, and the tables cleared. Thus his
Majesty entertained them three days, which (for the table only) cost him
£600, as the Clerk of the Greencloth (Sir William Boreman) assured me.
Dinner ended, I saw their procession, or cavalcade, to Whitehall,
innumerable coaches attending. The two Ambassadors had four coaches of
their own, and fifty footmen (as I remember), besides other equipage as
splendid as the occasion would permit, the Court being still in
mourning. Thence, I went to the audience which they had in the Queen's
presence chamber, the Banqueting House being full of goods and furniture
till the galleries on the garden-side, council chamber, and new chapel,
now in the building, were finished. They went to their audience in those
plain black gowns and caps which they constantly wear in the city of
Venice. I was invited to have accompanied the two Ambassadors in their
coach to supper that night, returning now to their own lodgings, as no
longer at the King's expense; but, being weary, I excused myself.

19th December, 1685. My Lord Treasurer made me dine with him, where I
became acquainted with Monsieur Barillon, the French Ambassador, a
learned and crafty advocate.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

20th December, 1685. Dr. Turner, brother to the Bishop of Ely, and
sometime tutor to my son, preached at Whitehall on Mark viii. 38,
concerning the submission of Christians to their persecutors, in which
were some passages indiscreet enough, considering the time, and the rage
of the inhuman French tyrant against the poor Protestants.

22d December, 1685. Our patent for executing the office of Privy Seal
during the absence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, being this day
sealed by the Lord Chancellor, we went afterward to St. James, where the
Court then was on occasion of building at Whitehall; his Majesty
delivered the seal to my Lord Tiviot and myself, the other Commissioners
not being come, and then gave us his hand to kiss. There were the two
Venetian Ambassadors and a world of company; among the rest the first
Popish Nuncio that had been in England since the Reformation; so
wonderfully were things changed, to the universal jealousy.

24th December, 1685. We were all three Commissioners sworn on our knees
by the Clerk of the Crown, before my Lord Chancellor, three several
oaths: allegiance, supremacy, and the oath belonging to the Lord Privy
Seal, which last we took standing. After this, the Lord Chancellor
invited us all to dinner, but it being Christmas eve we desired to be
excused, intending at three in the afternoon to seal divers things which
lay ready at the office; so attended by three of the Clerks of the
Signet, we met and sealed. Among other things was a pardon to West, who
being privy to the late conspiracy, had revealed the accomplices to save
his own neck. There were also another pardon and two indenizations; and
so agreeing to a fortnight's vacation, I returned home.

31st December, 1685. Recollecting the passages of the year past, and
having made up accounts, humbly besought Almighty God to pardon those my
sins which had provoked him to discompose my sorrowful family; that he
would accept of our humiliation, and in his good time restore comfort to
it. I also blessed God for all his undeserved mercies and preservations,
begging the continuance of his grace and preservation. The winter had
hitherto been extraordinarily wet and mild.

1st January, 1685-6. Imploring the continuance of God's providential
care for the year now entered, I went to the public devotions. The Dean
of the Chapel and Clerk of the Closet put out, viz, Bishop of London and
..., and Rochester and Durham put in their places; the former had
opposed the toleration intended, and shown a worthy zeal for the
reformed religion as established.

6th January, 1686. I dined with the Archbishop of York, where was Peter
Walsh, that Romish priest so well known for his moderation, professing
the Church of England to be a true member of the Catholic Church. He is
used to go to our public prayers without scruple, and did not
acknowledge the Pope's infallibility, only primacy of order.

19th January, 1686. Passed the Privy Seal, among others, the creation of
Mrs. Sedley (concubine to ----) Countess of Dorchester, which the Queen
took very grievously, so as for two dinners, standing near her, I
observed she hardly ate one morsel, nor spoke one word to the King, or
to any about her, though at other times she used to be extremely
pleasant, full of discourse and good humor. The Roman Catholics were
also very angry: because they had so long valued the sanctity of their
religion and proselytes.

Dryden, the famous playwriter, and his two sons, and Mrs. Nelly (miss to
the late ----), were said to go to mass; such proselytes were no great
loss to the Church.

This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Montague's palace in
Bloomsbury, than which for painting and furniture there was nothing more
glorious in England. This happened by the negligence of a servant
airing, as they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist
season; indeed, so wet and mild a season had scarce been seen in man's
memory.

At this Seal there also passed the creation of Sir Henry Waldegrave to
be a Peer. He had married one of the King's natural daughters by Mrs.
Churchill. These two Seals my brother Commissioners passed in the
morning before I came to town, at which I was not displeased. We
likewise passed Privy Seals for £276,000 upon several accounts,
pensions, guards, wardrobes, privy purse, etc., besides divers pardons,
and one more which I must not forget (and which by Providence I was not
present at) one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to Rome.
We being three Commissioners, any two were a quorum.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st January, 1686. I dined at my Lady Arlington's, Groom of the Stole
to the Queen Dowager, at Somerset House, where dined the Countesses of
Devonshire, Dover, etc.; in all eleven ladies of quality, no man but
myself being there.

24th January, 1686. Unheard-of cruelties to the persecuted Protestants
of France, such as hardly any age has seen the like, even among the
Pagans.

6th February, 1686. Being the day on which his Majesty began his reign,
by order of Council it was to be solemnized with a particular office and
sermon, which the Bishop of Ely preached at Whitehall on Numb. xi. 12; a
Court oration upon the regal office. It was much wondered at, that this
day, which was that of his late Majesty's death, should be kept as a
festival, and not the day of the present King's coronation. It is said
to have been formerly the custom, though not till now since the reign of
King James I.

The Duchess of Monmouth, being in the same seat with me at church,
appeared with a very sad and afflicted countenance.

8th February, 1686. I took the test in Westminster Hall, before the Lord
Chief Justice. I now came to lodge at Whitehall, in the Lord Privy
Seal's lodgings.

12th February, 1686. My great cause was heard by my Lord Chancellor, who
granted me a rehearing. I had six eminent lawyers, my antagonist three,
whereof one was the smooth-tongued solicitor, whom my Lord Chancellor
reproved in great passion for a very small occasion. Blessed be God for
his great goodness to me this day!

19th February, 1686. Many bloody and notorious duels were fought about
this time. The Duke of Grafton killed Mr. Stanley, brother to the Earl
of [Derby], indeed upon an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be
hoped that his Majesty will at last severely remedy this unchristian
custom.

Lord Sunderland was now Secretary of State, President of the Council,
and Premier Minister.

1st March, 1686. Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treat with me about his
son's marrying my daughter, Susanna. The father being obnoxious, and in
some suspicion and displeasure of the King, I would receive no proposal
till his Majesty had given me leave; which he was pleased to do; but,
after several meetings we broke off, on his not being willing to secure
anything competent for my daughter's children; besides that I found most
of his estate was in the coal-pits as far off as Newcastle, and on
leases from the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make concurrent
leases, with other difficulties.

7th March, 1686. Dr. Frampton, Bishop of Gloucester, preached on Psalm
xliv. 17, 18, 19, showing the several afflictions of the Church of
Christ from the primitive to this day, applying exceedingly to the
present conjuncture, when many were wavering in their minds, and great
temptations appearing through the favor now found by the Papists, so as
the people were full of jealousies and discouragement. The Bishop
magnified the Church of England, exhorting to constancy and
perseverance.

10th March, 1686. A Council of the Royal Society about disposing of Dr.
Ray's book of Fishes, which was printed at the expense of the Society.

12th March, 1686. A docket was to be sealed, importing a lease of
twenty-one years to one Hall, who styled himself his Majesty's printer
(he lately turned Papist) for the printing missals, offices, lives of
saints, portals, primers, etc., books expressly forbidden to be printed
or sold, by divers Acts of Parliament; I refused to put my seal to it,
making my exceptions, so it was laid by.

14th March, 1686. The Bishop of Bath and Wells preached on John vi. 17,
a most excellent and pathetic discourse: after he had recommended the
duty of fasting and other penitential duties, he exhorted to constancy
in the Protestant religion, detestation of the unheard-of cruelties of
the French, and stirring up to a liberal contribution. This sermon was
the more acceptable, as it was unexpected from a Bishop who had
undergone the censure of being inclined to Popery, the contrary whereof
no man could show more. This indeed did all our Bishops, to the
disabusing and reproach of all their delators: for none were more
zealous against Popery than they were.

16th March, 1686. I was at a review of the army about London in Hyde
Park, about 6,000 horse and foot, in excellent order; his Majesty and
infinity of people being present.

17th March, 1686. I went to my house in the country, refusing to be
present at what was to pass at the Privy Seal the next day. In the
morning Dr. Tenison preached an incomparable discourse at Whitehall, on
Timothy ii. 3, 4.

24th March, 1686. Dr. Cradock (Provost of Eaton) preached at the same
place, on Psalm xlix. 13, showing the vanity of earthly enjoyments.

28th March, 1686. Dr. White, Bishop of Peterborough, preached in a very
eloquent style, on Matthew xxvi. 29, submission to the will of God on
all accidents, and at all times.

29th March, 1686. The Duke of Northumberland (a natural son of the late
King by the Duchess of Cleveland) marrying very meanly, with the help of
his brother Grafton, attempted in vain to spirit away his wife.

A Brief was read in all churches for relieving the French Protestants,
who came here for protection from the unheard-of cruelties of the King.

2d April, 1686. Sir Edward Hales, a Papist, made Governor of Dover
Castle.

15th April, 1686. The Archbishop of York now died of the smallpox, aged
62, a corpulent man. He was my special loving friend, and while Bishop
of Rochester (from whence he was translated) my excellent neighbor. He
was an inexpressible loss to the whole church, and that Province
especially, being a learned, wise, stout, and most worthy prelate; I
look on this as a great stroke to the poor Church of England, now in
this defecting period.

18th April, 1686. In the afternoon I went to Camberwell, to visit Dr.
Parr. After sermon, I accompanied him to his house, where he showed me
the Life and Letters of the late learned Primate of Armagh (Usher), and
among them that letter of Bishop Bramhall's to the Primate, giving
notice of the Popish practices to pervert this nation, by sending a
hundred priests into England, who were to conform themselves to all
sectaries and conditions for the more easily dispersing their doctrine
among us. This letter was the cause of the whole impression being
seized, upon pretense that it was a political or historical account of
things not relating to theology, though it had been licensed by the
Bishop; which plainly showed what an interest the Papists now had,--that
a Protestant book, containing the life and letters of so eminent a man,
was not to be published. There were also many letters to and from most
of the learned persons his correspondents in Europe. The book will, I
doubt not, struggle through this unjust impediment.

Several Judges were put out, and new complying ones put in.

25th April, 1686. This day was read in our church the Brief for a
collection for relief of the Protestant French so cruelly, barbarously,
and inhumanly oppressed without any thing being laid to their charge. It
had been long expected, and at last with difficulty procured to be
published, the interest of the French Ambassador obstructing it.

5th May, 1686. There being a Seal, it was feared we should be required
to pass a docket dispensing with Dr. Obadiah Walker and four more,
whereof one was an apostate curate of Putney, the others officers of
University College, Oxford, who hold their masterships, fellowships, and
cures, and keep public schools, and enjoy all former emoluments,
notwithstanding they no more frequented or used the public forms of
prayers, or communion, with the Church of England, or took the Test or
oaths of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to twenty Acts of
Parliament; which dispensation being also contrary to his Majesty's own
gracious declaration at the beginning of his reign, gave umbrage (as
well it might) to every good Protestant; nor could we safely have passed
it under the Privy Seal, wherefore it was done by immediate warrant,
signed by Mr. Solicitor.

This Walker was a learned person, of a monkish life, to whose tuition I
had more than thirty years since recommended the sons of my worthy
friend, Mr. Hyldyard, of Horsley in Surrey, believing him to be far from
what he proved--a hypocritical concealed Papist--by which he perverted
the eldest son of Mr. Hyldyard, Sir Edward Hale's eldest son, and
several more, to the great disturbance of the whole nation, as well as
of the University, as by his now public defection appeared. All engines
being now at work to bring in Popery, which God in mercy prevent!

[Sidenote: LONDON]

This day was burned in the old Exchange, by the common hangman, a
translation of a book written by the famous Monsieur Claude, relating
only matters of fact concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous
proceedings of the French King against his Protestant subjects, without
any refutation of any facts therein; so mighty a power and ascendant
here had the French Ambassador, who was doubtless in great indignation
at the pious and truly generous charity of all the nation, for the
relief of those miserable sufferers who came over for shelter.

About this time also, the Duke of Savoy, instigated by the French King
to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, slew many thousands of those
innocent people, so that there seemed to be an universal design to
destroy all that would not go to mass, throughout Europe. _Quod Avertat
D. O. M.!_ No faith in Princes!

12th May, 1686. I refused to put the Privy Seal to Doctor Walker's
license for printing and publishing divers Popish books, of which I
complained both to my Lord of Canterbury (with whom I went to advise in
the Council Chamber), and to my Lord Treasurer that evening at his
lodgings. My Lord of Canterbury's advice was, that I should follow my
own conscience therein; Mr. Treasurer's, that if in conscience I could
dispense with it, for any other hazard he believed there was none.
Notwithstanding this, I persisted in my refusal.

29th May, 1686. There was no sermon on this anniversary, as there
usually had been ever since the reign of the present King.

2d June, 1686. Such storms, rain, and foul weather, seldom known at this
time of the year. The camp at Hounslow Heath, from sickness and other
inconveniences of weather, forced to retire to quarters; the storms
being succeeded by excessive hot weather, many grew sick. Great feasting
there, especially in Lord Dunbarton's quarters. There were many
jealousies and discourses of what was the meaning of this encampment.

A seal this day; mostly pardons and discharges of Knight Baronets'
fees, which having been passed over for so many years, did greatly
disoblige several families who had served his Majesty. Lord Tyrconnel
gone to Ireland, with great powers and commissions, giving as much cause
of talk as the camp, especially nineteen new Privy-Councillors and
Judges being now made, among which but three Protestants, and Tyrconnel
made General.

New judges also here, among which was Milton, a Papist (brother to that
Milton who wrote for the Regicides), who presumed to take his place
without passing the Test. Scotland refused to grant liberty of mass to
the Papists there.

The French persecution more inhuman than ever. The Protestants in Savoy
successfully resist the French dragoons sent to murder them.

The King's chief physician in Scotland apostatizing from the Protestant
religion, does of his own accord publish his recantation at Edinburg.

11th June, 1686. I went to see Middleton's receptacle of water at the
New River, and the New Spa Wells near.

20th June, 1686. An extraordinary season of violent and sudden rain. The
camp still in tents.

24th June, 1686. My Lord Treasurer settled my great business with Mr.
Pretyman, to which I hope God will at last give a prosperous issue.

25th June, 1686. Now his Majesty, beginning with Dr. Sharp and Tully,
proceeded to silence and suspend divers excellent divines for preaching
against Popery.

27th June, 1686. I had this day been married thirty-nine years--blessed
be God for all his mercies!

The new very young Lord Chief-Justice Herbert declared on the bench,
that the government of England was entirely in the King; that the Crown
was absolute; that penal laws were powers lodged in the Crown to enable
the King to force the execution of the law, but were not bars to bind
the King's power; that he could pardon all offenses against the law, and
forgive the penalties, and why could he not dispense with them; by which
the Test was abolished? Everyone was astonished. Great jealousies as to
what would be the end of these proceedings.

6th July, 1686. I supped with the Countess of Rochester, where was also
the Duchess of Buckingham and Madame de Governè, whose daughter was
married to the Marquis of Halifax's son. She made me a character of the
French King and Dauphin, and of the persecution; that they kept much of
the cruelties from the King's knowledge; that the Dauphin was so afraid
of his father, that he dared not let anything appear of his sentiments;
that he hated letters and priests, spent all his time in hunting, and
seemed to take no notice of what was passing.

This lady was of a great family and fortune, and had fled hither for
refuge.

8th July, 1686. I waited on the Archbishop at Lambeth, where I dined and
met the famous preacher and writer, Dr. Allix, doubtless a most
excellent and learned person. The Archbishop and he spoke Latin
together, and that very readily.

11th July, 1686. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester preached before the
household in St. George's Chapel at Windsor, the late King's glorious
chapel now seized on by the mass priests. Dr. Cartwright, Dean of Ripon,
preached before the great men of the Court in the same place.

We had now the sad news of the Bishop of Oxford's death, an
extraordinary loss to the poor Church at this time. Many candidates for
his Bishopric and Deanery, Dr. Parker, South, Aldrich, etc. Dr. Walker
(now apostatizing) came to Court, and was doubtless very busy.

13th July, 1686. Note, that standing by the Queen at basset (cards), I
observed that she was exceedingly concerned for the loss of £80; her
outward affability much changed to stateliness, since she has been
exalted.

The season very rainy and inconvenient for the camps. His Majesty very
cheerful.

14th July, 1686. Was sealed at our office the constitution of certain
commissioners to take upon them full power of all Ecclesiastical
affairs, in as unlimited a manner, or rather greater, than the late High
Commission-Court, abrogated by Parliament; for it had not only faculty
to inspect and visit all Bishops' dioceses, but to change what laws and
statutes they should think fit to alter among the colleges, though
founded by private men; to punish, suspend, fine, etc., give oaths and
call witnesses. The main drift was to suppress zealous preachers. In
sum, it was the whole power of a Vicar-General--note the consequence! Of
the clergy the commissioners were the Archbishop of Canterbury
[Sancroft], Bishop of Durham [Crewe], and Rochester [Sprat]; of the
Temporals, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Chancellor [Jefferies] (who
alone was ever to be of the quorum), the Chief justice [Herbert], and
Lord President [Earl of Sunderland].

18th July, 1686. I went to see Sir John Chardin, at Greenwich.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

4th August, 1686. I dined at Signor Verrio's, the famous Italian
painter, now settled in his Majesty's garden at St. James's, which he
had made a very delicious paradise.

8th August, 1686. Our vicar gone to dispose of his country living in
Rutlandshire, having St. Dunstan in the east given him by the Archbishop
of Canterbury.

I went to visit the Marquis Ravigné, now my neighbor at Greenwich,
retired from the persecution in France. He was the deputy of all the
Protestants of that kingdom in the parliament of Paris, and several
times Ambassador in this and other Courts; a person of great learning
and experience.

8th September, 1686. Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, was on Monday
suspended, on pretense of not silencing Dr. Sharp at St. Giles's, for
something of a sermon in which he zealously reproved the doctrine of the
Roman Catholics. The Bishop having consulted the civilians, they told
him he could not by any law proceed against Dr. Sharp without producing
witnesses, and impleaded according to form; but it was overruled by my
Lord Chancellor, and the Bishop sentenced without so much as being heard
to any purpose. This was thought a very extraordinary way of proceeding,
and was universally resented, and so much the rather for that two
Bishops, Durham and Rochester, sitting in the commission and giving
their suffrages the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to sit among them.
He was only suspended _ab officio_, and that was soon after taken off.
He was brother to the Earl of Northampton, had once been a soldier, had
traveled in Italy, but became a sober, grave, and excellent prelate.

12th September, 1686. Buda now taken from the Turks; a form of
thanksgiving was ordered to be used in the (as yet remaining) Protestant
chapels and church of Whitehall and Windsor.

The King of Denmark was besieging Hamburg, no doubt by the French
contrivance, to embroil the Protestant Princes in a new war, that
Holland, etc., being engaged, matter for new quarrel might arise: the
unheard-of persecution of the poor Protestants still raging more than
ever.

22d September, 1686. The Danes retire from Hamburg, the Protestant
Princes appearing for their succor, and the Emperor sending his
minatories to the King of Denmark, and also requiring the restoration of
the Duke of Saxe Gotha. Thus it pleased God to defeat the French
designs, which were evidently to kindle a new war.

14th October, 1686. His Majesty's birthday; I was at his rising in his
bedchamber, afterward in the park, where four companies of guards were
drawn up. The officers, etc., wonderfully rich and gallant; they did not
head their troops, but their next officers, the colonels being on
horseback by the King while they marched. The ladies not less splendid
at Court, where there was a ball at night; but small appearance of
quality. All the shops both in the city and suburbs were shut up, and
kept as solemnly as any holiday. Bonfires at night in Westminster, but
forbidden in the city.

17th October, 1686. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterborough, preached at
Covent Garden Church on Ephes. v. 18, 19, showing the custom of the
primitive saints in serving God with hymns, and their frequent use of
them upon all occasions: touching the profane way of mirth and
intemperance of this ungodly age. Afterward I visited my Lord Chief
Justice of Ireland, with whom I had long and private discourse
concerning the miserable condition that kingdom was like to be in, if
Tyrconnel's counsel should prevail at Court.

23d October, 1686. Went with the Countess of Sunderland to Cranbourne,
a lodge and walk of my Lord Godolphin's in Windsor park. There was one
room in the house spared in the pulling down the old one, because the
late Duchess of York was born in it; the rest was built and added to it
by Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of the Navy; and since, the whole was
purchased by my Lord Godolphin, who spoke to me to go see it, and advise
what trees were fit to be cut down to improve the dwelling, being
environed with old rotten pollards, which corrupt the air. It stands on
a knoll which though insensibly rising, gives it a prospect over the
Keep of Windsor, about three miles N. E. of it. The ground is clayey and
moist; the water stark naught; the park is pretty; the house tolerable,
and gardens convenient. After dinner, we came back to London, having two
coaches both going and coming, of six horses apiece, which we changed at
Hounslow.

24th October, 1686. Dr. Warren preached before the Princess at
Whitehall, on 5th Matthew, of the blessedness of the pure in heart, most
elegantly describing the bliss of the beatifical vision. In the
afternoon, Sir George Wheeler, knight and baronet, preached on the 4th
Matt. upon the necessity of repentance, at St. Margaret's, an honest and
devout discourse, and pretty tolerably performed. This gentleman coming
from his travels out of Greece, fell in love with the daughter of Sir
Thomas Higgins, his Majesty's resident at Venice, niece to the Earl of
Bath, and married her. When they returned into England, being honored
with knighthood, he would needs turn preacher, and took orders. He
published a learned and ingenious book of his travels, and is a very
worthy person, a little formal and particular, but exceedingly devout.

27th October, 1686. There was a triumphant show of the Lord Mayor both
by land and water, with much solemnity, when yet his power has been so
much diminished, by the loss of the city's former charter.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th November, 1686. I went to St. Martin's in the morning, where Dr.
Birch preached very boldly against the Papists, from John xvi. 2. In the
afternoon I heard Dr. Tillotson in Lincoln's Inn chapel, on the same
text, but more cautiously.

16th November, 1686. I went with part of my family to pass the
melancholy winter in London at my son's house in Arundel Buildings.

5th December, 1686. I dined at my Lady Arlington's, Groom of the Stole
to the Queen Dowager at Somerset House, where dined divers French
noblemen, driven out of their country by the persecution.

16th December, 1686. I carried the Countess of Sunderland to see the
rarities of one Mr. Charlton in the Middle Temple, who showed us such a
collection as I had never seen in all my travels abroad either of
private gentlemen, or princes. It consisted of miniatures, drawings,
shells, insects, medals, natural things, animals (of which divers, I
think 100, were kept in glasses of spirits of wine), minerals, precious
stones, vessels, curiosities in amber, crystal, agate, etc.; all being
very perfect and rare of their kind, especially his books of birds,
fish, flowers, and shells, drawn and miniatured to the life. He told us
that one book stood him in £300; it was painted by that excellent
workman, whom the late Gaston, Duke of Orleans, employed. This
gentleman's whole collection, gathered by himself, traveling over most
parts of Europe, is estimated at £8,000. He appeared to be a modest and
obliging person.[62]

    [Footnote 62: This collection was afterward purchased by Sir Hans
    Sloane, and now forms part o£ the British Museum.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th December, 1686. I went to hear the music of the Italians in the
new chapel, now first opened publicly at Whitehall for the Popish
Service. Nothing can be finer than the magnificent marble work and
architecture at the end, where are four statues, representing St. John,
St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the work of Mr.
Gibbons, with all the carving and pillars of exquisite art and great
cost. The altar piece is the Salutation; the volto in _fresco_, the
Assumption of the blessed Virgin, according to their tradition, with our
blessed Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The throne
where the King and Queen sit is very glorious, in a closet above, just
opposite to the altar. Here we saw the Bishop in his mitre and rich
copes, with six or seven Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously
habited, often taking off and putting on the Bishop's mitre, who sat in
a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and censed by three Jesuits
in their copes; then he went to the altar and made divers cringes, then
censing the images and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now
and then changing place: the crosier, which was of silver, was put into
his hand with a world of mysterious ceremony, the music playing, with
singing. I could not have believed I should ever have seen such things
in the King of England's palace, after it had pleased God to enlighten
this nation; but our great sin has, for the present, eclipsed the
blessing, which I hope he will in mercy and his good time restore to its
purity.

Little appearance of any winter as yet.

1st January, 1686-87. Mr. Wake preached at St. Martin's on 1 Tim. iii.
16, concerning the mystery of godliness. He wrote excellently, in answer
to the Bishop of Meaux.

3d January, 1687. A Seal to confirm a gift of £4,000 per annum for 99
years to the Lord Treasurer out of the Post Office, and £1,700 per annum
for ever out of Lord Grey's estate.

There was now another change of the great officers. The Treasury was put
into commission, two professed Papists among them, viz, Lords Bellasis
and Dover, joined with the old ones, Lord Godolphin, Sir Stephen Fox,
and Sir John Ernley.

17th January, 1687. Much expectation of several great men declaring
themselves Papists. Lord Tyrconnel gone to succeed the Lord-Lieutenant
[Clarendon] in Ireland, to the astonishment of all sober men, and to the
evident ruin of the Protestants in that kingdom, as well as of its great
improvement going on. Much discourse that all the White Staff officers
and others should be dismissed for adhering to their religion. Popish
Justices of the Peace established in all counties, of the meanest of the
people; Judges ignorant of the law, and perverting it--so furiously do
the Jesuits drive, and even compel Princes to violent courses, and
destruction of an excellent government both in Church and State. God of
his infinite mercy open our eyes, and turn our hearts, and establish his
truth with peace! The Lord Jesus defend his little flock, and preserve
this threatened church and nation!

24th January, 1687. I saw the Queen's new apartment at Whitehall, with
her new bed, the embroidery of which cost £3,000. The carving about the
chimney piece, by Gibbons, is incomparable.

30th January, 1687. I heard the famous eunuch, Cifaccio, sing in the new
Popish chapel this afternoon; it was indeed very rare, and with great
skill. He came over from Rome, esteemed one of the best voices in Italy.
Much crowding--little devotion.

27th February, 1687. Mr. Chetwin preached at Whitehall on Rom. i. 18, a
very quaint, neat discourse of Moral righteousness.

2d March, 1687. Came out a proclamation for universal liberty of
conscience in Scotland, and depensation from all tests and laws to the
contrary, as also capacitating Papists to be chosen into all offices of
trust. The mystery operates.

3d March, 1687. Dr. Meggott, Dean of Winchester, preached before the
Princess of Denmark, on Matt. xiv. 23. In the afternoon, I went out of
town to meet my Lord Clarendon, returning from Ireland.

