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Title: Memoirs of the Duchesse de Dino
Author: Dino, Dorothy Duchesse de
Language: English
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    MEMOIRS OF THE
    DUCHESSE DE DINO



[Illustration:

    _Duchesse de Dino,
    After a miniature by Agricola,
    in the possession of the Princesse Antoine Radziwill._]



    MEMOIRS OF THE

    DUCHESSE DE DINO

    (_Afterwards Duchesse de Talleyrand et de Sagan_)

    1831-1835

    _Edited, with Notes and Biographical Index, by_

    THE PRINCESSE RADZIWILL

    (_NÉE CASTELLANE_)

    _WITH PHOTOGRAVURE FRONTISPIECE_

    NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
    LONDON: WILLIAM HEINEMANN
    1909


_Printed in England_



PREFACE


This history is composed of notes made in England during the Embassy
of the Prince de Talleyrand and of fragments of letters addressed by
my grandmother, the Duchesse de Dino (afterwards Duchesse de
Talleyrand et de Sagan), during a period of thirty years, to M.
Adolphe de Bacourt, who gave them to me by her desire.

Some months before her death in 1862 my grandmother, who was then
fully aware of her condition, herself told me of the precious legacy
which would be transmitted to me when she was gone by M. de Bacourt,
her executor, and added her final instructions and advice.

A just judgment on conspicuous ideas and persons is possible only
after the lapse of many years, and so I should willingly have
postponed the publication of these Memoirs. But some years since, my
niece, the Comtesse Jean de Castellane, published the story of the
early years of the Duchesse de Dino, and as many readers desire to
have the continuation, I have decided not to withhold it any longer,
and it will be found in the following pages.

The book throws more light on the last years of the Prince de
Talleyrand than any previous publication, and it speaks so well for
itself that I need say nothing for it. The place which the Duchess
occupied in the European Society of the first half of last century is
also too well known to need to be recalled here. Her personal charm,
like her intellectual distinction, has rarely been equalled, but the
moral fascination which she exercised on all who knew her is less well
known. Intellect is a great source of strength, but nobility of soul
is a greater; and it was assuredly this which helped the Duchess in
many difficult passages in her history.

It is this sense of nobility and distinction which, in my opinion, is
the chief characteristic of her Memoirs.

    CASTELLANE, PRINCESSE RADZIWILL



CONTENTS


   CHAPTER I
                                                                    PAGE

   Paris, May 9--A crowded drawing-room--Eridge Castle--Trouble        1
   in Paris--A Naval Spectacle.

   CHAPTER II

   A Visit from the Duke of Wellington--Politics at Paris--The        12
   King's Birthday--The Princess Victoria--European
   complications.

   CHAPTER III

   M. Thiers' Marriage--Talleyrand summoned to Paris--Return          19
   to London--Lady Jersey and the Duc d'Orléans--Dinner
   with the King.

   CHAPTER IV

   Warwick Castle--Queen Adelaide--The Duke of Wellington--London     27
   at its best--Woburn Abbey--M. de
   Lieven's recall--A rift in the Cabinet--Lord Brougham--Dinner
   with Palmerston--Lord Grey's difficulties--Palmerston's
   methods--Oxford and the Duke--Kings
   in exile--A jovial monarch--Mirabeau--Talleyrand's
   Memoirs--The King's health--Don Carlos and
   Court--A Schism at Almack's--Resignation of Lord
   Grey--Don Carlos escapes--Lord Melbourne's position--Revolutionary
   politics--European politics--Spanish
   affairs--Palmerston's incivility--A scene at the levée--Last
   days in England--Talk with Louis-Philippe--George
   Sand--English visitors--A royal visit--M. de
   Talleyrand resigns--Lord Brougham in Paris--A State
   trial--Talleyrand's successor.

   CHAPTER V

   A Court at the Tuileries--Cabinet making--Triumph of              224
   M. Guizot--Talleyrand and Church--Fieschi's crime--English
   politics--Thiers' difficulties--The King's
   courage--General Sébastiani--A clever secretary--Marriage
   projects--State prisoners--British affairs.

   APPENDIX I                                                        287

   APPENDIX II                                                       288

   BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX                                                291



MEMOIRS OF THE

DUCHESSE DE DINO



CHAPTER I

1831


_Paris, May 9, 1831._--I am bewildered by the tumult of Paris. There
is such a babel of words, such a crowd of faces, that I hardly
recognise myself, and have the greatest difficulty in collecting my
thoughts so as to discover where I am, where others are, whether the
country is doing well or ill, whether the physicians are skilful
enough, or whether the malady is beyond their art.

Twenty times I have stopped to think of Madeira; sometimes, too, my
thoughts are of Valençay; but I can find no fixed resting-place, and
it seems to me quite futile to prejudge anything before the great
electoral crisis which preoccupies everybody. _A propos_ of
everything, people here say "after the elections," just as the gay
world of London used to say "after Easter."

There was a little article in the _Moniteur_ of yesterday; the
attitude of the Ministry and that of the general public are both just
and flattering to M. de Talleyrand, but reason is not the fashion
nowadays, and less so in this country than elsewhere. In fact, if I
were to let my thoughts wander over the thousand and one small
complications which spoil and embarrass everything, the only
conclusion I could arrive at would be that the country is very ill but
that the doctor is excellent!...

_London, September 10, 1831._--From Paris letters it appears that the
indestructible Bailli de Ferette has at length taken his departure;
likewise Madame Visconti, another extraordinary relic of the past.

I hear there have been _émeutes_ of women; fifteen hundred of these
horrible creatures made a commotion, and because of their sex the
Garde Nationale would not use force. Fortunately, the rain settled the
matter.

Yesterday came an express with a rigmarole about Belgium asking that
the Dutch should retire still further, that Maestricht should be
garrisoned by Dutch alone, expressing impatience at General Baudrand
having had direct conversations in private with the English Ministers,
and recalling him forthwith. He will not go, however, till after the
Drawing-room.

Nothing new about Poland.

The _Times_ tells of the ill-starred attempt in Portugal. A malison on
Dom Miguel! What a shame it is that he should have triumphed!

The only news in London is that on the occasion of the coronation,[1]
the King allowed the Bishops to lay aside their ugly wigs. This has
made them quite unrecognisable for the last week, for they were in
such a hurry to avail themselves of the permission that they did not
allow time for their hair to grow again. The result was that they cut
a very odd figure, and were the delight of all the guests at the
King's dinner.

  [1] Of King William IV.

_London, September 11, 1831._--Everybody is still talking of nothing
but the coronation; the Duke of Devonshire's return on foot all
splashed with mud; the acts, words, and appearance of everyone are
discussed, embellished, distorted, and reviewed with more or less
charity: that is to say, with no charity at all. The Queen alone is
left untouched; everyone says that she was perfect, and they are quite
right.

I saw the Duke of Gloucester yesterday, and could get nothing out of
him except that they had been trying to avoid having Van de Weyer (who
makes the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar swoon) at the great diplomatic
dinner to-day at Saint James's. They, therefore, hit on the plan of
asking, besides ambassadors, only such ministers as are married; I
thought this rather stupid.

All the venerable survivals are disappearing; there is Lady
Mornington, mother of the Duke of Wellington, who died yesterday at
the age of ninety. This event can make little difference to her son.

The Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg and the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen left
yesterday by the steamer for Rotterdam; the Duchess of Cambridge
leaves to-day for the Hague viâ Bruges. The great preoccupation of
them all is to avoid Brussels.

Lady Belfast describes very amusingly the visit of the English yachts
to Cherbourg and the welcome they had there. They were received by the
authorities, who could not in the least understand what a Gentleman's
Yacht Club in which the Government had no concern could be; in fact,
they were near taking the members for pirates. However, they gave them
a dinner and a ball. Lord Yarborough wished to return their
hospitality on board his yacht, but all the provincial fair ladies
declared that nothing would induce them to dance on the sea, that they
would be certain to be horribly sick, and that the proposal was
altogether barbarous. Finally, Lord Yarborough was obliged to yield,
and gave his ball in a Cherbourg tavern, where, however, he managed to
spend ten thousand francs in a single evening.

_London, September 13, 1831._--Yesterday's Drawing-room was more
crowded than ever, and consequently so long and fatiguing that Mexico,
Spain, and Naples were successively placed _hors de combat_. The
diplomatic ranks were so much thinned by these ladies fainting one
after the other that one had to exert oneself more than usual.

Madame de Lieven boldly seated herself on the steps of the throne,
whence she passed into the King's room, where she had lunch. She came
back and told us that she was neither tired nor hungry. She all but
added that our legs should be rested because hers were, and our
stomachs satisfied because hers had been stayed.

The peeresses, as a rule, looked well in their robes. One unhappy
creature paid dearly for the pleasure of exercising her right as a
peeress to be received by the King whether he will or no. Lady Ferrers
had been practically kept by her husband as his mistress before he
married her, so Lord Howe told Lord Ferrers that the Queen would not
receive his wife. Lord Ferrers replied, however, that peeresses had
the _entrée_, and that could not be denied. He was warned, however,
that the Queen would turn away as Lady Ferrers passed, and this is
what happened. I must observe that even in this the Queen showed her
kindness of heart, for she pretended to begin a conversation with the
Princess Augusta just before Lady Ferrers came opposite to her. She
did not interrupt her conversation, and it was possible to think that
the poor woman had passed unperceived and not insulted. I thought it
was very nice of the Queen.

The dinner was magnificent, and the exuberance of the King's good
humour was really comic; he made several remarkable speeches in
French, and I hear that, when the ladies had gone, the grossness of
his conversation was beyond belief. I have never seen him so gay. I
think that certain despatches from Paris which arrived a little before
dinner, and brought to Lord Palmerston and M. de Talleyrand the news
that the French troops would begin the evacuation of Belgium on the
27th and would all be back in France by the 30th, had something to do
with the Royal hilarity. Lord Grey was radiant about it.

The news of the cholera is bad; it has got to Sweden _viâ_ Finland,
and at Berlin in three days thirty out of the sixty sick have died.
There has been enough ado about it in Paris for M. Perier to make his
appearance there on horseback in his ministerial uniform; his presence
had a good effect.

It seems that the Belgian business is definitely settled, and M. de
Talleyrand was saying yesterday that he would be in France at the end
of October. But I have already seen so many ups and downs in these
affairs that I no longer profess to predict anything a week ahead.

_Tunbridge Wells, September 16, 1831._--I have just been visiting
Eridge Castle,[2] which belongs to a rich and misanthropic
octogenarian much persecuted by misfortune. His title is Earl of
Abergavenny, but his family name is Neville. He is a cousin of Lord
Warwick; the celebrated "King maker" was a Neville, and Eridge Castle
was his. At a later date Queen Elizabeth was feasted there.

  [2] Eridge Castle is in the county of Sussex, and still belongs
  to the Abergavenny family.

The foundations of the castle are ancient, and it has been restored in
the ancient style, with great care, by the present owner. The effect
of the whole is perfectly harmonious, and every detail is rich and
elegant. The perfection of the carving and the beauty of the stained
glass are wonderful. Lord Abergavenny's own apartments are extremely
dismal. The castle occupies a very high point on the top of a hill,
with a lake twenty acres in extent at the foot. But the low ground is
surrounded by hills which are even higher than the one in the centre,
on which the castle stands, and which are all covered with trees so
splendid, so numerous, and stretching for so many miles, that they
form a veritable forest. I have never seen a prospect so romantically
wooded and at the same time so profoundly melancholy. It is not
English, still less is it French; it is the Black Forest, it is
Bohemia. I have never seen ivy like that which covers the towers, the
balconies, and indeed the whole building. In short, I rave about it.

In the park, in the heart of a clump of tall and very sombre
fir-trees, there is a mineral spring exactly like that at Tunbridge;
and the park itself is not only full of deer but has also stags, any
number of cows and sheep, and a fine herd of buffaloes.

Lord Abergavenny is very charitable. A hundred and twenty workmen are
constantly in his employment; but since the visitors from Tunbridge
came and damaged his garden he allows no one to see either his park or
his house. Some time ago he refused admittance even to the Princesse
de Lieven. Pleading notes from Countess Bathyány and from me touched
his heart. He was out when we came, but had left orders for the
servants to show us everything; we were guided through the woods by a
man on horseback. His people are very fond of him; they have much to
say of his goodness, and recount very impressively the story of the
misfortunes which have afflicted their unhappy old master.

_London, September 17, 1831._--On my way back from Tunbridge yesterday
I visited Knole, one of the most ancient castles in England, built by
King John. The oldest part of the existing building dates from this
time. Knole was for long in the possession of the Archbishops of
Canterbury, but Cranmer, finding that his magnificence excited popular
discontent, restored it to the Crown. Elizabeth gave it to the
Sackvilles, the eldest of whom she made Earl of Dorset; and it has
remained in that family until the present day. It has just come into
the hands of Lady Plymouth, sister of the Duke of Dorset, who was
killed in the hunting-field, and left no children. The present Duke of
Dorset, an old man, is the uncle of his predecessor; he has inherited
the title without the estate.

When I choose I can be as meticulous as anybody! I condescended to
read up the guide-book, and put myself in the hands of the
housekeeper. This ancient fairy-godmother is very good at showing off
the venerable and lugubrious house of Knole, which for melancholy has
no rival. Even the part which has been fitted up for the present
occupants is no exception to this; much more profound, therefore, is
the gloom of that which is given up to memories of the past.
Everything there is genuine antique; there are five or six bedrooms,
the hall, three galleries, and a saloon full of Jacobean furniture.
Panelling, furniture, and pictures all date authentically from this
period. The rooms occupied by James I. when he visited the first Earl
of Dorset are magnificent; they are decorated with Venetian mirrors;
there is a state bed of gold and silver brocade, a filigree
toilet-set, ivory and ebony cabinets, and many other curious and
beautiful things. There are portraits here of all England, and among a
vast quantity of rubbish some dozen splendid examples of Van Dyck and
Sir Robert Leslie. The park is large, but in no way remarkable; a
rapid visit is quite sufficient.

_London, September, 1831._--I am always unlucky in my return to
London. I got back the day before yesterday, in time to learn of the
capture of Warsaw;[3] and to-day I arrived from Stoke[4] to hear of
the new and serious disorders which had taken place in Paris on the
occasion of the defeat of the Poles. The condition of the city was
grave at the time of writing, from the details given in this morning's
_Times_. I may add that M. Casimir Perier bravely saved Sébastiani
from the gravest peril by taking him into his carriage. When they got
to the Place Vendôme they were forced to take refuge in the Hôtel de
l'État Major; there were loud cries of "_à bas Louis-Philippe!_"

  [3] Warsaw, capital of the Duchy of the same name, had been ceded
  to the Russians in 1815. In November 1830 a terrible insurrection
  broke out there, which liberated Poland for several months; but,
  in spite of a glorious campaign against Diebitsch, Warsaw was
  finally retaken by Parkéwitch on September 8, 1831.

  [4] Stoke is situate in the county of Stafford, and has a great
  porcelain manufactory founded by Wedgwood.

To-day the fate of the Ministry will probably be decided in the
Chamber. I know that M. de Rigny was very anxious, the previous
sitting having been very unfavourable.

I have also received a very sad letter from M. Pasquin.

Our forebodings are turning out only too true.

_London, September 20, 1831._--Count Paul Medem arrived yesterday and
spent much of the day with me.

He left Paris on Saturday evening. I had plenty of time to question
him, and found his judgment sound and cold as usual; he thinks that in
France nothing as yet is either lost or saved. It is all, he thinks, a
matter of chance; and one can depend on nothing. He brings ill news of
the unpopularity of the King and of the ignorance and presumption of
everybody. He thinks nothing of anyone but Casimir Perier, and even he
makes no secret of his disgust at the little help he gets. I had a sad
account of the social and commercial condition of Paris. Everything
there is unrecognisable; dress, manners, tone, morals and
language--all is changed. The men spend their whole lives in the
cafés, and the women have vanished. New expressions have become the
fashion. The Chamber of Deputies is termed _La Reine Législative_; the
Chamber of Peers, _L'Ancienne Chambre_. The latter, as a power in the
land, has ceased to exist. It is said that the King was more ready
than anyone to abandon the hereditary principle in the peerage, hoping
in this way to gain popularity and get a better civil list. No one
supposes, however, that it will exceed twelve millions, and in the
meantime he is drawing fifteen hundred thousand francs a month.

Several theatres are closed; the Opera and the Italiens still draw,
but if the stars continue to appear on the stage it is only the seamy
side of society that is seen in the boxes.

It is understood that the Czar Nicolas will only put to death such
Poles as murdered Russian prisoners in the course of the sanguinary
scenes enacted at the clubs. Siberia will receive the others. What a
host of miserable creatures we shall see invading Europe, and more
especially France! It is natural to want to shelter them, but it must
be admitted that in the present state of France they can only be a new
element of disorder. They say that when an émeute occurs the refugees
from all countries always play a leading part.

The news from Rio de Janeiro is bad for the children[5] left by Dom
Pedro. A revolt of the negroes has led to much disorder.

  [5] (1) Doña Jennaria, born 1819; (2) Doña Paula, born 1823; (3)
  Doña Francisca, born 1824; (4) Dom Pedro, born 1825, who in 1831
  became Emperor of Brazil under a regency.

The scenes in Switzerland[6] are deplorable.

  [6] On the occasion of the Revolution in France in 1830, new
  agitations arose in Switzerland. Bâle divided itself in 1831 into
  Bâle-Ville and Bâle-Campagne.

Things have been happening at Bordeaux.

Miaulis[7] has blown up his fleet rather than obey Capo d'Istria.

  [7] Miaulis had retired to Paros, and had put himself at the head
  of the rebellious Hydriotes.

_London, September 21, 1831._[8]--The rioting began again in Paris on
Sunday evening, and lasted all Monday morning. There were ominous
symptoms of all kinds, and the aspect of the city was very serious.
The interpellations announced by Mauguin and Laurence were postponed
for twenty-four hours, because it was thought that a partial, if not a
complete, dislocation of the Ministry was imminent. Heavenly powers!
Where have we got to and whither are we tending!

  [8] From March to September 1831 insurrection, or at least
  agitation and tumult, was almost continual in the streets of
  Paris.

In this connection it is confidently asserted that the troops at
Madeira are ready to submit to Doña Maria. The name of Madeira
pronounced (thrown out one might say) six months ago without much
thought will turn out to have been prophetic. It is there that we will
betake ourselves for refuge!

Jules Chodron[9] is appointed Second Secretary of Legation at
Brussels.

  [9] M. de Courcel.

_London, September 23, 1831._--There was a splendid day yesterday for
the ceremony at Woolwich at which I was present. It was very
impressive to see the launch of a great ship of war, and to see it
towed afterwards into the dock where it is to be rigged.

We were on a platform near the King's; there were crowds and crowds of
people, a multitude of steamers and rowing boats, bands, bells and
salvoes of cannon without end. It was almost sunshine. The uniforms
and dresses were brilliant; in fact, there was everything which
contributes to produce an air of high festivity.

The King took a small detachment of the diplomatic corps, which I
accompanied, to see a miniature frigate, a present to the King of
Prussia. It is a charming little thing made entirely of copper and
mahogany. Then he took us to lunch on board the _Royal Sovereign_, an
old yacht of the time of George III., much gilded and bedizened. His
Majesty addressed himself to me in drinking the health of the King of
the French, and to Bülow in proposing the toast of His Prussian
Majesty. He forgot Madame Falk, on which the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar,
who was much annoyed, could not refrain from tears, and the King had
to apologise to Madame Falk, and drink the health of the King of
Holland.

I dined with the Duke of Wellington, who was in very good spirits. He
hopes that the Reform Bill will be thrown out by the House of Lords on
the Second Reading, which will take place on October 3. Lord
Winchelsea, having declared that he would vote against it, was
requested by the Ministry to resign his place at Court, but the King
would not accept his resignation.

Yesterday evening came an express from Paris, dated the 20th,
announcing that the riots are at an end, and that the Ministry has
prevailed in the Chamber of Deputies; but, on the other hand, it is
said that what has been passed proves that the Belgian treaty must be
on the basis proposed in the despatch of the 12th.

_London, September 25, 1831._--We have got the details of the sitting
of the Chamber at which the Ministry triumphed. The victory was won on
an order of the day; worded in a manner honourable to the Government,
and carried by a majority of 85. There voted 357--221 for M. Perier,
136 against. Things, therefore, have for the moment resumed some sort
of equilibrium, but I have little confidence in the event. The new
Chamber has still to show what it means to do about hereditary
peerages, about the civil list and the budget, and it does not seem to
me to be prepared either to say or to do any good thing.

People are still writing to me praising the high courage of M. Perier,
and representing the country as being in a critical condition, and
Pozzo as very nervous in spite of his nephew's marriage, with which he
is delighted.

Three gentlemen from Arras, introduced by the Baron de Talleyrand,
have been dining with us. They belong to the French middle class, and
are very proud of the fact. One of the three was a little man of
seventeen in the rhetoric class of the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, who is
here for his holidays, and is already as talkative and as positive as
could be wished. He gives every promise of one day bellowing most
conspicuously in the Chamber.

_London, September 27, 1831._--Yesterday the Conference agreed on a
protocol, and heaven knows what will be the result! The Dutch and the
Belgians could not come to any agreement, or even within sight of one.
So the Conference, in order to prevent the resumption of hostilities
to settle finally this difficult, delicate and dangerous question, and
to avert the conflagration which is always imminent, constituted
itself arbitrator, and will protect the results of its arbitration
which is to proceed forthwith. How will this be received at Paris? M.
de Talleyrand thinks they will be annoyed at first and will then give
way, especially as there was nothing else to be done. "It is," he
says, "the one and only way of settling the business."

_London, September 29, 1831._--M. de Montrond came yesterday. He
speaks with the utmost contempt of Paris, and all that is going on
there. He tells me that the King is going to live at the Tuilleries,
after a severe battle with his ministers, who on this occasion also
have forced his hand. They had a hard task to overcome the Queen's
unwillingness, but they have overcome all obstacles and the thing is
to be.

It is said that at the Palais Royal the King cannot stir without being
greeted with the most cruel epithets. He is received with cries of
"_Bavard!_" "_Avare!_" &c. They thrust knives through the inside
railings and threaten him. The situation, in short, is horrible.



CHAPTER II

1832


_London, May 23, 1832._--The Duke of Wellington paid me a long visit
yesterday. He told me that he was sorry that M. de Talleyrand's
personal circumstances had led him to decide to leave England even for
a time. No substitute, however excellent, could maintain things at the
point to which M. de Talleyrand had brought them. He had the leading
position here and a preponderating influence not merely among his
fellow diplomats, but also among his English colleagues. He was,
moreover, highly respected throughout the country, where the fact that
he stood aloof from all intrigue was much appreciated. He was the only
man who, "under any ministry," was capable of preserving the
solidarity of England and France. He himself feared that the other
members of the Conference might take a high tone with M. de
Talleyrand's substitute, and when he came back he might find a new
situation and ground lost which it might be difficult to recover.
Finally, if M. de Talleyrand did not return to London, we could not
even be certain that peace would be preserved.

He added that the aspect of things in both countries was very grave,
that all the provision which had been made was inadequate, and that no
one could predict the result either of Reform or of the revolutionary
means which had been taken to obtain it. Who again could say what the
Royal caprice might bring forth once the Reform Bill was passed?

The Duke was, as always, very simple and natural, full of common
sense, and, in his way, which is certainly not gushing, very friendly.

_London, May 24, 1832._--M. de Rémusat is here with a letter from
General Sébastiani to M. de Talleyrand which he has not yet delivered.
He sent me one from the Duc de Broglie, written on the point of his
leaving for the country, and, as I think, in much anxiety about the
precarious condition of everything in France. He refers me to M. de
Rémusat, but I know only too well what he will say. He is clever, but
it is a scornful type of cleverness. He is a captious person hide
bound in his doctrinaire formulas; even when I used to see a great
deal of his set I used to think him particularly disagreeable, and I
don't expect that he will do or say anything to make me change my
opinion.

_London, May 25, 1832._--M. de Rémusat, whom I saw last night,
announced that he would call this morning, when he would "tell me what
to think of Paris." These doctrinaires always want to teach one
something! He has just gone. It takes a long time to learn about
France; he has been teaching me for more than two hours!

What I chiefly remember of my lesson is that M. de Rémusat's journey
is a kind of mission entrusted to him by the worthy persons who favour
a _via media_, such as MM. Royer-Collard, Guizot, Broglie, Bertin de
Veaux, and even Sébastiani who is at open war with Rigny. The object
of the mission is to persuade M. de Talleyrand to accept the
Presidency of the Council, or, if that cannot be, to be the patron of
a new ministry in which Sébastiani would keep his place, and which
would be strengthened by the accession of Guizot, Thiers and Dupin.
The Ministry in its present dilapidated and distracted condition
cannot last, but the King must be made to choose stronger men, who
will resolutely carry out M. Perier's system, and who have enough
talent to impose it on the Chamber. They want M. de Talleyrand to go
to Paris and make the King feel the danger of his position so keenly
that he will be willing to take this course. This is what M. de
Rémusat has been sent to propose to M. de Talleyrand, and what he took
the trouble to give me a lecture about. M. de Talleyrand is too much
determined not to take part in any administration to give way on this
point. He has, of course, always meant to speak to the King as his
conscience prompts him. But what will he gain by that? Probably very
little.

_London, May 29, 1832._--What a day we had yesterday! The Drawing-room
went on till past five! It was the King's birthday, and His Majesty
having learned that the Princesse de Lieven and I were not dining with
Lord Palmerston, chose us to represent the Corps Diplomatique at his
own party.

There was no one at this dinner, apart from the legitimate and the
illegitimate family, besides the suite and a few old friends of the
King, such as the Duke of Dorset and Lord Mount Edgcumbe.

The King did not stint his toasts. First he addressed himself to
Madame de Lieven, and said that after the many years that she had
represented in London a Court always friendly to Great Britain, he had
come to regard her as a personal friend. Then to me, "I have not known
you for so long, Madame, but the memory which you leave behind you
makes us all wish for your return with the restored health which you
go to seek at the waters. The delicate and difficult circumstances of
your uncle's mission here, in which he has displayed so much integrity
and skill, are such that I attach great importance to his returning
among us, and I beg you tell him so." Then he turned to Madame
Woronzoff and told her how, through her husband, she was as much
English as Russian.

Madame de Lieven thanked His Majesty in a word and so did I, but poor
Madame de Woronzoff in trying to express her sentiments got so mixed
that the King began again, and I thought that the dialogue would never
end.

When the Queen's health had been drunk, the King returned thanks for
her in English, adding that no princess more deserved the respect and
affection of those that knew her, for no one better discharged the
duties of her position than she. He then gave us the signal to rise
and immediately afterwards to sit down again, and, addressing the
Duchess of Kent, he drank the health of the Princess Victoria as his
sole heir under Providence and according to the law of the land. To
her he hoped to leave the three kingdoms with their rights, privileges
and constitution intact as he himself had received them. With all this
he said, and frequently repeated, that his health was excellent and
his strength abundant, that he had no idea of dying, and that in these
difficult times it was most necessary that there should not be a
minority. So that everybody fell to wondering whether he meant to be
agreeable or disagreeable to the Duchess of Kent, who was as pale as
death, or whether, owing to the princely pretensions of the
Fitzclarences, he wished to make it clear that he recognised no other
heir than the young princess as possible. Others assert that it was
all aimed at the Duke of Sussex, who was absent because he has been
forbidden to come to Court. It appears that the popular party would
like to see him on the throne, or, at least, that the King imagines
that they would, and that this was the motive of his very lengthy
speech.

Before the end of the evening the King twice came up to me to say that
M. de Talleyrand must not be away long, that the peace of the world
depended on his presence in London, and so on, with many eulogistic
and pretty speeches. The number of polite regrets, sincere enough to
all appearance, which are being expressed at our departure is really
wonderful.

_London, May 30, 1832._--M. de Talleyrand has received letters from
the King and from Sébastiani, written on the eve of leaving for
Compiègne. Both say that they will use all their credit with King
Leopold to persuade him to leave everything to the Conference, and so
to throw on the Dutch all the odium of a refusal. They wish M. de
Talleyrand, however, to secure here the evacuation of Antwerp of which
the Dutch won't hear till all the other questions are settled. So far
as one can see, the obstinacy of the Dutch does not diminish, and a
bad spirit is again abroad in Belgium.

M. de Talleyrand will leave immediately after the arrival of M. de
Mareuil, and hopes before that to have succeeded in establishing an
armed force which would be called the combined Anglo-French army, and
would be entrusted with the duty of cutting the Gordian knot.

_Paris, June 20, 1832._--I expect M. de Talleyrand on the evening of
the day after to-morrow.

I am seeing a great many people just now; in fact they are boring me
to death. What absurdities, what mistakes, what misguided passions!
Poor M. de Talleyrand; he is going to fall into a pretty mess of
intrigue!

The present state of affairs, which is condemned by everybody, must
necessarily change, at least so far as the Ministry is concerned. The
outcry against ministers is general, and alarm is growing. La Vendée,
however, is about over, and people believe that the Duchesse de Berry
has fled; that, if true, is a great thing. But the state of the
Cabinet is pitiable. Its jerky, hesitating conduct of affairs, no less
than the innumerable blunders which it makes, foreshadow its downfall.
M. de Talleyrand is expected to do great things, poor man!

The real difficulty lies in the character of the head of affairs. How
ugly all this is! Sébastiani is day by day failing more; yesterday I
was really grieved about him; he is quite aware of his condition, and
it makes him very unhappy. To-night I am going with him to Saint
Cloud, and I tremble lest he may fall dead by my side in the carriage.

Wessenberg writes to me from London that the Ministry there is cast
down, anxious and embarrassed by its triumph, and fears that it may
soon fall. I see that in England they are disquieted about the state
of Germany. Here the Corps Diplomatique are complaining of
Sébastiani's double game in respect of events on the Rhine. In a word,
no one is pleased, no one is at ease. We live in strange times!

_Paris, September 6, 1832._--M. de Talleyrand has letters which say
that the coquetry at St. Petersburg was intended to detach England
from her alliance with us, and that they had even gone so far as to
propose to place Antwerp in the hands of the English. All this has
miscarried and coldness has succeeded to civilities. All the
difficulties about the Conference now come from Brussels, where the
marriage[10] has turned everybody's head, and where they now think
themselves able to force France's hand.

  [10] Leopold I., elected King of the Belgians in 1831, married in
  1832 Louise, Princess of Orléans, daughter of Louis-Philippe,
  King of the French.

_Paris, September 21, 1832._--It seems that M. de Montrond hopes to
get Pondichery, and is very anxious to go there. Sébastiani's friends
say he is quite restored to health since Bourbonne, and is steering
adroitly among the difficulties of his ministerial career.

The King of the Netherlands is in an evil mood, and the King of the
Belgians is no better. The Conference is flagging, and, they say, has
much need of M. de Talleyrand to help it to recover its cohesion.

All the Cabinets are said to be much on edge about what is passing
between Egypt and the Porte. Every one shrinks from the consequences
which are imminent in the North, South, East and West. They are
clearly foreseen everywhere, but no one has the courage to meddle with
them.

_Paris, September 23, 1832._--The horizon is gloomy all round. Strange
events are happening in the East. The condition of Germany and Italy
is precarious. The French Cabinet is disunited, there are
complications in Portugal, and Holland is growing more and more
obstinate. To all this must now be added the sudden death of Ferdinand
VII., a civil war of succession between the partisans of Don Carlos
and those of the little Infanta, the possibility of Spain interfering
in Portugal, and consequently the appearance of France and England in
the Peninsula.

Further, there is the change of ministry at Brussels, and the sudden
departures of the Duc d'Orléans, Marshal Gérard, and M. le Hon for
Belgium. Pandemonium reigns more than ever!

M. de Talleyrand is receiving many letters both from London and from
Paris urging him to hasten his departure.

_Paris, September 27, 1832._--The resurrection[11] of Ferdinand VII.
is very mysterious. It is also very fortunate, for when there are so
many complications, the disappearance of even one is something to be
thankful for!

  [11] In 1832 King Ferdinand VII. became so seriously ill that he
  was thought to be dead. Calomarde then joined the Carlists, and
  forced the dying monarch to sign a decree cancelling the
  declaration of 1830 abolishing the Salic Law in Spain.



CHAPTER III

1833


_Valençay,[12] October 12, 1833._--M. Royer-Collard passed part of the
morning here. He was at once original and witty, serious and
vivacious, showed much affection for me, and made himself very
pleasant to M. de Talleyrand. He does not openly carp at the present
situation, but it is not pleasing to him, and he speaks ill of it in
his solitude.

  [12] Valençay, where the Duchesse de Dino had just gone, is
  situate in the Department of the Indre. The château and the park
  are magnificent, and the ornamental water is very fine. The house
  was built in the sixteenth century by the d'Étampes family, from
  the designs of Philibert Delorme. In 1808 and 1814 it served as
  the prison of Ferdinand VII. and the Spanish Princes when they
  were detained by Napoleon I. The Prince de Talleyrand, who had
  bought the property at the end of the eighteenth century, was
  very fond of the place and lived there a great deal.

M. de Saint-Aulaire writes from Vienna: "My summer holiday which I
have been spending at Baden has not been disturbed by the meetings at
Téplitz and Münchengraetz,[13] because I was not given anything to do,
and because, for my part, I feel no anxiety about them. But M. de
Metternich has just got back to Vienna; we must put our affairs in
order, and my holiday is near an end. The measures considered
advisable for Germany are apparently very sharp; were they otherwise
the attempt would be futile. Will France be content to look on and do
nothing? I think so, unless some independent sovereign cries for help
in maintaining his independence. The King of Hanover would be a good
leader in a movement of this kind, but if he will not come forward, I
have no confidence in Prince Lichtenstein. I know that in England they
think M. de Metternich has tricked us, and that he went shares with
Russia in the Treaty of Constantinople of the 8th of July last. But I
persist in maintaining that he was the dupe, not the accomplice. I
hope I am right, not so much for my own self-satisfaction as because
the game to play must vary according as the good understanding of
Austria and Russia is apparent or real. Frederick Lamb told me
yesterday in detail of the Duke of Leuchtenberg's campaign in Belgium.
I had heard something of it from the rumours of the town, but not a
word from the Cabinet, which has the bad habit of keeping us the worst
informed of the diplomatists of any country."

  [13] The three great allied powers--Austria, Prussia and
  Russia--held meetings in three successive years either at Téplitz
  or at Münchengraetz for joint deliberation on the European
  situation. There by a new secret compact they guaranteed to each
  other their respective possessions in Poland, whether against
  external aggression or internal revolution. They also considered
  the affairs of France and Italy, and the constant activities of
  Italian societies and refugees in French territory, which were
  then causing serious anxiety about the tranquillity of the
  Peninsula. It was finally decided that the Cabinets of Austria,
  Prussia and Russia should each send a separate note to the
  Government of King Louis-Philippe, urging a more careful
  surveillance of the revolutionary propaganda.

_Valençay, October 23, 1833._--The Duchesse de Montmorency is quite
fresh on the subject of Prague, her eldest daughter having told her
much about it. Charles X. himself took his two grand-children to their
mother at Leoben with the precise object of preventing the Duchesse de
Berry from coming to Prague; from Leoben it is said she will return to
Italy. M. le Dauphin[14] and Mme. la Dauphine refused to go.

  [14] Louis-Antoine, Duc d'Angoulême (1773-1844), eldest son of
  King Charles X., married during the emigration in 1799 his cousin
  Marie Thérèse Charlotte, daughter of King Louis XVI. and Queen
  Marie Antoinette, but had no children. After 1830 the Duc
  d'Angoulême ceded his rights to his nephew, the Duc de Bordeaux
  (Comte de Chambord), and retired into private life.

They say that Charles X. is much broken, and the Dauphine is aged and
very thin and nervous, always in tears. Certainly, however strong her
character may be, her misfortunes have been such as to break the
highest courage and the most masculine spirit. Beyond doubt she has
been more persecuted by destiny than any character in history.

M. de Blacas is in supreme command of the little Court, and is more
opposed than any one to the proposal that the Duchesse de Berry should
settle there.

I have seen a letter from M. Thiers, who says, referring to his
marriage: "The great moment is at hand. I am agitated, as is proper;
and I am fonder of my young wife than is fitting at my age. This shows
I was right to make up my mind at thirty-five rather than at forty,
for then I should have been even more absurd. In any case it matters
little; I can banish false shame, but there _is_ one thing which I
find insupportable, and that is to expose those who are dear to me to
the insults and the malice of the world. For myself I am inured, but
(great as is the necessity) I shall never become inured to the
sufferings of those I love. The world must work its will; it would be
foolish to wish that so huge a machine should alter its eternal motion
to suit one's convenience."

I sincerely hope that his philosophy will not be tried too severely;
but, as the proverb has it, "the sin brings its own punishment."

_Valençay, November 3, 1833._--I am greatly surprised that the Duc de
Broglie has not once written to M. de Talleyrand. He has written three
times to me on private affairs, and each time promised a letter for M.
de Talleyrand, which has never come.

Mme. Adélaïde has written twice, very kindly expressing her desire
that M. de Talleyrand may go back to London, but without any definite
inquiry on the subject. I think, however, that she and the King wish
it much more than the Duc de Broglie does; and I believe that it is
owing to some intrigue between Lord Granville and Lord Palmerston that
the King's wishes have not so far been more clearly expressed.

M. de Talleyrand has come to no decision. There are so many real
inconveniences in entering on active political life. On the other
hand, there are so many real inconveniences in staying in France that
even if I wished to advise I do not know what advice it would be best,
in the interests of M. de Talleyrand, to give him. He fears--and I
think with reason--the isolation, the _ennui_ of the provinces, and
the slackness of country life. Paris he thinks impossible, as he
would there be invested in the eyes of the people with political
responsibilities which it would not be either in his interest or in
his power to discharge. On the other hand, he is under no illusions as
to the gravity and the difficulty of the situation which he would find
on his return to London, and which would be aggravated by the
character of the people with whom he would have to deal on both sides
of the Channel. Finally, he knows quite well how easily he might lose,
on the turn of a single card, all that he has so miraculously gained
during the past three years.

All this agitates him greatly; and me, on his account, even more. We
have every reason to apply to ourselves what M. Royer-Collard said in
1830 of the struggle between the Polignac Ministry and the country:
"An end there will surely be, but I see no issue."

_Valençay, November 10, 1833._--M. de Talleyrand has just heard from
the Duc de Broglie and from King Leopold. The former says that the
King of the Netherlands is making overtures at Frankfort, that the
Germanic Confederation and the Duke of Nassau are on the point of
giving way, and that in less than a fortnight Dedel will receive
instructions to resume active participation in the Conference. The
Duke, and the King also, are most anxious that M. de Talleyrand should
come to Paris to settle everything, hear the details of the Conference
at Münchengraetz on the affairs of Spain, and then return to London.

King Leopold writes to say that Belgium will pay Holland nothing; this
quasi-manifesto being enveloped in a mass of honeyed compliments.

_Valençay, November 11, 1833._--The following is the general sense of
M. de Talleyrand's answer to the Duc de Broglie: "My dear Duke,--You
overrate the goodness of my health, but you will never overrate the
warmth of my friendship for you or of my devotion to the King. I
cannot give you a better proof of this than by dragging my eighty-two
years out of their idleness and retirement in midwinter and getting to
Paris by December 4, as I promise you I shall. As to going to London,
is it really necessary? I am very old, and another would now do as
well, perhaps better, than I.

"We shall discuss matters at Paris, and out of my 'long experience,'
which you are so good as to consult, I will tell you frankly what I
think of all you have to tell me of political affairs. That is all I
am good for nowadays. If by any chance you so far flatter my vanity as
to make me believe that I am still indispensable for a time in this
business, I shall, of course, feel it my duty to do what you ask. But
once it is over I shall at once return to my den to resume the torpor
which is alone appropriate to my present condition.

"In any case, no harm will be done by leaving things for a week or two
in the hands of M. de Bacourt, who, I am sure, is justifying more and
more, by his energy and sagacity, all the good that I have said to you
of him. Adieu!"

_Valençay, November 12, 1833._--People are beginning to be anxious
about the situation in Spain. The Northern provinces are all for Don
Carlos. Madrid, Barcelona, Cadiz, and almost all the South are for the
Queen, on condition that the revolution takes its course. This is what
is chiefly agitating the French Government.

The anticipation of the attitude of the Chambers is making the
Ministry rather nervous. It will present itself just as it is, but not
without fear, for there is a certain difficulty in facing a Chamber
which must wish to court popularity if it hopes to be re-elected. The
huge expenditure of Marshal Soult, the very slight reduction (in some
cases none at all) in other Departments, are difficulties which may
become serious embarrassments.

_Paris, December 9, 1833._--Our return to London is settled. When I
arrived here yesterday I found M. de Montrond on the steps, M. Raullin
on the stairs, and Pozzo in the cabinet. I am to dine with him
to-morrow. He has a careworn look, and fulminates against Lord
Palmerston, who is said to be out of favour everywhere. M. de
Talleyrand does not think that the Duc de Broglie lets himself be
carried away by Lord Granville as much as his Lordship would like,
and he has expressed himself in clear terms about this.

M. de Talleyrand does not believe in the possibility of war except
between England and Russia, and will make every effort in his power to
prevent it. He seems to me on the best possible terms with Pozzo, and
to stand extremely well with the King and Madame Adélaïde, who are
beginning to distrust Palmerston and Lord Granville and to consider
that Broglie is wanting in insight; and, moreover, that he treats them
without sufficient consideration and respect. He is certainly behaving
with great lack of frankness and confidence towards M. de Talleyrand,
but one's financial position must be revealed to those who are to
invest one's money.

Lady Jersey has been to the Tuileries; the Duc d'Orléans has been in
all things her humble servant. At the palace, indeed, where they are
rather badly off for society, everyone was charmed by the arrival of
the fair aristocrat from the other side of the Channel, which has been
quite an event.

The Faubourg Saint-Germain is more irreconcilable than ever. Napoleon
had places which he could bestow, estates which he might restore: he
could threaten confiscations. There is nothing of that sort nowadays;
and so they all sulk with an easy insolence which is quite
indescribable. The fact is that if one is not compelled to go there
the Court is too mixed to be attractive. I am sorry about it for the
sake of the Queen, whom I both love and honour.

It seems that Baron de Werther is much annoyed with Palmerston and the
Duc de Broglie. Certainly there is a great deal of ill-humour in the
air, but M. de Talleyrand still says that it will not find its outlet
in shot and shell.

_Paris, December 11, 1833._--Yesterday I dined, along with M. de
Talleyrand, at the Thiers'. There was no one but himself, his wife,
his father and mother-in-law; Mignet, who talked platitudes about
Spain, and Bertin de Veaux, who talked of nothing but the bull-fights
he saw at Saint Sebastian.

Madame Thiers, who is only sixteen, looks nineteen. She has a fine
colour, pretty hair, a good shape, large eyes which have as yet
nothing to express, a disagreeable mouth, an unpleasing smile, and a
too prominent forehead. She says nothing herself, hardly answers when
she is spoken to, and she seemed thoroughly bored with us all. She has
no presence, and no idea of how to behave in society, but no doubt she
may acquire all this. Perhaps she will take only too much trouble for
other people than her little husband, who is very much in love and
very jealous--ashamed of it too, I gather, from what he told me. The
looks his young wife bestows on him are very cold; she is not shy, but
inclined to be sulky, and not at all inclined to make herself
pleasant.

I used to think Madame Dosne had the remains of beauty, but I thought
on this occasion that she never could have been good looking. She has
an unpleasing laugh, which is ironical without being gay. Her
conversation is witty and animated, but her dress was pink and
girlish, and affectedly simple to a degree which quite astonished me.

