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Title: Bancroft's Tourist's Guide Yosemite - San Francisco and around the Bay, (South.)
Author: Bancroft, A.L.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bancroft's Tourist's Guide Yosemite - San Francisco and around the Bay, (South.)" ***

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Internet Archive)

Transcriber's Note:

  Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have
  been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  On page 64 "Phenicians" may be a typo for "Phoenicians".
  On page 78 "sterites" may be a typo for "stearites".
  On page 93 "Asisis" may be a typo for "Assisi".
  In the Index, hyphens indicate both a range of numbers (156-158) and
    a series of numbers (157-172-174).
  Inconsistent punctuation in the ads section has been retained as
  The book uses both San José, and San Jose.





     Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871,
     By A. L. BANCROFT & CO.,
     In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.

     Bancroft's Steam Printing, Lithographing, Engraving and Book-binding
     Establishment, San Francisco, Cal.


     PREFACE,                                    4

     INTRODUCTION,                               7

     ROUTES AND EXPENSES,                    13-24

     YOSEMITE VALLEY,                           25

     THE BIG TREES, CALAVERAS,                  52

                    MARIPOSA,                   57

                    OTHER GROVES,               67

     BOWER CAVE,                                72

     ALABASTER CAVE,                            77

     INDEX TO SAN FRANCISCO,                    89

     SAN FRANCISCO,                             95

     EXCURSION ROUTES,                         205

     SACRAMENTO,                               232

     STOCKTON,                                 243

     OAKLAND,                                  209

     SAN JOSE,                                 212

     MT. DIABLO,                               227

     LAKE TAHOE,                               250

     DONNER LAKE,                              251


This is a Pocket Guide to Yosemite Valley and the Big Trees, with the
best routes thither and thence. It also includes San Francisco with
the cities, towns, caves, mines and beaches within a hundred miles
south and east of this city.

We have tried to make it accurate and reliable in all statements of
routes, distances, time required, conveyances, fares, hotels, rates,
etc., making a snug, neat and tasteful book, to be sold at a low rate
on all overland trains and ocean steamers bound hither, meeting all
tourists, excursionists and travelers some hundreds of miles before
they reach San Francisco, posting them on all the most attractive
spots in the State, and answering in advance all necessary questions,
thus enabling them, before setting foot in the city, to plan their
excursions, decide upon routes, choose conveyances, select hotels, and
calculate expenses. And then, when they have actually been over the
whole ground, and thoroughly tested it, find everything "_just as the
book said_."

True, we already have three or four costly volumes, written for a
similar purpose, but we claim that for the ordinary use of the average
tourist this is superior to any or all of them in at least three
important particulars:

1st. It omits all tedious, long-drawn, and unnecessarily minute
descriptions, which may occasionally suit some very critical or
scientific tourist, but whose chief value is to _guide_ the traveler's
money into the publisher's pocket.

2d. It contains brief descriptions of all the most notable curiosities
and wonders of the State. Its statements are drawn from the latest
official scientific sources, or taken from the personal observation
and actual measurements of the writer, made expressly for this work.

3d. It is compact and economical of time, space and money, none of
which the tourist usually cares to waste or lose or throw away.

The public have called for it, and we have done our best to respond,
with the material, and in the time, at our command.

That it contains _no_ mistakes we do not claim, but that it includes
fewer than any similar book we confidently affirm. We have availed
ourselves of every practicable source of reliable information up to
date, June, 1871.

In a new and fast-growing State, like ours, where railroad companies
sometimes lay nearly a league of track a day, it is simply impossible
that any publication should remain perfectly accurate in every
particular, even for twenty-four hours after its issue.

We pledge ourselves to disappoint no reasonable expectation, and shall
thankfully receive and gratefully appreciate any correction or later
information which any traveler, railroad, stage or saddle-train agent,
or hotel manager, will kindly communicate.

In response to many calls, constantly repeated, and now pressingly
urged, we offer this little Common-sense Hand-book Guide, which
truthfully tells tourists just




     SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., June, 1871.


You are going to Yosemite. Of course you are. What else did you come
to California for? The idea of a man in his right mind, having the
slightest love of beauty, grandeur and sublimity, coming to California
and _not_ going to Yosemite! Why, it's preposterous; it's incredible;
it's impossible. We may as well dismiss the thought at once. Of
_course_ you go. So that's settled.

Now, _when_ will you go? If you have means and are sure of time to see
all the wonders and beauties which the State offers, then might you
wisely and safely leave the best until the last; that is, reserve
Yosemite for your final trip before you return. But, lest time or cash
should fail, or sudden summons hasten your departure, it is wisest and
safest to make sure of it at once while you may. It would never do to
go back East, confront inquiring friends, and have to humbly confess
that you _had_ been to California, but had _not_ seen Yosemite.

Then, _how_ shall you go. If you are fresh and strong, with the nerve
and muscle of a young and enthusiastic college pedestrian, you can do
it on foot, as Bayard Taylor did Europe. It's the most independent and
enjoyable way of all if you have time and disposition, and no ladies
in your party. If you _should_ wish to try that, get a copy of the
Overland Monthly for July, 1870, turn to the article "Yosemite on
Foot," and you have your guide.

If you haven't time or ambition to distinguish yourself by emulating
Weston, you may possibly contemplate an excursion on hoofs. Several
parties have done Yosemite on all fours, and report a tough American
nag, or a wiry little Mexican mustang as an indispensable auxiliary.
Parties who wish to avoid the sense of dependence, as well as the
pecuniary expense of hiring a stable horse, frequently buy a tough
native horse for seventy-five or a hundred dollars, use him for the
entire trip, with no expense beyond that of daily feeding, keep him
until they have finished their tour, and then sell him for nearly as
much, in some cases even more, than they paid.

Mounted in this way you accomplish a sort of vicarious pedestrianism,
gladly substituting equine hoofs for human heels, while the animal
himself rejoices in a responsible backer in the bifurcated person of
your bestriding self; or, still again, it may be--it probably _does_
be, as our little four-year-old says--that you are too fashionably
_lazy_,--I beg pardon, I meant to say, it is possible that you have
inherited a constitutional aversion to protracted exertion, which, by
long indulgence, has quite unfitted you for the thoroughly manly or
womanly pursuit of grandeur, beauty, and pleasure in the
saddle--chasing health on horseback.

One other way remains, before you fall back upon the fashionable and
feeble way of "being carried" in the regular, orthodox and popular
style, which suffers you to attempt no personal exercise beyond "the
heavy looking on." You may combine saddle and wagon: that is, take a
strong wagon, carrying tent, provisions and cooking apparatus, with
one or two of the more unskillful riders on the seat, while the others
in the saddle revolve as equestrian satellites around.

But if you decide, as most do, and as you probably will, to take no
responsibility and cumber yourself with no care, you select one of the
various public routes, seek out its agent, make your contract, give up
all planning and providing on your own part, pay over your coin, take
your tickets for the round trip, commit yourself to one of the various
lines of public conveyances, dismiss all anxiety and give yourself up
to receive and absorb all the pleasure that may lie along the route,
or await you at its end.

And if your object is simply enjoyment, untroubled by exertion, and
unmixed with anxiety, that is, undoubtedly, the best way.

You are in San Francisco, at the Grand, at the Occidental, at the Lick
House or the Cosmopolitan. In their luxurious beds you have slept off
the fatigue of thirty-three hundred miles across the continent, and at
their bountiful tables you have fed yourself into courage and spirit
for new and further enterprise. You have come forth so fresh and brave
that you feel ready for eight thousand miles more, straight across the
tranquil Pacific; or climbing, unaided, the loftiest vertebral peak of
that spinal range which furnishes the backbone of the continent. Your
new vigor has let off its frothy effervescence in sundry spasmodic
dashes about the city and around its suburbs. You have driven to the
Cliff House, interviewed the seals, climbed Telegraph hill, rusticated
at Woodward's, spent an afternoon at Bancroft's, crossed to Oakland,
inspected Alcatraz and Fort Point, and, in short, completed the little
day-trips and half-day tours which so restfully entertain the
newly-arrived traveler, gradually acclimate him to our occidental air
and familiarize him with our cosmopolitan people. You feel strong and
fresh: ready for the grand excursion. All your drawing-room and
dining-table suits are snugly packed in trunks, folded away in drawers
or carefully hung in wardrobe or clothespress. The roughest, strongest
and warmest suit in your possession you have donned. Specially provide
good stout, yet easy, boots or shoes, with the softest and most
comfortable of socks or stockings. Remember that every day brings two
climates, a cool or even cold one for morning and evening, with a hot
and dusty noon sandwiched between. Umbrellas and rubber blankets you
won't need, though a good traveling shawl will serve you frequently
and well. Stovepipe hats are an abomination--a hard hat of any shape,
first cousin to it, and the extra wide brimmed ladies' picnic hat,
closely akin to both. Browns, drabs and grays are your best colors;
linens and woolens your best materials; fine flannels next the skin,
and especially provide plenty of something soft and thick to come
between you and the horse, during the necessary miles in the saddle.
This last is not a matter of choice, but of necessity. Calculate to
spend at least two weeks in the valley, and allow two or even three
days each way for your trip in and out. Of course you can go faster
and quicker if you wish or must, but of all excursions imaginable,
Yosemite most needs deliberation and leisure. These are precisely the
two things of which the average American tourist has the least. Whence
it has happened that very few indeed, especially of our own
countrymen, have ever really _visited_ Yosemite. Hundreds have dashed
in, plunged around and rushed out. Horace Greeley staid about as long
as it would take him to rush off one of his patent chain-lightning,
hieroglyphic Tribune editorials.

He rode in at midnight, reached his lodging at one o'clock in the
morning, too tired to eat, and too sore to tell of it; went to bed,
sick, sore and disgusted. Up late next morning, so lame he could
hardly sit in his saddle, hobbled hurriedly around three or four
hours, and was on his way out again at a little after noon.

Many of the grandest sights he didn't even catch the remotest glimpse
of; those he did see he just glanced at, too weary to appreciate their
slightest beauty, and too hurried to allow himself time to begin to
grow to the true scale of their grandeur; and having given to the
whole valley about one quarter of the time necessary to thoroughly
study, intelligently enjoy and heartily appreciate the least of its
wonders, he has the presumption to fancy he has "been to Yosemite."
The fact is, he never really _saw_ a single object about the valley,
except, possibly, the giant cliff, Tu-toch-ah-nu-lah, which, as he
says, looked as if it might have leaned over and buried him beneath
its vastness, and which, as I say, _would_, doubtless, have done so
speedily, had it known that the shabby rider who shambled along under
its base that moonlight night, sore at one end, sleepy at the other,
and sick all the way between, was going to rush off and talk so
inadequately, unworthily and even untruthfully about objects which no
human eye ever did see or could see in the condition of his
sleep-oppressed optics on that slumbrous August morning. He has the
cheek to declare that the fall of Yosemite is a humbug. It would be
interesting to know what the fall thought of Greeley. One thing is
sure, all earlier and later visitors unite in the opinion that the
only humbug in the valley that year went out of it in his saddle about
three o'clock on that drowsy August afternoon, and has never since
marred the measureless realities which he sleepily slandered. The
simple fact is, Mr. Greeley saw the little which he did see three or
four months too late in the season. If he ever comes again, at the
right time, and stays to really _see_ the wonders of the valley, he
will be heartily ashamed of what he then wrote, and freely pardon his
present critic. Meantime, exit H. G. We bear thee no malice. The soul
that can see and feel as little as thine did in Yosemite provokes no
anger, but only sorrow and compassion. For the sake of thy sore and
raw and sadly-pummeled body, we freely forgive the terribly shaken
soul that inhabited it on that memorable midnight when horse and
saddle maliciously united in assault and battery on the most sensitive
portion of thine editorial corporosity. Vale, Greeley, vale. The next
time thou comest hither, wear what hat thou likest and match it with
what suit may please thee best, but if thou lovest life, and wouldst
see good days, tell, oh Horace, tell the truth.

Pardon our digression to Greeley. We have spent so much time on him,
not because he occasionally scribbles illegible manuscript for a new
and struggling paper in a small eastern village, but because he came
faster, arrived sorer, stayed fewer hours, saw less of the valley, and
slandered it more than any one else has ever attempted.

Olive Logan spoke disparagingly of the Yosemite Fall, but the Fall is
still there. She adds some slanderous remarks about the conduct of the
drivers along the route, to which the only fitting answer would be
these questions: "When a man or a woman, all alone in a room, looks
into a mirror, and doesn't see a gentleman or lady reflected
therein--_whose fault is it?_ Is the difficulty in the glass or in
_front_ of it?"

But let us start. From San Francisco to Yosemite there are three
routes. All of them carry one, first, to or near Stockton, which city
we reach by rail or river, and all of them bring us, at last, into the
valley by one of the only two trails which enter it. Between the outer
ends of these trails and Stockton, or vicinity, lie the various
intermediate places or way stations which have given name to the
routes which pass through them, and concerning which the tourist
chiefly needs reliable information.

Looking upon any good map, not drawn in the exclusive interest of some
one of these rival routes, you can easily see for yourself, spite of
all agents' representations, which is the most direct way,
geographically or topographically.

We now mention these in regular order, reckoning from north to south;
that is, _down the map_, as we used to say at school. For convenience,
we may distinguish the three routes as the upper or north route, the
middle route, and the lower or south route.

Big Oak Flat Route.

The upper or north route is commonly called the Big Oak Flat, or the
Hutchings route. If we go by this, we can either go directly into the
valley, or make a detour by way of the Calaveras Big Trees. The
following table showing distances, times and conveyances, by the
straight and quick way.


          From      |      To      | Miles.| Hours. |   By
     San Francisco  | Stockton     |   90  | 10     | Steamer.
     Stockton       | Milton       |   28  |  1¼    |   Car.
     Milton         | Chinese Camp |   24  |  4     |  Stage.
     Chinese Camp   | Garrote      |   14  |  2½    |    "
     Garrote        | Tamarack     |   32  |  6     |    "
     Tamarack       | Yosemite     |   11  |  4     | Saddle.
                    |              +-------+--------+
                    |              |  199  | 27¾    |

By the above way you leave San Francisco at four o'clock P.M., from
the wharf, at the foot of Broadway, by one of the California Pacific
Railroad Company's steamers for Stockton. You have a fine afternoon
and sunset view of San Francisco, the shipping, Oakland, Yerba Buena
and Alcatraz Islands, the Golden Gate, Angel Island, Mount Tamalpais,
San Quentin, San Pablo Bay, Vallejo, Mare Island, Suisun Bay, Benicia,
Martinez, and Mount Diablo. Those who have crossed the continent by
rail find this sail a pleasant change. They avoid the dust, get a good
night's rest on the steamer, reach Stockton at from two to three
o'clock in the morning, breakfast at six, and at seven take the cars
of the Stockton and Copperopolis Railroad from the station near the
landing. We reach Milton, twenty-eight miles, at 8.20, find the stage
waiting, and immediately embark, and are off at once. The road lies
through a mountainous country, well timbered. The air is clear and
invigorating, and the scenery sublime. The road is good, the stages
first-class, and the drivers obliging.

About one we reach Chinese Camp, and after twenty-four miles staging
are ready for a half-hour's rest and a good dinner; or, we may wait
for both until we reach Garrote, fourteen miles farther. Here either
of two good hotels will feed and lodge us. Next morning we'd better
dress for the horse-back ride in the afternoon. Lay aside all
superfluous luggage and pack your extra nice clothing, if you have
been foolish enough to bring any, in your valise. A small hand-satchel
you can pack behind you on the horse, or take it before you. Let it be
as small and snugly-packed as possible. One word further, and a most
important one, especially to ladies. Calculate to _ride astride_, and
dress for it. You can wear a long skirt to Tamarack, but beyond it is
a nuisance. A woman who has only one leg, or has two on one side, may
have some excuse for the unnatural, ungraceful, dangerous and
barbarous side-saddle. The last word was prompted by remembering the
raw back of the beautiful horse which carried Miss Dix into the
valley, under the old, conventional, side-saddle. The lady is,
unquestionably, a noted philanthropist, but that poor horse probably
never suspected it. Anna Dickinson rode in man-fashion, arrived fresh
and strong, and so did her horse. Ask her animal if he wants to carry
that lady again and he'll never say nay (neigh). On a trip like this
the side-saddle is barbarous to the horse and dangerous to the rider.
The only good thing about it is that it jolts and racks and strains
and tires the rider so outrageously, that it is fast converting many
women to the sensible and safe way.

From Tamarack Flat the road dwindles to a trail, winds among pine
trees, crosses an occasional rivulet, commands a fine outlook through
the trees, now and then, and finally, almost before you know it,
brings you to the brink of the valley. Thence let your horse have his
head. He'll take care of himself and you too--land you safely at the
foot of the trail, and deposit you at Hutchings' by five or six
o'clock, in good time for the ample dinner which will be waiting.

If you wish to take the Calaveras Big Trees on your way, you can do
so, either going or coming, by taking the same general route as far as
Milton, to which place the times, distances, and conveyances are the
same as in the table already given. From Milton you take stage through
Murphy's to Sperry & Perry's hotel, where you dine in the very shadows
of the Big Tree grove. Having stayed among the vegetable monsters as
long as you can, you return thence by stage to Sonora, twenty-nine
miles; time six hours; from Sonora to Garrote, also by stage,
twenty-five miles in five hours, and then you strike the same road
which you would travel by going directly in, so that the conveyances,
time and distances of the former table will also serve you hence. As
we said a few paragraphs back, these two routes are not really
separate and distinct routes, as nearly one hundred and twenty miles
on the western end, and about fifty miles at the eastern end, are the
same in both. The time occupied in going or coming by the way of the
trees is twelve and one half hours more than by the direct route, and
the fare is seven dollars more, besides, of course, the expense of one
night's lodging and two meals more on the route, than will be
necessary to one going directly in.

The second route, the middle one, is the

Coulterville Route,

so named from the principal town through which it passes, which took
its own name from General Coulter, who still manages the business of
the line.

By this route you leave San Francisco at four P.M., by cars on Central
Pacific Railroad; change cars at Lathrop for Modesto, arriving same
evening. Remain over night at the Ross House, James Cole, proprietor,
and leave by stage at eight A.M. for Coulterville, forty-eight miles,
ten hours, arriving at six P.M.

You dine at La Grange, twenty-eight miles from Modesto. Stay all night
at Wagner's Hotel, Coulterville, where supper, lodging and breakfast
cost you $2.50.

Next morning rise early, take a good hot breakfast, leave Coulterville
at five o'clock for Gobin's Ranch at Crane's Flat, thirty miles, where
you are due at twelve. Dine at Gobin's for $1.00. At one o'clock leave
Gobin's by saddle train, arriving at Black's Hotel, in the valley,
fifteen miles, at six P.M., thus taking it leisurely, especially down
the mountain-side trail into the valley, where no animal can go fast
and keep his feet, and no rider can hurry and save his neck.

Returning, leave the valley at six in the morning, and reach Gobin's,
Crane Flat, at eleven, taking five hours, the same time as when going
in, as horses can go full as fast _up_ the trail as down. Dine at
Gobin's, as when going in. Leave Crane Flat at twelve, and reach
Coulterville at half past five, where the same hotel, Wagner's,
accommodates you with supper, lodging and breakfast, and at the same
rates as before.

Leave Coulterville at six next morning, and drive twenty-eight miles
to Roberts', where we dine, at noon. From Roberts' to Modesto is
twenty miles. We are due at Modesto at from four to half past four
P.M. From Modesto we may take cars for Stockton and Sacramento, at
five, and go through direct to either of those places. But if we wish
to return to San Francisco, we stop at Lathrop, in a station where an
excellent dinner or supper can be had for 75 or 50 cents; and wait
until eleven P.M., when a freight train, with sleeping car attached,
comes along and bring us to San Francisco at half past seven next

This route gives regular rest, takes one through a beautiful and
picturesque country, from the fact that, after striking the foothills,
it lies along the dividing ridge between the Tuolumne and Merced
rivers. On the east lies the Sierra Nevada, with Castle Peak, Mount
Dana, and other prominent points, while westward it commands a view of
the San Joaquin Valley and the Coast Range. To this may be added the
fact that as a good part of the road runs east and west, and as the
prevailing winds are northerly, the dust is blown away to one side
instead of along with you.

Another and very great advantage of this route is that, from and after
the fifteenth of this month, June, 1871, it will run stages to the
very brink of the valley, leaving but two and a half miles of saddle
riding to the valley below, and only seven miles on horseback to the
hotels. This same advantage will then be true, also, of the Big Oak
Flat, or Hutchings' route, which enters the valley by the same trail.

Mariposa Route.

This is the lower, or southern route, taking its name from that of its
chief town, Mariposa, once famous as the seat of Fremont's famous
"estate," with its gold mines of supposed exhaustless wealth.

This route takes one by California Pacific Railroad from San
Francisco, through Lathrop to Modesto, one hundred and one miles;
thence ninety-six miles of staging, through Snelling's, Hornitos,
Bear Valley, and White & Hatch's (stop over night) to Clark & Moore's,
at the end of staging. From Clark's to the brink of the valley, by
saddle, is twenty-three miles, and thence to the hotels, seven miles;
making a total of thirty miles horseback riding. As an offset to this
the Mariposa Route claims the advantage of the view from Inspiration
Point, which lies nearly a mile off the direct trail, and for grandeur
and beauty is certainly all that can be claimed or desired.

Besides the view from Inspiration Point, this route also presents the
attraction of the Mariposa Big Trees, six miles from Clark's, and
requiring an additional expense of $2.50 for each horse, besides the
cost of another day's board and the fee of the guide.

The Calaveras trees, while equally grand and beautiful and even
loftier, have the great advantage of an excellent hotel in the very
midst of them, so that the tourist can spend much more time in
rambling among their monumental bulks.

Besides the three routes already named, two others have been opened
during the present season. The first of these may be called the

Mokelumne Hill Route.

Parties of eight, leaving San Francisco on the morning train, or
Sacramento on the noon train, can take stage at Mokelumne station, at
1.30 P.M., reach Mokelumne Hill the same evening at seven o'clock,
stay all night, and reach the Calaveras Big Trees at noon next day.

Price, from San Francisco to the Trees, and return, $17.00; from
Sacramento to the Trees and back, $15.50. Parties of four will be
taken for $15.00 each from Mokelumne station to the trees and back, in
first class coaches and carriages. Any wishing to try this route can
address Peck & Co., Mokelumne Hill.

From the trees one can go on to the valley by regular stages, and
come out by any trail he likes, by making previous arrangements

The second additional route is known as

Hamilton's New Route.

By this route the tourist from either San Francisco or Stockton takes
the Western Pacific Railroad to Galt, whence stages leaving at one
P.M., carry him by the way of Ione City and Valley, through Jackson to
Mokelumne Hill, where he arrives at 7 P.M., and stays over night.

Leave Mokelumne Hill at 6.30 next morning; take the direct route
through Railroad Flat and reach the Big Trees at noon. Fare, for the
round trip from San Francisco or Sacramento, $20.00. From either city
to the Big Trees, $12.00, leaving one free to go from the grove to
Yosemite, when and as he likes.

Independent Trips,

Are commonly made in one of three ways:

1st. By private wagons, taking camping apparatus, cooking utensils and
provisions along.

2d. In the saddle, taking apparatus, utensils and food along on pack

3d. On foot, taking as little as possible, and depending mainly on
hotels and wayside ranches or farm houses for the necessary meals and
lodging, unless you choose to lodge in your own blankets.


Parties of from four to thirty try this method every season, and
report themselves delighted with the enjoyment of it, and subjected to
an average expense not exceeding $2.00 a day for each one of a party
less than eight, or $1.50, or even less, a day for a party of from
twelve to thirty.


By this method the party is still more independent than by wagons, as
hoofs can go where wheels cannot. The expense is about the same, as
what is saved in the hire of wagons is balanced by the cost of the
greater number of horses where there must be one animal for each
person in the party, besides from one to four, or even six, animals to
carry camp equipage and food.


For complete independence, combined with the ability to go where and
as you please, unconfined by roads or trails, this is the best way of
all. You can feed and lodge at hotels and wayside houses, or you can
take along blankets and lodge where night overtakes you. To the
untrained this may seem exceedingly rough and uncomfortable; to those
who have fairly tried it, you will have no need to recommend it.

Hotel Rates along these Routes.

The hotel rates vary but little by whatever route you may go or come.
You will seldom find a meal or a lodging as low as fifty cents,
especially among the mountains and at the places most frequented by
summer travel. The more common price is seventy-five cents for either,
and as we approach the Valley, or the Big Trees, we may calculate on
that figure as the usual cost. The reasonable tourist,--and those who
have souls great enough to lead them to nature's wonders are supposed
to be reasonable at least,--will readily see two good reasons why the
charges along routes like these must be relatively higher than along
the more frequently and permanently traveled routes of the thickly
settled portions of the State: 1st, Everything which requires
transportation, furniture, carpets, and all articles of food which
cannot be raised in the immediate vicinity, necessarily cost much more
for transportation than where steamers or cars bring them almost to
the door. 2nd, The travel along all such routes, and the consequent
profit upon that travel, must be made within less than one third of
the year. During the remaining two thirds, furniture must stand
unused, and nearly the whole amount invested for the accommodation of
tourists must remain idle, not only yielding no income, but actually
becoming a source of additional expense until the opening of a new

We have no disposition to apologize for any extortionate or
unreasonable charges; for we are very happy to say that any such
apology is rarely needed. Every experienced and fair-minded traveler
knows that his fellow passengers are unreasonable and extortionate in
_their_ demands fully as often as the transportation companies and
their agents are in theirs. The various lines into the Valley and the
Big Trees are managed by men who realize perfectly well that the
amount of patronage they receive, and consequently, the profits which
they make, must depend upon their gaining and keeping the good will of
the traveling public. There is plenty of opposition; among the rival
lines, no one has or can obtain any monopoly.

The sensible and safe way, here, as everywhere, is to make a definite
agreement beforehand. Don't trust _any_ stranger's assurance that
"we'll make _that all right_." That very fair sounding phrase has made
more trouble than almost any other of equal length. The trouble is
that it has two meanings. The speaker's "all right" means, for
himself, and the hearer's "all right" means for _himself_, too; hence
the frequent upshot of such loose understanding is, that it proves a
complete _mis_understanding, when they come to settle. Distinctly
specify what is to be done; how it is to be done; by whom and when;
and then add at least ten per cent. to the specified cost for those
little extras which will inevitably force themselves upon you in
almost every trip. Thus you may escape adding yourself to the list of
those improvident ones whose usual exclamation at the close of any
pleasure trip is "It cost me a great deal more than I _expected_; _and
I always thought it would_."

Valley Hotels.

There are three--Hutching's, Black's, and Liedig's. Any of them will
keep you well for from $3.00 to $3.50 a day, or $20.00 a week.
Hutchings' is the farthest up the valley and nearer the greater number
of points of interest. Hutchings himself, as poor Dan Setchell used to
make Captain Cuttle say of his friend "Ole Sol Gills," is the
"chuck-fulledest man o' science," in all matters pertaining to the
valley and its history, that one can find in the State. He keeps an
excellent house and usually entertains the more distinguished literary
and scientific tourists. The Yosemite branch of the Western Union
Telegraph now completed and working as far as Garrote, will be
extended into the valley and have its office at Hutchings, by July

Black's is a new house, built expressly for the increased travel of
late years--having excellent bath and other accommodations, with
well-finished and furnished rooms. It stands three quarters of a mile
nearer the west end of the valley.

Liedig's is also new, and is specially noted for the bountiful supply
of well-cooked food which usually loads its hospitable table, under
the immediate and personal superintendence of its obliging hostess. It
is situated nearly in front of the base of Sentinel Rock.

Each of these houses, of course, has its warm friends, loud in its
praises. All of them do their best for the satisfaction of guests and
any one of them will provide the tourist with a comfortable home.

Horses and Guides in the Valley.

For a good horse and saddle the charge is $2.50 a day, or for a trip,
if it occupies such part of the day that the animal cannot go out on
any other one the same day. If you propose to stay a week or more, and
wish to engage the same horse for your regular and exclusive use
every day during that time, you can do so for one fifth less;
sometimes lower than that.

The horses are good, trusty, serviceable beasts, trained to their
business and generally safe and reliable.

Going into or coming out from the valley with any regular trip, over
any route, you have nothing to do with providing or paying for a
guide. One accompanies the saddle-train each way.

In and about the valley, you can have the company and attention of a
practiced and competent guide for $3.00 a day--or, a trip. The guide's
fee is the same whether the party be small or large.

No tourist who has the nerve and muscle of an average man or woman
really _needs_ either horse or guide. The valley is only seven miles
long and but a mile wide. The perpendicular walls, from three to five
thousand feet high, shut you in all around. You certainly can't get
_out_; and with so many prominent landmarks all about you, you can't
get _lost_, unless you try very hard indeed. With a good guide-book
before you and well-rested legs under you, a very moderate exercise of
common sense will take you all about the valley, and enable you
thoroughly to explore its wonders "on foot and alone" if you choose so
to go.

Bear in mind, however, that you are nearly a mile--in some places more
than a mile--above the sea; that the atmosphere is rare and light;
that you need to restrain your impulse to _dash_ about, especially at
first. For the first two or three days "go slow"--take it moderately;
see _less_ than you think you might, rather than more. As you become
more familiar with the character of the rocks and ravines and
accustomed to the exertion of climbing about them, you can extend your
excursions and attempt harder things.

For the longer trips, such as the ascent of the Sentinel Rock, it may
be safer and wiser to employ a good guide.


The total necessary expenses by each route are:

     1st. By Big Oak Flat (Hutchings') Route:

     From San Francisco to Yosemite Valley, _or_ return            $20
     From San Francisco to Yosemite _and_ return                    38
     From San Francisco to the Calaveras Big Trees, _or_ return     10
     From San Francisco to the Calaveras Big Trees and Valley,
       _or_ return                                                  25
     From San Francisco to the Calaveras Big Trees and Valley,
       _and_ return                                                 45

         Thomas Houseworth & Co., Agents, 317 and 319 Montgomery
     street, San Francisco.

     2d. By the Coulterville Route:

     From San Francisco to Yosemite Valley, _or_ return            $20
     From San Francisco to Yosemite Valley, _and_ return            38

         G. W. Coulter, Agent, 214 Montgomery street, San Francisco.

     3d. By Mariposa Route:

     From San Francisco to Yosemite Valley, _or_ return            $25
     From San Francisco to Yosemite Valley, _and_ return            45

         Ed. Harrison, Agent, Grand Hotel, San Francisco.

     Board and Lodging en route, per day                         $3 00
     Board and Lodging in the Valley, per day                     3 00
     Board and Lodging at Big Trees, per day                      3 00
     Board and Lodging in either place, per week                 20 00
     Horses in Valley, or to Big Trees, per day                   2 50
     Guides in Valley or to Big Trees, per day                    3 00


     1. To Yosemite Valley, direct, by Big Oak or Coulterville,
     stay one week in the Valley, hiring guide and horse three
     days, and returning by same route                             $80

     2. Above excursion, including Calaveras Big Trees              90

     3. To Yosemite Valley direct, by Mariposa, staying a week
     in the Valley, hiring guide and horse three days, and coming
     out same way                                                   87

     4. Above excursion, including Mariposa Big Trees               93

     5. In by Big Oak Flat or Coulterville, and out by Mariposa,
     or _vice versa_, other conditions as above                     87

     6. In by Mariposa, and out by Big Oak Flat, visiting _both_
     groves of Big Trees, same conditions as above                 110

In the above statement the expense for guide is based on the
supposition that the party includes at least three persons.


The name is Indian. Pronounce it in four syllables, accenting the
second. It means "Big Grizzly Bear."

The valley lies very near the centre of the State, reckoning north and
south, about one fifth the way across from east to west, and almost
exactly in the middle of the high Sierras which inclose it. Its
direction from San Francisco is a little south of east, and its
distance about one hundred and forty miles in an air line. The valley
itself lies nearly east and west. Its main axis runs a little north of
east by a little south of west.

It consists of three parts:

1st. The surrounding wall of solid rock, nearly vertical, and varying
in height from one thousand to four and even five thousand feet.

2d. The slope of rocky masses and fragments which have fallen from the
face of the cliffs, forming a sort of _talus_ or escarpment along the
foot of this wall, from seventy-five to three hundred and fifty feet
high, throughout the greater part of its extent.

3d. The nearly level bottom land, lying between these slopes, forming
the valley proper, and divided into two unequal parts by the Merced
River flowing through westerly, from end to end.

The main valley is seven miles long; though one may make it longer if
he estimates the branches or divisions at the upper or eastern end.
Its width varies from a few feet on either side of the stream, to a
full mile and a quarter in its broadest part. It contains over a
thousand acres; two thirds meadow, and the rest a few feet higher,
somewhat sandy, gravelly, and, in places, covered with rocks and
boulders from the surrounding cliffs. Over the latter portion, at
irregular intervals, trees, shrubs and ferns are sparsely sprinkled or
set in irregular groups. The richer bottom supports several fine
clumps and groves of graceful trees.

The bottom of the valley is four thousand feet above the level of the
sea, and has an average fall, towards the west, of about six feet to
the mile. The river varies in width from fifty to seventy feet, and in
depth from six to twelve feet. Its bottom is gravelly, its current
remarkably swift, its waters clear as crystal. Trout, of delicious
quality, abound, but seldom allow white men to catch them.

The rocky wall which shuts it in, averages over three quarters of a
mile in perpendicular height. Nothing on wheels has ever gone up or
down this tremendous precipice, and in only two places have the
surest-footed horses or mules been able to find a safe trail.

Yosemite Valley is really a huge sink or cleft in a tangle of
rock-mountains; a gigantic trough, not scooped or hollowed out from
above, but sunk straight down, as if the bottom had dropped plumb
toward the centre, leaving both walls so high that if either should
fall, its top would reach clear across the valley and crash against
the opposite cliff several hundred feet above its base.

In many places these cliffs rise into rock-mountains, or swell into
huge mountainous domes, two or three of which have been split squarely
in two, or cleft straight down from top to bottom, and the two halves,
still standing straight up, have been heaved or thrown a half-mile
asunder, whence each looks wistfully across at its old mate, or frowns
sternly and gloomily down upon the beautiful valley which quietly
keeps them apart.

Here and there they tower into lofty spires, shoot up in shattered or
splintered needles, or solemnly stand in stately groups of massive
turrets. High bastions surmount steep precipices, and both look down
on awful chasms.

Back from the edge of the valley, behind these cliffs, the rock
country stretches away in every direction through leagues of solid
granite, rising irregularly into scattered hills, peaks and mountains,
between which run the various snow-fed streams, whose final, sudden
plunge over the valley's sharp and rocky brink makes the numerous
falls of such wonderful height.

Coming in by either trail, one enters the western or lower end of the
valley. We will suppose ourselves entering by the Mariposa trail. We
have clambered, or allowed our animals to clamber, safely down the
rocky, steep, and crooked trail, which lands us finally at the foot of
the precipitous slope of two thousand seven hundred feet. As we follow
the trail up the valley, that is, bearing away to the right, going
eastward along the foot of the south wall, we encounter the falls,
mountains, spires and domes in the following order:

One coming in by the Coulterville, Hardin's or Big Oak Flat trail,
finds himself at the same end of the valley, directly opposite the
foot of the Mariposa trail, having the river between; and as he bears
away to the left, along the base of the north wall, he would, of
course, meet all these wonders in exactly the reverse order. But to
return to the foot of the Mariposa or Clark's trail:

First, the

Bridal Veil Fall,

Indian name Po-ho-no, meaning, "The Spirit of the Evil Wind." The fall
is over nine hundred feet high, and of indescribable beauty. The
stream which forms it has an average width of some sixty-five feet at
the edge of the cliff where it breaks over the brink. It is narrower
in summer and wider in winter. For six hundred and thirty feet the
stream leaps clear of the cliff in one unbroken fall. Thence it rushes
down the steep slope of broken rocks in a confusion of intermingled
cascades nearly three hundred feet more.

The varying pressure of the changeful wind causes a veil-like waving,
swaying and fluttering, which readily suggests the obviously fitting
and most appropriate name.

     What could a bride be made of,
       Who would wear a veil like this?
     No sooner asked than answered,
       She must be "Maid o' the Mist."

This fall presents its greatest beauty in May or June when the volume
of water is not too great. The situation of Pohono, added to its
intrinsic beauty, waving a welcome as the tourist enters and
fluttering a farewell as he leaves, make it the universal favorite.
Ladies especially love to linger at its foot, feasting their eyes with
its marvelous and changeful beauty, and delighting their hearts with
the delicious suggestiveness of its most appropriate name. The
honeymoon can nowhere be more fittingly or happily spent than within
sight of Pohono.

Half a mile further the cliff rounds outward and swells upward into
an enormous double, rocky bastion, the

Cathedral Rocks.

Two thousand six hundred and sixty feet above the valley. Indian name,
Po-see-nah Choock-kah, meaning a large store or hoard of acorns. From
certain points of sight the form of these rocks readily suggests the
outline of a dilapidated Gothic cathedral. Only the superior grandeur
of Tu-toch-ah-nu-lah and the South Dome, prevent this rock from
greater fame. Outside of Yosemite it would quickly attain a world-wide

Just beyond these rocks the cliff bears away to the southeast and
sends up two slender, graceful pinnacles of splintered granite, rising
five hundred feet above the main wall, which supports them. These are

Cathedral Spires.

Their summits are twenty-four hundred feet above the valley. Seen from
the northeast, a mile distant, these spires appear symmetrical, of
equal height, squarely hewn and rising above the edge of the cliff
behind, exactly like two towers of a Gothic cathedral. One who doubts
the appropriateness of their name, has only to view them from this
point, whence a single glance will end his skepticism. Beyond the
spires the wall runs southeasterly a quarter of a mile, then curves
through an easterly and northerly sweep into a north and south line.
The whole sweep forms a sort of precipitous coast with its rocky
headlands, inclosing the valley between like an emerald bay. Beyond
this bay the rocky wall gradually curves again, and resumes its
easterly trend. An eighth of a mile further brings us to

The Fissure.

This is a cleft or split in the rock, running back southeasterly at
nearly a right angle with the face of the cliff. It is one thousand
feet deep, five feet wide at the top and front, and grows gradually
narrower as it extends downward and backward into the mountain.
Several boulders have fallen into it and lodged at different depths.

A third of a mile east of this fissure, and a mile and three quarters
from the Cathedral Rocks, another rocky promontory projects
northwesterly, like a huge buttress, a third of a mile into the
valley, crowned with a lofty granite obelisk, three hundred feet
thick, and standing straight up twelve hundred feet above the giant
cliff which supports it. This is the famous

Sentinel Rock,

so named from its resemblance to a gigantic watchtower or signal
station, for which, the legends say, the Indians formerly used it. The
Indian name was Loya. Its top is three thousand and forty-three feet
above the river at its foot. The sides show plainly-marked
perpendicular cleavages in the granite.

Although so steep in front and at the sides, a strong grasp, a sure
foot, a cool nerve and a calm head can safely climb it from the rear,
that is, the southwest side. At least they have done so more than
once, and planted a flag to wave in triumph from its summit. By the
unanimous and unquestioned verdict of all tourists, this rock is one
of the grandest and most beautiful even in Yosemite itself. Its
striking prominence has made it a favorite subject with all artists
who have visited the valley.

Three quarters of a mile southeast of the sentinel tower, half a mile
back from the brink of the precipice, and partially or totally hidden
by it, according as the spectator stands nearer to or farther from the
foot of the cliff, the

Sentinel Dome

lifts its hemispherical bulk four thousand one hundred and fifty feet.
This is one of the most regularly formed of all of the peculiar
dome-like peaks about the valley. The Indian name was Loy-e-ma. A
horseman can reach the very summit by a trail up the eastern slope,
and enjoy a most extensive view as his reward. From this dome, the
profile of the South Dome and strongly marked moraines of the
Too-loo-le-wack Cañon appear to better advantage than from any other

A mile east of Sentinel Rock the face of the cliff becomes less
precipitous, bends sharply around to the south, and thence back
towards the southwest, forming an angular and sloping rocky bluff
known as

Glacier Rock,

called by the Indians, Oo-woo-yoo-wah, which means, the "Great Rock of
the Elk." The story has it that during one of the expeditions of
troops into the valley, a party of soldiers, searching for Indians,
undertook to climb this rock, and while, slowly and with great labor,
working their way up its smooth and steep slope, the hunted red men
suddenly appeared upon its summit, and began to roll large stones down
upon them. These came thundering down with terrific noise and
frightful speed. The pale faces turned and fled with headlong haste,
but the destructive missiles smote several of them with instant death.