10th March, 1687. His Majesty sent for the Commissioners of the Privy
Seal this morning into his bedchamber, and told us that though he had
thought fit to dispose of the Seal into a single hand, yet he would so
provide for us, as it should appear how well he accepted our faithful
and loyal service with many gracious expressions to this effect; upon
which we delivered the Seal into his hands. It was by all the world both
hoped and expected, that he would have restored it to my Lord Clarendon;
but they were astonished to see it given to Lord Arundel, of Wardour, a
zealous Roman Catholic. Indeed it was very hard, and looked very
unkindly, his Majesty (as my Lord Clarendon protested to me, on my going
to visit him and long discoursing with him about the affairs of Ireland)
finding not the least failure of duty in him during his government of
that kingdom, so that his recall plainly appeared to be from the
stronger influence of the Papists, who now got all the preferments.

Most of the great officers, both in the Court and country, Lords and
others, were dismissed, as they would not promise his Majesty their
consent to the repeal of the test and penal statutes against Popish
Recusants. To this end, most of the Parliament men were spoken to in his
Majesty's closet, and such as refused, if in any place of office or
trust, civil or military, were put out of their employments. This was a
time of great trial; but hardly one of them assented, which put the
Popish interest much backward. The English clergy everywhere preached
boldly against their superstition and errors, and were wonderfully
followed by the people. Not one considerable proselyte was made in all
this time. The party were exceedingly put to the worst by the preaching
and writing of the Protestants in many excellent treatises, evincing the
doctrine and discipline of the reformed religion, to the manifest
disadvantage of their adversaries. To this did not a little contribute
the sermon preached at Whitehall before the Princess of Denmark and a
great crowd of people, and at least thirty of the greatest nobility, by
Dr. Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, on John viii. 46 (the Gospel of the
day), describing through his whole discourse the blasphemies, perfidy,
wresting of Scripture, preference of tradition before it, spirit of
persecution, superstition, legends, and fables of the Scribes and
Pharisees, so that all the auditory understood his meaning of a parallel
between them and the Romish priests, and their new Trent religion. He
exhorted his audience to adhere to the written Word, and to persevere in
the Faith taught in the Church of England, whose doctrine for Catholic
and soundness he preferred to all the communities and churches of
Christians in the world; concluding with a kind of prophecy, that
whatever it suffered, it should after a short trial emerge to the
confusion of her adversaries and the glory of God.

I went this evening to see the order of the boys and children at
Christ's Hospital. There were near 800 boys and girls so decently clad,
cleanly lodged, so wholesomely fed, so admirably taught, some the
mathematics, especially the forty of the late King's foundation, that I
was delighted to see the progress some little youths of thirteen or
fourteen years of age had made. I saw them at supper, visited their
dormitories, and much admired the order, economy, and excellent
government of this most charitable seminary. Some are taught for the
Universities, others designed for seamen, all for trades and callings.
The girls are instructed in all such work as becomes their sex and may
fit them for good wives, mistresses, and to be a blessing to their
generation. They sang a psalm before they sat down to supper in the
great Hall, to an organ which played all the time, with such cheerful
harmony, that it seemed to me a vision of angels. I came from the place
with infinite satisfaction, having never seen a more noble, pious, and
admirable charity. All these consisted of orphans only.[63] The
foundation was of that pious Prince King Edward VI., whose picture (held
to be an original of Holbein) is in the court where the Governors meet
to consult on the affairs of the Hospital, and his statue in white
marble stands in a niche of the wall below, as you go to the church,
which is a modern, noble, and ample fabric. This foundation has had, and
still has, many benefactors.

    [Footnote 63: This is by no means the case now.]

16th March, 1687. I saw a trial of those devilish, murdering, mischief
doing engines called bombs, shot out of the mortar piece on Blackheath.
The distance that they are cast, the destruction they make where they
fall, is prodigious.

20th March, 1687. The Bishop of Bath and Wells (Dr. Ken) preached at St.
Martin's to a crowd of people not to be expressed, nor the wonderful
eloquence of this admirable preacher; the text was Matt. xxvi. 36 to
verse 40, describing the bitterness of our Blessed Savior's agony, the
ardor of his love, the infinite obligations we have to imitate his
patience and resignation; the means by watching against temptations, and
over ourselves with fervent prayer to attain it, and the exceeding
reward in the end. Upon all which he made most pathetical discourses.
The Communion followed, at which I was participant. I afterward dined at
Dr. Tenison's with the Bishop and that young, most learned, pious, and
excellent preacher, Mr. Wake. In the afternoon, I went to hear Mr. Wake
at the newly built church of St. Anne, on Mark viii. 34, upon the
subject of taking up the cross, and strenuously behaving ourselves in
time of persecution, as this now threatened to be.

His Majesty again prorogued the Parliament, foreseeing it would not
remit the laws against Papists, by the extraordinary zeal and bravery of
its members, and the free renunciation of the great officers both in
Court and state, who would not be prevailed with for any temporal
concern.

25th March, 1687. GOOD FRIDAY. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Martin's on 1
Peter ii. 24. During the service, a man came into near the middle of the
church, with his sword drawn, with several others in that posture; in
this jealous time it put the congregation into great confusion, but it
appeared to be one who fled for sanctuary, being pursued by bailiffs.

8th April, 1687. I had a rehearing of my great cause at the Chancery in
Westminster Hall, having seven of the most learned Counsel, my adversary
five, among which were the Attorney General and late Solicitor Finch,
son to the Lord Chancellor Nottingham. The account was at last brought
to one article of the surcharge, and referred to a Master. The cause
lasted two hours and more.

10th April, 1687. In the last week there was issued a Dispensation from
all obligations and tests, by which Dissenters and Papists especially
had public liberty of exercising their several ways of worship, without
incurring the penalty of the many Laws and Acts of Parliament to the
contrary. This was purely obtained by the Papists, thinking thereby to
ruin the Church of England, being now the only church which so admirably
and strenuously opposed their superstition. There was a wonderful
concourse of people at the Dissenters' meeting house in this parish, and
the parish church [Deptford] left exceedingly thin. What this will end
in, God Almighty only knows; but it looks like confusion, which I pray
God avert.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

11th April, 1687. To London about my suit, some terms of accommodation
being proposed.

19th April, 1687. I heard the famous singer, Cifaccio, esteemed the best
in Europe. Indeed, his holding out and delicateness in extending and
loosing a note with incomparable softness and sweetness, was admirable;
for the rest I found him a mere wanton, effeminate child, very coy, and
proudly conceited, to my apprehension. He touched the harpsichord to his
voice rarely well. This was before a select number of particular persons
whom Mr. Pepys invited to his house; and this was obtained by particular
favor and much difficulty, the Signor much disdaining to show his talent
to any but princes.

24th April, 1687. At Greenwich, at the conclusion of the Church service,
there was a French sermon preached after the use of the English Liturgy
translated into French, to a congregation of about 100 French refugees,
of whom Monsieur Ruvigny was the chief, and had obtained the use of the
church, after the parish service was ended. The preacher pathetically
exhorted to patience, constancy, and reliance on God amidst all their
sufferings, and the infinite rewards to come.

2d May, 1687. I dined with Mynheer Diskvelts, the Holland Ambassador, a
prudent and worthy person. There dined Lord Middleton, principal
Secretary of State, Lord Pembroke, Lord Lumley, Lord Preston, Colonel
Fitzpatrick, and Sir John Chardin. After dinner, the Ambassador
discoursed of and deplored the stupid folly of our politics, in
suffering the French to take Luxemburg, it being a place of the most
concern to have been defended, for the interest not only of the
Netherlands, but of England.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

12th May, 1687. To London. Lord Sunderland being Lord President and
Secretary of State, was made Knight of the Garter and Prime favorite.
This day there was such a storm of wind as had seldom happened, being a
sort of hurricane. It kept the flood out of the Thames, so that people
went on foot over several places above bridge. Also an earthquake in
several places in England about the time of the storm.

26th May, 1687. To London, about my agreement with Mr. Pretyman, after
my tedious suit.

2d June, 1687. I went to London, it having pleased his Majesty to grant
me a Privy Seal for £6,000, for discharge of the debt I had been so many
years persecuted for, it being indeed for money drawn over by my
father-in-law, Sir R. Browne, during his residence in the Court of
France, and so with a much greater sum due to Sir Richard from his
Majesty; and now this part of the arrear being paid, there remains yet
due to me, as executor of Sir Richard, above £6,500 more; but this
determining an expensive Chancery suit has been so great a mercy and
providence to me (through the kindness and friendship to me of Lord
Godolphin, one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury,) that I do
acknowledge it with all imaginable thanks to my gracious God.

6th June, 1687. I visited my Lady Pierpoint, daughter to Sir John
Evelyn, of Deane [in Wilts], now widow of Mr. Pierpoint, and mother of
the Earl of Kingston. She was now engaged in the marriage of my cousin,
Evelyn Pierpoint, her second son.

There was about this time brought into the Downs a vast treasure, which
was sunk in a Spanish galleon about forty-five years ago, somewhere near
Hispaniola, or the Bahama islands, and was now weighed up by some
gentlemen, who were at the charge of divers, etc., to the enriching them
beyond all expectation. The Duke of Albemarle's share [Governor of
Jamaica] came to, I believe, £50,000. Some private gentlemen who
adventured £100, gained from £8,000 to £10,000. His Majesty's tenth was
£10,000.

The Camp was now again pitched at Hounslow, the Commanders profusely
vying in the expense and magnificence of tents.

12th June, 1687. Our Vicar preached on 2 Peter ii. 21, upon the danger
of relapsing into sin. After this, I went and heard M. Lamot, an
eloquent French preacher at Greenwich, on Prov. xxx. 8, 9, a consolatory
discourse to the poor and religious refugees who escaped out of France
in the cruel persecution.

16th June, 1687. I went to Hampton Court to give his Majesty thanks for
his late gracious favor, though it was but granting what was due. While
I was in the Council Chamber, came in some persons, at the head of whom
was a formal man with a large roll of parchment in his hand, being an
ADDRESS (as he said, for he introduced it with a speech) of the people
of Coventry, giving his Majesty their great acknowledgments for his
granting a liberty of conscience; he added that this was not the
application of one party only, but the unanimous address of Church of
England men, Presbyterians, Independents, and Anabaptists, to show how
extensive his Majesty's grace was, as taking in all parties to his
indulgence and protection, which had removed all dissensions and
animosities, which would not only unite them in bonds of Christian
charity, but exceedingly encourage their future industry, to the
improvement of trade, and spreading his Majesty's glory throughout the
world; and that now he had given to God his empire, God would establish
his; with expressions of great loyalty and submission; and so he gave
the roll to the King, which being returned to him again, his Majesty
caused him to read. The address was short, but much to the substance of
the speech of their foreman, to whom the King, pulling off his hat, said
that what he had done in giving liberty of conscience, was, what was
ever his judgment ought to be done; and that, as he would preserve them
in their enjoyment of it during his reign, so he would endeavor to
settle it by law, that it should never be altered by his successors.
After this, he gave them his hand to kiss. It was reported the
subscribers were above 1,000.

But this is not so remarkable as an address of the week before (as I was
assured by one present), of some of the FAMILY OF LOVE, His Majesty
asked them what this worship consisted in, and how many their party
might consist of; they told him their custom was to read the Scripture,
and then to preach; but did not give any further account, only said that
for the rest they were a sort of refined Quakers, but their number very
small, not consisting, as they said, of above threescore in all, and
those chiefly belonging to the Isle of Ely.

18th June, 1687. I dined at Mr. Blathwaite's (two miles from Hampton).
This gentleman is Secretary of War, Clerk of the Council, etc., having
raised himself by his industry from very moderate circumstances. He is a
very proper, handsome person, very dexterous in business, and besides
all this, has married a great fortune. His income by the Army, Council,
and Secretary to the Committee of Foreign Plantations, brings him in
above £2,000 per annum.

23d June, 1687. The Privy Seal for £6,000 was passed to me, so that this
tedious affair was dispatched. Hitherto, a very windy and tempestuous
summer. The French sermons to the refugees were continued at Greenwich
Church.

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

19th July, 1687. I went to Wotton. In the way, I dined at Ashted, with
my Lady Mordaunt.

5th August, 1687. I went to see Albury, now purchased by Mr. Finch (the
King's Solicitor and son to the late Lord Chancellor); I found the
garden which I first designed for the Duke of Norfolk, nothing improved.

15th August, 1687. I went to visit Lord Clarendon at Swallowfield, where
was my Lord Cornbury just arrived from Denmark, whither he had
accompanied the Prince of Denmark two months before, and now come back.
The miserable tyranny under which that nation lives, he related to us;
the King keeps them under an army of 40,000 men, all Germans, he not
daring to trust his own subjects. Notwithstanding this, the Danes are
exceedingly proud, the country very poor and miserable.

22d August, 1687. Returned home to Sayes Court from Wotton, having been
five weeks absent with my brother and friends, who entertained us very
nobly. God be praised for his goodness, and this refreshment after my
many troubles, and let his mercy and providence ever preserve me. Amen.

3d September, 1687. The Lord Mayor sent me an Officer with a staff, to
be one of the Governors of St. Thomas's Hospital.

PERSECUTION RAGING IN FRANCE; divers churches there fired by lightning,
priests struck, consecrated hosts, etc., burnt and destroyed, both at
St. Malos and Paris, at the grand procession on Corpus Christi day.

13th September, 1687. I went to Lambeth, and dined with the Archbishop.
After dinner, I retired into the library, which I found exceedingly
improved; there are also divers rare manuscripts in a room apart.

6th October, 1687. I was godfather to Sir John Chardin's son, christened
at Greenwich Church, named John. The Earl of Bath and Countess of
Carlisle, the other sponsors.

29th October, 1687. An Anabaptist, a very odd ignorant person, a
mechanic, I think, was Lord Mayor. The King and Queen, and Dadi, the
Pope's Nuncio, invited to a feast at Guildhall. A strange turn of
affairs, that those who scandalized the Church of England as favorers of
Popery, should publicly invite an emissary from Rome, one who
represented the very person of their Antichrist!

10th December, 1687. My son was returned out of Devon, where he had been
on a commission from the Lords of the Treasury about a concealment of
land.

20th December, 1687. I went with my Lord Chief-Justice Herbert, to see
his house at Walton-on-Thames: it is a barren place. To a very ordinary
house he had built a very handsome library, designing more building to
it than the place deserves, in my opinion. He desired my advice about
laying out his gardens, etc. The next day, we went to Weybridge, to see
some pictures of the Duchess of Norfolk's, particularly the statue, or
child in gremio, said to be of Michael Angelo; but there are reasons to
think it rather a copy, from some proportion in the figures ill taken.
It was now exposed to sale.

12th January, 1687-88. Mr. Slingsby, Master of the Mint, being under
very deplorable circumstances on account of his creditors, and
especially the King, I did my endeavor with the Lords of the Treasury to
be favorable to him.

My Lord Arran, eldest son to the Duke of Hamilton, being now married to
Lady Ann Spencer, eldest daughter of the Earl of Sunderland, Lord
President of the Council, I and my family had most glorious favors sent
us, the wedding being celebrated with extraordinary splendor.

15th January, 1688. There was a solemn and particular office used at
our, and all the churches of London and ten miles round, for a
thanksgiving to God, for her Majesty being with child.

22d January, 1688. This afternoon I went not to church, being employed
on a religious treatise I had undertaken.

_Post annum 1588--1660--1688, Annus Mirabilis Tertius._[64]

    [Footnote 64: This seems to have been added after the page was
    written.]

30th January, 1688. Being the Martyrdom day of King Charles I., our
curate made a florid oration against the murder of that excellent
Prince, with an exhortation to obedience from the example of David; 1
Samuel xxvi. 6.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

12th February, 1688. My daughter Evelyn going in the coach to visit in
the city, a jolt (the door being not fast shut) flung her quite out in
such manner, as the hind wheels passed over her a little above her
knees. Yet it pleased God, besides the bruises of the wheels, she had no
other harm. In two days she was able to walk, and soon after perfectly
well; through God Almighty's great mercy to an excellent wife and a most
dutiful and discreet daughter-in-law.

17th February, 1688. I received the sad news of my niece Montague's
death at Woodcot on the 15th.

15th March, 1688. I gave in my account about the sick and wounded, in
order to have my quietus.

23d March, 1688. Dr. Parker, Bishop of Oxford, who so lately published
his extravagant treatise about transubstantiation, and for abrogating
the test and penal laws, died. He was esteemed a violent, passionate,
haughty man, but yet being pressed to declare for the Church of Rome, he
utterly refused it. A remarkable end!

The French TYRANT now finding he could make no proselytes among those
Protestants of quality, and others, whom he had caused to be shut up in
dungeons, and confined to nunneries and monasteries, gave them, after so
long trial, a general releasement, and leave to go out of the kingdom,
but utterly taking their estates and their children; so that great
numbers came daily into England and other places, where they were
received and relieved with very considerate Christian charity. This
Providence and goodness of God to those who thus constantly held out,
did so work upon those miserable poor souls who, to avoid the
persecution, signed their renunciation, and to save their estates went
to mass, that reflecting on what they had done, they grew so affected in
their conscience, that not being able to support it, they in great
numbers through all the French provinces, acquainted the magistrates and
lieutenants that being sorry for their apostacy, they were resolved to
return to their old religion; that they would go no more to mass, but
peaceably assemble when they could, to beg pardon and worship God, but
so without weapons as not to give the least umbrage of rebellion or
sedition, imploring their pity and commiseration; and, accordingly,
meeting so from time to time, the dragoon-missioners, Popish officers
and priests, fell upon them, murdered and put them to death, whoever
they could lay hold on; they without the least resistance embraced
death, torture, or hanging, with singing psalms and praying for their
persecutors to the last breath, yet still continuing the former
assembling of themselves in desolate places, suffering with incredible
constancy, that through God's mercy they might obtain pardon for this
lapse. Such examples of Christian behavior have not been seen since the
primitive persecutions; and doubtless God will do some signal work in
the end, if we can with patience and resignation hold out, and depend on
his Providence.

24th March, 1688. I went with Sir Charles Littleton to Sheen, a house
and estate given him by Lord Brounker; one who was ever noted for a
hard, covetous, vicious man; but for his worldly craft and skill in
gaming few exceeded him. Coming to die, he bequeathed all his land,
house, furniture, etc., to Sir Charles, to whom he had no manner of
relation, but an ancient friendship contracted at the famous siege of
Colchester, forty years before. It is a pretty place, with fine gardens,
and well planted, and given to one worthy of them, Sir Charles being an
honest gentleman and soldier. He is brother to Sir Henry Littleton of
Worcestershire, whose great estate he is likely to inherit, his brother
being without children. They are descendants of the great lawyer of that
name, and give the same arms and motto. He is married to one Mrs.
Temple, formerly maid of honor to the late Queen, a beautiful lady, and
he has many fine children, so that none envy his good fortune.

After dinner, we went to see Sir William Temple's near to it; the
most remarkable things are his orangery and gardens, where the
wall-fruit-trees are most exquisitely nailed and trained, far better
than I ever noted.

There are many good pictures, especially of Vandyke's, in both these
houses, and some few statues and small busts in the latter.

From thence to Kew, to visit Sir Henry Capel's, whose orangery and
_myrtetum_ are most beautiful and perfectly well kept. He was contriving
very high palisadoes of reeds to shade his oranges during the summer,
and painting those reeds in oil.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st April, 1688. In the morning, the first sermon was by Dr.
Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's (at Whitehall), on Luke x. 41, 42. The
Holy Communion followed, but was so interrupted by the rude breaking in
of multitudes zealous to hear the second sermon, to be preached by the
Bishop of Bath and Wells, that the latter part of that holy office could
hardly be heard, or the sacred elements be distributed without great
trouble. The Princess being come, he preached on Mich. vii. 8, 9, 10,
describing the calamity of the Reformed Church of Judah under the
Babylonian persecution, for her sins, and God's delivery of her on her
repentance; that as Judah emerged, so should the now Reformed Church,
whenever insulted and persecuted. He preached with his accustomed
action, zeal, and energy, so that people flocked from all quarters to
hear him.

15th April, 1688. A dry, cold, backward spring; easterly winds.

The persecution still raging in France, multitudes of Protestants, and
many very considerable and great persons flying hither, produced a
second general contribution, the Papists, by God's Providence, as yet
making small progress among us.

29th April, 1688. The weather was, till now, so cold and sharp, by an
almost perpetual east wind, which had continued many months, that there
was little appearance of any spring, and yet the winter was very
favorable as to frost and snow.

2d May, 1688. To London, about my petition for allowances upon the
account of Commissioner for Sick and Wounded in the former war with
Holland.

8th May, 1688. His Majesty, alarmed by the great fleet of the Dutch
(while we had a very inconsiderable one), went down to Chatham; their
fleet was well prepared, and out, before we were in any readiness, or
had any considerable number to have encountered them, had there been
occasion, to the great reproach of the nation; while being in profound
peace, there was a mighty land army, which there was no need of, and no
force at sea, where only was the apprehension; but the army was
doubtless kept and increased, in order to bring in and countenance
Popery, the King beginning to discover his intention, by many instances
pursued by the Jesuits, against his first resolution to alter nothing in
the Church Establishment, so that it appeared there can be no reliance
on Popish promises.

18th May, 1688. The King enjoining the ministers to read his
Declaration for giving liberty of conscience (as it was styled) in all
churches of England, this evening, six Bishops, Bath and Wells,[65]
Peterborough,[66] Ely,[67] Chichester,[68] St. Asaph,[69] and
Bristol,[70] in the name of all the rest of the Bishops, came to his
Majesty to petition him, that he would not impose the reading of it to
the several congregations within their dioceses; not that they were
averse to the publishing it for want of due tenderness toward
dissenters, in relation to whom they should be willing to come to such a
temper as should be thought fit, when that matter might be considered
and settled in Parliament and Convocation; but that, the Declaration
being founded on such a dispensing power as might at pleasure set aside
all laws ecclesiastical and civil, it appeared to them illegal, as it
had done to the Parliament in 1661 and 1672, and that it was a point of
such consequence, that they could not so far make themselves parties to
it, as the reading of it in church in time of divine service amounted
to.

    [Footnote 65: Thomas Ken.]

    [Footnote 66: Thomas White.]

    [Footnote 67: Francis Turner.]

    [Footnote 68: John Lake.]

    [Footnote 69: William Lloyd.]

    [Footnote 70: Sir John Trelawny, Bart.]

The King was so far incensed at this address, that he with threatening
expressions commanded them to obey him in reading it at their perils,
and so dismissed them.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

20th May, 1688. I went to Whitehall Chapel, where, after the morning
lessons, the Declaration was read by one of the choir who used to read
the chapters. I hear it was in the Abbey Church, Westminster, but almost
universally forborne throughout all London: the consequences of which a
little time will show.

25th May, 1688. All the discourse now was about the Bishops refusing to
read the injunction for the abolition of the Test, etc. It seems the
injunction came so crudely from the Secretary's office, that it was
neither sealed nor signed in form, nor had any lawyer been consulted, so
as the Bishops who took all imaginable advice, put the Court to great
difficulties how to proceed against them. Great were the consults, and a
proclamation was expected all this day; but nothing was done. The action
of the Bishops was universally applauded, and reconciled many adverse
parties, Papists only excepted, who were now exceedingly perplexed, and
violent courses were every moment expected. Report was, that the
Protestant secular Lords and Nobility would abet the Clergy.

The Queen Dowager, hitherto bent on her return into Portugal, now on the
sudden, on allegation of a great debt owing her by his Majesty disabling
her, declares her resolution to stay.

News arrived of the most prodigious earthquake that was almost ever
heard of, subverting the city of Lima and country in Peru, with a
dreadful inundation following it.

8th June, 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury, with the
Bishops of Ely, Chichester, St. Asaph, Bristol, Peterborough, and Bath
and Wells, were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for
refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the
Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it
would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them
was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing,
and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower
wharf.

10th June, 1688. A YOUNG PRINCE born, which will cause disputes.

About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance discharged, and the bells
ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it
having been universally given out that her Majesty did not look till the
next month.

13th June, 1688. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, visited the
Archbishop and the Bishops of Ely, St. Asaph, and Bath and Wells.

14th June, 1688. Dined with the Lord Chancellor.

15th June, 1688. Being the first day of term, the Bishops were brought
to Westminster on habeas corpus, when the indictment was read, and they
were called on to plead; their counsel objected that the warrant was
illegal; but, after long debate, it was overruled, and they pleaded. The
Court then offered to take bail for their appearance; but this they
refused, and at last were dismissed on their own recognizances to appear
that day fortnight; the Archbishop in £200, the Bishops in £100 each.

17 June, 1688. Was a day of thanksgiving in London and ten miles about
for the young Prince's birth; a form of prayer made for the purpose by
the Bishop of Rochester.

29th June, 1688. They appeared; the trial lasted from nine in the
morning to past six in the evening, when the jury retired to consider of
their verdict, and the Court adjourned to nine the next morning. The
jury were locked up till that time, eleven of them being for an
acquittal; but one (Arnold, a brewer) would not consent. At length he
agreed with the others. The Chief Justice, Wright, behaved with great
moderation and civility to the Bishops. Alibone, a Papist, was strongly
against them; but Holloway and Powell being of opinion in their favor,
they were acquitted. When this was heard, there was great rejoicing; and
there was a lane of people from the King's Bench to the water side, on
their knees, as the Bishops passed and repassed, to beg their blessing.
Bonfires were made that night, and bells rung, which was taken very ill
at Court, and an appearance of nearly sixty Earls and Lords, etc., on
the bench, did not a little comfort them; but indeed they were all along
full of comfort and cheerful.

Note, they denied to pay the Lieutenant of the Tower (Hales, who used
them very surlily), any fees, alleging that none were due.

The night was solemnized with bonfires, and other fireworks, etc.

2d July, 1688. The two judges, Holloway and Powell, were displaced.

3d July, 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin and his brother Sir William to
St. Alban's, to see a library he would have bought of the widow of Dr.
Cartwright, late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection of
books, especially in divinity; he was to give £300 for them. Having seen
the GREAT CHURCH, now newly repaired by a public contribution, we
returned home.

8th July, 1688. One of the King's chaplains preached before the Princess
on Exodus xiv. 13, "Stand still, and behold the salvation of the Lord,"
which he applied so boldly to the present conjuncture of the Church of
England, that more could scarce be said to encourage desponders. The
Popish priests were not able to carry their cause against their learned
adversaries, who confounded them both by their disputes and writings.

12th July, 1688. The camp now began at Hounslow, but the nation was in
high discontent.

Colonel Titus, Sir Henry Vane (son of him who was executed for his
treason), and some other of the Presbyterians and Independent party,
were sworn of the Privy Council, from hopes of thereby diverting that
party from going over to the Bishops and Church of England, which now
they began to do, foreseeing the design of the Papists to descend and
take in their most hateful of heretics (as they at other times expressed
them to be) to effect their own ends, now evident; the utter extirpation
of the Church of England first, and then the rest would follow.

17th July, 1688. This night the fireworks were played off, that had been
prepared for the Queen's upsitting. We saw them to great advantage; they
were very fine, and cost some thousands of pounds, in the pyramids,
statues, etc., but were spent too soon for so long a preparation.

26th July, 1688. I went to Lambeth to visit the Archbishop, whom I
found very cheerful.

10th August, 1688. Dr. Tenison now told me there would suddenly be some
great thing discovered. This was the Prince of Orange intending to come
over.