_Paris, December 15, 1833._--Yesterday I dined with the King. M. de
Talleyrand was dining with the Prince Royal. During dinner the King
spoke of nothing but traditions and memories of the past and ancient
castles. I was quite at home. First we exhausted the topic of
Touraine: he promised stained glass and portraits of Louis XI. and
Louis XII. for Amboise. He will buy back the remains of Montrichard,
and will prevent the ruin of the Château de Langeais. If he does all
this my dinner will not have been in vain! He then told me about the
restorations he is having done at Fontainbleau, and ended by
explaining to me his great plan for Versailles, which is really great
and worthy of a great-grandson of Louis XIV. But will it come to pass?
The conversation then turned on the new work which he has had done at
the Tuileries themselves. He gave orders for the whole palace to be
lit up, and after dinner he took me all through it.

Everything is really fine, very fine; and if the staircase, which is
rich and elegant, were only a little broader, it would be quite
perfect. This promenade took us from the Pavillon de Flore to the
Pavillon de Marsan. Here the King asked me if I would like to pay a
visit to his son, and I said, of course, that I would follow the King
anywhere. We found the Duc d'Orléans playing whist with M. de
Talleyrand, whose friends the Prince had invited to meet him.

The Prince's apartments are too beautifully furnished for a man's;
that is the only criticism one can make, for they are full of lovely
things found in the Royal garde-meuble, where all the fine pieces of
the time of Louis XIV. were placed at the Revolution, and it did not
occur to anyone at the time of the Restoration to take them out. The
Duc d'Orléans has put a great many of them in his rooms. It is curious
how often I have been at the Tuileries without ever suspecting the
presence of the interesting things collected there. Thus, on this
occasion in the King's room, among other things with which I was
unfamiliar, I saw a portrait of Louis XIV. as a baby represented as a
sleeping Cupid, and another of Anne of Austria as Minerva. I also saw
some allegorical wood-carving of the time of Catherine de Medici, who
built the Tuileries.

The King is an admirable guide to his palaces. I wondered during all
our conversation how a man could know the traditions of his family so
well and be so proud of them, and yet----. However!

I leave the day after to-morrow for London.



CHAPTER IV

1834


_London, January 27, 1834._--Sir Henry Halford has just been telling
me that the late King George IV., whose senior physician he was, asked
him two days before his death to say on his word of honour whether the
case was desperate. Sir Henry, with a significantly grave face,
answered that his Majesty's condition was very serious; whereupon the
King thanked him with a movement of his head, desired the Sacrament
and communicated very devoutly, inviting Sir Henry to communicate
along with him. Lady Conyngham was in the adjoining room. So no human
interest was absent from the deathbed of the Royal charlatan while he
partook of the Sacrament for the last time.

_London, February 7, 1834._--Yesterday I was at Lady Holland's, who
finished some story or other which she was telling me by saying, "I
didn't get this from Lady Keith (Mme. de Flahaut), for she hasn't
written to me for more than two months." Then she added, "Did you know
that she hated the present Ministry in France?" "Of course," I
answered; "it was you who told M. de Talleyrand all the nasty things
she was saying here about the French Cabinet at the time when it was
formed." "True," replied Lady Holland, "all the same, the Cabinet must
be preserved. Lord Granville has written to Lord Holland to say that
we must not believe everything Lady Keith says about the
precariousness of the Duc de Broglie's position, for she is a bitter
enemy of his and longs for his downfall." I said nothing, and the
subject dropped. But, after this, don't speak to me of the friendships
of this world!

Anyhow, they write rather amusingly of M. and Mme. de Flahaut from
Paris, saying that their favour at the Tuileries is declining, he
being considered a superannuated coquette, and she a foxy old
intriguer.

_Warwick Castle, February 10, 1834._--I left London the day before
yesterday, and got as far as Stony Stratford, where I advise no one to
pass the night. The beds are bad even for England, and I never
experienced anything more like a trappist's couch. I left yesterday
morning in the midst of a bitterly cold and extremely thick fog. It
was impossible to get any idea of the country, which, however, from
certain occasional glimpses, I believe to be rather pretty, especially
about Iston Hall, a beautiful place owned by Lord Porchester. You pass
a superb gate, from which there stretches a vast park, beyond which
there is a view of a valley which seemed to me charming. Leamington, a
few miles further on, is well built and cheerful.

As to Warwick itself, where I arrived yesterday morning, one enters by
a fortress gate. Its aspect is the most severe, its courtyard the most
sombre, its hall the most enormous, its furniture the most Gothic, and
its style the most perfect that you can possibly imagine. Everything
suggests the feudal system. A large and rapid river bathes the foot of
the great dark old battlemented towers. The monotonous noise of the
water is interrupted by the crackling of the great trees which burn in
the gigantic fireplaces. In the hall huge logs are piled upon the dogs
which stand on slabs of polished marble, and each log requires two men
to put it on the fire.

I have only just glanced rapidly at the stained glass in the great
broad windows, which are on the same scale as the fireplaces, at the
armour and the antlers and the other curiosities of the hall, at the
fine family portraits in the three great drawing-rooms. As yet I am
only familiar with my own room, which is completely furnished with
Boulle and carved walnut, and, in addition to these antique
splendours, is full of all the modern comforts.

Lady Warwick's boudoir is also full of interesting things. She came
to my room yesterday to fetch me, and after showing me the boudoir she
took me to the little drawing-room, where we found Lord Monson, the
son of her first marriage, a little man, or rather boy, shy and
silent, and much embarrassed by the exiguity and weakness of his
person. Lady Monson was also there. She is a striking contrast to her
husband, being a tall blonde Englishwoman, stiff and bony, with long
features and large hands, a great broad flat chest, angular in her
movements, and rather like an old maid, but pretty and kindly. Here,
too, was Lady Eastnor, the sister of Lady Stuart of Rothesay; ugly,
like all her family, but well-bred, like all Lady Hardwicke's
daughters. Lord Eastnor, a mighty hunter and a great eater and
drinker, was also of the party; and his brother, a parson, who, I
believe, has not shaved since Christmas, and who never opened his
mouth except to eat. Lord Brooke, the son of the house, is fifteen and
very nice looking; his tutor was with him, and was silent and
respectful, as tutors should be. Finally, there was the striking
figure of Lady Catherine Neeld, a sister of the Ashleys and a daughter
of Lord Shaftesbury. She is celebrated for the suit she brought
against her husband, of which all the papers were full last year. She
is a friend of Lady Warwick's who protects, shelters, and defends her.
She is a bold, rather loud person, with a malicious tongue and
familiar and somewhat audacious manners. She is well made, has a white
skin and beautiful fair hair, but neither eyebrows nor eyelashes. Her
face is long and narrow; her eyes have no special merit, and her nose
and mouth remind you of what Madame de Sévigné said of Madame de
Sforze when she described her as being like "a parrot eating a
cherry."

Lord Warwick had a touch of rheumatic gout, and kept his room. No one
seemed to miss him.

The lady of the house is far from being in harmony with the splendid
pile which she inhabits. She has been pretty without being beautiful;
she is naturally witty, but has not improved her gifts by study. She
knows nothing of the traditions of her castle. Her disposition is all
towards fun and informality; her bodily habits are nonchalant, and
altogether this plump, lazy, idle little woman seems anything but the
natural mistress of her vast, sombre, and almost terrifying house.
Moreover, every one seems to me a pigmy in these rooms, to fill which
you would require superhuman creatures like the King-maker. Our
generation is too meanly proportioned for such an abode.

The dining-room is fine, but less grandiose than the rest of the
house. On leaving table a long time before the men we went to the
great drawing-room, which is flanked by two smaller ones. In this huge
room there are some splendid Van Dycks, and the panelling is entirely
of cedar in its natural colour. The perfume of this wood is very
agreeable. The furniture is covered in velvet damask, the prevailing
tone of which is deep red. There are many really magnificent pieces of
Boulle, and several marbles brought back from Italy. The two enormous
windows form deep recesses and have no curtains, being simply framed
in cedar wood. In this huge area there were only about a score of
candles, which reminded me of will-o'-the-wisps, which deceived the
eye rather than illuminated the room. I have never seen anything more
chilling and depressing than this drawing-room, in which the ladies'
conversation was very languid indeed. I kept thinking that the
portrait of Charles the First and the bust of the Black Prince would
come and join us at coffee before the fire. At last the men came, and
after them the tea, and at ten o'clock a sort of supper. At eleven a
general move was made to bed, which seemed to be a relief for every
one.

During this long evening I thought many times of the description given
by Corinne of her mother-in-law's château. At dinner nothing was
talked of but county balls and Leamington Spa, and other petty gossip
of the neighbourhood. Feature by feature it recalled Madame de Staël's
description.

In the morning Lady Warwick took me over the Castle, which I should
have got to know better if I had been left to myself, or had been put
in charge of one of the two housekeepers, the elder of whom is
ninety-three. To look at her you would think she was going to tell you
all about the Wars of the Roses. The châtelaine cares nothing whatever
about all the curiosities with which her domain is stored, and took me
through them at breakneck speed.

I did, however, manage to stop for a moment before the saddle and
caparison of Queen Elizabeth, which she used on her progress from
Kenilworth to Warwick, and I took up the lute presented by Lord
Leicester to her Majesty, a wonderfully carved instrument, with the
Queen's arms in raised copper on the wood, and close by them the
favourite's own, which seemed to me a trifle impertinent. I noticed a
curious portrait of the Queen in her coronation robes which showed a
terrible resemblance to her terrible father. _A propos_ of this
portrait Lord Monson told me a thing I did not know, viz., that
Elizabeth, who always affected a youthful appearance, never allowed
herself to be painted except in full face and so lighted as to avoid
any shadow on her features which might accentuate the lines, and so
indicate the number of her years. It is said that this idea was so
constantly in her mind that she always faced the light when she gave
audience.

The library at Warwick is not particularly remarkable, and did not
appear to me to be much used. Queen Anne's bed-chamber with the bed of
the period is a fine room.

At ten Lady Warwick and I entered a carriage, Lady Monson and Lord
Brooke escorting us on horseback, and we drove through an interesting
landscape to the celebrated ruins of Kenilworth. There I was really
disappointed, not because the ruins do not give the idea of a vast and
noble building, but because the country is so flat, and the absence of
trees is so complete, that there is nothing which you could call
picturesque. It is true that there is a superb coat of ivy over all,
which is good as far as it goes, but is not enough to make a picture.

Lady Monson is less ignorant of the locality than her mother-in-law,
and she pointed out to me the banqueting-hall, Queen Elizabeth's room,
the buildings constructed by Leicester which, though more modern, are
more ruinous than the rest, and the gate-house through which the
Queen's procession passed, and which was built specially for the
occasion. This erection is still in a good state of preservation, and
is inhabited by one of the tenants of Lord Clarendon, the owner of the
ruins. In the interior there is a chimney-piece with the initials and
the crest of Leicester. The wing in which Sir Walter Scott lodges Amy
Robsart owes its celebrity to romance and not to history.

I was not allowed to ascend the towers, as the stability of the ruins
is doubtful, and only last year Lady Sefton's niece had an accident
here. Besides I was assured that the view was in no way remarkable.

We made a _détour_ on the return journey and passed right through
Leamington. The whole town, and especially the bathing establishment,
seemed to me quite pretty. Just now it is gay with hunting men, who
live here much as they do at Melton Mowbray.

When we got back it was not yet dark, and Lady Warwick took me to see
a pretty view of the River Avon at the bottom of the park, which is
beautifully planted. I was also shown some glass-houses, which are
neither very well kept nor very full of flowers, but in which is kept
the Warwick Vase--a huge vessel of white marble beautifully shaped and
carved. It was brought back from the Garden of Trajan by the father of
the present Lord Warwick.

To-morrow I return to London.

_London, February 12, 1834._--M. de Talleyrand told me that yesterday
evening, while playing whist with Madame de Lieven, who had Lord
Sefton for a partner, the Princess, with her habitual absence of mind,
revoked twice, whereupon Lord Sefton quietly remarked that it was
quite natural that these abominable Dardanelles should often cause
Madame de Lieven to revoke. This caused much merriment to the company.

I have a letter from M. Royer-Collard in which occurs the following
sentence: "I like M. de Bacourt very much indeed. His clear, simple
and intelligent conversation is charming, and I find no one here who
talks so well. Our mutual understanding is complete."

_London, February 15, 1834._--The Duchess-Countess of Sutherland
called for me yesterday and took Pauline and me to the _Panorama of
the North Pole_ in which Captain Ross plays a prominent part. Both
painting and perspective are beyond anything I have seen of its kind;
but everything which relates to adventures so terrible and sufferings
so prolonged is intensely interesting.

One of Captain Parry's crew in the _Fury_ who had afterwards been with
Captain Ross, happened by chance to be there. He gave Pauline a little
piece of the fur with which he had covered himself when among the
Esquimaux, and presented me with a fragment of granite taken from the
most northerly point reached by the expedition. We asked him many
questions, and he often recurred to the moment when they sighted the
_Isabella_, which rescued them and brought them home. This was on the
26th of August, and he told us that as long as he lived he would drink
to the memory of that happy moment on every anniversary.

Last night we had a rout, at which there was nothing remarkable either
in the way of dresses or of beauties or of absurdities. The Marquis of
Douglas is extraordinarily handsome, and Miss Emily Hardy seemed to me
rather smitten with him.

The Ministry was represented by Lord Grey, Lord Lansdowne, and Lord
Melbourne. The Cabinet is much embarrassed, for every day incidents
are happening in the House of Commons which show up vividly the
serious divisions in its ranks. Last night Lord Grey's face showed
visible traces of this.

_London, February 20, 1834._--A new and very ugly story is afloat
concerning Count Alfred d'Orsay which is as follows: Sir Willoughby
Cotton, writing from Brighton at the same time to Count d'Orsay and to
Lady Fitzroy Somerset, cross-directed the letters so that M. d'Orsay
on opening the letter which he received, instead of seeing the mistake
and stopping at the first line, which ran "Dear Lady Fitzroy," read it
through and found, among other Brighton gossip, some pleasantries
about Lady Tullemore and one of her lovers, and a sharp saying about
himself. What did he do but go to the club, read out the letter before
every one, and finally put it under cover and send it to Lord
Tullemore! The result very nearly was a crop of duels. Lady Tullemore
is very ill, and the guilty lover has fled to Paris. Friends
intervened, however, and the thing was hushed up for the sake of the
ladies, but M. d'Orsay cut (and cuts) an odious figure.

_London, February 27, 1834._--The latest joke is to spread rumours of
Lord Palmerston's marriage with Miss Jerningham. She was at the
Russian Embassy yesterday overdressed and bedizened as usual. Madame
de Lieven made her a target for her wit, but couldn't quite get out of
inviting her. No doubt, in order to avenge this constraint, she said
quite loudly that Miss Jerningham reminded her of the usual
advertisement in the _Times_: "A housemaid wants a situation in a
family where a footman is kept." Clever and only too true, but most
uncharitable! She was good enough to add that the comic papers had
christened Lord Palmerston "the venerable cupid."

_London, May 1, 1834._--Mr. Salomon Dedel arrived this morning from
the Hague, bringing me a letter from General Fagel, which contained
the following: "Someone has found out that Dedel had expressed the
hope that he might reappear in London armed with instructions to bring
the affair to a conclusion." Dedel mentioned the matter to the King,
who replied: "The purpose of your absence was to see your relatives
and friends of whom you can give news if anybody asks you." Further on
the same letter runs: "We wish to be forced by the five powers, and
will take no account of a partial coercion like that of 1832. If the
powers are not unanimous we shall continue to refuse any definite
arrangement. At the worst we prefer the road to Silesia to recognising
Leopold."

Madame de Jaucourt, referring to the insane party spirit now in the
ascendant in France, writes to M. de Talleyrand that her brother M. de
Thiard said at her house the other day: "I would give my right arm to
have Charles X. back in the place from which we deposed him."

Is it not curious that young Baillot, who has just been assassinated
during the late troubles in Paris, should have often boasted of having
killed several people during the days of July 1830 in exactly the same
way as he was killed himself?

I have just heard of an amusing thing said by the old Marchioness of
Salisbury. Last Sunday she was at church, a rare thing with her, and
the preacher, speaking of the Fall, observed that Adam excusing
himself had cried out, "Lord the woman tempted me." At this quotation
Lady Salisbury, who appeared not to have heard of the incident before,
jumped up in her seat saying, "Shabby fellow indeed!"

I have just been paying a morning call on the Queen, whom I found much
agitated, anxious, and yet pleased, about her impending journey to
Germany. The King arranged it without her knowledge and superintended
the smallest details. It is he who has chosen the suite, engaged the
servants, and selected the carriages. It has all been done in such a
hurry that the Queen has not yet recovered from the shock. She doesn't
know whether to be glad at the prospect of seeing her mother, who is
aged and infirm, or to be worried about leaving the King alone for six
weeks. She told me that the King wanted to invite M. de Talleyrand and
me to Windsor during our stay at Salt Hill, but that she herself had
dissuaded him as it would have led to other invitations, and they
would have had to ask, among other people, the Princesse de Lieven,
for whom the King does not care.

The Queen coughs and thinks herself quite ill, but she hopes to be
restored by her native air.

It is impossible not to be struck, every time one sees her, with the
perfect simplicity, truth and uprightness of her Majesty's character.
I have rarely seen a person more devoted to duty or more
self-consistent in all that she says and does. She is both kind and
cheerful, and, though not beautiful, she is perfectly graceful. The
tones of her voice are unfortunately nasal, but what she says is so
full of good sense and real kindness that it is a pleasure to listen
to her. The satisfaction she feels in speaking German is very natural,
and I feel this every time she does so. I wish, however, that she
indulged herself in this way more sparingly in the presence of English
people. In her own interest it would be better for her if she had more
of the Englishwoman in her; no one could have remained more
characteristically German than she has, and I fear that this sometimes
gives offence. How is a monarch to escape doing so nowadays? They are
made responsible for everything and are always threatened with
punishment merited or unmerited. The poor Queen has already a sad
experience of the bitterness of unpopularity and of calumny. She has
always faced attack with dignity and valour, and I am sure she has
courage enough to confront any danger.

This is St. Philip's day; the Lievens and Lady Cowper dined with us,
and Prince Esterhazy came in afterwards. I have noticed for some time
a certain sharpness in his manner to the Lievens which is unusual in
him. The pleasantries which he addresses to the Princess soon turn to
irony. I suspect that on her side she will not regret his departure.
She has never managed to subdue him; he slips through her fingers, and
his jests, always subtle and sometimes malicious, embarrass her and
put her out. They are constantly on their guard with one another, and
they make up for the resulting constraint by frequent interchanges of
pin pricks.

The Queen told me that Esterhazy, when lately at Windsor, spoke to her
of M. de Talleyrand with the greatest enthusiasm, saying that one of
his greatest pleasures was to listen to his conversation. He added,
that when he got home he often made a note of what he had heard from
M. de Talleyrand. It seems that Esterhazy keeps a journal in great
detail. He told the Queen so, and explained that this habit was of
such long standing that the journal already filled several large
volumes, which he was fond of re-reading. The Queen was surprised, not
unnaturally, to discover such a sedentary habit so consistently
maintained by one whose manners were so restless and whose ideas were
so often scattered.

Lord Palmerston since our return from France has never accepted an
invitation to dinner with us, and has never come to a single one of
our receptions. However, we invited him again to-night, and thought
that the presence of Lady Cowper might attract him, but he sent
excuses at the last moment.

_London, Friday, May 2, 1834._--Alva writes that he hears from his
nephew, the Marquis de Miraflorès the Spanish Minister in London, that
Lord Palmerston never ceases praising the brilliancy of his diplomatic
_début_ here. The marquis, being a fool, does not perceive the cause
of this eulogium, which is, of course, the treaty of quadruple
alliance proposed by him at Lord Palmerston's own instigation, the
results of which, though by no means apparent as yet, may be more
embarrassing than pleasing to its author and to France.

M. de Montrond writes to M. de Talleyrand to say that he has caused
his desire to come to London to be intimated to M. de Rigny, who,
before allowing him to go, desires him to make sure whether M. de
Talleyrand would like it. M. de Montrond is much annoyed at this
obstacle, but I am grateful to M. de Rigny for having raised it. As a
matter of fact, last year M. de Montrond professed to be charged with
a secret diplomatic mission, and was simply a nuisance. The bad temper
he felt and showed when he was not admitted to the secret concerns of
the Embassy often made him forget his manners, annoyed M. de
Talleyrand and was most unpleasant for everybody. For the last
eighteen months M. de Montrond has had the management of a thousand
Louis of the Foreign Affairs Secret Service money: I doubt if he ever
gives them back the change!

In London all the workmen are in rebellion; the tailors have stopped
work for want of hands. It is said that on the cards for Lady
Lansdowne's ball there was inscribed: "The gentlemen to appear in
their old coats." Now the laundries have caught the infection, and
soon we shall have to wash our own linen like the princesses in the
_Odyssey_.

_London, May 3, 1834._--M. de Talleyrand speaks with as much truth as
wit of the "dangerous benevolence" of Lord Holland. With the most
perfect geniality, the most equable temper, the gayest pleasantries,
and the most obliging manner in the world, his Lordship is always
ready to set light to the revolutionary train, and he feels the
greatest annoyance of which he is capable when he is unsuccessful.

Yesterday I dined with Sir Stratford Canning. His house is curious,
beautiful, admirably planned and full of souvenirs of Constantinople
and of Spain. He himself is full of courtesy and learning; his
conversation is witty, and if it were not for a certain contraction of
the lips which spoils an otherwise fine face, and for the oppressed
air of his wife, one could hardly understand the bad accounts of him
which one hears almost everywhere. This, at least, was the pretext on
which the Czar refused to receive him last winter as Ambassador at St.
Petersburg.

_London, May 4, 1834._--Koreff is a braggadocious creature with a vein
of indiscreet curiosity which I have sometimes noticed on the
Continent, and which here inspires me with the most profound mistrust.
His wit and his learning are lost among the bad features of his
character, which often make him quite impossible. He lives on gossip
of all kinds, public and private, and when he can get nothing else to
talk about he talks about medicine. Then he assumes the physician and
deifies his art. You hear of patients saved by him when all hope was
gone; of his marvellous discoveries, of magnetism, homeopathy true and
false, of things natural and supernatural, possible and impossible.
Everything serves to magnify his importance, to surround the poor
creature with an atmosphere of the marvellous, which covers his want
of real dignity.

We had him to dinner with Sir Henry Halford, and I don't think they
took to each other. What, indeed, could they have in common? Science
perhaps, if by science they both understood the same thing. Sir Henry
is a suave and polished person--measured, discreet, supple, and
deferential; a perfect courtier, a man of fortune, highly respected,
and a great practitioner. He has never sought to be anything to the
great but their doctor, and consequently, without seeking it, he has
found himself in all family and State secrets. Koreff, on the other
hand, poses as a man of letters and a statesman, and has thus made
persons in great places chary of having him as their doctor. This was
how he came to grief at Berlin; he will find it difficult to regain
his ground at Paris, and he won't, in my opinion, be a success in
London.

_A propos_ of gossip and indiscreet curiosity, I cannot forget a very
true reflection which the Duke of Wellington has just imparted to me
on the subject of Alava. "Whoever aims at being in everybody's
confidence," said his Grace, "must necessarily give his own confidence
to more than one person, and this he usually does at some one else's
expense." The Duke's honest commonsense is admirable. I had a long
talk with him to-day at dinner, and I should like to remember
everything he said. Truth and simplicity are becoming so rare that one
is anxious to gather up the crumbs.

The Duke of Wellington's memory is very sure. He never quotes
inexactly; he forgets nothing and never exaggerates; and if there is
something a trifle abrupt, a little dry and military in his
conversation, what he says is nevertheless attractive owing to its
naturalness, its fairness, and the perfect good manners with which he
says it. His manners are indeed excellent, and a woman has never to be
on her guard against a conversation taking an awkward turn. In this
respect he is much more reserved than Lord Grey, though in many ways
the latter's education is more elaborate and his intelligence more
cultivated than the Duke's.

The Duke of Wellington made a rather striking remark to me about the
English character, to the effect that no people have a greater hatred
of crimes of violence. In England a murder is discovered with the
greatest promptitude. Every one helps to discover the assassin; tracks
him out and denounces him, and is eager that justice should be done.
He assured me that the English soldier is the least cruel in the
world, and that once a battle is over he hardly ever commits deeds of
violence. He is a great robber, no doubt, but not a murderer.

The excessive and _naïve_ vanity of Lady Jersey, which amuses the
Duke, led us to talk of Madame de Staël, with whom he was well
acquainted, and whose absurd pretensions struck him as much as her wit
and eloquence dazzled him. Madame de Staël, who wished to appear to
his Grace in every character--even in the most feminine--observed one
day that what she liked most in the world to hear was a declaration of
love. She was so elderly and so ugly that the Duke could not help
replying, "Yes, when you can be sure that it is genuine."

Lady Londonderry, who is celebrated for her eccentricities, being near
her time, and certain she would have a son, has ordered a little
hussar costume--the uniform of her husband's regiment. When she was
ordering it she told the tailor that it was for a child six days old.
"Your ladyship means six years?" replied the tailor. "No, indeed,"
answered Lady Londonderry; "six days; it is for his baptism!"

In the last years of George IV. the Duke of Cumberland enjoyed a good
deal of his favour. Yet it was then that the King said, in reply to
the Duke of Wellington's inquiry why H.R.H. was so universally
unpopular: "It is because there are no lovers, no brothers and
sisters, no friends, whom the Duke of Cumberland would not set by the
ears if he came among them." It is said, however, that the Duke is no
fool, but so cross-grained that he spoils everything he touches.

The Queen's approaching departure for Germany is causing anxiety to
the King's best friends. It appears that his Majesty, who is the best
of men, is subject to occasional attacks of strange excitement, that
he takes extraordinary ideas into his head, and that his condition is
sometimes so abnormal that he threatens to lose his balance
altogether. The Queen, with her watchful kindness and her excellent
good sense, watches over him at these crises, cuts them short,
exercises a calming and moderating influence, and brings him back to a
proper frame of mind.

At the present moment the King is very angry with Dom Pedro about the
last commercial decree, which was published in Portugal the very day
before the signature of the treaty of quadruple alliance in London.
His annoyance will probably not carry him so far as to refuse to
ratify the treaty, for with all his goodness the poor King is not very
"consistent," as they say here.

I am told that Lord Durham was so uplifted by the reception prepared
for him two years ago at St. Petersburg by the efforts of Madame de
Lieven, and by that which he obtained recently at Paris (thanks to M.
de Talleyrand's letters), that he doesn't think that a private
situation is any longer worthy of him. His plan, of which he makes no
secret, is to turn out Lord Grey, his father-in-law, and to put
himself in his place, or at least to get into the Cabinet, the result
of which would be the resignation of all the other members. He would,
perhaps, consent to be satisfied with the Viceroyalty of Ireland, or
as a last resort to take the Embassy at Paris; but if all these fail,
he declares that he will put himself openly at the head of the
Radicals and declare a war to the knife on all existing institutions.

I know that Pozzo is writing hymns in honour of the King of the
French, reminiscences of which occur in the speech he has just made on
the occasion of the Feast of St. Philip. He doesn't mind M. de Rigny,
for, as a matter of fact, it is the King who is now his own Minister
of Foreign Affairs. Above all, he seems much pleased to be rid of M.
de Broglie, whose passion for argument, scornful manners, and
exclusive devotion to Lord Granville did not smooth or sweeten his
relations with the rest of the diplomatic corps.

Pozzo, like many others, does not think that France has got through
her revolutionary troubles. He seems anxious about the future, and I
think this feeling is shared by all who are not blinded by
preposterous over-confidence.

_London, May 5, 1834._--I have just heard a piece of very sad news, my
excellent friend the Abbé Girollet is very ill. I shall soon have no
one left to love, no one in whose affection I can trust. The dear Abbé
was so happy at Rochecotte in his pretty house among his books, his
flowers, his poor, and his neighbours. It was a touching picture which
I had few opportunities of enjoying, and which I shall probably never
see again. It will remain to me as a dream cut short by my absence,
but pleasant to remember while life lasts, for it will be consecrated
to the purest and most faithful of God's servants, to the most
faithful of friends, to the most tolerant of men.

The Duchess of Kent gave a reception last night in honour of her
brother, Duke Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg. There was such a crowd that it
was like one of the Queen's drawing-rooms. The young Princess Victoria
struck me the moment I saw her as having grown a little and as being
paler and thinner. By this she is much improved, though still too
small for the fifteen years which she will complete in three weeks
time. The little queen that is to be has a fine complexion and
magnificent chestnut hair. In spite of her small stature she is well
made; she will have pretty shoulders and fine arms, her expression and
her manners are sweet and kindly, she speaks several languages
fluently, and it is said that she is being very carefully educated.
Her mother and the Baroness Lehzen, a German lady, take complete
charge of the Princess. The Duchess of Northumberland only fulfils her
functions as Governess on State occasions. I have heard the Duchess of
Kent reproached for surrounding her daughter so much with Germans that
her English accent is defective.

_London, May 6, 1834._--Last night I dined at Lord Sefton's; he was
just back from the House of Lords, where Lord Londonderry had been
renewing his attack of a few years ago, and accusing the Government of
being managed and duped by "that wily politician" M. de Talleyrand.
His expressions are as unalterable as his opinions, for they are the
very ones he used three years ago. On that occasion he was sharply
taken up by the Duke of Wellington, who, though belonging to the same
party as Lord Londonderry, made the rude speech of the latter the
occasion for a most flattering reference to M. de Talleyrand. It seems
that Lord Grey did the same yesterday. To him it came much easier, for
it was his own cause that he was defending; still I am obliged to him,
though I do not class what he did with the conduct of the Duke of
Wellington.

I went with Lady Sefton to the opera of _Othello_. It used to be my
favourite opera, but yesterday it did not impress me so favourably.
Rubini, with all the grace and expressiveness of his singing, lacks
the ringing force which made Garcia incomparable in the part of
Othello. The orchestra was meagre, and the concerted pieces were not
worked up enough. Mlle. Grisi acted and sang well; I thought her
better than Mme. Malibran, but she fell short of the sublime
simplicity and greatness of Mme. Pasta. There are more beautiful
voices than hers and more beautiful women than she, but Mme. Pasta and
no other is the true Tragic Muse, and no one can replace her in my
admiration or in my recollection. When she was making her _début_ at
Paris, Talma, who was still alive, was transported by her words, her
poses, and her gestures, and exclaimed: "That woman has discovered in
a day what I have been seeking for thirty years."

_London, May 8, 1834._--I have already spoken of the good action
performed three years ago by the Duke of Wellington in answering Lord
Londonderry's attack on M. de Talleyrand. He completed it the day
before yesterday by showing openly by repeated exclamations of _Hear!
Hear!_ how thoroughly he agreed with the high opinion which Lord Grey
expressed of M. de Talleyrand. Several people have been kind enough to
seize the opportunity of expressing their regard for M. de Talleyrand.
Prince de Lieven and Prince Esterhazy, at the King's levee yesterday,
both thanked Lord Grey for doing justice to their veteran colleague.

M. de Rigny writes confidentially to M. de Talleyrand that the
marriage of Princess Marie of Orléans to the second brother of the
King of Naples has been decided, and that the contract will be
prepared with Prince Butera, who has just arrived in Paris. The
admiral seems to think that certain questions of interest will delay
the conclusion of this affair. I should be sorry, for the Orléans
Princesses--pleasant, well-mannered, well-dowered great ladies as they
are, are none the less difficult to marry. There is about them a faint
aroma of usurpation which deters certain princely families from an
alliance with them. It is curious that King Louis-Philippe, who has
for his children the sort of affection which it is the fashion to call
bourgeois, is so stiff about helping the Princesses, his daughters,
out of their difficult position by the large dowries to which they are
entitled. Princess Marie would be better in Italy than anywhere else.
She has any amount of imagination and vivacity, but her deportment is
defective, and in spite of an education which should have assured her
principles, she has a freedom of manner and conversation which might
produce an idea (utterly mistaken as it would be) that they were not
very solid in their foundations.

Yesterday we carried out our plan, formed more than a year ago, of
visiting Eltham, a barn which once was a banqueting-hall of the Kings
of England. From the days of Henry III. down to the time of Cromwell,
they frequently occupied the palace of which this hall was a part. Its
proportions are fine, but it is no longer possible to judge of its
decoration. Several pieces of wall, the moat, now planted and watered
by a pretty brook, and a Gothic bridge covered with ivy and very
picturesque, show the former extent of the Royal manor.

Yesterday we dined with the Duchess of Kent. The strong scent of the
flowers with which her small and low rooms were crowded, made them
unwholesome without making them pleasant. Everything was stiff and
sombre at this party to which a few of the nobility and the more
important of the diplomatic corps were invited to meet the Royal
family. The Princes present were on far from good terms. The King was
cross with the Duchess of Kent. The Duke of Cumberland was absent for
the good reason that he wasn't invited, not having called on his
sister-in-law since his return from Berlin. Everything down to the
arrangement of the chairs, which made conversation impossible,
emphasised the weariness of the evening. The proceedings were
interminable, the room was very hot, our hostess was visibly ill at
ease. She is not uncivil, but has an unnatural sort of air, awkward
and pedantic at the same time. The Duke of Somerset took the most
sensible course and went to sleep, leaning against a pilaster,
immediately after dinner.

Everybody was disposed to criticise, and hardly concealed their desire
to do so. The Queen complained of the heat, and at dessert said to the
Duchess that if she had eaten enough it would be a mercy if she might
leave the table. The King said to his neighbours that the dinner was à
_l'entreprise_, and pretended not to understand a word of what Duke
Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg was saying. His Highness, who is the Duchess
of Kent's brother, is ugly, awkward, and embarrassed; he has made no
great impression here, especially not with the King, to whom he showed
no great anxiety to be introduced. His Majesty, on the other hand,
kept him waiting for a long time before receiving him, which made the
Duchess of Kent very cross.

Madame de Lieven pointed out to me the familiarity with which
Esterhazy addresses and treats the Royal Family. She professed to be
much scandalised, and said that the fact that he was a relation (to
which I referred) was no excuse at all. They are always rivals, and
this, they say, was very marked in the late reign. The Princesse de
Lieven by cultivating first Lady Hertford and then Lady Conyngham, and
by reason of her thinness, which kept the favourite from fearing her
as a rival, managed to get into the King's intimate circle, and thus
she contrived to get even with the Esterhazys, whose pleasant manners,
great position, and family connection, naturally brought them nearer
to the throne.

The absence of Lord Palmerston, who should have been asked to meet the
ambassadors, was much noticed. It is said that he is in the Duchess
of Kent's black books, and that when he bows to her at Drawing-rooms
she never says a word to him. It was a surprise, also, not to see the
Saxon Minister, a sort of family envoy for the Queen, for the Duchess
herself and, above all, for Duke Ferdinand, to whose person he is
officially attached.

The Duchess of Gloucester could not deny herself the pleasure of
ending a civil and apologetic phrase by a charitable remark on the
innate awkwardness of the Duchess of Kent, and the Princesse de Lieven
was bold enough to recall the fact that George IV. used to speak of
his sister-in-law as "the Swiss Governess." Whatever be the faults of
the Duchess of Kent, it must be admitted that her political conduct
shows much prudence. As she will, no doubt, be called upon to act as
Regent, this is not unimportant. No one knows what her political
opinions are, or to what party she leans. She invites them all, mixes
them well at her parties, and keeps everyone in a state of perfect
balance. Her obstinate conduct towards the Fitzclarences is
small-minded of her, and to explain it she affects a ridiculous
prudery. I know that in answer to the remonstrances of Lord Grey on
the subject, she said, stupidly enough: "But, my lord, you would not
have me expose my daughter to hear people talking of bastards and have
her asking me what it meant." "In that case, madam," replied Lord
Grey, "do not allow the Princess to read the history of the country
which she is destined to rule, for the first page will teach her that
William of Normandy was called the Bastard before he was called the
Conqueror." It is said that the Duchess was much annoyed with Lord
Grey.

_London, May 9, 1834._--M. de Talleyrand learns by telegraphic
despatch from Paris that a Secretary of Embassy coming from Spain
brings news that Don Carlos has left the Peninsula, and is embarking
for England, which he wishes to choose as arbitrator in his family
quarrel about the Crown. This seems very improbable, and before
believing it everybody is awaiting confirmation.

The curiosity and interest aroused by M. de Talleyrand in England are
as great as ever. As we were leaving our carriage at Kensington the
other day, we saw women being lifted up by their husbands in order to
see him better. Scheffer's portrait of him is now with Colnaghi, the
print-seller, for the purpose of being engraved. It attracts many
interested spectators, and the shops in front of which M. de
Talleyrand's carriage stops are immediately surrounded by a crowd. The
portrait at Colnaghi's is placed next to that of Mr. Pitt. "There is a
man who made great events," said someone, pointing to the latter, "he"
(indicating M. de Talleyrand) "was clever enough to foresee them and
profit by them."

M. de Talleyrand told me yesterday that when he got rid of his
priest's orders he felt an extraordinary desire to fight a duel. He
spent two whole months diligently looking for a quarrel, and fixed on
the Duc de Castries, who was both narrow-minded and hot-tempered, as
the man most likely to gratify him. They were both members of the Club
des Echecs, and one day when they were both there M. de Castries began
to read aloud a pamphlet against the minority of the nobility. M. de
Talleyrand thought he saw his chance, and requested M. de Castries to
stop reading what was personally offensive to him. M. de Castries
replied that at a club everybody might read or do what he pleased.
"Very well!" said M. de Talleyrand, and placing himself at a tric-trac
table near M. de Castries, he scattered the pieces lying on it with so
much noise as to drown entirely the voice of the reader. A quarrel
seemed inevitable, and M. de Talleyrand was delighted, but M. de
Castries only flushed and frowned, finished his reading, and left the
club without saying anything. Probably for him M. de Talleyrand could
not cease to be a priest.

_London, May 10, 1834._--Yesterday I read very hurriedly M. de
Lamennais' book the _Paroles d'un Croyant_; it is the Apocalypse
according to a Jacobin. It is, moreover, very tedious, which surprises
me, as M. de Lamennais is a man of much intelligence and undeniably
has talent. He has just reconciled himself with Rome, but this will
break the peace, for his sworn enmity to all temporal power must be
displeasing as much to the Pope as to any autocrat.

It was much whispered yesterday that the King of England was feeling
more keenly than usual the influence of the spring season, during
which every year his physical and mental equilibrium is markedly
disturbed. When one thinks of the family history of the House of
Brunswick one finds reason to be alarmed.

I never heard on the Continent of the malady known here as "Hay
Fever," which shows itself at the time when the hay is cut. At this
time many people, the Duke of Devonshire and Lady Grosvenor among the
number, suffer from fever, insomnia, and much nervous trouble. Those
who suffer from this disorder come back to town and avoid all meadows
and the scent of hay.

The King's physical malaise, however, is accompanied by a curious
mental agitation and a strange loquacity. If this unpleasant state of
matters is not ended by July, I am convinced that the Queen will
disregard his wishes, and will not go to Germany. She alone has any
salutary and moderating influence on him at such times.

I hear from Paris of the marriage of Elisabeth de Béranger to Charles
de Vogüé, one of my cousins, who is both well bred and well endowed.
She was much sought after, for, besides her birth and fortune, she has
both beauty and talent. I knew her well when she was a child--a
charming creature, with much vivacity and a strong will of her own--a
characteristic which has probably become more marked since her
mother's death, as she is an only child and worshipped by her father.

Another marriage is also announced--that of my niece _à la mode de
Bretagne_, the Princesse Biron, whose _fiancé_ is Colonel Lazareff, an
Armenian in the Russian service. He is said to be fabulously rich, and
to possess palaces in the East, and gems and treasures of all kinds. I
don't know what brought him to Dresden, where he made my niece's
acquaintance while she was staying with her sister, the Comtesse de
Hohenthal. She is said to be very much in love, but I confess that
this Armenian origin, this splendour in the manner of the Arabian
Nights, make me rather anxious. Sorcerers and swindlers often come
from unknown countries; their jewels often turn to coal-dust; they can
rarely face the light of day. In a word, I should have preferred for
my niece a man who was rather better born, rather less wealthy, and
rather less oriental.

_London, May 12, 1834._--The febrile and nervous condition of the King
of England becomes more and more marked; he really says the most
bizarre things. At the State Ball he said to Madame de Lieven that
people's minds had been rather unbalanced lately, and pointing to his
cousin, the Duke of Gloucester, he added: "Now, for instance, _he_
believes in the transmigration of souls, and he thinks that the souls
of Alexander the Great and Charles the First have passed into his."
The Princess replied rather flippantly: "The dear departed must be
much astonished to find themselves there!" The King looked at her with
an uncertain air and went on, "Fortunately he is not clever enough to
bring his head to the block;" which for His Majesty is really not so
bad.

What is more serious than these absurd speeches is that he sleeps ill,
has frequent fits of anger, and has a childish military mania. Thus he
goes to the barracks, gives the most preposterous orders without
consulting the officers, reduces the regiments to disorder, and makes
himself the laughing-stock of the troops. The Duke of Wellington and
the Duke of Gloucester, both Field Marshals, and Lord Hill, the
Commander-in-Chief, thought it their duty to make joint
representations in respectful but serious terms. They were very ill
received, Lord Hill being especially mishandled by his Majesty, who
frightened him very much. If the poor King's mind were to give way
they say it would certainly be on the subject of the army, for he
thinks he has great military talent, or about women, with whom he
thinks he is irresistible. They say that his only reason for hastening
the Queen's departure is his desire to be a bachelor for six weeks.

He has already taken time by the forelock in handing to the Queen all
the presents that she will find it necessary to give while on the
Continent. The Royal Family is very anxious; they would like to
prevent the King from exposing himself so much to the sun, from
drinking so much sherry, from seeing so many people. They want him, in
fact, to lead a more retired life till the present crisis, which is so
much worse than its predecessors, has quite passed off, but he is very
hard to manage.

Among his strangest remarks I must quote his inquiry addressed to
Prince Esterhazy, "whether people married in Greece?" "I ask," he
added, noticing that the Prince was rather astonished, "because, as of
course you know, there are no marriages in Russia."

The good Duke of Gloucester, who is much attached to the King, is
sincerely grieved. As to the Duke of Cumberland, he doesn't hesitate
to proclaim in the clubs that the King is mad, and that it is his
father's case over again. This is neither brotherly nor filial. Some
people are already beginning to consider who would get the Regency if
this sad state of matters should persist or become acute; it is still
rather a feverish condition than absolute insanity. The Duchess of
Kent doesn't count so long as the King lives and may have children.
The Princess Victoria, heiress-presumptive, is not of age, and the
question would therefore be between the Queen and the Duke of
Cumberland, both of whom are almost equally unfavourable to the
present Cabinet. Thus things will be allowed to go pretty far before
the existence of the evil is admitted. Yesterday Lord Grey was saying
with a great affectation of emphasis, that the King was never better
in his life.

When it became known here that Jerome Bonaparte intended to come, the
Court of Würtemberg was warned that it would be undesirable that he
should bring the Princess, his wife, along with him, as, in spite of
the near relationship, she could not be received. Jerome, therefore,
came alone, and in spite of the hint he had received he sought an
audience with the King which M. de Mendelsloh, the Würtemberg
minister, was foolish enough to request. The moment the King heard of
it, he said: "He may go to the Devil." He is so touchy about the
Bonapartes that he very nearly forbade the Duke of Sussex to come to
Court for having received Lucien, and took it very ill that the Lord
Chancellor exposed the Duke of Gloucester to the chance of meeting the
Prince de Canino at one of Lady Brougham's parties.