From the point of Glacier Rock one has a fine view of the valley. All
the domes, with the Yosemite, Vernal and Nevada Falls are plainly
visible thence.

For nearly a mile southeast of Glacier Rock the cliff becomes steeper
and more precipitous, forming the western wall of a wild, rough cañon,
stretching away southeasterly for nearly a mile. Over the cliff at
the head of this cañon the south fork of the Merced plunges six
hundred feet in the

Illilouette Fall.

This is also called the Too-loo-le-wack, or Too-lool-we-ack Fall. The
meaning of either of these Indian names is not certainly given.
Cunningham, one of the oldest and best guides of the valley, calls the
cañon and the fall at the head of it, the El-lil-o-wit. The tourist
who attempts this cañon must leave all hoofs behind, and, falling back
to first principles, depend entirely upon his own understanding.

Among the enormous masses of rock which obstruct it, several extensive
fissures and romantic caverns furnish additional stimulus to the
wonder-loving pedestrian. As General Coulter says: "rough is no name
for it." It is one of the wildest places imaginable. Few tourists
accomplish it, but those who do are amply repaid.

From the foot of the Il-lil-ou-ette Cañon make your way directly east,
clamber along half a mile, or let your horse do it for you, then bear
away to the right, slightly south of east, and you find yourself
entering the cañon of the main Merced itself. Now pick your way
carefully along, and, as soon as you feel sufficiently sure of your
foothold, look about you, and look ahead. Did you ever see finer
boulder-scenery in your life? Stop under the sheltering lee of this
huge, church-like boulder, and don the oiled or rubber suit which
awaits your hire. You can get on without it, but the spray will
quickly wet you into a

     "Dem'd damp, moist and disagreeable body,"

if you try it.

Now take a stout stick, a deep breath, hold firmly on to both and
plunge sturdily along the ascending trail. The deepest, richest and
greenest of moss lines the narrow foot-path on either hand. Look
quickly; enjoy it while you may, for presently you find breath and
sight nearly taken away together by heavy spray-gusts, rushing,
wind-driven, down the cañon. Catching the intervals between, and
catching your breath at the same time, you lift your nearly blinded
eyes to the

Vernal Fall,

four hundred and fifty feet high, one hundred feet wide, and from
three to five feet deep where it breaks over the square-cut edge of
the solid granite beneath. The name Vernal was given it on account of
the greenness of its water as it plunges over the brink, as well as to
distinguish it from the very white fall a mile above. The Indian name
was Pi-wy-ack, which is differently translated to mean "a shower of
crystals," or "the cataract of diamonds."

This fall pours in one solid unbroken sheet of emerald green, flecked
and fringed with creamy foam, and filling the whole cañon below with a
thick, and fine and ceaseless spray, which keeps its moss, and grass
and foliage of a rich, deep green nowhere surpassed in nature. This
spray also combines with the sunshine to develop another and a
marvelous beauty. At almost any point along the trail for several rods
below the fall, the visitor who is climbing in the morning has only to
turn square about to find himself glorified by an exquisitely
beautiful circular rainbow surrounding his head like a halo. This
rainbow forms a complete circle of so small a diameter that the
tourist who views it for the first time involuntarily stretches out
his hands to grasp it.

The path is wet and slippery, and the ladder-stairs which carry one up
the right-hand face of the cliff, just at the south edge of the fall,
are steep and tiresome. But good oil or rubber suits keep out the wet,
a good restful pause now and then keeps in the breath, while careful
stepping and firm holding on rob the steepness and slipperiness of all
their real danger. Scores of ladies go up and come down every season
without accident or harmful fatigue.

Arrived at the top of the singularly square-cut granite cliff, we turn
to the left, walk to the very edge of the stream and the brink of the
fall, and gaze into the misty chasm in which the foot of the fall
disappears. One need not fear to do so, for nature, as if with special
forethought for the gratification of future guests, has provided a
remarkable parapet of solid granite running along the very edge of the
brink for several yards south of the fall, just breast high, and
looking as if made on purpose for timid tourists to lean over, and
gaze with fearless safety into the seething chasm in whose foaming
depths the foot of the cataract shrouds itself in impenetrable mist.

This ceaseless mistiness makes it almost impossible to estimate or
calculate the exact height of the fall with any satisfactory accuracy.
Another variable element which enters into all conjectures of its
height is the fact that the rock on which it strikes slopes sharply
down for upwards of a hundred and sixty feet. Hence in late spring or
early summer, when the volume and velocity of the river are greatest,
the water, shooting further out, falls at the very base of this slope,
and gives the fall a height of four hundred and seventy-five or even
five hundred feet in May or June. In October, on the other hand, when
the stream is at its lowest, the water, falling straight down, strikes
upon the top of this slope, a hundred and sixty or seventy-five feet
above its base, and thus diminishes the height of the fall by just
that amount.

In its volume, this fall resembles Niagara more than any other in the
valley. In width, of course, it falls far below, but its height is
more than three times as great. It also resembles Niagara in its
greatening on the gaze with each successive visit. In its approaches,
in its surroundings, and in itself, the Vernal fall surpasses
expectation and fully satisfies desire.

Half a mile above the Vernal is a small but beautiful gem of a little
fall, called the


or Wild Cat Fall. The reason of the name is obvious to one standing a
hundred feet below, and noting how the impetuous stream, breaking over
the sharp edge of a huge transverse boulder, dashes against the
sloping side of another; lying angularly across; and is thrown, or
seems to spring, diagonally across towards the northern bank, readily,
though roughly, suggesting the sudden side-spring of the animal for
whom the observing red man named it.

Another half mile, and the rocky walls close together, shut us in and
bar our further progress. The cañon narrows to a point, over whose
right hand wall, close to the very angle of meeting, the same river,
the main Merced, plunges its whole volume in the famous

Nevada Fall,

seven hundred feet high, seventy-five feet wide at the brink, and one
hundred and thirty below. This fall is, in all respects, one of the
grandest in the world. In height, in width, in purity and volume of
water during the early summer, in graceful peculiarities and in
grandeur of surrounding scenery, it is simply stupendous. Other falls,
though few, surpass it in the single element of height, but in
surrounding grandeur, in the harmony of beauty and magnificence, none
equal this. None brings the visitor oftener to its foot, detains him
with greater delight, or sends him away with more profound

The exact statement of the height of this fall is hindered by causes
similar to those at the Vernal, viz: the constant and blinding spray
around the bottom, and the consequent uncertainty as to the exact spot
where the water strikes.

The rock beneath this fall is not vertical, but rather steeply
inclined, having a slope of about eighty-five degrees through its
upper half and not far from seventy-five degrees through its lower.
Hence in summer, when tourists usually see it, the diminished force of
the current causes the water rather to slide down the slope, than to
shoot out over and fall clear of it, as in the spring. Thus, from June
to November the Nevada is more properly a chute or slide than a fall.
During this season the friction of the rock breaks the stream into a
white froth; hence the name, Nevada, or Snowy Fall.

When the water is very low, the fittest thing to which one could
liken it would be to myriads of white lace or gauze veils hung over
the face of the cliff, waving and fluttering in the wind. A party of
ladies originated this figure, and it occurred also to Mr. Bowles in
his fine descriptions of Yosemite wonders.

As one stands in the cañon below gazing at the Nevada, the Snowy Fall,
away upon his left, about a third of a mile back from the brink of the
northeast wall of the cañon, rises

Mt. Broderick,

or the Cap of Liberty, whose general outline suggests its name. Its
rounded summit lifts its smooth, weather-polished granite two thousand
feet above the fall and nearly five thousand above the main valley. It
bears upon its crown a single juniper of enormous diameter.

Away to the right of the cañon, just peeping above the edge of the
cliff, and nearly two miles south-southeast of the Nevada Fall, rises
the steep, conical summit of the South Dome, or

Mt. Starr King,

reaching an estimated height of one mile above the valley. Next to the
wonderful half-dome, this is the steepest and smoothest cone in the
region. Indian name, See-wah-lam, meaning not known. Its exact
height, like that of its great namesake, has never been satisfactorily

Clambering back down this cañon, depositing our oiled or rubber suits,
and experiencing an immediate sense of relief and lightness, we
retrace the trail up which we came, bear away to the right, that is,
going nearly northwest, proceed nearly or quite a mile round the base
of a lofty buttress, and open the

Tenaya Cañon,

stretching away northeast nearly in a continuous line with the main
valley itself.

About one mile up this cañon towers Yosemite's sheerest and loftiest
isolated cliff, the


itself. It is a bare crest of naked granite, four thousand seven
hundred and forty feet high, cleft straight down in one vast vertical
front on the Tenaya, or northwest side, while on the back, that is,
toward the southeast, it swells off and rounds away with a dome-like
sweep that utterly dwarfs the grandeur of a thousand St. Peters in

Following still on up the Tenaya Cañon, nearly two miles beyond the
dome, and a thousand feet higher, rises the

Clouds' Rest,

a granite ridge, long, bare and steep, having its axis parallel with
that of the valley, and falling away along its southeastern slope
into the rocky mountain wilderness of the High Sierras. This is one of
the few points about the valley which the Geological Survey has not
yet measured. They estimated its height one thousand feet above that
of the Half Dome, which would make its summit ten thousand feet, or
nearly two miles above the sea level.

Beyond this, little of note invites the traveler's delay, so we make
our way northwesterly straight across this cañon from the base of its
southeasterly wall toward that of the opposite cliff. On the way,

Mirror Lake

arrests and enchants us. Surely water reflections were never more
perfect. The Indian name Ke-ko-too-yem, Sleeping Water, was never more
happily bestowed. Imagine a perfect water mirror nearly eight acres in
extent, and of a temperament so calm and deep and philosophic that it
devotes its whole life to the profoundest reflection. A mile of solid
cliff above, a mile of seeming solid cliff beneath; for though the
mind knows the lower to be only an image, the eye cannot, by simple
sight alone, determine which is the solid original and which the
shadowy reflection.

     Twin mountains, base to base, here meet the astonished eye;
       One towers toward heaven in substance vast,
       One looms below in shadow cast,
     As grand, as perfect as its peer on high.

In early morning, when no breeze ripples the lake, its reflections
are, indeed, marvelously life-like. So exactly is every line and point
repeated that the photographic view has puzzled hundreds to tell which
mountain is in the air and which is in the water. The spectator who
takes the photogram in his hand for the first time often hesitates for
several minutes before he can determine which side up the picture
should be held. The depth of the lake is from eight to twenty feet.

One sufficiently vigorous and persevering may push on up the Tenaya
creek till he finds the

Tenaya Lake,

over a mile long, snugly nestled in among the mountains. This lies
beyond the usual limit of tourists' excursions, but well repays a

Nearly a mile northwest of the lake, and about a third of a mile back
from the edge of the cliff, the

North Dome

lifts its rounded granite bulk three thousand five hundred and seventy
feet above the valley. It looks as if built of huge, concentric,
overlapping, hemispherical domes, piled one upon another, and having
their overlapping edges irregularly broken away. On the valley side,
that is, toward the south and southeast, it is so steep that no human
foot has ever climbed it. In the rear, however, that is, toward the
north and west, it falls away in a vast ridge or spine, along which
one can easily gain the very summit of the dome itself. The Indian
name was To-coy-ah, meaning the shade of an Indian baby basket.

Passing three quarters of a mile still down, we reach the angle or
turn between the Tenaya cañon and the valley proper. In this turn, in
fact forming the angle, stands the

Washington Column,

a rounded, columnar rock tower, partially standing forth from the
abutting cliff behind. This reaches the height of two thousand five
hundred feet.

Immediately beyond this, large masses of the huge concentric,
overlapping plates, have cracked off, slipped away and fallen, leaving
rough bas-relief arches several hundred yards long, and projecting
some scores of feet, like rudely-drawn gigantic eyebrows. These are
commonly called the

Royal Arches,

or the Arched Rocks, but the Indian name, Hun-to, "The Watching Eye,"
will better satisfy the poetical visitor, unless, indeed, his Masonic
proclivities quite overpower his poetic appreciation, in which case he
will undoubtedly prefer the former title.

For the next mile and a half northwest nothing of special wonder for
Yosemite detains us.

The relief is fitting and needful, not only that we may recover in
some degree from the continued effect of the marvels already past,
but, more especially, that we may rally in preparation for the most
stupendous wonder of them all, the great

Yosemite Fall

itself. Here language ceases and art quite fails. No words nor
paintings, not even the photogram itself, can reproduce one tithe of
the grandeur here enthroned. A cataract from heaven to earth, plunging
from the clouds of the sky to bury itself among the trees of the
forest. The loftiest waterfall yet known upon the face of the globe.

Don't mention figures yet, please. When a man is overwhelmed with the
sublime, don't plunge him into statistics. By and by, when we have
cooled down to a safe pitch, we may condescend to hear the calm
calculator project his inexorable mathematics into the very face of
nature's sublimity and triumphantly tell us just _how_ great this
surpassing wonder is. But after all his exactest calculations, his
absolute measurements and his positive assurances, one _feels_ how
small the fraction of real greatness which figures can express or the
intellect apprehend. A cataract half a mile high, setting its forehead
against the stars and planting its feet at the base of the eternal
hills. Gracefully swaying from side to side in rhythmical vibration,
swelling into grandeur in earlier spring, and shrinking into beauty
under the ardency of summer heat; towering far above all other
cataracts, it calmly abides, the undisputed monarch of them all.

A half mile is no exaggeration, for the official measurement of the
State Survey makes the height two thousand six hundred and forty-one
(2,641) feet--a _full_ half mile, and _one foot more_.

The fall is not in one unbroken, perpendicular sheet, but in three
successive leaps. In the upper fall, the stream slides over a huge
rounded lip or edge of polished granite, and falls one thousand five
hundred and eighty-seven feet in one tremendous plunge. Here its whole
volume thunders upon a broad shelf or recess, whence it rushes in a
series of roughly-broken cascades down a broken slope of over seven
hundred feet in linear measurement, but whose base is six hundred and
twenty-six feet perpendicularly below its top. From the bottom of this
broken slope it makes a final plunge of four hundred and twenty-eight
feet in one clear fall, and then slides off contentedly into the
restful shadows of the welcoming forests below.

Its width, like that of all snow-fed streams, varies greatly with the
season. In March or April, when the tributary snows are melting most
rapidly, and myriads of streamlets swell its volume, the stream is
from seventy-five to a hundred feet wide, where it suddenly slips over
the smoothly-rounded granite at its upper brink. During the same
season it scatters or spreads to a width of from three to four hundred
feet, when it breaks upon the rocky masses below.

In later spring, or earlier summer, it dwindles to less than a third
of its greatest bulk; and its most intimate friend, the veteran
Yosemite pioneer, Hutchings, tells us that he has seen it when it
hardly seemed more than a silver thread winding down the face of the
cliff. Under a full moon, the element of weirdness mingles with its
graceful grandeur, shrouds it with mystery, and transports one into a
soft and dreamy wonder-land, from which he cares not to return.

A mile further on our way back toward the western end, brings us
under, or in front of, the triple rocky group, or three-peaked
stone-mountain, whose name, the

Three Brothers,

readily suggests itself to one standing in the proper place below.
They are three huge, bluntly conical, rocky peaks, fronting nearly
south, slightly inclined toward the valley and descending in height as
they approach it. To the rude Indian fancy they might well suggest the
name _Porn-porn-pa-sue_--"Mountains playing leap-frog,"--with which
they christened them.

The highest, which is the northernmost, the one furthest back from the
valley, is three thousand eight hundred and thirty feet high. The
summit of this rock is readily reached by a trail from the rear, and
affords a superb view of the valley and its surroundings. Nearly all
who have enjoyed it consider it the very best to be had.

Another mile-and-a-half and the rocky wonders of Yosemite fitly
culminate and terminate in


"The Great Chief of the Valley" more commonly, though very weakly,
called "El Capitan," an ordinary Spanish word, meaning simply, "the
Captain;" good enough for a ferry-boat or river steamer, but entirely
beneath the dignity of this most magnificent rock on the face of the

Tu-toch-ah-nulah is an immense granite cliff, projecting angularly
into the valley, toward the southwest. It has two fronts, one facing
nearly west, the other southeasterly, meeting in a sub-acute angle.
These two fronts are over a mile long, and three thousand three
hundred feet high, smooth, bare and vertical, and bounded above by a
sharp edge, standing pressed against the sky, which its Atlas-like
shoulder seems made to uphold.

The State Survey, with all its scientific coolness, could not help
saying, "_El Capitan_ imposes upon us by its stupendous bulk, which
seems as if hewed from the mountains on purpose to stand as the type
of eternal massiveness. It is doubtful, if anywhere in the world,
there is presented so squarely cut, so lofty and so imposing a face of
rock." Starr King declared, "A more majestic object than this rock, I
never expect to see on this planet." Horace Greeley, who enjoyed the
rare experience of entering the valley by night, and in moonlight too,
thus pays tribute to the Great Chief:

"That first, full, deliberate gaze, up the opposite height! Can I ever
forget it? The valley here, is scarcely half a mile wide, while its
northern wall of mainly naked, perpendicular granite, is at least four
thousand feet high, probably more. But the modicum of moonlight that
fell into this awful gorge, gave to that precipice a vagueness of
outline, an indefinite vastness, a ghostly and weird spirituality. Had
the mountain spoken to me in an audible voice, or begun to lean over
with the purpose of burying me, I should hardly have been surprised."

After Tutochahnulah, nothing on earth can seem very grand or
overpowering, and with this the wonders of the valley fitly close.

We have, by no means, seen all the falls, nor even mentioned all the
peaks, but the others are of little note in Yosemite, though,
elsewhere, tourists might go a thousand miles to see the least of
them. This valley is, beyond comparison, the most wonderful and
beautiful of all earthly sights. No matter how incredulous one may be
before entering, the Great Chief and his tremendous allies, soon crush
him into the most humble and complete subjection. Do not expect,
however, that your first view will stagger your skepticism. On the
contrary, it may even confirm it. Upon our first view of
Tutochahnulah, as we were walking into the valley, one bright July
forenoon, we stopped a mile and a half from its foot, collected
ourselves for a calm, cool, mathematical judgment and said with all
confidence, "That rock isn't over fifteen hundred feet high. It
_can't_ be. Why, just look at that tree near its base. That tree,
certainly, can't be more than a hundred and twenty-five feet high, and
certainly, the cliff doesn't rise more than ten times its height above
it." But, unfortunately, we had forgotten that never before had we
seen the works of nature on as grand a scale. One's judgment has to
change its base. He has to reconstruct it; to adopt a new unit.
Comparison serves him little, for he has no adequate standard by which
to measure, or with which to compare the rock-mountains before him.
They are like nothing else. They are a law unto themselves, and one
must learn the law, the _new_ law, before he can begin to enter the
secret of their greatness. Look at that tree. Elsewhere you would call
it lofty. It measures a hundred and fifty feet, and yet, that wall of
solid rock behind rises straight up to twenty times its height above
it. Look again; now, turn away; shut eyes and think. Forget all
former standards and adopt the new. Slowly you begin to "even"
yourself to the stupendous scale of the gigantic shapes around.

Even Niagara requires two or three days before one begins to fully
realize or truly appreciate its greatness. How much more, then,
Yosemite, compared with which Niagara is but a very little thing!
Then, on the other hand, one must remember that after he has adjusted
himself to the new and grander scale of Yosemite, upon coming out into
the midst of ordinary hills and mountains, for several days they seem
low and flat and small.

A single visit to Yosemite dwarfs all other natural wonders and spoils
one for all places else. He who has seen it listens quietly to the
most enthusiastic rhapsodies of the most widely traveled tourists, and
simply answers, with a calm, superior smile, "Ah, that's all very
well, but you should see _Yosemite_."

The Traveler's University--should such an institution ever exist--can
never righteously graduate the most widely traveled tourist, until he
can truthfully add to his name, "Y. S. T."--Yosemite Tourist.


The California Big Trees are a kind of Redwood; or, if the strictest
and most scientific judgment does not rank them in the same family, it
must, at least, allow a very close relationship.

Nine groves are already certainly known, and, every year or two, as
the exploration of the State becomes more exact, or approaches
completion, other smaller groves, straggling groups or solitary
clumps, are added to the number. Of all those thus far discovered the
Calaveras Grove and the Mariposa Grove are the most celebrated, both
from the extent of the groves and the size and height of the trees
composing them.

The Calaveras Grove

receives its name from that of the county in which it stands. It is
near the source of the south fork of the Calaveras river, while the
upper tributaries of the Mokelumne and the Stanislaus rivers flow near
it: the former on the north, the latter on the southeast. It is about
sixteen miles from Murphy's Camp, and on or near the road crossing the
Sierras by the Silver Mountain Pass. This grove has received more
visitors and attained greater celebrity than any other, for four

1st. It was the first discovered.

2d. It was nearer the principal routes of travel, hence more easily

3d. One can visit it on wheels.

4th. Last, and best for the tired tourist, an excellent hotel at the
very margin of the grove; Sperry & Perry, proprietors.

The grove extends northeast and southwest about five eighths of a
mile. Its width is only about one fifth as great. It stands in a
shallow valley between two gentle slopes. Its height above the sea is
four thousand seven hundred and fifty-nine feet. In late spring or
early winter a small brook winds and bubbles through the grove; but
under the glare of summer suns and the gaze of thronging visitors, it
modestly "dries up."

The grove contains about ninety trees which can be called really
"big," besides a considerable number of smaller ones deferentially
grouped around the outskirts. Several of the larger ones have fallen
since the grove was discovered, in the spring of 1852; one has had the
bark stripped off to the height of one hundred and sixteen feet, and
one has been cut down, or, rather, bored and sawed down. The bark thus
removed was exhibited in different cities in this country, and finally
deposited in the Sydenham Crystal Palace, England, only to be burned
in the fire which destroyed a part of that building some years since.
The two trees thus destroyed were among the finest, if not the very
finest in the grove. Among those now standing, the tallest is the
"Keystone State;" the largest and finest, the "Empire State."

The following table gives the height of all the trees measured by the
State Survey, and their girth six feet from the ground:

     Names of Trees.                        Girth.  Height.

     Keystone State                           45     325
     General Jackson                          40     319
     Mother of the Forest (without bark)      61     315
     Daniel Webster                           47     307
     Richard Cobden                           41     284
     Starr King                               52     283
     Pride of the Forest                      48     282
     Henry Clay                               47     280
     Bay State                                46     275
     Jas. King of William                     51     274
     Sentinel                                 49     272
     Dr. Kane                                 50     271
     Arbor Vitae Queen                        30     269
     Abraham Lincoln                          44     268
     Maid of Honor                            27     266
     Old Vermont                              40     265
     Uncle Sam                                43     265
     Mother (and Son)                         51     261
     Three Graces (highest)                   30     262
     Wm. Cullen Bryant                        48     262
     U. S. Grant                              34     261
     Gen. Scott                               43     258
     Geo. Washington                          51     256
     Henry Ward Beecher                       34     252
     California                               33     250
     Uncle Tom's Cabin                        50     250
     Beauty of the Forest                     39     249
     J. B. McPherson                          31     246
     Florence Nightingale                     37     246
     James Wadsworth                          27     239
     Elihu Burritt                            31     231

The exact measurement of the diameter and the ascertaining of the age
of one of the largest trees in this grove, was accomplished by cutting
it down. This was done soon after the discovery of the grove. It
occupied five men during twenty-two days. They did it by boring into
the tree with pump augers. The tree stood so perfectly vertical that,
even after they had bored it completely off, it would not fall. It
took three days' labor driving huge wedges in upon one side until the
monumental monster leaned, toppled and fell.

They hewed and smoothed off the stump six feet above the ground, and
then made careful measurements as follows:

     Across its longest diameter, north of centre, 10 feet 4   inches.
     Across its longest diameter, south of centre, 13   "  9½    "
     Total largest diameter,                       24 feet 1½  inc's.

The shorter diameter, from east to west, was twenty-three feet,
divided exactly even, eleven and one half feet from the centre each

The thickness of the bark averaged eighteen inches. This would add
three feet to the diameter, making the total diameter as the tree
originally stood, a little over twenty-seven feet one way, and
twenty-six feet the other. That is _eighty-five feet in circumference,
six feet from the ground_.

The age was ascertained thus: After it had been felled, it was again
cut through about thirty feet from the first cut. At the upper end of
this section, which was, of course, nearly forty feet above the
ground, as the tree originally stood, they carefully counted the rings
of annual growth, at the same time exactly measuring the width of each
set of one hundred rings, counting from the outside inwards.

These were the figures:

     First hundred rings        3.0 inches.
     Second    "     "          3.7   "
     Third     "     "          4.1   "
     Fourth    "     "          3.9   "
     Fifth     "     "          4.1   "
     Sixth     "     "          4.1   "
     Seventh   "     "          4.6   "
     Eighth    "     "          5.6   "
     Ninth     "     "          7.3   "
     Tenth     "     "          7.9   "
     Eleventh  "     "         10.1   "
     Twelfth   "     "         13.0   "
     Fifty-five years           9.4   "
     ------------------        ------------
         1,255 years.          80.8 inches.

A small hole in the middle of the tree prevented the exact determining
of the number of rings which had rotted away, or were missing from the
centre; but allowing for that, as well as for the time which the tree
must have taken to grow to the height at which they made the count, it
is probably speaking within bounds, to say that this tree was, in
round numbers, thirteen hundred years old!

As the table shows, this grove contains four trees over three hundred
feet high. The heights of these big trees, in both the great groves,
are usually overstated. The above measurements were carefully and
scientifically made--in several cases repeated and verified--and may
be relied on as correct.

The "Keystone State" enjoys the proud honor of lifting its head higher
than any other tree now known to be standing on the western continent.
Australia has trees a hundred and fifty feet higher. The stories
occasionally told of trees over four hundred feet high having once
stood in this grove, have no reasonable foundation and are not
entitled to belief. Neither is it true, as some have marvelously
asserted, that it takes two men and a boy, working half a day each, to
look to the top of the highest tree in this grove.

The Calaveras trees, as a rule, are taller and slimmer than those of
Mariposa. This has probably resulted from their growing in a spot more
sheltered from the high winds which sweep across the Sierra, to which
other groves have been more exposed.

The Mariposa Grove,

likewise named from the county in which it stands, is about sixteen
miles directly south of the lower hotel in Yosemite valley, and about
four miles southeast of Clark's Ranch. Like the Calaveras Grove, it
occupies a shallow valley or depression in the back of a ridge which
runs easterly between Big Creek and the South Merced. One branch of
the creek rises in the grove.

The grant made by Congress is two miles square and embraces two
distinct groves; that is, two collections of big trees, separated by a
considerable space having none. The upper grove contains three hundred
and sixty-five trees of the true _Sequoia Gigantea_ species, having a
diameter of one foot or over. Besides these, are a great number of
younger and smaller ones.

The lower grove is not as large, and its trees are more scattered. It
lies southwesterly from the upper. Some of its trees grow quite high
up the gulches on the south side of the ridge which separates the two

On Wednesday, July 7th, 1869, the largest trees of this grove were
carefully measured, under the guidance and with the assistance of Mr.
Clarke himself, one of the State Commissioners charged with the care
of these groves and of the Yosemite valley. To prevent misunderstanding
and insure uniformity, each tree was measured three feet from the
ground, except where the outside of the base was burned away, when the
tree was girted seven and a half feet above ground.

The following figures are taken from that day's phonographic journal,
written on the spot:

The "Grizzly Giant," seven and one half feet up, measures
seventy-eight and one half feet in circumference. Three feet above
ground this tree measured over a hundred feet round; but several feet
of this measurement came from projecting roots, where they swell out
from the trunk into the mammoth diagonal braces or shores, necessary
to support and stiffen such a gigantic structure in its hold upon the

One hundred feet up, an immense branch, over six feet through, grows
out horizontally some twenty feet, then turns like an elbow and goes
up forty feet. It naturally suggests some huge gladiator, uncovering
his biceps and drawing up his arm to "show his muscle." This is the
largest tree now standing in the grove, and is the one of which Starr
King wrote:

"I confess that my own feeling, as I first scanned it, and let the eye
roam up its tawny pillar, was of intense disappointment. But then, I
said to myself, this is, doubtless, one of the striplings of this Anak
brood--only a small affair of some forty feet in girth. I took out the
measuring line, fastened it on the trunk with a knife, and walked
around, unwinding as I went. The line was seventy-five feet long. I
came to the end before completing the circuit. Nine feet more were
needed. I had dismounted before a structure _eighty-four feet_ in
circumference, and nearly three hundred feet high, and I should not
have guessed that it would measure more than fifteen feet through."

Here, as in Yosemite and at Niagara, tourists are usually disappointed
in the first view. The lifelong familiarity with lesser magnitudes
makes it almost impossible for the mind to free itself from the
trammels of habit, and leap at a single bound, into any adequate
perception of the incredible magnitudes which confront him. One needs
spend at least a week among these Brobdignagian bulks, come twice a
day and stay twelve hours each time, before he grows to any worthy
appreciation of their unbelievable bigness.

Of the other trees, the largest ten, measured three feet above ground,
gave the following circumferences:

     La Fayette                         83 feet.
     The Governor                       75  "
     Chas. Crocker                      75  "
     The Chief Commissioner             74  "
     Governor Stanford                  74  "
     Washington                         72  "
     Pluto's Chimney                    71  "
     The Big Diamond (Koh-i-noor)       65  "
     The Governor's Wife                62  "
     The Forest Queen                   58  "

Others of equal size, possibly greater than some above, were not

"The Governor" is a generic name, applied in honor of him who may
happen to be the actual incumbent at any time. At present, of course,
it means Gov. Haight. It is an actual botanical fact, that the tree
has actually _gained_ in _height_ under the present gubernatorial
administration. It certainly is not as _low_(e) by several inches as
during the reign, or lack of rain, of the preceding incumbent.

The same general complimentary intention christened the "Governor's
Wife," which has as graceful a form and as dignified a bearing among
trees as such a lady should have among the women of the State. Then,
too, the tree stands with a gentle inclination toward "The Governor,"
which may not be without its suggestions to those fond of tracing

The "Chief Commissioner" is the largest of a clump of eight, which
stand grouped, as if in consultation, at a respectful distance from
the Governor.

"Pluto's Chimney" is a huge old stump, burned and blackened all over,
inside and out. Hibernian visitors sometimes call it "The Devil's
Dhudeen." It is between forty and fifty feet high. On one side of the
base is a huge opening, much like a Puritan fireplace or a Scotch
inglenook; while within, the whole tree is burned away so that one can
look up and out clear to the very sky through its huge circular
chimney. Outside, the bark and the roots have been burned wholly away.
Before the burning, this tree must have equaled the largest.

Nearly in front of the cabin in the upper grove, and not far from the
delicious spring before alluded to, stands a solitary tree having its
roots burned away on one side, leaning south, and presenting a
general appearance of trying to "swing round the circle." In view of
all these facts, some imaginative genius once christened it "Andy
Johnson." The only inappropriate thing in the application of that name
was the fact that the tree stood so near a spring of cold water. The
"Big Diamond" or "Koh-i-noor" is the largest of a group of four very
straight and symmetrical trees occupying the corners of a regular
rhombus or lozenge, so exactly drawn as to readily suggest the name
"Diamond Group," by which they have been called.

As already remarked, the Mariposa Grove really consists of two
groves--the upper and the lower, which approach within a half mile of
each other. The upper grove contains three hundred and sixty-five
trees; one for every day in the year, with large ones for Sundays. By
an unfortunate omission, however, it makes no provision for leap year.
This is the principal objection which unmarried spinster tourists have
thus far been able to urge against it.

The lower grove has two hundred and forty-one trees, generally smaller
than those of the upper grove. The total number in both groves,
according to the latest official count, is six hundred and six.

Within ten years several trees have fallen, and others follow them
from time to time, so that the most accurate count of them made in any
one year might not tally with another equally careful count a year
earlier or later.

Among the prostrate trees lies the "Fallen Giant," measuring
eighty-five feet around, three feet from the present base. The bark,
the sapwood, the roots, and probably the original base, are all burned
away. When standing, this monster must have been by far the largest in
both groves, and, indeed, larger than any now known in the world. It
should have been called "Lucifer," a name hereby respectfully
submitted for the consideration of future tourists.

The living trees of this species exude a dark-colored substance,
looking like gum, but readily dissolving in water. This has a very
acrid, bitter taste, which probably aids in preserving the tree from
injurious insects, and preventing the decay of the woody fibre.

The fruit or seed is hardly conical, but rather ellipsoidal or rudely
oval in form, an inch and a half long by one inch through, and looking
far too insignificant to contain the actual germ of the most gigantic
structure known to botanical science.

Their age, indicated by the concentric rings of annual growth,
carefully counted and registered by the gentlemen of the State Survey,
varies from five to thirteen, possibly fifteen, centuries.

The word "_Sequoia_," is the Latin form of the Indian _Sequoyah_, the
name of a Cherokee Indian of mixed blood, who is supposed to have been
born about 1770, and who lived in Will's Valley, in the extreme
northeastern corner of Alabama, among the Cherokees. His English name
was George Guess. He became famous by his invention of an alphabet,
and written letters for his tribe. This alphabet was constructed with
wonderful ingenuity. It consisted of eighty-six characters, each
representing a syllable, and it had already come into considerable use
before the whites heard anything of it. After a while, the
missionaries took up Sequoyah's idea, had types cast, supplied a
printing press to the Cherokee nation, and in 1828 started a newspaper
printed partly with these types. Driven, with the rest of his tribe,
beyond the Mississippi, he died in New Mexico, in 1843. His alphabet
is still in use, though destined to pass away with his doomed race,
but not into complete oblivion, for his name, attached to one of the
grandest productions of the vegetable kingdom will keep his memory
forever green.

For the foregoing bit of aboriginal biography, we gratefully
acknowledge our obligation to Prof. Brewer and the gentlemen of the
State Survey, to whom he originally furnished it.

Had Sequoyah's name been Cadmus--had the Cherokees been
Phenicians--and had this modern heathen of the eighteenth century
invented his alphabet away back before the Christian era, his name
would have stood in every school history among those of inventors,
philosophers, discoverers and benefactors; as it is he's "only an
Indian." No one can deny, however, that he was one of the best re(a)d
men in the history of the world.

Both the Calaveras and the Mariposa groves contain hollow trunks of
fallen trees, through which, or into which, two and even three
horsemen can ride abreast for sixty or seventy feet. Each grove, also,
has trees which have been burned out at the base, but have not fallen.
Still standing, they contain or enclose huge charcoal-lined rooms,
into which one can ride. The writer has been one of four mounted men
who rode their horses into such a cavity in the Mariposa grove, and
reined their horses up side by side without crowding each other or
pressing the outside one against the wall.

One who has seen only the ordinary big trees of "down east," or "out
west," forests, finds it hard to believe that any such vegetable
monsters can really exist. Even the multiplied and repeated assurances
of friends who have actually "_seen_ them, sir," and "measured them
_myself_, I tell you," hardly arrest the outward expression of
incredulity, and seldom win the inward faith of the skeptical hearer.
Fancy yourself sitting down to an after-dinner chat in the
fifteen-foot sitting room, adjoining the dining room of equal size.
You fall to talking of the "Big Trees." You say, "Why, my dear sir, I
have actually rode into, and sat upon my horse in, a tree whose hollow
was so big that you could put both these rooms into it, side by side,
and still have seven or eight feet of solid wood standing on each side
of me. No, sir, not romancing at _all_. It's an actual, scientific,
measured _fact_, sir." Your friend looks quizzically and incredulously
into both your eyes, as he says, "Why, now see here, my dear fellow,
do you suppose I'm going to believe that? Tell a _moderate_ whopper,
and back it up with such repeated assertion and scientific authority,
and you might possibly make me believe it, or at least, allow it until
you were fairly out of hearing; but to sit here at a man's own
fireside and tell him such a _monstrous_ story as that, and expect him
to swallow it for truth--ah, no, my dear fellow, that's _too_ much,
altogether too much."

So you have to give it over and drop the argument for the present, in
the hope that some one of the numerous excursion parties, now so
rapidly multiplying every year, will soon include him, carry him into
the actual presence of these veritable monsters of the vegetable
kingdom, confront him with their colossal columns, and compel his

And yet the general incredulity is hardly to be wondered at, after
all. In nearly every one of us, our faith in what _may_ be, largely
depends upon our personal knowledge of the _facts_ which _have_ been.
In matters pertaining to the outward, the material, the physical
world, our actual experience of the past governs our belief as to the
future. And even when the objects of our disbelief are set bodily
before our vision, and we have actually seen them and handled them, it
is often difficult to believe our own eyes. So far is "seeing from
believing" when the sight so far surpasses all former experience.

There is another grove of big trees in Fresno county, about fourteen
miles southeast of Clark's. It is not far from a conspicuous point
called Wammelo Rock. The State Survey did not include it, neither have
tourists usually visited it. According to the description of Mr.
Clark, who has partially explored it, it extends for more than two
miles and a half in length, by from one to two in width. He has
counted five hundred trees in it, and believes it to contain not far
from six hundred in all. The largest which he measured had a
circumference of eighty-one feet at three feet from the ground.

Following along the slope of the Sierras, to the southeast about fifty
miles, between King's and Kaweah rivers, we find the largest grove of
these trees yet discovered in the State.

The State Survey partially explored this locality, and have given us
the following particulars: The trees form a belt rather than a grove.
This belt is found about thirty miles north-northeast of Visalia, near
the tributaries of the King's and Kaweah rivers, and along the divide
between. They are scattered up and down the slopes and along the
valleys, but reach their greatest size in the shallow basins where the
soil is more moist.

Along the trail from Visalia to Big Meadows the belt is four or five
miles wide and extends through a vertical range of twenty-five hundred
feet; that is, the trees along the lower edge of the belt stand nearly
half a mile in perpendicular height below those along its upper
boundary. The length of this belt is as much as eight or ten miles and
may be more.

These trees are not collected in groves, but straggle along through
the forests in company with the other species usually found at this
height in the Sierras. They are most abundant between six and seven
thousand feet above the sea. Their number is very great; probably
thousands might be counted. In size, however, they are not remarkable;
that is, in comparison with those of Calaveras and Mariposa. But few
exceed twenty feet in diameter--the average is from ten to twelve
feet, while the great majority are smaller.

One tree which had been felled, had a diameter of eight feet, not
including the bark, and was three hundred and seventy-seven years old.
The largest one seen was near Thomas' Mill. This had a circumference
of one hundred and six feet near the ground, though quite a portion of
the base had been burned away.

Another tree, which had fallen and been burned hollow, was so large
that three horsemen could ride abreast into the cavity for thirty
feet, its inside height and width being nearly twelve feet. Seventy
feet in, the diameter of the cavity was still as much as eight feet.

The base of this tree could not be easily measured; but the trunk was
burned off at one hundred and twenty feet from the base, and at that
point had a diameter, not including the bark, of thirteen feet and two
inches. At one hundred and sixty-nine feet from its base, this tree
was still nine feet through. The Indians speak of a still larger tree
to the north of King's river. It was not in the power of the State
Survey to look it up and measure it at that time.

All through these forests young Big Trees of all sizes, from the
seedling upwards, were very numerous. At Thomas' Mill they cut them up
into lumber, as if they were the most common tree in the forest.

Fallen trunks of old trees are also numerous. Many of these must have
lain for ages, as they had almost wholly rotted away, though the wood
is very durable.

Judging from the number of these trees found between King's and Kaweah
rivers, it would seem that the Big Trees best like that locality and
its vicinity, so that it is not improbable that a further exploration
would show a continuous belt of some fifty or sixty miles in extent.