15th August, 1688. I went to Althorpe, in Northamptonshire, seventy
miles. A coach and four horses took up me and my son at Whitehall, and
carried us to Dunstable, where we arrived and dined at noon, and from
thence another coach and six horses carried us to Althorpe, four miles
beyond Northampton, where we arrived by seven o'clock that evening. Both
these coaches were hired for me by that noble Countess of Sunderland,
who invited me to her house at Althorpe, where she entertained me and my
son with very extraordinary kindness; I stayed till the Thursday.

18th August, 1688. Dr. Jeffryes, the minister of Althorpe, who was my
Lord's chaplain when ambassador in France, preached the shortest
discourse I ever heard; but what was defective in the amplitude of his
sermon, he had supplied in the largeness and convenience of the
parsonage house, which the doctor (who had at least £600 a year in
spiritual advancement) had newly built, and made fit for a person of
quality to live in, with gardens and all accommodation according
therewith.

My lady carried us to see Lord Northampton's Seat, a very strong, large
house, built with stone, not altogether modern. They were enlarging the
garden, in which was nothing extraordinary, except the iron gate opening
into the park, which indeed was very good work, wrought in flowers
painted with blue and gilded. There is a noble walk of elms toward the
front of the house by the bowling green. I was not in any room of the
house besides a lobby looking into the garden, where my Lord and his new
Countess (Sir Stephen Fox's daughter, whom I had known from a child)
entertained the Countess and her daughter the Countess of Arran (newly
married to the son of the Duke of Hamilton), with so little good grace,
and so dully, that our visit was very short, and so we returned to
Althorpe, twelve miles distant.

[Sidenote: ALTHORPE]

The house, or rather palace, at Althorpe, is a noble uniform pile in
form of a half H, built of brick and freestone, balustered and _à la
moderne_; the hall is well, the staircase excellent; the rooms of state,
galleries, offices and furniture, such as may become a great prince. It
is situated in the midst of a garden, exquisitely planted and kept, and
all this in a park walled in with hewn stone, planted with rows and
walks of trees, canals and fish ponds, and stored with game. And, what
is above all this, governed by a lady, who without any show of
solicitude, keeps everything in such admirable order, both within and
without, from the garret to the cellar, that I do not believe there is
any in this nation, or in any other, that exceeds her in such exact
order, without ostentation, but substantially great and noble. The
meanest servant is lodged so neat and cleanly; the service at the
several tables, the good order and decency--in a word, the entire
economy is perfectly becoming a wise and noble person. She is one who
for her distinguished esteem of me from a long and worthy friendship, I
must ever honor and celebrate. I wish from my soul the Lord, her husband
(whose parts and abilities are otherwise conspicuous), was as worthy of
her, as by a fatal apostasy and court-ambition he has made himself
unworthy! This is what she deplores, and it renders her as much
affliction as a lady of great soul and much prudence is capable of. The
Countess of Bristol, her mother, a grave and honorable lady, has the
comfort of seeing her daughter and grandchildren under the same economy,
especially Mr. Charles Spencer, a youth of extraordinary hopes, very
learned for his age, and ingenious, and under a governor of great worth.
Happy were it, could as much be said of the elder brother, the Lord
Spencer, who, rambling about the world, dishonors both his name and his
family, adding sorrow to sorrow to a mother, who has taken all
imaginable care of his education. There is a daughter very young married
to the Earl of Clancarty, who has a great and fair estate in Ireland,
but who yet gives no great presage of worth,--so universally
contaminated is the youth of this corrupt and abandoned age! But this is
again recompensed by my Lord Arran, a sober and worthy gentleman, who
has espoused the Lady Ann Spencer, a young lady of admirable
accomplishments and virtue.

23d August, 1688. I left this noble place and conversation, my lady
having provided carriages to convey us back in the same manner as we
went, and a dinner being prepared at Dunstable against our arrival.
Northampton, having been lately burned and re-edified, is now become a
town that for the beauty of the buildings, especially the church and
townhouse, may compare with the neatest in Italy itself.

Dr. Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, wrote a very honest and handsome letter
to the Commissioners Ecclesiastical, excusing himself from sitting any
longer among them, he by no means approving of their prosecuting the
Clergy who refused to read the Declaration for liberty of conscience, in
prejudice of the Church of England.

The Dutch make extraordinary preparations both at sea and land, which
with no small progress Popery makes among us, puts us to many
difficulties. The Popish Irish soldiers commit many murders and insults;
the whole nation disaffected, and in apprehensions.

After long trials of the doctors to bring up the little Prince of Wales
by hand (so many of her Majesty's children having died infants) not
succeeding, a country nurse, the wife of a tile maker, is taken to give
it suck.

18th September, 1688. I went to London, where I found the Court in the
utmost consternation on report of the Prince of Orange's landing; which
put Whitehall into so panic a fear, that I could hardly believe it
possible to find such a change.

Writs were issued in order to a Parliament, and a declaration to back
the good order of elections, with great professions of maintaining the
Church of England, but without giving any sort of satisfaction to the
people, who showed their high discontent at several things in the
Government.

Earthquakes had utterly demolished the ancient Smyrna, and several other
places in Greece, Italy, and even in the Spanish Indies, forerunners of
greater calamities. God Almighty preserve his Church and all who put
themselves under the shadow of his wings, till these things be
overpassed.

30th September, 1688. The Court in so extraordinary a consternation, on
assurance of the Prince of Orange's intention to land, that the writs
sent forth for a Parliament were recalled.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th October, 1688. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Martin's on 2 Tim. iii.
16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, and its
perfection above all traditions. After which, near 1,000 devout persons
partook of the Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit,
who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had disparaged the Scripture
and railed at our translation, which some present contradicting, they
pulled him out of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch
that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city.

Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's invasion heightened to that
degree, that his Majesty thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the
dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all
laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In
the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued
to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places
of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal
discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed
passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince, whom
they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying
incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of
his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a
strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation
reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and
with reason) that his Majesty's forces would neither at land nor sea
oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.

The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and
the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by
their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of
Canterbury,[71] informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving
by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his Majesty was published.
The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared
invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.

    [Footnote 71: By Evelyn himself. The letter was as follows:--

    "My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety,
    prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not
    only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally
    from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her
    discipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's
    vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be
    diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have
    with some in place who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing
    in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries,
    obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the
    rest of the Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been
    required of you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among
    well-meaning people of such compliances, as it is certain they have
    no cause to apprehend. The plan of this and of all that which is to
    follow of seeming favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who
    are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all
    other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have,
    with other things contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should
    give his Majesty advice separately, without calling any of the rest
    of the Peers, which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally
    about the town. I do not at all question but your Grace will
    speedily prevent the operation of this venom, and that you will
    think it highly necessary so to do, that your Grace is also enjoined
    to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of Orange is
    expressly to be named the Invader: of this I presume not to say
    anything; but for as much as in all the Declarations, etc., which
    have hitherto been published in pretended favor of the Church of
    England, there is not once the least mention of the REFORMED or
    PROTESTANT RELIGION, but only of the CHURCH OF ENGLAND AS BY LAW
    ESTABLISHED, which Church the Papists tell us is the CHURCH OF ROME,
    which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England--that only is
    established by Law; the Church of England in the REFORMED sense so
    established, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of THAT
    would by these words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and
    subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions whatsoever; if,
    in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the words
    REFORMED and PROTESTANT were added to that of the CHURCH OF ENGLAND
    BY LAW ESTABLISHED. And whosoever threatens to invade or come
    against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they
    Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My
    Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, though I
    am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted with all
    this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as that does
    [Greek: allotrioepiskopein]; yet I am confident you will not reprove
    the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with your
    blessing. Lond., 10 Oct., 1688." (From a copy in Evelyn's
    handwriting.) See _post_, p. 285.]

14th October, 1688. The King's birthday. No guns from the Tower as
usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. This day signal for the victory
of William the Conqueror against Harold, near Battel, in Sussex. The
wind, which had been hitherto west, was east all this day. Wonderful
expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers ordered to be read in the
churches against invasion.

28th October, 1688. A tumult in London on the rabble demolishing a
Popish chapel that had been set up in the city.

29th October, 1688. Lady Sunderland acquainted me with his Majesty's
taking away the Seals from Lord Sunderland, and of her being with the
Queen to intercede for him. It is conceived that he had of late grown
remiss in pursuing the interest of the Jesuitical counsels; some
reported one thing, some another; but there was doubtless some secret
betrayed, which time may discover.

There was a Council called, to which were summoned the Archbishop of
Canterbury, the Judges, the Lord Mayor, etc. The Queen Dowager, and all
the ladies and lords who were present at the Queen Consort's labor, were
to give their testimony upon oath of the Prince of Wales's birth,
recorded both at the Council Board and at the Chancery a day or two
after. This procedure was censured by some as below his Majesty to
condescend to, on the talk of the people. It was remarkable that on this
occasion the Archbishop, Marquis of Halifax, the Earls of Clarendon and
Nottingham, refused to sit at the Council table among Papists, and their
bold telling his Majesty that whatever was done while such sat among
them was unlawful and incurred _præmunire_;--at least, if what I heard
be true.

30th October, 1688. I dined with Lord Preston, made Secretary of State,
in the place of the Earl of Sunderland.

Visited Mr. Boyle, when came in the Duke of Hamilton and Earl of
Burlington. The Duke told us many particulars of Mary Queen of Scots,
and her amours with the Italian favorite, etc.

31st October, 1688. My birthday, being the 68th year of my age. O
blessed Lord, grant that as I grow in years, so may I improve in grace!
Be thou my protector this following year, and preserve me and mine from
those dangers and great confusions that threaten a sad revolution to
this sinful nation! Defend thy church, our holy religion, and just laws,
disposing his Majesty to listen to sober and healing counsels, that if
it be thy blessed will, we may still enjoy that happy tranquility which
hitherto thou hast continued to us! Amen, Amen!

1st November, 1688. Dined with Lord Preston, with other company, at Sir
Stephen Fox's. Continual alarms of the Prince of Orange, but no
certainty. Reports of his great losses of horse in the storm, but
without any assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and printed
manifestoes, and carried to Newgate, after examination at the Cabinet
Council. There was likewise a declaration of the States for satisfaction
of all public ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the
French. There was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords
both spiritual and temporal had invited him over, with a deduction of
the causes of his enterprise. This made his Majesty convene my Lord of
Canterbury and the other Bishops now in town, to give an account of what
was in the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by some
public writing of this disloyal charge.

2d November, 1688. It was now certainly reported by some who saw the
fleet, and the Prince embark, that they sailed from the Brill on
Wednesday morning, and that the Princess of Orange was there to take
leave of her husband.

4th November, 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince being landed somewhere
about Portsmouth, or the Isle of Wight, whereas it was thought it would
have been northward. The Court in great hurry.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th November, 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the Prince
having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing
through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not
intercept, or molest them. This put the King and Court into great
consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their
further progress, for they were got into Exeter, and the season and ways
very improper for his Majesty's forces to march so great a distance.

The Archbishop of Canterbury and some few of the other Bishops and
Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth
their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his Majesty that they
had never invited any of the Prince's party, or were in the least privy
to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but,
as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his Majesty
would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult
what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to
publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the
Prince's manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the
Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King; so they
departed.

A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to see or read the
Prince's manifesto, in which was set forth at large the cause of his
expedition, as there had been one before from the States.

These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it
by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all
likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we
cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray
God to protect and direct the King for the best and truest interest of
his people!--I saw his Majesty touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and
Warner officiating.

14th November, 1688. The Prince increases everyday in force. Several
Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury carries some regiments, and marches to
Honiton, the Prince's headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the
rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord
Berkeley, at St. John's. The Queen prepares to go to Portsmouth for
safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful
aspect.

18th November, 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The King goes to
Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere
appears for the Prince in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The
Archbishop of Canterbury and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in
London, address his Majesty to call a Parliament. The King invites all
foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and
alarm the Germans more than ever.

29th November, 1688. I went to the Royal Society. We adjourned the
election of a President to 23d of April, by reason of the public
commotions, yet dined together as of custom this day.

2d December, 1688. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi.
5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament.
Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin, then going with the Marquis of
Halifax and Earl of Nottingham as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange;
he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince.
Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of
quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws,
and go to meet the Prince, who every day sets forth new Declarations
against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits,
fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public
print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince coming
to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to
Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover being Governor. Address from the Fleet not
grateful to his Majesty. The Papists in offices lay down their
commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like
a revolution.

7th December, 1688. My son went toward Oxford. I returned home.

9th December, 1688. Lord Sunderland meditates flight. The rabble
demolished all Popish chapels, and several Papist lords and gentlemen's
houses, especially that of the Spanish Ambassador, which they pillaged,
and burned his library.

13th December, 1688. The King flies to sea, puts in at Faversham for
ballast; is rudely treated by the people; comes back to Whitehall.

The Prince of Orange is advanced to Windsor, is invited by the King to
St. James's, the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham, the General
of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained
prisoner by the Prince, who accepts the invitation, but requires his
Majesty to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be
quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the
King goes privately to Rochester; is persuaded to come back; comes on
the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I
was present).

17th December, 1688. That night was a Council; his Majesty refuses to
assent to all the proposals; goes away again to Rochester.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th December, 1688. I saw the King take barge to Gravesend at twelve
o'clock--a sad sight! The Prince comes to St. James's, and fills
Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient
to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor,
Earl of Peterborough, and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland
flies; Sir Edward Hale, Walker, and others, taken and secured.

All the world go to see the Prince at St. James's, where there is a
great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came
over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English
soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased.

24th December, 1688. The King passes into France, whither the Queen and
child were gone a few days before.

26th December, 1688. The Peers and such Commoners as were members of the
Parliament at Oxford, being the last of Charles II. meeting, desire the
Prince of Orange to take on him the disposal of the public revenue till
a convention of Lords and Commons should meet in full body, appointed by
his circular letters to the shires and boroughs, 22d of January. I had
now quartered upon me a Lieutenant-Colonel and eight horses.

30th December, 1688. This day prayers for the Prince of Wales were first
left off in our Church.

7th January, 1688-89. A long frost and deep snow; the Thames almost
frozen over.

15th January, 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury, where I
found the Bishops of St. Asaph, Ely, Bath and Wells, Peterborough, and
Chichester, the Earls of Aylesbury and Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie,
Lord-Advocate of Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Archbishop, etc.
After prayers and dinner, divers serious matters were discoursed,
concerning the present state of the Public, and sorry I was to find
there was as yet no accord in the judgments of those of the Lords and
Commons who were to convene; some would have the Princess made Queen
without any more dispute, others were for a Regency; there was a Tory
party (then so called), who were for inviting his Majesty again upon
conditions; and there were Republicans who would make the Prince of
Orange like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy among these several
parties to bring them into confusion: most for ambition or other
interest, few for conscience and moderate resolutions. I found nothing
of all this in this assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to admit me
into their discourses; they were all for a Regency, thereby to salve
their oaths, and so all public matters to proceed in his Majesty's name,
by that to facilitate the calling of Parliament, according to the laws
in being. Such was the result of this meeting.

My Lord of Canterbury gave me great thanks for the advertisement I sent
him in October, and assured me they took my counsel in that particular,
and that it came very seasonably.

I found by the Lord-Advocate that the Bishops of Scotland (who were
indeed little worthy of that character, and had done much mischief in
that Church) were now coming about to the true interest, in this
conjuncture which threatened to abolish the whole hierarchy in that
kingdom; and therefore the Scottish Archbishop and Lord-Advocate
requested the Archbishop of Canterbury to use his best endeavors with
the Prince to maintain the Church there in the same state, as by law at
present settled.

It now growing late, after some private discourse with his Grace, I took
my leave, most of the Lords being gone.

The trial of the bishops was now printed.

The great convention being assembled the day before, falling upon the
question about the government, resolved that King James having by the
advice of the Jesuits and other wicked persons endeavored to subvert the
laws of the Church and State, and deserted the kingdom, carrying away
the seals, etc., without any care for the management of the government,
had by demise abdicated himself and wholly vacated his right; they did
therefore desire the Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the
crown on the next heir, the Prince of Orange, for his life, then to the
Princess, his wife, and if she died without issue, to the Princess of
Denmark, and she failing, to the heirs of the Prince, excluding forever
all possibility of admitting a Roman Catholic.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

27th January, 1689. I dined at the Admiralty, where was brought in a
child not twelve years old, the son of one Dr. Clench, of the most
prodigious maturity of knowledge, for I cannot call it altogether
memory, but something more extraordinary. Mr. Pepys and myself examined
him, not in any method, but with promiscuous questions, which required
judgment and discernment to answer so readily and pertinently. There was
not anything in chronology, history, geography, the several systems of
astronomy, courses of the stars, longitude, latitude, doctrine of the
spheres, courses and sources of rivers, creeks, harbors, eminent cities,
boundaries and bearings of countries, not only in Europe, but in any
other part of the earth, which he did not readily resolve and
demonstrate his knowledge of, readily drawing out with a pen anything he
would describe. He was able not only to repeat the most famous things
which are left us in any of the Greek or Roman histories, monarchies,
republics, wars, colonies, exploits by sea and land, but all the sacred
stories of the Old and New Testament; the succession of all the
monarchies, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, with all the lower
Emperors, Popes, Heresiarchs, and Councils, what they were called about,
what they determined, or in the controversy about Easter, the tenets of
the Gnostics, Sabellians, Arians, Nestorians; the difference between St.
Cyprian and Stephen about re-baptism, the schisms. We leaped from that
to other things totally different, to Olympic years, and synchronisms;
we asked him questions which could not be resolved without considerable
meditation and judgment, nay of some particulars of the Civil Laws, of
the Digest and Code. He gave a stupendous account of both natural and
moral philosophy, and even in metaphysics.

Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this wonderful child, or
angel rather, for he was as beautiful and lovely in countenance as in
knowledge, we concluded with asking him if, in all he had read or heard
of, he had ever met with anything which was like this expedition of the
Prince of Orange, with so small a force to obtain three great kingdoms
without any contest. After a little thought, he told us that he knew of
nothing which did more resemble it than the coming of Constantine the
Great out of Britain, through France and Italy, so tedious a march, to
meet Maxentius, whom he overthrew at Pons Milvius with very little
conflict, and at the very gates of Rome, which he entered and was
received with triumph, and obtained the empire, not of three kingdoms
only, but of all the then known world. He was perfect in the Latin
authors, spoke French naturally, and gave us a description of France,
Italy, Savoy, Spain, ancient and modernly divided; as also of ancient
Greece, Scythia, and northern countries and tracts: we left questioning
further. He did this without any set or formal repetitions, as one who
had learned things without book, but as if he minded other things, going
about the room, and toying with a parrot there, and as he was at dinner
(_tanquam aliua agens_, as it were) seeming to be full of play, of a
lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, and exceedingly pleasant,
without the least levity, rudeness, or childishness.

His father assured us he never imposed anything to charge his memory by
causing him to get things by heart, not even the rules of grammar; but
his tutor (who was a Frenchman) read to him, first in French, then in
Latin; that he usually played among other boys four or five hours every
day, and that he was as earnest at his play as at his study. He was
perfect in arithmetic, and now newly entered into Greek. In sum
(_horresco referens_), I had read of divers forward and precocious
youths, and some I have known, but I never did either hear or read of
anything like to this sweet child, if it be right to call him child who
has more knowledge than most men in the world. I counseled his father
not to set his heart too much on this jewel,

    "_Immodicis brevis est ætas, et rara senectus,_"

as I myself learned by sad experience in my most dear child Richard,
many years since, who, dying before he was six years old, was both in
shape and countenance and pregnancy of learning, next to a prodigy.

29th January, 1689. The votes of the House of Commons being carried up
by Mr. Hampden, their chairman, to the Lords, I got a station by the
Prince's lodgings at the door of the lobby to the House, and heard much
of the debate, which lasted very long. Lord Derby was in the chair (for
the House was resolved into a grand committee of the whole House); after
all had spoken, it came to the question, which was carried by three
voices against a Regency, which 51 were for, 54 against; the minority
alleging the danger of dethroning Kings, and scrupling many passages and
expressions in the vote of the Commons, too long to set down
particularly. Some were for sending to his Majesty with conditions:
others that the King could do no wrong, and that the maladministration
was chargeable on his ministers. There were not more than eight or nine
bishops, and but two against the Regency; the archbishop was absent, and
the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit and discourse,
on their old passive obedience, so as people began to talk of the
bishops being cast out of the House. In short, things tended to
dissatisfaction on both sides; add to this, the morose temper of the
Prince of Orange, who showed little countenance to the noblemen and
others, who expected a more gracious and cheerful reception when they
made their court. The English army also was not so in order, and firm to
his interest, nor so weakened but that it might give interruption.
Ireland was in an ill posture as well as Scotland. Nothing was yet done
toward a settlement. God of his infinite mercy compose these things,
that we may be at last a Nation and a Church under some fixed and sober
establishment!

30th January, 1689. The anniversary of King Charles I.'s MARTYRDOM; but
in all the public offices and pulpit prayers, the collects, and litany
for the King and Queen were curtailed and mutilated. Dr. Sharp preached
before the Commons, but was disliked, and not thanked for his sermon.

31st January, 1689. At our church (the next day being appointed a
thanksgiving for deliverance by the Prince of Orange, with prayers
purposely composed), our lecturer preached in the afternoon a very
honest sermon, showing our duty to God for the many signal deliverances
of our Church, without touching on politics.

6th February, 1689. The King's coronation day was ordered not to be
observed, as hitherto it had been.

The Convention of the Lords and Commons now declare the Prince and
Princess of Orange King and Queen of England, France, and Ireland
(Scotland being an independent kingdom), the Prince and Princess being
to enjoy it jointly during their lives; but the executive authority to
be vested in the Prince during life, though all proceedings to run in
both names, and that it should descend to their issue, and for want of
such, to the Princess Anne of Denmark and her issue, and in want of
such, to the heirs of the body of the Prince, if he survive, and that
failing, to devolve to the Parliament, as they should think fit. These
produced a conference with the Lords, when also there was presented
heads of such new laws as were to be enacted. It is thought on these
conditions they will be proclaimed.

There was much contest about the King's abdication, and whether he had
vacated the government. The Earl of Nottingham and about twenty Lords,
and many Bishops, entered their protests, but the concurrence was great
against them.

The Princess hourly expected. Forces sending to Ireland, that kingdom
being in great danger by the Earl of Tyrconnel's army, and expectations
from France coming to assist them, but that King was busy in invading
Flanders, and encountering the German Princes. It is likely that this
will be the most remarkable summer for action, which has happened in
many years.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st February, 1689. Dr. Burnet preached at St. James's on the
obligation to walk worthy of God's particular and signal deliverance of
the nation and church.

I saw the NEW QUEEN and KING proclaimed the very next day after her
coming to Whitehall, Wednesday, 13th February, with great acclamation
and general good reception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed
that both, especially the Princess, would have shown some (seeming)
reluctance at least, of assuming her father's crown, and made some
apology, testifying by her regret that he should by his mismanagement
necessitate the nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would
have shown very handsomely to the world, and according to the character
given of her piety; consonant also to her husband's first declaration,
that there was no intention of deposing the King, but of succoring the
nation; but nothing of all this appeared; she came into Whitehall
laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported.
She rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was reported,
before her women were up, went about from room to room to see the
convenience of Whitehall; lay in the same bed and apartment where the
late Queen lay, and within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as
the Queen, her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon and talked to
everybody, so that no change seemed to have taken place at Court since
her last going away, save that infinite crowds of people thronged to see
her, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by
many. She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to
heart: while the Prince, her husband, has a thoughtful countenance, is
wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons alike
gravely, and to be very intent on affairs: Holland, Ireland, and France
calling for his care.

Divers Bishops and Noblemen are not at all satisfied with this so sudden
assumption of the Crown, without any previous sending, and offering some
conditions to the absent King; or on his not returning, or not assenting
to those conditions, to have proclaimed him Regent; but the major part
of both Houses prevailed to make them King and Queen immediately, and a
crown was tempting. This was opposed and spoken against with such
vehemence by Lord Clarendon (her own uncle), that it put him by all
preferment, which must doubtless have been as great as could have been
given him. My Lord of Rochester, his brother, overshot himself, by the
same carriage and stiffness, which their friends thought they might have
well spared when they saw how it was like to be overruled, and that it
had been sufficient to have declared their dissent with less passion,
acquiescing in due time.

The Archbishop of Canterbury and some of the rest, on scruple of
conscience and to salve the oaths they had taken, entered their protests
and hung off, especially the Archbishop, who had not all this while so
much as appeared out of Lambeth. This occasioned the wonder of many who
observed with what zeal they contributed to the Prince's expedition, and
all the while also rejecting any proposals of sending again to the
absent King; that they should now raise scruples, and such as created
much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old courtiers, and
especially the Papists.

Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done by a convention
only, and the as yet unabrogated laws; this drew them to make themselves
on the 22d [February] a Parliament, the new King passing the act with
the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but necessity prevailed,
the government requiring a speedy settlement.

Innumerable were the crowds, who solicited for, and expected offices;
most of the old ones were turned out. Two or three white staves were
disposed of some days before, as Lord Steward, to the Earl of
Devonshire; Treasurer of the household, to Lord Newport; Lord
Chamberlain to the King, to my Lord of Dorset; but there were as yet
none in offices of the civil government save the Marquis of Halifax as
Privy Seal. A council of thirty was chosen, Lord Derby president, but
neither Chancellor nor Judges were yet declared, the new Great Seal not
yet finished.

8th March, 1689. Dr. Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury, made an excellent
discourse on Matt. v. 44, exhorting to charity and forgiveness of
enemies; I suppose purposely, the new Parliament being furious about
impeaching those who were obnoxious, and as their custom has ever been,
going on violently, without reserve, or modification, while wise men
were of opinion the most notorious offenders being named and excepted,
an Act of Amnesty would be more seasonable, to pacify the minds of men
in so general a discontent of the nation, especially of those who did
not expect to see the government assumed without any regard to the
absent King, or proving a spontaneous abdication, or that the birth of
the Prince of Wales was an imposture; five of the Bishops also still
refusing to take the new oath.

In the meantime, to gratify the people, the hearth-tax was remitted
forever; but what was intended to supply it, besides present great taxes
on land, is not named.

The King abroad was now furnished by the French King with money and
officers for an expedition to Ireland. The great neglect in not more
timely preventing that from hence, and the disturbances in Scotland,
give apprehensions of great difficulties, before any settlement can be
perfected here, while the Parliament dispose of the great offices among
themselves. The Great Seal, Treasury and Admiralty put into commission
of many unexpected persons, to gratify the more; so that by the present
appearance of things (unless God Almighty graciously interpose and give
success in Ireland and settle Scotland) more trouble seems to threaten
the nation than could be expected. In the interim, the new King refers
all to the Parliament in the most popular manner, but is very slow in
providing against all these menaces, besides finding difficulties in
raising men to send abroad; the former army, which had never seen any
service hitherto, receiving their pay and passing their summer in an
idle scene of a camp at Hounslow, unwilling to engage, and many
disaffected, and scarce to be trusted.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th March, 1689. The new King much blamed for neglecting Ireland, now
likely to be ruined by the Lord Tyrconnel and his Popish party, too
strong for the Protestants. Wonderful uncertainty where King James was,
whether in France or Ireland. The Scots seem as yet to favor King
William, rejecting King James's letter to them, yet declaring nothing
positively. Soldiers in England discontented. Parliament preparing the
coronation oath. Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the vote for
preserving the Protestant religion as established by law, without
mentioning what they were to have as to indulgence.