Lord Durham dined with us yesterday for the first time, and I had my
first opportunity of a direct conversation with him. I watched the
movements of his face, which is praised highly, and with reason; but I
noticed that it does not improve when he is speaking, and his smile
suits him ill. His lips express bitterness more than anything else,
and all that comes from within seems to diminish his good looks. A
face may remain beautiful even when it ceases to express kindness, but
a laugh which is not genial impresses me most unfavourably.

Lord Durham passes for a wit. He is ambitious, irascible, a spoilt
child of fortune; the most susceptible and the vainest of men. For all
his pretensions to a nobility dating from the Saxons, while his
father-in-law, Lord Grey, is content to trace his descent back to the
Conquest, Lord Durham professes all the most Radical doctrines. This,
they say, is only a device to obtain power. Heaven grant that it may
not be his ruin.

_London, May 13, 1834._ Charles X. said to Madame de Gontaut on April
25: "Louise's education is finished. I should be glad if you would go
the day after to-morrow--the 27th." Mademoiselle who is much attached
to Madame de Gontaut was in despair.[15]

  [15] The little Court of Charles X. was the scene of two
  factions, one being the partisans of inertia, though not of
  resignation; the other, being all in favour of action. Mme. de
  Gontaut fell a victim to the former, a letter in which she
  expressed disapproval of the situation to her daughter, Mme. de
  Rohan, having been intercepted. The King, whom she accused of
  weakness, reproached her violently, and after the interview she
  finally left Prague and the Court.

The Duchesse de Gontaut behaved with great courage, and spent the 26th
in vain attempts to console Mademoiselle, whose new governess is said
to be, provisionally, the Vicomtesse d'Agoult. This is to replace a
clever woman by a Saint. All this happened before the Duchesse de
Berry arrived; she did not get back till May 7.

I hear that Jerome Bonaparte played the King as much as he could. At
the Opera he sits alone at the front of his box, and the gentlemen who
accompany him stand behind his chair.

I spent an hour or more yesterday with the Princess Sophia of England.
She is well read, a good talker and very animated, and yet on the plea
of bad health she lives a very retired life. She is said to possess in
a high degree the talent (if it can be so called) of mimicry in which
she resembles his late Majesty George IV. I am told that they used to
amuse each other very much and mutually drew each other out.
Yesterday, indeed, the conversation turned on Mme. d'Ompteda, a good
sort of woman, but, to say the least, eccentric, and the Princess was
pleased to repeat for my benefit a complaint which Mme. d'Ompteda had
made to her of someone at Court. It was the most comic imitation I
have ever seen, and I was so convulsed with laughter that I had to beg
the Princess's pardon. She did not appear, however, to be very much
shocked at my unconventional behaviour.

_London, May 14, 1834._--M. Dupin, the elder, has written to M. de
Talleyrand to announce his arrival, and signs himself "_votre
affectionné Dupin_." M. Dupin has often taken M. de Talleyrand's part,
and I believe to good purpose, but his letters did not use to be so
Royal in their terms.

It appears that the Quadruple Alliance Treaty has reached Lisbon and
has been approved. The ratification is expected at any moment in spite
of the violent anger of Dom Pedro, who is much incensed because
France, England, and Spain thought fit to give the title Infante to
Dom Miguel in spite of Dom Pedro's decree depriving him of it.

_London, May 15, 1834._--It is asserted that M. Dupin is coming to
London to show himself, wishing to accustom Europe to his greatness,
for it seems that he hopes next session to combine the Presidency of
the Council with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In a time like the
present it is no longer safe to describe the most extravagant ideas as
chimerical! This is not the first time that M. Dupin has aspired to
the portfolio of Foreign Affairs. Two years ago he tried to take it by
force, and when the King tried to make him see that he was perhaps not
quite fit for this department, M. Dupin had a violent fit of temper,
and taking one of his feet in both hands he showed the sole of his
shoe to the King, saying, "Ah! Ah! is it because I have nails in my
shoes that I am not considered fit to treat with _Monsieur Lord
Granville_!" The King, in spite of his habitual indulgence, grew so
angry at the increasing insolence of M. Dupin that he seized him by
the collar and, pressing his closed fist against his chest, forced him
out of the room. This I have from an eye-witness. They were soon
reconciled however, and met again on friendly terms. The Parisians
have thick skins.

The _Quotidienne_ at first praised M. de la Mennais's textbook, but
after some hesitation the Faubourg St.-Germain decided to dislike it.
They even asked M. de Chateaubriand to undertake a refutation, but he
replied that he admired every page and every line of it, and that if
he said anything publicly about it at all he would give it the praise
which it deserves. M. de Chateaubriand becomes, or affects to become,
more and more Republican, and is saying that any form of monarchy has
become impossible in France.

The Carlists are going to take part in the elections, and to send as
many Republicans to the Chamber as they can when they can't succeed
themselves. The words Republic and Republican are now current
everywhere and no one is shocked. People's ears have got used to them.

_London, May 16, 1834._--This is the most charming time at which to
see London. The squares are green and full of flowers; the vegetation
in the parks is extraordinarily rich; all the balconies of the houses
are packed with plants. All this, with the creepers which cover many
of the houses up to the second storey, makes such a pretty picture
that one is the less inclined to regret the sun, which would soon put
an end to all its freshness.

The same sort of reflection occurred to me yesterday morning at the
Queen's Drawing-room, where the brilliancy of these splendid English
complexions, the beautiful blonde hair falling in long ringlets on the
rosiest cheeks and the whitest necks in the world, almost prevented
one from lamenting the absence of expression and movement which
accompanies these beauties. It is the fashion to criticise
Englishwomen for their want of style. They walk badly, it is true, but
in repose their nonchalance is not ungraceful. They are usually well
made and less pinched in their toilettes than Frenchwomen. Their
proportions are finer and more developed. They sometimes dress without
much taste, but at least each pleases herself and there is a diversity
in their dresses which brings out each one very well. The bare
shoulders, the flat coiffures, and the long locks of the young girls
here, would be very unsuitable in France, where very young girls are
almost all small, dark and thin.

I am tempted to apply to Englishmen morally what I say of English
gardens and of the beauty of Englishwomen. Their conversation is cold,
reserved and unimaginative to a degree which, for a long time, is very
tedious. But this feeling gives way to one of real pleasure if one
takes the trouble to look for the good sense, the goodness, the
learning, and the cleverness which are concealed under the shyness and
embarrassment of their exterior. One has hardly ever any reason to
regret having encouraged their timidity, for they never become either
familiar or indiscreet, and they are so grateful to one for having
divined them and for coming to the rescue of their _mauvaise honte_
that this alone is a reward in itself. I only wish that they would not
expose those miserable orange blossoms to the thick fogs of their
atmosphere, that the women would not take the Paris _Journal des
Modes_ as a model of dress, and the men would not attempt the freer
and more animated style of conversation which is current on the
Continent. Detestable caricatures when they are copying others, the
English are admirable when they are themselves; they are well fitted
to their own territory, and they should be judged only on their own
ground. An Englishman on the Continent is so much out of his element
that he runs the risk of being taken either for an idiot or a coxcomb.

_London, May 17, 1834._--The Swedish Minister, M. de Bjoerstjerna, who
is always singing the praises of his sovereign even in the most
trifling matters, was boasting to M. de Talleyrand the other day of
the strength, the grace, and the youthfulness which King Charles-John
has retained at his advanced age. He was particularly enthusiastic
about the thickness of his Majesty's hair, which he asserted was all
"as black as jet." "That seems indeed wonderful," said M. de
Talleyrand, "but is it not possible that the King dyes his hair?" "No,
I assure you," replied the Swede. "Then it is indeed extraordinary,"
said M. de Talleyrand. "Yes, indeed," continued M. de Bjoerstjerna,
"the man who every morning pulls out the white hairs from his
Majesty's head must have sharp eyes." This is worthy of the popular
reputation of Sweden as the Gascony of the North.

Samuel Rogers the poet is, no doubt, a great wit; but he has a turn
for malice and even brutality. Someone once asked him why he never
opened his mouth except to speak evil of his neighbours. He replied,
"I have a very weak voice, and if I did not say malicious things I
should never be heard." He lives with Lady Holland, and amuses himself
by exacerbating her fears of illness and death. During the cholera
epidemic Lady Holland was a prey to indescribable terrors. She could
think of nothing but precautionary measures, and on one occasion was
describing to Rogers all that she had done. She numerated the remedies
she had placed in the next room--the baths, the apparatus for
fumigation, the blankets, the mustard plasters, the drugs of every
sort. "You have forgotten the only thing that would be of any use,"
observed Mr. Rogers. "And what is that?" "A coffin," replied the poet.
Lady Holland fainted.

Count Pahlen has returned from Paris. He saw the King privately one
evening, not having with him the uniform necessary for a formal
presentation. The King said he should like to see him at one of the
great balls at the Palace, and, the Count having excused himself on
the score of having no uniform, the King replied, "Never mind, come in
an evening coat _as a member of the opposition_!" As a matter of fact,
M. de Pahlen went to the ball, which was splendid in a material sense,
and found himself and a group of opposition deputies in plain clothes
among the Diplomatic Corps, and what is called the Court who were all
in uniform.

Prince Esterhazy came to say good-bye yesterday. He was visibly moved
on leaving M. de Talleyrand, who, on his side, was hardly less so. One
cannot part from anyone so old as M. de Talleyrand without a feeling
of anxiety, and when an old man says farewell he does so with a kind
of self-consciousness which is unmistakable.

Prince Esterhazy is generally popular here, and will be justly
regretted. Everybody wishes him very much to come back. The subtlety
of his wit does not affect the uprightness of his character. The
sureness of his manners is beyond praise, and in spite of a certain
informality in his bearing, and his ways of behaving, he never ceases
to be a great nobleman.

_London, May 18, 1834._--This week the King of England seems better.
The weather is not so hot, and his excitement has given place to a
kind of exhaustion. He has often been seen with tears in his eyes.
This, too, is a sign of want of balance, but it is less alarming than
the irritability of last week.

_Woburn Abbey, May 19, 1834._--This house is certainly one of the
finest, the most magnificent, and the greatest in England. The
exterior is without interest; the site is low and, I think, rather
damp. English people, however, hate to be seen, and, to secure
privacy, are quite willing to dispense with an extended view. It is
rare that a great house in England has any prospect but that of its
immediate surroundings, and you need not hope to amuse yourself by
watching the movements of the passers by, the travellers, the peasants
working in the fields, the villages or the surrounding country. Green
lawns, the flowers round about the house, and splendid trees which
block all the vistas--these are what they love and what you find
almost everywhere. Warwick and Windsor are the only exceptions that I
know at present.

The party at present at Woburn are almost the same as those I met on
my first visit. There are Lord and Lady Grey with their daughter Lady
Georgina, Lord and Lady Sefton, Mr. Ellice, Lord Ossulston, the Duke
and Duchess, three of their sons, one of their daughters, M. de
Talleyrand and I.

All these people are clever, well educated and well mannered, but, as
I observed before, English reserve is pushed further at Woburn than
anywhere else, and this in spite of the almost audacious freedom of
speech affected by the Duchess of Bedford, who is a striking contrast
to the silence and shyness of the Duke and the rest of the family.
Moreover, in the splendour, the magnificence, and the size of the
house, there is something which makes the company cold and stiff, and
Sunday, though it was not kept very strictly, and they made M. de
Talleyrand sit down to cards, is always rather more serious than any
other day in the week.

_Woburn Abbey, May 20, 1834._--Our party has been increased by the
arrival of the Lord Chancellor. He talked to me of the great
aristocrats of the country, and said that _previous to Reform_ the
Duke of Devonshire with his £440,000 sterling a year, his castles, and
his eight boroughs, was as powerful as the King himself. This
expression "_previous to Reform_" well expresses the blow which has
been struck at the ancient constitution. I made Lord Brougham admit as
much. He maintained that it was necessary, and though he began by
saying that he had only clipped wings which had become rather too
long, he ended by claiming that a _complete_ revolution had been
effected without bloodshed. "The great moment of our Revolution," he
added with evident satisfaction, "was in 1831, when we dissolved the
parliament which had dared to reject our Bill. The people is as
imperishable as the soil, and all changes must in the end work for
their benefit. An aristocracy which has lasted for five centuries has
lasted as long as it can last!" This was the point in his
conversation which chiefly struck me, the more so as he commenced with
a sort of hypocrisy which evaporated sooner than mine. He began by
sparing my aristocratic prejudices to some extent, and I returned the
compliment by sparing his passion for levelling. Five minutes more of
our _tête-à-tête_ and he would have got to 1640 and I to 1660.

_London, May 21, 1834._--They showed us a corner of the park at Woburn
which I had forgotten. It is called the Thornery, because of the
number of hawthorns which the enclosure contains. The blossom is very
charming just now, and there is a cottage in the middle which is quite
pretty.

Lord Holland told the Duke of Bedford that he should take us to
Ampthill, which belongs to him and which lies only seven miles from
Woburn. Lady Holland wanted us very much to see a fine portrait of
herself as a Virgin of the Sun which is there, and which is, in fact,
very pleasing; it must have been very like her.

The house at Ampthill is gloomy, damp, ill-furnished, and ill-kept--a
sad contrast with one of the most delightful parks you could see
anywhere. It is not, however, without some associations of interest.
Katherine of Aragon retired here after her divorce, but there is no
trace of the ancient castle which was on the mountains, and not at the
bottom of the valley like the present house. A Gothic cross is placed
on the site of the ancient building, and on the base are inscribed
some bad verses, which have not even the merit of being contemporary,
commemorating the cruelties of Henry VIII. Another of the curiosities
of the place is a number of trees so old that, in the time of
Cromwell, they were already past being used for shipbuilding. They
have quite lost their beauty, and will soon be like what in Touraine
are called "_truisses_."

Lord Sefton said yesterday in the presence of Lord Brougham that all
Queen Caroline's defenders had risen to the highest positions in the
State, and instanced Lord Grey, Lord Brougham, and others. On this, I
said to the Chancellor that I supposed he would now be ready to admit
that his cause was a very bad one. But he would not admit it, and
tried to convince us that if the Queen did have lovers, Bergami was
not among the number. He wished us to believe that he at least was
convinced of this, and in support of this assertion, which neither he
nor anyone else took seriously, he told us that during the last three
hours of the Queen's life, when she was quite delirious, she spoke
much of Prince Louis of Prussia, of Victorine Bergami's child, and of
several other people, but never once mentioned Bergami himself. I
thought that for a great lawyer, this style of proof was much too
negative and inconclusive.

_London, May 22, 1834._--On our return to town yesterday, we heard the
news of the Prince de Lieven's recall. This is a political event of
some importance; it is a very serious matter for London society. M. de
Lieven's excellent character, his cleverness and perfect manners won
him friendship and esteem everywhere, and Mme. de Lieven of all women
is the most feared, respected, sought after, and courted. Her
political importance, which was due to her wit and knowledge of the
world, went side by side with an authority in society which no one
dreamed of questioning. There were complaints sometimes of her
tyranny, of her exclusiveness, but she maintained in this way a useful
barrier between really good society and society of the second class.
Her house was the most select in London, and the one the _entrée_ to
which was the most valued. Her grand air, which was perhaps a trifle
stiff, was most appropriate on great occasions, and I can hardly
imagine a Drawing-room without her. Except Lord Palmerston, who has
brought it about by his obstinate arrogance, in the matter of Sir
Stratford Canning, I am sure that no one is glad at the departure of
M. and Madame de Lieven. M. de Bülow, however, is perhaps also rather
relieved to be freed from the surveillance of the Princesse. The part
he had to play before her was never a simple or an easy one.

M. de Lieven's appointment as Governor of the young Grand Duke may
flatter and console him, but it can hardly give her much pleasure, and
she will not care much for the frigidity and emptiness of St.
Petersburg after twenty-two years spent in England amid political
excitements of all kinds.

It would appear that the three Northern Courts, in opposition to the
Southern Quadruple Alliance are disposed to conclude a separate
engagement with Holland. Little is being said, but arms are being
sharpened in silence.

The Cortes is summoned for July 24. The telegraphic news from Spain,
which arrived the other day, only caused a flutter on 'Change and
evaporated pitiably enough. I hear from Paris that General Harispe has
been requested not to telegraph in future anything that is doubtful,
and that the President of the Council has been made to promise not to
spread news of this kind before it is confirmed.

Admiral Roussin has refused the Ministry of Marine. There was some
question of appointing Admiral Jacob. M. de Rigny left the Council
quite free to appoint him either Minister of Marine or Minister of
Foreign Affairs. The decision is not yet known.

_A propos_ of the departure of the Lievens, the Princesse tells me
that some weeks ago when Lord Heytesbury came back from St.
Petersburg, Lord Palmerston said to M. de Lieven that he intended to
appoint Sir Stratford Canning as Ambassador. The Prince de Lieven
wrote to his Government, and M. de Nesselrode replied in the name of
the Emperor that the violent temper and unaccommodating disposition,
and, indeed, the whole character of Sir Stratford, were personally
disagreeable to him and that he desired that someone else might be
sent--anyone but Sir Stratford. Lord Palmerston then explained his
reasons for wishing to overcome this opposition, and M. de Lieven
promised to lay them before the Emperor. The next day he sent a
courier with despatches to this effect to St. Petersburg, but the
courier had hardly embarked before the nomination of Sir Stratford
Canning as Ambassador at St. Petersburg appeared in the _London
Gazette_. This piece of discourtesy confirmed the Russian opposition
on the one hand, and the obstinacy of Lord Palmerston on the other.
The English Cabinet claimed to nominate whom it pleased to diplomatic
positions, and the Emperor Nicolas, without contesting its right to do
so, claimed an equal right on his part to receive only whom he
pleased. The breach widens, and the opposition of the two political
systems, coupled with the antagonism of individuals, makes one fear
that in the present complicated state of international politics peace
is neither well established nor likely to last for long.

_London, May 23, 1834._--I believe the Cabinet is embarrassed by M. de
Lieven's departure, and that Lord Grey is personally very sorry. Lord
Brougham also seems to feel how regrettable it all is. I have long
letters on the subject from them both, which are very interesting and
which I shall carefully preserve.

M. de la Fayette is dead. Though he had all his life never given M. de
Talleyrand cause to like him, his death has not been indifferent to
the Prince. At eighty-four and upwards it must seem that all one's
contemporaries are one's friends.

_London, May 24, 1834._--Lord Grey has just paid me a long and very
friendly visit. He was much grieved at the departure of the Lievens,
but was at pains to refute the opinion that the rudeness of Lord
Palmerston was the cause. I could see that he was most anxious that
the germs of controversy between M. de Talleyrand and Lord Palmerston
should not develop. He could not have shown more personal goodwill to
us than he did.

We dined at Richmond with the poor Princesse de Lieven, who is really
much to be pitied. I fear that things are really much worse for her
than they seem. I think that she flatters herself that she will be
able to keep up with things both by reason of the confidence of the
Emperor and the friendship of M. de Nesselrode, as also through the
favour enjoyed by her brother, General de Benckendorff. I fear,
however, that she will soon lose touch with the map of Europe, or that
she will only be able to look at it through some very small spy-hole,
which would certainly be for her a living death. Her hopes and her
regrets are all expressed with naturalness and vivacity, and she
seemed to me even nicer than usual, for she was keeping nothing back,
and was quite simple and unconstrained. Such communicativeness in
persons usually reserved always produces a specially striking
impression.

The abominable article about her in the _Times_, which is really a
disgrace to the country, made her weep at first. She confessed that
she was deeply hurt to think that these were the farewell words
addressed to her by the people of a country which she was leaving with
so much regret. But she soon felt that nothing could be more
despicable or more generally despised. In the end she recovered her
equanimity so completely that she described in her best manner (which
is very good indeed) a ridiculous scene in which the Marquis de
Miraflorès played a prominent part. This little creature, whom I have
always considered an insupportable idiot, but whose face pleased Mme.
de Lieven as it certainly did not please me, came and sat beside her
at a Ball at Almacks. The Princess having asked him whether he were
not struck with the beauty of the English girls, he replied with a
sentimental air, a voice full of emotion, and a long and significant
look, that he did not like women too young, and preferred those who
had ceased to be so and whom people called _passée_.

The Duchess of Kent has a really remarkable talent for giving offence
whenever it is possible to do so. To-day is her daughter's birthday,
and she was to have taken her for the first time on this occasion to
Windsor, where there was to be a family party in honour of the
occasion. Owing to the death of the little Belgian Prince, who was
less than a year old, and whom neither his aunt nor his cousin had
ever even seen, the Duchess decided not to grace this mild festivity
with her presence. Nothing could have annoyed the King more.

_London, May 25, 1834._--King Leopold seems disposed to call his
nephews to the succession to the Belgian Throne. Does this mean that
he has ceased to count on direct descendants? They are annoyed about
it at the Tuileries, but I fancy that no one minds very much anywhere
else, as the new kingdom and the new dynasty are not taken very
seriously as yet.

The exhibition of pictures at Somerset House is very mediocre, even
worse than last year's. The sculpture is worse still. The English
excel in the arts of imitation, but are behind everybody in those
which require imagination. This is one of the most conspicuous results
of the absence of sun. Surrounded as they are by masterpieces from the
Continent British artists produce nothing which can be compared with
these! All colour is lost in the fog which envelops them.

_London, May 26, 1834._--Lord Grey's Ministry is on the verge of
breaking up, owing to the resignations of Mr. Stanley and Sir James
Graham, which are threatened if he makes further concessions to the
Irish Catholics at the expense of the Anglican Church. If he refuses
these concessions in order to keep Mr. Stanley, whose parliamentary
talents are of the first order, the Cabinet will probably find
themselves in a minority in the House of Commons, and the fall of the
whole Ministry will be the result. This, at least, is what was being
said and believed yesterday, and Lord Grey's careworn face at Lord
Durham's dinner-party, and some remarks which Lady Tankerville, with
_naïve_ silliness, let fall, gave ample confirmation to the rumour.
The question will be settled to-morrow (Tuesday the 27th) on the
occasion of Mr. Ward's motion.

Madame de Lieven has not concealed from me her hope that, if the
Cabinet changes, either wholly or in part, and if Lord Palmerston is
among those who go out, there may be a chance of her staying here. She
flatters herself that the first act of the new Foreign Secretary would
be to ask the Russian Government that M. de Lieven might not be
removed. In these circumstances, she added, she would count on the
influence of M. de Talleyrand with the new Minister, whoever he might
be, to persuade him to take this step.

_London, May 27, 1834._--It is a curious thing that Marshal Ney's son,
who is in London, should wish to be presented at the Court of England
who abandoned his father when they might have saved him. It is also
curious that he should wish to get himself presented by M. de
Talleyrand, who was Minister when the Marshal was arrested and tried,
and that his presentation should take place on the same day as that of
M. Dupin, who was his father's defender, and that all this should
happen in the presence, as it were, of the Duke of Wellington who,
without departing in the least from the terms of the capitulation of
Paris, might have protected the prisoner, but did not think fit to do
so. The young Prince de la Morkowa doubtless failed to make these
reflections, but M. de Talleyrand knew very well that others would
make them for him, that they would be unpleasant for everyone
concerned, and by no means least for the young man himself. He,
therefore, declined to make the presentation on the ground that the
interval between his receiving the request and the date of the
presentation was too short to fulfil the necessary formalities.

Yesterday, at seven o'clock in the evening, I received an interesting
note from a confidential friend of the Prime Minister: "Nothing has
changed since yesterday, and there is no improvement in the situation.
We shall spend to-night in trying to keep the question open, that is
to say, to keep it from being regarded as a Cabinet question, and to
leave everyone free to vote as he likes. The Lord Chancellor is trying
hard to secure the adoption of this expedient, but Lord Grey, who is
evidently anxious to resign, may very likely wreck the plan."

_London, May 27, 1834._--After much agitation and uncertainty Lord
Grey has decided to let Mr. Stanley and Sir James Graham leave the
Ministry; their example will probably be followed by the Duke of
Richmond and Lord Ripon. Lord Grey remains, taking the side of Mr.
Ward's motion. For a moment his better instincts suggested that he
should resign, but Mr. Ellice, under whose influence he is at present,
pushed him in the other direction, and the Chancellor was urgent with
the King, who begged Lord Grey to remain.

Yesterday Ministers were singing the King's praises with tears in
their eyes. The poor King, in spite of his scruples of conscience, has
supported Reform, so the Lord Chancellor says he is a great King and
joyfully adds, with that verbose intoxication which is so
characteristic of him, that yesterday was the second great day in the
annals of the beneficent English Revolution. This strange,
undignified, unconventional Chancellor dined with us yesterday. He is
dirty, cynical and coarse, drunk both with wine and with words, vulgar
in his talk and ill-bred in his habits. He came to dine with us
yesterday in a morning coat, ate with his fingers, tapped me on the
shoulder and conversed most foully. Without his extraordinary gifts of
memory, learning, eloquence and activity no one would be more anxious
to have done with him than Lord Grey. I do not know any two characters
more diametrically opposed. Lord Brougham who was wonderful in the
House of Commons is a constant source of scandal in the Lords where he
turns everything upside down. He, the Chancellor, is often called to
order! He is always embarrassing Lord Grey by his eccentricities; in
short he is wholly out of his element, and I believe that he would be
only too glad to bury the whole Peerage with his own hands.

Yesterday we had M. Dupin at dinner to meet him, another of the
coarser products of the age. He is loud and sententious as becomes a
public prosecutor, and he has a heavy plebeian vanity which is always
in evidence. The first thing he said to the Chancellor, who remembered
meeting him some years before, was, "Oh yes, when we were both at the
bar."

Lord Althorp, in the House of Commons yesterday, asked that Mr. Ward's
motion might be adjourned in order that the Government might have time
to fill the gaps left by the resignation of several members of the
Cabinet. This was agreed to.

No one can understand what inspires the Duchess of Kent's continued
ill-feeling against the Queen. In spite of the Duchess's refusal to
take the Princess Victoria to Windsor, the Queen wished to go to
Kensington to see her the day before yesterday evening. The Duchess
of Kent refused, on some trifling pretext, to receive Her Majesty, who
was much hurt. Nobody can understand what motive there can be for such
conduct. Lord Grey yesterday attributed it to Sir John Conroy, the
Duchess's Gentleman-in-Waiting, who is said to be very ambitious, very
narrow-minded, and very powerful with the Duchess. He thinks that if
the Duchess became Regent he will be called upon to fill a great
position, which he is even now anticipating. He imagines that he has
been insulted in some way or other by the Court of St. James's, and
his revenge is to sow discord in the Royal family. I heard of the
latest scene at Kensington from Dr. Küper, the Queen's German
Chaplain, who, on leaving Her Majesty yesterday morning, came to tell
me how unhappy the good woman is about it. Lord Grey, to whom I was
talking about it at dinner, told me that King Leopold, when he left
England, had told him that he was very sorry to leave his sister under
such a bad influence as that of Sir John Conroy, but that, as the
Princess Victoria was fifteen and would be of age at eighteen, the
Duchess would either not be Regent at all or would be so only for a
very short time.

_London, May 29, 1834._--Princess Victoria as yet only appears at the
two Drawing-Rooms which celebrate the respective birthdays of the King
and Queen. I thought at yesterday's (which, by the way, lasted more
than three hours, and at which more than eighteen hundred people
passed the Presence) that this young Princess had made great progress
in the last three months. Her manners are perfect, and she will one
day be agreeable enough to be almost pretty. Like all Royalties, she
will have acquired the art of standing for a long time without fatigue
or impatience. Yesterday we all collapsed in turn, except the wife of
the new Greek Minister, whose religion accustoms her to remain
standing for long periods. She stood the ordeal very well, being
further supported by curiosity and by the novelty of her surroundings.
She is astonished at everything, asks the strangest questions, and
makes naïve observations and mistakes. Thus, seeing the Lord
Chancellor pass in his State robes and full-bottomed wig, and
carrying the embroidered purse containing the Great Seal, she took him
for a bishop carrying the Gospels, an error which, in the case of Lord
Brougham, was particularly comic.

Yesterday the Princesse de Lieven, for the first time, appeared in the
Russian national dress which has just been adopted at St. Petersburg
for State occasions. This costume is so noble, so rich, and so
graceful that it suits any woman, or rather it suits no woman ill. The
Princess's dress was particularly well planned and showed her off
well, as the veil concealed the thinness of her neck.

Nothing else was talked of yesterday at Court and elsewhere but the
resignation of four members of the Ministry, which deprives it of much
of its moral force. This is particularly so in the case of Mr. Stanley
because of his great talents, and in the case of the Duke of Richmond
because of his great position. The Conservatives are much pleased,
their ranks being increased and those of their adversaries, if not
numerically diminished, at least very ill-filled. Lord Mulgrave, Lord
Ebrington, Mr. Abercromby, and Mr. Spring Rice are spoken of for the
Cabinet, but nothing is settled yet.

At the big Diplomatic dinner for the birthday, which took place at the
house of the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston had for the first time
invited ladies, and sat between the Princesse de Lieven and myself. He
was chilly on the right and breezy on the left, and obviously ill at
ease, though his embarrassment was not at all increased by the fact
that he was not in his drawing-room ready to receive the ladies as
they arrived, but came in afterwards without making the slightest
excuse.

M. Dupin is being very well treated here by all that is brilliant and
exalted in society, and likes it so much that he is quite out of
conceit with Paris. He considers that the Court at the Tuileries is
wanting in dignity, that the women are not well enough dressed there,
that the company is too much mixed, and that King Louis-Philippe is
not _Royal_ enough! What with dinners and drawing-rooms, receptions
at Court, routs, concerts, the Opera, races, &c., M. Dupin is
launched on a course of dissipation which will make a grotesque dandy
of him; and the result, if I am not mistaken, will astonish Paris.

Madame de Lieven is fond of talking about the late King George IV. She
tells me that he hated common people so much that he never showed the
least civility to M. Decazes, whom he saw only on one occasion--when
he presented his credentials. As to Madame Decazes, as he held no
drawing-room while she was in London, he avoided receiving her at all,
and he could not be persuaded to grant her a private audience or to
ask her to Carlton House. He behaved with almost equal incivility to
the Princesse de Polignac, the obscurity of whose English origin was
an offence to him. As to Madame Falk, the reason why she never saw the
late King is even more curious. Madame Falk's exuberant Flemish charms
are so well developed that they alarmed Lady Conyngham as being likely
to be too much to the King's liking, and she always succeeded in
preventing her from being received.

M. Dupin was so much struck by the magnificent apparel of the ladies
of the English Court that he made a remark to me on the subject, which
is really amusing. "The Queen of the French should lay down a rule
about Court dress; this would impose on the _bourgeois vanity_, which
in our country is always wishing to show itself at Court, the tax of
an expensive dress."

_London, May 30, 1834._--The Portuguese ratifications of the treaty of
Quadruple Alliance have come in at last. They are however inexact and
incomplete. The whole preamble of the Treaty is passed over in
silence. It is difficult to believe that this is not due rather to
malignity than inadvertence. The Attorney General was summoned to the
Foreign Office to discover some device which would make the exchange
possible. Nothing could be found to which there was not some
objection, but Lord Palmerston was inclined to carry out the exchange
leaving the preamble on one side. This would deprive the Treaty of its
moral force--perhaps the only kind of force which it possesses. The
decision on this point will not be reached until this morning.

I have often heard it said that there is no one more astute than a
madman; something I have just heard makes me think that this is true.
Replying to the congratulations of the Bishops on the occasion of his
birthday, the King assured them with tears in his eyes that as he felt
himself an old man and near the time when he must render up his soul
to God, he did not wish to charge his soul with the guilt of wronging
the Church and would support with all his strength the rights and
privileges of the Anglican Clergy. This remark was made the very day
that His Majesty pressed Lord Grey to remain and to allow Mr. Stanley
to resign.

Last night the rearrangement of the Ministry was not completed. What
seems to me certain is that no one wants Lord Durham. They say he is
in an indescribable state of fury. Lady Durham, whom he has treated
with great cruelty as he does every time he is angry with Lord Grey,
fainted yesterday while dining with her mother, and her husband did
not even turn his head to look at her.

The Marquis of Lansdowne who has quite lately spoken in Parliament in
favour of the Church, may very well also retire from the Cabinet. It
depends on what happens next Monday in the House of Commons. When she
heard this, Lady Holland went in all haste to Lord Brougham's to tell
him that she should consider Lord Lansdowne's resignation a great
misfortune which should be avoided at all costs. The Chancellor who
has no liking for Lord Lansdowne's moderation replied that for his
part he thought it would be a very good thing and that he would do all
he could to bring it about. Thereupon Lady Holland got angry and
enumerating the merits of her friend asked Lord Brougham if he had
considered all that Lord Lansdowne represented. "Oh yes," was the
answer, "I know that he represents all the old women in England."

_London, May 31, 1834._--The English Ministry is rearranged, but none
of its characteristics are any more distinct than they were before.

By means of declarations and reservations it has been found possible
to proceed with the exchange of ratifications with Portugal.

I think that this week's work is a poor performance indeed and that
its results in the future will be no better.

_London, June 1, 1834._--Yesterday I met the Ministers who were
leaving office and those who were coming in. The former seemed to me
happier than the latter and I think they had reason.

Lady Cowper in spite of her subtle and delicate wit is both nonchalant
and naïve. This makes her say things which are startling in their
excessive frankness. Thus she said to Madame de Lieven yesterday
morning, "I assure you that Lord Palmerston regards you as an old and
pleasant acquaintance whom he is very sorry to lose, that he is quite
aware of all your husband's excellent qualities, and that he knows
that Russia could not be more worthily represented than by him. But
you see that that is the very reason why England must profit by your
departure." Madame de Lieven was no less struck by the sincerity of
the avowal than annoyed by its implication.

Lady Cowper rather thoughtlessly also showed her a letter from Madame
de Flahaut in which, after expressing some polite regret at the recall
of M. de Lieven, she lamented the choice which had been made of a
_chargé d'affaires_. He was, she said, a venomous and wicked little
wasp, fiercely Russian in sentiment, a savage enemy of Poland, and to
sum all up in one word a cousin german of Madame de Dino, which she
added is very much against the interest of England whose one object
must be to keep Russia and France apart.

For the rest it is said that Pozzo is delighted that my cousin Medem
is leaving Paris. He has always praised him and treated him well, but
perhaps Paul's direct and intimate relations with M. de Nesselrode had
begun to embarrass Pozzo. I don't believe it however.

Yesterday, while dining with Lord Holland, M. Dupin showed rather too
much of the legislator. Poor Lord Melbourne, especially, who was half
absent and half asleep, was bored with a long dissertation on divorce
which was all the more out of place as his wife, who had for long been
a source of great trouble to him, has just died insane and under
restraint. Lord Holland, who makes friends easily with all those whom
he does not wish to hang for their political opinions, told me that he
disliked M. Dupin very much, and that he had all the bad points of
Lord Brougham with none of his extraordinary ability and versatility.

_A propos_ of the Chancellor I hear bad accounts of his character. For
instance it was Lord Holland who forced the Duke of Bedford's hand and
so got him into Parliament. For four years thereafter Lord Brougham
never set foot in Lord Holland's house. When he did call he did so for
no apparent reason, without embarrassment and without excuses. The
Chancellor's leading gift is his ready memory and presence of mind
which enable him to have at hand at a moment's notice all the facts
and arguments relevant to the subject of his speech. Thus Mr. Allen
says of him that he has always a legion of devils of all colours ready
to obey him, and that of these he is himself the chief. Lord Holland
says that no scruple can stop him. Lady Sefton told me in confidence
the other day that as a friend he was neither sincere nor faithful.
Lady Grey says outright that he is a monster and it is in this way
that every one talks who is intimate with him or belongs to the same
party.

_Hylands, June 2, 1834._--The Republicans are annoyed with M. de la
Fayette for choosing as his burying-place the aristocratic cemetery of
Picpus. They are also angry because there were so many priests at the
mortuary chapel to receive the body. A hogshead of earth from the
United States was placed in the grave. _A propos_ of M. de Lafayette,
I have several times heard M. de Talleyrand tell how he went to his
house with the Marquis de Castellane, another member of the
Constituant Assembly, early on October 7, 1789, to propose some
arrangements for the safety of Louis XVI., who had been taken to the
Tuileries the night before. They found Lafayette, after the terrible
two days which had passed, calmly having his hair done!

Here at Hylands we are with M. Labouchere, an old and kind friend. The
place is very cheerful, and distinguished for its wonderful flowers
and vegetables. M. Labouchere, who is a cosmopolitan sort of person,
has collected about him many souvenirs of travel, but Holland is the
most conspicuous; and he takes most pains with his flower-beds, on
which he spends a great deal of money.

_Hylands, June 3, 1834._--A note from Lord Sefton, written yesterday
from the House of Lords before the end of the sitting, the result of
which we do not yet know, informs me that the Commission of Inquiry on
the Church of Ireland, which Lord Althorp has proposed, will not
satisfy the demands of Mr. Ward and his party. Mr. Stanley and Sir
James Graham scoff at the Commission, and intend to move the previous
question. Sir Robert Peel holds back; Lord Grey is very low, and the
King is quite ready either to support him or to send for another
Minister. Pressed by the difficulties of the situation, he has neither
principles nor affections, and in this he shares what I believe to be
the position common to all Kings.

_London, June 4, 1834._--It seems that Dom Miguel is _hors de combat_,
and is on the point of giving in and quitting the Peninsula. I gather
that the signatories of the Quadruple Alliance attribute his
submission to the news of the signing of their treaty. If this be so,
the moral effect is all the more satisfactory, as the material result
would probably not have been great.

In the English Parliament Mr. Ward declined to be satisfied with the
Commission of Inquiry. Lord Althorp moved the previous question,
supported by Mr. Stanley--who made an admirable speech on the
inviolability of Church property--and by all the Tories. The previous
question was adopted by a large majority. It cannot be pleasant for
the Ministry that this vote is due only to their enemies, for whom it
is a triumph, and to the four Ministers who have resigned. The real
opinion of the Cabinet, the different combinations which have divided
it and ruled its actions--all this is so confused and complicated that
it is difficult to understand what really is the idea which governs
its jerky and inconsequent mode of progression.

In the Commons Lord Palmerston has denounced the principle upheld by
Lord Lansdowne in the Upper House, where every one was surprised to
see a known Socinian[16] like him speak in favour of the clergy. In
this matter all is contradictory. Lord Grey has wavered hesitatingly
among all the combatants, not exalting one party, not urging on the
others. He is shouldered, jostled, and pushed about by everybody, and
he emerges in a battered condition from the _mêlée_. If in his
friends' eyes he is still a decent, honest sort of person, in the eyes
of the public he is now only a feeble old man--an exhausted Minister.

  [16] A follower of Socinus, who disbelieved in the Trinity and in
  the Divinity of Christ.

Lady Holland usually does everything that other people avoid. She went
to a window in Downing Street to observe the Members of Parliament who
went to Lord Althorp's meeting two days ago in order that she might
speculate with more accuracy about each. Her speculations are rarely
charitable. She thinks that she palliates her inconceivable egotism by
flaunting it without shame; she exploits other people without mercy
for her own benefit, and treats them well or ill according to
calculations more or less personal. She never allows any one else's
convenience to stand in her way. The most one can do is to credit her
with a few good qualities, and even these are based on some interested
motive. When her caprices and her _exigence_ has worn out the patience
of her friends, she tries to regain their favour by the most abject
condescension. She abuses the false position she holds in
society--with which well-bred people are careful not to reproach
her--in order to conquer and oppress them. The position she has is, it
must be admitted, the best proof of her ability. In her time she has
done the most unheard-of things, and she has been forgiven everything.
For instance, she gave out that her eldest daughter was dead in order
not to be forced to surrender her to her first husband, and when she
had ceased to care for this child she brought her back to life again,
and to prove that she was not buried she had the grave opened, and the
skeleton of a goat was found in the coffin. This is going a little too
far! However, she is a social despot in her own numerous circle. The
reason of this is, perhaps, that she does not try to force herself on
any one, and that she may be said rather to rise superior to prejudice
than to struggle against it. M. de Talleyrand keeps her very well in
hand, and is becoming the avenger of all her acquaintance. Every one
is delighted when Lady Holland is a little mishandled, and no one
comes to her assistance, Lord Holland and Mr. Allen as little as any
one.

Lady Aldborough came one day to Lady Lyndhurst and asked her to be so
kind as to find out from her husband, who was then Chancellor, what
steps she should take in an important case. Lady Lyndhurst refused, in
the rude and vulgar manner which is characteristic of her, to
undertake to obtain the required information, adding that she never
interfered in such tedious matters. "Very true, my Lady," answered
Lady Aldborough, "I quite forgot that you are not in the civil line."
Lady Aldborough is witty, and what she says is brilliant, even when
she speaks French. She is often a trifle too bold and free-spoken.
Thus, when she heard how the Princesse de Léon had been burned to
death, and when some one said that the Prince had been more of a
brother to his wife than a husband, Lady Aldborough exclaimed, "What!
Virgin as well as Martyr! Ah! that is too much."

The condition of the English Cabinet is very curious. Sir Robert Peel
said in the House that he couldn't understand it at all; and this
being so, every one else's ignorance may well be excused. What is
clear to everybody is that if no member of the Cabinet is absolutely
destroyed they are all wounded, some say mortally. That they are
enervated is evident. I am sorry for it for Lord Grey's sake, for I am
really attached to him; in the rest I have not the slightest interest.
Lord Palmerston will not restore their credit. M. de Talleyrand may
say what he likes. He may have a gift for the despatch of business;
he may speak and write French well; but he is a rude and presumptuous
person, his behaviour is arrogant, and his character not upright. Each
day some new and more or less clear proof of his duplicity comes to
light. For instance, how is it that, while Lord Grey is arguing loudly
against King Leopold's plan for choosing himself a successor, and
while Lord Palmerston seems to be of the same mind, the latter is
writing privately to Lord Granville in support of the King's idea?
This constantly embarrasses the Ambassadors in their relations with
him, and above all puts M. de Talleyrand in a very painful position.

_London, June 5, 1834._--The Duc d'Orléans writes to me, without any
prompting on my part and without any obvious motive, a letter of which
the point seems to lie in the following phrase, which appears to be
intended to show that he does not approve of the conduct of his
father's ministers: "I consider there is already a reassuring sign in
this disposition to limit party quarrels to an electoral college and
to wage war by manifesto alone. May this tendency in time eliminate
the system of brute force, which I regret to see nowadays in all
parties, and which is the favourite argument not only of the
opposition but also of those in power!" I think there is good sense
and good feeling in this reflection.

If the Duc d'Orléans had good counsellors I should have confidence in
his future. He is intelligent, brave, graceful, well-educated, and
energetic. These are excellent gifts in a Prince, and, matured by age,
they might make him a good king. But those about him, both men and
women, are so commonplace and small-minded! Since the death of Madame
de Vaudémont there is no one of any distinction or nobility of mind or
character.

Lady Granville has given a ball in Paris in honour of the birthday of
the King of England. She had the gallery filled with orange-trees, and
the company waltzed round them. Lamps were placed behind the flowers,
so that there was very little light in the room. Nothing could be more
favourable to private conversation. Eight thieves dressed to
perfection came in through the garden, but such a large number of
unknown men attracted attention, and notice was taken of it too soon.
They saw that they had been observed, and made good their escape.
Their intention seems to have been to snatch the women's diamonds when
they had gone into the garden, which was to be illuminated.

_London, June 6, 1834._--The English Cabinet, so feebly reorganised,
does not hold its head very high; all the honours are with the
seceding Ministers. Lord Grey is under no illusions, and is by no
means proud of the great majority of last Monday; for, as one of his
friends said to me: "This majority is not the result of affection for
Ministers; it is due merely to fear that the Tories will come in and
dissolve Parliament." Nothing, I think, can be truer. For the rest,
the Cabinet already feels the need of strengthening. They say that
Lord Radnor, a friend of the Chancellor's and a Radical big gun, will
be made Lord Privy Seal.