From the researches thus far made, it appears that the Big Tree is not
as strange and exceptional as most suppose. It occurs in such
abundance, of all ages and sizes, that there is no reason to conclude
that it is dying out, or that it belongs exclusively to some past
geological or botanical epoch. The age of the big trees is not as
great as that assigned by some of the highest authorities to some of
the English yews. And in height they hardly begin to equal that of the
Australian _Eucalyptus amygdalina_, many of which, on the authority of
Dr. Muller, the eminent Government botanist, have exceeded four
hundred feet. One, indeed, reached the enormous height of _four
hundred and eighty feet_, thus overtopping the tallest _Sequoia_ by
one hundred and fifty-five feet. And in diameter, also, there are
trees which exceed the Big Tree, as, for example, the _Baobab_; but
these are always comparatively low, rarely reaching the height of more
than sixty or seventy feet, while their excessive diameter comes from
a peculiarly swollen and distorted base. On the whole, we may safely
claim that no known tree in the world equals the California Big Trees
in the combined elements of size and height, and in consequent
grandeur, unless, indeed, it may be the _Eucalyptus_. The largest
Australian tree yet reported, is said to be eighty-one feet in
circumference, four feet from the ground. This is a highly
respectable vegetable, but not quite equal to the certified
measurements of some of the largest of the California Big Trees.

So the American tourist through the wonders of California, may yet
claim that his country still possesses the loftiest waterfalls, the
most overpowering cliffs, and the grandest trees yet known upon the
face of the globe.


The traveler who desires good roads, romantic scenery, comfortable
conveyances, and excellent hotel accommodations, will be sure to go in
or come out by way of Coulterville. This town lies on Maxwell creek, a
branch of the Merced, about eighteen hundred feet above the sea, and
not far from the border-land between the "foot-hills" and the
mountains proper. The road runs from Coulterville nearly northeast,
about eight miles, when it strikes the North Fork of the Merced. Along
the side of this stream it descends for a short distance, then crosses
and passes near the

Bower Cave.

This is a picturesque and unique locality, and is well worth a visit.

The cave is an immense crack or sink, or both combined, in the solid
limestone of the mountaintop. At the surface it presents a somewhat
crescent-shaped opening, one hundred and thirty-three feet long,
eighty-six feet wide near the centre, and one hundred and nine feet
deep in the deepest place. Trees grow from the bottom and lift their
branches out through the opening at the top, while a beautifully
tranquil and wonderfully clear lake occupies the greater portion of
the floor.

We enter at the north end and go down by a rough but strong and safe
staircase. The walls of the cleft are perpendicular, or nearly so,
throughout the greater portion of their extent, but near the south end
the upper part of the wall projects or overhangs several feet.

The bottom has the form of an irregular square, measuring over a
hundred feet one way and somewhat less than a hundred the other. From
the bottom and near the centre grow three large maples, the largest of
which is more than two feet through, and about a hundred and
twenty-five feet high. Around these trees are benches, capable of
seating a score or two of persons. On one side of the wall, some
twenty feet above the bottom, is a singular niche or alcove which has
been christened the "Pulpit." It is occasionally used for the
legitimate purpose of similar constructions, though more frequently
occupied by the fiddler of some festive party. Upon special occasions,
such as a Fourth of July celebration, they erect tables here and use
all the available floor as a dining hall. Over a hundred have thus
dined here at one time.

In one corner, and nearly under the pulpit, is a small but singularly
beautiful lake, rendered somewhat ghostly and mysterious by the
overhanging rocky wall, and the intercepted light falling through the
overshadowing trees. Upon this lake is a small boat, in which the
imaginative visitor may easily fancy himself crossing the Styx, with
himself as his own Charon. Not far from the corner of this lake,
nearly under the pulpit, the water is claimed to have an immense
depth. In all parts it is so clear that one can plainly see the cracks
and crevices in the sloping limestone sides at the depth of forty
feet. The vision would, doubtless, penetrate much deeper did not the
overhanging walls obstruct the light.

Having rowed across the lake, as you are returning to the shore, the
guide may possibly ask you to keep very quiet while he calls and feeds
his fish. He gives a few soft whistles, places his hand in the water,
waits a moment, repeats his whistle, and softly whispers, "Here they
come." Up swim several large trout, rub their noses against his hand,
and circle slowly around it, evidently waiting for the customary food.
And that hand seldom disappoints them. It is a pleasant and restful
sight. After enjoying it, seeing them finish feeding, and returning to
the landing, you ask the guide how they became so tame. He tells you,
that for several weeks after putting them into the lake, which he did
some years ago, he came every day, about the same time, softly
whistling and gently dropping crumbs and worms into the water. After a
few days he began to hold on to one end of a worm while the trout
would swim up, take hold of the other end and tug away until he pulled
it apart, or the hand let go. After a few months they seemed to have
learned to associate the whistling and the feeding, so that whenever
they hear the first they swim up in evident expectation of the second.

At various heights upon one wall several large cavities or small caves
are worn into the rock, some of which admit the tourist for a
considerable distance. These make that side of the wall a collection
of cells, some of which are high enough to permit the visitor to walk
erect; others so low that they compel one who would enter to crawl
upon his hands and knees. When first discovered, the walls of these
chambers were covered with beautiful stalactites of various sizes and
fanciful forms, but the ruthless hands of vandal visitors have
gradually broken them off and carried them away, until hardly a trace
of their original beauty and variety remains.

During the heat of the summer, the time when nearly all visitors enter
this cave, its cool and refreshing temperature makes it a comfortable
and welcome retreat, especially during the hotter midday hours. The
place seems as if nature and art had combined to make it as attractive
as possible for hot weather picnics, or midsummer lunch parties. It
is difficult to imagine, and almost impossible to discover a more
fascinating combination of dell and grotto, grove and lake, cave and
bower, than nature has kindly provided for the tourist in the romantic
Bower Cave.


The following account of one of the most beautiful of all nature's
marvels, is taken, with few alterations, from Yosemite Hutchings'
book, entitled "Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California."

The Alabaster Cave is in El Dorado County, twelve and a half miles
from Folsom by the "Whisky Bar" road, and ten miles by the El Dorado
Valley turnpike. Its more exact location is upon Kidd's Ravine, about
three quarters of a mile from its opening upon the north fork of the
American River. From Sacramento it is thirty-three miles; by rail to
Folsom: from Auburn, about three miles, by stage.

It was discovered in April, 1860, in the following way: A ledge of
limestone, resembling marble in appearance, cropped out by the side of
El Dorado Valley turnpike road. Upon testing it was found to be
capable of producing excellent lime.

On the 18th of April, 1860, two workmen, George S. Hatterman and John
Harris, were quarrying limestone from this ledge, when, upon the
removal of a large piece of rock, they discovered a dark opening
sufficiently enlarged to permit their entrance. Availing themselves of
the light pouring in through the opening, they went in as far as they
could see--some fifty feet. Before venturing further into the
darkness, they threw a stone forward, which, striking in water,
determined them to return for lights. At this juncture Mr. Gwinn, the
owner of the ledge, came up, and, upon learning of their discovery,
immediately sent for candles to enable them to further prosecute their
explorations. The result of these, after several hours spent in them,
can hardly be better described than in Mr. Gwinn's own language, taken
from a letter, dated April 19, 1860, addressed to Mr. Holmes, a
gentleman friend of his residing in Sacramento, and first published in
the _Bee_, of that city:

"Wonders will never cease. On yesterday, we, in quarrying rock, made
an opening to the most beautiful cave you ever beheld. On our first
entrance we descended about fifteen feet, gradually, to the centre of
the room, which is one hundred by thirty feet. At the north end there
is a most magnificent pulpit, in the Episcopal church style, that man
has ever seen. It seems that it is, and should be, called the "Holy of
Holies." It is completed with the most beautiful drapery of alabaster
sterites of all colors, varying from white to pink-red, overhanging
the beholder. Immediately under the pulpit there is a beautiful lake
of water, extending to an unknown distance. We thought this all, but,
to our great admiration, on arriving at the centre of the first room,
we saw an entrance to an inner chamber, still more splendid; two
hundred by one hundred feet, with the most beautiful alabaster
overhanging in every possible shape of drapery. Here stands magnitude,
giving the instant impression of a power above man; grandeur that
defies decay; antiquity that tells of ages _unnumbered_; beauty that
the touch of time makes more beautiful; use exhaustless for the
service of men; strength imperishable as the globe, the monument of
eternity--the truest earthly emblem of that everlasting and
unchangeable, irresistible Majesty, by whom, and for whom, all things
were made."

As soon as the news spread, hundreds of people flocked to see the
newly discovered wonder, from all the surrounding mining settlements,
so that within the first six days, it was visited by upwards of four
hundred persons, many of whom, we regret to say, possessed a larger
organ of acquisitiveness than of veneration, and laid vandal hands on
some of the most beautiful portions within reach, near the entrance.
Upon this, the proprietor closed it until arrangements could be made
for its protection and systematic illumination; the better to see and
not to touch the specimens.

At this time Messrs. Smith & Hatterman leased the cave and immediately
began to prepare it for the reception of the public by building
barricades, platforms, etc., and placing a large number of lamps at
favorable points, for the better illumination and inspection of the
different chambers.

At the time of its discovery, in the spring, considerable water was
standing in some of the deepest of the cavities, but it presently
began to recede at the rate of nearly six inches a day, and continued
to do so, until, in a few weeks, it had entirely disappeared, leaving
the cave perfectly dry. This afforded opportunity for further
exploration, upon which it was found that a more convenient entrance
could be made, with but little labor, from an unimportant room within
a few feet of the road. This was accordingly done, and the new
opening, in addition to its increased convenience, allows the free
circulation of pure air.

Having thus given a historical sketch of its discovery, with other
matters connected with its preservation and management, we shall now
endeavor to take the reader with us, at least in imagination, while
attempting a detailed description of its interior.

Upon approaching the cave from the roadside, we descend three or four
steps to a board floor. Here is a door which is always carefully
locked when no visitors are within. Passing on we enter a chamber
about twenty-five feet long by seventeen feet wide and from five to
twelve and a half feet in height.

Though very plain and comparatively unattractive at both roof and
sides, it is yet quite curious, especially to visitors unaccustomed to
caves. Here is also a desk, upon which lies a book inscribed, "Coral
Cave Register." This book was presented by some gentlemen of San
Francisco, who thought that the name "Coral Cave" would be more
appropriate. The impression produced upon our mind upon the first walk
through it, was that "Alabaster Cave" would be equally as good a name,
but, upon examining it more thoroughly, we afterwards thought, that as
a great proportion of the ornaments at the roots of the stalactites
look like beautifully frozen mosses, or very fine coral, and the long
icicle-looking pendants being more like alabaster, the name, Coral
Cave, was to be preferred. But as Mr. Gwinn had given the name
"Alabaster" to the works themselves, on account of the purity and
whiteness of the limestone there found, even before the discovery of
the cave, we cheerfully acquiesce in the name originally given.

The register was opened April twenty-fourth, 1860, and upon our visit,
September thirtieth of the same year, two thousand seven hundred and
twenty-one names had been registered. Some three or four thousand
persons had visited it before the register was provided, many declined
entering their names after it was furnished, and many others visited
it after the date of our visit, so that it is probable that the
number of persons who entered this cave during the year of its
discovery must have been nearly or quite three thousand five hundred.

Advancing beyond the vestibule, or register room, along another
passage or room, our eyes rest on several notices, such as, "Please do
not touch the specimens," "No smoking allowed," "Hands and feet off,"
with _feet_ scratched out, amputation of those members not intended!

The low, shelving, rocky wall upon the left and near the end of the
passage are covered with coral-like excrescences, resembling bunches
of coarse rock-moss. This brings us to the entrance of the

Dungeon of Enchantment.

Before us is a broad, oddly-shaped and low-roofed chamber, about one
hundred and twenty feet long, by seventy in width, and from four to
twenty feet high.

Bright coral-like stalactites hang down in irregular rows and in
almost every variety of shape and shade, from milk-white to cream
color; forming a most agreeable contrast with the dark arches and the
frowning buttresses on either hand, while low-browed ridges, some
almost black, others of a reddish-brown, stretch from either side, the
space between which is ornamented with a peculiar kind of coloring
which nearly resembles a grotesque species of graining.

Descending toward the left, we approach one of the most singularly
beautiful groups of stalactites in this apartment. Some of these are
fine pendants, hardly larger than pipestems, from two to five feet
long, and hollow from end to end. When the cave was first discovered
there were four or five of these pendants over eight feet long, but
the early admitted vandals ruthlessly destroyed, or selfishly carried
them off. Others resemble the ears of white elephants, or, rather, the
white elephant of Siam, while others still present the appearance of
long and slender cones, inverted.

Examining this and other groups more closely, we discover at their
bases coral-like excrescences of great beauty; here, like petrified
moss, brilliant, and almost transparent; there, a pretty fungus,
tipped and spangled with diamonds; yonder, miniature pine trees,
which, with a most obliging disposition to accommodate themselves to
circumstances, grow bottom up. In other places appear fleeces of the
finest merino or silky floss.

Leaving these, and turning to the right, we can ascend a ladder into
the loftiest part of this chamber. Here new combinations of beauty
surprise and delight us. Thence passing on, we come to a large
stalagmite, whose form and size suggest a tying post for horses. This
has been dignified, or mystified, anything but beautified, by
different names, more or less appropriate. One is "Lot's Wife." If
the woman was no higher than the stalagmite she must have been a
dwarf, for the top of the post is but four feet and a quarter above
its bottom, while its diameter at the bottom is hardly one foot. Its
two other names, "Hercules' Club," and "Brobdignag's Forefinger," are
more appropriate, though the latter would suggest an "exaggeration,"
as Mrs. Partington would have it.

Continuing on, we pass over a gently rising floor resembling
solidified snow, until we approach the verge of, and look down into,
an immense abyss, surmounted by a cavernous roof. Icicle and coral
formations depend from the roof, and a rude drapery of jet covers the
sides. Here is suspended a singular petrifaction resembling a human
heart, which looks as if it might have belonged to one of the
primitive Titans, or come from the chest of that Miltonian monster,
whose spear-shaft was like a Norway pine.

On one side of this is an elevated and nearly level natural floor,
upon which a table and seats have been temporarily erected for the
convenience of choristers, choirs or singing societies, and even for
the accommodation of public worship, should any desire to witness or
participate in it in this most beautiful of God's natural temples. The
lover of sacred music would be delighted beyond measure to hear these
"vaulted hills" resound the symphonies of Mozart, Haydn or
Mendelssohn. Scores of these pendent harps would vibrate in unison,
or echo them in delicious harmonies from chamber to chamber, or bear
them from roof to wall in diminishing reverberations even to the most
remote of these rock-formed corridors.

We may not linger here too long, so passing hence, we enter other and
smaller chambers, along whose roofs we trace formations that resemble
streams of water suddenly arrested in their flow and turned to ice. In
another, a peculiarly shaped petrifaction presents a perfectly formed
beet from one point of view, while from another it resembles a small
elephant's head. Not far hence, a bell-shaped hollow, a beautiful
combination of grotto and arcade, has received the name of "Julia's

Once more advancing, a narrow, low-roofed passage brings us into the
most beautiful chamber of all, the

Crystal Chapel.

No language can suitably convey, nor any comparisons worthily suggest,
the combined beauty and magnificence of this wonderful spot. "From the
beginning," says Hutchings, "we have felt that we were almost
presumptuous in attempting to portray these wonderful scenes, but, in
hope of inducing others to see, with their natural eyes, the sights
that we have seen, and enjoy the pleasure that we have enjoyed, we
entered upon the task, even though inadequately, of giving an
outline--nothing more. Here, however, we confess ourselves entirely
at a loss.

"The sublime grandeur of this imposing sight fills the soul with
astonishment that swells up from within as though its purpose was to
make the beholder speechless, the language of silence being the most
fitting and impressive when puny man treads the great halls of nature,
the more surely to lead him, humbly, from these to the untold glory of
the Infinite One who devised the laws, and superintended the processes
that brought such wonders into being.

"After the mind seems prepared to examine this gorgeous spectacle
somewhat in detail, we look upon the ceiling, if we may so speak,
which is entirely covered with myriads of the most beautiful of stone
icicles, long, large and brilliant; between these are squares or
panels, the mullions and bars of which seem to be formed of diamonds;
while the panels themselves resemble the frosting upon windows in the
very depth of winter; and even those are of many colors, that most
prevailing being of a light pinkish-cream. Moss, coral, floss, wool,
trees, and many other forms, adorn the interstices between the larger
of the stalactites. At the further end is one vast mass of rock,
resembling congealed water, apparently formed into many folds and
hillocks; in many instances connected by pillars with the roof above.
Deep down and underneath this is the entrance by which we reached the

"At our right stands a large staglamite, dome-shaped at the top, and
covered with beautifully undulating and wavy folds. Every imaginable
gracefulness possible to the most curiously arranged drapery, is here
visible, 'carved in alabaster' by the Great Architect of the universe.
This is named 'The Pulpit.'

"In order to examine this object with more minuteness, a temporary
platform has been erected, which, although detractive of the general
effect, in our opinion, affords a nearer and better view of all these
remarkable objects in detail.

"This spectacle, as well as the others, being brilliantly illuminated,
the scene is very imposing, and reminds one of those highly-wrought
pictures of the imagination, painted in such charming language and
with such good effect in such works as the 'Arabian Nights.'

"Other apartments known as the 'Picture Gallery,' etc., might well
detain us longer, but, as in many of their most important particulars,
they bear a striking resemblance to those already described, we leave
them for the tourist to examine for himself." If what we have said
excites the desire of any tourist to visit this new combination of
wonder and beauty, we are quite sure he will agree with us that the
words of man utterly fail to adequately picture forth the works of
God, and will ever after delight his soul with the life-long memory of
his charming visit to the wonderful Alabaster Cave.

Tourist's Complete Guide


San Francisco, Suburbs and Vicinity;



     SKETCH OF THE CITY--Historical, Topographical, General
     Plan                                                       95-107

     APPROACHES TO THE CITY--From the east, by boat; from
     the south, by rail; from the ocean, by steamship,         107-113

     CONVEYANCES--Hacks, Coaches, Cars, Porters, Legal Rates,
     Caution, Baggage and Package Express,                     113-116

     HOTELS--Grand, Occidental, Cosmopolitan, Lick House,
     Brooklyn, Russ House, American Exchange, Morton
     House, International, Hotel Gailhard, What Cheer,
     (males only),                                             116-121

     LODGING HOUSES--Nucleus, Clarendon,                           121

     RESTAURANTS--Saulman's, Swain's, Job's, Martin's, Lermitte's,

     BATHS--Fresh, Salt, Turkish, Russian, Roman, Steam and
     Vapor,                                                        122

     PLACES OF AMUSEMENT--California, Metropolitan, Alhambra,
     Maguire's, and Chinese Theatres; Museums, Melodeons,
     Dance Halls, and Beer Cellars,                            122-125

     HALLS--Platt's, Union, Pacific, Mercantile Library, Mechanic's
     Institute, Y. M. C. A., Mozart, Dashaway,                 125-126

     BILLIARDS, Bowling Saloons and Shooting Galleries,        127-128

     GYMNASIUMS--Olympic Club, Y. M. C. A., German Turn
     Verein, Skating Rinks, Base Ball Ground,                  128-130

     GARDENS--Woodward's, City,                                130-140

     MENAGERIES--Woodward's Zoological Grounds, North
     Beach,                                                        140

     SQUARES AND PARKS--Plaza, (Portsmouth Square), Washington
     Square, South Park,                                           141

     PROMENADES--Montgomery Street, Kearny Street, California
     Street. BEST TIME,                                        141-144

     DRIVES--Cliff House Road, Ocean House Road, Bay View,
     New Ocean Road, Best Time,                                145-148

     LIBRARIES AND READING ROOMS--Mercantile, Mechanic's
     Institute, Odd Fellow's, Pioneers, Y. M. C. A., What
     Cheer, Woodward's Gardens,                                    148

     PUBLIC BUILDINGS--_Federal_: Post Office, Custom House,
     Old Mint, New Mint, Marine Hospital. _City and County_:
     Old City Hall, New City Hall, Jail, Almshouse, Industrial
     School, Engine Houses, Engines. _Corporation and
     Society Buildings_: Pioneer's, Merchant's Exchange, Bank
     of California, Mercantile Library Building, Mechanic's
     Institute, Masonic Temple, Odd Fellow's Hall, Y. M. C. A.
     Building, Mechanics' Pavilion,                            148-157

     BUSINESS BUILDINGS AND BLOCKS--Alta California Building,
     Bancroft's, Donohoe, Kelly & Co., Harpending's Block,
     Murphy, Grant & Co., Tobin, Dixon & Davisson, Treadwell's,
     Tucker's, Wells, Fargo & C.'s Building, White
     House,                                                    157-159

     MANUFACTORIES--Kimball Car and Carriage Factory, Pacific
     Rolling Mills, Mission Woolen Mills, Foundries and
     Iron Works, Locomotives, Boilers, Mining Machinery,
     Shot Tower and Lead Works, Sugar Refinery, Glass
     Works, Ship Yards,                                        159-161

     CHURCHES--Baptist, Congregational, Episcopal, Jewish,
     Methodist, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Swedenborgian,
     Unitarian, Chinese Mission House, Mariner's
     Church, Old Mission Church,                               161-167

     HOSPITALS AND ASYLUMS--City and County, French, German,
     Protestant Orphan, Roman Catholic Orphan,                 167-169

     COLLEGES--California Business University, City College,
     St. Ignatius', St. Mary's, Toland Medical,                169-170

     SCHOOL BUILDINGS--Denman, Girl's High, Lincoln, Valencia
     Street,                                                   171-172

     PRINTING, Lithographing, Binding, and Blank Book Manufacturing
     Establishment,                                            172-173

     PRIVATE RESIDENCES--Davis', Eldridges, Laidley's, Latham's,
     Bancroft's, Otis', Parrott's, Tallant's, Taylor's,
     Tobin's,                                                      174

     POINTS OF OBSERVATION--Telegraph Hill, Russian Hill,
     Clay Street Hill, California Street Hill, Rincon Hill,
     Lone Mountain, Twin Peaks, Bernal Heights, U. S.
     Observatory. Views from each,                             174-184

     HOW TO GET ABOUT--Horse Car Lines, Routes, Distances,
     Times, Fares, Buggies, Carriages, Coaches and Saddle
     Horses; qualities of, and charges for. Hacks, with rates
     of hire,                                                  184-188


     Commencing at the foot of Market street, thence southward
     along or near the water front, continuing around the entire
     city and returning to the point of starting. Also,
     mentioning more distant points, visible to the spectator
     looking beyond the suburbs.

     LUMBER YARDS; Wharves and Merchant Fleet; California
     and Oregon S. S. Co.'s Wharves and Ships; Black Diamond
     Coal Co.'s Pier; Rincon Point; U. S. Marine Hospital;
     P. M. S. S. Co.'s Piers, Docks, Sheds and Ships;
     Gas Works; C. P. R. R. Co,'s Freight Pier, Depot and
     Boat; Mission Bay; Mission Rock; U. S. Ship Anchorage;
     Steamboat Reserves; Long Bridge; Yacht Club
     and Boat-house, with Yachts; Potrero; Glass Works;
     Pacific Rolling Mill; Deep Cut; Islais Creek and Bridge;
     Rope Walk; Italian Fishing Fleet and Flakes; Celestial
     Ditto; South San Francisco; Catholic Orphan Asylum;
     Hunter's Point; Dry Dock; Bay View Race Course;
     Visitacion Point and Valley; San Bruno Road; New
     Butchertown; Ocean House Road; Lake Honda; Almshouse;
     Small Pox Hospital; Ocean House Race Track;
     Lake Merced; Ocean House; Pacific Beach; Seal Rocks;
     Cliff House; Farallones; Point Lobos; Signal Station;
     Helmet Rock; Fort Point; Fort; Light-House; Golden
     Gate; Lime Point; Point Bonita; Mountain Lake;
     Lobos Creek; Presidio; Barracks; Parade Ground;
     Black Point; Pacific Woolen Mills; North Beach; Angel
     Island; Alcatraz; North Point; Sea Wall; Ferries,         188-196


Under this head we suggest:

Morning, or half-day excursions, in and about the city and its


     1. Montgomery Street, Telegraph Hill, North Beach,
     Washington Square, The Plaza, City Hall, Kearny
     street,                                                       197

     2. Chinese Quarter,                                           197

     3. Third street, South Park, Long Bridge, Potrero, South
     San Francisco, Dry Dock,                                      201

     4. Water Front, (south), Stewart street, P. M. S. S. Co.'s
     Docks and Mammoth Steamships, Foundries, Factories,
     Shot Tower,                                                   202

     5. Water Front, (north), Sea Wall, North Point, Warehouses
     and Clippers, Iron Ships, Bay and River Steamboats
     and Docks,                                                    202

     6. Southwestern Suburbs, Mission street, Woodward's
     Gardens, Old Mission Church, Jewish Cemeteries,
     Woolen Mills, Howard street,                                  202

     7. Western Suburbs and Beyond Bush street, Laurel Hill,
     Lone Mountain Cemeteries, Cliff House Road, Race
     Track, Cliff House, Seal rocks, Pacific Beach, Ocean
     House, Road Track, Lake Honda, New Ocean Road,                203

     8. Northwestern Suburbs and Beyond: Russian Hill,
     Spring Valley, Fort Point, Fortress, Lighthouse, Golden
     Gate, Presidio, Black Point,                                  203



The site of what is now the city of San Francisco was first
permanently occupied by white men, September 17, 1776. The same year
witnessed the entrenchment of a garrison and the establishment of a

San Francisco owes its origin to Catholic missionaries and Spanish
soldiers. Father Junipero Serra led the missionaries--and virtually
commanded the soldiers. The name San Francisco was given in honor of
Saint Francis of Asisis, a city of Italy, the founder of the order of
Franciscans to which Father Junipero belonged. The presidio, garrison
or fort, was founded first, Sept. 17, and the mission about three
weeks later, Oct. 9th. The site first chosen was near a small lagoon
back of, that is, west of, what is now called Russian Hill, but the
prevailing winds proved so high and bitter as to compel its early
removal to the more sheltered spot, over a mile south, under the lee
of high hills, and near the present Mission Creek. Here, at the head
of what is now Center or Sixteenth Street, the old church still

For nearly sixty years the mission stood, the nucleus of a little
village of rude adobe houses, tenanted by a fluctuating population of
Indians, Mexicans and Spanish--and the center of a military and
religious authority, which upon more than one occasion made itself
felt and feared for leagues around. The population rarely rose above
four hundred and frequently fell to less than a hundred and fifty.

In 1835, Capt. W. A. Richardson put up the first pioneer dwelling,
with rude wooden walls and sail-cloth roof. On the fourth of July of
the next year, 1836, Jacob P. Leese finished the first frame house.
This house stood where the St. Francis Hotel now stands,--on the
southwest corner of Clay and Dupont streets, a single block west of
the present City Hall. Leese had his store on the beach, which was
where Montgomery and Commercial streets now intersect. Nearly seven
solid blocks of made-land now stretch between where that old beach lay
and the present water front. Other houses soon rose near that of
Leese, and presently the villagers saw their little settlement fast
approaching the dignity of a new town, and cast about to find a name.
Nature caused it to spring out of the ground for them in the form of a
species of aromatic mint, which, surrounding their dwellings,
perfuming the morning air and supplying frequent and varied medicinal
needs, had proved indeed, as the Spaniards called it, "Yerba Buena,"
the Good Herb. So the herb named the town, and the name "_stuck_" as
the Californians say, for nearly a dozen years. During these years the
houses grew in number, until 1847, when the town contained
seventy-nine buildings,--thirty-one frame, twenty-six adobe, and the
rest shanties--and these houses sheltered three hundred souls, or, at
least, that number of bodies. On the 30th of January of that year,
these three hundred dropped the old name Yerba Buena, and adopted the
older one, which had belonged to the neighboring mission for nearly
fourscore years. Thus the town also became San Francisco, and has ever
since so remained. The first steamboat appeared in the bay, November
15th of the same year. In March, 1848, the houses had grown to two
hundred, and the population to eight hundred and fifty. On the third
of the next month, the first public school began.

New Year's Day, '49, the new city claimed a population of two
thousand. Three days later the two previously published weekly papers
merged into the Alta California, the earliest established of all
newspapers now existing in the State.

The early miners were making from twenty to thirty dollars a day,
getting "bags" of dust and "piles" of nuggets, and rushing down to
"Frisco" to gamble it away. These were the "flush times" of the new
city. Fresh eggs cost from seventy-five cents to one dollar apiece.
For a beefsteak and a cup of coffee for breakfast one had to pay a
dollar and a half, and a dinner cost him from two to ten or even
twenty dollars, according to appetite and drinketite. Rough labor
brought the old Congressional pay of eight dollars a day; draymen
earned twenty dollars a day; and family "help" could hardly be had for
forty, or even fifty, dollars a week. The great mass of the men lived
in tents. Very few women had come, but those few were overwhelmed with
attention; if one wished to cross the street in the rainy season, a
score of brawny arms would fight for the privilege of gallantly wading
through the sea of mud to carry her across the unpaved street.

Great fires came, four of them; the first the day before Christmas,
'49--it burned over a million dollars worth; the second, May 4th,
'50--it destroyed three millions dollars worth. A little over a month
later, June 14th, 1850, the most destructive fire the city ever saw
left it poorer by four millions of dollars; and on the 17th of the
next September the fourth fire consumed another half million. Nearly
nine million dollars worth burned in less than nine months!

Business thrived immensely. In 1852, more than seven vessels a day
arrived at or departed from San Francisco. Commerce overdid itself.
Long piers ran out over the flats where now solid blocks of lofty
buildings have stood for half a score of years. Sometimes storms kept
back the clippers; then prices went still higher. Between March and
November, flour went up from eight to forty dollars a barrel, while
the "Alta" came down from its usual broad and sightly page to the size
of a pane of window-glass, fourteen by ten. Villainy flourished;
drinking, gambling, robbery and murder held high carnival; the law did
little, and did that little shabbily and tardily; so the people woke
and resumed their original legislative, judicial, and especially their
executive, functions.

In '51 and '52, and again in '56, they came nobly to the front, hung
the worst villains who defied the common law, frightened away the
others, restored order, established security for honest men, and
resolved themselves again into law-abiding citizens. And thus, through
perils of fire, social convulsions, and financial fluctuation, the
cosmopolitan city has swept swiftly on until to-day, though having
barely attained her majority, she stands in the first half-score of
American cities. Every year she leaves a city or two behind in her
steady progress toward the throne of the continent which she will
surely occupy before the present century has fully fled.

Situation and Extent.

In extent, population, commerce, wealth and the growth, San Francisco
of to-day is not only the chief city of California, but the great
commercial metropolis of the whole Pacific slope. It is both a city
and a county; the county occupies the extreme end of a hilly peninsula
stretching north to the Golden Gate, between the Pacific Ocean on the
west, and San Francisco bay on the east.

The whole peninsula has a length of from thirty-five to forty miles,
with an average width of from twelve to fifteen miles. The average
width of the county from bay to ocean is four and one half miles, and
its extreme length, from the Golden Gate on the north, to the San
Mateo County line on the south, is six miles and a half. Its boundary
line being the natural one of a coast or shore on the west, north and
east, is more or less irregular; on the south it is straight. Its
entire area is 26,681 acres, including the Presidio reservation of
1,500 acres, which belongs to the general government.

The county also includes the Farallon Islands, lying nearly thirty
miles west in the Pacific Ocean, with the islands of Alcatraz and
Yerba Buena, or Goat Island, in San Francisco bay.

The city proper occupies the northeast corner of the county. Its
limits extend about two miles and a half from east to west, by three
and a half from north to south, thus including between one fifth and
one sixth the area of the county.

The natural surface was very uneven and the soil equally varied--sand
beach, salt marsh, mud flats, low plains, narrow ravines, small and
shallow valleys, elevated benches or plateaux, sandy knolls and dunes,
and stretches of the close, adobe soil, made up its original surface;
while rocky bluffs fortified its shore line, and extensive ledges
underlaid its hills or cropped out from their sides, or crowned their
tops. These hills varied in height from two hundred and sixty to four
hundred and ten feet, while west and south of the city limits they
rose still higher. One or two small lagoons lay sluggishly about, and
as many small streams found their way thence to the bay.

The original founders of the city, as is usual in similar cases,
seemed never to suspect that they were moulding the beginnings of a
grand metropolis. Hence they laid out what little they did project
with the least possible regard to present symmetry, or the probable
demands of future growth. The natural inequalities of surface, the
grade and width of streets which must become necessary to a large
city, reservations for public buildings, promenades, gardens, parks,
etc., with the sanitary necessity of thorough drainage, were matters
of which they seem to have been serenely unconscious, or, worse still,
sublimely indifferent. And many of their immediate successors in
authority were legitimate descendants, or humbly imitative followers.

We have not an important street in the city which conforms its course
to the cardinal points of the compass, and but one main avenue,
Market street, which begins to be wide enough. As Cronise truthfully
says: "The whole town stands _askew_."

We now proceed to "orient" the tourist, as Horace Mann used to say, in
regard to such streets, avenues, thoroughfares, cuts, parks, etc., as
mainly constitute the highly artificial, though not particularly
ornamental, topography of our little occidental village.

General Plan.

Market street is the widest and the longest, starting at the water
front, half a mile east of the old City Hall, and slightly ascending
through eight or nine blocks, it runs thence southwesterly on a nearly
level grade beyond the city limits. Its western end is yet unfinished.
A mile and a half from the water it cuts through a moderately high and
immoderately rocky hill, beyond which it stretches away toward the
unfenced freedom of the higher hills, and the dead level of the
western beach beyond, at which it will probably condescend ultimately
to stop. Its surface presents every variety of natural conformation
ingeniously varied with artificial distortion. Plank, rubble, McAdam,
cobble, Nicolson, gravel, Stow foundation, gravel, adobe, sand, and
finally undisguised dirt, offer their pleasing variety to the
exploring eye. From two to four horse-railroad tracks diversify its
surface with their restful regularity, while the steam cars from San
José follow their locomotive a short distance up its western end.

Stately blocks, grand hotels, massive stores, lofty factories,
tumble-down shanties, unoccupied lots and vacant sand-hills form its
picturesque boundary on either hand. When the high summer winds sweep
easterly down its broad avenue, laden with clouds of flying sand from
vacant lots along its either margin, it becomes a decidedly open
question whether the lots aforesaid really belong in the department of
real estate, or should, properly enter the catalogue of "movable

We have dwelt thus at length upon this street, not only on account of
its central position and superior dimensions, but because it is a
representative street. Others are like it as far as they can be. They
would resemble it still more closely, did length, width and direction
permit. It is fast becoming the great business street of the city,
and, spite of the roughness and crudeness necessarily attaching to all
the streets of a new and fast-growing city, it unmistakably possesses
all the requisites of the future "Grand Avenue" of the Pacific

On the northeast of Market street, through the older portion of the
city, the streets run at right angles with each other, though neither
at right angles or parallel with Market. One set runs, in straight
lines, nearly north and south. The other set, also straight, crosses
the former at right angles, that is, running nearly east and west. The
principal of these streets, as one goes from the bay westerly, back
toward the hills, and, in fact, some distance up their slopes, are
Front, Battery, Sansome, Montgomery, Kearny, Dupont, Stockton, Powell,
Mason, Taylor, and a dozen others, of which those nearer the bay are
gradually growing into importance as business streets, especially
along the more level portions of their southern blocks, near where
they run into Market street. Beyond these, that is, west of them, the
streets are chiefly occupied by dwelling houses, among which are many
expensive residences of the most modern construction and elegant

Between Front street and the bay run two shorter streets, Davis and
Drumm, along which, as well as upon the northern part of Front street,
are several of the principal wharves, piers, docks and steamboat

At right angles with these streets, running back at an acute angle
from Market street, and at a right angle with the water front as well
as the streets already named, are Geary, Post, Sutter, Bush, Pine,
California, Sacramento, Clay, Washington, Jackson, Pacific, Broadway,
with a dozen or more others still further north, and a score or so

Along the eastern blocks of these streets, that is, within five or six
squares of the water, stand many of the leading business houses,
hotels, newspaper offices, etc.

A sufficient variety of pavement diversifies the surface of all these
streets--from the primitive, original and everlasting cobble,
destroyer of quiet, destruction to wheels and death on horses, to the
smooth-rolling Nicolson and the beautifully level Stow foundation,
blessed bane of all the above abominations, and not a specially bad
thing for the contractors. The sidewalks generally have a liberal
breadth. They are commonly covered with plank, asphaltum or brick,
and, near the corners and in front of the numerous rum-holes, with
gangs of bilks or crowds of loafers, who have only, as Sydney Smith
once said of a certain vestry in London, to lay their heads together
to make a first-class wooden pavement.

South of Market street, that is, in the newer and more rapidly growing
portion of the city, the streets were laid out under a new survey,
and, of course, have an angle and direction of their own. One set runs
parallel with Market, that is, nearly southwest and northeast. Their
names, in receding order from Market, are Mission, Howard, Folsom,
Harrison, Bryant, Brannan, etc. These streets are generally wider than
those of the older, northern part. Southeast of them are seven or
eight parallel streets, gradually growing shorter as they come nearer
the Mission Bay, ending in South street, less than a block and a half
long, lying along the water front. The lower or eastern ends of nearly
all these streets run down to piers and wharves, upon which are the
leading lumber and coal yards of the city, the largest hay and grain
barns and sheds, and the immense docks of the great Pacific Mail
Steamship Company. Nearly two miles back from the water front all
these streets "swing around the circle" far enough to bring them into
an exactly north and south line, and creep southward down the
peninsula, a block or two farther south every season.

The streets running at right angles with Market street, beginning at
the water front and reckoning back southwesterly, are named by their
numbers, First, Second, etc., up to Thirtieth, and even beyond.
Between First street and the present water front, some six or seven
blocks have been filled in and are occupied chiefly by gas works,
lumber yards and large manufactories. The new streets thus formed are
named, in receding order from First street, Fremont, Beale, Main,
Spear, Stuart and East. To reduce blocks to miles, one has only to
know that in the older part of the city the blocks, reckoning east and
west, number twelve to the mile, including the streets between. From
north to south they are shorter, numbering sixteen to the mile. South
of Market street the blocks are about one seventh of a mile long from
east to west, and one ninth of a mile wide. In both the older and
newer parts of the city, the regular standard blocks are frequently
subdivided by one, and sometimes two, smaller streets, running through
them each way. Near the city front, the first six blocks, reckoning
back from the water, have from one half to two thirds the standard
size. Bearing these dimensions in mind, one can readily reduce blocks
to miles, and calculate distance and time accordingly.

Approaches to the City.

From only one direction can the traveler approach the city by land;
that is, by coming up from the south, through San José and the
intervening places. From every other direction one approaches by
water. Between Sacramento and San Francisco there are two principal
routes by rail. The first brings the tourist to Vallejo, sixty miles,
and thence twenty-three miles by boat, making a total of eighty-three
miles, over the shortest and quickest route. Time, four hours and a
half, fare, $3.00.

Approaching by this route, he comes down upon the city from the
northeast. On the left, the San Pablo, Berkeley, Oakland and Alameda
shores, rising gently back into broad plains, whose further edges
fringe the feet of the back-lying hills. Beyond the hills, Mount
Diablo. On the larboard bow, as the sailors say, that is, a little
southwest, rises Goat Island, or Yerba Buena, three hundred and forty
feet. This island looks "very like a whale," and in outline seems a
very monster among leviathans at that.

Directly south the waters of the bay stretch so far that one can
seldom discern the shore line, and may easily fancy himself looking
out to sea in that direction. Further round to the right, that is,
more westerly, he may catch a glimpse of Hunter's Point with the
chimney and engine house of the Dry Dock. Nearer lies the Potrero,
with the suburban city fast creeping up the sides, and crowning the
summit of its rocky promontory. From the beach, at its nearest base,
stretch out the piers and rise the grimy buildings of the Pacific
Rolling Mills. Still nearer you see the south end of the long bridge,
stretching southerly across Mission Bay, and connecting the Potrero
with the city. In a line with the further end of this bridge, and a
mile or more nearer, we have the piers and sheds of the Pacific Mail
Steamship Company, with the immense ships of their China line, the
largest wooden vessels afloat. The steep slope just to the right of
them, on which you see the upper stories of a large brick building, is
Rincon Hill, and the building is the U. S. Marine Hospital. That
monument, as it seems, is the Shot Tower, while in front of, around
and beyond it, you see the usual medley of ordinary city buildings,
here and there rising into single or double church spires, broken by
the bulk of some big business block, and relieved by the regular
lines of intersecting streets.