The Archbishop of Canterbury and four other Bishops refusing to come to
Parliament, it was deliberated whether they should incur _Præmunire_;
but it was thought fit to let this fall, and be connived at, for fear of
the people, to whom these Prelates were very dear, for the opposition
they had given to Popery.

Court offices distributed among Parliament men. No considerable fleet as
yet sent forth. Things far from settled as was expected, by reason of
the slothful, sickly temper of the new King, and the Parliament's
unmindfulness of Ireland, which is likely to prove a sad omission.

The Confederates beat the French out of the Palatinate, which they had
most barbarously ruined.

11th April, 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of
Westminster, with the great feast in Westminster Hall, at the coronation
of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former
coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet, now
made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men
had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall.
When the King and Queen had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and
other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted
in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them,
worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the
King and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter
throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "_Ne totus absumatur_": which was
but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as
apposite. The sculpture was very mean.

Much of the splendor of the proceeding was abated by the absence of
divers who should have contributed to it, there being but five Bishops,
four Judges (no more being yet sworn), and several noblemen and great
ladies wanting; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day the
House of Commons went and kissed their new Majesties' hands in the
Banqueting House.

12th April, 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph to visit my Lord
of Canterbury at Lambeth, who had excused himself from officiating at
the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London, assisted by
the Archbishop of York. We had much private and free discourse with his
Grace concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now
a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I
urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the
Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private
houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent
burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women,
bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent
danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of
the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of
ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of
permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings,
and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in
chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to
get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.

We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and prejudice it might
cause, should the new oath, now on the anvil, be imposed on any, save
such as were in new office, without any retrospect to such as either had
no office, or had been long in office, who it was likely would have some
scruples about taking a new oath, having already sworn fidelity to the
government as established by law. This we all knew to be the case of my
Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and some other persons who were not so
fully satisfied with the Convention making it an abdication of King
James, to whom they had sworn allegiance.

King James was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades,
whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King to remove the
Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit,
telling him that the King of France, his master, would never assist him
if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor
Prince is managed by the French.

Scotland declares for King William and Queen Mary, with the reasons of
their setting aside King James, not as abdicating, but forfeiting his
right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and
prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach
of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled
men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly
undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the
Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish
so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and
profit.

21st April, 1689. This was one of the most seasonable springs, free from
the usual sharp east winds that I have observed since the year 1660 (the
year of the Restoration), which was much such an one.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th April, 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ
of error in the judgment of Oates, as to the charge against him of
perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway,
etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph to
the Archbishop at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning
the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third
trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph considered the
killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the
Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the
Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good
history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till
now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident
that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful
people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them
in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi.,
that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr.
Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too
hastily on the King of Sweden's (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany.
They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French
minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present
state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone
travels.

There now came certain news that King James had not only landed in
Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of
that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so
often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they
might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more
troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people
being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen
and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.

A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience
to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of
allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the
clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and
spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the
Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct
the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!

Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among
ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing
unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and
ability appearing,--threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be
the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.

A fight by Admiral Herbert with the French, he imprudently setting on
them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came
off with great slaughter and little honor--so strangely negligent and
remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots
Commissioners offer the crown to the NEW KING AND QUEEN on
conditions.--Act of Poll-money came forth, sparing none.--Now appeared
the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from
paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office
according to law, with several other clauses.--A most splendid embassy
from Holland to congratulate the King and Queen on their accession to
the crown.

4th June, 1689. A solemn fast for success of the fleet, etc.

6th June, 1689. I dined with the Bishop of Asaph; Monsieur Capellus, the
learned son of the most learned Ludovicus, presented to him his father's
works, not published till now.

7th June, 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury, and stayed with
him till about seven o'clock. He read to me the Pope's excommunication
of the French King.

9th June, 1689. Visited Dr. Burnet, now Bishop of Sarum; got him to let
Mr. Kneller draw his picture.

16th June, 1689. King James's declaration was now dispersed, offering
pardon to all, if on his landing, or within twenty days after, they
should return to their obedience.

Our fleet not yet at sea, through some prodigious sloth, and men minding
only their present interest; the French riding masters at sea, taking
many great prizes to our wonderful reproach. No certain news from
Ireland; various reports of Scotland; discontents at home. The King of
Denmark at last joins with the Confederates, and the two Northern Powers
are reconciled. The East India Company likely to be dissolved by
Parliament for many arbitrary actions. Oates acquitted of perjury, to
all honest men's admiration.

20th June, 1689. News of A PLOT discovered, on which divers were sent to
the Tower and secured.

23d June, 1689. An extraordinary drought, to the threatening of great
wants as to the fruits of the earth.

8th July, 1689. I sat for my picture to Mr. Kneller, for Mr. Pepys,
late Secretary to the Admiralty, holding my "Sylva" in my right hand. It
was on his long and earnest request, and is placed in his library.
Kneller never painted in a more masterly manner.

11th July, 1689. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, it being his lady's
wedding day, when about three in the afternoon there was an unusual and
violent storm of thunder, rain, and wind; many boats on the Thames were
overwhelmed, and such was the impetuosity of the wind as to carry up the
waves in pillars and spouts most dreadful to behold, rooting up trees
and ruining some houses. The Countess of Sunderland afterward told me
that it extended as far as Althorpe at the very time, which is seventy
miles from London. It did no harm at Deptford, but at Greenwich it did
much mischief.

16th July, 1689. I went to Hampton Court about business, the Council
being there. A great apartment and spacious garden with fountains was
beginning in the park at the head of the canal.

19th July, 1689. The Marshal de Schomberg went now as General toward
Ireland, to the relief of Londonderry. Our fleet lay before Brest. The
Confederates passing the Rhine, besiege Bonn and Mayence, to obtain a
passage into France. A great victory gotten by the Muscovites, taking
and burning Perecop. A new rebel against the Turks threatens the
destruction of that tyranny. All Europe in arms against France, and
hardly to be found in history so universal a face of war.

The Convention (or Parliament as some called it) sitting, exempt the
Duke of Hanover from the succession to the crown, which they seem to
confine to the present new King, his wife, and Princess Anne of Denmark,
who is so monstrously swollen, that it is doubted whether her being
thought with child may prove a TYMPANY only, so that the unhappy family
of the Stuarts seems to be extinguishing; and then what government is
likely to be next set up is unknown, whether regal and by election, or
otherwise, the Republicans and Dissenters from the Church of England
evidently looking that way.

The Scots have now again voted down Episcopacy there. Great discontents
through this nation at the slow proceedings of the King, and the
incompetent instruments and officers he advances to the greatest and
most necessary charges.

23d August, 1689. Came to visit me Mr. Firmin.

25th August, 1689. Hitherto it has been a most seasonable summer.
Londonderry relieved after a brave and wonderful holding out.

21st September, 1689. I went to visit the Archbishop of Canterbury since
his suspension, and was received with great kindness. A dreadful fire
happened in Southwark.

2d October, 1689. Came to visit us the Marquis de Ruvignè, and one
Monsieur le Coque, a French refugee, who left great riches for his
religion; a very learned, civil person; he married the sister of the
Duchess de la Force. Ottobone, a Venetian Cardinal, eighty years old,
made Pope.[72]

    [Footnote 72: Peter Otthobonus succeeded Innocent XI. as Pope in
    1689, by the title of Alexander VIII.]

31st October, 1689. My birthday, being now sixty-nine years old. Blessed
Father, who hast prolonged my years to this great age, and given me to
see so great and wonderful revolutions, and preserved me amid them to
this moment, accept, I beseech thee, the continuance of my prayers and
thankful acknowledgments, and grant me grace to be working out my
salvation and redeeming the time, that thou mayst be glorified by me
here, and my immortal soul saved whenever thou shalt call for it, to
perpetuate thy praises to all eternity, in that heavenly kingdom where
there are no more changes or vicissitudes, but rest, and peace, and joy,
and consummate felicity, forever. Grant this, O heavenly Father, for the
sake of Jesus thine only Son and our Savior. Amen!

5th November, 1689. The Bishop of St. Asaph, Lord Almoner, preached
before the King and Queen, the whole discourse being an historical
narrative of the Church of England's several deliverances, especially
that of this anniversary, signalized by being also the birthday of the
Prince of Orange, his marriage (which was on the 4th), and his landing
at Torbay this day. There was a splendid ball and other rejoicings.

10th November, 1689. After a very wet season, the winter came on
severely.

17th November, 1689. Much wet, without frost, yet the wind north and
easterly. A Convocation of the Clergy meet about a reformation of our
Liturgy, Canons, etc., obstructed by others of the clergy.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

27th November, 1689. I went to London with my family, to winter at Soho,
in the great square.

11th January, 1689-90. This night there was a most extraordinary storm
of wind, accompanied with snow and sharp weather; it did great harm in
many places, blowing down houses, trees, etc., killing many people. It
began about two in the morning, and lasted till five, being a kind of
hurricane, which mariners observe have begun of late years to come
northward. This winter has been hitherto extremely wet, warm, and windy.

12th January, 1690. There was read at St. Ann's Church an exhortatory
letter to the clergy of London from the Bishop, together with a Brief
for relieving the distressed Protestants, and Vaudois, who fled from the
persecution of the French and Duke of Savoy, to the Protestant Cantons
of Switzerland.

The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2d of April to the
discontent and surprise of many members who, being exceedingly averse to
the settling of anything, proceeding with animosities, multiplying
exceptions against those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing
as universal a discontent against King William and themselves, as there
was before against King James. The new King resolved on an expedition
into Ireland in person. About 150 of the members who were of the more
royal party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern near St. Dunstan's,
sent some of their company to the King, to assure him of their service;
he returned his thanks, advising them to repair to their several
counties and preserve the peace during his absence, and assuring them
that he would be steady to his resolution of defending the Laws and
Religion established. The great Lord suspected to have counselled this
prorogation, universally denied it. However, it was believed the chief
adviser was the Marquis of Carmarthen, who now seemed to be most in
favor.

2d February, 1690. The Parliament was dissolved by proclamation, and
another called to meet the 20th of March. This was a second surprise to
the former members; and now the Court party, or, as they call
themselves, Church of England, are making their interests in the
country. The Marquis of Halifax lays down his office of Privy Seal, and
pretends to retire.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

16th February, 1690. The Duchess of Monmouth's chaplain preached at St.
Martin's an excellent discourse exhorting to peace and sanctity, it
being now the time of very great division and dissension in the nation;
first, among the Churchmen, of whom the moderate and sober part were for
a speedy reformation of divers things, which it was thought might be
made in our Liturgy, for the inviting of Dissenters; others more stiff
and rigid, were for no condescension at all. Books and pamphlets were
published every day pro and con; the Convocation were forced for the
present to suspend any further progress. There was fierce and great
carousing about being elected in the new Parliament. The King persists
in his intention of going in person for Ireland, whither the French are
sending supplies to King James, and we, the Danish horse to Schomberg.

19th February, 1690. I dined with the Marquis of Carmarthen (late Lord
Danby), where was Lieutenant-General Douglas, a very considerate and
sober commander, going for Ireland. He related to us the exceeding
neglect of the English soldiers, suffering severely for want of clothes
and necessaries this winter, exceedingly magnifying their courage and
bravery during all their hardships. There dined also Lord Lucas,
Lieutenant of the Tower, and the Bishop of St. Asaph. The Privy Seal was
again put in commission, Mr. Cheny (who married my kinswoman, Mrs.
Pierrepoint), Sir Thomas Knatchbull, and Sir P. W. Pultney. The
imprudence of both sexes was now become so great and universal, persons
of all ranks keeping their courtesans publicly, that the King had lately
directed a letter to the Bishops to order their clergy to preach against
that sin, swearing, etc., and to put the ecclesiastical laws in
execution without any indulgence.

25th February, 1690. I went to Kensington, which King William had bought
of Lord Nottingham, and altered, but was yet a patched building, but
with the garden, however, it is a very sweet villa, having to it the
park and a straight new way through this park.

7th March, 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to the
Admiralty, where was that excellent shipwright and seaman (for so he had
been, and also a Commission of the Navy), Sir Anthony Deane. Among other
discourse, and deploring the sad condition of our navy, as now governed
by inexperienced men since this Revolution, he mentioned what exceeding
advantage we of this nation had by being the first who built frigates,
the first of which ever built was that vessel which was afterward called
"The Constant Warwick," and was the work of Pett of Chatham, for a trial
of making a vessel that would sail swiftly; it was built with low decks,
the guns lying near the water, and was so light and swift of sailing,
that in a short time he told us she had, ere the Dutch war was ended,
taken as much money from privateers as would have laden her; and that
more such being built, did in a year or two scour the Channel from those
of Dunkirk and others which had exceedingly infested it. He added that
it would be the best and only infallible expedient to be masters of the
sea, and able to destroy the greatest navy of any enemy if, instead of
building huge great ships and second and third rates, they would leave
off building such high decks, which were for nothing but to gratify
gentlemen-commanders, who must have all their effeminate accommodations,
and for pomp; that it would be the ruin of our fleets, if such persons
were continued in command, they neither having experience nor being
capable of learning, because they would not submit to the fatigue and
inconvenience which those who were bred seamen would undergo, in those
so otherwise useful swift frigates. These being to encounter the
greatest ships would be able to protect, set on, and bring off, those
who should manage the fire ships, and the Prince who should first store
himself with numbers of such fire ships, would, through the help and
countenance of such frigates, be able to ruin the greatest force of such
vast ships as could be sent to sea, by the dexterity of working those
light, swift ships to guard the fire ships. He concluded there would
shortly be no other method of seafight; and that great ships and
men-of-war, however stored with guns and men, must submit to those who
should encounter them with far less number. He represented to us the
dreadful effect of these fire ships; that he continually observed in our
late maritime war with the Dutch that, when an enemy's fire ship
approached, the most valiant commander and common sailors were in such
consternation, that though then, of all times, there was most need of
the guns, bombs, etc., to keep the mischief off, they grew pale and
astonished, as if of a quite other mean soul, that they slunk about,
forsook their guns and work as if in despair, every one looking about to
see which way they might get out of their ship, though sure to be
drowned if they did so. This he said was likely to prove hereafter the
method of seafight, likely to be the misfortune of England if they
continued to put gentlemen-commanders over experienced seamen, on
account of their ignorance, effeminacy, and insolence.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

9th March, 1690. Preached at Whitehall Dr. Burnet, late Bishop of Sarum,
on Heb. iv. 13, anatomically describing the texture of the eye; and
that, as it received such innumerable sorts of spies through so very
small a passage to the brain, and that without the least confusion or
trouble, and accordingly judged and reflected on them; so God who made
this sensory, did with the greatest ease and at once see all that was
done through the vast universe, even to the very thought as well as
action. This similitude he continued with much perspicuity and aptness;
and applied it accordingly, for the admonishing us how uprightly we
ought to live and behave ourselves before such an all-seeing Deity; and
how we were to conceive of other his attributes, which we could have no
idea of than by comparing them by what we were able to conceive of the
nature and power of things, which were the objects of our senses; and
therefore it was that in Scripture we attribute those actions and
affections of God by the same of man, not as adequately or in any
proportion like them, but as the only expedient to make some resemblance
of his divine perfections; as when the Scripture says, "God will
remember the sins of the penitent no more:" not as if God could forget
anything, but as intimating he would pass by such penitents and receive
them to mercy.

I dined at the Bishop of St. Asaph's, Almoner to the new Queen, with
the famous lawyer Sir George Mackenzie (late Lord Advocate of Scotland),
against whom both the Bishop and myself had written and published books,
but now most friendly reconciled.[73] He related to us many particulars
of Scotland, the present sad condition of it, the inveterate hatred
which the Presbyterians show to the family of the Stuarts, and the
exceeding tyranny of those bigots who acknowledge no superior on earth,
in civil or divine matters, maintaining that the people only have the
right of government; their implacable hatred to the Episcopal Order and
Church of England. He observed that the first Presbyterian dissents from
our discipline were introduced by the Jesuits' order, about the 20 of
Queen Elizabeth, a famous Jesuit among them feigning himself a
Protestant, and who was the first who began to pray extempore, and
brought in that which they since called, and are still so fond of,
praying by the Spirit. This Jesuit remained many years before he was
discovered, afterward died in Scotland, where he was buried at ...
having yet on his monument, "_Rosa inter spinas_."

    [Footnote 73: Sir George, as we have seen, had written in praise of
    a Private Life, which Mr. Evelyn answered by a book in praise of
    Public Life and Active Employment.]

11th March, 1690. I went again to see Mr. Charlton's curiosities, both
of art and nature, and his full and rare collection of medals, which
taken altogether, in all kinds, is doubtless one of the most perfect
assemblages of rarities that can be any where seen. I much admired the
contortions of the Thea root, which was so perplexed, large, and
intricate, and withal hard as box, that it was wonderful to consider.
The French have landed in Ireland.

16th March, 1690. A public fast.

24th May, 1690. City charter restored. Divers exempted from pardon.

4th June, 1690. King William set forth on his Irish expedition, leaving
the Queen Regent.

10th June, 1690. Mr. Pepys read to me his Remonstrance, showing with
what malice and injustice he was suspected with Sir Anthony Deane about
the timber, of which the thirty ships were built by a late Act of
Parliament, with the exceeding danger which the fleet would shortly be
in, by reason of the tyranny and incompetency of those who now managed
the Admiralty and affairs of the Navy, of which he gave an accurate
state, and showed his great ability.

18th June, 1690. Fast day. Visited the Bishop of St. Asaph; his
conversation was on the Vaudois in Savoy, who had been thought so near
destruction and final extirpation by the French, being totally given up
to slaughter, so that there were no hopes for them; but now it pleased
God that the Duke of Savoy, who had hitherto joined with the French in
their persecution, being now pressed by them to deliver up Saluzzo and
Turin as cautionary towns, on suspicion that he might at last come into
the Confederacy of the German Princes, did secretly concert measures
with, and afterward declared for, them. He then invited these poor
people from their dispersion among the mountains whither they had fled,
and restored them to their country, their dwellings, and the exercise of
their religion, and begged pardon for the ill usage they had received,
charging it on the cruelty of the French who forced him to it. These
being the remainder of those persecuted Christians which the Bishop of
St. Asaph had so long affirmed to be the two witnesses spoken of in the
Revelation, who should be killed and brought to life again, it was
looked on as an extraordinary thing that this prophesying Bishop should
persuade two fugitive ministers of the Vaudois to return to their
country, and furnish them with £20 toward their journey, at that very
time when nothing but universal destruction was to be expected, assuring
them and showing them from the Apocalypse, that their countrymen should
be returned safely to their country before they arrived. This happening
contrary to all expectation and appearance, did exceedingly credit the
Bishop's confidence how that prophecy of the witnesses should come to
pass, just at the time, and the very month, he had spoken of some years
before.

I afterward went with him to Mr. Boyle and Lady Ranelagh his sister, to
whom he explained the necessity of it so fully, and so learnedly made
out, with what events were immediately to follow, viz, the French King's
ruin, the calling of the Jews to be near at hand, but that the Kingdom
of Antichrist would not yet be utterly destroyed till thirty years, when
Christ should begin the Millenium, not as personally and visibly
reigning on earth, but that the true religion and universal peace should
obtain through all the world. He showed how Mr. Brightman, Mr. Mede, and
other interpreters of these events failed, by mistaking and reckoning
the year as the Latins and others did, to consist of the present
calculation, so many days to the year, whereas the Apocalypse reckons
after the Persian account, as Daniel did, whose visions St. John all
along explains as meaning only the Christian Church.

24th June, 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys, who the next day was sent to the
Gatehouse,[74] and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of
being affected to King James; among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the
Queen's uncle. King William having vanquished King James in Ireland,
there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's army
would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance.
Schomberg was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended
Londonderry. King William received a slight wound by the grazing of a
cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little
interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton, who broke his word about
Tyrconnel, was taken. It is reported that King James is gone back to
France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William be
returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "_Veni, vidi, vici_." But to
alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not
daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

    [Footnote 74: Poor Pepys, as the reader knows, had already undergone
    an imprisonment, with perhaps just as much reason as the present, on
    the absurd accusation of having sent information to the French Court
    of the state of the English Navy.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

27th June, 1690. I went to visit some friends in the Tower, when asking
for Lord Clarendon, they by mistake directed me to the Earl of
Torrington, who about three days before had been sent for from the
fleet, and put into the Tower for cowardice and not fighting the French
fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hollanders, while
Torrington did nothing, did now ride masters of the sea, threatening a
descent.

20th July, 1690. This afternoon a camp of about 4,000 men was begun to
be formed on Blackheath.

30th July, 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys, now suffered to return to his
house, on account of indisposition.

1st August, 1690. The Duke of Grafton came to visit me, going to his
ship at the mouth of the river, in his way to Ireland (where he was
slain).

3d August, 1690. The French landed some soldiers at Teignmouth, in
Devon, and burned some poor houses. The French fleet still hovering
about the western coast, and we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships
in the bay of Plymouth, our fleet began to move toward them, under three
admirals. The country in the west all on their guard. A very
extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th was a very great storm of
thunder and lightning, and on the 15th the season much changed to wet
and cold. The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which were up
through England, were dismissed. The French King having news that King
William was slain, and his army defeated in Ireland, caused such a
triumph at Paris, and all over France, as was never heard of; when, in
the midst of it, the unhappy King James being vanquished, by a speedy
flight and escape, himself brought the news of his own defeat.

15th August, 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of
Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The
Bishop of St. Asaph expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys, etc.
The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful
youth, Sir Charles Tuke, died of the wounds he received in the fight of
the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the
last male of that family, to which my wife is related. A more virtuous
young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the
advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he
had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his
unfortunate King.

The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval
expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the siege of
Limerick to be raised, King William returned to England. Lord Sidney
left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts
[in four].

17th August, 1690. A public feast. An extraordinary sharp, cold, east
wind.

12th October, 1690. The French General, with Tyrconnel and their
forces, gone back to France, beaten out by King William. Cork delivered
on discretion. The Duke of Grafton was there mortally wounded and dies.
Very great storms of wind. The 8th of this month Lord Spencer wrote me
word from Althorpe, that there happened an earthquake the day before in
the morning, which, though short, sensibly shook the house. The
"Gazette" acquainted us that the like happened at the same time,
half-past seven, at Barnstaple, Holyhead, and Dublin. We were not
sensible of it here.

26th October, 1690. Kinsale at last surrendered, meantime King James's
party burn all the houses they have in their power, and among them that
stately palace of Lord Ossory's, which lately cost, as reported,
£40,000. By a disastrous accident, a third-rate ship, the Breda, blew up
and destroyed all on board; in it were twenty-five prisoners of war. She
was to have sailed for England the next day.

3d November, 1690. Went to the Countess of Clancarty, to condole with
her concerning her debauched and dissolute son, who had done so much
mischief in Ireland, now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower.

16th November, 1690. Exceeding great storms, yet a warm season.

23d November, 1690. Carried Mr. Pepys's memorials to Lord Godolphin, now
resuming the commission of the Treasury, to the wonder of all his
friends.

1st December, 1690. Having been chosen President of the Royal Society, I
desired to decline it, and with great difficulty devolved the election
on Sir Robert Southwell, Secretary of State to King William in Ireland.

20th December, 1690. Dr. Hough, President of Magdalen College, Oxford,
who was displaced with several of the Fellows for not taking the oath
imposed by King James, now made a Bishop. Most of this month cold and
frost. One Johnson, a Knight, was executed at Tyburn for being an
accomplice with Campbell, brother to Lord Argyle, in stealing a young
heiress.

4th January, 1690-91. This week a PLOT was discovered for a general
rising against the new Government, for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and
others were sent to the Tower. The next day, I went to see Lord
Clarendon. The Bishop of Ely searched for. Trial of Lord Preston, as not
being an English Peer, hastened at the Old Bailey.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th January, 1691. Lord Preston condemned about a design to bring in
King James by the French. Ashton executed. The Bishop of Ely, Mr.
Graham, etc., absconded.

13th March, 1691. I went to visit Monsieur Justell and the Library at
St. James's, in which that learned man had put the MSS. (which were in
good number) into excellent order, they having lain neglected for many
years. Divers medals had been stolen and embezzled.

21st March, 1691. Dined at Sir William Fermor's, who showed me many good
pictures. After dinner, a French servant played rarely on the lute. Sir
William had now bought all the remaining statues collected with so much
expense by the famous Thomas, Earl of Arundel, and sent them to his seat
at Easton, near Towcester.[75]

    [Footnote 75: They are now at Oxford, having been presented to the
    University in 1755 by Henrietta, Countess Dowager of Pomfret, widow
    of Thomas, the first Earl.]

25th March, 1691. Lord Sidney, principal Secretary of State, gave me a
letter to Lord Lucas, Lieutenant of the Tower, to permit me to visit
Lord Clarendon; which this day I did, and dined with him.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th April, 1691. This night, a sudden and terrible fire burned down all
the buildings over the stone gallery at Whitehall to the water side,
beginning at the apartment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (which had
been pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to please her),
and consuming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who debauched both
King Charles II. and others, and were his destruction.

The King returned out of Holland just as this accident
happened--Proclamation against the Papists, etc.

16th April, 1691. I went to see Dr. Sloane's curiosities, being an
universal collection of the natural productions of Jamaica, consisting
of plants, fruits, corals, minerals, stones, earth, shells, animals, and
insects, collected with great judgment; several folios of dried plants,
and one which had about 80 several sorts of ferns, and another of
grasses; the Jamaica pepper, in branch, leaves, flower, fruit, etc. This
collection,[76] with his Journal and other philosophical and natural
discourses and observations, indeed very copious and extraordinary,
sufficient to furnish a history of that island, to which I encouraged
him.

    [Footnote 76: It now forms part of the collection in the British
    Museum.]

19th April, 1691. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishops of Ely, Bath
and Wells, Peterborough, Gloucester, and the rest who would not take the
oaths to King William, were now displaced; and in their rooms, Dr.
Tillotson, Dean of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop: Patrick removed from
Chichester to Ely; Cumberland to Gloucester.

22d April, 1691. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the Tower.

24th April, 1691. I visited the Earl and Countess of Sunderland, now
come to kiss the King's hand after his return from Holland. This is a
mystery. The King preparing to return to the army.

7th May, 1691. I went to visit the Archbishop of Canterbury [Sancroft]
yet at Lambeth. I found him alone, and discoursing of the times,
especially of the newly designed Bishops; he told me that by no canon or
divine law they could justify the removing of the present incumbents;
that Dr. Beveridge, designed Bishop of Bath and Wells, came to ask his
advice; that the Archbishop told him, though he should give it, he
believed he would not take it; the Doctor said he would; why then, says
the Archbishop, when they come to ask, say "_Nolo_," and say it from the
heart; there is nothing easier than to resolve yourself what is to be
done in the case: the Doctor seemed to deliberate. What he will do I
know not, but Bishop Ken, who is to be put out, is exceedingly beloved
in his diocese; and, if he and the rest should insist on it, and plead
their interest as freeholders, it is believed there would be difficulty
in their case, and it may endanger a schism and much disturbance, so as
wise men think it had been better to have let them alone, than to have
proceeded with this rigor to turn them out for refusing to swear against
their consciences. I asked at parting, when his Grace removed; he said
that he had not yet received any summons, but I found the house
altogether disfurnished and his books packed up.