It seems certain that Dom Miguel and Don Carlos are really leaving the
Peninsula, the one for England, the other for Holland.

The Prince de la Moskowa having persisted in his desire to be
presented, was presented yesterday, along with the Prince d'Eckmühl.
Their desire was so strong that they tried to get Mr. Ellice to
present them in the absence of M. de Talleyrand, as if that were
possible, apart from its being objectionable! Really, young Frenchmen
have no idea how to behave, and Mr. Ellice, whose gentility is of
recent growth, had lent himself to this pretty scheme!

Lord Durham and Mr. Ellice are called here, comically enough, "the
Bear" and "the Pasha."

_London, June 7, 1834._--Lucien Bonaparte has at last reappeared here,
and is addressing the French electors from London. After his manifesto
to the Deputies last year he disappeared for several months, and is
said to have visited France secretly during the recent troubles at
Lyons and Paris. His new letter is more turgid than ever, and even
more full of literary affectations than the first; is in other ways a
most abject production and in very bad taste.

Lucien, whom I had never seen before his arrival in England, as he was
in disgrace with the Emperor, was said to be at least as able as his
brother, and to have more decision of character. I have heard it said
that it was he who saved Napoleon on the 18th Brumaire, and, in fact,
I had heard him greatly praised. My actual meeting with him, as often
happens, did not come up to my expectations. He seemed to me cringing
in his manners and false in his look. He is like Napoleon in the
outward shape of his features--not at all in expression. I saw him
last year, at a concert at the Duchesse de Canizzaro's, beg her to
introduce him to the Duke of Wellington, who was present. I saw him
cross the room, and come up bowing and scraping to be presented to the
victor of Waterloo, whose reception was as cold as such baseness
deserved.

As I live in a London house[17] celebrated for the great robbery
suffered by the old Marchioness of Devonshire, who is its owner, and
for a ghost which appeared to Lord Grey and his daughter during their
tenancy, I will relate here what Lord Grey and Lady Georgiana have
often told me in the presence of witnesses--Lord Grey quite seriously
and circumstantially, Lady Georgiana with repugnance and hesitation.
It seems, then, that Lord Grey was crossing the dining-room on the
ground floor, whose windows look into the square, to go to his own
room. He had a light in his hand, and he saw behind one of the pillars
by which the room is divided a pale face, which appeared to be that of
an old man, though the eyes and hair were very black. Lord Grey at
first started back, but on raising his eyes he again saw the same face
staring at him fixedly, while the body seemed to be hidden behind the
pillar. It disappeared as soon as he moved forward. He searched, but
found nothing. There are two small doors behind the pillars and a
large mirror between them, so there may well be some natural
explanation of the apparition. Lord Grey, however, denies that it was
either a burglar or the reflection of his own face in the glass. As a
matter of fact, at that time his hair was fair and his eyes are blue.
However that may be, he told his family next morning at breakfast what
he had seen the night before when he was going to bed. Lady Grey and
her daughter thereupon exchanged glances with a meaning look, and Lord
Grey asked what they meant. They told him that they had concealed the
thing from him till then for fear of being laughed at, but that one
night Lady Georgiana had been awakened by feeling some one breathe on
her face. She opened her eyes, and saw the face of a man bending over
her. She shut them, thinking she was dreaming, but when she opened
them again the face was still there. She screamed, and the face
disappeared. She then jumped out of bed and rushed into the next room,
locking the door behind her, and threw herself half dead with fright
on the bed of her sister, Lady Elizabeth. Lady Elizabeth wanted to go
and examine the haunted room, but Lady Georgiana would not allow her.
Next day the windows, doors, and bolts were found in good order, and
what she had seen was pronounced to be a ghost, though the fact that a
flat piece of roof comes close up under one of the windows might
suggest even to the credulous that some footman in love with one of
the maids was the hero of this nocturnal adventure.

  [17] No. 21 Hanover Square, the French Embassy of the period.

Nevertheless, the house has a very bad reputation. I sleep in the room
from which Lady Devonshire's diamonds were stolen, and my daughter in
that in which Lady Georgiana's ghost appeared. When we came to the
house there were actually people who thought us astonishingly brave!
At first the servants were afraid to go about the house at night
except in couples. To be quite frank, the conviction with which Lord
Grey and his daughter described their experiences made me also a
little uncomfortable--a feeling which did not wear off for some time.

We have been here nearly three years, and nothing has been stolen and
there has been no apparition. Yet once, when we were away in France,
and when the door of my room was locked, the housemaid, the porter,
and the maids swore that they heard a violent ringing of a bell, the
cord of which is at the foot of my bed. They said that they went to
the room and found the door locked as it should have been, and when
they opened it they could find no explanation of the noise. They tried
to make me believe that the bell rang on July 27, 1832, at the very
time of my accident at Baden-Baden. A mouse was probably the real
cause of this incident.

It is said that Lord Grey's father had a similar and very curious
experience; and that Lord Grey himself, besides the Hanover Square
ghost, saw one at Howick, which was even more remarkable, but of which
he does not care to speak. Of course, this being so, I have not asked
any questions about it, but several versions of what happened are in
circulation, and the thing has lent itself to caricature.

_London, June 8, 1834._--Lord Radnor's extravagant pretensions have
put an end to the idea of admitting him to the Ministry. They are now
said to be thinking of Lord Dacre, whose appointment would, it is
believed, be satisfactory to the Dissenters. The Privy Seal, which is
held provisionally by Lord Carlisle, is destined for the newcomer.

When I called yesterday on Madame de Lieven she had just received
letters from St. Petersburg which have at last made clear what her new
position in Russia is to be. It seems to me to promise well. Instead
of being a puppet at Court and groaning under the burden of perpetual
ceremonial, the Princess is to have a house of her own. The Emperor
wishes that his son shall learn there to know society and how to
converse and conduct himself in the world.

This plan is set forth with infinite tact and kindness in a letter
from the Empress, which is very happily expressed, perfectly natural,
and full of cleverness and affection. Of course it has become a great
interest and a great consolation to Madame de Lieven. She sees herself
possessed of a direct influence on affairs, and in a position as
independent as is possible in Russia. Her imagination is busy
developing and improving this new sphere for her energies, and I must
say in justice to her that her projects have not a trace of
childishness or small-mindedness. She knows exactly what she wants to
do, and the lines of her scheme are broad and well thought out. The
pleasure she derives from the importance of her prospective position
was evident, but anything else would have been hypocritical, and I was
pleased that she did not think it necessary to pretend to sentiments
she did not feel before me. Her great desire is to render the young
Grand Duke the immense service of accustoming him to great and exalted
company, to make her house sufficiently distinguished and sufficiently
agreeable to accustom every one, including the Emperor and Empress, to
enjoy there the pleasures of conversation rather than amusements for
which they are perhaps growing too old. Her ambition is to restore to
the Russian Court the splendour and the intellectual culture which
were its glory under the Great Catherine. She hopes in this way to
attract foreigners by exciting their curiosity and providing it with a
worthy object. All this fully occupies the Princess, who has it in her
to play this part well, though it would be difficult anywhere, and is
doubly so in Russia, where thought is as much fettered as speech.

There was a reasonableness and a delicacy in the letters both of the
Empress and M. de Nesselrode which accords with all I hear of the Czar
Nicolas and which augurs well for the result of this second education
of the heir to the throne of ice. I was particularly glad to see that
the frankness with which Madame de Lieven had expressed her regret at
leaving England had been well received. She said to me _à propos_ of
this, "It proves to me that one can be sincere in our country without
breaking one's neck." I hope that she may find more and more reason to
think so, but it will be necessary to keep this sincerity in cotton
wool for some time to come.

She spoke to me with great admiration of the Emperor as a man with
great gifts who is destined to become the greatest figure in
contemporary history. On this I repeated to her a remark made by M. de
Talleyrand with which she was much pleased. This is what he said:
"The only Cabinet which has not made a single mistake during the last
four years is the Russian Cabinet, and do you know why that is so? The
Russian Cabinet is never in a hurry."

The Queen of England has shewn Madame de Lieven on the occasion of her
recall much of the kindness which is natural to her, though it must be
difficult for her Majesty to forget how little respect the Princess
showed her during the life of George IV. and that of the Duke of York,
and above all how discourteous the patronesses of Almack's with Madame
de Lieven at their head were to her on the only occasion she was there
when she was still Duchess of Clarence. I have even on one occasion
heard the Queen remind Madame de Lieven of this incident in such a way
as greatly to embarrass her. However all these old quarrels are
forgotten, and when the leave-taking came the Queen's conduct was
perfect. As to the King it is different; he has never even said either
to M. or Madame de Lieven that he was aware that they had been
recalled. They blame Lord Palmerston and I don't think they are far
wrong.

_London, June 9, 1834._--Yesterday I found the Duchess-Countess of
Sutherland very busy getting together twenty ladies to join in
offering Madame de Lieven some tangible token of the regret felt at
her departure by the ladies of her particular acquaintance. This idea
is particularly English, for the spirit of association is everywhere
in this country and enters even into matters of compliment and
civility. I thought that the Princess could not but be pleased and
flattered, and I was delighted to add my name to the list. Ten guineas
is the subscription and I believe the testimonial will take the shape
of a fine bracelet inside which our names will, if possible, be
inscribed.

M. de Montrond has returned from Paris. His wit is as ready and as
cutting as ever, and, though he is certainly anything but a bore, I
again feel with him the uneasiness which one has in the presence of a
venomous creature with a poisonous sting. The charm which used for a
long time to fascinate M. de Talleyrand is gone and has left behind a
sense of fatigue and oppression which is the more felt as their long
standing friendship and the remembrance of their past intimacy hardly
permit them to make an end of it.

I don't think there is anything new in what M. de Montrond tells me of
Paris. He speaks of the King's ability; no one contests it. It is
equally well known that the King is always talking, and always of
himself. M. de Montrond complains of the complete destruction of
Parisian Society, of the spirit of division which is breaking up
everything and which does not decrease. He gives amusing accounts of
the embarrassments of the Thiers family, of the high diplomatic
ambitions of Marshal Soult for his son, of the alarm of Rigny and
others at the kind of effect produced here by M. Dupin. They think
that it is ominous of a future premiership and are almost angry with
M. de Talleyrand for showing him attention. They do not see that M.
Dupin's reception here is only a compliment to us, he being a man who
is less fitted than any one in the world to shine in good English
society, and that our object is merely to turn the turgid stream of M.
Dupin's eloquence in favour of the English alliance of which he is a
bitter opponent.

I found Lord Grey yesterday in a state of depression which he did not
attempt to disguise. It is a contagious malady, and seems to have
attacked all his adherents. Lord Grey's lassitude and weariness is to
my thinking the most alarming symptom of the weakness of the Cabinet
as now constituted. Lord Durham's attacks on Lord Grey in the _Times_
wound him deeply. Conservatives and Radicals are alike speculating on
the succession of the Whigs, and it is impossible to disguise the fact
that this is a critical moment for every one.

While talking yesterday to a friend I remembered that when I was
seventeen, I, like many other women of the period in Paris, was
romantic or silly enough to consult Mlle. Lenormand who was then much
in vogue, taking what I thought sufficient precautions not to be
recognised by her. One had to fix the day and the hour beforehand and
this I arranged through my maid giving a false name and address. She
gave me an appointment and on the day named I went with my maid in a
cab, taken at a distance from my abode, to the Rue de Tournon where
the sorceress lived. The house was of good appearance and the rooms
clean and even rather pretty. We had to wait till a gentleman with
moustaches had left the chamber where the Sibyl delivered her oracles.
I made my maid go in first and my turn came next. After some questions
about the month, day and hour of my birth, and about my favourite
animal, flower and colour, and about the animals, flowers and colours
which I particularly disliked, she asked whether she should make the
great or the little cabala for me, the price being different. At last
she came to my fortune and told me what follows. I may have forgotten
some insignificant details but I give the main part of what she
predicted, and I have since repeated it to several persons, my mother
and M. de Talleyrand among the number.

She said that I was married, that I had a spiritual bond with an
exalted personage (my explanation of this is that the Emperor was my
eldest son's godfather), that after much pain and trouble I should be
separated from my husband, that my troubles would not cease till nine
years after this separation, and that during these nine years I should
experience all manner of trials and calamities. She also said that I
should become a widow when no longer young but not too old to marry
again which I should do. She saw me for many years closely allied with
a person whose position and influence would impose on me a kind of
political position and would make me powerful enough to save some one
from imprisonment and death. She said also that I should live through
very difficult and stormy times, during which I should have very
exciting experiences, and that one day even I should be awakened at
five o'clock in the morning by men armed with pikes and axes who would
surround my house and try to kill me. This danger would be the
consequence of my opinions and the part I was destined to take in
politics and I should escape in disguise. I should still be alive,
she said, at sixty-three. When I asked whether that was the destined
end of my days she answered, "I don't say you will die at sixty-three,
I only mean that I see you still alive at that age. I know nothing of
you or your destiny after that."

The leading circumstances of this prediction seemed to me then too
much out of the probable course of events to cause me any anxiety. I
told my friends about it as a sort of joke, and, though the most
improbable parts of it have come true, such as my separation from my
husband, my prolonged troubles, the interest in public affairs which
M. de Talleyrand's concern with them has imposed on me, I confess that
unless some one has mentioned some similar matter, I think very rarely
about what Mlle. Lenormand told me, and very little of herself though
she was a remarkable person. She seemed to be over fifty when I saw
her. She was rather tall and wore a loose, black, trailing gown. Her
complexion was ugly and confused, her eyes were small, bright and
wild; her countenance, coarse and yet uncanny, was crowned with a mass
of untidy grey hair. The whole effect was unpleasant, and I was glad
when the interview was over.

I thought of her prophecies in July 1830, when I was alone at
Rochecotte surrounded by conflagrations, and was receiving the news of
what was happening in Paris, and when I saw General Donnadieu's
regiments marching past my windows on La Vendée where it was thought
Charles X. would go. I heard some denouncing the Jesuits whom they
were silly enough to accuse of setting fire to their houses and
fields, and others crying out against "malignants" such as I. The Curé
came to my house for refuge and the Mayor asked whether I did not
think that the soutane, which according to him reeked of brimstone,
should be turned out of the commune. Already I saw myself surrounded
by pikes and axes, and escaping as best I could disguised as a
peasant. I escaped then, but I have sometimes said to myself that it
was only a postponement and that I should not get off in the end.

_London, June 10, 1834._--Lord Dacre, who was to have joined the
Ministry, has had a fit and fallen from his horse which puts him out
of the question. They are now thinking of Mr. Abercromby for the Mint
with a seat in the Cabinet.

Yesterday we had at dinner M. Dupin, the young Ney and Davoust, M.
Bignon and General Munier de la Converserie. If to speak ill of every
one is to praise one's self M. Dupin did it to perfection. He treated
with the utmost scorn the King and his Ministers and every man and
woman in Paris. Some are mean, dowdy chatterboxes, others are robbers,
smugglers, I know not what. Immorality was castigated and justice
brandished her flaming sword. M. Piron, the cicerone and the very
humble servant of M. Dupin, multiplied his formulæ of adulation. What
he chiefly praised was the lucid and detailed manner in which the
great man had explained to the English Ministers the embarrassment and
danger of their position. I think they would have been equally obliged
if he had not crossed the sea to tell them what they know only too
well already.

After dinner I had to endure the honeyed insincerity of M. Bignon. He
reminded me of Vitrolles' cloying and inferior manner, he is rather
like him in face, distinctly like him in his talk and above all in his
bearing. I think however, that M. de Vitrolles' conversation is more
vivacious, and his imagination more brilliant. As yesterday was the
first time I have spoken to M. Bignon it would be wrong to judge him
on one conversation, but one cannot fail to be struck with his calm
and submissive manner which at once puts one on one's guard.

_London, June 11, 1834._--Mr. Abercromby's appointment was in last
night's _Globe_. We shall see if this will mollify the tone of the
_Times_ which ill-treated poor Lord Grey shamefully yesterday morning.

Among the many sayings of M. de Talleyrand here is one which is very
good and not much known. M. de Montrond was saying to him last year
that Thiers was a good sort of man and not so impertinent as you would
expect from a parvenu. "I will tell you the reason," replied M. de
Talleyrand: "c'est que Thiers n'est pas _parvenu_, il est _arrivé_." I
fear that this remark is too subtle to be altogether true, but that is
the fault of M. Thiers. Impertinence is becoming a familiar method
with him. Since his marriage he has been living in a kind of
solidarity with the smallest sort of people, ill reputed pretentions,
_parvenus_ assuredly and not _arrivés_. It is impossible, in spite of
the floods of wit with which he deluges the mud which surrounds him,
that he should not be bespattered if not smothered. It is really a
great pity.

_London, June 12, 1834._--At Holland House yesterday I heard a story
of how the Abbé Morellet complained to the Marquis of Lansdowne that
at the Revolution he lost his pensions and his benefices though he had
written and spoken so much on the Revolutionary side, and of how the
Marquis answered: "My dear sir, how can you be surprised, there are
always a few wounded in the victorious armies."

_London, June 13, 1834._--There is a rumour that Dom Miguel has
escaped and that a conspiracy has broken out at Lisbon against Dom
Pedro; all kinds of sinister details are added. This, it seems, is
nothing but a Stock Exchange trick, the truth being that there were
some unpleasant demonstrations against Dom Pedro when he showed
himself at the play. The simultaneous expulsion of both the rivals
would be the most satisfactory conclusion of the great drama.

There is some surprise that Dom Miguel has not yet disembarked in
England. Don Carlos arrived yesterday at Portsmouth in the _Donegal_.

Spain is annoyed, and with reason, because the Duke of Terceira and
the English Commissioner who made Dom Miguel sign an undertaking not
to return did not exact a similar promise from Don Carlos. They now
wish England and France to take measures against Don Carlos so as to
make him an outlaw in Europe. This however is not admissible, in spite
of the notes of the Marquis de Miraflorès and the diatribes of Lord
Holland.

The conversation at Holland House is very curious. Little Charles
Barrington was there the other day and said he had been prevented from
riding a donkey because it was Sunday and because religious people
didn't ride donkeys on Sunday. Mr. Allen grunted in reply, "Never
mind: the religion is only for the donkeys themselves."

Mr. Spring Rice has just been elected at Cambridge, but by a small
majority, which is by no means pleasant for the Ministry.

Sir Henry Halford, M. Dedel and the Princesse de Lieven came back from
Oxford yesterday, moved, enchanted, intoxicated by the festivities on
the occasion of the installation of the Duke of Wellington as
Chancellor of the University. This occasion is really in its way
unique. The Duke's character and his past career--it is only four
years since he would have been stoned at Oxford for having passed
Catholic emancipation--the magnificence of the ceremony, the number
and the quality of the company, the immemorial traditions of the
scene, the excitement of everybody, the unanimous applause--everything
in fact was wonderful and the like will never be seen again. Even the
Duke of Cumberland, universally unpopular as he is, was well received
there. The Anglican spirit was in the ascendant, all personal
animosities vanished in the presence of the dangers with which the
Church is threatened, and this secured a favourable reception for
every one who is believed to be ready to rally to her defence. In the
Duke of Wellington it was less the great Captain whom they were
cheering than the Defender of the Faith.

It is annoying to record that the undergraduates used the licence
granted to them on such occasions to hoot the names of Lord Grey and
others, which they called out loudly in order to have the pleasure of
hissing them. The Duke of Wellington, on every occasion of their
occurrence, showed that these demonstrations displeased him, but in
spite of these signs of his disapproval they were several times
repeated.

They say that when the Duke shook hands with Lord Winchelsea, on whom
he had just conferred the Doctor's degree, every one recollected the
duel which had once taken place between the two, and that this gave
rise to a storm of cheering. The applause, however, was not less when
Lord Fitzroy Somerset approached the Duke, his faithful friend and
comrade, and being unable to give him his right hand, which he lost at
Waterloo, extended his left. But what excited the greatest and most
prolonged enthusiasm was an ode addressed to the Duke, the two final
lines of which were as follows:

    Till the dark soul a world could not subdue
    Bowed to thy genius, chief of Waterloo.

At this point the whole audience rose spontaneously; the cries, the
tears, the acclamations were thrilling; and, as Madame de Lieven said:
"The Duke of Wellington may die to-day, and I may depart in peace
to-morrow, for I have been present at the most marvellous scene that
there has been during the twenty-two years that I have spent in
England."

_London, June 14, 1834._--A German _improvisatore_ named Langsward has
been recommended to me by Madame de Dolomieu. I had to gather together
in his honour all the people here (few enough) who know a little
German. The entertainment was not bad. There were _bouts rimés_, which
he filled up very creditably; some verses about Inez de Castro; and,
later on, a prose piece--a scene of lower-class Viennese life--which
showed real verve and talent. The talent for poetic improvisation
almost always indicates faculties of an unusual order. This is the
case even with Southern people, whose language is naturally very
harmonious. Poetic inspiration is a proportionately greater
achievement in the less flexible accents of Northern countries. Still
_improvisatori_, even Sgricci, have always seemed to me more or less
frigid or more or less absurd. Their enthusiasm is overdone and false;
the close rooms in which they are confined inspire neither the poet
nor his audience. Nothing in them or their surroundings is in the key
of poetry. I think that if you are to produce an enthusiasm which
will really gain every one you must have a landscape for your stage,
the sun to light you, a rock for seat, a lyre for accompaniment, for
your subject great and immediate events, and a whole nation for
audience. Corinna if you like, Homer above all! But a gentleman in a
dress-coat in a little London drawing-room, posturing before a few
women who are trying to get away to a ball, and a few men, of whom
half are thinking of the Belgian protocols and the other half of Ascot
races, can never be more than a trifling little rhyming doll who is
tedious and quite out of place.

Madame de Lieven showed me yesterday a letter from M. de Nesselrode,
in which he complains of the ill-will and the troublesome, teasing
manner of Lord Ponsonby, who, he adds, is goading the poor Divan to
fury. Admiral Roussin appears charming by comparison.

Dom Miguel has really embarked, and is going to Genoa.

_London, June 15, 1834._--Dom Pedro is hardly relieved of his
brother's presence and free of the supervision of the Cortes, and he
has already begun to destroy convents, monks, and nuns. I do not know
whether this, too, will excite admiration at Holland House, but to me
it seems a piece of impious folly which may well bring speedy
repentance in its train.

The Rothschilds, who are by way of knowing everything, have been to M.
de Talleyrand to say that the Marquis de Miraflorés has just left for
Portsmouth to take money to Don Carlos on condition of his signing
guarantees similar to those given by Dom Miguel.

M. Bignon, the day he dined at Lord Palmerston's, when M. de
Talleyrand was there, said to the latter that he wished to have a word
with him, and with a mysterious and confidential air, added: "Now that
I have dined with Lord Palmerston they can no longer say at Paris that
I can't be Minister." This curious piece of reasoning was followed by
a series of indiscreet criticisms of the French Cabinet and
expressions of surprise that overtures of the same kind had not been
made to M. de Talleyrand by M. Dupin. Nothing assuredly can be more
presumptuous than this spirit, whether it takes the supple and
cringing form of M. Bignon or the didactic and crude shape of M.
Dupin.

_London, June 16, 1834._--_A propos_ of M. Dupin, when his mother died
some time ago, at Clamecy en Nivernais, he had cut on her tomb, "_Here
lies the mother of the three Dupins._"

There are some good stories here of him and the amiable Piron, his
cicerone. Mr. Ellice one day took them both to see some sight or other
in London. In the carriage M. Dupin unfolded a large-checked pocket
handkerchief, very vulgar in design, and holding it some distance from
his face, spat into it, aiming very precisely at the middle of the
handkerchief. On this M. Piron said to him aloud, with a very knowing
air, "Sir, in this country one does not spit in public."

The choice of Mr. Fergusson for a high legal appointment gives an even
more Radical tinge to the English Cabinet. Lord Grey, almost without
knowing it, has thus been dragged to the verge of an abyss, into which
his weakness is thrusting him, but from which all his instincts and
natural tendencies hold him back. Lord Brougham boasts that he has set
everything right; Lord Durham, on the contrary, says (no doubt in
order to prepare the way for himself) that it is he alone who has
persuaded all the new recruits to join. Meanwhile he has retired to
his villa near London, whence he declares, "I have made Kings and
refused to be one myself."

The Marquis of Conyngham is, they say, to go to the Post Office and
not to have a seat in the Cabinet. His selection is a social matter,
with which politics, it appears, have very little to do.

The Duke of Richmond has accepted an invitation to the High Tory
dinner to be given on the 22nd to the Duke of Gloucester. The Duke of
Wellington, who has sworn never to go to the City again after their
shameful conduct to him in 1830, refused, and did not conceal the
reason. And yet the Lord Mayor is not the same as in 1830, and
probably the Duke would now have a most flattering reception. However,
he has taken an oath and will not break it.

Mr. Backhouse, Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, has been
sent to Portsmouth to hold himself at the disposition of Don Carlos on
every point except that of offering him money. This reserve seems to
be the only way of assisting the negotiations which are being
conducted by the Marquis de Miraflorès, who is himself commissioned to
offer the Infante, on behalf of his Government, an annual allowance of
£20,000 sterling, on condition of his entering into obligations
similar to those contracted by Dom Miguel. It is thought that the
abject poverty to which the Prince himself, his wife and children, the
Duchess of Beïra, seven priests, and a suite of ladies (seventy-two
persons in all), who are with him in the _Donegal_, are reduced, will
smooth the course of the discussion. It is said that they have not so
much as a change of linen. It is not known what Don Carlos's plans
are. Some say that he wants to retire to Holland; others say Vienna;
others again talk of Rome. This last idea seems to be peculiarly
unpleasing to the present Government in Spain, but no one has the
right to dictate a choice.

M. de Palmella is expected here quite soon. He says he is coming on
private business, but it is generally supposed that it is in order to
concert measures for getting rid of Dom Pedro, whose absurd behaviour
is displeasing every one. Then would be the time to choose a husband
for Doña Maria da Gloria, and the opportunity, perhaps, of bringing
out this young Princess who is still somewhat elephantine in her
style.

Lord Palmerston, with his usual courtesy, sent Mr. Backhouse to
Portsmouth without so much as mentioning the matter to M. de
Talleyrand, who only heard of it by public rumour. This led to a
candid little conversation between Lord Grey and me. No one, it must
be admitted, is better, more frank, more sincere or better intentioned
than the Prime Minister. I am always as much touched by his good
qualities as a man as I am struck by his incompetence as a politician.
He ran downstairs after me at his house to exculpate Lord Palmerston,
to assure me that he had no ill-intention, and to beg me to make
excuses for him to M. de Talleyrand. I replied to him with the old
French proverb to the effect that hell is paved with good intentions,
and added in English, "Well, I promise you to tell M. de Talleyrand
that Lord Palmerston is as innocent as an unborn child, but I don't
believe a word of it." This made Lord Grey laugh, and he took what I
said in excellent part as he always does.

_London, June 17, 1834._--Don Carlos refused to see M. de Miraflorès
and would receive no one but Mr. Backhouse, whom he gave to understand
that he would not accept a penny if he had to sign away the smallest
fragment of his rights. He commissioned M. Sampaïo, formerly Dom
Miguel's Consul in London, to find him a house at Portsmouth, where he
wants to rest for a fortnight, and thereafter one near London, where
he will remain for some time.

The British Government attributes Don Carlos's refusal to a credit of
a million, which they are convinced has been opened on the Prince's
behalf with M. Saraiva, Dom Miguel's former Minister here. They even
say that the credit was opened for him by the Duc de Blacas, which is
very unlikely. The Bishop of Leon, who is said to be a bad man but
clever after the fashion of a Spanish monk, is with the Infante, and
is the leading spirit and the brain of this exiled Court.

The Marquis of Conyngham, son of George IV.'s celebrated favourite,
has been definitely appointed to succeed his brother-in-law, the Duke
of Richmond, as Postmaster-General. He is a young and good-looking man
of fashion with many love affairs, who writes and receives more
_billets-doux_ than serious letters, and is therefore called "the
Postmaster of the twopenny post."

_London, June 18, 1834._--At all meetings of ladies there is always
much confusion and controversy, so, in spite of the presidency of the
Duchess-Countess of Sutherland, there have been many discussions and
hesitations over the bracelet which is to be presented to Madame de
Lieven. Some ladies have retired from motives of economy, others
because the affair was not put under their charge; thirty remain. The
choice of the jewels and the fashion of the setting have also given
rise to difficulties. Opals are not to be thought of; the Princess
dislikes them. Rubies are too expensive. Turquoises come from Russia;
to give them would be to send coals to Newcastle. The same applies to
amethysts, and as to sapphires, the Princess already has magnificent
sapphires of her own. "Emeralds perhaps."--"No."--"Yes."--"Well
perhaps----."--"Why not?"--"It won't be what I expected."--"Peridots
are so common."--"Let's ask the Princess herself." This in the end is
what we did; the mystery was revealed, the surprise abandoned, and a
large pearl chosen.

Then came another question, more literary and more delicate in
character, the question of the dedicatory inscription. The committee
wished it to be in English, so, as a foreigner, I retired. They kindly
expressed regret, but of course I persisted and remained as a mere
spectator. It was very amusing. Twenty ways of putting the inscription
were tried. Poetry and allegory were suggested. Some wished for a play
of words suggesting that a pearl had been chosen because the Princess
was a pearl among women. Others thought that the image was not
sufficiently precise; they wanted some allusion to be made to the
Princess's talent for affairs, a suggestion which was declared out of
order. There was the further difficulty of putting on record the names
of the donors without offending other ladies in society. So I was
consulted. I said that I didn't know enough English to have an
opinion. They asked what I should put if it were in French. I told
them, and, weary of the struggle, they decided to translate it into
English and adopt it. The wording is very simple: "Testimony of
regard, regret and affection presented to the Princess Lieven on her
departure, by some English ladies of her particular acquaintance, July
1834."

_London, June 19, 1834._--Madame de Lieven called on me yesterday
morning. Her agitation grows as her departure draws nearer, and
carried away by a sort of feverish excitement which consumes her, she
said to me that she was sure there was one person besides Lord
Palmerston who was glad she was going, and that was the King of
England. He had refused to write an autograph letter, which while
saving the Minister's face, might have reversed the decision as to M.
de Lieven's recall. Palmerston had lectured the King on the objections
to foreign ambassadors staying too long in London, where they became
too much at home, and even came to acquire a real and important
influence. In short, the King is delighted at Madame de Lieven's
departure, and she blames Palmerston for it, which does not increase
her partiality for him. She may find some consolation in thinking of
the abyss which is opening at his feet. The whole Ministry is as shaky
as possible; and Lord Palmerston is the least secure of them all. His
colleagues think little of him. Lord Grey does not deny that his
speeches in the House of Commons are bad. The _Corps diplomatique_
detest his arrogance. English people think him ill-bred. His one
merit, when all is said and done, seems to consist in his remarkable
facility for speaking and writing French. The Lievens' departure,
which every one, and most certainly Lord Grey regrets, is so generally
attributed to Lord Palmerston's impudent obstinacy that no one even
pretends to conceal his conviction that this is the case, not even
Lord Palmerston's colleagues in the Ministry. Thus he is never invited
to the numerous farewell dinners and parties which are being given to
the Lievens, and this is the more remarkable, as of course Lady Cowper
is always there. This has not failed to give him great offence, and he
has especially resented Lord Grey's attitude. The latter has made a
merit of this with Madame de Lieven, saying to her, on one occasion:
"You see I have got all your friends and haven't asked Palmerston."
Poor Lady Cowper gets the benefit of all Lord Palmerston's ill-humour,
and they say he is very unkind to her.

The Duke of Saxe-Meiningen has arrived by the King's invitation to
escort the Queen, his sister, during her German tour. Her departure,
is fixed, they say, for July 4, but the King is pressing her to go on
the 2nd, and he is so strangely anxious to hurry her away, having made
all the arrangements himself, that many people think that he will not
be in such haste to let her come back. No one doubts that he expects
to enjoy himself very much in his renewed bachelorhood, and every one
trembles to think of the kind of enjoyment he may fancy. The nature of
his pleasures, no less than the type of person he is likely to ask to
share them, is a source of anxiety to decent people. There is no doubt
that he has singular projects in his head, for the other day at
dinner, he shouted out to an old admiral, who had been a great friend
of his long ago, to ask "whether he was as great a rascal as ever."
The admiral answered that the days of his follies were over; but the
King replied, "_that for his part he meant to begin again!_"

A letter from M. Royer-Collard is always an event for me: in the first
place, because I am very fond of him; and, secondly, because he says
so much in so few words, in a striking way, and in a tone which is
entirely individual, and gives much food for thought. Here is an
extract from one which I have just got; it is quite true and yet
malicious in a well-bred way: "He [Thiers] is very clever; what he
wants is Society and the experience which Society alone can give, a
little dignity and a little _principle_. As I write this it comes into
my mind that you will take me for a doctrinaire, which would be very
unjust, for principle is a weakness which doctrinaires don't
cultivate."

_London, June 20, 1834._--Intercepted letters show that the Duke of
Leuchtenburg, weary of the tumult caused by the design of the Duchess
of Braganza's sister to marry him to Doña Maria, asked the Duchess to
do no more in the matter, as too much suspicion had been aroused and
success was impossible. At the same time he begged his sister not to
forget their young brother Max, who has not been suspected, and who
might have a better chance. Now that this new plan is revealed it
will probably be as keenly opposed as the ex-Empress's first intrigue.
They say she is extraordinarily energetic and ambitious, though to
outward view she is all quietness, amiability, and simplicity.

Last night, in our drawing-room, the conversation turned on the
character and position of Mirabeau, and I heard M. de Talleyrand
repeat a curious story. It appears that at the time of the Restoration
he was entrusted during the Provisional Government with the most
confidential of the Revolutionary archives, and that he found among
them a receipt in due form, given by Mirabeau for a sum of money
received from the Court. This receipt was made out in detail, and
stated precisely the services which Mirabeau undertook to perform. M.
de Talleyrand added that in spite of this financial transaction it
would be unjust to say that Mirabeau was "bought," and that in
accepting the price of promised services he did not surrender his
independent opinion. He wished to serve France as much as to serve the
King, and reserved for himself liberty of thought and action as well
as liberty of choice of means to bring about the object which he
engaged to realise. It follows that, without deserving the extreme
imputations of baseness and vileness which some have made against him,
Mirabeau's moral character was very far behind his astuteness. He
belonged to a bad stock; his father, his mother, his brother and
sister were all either insane or criminal. Yet in spite of his
execrable reputation, of his being regarded everywhere much as a
convict let out of prison, of his hideous ugliness and constant lack
of money, what a marvellous influence his very memory has! The book
just published by his adopted son brings out very strikingly the power
of his prodigious personality and the charm of his superabundant
vitality, which imposes itself upon you in spite of the tedious
formality with which the author has sought to adorn his subject. The
authenticity of the sources, the abundance of quotations from the
original, and their extraordinary interest, often make up for the
awkwardness and heavy-handedness of the execution.

The book, moreover, has for me the great merit of enlightening my
ignorance. I had only the vaguest ideas on the subject of Mirabeau,
owing to my very imperfect knowledge of the Revolutionary period,
which is too near my own time for me to have studied it historically,
and which is yet too far off for me to have known it as a
contemporary. All I know is derived from M. de Talleyrand's stories
and the Memoirs of Madame Roland. Besides, I have such a horror of
this repulsive and terrible epoch that I have never had the courage to
think much about it, and have almost always leapt hurriedly across the
abyss which separates 1789 from the Empire. M. de Talleyrand's Memoirs
might no doubt have helped me, but I have always been too much
occupied with his individual fortunes to pay much attention to the
general situation. M. de Talleyrand in the Memoirs is much clearer
about the causes of the catastrophe than about its details, and he was
out of France during the most critical years. His sojourn in America
is one of the most agreeable episodes in his career, and for the
reader--as indeed it was in reality for himself--it is a period of
rest and relief, during which the horrors of the Convention are kept
out of sight, and you have time to take breath before coming to the
stirring events of the Empire.

M. de Talleyrand went on to say, as regards Mirabeau's receipt, that
he regarded it as a family paper which he had no right to keep, and
handed it over to Louis XVIII. himself, and knew nothing of what had
become of it.

_London, June 21, 1834._--M. de Talleyrand was over fifty-three when
he began to write the Memoirs, or rather a small volume on the Duc de
Choiseul. In 1809, when he was going to take the waters at Bourbon
l'Archambault, he asked Madame de Rémus to lend him a book to read on
the way. She gave him Lacretelle's _Histoire du dixhuitième Siècle_, a
work both inaccurate and incomplete. M. de Talleyrand, annoyed by the
errors and the ignorance of the author, employed his leisure while at
the waters in making a rapid sketch of one of the periods which
Lacretelle had particularly misrepresented. Those who came to know
this fragment were so much pleased with it, and M. de Talleyrand was
so much amused by writing it, that he formed the idea of grouping
subsequent events round another person whom he had known very well. He
then put together his study of the Duc d'Orléans, a piece no less
curious than the former, but since almost entirely rehandled and
incorporated in his own Memoirs. These, of course, contain
reminiscences of an even more personal character, and complete the
story of the two epochs, of which one saw the preparation and the
other the climax of the crisis in which M. de Talleyrand played a
historic part. Most of the Memoirs (and in my opinion the most
brilliant part) was written during the four years that he was in
disgrace with the Emperor Napoleon. From 1814 to 1816 he added almost
nothing to the Memoirs; later, and up to 1830, he devoted himself to
revision, correction, and amplification. He inserted the portion about
Erfurt, and another on the Spanish catastrophe, which brought
Ferdinand VII. to Valençay, in the main body of the narrative, and
brought it down to just after the Restoration; but as all the copies
of his despatches during the Congress of Vienna (of which the
originals are at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) were stolen from
him, he was without materials or notes for this interesting period,
and this is sometimes obvious in the Memoirs.

It is indeed unfortunate that M. de Talleyrand never kept a journal or
took notes. He is abominably careless about his papers, and when he
set about collecting his reminiscences he had nothing to depend upon
for the details but his memory, which is no doubt very good, but of
course is too much overburdened not occasionally to leave regrettable
gaps.[18]

  [18] Here we have a natural explanation of what astonished
  readers of the Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, which
  appeared in 1891 under the supervision of the Duc de Broglie. The
  controversy which then arose as to whether M. de Bacourt had not
  cut down the text cannot be more authoritatively set at rest than
  by this passage from Madame de Dino's journal.

I have often heard M. de Talleyrand tell most amusing stories, which
are omitted from the Memoirs because by the time he came to write he
had forgotten them. I myself was wrong not to write them down as I
heard them, and to trust, like him, to my memory, which is so often
deceptive for oneself and insufficient for others.

M. de Talleyrand has, unhappily, been too ready to read his Memoirs,
or parts of them, to all sorts of people. He has got sometimes one
person, sometimes another, to copy the manuscript, and has dictated
portions now and then. The result is that their existence has become
known, and has awakened political anxiety in some quarters and
literary jealousy in others. Treachery and cupidity have speculated on
their importance. It is said, and I am disposed to believe it to be
true, that several garbled copies exist, envenomed by the slanderous
and uncharitable temper of their possessors, and that these are some
day to be published. This would be a misfortune, not only because of
the evil passions which would be awakened, but also because these
unfaithful copies would deprive the authentic Memoirs, when they do
appear, of their merit, their freshness, and their interest. They
would be spoiled in the forestalling.

Nothing can be more free from slander than the real Memoirs. I do not
say that there are not occasional sallies of that gay and subtle
malice which is so characteristic of M. de Talleyrand's wit. But there
is nothing unkind, nothing insulting and less scandal than in any work
of this kind. M. de Talleyrand treats women with respect or at least
with politeness, restraint and indulgence though they have occupied so
large a place in his social existence. It is clear that he is grateful
for the charm which they have imparted to his life, and if some day
serious persons find the Memoirs incomplete as history, and curious
ones do not find all the revelations they expect, they may perhaps
blame M. de Talleyrand's careless indolence; women at least will
always be grateful to him for the good manners which inspired his
reticence and deprived the cynical publicists of to-day of new weapons
for calumny and evil speaking.

_London, June 22, 1834._ Sir Robert Peel with whom I dined yesterday
pointed out to me that M. Dupin, who was also present, was much more
like an American than a Frenchman. This is nearly the worst
compliment which could be paid any one by an Englishman of good
breeding. Sir Robert seemed to me to be in quite particularly good
spirits. His careful questions about the members of the French
Ministry, his insistence on his affection and admiration for M. de
Talleyrand made me think that he had some idea in his mind that he
would soon be in a position in which he would have direct dealings
with them. I asked him whether he thought that Parliamentary manners
and the tone of debate had changed since the Reform Bill was passed.
He said they had up to a certain point, but that what had particularly
struck him was the complete absence of any new talent, notwithstanding
the accession of new members to the House of Commons.

I thought him at least as much pleased as surprised by this. He has
certainly excellent reasons for not wishing that the old parliamentary
celebrities should be effaced.

His house is one of the prettiest, best arranged, and best situated in
London. It is full of fine pictures and valuable furniture, yet there
is nothing pompous or ostentatious about it. Everything is in the best
taste and nothing shows a trace of Sir Robert's humble origin. Lady
Peel's modest but distinguished countenance, her quiet and amiable
manner, the intelligent faces of the children, the wealth of flowers
which shed their perfume through the house, the great balcony opening
on the Thames, from which you can see both Westminster and St.
Paul's--everything combines to make the general effect both complete
and charming. Yesterday evening was fine and really hot, and the
combined brilliance of a lovely moon and of the gaslight on so many
bridges and buildings made one feel one's self anywhere rather than in
foggy England.

_London, June 23, 1834._--Lord Clanricarde, Mr. Canning's son-in-law
has resigned his place in the Household because he is angry at not
getting the Post Office which was given to Lord Conyngham.

The great Conservative dinner in the City the day before yesterday was
signalised by the presence of the Duke of Richmond, and by his
Grace's reply to the Lord Mayor when he proposed the toast of the Duke
of Wellington and the Peers who were present. The Duke of Richmond
made a sort of public profession of his attachment to Church and
State, and when the Lord Mayor proposed the health of the Earl of
Surrey, the eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk, who is a member of the
House of Commons, but who is not a Conservative and who is a Catholic,
the Earl replied that he was convinced that the House of Commons would
not be behind the Upper Chamber in maintaining the Church, yes, the
Church and the ancient constitution of the realm. The cheering was
immense.

Everything, it seems, tends to bring Mr. Stanley and Sir Robert Peel
closer and closer together. It is hoped that this alliance, already
far advanced, will bring about the fall of the present Cabinet, but a
sharp transition is not desired, for that might frighten John Bull who
doesn't like Coalition Cabinets.

_London, June 25, 1834._--In the large provincial towns of England
there are every year what are called "Musical festivals." At these as
a rule the great oratorios are given, and celebrated artists from all
countries are engaged at great expense. These festivals last for
several days; all the smart people from the various parts of the
county come into the town where the music is performed in the churches
in the mornings, the evenings being given up to diversions of a more
worldly character. Next to horse racing these functions draw the
greatest crowds.