Right of Rincon Hill, where the city fills a broad hollow, you are
looking over what was once the "Happy Valley" of early times. In a
line beyond it lies the Mission, which you cannot now discover, backed
by the "Twin Peaks," and the high hills which form the back-bone of
the peninsula. Still following around, the larger buildings of the
older city meet the eye, gradually rising up the southern slope. Those
singular minarets or mosque-like twin towers or spires, surmount the
Jewish Synagogue. Here and there a church spire shoots above the
roofs, but one sees fewer of them than in eastern cities of equal
size, because the possibility of earthquakes, and the certainty of
high winds, restrain architects and builders from attempting anything
too lofty or exposed. Several of the finest churches in the city,
spread out on the earth much more than they rise toward heaven. One
reason may be that they do not own far in the latter direction.

North of the Synagogue towers, the hill still rises through three
blocks, when it reaches its full height in California street hill.
Then a slight depression in the hill-top outline, followed by another
rise into the Clay street and Washington street hill, two blocks north
and three blocks west of the former.

The higher hill still further north but nearer the front, is the
famous land-mark and signal-station, Telegraph Hill, from whose top
the long familiar observatory has but recently disappeared; prostrated
on a stormy night last winter, by one of the giant winds whose fury it
had so long defied.

Beyond, or to the right of Telegraph hill, the city falls away to the
northwest, and the bay shore also trends in that direction. Black
Point, the Presidio, and finally Fort Point, bring us to the Golden

     Unfolding to empire its way,
       Wide opened by gold and by fate,
     Swung by tides which no nation can stay,
       Here standeth the continent's gate.

Through the narrow Gate one has a single glimpse of the grand old sea,
which stretches so peacefully away under the sunset. For northern
gate-post you have Lime Point; and thence the vision rests on high
hills packed in behind, and gradually lifting the gaze to Mount
Tamalpais, beyond whose sharply-cut summit, nothing of note attracts
the sight. Between us and Tamalpais, four miles nearer and half a mile
lower, close at the water's edge, we have the small but beautifully
situated town of Saucelito, with its sheltered picnic grounds and
tranquil bay. Beyond the Saucelito bay you can almost see through
Raccoon Strait, and discover that the higher land nearer the boat is
not a point, but an island. Its name is Angel Island. It is the
largest and most valuable island in the bay. The Government owns it
and occupies its southwestern side with barracks, garrison and parade
grounds. Several batteries dot the shore at different points, and a
military road around the island, connects them with the garrison.

This other small island of solid rock, crowned with a heavy fortress
and girt with forts and batteries, is Alcatraz, the Pacific Gibraltar.

Instead of coming by way of Vallejo, the passenger from Sacramento may
come by rail through Stockton, forty-eight miles; thence by rail to
Oakland, eighty-six miles; and thence by boat to San Francisco, four
miles; making a total distance of one hundred and thirty-eight miles,
all rail except the last four. Through fare, $2.50.

By this route you approach the city on the east, and have only to
change the point of sight from northeast to east, and remember that
Goat Island will be seen close by on the right hand, that is, north of
the boat, to make the description of the approach from Vallejo almost
equally accurate and easily adaptable for the approach from Oakland,
which is the direction from which the great majority approach.

Those who may prefer can have their choice of a third way from
Sacramento, and a second from Stockton; that is by steamer, usually
leaving each of those cities at noon, and due in San Francisco in
eight hours. From Sacramento by water the distance is one hundred and
twenty-five miles, and the fare, $1.50; from Stockton, one hundred and
twenty miles, fare, $1.50; dinner on board, $1.00; staterooms, $2.00,
single berths, $1.00. These boats reach San Francisco so early one
seldom needs a stateroom, except in case of illness, or a strong
desire for seclusion. Both lines of steamers land at the same pier, at
the foot of Broadway, from ten to twelve blocks from the leading
first-class hotels.

The only important route of approaching San Francisco, and riding into
the city by land, lies on the south, coming from Gilroy, San José,
Santa Clara, Redwood City, and intermediate places, in the cars of the
Southern Pacific railroad. Coming in by this route, one traverses the
fertile plains of the Santa Clara Valley, and skirts the foot-hills
lying along the western base of the almost mountains, which form the
divide between the bay slope and the ocean slope of the broad
peninsula. Near Redwood City, and for the succeeding fifteen miles,
the track runs between fresh water fields on the west and salt water
marsh upon the east. From the Twelve-Mile Farm in, we strike nearer
the centre of the constantly narrowing peninsula, and near San Miguel
catch the first glimpse of the broad Pacific. The large building just
west of the track is the Industrial School, our California House of
Reformation. The southern suburbs of the city, through which we
enter, present nothing remarkable beyond the usual medley of old
shanties, broad vegetable gardens, pleasant, home-like cottages, and
here and there the more pretentious suburban residence, increasing in
number as we come nearer the centre.

We come in by Valencia street, and reach the station upon Market, just
east of its junction with Valencia.

Ocean Approach.

Besides the approaches already mentioned, one may come in from Panama,
Mexico, Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, Australia, Japan or China. From
whichever he may come, for the last ten miles before reaching the
dock, his track will be the same. A few miles west of Fort Point, all
these various ocean routes converge into one, enter San Francisco Bay
by the Golden Gate, and bear away southward until they intersect, and
for a short distance coincide with, the approach from Vallejo, already
briefly described.


HACKS.--Approaching the wharf or the railroad station, you encounter
the usual jargon of hotel and baggage runners, each shouting his
hotel, hack or coach, as if strength of lungs was his chief stock in
trade. It is but simple justice to San Francisco hackmen, however, to
say that a more obliging, prompt, and courteous set, can hardly be
found in any American city of equal size. That travelers may exactly
understand for themselves the law regulating hacks and coaches, we
quote order No. 718, of the Board of Supervisors of the city and
county of San Francisco:

Section 7. "For a hackney carriage drawn by more than one horse, for
one person, not exceeding one mile, $1.50, and for _more_ than one
person, not exceeding one mile, $2.50; and for each additional mile,
for _each_ passenger, 50 cents. For a hackney carriage drawn by one
horse, for one person, not exceeding one mile, $1.00; for more than
one person, not exceeding one mile, $1.50; for each passenger, for
each additional mile, 25 cents."

Sec. 8. "From any landing of any steamboat, to any point east of the
west line of Larkin street, and north of the south line of Brannan
street, and east of Third street, shall, in all cases, be estimated
not to exceed one mile."

In forty-nine cases out of fifty, no newly-arrived gentleman or lady
will have any personal need to know the law; the foregoing is written
mainly for the fiftieth. Bear in mind that these rates, like all fares
and charges in the Golden State, are payable in gold or its equivalent
coin; also, that they are the _highest_. Hackmen often carry for less.

COACHES.--Besides the hacks, one may find hotel coaches, which carry
free to the hotel for which they run, or charge fifty cents for each
passenger within the limits above specified.

CARS.--The red cars of the City Front line pass the head of the dock
every five minutes. These carry one to the very door of the
"Cosmopolitan," and "Occidental" Hotels, within one block of the "Lick
House," and two blocks of the "Grand Hotel." Directly across the
street from the pier of the Sacramento and Stockton steamers, half a
block from the landing for passengers by rail, and one block from the
landing of those coming by Vallejo, the green cars of the Sutter
street line carry one directly by the "Cosmopolitan," the "Lick
House," and the "Occidental," and within half a block of the "Grand."
On both these lines the rate is ten cents coin for a single fare, or
twenty-five cents for a coupon ticket good for four rides.

WAGONS.--At or near any landing, one can always find numbered express
wagons, waiting to carry baggage for from 50 cents to $1.00, according
to bulk, weight, or distance.

PORTERS.--Black, white and yellow, will serve you for "two bits," that
is 25 cents, for carrying any reasonable package within reasonable
distance. It is well, however, to keep your eye on porter and package.

BAGGAGE AND PACKAGE EXPRESSES.--Half an hour or more before reaching
the city, either by car or boat, agents of the above companies will
take your checks and your money, give you a receipt for both, and
deliver your baggage, for 25 cents for each ordinary-sized trunk or
valise, at any place within the single-fare limits already given.
These are reliable and responsible companies, whose agents none need
fear to trust. They deliver baggage promptly and in as good condition
as received.


The foreign tourist can witness to the great lack of really fine
hotels abroad. All England hardly furnishes a single hotel to rank
with the best of our second-class hotels in America. Outside of
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and Cincinnati,
few, even of the northern cities, present any notable hotel
attractions to the temporary guest. New Orleans has a single good
hotel, but hardly one of the other southern cities has yet outgrown
the old-fashioned "tavern."

In respect to these--in good hotels--by the immediate and unanimous
verdict of every tourist, San Francisco stands preëminent. Nowhere on
the continent can the traveler find beds, tables and rooms superior to
those of the "Grand," the "Occidental," the "Cosmopolitan," and the
"Lick House," and in no large city of America will he find as
reasonable charges, considering the amount and quality of
accommodation and the style of service rendered.

The usual standard rate at the four leading first-class houses, is
$3.00 a day, for board and room. At the "Brooklyn," "Russ," and
"American Exchange," the rates are $2.00 to $2.50 a day, for good
rooms and equally good board.

THE GRAND HOTEL.--This magnificent hotel is the newest of all. It
stands on the south side of Market street, occupying the whole block
from New Montgomery to Second street, and stretching southward along
new Montgomery, across Stevenson street to Jessie. Its north front is
205 feet, its west front 335 feet, thus covering over one acre and a
half of ground. Its height is three stories, surmounted by a Mansard
roof, containing a fourth. Its style of architecture may be called the
"modern combination," highly ornamented. In method of construction, it
is a complete frame building, surrounded by brick walls of unusual
thickness. Its four hundred rooms include chambers, parlors and suits
of the amplest dimensions and the richest furnishing. The halls,
corridors and stairways are spacious and airy. Through all the halls,
at intervals of every few feet, hang coils of fire-hose, each attached
to full hydrants, and always ready for instant use. Bath-rooms and
toilets abound. Barber-shop, billiard room, and the most elegantly
frescoed bar-room upon the coast, occupy the most convenient portions
of the basement and first floor. An amply-supplied reading-room, with
most luxurious chairs, invites and detains all weary guests. Branch
offices of the leading telegraphs, postal delivery box, and all
needed facilities for correspondence, are at hand. Hacks stand
constantly at the three spacious entrances, and four leading lines of
horse-cars radiate thence to every portion of the city and suburbs.

The dining-hall accommodates three hundred. Its tables are of moderate
size, surrounded by plenty of room, loaded with abundant
"substantials," flanked with all the latest delicacies, and served in
the most attentive manner. Breakfast rooms for private parties, and
separate eating-rooms for servants and children, immediately adjoin
the main dining-hall. A large and well-appointed laundry promptly
accommodates guests.

If there's anything else imaginable in the whole list of first-class
hotel accommodations, just mention it to your obliging host Johnson,
or his courteous and efficient adjutant, Ridgeway, and it shall go
hard but they will furnish it for you at once, if it is to be had
within the limits of telegraph and express.

THE OCCIDENTAL.--This popular standard house stands upon the east side
of Montgomery; its west front occupies the whole block from Bush
street to Sutter; stretches its north flank half a block down Bush
street, while its south flank goes a hundred and sixty-seven feet down
Sutter street. Vertically it rises six stories into the sunshine.
Four hundred and twelve elegant single and double rooms, with
numerous suits having ample bathing and other accommodations, besides
ladies' parlors, dining-halls, billiard-hall, convenient offices,
broad stairways, spacious halls, and roomy passages, make up this
truly magnificent mammoth establishment. The carpets and furniture are
of the most elegant and costly description. A large and
beautifully-fitted patent safety elevator adjoins the grand staircase
near the main hall, and reading-room at the Montgomery street

Near the main entrance is a telegraph-office--hacks stand always in
front, and four leading lines of horse-cars pass the three entrances.
A newspaper and periodical stand, with post-office letter-box,
complete the conveniences of the reading-room.

The walls are braced with iron, and securely anchored, besides being
connected across the building by heavy iron ties on every story.
Manager, Philip McShane.

COSMOPOLITAN HOTEL.--This worthy compeer of the two already described,
occupies the southwest corner of Bush and Sansome streets.
Centrally-located, elegantly-constructed, conveniently-arranged, and
well-furnished, this house is one of the largest and newest
first-class hotels. An extensive addition, including some scores of
single and double rooms, richly furnished in the most modern style,
sufficiently indicate its prosperity. Tubbs & Patten, managers.

LICK HOUSE.--West side of Montgomery, between Sutter and Post streets.
Its east front occupies the entire block between these two streets,
and runs up between one and two hundred feet of each of them. Whilst
this house is excellently finished and furnished throughout, it is
especially celebrated for its elegant dining-hall, which is probably
more artistically-planned and exquisitely-finished than any public
dining-hall in the world. Jno. M. Lawlor & Co., managers.

BROOKLYN HOTEL.--Next to the elegant hotels already named, one may
reckon the "Brooklyn"--on Bush street, north side, between Montgomery
and Sansome. This excellent house makes a specialty of accommodating
families, having an unusually large number of suits of rooms
especially designed for their comfort. Its rates are about two thirds
of those before mentioned. Hotel coaches convey all guests to the
house free of charge. Messrs. Kelly & Wood, proprietors.

Besides the "Brooklyn," the traveler not wishing to stop at any of the
grander and dearer houses, may have his choice of the "Russ House,"
west side of Montgomery, from Sutter to Pine, Messrs. Pearson &
Seymour, proprietors; the "American Exchange," Sansome street, west
side, corner of Halleck, Timothy Sargent, proprietor; the "Morton
House," formerly Orleans Hotel, 117 Post street, south side, just
above Kearny; and the "International Hotel," Weygant & Partridge,
530-534 Jackson street, north side, just below Kearny.

EUROPEAN PLAN.--One fond of this style, may suit himself at Gailhard's
Hotel, Nos. 507 and 509 Pine street, Pereira & Co., proprietors. "What
Cheer House"--This famous hotel combines the lodging-house and
restaurant under one roof, with a success of which no old Californian
needs be told. Besides the usual reading-room, it has also an
extensive library and museum, free to all guests; R. B. Woodward,
proprietor, 525-529 Sacramento street.

Lodging Houses.

Among these we name the "Nucleus" and the "Clarendon" as equal to the
best. The "Nucleus" stands on the southeast corner of Third and Market
streets; David Stern, proprietor. The "Clarendon House," John M. Ward,
manager, 574 Folsom street, northwest corner of Second, is new and


Whether a man eats to live or lives to eat, he can readily suit
himself here. At present rates, the traveler can get better food,
greater variety, and more of it for the same money, than in any
eastern city. Among the best restaurants, are Saulmann's, 520
California street, north side, between Montgomery and Kearny; Swain's
Family Bakery and Restaurant, 636 Market, north side, between
Montgomery and Kearny; Martin's, Commercial street; Job's, 327 Kearny;
and Lermitte's Coffee Saloon, 530 Merchant street.


The hotels usually furnish first-class facilities without the trouble
of going out from under the roof. Should anyone, however, wish a more
extended application of fresh or salt water, hot or cold, vapor or
steam, Turkish, Russian or Roman, he has come to the very place where
they have them even better than in their original countries. If you
doubt it, ask Bayard Taylor.

Zeile's Baths, at 527 Pacific street, north side, between Montgomery
and Kearny, furnish more natural facilities and improved artificial
appliances for the scientific application of Russian, Turkish, and
Roman baths, than any other establishment in Europe or America. The
visitor will be surprised at the extent and completeness of every
appointment in Dr. Zeile's establishment.

Places of Amusement.

No matter how busy you may be at home, you are _here_ for enjoyment.
When evening comes you want a good lecture, concert or play. We have
them all--the first occasionally, the last two regularly. The newest,
largest and finest play house is the

CALIFORNIA THEATER, on the north side of Bush street between Kearny
and Dupont: John McCullough, lessee and manager. If there's a good
play in the city, we generally find it here; if there are comfortable
chairs and luxurious boxes anywhere, they are certainly here; and if
there's an artist of good taste and a successful manager combined in
one man, his name is John McCullough. The theater is new and spacious,
having comfortable seats for over three thousand, one of the largest
stages in the United States, with complete mechanical appliances, and
finely-painted scenery and drop-curtain.

METROPOLITAN THEATER.--Montgomery street, north side, between
Washington and Jackson. Occasionally occupied for transient
engagements, often presenting excellent plays. Has fine acoustic
properties; seats two thousand.

ALHAMBRA, 325 Bush street. This is a snug and tasty combination of
theater, minstrels and opera house, usually presenting some popular
and spicy blending of wit, art and song.

MAGUIRE'S OPERA HOUSE.--Washington street, north side, between
Montgomery and Kearny; Thomas Maguire, proprietor. This is the famous
old theater in which Forrest, Kean and Booth delighted the California
audiences of earlier days.

CHINESE THEATER.--At No. 630 Jackson street the curious visitor may
witness the most curious medley ever put upon a stage and called a
play. An interminable and unintelligible jargon of ding-dong,
clatter-clatter, tum-tum and rattle-rattle-rattle combined with
falsetto screeches, wonderful gymnastics, graceful contortions,
terrific sword combats, and strange old oriental masqueradings, is
what you may see in the celestial play house. Half an hour of it will
fully satisfy you; but every eastern visitor must needs endure at
least so much.

MUSEUMS--WOODWARD'S.--At Woodward's Gardens, Mission street, between
Thirteenth and Fourteenth. This contains over ten thousand specimens
of zoology, ornithology, Indian relics, alcoholic collections, natural
curiosities, ancient coins, etc., besides a beautifully arranged and
finely lighted art gallery, including several rare old pictures, and a
sort of floral museum in the shape of a charming conservatory, wherein
fragrance vies with beauty to delight and detain.

MELODEONS, DANCE HALLS, BEER CELLARS.--We hardly anticipate that the
average tourist will care to be "guided" into places under this
heading, but the philosophic student of human nature, as well as the
curious observer of social customs, cannot consider his knowledge of
any city complete until he has personally seen and actually known, not
only the highest, but the lowest, amusements extensively patronized by
its people. Like all other large cities, San Francisco has its share
of low haunts in which really modest, and sometimes meritorious,
performances blend with a much larger proportion of immodest,
meretricious and disgraceful ones.


PLATT'S HALL.--216 Montgomery, east side, just north of Bush street,
is one of the most popular in the city. Popular concerts, literary
lectures, religious anniversaries, educational celebrations, magical
entertainments, military balls and social dances, succeed each other
so rapidly that there are few nights, especially in the pleasure
season, when Platt's Hall does not offer something worth going to see.
Henry B. Platt, proprietor.

UNION HALL.--South side of Howard, near Third. This is the largest
permanent hall in the city, and a grand place for unusually large
social parties, exhibitions, political conventions and popular mass
meetings. It easily accommodates upwards of three thousand.

PACIFIC HALL.--In the California Theater building, north side of Bush,
just above Kearny. This is a centrally-located, tastefully-finished
double hall, that is, two connected so as to be used singly or jointly
according to need. Capacity, fifteen hundred.

MERCANTILE LIBRARY HALL.--In the basement of the Mercantile Library
Association Building, north side of Bush street, between Montgomery
and Sansome. Elegantly finished in pure white, with paneled and
ornamented walls and ceilings. Accommodates eight hundred. The
closeness of the neighboring buildings gives it a bad light by day,
but no hall in the city lights up more brilliantly at night.

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE HALL.--Upon the lower floor of the building of
that association, south side of Post street, between Montgomery and
Kearny. This is another newly-constructed, conveniently-planned,
well-furnished and centrally-located hall, with a medium capacity of
about six hundred.

Y. M. C. A. HALL.--Young Men's Christian Association building, north
side of Sutter, just west of Kearny. A remarkably neat,
well-proportioned, lofty and well-ventilated hall, having its capacity
largely increased by a conveniently-sloping gallery stretching across
the whole of one side, and throwing forward its flanks at either end.
Capacity, six hundred and fifty.

DASHAWAY HALL.--Dashaway Society's building, south side of Post,
between Kearny and Dupont. This singular name belongs to the pioneer
temperance organization of the Pacific coast. Its origin can hardly be
better stated than in the brief sentences of Tuthill, in his History
of California: "A company of firemen, Howard No. 3, sitting in their
engine house late at night, January 1st, 1859, celebrating New Year's
after the custom of the country, fell to musing over their future
prospects, and were vouchsafed a vision of their probable fate. At
last they solemnly agreed to discontinue the use of intoxicating
liquor, or, as they phrased it, to "_dash away_ the cup." They
accordingly organized a temperance society of "Dashaways," with Frank
E. R. Whitney, chief engineer of the fire department of San Francisco,
as their first President, pledging themselves to drink nothing
intoxicating for five and one half months. They kept their promise,
and liked it so well that, before reaching the limit of their
self-imposed pledge, they renewed it for all time." Thus began the
first temperance society of California, which has enrolled thousands
of names, erected a fine building, founded a large library, and
maintains weekly lectures to this day. In a country where wine is fast
becoming a chief production, and whose greatest present danger is the
social glass, the origin, efforts and success of the pioneer
temperance organization merit more than passing notice.

BILLIARDS.--Tournaments and champions of this king of in-door games
compel brief mention of this popular amusement and the places where
one may best enjoy it. Every leading hotel has a fine billiard room
attached; those of the four first named are palatial in the elegance
and richness of their finish and furniture.

because of any particular affinity between the two, but because the
city has hardly enough of either to make an item of one alone. At the
southwest corner of Montgomery and Pine, the enthusiastic bowler may
probably find as many pins as he can prostrate, with attendants who
can set them up as fast as he can knock them down; while at 913 Kearny
street, he can keep up his practice, if already an expert, or "get his
hand in," if a novice, at

     "Shooting folly as she flies."

Those wishing the longer range for rifle practice, find it at
Hermann's, near the Presidio, that is, on one's way to Fort Point.


Although nominally a christian land, California has yet many sturdy
"musclemen" within her borders, while her larger cities have several
schools of various kinds, for the training of young disciples in
"muscular christianity."

Chief among these in San Francisco, stands the Olympic Club, the
largest physical culture club in the State. Founded in 1860, during
its eleven years of ceaseless and increasing activity, over five
thousand persons have availed themselves of its admirable facilities
for acquiring or perfecting one's ability to "travel on his muscle."
It is by no means an association of boys, or of young men only; some
of the best known gray-beard pioneers, with many of the leading
merchants and professional men, have enthusiastically enjoyed their
daily "play-spell" within its walls for many years, and they do it
still. At 35 Sutter street, south side, just below Montgomery, one may
find their spacious and lofty hall, amply supplied with all the
paraphernalia of modern gymnastics, and adorned with several large
paintings in oil, by prominent artists who are also Olympics, besides
the photographs of past and present leading members.

The San Francisco Turn-verein have their hall and rooms on the north
side of O'Farrell, between Mason and Taylor. Organized in 1852, it is
the oldest association in the State, owns its premises, and has an
actual present membership of nearly six hundred. It is, of course,
conducted upon the German plan.

Y. M. C. A.--Those who want a roll at the pins upon strictly orthodox
principles, or to punch each other's heads under the sanction of
christianity, can escape, or at least modify, the censure of their
uncharitable spiritual superiors, by resorting to the very neat and
comfortable gymnasium in the basement of the Young Men's Christian
Association Building, already described. This has the great advantage
and the unquestionable attraction of providing for ladies also. It has
all the necessary conveniences of bath-rooms and dressing-rooms

SKATING RINKS.--Mercury, the fleet messenger of the gods, is fabled to
have had _wings_ upon his feet. Forbidden by gravity to emulate him,
our modern skaters fasten _wheels_ to their feet, and make up for
their inability to fly by developing their power to skate. The immense
floor of the Mechanics' Institute Mammoth Pavilion, on the west side
of Stockton, between Post and Geary, affords the largest and smoothest
rink to be found in the union. Two or three others exist in the city,
besides the very large and fine new one in the pavilion at Woodward's

BASE-BALL AND CRICKET GROUNDS.--At the southeast corner of Folsom and
Twenty-fifth streets, an entire block, inclosed by a high fence,
leveled to the necessary smoothness and overlooked by several hundred
well-sheltered spectators' seats, furnishes fine accommodations for
match games of base-ball and cricket. Here the famous Red Stockings,
of Cincinnati, won fresh laurels, and the officers and crew of H. B.
M. ship Zealous, played the crack cricket clubs of the State.

Parks and Gardens.


Are on the west side of Mission street, between Thirteenth and
Fourteenth. This famous resort is both park and garden, and much more
besides. Its fences inclose nearly six acres, but its actual surface
considerably surpasses that area, from the fact that the hill-slopes
and terraces, with the various floors and galleries of the different
buildings really double or even treble the original surface beneath,
so that, if spread upon one level, they would cover thousands of
square feet more. They thus rival any public square in size and far
surpass it in variety and beauty.

We reach them, by the red cars of the City Railroad Company, leaving
the west front of the Grand Hotel, at the junction of New Montgomery
Avenue and Market street, every five minutes--fare five cents. Or we
may go out by either the Market street, Howard street, or Folsom
street cars. The first of these carry us within a little over a block
of the entrance--fare, five cents; the second within a block, and the
third within two blocks. Fare on the last two, ten cents for a single
ride, or four tickets for a quarter. On sunny days and holiday
afternoons the City Railroad runs large, open-sided excursion or
picnic cars, newly constructed expressly to be run to and from the
Gardens. The entrance is upon the west side of Mission, between
Thirteenth and Fourteenth, through an elegant architectural gateway,
or sort of façade, surmounted by four colossal statues, or carved
figures. The two central figures resemble a combination of Minerva and
the Goddess of Liberty; one might not go far wrong in letting them
stand for California and Oregon. The one upon either flank is a
notably well-carved grizzly; larger than life and twice as natural,
sitting erect upon his haunches, supporting a flag-staff with his fore
paws, and with mouth slightly opened in an amiable grin of undisguised
pleasure at the prominence of his elevated position, and of welcome to
the visiting thousands who constantly deposit their quarters and dimes
beneath his sentinel post.

Arrived within we seem to have suddenly left the windy city and dusty
streets far behind. Grassy lawns surround beautiful gardens. Every
variety of flowery vine and blossoming shrub alternates with rare
trees interspersed here and there with artificial clumps of imported
trees, or stretching along the border of the original grove native to
the spot, while gravel walks wind among the whole. Immediately upon
the right of the entrance, in the gate-keeper's building, is a library
of nearly two thousand standard volumes, many of them rare and costly.
Directly in front of the gateway, stands the


formerly Mr. Woodward's private residence--at present occupied by a
miscellaneous museum of natural and artificial wonders, beasts, birds,
fishes and shells, with an occasional freak of nature in the shape of
a mammoth or a dwarf, or a still more startling preservation of some
double-headed or six-legged specimens. The zoologist or ornithologist
would scarcely get beyond this building the first day. Left of the
Museum stands the


This is the principal one of five flower and plant houses, having an
aggregate length of three hundred feet by one tenth that width. This
is a really elegant crystal palace in miniature, filled with the
beauty and fragrance of the rarest exotics. Through this one may pass
directly to the


The vestibule or ante-room of the Art Gallery is in fact another
museum, containing two statues, an extensive collection of birds and
bird's eggs; upwards of a thousand coins of all ages and nations,
curious idols and weapons, with hundreds of other curiosities
helpfully classified, and the whole enclosed in an ante-room elegantly
proportioned and beautifully frescoed by Poldeman, in imitation of
Pompeii. Thence we enter the Art Gallery proper, lighted from
above--frescoed by the same artist--decorated, in the corners, with
allegorical representations of Painting, Sculpture, Music and
Architecture--while over the door hang the two celebrated bas-reliefs,
"Night" and "Morning," by Thorwaldsen. Niches on each side contain
busts of Schiller, Goethe, Tasso and Petrarch. Over sixty rare old
paintings or faithful copies cover the walls. Raphael and Salvator
Rosa appear in beautiful copies; several gems from the best Dutch
masters furnish a transition to the modern school, of which one or two
pictures from Bierstadt, and two or three views of California scenery
by Virgil Williams, stand as pleasing types.

Leaving the Art Gallery, by another exit, we stand upon the margin of
a lovely little lake, around whose centre revolves the great
attraction for the young folks, and no small novelty to most adult
visitors, the famous


This endless craft is a huge circular vessel, rigged with fore and aft
sails, and seating a hundred people, who step in from the concave
landing upon one side as the radial seats successively come up. It
would puzzle the "cutest" old salt to find bow or stern to this
curious craft; the shrewdest countrymen have to confess that they
"can't make head nor tail out of the thing," while the enjoyment which
the youngsters find in it, like the boat itself, never comes to an

Between the lake and the conservatory, an outdoor


with ladders, bars, rings, swings and climbing-poles, accommodates all
who may wish to recreate the body. From the lake flows a little
stream, along whose banks the pelican, the crane, the albatross, the
wild goose and the common gull, pompously stalk or awkwardly waddle;
while in its water, two or three beavers, a pair of minks and a seal
or two, make their homes. Beyond this, the


in which the admirer of fine poultry may see a large variety of the
choicest stock. An adjoining inclosure presents a pair of ostriches,
and another has two or three beautiful deer and fawn. Near the
southwest corner of the garden, the


carries the visitor through a heavily-timbered, securely planked,
cleanly-kept and well-lighted passage under Fourteenth street, into


and the amphitheater. Here, ranged along the north side, backed by a
high and tight fence, and fronting the south that they may have the
warmest possible exposure, are the animals of the menagerie. Royal
Bengal Tigers, Rocky Mountain Grizzlies, Mexican Panthers, and South
American Jaguars, Australian Kangaroos, and a curious medley of
dissimilar animals known as the "Happy Family," make up the caged
collection. The cages are roomy, airy, cleanly and secure. The animals
are remarkably fine specimens, kept in capital condition, and the
keeper is intelligent and courteous.

Beyond the great cages is another range of smaller ones, containing
black and cinnamon bears, foxes, badgers, raccoons, opossums, and
mischievous monkeys of all sizes. Esquimaux dogs, Siberian reindeer
and European elk, with many other animals, more than we have space
even to catalogue, make up a collection of animated nature sufficient
to stock half a dozen ordinary traveling shows, and still leave enough
on hand to surpass any of them. Besides these, spacious inclosures
allow Arabian and Bactrian camels a free promenade, while still
beyond, another yard is tenanted by the shaggiest, sleepiest-looking,
most patient and good-natured donkeys that ever allowed a gang of
roistering youngsters to pack themselves upon their backs, only to be
incontinently and ignominiously pitched over their heads into a
promiscuous pile of dust-covered and disgusted juvenile humanity. At
the extreme end of the Zoological Grounds the inclosure on the right
contains a genuine Rocky Mountain Buffalo, while in the larger one
upon the left, two or three reindeer contentedly browse.


In the center of the zoological grounds, a large race-course, securely
inclosed between inner and outer circular fences, affords free scope
for Roman Chariot races, hurdle races, foot races, and equestrian
performances generally. Within the inner fence, a level circle of some
eighty feet diameter, accommodates acrobatic performers; while a lofty
pole, rising from its center, furnishes ambitious youngsters all
needed facilities for flying swings or skillful "shinning." Around
this stadium are raised seats for three thousand, with a covered
portion sheltering six hundred, not to mention standing room for ten
thousand more.

Returning through the tunnel we turn to the left, ascend the hill and
enter the


This is the largest and strongest permanent wooden building upon the
coast. It has the form of a parallelogram with the corners unequally
cut off, thus giving its ground outline the shape of an irregular
octagon. It is one hundred and fifty feet long, by one hundred and
thirty wide and fifty high, surmounted by a water-tight roof, nearly
an acre and a half in extent. Half a dozen broad entrances admit us to
the spacious interior. Here we have a central floor; one hundred and
ten feet long by ninety feet wide, as solidly laid, perfectly fitted
and smoothly planed as art could make it, and furnishing the finest


imaginable, or the most capacious ball-room floor to be desired.
Around this floor, a sort of dress-circle, fitted with easy seats,
separated by broad aisles and roomy spaces, rises gradually back to
the surrounding wall. This dress-circle accommodates three thousand
spectators. Above it is a broad gallery of equal size, similarly
fitted and holding as many. The gallery windows command a fine view of
the underlying gardens, the meandering walks, the lake, the
conservatories, shrubbery and the museum; of the zoological grounds
and amphitheater further away, and of the southwestern suburbs,
bounded by the Mission hills, beyond. This pavilion has a seating
capacity of six thousand, while for any brief mass-meeting, four
thousand more could easily stand in the nine thousand nine hundred
square feet of space upon the floor. A commodious and conveniently
located music, or speaker's stand, with broad stairways between
dress-circle and gallery, complete the appointments of this mammoth
building, whose workman-like finish and enormous strength, fully equal
its huge size and immense capacity. Just west of the pavilion stands a
picturesque little


whose exterior faithfully reproduces the oriental original. Its
interior is tastefully frescoed, while its domed ceiling presents an
astronomical fresco, representing the starry heavens. Near the
southeast corner of the pavilion is the


so that one need not leave the grounds, should he find occasion to
fill his stomach before he has sufficiently feasted his eyes. Between
the restaurant and the mosque, occupying the highest point of the
hill, stands


formed by a secure railing and comfortable seats inclosing and
surrounding the circular top of a huge reservoir, or tank. Until the
recent erection of the pavilion, this was the best point of view from
which to study the plan of the grounds and enjoy their scenery; and
even now, it well rewards ascent, especially for those who hardly care
to climb into the pavilion gallery.

In various snug places among and under the trees, and, in some places,
surrounding their trunks, are scattered scores of


as a sort of out-post or picket-guard thrown out by the restaurant
proper. All about the top of the pavilion hill, and for some distance
down its sides, these tables, of all shapes and sizes, round,
ring-shaped, triangular, octagonal, square, and "parallelogramical,"
and surrounded by an abundance of comfortable seats, occupy the most
romantic situations. Descending the hill-slope by a winding path, we
pass a broad lawn upon the left, on which the enterprising proprietor
proposes the early erection of a large, conveniently-arranged
fire-proof museum, for the better security of his valuable collections
and cabinets.

We have now completed the general tour of this elegant park, with its
delightful combination of the beautiful in nature and the wonderful in
art, with the rarest curiosities of both. As a broad and airy holiday
play-ground for tired pupils, as a romantic retreat for family
picnics, as a pleasure-park for the quiet promenades of old and young,
as a varied field of study for the naturalist, as one of the lungs
through which the tired and dusty city may draw a cool, refreshing,
healthful breath, and, finally, as a grand union of park, garden,
conservatory, museum, gymnasium, zoological grounds and art gallery,
no eastern city offers the equal of Woodward's Gardens.

City Gardens.

On the south side of Twelfth street, stretching from Folsom to
Harrison, and running half a block south. Entrance on the corner of
Folsom and Twelfth. Reached most directly by the Folsom street cars.
Admission, 25 cts.


The finest in the city is that already described in the zoological
department of Woodward's Gardens. The only other is a small
collection of bears, monkeys and birds at North Beach.

Squares and Parks.

The oldest and best finished public square is Portsmouth Square,
commonly called the Plaza, on the west side of Kearny street,
extending from Clay street to Washington street, and directly fronting
the old City Hall. Besides these are Washington, Union, Columbia,
Lobos, Alcatraz, Lafayette, Jefferson, Alta, Hamilton and Alamo
Squares, with Yerba Buena, Buena Vista and Golden Gate Parks. The last
named covers nearly 1,200 acres, (of sand at present.) Of these, the
Plaza and Washington Square are the principal ones which have been
sufficiently improved to merit even passing notice. To these one may
add South Park, a small but elegant private inclosure occupying the
centre of the block between Bryant and Brannan streets.


MONTGOMERY STREET.--This is the San Francisco Broadway. Flanked on
either side by many of the largest and finest retail business houses,
as well as two of the leading hotels. During the forenoon business
monopolizes it almost exclusively; afternoons fashion claims its
sidewalks, and well-nigh crowds business, not exactly to the wall, but
rather upon the curbstone, if not fairly into the gutter. From three
to five P.M. the tide of mammon begins to ebb, and that of fashion
swells in at full flood. Fair women and frail, beauty and
ugliness--calicoes, silks, satins, velvets, broadcloths, beavers and
cashmere, make up the motley throng, swaying and trailing up and down
the crowded thoroughfare. The faces are very fair, "as far as we can
see," and the forms equally graceful, with the same limitation.

Masculine faces, broad-browed, clear-eyed, bronze-cheeked,
firm-mouthed or full-bearded, impress one with the dash, the drive and
the nerve which have spanned the continent with rails and bridged the
Pacific with ships, ere yet the flush of full manhood has fairly
settled upon them. Too many, it is true, show the full, uncertain lip,
the flushed cheek and dewy eye that tell of excessive stimulus too
frequently applied. Nowhere on earth is the temptation to drink
stronger than here. Business is sharp, competition brisk, and the
climate the most stimulating anywhere to be found. So they _drive_
till nature falters or weakens and calls for rest. But rest they
cannot or will not afford; the stimulus is _quicker_, it is everywhere
close at hand--it seems to save time. Business men die suddenly; on
the street to-day, at Laurel Hill to-morrow; heart disease, apoplexy,
congestion of the lungs, or liver complaint, are among the causes most
frequently assigned to the inquiring public. The causes of these
causes, few stop to ask, or dare to tell.

KEARNY STREET.--with Montgomery and but a single block above, that is,
west of it, runs the rival, if not already the equal, business and
pleasure avenue, Kearny street. Though some single buildings on
Montgomery may be finer, the average of the business blocks along
Kearny street already equals, if it does not surpass that of its
rival. The street itself is broader, the sidewalks wider, while the
press of vehicles and the throngs of fashion are fully equal.

CALIFORNIA STREET.--At right angles with both these streets, and
intersecting them near their centre, California street, the Wall
street of San Francisco, runs straight down from one of the highest
summits within the city limits, to within two blocks of the water
front, and there debouches into Market. Its upper portion lies between
elegant private residences; half way down the slope stand two of the
leading city churches; below, the _Alta_ office, and leading telegraph
offices; thence from Montgomery down, the finest number of business
blocks the city presents. On this street below Montgomery, the Bank of
California, the Merchants' Exchange, the Pacific Insurance Company's
Building, Hayward's, Duncan's, and Wormser's, with other blocks and
buildings, present a continuous front of architectural beauty rarely

MARKET STREET.--This broad, dividing avenue which separates the older
city from the newer, offers a rare architectural medley to the
exploring tourist's eye. Some of the grandest business blocks on the
Pacific slope tower up between or stand squarely opposite the frailest
wooden shells that yet survive the "early days." Running up from the
water, one encounters such noble blocks as Treadwell's, not lofty but
broad, deep and strong. Harpending's whole-block front. The Grand
Hotel and Nucleus foretell the size and style of the blocks which are
yet to form continuous fronts along this main artery of trade.

SECOND, THIRD AND FOURTH STREETS.--South of Market, these streets come
nearer to fashionable streets than any others; especially along the
blocks nearer to Market. They present several single buildings of
notable size and style.

THE BEST TIME.--For any walk or drive within the city limits, or on
the entire San Francisco peninsular, the most comfortable hours of all
the day, during the season in which the tourists commonly visit us,
that is from May to September, are, unquestionably, the morning hours;
the earlier the better. If you would see men and women go later; take
the afternoon, face the wind and the dust, be lifted bodily off your
feet, round "Cape Horn," as they call the southeast corner of Market
and Third streets, until you have quite enough of that "free-soil"
which may be a very fine thing in politics, but is a "beastly
disagreeable thing," as our English friends might say, on a promenade.