1st June, 1691. I went with my son, and brother-in-law, Glanville, and
his son, to Wotton, to solemnize the funeral of my nephew, which was
performed the next day very decently and orderly by the herald in the
afternoon, a very great appearance of the country being there. I was the
chief mourner; the pall was held by Sir Francis Vincent, Sir Richard
Onslow, Mr. Thomas Howard (son to Sir Robert, and Captain of the King's
Guard), Mr. Hyldiard, Mr. James, Mr. Herbert, nephew to Lord Herbert of
Cherbury, and cousin-german to my deceased nephew. He was laid in the
vault at Wotton Church, in the burying place of the family. A great
concourse of coaches and people accompanied the solemnity.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th June, 1691. I went to visit Lord Clarendon, still prisoner in the
Tower, though Lord Preston being pardoned was released.

17th June, 1691. A fast.

11th July, 1691. I dined with Mr. Pepys, where was Dr. Cumberland, the
new Bishop of Norwich,[77] Dr. Lloyd having been put out for not
acknowledging the Government. Cumberland is a very learned, excellent
man. Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson, at Lambeth, by the
Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone, but had left his nephew to keep
possession; and he refusing to deliver it up on the Queen's message, was
dispossessed by the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanor of the
few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King William, animated a
great party to forsake the churches, so as to threaten a schism; though
those who looked further into the ancient practice, found that when (as
formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular accounts, the people
never refused to acknowledge the new Bishops, provided they were not
heretics. The truth is, the whole clergy had till now stretched the duty
of passive obedience, so that the proceedings against these Bishops gave
no little occasion of exceptions; but this not amounting to heresy,
there was a necessity of receiving the new Bishops, to prevent a failure
of that order in the Church. I went to visit Lord Clarendon in the
Tower, but he was gone into the country for air by the Queen's
permission, under the care of his warden.

    [Footnote 77: A mistake. Dr. Cumberland was made Bishop of
    Peterborough and Dr. John Moore succeeded Dr. Lloyd in the see of
    Norwich.]

18th July, 1691. To London to hear Mr. Stringfellow preach his first
sermon in the newly erected Church of Trinity, in Conduit Street; to
which I did recommend him to Dr. Tenison for the constant preacher and
lecturer. This Church, formerly built of timber on Hounslow-Heath by
King James for the mass priests, being begged by Dr. Tenison, rector of
St. Martin's, was set up by that public-minded, charitable, and pious
man near my son's dwelling in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge of the
Doctor. I know him to be an excellent preacher and a fit person. This
Church, though erected in St. Martin's, which is the Doctor's parish, he
was not only content, but was the sole industrious mover, that it should
be made a separate parish, in regard of the neighborhood having become
so populous. Wherefore to countenance and introduce the new minister,
and take possession of a gallery designed for my son's family, I went to
London, where,

19th July, 1691. In the morning Dr. Tenison preached the first sermon,
taking his text from Psalm xxvi. 8. "Lord, I have loved the habitation
of thy house, and the place where thine honor dwelleth." In concluding,
he gave that this should be made a parish church so soon as the
Parliament sat, and was to be dedicated to the Holy Trinity, in honor of
the three undivided persons in the Deity; and he minded them to attend
to that faith of the church, now especially that Arianism, Socinianism,
and atheism began to spread among us. In the afternoon, Mr. Stringfellow
preached on Luke vii. 5. "The centurion who had built a synagogue." He
proceeded to the due praise of persons of such public spirit, and thence
to such a character of pious benefactors in the person of the generous
centurion, as was comprehensive of all the virtues of an accomplished
Christian, in a style so full, eloquent, and moving, that I never heard
a sermon more apposite to the occasion. He modestly insinuated the
obligation they had to that person who should be the author and promoter
of such public works for the benefit of mankind, especially to the
advantage of religion, such as building and endowing churches,
hospitals, libraries, schools, procuring the best editions of useful
books, by which he handsomely intimated who it was that had been so
exemplary for his benefaction to that place. Indeed, that excellent
person, Dr. Tenison, had also erected and furnished a public library [in
St. Martin's]; and set up two or three free schools at his own charges.
Besides this, he was of an exemplary, holy life, took great pains in
constantly preaching, and incessantly employing himself to promote the
service of God both in public and private. I never knew a man of a more
universal and generous spirit, with so much modesty, prudence, and
piety.

The great victory of King William's army in Ireland was looked on as
decisive of that war. The French General, St. Ruth, who had been so
cruel to the poor Protestants in France, was slain, with divers of the
best commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having 1,000 killed, but of the
enemy 4,000 or 5,000.

26th July, 1691. An extraordinary hot season, yet refreshed by some
thundershowers.

28th July, 1691. I went to Wotton.

2d August, 1691. No sermon in the church in the afternoon, and the
curacy ill-served.

16th August, 1691. A sermon by the curate; an honest discourse, but read
without any spirit, or seeming concern; a great fault in the education
of young preachers. Great thunder and lightning on Thursday, but the
rain and wind very violent. Our fleet come in to lay up the great ships;
nothing done at sea, pretending that we cannot meet the French.

13th September, 1691. A great storm at sea; we lost the "Coronation" and
"Harwich," above 600 men perishing.

14th October, 1691. A most pleasing autumn. Our navy come in without
having performed anything, yet there has been great loss of ships by
negligence, and unskillful men governing the fleet and Navy board.

7th November, 1691. I visited the Earl of Dover, who having made his
peace with the King, was now come home. The relation he gave of the
strength of the French King, and the difficulty of our forcing him to
fight, and any way making impression into France, was very wide from
what we fancied.

8th to 30th November, 1691. An extraordinary dry and warm season,
without frost, and like a new spring; such as had not been known for
many years. Part of the King's house at Kensington was burned.

6th December, 1691. Discourse of another PLOT, in which several great
persons were named, but believed to be a sham.--A proposal in the House
of Commons that every officer in the whole nation who received a salary
above £500 or otherwise by virtue of his office, should contribute it
wholly to the support of the war with France, and this upon their oath.

25th December, 1691. My daughter-in-law was brought to bed of a
daughter.

26th December, 1691. An exceedingly dry and calm winter; no rain for
many past months.

28th December, 1691. Dined at Lambeth with the new Archbishop. Saw the
effect of my greenhouse furnace, set up by the Archbishop's son-in-law.

30th December, 1691. I again saw Mr. Charlton's collection of spiders,
birds, scorpions, and other serpents, etc.

1st January, 1691-92. This last week died that pious, admirable
Christian, excellent philosopher, and my worthy friend, Mr. Boyle, aged
about 65,--a great loss to all that knew him, and to the public.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

6th January, 1692. At the funeral of Mr. Boyle, at St. Martin's, Dr.
Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, preached on Eccles. ii. 26. He concluded
with an eulogy due to the deceased, who made God and religion the scope
of all his excellent talents in the knowledge of nature, and who had
arrived to so high a degree in it, accompanied with such zeal and
extraordinary piety, which he showed in the whole course of his life,
particularly in his exemplary charity on all occasions,--that he gave
£1,000 yearly to the distressed refugees of France and Ireland; was at
the charge of translating the Scriptures into the Irish and Indian
tongues, and was now promoting a Turkish translation, as he had formerly
done of Grotius "on the Truth of the Christian Religion" into Arabic,
which he caused to be dispersed in the eastern countries; that he had
settled a fund for preachers who should preach expressly against
Atheists, Libertines, Socinians, and Jews; that he had in his will given
£8,000 to charitable uses; but that his private charities were
extraordinary. He dilated on his learning in Hebrew and Greek, his
reading of the fathers, and solid knowledge in theology, once
deliberating about taking Holy Orders, and that at the time of
restoration of King Charles II., when he might have made a great figure
in the nation as to secular honor and titles, his fear of not being able
to discharge so weighty a duty as the first, made him decline that, and
his humility the other. He spoke of his civility to strangers, the great
good which he did by his experience in medicine and chemistry, and to
what noble ends he applied himself to his darling studies; the works,
both pious and useful, which he published; the exact life he led, and
the happy end he made. Something was touched of his sister, the Lady
Ranelagh, who died but a few days before him. And truly all this was but
his due, without any grain of flattery.

This week a most execrable murder was committed on Dr. Clench, father of
that extraordinary learned child whom I have before noticed. Under
pretense of carrying him in a coach to see a patient, they strangled him
in it; and, sending away the coachman under some pretense, they left his
dead body in the coach, and escaped in the dusk of the evening.

12th January, 1692. My granddaughter was christened by Dr. Tenison, now
Bishop of Lincoln, in Trinity Church, being the first that was
christened there. She was named Jane.

24th January, 1692. A frosty and dry season continued; many persons die
of apoplexy, more than usual. Lord Marlborough, Lieutenant-General of
the King's army in England, gentleman of the bedchamber, etc., dismissed
from all his charges, military and other, for his excessive taking of
bribes, covetousness, and extortion on all occasions from his inferior
officers. Note, this was the Lord who was entirely advanced by King
James, and was the first who betrayed and forsook his master. He was son
of Sir Winston Churchill of the Greencloth.

7th February, 1692. An extraordinary snow fell in most parts.

13th February, 1692. Mr. Boyle having made me one of the trustees for
his charitable bequests, I went to a meeting of the Bishop of Lincoln,
Sir Rob.... wood, and serjeant, Rotheram, to settle that clause in the
will which related to charitable uses, and especially the appointing and
electing a minister to preach one sermon the first Sunday in the month,
during the four summer months, expressly against Atheists, Deists,
Libertines, Jews, etc., without descending to any other controversy
whatever, for which £50 per annum is to be paid quarterly to the
preacher; and, at the end of three years, to proceed to a new election
of some other able divine, or to continue the same, as the trustees
should judge convenient. We made choice of one Mr. Bentley, chaplain to
the Bishop of Worcester (Dr. Stillingfleet). The first sermon was
appointed for the first Sunday in March, at St. Martin's; the second
Sunday in April, at Bow Church, and so alternately.

28th February, 1692. Lord Marlborough having used words against the
King, and been discharged from all his great places, his wife was
forbidden the Court, and the Princess of Denmark was desired by the
Queen to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes
away from Court to Sion house. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel,
Sir William Fermor, etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The
Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of
the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The
Duke of Norfolk does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.[78]

    [Footnote 78: See _post_ pp. 351-52.]

20th March, 1692. My son was made one of the Commissioners of the
Revenue and Treasury of Ireland, to which employment he had a mind, far
from my wishes. I visited the Earl of Peterborough, who showed me the
picture of the Prince of Wales, newly brought out of France, seeming in
my opinion very much to resemble the Queen his mother, and of a most
vivacious countenance.

April, 1692. No spring yet appearing. The Queen Dowager went out of
England toward Portugal, as pretended, against the advice of all her
friends.

4th April, 1692. Mr. Bentley preached Mr. Boyle's lecture at St.
Mary-le-Bow. So excellent a discourse against the Epicurean system is
not to be recapitulated in a few words. He came to me to ask whether I
thought it should be printed, or that there was anything in it which I
desired to be altered. I took this as a civility, and earnestly desired
it should be printed, as one of the most learned and convincing
discourses I had ever heard.

6th April, 1692. A fast. King James sends a letter written and directed
by his own hand to several of the Privy Council, and one to his
daughter, the Queen Regent, informing them of the Queen being ready to
be brought to bed, and summoning them to be at the birth by the middle
of May, promising as from the French King, permission to come and return
in safety.

24th April, 1692. Much apprehension of a French invasion, and of an
universal rising. Our fleet begins to join with the Dutch. Unkindness
between the Queen and her sister. Very cold and unseasonable weather,
scarce a leaf on the trees.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th May, 1692. Reports of an invasion were very hot, and alarmed the
city, Court, and people; nothing but securing suspected persons, sending
forces to the seaside, and hastening out the fleet. Continued discourse
of the French invasion, and of ours in France. The eastern wind so
constantly blowing, gave our fleet time to unite, which had been so
tardy in preparation, that, had not God thus wonderfully favored, the
enemy would in all probability have fallen upon us. Many daily secured,
and proclamations out for more conspirators.

8th May, 1692. My kinsman, Sir Edward Evelyn, of Long Ditton, died
suddenly.

12th May, 1692. A fast.

13th May, 1692. I dined at my cousin Cheny's, son to my Lord Cheny, who
married my cousin Pierpoint.

15th May, 1692. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now married to Sir Cyril Wyche,
Secretary of State for Ireland. After all our apprehensions of being
invaded, and doubts of our success by sea, it pleased God to give us a
great naval victory, to the utter ruin of the French fleet, their
admiral and all their best men-of-war, transport-ships, etc.

29th May, 1692. Though this day was set apart expressly for celebrating
the memorable birth, return, and restoration of the late King Charles
II., there was no notice taken of it, nor any part of the office annexed
to the Common Prayer Book made use of, which I think was ill done, in
regard his restoration not only redeemed us from anarchy and confusion,
but restored the Church of England as it were miraculously.

9th June, 1692. I went to Windsor to carry my grandson to Eton School,
where I met my Lady Stonehouse and other of my daughter-in-law's
relations, who came on purpose to see her before her journey into
Ireland. We went to see the castle, which we found furnished and very
neatly kept, as formerly, only that the arms in the guard chamber and
keep were removed and carried away. An exceeding great storm of wind and
rain, in some places stripping the trees of their fruit and leaves as if
it had been winter; and an extraordinary wet season, with great floods.

23d July, 1692. I went with my wife, son, and daughter, to Eton, to see
my grandson, and thence to my Lord Godolphin's, at Cranburn, where we
lay, and were most honorably entertained. The next day to St. George's
Chapel, and returned to London late in the evening.

25th July, 1692. To Mr. Hewer's at Clapham, where he has an excellent,
useful, and capacious house on the Common, built by Sir Den. Gauden, and
by him sold to Mr. Hewer, who got a very considerable estate in the
Navy, in which, from being Mr. Pepys's clerk, he came to be one of the
principal officers, but was put out of all employment on the Revolution,
as were all the best officers, on suspicion of being no friends to the
change; such were put in their places, as were most shamefully ignorant
and unfit. Mr. Hewer lives very handsomely and friendly to everybody.
Our fleet was now sailing on their long pretense of a descent on the
French coast; but, after having sailed one hundred leagues, returned,
the admiral and officers disagreeing as to the place where they were to
land, and the time of year being so far spent,--to the great dishonor of
those at the helm, who concerted their matters so indiscreetly, or, as
some thought, designedly.

This whole summer was exceedingly wet and rainy, the like had not been
known since the year 1648; while in Ireland they had not known so great
a drought.

26th July, 1692. I went to visit the Bishop of Lincoln, when, among
other things, he told me that one Dr. Chaplin, of University College in
Oxford, was the person who wrote the "Whole Duty of Man"; that he used
to read it to his pupil, and communicated it to Dr. Sterne, afterward
Archbishop of York, but would never suffer any of his pupils to have a
copy of it.

9th August, 1692. A fast. Came the sad news of the hurricane and
earthquake, which has destroyed almost the whole Island of Jamaica, many
thousands having perished.

11th August, 1692. My son, his wife, and little daughter, went for
Ireland, there to reside as one of the Commissioners of the Revenue.

14th August, 1692. Still an exceedingly wet season.

15th September, 1692. There happened an earthquake, which, though not so
great as to do any harm in England, was universal in all these parts of
Europe. It shook the house at Wotton, but was not perceived by any save
a servant or two, who were making my bed, and another in a garret. I and
the rest being at dinner below in the parlor, were not sensible of it.
The dreadful one in Jamaica this summer was profanely and ludicrously
represented in a puppet play, or some such lewd pastime, in the fair of
Southwark, which caused the Queen to put down that idle and vicious mock
show.

1st October, 1692. This season was so exceedingly cold, by reason of a
long and tempestuous northeast wind, that this usually pleasant month
was very uncomfortable. No fruit ripened kindly. Harbord dies at
Belgrade; Lord Paget sent Ambassador in his room.

6th November, 1692. There was a vestry called about repairing or new
building of the church [at Deptford], which I thought unseasonable in
regard of heavy taxes, and other improper circumstances, which I there
declared.

10th November, 1692. A solemn Thanksgiving for our victory at sea, safe
return of the King, etc.

20th November, 1692. Dr. Lancaster, the new Vicar of St. Martin's,
preached.

A signal robbery in Hertfordshire of the tax money bringing out of the
north toward London. They were set upon by several desperate persons,
who dismounted and stopped all travelers on the road, and guarding them
in a field, when the exploit was done, and the treasure taken, they
killed all the horses of those whom they stayed, to hinder pursuit,
being sixteen horses. They then dismissed those that they had
dismounted.

14th December, 1692. With much reluctance we gratified Sir J.
Rotherham, one of Mr. Boyle's trustees, by admitting the Bishop of Bath
and Wells to be lecturer for the next year, instead of Mr. Bentley, who
had so worthily acquitted himself. We intended to take him in again the
next year.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

January, 1692-93. Contest in Parliament about a self-denying Act, that
no Parliament man should have any office; it wanted only two or three
voices to have been carried. The Duke of Norfolk's bill for a divorce
thrown out, he having managed it very indiscreetly. The quarrel between
Admiral Russell and Lord Nottingham yet undetermined.

4th February, 1693. After five days' trial and extraordinary contest,
the Lord Mohun was acquitted by the Lords of the murder of Montford, the
player, notwithstanding the judges, from the pregnant witnesses of the
fact, had declared him guilty; but whether in commiseration of his
youth, being not eighteen years old, though exceedingly dissolute, or
upon whatever other reason, the King himself present some part of the
trial, and satisfied, as they report, that he was culpable. 69 acquitted
him, only 14 condemned him.

Unheard of stories of the universal increase of witches in New England;
men, women, and children, devoting themselves to the devil, so as to
threaten the subversion of the government.[79] At the same time there
was a conspiracy among the negroes in Barbadoes to murder all their
masters, discovered by overhearing a discourse of two of the slaves, and
so preventing the execution of the design. Hitherto an exceedingly mild
winter. France in the utmost misery and poverty for want of corn and
subsistence, while the ambitious King is intent to pursue his conquests
on the rest of his neighbors both by sea and land. Our Admiral, Russell,
laid aside for not pursuing the advantage he had obtained over the
French in the past summer; three others chosen in his place. Dr. Burnet,
Bishop of Salisbury's book burned by the hangman for an expression of
the King's title by conquest, on a complaint of Joseph How, a member of
Parliament, little better than a madman.

    [Footnote 79: Some account of these poor people is given in Bray and
    Manning's "History of Surrey," ii. 714, from the papers of the Rev.
    Mr. Miller, Vicar of Effingham, in that county, who was chaplain to
    the King's forces in the colony from 1692 to 1695. Some of the
    accused were convicted and executed; but Sir William Phipps, the
    Governor, had the good sense to reprieve, and afterward pardon,
    several; and the Queen approved his conduct.]

19th February, 1693. The Bishop of Lincoln preached in the afternoon at
the Tabernacle near Golden Square, set up by him. Proposals of a
marriage between Mr. Draper and my daughter Susanna. Hitherto an
exceedingly warm winter, such as has seldom been known, and portending
an unprosperous spring as to the fruits of the earth; our climate
requires more cold and winterly weather. The dreadful and astonishing
earthquake swallowing up Catania, and other famous and ancient cities,
with more than 100,000 persons in Sicily, on 11th January last, came now
to be reported among us.

26th February, 1693. An extraordinary deep snow, after almost no winter,
and a sudden gentle thaw. A deplorable earthquake at Malta, since that
of Sicily, nearly as great.

19th March, 1693. A new Secretary of State, Sir John Trenchard; the
Attorney-General, Somers, made Lord-Keeper, a young lawyer of
extraordinary merit. King William goes toward Flanders; but returns, the
wind being contrary.

31st March, 1693. I met the King going to Gravesend to embark in his
yacht for Holland.

23d April, 1693. An extraordinary wet spring.

27th April, 1693. My daughter Susanna was married to William Draper,
Esq., in the chapel of Ely House, by Dr. Tenison, Bishop of Lincoln
(since Archbishop). I gave her in portion £4,000, her jointure is £500
per annum. I pray Almighty God to give his blessing to this marriage!
She is a good child, religious, discreet, ingenious, and qualified with
all the ornaments of her sex. She has a peculiar talent in design, as
painting in oil and miniature, and an extraordinary genius for whatever
hands can do with a needle. She has the French tongue, has read most of
the Greek and Roman authors and poets, using her talents with great
modesty; exquisitely shaped, and of an agreeable countenance. This
character is due to her, though coming from her father. Much of this
week spent in ceremonies, receiving visits and entertaining relations,
and a great part of the next in returning visits.

11th May, 1693. We accompanied my daughter to her husband's house,
where with many of his and our relations we were magnificently treated.
There we left her in an apartment very richly adorned and furnished, and
I hope in as happy a condition as could be wished, and with the great
satisfaction of all our friends; for which God be praised!

14th May, 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering of a design
to bring forces under color of an expected descent, to be a standing
army for other purposes. Talk of a declaration of the French King,
offering mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of King
William; and another of King James, with an universal pardon, and
referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. These were
yet but discourses; but something is certainly under it. A declaration
or manifesto from King James, so written, that many thought it
reasonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his former.

June, 1693. WHITSUNDAY. I went to my Lord Griffith's chapel; the common
church office was used for the King without naming the person, with some
other, apposite to the necessity and circumstances of the time.

11th June, 1693. I dined at Sir William Godolphin's; and, after evening
prayer, visited the Duchess of Grafton.

21st June, 1693. I saw a great auction of pictures in the Banqueting
house, Whitehall. They had been my Lord Melford's, now Ambassador from
King James at Rome, and engaged to his creditors here. Lord Mulgrave and
Sir Edward Seymour came to my house, and desired me to go with them to
the sale. Divers more of the great lords, etc., were there, and bought
pictures dear enough. There were some very excellent of Vandyke, Rubens,
and Bassan. Lord Godolphin bought the picture of the Boys, by Murillo
the Spaniard, for 80 guineas, dear enough; my nephew Glanville, the old
Earl of Arundel's head by Rubens, for £20. Growing late, I did not stay
till all were sold.

24th June, 1693. A very wet hay harvest, and little summer as yet.

9th July, 1693. Mr. Tippin, successor of Dr. Parr at Camberwell,
preached an excellent sermon.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

13th July, 1693. I saw the Queen's rare cabinets and collection of
china; which was wonderfully rich and plentiful, but especially a large
cabinet, looking-glass frame and stands, all of amber, much of it white,
with historical bas-reliefs and statues, with medals carved in them,
esteemed worth £4,000, sent by the Duke of Brandenburgh, whose country,
Prussia, abounds with amber, cast up by the sea; divers other China and
Indian cabinets, screens, and hangings. In her library were many books
in English, French, and Dutch, of all sorts; a cupboard of gold plate; a
cabinet of silver filagree, which I think was our Queen Mary's, and
which, in my opinion, should have been generously sent to her.

18th July, 1693. I dined with Lord Mulgrave, with the Earl of
Devonshire, Mr. Hampden (a scholar and fine gentleman), Dr. Davenant,
Sir Henry Vane, and others, and saw and admired the Venus of Correggio,
which Lord Mulgrave had newly bought of Mr. Daun for £250; one of the
best paintings I ever saw.

1st August, 1693. Lord Capel, Sir Cyril Wyche, and Mr. Duncomb, made
Lord Justices in Ireland; Lord Sydney recalled, and made Master of the
Ordnance.

6th August, 1693. Very lovely harvest weather, and a wholesome season,
but no garden fruit.

31st October, 1693. A very wet and uncomfortable season.

12th November, 1693. Lord Nottingham resigned as Secretary of State; the
Commissioners of the Admiralty ousted, and Russell restored to his
office. The season continued very wet, as it had nearly all the summer,
if one might call it summer, in which there was no fruit, but corn was
very plentiful.

14th November, 1693. In the lottery set up after the Venetian manner by
Mr. Neale, Sir R. Haddock, one of the Commissioners of the Navy, had the
greatest lot, £3,000; my coachman £40.

17th November, 1693. Was the funeral of Captain Young, who died of the
stone and great age. I think he was the first who in the first war with
Cromwell against Spain, took the Governor of Havanna, and another rich
prize, and struck the first stroke against the Dutch fleet in the first
war with Holland in the time of the Rebellion; a sober man and an
excellent seaman.

30th November, 1693. Much importuned to take the office of President of
the Royal Society, but I again declined it. Sir Robert Southwell was
continued. We all dined at Pontac's as usual.

3d December, 1693. Mr. Bentley preached at the Tabernacle, near Golden
Square. I gave my voice for him to proceed on his former subject the
following year in Mr. Boyle's lecture, in which he had been interrupted
by the importunity of Sir J. Rotheram that the Bishop of Chichester[80]
might be chosen the year before, to the great dissatisfaction of the
Bishop of Lincoln and myself. We chose Mr. Bentley again. The Duchess of
Grafton's appeal to the House of Lords for the Prothonotary's place
given to the late Duke and to her son by King Charles II., now
challenged by the Lord Chief Justice. The judges were severely reproved
on something they said.

    [Footnote 80: A mistake for Bath and Wells. Bishop Kidder is
    referred to.]

10th December, 1693. A very great storm of thunder and lightning.

1st January, 1693-94. Prince Lewis of Baden came to London, and was much
feasted. Danish ships arrested carrying corn and naval stores to France.

11th January, 1694. Supped at Mr. Edward Sheldon's, where was Mr.
Dryden, the poet, who now intended to write no more plays, being intent
on his translation of Virgil. He read to us his prologue and epilogue to
his valedictory play now shortly to be acted.

21st January, 1694. Lord Macclesfield, Lord Warrington, and Lord
Westmorland, all died within about one week. Several persons shot,
hanged, and made away with themselves.

11th February, 1694. Now was the great trial of the appeal of Lord Bath
and Lord Montagu before the Lords, for the estate of the late Duke of
Albemarle.

10th March, 1694. Mr. Stringfellow preached at Trinity parish, being
restored to that place, after the contest between the Queen and the
Bishop of London who had displaced him.

22d March, 1694. Came the dismal news of the disaster befallen our
Turkey fleet by tempest, to the almost utter ruin of that trade, the
convoy of three or four men-of-war, and divers merchant ships, with all
their men and lading, having perished.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

25th March, 1694. Mr. Goode, minister of St. Martin's, preached; he was
likewise put in by the Queen, on the issue of her process with the
Bishop of London.

30th March, 1694. I went to the Duke of Norfolk, to desire him to make
cousin Evelyn of Nutfield one of the Deputy-Lieutenants of Surrey, and
entreat him to dismiss my brother, now unable to serve by reason of age
and infirmity. The Duke granted the one, but would not suffer my brother
to resign his commission, desiring he should keep the honor of it during
his life, though he could not act. He professed great kindness to our
family.

1st April, 1694. Dr. Sharp, Archbishop of York, preached in the
afternoon at the Tabernacle, by Soho.

13th April, 1694. Mr. Bentley, our Boyle Lecturer, Chaplain to the
Bishop of Worcester, came to see me.

15th April, 1694. One Mr. Stanhope preached a most excellent sermon.