In London a festival takes place only every fifty years, and yesterday
was one of these anniversaries. The whole Court was present in state
and will be on the three remaining days. Westminster Abbey was full,
and, though less imposing than at the King's coronation, the spectacle
was even more brilliant. The arrangements were excellent; there was no
crowding or embarrassment; everything went very well. The number of
musicians, vocal and instrumental, was enormous--seven hundred in all.
Unfortunately the Abbey is so high, and constructed on principles so
detrimental to all musical effect, that the prodigious numbers of
voices and instruments which, it was said, was enough to bring down
the building, hardly filled it. One felt this particularly during the
first part of Haydn's _Creation_. Handel's Samson, a broader and more
powerful composition, was more suited to the circumstances of the
occasion. The Funeral March made a deep impression on me and the final
air sung by Miss Stevens with a trumpet _obbligato_ was very fine. But
the general effect was marred by the great mistake of placing the
singers so low that their voices were lost before they could rise to
the roof, there to find the point from which they could re-echo. I
think the organ is the only instrument which can sufficiently fill a
great cathedral. In such a place all the orchestras in the world sound
thin and incongruous, and I was sorry yesterday that the organ was not
used in the concerted pieces as it would have made the effect richer
and more impressive. I even felt that this concert music was out of
place in a church. It was like the effect of an academic panegyric,
however beautiful and noble, being pronounced in a pulpit instead of a
funeral sermon.

_London, June 26, 1834._--_A propos_ of certain of our countrymen M.
de Talleyrand remarked yesterday: "It is extraordinary how much talent
vanity consumes." Nothing can be truer, especially as he applied it.

It is announced that the Greek Order of the Saviour and the Portuguese
Order of Christ have been conferred on M. de Talleyrand. On the
occasion of his receiving the latter he told me that under the Empire,
when Orders were raining upon him from every side, the Comte de Ségur,
Grand Master of the Ceremonies, seemed rather cast down because he had
not got any. M. de Talleyrand begged the Emperor to allow him to give
M. de Ségur the Order of Christ which he had just received. This was
done to M. de Ségur's great satisfaction, and he never afterwards
appeared without his broad ribbon.

_London, June 27, 1834._--The late Lord Castlereagh had a curious way
of speaking French. He said to Madame de Lieven that what gave him
most pleasure in her conversation was that his mind became "_liquide_"
when in her company, and one day, speaking of the union which
prevailed among the Great Powers, he said to her that he was delighted
to say that they were all _dans le même potage_, a rather too literal
translation of the English idiom "in the same mess."

Yesterday I had a long conversation with my cousin Paul Medem. He
understands very well the difficulties of his position, which begin
with the keen regret with which M. and Madame de Lieven are yielding
him the place. These difficulties will be removed in part by the very
wise advice of the Czar, that he should remain altogether outside the
internal politics of England, and become neither Whig nor Tory. He
told me that the real reason why he had been preferred to Matuczewicz,
was the marked and uncompromising character of the opinions which the
latter had adopted in England, where he went in for politics with the
vigour of John Bull himself.

_June 28, 1834._--The King of England is ill and his haste to see the
Queen depart has suddenly changed into keen regret that she is going.
She did everything she could to persuade him to allow her to stay, but
the King replied that it was too late to change his mind, that all was
ready and that she must go. To stay now would give rise to all sorts
of unfortunate conjectures which should be avoided. "Besides," he
added, "if a change in the Ministry comes soon it is better that you
should be absent so that they cannot say, as they did some years ago,
that you influenced me." The same day, speaking of his Ministers, the
King said, "I am tired to death of these people," and when some one
observed that if so, it was very curious that he did not dismiss them,
he replied very sensibly, "But two years ago when I sent for the
Tories they left me stranded at the end of twenty-four hours and
abandoned me to the Whigs. This must not happen a second time. I shall
therefore do nothing one way or the other, but let them fight it out
as best they can among themselves." Things will not, however, turn out
as before, for it was the refusal of Sir Robert Peel to take office
which wrecked the plan on the former occasion. Now he is willing to
take up the succession, and public opinion is prepared to see him do
so.

I hear much of internal dissensions in the Cabinet. It appears that
Lord Lansdowne will not remain with Mr. Ellice, especially since the
declaration of the latter in favour of the principles of Mr.
O'Connell. It is also said that Lord Grey doesn't get on with Mr.
Abercromby. Finally the disunion of the Cabinet is obvious, even to
the public, and is being, I think, rather cleverly exploited by the
Conservative Party.

The Prince de Lieven yesterday introduced Paul Medem to Lord Grey, who
appeared much embarrassed, and, after a long silence, found nothing to
talk about but France, M. de Broglie, M. de Rigny, the elections, &c.,
just as he might have done with a French _chargé d'affaires_. For a
Russian one, just come from St. Petersburg, this was very
curious--Lord Grey's praises of Broglie were excessive; his questions
about Rigny cold and distrustful.

_London, June 29, 1834._--It is very strange that, as things are, Lady
Holland, who has always professed to be a friend of Lord Aberdeen in
spite of the difference of their political opinions, should have asked
M. de Talleyrand to meet him at dinner at her house!

Yesterday I took leave of the Queen; everything seemed definitely
arranged for her departure.

Don Carlos and his suite are established at Gloucester Lodge, a pretty
house in one of the suburbs, which is called Old Brompton. This house,
whose present owner is unknown to me, was built by the mother of the
present Duke of Gloucester who gave it its name. Don Carlos's close
proximity to London much embarrasses all the members of the diplomatic
corps, whose courts have left their relations with Spain conveniently
vague. The signatories of the Quadruple Alliance are of course out of
the game.

_London, June 30, 1834._--The Marquis de Miraflorès makes no progress
in the difficult art of behaving tactfully in society. The other day
he made another curious lapse. It was at the house of Lord Brougham
the Chancellor, where he had been talking to M. de Talleyrand. The
latter, turning to go, found himself face to face with Lucien
Bonaparte. They greeted each other and exchanged inquiries, coldly
but politely, and M. de Talleyrand was about to take his leave when he
was stopped by the Spanish Minister, who in a loud voice asked the
French Ambassador to present him to Lucien Bonaparte! It was a perfect
example of tact!

The Duke of Wellington, whom I saw yesterday at a concert in honour of
Madame Malibran, told me that he had been with Don Carlos that
morning, and had had a very curious conversation with him. He could
not give me an account of it then because of the crowd which
surrounded us listening to everything we said, but he told me that
nothing could exceed the squalour, poverty and untidiness of this King
and Queen of Spain and the Indies. The Duke was the more astonished at
this, as they have found money here, and might easily have bought a
little soap and clean linen. All that the Duke told me of the
conversation was as follows. First he told them the truth as he always
does, and, seeing a priest, then observed, "God doubtless does much
for those who invoke His help, but He does even more for those who do
something for themselves." The priest only said that there was a
Spanish proverb to the same effect.

_London, July 1, 1834._--Yesterday we received the news of the death
of Madame Sosthène de la Rochefoucault, an event which proves that I
am right in maintaining that there is no such thing as a _malade
imaginaire_. Nothing, in fact, can be so tedious and wearisome as to
be constantly watching, dieting and pitying one's self. How could any
one keep up such a pretence unless some serious and painful symptom
condemned one to it? But there are two things which the world never
will believe in--the troubles and the sufferings of others. Every one
is so afraid of being asked for sympathy and help, that it is found
more convenient to deny the facts than to sacrifice one's self. All my
life I have heard Madame Sosthène abused; she was described as a lazy,
complaining creature who had in reality the constitution of a Turk.
When one does not look delicate, and even sometimes when one does,
nothing short of dying will convince people that one is really ill.
The world is only too ready to give exhibitions of its curiosity, its
indiscretion, and its calumny, but its compassion, like its
indulgence, only comes after the event, when you have no longer any
need of it.

M. de Montrond talks of returning to Louèche to put his poor body in a
bath. It would be a good thing if it were possible to put his soul in
also. His visit here was an even worse failure than that of last year.
When you have survived yourself, your fortune, your health, your wit,
and your manners, and when there does not even remain the faintest
reflection of your past glories to give you a little consideration in
the world, the spectacle which you present is deplorable. I said one
day to M. de Talleyrand that in my opinion nothing was left to M. de
Montrond except to blow out his brains. He replied that he would do
nothing of the sort, because he had never been able to put up with the
smallest deprivation, and he would not willingly accept the
deprivation of life any more than any other.

Madame de Montrond, who was divorced from her first husband[19] in
order to marry M. de Montrond, told me that one day, after she had
been divorced for the second time and had resumed her maiden name
Aimée de Coigny, she was being driven in a phaeton with M. de
Montrond, who himself took the reins. She was admiring the fine pair
of English horses and praised the view, the equipage, and the driver.
"It is not much of a pleasure," he replied; "what would be worth doing
would be to harness two young tigers, lash them to fury, to tame them,
and then to kill them." This is, indeed, the language of an insatiable
soul.

  [19] The Duc de Fleury, grand-nephew of the Cardinal.

_London, July 2, 1834._--The Queen is definitely going on the 5th. She
will cross in the yacht _Royal George_, which people are going to
visit out of curiosity, as well as two splendid steamboats, which will
act as tugs when necessary. The whole Yacht Club will escort her, and
the North Sea will be covered with a charming little fleet. The Queen
is to land at Rotterdam some time on the 6th, and will proceed the
same evening incognita to her sister, the Duchess of Weimar, who lives
in the suburbs of The Hague. The Prince of Orange, I understand, is to
be there as if by chance. The Princess of Orange is in Germany with
her sister.

_London, July 3, 1834._--Lord Grey has become extremely nervous and
irritable. Yesterday, while dining with Lord Sefton, he was, as they
say here, quite cross because dinner was later than usual; because
Lady Cowley, a witty and animated woman but a great Tory, was there;
and, finally, because every one was in full dress for the Duke of
Wellington's ball. It is really curious that a man in Lord Grey's
exalted position and of such a noble nature as he, should be so
sensitive to small matters, and should have nerves so childishly
susceptible.

The Duke of Wellington gave a splendid ball, very magnificent,
brilliant, and well-arranged. All the guests did their best not to dim
the lustre of the proceedings, and I think they were successful.

M. Royer-Collard writes to me: "The aspect of the elections is
deceptive; they are much less ministerial than they seem. Next Session
will be very heavy, and the Ministry is prepared for trouble. The
great number of coalitions is a very serious symptom. What must be the
violence of the hatreds which have formed such an alliance!" Further
on he adds, "When one knows a person one is usually able to predict
with fair accuracy what he will say or do in given circumstances, but
M. Dupin defies all calculation. The rashness of his speech is such as
cannot be foreseen; it is the same here as in London, and it makes it
impossible that he should ever come into power."

_London, July 4, 1834._--The other day the Queen said something which
seemed very ridiculous to the person to whom she said it, but which
seems to me quite intelligible, probably owing to what M. de
Talleyrand would call my _allemanderie_. She said that "during the
sixteen hours which she spent last week in Westminster Abbey during
the performance of the great oratorios, she had had more time and
leisure to reflect on her position, and for self-examination than she
usually had." This has led to her making discoveries, for instance that
she was more attached to the King than she was perhaps aware, that she
was more necessary to her husband than she had thought, and, in a
word, that henceforth England was her only true country. All this
makes her departure particularly painful, but she has one consolation.
This is the thought that when she is away the King will be more
disposed to assist in bringing about a change of Ministry, and that it
cannot be supposed that in doing so he is yielding to her influence.
There is much, perhaps too much, frankness in such pieces of
self-revelation, but I think that all these ideas are perfectly
natural, and I understand perfectly how they were inspired in the
places and circumstances above described.

The King for his part gives the most curious explanations of his
regret at the Queen's leaving him, which grows keener day by day. Thus
he said to Madame de Lieven yesterday. "I could never explain to you,
Madame, the innumerable ways in which the Queen is of use to me." This
is a strange and rather ridiculous way of putting it. The King has
gout in his hands which makes it difficult to use them, prevents him
from riding, and often from writing. This causes him much pain when he
has many papers to sign, and makes him depend on his valet in the
smallest matters. All his fine plans of resuming his bachelor
existence and of amusing himself as suits his fancy are abandoned. So
much so that his Majesty concluded his confidences to Madame de Lieven
by saying that once the Queen is gone he would go to Windsor and live
there like a hermit, never leaving the place till she came back.

The departure of her Majesty, which takes place to-morrow, will be a
really splendid spectacle. Besides her own vessel the two great
steam-boats and all the Yacht Club, the Lord Mayor, and all the City
Companies will escort the Queen in their State barges as a mark of
respect up to the point on the river at which their jurisdiction ends.
It is said, too, that a Dutch fleet is to be sent to meet her.

Almack's, the celebrated Almack's,[20] which for twenty years has been
the despair of the middle classes, the object of the emulation and the
desire of so many young ladies in the provinces, Almack's, which gives
or withholds the stamp of fashion, Almack's, the despotism _par
excellence_, ruled with a rod of iron by six of the most exclusive
ladies in London; Almack's, like all modern institutions, carries in
its bosom the seeds of its own destruction! Following on a relaxation
of internal regulations came a violation of its privileges, for the
Duke of Wellington dared to give a ball on Wednesday, the day devoted
and consecrated exclusively to Almack's. Finally, there has been
disunion and a conflict of jurisdiction in the Council of Six, and
like the constitution of Church and State, so much shaken at present,
Almack's also threatens to fall to pieces, and we fear for the safety
of an institution where young ladies find husbands, women of position
an exercising ground for their pretentions, novelists the most
brilliant scenes in their stories, foreigners their introduction to
society, and everybody a more or less legitimate interest to occupy
them in the height of the season.

  [20] Almack's was an academy of fashion where all the best
  society in London collected. The patronesses were six ladies of
  high rank; every man of the world had to make his _début_ at
  Almack's.

Lady Jersey is accused of being the subversive spirit. The counts in
the indictment against her are numerous. She would not allow the
appointment of younger patronesses, who being livelier than their
elders might have revived the fading interest people took in the
place. She had been much to blame in giving tickets carelessly to
people who were anything but elegant, and had refused to submit her
lists to the inspection of her colleagues. Further, having herself
introduced an undesirable element at the balls, she had decried them,
and in spite of the fact that she was a patroness had ceased to go
herself, and had persuaded the Duke of Wellington to give a ball on
Wednesday. She had tried to force the other patronesses to change the
day, and finally, not content with having set at naught in this way
all the most sacred traditions of the institution, she had written an
arrogant and preposterous letter, or rather manifesto, to Lady Cowper,
complaining that, as her advice had been disregarded, Almack's had
clashed with the Duke of Wellington's Ball, and threatening that, as
she was very angry at this, she would resign her position as a member
of the Committee. It is expected that at the next meeting there will
be a great row. I confess that if the public were admitted I should
certainly be present.

It must be admitted that Lady Jersey carries blind vanity to a degree
which is beyond all bounds. She is absolutely stupid, and her origin
is bourgeois.[21] Her husband is too indulgent, and she is beautiful
with a beauty which is imperfect but very well preserved. Her health
is robust, her energy untiring, and the possession of all these
advantages has convinced her that she has enough money to excuse all
her caprices, enough beauty to be the despair or the rapture of all
the men about her, enough wit to rule the world, and enough authority
to be always paramount without question in the favour of princes, in
the confidence of statesmen, in the hearts of the young men, and even
in the opinion of her rivals. She thinks her superiority so
incontestable that modesty is unnecessary and would be merely
hypocritical, so she does without it perfectly. She speaks of her
beauty, which she exhibits with all the complacency of Helen of Troy,
of her wit, her virtue, and her sensibility each in its turn. Piety
arrives punctually on Sunday and departs on Monday. She has neither
restraint nor ability, nor generosity, nor kindness, nor honesty nor
dignity. She is either mocked or hated, either avoided or feared. In
my opinion her heart is bad, her head empty, her character dangerous,
her society tedious, but when all is said and done she is as they say,
"the best creature in the world."

  [21] Through her mother Lady Jersey was the grand-daughter of
  Robert Child, the banker.

_London, July 6, 1834._--The rather violent altercation in the House
of Commons between Mr. Littelton, Chief Secretary for Ireland, and Mr.
O'Connell has not been well received, and has brought out in a strong
light both the indiscretion of the former and the want of principle
of the latter. After such a scene it was expected that the two
champions would have a mutual explanation not without arms, and that
Mr. Littelton would resign or be dismissed. But the political
epidermis is neither very fine nor very sensitive; the manners and
customs of Parliament make people callous very quickly, and ambition
and intrigue promptly dethrone every sentiment of delicacy, and
sometimes every sentiment of honour.

Mr. Stanley made another long speech the day before yesterday on the
eternal question of the Irish Church, launching defiance at the
Government of which he was so lately a member. This was so easy to
foresee that I was astonished at the stupidity of Ministers and their
friends, who maintained breathlessly that Mr. Stanley would remain
their friend and defender after his resignation as he had been before.
As if between politicians there could be any other bond of union
except common ambition?

The Neapolitan Minister thought it his duty to present himself before
Don Carlos, who sent for him. He made up his mind, however, not to
commit his Court without instructions, and to give Don Carlos no
higher title than "Monseigneur." However, when he got to Gloucester
Lodge, he was solemnly introduced into the presence of the Prince, who
received him standing in the midst of his Court, the Princesses at his
side so black and ugly, with eyes of such an African cast, that poor
old Ludolf became confused, and hearing every one cry "the King," and
feeling these four terrible black eyes fixed on him with the fury of
wild beasts, he felt that if he did not go beyond "Monseigneur" his
last hour was come; and so he scattered "King" and "Majesty" right and
left, and was glad to escape alive from that den of brigands!

The Princesse de Lieven gave us a charming day in the country
yesterday. The company showed both good humour and good taste, and
consisted of the Princess, Lady Clanricarde, M. Dedel, Count Pahlen,
Lord John Russell, and myself. The weather was splendid, except for
two thunder-showers, which we all took in good part. We dined at
Burford Bridge, a pretty little inn at the foot of Box Hill, only half
of which we were able to climb owing to the heat. We also visited
Deepdene, a country house which belongs to Mr. Hope,[22] and well
deserves its name. The vegetation is fine, but the place is low-lying
and melancholy; the house is in a pretentious Egyptian style, which is
grotesque and ugly.

  [22] This house still belongs to the Hope family, and contains a
  remarkable picture gallery. The park and the Italian garden are
  among the finest in England.

Mr. Denison's property of Denbies,[23] which we next visited, is
admirably situated; the view is rich and varied, but the house is
insignificant, at least from the outside. All this country is quite
picturesque--remarkably so, in fact, when one thinks how near it is to
a great city like London. The party was undoubtedly very pleasant, and
I like to look back on it.

  [23] Denbies now belongs to Mr. G. Cubitt; it is situated in the
  county of Surrey, near Dorking.

_London, July 7, 1834._--The Duke of Cumberland has announced his
intention of visiting Don Carlos, which much displeases the King. The
Duke of Gloucester would be tempted to go too, but he was unwilling to
do so without telling the King, who begged him not to do so.

Here is exactly what passed between the Infante Don Carlos and the
Duke of Wellington. The Infante began by sending the Bishop of Leon to
the Duke, who thought him a fat and rather common priest, but that he
had more sense than all the rest of the party put together. The Bishop
begged the Duke to go to see his master and give him his advice. The
Duke declined to advise on a position the details of which, as well as
the resources available, were unknown to him, but felt that he could
not very well refuse to call on Don Carlos, with whom he had the
singular conversation which follows:

DON CARLOS. Do you advise me to go by sea and rejoin Zumalacarreguy in
Biscaya?

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. But have you the means of getting there? (_No
reply._) Have you a seaport at your disposal where you would be sure
to be able to disembark?

DON CARLOS. Zumalacarreguy will take one for me.

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. But in order to do so he would have to leave
Biscaya. Moreover, you must not forget that, in accordance with the
Treaty of Quadruple Alliance, England will not allow you to start for
Spain, having engaged to expel you from that country.

DON CARLOS. Very well. I will go by way of France.

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. But France has entered into the same engagements.

DON CARLOS. What would be done if I crossed France?

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. You would be arrested.

DON CARLOS. What impression would be produced on the other Powers by
this?

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. The impression that a Prince had been arrested.

DON CARLOS. But if there were a change of Ministry here they would
restore me in Spain.

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. Many intriguing persons, some of them of the
highest rank, will try to persuade you that this is so, and I cannot
sufficiently warn you against such a delusion. England has recognised
Isabella II., and cannot go back on that recognition or on the
engagements entered into by treaty. What I say may be unpleasant, but
I think that to say it is the greatest service I can do you. I know
this country well; you need expect nothing from it. I am indeed
astonished that, after the treaty our Government has signed, you
should have chosen it for your residence. From many points of view you
would, I think, be much better off in Germany. I do not know the
strength of your party in Spain, or what its chances of success may
be, but I do not believe that you will ever find any honest or
efficient help except in Spain itself.

Such is the conversation, which seems to me very interesting as
illustrating the extraordinary ignorance of the one and the simple
straightforwardness of the other. The Duke was much struck by a sort
of cretinism which distinguishes this unhappy Prince, who knows and
has learned nothing, who has neither dignity, nor courage, nor
address, nor intelligence, and who really appears to be on the lowest
rung of the human ladder. It is said that the Princesses, the
children, and, in fact, every one about him, are much of the same
sort. It is a pitiable spectacle.

The Duke of Wellington does not believe in the million sent by M. de
Blacas. He thinks that it is no doubt rather the Spanish clergy who
have sent a little money.

I told the Duke that I had seen many people who were very curious to
know what title he had given to Don Carlos when he was with him. He
said, "You see from what I have told you that there is nothing in the
conversation I had with the prince which might not be printed; there
is nothing which could offend any one. The curiosity you mention
reminds me of that shown by all Spaniards during the Peninsular War,
to know the manner in which I addressed Joseph Bonaparte when I
communicated with him as I often did. His French correspondence was
often intercepted and brought to me. It contained much information
that I could not allow him to have, but also news of his wife and
children of which I had no wish to deprive him, and which I used to
send through the French outposts. On these occasions I used to write
to the French General saying, 'Acquaint the King that his wife, or his
eldest daughter, or his younger daughter, is better, or not so well,
as the case might be, that they have gone to the country,' &c. &c. I
never said the King _of Spain_, and I addressed my communications to
the French General commanding, and not to the Spanish Generals of
Joseph's party. Thus in this title of King there was no recognition to
be inferred. It was a piece of civility and nothing more, and as such
was of no consequence." Thus the Duke left me to my own reflections on
the manner in which he addressed Don Carlos when he saw him.

All these poor Spaniards were at the Opera yesterday, where, as was
natural, they were the object of much curiosity.

I hear from Paris that they are busy bringing a Governor of Algiers
into the world. Marshal Soult would like to send a Marshal, others
want a civilian in order that the Duc Decazes may have the place. He
is loudly asking for it, and Thiers for one has promised that it shall
be his. It is a curious thing to see a favourite of Louis XVIII.
taking refuge in Algiers! I can remember a time when people were
casting about for a means to send him far away and when Algiers with
its Dey, its slavery and its bow strings, would have been considered
at the Pavilion Marsan to be a most excellent solution of the problem.
Rascality, eccentricity, reverses of fortune, catastrophes have not
been wanting in the years which I have seen, the number of which seems
double and treble what it really is when I think of the immensity of
the events which have happened, the destinies which have been
destroyed, the ruins and the recoveries which they have witnessed.

_London, July 8, 1834._--The English Ministry cannot either live or
die. Each day demolishes a fraction of the edifice; it is impossible
that the Cabinet should not feel itself shaken to its foundations, and
yet against all parliamentary tradition it remains in office in
defiance of the insults and indiscretions, the paltry cowardice of one
set of people, the paltry treachery of others. Even the King is not
acting straightforwardly; the Conservatives are ready to take up an
inheritance which seems within their grasp, but they prefer taking it
over quietly to snatching it from the dying hands of its present
owners. Meanwhile nothing is done, nothing decided, and the astonished
and expectant public looks on uncomprehendingly. Lord Althorp
announces that Mr. Littleton has offered his resignation which Lord
Grey has refused to accept. Lord Grey denies that the Cabinet has
taken a decision announced by the Duke of Richmond with (according to
his account) the special permission of the King. If the old
Parliamentary tradition were observed this strange incident would lead
to some drastic solution of the problem, but as things are, no one
expects anything more than some paltry patching up of the Ministry. In
the meantime while they are haggling over the price of existence at
home, Lord Palmerston is finding a peremptory settlement for all
foreign questions, refusing explanations to one party, declining to
accept them from another, irritating and alarming everybody. It is not
assuredly a case for imitating John Huss on his way to execution who,
seeing a poor old woman hurrying with a blind zeal for the glory of
God to throw another faggot on the pyre on which he was to be burned,
exclaimed _Sancta simplicitas!_

_A propos_ of Lord Palmerston and his reputation even among those who
cannot do without him, I shall quote the remark of Lord William
Russell, the most tranquil and moderate of men. Madame de Lieven had
expressed to him her desire to see him Ambassador at St. Petersburg,
at an early date, to which he replied, "Nothing could be more splendid
or fortunate for my career, yet if Lord Palmerston thought of me I
should refuse. What he wants is not an enlightened and truthful agent,
but a man who will distort the truth to suit his prejudices. If you
display any independence, whether of language or of opinion, it
irritates him. His one thought is how to get rid of you and bring
about your ruin. When I was at Lisbon my views did not agree with his,
so he attacked my wife's reputation, and if I were to send him any
information from St. Petersburg except what he wanted to receive, he
would simply say that I had been bought by Russia and try to dishonour
me in that way. No gentleman can in the end consent to do business
with him."

_London, July 9, 1834._--Paul Medem was telling us yesterday that
nothing was so curious as the excessive partiality shewn by the Duc de
Broglie, when he was Minister, for Lord Granville. The preference
given by him to the British Ambassador over all the rest of the
diplomatic corps seemed natural in the circumstances, but, as it was
not only an exclusive preference but an anxious, jealous and absorbing
passion, it became ridiculous, embarrassing and often inexpedient.

Another fact which was not less curious was that the day after he
left the Ministry when he was going the round of the Ambassadors and
explaining to them the reasons for his resignation, the Duc de
Broglie, by way of softening what he wrongly supposed to be their
regret, added that his ideas and his system were still represented in
his pupil M. Duchâtel whom he had put there after having initiated him
into the great affairs which were to be the chief concern of his life,
and having formed him as a statesman of the first eminence. This
legacy so pompously announced seemed of less importance to the
legatees than to the testator.

_London, July 10, 1834._--I learned from the Times yesterday that Lord
Grey and Lord Althorp, having asked for the adjournment of several
Bills in the House of Lords, and having had a very long meeting of the
Cabinet, tendered their resignations to the King, who immediately
accepted them.[24]

  [24] The following was the composition of Lord Grey's Cabinet:
  First Lord of the Treasury, Earl Grey; Lord Chancellor, Lord
  Brougham; Lord President of the Council, the Marquess of
  Lansdowne; Lord Privy Seal, the Earl of Durham; Chancellor of the
  Exchequer, Lord Althorp; Home Secretary, Viscount Melbourne;
  Foreign Secretary, Viscount Palmerston; Colonial Secretary,
  Viscount Goderich; President of the Board of Trade, Lord
  Auckland; First Lord of the Admiralty, Sir James Graham;
  Postmaster-General, the Duke of Richmond; Chief Secretary for
  Ireland, Mr. Stanley; Paymaster-General, Lord John Russell;
  President of the Board of Control, Mr. Charles Grant; Chancellor
  of the Duchy of Lancaster, Lord Holland.

Without hearing any more I left Town with the Countess of Sutherland
and Countess Batthyány to spend the morning at Bromley Hill, a
charming country house where Lord Farnborough, Mr. Pitt's old friend,
always lives, devoting himself entirely to this delightful habitation
which is remarkable alike for its fine situation, its beautiful woods,
flowers and water, and the perfect taste and care with which it is
managed. We were quite delighted with everything and sorry to go back
to the smoke and politics of London.

We could hear nothing more about the great event of the day except the
simple fact of the King's message to Lord Melbourne. Nothing is known
as yet of what passed between the King and him. In the evening we went
to Lord Grey's and found him _en famille_. His children seemed cast
down, his wife angry; he alone was cheerful, simple and friendly,
displaying the noble and candid demeanour which is natural in him,
and which in its way is quite touching. He told us quite naturally
that there had been a series of difficulties and dissensions which
were constantly renewed from the beginning of the session onwards, and
that the last incident--the foolish indiscretion of Mr. Littelton of
which Lord Althorp gave such a lame explanation in the House of
Commons--had made Mr. Littelton's resignation insufficient, and had
necessitated his own and Lord Althorp's.

I thought that in Lord Grey's family it was Mr. Stanley who was hated
most, for it was his resignation, followed by a bitter speech, which
produced the situation in which the Littelton incident was only the
culminating crisis. The Commons were so far from satisfied with Lord
Althorp's speech on this that a series of groups developed, each of
which was capable of making its displeasure felt. This is what put an
end to Lord Grey's prolonged uncertainty. He seemed to us satisfied
with the effect produced by the personal explanation of his whole
conduct which he had just given in the House of Lords.

Mr. Ward his son-in-law came with news of the House of Commons, where
it appeared that Lord Althorp's explanations were received coldly
enough. The impression there was that, besides Lord Grey and Lord
Althorp, Messrs. Abercromby, Grant, and Spring Rice had also left the
Ministry. This Lord Grey said was incorrect. Only he and Lord Althorp
had actually resigned, and indeed the Chancellor had gone so far as to
say in the House of Lords that for his part he meant to stay, and
would not give up the Great Seal unless formally ordered to do so by
the King. On this I ventured to ask whether the Premier's resignation
did not necessarily involve that of all the other members of the
Cabinet. "In theory, yes," replied Lord Grey, "but in fact, no. But
you are right, it is the usual custom, and, as a matter of fact, any
Ministry is dissolved. However, these gentlemen individually may
remain in the new Cabinet." His manner in answering was visibly
awkward and embarrassed.

Next we went to Lord Holland's; he was much more upset than Lord Grey,
and much irritated at the attack made on the Cabinet by the Duke of
Wellington in Parliament, which he considered to be malicious and in
bad taste. He said that the Tories seemed quite ready to take up the
succession, but he hoped the Chancellor's speech would disgust them
with the undertaking by showing them what enormous difficulties they
would have to contend with. He added, moreover, that "you can't go out
to dinner without being asked," and that, so far, the King had not
summoned the Tories to office, but had sent for Lord Melbourne, though
he did not know what had passed at the interview.

To our question whether the Cabinet was entirely or only partially
dissolved, Lord Holland replied that the King must consider himself to
be without Ministers, and that for his part, though he had not handed
in his resignation, he regarded himself as out of office. On this
question there is an air of uncertainty which proves how much these
gentlemen are attached to their places and how unwilling they are to
give them up. Lord Melbourne arrived while we were there, and we
discreetly retired, being no more enlightened by the end of the day
than we had been at the beginning.

There is no new light, it seems, on the Spanish situation. There is a
cholera scare which the Queen Regent is trying to make an excuse for
retirement from the public eye at a time which is said to be
embarrassing for her. It is a bad thing for Her Majesty to lose the
esteem of a public whose good opinion and goodwill are so desirable.
The cholera and the Queen's seclusion are throwing the conduct of
Government business into great confusion. They talk of changing the
place of meeting of the Cortes.

It is asserted that the Infante Don Francesco, is still at Madrid with
his wife, who is on bad terms with the Queen Regent although she is
her sister, and is aiming at the Regency for himself instigated by his
consort. It is even hinted that his plans are more ambitious still.
Civil war is still general in the north, and the principal actors in
the drama being placed as they are, it is impossible to predict what
the result of the present state of matters in the South of Europe will
be.

_London, July 11, 1834._--When the King sent for Lord Melbourne
yesterday he spoke to him of his desire that a Coalition Ministry
should be formed, and asked him to undertake it. Yesterday morning,
however, Lord Melbourne had to write to the King to say that the task
was impossible. At the same moment Lord Brougham, who does not conceal
his desire to stay in office and direct affairs, has also written to
the King to say that nothing would be easier than to reconstruct the
administration out of the ruins of its predecessor and to continue to
govern on the same system. Two leading Tories have told Madame de
Lieven that if they were sent for by the King they would accept
office. Their plans were made, they said, and when asked whether they
would have the courage to dissolve they said that they would not
dissolve because they believed that they could control the existing
House bad as it is. They also expressed themselves very favourably on
the subject of the French Alliance and especially regarding M. de
Talleyrand, whose conservative policy inspires them with so much
confidence that they say he is the only French Ambassador who would
suit them.

Yesterday we had at dinner some relics of the fallen Ministry. The
causes of the catastrophe were freely discussed; it seems to have been
due to a series of small treacheries or, as Lady Holland said, to High
Treason.

Lord Brougham, whom Lord Durham, perhaps justly, described as a rogue
and a madman, appears to be the villain of the piece. He has been
secretly corresponding with the Marquess Wellesley, the Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland, in order to persuade him to make reports to
Lord Grey different from those previously sent and intended to induce
him to abandon the Coercion Bill. On the other hand he asked the Lords
Justices for an opinion on the state of Ireland and on the measures
which should be adopted, but, as it was not what he wanted, it never
reached Lord Grey and has every appearance of having been suppressed,
Mr. Littelton's indiscretions--Lord Althorp's want of energy, the
difficulties of the situation as a whole--all this put together ended
Lord Grey's irresolution. He had for some time past been decided not
to face next session. He wished to retire after the present one and to
choose his successor. I believe that he is sincerely glad to be out of
the turmoil, but that he is sorry to have resigned when his position
was honey-combed with treason and without knowing into whose hands
power would fall. He is very dignified about it, but his wife is full
of regret and irritation at the loss of all the chances of
establishing her family which came from her husband's being Prime
Minister.

Lady Holland is quite prostrate with regret for the comfort in which
the Duchy of Lancaster kept her husband. Lord Holland talks of it all
with a mixture of geniality, indifference, annoyance and good spirits
which is rare, amusing and astonishing.

No one knows, foresees, or even guesses what is to be the result of
the crisis.

The King is at Windsor surrounded by an undistinguished crowd of
relatives, legitimate and illegitimate, who have neither cleverness
nor consistency and who are not even agreed among themselves. It is
impossible to gauge what influence they will have one way or the
other. The presence of the Queen would have had more effect, but I am
glad to think that her absence relieves her of all responsibility. The
King foresaw this, and said so several times, and her own consolation
on leaving was the thought that she could not be accused of
influencing the Royal decisions.

_London, July 13, 1834._--It is evident that several people have been
duped this week. The most surprised and upset are of course the
Conservatives. They and the public with them have always imagined that
the King, too weak to dismiss the Ministry, would none the less be
delighted to get rid of them and would eagerly seize the first
opportunity to recall the Tories to office. Yet hours and days pass
without their being sent for.

I dined with them yesterday; they were obviously disappointed, and the
Duke of Wellington, next whom I sat at dinner at Lady Jersey's,
talked quite frankly to me about it. I quite agreed with his opinion
of the inevitable result of the King's conduct. Lord Grey represented
the last stage between innovation and revolution, and the King, by
letting slip a natural and decent opportunity, will be unable to
retrace his steps, and will precipitate himself into the abyss which
is destined to engulf the monarchy and the country. The effect which
this will have in Europe is incalculable.

Some one who was dining last night in the opposite camp told me that
the Whigs were sure that the King had come back to town in order to
leave Lord Melbourne free to choose what Ministry he liked as he had
refused to construct a coalition. This conjecture is confirmed by the
fact that several prominent members of the House of Commons have
appointments with Lord Melbourne this morning. It appears that the
question is whether the more drastic clauses of the Coercion Bill for
Ireland are to be abandoned. Lord Melbourne wishes to retain them, but
in that case it would be necessary to do without Lord Althorp who
seems to be the only person capable of leading the House of Commons.
All doubts will probably be resolved when it comes to the point, and
to-morrow we shall have a reconstructed or at least a readjusted
Ministry, smoothly plastered to the outward view but bearing in itself
the seeds of its destruction. What I have long believed and sometimes
said seems to be coming true.

Sir Herbert Taylor, George III.'s private secretary, with whom once
upon a time Princess Amelia fell hopelessly in love, who was said to
be without influence under George III., and who was a model of
discretion under George IV., occupies the same position under the
present King. I have always suspected him of being a devoted friend of
the Whigs and especially of Lord Palmerston. He was the only man at
Windsor to whom the King could speak during the crisis, and through
whom all the necessary communications could have passed. His prompting
and his subterranean, yet active and long prepared intrigues are
believed to be the cause of what is now happening.

Rumours succeed and destroy each other. One is wearied out with
curiosity, unsatisfied and unjustified. It is said again that Lord
Melbourne will be quite at liberty to govern his Ministry as he will.
It is also said that the King, who has certainly not left Windsor, has
sent Sir Herbert Taylor to Sir Robert Peel.

Again it is asserted that Dom Pedro is dead and Don Carlos gone. In
fact the city and the clubs are amusing themselves (to kill time I
suppose) by disseminating the most extraordinary and contradictory
news. People end by believing nothing and listening to no one, and
meanwhile one waits patiently with a sort of lassitude until the
_Gazette_ announces officially who is going to take up the heavy and
difficult task of the Ministry.

Meanwhile Lord Grey occupies himself with little dinners at Greenwich,
where he consoles himself for his fall and the treachery of his
friends, Madame de Lieven for her gilded exile, and M. de Talleyrand
for the conflict of unsatisfied ambition and a natural weariness. The
other day Lord Grey said very happily in his farewell speech in
Parliament, that when one was seventy years old as he was, one might
manage affairs very well in ordinary times, but that in a period so
critical as the present it needed the activity and energy which belong
only to youth.

This is a truth which I have had the opportunity of verifying in my
own circle, and I have felt that in public life it is above all things
necessary to choose a good moment for retreat, not to lose the proper
moment, and so to quit politics gracefully, thus carrying with you the
applause of the spectators and avoiding their hisses.

_London, July 14, 1834._--This morning people were writing from
Windsor to London to find out what was going on. The King's silence
had been complete; and in his long walks with his sister, the Princess
Augusta, or his daughter, Lady Sophia Sidney, all conversation was
carefully avoided, and nothing was talked of but the weather.

The Queen's journey has met with some difficulties; and Lord Adolphus
Fitzclarence, who it appears is not a very skilful sailor, had some
difficulty in finding the way, and besides, the royal yacht drew too
much water. Fortunately, the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, and the
Prince and Princess of the Netherlands had come in a Dutch steamer to
meet her Majesty, who was able to go on board the latter vessel with
her maid, and proceed to The Hague direct; the suite reached Rotterdam
with some difficulty.

It seems to have been very fortunate that the Queen was able to avoid
Rotterdam herself, for they are so much annoyed that they had prepared
an ugly reception for her. It had been arranged here that she was to
meet neither the King nor the Queen of the Netherlands, and this
condition had been strongly insisted on by the King of England. A
"chance meeting," however, which might take place at the palace of
Loo, had been talked of.

Sir Herbert Taylor has of late been the centre of interest for a good
many people, and has been discussed in many conversations. In this way
I learned that when he was proposed as private secretary to George
III., who had become blind, it was also proposed that he should be
made a Privy Councillor. The mere idea roused the King to fury, and,
in the presence of all his Ministers, he said to Mr. Taylor:
"Remember, sir, that you are to be my pen and my eye, but nothing
else; that if you should presume but once to remember what you hear,
read, or write, to have an opinion of your own or to give any advice,
we should part for ever." And, as a matter of fact, under George III.
and later under George IV., Mr. Taylor was never more than a kind of
lay figure without eyes to see or ears to hear, or a memory to
remember. They say that things are changed now, though he still keeps
up the appearance of the greatest reserve and the most profound
discretion. I heard on the same occasion that, until he grew blind,
George III. never used a secretary, even for making envelopes or
sealing his letters. His correspondence was extensive as well as
secret; he always knew what was going on in society and all the
political intrigues; and when displeased with his Ministers or
distrusting their measures he would secretly take the advice of the
Opposition. He was never taken by surprise, followed public opinion,
and combined considerable learning with a great dignity of carriage.

Since the day before yesterday a rumour has been afloat that Don
Carlos has already quitted London and has already landed in France,
everybody supposing that he was lying ill at Gloucester Lodge. This
though generally believed is not yet proved. What makes me doubt it is
that M. de Miraflorès claims that it is true, and boasts that he has
led Don Carlos into this proceeding by means of an agent in his pay
who, he says, persuaded the unfortunate Prince to take this step in
order to betray him to the first Spanish patrol on the frontier, from
whom he would receive short shrift. This singular and horrible boast
would have to be taken seriously if uttered by any other person. But
M. de Miraflorès is as idiotic in politics as in love, and it is quite
likely that the whole story is false, or at any rate, that the agent
who is said to have inveigled the Prince has only duped the diplomat.

Yesterday evening, politeness, interest, curiosity, and affection, in
a word, every possible motive, good and bad, brought an unusually
large number of people to Lady Grey's Sunday reception, which is
believed to be her last. It was being said there in veiled language,
but in a manner which admitted of no doubt, that Lord Melbourne had
come back from Windsor, Prime Minster, and charged with the
construction of a new Ministry out of the old Cabinet, to which Lord
Grey alone will not return. If this is so, the former will commence in
the sinister character of a traitor, and the latter will end with the
melancholy countenance of a dupe. The King will have been weak enough
to prefer patching up matters to being energetic for a day or two,
which might doubtless have been difficult, but would have been at
least dignified, and certainly salutory for the country. The Tories
will never forgive him for having drawn back, and posterity will
condemn him for his feebleness.

Last night it seemed as if everything in the greatness of England was
dwindled, shrunken, and soiled. The Diplomatic Corps separated into
groups, the expression of which was remarkable. The new Spain, the new
Portugal, Belgium still in outline, everything which depends on the
disorder and weakness of the Great Powers, looked at Lord Palmerston
with great anxiety, which as the certainty grew that he would stay in
office, changed into an expression of affection and triumph. Scorn and
hatred contracted every fibre of the Princesse de Lieven. The French
Ambassador, neither a reactionary like the North, nor a propagandist
like the English, seemed full of care rather than annoyance, more
sorry than surprised, and had the air of a man who, seeing the part of
honest man played out, feels that his own is finished, and that the
time has come for retiring with honour. The English themselves seemed
humiliated, and under no illusions about the appearance of moderation
which cloaks the feebleness of the present policy. In fact, the
patch-up of the Ministry will lead more slowly perhaps, but by a
process of disintegration equally sure, to the ruin which would have
been the result had Lord Durham and Mr. O'Connell reached office at a
single stride.

The more one examines Lord Brougham's conduct, the more one is struck
with the shamelessness of his character. The day before yesterday the
venerable Lord Harewood asked him where we were, and whether the
Ministry would be reconstructed, and the Chancellor replied, "Where
are we? Where do you suppose we can be when at a critical moment like
this we have to deal with people who take it into their heads to talk
of their honour? What have we to do with honour at such a time?"

If he is not troubled by considerations of his honour, he troubles
himself equally little about his dignity. Yesterday when every one was
so much agitated, in spite of the established custom that the
Chancellor of England shall attend Divine Service at the Temple
Church, he thought fit to accompany Madame Peter to Mass, and to sit
beside this lady all the time, courting her not less assiduously than
his colleague, Lord Palmerston.

This morning, it is said, they will throw a sop to Lord Durham, and
will make him Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in order to get rid of him.
At the same time, the revived Ministry will abandon the Coercion Bill.
If this be done, they will have crowned Mr. O'Connell King of Ireland
on the anniversary of the taking of the Bastille. July 14 is certainly
the great day in the modern revolutionary annals.

I have just met a Conservative Peer, a clever and honourable man who
moved me greatly. With tears in his eyes he lamented the degradation
of his country, the ruin of this great and venerable fabric. He
foresaw the terrible struggle which may immediately arise between the
two Houses; the Radical spirit which, whether they like it or not,
must control the present Ministry, and those which will rapidly
succeed it. The present Cabinet in everybody's opinion is still-born,
and people are surprised that so good and intelligent a man as Lord
Melbourne should lend himself to such a farce. His sister tried to
explain it by saying that one must sacrifice one's self for one's
country, but Madame de Lieven answered, "The country cannot be saved
by men who dishonour themselves."