THE CLIFF HOUSE ROAD.--Stretches westerly from the city limits, now
the west end of Bush street, to the Pacific Ocean beach--originally a
mere trail over shifting sand hills. It has become the broadest,
hardest, smoothest and longest track in the State. If you want an idea
of California horseflesh, and San Francisco turnouts, trot out this
way almost any day. The track has a fine, hard surface wide enough, in
places, for twenty teams abreast, and is often nearly filled from side
to side with smooth-rolling or friendly racing teams, from the natty
single buggy to the elegant coach, or the stately four-in-hand. A
million dollars' worth of legs and wheels flash by a man in a very few
hours on this fashionable drive, especially on a race-day. Along this
road are one or two wayside inns, which, like the majority of
California inns, are chiefly drinking-houses under another name. At
the end stands the Cliff House, so named from its site, the solid top
of a precipitous rocky bluff or cliff, overlooking the Seal Rocks, a
few hundred feet west; then a thirty-mile horizon of the Pacific
Ocean, broken only by the sharp rocky points of the Farallones low
down under the western sky, visible only when fogs and mists and haze
are wanting. Attached to the house are long horse sheds which shut off
the wind from your horse while his driver goes in to interview
_Foster_, mine host of the Cliff. South of the Cliff the road goes
down to and out upon the Ocean House, which differs little from the
popular eastern beach drives, except that it is not as wide even at
the lowest of the tide, and that the ocean view thence is far more
seldom diversified with sails. The beach and surf are good, however,
and a brisk drive of two or three miles upon it, seldom fails to put
the oxygen into the lungs--the iodine into the blood, and the
exhilaration into the spirits. Some two or three miles south of the
Cliff House, the road bends east, leaves the beach and starts back to
the city by another way, known as the

OCEAN HOUSE ROAD, named, like the other, from the house standing near
its seaward end. Approaching the city by this route, one reaches a
greater height than by the Cliff House road, and when about two miles
from the city, enjoys a beautiful view of the southern and western
city, the shipping, the bay, the opposite shore, the trailing cities
and towns, whose houses gleam between the trees of Contra Costa and
Alameda counties, with their grassy foot-hills, the whole view backed
and bounded by old Mt. Diablo beyond. Returning by this road, one
enters the city suburbs upon the southwest by Seventeenth, or Corbett
street, passes directly by the Mission with the famous old church
which named it, and pursues his way back to the centre by Market,
Mission, Howard or Folsom streets. Between the Cliff House and Ocean
House roads, and nearer the latter, private enterprise has recently
constructed a third track, known as the Central Ocean Drive.

BAY VIEW ROAD.--Drive from Market street along Third to the Long
Bridge, cross that to the Potrero, keep straight on through the deep
cut, over the Islais bridge, thence through South San Francisco, up a
little rise, from whose summit you look down into a little valley or
green bay of vegetable gardens, between which and the water stands the
Bay View House, on one side of the Bay View race track. From several
points as you drive out, you will readily understand why they used the
phrase "Bay View" so frequently in naming localities hereabout. If you
wish to return by another way, drive half a mile beyond the track,
where your way runs into the older road of early times. If you have
time, drive on to the brow of the hill and look down into Visitacion
Valley; if not, at the acute angle where the roads become one, you
turn sharply back, and after two miles of slightly uneven road, enter
the city between the eastern edge of the Mission flats and the western
foot of the Potrero hills.

The best time for all these drives, as already said concerning the
promenades, is morning, the earlier the better. Besides the greater
purity and freshness of the air, everywhere accompanying the morning
hours, one then escapes the wind and dust which, on nearly every
afternoon, constitute the chief drawback from the full enjoyment of
outdoor pleasure during those hours.


In these windy and dusty afternoons, when nature seems to frown, art
and literature invite you within, and proffer quiet retreats with the
best of company--good books. For a city as young and as distinctively
absorbed in business, San Francisco has amply provided for the
gratification of scientific research or literary taste. The chief
libraries are the Mercantile, the Mechanics' Institute, the Odd
Fellows', the Pioneers', and the Y. M. C. A., each of which is located
in the building of the same name, presently to be noticed. Besides
these, at the What Cheer House, and at Woodward's Gardens, one finds
two or three thousand well selected standard volumes, free to guests
and visitors.

Public Buildings.


POST-OFFICE.--The first of these to every tourist is, naturally, the
Government building through which his letters come and go. This is a
moderately-sized two-story building of stuccoed brick, running
parallel with the west side of Battery street, between Washington and
Jackson. One may enter from any street of the three. The ladies'
entrance, which is also common, is from Washington street. The
principal business entrance is on the west front of the building,
through a cross street entered at either end from Washington or
Jackson. The office opens daily at 8 A.M., and closes at 6:30 P.M.,
except Sundays, when its only open hour is from 9 to 10 A.M. The great
overland mail for New York, by the way of Salt Lake and Omaha, closes
every week day at 7:30 A.M., and on Saturdays at 3 P.M., N. B. Stone,
P. M.

THE CUSTOM HOUSE is simply the upper floor of the Post-office
building. Entrance on Battery, near Washington. Timothy G. Phelps,

U. S. BRANCH MINT.--The old building still occupied, and likely to be
for at least a year, stands on the north side of Commercial, near
Montgomery. Office hours from 9 A.M. to 2 P.M. Visitors received daily
from 9 to 12. O. H. La Grange, Superintendent.

THE NEW MINT, or what is to be that building, stands on the northwest
corner of Fifth and Mission streets. Its ground dimensions are 221½
feet on Fifth, by 166½ feet on Mission street. The basement is already
built of California granite. Above the basement, which is 13¾ feet
high, the walls are built of blue-gray freestone, from Newcastle
Island in the Gulf of Georgia, between Vancouver's Island and the
mainland of British Columbia. Thus, Uncle Sam is building his new Mint
of British stone. Two stories of 18½ feet each will surmount the high
basement. The lower of these is now nearly completed. From the
pavement to the crown of the roof will be 70 feet. Two chimneys will
tower to the height of 150 feet.

THE U. S. MARINE HOSPITAL stands at the northeast corner of Harrison
and Main streets, upon the northeast slope of Rincon Hill. This is the
old building. The hospital also occupies the former buildings of the
Deaf and Dumb Asylum, on the southeast corner of Mission and Fifteenth


OLD CITY HALL.--This famous old brick and stucco, two-story,
earthquake-cracked, and iron-braced structure, with the adjoining Hall
of Records, stretches along the east side of Kearny street from
Merchant to Washington, and extends nearly a third of the block down
each of those streets. The police-offices and lock-ups occupy the
basement, while the usual District Court rooms, with Judges' Chambers
and municipal offices, Supervisors' and Board of Education rooms, fill
the upper floors, and clamor for more room.

THE NEW CITY HALL thus far exists only on paper. The Commissioners
have chosen an elaborate plan for a costly edifice, which will far
surpass anything on the coast in architectural beauty; but the
execution of that plan has hardly yet completed the excavation for the
foundation walls. Hence it is yet too early to tantalize the tourist
with descriptions of a beautiful building not yet visible, except in
the architect's drawing, or the lithographic copies. If any tourist is
curious to see the _site_, he may find it by going out Market street
till he reaches what was known as Yerba Buena Park, corner of Market
and Seventh streets. The City Hall Commissioners adopted the plans and
specifications of Mr. Augustus Laver, of New York, and elected him
architect; but, at the present rate of progress, it is hardly probable
that less than two or three years will witness the completion of the
urgently-needed and magnificently-designed new City Hall.

JAIL.--On the north side of Broadway, between Dupont and Kearny, one
desirous of inspecting our penal institutions may find ample
opportunity to study the physiognomy of that class which inhabits
them, and learn the crimes which preponderate in the Pacific
metropolis. Sheriff, P. J. White.

ALMSHOUSE.--This asylum occupies one of the healthiest locations in
the State, near the Ocean House, or San Miguel road, about four and
one quarter miles southwest of the City Hall. M. J. Keating,

INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL.--This finely-constructed, conveniently-arranged and
well-managed reform school, stands on the western slope of the
peninsula hills, about seven miles southwest of the city. Like the
Almshouse it has as healthful a location as can be found in the State.
It receives only boys, who are regularly taught by competent teachers,
and employed in various indoor occupations or out-door work. Present
number of inmates, two hundred and twelve. The order and discipline of
this school well repay a visit. Jno. C. Pelton, Superintendent.

ENGINE HOUSES.--In early days, before the establishment of homes, the
pioneer firemen seemed to love their machine very much as the sailor
loves his ship. They built elegant and costly engine houses, which
became to many of them the only homes they ever knew. Since the
introduction of the improved steam fire engines, and the organization
of the paid fire department, the glory of the old volunteer
organizations has well nigh departed. But their houses yet remain,
some of them converted to other uses, while others still retain much
of their earlier attractiveness.

Eight first-class steamers, of the Amoskeag make, weighing from three
to four tons each, throwing four hundred gallons a minute, each
costing from four to five thousand dollars in gold coin, and manned by
twelve men, make up the present paid fire department. At a public
trial a week since, New York and Philadelphia witnesses voluntarily
and unanimously testified that they had never seen machines reach the
spot as soon and get a stream upon the flames as quickly, as did the
machines of our fire department. This fact may conduce to the sense of
security with which the eastern tourist lies down to sleep in his
strange bed. For the benefit of any extra nervous gentleman, we may
add the universal rule of conduct in regard to midnight alarms of fire
among us, is this: When waked by a fire-alarm, place your hand against
the nearest wall. If it feels cold, lie still; if moderately warm,
order a different room at once; if positively _hot_, leave for another
hotel immediately.


THE PIONEER'S BUILDING.--A finely proportioned building on the corner
of Gold and Montgomery streets, above Jackson. This building is not as
noteworthy as the society which built and chiefly occupies it. The
famous "Society of California Pioneers" was formed in August, 1850.
Its constitution declares its object to be:

"To cultivate the social virtues of its members;

"To collect and preserve information connected with the early
settlement of the country; and

"To perpetuate the memory of those whose sagacity, energy and love of
independence induced them to settle in the wilderness and become the
germs of a new State."

It includes three classes: 1st. Native Californians; foreigners living
in California before the American conquest; and citizens of the United
States who became actual residents here before January 1st, 1849--with
the male descendants of these.

2d. Citizens of the United States who became actual residents of
California before January 1st, 1850, and their male descendants.

3d. Honorary members admitted according to the by-laws. The society
has enrolled over 1,300 members. Its historical library and museum
well repay a visit. Charles D. Carter, President.

MERCHANT'S EXCHANGE.--This building, the commercial headquarters of
the mercantile army of the Pacific, stands on the south side of
California street, between Montgomery and Sansome. It ranks among the
largest and finest architectural ornaments of the city.

BANK OF CALIFORNIA.--Northwest corner of California and Sansome. This
elegant stone structure is not remarkable for size; but for broad and
deep foundations, slow and strong construction, harmonious
proportions, convenient arrangements and admirable finish within and
without, it ranks among the finest and most costly business buildings
in the Union. President, D. O. Mills. Cashier, William C. Ralston.

MERCANTILE LIBRARY BUILDING.--North side of Bush street, between
Montgomery and Sansome. This is the building for which the great
lottery paid. It presents a noble front, a finely finished interior,
with library room containing over 30,000 volumes, reading room,
magazine room, reference room, chess room, with a large ladies' room
of remarkably costly and tasteful furnishing. The hall in the
basement, has already been noticed. Ogden Hoffman, President; Alfred
Stebbins, Librarian.

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE BUILDING.--South side of Post street, just below
Kearny. A well-proportioned, substantially built, sensible-looking
building, and so far truthfully indicative of the healthful prosperity
of the excellent organization which owns and occupies it. A library of
nearly 20,000 volumes, including many rare and costly scientific
works, a large and well-stocked reading room, a sort of museum,
including mineralogical cabinets, mechanical models, scientific
apparatus and works of art, with a popular business college, occupy
this valuable building. The commodious hall upon the lower floor, has
been previously described.

MECHANICS' PAVILION.--Union Square, between Geary and Post streets on
the south and north, and Stockton and Powell streets on the east and
west. One of the largest, if not the largest, wooden buildings now
standing in America, covering two and one half acres of ground;
originally erected by the Mechanics' Institute Association, for the
accommodation of their biennial fairs, and found almost indispensably
convenient for all grander gatherings; it has since been retained, and
successively occupied by fairs, grand masquerade balls, velocipede
schools and skating rinks. The most notable event occurring under its
mammoth roof was the Grand Musical Festival or Gift Concert, in aid of
the Mercantile Library Association, given under the lead of Madame
Camilla Urso. After the approaching Mechanics' Fair, to be held this
summer, the building is to be removed.

MASONIC TEMPLE.--Upon the west side of Montgomery, at the corner of
Post; of peculiar and attractive architecture, imposing proportions
and elegant finish, it justly ranks among the most prominent buildings
of the city.

ODD FELLOWS' HALL.--Montgomery street, between Pine and California.
Not particularly imposing from without, but attractive from the unity,
strength and benificence of the Order which it represents. Within are
a library of nearly 20,000 standard and popular volumes, a
well-supplied reading-room, and a well-managed savings' bank.

Y. M. C. A.--This quartette of initials has now become so well known
throughout the larger cities of the Union, that the visitor in any
large city is disappointed if he does not find the local habitation of
this fast-spreading bond of unity among all good men. Here, upon
Sutter street, just above Kearny, he will be agreeably disappointed
to discover a large, new, stone-front building, unique in design, and
most pleasing in its general effect. Within are library,
reading-rooms, hall, gymnasium, and several convenient lodging-rooms.
Chas. Goodall, President; H. L. Chamberlain, Librarian.

Business Buildings and Blocks.

ALTA CALIFORNIA BUILDING--On the south side of California street,
between Montgomery and Kearny. Its comparatively great height, as
related to its width, give it a somewhat monumental appearance, not
inappropriate, however, when we remember that the whole tasteful
structure stands as the monument of the enterprise, energy,
perseverance and success of the oldest and largest paper published in
the State. Fred. MacCrellish & Co., proprietors.

BANCROFT'S--South side of Market street, between Third and Fourth. Few
business buildings upon the continent combine the colossal proportions
with the graceful details of this mammoth house of the oldest and
largest publishing firm upon the coast.

DONOHOE, KELLY & CO.'S BUILDING--Upon the southeast corner of
Montgomery and Sacramento streets, deserves mention among the finest
business buildings.

HARPENDING'S BLOCK--On the south side of Market street, between First
and Second; the longest and loftiest business front presented by any
single business block in the city.

MURPHY, GRANT & CO'S. BUILDING--Northeast corner of Bush and Sansome.
A large and handsome building, as strong as iron, stone and brick can
make it.

TOBIN, DIXON & DAVISSON'S BUILDING--Northwest corner of Sansome and
Sutter, can hardly be omitted from the inspection of our finest
business houses.

opposite Front. Not lofty, but broad; not imposing, but extensive.

TUCKER'S--Northwest corner of Montgomery and Sutter. Lofty,
finely-proportioned, monumental, and substantial; surmounted by a
clock-tower, which has become one of the landmarks of the city. The
main salesroom within is beautifully frescoed and fitted throughout
with extreme elegance and at great cost.

THE WHITE HOUSE--Corner of Kearny and Post streets. An elegant new
iron and brick structure, light, airy and ornamental in its general
effect. Receives its name from its color, which has hitherto been an
uncommon one in this city, but is daily becoming less so. Occupied
chiefly by the leading dry goods firm of J. W. Davidson & Co.

WELLS, FARGO & CO'S. BUILDING--Corner of California and Montgomery
streets. Who does not know it? Solid granite blocks, dressed in
China, brought hither in ships, and piled in stern simplicity upon
that central corner to outstand all earthquake shocks, and survive all
business wrecks. A pioneer building which has already become far too
small for its immense business, but ought never to be taken down until
the whole city goes with it.


KIMBALL CAR AND CARRIAGE FACTORY.--Corner of Bryant and Fourth
streets. Eastern visitors call this the largest establishment of the
kind in America. In immense extent, convenient arrangement, and
comprehensiveness of scope, it can hardly be surpassed. Its latest
triumph is the construction of a magnificent Palace Car, built wholly
of California woods, undisguised by paint, carving, gilding, or
varnish--the most complete and superb palace on wheels ever built.
Thirty-five different woods enter into its construction, displaying a
variety of structure and a range of harmonious tints hardly imaginable
by those who have seen only the poor imitations of feeble art. The car
is a triumph of taste and skill, and is worth a half-day's time of any
tourist simply to study and enjoy it. It has been proposed that the
merchants of this city buy it, and present it to the President of the
United States--to _the office_, not the _incumbent_--to be kept at
Washington, and used as the official car for all Presidential tours.
A better idea could hardly be suggested. May the motion prevail!

THE PACIFIC ROLLING MILLS stand upon the point of the Potrero. They
include all the massive machinery of their ponderous business, and
turn out heavy castings, forgings, and railroad iron by hundreds of
tons daily.

THE MISSION WOOLEN MILLS--Folsom street, corner of Sixteenth. Here are
made those wonderful blankets of such marvelous fineness and
thickness, which have attracted so much attention, and received even
the World's Fair premium abroad.

Foundries and Iron Works.

UNION IRON WORKS.--The oldest and largest in California, employing
three hundred and thirty men, and turning out the heaviest and most
perfect mining and railroad machinery, locomotives, etc. Located on
the northeast corner of Mission and First streets. H. J. Booth & Co.

RISDON IRON AND LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, southeast corner of Howard and Beale
streets. Has all the latest mechanical improvements of the business.
Can turn out a shaft forty-eight feet long, and weighing thirty tons.
It employs two hundred and seventy-five hands. John N. Risdon,

The Fulton, Miners', and Pacific Foundries, with the Etna and Vulcan
Iron Works, are the other leading ones of the coast.

Shot Tower and Lead Works.

Corner of Howard and First streets. The pioneer and, thus far, the
only works upon the coast. The tower is one of the most prominent and
sightly objects visible in all the water approaches to the city.

Sugar Refineries.

The city has four: The San Francisco and Pacific, Bay, California, and
Golden Gate, turning out twenty thousand tons of sugar annually.

Ship Yards.

At North Beach and at the Potrero are the principal yards. They build
mainly river steamers or ferry boats, or smaller ocean craft, rarely
constructing anything above three hundred tons. For larger craft it is
cheaper to go north, where immense forests of the finest ship-timber
run clear down to the ocean beach, and stand asking to be built into

Glass Works.

Two: one in the city, on the south side of Townsend, between Third and
Fourth; and the other, the Pacific Glass works, on the Potrero, at the
corner of Iowa and Mariposa streets. These confine their works chiefly
to bottles, telegraph caps, etc.


BAPTIST.--This prominent denomination has six church buildings in the
city. The First Baptist Church claims special space from the fact that
it was the first Protestant house of worship dedicated in California.
This was in August, 1849. The present building of stuccoed brick,
occupies the original site of the first small, wooden pioneer
church--on the north side of Washington street, between Stockton and
Dupont. Rev. A. R. Medbury, Pastor.

CONGREGATIONAL.--This denomination has the honor of having furnished
the first settled Protestant chaplain in San Francisco, Rev. T. Dwight
Hunt. He held the rare position of "Citizens' Chaplain," Nov. 1st,
1848, conducting Divine worship every Sunday in the "Public
Institute," (the school-house) on Portsmouth Square--the Plaza. The
citizens unitedly invited him from Honolulu, and paid him $2,500 a
year. The denomination has four church buildings--named by their order
of erection. The First Congregational Church is on the southwest
corner of California and Dupont streets. The pastor is Rev. Dr. Stone,
formerly of the Park street church, Boston.

EPISCOPAL.--This denomination has five church buildings, of which
Grace Church, corner of California and Stockton streets, is the oldest
and largest. The building is 135 feet long, 62 feet wide and 66 feet
high. Its great size and sightly location make it one of the prominent
buildings in any general view of the city. Rev. James S. Bush,
Rector. The four other Episcopal church buildings are--Trinity, St.
John's, Church of the Advent, and St. Luke's.

HEBREW.--Synagogue of the Congregation Emanu-el, Sutter street,
between Stockton and Powell. Of the five Jewish congregations, this
has "The Synagogue" par excellence--the one always meant when one
speaks of "The Jewish Synagogue." It is an elegant and costly
structure, built of brick, not yet stuccoed, supporting two prominent
towers, and finished within in most appropriate and artistic style.
Total cost, including lot, $185,000, gold coin.

METHODIST.--This popular, powerful and rapidly growing denomination
has already erected eleven church buildings in San Francisco--more
than any other Protestant Church, except the Presbyterians. Its newest
and most elegant church is the First Methodist Episcopal Church, on
the west side of Powell, between Washington and Jackson. This is one
of the most elegant and really artistic churches; within and without,
any where to be found. Rev. Dr. Cox, Pastor.

HOWARD STREET M. E. CHURCH.--South side of Howard, between Second and
Third. This is the most substantial and valuable building owned by the
denomination. Value, including lot and parsonage, $100,000. Its style
is medieval gothic. Pastor, Rev. L. Walker.

PRESBYTERIAN.--This recently united denomination, no longer old and
new school, has also eleven church buildings; of these the two most
noted are the Calvary Presbyterian Church, corner of Geary and Powell
streets. This church is as capacious and comfortable, even luxurious
within, as the most fastidious could desire. Its organ is the largest
and finest on the coast. Rev. J. Hemphill, Pastor.

Howard Presbyterian Church, Mission street, near Third; lately, Rev.
Dr. Scudder's. This building, with a plain and unpretentious exterior,
has greater seating capacity than any other Protestant church in the
city. It is of recent construction and very convenient internal
arrangements. Temporary pastor, Rev. J. K. Kendall.

First Presbyterian Church--On the west side of Stockton, between
Washington and Clay. This gothic building is one of the largest and
finest--but its chief claim to notice here, rests upon the fact that
the church which built it, organized May 20th, 1849, under the
direction of the Rev. Albert Williams, was the first Protestant church
organized in San Francisco.

ROMAN CATHOLIC.--St. Patrick's Church, on the north side of Mission,
between Third and Fourth streets. Although so new that it is not yet
finished, this church is set first, because it is the largest in the
State, being one hundred and sixty feet long by eighty feet wide. Its
spire is the loftiest and most beautifully proportioned in the city,
height 240 feet. Rev. Peter J. Grey, Pastor.

St. Mary's Cathedral, California street, at the northeast corner of
Dupont. In age, cost and rank this building is entitled to the first
place. It is a noble structure of Gothic architecture, which has been
carried out in every detail. The front extends seventy-five feet on
California street, from which the cathedral runs back one hundred and
thirty-one feet on Dupont. The tower is at present one hundred and
thirty-five feet high, and is to be surmounted by a spire rising
sixty-five feet further. The Most Rev. Joseph S. Alemany is the

Old Mission Church, on the southwest corner of Sixteenth and Dolores
streets. This was dedicated Oct. 9, 1776, by Father Junipero Serra,
the father of the California missions. Aside from its age and
associations, the building is of little note. It is built of the old
adobes, which were simply unburnt bricks dried in the sun, and formed
a favorite building material with the early Spanish and Mexican
inhabitants. The old custom-house, on Portsmouth square, was built of
this material. The roof was covered with semi-cylindrical tiles of
burnt clay, laid in alternate rows, the first one having the concave
side up, and the next its convex side up. The outside, generally, is
very plain, though the front shows some old-fashioned round columns,
and a few small bells suspended in square apertures under the
projecting roof. The interior is dark, cold and comfortless. Rev.
Thos. Cushing, Pastor.

Besides the three churches already named, the Catholics have nine
others in the city, in addition to five or six chapels and asylums.

SWEDENBORGIAN.--First New Jerusalem Church. This is a very neat Gothic
building, on the north side of O'Farrell, between Mason and Taylor
streets. Rev. John Doughty, Pastor.

A second New Jerusalem Church, of which Rev. Joseph Worcester is
pastor, having yet erected no building, meets in the Druids' Hall, No.
413 Sutter street.

UNITARIAN.--First Unitarian Church. This most beautiful church edifice
stands upon the south side of Geary street, just below Stockton. Its
front presents, unquestionably, the finest specimen of church
architecture in the State, and can hardly be surpassed in America. The
interior is tastefully decorated with a colored fresco of extreme
beauty, and most artistic harmony of tint. The organ, baptismal font,
and the pulpit, perpetuate the unique taste of the lamented pastor,
whose loved name the public mind cannot dissociate from the beautiful
building, which, always known as "Starr King's" church, has become his
fitting monument.

This is the only church building of this denomination in the city or
the State.

CHINESE MISSION HOUSE.--This is a combination church and school-house,
new, neat and commodious, fifty-six feet by seventy feet, and three
stories high. Adjoining school-rooms, readily thrown into one, rooms
for the Superintendent, Rev. Mr. Gibson and family, and for his
assistant, Rev. Hu Sing Me, the native preacher, and his family,
occupy the various floors. School "keeps" every evening in the week,
except Saturday and Sunday. Bible class at half-past ten every Sunday
morning, and Sunday school at seven P.M.

The entire property belongs to the Methodist Church, who maintain it
as a most efficient home mission.

The Mariner's Church, northeast corner of Sacramento and Drumm
streets. It is a neat and commodious wooden building, erected in 1867,
by contributions from merchants and other citizens of San Francisco.
Rev. J. Rowell, Pastor.

Hospitals and Asylums.

CITY AND COUNTY HOSPITAL.--Stands upon the southwest corner of
Stockton and Francisco streets.

FRENCH BENEVOLENT SOCIETY.--Has one of the finest hospitals of the
State, a large and handsome brick building, surrounded with pleasant
gardens and ornamented grounds, occupying the whole block on the south
side of Bryant, between Fifth and Sixth, making a most agreeable and
healthful home for the invalid. Others besides French may receive its
benefits, by assuming membership and paying its moderate dues.

GERMAN GENERAL BENEVOLENT SOCIETY.--Admits only Germans. It has over
eighteen hundred members. On Brannan street, near Third, this society
has a very large two-story brick building with basement--furnished
with every form of bath, and looking out upon fine gardens and

PROTESTANT ORPHAN ASYLUM.--On the West side of Laguna street, between
Haight and Waller. A large and elegant building of brick and
stone--one of the ornamental landmarks of that part of the city. It
accommodates two hundred and fifty little ones. Mrs. Ira P. Rankin,
President; Mrs. Lucy Stewart, Matron.

ROMAN CATHOLIC ORPHAN ASYLUM.--Market street, south side, between New
Montgomery and Third. A noble and capacious brick building
accommodating three hundred and twenty children, and having a school
of five hundred and fifty day scholars attached. The Asylum is under
the sole management of Archbishop Alemany and the Sisters of Charity.

SAN FRANCISCO FEMALE HOSPITAL.--Corner of Clay street and Prospect
Place. Any woman who is sick and poor, has a right to its benefits. It
is a genuine charity, regarding neither nativity, religion nor social
rank. Mrs. M. R. Roberts, President; Dr. C. T. Deane, Physician.

LADIES' PROTECTION AND RELIEF SOCIETY.--Franklin street, between Post
and Geary. The main object of the society is to furnish a real _Home_
for friendless or destitute girls, between three and fourteen years
old. Boys, under ten and over three, may be received and provided for
until furnished with a permanent home in a christian family. It has
over two hundred inmates, nearly all girls. Miss C. A. Harmon, Matron.

Nearly a hundred other public and private benevolent societies attempt
to make up, as well as possible, the lack of friends and homes, always
so severely felt by strangers or temporary residents in any large
city, and especially so in one of as cosmopolitan a character as ours.


Besides the larger public schools, which are really the peoples'
colleges--the city has sixty-five colleges and private schools. The
number of pupils attending them in 1870 was 4,582, against 21,000 in
the public schools.

CITY COLLEGE.--Southeast corner of Stockton and Geary streets. This
institution has built and furnished an elegant French Gothic building
at University Mound, some three miles southwest of the city, which it
will occupy early in '72. Besides the usual studies, this college
especially provides the best facilities for obtaining a thorough
practical knowledge of Chemistry, in all its applications to assaying,
mining, medical manufactures and mechanics. Rev. Dr. Veeder,

HEALD'S BUSINESS COLLEGE.--College Building, Post street, between
Montgomery and Kearny. Its design is to educate boys and young men,
with a special view to practical business. It is one of the famous
thirty-six Bryant and Stratton Business Colleges, located in the
leading cities of the United States and Canada. Students, two hundred
and fifty. E. P. Heald, President.

ST. IGNATIUS' COLLEGE.--Occupies the noble brick building on the south
side of Market street, between Fourth and Fifth. It is largely
attended, and is successfully conducted by the Jesuit Fathers.

ST. MARY'S COLLEGE.--On the old county road to San José, four and a
half miles southwest of the city. Building, two hundred and eighty
feet front, by fifty feet deep--of excellent proportion and fine
appearance. Conducted by the Christian Brothers. B. Justin, President.

TOLAND MEDICAL COLLEGE.--East side of Stockton street, between
Chestnut and Francisco. The building is of brick, capacious,
commodious, finely located and admirably adapted to the purpose of its
construction. H. H. Toland, M. D., President.

Public School Buildings.

LINCOLN.--Fifth street--south side, near Market. Brick structure, four
stories high, 141½ feet long, 63½ feet wide; 20 class-rooms 129×34
feet, besides eight wardrobes and teachers' rooms--wide halls, and
four broad stairways the whole height, with a large hall in the upper
story. It accommodates twelve hundred grammar grade pupils, all boys.
In front stands a finely modeled statue of Abraham Lincoln for whom
the building was named. Cost, $100,000, gold coin. B. Marks,

DENMAN.--Bush street, north side, corner of Taylor. Brick stuccoed;
length, 98¼ feet; width, 68 feet; height, four stories, including
attic rooms. Fourteen class-rooms, each 28×34, accommodating eight
hundred pupils, all girls. Cost, $78,000, gold. This building was
named in honor of James Denman, one of the pioneer public school
teachers of the city--the founder of this school and for many years,
as at present, its principal. Few cities in the Union can show school
buildings as elegant, convenient, substantial and costly as these two
noble monuments of public appreciation of, and liberality towards, the
system which must underlie and sustain our free government if it is to
stand at all.

TEHAMA.--Tehama street, near First. Brick, undisguised; 111 feet long,
75 feet deep, three stories high, besides spacious basement
play-rooms--has sixteen class-rooms, each 24×31, hall, 41×49, with
ample stairings, and convenient teacher's-rooms and ample yards. Cost,
$28,300, gold. It accommodates one thousand primary pupils of both
sexes. Mrs. E. A. Wood, Principal.

Besides these, the city has several large and fine wooden
school-houses of modern structure. Of these the most sightly, is the
Girls' High School, south side of Bush street, near Stockton--57×92,
three stories, ten class-rooms, 27×34, with an assembly hall, 54×55;
whose length can be increased to 90 feet, by opening folding doors
between it and two adjoining class-rooms. It is the most conveniently
arranged, best ventilated, sunniest, most cheerful and healthful
school-house in the State. Ellis H. Holmes, Principal. To these the
Department has recently added, and is now adding, four or five 18
class-room buildings, of wood, each accommodating one thousand pupils,
now occupying the old and small school-rooms of early days or hived in
unsuitable rented rooms.

Bancroft's Book and Stationery Establishment.

It may appear like exaggeration to say that San Francisco contains the
largest and most complete general Book and Stationery, mercantile and
manufacturing business in the world. Yet, such is the fact. Not that
the business, by any means, equals that of Harpers' and Appletons', of
New York, Hachette of Paris, or the stationers of London. But, between
these houses and Bancroft's, there is no comparison. The character of
their trade is totally different. One publishes books, another
manufactures paper, and so each is large in one thing, whereas the
Bancrofts, collecting from the manufacturers of all the world, and
manufacturing according to the requirements of their trade, cover
under one management the ground occupied by all others combined. In
older and larger cities, one house deals in law books alone; another,
school books, etc., while this San Francisco house--besides a full
stock of books in every department of literature, and stationery from
the manufacturers of Europe and America, paper from the mills of New
England, pencils from Germany, pen-holders from Paris--unite Printing,
Book-binding, Lithography, Blank-Book Making, Engraving, &c., every
thing, in short, comprised in all the business of all the others.

The detail is necessarily very great. They buy from a thousand
sellers, and sell to many thousand buyers. Over one hundred employés,
divided into nine departments, each under an experienced manager, ply
their vocation like bees in a hive of six rooms, each 37 by 170 feet.
To the latest improvements of the finest machinery, driven by steam,
apply the highest order of skilled labor, and San Francisco can do
anything as well and as cheaply as New York, London or Paris.

The retail department, occupying the first floor, has the most
magnificent salesroom on the Pacific coast. Visitors are warmly
welcomed, and strangers politely shown through the premises.

Private Residences.

For the convenience of the tourist, who may want to see the homes of
our city as well as her public buildings and business blocks, we
mention the locality of the following, which are among the finest of
our private dwellings: Erwin Davis, southwest corner of California and
Powell streets; Milton S. Latham, Folsom street, opposite Hawthorne,
on Rincon Hill; D. J. Tallant, corner of Bush and Jones street;
Richard Tobin, corner of California and Taylor streets; John Parrott,
620 Folsom street. By making two trips--first, over California street,
and returning by Sutter or Bush street; second, over Rincon Hill on
Folsom street, and returning by Harrison, the visitor may see the
finest of our private residences.

Points of Observation.

TELEGRAPH HILL.--This notable natural landmark stands at the head,
that is, at the north end of Montgomery street. The early settlement,
the pioneer hamlet from which the present city has grown, was made in
the hollow near the southwest foot. Civilization has encircled it on
the land side, and crept two thirds the way up, while commerce has
claimed the water front along its opposite base--but the summit still
stands as free as when the priestly fathers first looked thence upon
the glorious inland sea, which flashes between it and the sunrise. Let
us climb it--this way, straight up the Montgomery street sidewalk,
Slowly, please; we have the day before us; exhausted lungs impair
one's sight. Stop at the corner of each intersecting street, and
glance either way, but especially eastward--that is, downward toward
the Bay. Now, "Excelsior," again; up these stairs; now along this
natural surface--no asphaltum walks or Stow foundation pavements up
here yet, you see--on, by these houses; turn to the left here; now to
the right, follow this winding way; patiently please--that's it; only
two or three minutes more--ah! here it is--this is the highest point,
where the old observatory stood. Sit and breathe a moment; slip on
your overcoat, or put that extra shawl about you; it's easy to take
cold here, far easier than to rid yourself of it in the city below.

For the sake of method in our survey, we may as well begin at the
northwest; thence "swing round the circle," through north, east, south
and west, and return to the point of starting. Looking northwesterly,
then, we have first the elevated, undulating plateau, which stretches
along the flattened summits of the northernmost spur of the broad
peninsular hills, and terminates in the precipitous bluff known as
Fort Point--the southern gate-post of the far-famed Golden Gate.
Through this we gaze seaward along the further margin of the strait,
where it sends in a surging cove upon the rocky beach, between Point
Diablo and Point Bonita. The projection of the latter point shuts off
the vision, which else might range up the northwesterly trend of the
coast, along the ocean-shore of Marin county to Punta de los Reyes,
(King's Point) which projects southward between Bolinas bay and the
ocean. Between Point Diablo and Lime Point, a slight northerly curve,
in the shore line makes a shallow cove, from whose edge the vision
climbs the successive hills or ridges which fill the ascending space
as it roughly rises toward the crowning point of Marin county, Mount
Tamalpais, two thousand six hundred and four feet nearer heaven than
the beach line whence we set forth. Still following round, we look up
into Richardson's Bay; next the southwestern end of Raccoon Strait,
and then Angel Island. We are now looking north. Alcatraz, the rocky
island which nature set just there to support a commanding fortress;
then, an eye-sweep up over the northern part of San Francisco Bay to
that narrow strait which joins it with San Pablo Bay; northeast the
San Pablo shore of Contra Costa county, and the hills which terminate
the Mount Diablo peninsular range. Nearer east, the strangely
monotonous hills, whose ridges and gullies look as if plowed out by
heavy rains, and rounded by sweeping winds. Grassy or earthy, they
look, according to the time of year and kind of season. Now, almost
east, the vision falls. This large island, off in the midst of the
bay, is Yerba Buena, or Goat Island. It rises three hundred and forty
feet above low water mark. Nearly in a line over the island appears
Berkeley, the site of the University of California, of which one large
building, already two thirds raised, you may possibly discern. A
little further south--that is, to the right, you can plainly see the
State Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind. This noble building
crowns a gently-sloping eminence just at the margin between the broad
and nearly level plain which stretches between it and the bay, and the
foothills back of which the Contra Costa mountains bring up the rear.

Almost due east lies Oakland, the tree-city of the beautiful
grove-dotted plain. Then Clinton, San Antonio, Brooklyn and Alameda,
snuggled in together so closely that one can't tell "which is which;"
and, as far as the beauty of the view is concerned, it doesn't matter
either, for they are all fair to look upon and lovely to behold. The
clustering trees shut out by far the larger portion of the houses, so
that we might hardly suspect the size and population of the towns,
whose scattered roofs show here and there among the trees.

We are looking southeasterly now. That creek, whose mouth you see just
beyond Alameda, leads into San Leandro bay; and right over it, nearly
hidden by intervening trees, lies the town of the same name. A little
further south, and too distant to be plainly seen, is Hayward's. That
depression in the mountain summits beyond, marks the opening of
Livermore pass, through which the Western Pacific Railroad finds its

Beyond Hayward's, further south, and thence sweeping around to the
right, toward the extreme end of the bay, we dimly discern the
northern end of the beautiful Santa Clara Valley, where it widens out
and flattens down to the bay. We are now looking almost due south.
Only four miles down, Hunter's Point shuts off our further view, and
compels us to look nearer home. A trifle west of that, and half as far
away, the Potrero presents its transverse ridge, fast disappearing
under the rapidly-growing city, and showing a gap of daylight where
the deep cut of the Bay View horse railroad was relentlessly dug and
blasted through, in its stubborn pursuit of a practicable grade.
Between the cut and ourselves, the Long Bridge shuts off the Mission
bay, and shows where the fast-filling mud-flats will soon crowd back
the bay, and make a new water front. Still nearer, we have the western
slope or ridge of Rincon Hill, rising gradually to the left, and
packed all over with the huddled and mostly wooden houses of the new
and hurriedly-built city. Along the inner base of the hill, and
stretching out westward, lies the old "Happy Valley." That's just this
side of where you see the shot-tower, and runs thence four or five
blocks to the right. Between that and ourselves, coming over this side
of Market street, we have the oldest and most densely-built part of
the city, relieved here and there--by the Occidental Hotel, Tucker's
tower, the Merchants' Exchange, Murphy, Grant & Co.'s building, and
half a dozen others. Now let the vision range away southwest, again
beginning at the hills and coming in. The bounding hills are Bernal
Heights, west of which Fairmount and the adjacent hills merge into the
peninsular range, and form a rude amphitheatre, within which nestles
the fast-growing southwestern precinct. Coming up toward the west, the
twin summits of the Mission peaks slant the vision up against the sky,
or plunge it into the fleecy billows of in-rolling ocean fog, which
seldom survives the warmer air of the inner basin long enough to roll
far down their western slope. Between them and us lies the Mission
Dolores, grouped around its century-old church. Northward of the
twin-peaks the hills rise in "promiscuous prominence." A little south
of west, that irregularly conical hill, surmounted by a gigantic
solitary cross, is the famous "Lone Mountain," about whose lower
slopes, and around whose base are grouped so many "cities of the
dead." Thence northerly, to the point whence our survey began, little
of note arrests the sight, more than the broad reach of lower hills
and sandy dunes, which patiently wait the coming occupation of the
westward-growing city.

Although the point beneath our feet is but three hundred feet high,
the panoramic view is wider and freer than from any other, even the
highest hilltop of the city.

RUSSIAN HILL.--About one mile west-southwest from Telegraph Hill, on
Vallejo street, between Taylor and Jones street, Russian Hill rises
nearly sixty feet higher, but offers little additional prospect. It
was formerly surmounted by a sort of cork-screw observatory, a
skeleton structure of open frame-work, surrounded by a spiral
stairway, whose summit afforded the loftiest lookout within the city
limits. West-northwest of this hill, and about three-quarters of a
mile from its summit, lies the small lagoon, near which the founders
of the early mission first located.