22d April, 1694. A fiery exhalation rising out of the sea, spread itself
in Montgomeryshire a furlong broad, and many miles in length, burning
all straw, hay, thatch, and grass, but doing no harm to trees, timber,
or any solid things, only firing barns, or thatched houses. It left such
a taint on the grass as to kill all the cattle that eat of it. I saw the
attestations in the hands of the sufferers. It lasted many months. "The
Berkeley Castle" sunk by the French coming from the East Indies, worth
£200,000. The French took our castle of Gamboo in Guinea, so that the
Africa Actions fell to £30, and the India to £80. Some regiments of
Highland Dragoons were on their march through England; they were of
large stature, well appointed and disciplined. One of them having
reproached a Dutchman for cowardice in our late fight, was attacked by
two Dutchmen, when with his sword he struck off the head of one, and
cleft the skull of the other down to his chin.

A very young gentleman named Wilson, the younger son of one who had not
above £200 a year estate, lived in the garb and equipage of the richest
nobleman, for house, furniture, coaches, saddle horses, and kept a
table, and all things accordingly, redeemed his father's estate, and
gave portions to his sisters, being challenged by one Laws, a Scotchman,
was killed in a duel, not fairly. The quarrel arose from his taking away
his own sister from lodging in a house where this Laws had a mistress,
which the mistress of the house thinking a disparagement to it, and
losing by it, instigated Laws to this duel. He was taken and condemned
for murder. The mystery is how this so young a gentleman, very sober and
of good fame, could live in such an expensive manner; it could not be
discovered by all possible industry, or entreaty of his friends to make
him reveal it. It did not appear that he was kept by women, play,
coining, padding, or dealing in chemistry; but he would sometimes say
that if he should live ever so long, he had wherewith to maintain
himself in the same manner. He was very civil and well-natured, but of
no great force of understanding. This was a subject of much discourse.

24th April, 1694. I went to visit Mr. Waller, an extraordinary young
gentleman of great accomplishments, skilled in mathematics, anatomy,
music, painting both in oil and miniature to great perfection, an
excellent botanist, a rare engraver on brass, writer in Latin, and a
poet; and with all this exceedingly modest. His house is an academy of
itself. I carried him to see Brompton Park [by Knightsbridge], where he
was in admiration at the store of rare plants, and the method he found
in that noble nursery, and how well it was cultivated. A public Bank of
£140,000, set up by Act of Parliament among other Acts, and Lotteries
for money to carry on the war. The whole month of April without rain. A
great rising of people in Buckinghamshire, on the declaration of a
famous preacher, till now reputed a sober and religious man, that our
Lord Christ appearing to him on the 16th of this month, told him he was
now come down, and would appear publicly at Pentecost, and gather all
the saints, Jews and Gentiles, and lead them to Jerusalem, and begin the
Millennium, and destroying and judging the wicked, deliver the
government of the world to the saints. Great multitudes followed this
preacher, divers of the most zealous brought their goods and
considerable sums of money, and began to live in imitation of the
primitive saints, minding no private concerns, continually dancing and
singing Hallelujah night and day. This brings to mind what I lately
happened to find in Alstedius, that the thousand years should begin this
very year 1694; it is in his "Encyclopædia Biblica." My copy of the book
printed near sixty years ago.

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

4th May, 1694. I went this day with my wife and four servants from Sayes
Court, removing much furniture of all sorts, books, pictures, hangings,
bedding, etc., to furnish the apartment my brother assigned me, and now,
after more than forty years, to spend the rest of my days with him at
Wotton, where I was born; leaving my house at Deptford full furnished,
and three servants, to my son-in-law Draper, to pass the summer in, and
such longer time as he should think fit to make use of it.

6th May, 1694. This being the first Sunday in the month, the blessed
sacrament of the Lord's Supper ought to have been celebrated at Wotton
church, but in this parish it is exceedingly neglected, so that, unless
at the four great feasts, there is no communion hereabouts; which is a
great fault both in ministers and people. I have spoken to my brother,
who is the patron, to discourse the minister about it. Scarcely one
shower has fallen since the beginning of April.

30th May, 1694. This week we had news of my Lord Tiviot having cut his
own throat, through what discontent not yet said. He had been, not many
years past, my colleague in the commission of the Privy Seal, in old
acquaintance, very soberly and religiously inclined. Lord, what are we
without thy continual grace!

Lord Falkland, grandson to the learned Lord Falkland, Secretary of State
to King Charles I., and slain in his service, died now of the smallpox.
He was a pretty, brisk, understanding, industrious young gentleman; had
formerly been faulty, but now much reclaimed; had also the good luck to
marry a very great fortune, besides being entitled to a vast sum, his
share of the Spanish wreck, taken up at the expense of divers
adventurers. From a Scotch Viscount he was made an English Baron,
designed Ambassador for Holland; had been Treasurer of the Navy, and
advancing extremely in the new Court. All now gone in a moment, and I
think the title is extinct. I know not whether the estate devolves to my
cousin Carew. It was at my Lord Falkland's, whose lady importuned us to
let our daughter be with her some time, so that that dear child took the
same infection, which cost her valuable life.

3d June, 1694. Mr. Edwards, minister of Denton, in Sussex, a living in
my brother's gift, came to see him. He had suffered much by a fire.
Seasonable showers.

14th June, 1694. The public fast. Mr. Wotton, that extraordinary learned
young man, preached excellently.

1st July, 1694. Mr. Duncomb, minister of Albury, preached at Wotton, a
very religious and exact discourse.

The first great bank for a fund of money being now established by Act of
Parliament, was filled and completed to the sum of £120,000, and put
under the government of the most able and wealthy citizens of London.
All who adventured any sum had four per cent., so long as it lay in the
bank, and had power either to take it out at pleasure, or transfer it.
Glorious steady weather; corn and all fruits in extraordinary plenty
generally.

13th July, 1694. Lord Berkeley burnt Dieppe and Havre de Grace with
bombs, in revenge for the defeat at Brest. This manner of destructive
war was begun by the French, is exceedingly ruinous, especially falling
on the poorer people, and does not seem to tend to make a more speedy
end of the war; but rather to exasperate and incite to revenge. Many
executed at London for clipping money, now done to that intolerable
extent, that there was hardly any money that was worth above half the
nominal value.

4th August, 1694. I went to visit my cousin, George Evelyn of Nutfield,
where I found a family of ten children, five sons and five
daughters--all beautiful women grown, and extremely well-fashioned. All
painted in one piece, very well, by Mr. Lutterell, in crayon on copper,
and seeming to be as finely painted as the best miniature. They are the
children of two extraordinary beautiful wives. The boys were at school.

5th August, 1694. Stormy and unseasonable wet weather this week.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th October, 1694. I went to St. Paul's to see the choir, now finished
as to the stone work, and the scaffold struck both without and within,
in that part. Some exceptions might perhaps be taken as to the placing
columns on pilasters at the east tribunal. As to the rest it is a piece
of architecture without reproach. The pulling out the forms, like
drawers, from under the stalls, is ingenious. I went also to see the
building beginning near St. Giles's, where seven streets make a star
from a Doric pillar placed in the middle of a circular area; said to be
built by Mr. Neale, introducer of the late lotteries, in imitation of
those at Venice, now set up here, for himself twice, and now one for the
State.

28th October, 1694. Mr. Stringfellow preached at Trinity church.

22d November, 1694. Visited the Bishop of Lincoln [Tenison] newly come
on the death of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who a few days before had
a paralytic stroke,--the same day and month that Archbishop Sancroft was
put out. A very sickly time, especially the smallpox, of which divers
considerable persons died. The State lottery[81] drawing, Mr. Cock, a
French refugee, and a President in the Parliament of Paris for the
Reformed, drew a lot of £1,000 per annum.

    [Footnote 81: State lotteries finally closed October 18, 1826.]

29th November, 1694. I visited the Marquis of Normanby, and had much
discourse concerning King Charles II. being poisoned. Also concerning
the _quinquina_ which the physicians would not give to the King, at a
time when, in a dangerous ague, it was the only thing that could cure
him (out of envy because it had been brought into vogue by Mr. Tudor, an
apothecary), till Dr. Short, to whom the King sent to know his opinion
of it privately, he being reputed a Papist (but who was in truth a very
honest, good Christian), sent word to the King that it was the only
thing which could save his life, and then the King enjoined his
physicians to give it to him, which they did and he recovered. Being
asked by this Lord why they would not prescribe it, Dr. Lower said it
would spoil their practice, or some such expression, and at last
confessed it was a remedy fit only for kings. Exception was taken that
the late Archbishop did not cause any of his Chaplains to use any office
for the sick during his illness.

9th December, 1694. I had news that my dear and worthy friend, Dr.
Tenison, Bishop of Lincoln, was made Archbishop of Canterbury, for which
I thank God and rejoice, he being most worthy of it, for his learning,
piety, and prudence.

13th December, 1694. I went to London to congratulate him. He being my
proxy, gave my vote for Dr. Williams, to succeed Mr. Bentley in Mr.
Boyle's lectures.

29th December, 1694. The smallpox increased exceedingly, and was very
mortal. The Queen died of it on the 28th.

13th January, 1694-95. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by
smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The
King and Princess Anne reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court
at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House; she was
desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen; to
maintain them the King has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.

20th January, 1695. The frost and continual snow have now lasted five
weeks.

February, 1695. Lord Spencer married the Duke of Newcastle's daughter,
and our neighbor, Mr. Hussey, married a daughter of my cousin, George
Evelyn, of Nutfield.

3d February, 1695. The long frost intermitted, but not gone.

17th February, 1695. Called to London by Lord Godolphin, one of the
Lords of the Treasury, offering me the treasurership of the hospital
designed to be built at Greenwich for worn-out seamen.

24th February, 1695. I saw the Queen lie in state.

27th February, 1695. The Marquis of Normanby told me King Charles had a
design to buy all King Street, and build it nobly, it being the street
leading to Westminster. This might have been done for the expense of the
Queen's funeral, which was £50,000, against her desire.

5th March, 1695. I went to see the ceremony. Never was so universal a
mourning; all the Parliament men had cloaks given them, and four hundred
poor women; all the streets hung and the middle of the street boarded
and covered with black cloth. There were all the nobility, mayor,
aldermen, judges, etc.

8th March, 1695. I supped at the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry's,
who related to me the pious behavior of the Queen in all her sickness,
which was admirable. She never inquired of what opinion persons were,
who were objects of charity; that, on opening a cabinet, a paper was
found wherein she had desired that her body might not be opened, or any
extraordinary expense at her funeral, whenever she should die. This
paper was not found in time to be observed. There were other excellent
things under her own hand, to the very least of her debts, which were
very small, and everything in that exact method, as seldom is found in
any private person. In sum, she was such an admirable woman, abating for
taking the Crown without a more due apology, as does, if possible, outdo
the renowned Queen Elizabeth.

10th March, 1695. I dined at the Earl of Sunderland's with Lord Spencer.
My Lord showed me his library, now again improved by many books bought
at the sale of Sir Charles Scarborough, an eminent physician, which was
the very best collection, especially of mathematical books, that was I
believe in Europe, once designed for the King's Library at St. James's;
but the Queen dying, who was the great patroness of that design, it was
let fall, and the books were miserably dissipated.

The new edition of Camden's "Britannia" was now published (by Bishop
Gibson), with great additions; those to Surrey were mine, so that I had
one presented to me. Dr. Gale showed me a MS. of some parts of the New
Testament in vulgar Latin, that had belonged to a monastery in the North
of Scotland, which he esteemed to be about eight hundred years old;
there were some considerable various readings observable, as in John i.,
and genealogy of St. Luke.

24th March, 1695. EASTER DAY. Mr. Duncomb, parson of this parish,
preached, which he hardly comes to above once a year though but seven or
eight miles off; a florid discourse, read out of his notes. The Holy
Sacrament followed, which he administered with very little reverence,
leaving out many prayers and exhortations; nor was there any oblation.
This ought to be reformed, but my good brother did not well consider
when he gave away this living and the next [Abinger].

March, 1695. The latter end of the month sharp and severely cold, with
much snow and hard frost; no appearance of spring.

31st March, 1695. Mr. Lucas preached in the afternoon at Wotton.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th April, 1695. Lord Halifax died suddenly at London, the day his
daughter was married to the Earl of Nottingham's son at Burleigh. Lord
H. was a very rich man, very witty, and in his younger days somewhat
positive.

14th April, 1695. After a most severe, cold, and snowy winter, without
almost any shower for many months, the wind continuing N. and E. and not
a leaf appearing; the weather and wind now changed, some showers fell,
and there was a remission of cold.

21st April, 1695. The spring begins to appear, yet the trees hardly
leafed. Sir T. Cooke discovers what prodigious bribes have been given by
some of the East India Company out of the stock, which makes a great
clamor. Never were so many private bills passed for unsettling estates,
showing the wonderful prodigality and decay of families.

5th May, 1695. I came to Deptford from Wotton, in order to the first
meeting of the Commissioners for endowing an hospital for seamen at
Greenwich; it was at the Guildhall, London. Present, the Archbishop of
Canterbury, Lord Keeper, Lord Privy Seal, Lord Godolphin, Duke of
Shrewsbury, Duke of Leeds, Earls of Dorset and Monmouth, Commissioners
of the Admiralty and Navy, Sir Robert Clayton, Sir Christopher Wren, and
several more. The Commission was read by Mr. Lowndes, Secretary to the
Lords of the Treasury, Surveyor-General.

17th May, 1695. Second meeting of the Commissioners, and a committee
appointed to go to Greenwich to survey the place, I being one of them.

21st May, 1695. We went to survey Greenwich, Sir Robert Clayton, Sir
Christopher Wren, Mr. Travers, the King's Surveyor, Captain Sanders, and
myself.

24th May, 1695. We made report of the state of Greenwich house, and how
the standing part might be made serviceable at present for £6,000, and
what ground would be requisite for the whole design. My Lord Keeper
ordered me to prepare a book for subscriptions, and a preamble to it.

31st May, 1695. Met again. Mr. Vanbrugh was made secretary to the
commission, by my nomination of him to the Lords, which was all done
that day.

7th June, 1695. The commissioners met at Guildhall, when there were
scruples and contests of the Lord Mayor, who would not meet, not being
named as one of the quorum, so that a new commission was required,
though the Lord Keeper and the rest thought it too nice a punctilio.

14th May, 1695. Met at Guildhall, but could do nothing for want of a
quorum.

5th July, 1695. At Guildhall; account of subscriptions, about £7,000 or
£8,000.

6th July, 1695. I dined at Lambeth, making my first visit to the
Archbishop, where there was much company, and great cheer. After prayers
in the evening, my Lord made me stay to show me his house, furniture,
and garden, which were all very fine, and far beyond the usual
Archbishops, not as affected by this, but being bought ready furnished
by his predecessor. We discoursed of several public matters,
particularly of the Princess of Denmark, who made so little figure.

11th July, 1695. Met at Guildhall; not a full committee, so nothing
done.

14th July, 1695. No sermon at church; but, after prayers, the names of
all the parishioners were read, in order to gathering the tax of 4s. for
marriages, burials, etc. A very imprudent tax, especially this reading
the names, so that most went out of the church.

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

19th July, 1695. I dined at Sir Purbeck Temple's, near Croydon; his lady
is aunt to my son-in-law, Draper; the house exactly furnished. Went
thence with my son and daughter to Wotton. At Wotton, Mr. Duncomb,
parson of Albury, preached excellently.

28th July, 1695. A very wet season.

11th August, 1695. The weather now so cold, that greater frosts were not
always seen in the midst of winter; this succeeded much wet, and set
harvest extremely back.

25th September, 1695. Mr. Offley preached at Abinger; too much
controversy on a point of no consequence, for the country people here.
This was the first time I had heard him preach. Bombarding of Cadiz; a
cruel and brutish way of making war, first began by the French. The
season wet, great storms, unseasonable harvest weather. My good and
worthy friend, Captain Gifford, who that he might get some competence to
live decently, adventured all he had in a voyage of two years to the
East Indies, was, with another great ship, taken by some French
men-of-war, almost within sight of England, to the loss of near £70,000,
to my great sorrow, and pity of his wife, he being also a valiant and
industrious man. The losses of this sort to the nation have been
immense, and all through negligence, and little care to secure the same
near our own coasts; of infinitely more concern to the public than
spending their time in bombarding and ruining two or three paltry towns,
without any benefit, or weakening our enemies, who, though they began,
ought not to be imitated in an action totally averse to humanity, or
Christianity.

29th September, 1695. Very cold weather. Sir Purbeck Temple, uncle to my
son Draper, died suddenly. A great funeral at Addiscombe. His lady being
own aunt to my son Draper, he hopes for a good fortune, there being no
heir. There had been a new meeting of the commissioners about Greenwich
hospital, on the new commission, where the Lord Mayor, etc. appeared,
but I was prevented by indisposition from attending. The weather very
sharp, winter approaching apace. The King went a progress into the
north, to show himself to the people against the elections, and was
everywhere complimented, except at Oxford, where it was not as he
expected, so that he hardly stopped an hour there, and having seen the
theater, did not receive the banquet proposed. I dined with Dr. Gale at
St. Paul's school, who showed me many curious passages out of some
ancient Platonists' MSS. concerning the Trinity, which this great and
learned person would publish, with many other rare things, if he was
encouraged, and eased of the burden of teaching.

25th October, 1695. The Archbishop and myself went to Hammersmith, to
visit Sir Samuel Morland, who was entirely blind; a very mortifying
sight. He showed us his invention of writing, which was very ingenious;
also his wooden calendar, which instructed him all by feeling; and other
pretty and useful inventions of mills, pumps, etc., and the pump he had
erected that serves water to his garden, and to passengers, with an
inscription, and brings from a filthy part of the Thames near it a most
perfect and pure water. He had newly buried £200 worth of music books
six feet under ground, being, as he said, love songs and vanity. He
plays himself psalms and religious hymns on the theorbo. Very mild
weather the whole of October.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th November, 1695. Mr. Stanhope, Vicar of Lewisham, preached at
Whitehall. He is one of the most accomplished preachers I ever heard,
for matter, eloquence, action, voice, and I am told, of excellent
conversation.

13th November, 1695. Famous fireworks and very chargeable, the King
being returned from his progress. He stayed seven or eight days at Lord
Sunderland's at Althorpe, where he was mightily entertained. These
fireworks were shown before Lord Romney, master of the ordnance, in St.
James's great square, where the King stood.

17th November, 1695. I spoke to the Archbishop of Canterbury to interest
himself for restoring a room belonging to St. James's library, where the
books want place.

21st November, 1695. I went to see Mr. Churchill's collection of
rarities.

23d November, 1695. To Lambeth, to get Mr. Williams continued in Boyle's
lectures another year. Among others who dined there was Dr. Covel, the
great Oriental traveler.

1st December, 1695. I dined at Lord Sunderland's, now the great favorite
and underhand politician, but not adventuring on any character, being
obnoxious to the people for having twice changed his religion.

23d December, 1695. The Parliament wondrously intent on ways to reform
the coin; setting out a Proclamation prohibiting the currency of
half-crowns, etc., which made much confusion among the people.

25th December, 1695. Hitherto mild, dark, misty, weather. Now snow and
frost.

12th January, 1695-96. Great confusion and distraction by reason of the
clipped money, and the difficulty found in reforming it.

2d February, 1696. An extraordinary wet season, though temperate as to
cold. The "Royal Sovereign" man-of-war burned at Chatham. It was built
in 1637, and having given occasion to the levy of ship money was perhaps
the cause of all the after troubles to this day. An earthquake in
Dorsetshire by Portland, or rather a sinking of the ground suddenly for
a large space, near the quarries of stone, hindering the conveyance of
that material for the finishing St. Paul's.

23d February, 1696. They now began to coin new money.

26th February, 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty
knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists,
and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William on the
first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or
to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to
Calais, an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army
in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection
here, the Duke of Berwick having secretly come to London to head them,
King James attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered
by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could
apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it,
were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation,
congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that,
if King William should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on
the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing
up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown
should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the
Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from
London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general
animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the
nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and
all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by
the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness
of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had
very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral
Rooke wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron,
with others at Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel,
and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could
be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look
on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of
God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design
of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his
friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King
William.

1st March, 1696. The wind continuing N. and E. all this week, brought so
many of our men-of-war together that, though most of the French finding
their design detected and prevented, made a shift to get into Calais and
Dunkirk roads, we wanting fire-ships and bombs to disturb them; yet they
were so engaged among the sands and flats, that 'tis said they cut their
masts and flung their great guns overboard to lighten their vessels. We
are yet upon them. This deliverance is due solely to God. French were to
have invaded at once England, Scotland, and Ireland.

8th March, 1696. Divers of the conspirators tried and condemned.

Vesuvius breaking out, terrified Naples. Three of the unhappy wretches,
whereof one was a priest, were executed[82] for intending to assassinate
the King; they acknowledged their intention, but acquitted King James of
inciting them to it, and died very penitent. Divers more in danger, and
some very considerable persons.

    [Footnote 82: Robert Charnock, Edward King, and Thomas Keys.]

Great frost and cold.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

6th April, 1696. I visited Mr. Graham in the Fleet.

10th April, 1696. The quarters of Sir William Perkins and Sir John
Friend, lately executed on the plot, with Perkins's head, were set up at
Temple Bar, a dismal sight, which many pitied. I think there never was
such at Temple Bar till now, except once in the time of King Charles
II., namely, of Sir Thomas Armstrong.[83]

    [Footnote 83: He was concerned in the Rye-House plot, fled into
    Holland, was given up, and executed in his own country, 1684. See p.
    198.]

12th April, 1696. A very fine spring season.

19th April, 1696. Great offense taken at the three ministers who
absolved Sir William Perkins and Friend at Tyburn. One of them (Snatt)
was a son of my old schoolmaster. This produced much altercation as to
the canonicalness of the action.

21st April, 1696. We had a meeting at Guildhall of the grand committee
about settling the draught of Greenwich hospital.

23d April, 1696. I went to Eton, and dined with Dr. Godolphin, the
provost. The schoolmaster assured me there had not been for twenty years
a more pregnant youth in that place than my grandson. I went to see the
King's House at Kensington. It is very noble, though not great. The
gallery furnished with the best pictures [from] all the houses, of
Titian, Raphael, Correggio, Holbein, Julio Romano, Bassan, Vandyke,
Tintoretto, and others; a great collection of porcelain; and a pretty
private library. The gardens about it very delicious.

26th April, 1696. Dr. Sharp preached at the Temple. His prayer before
the sermon was one of the most excellent compositions I ever heard.

28th April, 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with
fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous
train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates
dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James, which he
presumed to present to King William, who could not but abhor it,
speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved Queen's own
father.

2d May, 1696. I dined at Lambeth, being summoned to meet my co-trustees,
the Archbishop, Sir Henry Ashurst, and Mr. Serjeant Rotheram, to consult
about settling Mr. Boyle's lecture for a perpetuity; which we concluded
upon, by buying a rent charge of £50 per annum, with the stock in our
hands.

6th May, 1696. I went to Lambeth, to meet at dinner the Countess of
Sunderland and divers ladies. We dined in the Archbishop's wife's
apartment with his Grace, and stayed late; yet I returned to Deptford at
night.

13th May, 1696. I went to London to meet my son, newly come from
Ireland, indisposed. Money still continuing exceedingly scarce, so that
none was paid or received, but all was on trust, the mint not supplying
for common necessities. The Association with an oath required of all
lawyers and officers, on pain of _præmunire_, whereby men were obliged
to renounce King James as no rightful king, and to revenge King
William's death, if happening by assassination. This to be taken by all
the Counsel by a day limited, so that the Courts of Chancery and King's
Bench hardly heard any cause in Easter Term, so many crowded to take the
oath. This was censured as a very entangling contrivance of the
Parliament in expectation, that many in high office would lay down, and
others surrender. Many gentlemen taken up on suspicion of the late plot,
were now discharged out of prison.

29th May, 1696. We settled divers offices, and other matters relating to
workmen, for the beginning of Greenwich hospital.

[Sidenote: DEPTFORD]

1st June, 1696. I went to Deptford to dispose of our goods, in order to
letting the house for three years to Vice Admiral Benbow, with condition
to keep up the garden. This was done soon after.

4th June, 1696. A committee met at Whitehall about Greenwich Hospital,
at Sir Christopher Wren's, his Majesty's Surveyor-General. We made the
first agreement with divers workmen and for materials; and gave the
first order for proceeding on the foundation, and for weekly payments to
the workmen, and a general account to be monthly.

11th June, 1696. Dined at Lord Pembroke's, Lord Privy Seal, a very
worthy gentleman. He showed me divers rare pictures of very many of the
old and best masters, especially one of M. Angelo of a man gathering
fruit to give to a woman, and a large book of the best drawings of the
old masters. Sir John Fenwick, one of the conspirators, was taken. Great
subscriptions in Scotland to their East India Company. Want of current
money to carry on the smallest concerns, even for daily provisions in
the markets. Guineas lowered to twenty-two shillings, and great sums
daily transported to Holland, where it yields more, with other treasure
sent to pay the armies, and nothing considerable coined of the new and
now only current stamp, cause such a scarcity that tumults are every day
feared, nobody paying or receiving money; so imprudent was the late
Parliament to condemn the old though clipped and corrupted, till they
had provided supplies. To this add the fraud of the bankers and
goldsmiths, who having gotten immense riches by extortion, keep up their
treasure in expectation of enhancing its value. Duncombe, not long since
a mean goldsmith, having made a purchase of the late Duke of
Buckingham's estate at nearly £90,000, and reputed to have nearly as
much in cash. Banks and lotteries every day set up.

18th June, 1696. The famous trial between my Lord Bath and Lord Montague
for an estate of £11,000 a year, left by the Duke of Albemarle, wherein
on several trials had been spent,£20,000 between them. The Earl of Bath
was cast on evident forgery.

20th June, 1696. I made my Lord Cheney a visit at Chelsea, and saw those
ingenious waterworks invented by Mr. Winstanley, wherein were some
things very surprising and extraordinary.

21st June, 1696. An exceedingly rainy, cold, unseasonable summer, yet
the city was very healthy.

25th June, 1696. A trial in the Common Pleas between the Lady Purbeck
Temple and Mr. Temple, a nephew of Sir Purbeck, concerning a deed set up
to take place of several wills. This deed was proved to be forged. The
cause went on my lady's side. This concerning my son-in-law, Draper, I
stayed almost all day at Court. A great supper was given to the jury,
being persons of the best condition in Buckinghamshire.

30th June, 1696. I went with a select committee of the Commissioners for
Greenwich Hospital, and with Sir Christopher Wren, where with him I laid
the first stone of the intended foundation, precisely at five o'clock in
the evening, after we had dined together. Mr. Flamstead, the King's
Astronomical Professor, observing the punctual time by instruments.

4th July, 1696. Note that my Lord Godolphin was the first of the
subscribers who paid any money to this noble fabric.

7th July, 1696. A northern wind altering the weather with a continual
and impetuous rain of three days and nights changed it into perfect
winter.

12th July, 1696. Very unseasonable and uncertain weather.

26th July, 1696. So little money in the nation that Exchequer Tallies,
of which I had for £2,000 on the best fund in England, the Post Office,
nobody would take at 30 per cent discount.

3d August, 1696. The Bank lending the £200,000 to pay the array in
Flanders, that had done nothing against the enemy, had so exhausted the
treasure of the nation, that one could not have borrowed money under 14
or 15 per cent on bills, or on Exchequer Tallies under 30 per cent.
Reasonable good harvest weather. I went to Lambeth and dined with the
Archbishop, who had been at Court on the complaint against Dr. Thomas
Watson, Bishop of St. David's, who was suspended for simony. The
Archbishop told me how unsatisfied he was with the Canon law, and how
exceedingly unreasonable all their pleadings appeared to him.