Lord Melbourne's friends who know him well say that his indolence will
very soon get the upper hand, and that with a vigorous "damn!" he will
cast off everything. It is, indeed, strange to see the most nonchalant
man in England called to the conduct of affairs at such a critical
moment for the country.

_London, July 15, 1834._--Lord Grey called and stayed a long time. We
spoke of the recent crisis as if it were already ancient history, and
with the same detachment and sincerity as of old. He argued feebly,
and as it were to ease his conscience, against my melancholy
forebodings, defended his successors collectively and abandoned them
in detail; or at least he agreed that their position was difficult,
and that they cut a sinister figure on their re-entry into power. He
was silent when I told him that the public thought Mr. Littleton was
the fool, Lord Althorp the weakling, the Chancellor the villain of the
piece. He shrugged his shoulders when I quoted to him a curious
remark made by his brother-in-law, Mr. Ellice, in Lady Grey's
drawing-room the evening before, which was as follows. Replying to the
regret expressed by some one at Lord Grey's retirement, "No doubt," he
said, "it is a pity from many points of view, but it was bound to
come. He was quite sick of the business, and, at any rate, this will
have the advantage of giving us more scope, making our progress freer
and getting us out of the policy of compromise, which is no longer
possible."

Lord Grey said and repeated several times that he regretted neither
power nor office, and that for several months past he had felt
enfeebled, without interest in anything, and unable to do any business
except with repugnance and lassitude. He confessed that what had made
him feel most bitter was the conduct of some of his own people,
especially Lord Durham, whose violence, hauteur, ambition and
intrigues had afflicted him the more as his daughter had been the
first to suffer. He could not doubt that Lady Durham's last
miscarriage was due to her husband's brutality. He told me that in
spite of the terror inspired by his character, it was proposed to give
him, in the new Cabinet, the place left vacant by Lord Melbourne's
transfer to the Treasury. Lord Durham's ambition and malevolent
activity make him so inconvenient to any Ministry of which he is not a
member, that it seems almost better to admit him, and to try in this
way to neutralise his ill-will. Lord Grey was doubtful, however,
whether they could make up their minds to do so, he was so much
detested by every one.

Lord Grey was sure that he had persuaded Lord Althorp to resume his
place in the Cabinet[25] in spite of the many embarrassments of his
position. He says that without Lord Althorp they could never control
the House of Commons. He flattered himself also that he has persuaded
Lord Lansdowne to stay, but he was not sure of this. In fact, being
persuaded that the accession to power of either the Tories or the
Radicals would mean revolution, he did all he could with all the
energy in his power to patch up the miserable Cabinet which has just
betrayed him. He cannot or will not understand that it is Radicalism
very thinly veiled just as much as if O'Connell or Cobbett were
already in office.

  [25] The new Cabinet was constituted as follows: First Lord of
  the Treasury, Lord Melbourne; Chancellor, Lord Brougham; Lord
  President of the Council, the Marquess of Lansdowne; Secretary of
  State for Foreign Affairs, Viscount Palmerston; Secretary of
  State for the Colonies, Mr. Spring Rice; Chancellor of the
  Exchequer, Lord Althorp; First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord
  Auckland; Postmaster-General, Marquess of Conyngham;
  Paymaster-General of the Forces, Lord John Russell; Chief
  Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Mr. Littelton.
  Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Lord Holland; Home
  Secretary, Viscount Duncannon; President of the Board of Control,
  Mr. Charles Grant; President of the Board of Trade, Mr. Poulett
  Thomson; Secretary of State for War, Mr. Ellice; Lord Privy Seal,
  Lord Mulgrave. Most of these Ministers had been members of the
  previous Cabinet.

I sat next the Chancellor at the Duchess-Countess of Sutherland's
dinner. He was very genial, and invited me to drink the toast of the
day, the 14th of July. "At dessert," I replied, well knowing that his
restless mind would forget all about it. As a matter of fact, the
matter quite slipped his memory. I could not, in any case, have drunk
the toast, for this date, which has already such unhappy associations,
was certainly not purified yesterday.

The Chancellor asked me if I had seen Lord Grey and if I was not
struck with his simplicity, which he said was such that he could
conceal, dissemble and contain nothing. "He is a child in candour and
thoughtlessness, and he yields to the impressions of every moment."
"His is a very noble nature," I replied. "Yes, yes, no doubt," said
he, "it is the nature of a very nice child, which reminds me that Mr.
Hare, a friend of Mr. Fox as well as of Fitzpatrick and Grey, used
always to call him 'Baby Grey.'"

There is no doubt that Don Carlos is gone. Some say he embarked on the
Thames when he was supposed to be at the Opera, and that he will land
in Spain at one of the points where he is supposed to have a
following. Others, and among them M. de Miraflorès, say that he has
gone viâ France; that M. Calomarde managed the whole thing from Paris,
instigated by him (Miraflorès) in order to entrap Don Carlos. Anyhow,
he is gone, and whatever be the result of his enterprise it cannot be
without effect.

_London, July 16, 1834._--Lord Melbourne's successor at the Home
Office is known; it is Lord Duncannon, who has been transferred from
the Woods and Forests, which he leaves to Sir John Cam-Hobhouse. The
latter is celebrated for his friendship with Lord Byron, his Eastern
travels, and his very liberal opinions, in which, however, he is less
extreme than Lord Duncannon, who is said to be quite violent. This
shows that the Cabinet has taken on a more decidedly revolutionary
character.

Yesterday it was certain that Don Carlos had left London; to-day his
arrival in Spain is equally beyond doubt. The Tories say he has got to
Navarre after having crossed all France; and this, too, is the version
of M. de Miraflorès, who now perhaps regrets having boasted of having
deceived the Prince and surrounded him with spies who were to deliver
him up to the first Spanish outpost, while as a matter of fact he has
arrived safe and sound among his own people, by whom, it is said, he
has been enthusiastically received.

The English Ministry yesterday admitted knowing of Don Carlos's
arrival in Spain, which is believed to have taken place on the 9th,
but they say that he landed at a port in Biscaya attended only by a
single Frenchman, and that his partisans eagerly welcomed him. It is
asserted that he only went to Spain because the Northern provinces
invited him, and threatened that they would declare their independence
and constitute themselves a Republic if their natural leader did not
come to them. It is clear that there must have been great hopes on the
one hand and much to lose on the other before a man so timid and so
incapable as Don Carlos could have been persuaded to run such a risk.
Moreover, his conversation with the Duke of Wellington, which I set
down above, shows that his mind has for several weeks been occupied
with this plan of going to Spain.

_London, July 17, 1834._--The friends of the new Ministry are wearing
themselves out with assertions that the policy of the French alliance
will not be altered in any way. I believe this is true; but, in the
interests of both countries, I should have preferred that the alliance
had been founded on social order and had not depended for its
continuance on revolutionary sympathies, which give just cause for
anxiety to the rest of Europe, and may bring about conflicts in which
it would be difficult to predict who will be the victor.

We are more and more decided to return to France immediately after
Parliament rises, and perhaps even sooner.

Our more distant future is not yet to be foreseen, but Lord Grey's
example is another proof that the great figures of history should
themselves choose the circumstances of their retirement, and should
not wait till it is imposed upon them by the mistakes or the perfidy
of others.

Yesterday we received the two first volumes of a book, entitled _M. de
Talleyrand_. I have hardly looked at it, but M. de Talleyrand has read
it. He says that nothing could be more stupid, false, tedious, and
ill-imagined, and that he would not pay five shillings to have it
suppressed. I admit that I am less philosophic, and that on occasions
of this sort--which in a libellous age like ours are so numerous--I
always remember a saying of La Bruyère's, which seems to me remarkably
true. "Excessive calumny," he says, "like excessive praise, always
leaves a trace behind." As a matter of fact, the world is divided into
the foolish and the malevolent, and so there are always people who
will believe what is improbable, especially about an opponent.

_London, July 18, 1834._--Fatuity in men is a thing which spreads from
one point to all the rest. M. de Miraflorès, who is very pushing with
women and rather ridiculous, is not less presumptuous in politics. He
launches out madly and credits himself with successes which are only
due to the personal passions of the people, and which will perhaps
hardly be justified by the final result. Thus he proclaims himself the
inventor of the Quadruple Alliance, the first idea of which was
suggested to him by Lord Palmerston. Now that Don Carlos's
reappearance on Spanish territory renews the old difficulties, the
little Marquis, _proprio motu_, without waiting for orders from his
Government, sends a perfect _olla podrida_ of a note--a masterpiece of
absurdity--appealing to France and England to extend the scope of the
treaty whose object was believed to be accomplished.

The present circumstances are, however, very different. Three months
ago the two Pretenders, Miguel and Carlos, were both penned up in a
little corner of Portugal, and were thus more particularly the
business of England. Now Don Carlos is in the north of Spain, near the
French frontier. Will England carry her revolutionary tendencies so
far as to allow a French army to enter the Peninsula? Would not that
be the signal for Lord Palmerston's resignation? On the other hand,
can France, after declaring against Don Carlos, allow him again to
seize a power which he would use against her? It is not that the
Government of the Queen-Regent, which becomes more and more decrepit,
is likely to be a very good neighbour. King Louis-Philippe finds
himself in the dilemma of being faced on the other side of the
Pyrenees either with the Republican or the Legitimist principle. The
_mezzo termine_ can only be maintained by armed force--in fact, by
conquest!

This reminds me of a very true remark made by M. de Talleyrand which
has often come back to my mind during the last four years. It was said
in the midst of the intoxication of the great days of 1830. M. de
Talleyrand found one of his friends full of hopes and illusions,
patriotic phrases and emotion, over the scene at the Hôtel de Ville,
the Lafayette accolades, and the popularity of Louis-Philippe.
"Monsieur," said he, "what is wanting in all this is a trifle of
conquest."

They say that in Spain Martinez de la Rosa is _passé_, and can no
longer maintain himself in power; he will be replaced by Toreno, and
will become President of the House of Peers. It is also said that the
Queen-Regent will create him Marquis de l'Alliance.

_London, July 19, 1834._--Everything that is happening here reminds
one of the first scenes of the French Revolution. The analogy is
striking, the copy a trifle too servile. The aristocracy, the minority
of the nobility, the _tiers état_, have each their counterparts in the
Tories, the Whigs, and the Radicals. The Whigs are blinded by jealousy
and personal ambition, and will not see that they have any other
enemies than the Tories; they see no danger except on that side, and
in order to keep their rivals out of office they are precipitating
themselves and all their class into the abyss which has been dug for
them by the Radicals.

In talking over all this yesterday M. de Talleyrand quoted a remark
made to him by the Abbé Sieyès during the sittings of the Constituent
assembly. "Yes, we get on very well now that we are discussing only
_Liberty_; it is when we get on to _Equality_ that we shall quarrel."

At the very lively sitting of the Lords of the day before yesterday
Ministers very clearly marked out the line they mean to follow, and
the very men who in Lord Grey's time, less than a fortnight ago, held
the repressive clauses of the Coercion Bill to be indispensable,
announced their abandonment amid the jeers and scoffs of the House.
This was as much as to say that the Cabinet in order to survive was
putting itself at the disposal of the Radical majority in the House of
Commons, was flouting the opposition of the Lords and doing its best
to make it of no account. As one might expect, the irritation which
results from this is sharply expressed in the Upper House. All the
consolation Ministers have is the approbation which O'Connell is good
enough to bestow upon them.

_London, July 20, 1834._--I much prefer Lord Grey's second speech
delivered the day before yesterday in the House of Lords to make clear
his position which had been misrepresented by both parties, to the
first speech in which he announced his resignation. The latter I
thought was too long and too tearful, and entered too minutely into
his family affairs. The speech of the day before yesterday was more
laconic, and more closely argued; its dignity was remarkable and,
while avoiding any bitterness or personality, the speaker exposed the
chicanery which had forced him to retire. He remains well disposed to
the guiltiest parties and full of kindness to his successors as
individuals, but he will have nothing to do with their policy. His
retirement in accordance with his own instincts is greeted with the
applause of all sensible people, the humiliation of those whom he has
quitted, and the lively displeasure of all those who are the real
enemies of social order.

A fortnight ago I confess Lord Grey seemed to me nothing more than an
old man worn out, shaken to pieces, and on the point of being
discredited. Since his resignation his last political acts have been
illumined with a brilliant gleam. His fine talent for oratory which he
exercised so long in opposition has recovered all its energy now that
he is out of office again, and it may be truly said that Lord Grey who
has had one fall after another has again reached the foremost place
now that he has got free of the shameful ambuscades by which he has
been overpowered. The Cabinet is now much afraid of him and would fall
low indeed if Lord Grey was not compassionate enough to throw over it
the mantle of his protection. His colleagues, who lately spoke of him
with more pity than respect, tremble at his words to-day. Ah! how wise
it is not to survive one's self in politics, and how necessary it is
to choose time fitting for retreat.

A resignation which is both less important and less honourable is that
of Marshal Soult.[26] The reasons for his disappearance which is
accepted by the King and little regretted by the Cabinet, are said to
be internal quarrels about the question whether Algeria shall have a
military or a civil governor--about a speech from the Throne, more or
less detailed, which is to be delivered on July 31 next, but above all
the terror of the Army estimates which the Marshal is said to be
afraid to face next session. They say that they will offer his place
to Marshal Gérard.

  [26] Marshal Soult had been President of the Council since 1832.
  He resigned that office in July 1834.

Most fortunately for the Queen Regent of Spain some accident seems to
have happened which will enable her to appear at the opening of the
Cortès. She has much need of a piece of good luck to re-establish her
position which she has so curiously compromised by her frivolity and
inconsequence.

Lord Howick, eldest son of Lord Grey, who has no great reputation for
either physical or intellectual merit, has just resigned his position
as Under Secretary of State at the Home Office, thus following his
father's example and fortunes. This is the only instance of fidelity
which his father is likely to encounter.

Yesterday I saw Lady Cowper at her own house; she seemed to me
depressed and preoccupied. With her intelligence it is difficult for
her not to be afflicted by conduct in her relatives and friends which
is so wanting in credit. She pointed out to me not without reason the
change which has come over London life and society, the care people
take to avoid each other, the hostile way in which they speak of each
other, the unrest of every one, their distrust of the present, their
gloomy forebodings for the future, the general disorganisation, the
dispersion of the diplomatic corps, and the absence of all government
and all authority. This was striking language from the sister of the
Premier and the intimate friend of the Foreign Secretary.

She tried hard to persuade me that the offence given by the latter to
the corps diplomatique, and in particular to M. de Talleyrand, should
not be attributed to any evil intention but simply to a certain
neglect of forms which may well be excused in a man overwhelmed with
work. She seemed to be especially embarrassed by the thought that M.
de Talleyrand might take Lord Palmerston's conduct to him as a reason
for retiring. She used all her wit in fact, all her charm and good
taste, and she has all these qualities in a high degree, to justify
her friends and to mitigate the bitterness which they have provoked. I
left her much pleased with her way of putting things but not at all
converted on essential points.

_London, July 21, 1834._--The great need in which the Ministry find
themselves of some speaker in the House of Lords less discredited than
the Chancellor and cleverer than the other Ministers who are peers,
has led them to make a most extraordinary proposition, characteristic
of the absolute want of sense and refinement which distinguishes
Holland House. They seriously suggested that Lord Grey should remain,
not as Prime Minister, but as Lord Privy Seal! He had the good taste
to laugh at this proposal, taking it as a thing too grotesque to take
offence at. But how could they have had the impudence to make such a
request?

However, everything is so strange just now that one need be surprised
at nothing. Here for example is the full story of how Lord Melbourne
discharged the task committed to him by the King of doing his best to
form a Coalition Ministry. No doubt the thing was impossible; still,
Lord Melbourne chose a curious way of bringing it about. He wrote on
behalf of the King to the Duke of Wellington and to Sir Robert Peel
telling them of the commission with which he had been entrusted, and
adding that in order to save them trouble he would send them a copy of
the letter which he had just written to His Majesty showing how he
himself regarded the question. This letter contained nothing but a
strong argument against any attempt at agreement with the other side
and an enumeration of all the difficulties which made coalition
impossible. The Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel replied by
acknowledging his letter and thanking him respectfully for the
communication made to them on behalf of the King. The King was
surprised that these gentlemen did not reply in greater detail and
sent to ask for their observations. They answered: "They are all
contained in Lord Melbourne's letter to His Majesty, we have nothing
to add." Thus the curious negotiation terminated.

_London, July 22, 1834._--The phase of calm and prosperity through
which the French Government seemed again to be passing seems to be
rather disturbed by the dissensions of the Ministers among themselves
which have been caused by the resignation of Marshal Soult. It appears
that people are anxious and divided in opinion on the length and the
greater or less importance of the short session announced for July 31.
It comes at an inconvenient time for discussing events in the
Peninsula, and the flood of oratory will probably embarrass the
Government. Were Don Carlos to prevail we should have a personal enemy
on our frontiers; if the Queen-Regent triumphs, which she can only do
by throwing herself more and more into the "movement," we shall have a
revolutionary and anarchist neighbour. This could not be indifferent
to our Government, which already has only too much of the same sort of
thing to contend with. It seems, moreover, that the two armies were
too near each other not to come to blows, and the first decisive
success of either side will probably settle the subsequent course of
the conflict. Thus the issue is awaited with great and anxious
curiosity.

Now that the quarrel is no longer being fought out in Portugal, but in
Spain, the English are drawing out of it, and will give only slight
support to their dear Miraflorès. The burden of the business is
reserved for France, and it bristles with difficulties.

In the City yesterday news was spread of the death of the
Queen-Regent. Some said she had been poisoned; some that she had died
of the results of the accident which had led to her retirement. The
news is probably false, but in a country like Spain, in time of civil
war, religious fanaticism, family jealousy and quarrels run riot; evil
passions of all sorts are let loose, and no crime is more improbable
than the daily spectacle of folly and disorder.

Mr. Stanley, who replaces Lord Howick as Under-Secretary of State at
the Home Office, is quite different from the Mr. Stanley who was
lately in office. He is a kind of would-be dandy, and a complete
Radical of the worst and lowest sort. He was for a time private
secretary to Lord Durham.

The latter has contemptuously refused the embassy at Paris, which, as
he well knew, was only offered to him because he is not wanted here.
He replied that he would accept no place from a Cabinet which would
not receive him as one of themselves. Lord Carlisle has resigned the
Privy Seal.

_London, July 24, 1834._--It was generally said yesterday that the
Infanta Maria Princess of Portugal and wife of Don Carlos, has also
secretly left England to follow her husband to Spain, leaving her
children here with her sister the Duchess of Beira. Princess Maria is
said to be possessed of much courage and decision of character.
Probably she thinks that she has more than her husband, and that her
presence will inspire the Pretender with all the energy which he needs
in his difficult situation. All these Portuguese Princesses are demons
either in politics or in love, and sometimes in both. One of them,
married to a Marquis de Loulé, had an adventure with a British naval
officer, which caused much scandal at Lisbon. M. de Loulé was furious
and sent away his wife, keeping the children. Dom Pedro required his
brother-in-law to take her back, but I did not hear how the matter
ended.

Princess Isabella also caused some talk while she was Regent, and Dom
Miguel, it is said, tried to give her poison in a vegetable soup. She
is now at Lisbon, reunited to the rest of her family, or, rather, her
relatives, for love and hate are alike so perverse in the House of
Braganza that they can hardly be said to respect in any way the
natural family ties.

_A propos_ of Pretenders and curious manners, Lord Burghersh yesterday
told me a great deal about the Countess of Albany, whom he knew at
Florence. There she had as _cavaliere servente_ M. Fabre, the painter,
who had lived with her since the death of Alfieri. They used to walk
out alone, with only M. Fabre's big dog to keep them company. They
also dined alone. From eight to eleven the Countess received all
Florence. While this was going on M. Fabre retired to a mistress of an
inferior order. At eleven he reappeared at the Countess's, and his
arrival was the signal for the whole company to disperse in order that
they might sup _tête-à-tête_. The one was never asked out without the
other; this is the etiquette in Italy, and is carried to a naïve
extreme. Here is an example: Lord Burghersh, who was British Minister
at Florence, opened his house with a great ball, to which he thought
that he had invited every one of importance. However, not being as
yet very well up in the manners and customs of society, he forgot to
invite a gentleman who was attached to a certain fair lady. On the
morning of the ball my lord's steward came to him with an open letter
which he had just received, and which he asked his master to read.
Lord Burghersh read as follows: "_Sapete, caro Matteo, che sono
servita da il Cavaliere_ so-and-so; he is not invited to Lord
Burghersh's, which, as you will understand, makes it impossible for me
to go to his ball; please correct this mistake." The mistake was, in
fact, corrected, and Lord Burghersh never forgot the lesson.
"_Sapete_" to a servant, and "_sono servita_" are expressions of a
_naïveté_ which is almost beyond belief, yet quite according to
Italian manners. But, to return to the Countess of Albany and M.
Fabre, her ladyship having died, M. Fabre painted a portrait of the
dog, the companion of their walks, had it engraved, and sent a proof
to each of the Countess's friends with the following inscription: "To
the friends of the Countess of Albany from M. Fabre's dog."

_London, July 25, 1834_.--The Ministry grows very bitter against Lord
Grey, being incensed at his dignified retirement and his just disdain
of the preposterous proposal of the Privy Seal. He is called weak,
incapable and capricious, and insult is added to perfidy. The thin
veil with which this treacherous conduct is covered does not conceal
it sufficiently to prevent Lord Grey himself from beginning to be
embittered by it. I know that he has said that if his successors went
another step in the direction of revolution he would not only cease to
vote for them but openly declare against them. Decidedly he has
returned to his better instincts, and I believe he will have the
courage to purge himself, so far as that is possible, of the
imputation of having led England along a road to ruin.

Lord John Russell the mildest, the wittiest, and the most honourable
of Jacobins, the most simple minded and the most candid of
revolutionaries, the most agreeable, but also by the very reason of
his virtue, the most dangerous of Ministers, was telling me yesterday
that some months ago he had a violent argument with Lord Grey about a
measure on which they did not agree. On this occasion, Lord Grey
declared to him that he would never consent to put his name to a
revolutionary measure. "After Reform," added Lord John in his mild
little way, "this showed great weakness and want of logic." "You would
be right," I replied, "if Lord Grey, when he allowed you to pass the
Reform Bill, had foreseen all the consequences; but you will agree
with me that he did not foresee them, and that you took good care not
to point them out to him in time." Lord John laughed and said very
charmingly, "You don't expect me to confess, do you?" If all the
revolutionaries were of the type of Cobbett and O'Connell, or of the
ill-bred and cynical nature of Lord Brougham, it would be easier to be
on one's guard. But in the witty, fragile figure of the Duke of
Bedford's son how could one suspect that there lurks so much
perversity of judgment, how could one imagine that a body to all
appearance so frail and exhausted could be capable of such persistence
in thought and such violence in action?

_London, July 29, 1834._--An expedition to Woburn Abbey has
interrupted this journal. This, the third visit which I have paid to
this splendid place, was much pleasanter to me personally than the two
others, but it has furnished me with nothing to add to my previous
descriptions of it. Nothing happened there at all out of the ordinary
course of English country-house life. The hospitality dispensed is on
a great and generous scale with a little more pomp and ceremony than
one wants in country life, at least according to Continental ideas.

A party at Woburn in particular is as carefully arranged as a London
dinner-party. Twenty or thirty persons who know each other, but not
familiarly, are invited to be together for two or three days. The
hosts go to their house for the special purpose of receiving their
guests, and return to town after their departure. They have thus
themselves the air of being on a visit. However, when all is said and
done, there is so much to see and admire; the Duke of Bedford is so
charming, such a perfect embodiment of the _grand seigneur_; the
Duchess is so attentive, that it is impossible not to carry away with
one the most pleasing impressions. My own impression was particularly
so, and this in spite of the rather melancholy cloud on the
countenances of some of the leading figures. Lord Grey, for instance,
has collapsed in a rather startling way; he seems ill and worn out,
and takes no trouble to conceal his attitude, which is becoming more
and more bitter. The most voluntary of abdications are always followed
by regrets; one may die of overwork; one flickers out when one is
shelved. It is so difficult to be satisfied both with one's self and
with others.

Madame de Lieven, also, despite all her efforts, was fainting under
the burden of saying good-bye, of going away and staying away. She is
really very unhappy, and I am very sorry for her. This is the more the
case as no person of ability has ever found less resources within
herself than she. She always relies for help on her surroundings. She
must have the stir of news and conversation, and when she is alone
there is nothing left for her to do but to go to sleep. She weeps to
have to quit England; she fears St. Petersburg, but what she feels
most is the journey--a week of solitude! Her husband and children
don't count! She will stay a day at Hamburg solely for the purpose of
exchanging a few words with new people. She seized with avidity the
idea of arranging that the Baron and Baroness de Talleyrand should
visit her, though she has never seen them and does not know whether
they will amuse her. She was obviously consoled when she managed to
persuade Lord Alvanley to go on his way to Carlsbad by Hamburg in the
same packet as herself, and this though Lord Alvanley warned her that
sea-sickness made him very bad company. For her, indeed, _ennui_ is
like a conscience; her one idea is to fly from herself.

When we got back to London we heard of the Madrid massacres--always
the same horrible fable of the poisoned wells, which infuriates
popular ignorance wherever there is an epidemic of cholera, and
produces mad atrocities. The monks have been the victims on this
occasion, and the convents have been pillaged in spite of religious
fanaticism. The hand of authority was weak and impotent: the
Government had retired to St. Ildephonse, terrified and irresolute,
not knowing whether in these melancholy circumstances of plague, riot
and civil war, the Cortès should be summoned or prorogued, or, if they
should be summoned, to what place or under whose auspices! It is
impossible to imagine a concourse of circumstances more melancholy in
themselves, more fatal for Spain, or more unpleasing neighbours for
France.

Louis-Philippe is very unwilling to interfere openly and directly in
the destinies of Spain. He has even showed this unwillingness so
clearly, that the Ambassadors at Paris have divined his secret and are
taking great advantage of it. The attitude of the Ministry, which has
to reckon more directly with the national vanity and susceptibility,
is much less decided. This is the situation in which the Chambers will
meet the day after to-morrow.

One of the chief ostensible motives for Marshal Soult's retirement was
his insistence on the appointment of a soldier to govern Algiers in
opposition to the rest of the Cabinet which demanded that the Governor
should be a civilian. It appears that Marshal Gérard took the same
line as his predecessor, and that his friendship with the King has
enabled him to carry his point; anyhow, General Drouet d'Erlou has
just been appointed to the post.

_London, July 31, 1834._--Last year, when M. de Talleyrand left for
the Continent, the King of England said to him, "When are you coming
back?" The year before he had said, "I have told my Ambassador at
Paris to say to your Government that I particularly wish to have you
here." This year he says, "When are you going?" I think one can find
in these varying expressions a trace of Palmerstonian influence.

Yesterday at the King's _levée_ Lord Mulgrave received the Privy Seal
which Lord Carlisle has resigned.

In our drawing-room the conversation turned on the talent of certain
people for telling ghost stories. This reminded me of the interest
with which two years ago at Kew[27] I heard from the Duchess of
Cumberland the story of an apparition seen by herself, the remembrance
of which seemed to cause her much emotion. The impression she produced
on us was the deeper as the hour was late and a terrifying
thunderstorm was raging outside the house.

  [27] Kew is situated on the right bank of the Thames. The palace
  was for some time the residence of the Duke and Duchess of
  Cumberland before their accession to the Throne of Hanover. There
  are an Observatory and a Botanical Garden at Kew, which were
  founded by George III.

The story is as follows. The Duchess of Cumberland, then Princess
Louise of Prussia, had gone to visit her mother's relatives at
Darmstadt. She was lodged in a state apartment in a part of the castle
which was rarely used, the furniture of which, though magnificent, had
not been changed for three generations. Wearied with her journey she
quickly fell asleep but all the same soon felt on her face a breath
which awakened her. She opened her eyes and saw the face of an old
lady who was leaning over her own face. Terrified by the sight she
immediately drew the bed-clothes over her eyes and remained motionless
for several moments. Want of air, however, made her change her
position and impelled by curiosity she again opened her eyes and saw
the same venerable face, pale and gentle, still staring at her. She
then screamed loudly and the nurse of Prince Frederick of Prussia who
slept with the child in the neighbouring room, the door of
communication being open, rushed in and, finding her mistress bathed
in a cold sweat, remained with her for the rest of the night. Next day
the Princess related what had happened, and urgently requested that
her room might be changed, which was done. No one was surprised for it
was said in the family that whenever any descendant of the old Duchess
of Darmstadt, who had occupied this apartment, slept there, this
venerable ancestress would come and pay her posterity a visit. The
Duke of Weimar and several other princes were cited as examples
proving the truth of this story. Many years later the Duchess of
Cumberland, then Princess Solms, and established at Frankfort, was
invited by her cousin, the Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt, to a great
festivity which he was preparing. The Princess went, intending to
return to Frankfort the same night. Supper over she went to a room
where her travelling dress had been laid out and was followed by the
young Grand Duchess then recently married. The latter asked the
Princess Solms whether the story of the ghost was true and asked that
it might be told her in detail. She wished to discover whether the
impression left had been strong enough to make the Princess remember
the features of their venerable ancestress. The Princess was sure that
it was so. "Very well," said the Grand Duchess "her portrait is in
this very room with two others of the same period. Take the light and
tell me which you think represents the spectre, I shall see if you are
right." The Princess with some repugnance approached the portraits and
had just recognised that of the old grandmother when the picture and
its frame crashed to the ground with a terrible noise and, had the
ladies not immediately fled, they would have been crushed by its
weight.

I do not say that this story is particularly good in itself. I only
know that it made a deep impression on me because it was very well
told, and because, when in this style of narrative you hear some one
say "I saw, I heard," it is impossible not to treat the matter
seriously. The Duchess was perfectly serious and her emotion strong,
so that I have never doubted the truth of what she told us.

The Duchess of Cumberland's absence has left, for me at least, a gap
which is very noticeable in London. She is clever and well educated,
her manners are most refined and very queenly, she is graceful and
kindly and still beautiful, especially in figure. Her kindness to me
has been enhanced by her again lately bestowing it on my second son.
In fact, whatever judgment be passed on her character, which is not
equally admired by everybody, it is impossible not to recognise that
she possesses great qualities and not to be touched by her great
affliction--the infirmity of her son Prince George. He is an amiable,
good-looking youth, who at fifteen after terrible suffering has lost
his sight. He is a fit object at once of pity and admiration; his
resignation is angelic, he shows no impatience, no regrets, no ill
temper, and he hides his sadness from his mother. He sustains the
courage of his attendants by his own, and, young as he is, he already
inspires all the respect due to a great character. His favourite
occupation is improvising on the piano, and his favourite melodies are
sad and serious; but when he recognises his mother's step he changes
to a gay and animated theme to make her think he is happy. So long as
it was hoped that remedies might check the inflammation and restore
him his sight his education was suspended. After a time, however, his
tutor--an excellent man--became convinced that his education was
suffering and his sight not profiting by this and he proposed that the
young Prince should resume the course of his studies and continue them
as far as possible without the aid of sight, on a plan submitted by
him. Prince George was silent for a time, then said with a serious
air, "Yes sir, you are right, I shall follow your advice for I feel
that as one door is being closed for me I must try all the harder to
open another."

_London, August 1, 1834._--What a melancholy dinner we had last night
at Lord Palmerston's! It was a farewell party for the Princesse de
Lieven. She went against her will, we simply for her sake. Lady Cowper
was making visible efforts to appear at ease, Lady Holland wanted
explanations of Lord Palmerston's latest offences against M. de
Talleyrand; every one obviously felt that our approaching departure
will be as final as that of the unfortunate Princess. M. de Bülow was
pale and embarrassed and looked like a pickpocket caught in the act.
Poor Dedel resembled an orphan at the funeral of both his parents.
Lord Melbourne with his coarse Norman farmer style of build looked
like anything rather than a Prime Minister.

The defeat which the Ministry purposely incurred yesterday in the
House of Commons by letting the Radicals beat them on the question of
the Irish Church did not make them look very happy, and in fact there
was a melancholy sense of embarrassment in everything and on
everybody, which oppressed me excessively.

I had not the courage this morning to go and say good-bye for the last
time to poor Madame de Lieven, who is half dead with weariness and
emotion. It was really kinder not to increase her agitation. I am
distressed at her departure as it separates me from a personage of
real distinction without much hope of seeing her again; but it also
brings home to me in the most painful manner the changes which have
taken place here during the last four years, and which have done so
much to dim the brilliancy and splendour of England. What losses the
_Corps Diplomatique_ has suffered! Kind and gentle M. Falk with all
his subtlety, his learning, and his wit, is replaced, first by the
cross-grained M. de Zuylen, and now by the excellent but insignificant
Dedel. Madame Falk's frank and simple high spirits are also much
missed. M. and Madame de Zea were more intelligent by far than the
liliputian Miraflorès, M. and Madame de Münster, were in every way
much superior to the Omptedas. I can find no one to replace the
excellent Madame de Bülow, and I believe that her absence has left her
husband's evil tendencies far too much without the check which his
wife's simple and honest nature imposed. Esterhazy is universally
regretted. His perfect good-humour, the certainty of his social touch,
the ease of his character, the magnificence of his way of life, the
subtlety of his wit, the correctness of his judgment, and the kindness
of his heart made him much beloved here, and not likely to be
forgotten. Wessenberg has also left a vacant place which has not been
filled. The departure of the Lievens enlarges the social breach, and
our own will complete the ruin. The neutral ground afforded by
diplomatic households is especially valuable in a country divided by
party spirit, in which, politics having broken so many other ties,
society can no long hold together in the old way.

We learned yesterday by telegraph that the Queen Regent of Spain had
opened the Cortès in person at Madrid on the 24th; that order was
restored in the city; that the cholera was diminishing a little; and
that Don Carlos was retiring further and further towards the French
frontier.

_London, August 3, 1834._--Nothing, I think, shows more clearly the
state into which the home policy of the English Government has fallen
than a remark made to me yesterday by Lord Sefton. "Do you know," he
said, "that, in spite of my admiration for Lord Grey, I think that we
have come to a point at which it is not only fortunate for himself but
a very good thing for the country that he has retired? He would never
have consented to the slightest courtesy being shown to O'Connell and
his friends, and yet we have no alternative but to satisfy them. It is
urgently necessary to conciliate them by condescensions against which
Lord Grey would have rebelled, and which are less repulsive to his
successors, from my friend the Chancellor downwards. It is a good
thing, you see, that we have a Government composed of people who have
no objection to condescend as much as may be necessary!"

There seems to be general approval of the speech made by the Queen of
Spain. In order to appreciate it properly one must know the condition
of the country better than I do. The best wish I can send her Majesty
is that she may not again have to deliver such a long one, and that
the circumstances of her future speeches may be very different. They
say that she spoke very gracefully. She deserves praise for having
recovered her nerve, and run the risk of infection in coming back to
address the Cortès.

The cholera is carrying off many people at Madrid. The sanitary
arrangements are bad; the heat is torrid, and cleanliness is unknown.
Twice as many women as men fall victims to the disease. The mother of
Madame de Miraflorès is among those who have succumbed.

Don Carlos, it appears, is on the point of recrossing the frontier. It
is said that he is so close to it that his outposts and the French
outposts are in sight of each other.

I don't know what ill wind is blowing in Paris, but I incline to think
that all is not so quiet there as it seems. Here is an extract from a
letter from Bertin de Veaux on this subject: "It seems that you and
the Prince de Talleyrand are fated never to come to Paris except
during a Ministerial crisis, for our Ministry is no steadier than
that in London. Here, moreover, people have made up their minds to
live from hand to mouth and, except the actors, no one pays any
attention to the play. However, when you do come your _salon_ will
soon be full, and it is before you and the Prince that all our actors,
great and small, will come and try their 'poses,' as they call them
nowadays."

In another letter there is a great deal about the dangers of to-day
and to-morrow, of the obvious aspirations of some people, of
under-currents and cross-currents, of the cabals, and the unmeasured
ambition of certain small men, and the ill-temper and sullenness of
the rest. _A propos_ of the cruel disappointments experienced by M.
Decazes, it is added: "Poor M. Decazes may strike the earth all round
him as loudly as he likes; he can make nothing emerge. It is said that
he now wants Semonville's place, and that he has perhaps some chance
of getting it as Semonville is a convenient person to disoblige, being
formidable to nobody. I do not at all like this habit of burying
people before they are dead, and I thought that they had had enough of
it since their attempt on MM. de Marbois and Gaëte, which was not a
success with the public. One is quite delighted when one comes home to
find that one has not been robbed of anything."

_London, August 4, 1834._--It seems certain that on the eve of the
opening of the Cortès, a very extensive Republican conspiracy was
discovered, in which many important persons were concerned. Palafox
and Romero have been arrested; they say that their supporters were
chiefly in Galicia. In Aragon and Catalonia the Carlists are the
dominating faction, and are making themselves troublesome. Thus there
are two flags under which Spain divides and arrays herself.

When Mr. Backhouse went to see Don Carlos in the _Donegal_ the latter
said that he had heard of the treaty of Quadruple Alliance, but wished
to see the text. Having read it, he returned it to Mr. Backhouse
without remark but with an ironical smile, which became a disdainful
laugh when Mr. Backhouse said to him that he believed the Prince to
be mistaken about the strength of his party in Spain. Except for this
the Prince was polite, gentle, and even kindly.

Parliament was to have risen on the 12th, and most members hoped to
leave London even earlier. But the day before yesterday the Duke of
Wellington called a meeting of his supporters at his house, and begged
them to remain at their posts in the interest of the safety of the
country, and to use their majority, which is admitted to be
formidable, on the dissenting question, to strike another blow for the
Church on the debate on the remaining measures which have still to be
discussed. There is some reason to fear that the Irish Protestant
clergy will be left without means of subsistence if O'Connell's Tithes
Bill is rejected, and this makes it rather doubtful what course the
Lords will take. The Bishops, however, seem to think that the Bill
would be just as bad for them as even the absence of any financial
provision. It is certain that this week marks the crisis of the
affair: if the Bill is thrown out there will be a collision between
the two Houses. Will the Ministry resign? Or will it demand _carte
blanche_ of the King? Will this be a further step in the direction of
revolution? Or will they be satisfied, as the Chancellor said
yesterday, to leave the Irish clergy to die of hunger? Lord Grey said
that it would not be so easy to leave them to die of hunger, as there
was a law which enacted that their subsistence must be provided for,
whether by tithes or otherwise. As to a creation of Peers, it was
observed that it would be necessary to create a hundred and fifty, and
on this Lord Grey said that two hundred would not be enough, because
all the old Peerage, and himself at their head, would revolt against
any Government mad and wicked enough to proceed to such an extremity.
Besides, it remained to be seen whether the King would consent. The
King is ill, depressed and exhausted; he admits as much himself, and
especially his mental preoccupation, which he does not attempt to
conceal. He is obviously suffering from extreme oppression, and from
great weakness of one eye, which he can hardly open.

This is what passed about the Garter vacant by the death of Lord
Bathurst. The King sent it to Lord Melbourne as his Prime Minister.
The latter respectfully declined it and begged that His Majesty would
bestow it on the recipient Lord Grey would have chosen, that is to
say, on the Duke of Grafton. The King did in fact send it to the Duke,
but he, deeply affected by the death of his favourite son, and
moreover feeling himself aged and averse from the world, begged His
Majesty to give it to some one who would be able to show it more
often, and who would be more active in his service. It is thought that
it will go to the Duke of Norfolk, but he is a Catholic, and it would
be the first instance of such a favour being conferred on a dissenter.

A heavy blow has just fallen on the Duke of Wellington in the midst of
the heavy cares which devolve on him as Leader of the Opposition. Mrs.
Arbuthnot, a clever and sensible woman, who was both discreet and
devoted and the Duke's faithful friend, has just been carried off by a
few days violent illness. She was in all the flower of her age, and
hitherto her health had been robust. The Duke has thus lost in one
week his old friend Lord Bathurst, and Mrs. Arbuthnot his confidante,
his consolation, his home! Deaths and departures make London very
dismal just now--every one is going about discomfited and with long
faces. People are terrified at the run of bad luck in which every day
brings forth some new catastrophe.

_London, August 5, 1834._--It is certain that Dom Miguel has signed
his protest. The Duke of Alcudia and M. de Lavradio are with him; they
are all preparing to join Don Carlos whenever he gains the slightest
success.

Lady Holland and Lady Cowper are doing all in their power to secure
that M. de Talleyrand and Lord Palmerston part on good terms. I can
understand that the friends of the latter should desire this. It is
important to them that there should not be occasion to blame Lord
Palmerston's personal incivility for the total dispersion of the more
important part of the _Corps diplomatique_, and that the evil
reputation of the English Ministry all over Europe should not be
emphasised by what M. de Talleyrand says of it at Paris. They will
succeed in securing an amicable parting without any overt rupture, but
it is impossible that a ferment which has been going on so long should
not issue in ill-feeling, embarrassment and rancour. M. de Talleyrand
could never forget that he has been uncivilly treated by a man younger
and less capable than himself. Lord Palmerston, not impertinent in
form, would take every opportunity of being so in fact, and this would
be all the easier as the age and indolence of M. de Talleyrand would
make it every day more easy to lead him into some false step. Nothing,
therefore, would be more ill-advised than to come back, and in spite
of all the pleasant and gratifying memories which attach me to
England, I confess that I shall be relieved on M. de Talleyrand's
account when he is out of public life.

_London, August 6, 1834._--It is confirmed that the Duke of Norfolk is
to have the Garter.

Spain is asking for additional articles in the Treaty of April 22
called the "Quadruple Alliance." She asks for British cruisers on the
coast of Biscaya, for a Portuguese army corps, for French money and
munitions of war and for troops on the French frontier. She asks all
her allies for the moral support of a declaration in favour of the
Regency, extending and explaining more fully the object of the first
treaty.

The prolonged uncertainty and ignorance regarding Rodil's movements
are causing anxiety about his success, and to the resulting alarm is
attributed the fall on the Stock Exchange at Paris. Ugly catastrophes
have occurred as the result of the particular misfortunes of the
moment. The Rothschilds who had flooded Europe with Spanish stock, and
who are still encumbered with a good deal themselves, are very cross
and extremely anxious.

Some clever people are saying that the Queen Regent's most serious
danger does not come from Don Carlos, but from what is called the
party of the "movement." One is much disposed to accept this view when
one thinks of the horrible remark made by Romero Alpuende, who called
the massacres at Madrid on July 17 "a slight measure of patriotic
relief."

_London, August 8, 1834._--Rodil, it seems clear, has gained a very
distinct success all along the line of the Carlists. In a regular war
this might end the struggle, but in a civil conflict ordinary rules do
not apply, and a party which seems annihilated to-day comes to life
again to-morrow.

M. de Talleyrand took leave of the King the day before yesterday. The
King was very gracious to him and to me, regretting that in the
absence of the Queen his bachelor establishment prevented him from
asking me to Windsor, where he would have been charmed to see me
before I left. This is more courteous than correct, for the Princess
Augusta is doing the honours of the Castle; ladies have been invited,
among others Lady Grey and her daughter. But it is nicely put and in
Society that is all one has a right to ask.

The King talked much about the seriousness of the situation and
observed that the cards were well shuffled, on which M. de Talleyrand
replied, "for our part, sir, we play with our cards on Your Majesty's
table."