CLAY STREET HILL.--Nearly south of Russian Hill, and about three
furlongs from it, rises this hill, the highest within the city
limits. It is named from the street which runs just south of its
summit, or will do so when cut through. The hill is 376 feet high, and
is a little over a mile southwest of Telegraph Hill. The view from its
summit differs only in having moved the point of sight a mile
southwest, and raised it about 80 feet.

CALIFORNIA STREET HILL.--This, too, takes its name from that of the
neighboring street. It is hardly proper to call it a separate hill as
it is but two blocks south of Clay Street Hill, from which only a
slight hollow originally separated it.

RINCON HILL.--Three quarters of a mile southwest of the City Hall. Its
highest point reaches hardly a hundred feet above the bay level. The
whole hill originally offered such sightly locations for building that
it is covered on nearly all sides, and crowded upon its very height,
by some of the most comfortable and home-like residences in the entire
city. This fact makes it almost impossible to get an unobstructed
view, in all directions, from any part of it. It was a favorite, and
almost an aristocratic site for residences, until the heartless greed
for gain procured legal authority to excavate the famous "Second
Street Cut;" 75 feet deep, which needlessly ruined the beauty of the

LONE MOUNTAIN.--This singularly symmetrical hill stands two and
one-half miles west of the City Hall, at the head of Bush street. It
is 284½ feet high. From its summit rises a solitary cross which,
especially near sunset, stands forth against the western sky with
peculiar, beautiful effect. The view hence is full of inspiration and
suggestion. None have caught more of these, or embodied them in finer
words than Bret Harte, in his favorite lines:

     As I stand by the cross on the lone mountain crest,
       Looking over the ultimate sea,
     In the gloom of the mountain a ship lies at rest,
       And one sails away from the lea;
     One spreads its white wings on a far-reaching track,
       With pennant and sheet flowing free,
     One hides in the shadow with sails laid aback--
       The ship that is waiting for me!

     But lo, in the distance the clouds break away,
       The Gate's glowing portal I see,
     And I hear, from the out-going ship in the bay,
       The song of the sailors in glee;
     So I think of the luminous foot-prints that bore
       The comfort o'er dark Galilee,
     And wait for the signal to go to the shore;
       To the ship that is waiting for me.

MISSION PEAKS.--The double peaks already mentioned in our panoramic
eye-sweep from Telegraph Hill, lying three miles southwest of it,
sometimes called the Twin Peaks. They are five hundred and ten feet
high, and stand four miles southwest of the City Hall. They are the
loftiest points in the county; either summit commands a view which
well repays the time and labor expended in gaining it.

BERNAL HEIGHTS.--This name designates a short range of hills nearly
five miles west-southwest of the City Hall. Starting near the bay,
they run transversely, that is, westerly, for about one mile across
the peninsula. Their highest point is two hundred and ninety-five feet
above the bay.

The highest point of the Potrero is three hundred and twenty-six feet
above low tide, and the San Miguel Hills, near the southerly line of
the county, reach the height of about four hundred feet. The Pacific
Heights, near Alta Plaza, a mile and a half west of the City Hall, are
three hundred and seventy-five feet high.

These are all the natural elevations of note within the city and
county. The best artificial outlooks may be had from the roof of the
houses standing on or near the summits of those hills which rise
within the settled portion. The roof of Bancroft's building, the
cupola of the Grand Hotel, the U. S. Military Observatory, on the
southwest corner of Third and Market streets, and the Shot Tower, if
you can persuade Mayor Selby to let you up, all afford extensive and
beautiful prospects.

Having thus told the tourist all we know about the most feasible and
temperate methods of "getting high," we leave him to his own
direction, only adding that if he isn't satisfied with our efforts in
his behalf, he'd better go "up in a balloon," and view our city as
the Germans did Paris.

How to get about.

The universal, inexpensive, always-ready and democratic way is by the
ever-present Horse Cars. Seven different companies have laid about
fifty miles of rail in and about the city, and carry one either
directly to or within a very short distance of any desired point.

LINES, ROUTES AND COLORS.--The Omnibus and North Beach and Mission R.
R. Companies run yellow cars through Third and Fourth, Sansome,
Montgomery and Kearney, the central blocks of Stockton, and the
northern ends of Powell and Mason. They also run red cars from the
centre of the city to the southwestern limits, through Howard and
Folsom streets.

The Central R. R. Co. runs red cars from the steamboat landings along
the city front, through Jackson, Sansome, Bush, and other leading
streets to Lone Mountain. Their cars are commonly called the Lone
Mountain cars.

The Front Street and Ocean R. R. Co. runs green cars from the
steamboat landings at the foot of Broadway, up that street, along
Battery, Market, Sutter and Polk streets, by Spring Valley to the
Presidio, whence busses connect for Fort Point. A branch of this road
runs through Larkin street across Market through Ninth to Mission;
thus connecting the western with the southwestern suburbs. Within the
year this company has also constructed and put into operation another
branch, carrying one to Laurel Hill Cemetery and Lone Mountain.

The Market Street R. R., the pioneer, runs blue cars from the junction
of Montgomery and Market street, opposite the Grand Hotel, through
Market by the San José Depot, and out Valencia to Twenty-sixth. From
the junction of Ninth and Larkin street with Market, it sends a branch
out through Hayes Valley to Hayes Valley Pavilion.

The City R. R.--Lately built, and newly stocked, runs from the west
front of Grand Hotel, at the junction of Market and New Montgomery,
along the latter to Mission, thence out Mission to Twenty-Sixth,
passing directly by the entrance to Woodward's Gardens, and within one
block of the San José depot.

The Potrero and Bay View R. R.--Connecting with the North Beach and
Mission R. R., at the south end of Fourth street, runs thence across
the Long Bridge over Mission Bay--through the Potrero Deep Cut, over
the Islais Creek bridge, through South San Francisco to the Bay View
Race Track terminus, within half a mile of Hunter's Point and the Dry

TIMES, FARES, ETC.--Commencing at about 6 P.M., in summer earlier, the
cars run at various intervals of from three to seven minutes until 11
and 12 o'clock P.M., and on the City R. R., till 1.30 the next
morning. Nearly all the roads sell tickets, having four coupons
attached, for twenty-five cents each. Every coupon is good for one
fare from one end of the city to the other, and the coupon tickets of
one company are received by every other. For single fares, paid
without coupons, they usually charge ten cents. Nearly a year ago the
City R. R. started the half-dime fare, asking but five cents for a
single ride, and the Market street R. R. has also adopted it.
"Children occupying seats, full fare."

Several of the companies issue transfer checks entitling the passenger
to continue his ride upon any intersecting line without extra charge.

HACKS AND COACHES.--For the benefit of those who have occasion to
engage any of the above, for the transient service of any excursion
lying outside of the regular routes, or beyond the legal limits within
which the fixed fare obtains, we subjoin the following legal
regulations also contained in the order and section already quoted on
a previous page:

"For a hackney carriage, drawn by more than one horse, for four or
less persons, when engaged by the hour, to be computed for the time
occupied in going and returning, including detention, $3 for the first
hour, and $2 for each subsequent hour.

"For a hackney carriage, drawn by one horse, for two persons, when
engaged by the hour, to be occupied in going and returning, including
detentions, $1 50 for the first hour, and $1 for each subsequent

It is hardly necessary to remark, yet it may prevent misunderstanding
to add, that the above rates pay for the service of the _whole_
carriage, and may be equitably divided among the occupants as they

LIVERY SERVICE.--The livery stables of the city are numerous, and
well-stocked with animals of blood and speed, and every form of two or
four-wheeled vehicles from the substantial, three-seated
thorough-braced wagon to the elegant or fancy single buggy or sulky.
The usual rates, at all first class stables, are five dollars a day,
or a drive, for a single team, and ten dollars for a double one. For a
very short trip, and a very short time, they frequently abate
something, and when a team is engaged for several days or weeks at
once, commonly make the rate lower. For saddle horses the price is
usually one half that of a single team, that is $2 50 for a day or
drive--subject to similar reductions as above.

ON FOOT.--If you have the nerve and muscle of a man, and are not sadly
out of training, by all means walk through or about the city and
around its suburbs. In several places, as, in climbing Telegraph or
any other hill, you will have to walk, and then you can. Even our lady
visitors might profitably emulate the pedestrian performances of their
English sisters. Provide good easy, wide-bottomed, low-heeled
walking-shoes, boots or gaiters, and take the beautiful, windless and
dustless morning hours for it and, unless your taste is fashionably
perverted or your physical energy hopelessly exhausted, you will find
it most delightful. Among the Scottish Highlands, or in the Swiss
Alps, you would certainly do it, endure it, enjoy it, and subsequently
boast of it; why not try it here?

Suburbs and Vicinity.

We suppose the visitor to have fairly rested--to have walked about a
little through the more central portion; to have somewhat studied the
general plan of the city, in view of the larger or shorter time which
he has to spend in the city, to have made up his mind how much he will
see, and what it shall be. By way of helping his planning and
sight-seeing, we now catalogue and briefly remark upon the more
notable points, taken in regular order from the most central starting
point. We offer the following pages as helpful suggestions to those
who cannot avail themselves of the personal guidance of some resident
friend, who can constantly accompany them to direct their route, and
verbally explain the details which these printed pages attempt. If
one has not time, or does not wish to see anything here set down, he
can easily omit it, and from the remainder select whatever he may
chose, transposing, combining, modifying and adapting according to his
own good pleasure.


Commencing at the foot of Market street, thence southward, along or
over the water front, continuing around the entire city and returning
to the point of starting. Also mentioning more distant points visible
to the spectator looking beyond the suburbs:

The Lumber Yards, Wharves and Merchant Fleet, first attract our
notice. Millions of feet of boards, plank and timber from the northern
coast of this State and from Oregon, ranged in immense piles on broad
and deep piers--alongside of which the schooners, brigs and barks of
the lumber fleet are constantly discharging.

Thence along Stewart or East street, the latter being nearer the
water, by large lumber-yards, boat-shops, blacksmithing and
ship-chandling establishments, we reach the California and Oregon S.
S. Co's wharves and slips. The Folsom street cars run within five
short blocks; nearer than any others.

Black Diamond Coal Company's Pier.--Barges, sheds and piles of coal,
straight from the bowels of Mount Diablo, corner Spear and Harrison
streets, P. B. Cornwall, agent.

Rincon Point, foot of Harrison street. The wharves and filling have
quite obliterated the old shore line, which originally turning a short
corner here, received the name "Rincon," which, in Spanish, means
simply a corner.

U. S. Marine Hospital, northwest corner of Harrison and Spear.

P. M. S. S. Co.'s Piers, Docks, Sheds and Slips. Waterfront, foot of
Brannan and Townsend streets. Piers having a total front of 1200 feet,
shed 600 feet long by 250 wide. Steamships over five thousand tons
register and docks built especially for them. Capt. W. B. Cox,

Gas Works, corner of King and Second. The other works of the same
company, the San Francisco Gas Co., are on Howard street, from First
to Beale.

C. P. R. R. Co.'s Freight Pier, Depot and Boat. Foot of Second street.

Mission Bay. Foot of Second and Third streets. The broad cove lying
between South street and Potrero; now fast filling in, especially
beyond, that is, south of the Long Bridge.

Mission Rock.--Off the foot of Third street. Has a shanty on it. Used
for fishing.

U. S. Ship Anchorage.--Between foot of Third and the Mission Rock, and
within a quarter-mile radius of the latter. U. S. Revenue Cutters and
Coast Survey vessels, chiefly occupy it.

Steamboat Reserves.--In the docks between Third and Fourth and the
adjacent ones along the south side of the bridge.

Long Bridge.--From the foot of Fourth street, across Mission Bay to
Potrero--one mile. Will become Kentucky street, when the filling-in
makes a street of what is now a bridge.

Yacht Club Building.--East side of Long Bridge, one third across.
Yachts at moorings near.

Potrero.--The point at the south end of Long Bridge. Spanish for
pasture ground. Originally a rocky ridge. Fast disappearing under

Glass Works.--Pacific Glass Works, corner Iowa and Mariposa streets,
four blocks west of bridge.

Pacific Rolling Mill.--Potrero Point, water front, east of bridge.

Deep Cut, is really Kentucky street, brought down somewhere near the
future grade, by cutting through the solid rock, to an average depth
of 75 feet for nearly a fifth of a mile.

Rope Walk runs under Kentucky street, near the north end of the Islais
Creek Bridge, which is the same street continued across Islais Creek,
now a solidly planked bridge, seven eighths of a mile long.

Italian Fishing Fleet and Flakes, on the right of the bridge, along
the cove-beach just beyond the rope-walk. Their Mongolian competitors
have their boats and beach a little further south.

South San Francisco is the rising land or ridge south of Islais Creek.
It is a pleasant suburb, rapidly growing.

Catholic Orphan Asylum, that large, new wooden building fronting on
Connecticut street, nine blocks west of the bridge.

Hunter's Point is the east end of South San Francisco, a rocky point
in which the Dry Dock, dug out of the solid rock, four hundred and
twenty-one feet long, one hundred and twenty feet wide at the top, and
sixty feet wide at the bottom, which is twenty-two feet below mean
high water. With the Floating Dock, near by, it cost two millions of

Bay View Race Track, near Railroad Avenue, a mile southwest of Islais
Bridge. One mile around; broad, smooth and hard. Bay View House at
north margin, near west end.

Visitacion Point and Valley, three quarters of a mile beyond the race
course; worth driving out to see, if you have plenty of time.

San Bruno Road unites with this railroad avenue about half a mile
beyond the race course; brings one back near

New Butchertown, corner of Islais Creek Canal and Kentucky street.

Drive back this old San Bruno Road, until you come to Twenty-sixth
street; along that to Mission; down Mission to Seventeenth, out which
you may drive until you find your way winding and climbing up and
over the east slopes of the peninsular hills along the Ocean House
Road, a broad, hard track, leading over the hills to the house which
names it. Opposite Twenty-fourth street is the toll gate, where you
pay twelve and a half, or twenty-five cents, according to your team. A
mile beyond, a side gate, free, admits you to a carriage-way through
the fields, leading down, three quarters of a mile, to Lake Honda, the
huge double-reservoir of sloping-sided masonry, covered with cement,
and holding thirty-five million gallons. This well merits a visit. The
City Almshouse stands on the hill, half a mile south of the lake.

The Small-pox Hospital is the small building standing alone on the
hill, a third of a mile north of the Almshouse.

Returning to, and resuming the main road, a mile southwesterly and
then westerly, brings us to the Ocean Race Course, securely enclosed,
and having the usual circuit and surface.

Opposite this, and half a mile south lies Lake Merced, three quarters
of a mile long by a fifth of a mile wide. That part of it nearer to,
and parallel with the road, is a smaller, nearly separate lake called
simply "the Lagoon."

Ocean House, on a slight sandy knoll, half a mile northwest of Lake

Pacific Beach.--This is the sandy shore of the "ultimate sea,"
stretching almost exactly north two miles to the base of the cliff, up
which a well-built road carries us a score of rods northwesterly to

Cliff House, the grand terminus, or at least way-station of all ocean
drives. Its broad, covered piazza, well-furnished with easy chairs and
good marine glasses, has been for years the popular observatory whence
fashion languidly patronizes the Pacific, or gazes with momentary
interest upon the

Seal Rocks--three hundred feet from the shore, and dotted with
lubberly seals, clumsily climbing upon the lower rocks, or lazily
sunning themselves above.

Farallones--Twenty-five miles seaward from the Cliff House--seven
sharp-pointed islets break the monotony of the western horizon. The
highest of these rises three hundred and forty feet, and has a large
lighthouse of the first-class, with the finest Fresnel light on the

Point Lobes, a precipitous coast bluff, a third of a mile north of the
Cliff House, chiefly noted as the site of the Signal Station; provided
with a fine glass and the usual outfit of a marine observatory. Thence
along the beach, or the brow of the bluff, if you like climbing, by
the Helmet Rock, whose shape hardly appears from the land, around the
curve of the shore, whose general direction here is northeast, a full
mile, to

Fort Point, where stands a doubly-strengthened and heavily-mounted
fort, yet unnamed, whose chief interest founds upon its general
resemblance to the famous Fort Sumter.

Lighthouse.--The northwest angle of the fort supports a substantial
tower, showing a fixed white light. From the walls of the fort, or
better still, from the lighthouse balcony, we look upon and across the

Golden Gate, the connecting strait between the Pacific Ocean and San
Francisco Bay. It is between three and four miles long, from one to
two miles wide, and over four hundred feet deep.

Lime Point, the northern inside gate-post--the southeastern extremity
of Marin county.

Point Bonita.--The outer or oceanward point of the northern shore,
nearly two miles west of the fort, crowned with a lighthouse.

Mountain Lake--One mile south of the fort, and sending a little
rivulet called Lobos Creek westward into the Pacific, which it helps
to replenish.

Presidio--Spanish for garrison or barracks. This is nearly a mile
southeast of the fort, as we return toward the city. Its main features
are the extensive barracks, accommodating several hundred U. S.
soldiers, who make this their point of arrival and departure in going
to or coming from the different stations to which they may be ordered.
Forming the parallelogram front is the parade ground, a broad, open
field, gently falling toward the bay, surrounded by the officers'
quarters or the barracks, and dotted with batteries here and there.

Black Point.--The water front at the foot of Franklin and Gough

Pioneer Woolen Mills--Corner of Polk and Reade streets. Office, 115
Battery street.

North Beach--From the foot of Powell street west to Black Point.

Angel Island, three and a half miles north of Black Point, across the

Alcatraces Island--A mile and a half north of North Beach, off in the
bay, heavily fortified, commanding the Golden Gate.

North Point--Water front, foot of Kearny street, corner of Bay street.

Sea Wall--Water front from the foot of Union street, southward; a
sloping bulkhead of rubble, faced with heavier rock, costing $240 a
linear foot, and a mile and a half long.

FERRIES.--Alameda--Corner of Davis and Pacific street. City Front

Oakland--Same dock, next slip south. City Front Cars.

Saucelito--Meiggs' Wharf, foot of Powell street. North Beach cars.

San Quentin--Davis street, near Vallejo. City Front or Sutter street

Vallejo--Corner of Front and Vallejo. City Front or Sutter street


Brief trips, or short excursions, requiring but a few hours each.
Short skeleton tours in and about the suburbs, suggesting the most
interesting points, with the walks, rides, drives or sails by which
one may reach them--the time required and the best hours of the day,
the amount of walking necessary, with the conveniences and cost.


I. Walk up Montgomery street to Telegraph Hill. If you don't feel like
climbing clear to the top, follow the foot-path which winds around
about two thirds up its east and northeast slopes. If you go to the
top you can go down into--or if you take the lower path you will come
round into, Lombard street. Walk down that to Powell; turn to your
right and follow Powell north to the water and Meiggs' wharf, down the
wharf if you want the bay breeze, and the bay sights from a lower
level; come back--take the South Park cars; ride up Powell by
Washington Square, up Stockton, down Washington--get out at the upper
corner of the Plaza, walk diagonally across, notice the old City Hall
on your left, stroll up Kearny to California or Bush, down which you
descend one block to Montgomery.

II. CHINESE QUARTERS.--Sacramento street, from Kearny to Dupont, along
Dupont to Pacific, down Pacific to Stockton, to Jackson, down Jackson
to Kearny; cast your eyes down the little alleyways and courts which
cut up the blocks along these streets. Look at these signs! "Hop Yik,
Wo Ki, Tin Yuk, Hop Wo, Chung Sun, Cheung Kuong, Hang Ki, Yang Kee,
Shang Tong, Shun Wo," that last wouldn't be a bad one to go over the
door of "civilized" rum-hole. "Wing On Tsiang, Wung Wo Shang, Kwong On
Cheang," and scores of others. Most are personal names, some are
business mottoes. They are generally phonographic, that is, you
pronounce them according to their spelling. Here and there one
suggests fun. For instance, "Man Li." Well, why not a Chinaman as well
as a white man? Has the superior race the monopoly of lying? That sign
is certainly creditable to the Chinese female; it says Man Li; not
_woman_ lie. Not far thence a very appropriate successor finishes the
logical sequence, "Hung Hi." Certainly, why not? That's what ought to
be done to any merchant who will lie. Any Man Li, should be "Hung Hi."
These celestials certainly have no bad idea of the eternal fitness of
things. What would happen to our Melican merchants if that rule were
rigidly applied? It would'nt be much trouble to take the next census.
This is the out-door glance by daylight. If you want a more thorough
exploration by day or by night, call on special officer Duffield,
(George W.) at 1,107 Montgomery street, who knows their haunts and
ways, and can show you all you'll care to see. His long experience
among them has also acquainted them with him to such a degree, that
they allow him to enter and pass through their houses and rooms whence
another might be shut out. In fact, he is their special officer, paid
by the Chinese merchants to guard their property, and is emphatically
_the_ man to have for an escort. He can take you into their gambling
saloons, into their pigeon-hole lodging houses where rag-pickers,
beggars and thieves fill the air with opium smoke, then shove
themselves, feet foremost, into a square box of a pigeon-hole, more
like a coffin than a couch. He can guide you into crooked, narrow,
labyrinthine passages through which you can just squeeze, and which
you could never find nor enter without guidance; into inner courts,
around which, and in the midst of which, stand old rickety,
tumble-down, vermin-haunted hives of wooden tenements which rise
through three or four stories, all alive with the swarming lazzaroni,
packed into the smallest and dirtiest of rooms, and huddled into every
dark and filthy corner.

These are the lowest and worst of their race; the _infernal_
celestials, among whom the officer will not take a woman at all, and
where it would not be safe for any man to attempt entrance alone. The
approaches are so ingeniously constructed and so artfully disguised,
and the passages wind among each other so intricately, and intersect
each other so perplexingly, that not one in a thousand could ever find
the beginning, and hardly one in ten thousand could discover the end.

       "For _ways_ that are _dark_,
       And for _tricks_ that are _vain_,
       The heathen Chinee _is_ peculiar;
     Which the same I would rise to explain."

The stranger must not conclude, however, that such as these make up
the bulk of the Chinese who come to us. On the contrary, these are the
lowest and vilest, the dregs and settlings of their social system; no
more fit to be taken as samples of their nation than the low,
whisky-drinking, shillaly-swinging, skull-cracking, vote-repeating
Irish, who now govern New York, are to be taken as fair types of the
"finest pisantry undher the sun," or considered as a representative of
the educated Irishman, than whom a warmer-hearted, freer-handed, more
courteous-mannered gentleman one can hardly meet in a thousand miles.

So the middle classes of the Chinese are cleanly, sober, industrious
and honest, while their leading merchants, of whom we have several
fine representatives in the city, are models of business integrity and
social courtesy. Enter one of their establishments, with proper
introduction, and you shall encounter the most perfect politeness
throughout the interview, and carry away the impression that you were
never more heartily welcomed and generously entertained, according to
their custom, of course, by _any_ strangers, in your life.

And one very notable thing should also be said of their street
deportment; you may walk through their quarter every day and night for
a month, and not see a single drunken man of their own race. If you
encounter one at all, he is likely to belong to the "superior race."

Your survey of the Chinese quarter would be incomplete without a visit
to their temples or joss houses. One of these stands off Pine, just
above Kearny. They are also used as hospitals.

Should you wish any souvenir in the shape of their peculiarly
ingenious manufacture, you may find them at the Chinese or Japanese

III. THIRD STREET.--Five and a half blocks to South Park; thence three
blocks to the water; along Channel street to Long Bridge. Here we may
take the Bay View cars, ride across the Mission Bay, visit the Rolling
Mills, or keep on through the Deep Cut, over Islais Creek bridge,
through South San Francisco, to Bay View track, whence 'busses carry
us to Hunter's Point and the Dry Dock. Best time, morning, unless some
ship is going into dock on the high tide. Fare in 'bus, twenty-five
cents each.

IV.--WATER FRONT--South of Market.--Walk along East or Stewart St., by
U. S. Marine Hospital, to P. M. S. S. Co.'s ships and docks and C. P.
R. R. Freight piers and depot. Thus far no cars. At foot of Brannan
take cars, ride up that to Third, down Third, by South Park, to
Howard--along Howard to Second, along Second to Market again. Or you
can walk from the water up Second to Market again. Or you can walk
from the water up Second through the cut to Harrison, climb the
bridge-stairs, walk down Harrison to First or Fremont, turn left, and
come back by the Shot Tower, Foundries, and Factories to Market.

V.--WATER FRONT--North of Market.--No cars here. Stroll northerly by
the corners of the different streets, along the heads of the different
piers, among the grain and produce boats, river steamer docks and
ferry slips, around to North Point, with its bonded warehouses, iron
clippers, and sea wall, thence back Sansome to Broadway, whence cars
take you again to the centre.

VI.--SOUTHWESTERN SUBURBS.--From corner west front of Grand Hotel,
take city cars out Mission, by fine new church, new Mint, to
Woodward's Gardens; thence to Sixteenth; up that three blocks,
westerly, to Dolores street, where stands the old Mission Church, the
site of the first permanent settlement of San Francisco; out Dolores;
south two blocks, to Jewish Cemeteries; back by same way to
Sixteenth; down that to Mission Woolen Mills; thence home by Folsom
street or Howard street cars, either of which brings you to Market

VII.--WESTERN SUBURBS AND BEYOND.--From Montgomery up Sutter, by cars,
or up Bush by feet or wheels. Either street carries you westerly to
Laurel Hill, in which elegant monuments and mausoleums merit more than
passing notice; thence east three blocks to Lone Mountain and the
cemeteries grouped about its base, and upon its lower slopes--the Odd
Fellows', west; the Masonic, south, and the Calvary north and east.
Out the Cliff House Road--you'll need horse probably, or can take the
'bus for 25 cents each way--by the Race Track or Driving Park, to the
Cliff House; look at the Seal Rocks, Seals, Ocean and Farallones;
thence south along Pacific Beach to Ocean House, whence in by Ocean
Road or the new Central Road by Lake Peralta and Lake Honda. The old
Ocean Road brings you back through the Mission; the new one, in by
Lone Mountain again.

VIII.--NORTHWESTERN SUBURBS and beyond.--Up Geary, Post or Sutter to
Van Ness Avenue; thence twelve blocks north through Spring Valley, by
cars from Broadway west to Harbor View, Presidio and Fort Point.
Returning from the Presidio, keep towards the Bay; come around by
Black Point, whence, skirting the water-front through five or six
rough blocks, you reach the foot of Mason or Powell street, and find
other cars waiting to bring you home.

The routes above suggested, are by no means exhaustive, but will take
one to or near the most noted points. If the tourist can have the
personal guidance and escort of some well-posted friend, so much the
better. In the absence of such friend, or even to accompany him, we
respectfully submit our little pocket substitute.


Under this head we suggest different excursions to and through the
most noted localities within a limited radius. We have arranged them
in the order of their neighborhood to each other, so that one may pass
from the end of one to the beginning of the next without the necessity
of returning to San Francisco more than once or twice before
completing them all.

I. The Bay Trip.

We suppose you tired of land travel, with its accompanying jar and
dust, and willing to spend a half day in a smooth-sailing steamer on
the beautiful bay. Go to No. 703 Market street, only nine doors east
of Bancroft's, to the office of Gen. Ord, commanding the Department of
California. He can give you a pass, ordering, the captain of the
McPherson, the lively little Government propeller, which daily makes
the rounds of the military posts on all the chief islands in the
harbor, to take you to any you may wish to visit, or all, if you
desire. No other boat makes these trips. This one goes the rounds
twice a day. Unless particularly fond of high wind, and short, choppy,
sea-sicky waves, you'd better go in the morning. The steamer leaves
Jackson street pier every morning at eight, and every afternoon at
three. It takes you first, to

ALCATRAZ, or Alcatraces, as the Government spells it over the fortress
gate. The first is the singular, and the second the plural, form of a
Spanish word meaning a pelican. The island lies a mile and a quarter
north of San Francisco, and two and one half miles east of the Golden
Gate, whose entrance it commands. It is one third of a mile long, one
tenth of a mile wide, rises a hundred and forty feet above low tide; a
rudely elongated oval in shape, contains about thirty acres, composed
mainly of solid rock; is heavily fortified on all sides and crowned by
a strong fortress on the top. Perfect belts of batteries surround the
island, mounting some of the heaviest guns yet made in America. It is
the key to the fortifications of the harbor.

The island affords no fresh water. All which is used there is carried
thither from the main land or caught in cisterns during the rainy
season. On the highest point stands a lighthouse of the third order,
whose light can be seen, on a clear night, twelve miles at sea,
outside the Golden Gate. The southeast point of the island has a
heavy fog-bell, which strikes four times a minute through all dense
fogs. If you wish to land and examine the fortress and batteries, you
can do so, and stay until the boat returns, usually half or three
quarters of an hour, or remain till its afternoon trip, five or six
hours later. From Alcatraz, the boat goes a mile and a half to

ANGEL ISLAND, which lies three miles north of San Francisco, and is
the largest and most valuable island in the bay. It is a mile and one
third long, three quarters of a mile wide, and seven hundred and
seventy-one feet high. It contains about six hundred acres of
excellent land, watered by natural springs. On the east side are
quarries of blue and brown sand-stone, while good brick-clay is found
elsewhere. Three fixed batteries, mounting large and heavy guns, and
connected by a military road encircling the island, have been built.
The officers' quarters, barracks, and parade ground, are in a shallow,
gently-sloping valley, near the landing on the west side.

Returning, we touch at Alcatraz and thence steam round to

YERBA BUENA, or Goat Island, two miles east of San Francisco, and two
and a half from the Oakland shore, from which the long railroad pier
is heading straight for it, with the evident intention of bridging the
entire distance at an early day. The island contains little over half
a square mile, principally covered with chapparal, which is here a
thicket of low, evergreen oaks, dwarfed by the salt air and the high
winds. The Government also owns and occupies this island--barracks,
shops, and garrison. The name Goat Island was given from the fact that
many vessels coming to this port in early times, from southern ports
where goats were cheap, used to bring them for fresh meat on the
passage. In the event of a short voyage, a few goats survived, and
upon arrival here were turned loose upon this island, as it lay near
the anchorage, and provided a place from which the goats could not
escape. These veteran survivors of the voyage "round the horn,"
presently increased to such numbers as to originate the name "Goat
Island," which has, to a considerable degree, supplanted the earlier
and more significant name Yerba Buena. This latter name, having been
lifted from the city, ought at least to be allowed to fall and rest
upon the island, in perpetuation of those "early days," whose
landmarks are fast failing and fading into forgetfulness.

Now return with the boat to the pier, exchange the pure bay-breeze for
dust-laden city airs, and you have completed your bay trip.

II. The Oakland Trip.

OAKLAND lies seven miles east of San Francisco. At least that is the
distance from centre to centre; between the nearest margins the
measure would be hardly five miles. A dozen times a day the ferry-boat
takes one over; fare, 25 cents. Get out at Broadway street, turn to
your left, walk four or five blocks, notice the comfortable, roomy
appearance of the city. Two blocks up, observe that neat church on the
left, set well back from the street and surrounded by ample grounds
and pleasant gardens. That's Rev. Dr. Mooar's Congregational Church. A
block or two beyond, look up the broad street to the right, and you
see the buildings and grounds now occupied by the State University of
California, pending the erection of ampler accommodations on the
University site at Berkeley, five miles north. Take the horse cars if
you like, and ride out north along the "telegraph road." Noble
residences and beautiful grounds line both sides of the way. A mile
out, that large, new, wooden building, crowning the summit of a
moderate hill, accommodates McClure's Academy, wherein the military
drill reinforces and enlivens the other usual studies of a first-class

A third of a mile further, upon the same side appears the large and
finely-proportioned Pacific Female College, lately purchased by the
Pacific Theological Seminary.

Still north two miles further, brings us to or in front of the

Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum, beautifully located on the top of a
little rise, and commanding a fine view of the Golden Gate, the bay,
San Francisco, and its surroundings. The style of the building is a
modified Gothic. It is built of a fine-grained, bluish granite, from a
neighboring quarry. It has a length of one hundred and ninety-two feet
front, one hundred and forty-eight feet depth, sixty-two feet height
up the three stories and a half to the gable, and one hundred and
forty-five feet to the top of the tower. Within, the school-rooms,
chapel, halls, dormitories, and bath-rooms, are models of convenient
arrangement. Principal, Prof. Wilkinson.

Another mile and we cross a ravine, bear away to the left, and find
ourselves on the grounds of the State University of which only the
Mining and Agricultural College Building has begun to take form. The
site is the finest imaginable: facing the Golden Gate, the bay and its
islands, and the "Golden City" beyond.

Continuing west from the University site, we may go down to the San
Pablo road and return to Oakland by a different route. Approaching the
centre we may note the new City Hall, delight ourselves with glances
down the broad and "tree-ful" streets. Arrived at the Market street
station we take the cars south, cross the San Antonio creek, through
Brooklyn to San Leandro, where we may get out and take another train


Six miles southeasterly from San Leandro. This is a new,
pleasantly-situated and rapidly-growing town, the shipping point for a
large agricultural region around. Here see the grain sheds, run out to
the Brighton cattle market, the largest in the State, after which you
can take stage six miles to


And there inspect the salt works, but, more especially, the

Beet Sugar Works, the first erected and operated in California, and
regarded as the pioneer of an extensive and valuable industry. From
Alvarado you can keep on, by stage, nine miles to the

WARM SPRINGS, or you can reach these by driving to Niles, or Decoto,
and thence taking the cars of the San José road. These springs are
about two miles south of the Old Mission San José, in the midst of a
pleasant grove of oak and other trees, near the Agua Caliente (hot
water) creek. The waters contain lime, sulphur, magnesia, and iron, in
various combinations. Summer guests speak highly of the neighboring

From the springs return to the railroad, and riding eleven miles,
enter on

IV. The San José Trip,

which begins with

San José.

The county seat of Santa Clara county; in population the fourth city
of the State, in character of population one of the first, and in
beautiful surroundings the gem city. It has a fine situation, in the
midst of a beautiful valley, and a climate so healthy that many people
affected with lung complaints go thither to live, as a means of cure.
Hundreds from San Francisco and the intermediate cities, go on
excursions to San José and vicinity every summer. From whatever
direction we approach San José, the first object to meet the eye is
the lofty dome of the

COURT HOUSE. Next to the State Capitol at Sacramento, this is the
finest building in the State. It stands on the west side of First
street, fronting St. James Square. Its architecture is Roman
Corinthian; its dimensions, one hundred feet front, one hundred and
forty feet depth; height, fifty-six feet to cornice; to top of dome,
one hundred and fifteen feet. The building is divided into two lofty
stories, containing the principal court room, sixty-five feet long,
forty-eight feet wide and thirty-eight feet high, with twenty large
and elegant rooms for county officials. The view from the dome is
alone worth going to San José to enjoy. Whatever else you may omit, in
and about the city, do _not_ omit this.

THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL BUILDING. Next to the Court House, this is the
chief object of interest. It occupies the centre of Washington Square,
faces west; architecture, Corinthian; length, two hundred and
eighty-four feet; depth, one hundred and sixty feet; and height to top
of cornice, seventy feet; to top of tower, one hundred and fifty-two
feet; number of stories, four, including basement and mansard roof.
The Normal Hall is ninety-one feet long, sixty-six feet wide, and
forty feet high, accommodating nine hundred.

AUZERAIS HOUSE. Among the finest buildings in the city, and the best
hotel south of San Francisco, is the Auzerais House. For first-class
hotel accommodations in all variety, for cordial welcome and courteous
service, stop here, and you will not be disappointed; especially when
restfully reclining in the charming park and garden attached to the
house. Rates, usual first-class; from $3.00 single day, to $20.00, or
even $15.00, a week, with lower rates for longer times.

NEW YORK EXCHANGE HOTEL. Corner of First and St. John's streets,
ranking next to the Auzerais, affords excellent rooms, with good board
and attentive service, for from $2.00 a day to $12.00 a week.

If you want to ride through the surrounding valley, as you certainly
will, after looking from the court-house dome, go to Church & Wallace,
No. 386 First street, who will have a capital team waiting for you at
the station if you merely drop them a slight hint by telegraph.

Besides the public buildings already named, fine churches, school
buildings, business blocks, private residences and beautiful gardens
well repay a stroll through this queen city of a lovely valley.

New Almaden.

From San José, take one of Church & Wallace's teams, and drive
thirteen miles southerly to the celebrated

Quicksilver Mine, named for the famous old Almaden mine, in Spain,
with the syllable, "new," prefixed by way of distinction. This mine is
over five hundred feet deep, and employs nearly five hundred men. For
permission to enter, apply to J. B. Randol, Esq., manager, residing at
New Almaden. If you prefer to go out by public conveyance, a stage
will take you over any afternoon at 2.30 for $1.50.

Drive back to San José: thence, by steam car, horse car or private
team, go over three miles north to

Santa Clara,

A pleasant, quiet town, chiefly noted for the Santa Clara College
(Jesuit), which occupies the site of the old mission, which was really
the germ of the town; and the University of the Pacific (Methodist).


_Springs_, of course, ten miles southwest of San José, from which
daily stage carries one over for $1.50. These springs are called the

Congress Springs, from the resemblance of their water to that of the
original and famous springs of that name at the New York Saratoga.
They are three shallow springs, excavated in the sandstone, and
tasting very much alike. The water contains sulphates and carbonates
of soda, iron and lime, with traces of magnesia. It is very refreshing
and healthful; so much so that the guests at the neighboring hotel
annually consume increasing quantities, besides the thousand bottles
sent away daily.

Thence back to San José, and, after a good night's rest, set forth on

V. Gilroy, and Points South,

and the places for which it is the starting point.

This brisk and lively, neat and thriving town, we beg its pardon,
_city_, is thirty-one miles southeast of San José, from which one
reaches it by the Southern Pacific Railroad for a fare of $2.00. This
city is the present terminus of the railroad, and the consequent
centre from which radiate the various stage routes to the "lower
country." On every hand it presents evidences of business prosperity
and rapid growth. Population, over two thousand.

Hot Spring--Fourteen miles northeast of Gilroy, in a small, rocky
ravine opening into Coyote Cañon, is this noted spring. Its water
contains iron, soda, magnesia, sulphur, and baryta, and has a pungent
but not unpleasant taste. Throughout the year it preserves a uniform
temperature of about one hundred and ten degrees. Within a rod of the
hot spring are a dozen or more large springs of pure, cold water. The
curative properties of the water, added to the romantic character of
the surrounding scenery, have caused the erection of a fine hotel,
reached by regular stages, over a good road, from Gilroy.

Some twelve miles southwest of Gilroy, one may find, in the

Pajaro Valley,

as quiet and beautiful an agricultural nook as the State affords. For
a quiet retreat in some hospitable farmhouse, with a good chance for
small game, for a day or two, this snug valley will decidedly "fill
the bill." Its black soil, famous potatoes, and charming little branch
cañons will dispose a farmer, or a hunter, or a painter to stay as
long as possible. When you have rusticated as long as you can in the
romantic vicinity of Gilroy, and are ready, though unwilling, to go,
you can return by the way you came, if you like; but, if time permits,
and you wish to see one of the pleasantest sections of the State, you
will take stage through Hollister and

San Juan,

A quiet little town, old and quaint, and chiefly notable for its early
mission, founded in 1797, to


The first capital of California, and noted, also, as the place where
the American flag was first raised in California, by Com. Sloat, July
7th, 1846. Here one may see plenty of the old adobe houses, with tiled
roofs, built in the primitive Mexican style. From Monterey, you may
come up the coast, by water, or go back to San Juan, and thence take
stage to Watsonville, near the seaward end of the beautiful Pajaro
Valley, and come through to

VI. Santa Cruz, and Up the Coast.

Beyond comparison the most delightful among the smaller towns of the
State. In fact it is the occidental Newport, the Pacific Nahant, where
languid fashion and exhausted business most do congregate. Here land
and water meet, present the best beauty of each, and combine to
proffer new ones impossible to either alone. Rides, rambles and
drives, swims and sails, picnics and chowder-parties, excellent hotel
accommodations, and plenty of good company, furnish the material for
as varied enjoyment, and as much of it, as any one of ordinary
constitution can stand. The way of approach which we have mentioned,
is comparatively rare. The most noted route is from Santa Clara by
daily stage, thirty miles; fare, $3.20.

When you have sufficiently enjoyed Santa Cruz and its beautiful
surroundings, you may take the stage any Monday, Wednesday or Friday
morning, at eight o'clock, for a

Ride Up the Coast.