September, 1696. Fine seasonable weather, and a great harvest after a
cold, wet summer. Scarcity in Scotland.

6th September, 1696. I went to congratulate the marriage of a daughter
of Mr. Boscawen to the son of Sir Philip Meadows; she is niece to my
Lord Godolphin, married at Lambeth by the Archbishop, 30th of August.
After above six months' stay in London about Greenwich Hospital, I
returned to Wotton.

24th October, 1696. Unseasonable stormy weather, and an ill seedtime.

November, 1696. Lord Godolphin retired from the Treasury, who was the
first Commissioner and most skillful manager of all.

8th November, 1696. The first frost began fiercely, but lasted not long.
More plots talked of. Search for Jacobites so called.

15th-23d November, 1696. Very stormy weather, rain, and inundations.

13th December, 1696. Continuance of extreme frost and snow.

17th January, 1696-7. The severe frost and weather relented, but again
froze with snow. Conspiracies continue against King William. Sir John
Fenwick was beheaded.

7th February, 1697. Severe frost continued with snow. Soldiers in the
armies and garrison towns frozen to death on their posts.

    (Here a leaf of the MS. is lost.)

17th August, 1697. I came to Wotton after three months' absence.

September, 1697. Very bright weather, but with sharp east wind. My son
came from London in his melancholy indisposition.

12th September, 1697. Mr. Duncombe, the rector, came and preached after
an absence of two years, though only living seven or eight miles off [at
Ashted]. Welcome tidings of the Peace.

3d October, 1697. So great were the storms all this week, that near a
thousand people were lost going into the Texel.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

16th November, 1697. The King's entry very pompous; but is nothing
approaching that of King Charles II.

2d December, 1697. Thanksgiving Day for the Peace, the King and a great
Court at Whitehall. The Bishop of Salisbury preached, or rather made a
florid panegyric, on 2 Chron. ix. 7, 8. The evening concluded with
fireworks and illuminations of great expense.

5th December, 1697. Was the first Sunday that St. Paul's had had service
performed in it since it was burned in 1666.

6th December, 1697. I went to Kensington with the Sheriff, Knights, and
chief gentlemen of Surrey, to present their address to the King. The
Duke of Norfolk promised to introduce it, but came so late, that it was
presented before be came. This insignificant ceremony was brought in in
Cromwell's time, and has ever since continued with offers of life and
fortune to whoever happened to have the power. I dined at Sir Richard
Onslow's, who treated almost all the gentlemen of Surrey. When we had
half dined, the Duke of Norfolk came in to make his excuse.

12th December, 1697. At the Temple Church; it was very long before the
service began, staying for the Comptroller of the Inner Temple, where
was to be kept a riotous and reveling Christmas, according to custom.

18th December, 1697. At Lambeth, to Dr. Bentley, about the Library at
St. James's.

23d December, 1697. I returned to Wotton.

1697-98. A great Christmas kept at Wotton, open house, much company. I
presented my book of Medals, etc., to divers noblemen, before I exposed
it to sale.

2d January, 1698. Dr. Fulham, who lately married my niece, preached
against atheism, a very eloquent discourse, somewhat improper for most
of the audience at [Wotton], but fitted for some other place, and very
apposite to the profane temper of the age.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th January, 1698. Whitehall burned, nothing but walls and ruins left.

30th January, 1698. The imprisonment of the great banker, Duncombe:
censured by Parliament; acquitted by the Lords; sent again to the Tower
by the Commons.

The Czar of Muscovy being come to England, and having a mind to see the
building of ships, hired my house at Sayes Court, and made it his court
and palace, newly furnished for him by the King.[84]

    [Footnote 84: While the Czar was in his house. Evelyn's servant
    writes to him: "There is a house full of people, and right nasty.
    The Czar lies next your library, and dines in the parlor next your
    study. He dines at ten o'clock and at six at night; is very seldom
    at home a whole day; very often in the King's yard, or by water,
    dressed in several dresses. The King is expected here this day; the
    best parlor is pretty clean for him to be entertained in. The King
    pays for all he has."]

21st April, 1698. The Czar went from my house to return home. An
exceedingly sharp and cold season.

8th May, 1698. An extraordinary great snow and frost, nipping the corn
and other fruits. Corn at nine shillings a bushel [£18 a load].

30th May, 1698. I dined at Mr. Pepys's, where I heard the rare voice of
Mr. Pule, who was lately come from Italy, reputed the most excellent
singer we had ever had. He sung several compositions of the late Dr.
Purcell.

5th June, 1698. Dr. White, late Bishop of Norwich, who had been ejected
for not complying with Government, was buried in St. Gregory's
churchyard, or vault, at St. Paul's. His hearse was accompanied by two
non-juror bishops, Dr. Turner of Ely, and Dr. Lloyd, with forty other
non-juror clergymen, who would not stay the Office of the burial,
because the Dean of St. Paul's had appointed a conforming minister to
read the Office; at which all much wondered, there being nothing in that
Office which mentioned the present King.

8th June, 1698. I went to congratulate the marriage of Mr. Godolphin
with the Earl of Marlborough's daughter.

9th June, 1698. To Deptford, to see how miserably the Czar had left my
house, after three months making it his Court. I got Sir Christopher
Wren, the King's surveyor, and Mr. London, his gardener, to go and
estimate the repairs, for which they allowed £150 in their report to the
Lords of the Treasury. I then went to see the foundation of the Hall and
Chapel at Greenwich Hospital.

6th August, 1698. I dined with Pepys, where was Captain Dampier,[85] who
had been a famous buccaneer, had brought hither the painted Prince Job,
and printed a relation of his very strange adventure, and his
observations. He was now going abroad again by the King's encouragement,
who furnished a ship of 290 tons. He seemed a more modest man than one
would imagine by the relation of the crew he had assorted with. He
brought a map of his observations of the course of the winds in the
South Sea, and assured us that the maps hitherto extant were all false
as to the Pacific Sea, which he makes on the south of the line, that on
the north end running by the coast of Peru being extremely tempestuous.

    [Footnote 85: The celebrated navigator, born in 1652, the time of
    whose death is uncertain. His "Voyage Round the World" has gone
    through many editions, and the substance of it has been transferred
    to many collections of voyages.]

25th September, 1698. Dr. Foy came to me to use my interest with Lord
Sunderland for his being made Professor of Physic at Oxford, in the
King's gift. I went also to the Archbishop in his behalf.

7th December, 1698. Being one of the Council of the Royal Society, I was
named to be of the committee to wait on our new President, the Lord
Chancellor, our Secretary, Dr. Sloane, and Sir R. Southwell, last
Vice-President, carrying our book of statutes; the office of the
President being read, his Lordship subscribed his name, and took the
oaths according to our statutes as a Corporation for the improvement of
natural knowledge. Then his Lordship made a short compliment concerning
the honor the Society had done him, and how ready he would be to promote
so noble a design, and come himself among us, as often as the attendance
on the public would permit; and so we took our leave.

18th December, 1698. Very warm, but exceedingly stormy.

January, 1698-99. My cousin Pierrepoint died. She was daughter to Sir
John Evelyn, of Wilts, my father's nephew; she was widow to William
Pierrepoint, brother to the Marquis of Dorchester, and mother to Evelyn
Pierrepoint, Earl of Kingston; a most excellent and prudent lady.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

The House of Commons persist in refusing more than 7,000 men to be a
standing army, and no strangers to be in the number. This displeased the
Court party. Our county member, Sir R. Onslow, opposed it also; which
might reconcile him to the people, who began to suspect him.

17th February, 1699. My grandson went to Oxford with Dr. Mander, the
Master of Baliol College, where he was entered a fellow-commoner.

19th February, 1699. A most furious wind, such as has not happened for
many years, doing great damage to houses and trees, by the fall of which
several persons were killed.

5th March, 1699. The old East India Company lost their business against
the new Company, by ten votes in Parliament, so many of their friends
being absent, going to see a tiger baited by dogs.

The persecuted Vaudois, who were banished out of Savoy, were received by
the German Protestant Princes.

24th March, 1699. My only remaining son died after a tedious languishing
sickness, contracted in Ireland, and increased here, to my exceeding
grief and affliction; leaving me one grandson, now at Oxford, whom I
pray God to prosper and be the support of the Wotton family. He was aged
forty-four years and about three months. He had been six years one of
the Commissioners of the Revenue in Ireland, with great ability and
reputation.

26th March, 1699. After an extraordinary storm, there came up the Thames
a whale which was fifty-six feet long. Such, and a larger of the spout
kind, was killed there forty years ago (June 1658). That year died
Cromwell.

30th March, 1699. My deceased son was buried in the vault at Wotton,
according to his desire.

The Duke of Devon lost £1,900 at a horse race at Newmarket.

The King preferring his young favorite Earl of Albemarle to be first
Commander of his Guard, the Duke of Ormond laid down his commission.
This of the Dutch Lord passing over his head, was exceedingly resented
by everybody.

April, 1699. Lord Spencer purchased an incomparable library[86] of ...
wherein, among other rare books, were several that were printed at the
first invention of that wonderful art, as particularly "Tully's Offices,
etc." There was a Homer and a Suidas in a very good Greek character and
good paper, almost as ancient. This gentleman is a very fine scholar,
whom from a child I have known. His tutor was one Florival of Geneva.

    [Footnote 86: The foundation of the noble library now at Blenheim.]

29th April, 1699. I dined with the Archbishop; but my business was to
get him to persuade the King to purchase the late Bishop of Worcester's
library, and build a place for his own library at St. James's, in the
Park, the present one being too small.

3d May, 1699. At a meeting of the Royal Society I was nominated to be of
the committee to wait on the Lord Chancellor to move the King to
purchase the Bishop of Worcester's library (Dr. Edward Stillingfleet).

4th May, 1699. The Court party have little influence in this Session.

7th May, 1699. The Duke of Ormond restored to his commission. All
Lotteries, till now cheating the people, to be no longer permitted than
to Christmas, except that for the benefit of Greenwich Hospital. Mr.
Bridgman, chairman of the committee for that charitable work, died; a
great loss to it. He was Clerk of the Council, a very industrious,
useful man. I saw the library of Dr. John Moore,[87] Bishop of Norwich,
one of the best and most ample collection of all sorts of good books in
England, and he, one of the most learned men.

    [Footnote 87: Afterward Bishop of Ely. He died 31st of July, 1714.
    King George I. purchased this library after the Bishop's death, for
    £6,000, and presented it to the University of Cambridge, where it
    now is.]

11th June, 1699. After a long drought, we had a refreshing shower. The
day before, there was a dreadful fire at Rotherhithe, near the Thames
side, which burned divers ships, and consumed nearly three hundred
houses. Now died the famous Duchess of Mazarin; she had been the richest
lady in Europe. She was niece of Cardinal Mazarin, and was married to
the richest subject in Europe, as is said. She was born at Rome,
educated in France, and was an extraordinary beauty and wit but
dissolute and impatient of matrimonial restraint, so as to be abandoned
by her husband, and banished, when she came into England for shelter,
lived on a pension given her here, and is reported to have hastened her
death by intemperate drinking strong spirits. She has written her own
story and adventures, and so has her other extravagant sister, wife to
the noble family of Colonna.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

15th June, 1699. This week died Conyers Seymour, son of Sir Edward
Seymour, killed in a duel caused by a slight affront in St. James's
Park, given him by one who was envious of his gallantries; for he was a
vain, foppish young man, who made a great _éclât_ about town by his
splendid equipage and boundless expense. He was about twenty-three years
old; his brother, now at Oxford, inherited an estate of £7,000 a year,
which had fallen to him not two years before.

19th June, 1699. My cousin, George Evelyn, of Nutfield, died suddenly.

25th June, 1699. The heat has been so great, almost all this month, that
I do not remember to have felt much greater in Italy, and this after a
winter the wettest, though not the coldest, that I remember for fifty
years last past.

28th June, 1699. Finding my occasions called me so often to London, I
took the remainder of the lease my son had in a house in Dover Street,
to which I now removed, not taking my goods from Wotton.

23d July, 1699. Seasonable showers, after a continuance of excessive
drought and heat.

August, 1699. I drank the Shooters' Hill waters. At Deptford, they had
been building a pretty new church. The Bishop of St. David's [Watson]
deprived for simony.[88] The city of Moscow burnt by the throwing of
squibs.

    [Footnote 88: _Ante_, p. 330.]

3d September, 1699. There was in this week an eclipse of the sun, at
which many were frightened by the predictions of the astrologers. I
remember fifty years ago that many were so terrified by Lilly, that they
dared not go out of their houses. A strange earthquake at New Batavia,
in the East Indies.

4th October, 1699. My worthy brother died at Wotton, in the 83d year of
his age, of perfect memory and understanding. He was religious, sober,
and temperate, and of so hospitable a nature, that no family in the
county maintained that ancient custom of keeping, as it were, open house
the whole year in the same manner, or gave more noble or free
entertainment to the county on all occasions, so that his house was
never free. There were sometimes twenty persons more than his family,
and some that stayed there all the summer, to his no small expense; by
this he gained the universal love of the county. He was born at Wotton,
went from the free school at Guildford to Trinity College, Oxford,
thence to the Middle Temple, as gentlemen of the best quality did, but
without intention to study the law as a profession. He married the
daughter of Colwall, of a worthy and ancient family in Leicestershire,
by whom he had one son; she dying in 1643, left George her son an
infant, who being educated liberally, after traveling abroad, returned
and married one Mrs. Gore, by whom he had several children, but only
three daughters survived. He was a young man of good understanding, but,
over-indulging his ease and pleasure, grew so very corpulent, contrary
to the constitution of the rest of his father's relations, that he died.
My brother afterward married a noble and honorable lady, relict of Sir
John Cotton, she being an Offley, a worthy and ancient Staffordshire
family, by whom he had several children of both sexes. This lady died,
leaving only two daughters and a son. The younger daughter died before
marriage; the other afterward married Sir Cyril Wych, a noble and
learned gentleman (son of Sir ---- Wych), who had been Ambassador at
Constantinople, and was afterward made one of the Lords Justices of
Ireland. Before this marriage, her only brother married the daughter of
---- Eversfield, of Sussex, of an honorable family, but left a widow
without any child living; he died about 1691, and his wife not many
years after, and my brother resettled the whole estate on me. His
sister, Wych, had a portion of £6,000, to which was added £300 more; the
three other daughters, with what I added, had about £5,000 each. My
brother died on the 5th of October, in a good old age and great
reputation, making his beloved daughter, Lady Wych, sole executrix,
leaving me only his library and some pictures of my father, mother, etc.
She buried him with extraordinary solemnity, rather as a nobleman than
as a private gentleman. There were, as I computed, above 2,000 persons
at the funeral, all the gentlemen of the county doing him the last
honors. I returned to London, till my lady should dispose of herself and
family.

21st October, 1699. After an unusual warm and pleasant season, we were
surprised with a very sharp frost. I presented my "_Acetaria_,"
dedicated to my Lord Chancellor, who returned me thanks in an
extraordinarily civil letter.

15th November, 1699. There happened this week so thick a mist and fog,
that people lost their way in the streets, it being so intense that no
light of candles, or torches, yielded any (or but very little)
direction. I was in it, and in danger. Robberies were committed between
the very lights which were fixed between London and Kensington on both
sides, and while coaches and travelers were passing. It began about four
in the afternoon, and was quite gone by eight, without any wind to
disperse it. At the Thames, they beat drums to direct the watermen to
make the shore.

19th November, 1699. At our chapel in the evening there was a sermon
preached by young Mr. Horneck, chaplain to Lord Guilford, whose lady's
funeral had been celebrated magnificently the Thursday before. A
panegyric was now pronounced, describing the extraordinary piety and
excellently employed life of this amiable young lady. She died in
childbed a few days before, to the excessive sorrow of her husband, who
ordered the preacher to declare that it was on her exemplary life,
exhortations and persuasion, that he totally changed the course of his
life, which was before in great danger of being perverted; following the
mode of this dissolute age. Her devotion, early piety, charity,
fastings, economy, disposition of her time in reading, praying,
recollections in her own handwriting of what she heard and read, and her
conversation were most exemplary.

24th November, 1699. I signed Dr. Blackwell's election to be the next
year's Boyles Lecturer.

Such horrible robberies and murders were committed, as had not been
known in this nation; atheism, profaneness, blasphemy, among all sorts,
portended some judgment if not amended; on which a society was set on
foot, who obliged themselves to endeavor the reforming of it, in London
and other places, and began to punish offenders and put the laws in more
strict execution; which God Almighty prosper! A gentle, calm, dry,
temperate weather all this season of the year, but now came sharp, hard
frost, and mist, but calm.

3d December, 1699. Calm, bright, and warm as in the middle of April. So
continued on 21st of January. A great earthquake in Portugal.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

The Parliament reverses the prodigious donations of the Irish
forfeitures, which were intended to be set apart for discharging the
vast national debt. They called some great persons in the highest
offices in question for setting the Great Seal to the pardon of an
arch-pirate,[89] who had turned pirate again, and brought prizes into
the West Indies, suspected to be connived at on sharing the prey; but
the prevailing part in the House called Courtiers, out-voted the
complaints, not by being more in number, but by the country party being
negligent in attendance.

    [Footnote 89: Captain Kidd; he was hanged about two years afterward
    with some of his accomplices. This was one of the charges brought by
    the Commons against Lord Somers.]

14th January, 1699-1700. Dr. Lancaster, Vicar of St. Martin's, dismissed
Mr. Stringfellow, who had been made the first preacher at our chapel by
the Bishop of Lincoln [Dr. Tenison, now Archbishop], while he held St.
Martin's by dispensation, and put in one Mr. Sandys, much against the
inclination of those who frequented the chapel. The Scotch book about
Darien was burned by the hangman by vote of Parliament.[90]

    [Footnote 90: The volume alluded to was "An Enquiry into the Causes
    of the Miscarriage of the Scots Colony at Darien: Or an Answer to a
    Libel," entitled "A Defense of the Scots abdicating Darien." See
    Votes of the House of Commons, 15th January, 1699-1700.]

21st January, 1700. Died the Duke of Beaufort, a person of great honor,
prudence, and estate.

25th January, 1700. I went to Wotton, the first time after my brother's
funeral, to furnish the house with necessaries, Lady Wych and my nephew
Glanville, the executors having sold and disposed of what goods were
there of my brother's. The weather was now altering into sharp and hard
frost.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

One Stephens, who preached before the House of Commons on King Charles's
Martyrdom, told them that the observation of that day was not intended
out of any detestation of his murder, but to be a lesson to other Kings
and Rulers, how they ought to behave themselves toward their subjects,
lest they should come to the same end. This was so resented that, though
it was usual to desire these anniversary sermons to be printed, they
refused thanks to him, and ordered that in future no one should preach
before them, who was not either a Dean or a Doctor of Divinity.

4th February, 1700. The Parliament voted against the Scots settling in
Darien as being prejudicial to our trade with Spain. They also voted
that the exorbitant number of attorneys be lessened (now indeed
swarming, and evidently causing lawsuits and disturbance, eating out the
estates of the people, provoking them to go to law).

18th February, 1700. Mild and calm season, with gentle frost, and little
mizzling rain. The Vicar of St. Martin's frequently preached at Trinity
chapel in the afternoon.

8th March, 1700. The season was like April for warmth and
mildness.--11th. On Wednesday, was a sermon at our chapel, to be
continued during Lent.

13th March, 1700. I was at the funeral of my Lady Temple, who was buried
at Islington, brought from Addiscombe, near Croydon. She left my
son-in-law Draper (her nephew) the mansion house of Addiscombe, very
nobly and completely furnished, with the estate about it, with plate and
jewels, to the value in all of about £20,000. She was a very prudent
lady, gave many great legacies, with £500 to the poor of Islington,
where her husband, Sir Purbeck Temple, was buried, both dying without
issue.

24th March, 1700. The season warm, gentle, and exceedingly pleasant.
Divers persons of quality entered into the Society for Reformation[91]
of Manners; and some lectures were set up, particularly in the city of
London. The most eminent of the clergy preached at Bow Church, after
reading a declaration set forth by the King to suppress the growing
wickedness; this began already to take some effect as to common
swearing, and oaths in the mouths of people of all ranks.

    [Footnote 91: _Ante_, p. 349.]

25th March, 1700. Dr. Burnet preached to-day before the Lord Mayor and a
very great congregation, on Proverbs xxvii. 5, 6, "Open rebuke is better
than secret love; the wounds of a friend are better than the kisses of
an enemy." He made a very pathetic discourse concerning the necessity
and advantage of friendly correction.

April, 1700. The Duke of Norfolk now succeeded in obtaining a divorce
from his wife by the Parliament for adultery with Sir John Germaine, a
Dutch gamester, of mean extraction, who had got much by gaming; the Duke
had leave to marry again, so that if he should have children, the
Dukedom will go from the late Lord Thomas's children, Papists indeed,
but very hopeful and virtuous gentlemen, as was their father. The now
Duke their uncle is a Protestant.

The Parliament nominated fourteen persons to go into Ireland as
commissioners to dispose of the forfeited estates there, toward payment
of the debts incurred by the late war, but which the King had in great
measure given to some of his favorites of both sexes, Dutch and others
of little merit, and very unseasonably. That this might be done without
suspicion of interest in the Parliament, it was ordered that no member
of either House should be in the commission. The great contest between
the Lords and Commons concerning the Lords' power of amendments and
rejecting bills tacked to the money bill, carried for the Commons.
However, this tacking of bills is a novel practice, suffered by King
Charles II., who, being continually in want of money, let anything pass
rather than not have wherewith to feed his extravagance. This was
carried but by one voice in the Lords, all the Bishops following the
Court, save one; so that near sixty bills passed, to the great triumph
of the Commons and Country party, but high regret of the Court, and
those to whom the King had given large estates in Ireland. Pity it is,
that things should be brought to this extremity, the government of this
nation being so equally poised between King and subject; but we are
satisfied with nothing; and, while there is no perfection on this side
heaven, methinks both might be contented without straining things too
far. Among the rest, there passed a law as to Papists' estates, that if
one turned not Protestant before eighteen years of age, it should pass
to his next Protestant heir. This indeed seemed a hard law, but not only
the usage of the French King to his Protestant subjects, but the
indiscreet insolence of the Papists here, going in triumphant and public
processions with their Bishops, with banners and trumpets in divers
places (as is said) in the northern counties, has brought it on their
party.

24th April, 1700. This week there was a great change of State officers.
The Duke of Shrewsbury resigned his Lord Chamberlainship to the Earl of
Jersey, the Duke's indisposition requiring his retreat. Mr. Vernon,
Secretary of State, was put out. The Seal was taken from the Lord
Chancellor Somers, though he had been acquitted by a great majority of
votes for what was charged against him in the House of Commons. This
being in term time, put some stop to business, many eminent lawyers
refusing to accept the office, considering the uncertainty of things in
this fluctuating conjuncture. It is certain that this Chancellor was a
most excellent lawyer, very learned in all polite literature, a superior
pen, master of a handsome style, and of easy conversation; but he is
said to make too much haste to be rich, as his predecessor, and most in
place in this age did, to a more prodigious excess than was ever known.
But the Commons had now so mortified the Court party, and property and
liberty were so much invaded in all the neighboring kingdoms, that their
jealousy made them cautious, and every day strengthened the law which
protected the people from tyranny.

A most glorious spring, with hope of abundance of fruit of all kinds,
and a propitious year.

10th May, 1700. The great trial between Sir Walter Clarges and Mr.
Sherwin concerning the legitimacy of the late Duke of Albemarle, on
which depended an estate of £1,500 a year; the verdict was given for Sir
Walter, 19th. Serjeant Wright at last accepted the Great Seal.

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

24th May, 1700. I went from Dover street to Wotton, for the rest of the
summer, and removed thither the rest of my goods from Sayes Court.

2d June, 1700. A sweet season, with a mixture of refreshing showers.

9th-16th June, 1700. In the afternoon, our clergyman had a catechism,
which was continued for some time.

July, 1700. I was visited with illness, but it pleased God that I
recovered, for which praise be ascribed to him by me, and that he has
again so graciously advertised me of my duty to prepare for my latter
end, which at my great age, cannot be far off.

The Duke of Gloucester, son of the Princess Anne of Denmark, died of the
smallpox.

13th July, 1700. I went to Harden, which was originally a barren warren
bought by Sir Robert Clayton, who built there a pretty house, and made
such alteration by planting not only an infinite store of the best
fruit; but so changed the natural situation of the hill, valleys, and
solitary mountains about it, that it rather represented some foreign
country, which would produce spontaneously pines, firs, cypress, yew,
holly, and juniper; they were come to their perfect growth, with walks,
mazes, etc., among them, and were preserved with the utmost care, so
that I who had seen it some years before in its naked and barren
condition, was in admiration of it. The land was bought of Sir John
Evelyn, of Godstone, and was thus improved for pleasure and retirement
by the vast charge and industry of this opulent citizen. He and his lady
received us with great civility. The tombs in the church at Croydon of
Archbishops Grindal, Whitgift, and other Archbishops, are fine and
venerable; but none comparable to that of the late Archbishop Sheldon,
which, being all of white marble, and of a stately ordinance and
carvings, far surpassed the rest, and I judge could not cost less than
£700 or £800.

20th September, 1700. I went to Beddington, the ancient seat of the
Carews, in my remembrance a noble old structure, capacious, and in form
of the buildings of the age of Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, and
proper for the old English hospitality, but now decaying with the house
itself, heretofore adorned with ample gardens, and the first orange
trees[92] that had been seen in England, planted in the open ground, and
secured in winter only by a tabernacle of boards and stoves removable in
summer, that, standing 120 years, large and goodly trees, and laden with
fruit, were now in decay, as well as the grotto, fountains, cabinets,
and other curiosities in the house and abroad, it being now fallen to a
child under age, and only kept by a servant or two from utter
dilapidation. The estate and park about it also in decay.

    [Footnote 92: Oranges were eaten in this kingdom much earlier than
    the time of King James I.]

23d September, 1700. I went to visit Mr. Pepys at Clapham, where he has
a very noble and wonderfully well-furnished house, especially with
Indian and Chinese curiosities. The offices and gardens well
accommodated for pleasure and retirement.

31st October, 1700. My birthday now completed the 80th year of my age. I
with my soul render thanks to God, who, of his infinite mercy, not only
brought me out of many troubles, but this year restored me to health,
after an ague and other infirmities of so great an age; my sight,
hearing, and other senses and faculties tolerable, which I implore him
to continue, with the pardon of my sins past, and grace to acknowledge
by my improvement of his goodness the ensuing year, if it be his
pleasure to protract my life, that I may be the better prepared for my
last day, through the infinite merits of my blessed Savior, the Lord
Jesus, Amen!

5th November, 1700. Came the news of my dear grandson (the only male of
my family now remaining) being fallen ill of the smallpox at Oxford,
which after the dire effects of it in my family exceedingly afflicted
me; but so it pleased my most merciful God that being let blood at his
first complaint, and by the extraordinary care of Dr. Mander (Head of
the college and now Vice Chancellor), who caused him to be brought and
lodged in his own bed and bedchamber, with the advice of his physician
and care of his tutor, there were all fair hopes of his recovery, to our
infinite comfort. We had a letter every day either from the Vice
Chancellor himself, or his tutor.