_London, August 9, 1834._--I know nothing more embarrassing for a host
than obvious mutual hostility at close quarters among his guests.
Yesterday we thought we had escaped the Chancellor, but he came at
dessert and prolonged our dinner, eating much at his ease in his usual
dirty manner. As he ate he talked, helping himself to all subjects, as
he did to all the dishes, without stopping and without restraint. We
suffered agonies, especially on account of Lord and Lady Grey, and, in
fact, he put us all out completely, and increased, if possible, the
contempt and loathing that I feel for him.

Lord John Russell, who was dining with us, is also a little Radical,
but at least he has his father's good taste and good breeding.

Speaking of popularity and of the trouble which great people should
take for the less exalted classes of Society, Lord John told me
yesterday that nothing could overcome the Duke of Bedford's hatred of
the lesser people with whom he is surrounded. One day his steward
suggested that some of them should be asked to dinner and the Duke
refused. The man of business said, "But Your Grace, this civility will
perhaps save you fifteen thousand pounds at next election." "Perhaps,"
replied the Duke, "but if by spending money I can save myself boredom
and annoyance I consider it well spent. I will pay the fifteen
thousand pounds, but I will not give the dinner." Yet the Duke of
Bedford is very free handed, very charitable, and undertakes works on
a considerable scale solely in order to give employment to the poor.
However, he is not popular, and the wounded vanity of the middle
classes has more weight than the gratitude of the indigent whose
necessities he has relieved.

Lord and Lady Grey and their family, having, as they said, need of
change of scene and surroundings, wanted to come and pay us a visit in
France. But the sort of triumphal progress which would have awaited
Lord Grey there struck terror into the present Ministry, who would
have shrunk from the comparison of the honour done to their victim and
the contempt under which they themselves languish. So Lord Grey was
persuaded that if he went to France now it would look as if he went on
purpose to secure an ovation, which would be an improper thing to do.
Thus we shall not have the pleasure of seeing him, which I regret on
his account, as I fear that in his present irritable and painful mood
he may suffer real harm from solitude and ennui, and his wife also,
for she is even more deeply wounded than he is himself. Lord Grey has
worn himself out, morally and physically, with his labours. How much
better it would have been if he had resigned six weeks sooner--at the
same time as the four really distinguished and honourable members of
the Cabinet? He would then have marched out with all the honours of
war instead of laying down his arms!

Every one is bitten with the taste for travel, and the Lord
Chancellor, like the rest, had planned a holiday to be spent in a
picturesque and amorous pilgrimage on the banks of the Rhine in the
train of Mrs. Peter. But it seems from what he told me yesterday
himself that the King would not allow him. Since Lord Clarendon's time
no Chancellor of England has quitted the country, and the precedent is
not a happy one, for Lord Clarendon only went on his travels because
his master was in flight. Others say that the King has nothing to do
with the change in Lord Brougham's plans, but that the necessity of
paying fourteen hundred pounds out of his salary to arrange for a
Commission of the Seals in his absence is the real reason why he is
not going.

_London, August 11, 1834._--Lord Palmerston has given us a farewell
dinner. This is in his line; he loves to speed the parting guest. But
he did not take much trouble about it. Besides several diplomatists of
the second order there was no one there but Mrs. Peter--not a single
person of eminence in English Society, no one of those who are known
to be our friends. It was done as a duty, or, perhaps as an
atonement--nothing more. Perhaps he hates the Lievens more than he
does us, but he intends to advertise equally his contempt for both.

_A propos_ of the Flahauts, he put in an attempt at an explanation of
his never accepting a single one of our invitations. On this subject,
half laughingly and half bitterly, I told him a few home-truths, which
went off very well. There were many hints and double meanings and sly
digs in our conversation, which reminded me of those that take place
at the Opera ball, where the thought is all the freer for the
appearance being veiled and dissimulated. I amused myself by
frightening the "young man," as Madame de Lieven called him. He
thought it necessary to pretend to be most desirous of our prompt
return; I took him at his word, and said that I went further, and that
in my opinion M. de Talleyrand should not go away at all. He then
looked very foolish and went off on the other tack, saying that a
change of air was necessary and, in fact, indispensable; that one
required refreshment, both physical and mental--in short, all he
wanted was to see the last of us.

I looked at him closely yesterday. It is seldom that a man has a face
so expressive of his character. The eyes are hard and pale, the nose
turned up and impertinent. His smile is bitter, his laugh forced.
There is no dignity, or frankness, or correctness either in his
features or his build. His conversation is dry, but, I confess, not
wanting in wit. He has on him a stamp of obstinacy, arrogance, and
treachery, which I believe to be an exact reflection of his real
character.

_London, August 12, 1834._--In spite of the slow progress made by Don
Carlos it is difficult to be quite happy about the state of Spain.
General Alava, who has gone back there after many years of exile,
seems struck with the demoralisation and confusion which he sees. All
natural bonds are broken by party spirit--the ferocity and violence of
these Southern fanatics, no longer directed against the foreigner,
have recoiled cruelly on themselves. Republicanism is gaining
everywhere where religion is not on the side of the Legitimist party.
It appears with all the tawdry emotion of revolutionary eloquence in
the address of the Procuradores to the Queen-Regent. Already since the
opening of the Cortès the Ministry is at variance with the Second
Chamber, and one cannot think how a Regency with such a feeble
Government can possibly overcome so many adverse circumstances.

I lately saw, at Lord Palmerston's, a portrait of little Queen
Isabella II., sent by the Regent to his Lordship. To judge by this
picture, she is not at all a pretty child. She seems to have
insignificant eyes and her father's wicked mouth; and, on the whole,
is an ugly little Princess. It is a pity; women destined to sit on a
throne, especially a disputed one, find it a dangerous thing not to be
beautiful.

The species of bankruptcy proclaimed by M. de Toreno, which has proved
so fatal to a horde of small _rentiers_ at Paris, is making the little
Queen's cause unpopular there. It seems to me that this is in a way
fortunate; for if vanity and the _furia francese_ had rushed the
Government into taking too prominent a part in promoting the success
of their little neighbour, they would have found themselves drawn into
a series of embarrassments and into a network of dangers the effect of
which would have been incalculable. King Louis-Philippe is shrewd and
alert enough, where his own dynastic interests are concerned, not to
remain coldly aloof from this struggle, which cannot but end to his
disadvantage, whether anarchy triumphs under Isabella II. or
Legitimacy carries the day under Don Carlos. This being the case, it
would not be advisable to ruffle our other neighbours (for they are
neighbours and not allies) by too definite acts of intervention.
England alone is allied with us, but, undermined as she is by so many
internal wounds, can she still assert herself as she ought in the
councils of Europe? Certainly not; and she must be well aware of the
fact, for neither in the Eastern Question nor in any other question
which has come up during the last two years has England made good in
action the boasting of her language.

The cholera continues to ravage Madrid, attacking chiefly the upper
classes and particularly women. It has also appeared again, though
slightly, in Paris and London.

_London, August 13, 1834._--The Irish Tithes Bill has been rejected by
the House of Lords, as was expected, and by so large a majority that
it would be difficult to create enough new Peers to redress the
balance. And yet how can one imagine next Session opening with the
same Upper House and the same Ministry? The Ministry say that they
will not give in, that they care nothing for the House of Lords, and
will get on with the Commons alone without caring at all about the
Clergy or the Peers, and without paying much attention to the Crown.
It is the Crown that should assert itself at this juncture; but, alas!
the Crown is in a most benighted condition.

Lord Grey told me he did not agree with the Chancellor that the only
obstacles came from the House of Lords. He thinks that there will be
very serious trouble in the Commons, where Mr. Stanley, the
ex-Minister, is preparing a most violent attack on the Government.
Lord Grey has been staying away from the House of Lords; he feared he
might perhaps be forced to speak and that, not being able to hide his
distaste for the Cabinet's alliance with O'Connell, he might do an
injury to the Ministry for which he does not wish to be responsible.

_London, August 14, 1834._--Grandees of Spain, it seems, are allowed
to behave in a very free and easy way with their sovereigns. They
smoke cigars with them and often finish the cigar which the monarch
has left half consumed. The Duke of Frias, who was once Ambassador
here, is a curious, absurd, and absent-minded person who puts himself
about for nobody; he came back some time ago on a few days visit to
London. He went to the King's levée, and pushing forward his funny
little face said to His Majesty: "You must know me." The King, who at
first did not clearly remember him and was offended at the familiarity
of his manner, said: "No, I don't know you." "I was Ambassador here,"
replied the little Duke, "when you were _only_ Duke of Clarence." On
this the King very nearly lost his temper, and, waving him on,
repeated emphatically: "No, no, I don't know you." He then turned to
the Minister of the Netherlands who came next and said to him aloud:
"Who is that clown?" This was a curious scene.

_London, August 18, 1834._--For several days I have been oppressed by
the unwholesome atmosphere in which we live in London, profoundly
agitated by the illness of my friends, and overwhelmed with all the
preparations for my approaching departure. Thus my notes have been
neglected. I should have liked to set down some of my last
recollections of London, which are blurred with illness, anxiety and
regret, but which are none the less precious.

I have seen the Duke of Wellington and Lord Grey, who came to say
good-bye, and expressed a friendship and esteem which I consider a
great honour. Lord Grey I leave trying to quiet his conscience and to
deceive himself about the too rapid progress of his country's affairs,
which he has placed in a train that his successors will accelerate.

The Duke of Wellington is not deceived about the seriousness of the
situation, but he has made up his mind to struggle to the last and
doesn't know the meaning of discouragement. It is not that he wishes
to oppose all the proposals of the Ministry or to obstruct
systematically all administration and stop the machinery of
government. He is too honest a man for that. But he thinks it his duty
and that of the Upper House to make themselves a bulwark for the
protection of the ancient and fundamental bases of the constitution.
The personality of the King spoils almost every chance of safety. His
successor is a child with perhaps almost more against her, the more so
as her mother, the future Regent, seems to be very obstinate and very
narrow-minded.

It is impossible not to think with terror of the future of this great
country, which was still so brilliant and so proud four years ago when
I came to it, and whose glory is now so tarnished when I am leaving it
perhaps for ever.

I do not admit the possibility of M. de Talleyrand's coming back.
There are too many good reasons why he should not. I set them forth in
a letter which I have written to him and which describes his position
pretty correctly, so I insert it here.

"I have a serious duty towards you of which I am never more conscious
than when your glory is at stake. When I speak to you you sometimes
find me a little irritating, and then I am silent and do not tell you
all that I think--the whole truth. Allow me therefore to write to you,
and please forgive anything that may seem displeasing because of the
devotion which inspires what I write. Without claiming a very great
share of cleverness I don't think I am altogether at fault in forming
an opinion about you whom I know so well, and whose difficulties and
embarrassments I am in such a good position for observing. It is not
therefore lightly that I press you to abandon public life and to
retire from the scene where a disordered society is playing a sorry
part. Do not remain any longer at a post in which you will necessarily
be called upon to demolish the edifice which you have laboured so hard
to sustain. You know what I feared last year, and how greatly, when
you made up your mind to return to England. I foresaw all the
repugnance which you would find in performing your task with the
instruments at your disposal. Confess that my forebodings have to a
great extent been realised. This year there are a thousand additional
aggravating circumstances. Think of the circumstances in which you
would find yourself. What do we see in England? A society divided by
party spirit, and agitated by all the passions which arise from that
spirit, losing every day something of its brilliancy, its breeding and
its security, a King without firmness influenced chiefly by the very
man of all his Cabinet who has most injured you, a frivolous,
presumptuous, arrogant Minister, who pays you none of the respect due
to your age and position. He obstructs and impedes business by every
means in his power. His one thought is to secure the triumph of his
own ideas; he has no thought of educating himself by studying yours.
He leads you on from uncertainty to uncertainty, entraps you with
contradictions, leaves you in ignorance and doubt, carries on
independently of you things in which you ought to have a share, and
then glories in the success of his treachery and scorn. Do you think
you can preserve much longer with such a man, the dignity which befits
you? Do you not feel that it is already compromised, in fact, and soon
will be in the public eye? Moreover, do you think that an Ambassador
who is a great personage, a man of your social gifts, can be
acceptable to a Government which is being swept away by the current of
Revolution, especially when you have already enough to do to struggle
against a similar movement in your own country? You have founded an
alliance on a common basis of good order, stable equilibrium, and
conservation of existing institutions. Will it please you to continue
it on the basis of common sympathy with anarchy?

"Do not forget that the support and consolation which you have found
for several years in your relations with your colleagues will no
longer be there, now that the face of the Diplomatic Corps in London
has changed so much. The new Spain, the new Portugal, the shapeless
form of Belgium, are the only conspicuous features, as impudent as
they are vulgar. You would therefore be isolated in England and in the
trying situation which would be the result, where would you find
support? Not in the Government you represent, for pettiness,
indiscretion, vanity, and intrigue dominate everything in Paris. Only
the greatness of your position in London enabled you to hold them in
check. Our little Ministers are more on Lord Granville's side than
ours, and you would not have their support in dominating things here.
You came here four years ago, not to make your fortune, your career or
your reputation. All these were made long ago; you came, not out of
affection for those who are conducting our government, for whom you
have neither love nor affection. You came solely to render a great
service to your country at a moment of the gravest peril. It was a
perilous enterprise at your age! It was a bold thing to reappear to
still the storm after fifteen years of retirement! You accomplished
what you attempted; let that suffice you. Henceforth you can do
nothing but diminish the importance of what you have done. Remember
the truth of Lord Grey's words: 'When one has kept one's health, and
one's faculties, one may still at an advanced age usefully occupy
one's self with public affairs. But, in critical times like the
present, a degree of attention, activity and energy is required which
belongs only to the prime of life and not to its decline.' When one is
young, one moment is as good as another for joining in the fray; when
one is old the only thing to do is to choose a good time for leaving
it. Here Lord Grey was the last, all too feeble barrier against the
revolutionary spirit; here you have been the last barrier against the
struggle of the powers with each other. Lord Grey realised too late
that he was being carried away by the torrent; do you not also feel
that your influence has become as inadequate as his? The noble and
touching farewell words of Lord Grey threw a last fleeting ray of
light on his career; his retirement became a triumph; another day and
he was effaced! The last two champions of the old Europe should quit
public life at the same time. May they carry with them into their
retirement the consciousness of their efforts and their services, and
may history one day show that the coincidence of their departures was
honourable to both.

"This and only this I conceive to be the fitting close of your public
life. All considerations which might lead you to think otherwise are
unworthy of you. You cannot be influenced by the possibility of a
little more amusement, a few more social resources. Are you to count
the trifling excitements of dispatches, couriers, and news? The
interest produced by such things is too often a child's plaything. Are
we even to consider the more or less material tranquillity we enjoy?
Is the epoch of shocks and revolutionary torments at an end in France?
I do not know. Is it more or less distant in England? I cannot tell.
Will solitude be trying? Shall we seek distraction in travel? What in
a word will be the arrangement of our private life? What does it
matter? I am younger than you, and might, perhaps, more naturally take
some thought for that; but I should think myself unworthy of your
confidence and of the truth which I am now venturing to tell you if
the slightest consideration of my own comfort made me keep anything
from you. When one is a historical personage as you are, one has no
right to think of any other future than the future of history.
History, as you know, judges the end of a man's life more severely
than the beginning. If, as I am proud to believe, you think as highly
of my judgment as of my affection, you will be as frank with yourself
as I am with you now. You will have done with all self-created
illusions, all specious arguments and subtle pieces of self-love, and
you will put an end to a situation which would soon lower you in other
eyes than mine. Do not bargain with the public. Dictate its judgment,
do not submit to it. Confess that you are old in order that people may
not say that you are aging. Say nobly and simply before all the world,
'The time has come!'"

Dom Miguel has left Genoa and has been seen at Savona. This is
particularly displeasing to Lord Palmerston.

_London, August 19, 1834._--It appears that while Dom Miguel was at
Savona several vessels were seen in the offing which hoisted English
colours and made many signals, following which Dom Miguel is said to
have returned to Genoa. This is what was being said yesterday, but no
explanation is forthcoming.

_London, August 20, 1834._--M. de Talleyrand left London yesterday,
probably never to return. That, at least, is what he said himself.

There is always something solemn and peculiarly painful in doing a
thing for the last time, in departure, in absence, in saying good-bye,
especially when one is eighty. I think he felt it, I know I feel it
for him. Besides, surrounded as I am with illness, and ill myself,
this being the anniversary of my mother's death, remembering all the
pleasant things that have happened to me in England, I feel very weak
and discouraged by the thought of departure. I said good-bye to M. de
Talleyrand with a heart-sinking as great as if I was not to see him
again in four days, and I might well have said to him as I said to
Madame de Lieven, "I mourn my departure in yours."

M. de Talleyrand's last impressions of his public life here were not
precisely agreeable. After many hours spent at the Foreign Office in
the company of M. de Miraflorès, of M. de Sarmento, and of Lord
Palmerston, who, as usual, kept everybody waiting a long time, the
additional articles (which are of no great importance) of the Treaty
of April 22, the Quadruple Alliance, were signed in the middle of the
night. Lord Palmerston wanted to extend the scope of the Treaty. M. de
Talleyrand, on the other hand, desired rather to narrow its
obligations. Lord Granville's absence from Paris had left the French
Government free from this source of obsession, so they held their
ground and authorised M. de Talleyrand to maintain his position, and
Lord Palmerston gained nothing by his wilfulness, Lord Holland by his
draughtsmanship, or Miraflorès by his antics.

There are two stories which I have heard M. de Talleyrand tell so
often that for me they have lost their freshness. They seemed very
good when first I heard them, so I will set them down here. They both
have to do with the campaigns of the Emperor Napoleon, which ended in
the Peace of Tilsit.

At Warsaw, where he remained during part of the winter of 1806-7, the
Emperor received an ambassador[28] from Persia, who seems to have been
a man of wit. At any rate, M. de Talleyrand says that Napoleon asked
the Persian whether he was not surprised to find a Western Emperor so
near the East, and that the Ambassador replied, "No, sir, for
Tah-masp-Kouli-Khan got even nearer." I have always had my doubts
about the authenticity of this retort, which, I believe, to have been
invented by M. de Talleyrand himself in one of his moments of
irritation against the Emperor, an irritation to which he gave vent in
malicious sayings usually attributed to other people. Some, however,
he acknowledged as his own, and, indeed, I have heard them said for
the first time; such, for instance, as his remark in 1812, "It is the
beginning of the end" (_C'est le commencement de la fin_), which has
been so often quoted since, which has received such numerous
applications, and has become public property and almost a commonplace.
The unfortunate campaign of 1812 inspired more than one of M. de
Talleyrand's most mordant sayings. I remember one day M. de Dalberg
came to my mother's, and said that all the _matériel_ of the army was
lost. "Not at all," said M. de Talleyrand, "for the Duc de Bassano has
just arrived." The Duc de Bassano was at that particular time, and for
a very good reason, the object of M. de Talleyrand's displeasure. The
Emperor desired to recall M. de Talleyrand to office, and it had been
agreed that he should follow His Majesty to Warsaw. This was to remain
a secret until the day of his departure. The Emperor, however, told
the Duc de Bassano who, being disturbed at the revival of a favour
which might disturb his own position, told his wife. She took it upon
herself to put an end to the affair, and used, for this purpose, a M.
de Rambuteau, a talkative, pompous, and smooth-spoken person,
pretentious and pliant at the same time, who fancied himself in love
with the Duchess, and did her husband's dirty work. M. de Rambuteau,
then, having been thoroughly coached by the Duchesse de Bassano, went
about everywhere spreading the news of the journey to Warsaw, saying
that M. de Talleyrand was boasting about it and telling every one. The
Emperor was offended, and M. de Talleyrand remained in France
preparing reprisals.

  [28] Myrza-Rhyza-Kan, Envoy Extraordinary of Seth-Ali, Shah of
  Persia, to Napoleon I, at Warsaw, in March 1807.

But to come to the second story which M. de Talleyrand so often
tells--he says that the Persian Ambassador, who made such subtly witty
replies to the Emperor Napoleon, was a very tall, handsome man,
whereas another Oriental, the Turkish Ambassador,[29] was a little
man, short, squat, common and ridiculous. At a great ball, given by
Count Potocki, the two Ambassadors were ascending the staircase
together, and the little Turk darted forward in order to enter the
ball-room before his colleague. The latter, seeing himself passed,
stretched out his arm so as to make a kind of yoke, under which he
calmly allowed the Mussulman to pass.

  [29] Eminin-Effendi, accredited by the Sultan Mustapha IV. to the
  Emperor Napoleon at Warsaw in March 1807.

_London, August 22, 1834._--The English Ministers wished to insert in
the King's Speech on the prorogation of Parliament a phrase very
offensive to the Upper House, in revenge for the rejection of the
Dissenters Bill and The Protestant Clergy in Ireland Tithes Bill. But
the King opposed this with sufficient firmness to secure the
abandonment of the phrase, after a very sharp struggle which rather
delayed the hour of the sitting.

The Queen has returned from her journey and has been received with
ceremonious cordiality by the City of London, the chief magistrates of
which went out to meet her. Her health is better. I think with
pleasure of all the consolations which Providence in its equity
reserves for her.

M. de Bülow announces that he has applied for leave of absence on
family affairs and that he is sure to obtain it. He says he wants to
go to the Hague to face the storm there, and having dispersed it at
the Hague, to face more boldly that which he foresees at Berlin. I
believe he will in fact go to the Hague, but much more for the purpose
of rehabilitating himself by a few platitudes than of fighting his
quarrel to a finish. He does not wish to reach Berlin until he has
received absolution at the Hague; that at least is my opinion.

_London, August 23, 1834._--Here I end my London Journal with the
regret that I did not begin it sooner. It would perhaps have possessed
greater interest if I had. But four years ago when I arrived in this
city I had neither pleasant memories of the past nor much interest in
the present, nor much thought for the future. I then asked no more of
each day as it succeeded its predecessor than a little distraction,
and I paid little attention to the features which marked out each from
the other....

_Dover, August 24, 1834._--I was quite astonished to find myself
expected here and all along the road. The Duke of Wellington who goes
this way to Walmer Castle, his residence as Lord Warden of the Cinque
Ports, had announced my arrival. A single family named Wright, who are
very excellent people, keep almost all the inns on the road.

Last year after a storm I was received here by a very pretty Mrs.
Wright, who kept the Ship Hotel. She had the manner of a Queen and it
was only to-day that I learned that she had been one--on the stage,
and that her husband had been ruined by her extravagance. The hotel is
now kept by people called Warburton, who do it in great style. I was
again struck by the respectful politeness with which one is received
in English inns when one changes horses, and with the pleasant
language and good manners of the humblest people. On the way I heard
of the Duke of Wellington, of the death of Mrs. Arbuthnot, of the
passage of M. de Talleyrand, of the desire to see us back in England,
and all this in the most charming way possible.

I am to sail in a French packet--the weather is good and the sea calm.
Farewell to England, but not to the memory of the four happy years
which I have spent there, and which have passed with a rapidity to be
explained by the interest of the events which have happened, and the
particular sources of pleasure and contentment which I have found
there! Farewell once more to this hospitable country which I leave
with regrets and gratitude!

_Paris, August 27, 1834._--I arrived here yesterday evening at ten
o'clock to find M. de Talleyrand awaiting me. The general impression I
got of him was that he was rather depressed and bored; yet he said he
was very much pleased with the Tuileries where he seems to be much in
fashion. He also says that he is so popular in Paris that the
passers-by stop before his carriage and lift their hats to him; but in
spite of all this he repeats that he knows no one here, that he is
bored and that every one is aged and worn out.

_Paris, August 28, 1834._--I was at Saint-Cloud yesterday. The King
did me the honour to speak to me a great deal, perhaps too much, for I
had to say something on my side, and at Court my one desire is to be
silent. This conversation, however, was very interesting, for the
King, who is witty on all subjects and intelligent about everything,
talked about many things--the state of England at present, the
break-up of which is so disquieting for her neighbours, Lord Grey's
retirement which is greatly deplored here, Don Carlos's departure from
England and the part great or small which the Duke of Wellington
played in bringing it about. Here he is supposed to have arranged it
all, a belief which I vigorously combated as I believed myself in duty
bound to do. Then we talked of intervention in Spain, then of the
Salic Law and in fact of everything that is occupying people just now.
The King talked very well. He insisted much on the fact that he alone
had opposed the immediate intervention demanded by his Ministers, and
closing his large hand he showed me his fist and said, "Do you
understand Madame? I had to hold back by the mane steeds which have
neither mouth nor bridle!"

As regards the Salic law he said, "I am 'Salic law' to my finger tips;
the Dukes of Orleans always have been, you will believe me when I say
so. But when I struggled for the law they thought that I should have
less chance if it were destroyed, so every one lent a hand in its
destruction instead of helping me to maintain it. I was left alone to
fight French ignorance and vanity and all the other difficulties of
the situation, and now I am reproached with having abandoned my own
cause in that of Don Carlos. I have no enmity against him, no love for
Isabella, but people would have what has come to pass. The two years
before I came to the Throne saw the preparation of the deplorable
state of things which now prevails in the Peninsula. However, whether
Anarchy triumphs under Isabella, or the Inquisition under Don Carlos,
I may be troubled by them being my neighbours, but I cannot be shaken.
We have made enormous internal progress, though I admit that much
remains to be done, and with what instruments!"

The King then entered into many details relating to the troubles of
his office and ended by saying, "Madame you must know that I have to
be the Director in everything and the Master in nothing."

_A propos_ of the state of England, and of the complications which
will arise there owing to the age and sex of the heir to the throne,
His Majesty said, "What a deplorable thing it is to see all these
little girl Kings in a time like the present!" He went on to a
dissertation full of real eloquence on the disadvantages of female
rule, then suddenly stopped with a polite phrase and a sort of apology
which was quite unnecessary. So I said that I thought that what M. de
Talleyrand said of wits was true of women, "they were useful for
anything but sufficient for nothing."

The King then talked for a long time about the restorations at
Versailles and Fontainebleau. He has had Louis XIV.'s room at
Versailles refurnished exactly as it was, that is with hangings
embroidered by the Demoiselles de Saint-Cyr. One panel represents the
Sacrifice of Abraham, a second that of Iphigenia, a third the loves of
Armida. The King has had replaced in this room a portrait of Madame de
Maintenon giving a lesson to Mlle. de Nantes. Versailles will be a
true Museum of the history of France. I am grateful to the King for
his respect for tradition; our historic monuments will owe him a great
deal.

What a sad letter Alava writes from Milan! He paints a most melancholy
picture of Spain, and can foresee only a series of circumstances, each
of which will be more fatal than the other. He tells me that the
ignorance and presumption there are beyond belief, and that the
half-knowledge of things which comes from France and England is
perhaps doing more harm than absolute ignorance. The state of
bankruptcy there is flagrant; the cholera is more horrible than
elsewhere, and is made worse by the stupidity of the people who at the
funerals of cholera victims are seen eating tomatoes and cucumbers
raw! At Segovia, on the other hand, the sanitary junta ordered that in
each house visited by the epidemic all the effects of the deceased
should be burned and all the survivors shut up in the hospital,
including the priest present during the last moments of the departed!

_Paris, August 29, 1834._--How excited and busy every one is at Paris!
How their minds work! How completely tranquillity and calm are unknown
here! Yet there is progress and amelioration everywhere, but without
regularity or measure. There are so many small intrigues, small
passions and small cabals to exhaust people that no one can enjoy what
is good or rest his soul in the prospect of a quiet future. This
feverish way of living consumes people, and I find the members of the
French Cabinet appallingly aged. They are little old men with the
saddest air in the world.

M. Thiers has passed through a series of disillusions and
embarrassments which have made him wish for retirement; he feels
humiliated and discouraged. The King has supported him, cheered him up
and protected him, and has not been sorry to make this protection
felt. He even said, "It is no bad thing that _Messieurs les gens
d'esprit_ should see from time to time that they have need of the
King."

M. le Duc d'Orléans spent an hour with me. He is anxious to be married
and is determined to be so. He is weary both of dissipation and of the
youthful frivolities which are injuring and belittling him. He is
also disgusted with the real inactivity of his public life. He desires
a home, a house of his own. He wishes to take root, to form a circle,
to settle down, in short, to get older. All these views are very
proper.

The choice of a wife is the more difficult, as there are more
prejudices than ever to overcome. The Russian Grand-duchess would be
the most brilliant marriage, but would they have him? Then there are
some sentimental regrets for Poland here which would make such a
marriage unpopular in France and perhaps impossible in Russia. An
Austrian Arch-duchess would not be very easy to get, and besides,
alliances in that quarter always seem to be unlucky. The King of
Prussia's niece, to whom Louis-Philippe inclines, seems to be
insignificant in appearance and delicate in health. She has been
brought up in habits of parsimony, and the possible subjects of
quarrel which might arise between two Powers between whom the Rhine is
in dispute, make the Duke somewhat averse from the Prussian Princess.
From reports which are current it appears that the young Prince is
more in favour of the second daughter of the King of Würtemberg, who
is tall, well made, pretty, witty and vivacious. She takes it from her
mother, the Grand-duchess Catherine of Russia, one of the most
distinguished women of her time, and, when she wished to be so, very
charming. She was, however, an ambitious, restless and intriguing
person, and I hope that her daughter does not resemble her in
everything. M. le Duc d'Orléans asked for M. de Talleyrand's advice
and mine on the subject; we asked for time to reflect.

The Prince has invited himself to Valençay for the beginning of
October to talk all this over at our ease. He has sense and a good
judgment, and is not without ambition. There are excellent features in
his character, but both his qualities and his defects make a
distinguished wife essential.

They say that Marshal Gérard is not pleased with his post as Minister
of War. It appears that he only took it on a promise of a portfolio
for his brother-in-law M. de Celles--a foolish and impracticable idea.
However, they promised in order to persuade the Marshal to accept,
and then were not ashamed to break their word.

As to the marriage of the Prince Royal, I see that the question of
religion is indifferent to him and of secondary importance to the
King. The Queen alone would stand out for a preliminary conversion,
but no rupture of negotiations would occur on this point.

The exaggerated ideas of the King of Naples on the subject of the
Princess Marie's dowry have suspended all idea of a marriage in that
quarter. There is general regret in the Royal Family except on the
part of the Princess herself, who dreams of continuing here her aunt's
existence, which she thinks charming.

_Paris, August 30, 1834._--From what M. Thiers tells me, it seems that
the King, on Marshal Soult's retirement, thought of summoning M. de
Talleyrand to the Presidency of the Council. This idea is even now
again in his mind when he thinks of Marshal Gérard's probable
retirement. But M. de Talleyrand would not accept on any account and
besides, as Thiers said to the King, "Madame de Dino does not wish
it."

At dinner yesterday at Saint-Cloud the King spoke to me with much
acrimony of the Duc de Broglie who, he said, had wished to keep him
out of everything. He complained bitterly of the Duke's conduct. He
complains of a good many people, but is arranging with Rigny and
counting on M. Thiers.

M. de Talleyrand is very much the fashion indeed at the Palace because
he is saying everywhere that the King should have a free hand. I am
also the fashion because I am a good listener, and because I say, as I
think, that the King is the cleverest man in France. The King speaks
on all subjects very well, a great deal, and at great length. He
listens to himself, and, at least, is conscious of his ability. He
loves the memory of the Regent, of whom Saint-Cloud naturally reminds
him. He told me that Louis XVIII. also loved his memory and appeared
much shocked at the calumnies of which he had been the object. "I," he
said, "am his best justification." But when Louis XVIII. said all
this he ended curiously, for, having insisted on the outrageous
character of these calumnies, he added, "Nevertheless, the verses of
Lagrange-Chancel are so good that I have them by heart and like to say
them over."[30] This was a curious conclusion to come to in a
conversation with the present King.

  [30] Lagrange-Chancel was concerned in the conspiracy of
  Cellamare, and launched against Philippe d'Orléans three virulent
  pamphlets in verse, which were soon followed by two others.
  (_Philippiques_, 1720.)

_Paris, September 1, 1834._--This morning I saw M. de Rigny, who told
me that the news from Spain was most embarrassing. Martinez de la Rosa
is beginning to say that without the armed intervention of France all
will go to the devil. The King is very strongly against intervention,
much more so than his Ministers, who seem to me to be much agitated by
this terrible neighbour.

Hatred of Lord Palmerston is so general here that no one troubles to
conceal it. M. de Rigny is deafened by it on all sides. _A propos_ of
this he told me that as Palmerston's exhibitions of arrogance and his
hostile demonstrations were never, in fact, followed by any action,
they had ceased to make any impression, and that people only said,
"Ah, that's only one of Palmerston's little outbursts!" and then
thought no more of it.

M. Guizot has succeeded to Rigny's place in this house; he is much
pleased with the internal condition of the country, but he justly says
that, if in addition to our domestic difficulties we had to interfere
in a revolution in Spain, and were to be at the same time confronted
with one in England we should indeed be undone. It seems certain that
the new Chamber of Deputies is infinitely better than the last, and
that it is recruited from a higher class. Material progress has also
sensibly advanced. France left to herself without external
embarrassments is evidently in a very good way indeed.

Prince Czartoriski, very languid as usual, also came in; he intends to
establish himself definitely at Paris.

At last I have been able to go out and call on the Werthers, where I
heard more complaints of Palmerston. When I came back M. de Talleyrand
set me to arranging papers, and I turned up a curious letter, signed
Ferdinand, Carlos, Antonio, which was written from Valençay by these
three Princes to express their gratitude and affection.

_Paris, September 2, 1834._--I have had a visit from M. Thiers, who
told me what follows. All reports from Spain agree that Don Carlos
will have just as many men as he can get muskets, and that he is only
waiting for a consignment of arms to march on Madrid, where everything
is going wrong. Dom Miguel in his turn is preparing to reappear in the
Peninsula. If, therefore, the blockade is not effective enough to
prevent the importation of arms the Queen's cause is desperate, unless
France intervenes actively in Spanish affairs. The question may arise
in an acute form at any moment and opinion is much divided. Bertin de
Veaux and some others are in favour of armed intervention if it should
become necessary to save the Queen, because, they say, if Don Carlos
triumphs Carlism will become everywhere audacious, and France will
have an implacable enemy on her frontiers. With so immediate a danger
behind her here, every movement would be paralysed in a war, which
would be all the more likely to be forced on her, and her chances of
success the less. To this the King and M. de Talleyrand reply: "But if
you intervene you will have war all the sooner! And, moreover, who is
going to help you? Is England, undermined by her internal troubles,
likely to be of any assistance?" To that the answer is: "Her
neutrality is enough." "But can you count on her neutrality. Does it
not depend on the duration and composition of the present Cabinet,
whose existence is extremely doubtful?" M. de Rigny is much distracted
by these conflicting opinions and is terribly embarrassed. Every one
is racking their brains for an expedient.

_Rochecotte,[31] September 7, 1834._--The weather, which had been
wretched for two whole days, improved yesterday, and a veritable sun
of Austerlitz pierced the clouds to welcome my arrival at
Langeais.[32] All the town surrounded the carriage, and all along the
road, till I reached this place. I received many greetings and saw
many smiling faces which much pleased me.

  [31] Rochecotte is a château built at the end of the eighteenth
  century which the Duchesse de Dino bought in 1825, and afterwards
  improved and greatly extended. In 1847 she presented it to her
  daughter the Marquise de Castellane. Rochecotte is charmingly
  situated on the slope of the Loire Valley, commanding the village
  of Saint Patrice, in the Department of Indre et Loire.

  [32] Langeais is a large town rather more than two leagues from
  Rochecotte. It is situate on the right bank of the Loire, and is
  dominated by a castle built in 992, and reconstructed in the
  thirteenth century by Pierre de la Brosse. In 1491 the marriage
  of King Charles VIII. and Anne de Bretagne was solemnised there.

The valley is very green, the Loire is full; the careful cultivation
and the resulting richness are admirable; the hemp, which is one of
the local industries, is as high as the vegetation of the Tropics, and
in fact I am delighted with all I see.

_Rochecotte, September 8, 1834._--My life here is neither political
nor social, and can be of no general interest. I will, however,
continue to note the little incidents which strike me.

Yesterday, after luncheon, while I was resting my poor head in a
_chaise longue_ in the salon, the Abbé Girolet sat beside me in a
large arm-chair and told me he had a favour to ask. This was that I
should undertake to be his sole executor. He has little of value to
leave, and the charges on the succession will absorb at least the
whole of it, but there was no one but me whom he could trust to look
after his servants and his pensioners, and if I would do so he could
die happy. I said he should do as he liked, and asked him to leave
everything to me as he wished, but to spare me details then which
would be painful to me, and which in any case I should learn only too
soon. He took my hand and thanked me warmly for what he calls my
kindness to him, and then after this momentary effort relapsed into
the silent, almost somnolent condition from which he rarely emerges.

_Valençay, September 11, 1834._--I arrived here yesterday evening,
having stopped for a little on the way at Bretonneau's charming
country house near Tours, and having admired the delightful road from
Tours to Blois, which is so full of memories for me. It was dark,
except for the moon, when I reached the post station of Selles, where
I was expected. At the first crack of the postillion's whip every
window was lit up with candles by the inhabitants, the effect of which
was quite like an illumination. While they were changing horses the
population surrounded the carriage with cries of welcome. Even the
Sister Superior of the hospital, an old friend of mine, came to the
door of the carriage to speak to me though it was nine o'clock. I was
quite deafened and overwhelmed, but at the same time much touched. It
was more than four years since I had passed that way, and I was far
from expecting that they would remember the few services I rendered
them in old times.

At last, at ten o'clock, under a magnificent moon, I reached my
destination in the splendid courts of Valençay. M. de Talleyrand,
Pauline, Mlle. Henriette,[33] Demion, and all the servants were under
the arcades with many lights. It made a pretty picture.

  [33] Mlle. Henriette Larcher, governess to Mlle. Pauline de
  Périgord.

_Valençay, September 12, 1834._--Here is the principal passage in a
letter from Madame Adélaïde to M. de Talleyrand: "You will no doubt
remember the discussion which took place in my room on the absurdity,
the danger, and the uselessness of declaring war on Don Carlos. It
seems, nevertheless, that some people wish to raise the question
again. You treated the question in my presence in a manner so lucid
and convincing that one would hardly have thought that it would have
come up again. However, I think it right to warn you that there is a
danger of it, and you would do well to make clear in England the
danger of taking this false step, which can only end in evil. It seems
that England is embarrassed by a promise to furnish Spain with naval
assistance, and that this absurd proposition is being entertained as a
way out of that promise. I think, therefore, that it would be well if
you at once wrote to England on the subject. I attach great importance
to this, for no one can do it so well or so effectively as you."

Here now is M. de Talleyrand's answer.[34] "I implore the King to
persist in his refusal to declare war against Don Carlos, for I think
that this would be the most deplorable way of smoothing the
embarrassment of the English Ministers. I am not surprised that they
are embarrassed; I have been expecting that they would be so for a
very long time. I have never been able to understand the levity with
which during the last two years they have been throwing themselves
into all the difficulties which have arisen in the Peninsula. In 1830
London was the appointed place, the only suitable scene for
negotiations on a great scale. Now England gets nearer to disorder as
France recedes further from it, and the negotiations should be brought
back to Paris and conducted under the eagle eye of the King. England
will not dare to venture alone, and the other Powers will range
themselves on our side in disapproving a declaration of war. Thus we
shall risk nothing in refusing to declare war. It will be a good thing
to gain time, and Lord Granville's absence from Paris gives us a
pretext for avoiding a peremptory answer. If I hesitate to obey the
suggestion that I should write to England on the subject, it is that I
have reason to believe that any letter would produce an effect
contrary to that which I should desire. The English Cabinet has lately
found me reserved and cold, and careful to avoid entangling my
Government in any of the troublesome complications of the Peninsula. I
cannot doubt that they distrusted me in all these transactions, and
were offended at my lack of enthusiasm. Now that the English Ministers
are embarrassed by promises which I allowed them to make without
allowing France to participate, they are not likely to receive with
goodwill either my advice or my warning."

  [34] This letter has already been published in the little book by
  the Countess de Mirabeau entitled, _Le Prince de Talleyrand et la
  Maison d'Orléans_, which appeared in 1890.

Madame de Lieven writes most kindly from St. Petersburg; she will soon
be left alone with her pupil, with whom she is much pleased. The
Emperor goes to Moscow, the Empress to Berlin, and then the Lievens
enter on their duties and go into their own house, about which she
seems to me, very naturally, to be rather in a hurry. I think her
teeth are on edge already, though she is consoled by her august hosts.

_Valençay, September 16, 1834._--Labouchère, who arrived here
yesterday, says nothing can be compared to M. de Toreno's conduct but
that of the Rothschilds.[35] The former, before declaring the
bankruptcy of the Spanish Government, sold out huge quantities of
stock, speculating in the opposite sense from the Jews, and, as he was
in the secret, he not only consolidated his personal position, which
was very insecure, but made enormous profits, while almost every place
in Europe has been very badly hit.

  [35] See the London _Chronicle_ for August 6, 1834.

_Valençay, September 25, 1834._--Here is an extract from a letter
written by M. de Rigny to M. de Talleyrand: "Calm is restored at
Constantinople, but Mehemet Ali is furious at the obstinacy of the
Porte and talks of independence; we are going to try to soothe this
feverish attack. Toreno, from being the adversary of the French
creditors, has constituted himself almost their champion; we shall
know to-morrow or the day after what resolution has been adopted by
the Cortès. Meanwhile, however, things are going no better in Spain,
and at Madrid they are beginning to talk loudly of the necessity for
our intervention. They wished to replace Rodil by Mina, but they are
being treated with great coolness at St. Petersburg for not being
present at the inauguration of the column.

"I saw yesterday a letter from Lord Holland, who is congratulating
himself on the stability of the English Ministry; I don't know what
that is worth.

"Semonville has sent in his resignation in writing. He would have
wished Bassano to be his successor; the place has actually been given
to Decazes, which perhaps you won't think any better. Molé refuses to
be Vice-President, being wounded at Broglie being put before him. That
is his whole reason. Is it _reasonable_? Villemain refuses to be
Perpetual Secretary. That would be, he says, to abandon his political
future! On the other hand, Viennet would be quite ready to abandon his
for the permanency.

"We have just had two or three bad elections. As for the amnesty, the
decision is negative. I fear they will regret having taken this course
when we are in the middle of a cross-fire of law-suits, lawyers,
platform oratory, and newspaper articles. It is necessary in this
country to look a few months ahead!"

A letter from Lady Jersey informs me that Palmerston has refused to be
Governor-General of India, and that the Duchesse de Berry is about to
have a child--legitimate this time.

_Valençay, September 28, 1834._--When we got back yesterday from our
walk we found the house full of visitors, male and female, who had
driven here, and were inspecting everything with interest. The steward
told us that it was Madame Dudevant, with M. Alfred de Musset and a
party. At the name of Dudevant the Entraigues made several
exclamations which I did not understand till they explained that
Madame Dudevant is no other than the author of _Indiana_, _Valentine_,
_Leone Leoni_--in fact, George Sand! She lives in the Berri when she
is not running about the world, as she often does. She has a château
near La Châtre, where her husband lives all the year round, and
occupies himself with agriculture. He it is who looks after the two
children he has by the woman of genius. She herself is the daughter of
a natural daughter of Marshal de Saxe; she often appears in men's
clothes, but was not so attired yesterday. When I entered my
apartments I found the whole party parleying with Joseph[36] for
permission to see them, which is not usually allowed when I am here.
On this occasion I wanted to be civil to neighbours, so I myself threw
open the doors, showed them everything, and explained things, and
finally escorted them as far as the large drawing-room, where the
heroine of the occasion, seeing my portrait by Prud'hon, thought
herself obliged to pay me many compliments. She is small, dark, and
insignificant in appearance, between thirty and forty. Her eyes are
good, and her hair is dressed in a pretentious way, such as is
described as "classical" on the stage. Her tone is dry and abrupt; her
judgments on artistic matters are very positive. The bust of Napoleon
and Canova's Paris, as well as Thorwaldsen's bust of Alexander and a
copy from Raphael by Annibale Carraci (which the good lady took for an
original) gave her many opportunities. Her language is very fine. On
the whole, she is not elegant; the rest of the party were quite
common, in appearance I mean, for not one of them opened his lips.