Eight miles north we pass Laguna Creek, noted for good fishing, while
its vicinity proffers fine shooting, both of which attractions have
combined to make it a favorite camping-ground for picnic parties.

Nearly three miles further, William's Landing gives you the first
chance to witness "hawser-shipping", an ingenious device for getting
produce, or any form of merchandise, into a boat, or upon the deck of
a vessel when the surf is too rough to permit the landing of a boat or
the continuance of a pier. Thus art makes a "port" for loading or
discharging where nature forbids the construction of the ordinary

Three and a half miles brings us to Davenport's Landing, an open
roadstead, famous for the longest pier running out into the open
ocean, of any place on the Pacific Coast.

Thence two miles, to the beautiful laurel groves and camping-grounds
of Scott's Creek. Nearly one hundred and fifty deer have been killed
in this neighborhood in one season.

Four miles more, and Frogtown welcomes us. Here David Post proves
himself posted in the providing of "good square" meals; in fact, he's
just the David who can slay the Goliath of hunger, though, instead of
hitting one in the middle of the forehead, he commonly aims about an
inch below the nose.

Waddell's Wharf is three miles further. Thence, by Steel's Ranch and
White House Ranch to

Pigeon Point.

On the coast, about ten miles from Frogtown, thirty-one from Santa
Cruz, and seven from Pescadero. This is important to all the
neighboring inhabitants, because it is their shipping point, where one
may witness the "hawser-pier" in its glory; and interesting to the
tourist, because it is a whaling station, and the only one on the
coast which he will be likely to see. A colony of Portuguese do the
whaling. They go out in large open boats, six men to a boat, and shoot
the harpoon into the whale from the harpoon-gun. One may sometimes
see a dozen or more whales at once, rolling and spouting, or
"blowing," in the offing.

Seven miles further, and our journey ends, or, at least, this
particular stage-route ends in


Ho for Pescadero and the famous Pebble Beach! By rail from San
Francisco to San Mateo, twenty miles south, thence by Troy coaches
over a new toll road, to Pescadero, thirty miles. Total distance,
fifty miles. Time: to San Mateo, one hour, thence to Pescadero, four
and a half hours. Fare: to San Mateo, $1.00, thence to Pescadero,

Leaving San Mateo, the road winds through beautiful scenery to the
summit of the Santa Cruz mountains, which divide the waters of the Bay
from those of the ocean. The summit is eight miles from San Mateo and
affords a view of great extent, embracing the long coast line on the
west, white with the surf of breakers, and the broad expanse of the
Bay on the east, with the Diablo range of mountains bounding the

From the summit, it is four miles to the old-fashioned pueblo of
Spanishtown, nestled in a little dell opening out on Half-Moon Bay.
Thence four miles to Purissima, another coast town, near which an
isolated, rounded peak, called Ball Knob, rises conspicuously above
the surrounding hills. From Purissima, a drive of twelve miles along,
or in sight of, the beach, brings us to our destination.

Pescadero, is the Spanish for fisherman, from _pescado_, fish. The
town is situated near the mouth of Pescadero creek, so named,
probably, from the abundance of trout which swarm in its pools and
eddys. The village is about a mile from the beach, in a sheltered
depression, affording a charming and secluded retreat for pleasure
seekers and invalids. The tourist will find good hotel and stabling
accommodations, among the best of which are the Lincoln hotel and
stables, under the charge of Capt. Kinsey.

Prominent among the objects of interest around Pescadero, is the
celebrated Pebble Beach, three miles south. Here may be seen ladies,
gentlemen, and children, on a warm summer day, down on their hands and
knees, searching for curious and pretty little pebbles of every hue
and shape. The supply is never exhausted, for every storm casts up a
new store of treasures. Pebbles of sufficient beauty and value to be
set in brooches and rings, have been discovered here.

The Shell Beach is two miles further on, being five miles from the
hotel, and affords a great deal of variety to the beach hunters.

The Moss Beach is twelve miles south, and here the lovers of the most
beautiful, fanciful and delicate combinations of colors and fibres,
peculiar to sea mosses, can revel to their hearts' content.

The other objects of interest along the coast, are Sea Lion Rocks, two
miles west of the hotel, being, as the name suggests, a large rock
covered with sea lions.

Marble Bath Tubs, five miles south. These are excavations in the solid
rock, in the shape of bath tubs, some of natural and some of colossal

Pescadero Creek, as above intimated, is a noted trouting stream. A
beautiful drive of six miles up the creek, brings us to the Mineral
Springs, and two miles further, is a forest of Big Trees, some of
which are said to be fifty feet in circumference. In their vicinity
are three shingle mills.

One mile west of the town, is a so-called Indian Mound, from the
summit of which a fine view is obtained.

The Butano Falls seven miles distant, on Butano Creek, consists of a
succession of cascades, over thirty feet high, located in a deep
ravine, surrounded by romantic scenery.

From Pescadero, we may keep on up the coast, any Monday, Wednesday or
Friday morning, through San Gregorio, Purissima, and other quiet
little towns, through a beautiful country, over high hills and bluffs
bordering on the beach, and affording most magnificent ocean views,
eighteen miles, to Spanishtown, or

Half Moon Bay.

The shipping-point of a fertile region lying in the immediate
vicinity, and extending back into branching valleys.

From this place the road leaves the coast, climbs the hills, by a
winding and well-cut grade, to a height of eight hundred feet, whence
one enjoys a combination of bay, ocean, hill and valley scenery rarely
equaled. Upon this summit we pass, for convenience's sake, to

Crystal Springs and San Mateo County,

and, after enjoying four miles of charming views, while winding down
the western slopes, we reach

Crystal Springs, where a number of cold, clear springs break through
the rocks, in a romantic cañon, forming so attractive a spot for
summer recreation that a large and fine hotel has been built and well
sustained. The neighboring roads are good, the tramps endless, and
game encouragingly plentiful. Thence four miles of delightful road
brings us to

San Mateo,

and the iron track again. This is a beautiful little town, made
expressly for homes. Several prominent San Francisco merchants have
here hidden their country residences away among oak groves so snugly
that one must know exactly where they are, and even then be close
upon them, before he would begin to suspect their number, their
beauty, and their comfort.

From this place, it is worth one's while to drive or ride four miles
down to


Noted as a favorite picnic ground for large Sunday school and society
excursions, chiefly from San Francisco, and as the residence of Wm. C.
Ralston, Esq., whose country seat, in beauty of location, extent of
accommodations, with variety and completeness of appointments, happily
combines the elegance of a palace with the simplicity and comfort of a
home. Many a distinguished eastern visitor warmly remembers the
generous hospitality of that "home behind the hill."

From Belmont, it is but three miles and a quarter to

Redwood City,

The county seat of San Mateo county, on a navigable slough leading
into the bay. Its chief industry is the hauling from the hills and
shipping from the wharves the redwood lumber, whose abundance has
named the town. It has a good hotel--the American House. Four miles
south of Redwood City,

Menlo Park,

Terminates our excursion in this direction. The attractions of this
place are the fine residences of San Francisco merchants, surrounded
by noble oaks, which, scattered and grouped over a square mile or two,
hereabout, have furnished half the name of the place. Nature made it a
"Park;" man added the "Menlo."

Here we may take the cars again, and after a ride of thirty-two miles,
first passing, in reverse order, through the three towns just named,
with Millbrae, the elegant home of D. O. Mills, Esq., San Bruno,
Twelve Mile Farm, Schoolhouse Station and San Miguel, we complete the
southern tour around the bay and along the coast, and again commit
ourselves for a time to the whirl and dust and bustle of the

Having refreshed ourselves with a dash of city life again for a day or
two, we are off for the northern circuit, including San Rafael, Mt.
Tamalpais, San Quentin, State Prison, and Saucelito. No. 9: Petaluma,
Santa Rosa, Healdsburg, the Geysers, and Clear Lake, with Sonoma and
its vineyards, we complete No. 10 with Vallejo, Mare Island, the U. S.
Navy Yard, Napa, Napa Valley, Oak Knoll and Calistoga. We come back
down the valley to Vallejo, whence McCue's stages take us to Benicia,
seven and a half miles.

[For particulars of above three trips, see Bancroft's Tourist's

11. Mt. Diablo Trip.

Across the strait of Carquinez from Benicia, and connected with it by
a steam ferry, lies


The county seat of Contra Costa county. The town has a picturesque
situation, several pleasant residences, very beautiful surroundings,
and a charming climate. The celebrated Alhambra ranch, which has taken
several medals as the best cultivated farm, yielding the best fruits,
and the best native wine in the State, lies but a short distance
hence. Five miles back from Martinez and the bay, connected with the
former by stage and with the latter by a navigable creek, stands


A quiet, pleasant, country town, noted as the shipping point of the
broad and fertile agricultural fields of the Diablo and San Ramon
valleys, lying around and beyond it. The manufacture of carriages and
agricultural implements also conduce to its prosperity and importance.
Another daily stage line also connects this town with Oakland.

Eight miles beyond Pacheco, further in and higher up, is


The largest and most romantically situated town in this part of the
State, and in the latter particular, surpassed by few on the coast.
Occupying an elevated bench, or plateau, it commands fine views, and
having many wide-spreading oaks scattered through and around, it
possesses much intrinsic beauty. Mr. Clayton, whose name the town has
taken, has a vineyard of nearly forty thousand vines, which, though
never irrigated, are vigorous and prolific. He sends his excellent
grapes directly to San Francisco, for the immediate market which they
are sure to command, and thus realizes a greater profit than by making
them into wine. Other vineyards and orchards in this vicinity have
over one hundred thousand vines, and nearly forty thousand fruit
trees. Clayton is the usual point of departure for the ascent of

Mount Diablo,

Three thousand eight hundred and seventy-six feet high, and christened
with its infernal appellation because, like its satanic prototype, it
seldom lets men out of its sight. The best time to climb the mountain
is early in the morning--the earlier the better. If one can stand on
the summit at sunrise he will receive the most ample reward for his
early rising. The distance from Clayton up is eight miles; the time
occupied by a comfortable ascent is a little over two hours. If there
are ladies, or persons unused to riding and climbing, the party should
allow a good three hours. The Clayton livery stable furnishes trained
saddle horses for $2.50 a day. The expense of a guide, who furnishes
his own horse, is $4.00 for the trip, which, of course, as in
Yosemite, is usually divided among the party. Though not absolutely
necessary to employ a guide, it is decidedly safer and better,
especially if the party includes ladies, as the trail is in some
places difficult, and even dangerous to strangers. The first four
miles south from Clayton a good carriage-road follows the course of a
stream through a deep cañon. Over this part, ladies unused to the
saddle, and desiring to avoid unnecessary fatigue, would better ride
on wheels. At the end of this road, near a farm-house, the tourist
turns to the right, and follows a cut trail westerly to Deer Flat,
where are two huts and a spring. Beyond Deer Flat, the trail runs
southeasterly to the top of a ridge in sight of the flat below, and
thence lies along the top of this ridge, two and a half miles to the
summit, where, for the first time in his life, probably, the traveler
may get the devil fairly under his feet--or at least the devil's

In the opinion of most tourists, this peak commands a more extensive,
varied, and beautiful prospect than any equal elevation in the world.
The mountain has two peaks, lying in a northeast and southwest line,
nearly three miles apart. The southwestern one is the higher, and
possesses scientific or topographical interest, from the fact that the
State Survey made it one of the three "initial points," from which
they ran the "base lines" and "meridian lines," from which or by which
the townships and sections are reckoned and located in all extensive
conveyances of land. This mountain has an additional claim to its
sulphurous surname, from the fact that it is supposed to have been,
formerly, a volcano.

Looking east upon a clear day, or with the good field glass which some
one of the party has thoughtfully provided, you may see the Pacific
Ocean, sometimes the Farallone Islands, San Francisco, the bay, the
Golden Gate, Mt. Tamalpais, the Petaluma, Sonoma and Napa Valleys, San
Pablo and Suisun Bays, Vallejo, Navy Yard, Benicia, the Sacramento and
San Joaquin Valleys, with the tortuous windings of their serpentine
rivers, creeks and sloughs, Stockton and Sacramento cities, the
Marysville Buttes, and the snow-capped Sierras beyond all; while away
to the southwest the quiet Santa Clara valley completes the
magnificent sweep of the glorious panorama, unrolled for more than a
hundred miles around.

If any of the party feel like sermonizing, the text will readily
occur to you: "Then the Devil taketh him up into an exceeding high
mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory
of them, and saith unto him: 'All these things will I give thee if
thou wilt fall down and worship me.'" As for his proposition to "fall
down," we have only to remark, "Beloved hearers! don't you do it, for
the devil or any other man;" you'd break your necks as sure as you
tried it. Better _sit_ down in one of the sheltered nooks in the lee
below the summit, eat your lunch and prepare for the descent.

We may easily return to Clayton in time to visit the

Black Diamond Coal Mines,

At Nortonville, six miles distant, over a good road, through a rugged,
mountainous and picturesque region. The tunnels enter the northeast
side of the mountain, descend nearly three hundred feet southwesterly,
whence one level follows a three-foot-thick seam, a good half mile
northwesterly. Two main seams are worked at present, one four feet and
the other about three feet thick. They dip easterly, or northeasterly.
The mine is very neat, and even cleanly, for a coal mine, so that one
_could_ wear down an ordinary suit without harmful soiling.

The railroad from the mine to the pier, five miles and a half below,
whither iron cars, propelled by gravity, can carry three thousand
tons per day, is chiefly remarkable for its unusual grade down the
first mile and a half, through which the descent is two hundred and
seventy-four feet to the mile. To meet this unusual, but unavoidable
necessity, heavy locomotives, of peculiar design and construction,
were invented and built at San Francisco. They weigh twenty tons, have
three pairs of thirty-six-inch driving wheels, with complex and
powerful brakes for the enormous friction necessary.

From these mines one may descend by the railroad already described, to
New York Landing, whence the regular Stockton steamer will transport
him thither, or return him to San Francisco, the tourist's grand base
of supplies, and point of departure for nearly all the more notable
excursions about the State and the coast.

12. Sacramento, Stockton, and the Lakes.

To the eleven tours already detailed, one may, or even must, add a
twelfth, which is separated from the others, and added, in conclusion,
because it consists of cities and places lying on or near the great
overland route by which every tourist will be almost certain to enter
or leave the State; in most cases, both. These are the capital city,
Sacramento; the San Joaquin county seat, Stockton; with Lake Tahoe and
Donner lake. One may stop to see these as he comes or goes, or may
make them the objects of a special excursion, of which the two lakes,
especially Tahoe, are notably worthy.


At the time of the American occupation of California, and for some
time previous, the present site of this city was called the
"Embarcadero;" that is, in Spanish, simply "the wharf, or the
landing-place," though it strictly means the shipping-place.

Gen. Jno. A. Sutter came from New Mexico and settled here in August,
1839. The next year the Mexican Government granted him the land on
which he had "located." He accordingly built a fort and gave himself
to stock raising, agriculture, and trade. Thenceforward for several
years the place was known only as "Sutter's Fort." In July, 1845, Gen.
Sutter engaged the service of Jas. W. Marshall, as a sort of agent, or
manager. This man became the discoverer of gold in the following
accidental manner: In September, 1847, he went up some fifty miles
from the fort, upon the south fork of the American river, to construct
a sawmill, which, in due time, with one single, most fortunate
blunder, he accomplished. The blunder was this: when the water was let
on, the tail-race proved too narrow and too shallow. To widen and
deepen it in the quickest and cheapest way, he let through a strong
current of water, which swept a mass of mud and gravel down to and
beyond the lower end.

January 19th, 1848, the birth-day of the "Golden Age" in California,
Marshall noticed several yellowish particles shining out from this mud
and gravel. He was, naturally, curious enough to collect and examine
them. He called five carpenters who were at work on the mill, to join
their judgments with his. They talked over the _possibility_ of its
being gold, but seem to have thought it so little _probable_, that
they quietly returned to their usual work. Among the larger pieces of
"yellow stuff" which Marshall picked up that day, was a pebble
weighing six pennyweights and eleven grains. He gave it to the nearest
housekeeper, Mrs. Weimer, and asked her to boil it in saleratus water
and see what would come of it. She was making soap at the time, and
thinking the lye would prove stronger than simple saleratus water, she
immediately pitched it into the soap kettle, from which it was fished
out the next day, and found all the brighter for its long boiling.

Two weeks later, Marshall brought the specimens down to the fort and
gave them to Sutter to have them tested. Before the General had quite
made up his mind as to whether they were certainly gold or not, he
went up to the mill, and, with Marshall, made a treaty with the
Indians, buying their titles to all the surrounding country. The
little circle that knew it, tried to keep the matter secret, but it
soon leaked out, and though not sure of its real nature, several began
to hunt the yellow stuff that might prove the king of metals.

The next month, February, one of the party carried some of the dust
down to Yerba Buena (San Francisco). Here he providentially met Isaac
Humphrey, an old Georgia gold miner, who, upon his first look at the
specimens, said they were gold, and that the diggings must be rich. He
tried to persuade some of his friends to go up to the mill with him,
but they thought it only a crazy expedition, and let him go alone. Mr.
Humphrey reached the mill March 7th. Only a few were lazily hunting
for gold; there was no excitement; the most of the men were working in
the mill as usual. Next day he began "prospecting," and quickly
satisfied himself that he had "struck it rich." He returned to the
mill, made a "rocker," and immediately commenced placer mining in dead

A few days later, Baptiste, a Frenchman, who had mined in Mexico, left
the lumber he was sawing for Sutter, at Weber's, ten miles east of
Coloma, and came over to the mill. He agreed with Humphrey that the
region was rich, furnished himself with rocker and pan, and forthwith
began to develop the shining wealth, beside which mills, lumber,
ranches, flocks, and crops were of small account. So these two men,
Humphrey and Baptiste, became the pioneer gold-miners of California,
and the first practical teachers of placer mining. The lumbermen
around crowded in to see how they did it. The process was simple, the
teachers were obliging, the lesson easy, the result sure and speedy

They soon located "claims" all about, began to hoard their "piles,"
and Sutter's Fort, as the place through which all new comers passed,
began a rapid growth, which proved the origin and nucleus of the
present capital of California.

The Sacramento of to-day stands on the east bank of the Sacramento
River, about one mile below the junction of the American River, and at
the head of tide navigation.

Next to San Francisco, it is the largest city in the State, having a
population of twenty thousand.

It owes its importance chiefly to four things:

1st. Its central position, in the midst of the finest agricultural
region of the State.

2d. Its situation at the head of tide water on the largest river of
the State.

3d. It is the great railroad centre. Four leading roads terminate

4th. It is the political capital, having become so in 1854.

The city was originally built on ground so low and level that the
heavy floods have twice broken through the levee and nearly destroyed
the town. The two great floods were those of 1851-2 and 1861-2. Thus,
by sheer necessity of self-preservation, the inhabitants have been
compelled to raise the grade of all the streets, and, in fact, of
almost the whole city, nearly ten feet above the original level.

Sacramento has fine schools and churches, while the gardens, and
shrubbery about the houses, combined with the trees along the streets,
give it a most refreshing, home-like, and attractive appearance.
Beyond the depots, immense foundries and machine shops of the Central
Pacific railroad, the city presents the single great attraction of the

STATE CAPITOL, an immense building occupying the centre of four
blocks, bounded by L and N streets on the north and south, and by
Twelfth and Tenth streets on the east and west. These four blocks were
a gift from the city to the State. The building faces west, fronting
three hundred and twenty feet on Tenth street, while its two wings run
back along L and N streets, one hundred and sixty-four feet upon each.
Its height is eighty feet, divided into three lofty stories. The lower
story is granite; those above, brick. The main entrance is approached
by granite steps, twenty-five feet high and eighty feet wide. The
style of architecture is composite--the Roman Corinthian. The building
was begun ten years ago, has been steadily carried on since, and will
probably require two or three years longer for its full completion.

The Interior.--Entering the vestibule, we find ourselves in a hall
twenty feet deep, seventy-three feet wide, and having broad stairs on
either hand. From the vestibule a broad and high-arched doorway,
admits us to the

Rotunda, seventy-two feet in diameter, and rising through the height
of the first dome. In the wall, between the openings of the different
broad halls, are four niches to be filled by statues of Washington,
Lincoln, a pioneer miner, and a pioneer hunter, one half larger than
life. Above these niches and the hall entrances, will be eight panels,
each thirteen feet by six, with stucco frames for frescoes. Directly
over each of these will be a round panel for similar purposes, and
with similar ornamentation. Above these circular panels, will be a row
of thirteen sunken panels, each thirteen by eight and a half feet, to
be filled with pictures; and over these, still higher up, a tier of
frames, each ten by sixteen feet, numbering sixteen in all, and also
intended for paintings. The frames of these last extend clear to the
bottom of the sky-light, and are to be painted red, white and blue,
successively, thus presenting from below a huge sixteen pointed star
of the national colors.

The First Story is twenty-one and a half feet high. From the right of
the rotunda, a hall sixteen feet wide, leads south through the centre
of that wing. First, on the right, are the Secretary of State's two
rooms, twenty-nine feet wide, and having a united length of
forty-seven feet, elegantly finished and furnished. Beyond these, in
the southwest corner, is a reception, or committee room, twenty-seven
by thirty, while the other corner has a like space divided into two
rooms for similar purposes. Opposite the Secretary's is the Chief
Justice's room. As we may not have time to descend to and describe the
lower or ground floor, we may here say that its space is mainly
occupied by the Judges of the Supreme Court. In the north wing we have
a similar arrangement of rooms, and to be occupied by the State
Treasurer, Controller, Attorney-General, Board of Education, besides
two yet unassigned.

Returning to the rotunda, and going east, we enter the

Supreme Court Room, occupying a circular or ellipsoidal projection
built out from the east side of the building between the two wings.
The room is fifty-eight by forty-six feet, lofty and well-lighted.
Thence, crossing a hall on the southwest, one enters the Supreme Court
Library Room, twenty-eight by thirty-three feet, and containing four
thousand volumes.

The Second Floor has a height of twenty feet clear, with halls like
those below. Along the central portion of the main hall the rooms on
either side are the Public Law Library Room, two Committee rooms on
each side of the Library, two rooms for the Sergeants-at-Arms of the
Assembly and the Senate, and eight Committee Rooms. Occupying the east
half of the south wing is the Senate chamber, while the Assembly
chamber has the corresponding location in the north wing, and the
State Library occupies the circular projection on the east side
immediately over the Supreme Court Room already described. Between the

Senate Chamber and the hall swing a pair of magnificent double doors
of solid black walnut, inclosing beautiful panels of California
laurel-wood, bordered by elaborate carving. These doors are thirteen
feet high by seven feet wide, and six inches thick, and for massive
elegance and costliness, are among the noticeable features of the
Capitol. The Chamber itself is sixty-two feet deep, seventy-two feet
wide, and forty-six feet high. A continuous gallery, supported by
eight Corinthian columns, extends across the west side, and throws a
wing some distance forward on both the north and south. These columns
are copied from those in portico of Septimus Severus at Rome. Twenty
windows light the room by day, and two large gilt and crystal
chandeliers by night. The President's desk occupies a recess in the
centre of the east side. Above the desk, large gold letters present
the motto, "Senatoris est civitatis libertatem tueri." A full-length
portrait of Washington hangs above this motto. The senators' desks
are of black walnut, of large size, and handsome pattern. A capacious
arm-chair, upholstered with crimson plush velvet, accompanies each

The Assembly Chamber occupies the eastern portion of the north wing.
It measures ten feet more each way than the Senate Chamber; has the
same style of architecture, and closely resembles that room in its
general finish and furnishing, except that the desks and chairs are
twice as numerous; the senators numbering forty, the assemblymen,
eighty. The upholstering of the chairs of this room is of green
velvet. Very rich and heavy carpets of elegant patterns cover the
floors of both rooms. The motto of this hall is, "Legislatorum est
justas leges condere." Over the motto hangs a life-size portrait of
General Sutter, the founder of the city. Still above the portrait, in
a sort of arched niche, is a statue of Minerva, having a horn of
plenty on her right and a California bear upon her left. A like statue
similarly flanked, occupies the corresponding position in the Senate

The State Library.--The State Library occupies the circular or
elipsoidal projection midway between the north and south wings on the
east side of the building, immediately over the Supreme Court rooms.
The Library Room is fifty-eight feet long by forty-six feet wide, and
forty-six feet high. Its plan is unique. In the centre, a rotunda,
rising straight up through, is crowned by a dome, whose top is
sixty-three feet above the floor. A broad, circular gallery divides
the room into two stories, each of which is itself again divided into
two by a sub-gallery. The circular space around the rotunda, contains
nine equal alcoves. The peculiar outline produces a singular, and
somewhat startling effect, which is, that when standing in the centre
of this library, one cannot see a single book, although the shelves
around him contain nearly thirty thousand volumes. Convenient stairs
give easy access to galleries and sub-galleries; all of which are
arranged in the same manner. Counting the different levels from which
ascend the successive tiers of radial shelving, the library room is
four stories high. The dome rests on twelve Corinthian columns,
similar to those in the Senate and Assembly chambers, already
described. Still above the library, surrounding the rotunda, is a
large circular room, devoted to the storage of papers, pamphlets, and
congressional reports.

The Third Floor is eighteen feet high in the clear, and is divided
into seventeen committee rooms, besides a large hall in the southwest
corner of the south wing, which is provided for a cabinet and museum.

The Dome.--Over the inner dome, already built, will be erected the
main or outer dome, one hundred feet higher, supported on massive iron
columns, and surmounted by Powers' statue of California, in iron.

The Grounds about the building, covering the four blocks donated by
the city, will be terraced and sodded, set with native trees,
beautiful flower plots, traversed by graveled walks, inclosed by a
massive and costly fence, and entered by gateways at the corners and
at the centres of each side.

Over $1,000,000, in gold coin, has already been expended upon it, and
it is more than probable that the better part of another million will
follow the first, before Californians will witness the completion of
their costly capitol, which is, however, as it should be, by far the
noblest building west of the Mississippi.

Although still unfinished, the Legislature took formal possession of
the building on Monday, Dec. 6th, 1869. The Secretary of State, State
Treasurer, Supreme Judges, and several other State officials, already
occupy the apartments assigned to them.

OTHER BUILDINGS.--The new Odd Fellows' Hall, the Savings Bank
Building, two or three of the churches, the residence of Chas.
Crocker, and those of several other prominent gentlemen, equal the
finest in the State.

HOTELS.--The Golden Eagle and the Orleans are the best. The former is
newer, stands nearer the Capitol, and accommodates the legislators.
The latter is newly and elegantly furnished and is the great haunt of
the railroad men. As for tables and beds, either will furnish you the
best in the city. Each runs free coaches from the depots and wharves.

VIEW OF THE CITY.--No neighboring natural eminence affords any point
of sight worth noting. From the Capitol dome, however, one has a view
of the tree-embowered city, and the far-reaching, fertile valley, the
gracefully winding, tree-bordered river, and the distant, snow-capped
mountains, which form a panorama of beauty, shut in by grandeur,
rarely to be enjoyed from as slight an elevation.


A trifle over one third of the way down from Sacramento to San
Francisco, lies Stockton, the county seat of San Joaquin County, and
in population, the fourth city of the State. It stands on both banks
of a deep and wide slough of the same name, navigable the year round,
and opening into the San Joaquin river, three miles west of the city.
It was named in compliment to Commodore Stockton, in honorable
recognition of his prominent services in the conquest of the State.

No city in California has had a more gradual, steady and healthful
growth. For many years it was the point of departure and the centre of
trade for several of the richest mining regions, of which business it
still retains, directly or indirectly, a full proportion. Its great
source of prosperity and of wealth, however, is the immense
grain-producing country, the famous San Joaquin valley, which
surrounds it.

Last year, 1870, Stockton exported 94,152,000 lbs., nearly 50,000
tons, of wheat; and 3,160,500 lbs. of wool; 53,586 tons of hay, and
nearly 160 tons of butter and cheese.

THE ARTESIAN WELL.--One of the points of vital interest to the
inhabitants, if not to every tourist, is the great well, one thousand
and two feet deep, seven inches in diameter, and discharging three
hundred and sixty thousand gallons daily.

THE INSANE ASYLUM.--The chief architectural attractions of Stockton
are the two large and fine buildings of the State Insane Asylum,
occupying most extensive, beautifully planned, and tastefully kept
grounds, in the northern part of the city. The institution was opened
in 1853, and has now about eleven hundred patients in care. It is the
most expensive public institution yet completed in the State, having
cost nearly one million dollars. It is open to visitors at stated
hours, except the female department, through which gentlemen are not
allowed to pass, unless by special permission of, or in company with,
the attendant physician. Superintendent and Resident Physician, Dr. G.
A. Shurtleff.

HOTELS.--Of the six or eight hotels in the city, only two rank as
first-class. The Yosemite House is emphatically _the_ tourist's home.
The moment you step upon the depot platform, or the steamboat pier,
look out for the bluest eye, the fairest hair, and the most attractive
face in the crowd, and ride home with their owner. He's one of the
three McBean brothers, whose excellent management has made the
Yosemite House so widely known and so increasingly popular. The Grand
Hotel is the other first-class house, and is conducted upon the
restaurant plan.

ROUTES AND TEAMS.--If you want to know where to go and how to get
there, ask for Robert C. Patten, or address him through box 91,
Stockton P. O., and he'll make any desired arrangements for you, in
the kindest way, the promptest time, and at the lowest rate.

From Stockton toward Oakland.

The Western Pacific railroad takes us first, to


Nine miles west of Stockton. Here is the junction of the Visalia
division of the Central Pacific railroad now open to


Twenty-one miles south, on the Tuolumne river. This is one of the
present points of departure for the Calaveras Big Trees and the
Yosemite Valley, whither stages depart daily.

Returning to Lathrop and continuing west about one mile thence, we
cross the

San Joaquin River,

Broad, shallow and muddy, bordered by level reaches of tule lands, so
low that a few feet rise in the river overflows thousands of acres,
and makes the river sometimes nearly six miles wide. A necessity,
resulting from this overflow, is the San Joaquin Bridge, which not
only spans the permanent bed of the roily stream, but extends several
miles across the low tule lands, whose submergence would otherwise
completely stop all travel, except by swimming, wading, boating or

Seven miles from Lathrop, we come to


A small freight and passenger station, whence tri-weekly stages
connect for Hill's Ferry, forty miles.

Five miles further, through a fine agricultural country, brings us to


A small village clustered round the usual saloons and restaurants;
whence six miles more and we reach


Whose name will never be true till either San Francisco or Sacramento
moves six miles nearer the other.

Seven and a half miles further, we suddenly plunge into a well-cut
tunnel, about six hundred feet long, whose chief peculiarity is that
we enter it in one county and leave it in another. It receives us in
San Joaquin county, carries us under the boundary, and ushers us into
Alameda county. Just after coming out from the tunnel, we whirl by the
little flag station Altamont, whence we begin to enter upon the down
grade, and roll through the

Livermore Pass,

Which is either a valley or a hill, according to whether one reckons
downward from the higher summits on either side, or upward from the
lower level at either end. Eight miles from Altamont we stop at


A rapidly-growing village in the beautiful Livermore Valley,
forty-seven miles from San Francisco. From this station down to


Is only six miles, and they are _pleasant 'uns_ indeed. A thriving
town, finely situated and beautifully surrounded.

Thence rolling rapidly down the tortuous track, we skirt along the
bases of high hills, follow the windings of a charming little narrow
valley, rumbling through two or three strong frame bridges, for twelve
miles, when


And its junction, with "change cars for San José," notify us that we
have fairly passed the hills, and entered upon the fertile plains
which gently slope from the foothills to the bay, whose southern
portion is our first glimpse of Pacific salt water. At Niles we can
take the San José cars, and go round, through that city, to San
Francisco, all the way by land, if we particularly desire to
accomplish the whole transit on wheels. If we do that, we shall travel
forty miles further than by keeping straight on from Niles through


which is but two miles. Decoto is one of the "going to be" towns. At
present it exists chiefly in the future tense. Nine miles still
between the rolling foothills on the right and the almost level plains
stretching away bayward, brings us to

San Lorenzo,

Which presents nothing of special note beyond a quiet, restful-looking
town, quite refreshing to the tired and dusty tourist. Thence four
miles, and

San Leandro,

Town and creek, arrest our train for sixty seconds. The court house,
jail, a large agricultural implement factory, with several stores, one
or two hotels and a newspaper, invest this pleasant town with all the
dignity of a comfortable county seat. Seven miles from San Leandro, is


A thriving, go-ahead town of two thousand inhabitants nights, and
about seventeen hundred by day, when a good seventh of its denizens
are away at their business in San Francisco. Thence a short two miles,
and we stop again at


The tree-embowered city named by nature, and chosen by man for
charming homes and quiet halls of learning.

Moving once more, and for the last time, we steam by the hedges,
gardens, cottages and mansions along the southwest suburb, and roll
slowly out two miles along a strongly built pier, over the shallow
margin of the bay, or the undisguised flats, according to the tide,
and "down brakes" for good on the last rails of the great iron way
across the continent, and over the waters of another ocean. An elegant
ferry-boat, "El Capitan," quickly receives us, and, in fifteen
minutes, the San Francisco pier welcomes us to the Occidental
metropolis, and our journey is done. Turn, now, to the paragraph on
hacks and hotels; let one take you to the other, bathe, eat and sleep,
and next morning, hunt up the "Short Excursions in and about San
Francisco," and devote yourself to cultivating the Pacific metropolis.

Lake Tahoe.

This beautiful mountain lake lies along the eastern margins of Placer
and El Dorado counties. The State line between California and Nevada
passes through it, lengthwise, from north to south. We reach it by
stage from the Central Pacific railroad at Truckee, in three hours,
over a variable road, through scenery often beautiful, and for the
extravagant fare of $3.00.

The lake is one mile and a quarter above the sea level. It is itself a
little inland sea, thirty miles long, from eight to fifteen wide, and
in places nearly two thousand feet deep. Its water is clear as
crystal, cold as the melting ice and snows which feed it, and the
purest known upon the continent. Floating upon its surface, and
looking down through its water, one can easily count the pebbles and
stones along its gravelly bottom at the depth of sixty feet. One seems
suspended between two firmaments of ether, with birds flying above and
fish swimming below. And such trout! swimming forty feet beneath you,
and plainly visible in all their quick and graceful motions between
you and the rocky bottom.

From the water's edge, grassy slopes, pebbly beaches, rocky shores and
precipitous bluffs lead the eye up through tree-dotted ravines, over
forest-crowned hills to snow-clad mountains, white-headed with age,
and ermine-mantled upon their tremendous shoulders.

A small steamer or two ply upon the lake--plenty of good boats await
one, and excellent hotels accommodate transient guests, or more
permanent boarders.

From Tahoe, back to Truckee, by stage, cross the railroad, and ride
out two miles to

Donner Lake,

Smaller, but hardly less beautiful than that just left. Its great
beauty in itself, the wild and romantic surrounding scenery, its ease
of access and its good hotel, make it a popular summer resort. The
tragical circumstances, seldom equaled in the pioneer history of any
country, which gave the name to this lake, may be found graphically
narrated in the "Overland Monthly" for July, 1870.

If you visit these charming lakes on your journey to the State you
could not have a grander introduction to its scenes of wonder and
beauty; if you take them on your return east, you could not possibly
carry away more delicious memories of lovelier spots. Whether they bid
you "welcome" or "farewell," you will leave them with regret, recall
them with delight, and long to return and linger among their matchless


ABBREVIATIONS.--S. F. San Francisco. Sac. Sacramento. S. J. San José.
St. Stockton. Yo. Yosemite.

     Alabaster Cave, 77

     Alameda, 196

        "     Ferry, 196

     Alcatraz Island, 196-206

     Alhambra Theatre, S. F., 123

     Almaden Mine, 214

     Alta California Bldg., S. F., 157

     Alvarado, 211

     American Ex. Hotel, S. F., 120

     Angel Island, 196-207

     Approaches to S. F., 107

     Art Gallery, 133

     Artesian Well, St., 244

     Asylums, S. F., 167-8

     Auzerais House, S. J., 213

     Baggage Express, S. F., 115

     Bancroft's, 157-172-174

     Bank of Cal., S. F., 154

     Banta's, 246

     Baseball Grounds, 130

     Baths, 122

     Bay Trips, 205

     Bay View Road--Track--House, 147-192

     Beer Cellars, 124

     Beet Sugar Works, 211

     Belmont, 224

     Bernal Heights, S. F., 183

     Big Trees, 57

     Billiards, S. F., 127

     Black Diamond Coal Co. Mine, 189-230

     Black Point, 196

     Bonita Point, 195

     Bower Cave, 72

     Bowling Saloons, S. F., 127

     Bridal Veil Fall, Yo., 28

     Brief Trips, S. F., 197

     Broderick Mt., 40

     Brooklyn, 249

     Brooklyn Hotel, S. F., 120

     Business Buildings and Blocks, S. F., 157-159

     Butchertown, 192

     Calaveras Big Trees, 52

     Central P. R. R. Co., 190

     California Street, S. F., 143

          "        "    Hill, S. F., 181

     California Theatre, 123

     Capitol, Sac., 236

     Cathedral Rocks, 30

         "     Spires, 30

     Chinese Quarter, S. F., 197

        "    Theatres, 123

     Churches, S. F., 161

     Circuit of S. F., 189

     City Gardens, 140

     City and Co. Buildings, S. F., 150-153

     Clay Street Hill, 180

     Clayton, 227

     Cliff House--Road, 145-199

     Cloud's Rest, 41

     Colleges, S. F., 169-171

     Congress Springs, 215

     Conveyances, S. F., 113

     Corporation Buildings, S. F., 153-157

     Cosmopolitan Hotel, S. F., 119

     Court House, S. J., 213

     Cricket Grounds, S. F., 130

     Crystal Chapel, 85

     " Springs, 223

     Custom House, S. F., 149

     Dance Halls, S. F., 124

     Dashaways, 126

     Davenport's Landing, 219

     Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Berkeley, 210

     Decoto, 248

     Deep Cut, S. F., 191

     Denman School, 171

     Donner Lake, 252

     Donohoe Building, 157

     Drives, S. F., 145

     Dry Dock, 192

     Dungeon of Enchantment, 82

     El Capitan, 48

     Ellis, 246

     Engine Houses, S. F., 152

     Excursion Routes, 205

     Farrallones, 194

     Ferries, 196

     Fire Department, S. F., 153

     Fissure, The, Yo., 31

     Footing it, 187

     Fort Point, 194

     Frogtown, 219

     Gardens, S. F., 130

     Gas Works, S. F., 190

     Gilroy, 215

     Glacier Rock, 33

     Glass Works, 191

     Goat Island, 207

     Gold, Discovery of, 233

     Golden Gate, 195

     Grand Hotel, 117

     Gymnasiums, S. F., 128

     Half Dome, 41

     Halls, S. F., 125

     Harpending's Block, 157

     Hayward's, 211

     Horse Cars, S. F., 184

     Hospitals, S. F., 167-190

     Hotels, S. F., 116

     How to get about, 184

     Hunter's Point, 192

     Illilouette Fall, 35

     Industrial School, 152

     Italian Fishing Fleet, 191

     Jail, S. F., 151

     Kachoomah Fall, 38

     Kimball Car Manufactory, 159

     Lagoon, The, 193

     Laguna Creek, 218

     Lake Honda, 193

     Lake Merced, 193

     Lathrop, 245

     Libraries, S. F., 148

     Light House, Fort Point, 193

     Lime Point, 195

     Lincoln School, 171

     Livermore, 247

     Livery Stables, 187

     Lodging-houses, S. F., 121

     Lone Mountain, 181

     Long Bridge, S. F., 191

     Lumber Yards, S. F., 189

     Maguire's Opera House, 123

     Manufactories, S. F., 159-161

     Marine Hospital, 150

     Mariposa Big Trees, 57

     Marshall, Jas. W., 232

     Martinez, 226

     Masonic Temple, S. F., 156

     Mechanics' Institute, 158

     " Pavilion, 155

     Melodeons, S. F., 124

     Menageries, 140

     Menlo Park, 225

     Mercantile Library, S. F., 154

     Merchants' Exchange, 154

     Metropolitan Theatre, S. F., 123

     Midway, 247

     Milbrae, 225

     Mint, 149

     Mirror Lake, 42

     Mission Bay--Peaks--Rocks, 182-190

     Modesto, 245

     Monterey, 217

     Mountain Lake, 195

     Mt. Broderick, 40

     Mt. Diablo, 226-227

     Mt. Starr King, 40

     Museums, S. F., 124

     Nevada Fall, 38

     New Almaden, 214

     New York Exchange Hotel, S. J., 213

     Niles, 248

     North Beach, 196

     North Dome, 43

     " Point, 196

     Oakland, 209-249

     " Ferry, 196

     Ocean House--Road, 146-193

     " Race Course, 193

     Odd Fellows' Hall, S. F., 156

     Pacheco, 226

     Pacific Bank, S. F., 193

     P. M. S. S. Co., 190

     Pacific Rolling Mill, 160-191

     Pajaro Valley, 216

     Palace Car, 159

     Parks, S. F., 130

     Pescadero, 220

     " Creek, 222

     Pigeon Point, 219

     Pioneers, Society of, 153

     Pioneer Woolen Mills, 196

     Pleasanton, 247

     Point Bonita, 195

     " Lobos, 194

     Points of Observation, 174

     Porn-porn-pa-sue, 47

     Post-office, S. F., 148

     Potrero, 191

     Presidio, 195

     Private Residences, S. F., 174

     Promenades, S. F., 141-144

     Pulpit, The, 87

     Redwood City, 224

     Restaurants, S. F., 121

     Rincon Hill, 181

     " Point, 190

     Rope Walk, S. F., 191

     Royal Arches, Yo., 44

     Russian Hill, 180

     Sacramento, 231-2

     San Bruno Road, 192

     SAN FRANCISCO, 95-204
       Approaches, 107
       Baths, 122
       Buildings--Business, 157
       " Public, 148
       Chinese Quarter, 197
       Churches, 161
       Colleges, 169
       Conveyances, 113
       Drives, 145
       Excursions about City, 197
       Gymnasiums, 128
       Halls, 125
       Hills, 174
       Historical Sketch, 95
       Horse Cars, 184
       Hospitals, Asylums, etc., 167
       Hotels, 116
       How to get about, 184
       Libraries, 148
       Lodging Houses, 121
       Manufactories, 159
       Melodeons, 124
       Museums, 124
       Places of Amusement, 122
       Plan of City, 102
       Private Residences, 174
       Promenades, 141
       Restaurants, 121
       Schools, 171
       Sea Wall, 196
       Situation and Extent, 99
       Skating Rinks, 130
       Squares and Parks, 141
       Suburbs and Vicinity, 188
       Theatres, 122

     San Joaquin River, 246

     San José--Trip, 212

     San Juan, 217

     San Leandro, 249

     San Lorenzo, 249

     San Mateo, 223

     San Quentin, 196

     Santa Clara, 215

     Santa Cruz, 217

     Saratoga, 215

     Saucelito, 196

     Scott's Creek, 219

     Sea Wall, 196

     Seal Rocks, 194

     Sentinel Dome, 32

     Sentinel Rock, 31

     Ship Yards, S. F., 161

     Shot Tower, S. F., 161

     Skating Rinks, S. F., 130

     South San Francisco, 192

     State Normal School, S. J., 213

     State University, 210

     Sugar Refineries, 161

     Sutter, Gen. Jno. A., 232

     Tahoe, Lake, 250

     Telegraph Hill, 174

     Tenaya Cañon, 41

     " Lake, 43

     Three Brothers, 47

     Tooloolweack Fall, 36

     Tutochahnulah, 48

     Vallejo, 196

     Vernal Fall, 35

     Visitacion Point and Val., 192

     Waddell's Wharf, 219

     Warm Springs, 211

     Washington Column, 44

     Woodward's Gardens, 130-140

     YOSEMITE, 24-48
       For Routes, Conveyances, Time, Hotels, Guides, Horses, Outfit,
       and Expenses see _Introduction_.