17th November, 1700. Assurance of his recovery by a letter from himself.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

There was a change of great officers at Court. Lord Godolphin returned
to his former station of first Commissioner of the Treasury; Sir Charles
Hedges, Secretary of State.

30th November, 1700. At the Royal Society, Lord Somers, the late
Chancellor, was continued President.

8th December, 1700. Great alterations of officers at Court, and
elsewhere,--Lord Chief Justice Treby died; he was a learned man in his
profession, of which we have now few, never fewer; the Chancery
requiring so little skill in deep law-learning, if the practicer can
talk eloquently in that Court; so that probably few care to study the
law to any purpose. Lord Marlborough Master of the Ordnance, in place of
Lord Romney made Groom of the Stole. The Earl of Rochester goes Lord
Lieutenant to Ireland.

January, 1700-01. I finished the sale of North Stoake in Sussex to
Robert Michell, Esq., appointed by my brother to be sold for payment of
portions to my nieces, and other incumbrances on the estate.

4th January, 1701. An exceeding deep snow, and melted away as suddenly.

19th January, 1701. Severe frost, and such a tempest as threw down many
chimneys, and did great spoil at sea, and blew down above twenty trees
of mine at Wotton.

9th February, 1701. The old Speaker laid aside, and Mr. Harley, an able
gentleman, chosen. Our countryman, Sir Richard Onslow, had a party for
him.

27th February, 1701. By an order of the House of Commons, I laid before
the Speaker the state of what had been received and paid toward the
building of Greenwich Hospital.

Mr. Wye, Rector of Wotton, died, a very worthy good man. I gave it to
Dr. Bohun, a learned person and excellent preacher, who had been my
son's tutor, and lived long in my family.

18th March, 1701. I let Sayes Court to Lord Carmarthen, son to the Duke
of Leeds. 28th. I went to the funeral of my sister Draper, who was
buried at Edmonton in great state. Dr. Davenant displeased the clergy
now met in Convocation by a passage in his book, p. 40.

April, 1701. A Dutch boy of about eight or nine years old was carried
about by his parents to show, who had about the iris of one eye the
letters of _Deus meus_, and of the other _Elohim_, in the Hebrew
character. How this was done by artifice none could imagine; his parents
affirming that he was so born. It did not prejudice his sight, and he
seemed to be a lively playing boy. Everybody went to see him; physicians
and philosophers examined it with great accuracy; some considered it as
artificial, others as almost supernatural.

4th April, 1701. The Duke of Norfolk died of an apoplexy, and Mr. Thomas
Howard of complicated disease since his being cut for the stone; he was
one of the Tellers of the Exchequer. Mr. How made a Baron.

May, 1701. Some Kentish men, delivering a petition to the House of
Commons, were imprisoned.[93]

    [Footnote 93: Justinian Champneys, Thomas Culpepper, William
    Culpepper, William Hamilton, and David Polhill, gentlemen of
    considerable property and family in the county. There is a very good
    print of them in five ovals on one plate, engraved by R. White, in
    1701. They desired the Parliament to mind the public more, and their
    private heats less. They were confined till the prorogation, and
    were much visited. Burnet gives an account of them.]

A great dearth, no considerable rain having fallen for some months.

17th May, 1701. Very plentiful showers, the wind coming west and south.
The Bishops and Convocation at difference concerning the right of
calling the assembly and dissolving. Atterbury and Dr. Wake writing one
against the other.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

20th June, 1701. The Commons demanded a conference with the Lords on the
trial of Lord Somers, which the Lords refused, and proceeding on the
trial, the Commons would not attend, and he was acquitted.

22d June, 1701. I went to congratulate the arrival of that worthy and
excellent person my Lord Galway, newly come out of Ireland, where he had
behaved himself so honestly, and to the exceeding satisfaction of the
people: but he was removed thence for being a Frenchman, though they had
not a more worthy, valiant, discreet, and trusty person in the two
kingdoms, on whom they could have relied for his conduct and fitness. He
was one who had deeply suffered, as well as the Marquis, his father, for
being Protestants.

July, 1701. My Lord Treasurer made my grandson one of the Commissioners
of the prizes, salary £500 per annum.

8th July, 1701. My grandson went to Sir Simon Harcourt, the
Solicitor-General, to Windsor, to wait on my Lord Treasurer. There had
been for some time a proposal of marrying my grandson to a daughter of
Mrs. Boscawen, sister of my Lord Treasurer, which was now far advanced.

14th July, 1701. I subscribed toward rebuilding Oakwood Chapel, now,
after 200 years, almost fallen down.

August, 1701. The weather changed from heat not much less than in Italy
or Spain for some few days, to wet, dripping, and cold, with
intermissions of fair.

2d September, 1701. I went to Kensington, and saw the house,
plantations, and gardens, the work of Mr. Wise, who was there to receive
me.

The death of King James, happening on the 15th of this month, N. S.,
after two or three days' indisposition, put an end to that unhappy
Prince's troubles, after a short and unprosperous reign, indiscreetly
attempting to bring in Popery, and make himself absolute, in imitation
of the French, hurried on by the impatience of the Jesuits; which the
nation would not endure.

Died the Earl of Bath, whose contest with Lord Montague about the Duke
of Albemarle's estate, claiming under a will supposed to have been
forged, is said to have been worth £10,000 to the lawyers. His eldest
son shot himself a few days after his father's death; for what cause is
not clear. He was a most hopeful young man, and had behaved so bravely
against the Turks at the siege of Vienna, that the Emperor made him a
Count of the Empire. It was falsely reported that Sir Edward Seymour was
dead, a great man; he had often been Speaker, Treasurer of the Navy, and
in many other lucrative offices. He was of a hasty spirit, not at all
sincere, but head of the party at any time prevailing in Parliament.

29th September, 1701. I kept my first courts in Surrey, which took up
the whole week. My steward was Mr. Hervey, a Counsellor, Justice of
Peace, and Member of Parliament, and my neighbor. I gave him six
guineas, which was a guinea a day, and to Mr. Martin, his clerk, three
guineas.

31st October, 1701. I was this day 81 complete, in tolerable health,
considering my great age.

December, 1701. Great contentions about elections. I gave my vote and
interest to Sir R. Onslow and Mr. Weston.

27th December, 1701. My grandson quitted Oxford.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

21st January, 1701-02. At the Royal Society there was read and approved
the delineation and description of my Tables of Veins and Arteries, by
Mr. Cooper, the chirurgeon, in order to their being engraved.

8th March, 1702. The King had a fall from his horse, and broke his
collar bone, and having been much indisposed before, and aguish, with a
long cough and other weakness, died this Sunday morning, about four
o'clock.

I carried my accounts of Greenwich Hospital to the Committee.

12th April, 1702. My brother-in-law, Glanville, departed this life this
morning after a long languishing illness, leaving a son by my sister,
and two granddaughters. Our relation and friendship had been long and
great. He was a man of excellent parts. He died in the 84th year of his
age, and willed his body to be wrapped in lead and carried down to
Greenwich, put on board a ship, and buried in the sea, between Dover and
Calais, about the Goodwin sands; which was done on the Tuesday, or
Wednesday after. This occasioned much discourse, he having no relation
at all to the sea. He was a gentleman of an ancient family in
Devonshire, and married my sister Jane. By his prudent parsimony he much
improved his fortune. He had a place in the Alienation Office, and might
have been an extraordinary man, had he cultivated his parts.

My steward at Wotton gave a very honest account of what he had laid out
on repairs, amounting to £1,900.

3d May, 1702. The report of the committee sent to examine the state of
Greenwich hospital was delivered to the House of Commons, much to their
satisfaction. Lord Godolphin made Lord High Treasurer.

Being elected a member of the Society lately incorporated for the
propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, I subscribed £10 per annum
toward the carrying it on. We agreed that every missioner, besides the
£20 to set him forth, should have £50 per annum out of the stock of the
Corporation, till his settlement was worth to him £100 per annum. We
sent a young divine to New York.

22d June, 1702. I dined at the Archbishop's with the newly made Bishop
of Carlisle, Dr. Nicolson, my worthy and learned correspondent.

27th June, 1702. I went to Wotton with my family for the rest of the
summer, and my son-in-law, Draper, with his family, came to stay with
us, his house at Addiscombe being new-building, so that my family was
above thirty. Most of the new Parliament were chosen of Church of
England principles, against the peevish party. The Queen was
magnificently entertained at Oxford and all the towns she passed through
on her way to Bath.

31st October, 1702. Arrived now to the 82d year of my age, having read
over all that passed since this day twelvemonth in these notes, I render
solemn thanks to the Lord, imploring the pardon of my past sins, and the
assistance of his grace; making new resolutions, and imploring that he
will continue his assistance, and prepare me for my blessed Savior's
coming, that I may obtain a comfortable departure, after so long a term
as has been hitherto indulged me. I find by many infirmities this year
(especially nephritic pains) that I much decline; and yet of his
infinite mercy retain my intellect and senses in great measure above
most of my age. I have this year repaired much of the mansion house and
several tenants' houses, and paid some of my debts and engagements. My
wife, children, and family in health: for all which I most sincerely
beseech Almighty God to accept of these my acknowledgments, and that if
it be his holy will to continue me yet longer, it may be to the praise
of his infinite grace, and salvation of my soul. Amen!

8th November, 1702. My kinsman, John Evelyn, of Nutfield, a young and
very hopeful gentleman, and Member of Parliament, after having come to
Wotton to see me, about fifteen days past, went to London and there died
of the smallpox. He left a brother, a commander in the army in Holland,
to inherit a fair estate.

Our affairs in so prosperous a condition both by sea and land, that
there has not been so great an union in Parliament, Court, and people,
in memory of man, which God in mercy make us thankful for, and continue!
The Bishop of Exeter preached before the Queen and both Houses of
Parliament at St. Paul's; they were wonderfully huzzaed in their
passage, and splendidly entertained in the city.

December, 1702. The expectation now is, what treasure will be found on
breaking bulk of the galleon brought from Vigo by Sir George Rooke,
which being made up in an extraordinary manner in the hold, was not
begun to be opened till the fifth of this month, before two of the Privy
Council, two of the chief magistrates of the city, and the Lord
Treasurer.

After the excess of honor conferred by the Queen on the Earl of
Marlborough, by making him a Knight of the Garter and a Duke, for the
success of but one campaign, that he should desire £5,000 a year to be
settled on him by Parliament out of the Post Office, was thought a bold
and unadvised request, as he had, besides his own considerable estate,
above £30,000 a year in places and employments, with £50,000 at
interest. He had married one daughter to the son of my Lord Treasurer
Godolphin, another to the Earl of Sunderland, and a third to the Earl of
Bridgewater. He is a very handsome person, well-spoken and affable, and
supports his want of acquired knowledge by keeping good company.

January, 1702-03. News of Vice-Admiral Benbow's conflict with the French
fleet in the West Indies, in which he gallantly behaved himself, and was
wounded, and would have had extraordinary success, had not four of his
men-of-war stood spectators without coming to his assistance; for this,
two of their commanders were tried by a Council of War, and
executed;[94] a third was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, loss of
pay, and incapacity to serve in future. The fourth died.

    [Footnote 94: The Captains Kirby and Wade, having been tried and
    condemned to die by a court-martial held on them in the West Indies,
    were sent home in the "Bristol;" and, on its arrival at Portsmouth
    were both shot on board, not being suffered to land on English
    ground.]

Sir Richard Onslow and Mr. Oglethorpe (son of the late Sir Theo. O.)
fought on occasion of some words which passed at a committee of the
House. Mr. Oglethorpe was disarmed. The Bill against occasional
conformity was lost by one vote. Corn and provisions so cheap that the
farmers are unable to pay their rents.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

February, 1703. A famous cause at the King's Bench between Mr. Fenwick
and his wife, which went for him with a great estate. The Duke of
Marlborough lost his only son at Cambridge by the smallpox. A great
earthquake at Rome, etc. A famous young woman, an Italian, was hired by
our comedians to sing on the stage, during so many plays, for which they
gave her £500; which part by her voice alone at the end of three scenes
she performed with such modesty and grace, and above all with such
skill, that there was never any who did anything comparable with their
voices. She was to go home to the Court of the King of Prussia, and I
believe carried with her out of this vain nation above £1,000, everybody
coveting to hear her at their private houses.

26th May, 1703. This day died Mr. Samuel Pepys, a very worthy,
industrious and curious person, none in England exceeding him in
knowledge of the navy, in which he had passed through all the most
considerable offices, Clerk of the Acts and Secretary of the Admiralty,
all which he performed with great integrity. When King James II. went
out of England, he laid down his office, and would serve no more; but
withdrawing himself from all public affairs, he lived at Clapham with
his partner, Mr. Hewer, formerly his clerk, in a very noble house and
sweet place, where he enjoyed the fruit of his labors in great
prosperity. He was universally beloved, hospitable, generous, learned in
many things, skilled in music, a very great cherisher of learned men of
whom he had the conversation. His library and collection of other
curiosities were of the most considerable, the models of ships
especially. Besides what he published of an account of the navy, as he
found and left it, he had for divers years under his hand the History of
the Navy, or _Navalia_, as he called it; but how far advanced, and what
will follow of his, is left, I suppose, to his sister's son, Mr.
Jackson, a young gentleman, whom Mr. Pepys had educated in all sorts of
useful learning, sending him to travel abroad, from whence he returned
with extraordinary accomplishments, and worthy to be heir. Mr. Pepys had
been for near forty years so much my particular friend, that Mr. Jackson
sent me complete mourning, desiring me to be one to hold up the pall at
his magnificent obsequies; but my indisposition hindered me from doing
him this last office.

13th June, 1703. Rains have been great and continual, and now, near
midsummer, cold and wet.

11th July, 1703. I went to Addiscombe, sixteen miles from Wotton, to
see my son-in-law's new house, the outside, to the coving, being such
excellent brickwork, based with Portland stone, with the pilasters,
windows, and within, that I pronounced it in all the points of good and
solid architecture to be one of the very best gentlemen's houses in
Surrey, when finished. I returned to Wotton in the evening, though
weary.

25th July, 1703. The last week in this month an uncommon long-continued
rain, and the Sunday following, thunder and lightning.

12th August, 1703. The new Commission for Greenwich hospital was sealed
and opened, at which my son-in-law, Draper, was present, to whom I
resigned my office of Treasurer. From August 1696, there had been
expended in building £89,364 14s. 8d.

31st October, 1703. This day, being eighty-three years of age, upon
examining what concerned me, more particularly the past year, with the
great mercies of God preserving me, and in the same measure making my
infirmities tolerable, I gave God most hearty and humble thanks,
beseeching him to confirm to me the pardon of my sins past, and to
prepare me for a better life by the virtue of his grace and mercy, for
the sake of my blessed Savior.

21st November, 1703. The wet and uncomfortable weather staying us from
church this morning, our Doctor officiated in my family; at which were
present above twenty domestics. He made an excellent discourse on 1 Cor.
xv., v. 55, 56, of the vanity of this world and uncertainty of life, and
the inexpressible happiness and satisfaction of a holy life, with
pertinent inferences to prepare us for death and a future state. I gave
him thanks, and told him I took it kindly as my funeral sermon.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26-7th November, 1703. The effects of the hurricane and tempest of
wind, rain, and lightning, through all the nation, especially London,
were very dismal. Many houses demolished, and people killed. As to my
own losses, the subversion of woods and timber, both ornamental and
valuable, through my whole estate, and about my house the woods crowning
the garden mount, the growing along the park meadow, the damage to my
own dwelling, farms, and outhouses, is almost tragical, not to be
paralleled, with anything happening in our age. I am not able to
describe it; but submit to the pleasure of Almighty God.

7th December, 1703. I removed to Dover Street, where I found all well;
but houses, trees, garden, etc., at Sayes Court, suffered very much.

31st December, 1703. I made up my accounts, paid wages, gave rewards and
New Year's gifts, according to custom.

January, 1703-04. The King of Spain[95] landing at Portsmouth, came to
Windsor, where he was magnificently entertained by the Queen, and
behaved himself so nobly, that everybody was taken with his graceful
deportment. After two days, having presented the great ladies, and
others, with valuable jewels, he went back to Portsmouth, and
immediately embarked for Spain.

    [Footnote 95: Charles III., afterward Emperor of Germany, by the
    title of Charles VI.]

16th January, 1704. The Lord Treasurer gave my grandson the office of
Treasurer of the Stamp Duties, with a salary of £300 a year.

30th January, 1704. The fast on the Martyrdom of King Charles I. was
observed with more than usual solemnity.

May, 1704. Dr. Bathurst, President of Trinity College, Oxford, now
died,[96] I think the oldest acquaintance now left me in the world. He
was eighty-six years of age, stark blind, deaf, and memory lost, after
having been a person of admirable parts and learning. This is a serious
alarm to me. God grant that I may profit by it! He built a very handsome
chapel to the college, and his own tomb. He gave a legacy of money, and
a third part of his library, to his nephew, Dr. Bohun, who went hence to
his funeral.

    [Footnote 96: There is a very good Life of him, with his portrait
    prefixed, by Thomas Warton, Fellow of Trinity College, and Poetry
    Professor at Oxford.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th September, 1704. This day was celebrated the thanksgiving for the
late great victory,[97] with the utmost pomp and splendor by the Queen,
Court, great Officers, Lords Mayor, Sheriffs, Companies, etc. The
streets were scaffolded from Temple Bar, where the Lord Mayor presented
her Majesty with a sword, which she returned. Every company was ranged
under its banners, the city militia without the rails, which were all
hung with cloth suitable to the color of the banner. The Lord Mayor,
Sheriffs, and Aldermen were in their scarlet robes, with caparisoned
horses; the Knight Marshal on horseback; the Foot-Guards; the Queen in a
rich coach with eight horses, none with her but the Duchess of
Marlborough in a very plain garment, the Queen full of jewels. Music and
trumpets at every city company. The great officers of the Crown,
Nobility, and Bishops, all in coaches with six horses, besides
innumerable servants, went to St. Paul's, where the Dean preached. After
this, the Queen went back in the same order to St. James's. The city
companies feasted all the Nobility and Bishops, and illuminated at
night. Music for the church and anthems composed by the best masters.
The day before was wet and stormy, but this was one of the most serene
and calm days that had been all the year.

    [Footnote 97: Over the French and Bavarians, at Blenheim, 13th
    August, 1704.]

October, 1704. The year has been very plentiful.

31st October, 1704. Being my birthday and the 84th year of my life,
after particular reflections on my concerns and passages of the year, I
set some considerable time of this day apart, to recollect and examine
my state and condition, giving God thanks, and acknowledging his
infinite mercies to me and mine, begging his blessing, and imploring his
protection for the year following.

December, 1704. Lord Clarendon presented me with the three volumes of
his father's "History of the Rebellion."

My Lord of Canterbury wrote to me for suffrage for Mr. Clarke's
continuance this year in the Boyle Lecture, which I willingly gave for
his excellent performance of this year.

9th February, 1704. I went to wait on my Lord Treasurer, where was the
victorious Duke of Marlborough, who came to me and took me by the hand
with extraordinary familiarity and civility, as formerly he was used to
do, without any alteration of his good-nature. He had a most rich George
in a sardonyx set with diamonds of very great value; for the rest, very
plain. I had not seen him for some years, and believed he might have
forgotten me.

21st February, 1704. Remarkable fine weather. Agues and smallpox much in
every place.

11th March, 1704. An exceedingly dry season. Great loss by fire,
burning the outhouses and famous stable of the Earl of Nottingham, at
Burleigh [Rutlandshire], full of rich goods and furniture, by the
carelessness of a servant. A little before, the same happened at Lord
Pembroke's, at Wilton. The old Countess of Northumberland, Dowager of
Algernon Percy, Admiral of the fleet to King Charles I., died in the 83d
year of her age. She was sister to the Earl of Suffolk, and left a great
estate, her jointure to descend to the Duke of Somerset.

May, 1704. The Bailiff of Westminster hanged himself. He had an ill
report.

On the death of the Emperor, there was no mourning worn at Court,
because there was none at the Imperial Court on the death of King
William.

18th May, 1704. I went to see Sir John Chardin, at Turnham Green, the
gardens being very fine, and exceedingly well planted with fruit.

20th May, 1704. Most extravagant expense to debauch and corrupt votes
for Parliament members. I sent my grandson with his party of my
freeholders to vote for Mr. Harvey, of Combe.

4th January, 1704-05. I dined at Lambeth with the Archbishop of Dublin,
Dr. King, a sharp and ready man in politics, as well as very learned.

June, 1705. The season very dry and hot. I went to see Dr. Dickinson the
famous chemist. We had long conversation about the philosopher's elixir,
which he believed attainable, and had seen projection himself by one who
went under the name of Mundanus, who sometimes came along among the
adepts, but was unknown as to his country, or abode; of this the doctor
had written a treatise in Latin, full of very astonishing relations. He
is a very learned person, formerly a Fellow of St. John's College,
Oxford, in which city he practiced physic, but has now altogether given
it over, and lives retired, being very old and infirm, yet continuing
chemistry.

I went to Greenwich hospital, where they now began to take in wounded
and worn-out seamen, who are exceedingly well provided for. The
buildings now going on are very magnificent.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

October, 1705. Mr. Cowper made Lord Keeper. Observing how uncertain
great officers are of continuing long in their places, he would not
accept it, unless £2,000 a year were given him in reversion when he was
put out, in consideration of his loss of practice. His predecessors, how
little time soever they had the Seal, usually got £100,000 and made
themselves Barons. A new Secretary of State. Lord Abington, Lieutenant
of the Tower, displaced, and General Churchill, brother to the Duke of
Marlborough, put in. An indication of great unsteadiness somewhere, but
thus the crafty Whig party (as called) begin to change the face of the
Court, in opposition to the High Churchmen, which was another
distinction of a party from the Low Churchmen. The Parliament chose one
Mr. Smith, Speaker. There had never been so great an assembly of members
on the first day of sitting, being more than 450. The votes both of the
old, as well as the new, fell to those called Low Churchmen, contrary to
all expectation.

31st October, 1705. I am this day arrived to the 85th year of my age.
Lord teach me so to number my days to come, that I may apply them to
wisdom!

1st January, 1705-06. Making up my accounts for the past year, paid
bills, wages, and New Year's gifts, according to custom. Though much
indisposed and in so advanced a stage, I went to our chapel [in London]
to give God public thanks, beseeching Almighty God to assist me and my
family the ensuing year, if he should yet continue my pilgrimage here,
and bring me at last to a better life with him in his heavenly kingdom.
Divers of our friends and relations dined with us this day.

27th January, 1706. My indisposition increasing, I was exceedingly ill
this whole week.

3d February, 1706. Notes of the sermons at the chapel in the morning and
afternoon, written with his own hand, conclude this Diary.[98]

    [Footnote 98: Mr. Evelyn died on the 27th of this month.]


END OF THE DIARY.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Footnotes have been moved below the paragraph to which they relate.

Inconsistencies have been retained in spelling, hyphenation, formatting,
punctuation, and grammar, except where indicated in the list below:

  - "dilligent" changed to "diligent" on Page 1
  - "suprising" changed to "surprising" on Page 2
  - Period added after "1665" on Page 5
  - Period added after "ought!)" on Page 12
  - Semicolon changed to a period added after "1666" on
    Page 13
  - Period added after "etc" on Page 26
  - "Luke, xix," changed to "Luke xix." on Page 26
  - Quote added after "Writings," in Footnote 9
  - "day's" changed to "days" in Footnote 10
  - "Fore-land" changed to "Foreland" on Page 34
  - Comma added after "August" on Page 36
  - Period changed to a comma after "received" on Page 40
  - Comma changed to a period after "1667" on Page 41
  - Comma added after "April" on Page 41
  - Period added after "years" on Page 45
  - Period changed to a comma after "September" on
    Page 51
  - Period added after "1671" on Page 68
  - "rarites" changed to "rarities" on Page 72
  - Comma changed to a period added after "fowl" on
    Page 73
  - Period added after "April" on Page 79
  - Period added after "home" on Page 83
  - Period added after "me" on Page 83
  - Period added after "1672" on Page 86
  - Comma removed after "Psalm" on Page 87
  - Period added after "design" on Page 89
  - Period added after "go-by" on Page 91
  - Closed paren changed to a comma after "Burnet"
    on Page 98
  - "eloqence" changed to "eloquence" on Page 98
  - Comma removed after "Luke" on Page 102
  - Period added after "Dr" on Page 104
  - Period changed to a comma after "him" on Page 104
  - Period added after "1675" on Page 105
  - Period added after "London" on Page 106
  - "gentelman" changed to "gentleman" on Page 107
  - Comma added after "November" on Page 108
  - Comma added after "December" on Page 108
  - Period added after "xx" on Page 109
  - Comma removed after "Isaiah" on Page 109
  - Period added after "Mr" on Page 110
  - Period added after "manner" on Page 110
  - Period added after "chargeable" on Page 111
  - "Duke s" changed to "Duke's" on Page 111
  - Period added after "Mr" on Page 111
  - Period added after "large" on Page 119
  - Period added after "Queen" on Page 120
  - "Brounker" changed to "Brouncker" on Page 121
  - "exemplaily" changed to "exemplarily" on Page 124
  - Comma removed after "Europeans" on Page 147
  - Comma added after "Mingrelia" on Page 147
  - "day s" changed to "day's" on Page 154
  - Period added after "them" on Page 157
  - "at at" changed to "at" on Page 163
  - Period added after "Mr" on Page 166
  - "Archibishop s" changed to "Archibishop's" on
    Page 168
  - Period added after "lute" on Page 195
  - Period added after "II" on Page 208
  - Comma changed to a period added after "1685" on
    Page 212
  - Period added after "solemn" on Page 212
  - "ingenius" changed to "ingenious" on Page 214
  - "familar" changed to "familiar" on Page 214
  - Period added after "spirits" on Page 216
  - Period added after "family" on Page 216
  - Period removed after "Sir" on Page 220
  - Period added after "worship" on Pago 224
  - "pro ceeded" changed to "proceeded" on Page 229
  - Period added after "end" on Page 229
  - Semicolon changed to colon after "note" in
    Footnote 61
  - Quote added after "but, says he," on page 234
  - Comma added after "February" on Page 248
  - "etc," changed to "etc." on Page 256
  - "minatures" changed to "miniatures" on Page 258
  - "minatured" changed to "miniatured" on Page 258
  - Period added after "St" on Page 262
  - Period added after "Mr" on Page 262
  - "Martin s" changed to "Martin's" on Page 262
  - Period added after "ended" on Page 263
  - Period added after "1687" on Page 263
  - "mal-administration" changed to "maladministration"
    on Page 294
  - "Guatavus" changed to "Gustavus" on Page 295
  - Period added after "St" on Page 300
  - Comma added after "February" on Page 300
  - Period added after "£40,000" on Page 307
  - Period added after "season" on Page 307
  - Period added after "Bishop" on Page 307
  - Period added after "frost" on Page 307
  - Period added after "Tower" on Page 307
  - Period added after "years" on Page 308
  - Comma added after "July" on Page 311
  - Comma changed to a period added after "1693" on
    Page 321
  - Period added after "Mr" on Page 337
  - "proemunire" changed to "præmunire" on Page 337
  - Period added after "1699" on Page 348
  - Period added after "Mr" on Page 355
  - "Norfold" changed to "Norfolk" on Page 356





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