     BIG TREES, Calaveras Co.,
       Sperry & Perry, xliii

       Yosemite route, xv

       Great Geyser Springs, J. C. Susenbeth, xvi

       Hanna House, J. A. Gordon & Co., xliv

       Ross House, J. Cole, xvii

       Revere House, J. W. Sharp, xviii

       Taylor's Carpet Store, liii

       American Hotel, Mrs. Wm. Ordway, xix

       A. L. Bancroft & Company, Books and Stationery, Cover
       A. L. Bancroft & Company, Pianos, vii
       Blake, Robbins & Co., Paper, xii
       Bradley & Rulofson, Photographs, xx
       California Ink Company, G. L. Faulkner, xxi
       City Livery and Sale Stables, M. Magner, xlv
       Eagle Pencils, xxii
       R. Eitner, Engraver, xxiii
       Jos. Figel, Merchant Tailor, xxiv
       L. P. Fisher, Advertising Agent, xxv
       Grand Hotel, Johnson & Co, xlvi
       Henry G. Hanks, Assayer and Chemist, lvi
       Hobbs, Gilmore & Co., xxvi
       J. Isaac & Co., Stationery, xi
       Sam'l Kellett, Plaster, Decorations, xlviii
       McAfee, Spiers & Co., Boiler Makers, viii
       J. C. Meussdorffer, Hats, xxvii
       New York Livery Stable, Crittenden & Dalton, xlix
       Occidental Hotel, xxviii
       Overland Monthly, J. H. Carmany & Co., vi
       Geo. T. Pracy, xxix
       H. Rosekrans & Co., Hardware, xxx
       Sherman & Hyde, Music Dealers, xxxi
       Thurnauer & Zinn, Willow ware, xxxii
       Watkins' Photographic Views, xiii
       Woodward's Gardens, lvii

     SAN JOSÉ.
       Auzerais House, l
       Church & Wallace, Teams and Saddle Horses, lvi
       New York Exchange Hotel, li

       Yosemite House, liv

       Coulterville route, xxxiii
       Coulterville and Mariposa route, C. P. R. R., xv
       New Yosemite Hotel, Leidig & Davaney, lii

       And. T. Graves, Books, xxxiv
       Henry Hoyt, New Prize Books, xxxv
       Lee & Shepard, Schwartz Novels, xiv
       Lee & Shepard, Books of Travel, xxxvi
       Loring's R. R. Novels, lv
       H. A. Young & Co., Books, xxxvii

     NEW YORK.
       Appleton's Guide Books, xxxviii
       Eagle Pencils, xxii
       Gillott's Pens, Inside Cover
       Harper's Periodicals, iii
       J. S. Redfield, Books, xxxix
       S. R. Wells, Phrenology, xl
       Shipmans' Patent File, v
       Spencerian Pens, Ivison, Blakeman & Taylor, iv

     PALMYRA, N. Y.
       Globe Printing Presses, x

       Chas. Desilver, School Books, xli
       Kay & Brother, Publishers, &c., xlii

       Webster's Dictionaries, ix


Harper's Periodicals.


The great design of _Harper's_ is to give correct information and
rational amusement to the great masses of the people. There is no
monthly Magazine an intelligent reading family can less afford to be
without. Many Magazines are accumulated. _Harper's_ is edited.--_New
England Homestead._


The best publication of its class in America, and so far ahead of all
other weekly journals as not to permit of any comparison between it
and any of their number.--_Boston Traveler._

_Harper's Weekly_ is the best and most interesting illustrated
newspaper. Nor does its value depend on its illustrations alone. Its
reading-matter is of a high order of literary merit--varied,
instructive, entertaining, and unexceptionable.--_N. Y. Sun._


Free from all political and sectarian discussion, devoted to fashion,
pleasure, and instruction, it is just the agreeable, companionable,
and interesting domestic paper which every mother and wife and
sweetheart will require every son, husband, and lover to bring home
with him, every Saturday evening.--_Philadelphia Ledger._


     HARPER'S MAGAZINE, One Year,      $4 00
     HARPER'S WEEKLY,   One Year,       4 00
     HARPER'S BAZAR,    One Year,       4 00

     address, for one year, $10 00; or any two for $7 00.

An extra copy of either the MAGAZINE, WEEKLY, or BAZAR will be
supplied gratis for every club of FIVE SUBSCRIBERS at $4 00 each, in
one remittance; or Six Copies for $20 00, without extra copy.


_Manufactured by the Original Inventor of Steel Pens._

The celebrated durability and perfection of action of these Pens are
owing to a peculiar process of Carbonizing and to the great care taken
in their manufacture by the most skilled and experienced workmen in

They are a nearer approximation to the real SWAN QUILL than anything
hitherto invented.

For Sale by Dealers generally.

SAMPLE CARD containing all the 14 NUMBERS artistically arranged and
securely enclosed, sent by mail on receipt of 25 CENTS.

_The Traveler's Vade Mecum._

Lately Published.

A Pocket Dictionary of the English Language.

Abridged from Webster's Quarto, illustrated with nearly TWO HUNDRED
Engravings on Wood. By Wm. G. Webster, and Wm. A. Wheeler.

THE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, descriptive of The American Educational
Series of School and College Text-Books, and THE EDUCATIONAL REPORTER,
a handsome publication full of useful information, mailed free to any

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., PUBLISHERS, 138 and 140 Grand Street,
New York.




Letter and Invoice File.

We would respectfully call the attention of Business Men, Bankers and
others, to our Patent Adhesive Letter and Invoice File.

We claim that it is the best article in use for the preservation of
all kinds of printed or written documents, such as Letters, Invoices,
Bills, &c., &c. They are in use by most of the Business Firms and
Companies in the United States.

Its form is that of a _scrap book_, of various sizes, having narrow
leaves with adhesive surface, which requires only to be moistened and
the document applied; thus it becomes a _book_ of 250 or 500 letters,
_arranged_ in the order of _dates_, secure from _loss_ or
_misplacement_, and as convenient for _reference_ as a ledger
account--and this with the least expense of time. Every lover of order
or economist of time must appreciate its importance.

We also keep constantly on hand, in great variety, Invoice and Scrap
Books, Letter Copying Books, Blank Books and a full assortment of


25 Chambers Street, New York.


Overland Monthly

_The only Literary Magazine_


The Seventh Volume of this popular California Magazine will commence
with the July Number for 1871. Its popularity has induced the
publishers to make still greater exertions in producing an interesting
and instructive periodical.

  [Illustration: Bear]

TERMS:--$4.00 per annum, _payable in advance_.

CLUB RATES:--Two copies, $7.00; Five copies, $16.00; Ten copies,
$30.00; and each additional copy, $3.00. For every Club of Twenty
Subscribers, an extra copy will be furnished GRATIS.








NEW PIANO AGENCY.--Messrs. A. L. Bancroft & Co. have organized, under
the management of Wm. Henry Knight, a MUSIC DEPARTMENT, where may be
found a complete assortment of PIANOS, ORGANS, SHEET MUSIC AND MUSIC
PUBLICATIONS. Following are some of their specialties:

I. The GEORGI PIANO-FORTE--a new and magnificent instrument; in every
respect strictly first-class, and becoming very popular in the East.

II. The PRINCE ORGANS AND MELODEONS.--There are 46,500 of these now in
use. They are unsurpassed among reed organs.

III. The McCAMMON PIANOS, formerly known as the celebrated "Boardman &
Gray" Piano. A very superior, moderate priced instrument.

IV. The COTTAGE AND SCHOOL PIANO.--In small sized cases, elegant in
appearance, of low cost, and very durable.

V. HOOK'S PIPE ORGANS FOR CHURCHES.--The best manufactured.

VI. LUNAN'S GERMAN UPRIGHT PIANOS.--Fine-toned, thoroughly well made

VII. MUSIC PUBLICATIONS.--Sheet Music, Instruction Books, etc., etc.

For Descriptive Circulars and Price Lists, address or apply to



Bancroft's Building, SAN FRANCISCO.

McAfee, Spiers & Co.,

_Boiler Makers and_


_High and Low-Pressure Boilers_,


Howard St., bet. Fremont and Beale, SAN FRANCISCO.

Also Orders received for every description of Machinery.

     Having 24 years' experience in this business, we feel confident
     of being able to compete, as to quality of work, with any
     establishment on the Pacific Coast.

     Particular and personal attention given to repairs of old
     boilers on steamships and steamboats.

  [Illustration: WEBSTER'S


Webster's Unabridged


   10,000 Words and Meanings not in other Dictionaries. 3,000
   Engravings. 1,840 Pages Quarto. Price $12.

Glad to add my testimony in its favor.

     [President Walker of Hartford.]

Every scholar knows its value.

     [W. H. Prescott, the Historian.]

The most complete Dictionary of the Language.

     [Dr. Dick, of Scotland.]

The best guide of students of our language.

     [John G. Whittier.]

He will transmit his name to latest posterity.

     [Chancellor Kent.]

Etymological parts surpasses anything by earlier laborers.

     [George Bancroft.]

Bearing relation to Language Principia does to Philosophy.

     [Elihu Burritt.]

Excels all others in defining scientific terms.

     [President Hitchcock.]

So far as I know, best defining Dictionary.

     [Horace Mann.]

Take it altogether, the surpassing work.

     [Smart, the English Orthoepist.]

A necessity for every intelligent family, student, teacher and
professional man. What library is complete without the best English

Published by G. & C. MERRIAM, Springfield. Mass.

Sold by A. L. BANCROFT & CO., San Francisco, and all Booksellers.


1040 Pages Octavo. 600 Engravings. Price $5.

The work is really a _gem of a Dictionary_, just the thing for the
millions.--_American Educational Monthly_.

Globe Printing Presses.

  [Illustration: Printing Press]

                  DWELL ON THE IMPRESSION.


Half medium, 13 × 19½ inches inside of chase, $550.00. Fountain,
$25.00. Steam Fixtures, $15.00. Boxing, $10.00.--extra.

Quarto medium, 10 × 15 inches inside of chase, $425.00. Fountain,
$25.00. Steam Fixtures, $15.00. Boxing, $7.00.--extra.

Eighth medium, 8 × 12 inches inside of chase, $250.00. Steam Fixtures,
$15.00. Boxing, $6.00.--extra.

One Roller Mould, two sets Roller Stocks, and three chases, are
included with each Press.

All of these Presses will be thoroughly tested, strongly boxed, and
delivered to the order of the purchaser, at our manufactory, Palmyra,
N. Y.


Palmyra, N. Y.




Stationery, Blank Books,




_513 Sansome St., cor. Merchant_



Paper Warehouse.



_Envelopes, Inks, Twine, Playing Cards,_



Blake, Robbins & Co.,


_Book, News, Writing and_


_Paper Bags, Card Stock, Straw Paper,_

Straw and Binders' Board, Inks, Bronzes, Etc.


Carson's Celebrated Letter Papers,


Agents for Dexter's Manila Papers.



_516 Sacramento & 519 Commercial Sts._


     FRANCIS BLAKE,    }
     JAMES MOFFITT,    }  San Francisco.
     CHAS. F. ROBBINS, }
     JAMES W. TOWNE,      New York.

_New York Office, 18 and 20 Vesey Street._




San Francisco, Cal.

Photographic Views

Of Yosemite Valley, the Big Trees, the Mines, the splendid Scenery of


The Coast etc., etc. Can be had in all sizes for framing, the Album,
or the Stereoscope.

Sold Wholesale and Retail. A liberal discount made to the trade. _You
are requested to visit the Gallery._

The Most Popular Novels



Translated from the Swedish of MADAME MARIE SOPHIE SCHWARTZ, by MISS


GUILT AND INNOCENCE. Paper, $1 00; Cloth, $1 50.

"Madame Schwartz is a writer of much greater literary merit than Miss
Muhlbach, whose works have been so widely circulated in this
country."--_New York Atlas._

GOLD AND NAME. Paper, $1 00; Cloth, $1 50.

"This is a powerful book; in plot and style, it is equally good. Its
morals--it may be considered to have several--are
unexceptionable."--_Christian Standard, Cincinnati._

BIRTH AND EDUCATION. Paper, $1 00; Cloth, $1 50.

"This title would make one suppose that it was a book devoted to
common schools and academies. Instead of that, it is a romance of the
very highest class,--one of the best historical novels of the
age."--_Albany Evening Post._

THE WIFE OF A VAIN MAN. 8vo., Paper, $1 00; Cloth, $1 50.

In presenting to American readers the first translations of this
author, who in her own country is universally popular, the publishers
take pleasure in making public the following tribute of the Great
Swedish Lyric Artiste, MLLE. CHRISTINE NILSSON.

    NEW YORK, November 28, 1870.

MADEMOISELLE:--It is with great pleasure that I have learned that you,
in conjunction with MISS MARIE A. BROWN have undertaken to translate
into English the magnificent works of MADAME SCHWARTZ.

Allow me then, dear Mademoiselle, as a fervent admirer of MADAME
SCHWARTZ, to offer you and MISS BROWN my liveliest felicitations for
having chosen an author of so immense merit to introduce to the
American public a writer who has contributed to make the glory of our

I wish you all the success you deserve, and beg you to be so kind as
to send me a copy of the work as soon as it is published.

Accept, Mademoiselle, as well as MISS BROWN, my warmest sympathy and
the assurance of my perfect consideration.


Sold by all booksellers and newsdealers, and sent by mail postpaid on
receipt of price.

Lee & Shepard, Publishers, Boston.

Lee, Shepard & Dillingham,

47 and 49 Greene St., N. Y.













For further information see page 58.




These celebrated Springs are the greatest natural curiosity in the
world, and are reached by the


_For particulars of these routes, see description in body of this

The Medicinal and Curative Properties of the Geyser Springs are
admitted to be equal, if not superior, to Calistoga, Baden-Baden,
Aix-la-Chapel, Wiesbaden, or Homburg. THE SCENERY is wild, picturesque
and grand in the extreme, and finer than that of the lower Alps.

THE PLUTON, OR GREAT SULPHUR CREEK, which runs by the Geyser Hotel, is
well supplied with mountain trout; and the hills abound with deer and
other game.


Is a large, two-story building, with spacious verandahs surrounding
it, above and below, and has been newly furnished. New steam and
sulphur bathhouses have been erected, and a large stable has been
built. PRIVATE TEAMS can easily and safely drive over the new road
from Calistoga, and at the Geysers will find an abundance of good feed
for their horses.


For ladies and Gentlemen, are always on hand, at reasonable prices.

A GOOD TABLE is kept at the Hotel, and the best of Liquors and Cigars
will be found at the bar, The rooms are comfortable, and the beds are
all new and provided with spring mattresses.

Board and lodging per day, $3; board and lodging per week, $17.50;
single meals, each, $1.50. Baths, 25. Visiting the Geyser Canyons, for
each person, $1. Children under ten years of age, half price.

Visitors are requested not to pay the Guides, as they are furnished by
the Hotel, free of charge.

Fare from San Francisco to Calistoga, per steamer and cars, $3.50.
Stages from there to the Geysers, $6.00 per passage.


P. S.--For further particulars, inquire at the office of J. S. POLACK,
Esq., Room No. 1, N. W. corner of Jackson and Montgomery Sts., San



Via Modesto.


_JOS. COLE, Proprietor._

Tourists will find this House conducted in first-class style. Charges
moderate, and every attention paid to Guests. Stages leave this House
daily for Snelling's, Hornitas, Mariposa, Yosemite, and all points




To let on reasonable terms.

Horses boarded with the best of care, by the day or week.

_Private Teams Furnished at the shortest notice; also Two Four or Six
Horse Turnouts furnished for Tourists, with Concord or Kimball
Carriages, with careful and experienced Drivers._

_F. H. ROSS, Proprietor._

Modesto is situated at the terminus of the Visalia Division of the C.
P. R. R.

The Ross House, also the Yosemite Stables were built by F. H. Ross,
almost exclusively for the accommodation of Tourists, and no pains
will be spared to make their visit to the House, or transit to the
valley comfortable and pleasant.


JOHN W. SHARP, Proprietor.

Second Street, opposite Court House,



THIS HOUSE is fitted up in superior style, and is now open for the
reception of PERMANENT AND TRANSIENT GUESTS. It is built in modern
style, and the rooms are large, airy and pleasant.

THE BAR is well supplied. THE TABLE shall be second to none in the
State. The farming community will find at this House the best of
accommodations at reasonable prices.


_Main Street, Petaluma_.

MRS. WM. ORDWAY, Proprietress.

This Hotel, first-class in every particular, is the leading house in
this city and one of the best hotels on the coast.

THE BUILDING is a large, three-story, fire-proof brick, situated in
the center of the business part of the city, well ventilated, supplied
with water and gas, perfectly arranged with a view to comfort and
convenience, containing sixty three rooms, elegant parlor, pleasant
reading room, first-class Bar and Billiard room, Hair Dressing Saloon
and Cigar Stand.

THE ROOMS, single and en-suite, are large, with high ceilings, well
ventilated and elegantly furnished.

THE TABLE is supplied with the best the market affords, prepared and
served in first-class style.

A LIVERY STABLE is connected with the Hotel. Splendid carriages are
furnished upon notice at the office.

OMNIBUSES convey guests to and from the Hotel to cars and steamers,
free of charge.

STAGES from the city leave from this Hotel.

Tourists, visiting the city, are shown every courtesy and attention in
all departments of the Hotel.


Best Photographs,





429 Montgomery Street,








Are manufacturing Writing Inks of different colors, equal if not
superior to those of Eastern or Foreign manufacture.

For our Black Writing Fluid, we claim:

1st.--That it will not corrode or clog the pen, but keep it always in
a bright, clean condition.

2d.--That there is no sediment that can settle and impair the color.

3d.--That it flows freely from, and is of a rich, deep color as soon
as it leaves the pen.

4th.--It is not affected by acids, as an acid that would remove the
ink will eat up the paper.

5th.--It cannot be washed off with water.

6th.--It is a California production, and the manufacture of the same
keeps thousands of dollars in the State, that have hitherto been sent
abroad for Ink.

We also make a superior article of MUCILAGE that cannot be excelled
for its adhesive qualities.

LIQUID LAUNDRY BLUING.--A convenient and reliable preparation, to take
the place of all others hitherto used for Laundry purposes. Put up in
8 oz. bottles and gallon jars.

The attention of the trade is respectfully solicited to these
manufactures. Perfect satisfaction guaranteed.

Refer, by permission, to Messrs. A. L. Bancroft & Company, who are
selling large quantities of our Writing Inks and Mucilage.






These pencils, which have been before the American public for several
years, are rapidly growing in popularity, and are to-day MORE
pronounced by all who have given them a fair trial, to be INFERIOR TO
NONE manufactured, and are sold at prices materially lower than are
other first-class articles.

Office Rubber-Head pencils are very much liked by business men.

Eagle Drawing pencils are recommended in the Drawing Books now in use
in the State of California, and by Drawing Teachers, and others.



And at Wholesale and Retail by

A. L. Bancroft & Company,





Clothier, Merchant Tailor


Men's and Boys' Clothing,



_Russ Block, opposite Platt's Hall_,

Would respectfully invite the attention of the Public to his superior
Stock of Goods, feeling confident that he can suit, both in regard to
Price and Quality.


In his business is the particular attention paid to the manufacture of
Men's and Boys' Clothing, College and Military Uniforms of every
description to Order, from a large assortment of Cloths, Cassimeres,
Beavers, Scotch Tweed, etc.

Elegance of Style and Perfection of Fit are in all cases guaranteed.

A visit to my Establishment will convince you of my ability to please
in every respect.


No. 211 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, California.





_Rooms 20 & 21 Merchants' Exchange_



    --_Modern Proverb._


STEPHEN GIRARD, than whom no shrewder business man ever lived, used to
say in his old age:

"I have always considered advertising liberally and long to be the
great medium of success in business and prelude to wealth. And I have
made it an invariable rule, too, to advertise in the dullest times, as
well as in the busiest, long experience having taught me that money
thus spent is well laid out; as by keeping my business continually
before the public, it has secured many sales that I otherwise would
have lost."

Advertisements and Subscriptions solicited for papers published in
California and Oregon, Washington, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Colorado,
Arizona and adjacent Territories; Sandwich Islands, the British
Possessions, Mexican Ports, Nicaragua, Panama, Valparaiso, Japan,
China, Europe, Australia, Atlantic States, etc., etc.

N. B.--FOR SALE; bound volumes of the _Sacramento Union_, from Sept.
19th, 1855, to the present time; also, the _San Francisco Evening
Bulletin_, in bound volumes, from the beginning of its publication to
the present time.



_Manufacturers of BOXES_,


Sawing and Planing Mills,

_Market, Beale and Main Sts._


San Pedro Street, near Depot, San Jose.




We are now manufacturing, and will receive orders for the manufacture
of different kinds of




J. C. Meussdorffer.



Montgomery & Bush Sts.


  [Illustration: OCCIDENTAL HOTEL





These Works have lately been increased, by additional tools, and we
are now able to turn out any kind of work, equal to and cheaper than
any establishment in the State, that is to say:--

Steam Engines, Flour and Saw Mills, Quartz Machinery, Printing



Fitted with Cutting's Patent Cams, unequaled for safety, convenience
and cheapness. This Hoist can be built for about half the price of any
other in use. To be seen at HAWLEY & CO'S.








Builders' Materials, Carpenters' Tools,




_135 Montgomery Street_



  [Illustration: Piano]







Corner Kearny & Sutter Streets,


Send your orders directly to us. Remember it is no more trouble or
expense to send Sheet Music by Mail, one thousand miles than it is one

Music Teachers, Seminaries and Dealers liberally dealt with.

Thurnauer & Zinn,

  [Illustration: Wicker Chairs and Baskets]


French and German Fancy Baskets,






Wooden Ware, Feather Dusters, Brushes,



Opposite Sutter and Sansome Streets,      SAN FRANCISCO.

The shortest and best route to


_C. P. R. R. to Modesto, thence by stage to Coulterville, Bower Cave,
Pilot Peak and Crane Flat._

Leaves Modesto on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 5 o'clock, A.M.,
arrives at Coulterville at 2 P.M.; distance 50 miles; leaving
Coulterville at 4 P.M., arrive at Bower Cave, at 7 P.M. Next morning
leave Bower Cave at 6 A.M., and arrive at Crane Flat at 11 A.M. Take
Saddle Horse and arrive at the Hotels in the Valley, at 4 o'clock,
P.M., 15 miles horseback. Returning, leave Yosemite at 7 o'clock,
A.M., distance, 46 miles, arrive at Coulterville at 5 o'clock, P.M.,
leave Coulterville at 5 A.M., arrive at Modesto, at 4 o'clock P.M.

The above route is superior to all others, as there is less time
consumed on the road, more rest, and the whole route gives finer
scenery than by any other, from the fact that after you strike the
foot hills, you pass along the dividing ridge between the Tuolumne and
Merced rivers, to the East, the Sierra Nevada, with Castle Peak, Mount
Dames, and other prominent points, to the West, is the San Joaquin,
and the Coast Range; also less dust than any other route, as the route
is East and West, and the north winds that are almost constantly
blowing, carry the dust from you.

And as a round trip is always desirable; parties can go by
Coulterville, and out _via_ Big Trees and Mariposa, or _vice versa_.

By the first of June, there will be but 2½ miles horseback riding into
the valley.

The nights at Bower Cave are cool and refreshing, unsurpassed on the
whole route.

Through Tickets for sale at all the railroad offices, Sacramento and

_G. W. COULTER, Agent._

Office at C. B.& M; R. R. R. office 214 Montg'y Street.


_For Children and Youth._




THE SUNSHINE SERIES.--By H. N. W. B. Six volumes. 18mo.,         $3.60

     This is an entirely new series of books, by one of the best
     writers of juvenile books. They are put up in a neat box, and
     will be found excellent for the "SABBATH SCHOOL LIBRARY."

AMY GARNETT. One vol., 16 mo.                                    $1.25

LYNDA NEWTON.--By Mrs. L. J. H. Frost. 16 mo.,                    1.50

     An excellent book, and one which will interest every one.

DAVY'S MOTTO. 16 mo.,                                             1.25
     It is better to do well than to say well is the motto.

JOE AND THE HOWARDS; or Armed with Eyes. By Carl. 16 mo.          1.25

     It gives much valuable information in regard to insects, both
     on land and water, in such a manner as cannot fail to amuse
     children, while it is storing their minds with that which is
     useful for them to know.

THE RAINFORD SERIES.--By Glance Gaylord.

     Four volumes in box,                                        $6.00

THE WOODBINE SERIES.--By Mrs. Madeline Leslie. 16mo.
  Illustrated,                                                   $1.25

     This is an entire new set, by a very popular author. Other
     volumes will be issued from time to time. The title pages are
     printed in colors.

THE ARLINGTON SERIES. 4 vols., 16mo.

     Four volumes in box,                                        $5.50

THE PERCY FAMILY.--By Rev. D. C. Eddy, D. D.

     Five volumes with neat box,                                  5.00

THE CEDAR BROOK STORIES, or the Clifford Children. By Mrs. A.
     S. M., author of "Only a Pauper." 5 vols. 18mo.

     The five volumes handsomely illustrated in a neat box with
     illuminated covers,                                          3.25

CORWIN'S WEST'S SERIES.--6 vols. in a box,                        4.50



     Both Sides of the Street, ($600)      $1.60
     Moth and Rust, ($300)                 $1.60

Fourteenth Thousand now ready.



And the First Glass of Wine.

Simple texts are sometimes more effective preachers than sermons, or
whole volumes of well conceived essays. Read the two stories within
the covers of this book, kind reader, and if a first glass of wine
tempt you, let the prayer go forth, "Lead us not into temptation."

Beautifully illustrated. Price $1.25.




By the author of the new $600.00 prize book,


Beautifully bound in gold and black, and sent prepaid by mail. Price,
$1.50 For sale by all Booksellers.


No. 9 Cornhill, Boston.

For sale by A. L. Bancroft & Co.




_A Readable Book on California._

THE SUNSET LAND; or, The Great Pacific Slope. By Rev. John
  Todd, D. D. 1 vol. 16mo.                                       $1 50

The press all over the country has given this book by Dr. Todd, the
warmest praise. It contains, in a small compass, just what all desire
to know of California.

_The "Heathen Chinee," at Home and Abroad._

WHY AND HOW the Chinese Emigrate, and the means they adopt for
the purpose of reaching America. By Col. Russell H. Conwell.
12mo. Cloth. Illustrated.                                        $1 50

"Nothing is wanting in Mr. Conwell's book for a clear apprehension of
every feature of his subject."--_Christian Union._

_Our New Possessions Surveyed._

ALASKA AND ITS RESOURCES. By Wm. H. Dall, Director of the
Scientific Corps of the late Western Union Telegraph Expedition.

One large octavo volume,                                         $7 50

This is the only complete history of our newly acquired possessions
published. The narrative is one of actual experience during a three
years' residence in the country.

_A Graphic and Truthful History._

HISTORY OF PARAGUAY. With Notes of Personal Observations and
reminiscences of diplomacy under difficulties. By Charles A.
Washburn, Commissioner and Minister Resident of the United
States at Asuncion, from 1861 to 1868. In two volumes. Octavo.
Illustrated with Maps and Engravings.                            $7 50

"A history stranger than many works of fiction, abounding in incidents
of devoted heroism, and fearful cruelty."--_Chicago Post._

_A Journalist in Europe._

OVER THE OCEAN; or, Sights and Scenes in Foreign Lands. By
Curtis Guild, Editor of the "Commercial Bulletin," Boston.

Crown 8vo.                                                       $2 50

"Mr. Curtis Guild has given the public a book of travel such as they
may search for elsewhere in vain."--_Boston Post._

Sold by all booksellers and newsdealers, and sent by mail postpaid, on
receipt of price.

Lee & Shepard, Publishers, Boston.




     Effie Wingate's Work. By Mary Dwinell Chellis,              $1.50
     Dea. Sim's Prayers. By Mary Dwinell Chellis,                 1.50
     Pleasant Pages and Bible Pictures, 20 illustrations;         1.50
     Carl Bartlett or What can I do? By D. S. Ericson, 1 vol.     1.25
     Bill Drock's Investment. By Mary Dwinell Chellis, 1 vol.     1.50
     The Old Doctor's Son. By Mary Dwinell Chellis,               1.50
     Mr. Pendleton's Cup. By Glance Gaylord,                      1.25
     Miss Patience Hathaway. By Glance Gaylord,                   1.50
     Donald Deane. By Glance Gaylord,                             1.50
     Good Measure. A story for boys. By D. S. Ericson,            1.50
     Clean Your Boots, Sir? A capital story for boys,              .60
     The Little Peanut Merchant,                                  1.25
     Molly's Bible. By Miss Mary D. Chellis,                      1.50
     Truth and Trust, or Iron Mountain,                           1.25
     Hopes and Fears, or Broad Oaks,                              1.25
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Calaveras County, California,

First-Class Hotel Accommodations,

SPERRY & PERRY, Proprietors.

The Calaveras Group is the one known to the World as the Big Trees of
California, and the one chiefly visited by tourists. It comprises the
Mammoth and the South Park groves. The Mammoth grove contains
ninety-three of these

_Giants of the Forest_,

among which are the

     MOTHER OF THE FOREST, the bark from which was exhibited in the
     Crystal Palace, London; the

     FATHER OF THE FOREST, through whose prostrate trunk thousands
     have ridden on horseback; and the

     ORIGINAL BIG TREE, the stump of which forms the floor of the
     famous Pavilion, thirty-two feet in diameter.

The South Park grove, six miles distant, has thirteen hundred and
eighty of these trees, many of them of immense size. One, still
standing and growing, has the inner portion at the base burned out,
making a room large enough to contain sixteen men on horseback at the
same time; and yet, enough of the outer rim of the tree is left to
support the colossal proportions above.

The Calaveras Group surpasses all others in the grandeur and beauty of
its trees, and is the only one having hotel accommodations.

Tourists leaving Stockton will take the cars of the Copperopolis
railroad at 9 o'clock, A.M., to Milton, twenty-eight miles, connecting
with a daily line of Concord coaches via Winthrop's, for the Big
Trees, making the entire distance in ten hours. At Murphy's, stages
leave daily for Yosemite Valley per Hutching's new route, being the
shortest and best to Yosemite Valley. A daily line of coaches leave
Galt for the Big Trees. At Melton, and Murphy's, private conveyances
can be obtained for the Big Trees and Yosemite Valley, at low rates.


_317 and 319 Montgomery St., San Francisco_.



The Proprietors take pleasure in informing the public generally that
they have opened the NEW HOTEL, the



Business Centre of the City, near the R. R. Depot,

And fitted up in ELEGANT STYLE, and being thoroughly experienced in
the business, can promise their patrons such attention and
accommodations as are found in a


Everything about the House is entirely new, and of the best quality.


Will be in constant attendance to convey passengers to and from

The patronage of the public is respectfully solicited.




Livery and Sale Stables,


_Bet. Montgomery and Kearny, SAN FRANCISCO._

M. MAGNER, Proprietor.

An entire new stock of fine young Horses, sound and free from vice, of
fine style, and capable of going as fast as any gentleman cares to
drive. Also new and elegant Wagons of all descriptions, which I will
let to responsible parties at popular prices.

_Saddle Horses for Ladies and Gentlemen_,

Horses boarded with the very best of care, under my own supervision,
at _prices to suit the times_. Patronage respectfully solicited.


_Formerly of the El Dorado Stables, Stockton._

Private Teams furnished for the Big Tree Grove and Yosemite Falls, to
start from Stockton, or the terminus of the Visalia or Copperopolis

  [Illustration: GRAND HOTEL]








No. 763


San Francisco.


Livery Stable.



712 Mission Street, near Third,

_Opposite Dr. Scudder's Church, SAN FRANCISCO._

Four in Hand for Cliff House.

Orders left at the Office of Grand Hotel promptly attended to.

  [Illustration: AUZERAIS HOUSE

     H. S. GREELEY, Manager,
     Formerly of the Occidental, San Francisco.




First Street, corner St. Johns.


Bath and Billiard Rooms, with Barber Shop attached.

_Board, with Rooms, $2 a day,_

OR $12.00 A WEEK.

_Suites, $4 a day, or $20 a week._



_Fred. Leidig & Hugh Davanay_,


This fine new Hotel is the first which the tourist reaches on entering
the Valley, and is situated on the south bank of the Merced, in front
of Cathedral Rock, about three miles from the entrance to the Valley.
The main building is two stories in height, roomy, new and clean,
plenty of pleasant, airy bedrooms. Table supplied with fresh mountain
trout in abundance, in addition to fresh butter, milk, eggs, fruit and
every other luxury of the mountains. A splendid stock of ice has been
laid in for the comfort of summer visitors--a luxury not to be had
elsewhere in the Valley. Bar well stocked with best qualities of
Wines, Liquors and Cigars.

The famous Yosemite hostess, Mrs. Leidig, has charge of the domestic
arrangements of the House, and the Proprietors, in person, give their
whole attention to the accommodation of their guests.



Carpet Store,

Cor. Broadway and Tenth Sts.,


CARPETS, Oil Cloth, Paper Hangings and Upholstery Goods. Body
Brussels, Tapestry Brussels, Three Ply, Ingrain and Hemp Carpets.

OIL CLOTHS, all width and qualities.

PAPER HANGINGS, all styles and grades. Plain and Decorative Paper
Hanging in all its branches.

A full and complete line of UPHOLSTERY GOODS always in stock.

Parties residing in Oakland and vicinity, and those contemplating
removing to Oakland, will do well to call and examine our stock before
purchasing elsewhere.

_We Sell all Goods at San Francisco Prices!_


_Cor. Broadway and Tenth Streets, Oakland_.

Yosemite House.




_Main Street, bet. San Jose and Sutter._

Centrally Located, Finely Furnished.



Terms; $2.50 a day, $15.00 a week.






     Louise M. Alcott's Moods,                 $1.25
      " " Three Proverb Stories,                 .75
     Virginia F. Townsend's Hollands,           1.25
      " " The Mills of Tuxbury,                 1.25
     Laura Caxton's Marion Berkley,             1.50
     George McDonald's Robert Falconer,         2.00
      " " David Elginbrod,                      1.75
      " " Adele Cathcart,                       1.75
      " " Phantasies,                           1.75
     Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney's Hitherto,          2.00
      " " " The Gayworthys,                     2.00
      " " " Patience Strong's Outings,          1.75
      " " " Mother Goose for Grown Folks,       1.50
      " " " Faith Gartney's Girlhood,           1.50


Assayer and Chemist,


Fine Minerals, Fossils, Shells,

etc., etc., etc.

Invites Tourists visiting San Francisco to call and examine his
collection at

649 Clay Street,




386 First Street, San Jose.

     Single Horse and Buggy to Almaden Mine,      $5 00
     Elegant Double Teams,                        10 00
     Saddle Horses,                                2 50

_Teams ordered by Telegraph, will be on hand at the Railway Depot._

Woodward's Gardens, Mission St., bet. 13th and 14th, San Francisco,

   (See page 130.)]

_Yosemite and Big Tree Groves


Mariposa and Clark's or Coulterville._

Thus a person can leave Sacramento at noon, or San Francisco at 4 p.
m. by the C. P. R. R., remain over night at the junction of the Rail
and Stage roads, the second night at White & Hatch's and arrive in the
Valley of the Yosemite the next evening; or those who prefer can
remain that night at Clark's and ride leisurely into the Valley early
the next day. The latter course might be preferable to the majority of
tourists, who would desire to visit en route the Mariposa Grove of Big
Trees, which is but five miles from Clark's. The trail from Clark's
leads through Alder Creek, Empire Camp, Sentinel Dome, Glacier Point,
and the far-famed "Inspiration Point." From the latter is obtained the
first grand view of this wonderful Valley, lying four thousand feet
below the "Point."


Via Stage fourteen miles from TRUCKEE


Three miles from either TRUCKEE or SUMMIT.


Via Stage, sixty-five miles from GALT, or sixty-two miles from


      " " " --OAKLAND WHARF.
     C. & N. W. Ry. " 445 CALIFORNIA STREET.
     C. B. & M. R. R. " 214 MONTGOMERY STREET.
     C. R. I. & P. R. R. " 208 MONTGOMERY STREET.
     K. C. St. J. & C. B. R. R. OFFICE, 306 MONT. ST.

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