  [36] The Porter at Valençay.

In the evening I had another visit after my own heart from a sister of
the order of nuns at Valençay, who was a novice here. Though she is
only thirty-three she is already the first assistant at the mother
house, whence she comes to inspect here. She looks upon Valençay as
her cradle. She came here at the time when I founded the small
institution here, and was then remarkably fresh and beautiful. Now she
is thin and pale, but still very sweet and gentle in appearance. In
spite of her sanctity, which has advanced her so rapidly in the Order,
she is very fond of me, and kissed me just as if I was worthy of it,
expressing much joy at seeing me again, poor sinner that I am.

_Valençay, October 7, 1834._--Yesterday I had a long conversation with
M. de Talleyrand about his plans of retirement, which led me to speak
to him frankly on several important features of his position. I had
the courage to tell him the truth, as is always right when dealing
with people of his great age.

_Valençay, October 9, 1834._--M. de Montrond, who has been here some
days, asked to see me yesterday about an important matter. I saw him,
and after some pleasantries which I received rather coldly, he said
that he had come to announce his departure, at which I should not
probably be surprised, considering the extraordinary way in which M.
de Talleyrand was treating him. He spoke for a long time and
complained bitterly. He is deeply hurt, and that makes him say many
nasty things. He added that he knew quite well that I didn't like him,
but that I had always been kind and civil to him, and wished to thank
me for it, and to say that, though he had no doubt I should not agree
with him, I should be bored to death, and the life I was leading
would certainly become insupportable, though it would be difficult for
any one to live it more gracefully. In short, he took pains, for what
reason I know not, to stand well with me.

I confess that I was very ill at ease during his remarks, which,
though broken and abrupt in his usual style, lasted for some time.
Here is a summary of my answer, or rather of my answers. I regretted
all that might suggest a quarrel, for that would do no good to any one
and would damage him (M. de Montrond) most. Society would side against
him, as his rudeness to M. de Talleyrand would explain the latter's
want of patience. To complain and explain his grievances by the
existence of motives such as he had suggested to me would be in very
bad taste, and there were some things which should not be said even
when they seemed to be true, especially after forty years of a
friendship which on M. de Talleyrand's part might be described as
patronage. As far as I was concerned, I could not be dull in the midst
of my duties and family interests; besides, my life, my habits, my
whole existence had for long been bound up with M. de Talleyrand's
interests. This was my destiny, with which I was well satisfied and
desired no other.

On this he resumed: "It is clear that you are destined to bury him.
Then you are very clever and have a great gift for speech and action.
You are also enough of a great lady to know how to take things in a
certain way. As for me, the only thing to do is to go."

I took him up then. "You have something more to do, and that is to go
away civilly without a scene, and not to tell any one that you did so
because you were angry. You have, above all, to avoid speaking, I do
not say ill, but even lightly, of M. de Talleyrand." He said, "You
make very pretty speeches this morning, but if I do as you wish, what
will you do for me?"--"I will keep the true cause of your departure
secret."--"You are too clever, Madame de Dino."--"I know what I am
saying."

He asked me if I would shake hands with him and promise to be good
natured about him. "Yes, if you do not speak amiss of M. de
Talleyrand." "Very well. I shall not go straight to Paris. I shall go
to d'Argenson at Ormes to get over this, and when I have got back my
'lamb-like temper,' I shall speak to the King and invent some business
to excuse my not waiting for his son here." "Do what you like so long
as you behave like a gentleman." He is gone. At luncheon he said that
he had got a letter which obliged him to leave to-day.

The fact is, that I had been expecting something of the kind. M. de
Talleyrand, after many years of too long suffering patience, has
suddenly gone uncompromisingly to the other extreme, and the day
before yesterday so clearly indicated to M. de Montrond that he was
not wanted here, that the latter could not overlook it. It is possible
that M. de Montrond will impose some restraint on his tongue, just
sufficient that is to avoid an accusation of bad faith, but it seems
to me impossible that he will not take some underhand way of revenging
himself, for he is hurt and upset. To have to go on the eve of the
arrival of a large and distinguished party of English people to whom
he was preparing to do the honours of Valençay, not to be here when M.
le Duc d'Orléans is expected--these are two real disappointments for
which he will not forgive M. de Talleyrand.

In the first and most virulent part of his conversation with me he
frequently referred to the King and to M. de Flahaut in such a way as
to persuade me that he means to take the latter's part absolutely, in
order that he may be able to injure M. de Talleyrand with His Majesty.
What can one expect of a being like him? But also how childish to lose
one's temper after forty years![37] M. de Montrond said to me, "He
should treat me with the kindness and intimacy of an old friend, or
else with the politeness of a host." To this I replied, "But would not
M. de Talleyrand also be justified in saying to you that you give him
neither the deference due to one's host, nor the attentions due to
his age and to your former relations? In what other house would you
have dared to run down everything as you do here? You have criticised
his neighbours, his servants, his wine, his horses, in fact
everything. If he has been rude you have given him provocation, and,
indeed, there are too many witnesses of your habit of perpetual
contradiction to make it possible for you to complain of the anger it
has aroused."

  [37] In 1793 Montrond had fled to England, and there had placed
  himself under M. de Talleyrand's protection. This was the
  beginning of their long friendship.

_Valençay, October 14, 1834._--We have staying here Lady Clanricarde,
Mr. and Mrs. Dawson Damer, and Mr. Henry Greville. I went for a long
drive yesterday with Lady Clanricarde, and talked to her a great deal
about her father, the celebrated Mr. Canning, and of her mother, who
was not less distinguished, but who did not appear to be much beloved
by her daughter. Lady Clanricarde is clever; her manners are
restrained, dignified, and in good taste; but, judging from what I
saw, I consider her rather hard-hearted and intellectually stiff. Both
her manners, however, and her character have, in my opinion, a real
value. She never lets herself go and has no personal magnetism, but
when all is said and done, she is a figure of real distinction and of
the best and most exquisite breeding. Mrs. Damer is a good
soul--nothing more.

_Valençay, October 18, 1834._--Speaking to Lady Clanricarde of Lord
Palmerston and Lady Cowper, we fell to wondering what it is that
enables some people to retain so much influence over some others, and
I made an observation on the subject against which she protested, to
the effect that, "it is by what they demand that men preserve their
influence over women, while it is by what they concede that women
preserve their influence over men."

_Valençay, October 21, 1834._--Yesterday the news came of the dreadful
fire at Westminster. It is a terrible catastrophe and one which is
distinctly ominous, as it suggests that the political edifice is
crumbling along with the material one, and that the old walls refused
any longer to be dishonoured by the profane doctrines of to-day. There
is something in this which may well impress not only the imagination
of the multitude, but the mind of every thinking person.

The English party here all believe that the fire was the work of an
incendiary, because it began in the House of Lords. The _Globe_, which
was sent to M. de Talleyrand, kept us all up very late, for we were
anxious to know all the versions of the disaster. It appears that the
loss in papers and documents of all kinds is enormous, and is due not
only to the fire, but to their being scattered and blown away. What a
pity! It is said that it will cause much confusion, and many gaps in
the proceedings of the Courts.

Yesterday, I took Lady Clanricarde and Mrs. Damer to see the little
convent, the school and all the small institution conducted by the
Valençay sisters. This is the sort of thing which makes very little
impression on English women. For all their cleverness and goodness,
they are not charitable in the true sense of the word, and they have a
singular unwillingness to come in contact with poverty, misery,
misfortune, illness or suffering. This distant manner of theirs with
lesser people, so useful in society, freezes and irritates me when I
see it applied even to the poor. Thus Lady Clanricarde, so agreeable
in society, found nothing to say to my poor sisters who are so simple
and devoted. She hardly put her nose inside the door of the school,
and gathered up her fine skirts, that they might not be rumpled by the
little girls who were going to their places. The two ladies were
much astonished that I found so much to say, and above all, when
they saw me stopped several times in the village by people who
wanted to consult me about their business. This way of living is
incomprehensible to an Englishwoman, and at that moment, Lady
Clanricarde, clever as she is, and well disposed to me, was surprised,
I am sure, to think that I knew how to eat properly at table, and was
wearing a dress made by Mlle. Palmyre!

_Valençay, October 23, 1834._--All yesterday it rained in torrents,
and it was impossible to go out. Our English friends made music
barbarously enough all morning; and in the evening three letters came.
One was from Lord Sidney to Henry Greville, saying that M. de
Montrond had got back to Paris, and was telling everybody that
Valençay had become quite uninhabitable, that Greville and the Damers
were being bored to death, and that only Lady Clanricarde could put up
with it. H. Greville read this in a low voice. Lady Clanricarde
continued aloud, M. de Talleyrand asked what it was, and the whole
passage was read to him.

The second letter was from M. de Montrond to Mr. Damer, and inquired
how he was getting on at Valençay. The writer observed that he was not
anxious about H. Greville who loved tittle-tattle, and would get what
he wanted there. Mr. Damer read this also aloud.

The third letter was from M. de Montrond to myself, and was as cool as
possible in tone. I passed it to M. de Talleyrand who, annoyed at what
he had just heard, read it too aloud. It reminded me of Célimène's
letter! I don't know what reflections this little scene may have
provoked, for I went to bed immediately afterwards.

_Valençay, October 26, 1834._--The weather improved a little
yesterday; just now it is very cold but dry, with brilliant sunshine.
Let us hope that it will last for the arrival of M. le Duc d'Orléans
who is expected to-night! The populations of fourteen Communes are in
motion and people are coming from Châteauroux and even from Issoudun
which is ten or twelve leagues from here. The fact that it is Sunday
makes it easier for them to gratify their curiosity and whatever the
papers say there will be nothing else in the way of magnificence or
festal preparations than a crowd. I believe that M. le Duc d'Orléans
will be very well received by the country folk. Never since the days
of la Grande Mademoiselle has any Prince of any dynasty come here. The
whole country between Blois and Châteauroux, so well treated by the
Valois, has been, as it were, disgraced and forgotten; none of the
succeeding Governments would do anything for this corner of Berri.
When I first came here everything in the way of civilisation was as it
had been in the time of Louis XIII. M. de Talleyrand has done
something to secure a little progress, and I too have done a little,
but it is only this year that we have been able to organise a system
of post horses. So far there is not even a diligence, and for many
people, even in easy circumstances, the only means of conveyance is
_pataches_, that is, carriages without springs. In such a remote part
a Prince is still somebody. Our communes are flattered that one is
about to wander into our solitudes, and they will cry out "_Vive le
Roi!_" with all their might, which is the best thing that they can do.

Among those who arrived last night were the Baron de Montmorency and
Madame la Comtesse Camille de Sainte-Aldegonde. The Baron de
Montmorency was long ago on the point of being the Lauzun of the
Mademoiselle of his day,[38] and though he declined the honour of the
alliance he has remained very intimate with Neuilly. Madame de
Sainte-Aldegonde lives in a very pretty house between here and Blois;
she is one of the Queen's ladies and a great friend of the Baron de
Montmorency. Her first husband was General Augereau. She is my own age
and we came out at the same time. We were both ladies-in-waiting to
the Empress Marie Louise, but we did not see much of each other, for
she followed her husband to the front and never came to Court. On the
fall of the Empire we lost sight of each other completely. Madame de
Sainte-Aldegonde has been extremely beautiful, and if her expression
were more agreeable she would be so still, but she never had a kindly
air owing to her eyebrows which are very dark and turn up too much;
and, as she has lost the softness of her first youth, there remains a
certain crudity which is not attractive. Her voice is rather
high-pitched, and, though polite and well-bred enough, she lacks that
ease and smooth courtesy which can only be acquired at the time when
one first learns the elegances of life. When one does not learn them
in one's cradle one may be presentable, but one can never be
distinguished, yet after all, considering everything, she will pass
muster.

  [38] Madame Adélaïde had caused her hand to be offered to the
  Baron de Montmorency, but on condition that she should not be
  required to change her name--a condition which the Baron declined
  to accept.

_Valençay, October 27, 1834._--M. le Duc d'Orléans came yesterday, in
very bad weather, an hour sooner than he was expected, which much
upset both us and the sightseers. However, our little _Garde
Nationale_ was there to receive him. The Municipality were also
assembled and a certain number of people were there to greet him as he
passed. There were no speeches, for which I think he was thankful.

M. le Duc d'Orléans began by having some conversation in the salon
with M. de Talleyrand, M. and Madame de Valençay and myself. He
announced, much to my surprise, that Madame de Rigny, Thiers and
Guizot were coming. My surprise was not lessened when Monseigneur told
me that the King was strongly urging his Ministers to come here
because it was a good excuse to suspend the Councils for a few days.
These had become almost impossible owing to the outbursts of Marshal
Gérard, and a crisis was inevitable. It was desired, however, to
postpone it for a time, and, with this in view, not to call the
Cabinet together. Marshal Gérard was in a minority of one, all the
Ministers being united against him.

When Monseigneur retired to his apartments I went to dress and went
down at once in order to be first in the salon. I found there General
Petit commanding the 5th Division, General Saint-Paul commanding the
Department of the Indre, and General Baudrand of the Prince's suite
with his secretary M. de Boismilon.

After dinner there was a slight fit of solemnity, which I soon
dissipated by taking up my work as usual. The Prince thanked me
cordially for doing so. Then every one grouped and arranged themselves
naturally. A little later M. de Talleyrand took his usual evening
walk, and when he came back he found Lady Clanricarde, the Prince,
Henry Greville and me playing whist gaily together. Music was playing
in the vestibule, and in a word the ice was broken.

After tea the Prince vanished, and at eleven everybody went to bed.

_Valençay, October 28, 1834._--Here is an account of yesterday. After
breakfast M. le Duc d'Orléans went over the Château and its immediate
neighbourhood, my son and I acting as his guides. All our guests who
had not already seen what there is to see followed.

When we got back three carriages, a phaeton, and six saddle-horses
were in attendance. Each member of the company took his place. M. le
duc d'Orléans, the Marchioness of Clanricarde, the Baron de
Montmorency and I were in the first carriage. M. de Talleyrand, Madame
de Sainte-Aldegonde, General Baudrand, and M. Jules d'Entraigues were
in the second, and so on. After crossing the park and an isolated
piece of the forest, we stopped at a pretty pavilion, from which there
is a fine view. The military band was concealed behind the trees,
which still have much of their foliage. There was a considerable
crowd, and the whole made a very pretty forest scene. We then plunged
into the forest itself, and did not return till it was time to dress
for dinner.

After dinner we took the Prince to a ball at the Orangerie. The
courts, the keep, and the railings were illuminated, and the effect
was very fine. The ball-room was very finely decorated, and so full of
people that one could scarcely move. There was, however, no vulgar
pushfulness, and if the cries of greeting were ear-splitting, they
were such as always please a Prince. He walked all through the room,
greeted every one, and talked a little. They were, in short, much
pleased with him; so pleased, indeed, that, though he only stayed an
hour, they were still shouting under his windows at two o'clock in the
morning.

_Valençay, October 29, 1834._--Yesterday before luncheon our Royal
guest, with his aide-de-camp, my son, and the Baron de Montmorency,
went to visit the spinning mill and the quarries from which came the
stone of which the Château is built. He thought the quarries superb.
After luncheon we took him to the ironworks. There was a cheering
crowd; the men did their work well, both casting and forging. Inside
the fine building they produced and repeated an effect of fireworks
with the flaming molten metal which was very fine and much amused our
English ladies. On the way back we made a slight detour to see the
ruins of Veuil.[39]

  [39] Veuil commands the valley of Nahon, and was joined to the
  Seigneurie of Valençay in 1787 by M. de Luçay, who was then the
  owner. The castle, which must have been very fine, is now a ruin,
  of which only a fragment is inhabited by a farmer.

The band was hidden in one of the old towers. A great fire had been
lighted in the only room which remains intact, and in which we were
served with refreshments. In the courtyard and through the half-ruined
archways were seen national guards and peasants, who cheered and threw
their hats up into the air. This little excursion was very pleasant in
spite of the dull weather. The sun, or rather the moon, would have
made it perfect.

At dinner, besides our guests of last night, we had the Prefects of
Indre-et-Loire and of Loir-et-Cher, General Ornano, and Colonel
Garraube, a Deputy, to whom we owe the band that has given so much
pleasure. After dinner there was whist, a few turns of a waltz, &c.

Later on there was a real ball and supper for the servants, and in
honour of the servants of the Prince Royal; it was really very pretty.

Yesterday at dinner I was a little surprised at something my Royal
neighbour said to me. He asked me when we were going to
Rochecotte.--"I don't know, Monseigneur."--"But you can't spend the
winter here where it is so cold."--"Oh no, we never intended to do
that."--"Are you coming to Paris?"--"I really don't know."--"For, of
course, England is out of the question since Lord Palmerston won't go
to India." I looked straight at the Prince with some surprise, and
said: "I believe that Lord Palmerston's departure would certainly have
recalled the Ambassadors to London, and that if he stays that will
keep them away; but M. de Talleyrand's plans are very uncertain, and,
moreover, depend on the King's wishes."--"Your uncle told me that he
thinks we have got out of England all that we can, and that great
affairs are no longer to be transacted in London, but in Paris, under
my father's eye."--"Yes, that is M. de Talleyrand's idea, because the
King's honesty and ability have inspired confidence in Europe in
inverse ratio to the distrust which the policy carried on in England
for the last months has aroused."--"My father very much wants M. de
Talleyrand to return to England, but before talking to your uncle
about it I told the King that I thought it was impossible."--"It
certainly would be difficult, Monseigneur."--"But you, Madame, what
are your wishes?"--"Whatever will be agreeable to the King,
Monseigneur; and if M. de Talleyrand does not go back to London it
will be because he is persuaded that, things being as they are, he
would be of no use. Personally, I am extremely fond of England; a
thousand ties of gratitude and admiration bind me to that country,
especially the Queen's kindness, and the friendship of Lord Grey and
the Duke of Wellington. But there are some friends whom one does not
lose simply because one leaves them, and I hope in course of time to
go and thank my English friends for all their kindness to me during
the last four years."[40]--"But, to leave the question of the Embassy,
what will M. de Talleyrand do?"--"Whatever the King wishes. If the
King wishes to see him, he will go and pay his respects; if his
Majesty will allow him to rest, he will remain in retirement, taking
care of his legs, which, as you see, are very weak and very painful.
In a word, Monseigneur, he will always be the King's most devoted
servant." And at this point this somewhat curious conversation came to
an end.

  [40] The Duchesse de Dino never revisited England in spite of her
  happy memories of that country.

_Valençay, October 30, 1834._--Yesterday morning all our neighbours
from Tours, Blois, and the neighbourhood left rather early, as did M.
Motteux, who left a charming English dog as a present for M. de
Talleyrand. The excellent man left us with much regret, having greatly
enjoyed his visit, most of which he spent in the kitchen, in the press
house, or at market. He said very little, but was neither indiscreet
nor in the way, nor spiteful with his tongue.

Before luncheon M. le Duc d'Orléans visited the two hosiery
establishments,[41] made purchases, and gave orders. After luncheon he
asked to be shown our schools and the establishment of the Sisters,
and gave a large sum for the poor. He seemed much struck by the
excellent management of the little convent, and particularly with the
manners of the Superior. On this occasion he told me that one of his
ancestors lent money to the Holy See and was not repaid at the
appointed time. The Pope, however, by way of compensation sent a Bull
creating all the male posterity of his family sub-deacons from their
birth and canons of Saint-Martin of Tours, with the right to touch the
sacred vessels without gloves, and to sit on the Gospel side of the
church instead of the Epistle side. King Louis-Philippe was installed
Canon of Tours at the age of seven.

  [41] When you entered this shop, then very celebrated in France,
  you used to see models of the legs of all M. de Talleyrand's lady
  friends, duly labelled, which had been made for the guidance of
  the Valençay tradesman.

Later on, we took the Prince to the ponds in the forest, by the side
of which there was a great camp-fire.

Before dinner the Prince again desired some private conversation with
M. de Talleyrand and then with me. Afterwards we played pool on the
billiard-table. The scene was very animated, the ladies being of the
party. Tea taken, the letters came, and announced the resignation of
Marshal Gérard; and M. le Duc d'Orléans, retired, put on his
travelling dress, and at half-past eleven, after saying many gracious
things, he departed.

Although everything went off very well during his visit, and though
the Prince was really perfectly charming to everybody, I am
nevertheless much relieved now that he is gone. I feared every moment
that some accident would happen, and for this reason opposed every
idea of a shooting party; I feared disloyal cries, bad weather, a
thousand things; and, besides, I was worn out with fatigue.

As I foresaw, the visit of M. le Duc d'Orléans has thrown some light
on our future, for M. de Talleyrand said to him that there was no more
for him to do in London. He pointed out Lord Palmerston's personal
character, the line taken by the English Cabinet, the absence of all
the _haut corps diplomatique_ from London, and the evident tendency of
all the Courts to cease acting in that capital and to choose another
centre of high politics. Besides all this, the weariness of his legs
made it impossible for him to return to England unless a reaction
occurred which made him--M. de Talleyrand--a more suitable person than
any other to conduct the affairs of France there. For the moment he
thought that any one would do just as well, if not better, than he. M.
le Duc d'Orléans said positively that he had been charged by the King
to discover the intentions of M. de Talleyrand, and at the same time
to express the King's desire to talk with him if he did not mean to
return to London. His Majesty was most anxious that M. de Talleyrand
should not abandon his interest and participation in the work at which
he had laboured so much.

M. le Duc d'Orléans told me a curious thing--that eighteen months ago
Lucien Bonaparte had written him a rather abject letter, begging him
to obtain for him the post of French Minister at Florence!

I have just heard that the King has positively refused to call the Duc
de Broglie to the Presidency of the Council in place of Marshal
Gérard. It is clear that it was this Ministerial crisis which
prevented the arrival of the three Ministers who were to have come
here. I am quite glad it did, for this took away all political
significance from the Prince's visit.

He spoke much of Rochecotte and of his desire to visit it again next
summer.

_Valençay, October 31, 1834._--M. le Comte de la Redorte is staying
here. He is a man of undoubted erudition. He has studied a great deal,
and travelled much. He remembers everything, but, unfortunately,
instead of waiting till you knock at his door, as an Englishman would
do, he throws it wide open and forces you to come in. Though his face
is fine and his manners charming, and the sound of his voice
delightful, he is simply a bore. He fills his conversation with facts,
dates, and figures; he enters into the most minute details; he plunges
head first into the heaviest economic topics, and wearies,
extinguishes, and crushes his audience. His opinions, moreover, are
cut and dried on every subject; his judgments are absolute; his
expositions are all arranged beforehand. It is deadly dull! Our
English party groaned under him! He left after luncheon, and as
he was going M. de Talleyrand said: "There is a mind which stopped
before it arrived." He said a rather sharp thing about Madame de
Sainte-Aldegonde, who also left this morning. Speaking of her very
dark eyebrows, which surmount rather expressionless eyes: "These," he
said, "are bows without arrows."

Here is an extract from a letter from Paris, dated the 29th, which
came yesterday: "The post-horses were waiting in M. de Rigny's
courtyard on Sunday the 26th, and he was just about to leave with
Bertin de Veaux, when the King sent for him and commanded him to put
off his departure for a day. He never got another opportunity of
getting away. Yesterday, at four, Marshal Gérard forced the King to
accept his resignation. M. de Rigny has determined not to accept the
Premiership which they wish to offer him. He thinks he has neither the
talent nor the consistency necessary for the post. He cannot disguise
from himself that the only reason for offering him the place is the
difficulty of getting any one else; and if his refusal costs him his
place he will console himself with the reflection that it is better to
go out of office in this way than to go later on less honourably. And
yet what will be the end of all this? What appears most probable is
the addition of M. Molé to the Ministry. M. Thiers would much like to
be Premier, but he does not yet dare to be openly a candidate. M. Molé
would not remain long. His means, his character, his surroundings,
will all combine to promote his speedy fall. This would be enough to
enable M. Thiers to realise his ambition--at least he thinks so. He
would, however, have been better pleased to see M. de Rigny undertake
the part intended for M. Molé, but that even his eloquence could not
achieve!"

_Valençay, November 1, 1834._--I hear from Paris that an article in
terms very insulting to M. de Talleyrand and myself has just appeared
in a periodical review. For many years I have been afflicted with
insults, libels, and gutter calumnies of all kinds, and I shall be so
persecuted till the end of my days. Living as I have done in the house
of M. de Talleyrand, and in his confidence, how could I escape the
licence of the press and its attacks in the most libellous age of
journalism? It was long before I got used to it. I used to be deeply
wounded, very much upset, and very unhappy, and I shall never become
quite indifferent. A woman never could be, and would, in my opinion,
be the worse for becoming so. However, as it would be equally absurd
to allow one's peace of mind to be at the mercy of people one
despises, I have made up my mind to read nothing of this kind, and the
more directly concerned I am the less I desire to know about it. I do
not wish to know the evil people think or say or write about me, or
about my friends. If they do wrong, or if I myself am not all I should
be, I am quite aware of the fact, and want to forget it. As for
calumny, it disgusts and enrages me, and I see no reason why I should
acknowledge the dirt thrown at those nearest and dearest to me.

There are so many pains and mortifications in this life, and so many
are inevitable, that my only thought is how to avoid as many as
possible, for I am sure that enough remains to test my courage and
resignation.

Another of my motives for not investigating these malevolent incidents
is that I find it too hard to forgive them, for if gratitude is one of
the most prominent characteristics of the good part of my nature, I am
always afraid that I have a compensating amount of rancour. I have
never forgotten a service or a friendly word, but I have perhaps too
often remembered an insult or an unkind remark. Thank heaven, my
rancour does not go the length of revenge, but I suffer for it all the
same. I know nothing so miserable in the world as bearing malice, and,
silent and inoffensive as I remain externally, the feeling rankles
within and I am quite upset by it.

Unfortunately, I have had only too many occasions to scrutinise,
analyse, and dissect my moral self. Who is there who has not a chronic
moral malady, like a chronic physical one? And who is there who,
having passed a certain age, is not or ought not to be well aware of
the rules he should follow, for the good of his soul, no less than his
body?

_Valençay, November 4, 1834._--I have just returned from an
expedition which we made to Blois and its neighbourhood with our
English friends, who were going back to Paris. The day before
yesterday, we visited Chambord which seemed, as it in fact is,
bizarre, original, full of interest and rich in detail. It is situated
in an ugly country, and is in a deplorable state. The window of the
oratory of Diane de Poitiers, on which Francis I. wrote his
impertinent couplet about women,[42] is still there, but the panes are
broken. The verses were not creditable to a chivalrous monarch.

  [42]

    Souvent femme varie
    Bien fol est qui s'y fie.

The place where the _Bourgeois gentilhomme_ was first acted before
Louis XIV. also exists, as well as the table on which the body of
Marshal Saxe, who died at Chambord, was opened and embalmed. It is in
fact the only piece of furniture left in the Château.

We got back to Blois rather late, and yesterday morning we visited the
castle, which is now a barracks, and certainly one of the most
interesting monuments of France. The four sides are in four separate
styles of architecture. The oldest part dates from the time of Stephen
of Blois, King of England of the Plantagenet stock. The second oldest
dates from Louis XII. and bears his emblem, the hedgehog, with the
motto: _Qui s'y frotte s'y pique_. Then comes the part built by
Francis I. with its Renaissance elegance. It was here that the Duc de
Guise was murdered, that Catherine de Medicis died, and here too is
the hall where the celebrated States General of Blois assembled. You
are shown the fireplace where the body of the Duc de Guise was
consumed, and the dungeon where the Cardinal and the Archbishop of
Lyons were imprisoned, the little niche where Henri III. placed the
monks whom he ordered to pray for the success of the assassination,
and the room where the widow of John Sobieski died. Lastly, the fourth
side was built by Gaston d'Orléans in the style of the Tuileries, and
was never finished. Near the castle is an old pavilion in which were
the baths of Catherine de Medicis, and not far off is a shed which
served as a retreat for the favourites of Henri III.

On returning here from this excursion, I heard the sad news of the
death of Princess Tyszkiewicz, which took place the day before
yesterday at Tours. I had to break the news to M. de Talleyrand. At
his age such losses afflict the mind more than the heart, for they
seem rather a personal warning than a sorrow. He was more startled
than I; I was more affected than he, for I had a real affection for
the Princess, and I was very grateful to her for all that she was to
me long ago. Though she had survived herself, I cannot think without
pain of the part of the past which is buried with her, for when one
loses friends one loses not only them but a part of one's self.

M. de Talleyrand agreed with me that we could not allow this poor but
illustrious lady, the niece of the last King of Poland, and only
sister to the unfortunate Marshal Prince Poniatowski, to be laid to
rest among strangers. She will be buried at Valençay.

A letter from Paris which came last night says, "nothing is settled
about the Ministry. The thing grows ridiculous, and the intrigues show
no signs of stopping. The day before yesterday it was thought that
everything was settled, and that Thiers was going off to Valençay, but
yesterday all was changed and things are as they were. There has never
been such a dissolving force as Thiers; his oratorical gifts are
costing us dear, but some conclusion must be reached. M. de Rigny is
quite ready to retire, M. Guizot is still supporting Broglie for the
Presidency of the Council, and Thiers is backing Molé."

_Valençay, November 6, 1834._--The other day M. Royer-Collard told me
something that is very amusing because it is so characteristic of him.
He said that the second Madame Guizot was reproaching him vigorously
with having repudiated all religion, and with having refused to be its
patron and protector. She said that by complaining, as he did, that he
was claimed by the religious party, he caused much embarrassment to
its members. She therefore begged him to cease attacking them and
turning them to ridicule on every occasion, as he was in the habit of
doing. "Ah, Madame!" he replied, "you wish then that I should leave
the public in error, and thus deprive myself of my only consolation,
and my only chance of revenge." She was furious. The one thing which
annoys M. Royer-Collard, (and it annoys him very much) is Guizot and
all his works. This annoyance is perhaps not altogether unfounded. He
has no love for M. de Broglie whose lofty virtue did not seem to him
adequate to the circumstances which recently arose, and as for Madame
de Broglie he likes her even less, because her piety does not preserve
her from any of the agitations of public life, and is even compatible
with political intrigue. The contrast involved in this is displeasing
to him.

_Valençay November 7, 1834._--Here is an anecdote which is quite
authentic, having been told me by an eye witness, and which struck me
very much. M. Casimir-Périer, as is well known, died of cholera.
Besides this he was completely out of his mind during the last ten
days of his life; a tendency to insanity had already revealed itself
in several members of his family. Well, several hours before his death
two of his colleagues in the Ministry, with two of his brothers, were
talking in a corner of the room of the embarrassment which the arrival
of Madame la Duchesse de Berry was causing in la Vendée, of the
resulting difficulties for the Government, of what ought to be done,
and of the responsibility involved in doing it, and of the fear and
reluctance every one had in assuming this responsibility. This
conversation was suddenly interrupted by the sick man who sat up in
bed and exclaimed: "Oh if only the President of the Council were not
mad!" Then he fell back on the pillow and was silent. He died shortly
afterwards. Is not this striking, and does it not make one shudder as
one does at _King Lear_?

_Valençay, November 9, 1834._--I went to Châteauvieux yesterday to see
M. Royer-Collard. He had received letters from several of the
Ministers who have resigned. From these he understands that no sooner
were the five resignations sent in than they were politely accepted.
The King sent for M. Molé, and entrusted him with the Presidency of
the Council, and the task of recomposing the whole Cabinet. M. Molé
asked for twenty-four hours to consider matters, and to see whom he
could persuade to act with him. However, as everybody declined to
share the task, he was himself compelled to withdraw, and so the whole
situation has again become vague, and perhaps impossible.

Almost all the papers have again broken out against M. de Talleyrand.
Some say he is dead, some that he is ill in mind and body, others
insult him grossly and foully. M. Royer-Collard explains this new
access of savagery to the fear that the Presidency of the Council will
be offered to M. de Talleyrand and accepted by him. It seems that many
people, struck by the absence of good men, wish the King to look to
us, and that the terror which this inspires in certain others envenoms
all that they do, or say, or write. It is a melancholy privilege to be
the last resort of some people and the object of the detestation of
others, and that at an age when the need of rest should be the ruling
consideration, and the one aim in all things should be to make a good
end.

_Valençay, November 10, 1834._--Here is an extract from a letter from
M. Royer-Collard received yesterday: "I will say in all seriousness to
M. de Talleyrand that, after four years absence, I am not surprised
that he attaches more importance to newspaper articles than they now
possess. He does not know how much the prestige of the press, like all
other kinds of prestige, is worn out. Any one who replied to a
newspaper after the lapse of a day or two, would not be understood;
the occasion would be forgotten. Violent language can no longer either
exalt or abase any one. Amid torrents of praise or abuse one remains
exactly where one was before. It is the characteristic of this evil
age.

"No, nothing is settled at Paris, because nothing that will pass
muster is possible. Here are seen the natural consequences of the last
revolution. M. de Talleyrand was clever enough and fortunate enough to
turn it to his glory, but he could not repeat the miracle. His last
piece of ingenuity must be to choose the right moment for the end, I
had almost said for breaking both with England and France, as this
year has made them. I often come back to the idea that last year was
the time he should have gone and put himself in a position of safety.
It was natural to make the mistake; I made it myself. You, Madame la
Duchesse, alone were right. From this very arm-chair from which I am
writing to you to-day, I was blind enough to combat you, knowing
nothing about it. You alone were in a position to know and to judge. I
was wrong; this is yet another piece of homage which I am anxious to
pay you."

_Valençay, November 11, 1834._--Mr. Damer writes from Paris as
follows: "Have you heard a horrible story relating to Madame and Mlle.
de Morell, the sister and the niece of M. Charles de Mornay, of
something which happened at the Military School at Saumur. A young man
of that town called M. de la Roncière, not a particularly high-minded
person, fell in love with Madame de Morell, who may, or may not, have
given him some encouragement. I don't know exactly whether she did or
not, but finally she dismissed him. On this he vowed vengeance, and
transferred his attentions to the daughter, a young girl of seventeen.
He wrote her frequent threatening letters, saying he would kill her
father and mother if she did not listen to him, and one night she was
found in a condition which amounted to insanity. On hearing of her
condition, the young man fled from the school, but has since been
arrested. He then produced letters, whether genuine or not, which he
says were written to him by the mother and daughter, and which are
exceedingly compromising. They say Charles de Mornay has come to Paris
about this affair."[43]

  [43] It ended in a criminal trial, which attracted much
  attention. Emile de la Roncière was tried by Jury at Angers in
  1835, and, in spite of the ability of his counsel, Maître
  Chaix-d'Est-Ange, he was condemned to ten years' penal servitude.
  In 1843 King Louis-Philippe remitted the two years he had still
  to serve.

_Valençay, November 12, 1834._--A letter written the day before
yesterday from Paris, while the King was signing, in the next room,
the order creating the new Ministry, which was too late to appear in
the morning papers yesterday, arrived in the evening. The names are
unexpected and almost new. If this were the case with all of them, it
might not perhaps much matter, but one name is that of the Duc de
Bassano, who grew grey in the splendours of the Empire, and who has
been blamed for its fall. Another is that of M. Bresson, who will
probably create a sensation and who, in the article of improbability,
would have deserved the celebrated letter on the marriage of M. de
Lauzun. I need not set down what we Londoners thought who witnessed
the birth, ruin, and resuscitation of this person, all of which took
place in such bewilderingly rapid succession. It is also needless to
say that this arrangement of the Ministry puts an end to all M. de
Talleyrand's irresolution, and will give wings to his resignation of
the London Embassy.

_Valençay, November 13, 1834._--Here is the impression produced on M.
Royer-Collard by the new phase of the Ministry. "But this is a
Polignac Cabinet! I expected anything rather than this adventure. I am
much surprised that M. Passy, who is a man of parts with a future
before him, should have enrolled himself in that troupe. The former
Cabinet is now thrown into opposition, but whether it attacks or
treacherously supports the new one, it is making a path for itself
back to power. It seems inevitable to me that it will return."
"Adventure" is indeed the right word!

_Valençay, November 16, 1834._--We learned by last night's post that
the fancy Ministry had literally lived "_ce que vivent les roses,
l'espace d'un matin_." The comparison is not outrageous. On the
evening of the 13th, MM. Teste and Passy handed the King their
resignations, which they explained by a reference to the pecuniary
position of the Duc de Bassano. It was inevitable that these
resignations should be followed by others, and, as a matter of fact,
M. Charles Dupin came and offered his the following morning. On this,
M. de Bassano recognised that it was all up.

On the day before yesterday, the 14th, at four in the afternoon,
nothing was arranged, or planned, or hoped. What a cruel and
deplorable situation for the King! If one wanted to put this
Ministerial crisis into a play, it would not be possible to apply the
twenty-four hours rule!

I think the conduct of MM. Teste and Passy was unpardonable. It
appears that it was they who had insisted at first that the Duc de
Bassano should have the Presidency of the Council and the Ministry of
the Interior, and certainly they did not then learn for the first time
of M. de Bassano's financial position, which for two years has been
well known to every one.

_Valençay, November 18, 1834._--Here is the most important passage of
a letter written yesterday by M. de Talleyrand to Madame Adélaïde.
"What a relief! I cordially thank Marshal Mortier for having accepted
the Presidency of the Council! I would fain follow his example and
mount the breach once more, but for me England is out of the question.
I should like Vienna doubtless in many ways, and, besides, it would
suit Madame de Dino who, with all her devotion to me, is very sorry to
leave London, where she was so much appreciated. But at my age one no
longer seeks business so far afield. If it was only a question of a
special mission to a congress, such as those of Verona or
Aix-la-Chapelle, I should be delighted. And if such a case arises, as
is by no means improbable, and the King thinks me still capable of
representing France, let him issue his orders and I will leave
instantly, only too happy to devote my last days to his service. A
permanent mission, however, is now no longer possible for me, and
especially not at Vienna where twenty years ago I represented the
Restoration. Has Your Royal Highness thought of that circumstance,
especially with reference to Charles X. and Madame la Dauphine, who
often comes to Vienna, and who there receives all the honours due to
her rank, her misfortunes and her near relationship to the Imperial
family? In England, the Bourbons of the elder branch are merely
private persons. In Austria they are Princes and almost pretenders.
For the King's ambassador this makes an enormous difference which this
or that person might not perhaps feel, but which is decisive for me,
across whose career 1814 is written in large characters. No, Madame,
there is now no other life for me but that of frank and complete
retirement in privacy and simplicity. Perfidy alone can accuse me of
any _arrière pensée_; at my age one occupies one's self only with
memories.[44]..."

  [44] This letter, of which only a part is quoted here, was given
  entire by the Comtesse de Mirabeau in her book _Le Prince de
  Talleyrand et la Maison d'Orléans_, and may also be found in
  Volume V. of the _Mémoires du Prince de Talleyrand_, which were
  published in 1892.

The _Journal des Débats_ announces M. de Talleyrand's resignation,[45]
and for its own purposes tries to connect it with the Bassano
Ministry. Assuredly, of all explanations this might have been the most
plausible, but it has nothing to do with any of the people whose names
have occupied the attention of the public during the last fortnight.
The event might have been recorded in a more sincere and dignified
way, but party spirit distorts everything for its own ends. Never
mind, we need bother our heads about it no longer!

  [45] Here is the full text of M. de Talleyrand's letter of
  resignation, which I give though it has already appeared in the
  _Mémoires_:


    "_To the Minister of Foreign Affairs._

    "MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE,

   "When the King's confidence called me, four years ago, to the
   Embassy at London the very difficulty of the task made it a duty
   to obey, and I believe I have secured in a manner useful to
   France and to his Majesty two interests which I have always in
   mind. The peace of Europe has been preserved throughout those
   years, and this has simplified all our relations with foreign
   Powers. Our policy, formerly isolated, is now linked with that of
   other nations; it has been accepted, appreciated, and respected
   by honest men of every country. The co-operation of England,
   which we have obtained, has cost us nothing in independence, and
   has never offended our national susceptibilities. Such has been
   our respect for the rights of every one, such has been the
   frankness of our methods that, far from inspiring distrust, it is
   our guarantee which is now being sought against the propagandist
   spirit which is perturbing the older Europe. It is undoubtedly to
   the merits and abilities of the King that we must attribute
   results so satisfactory. For myself, I make no other claim than
   to have been the first to divine the profound idea underlying his
   Majesty's policy, and to have announced it to others whom
   subsequent events have persuaded of the truth of my words. But
   now that Europe knows and admires the King, and that, for this
   very reason, the principal difficulties are surmounted; now that
   England has perhaps as great need as we of our mutual alliance,
   and the line she seems disposed to take requires a mind whose
   traditions are less old-fashioned than mine; now I think that,
   without any want of devotion to the King and to my country, I may
   respectfully beg his Majesty to accept my resignation; and I beg
   you, M. le Ministre, to be so good as to present it to him. My
   great age and the infirmities which are its natural consequence,
   the repose which it demands and the thoughts which it suggests,
   make this step a very natural one and justify it only too well,
   making it, indeed, no less than my duty. I trust to the justice
   and kindness of the King to judge.

        "I avail, &c.,
        "LE PRINCE DE TALLEYRAND.

    "Valençay, November 13, 1834."

    This letter was published in the _Moniteur Universel_ of January 7,
    1835.

It is stated that, during the Ministerial crisis, M. de Rigny behaved
with great propriety, firmness and dignity. This was not so with
everybody, and here is a detail the authenticity of which is certain.
At the celebrated Council of ten days ago, when every one threw off
the mask and M. Guizot tried to impose M. de Broglie on the King as
Minister of Foreign Affairs, the King raised his hand and said, "this
hand will never sign a decree recalling M. de Broglie to the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs." Then M. Guizot called upon the King to state why
he refused. "Because he nearly embroiled me with all Europe," was the
reply, "and if any attempt is made to force my hand I will speak out."
"And we, Sire," returned M. Guizot, "will write." Has the like ever
been heard of? And after this is it possible that the same people can
again assemble round the same green table to regulate the destinies of
Europe?

_Valençay, November 19, 1834._--We heard last night by letter from
London of the great event of the change of Ministry in England and the
return of the Tories to power.[46] This morning did not pass without a
despatch rider from the King, who brought a letter in His Majesty's
own hand and one from Mademoiselle. These letters are full of
caresses, prayers and supplications. My name even, which is frequently
repeated, is invoked. Every kind of pressure is brought to bear on M.
de Talleyrand, to resume his Embassy. The Prince Royal writes to me in
this sense in the most pressing manner, and all the other letters we
received by this post are in this key. Mrs. Dawson Damer writes that
she hopes that the change of Ministry in England will induce M. de
Talleyrand to withdraw his resignation, and that the Queen of England
will never forgive me if it is otherwise. Lady Clanricarde says that
she is all the more afraid that the Tories may fail in their task, as
the result would be that England would again fall into the clutches of
Lord Durham, and that she sees only one agreeable feature in the
situation, which is the practical certainty of my return to London.
This is very gracious but not convincing.

  [46] The Whig Cabinet of Lord Melbourne fell on November 15, and
  was replaced by a Tory Ministry which was not destined to last
  more than three months. The Premier was Sir Robert Peel, and the
  Duke of Wellington replaced Lord Palmerston at the Foreign
  Office.

M. de Rigny writes excusing himself for his long silence. He seems to
me much disgusted by the events of the last fortnight, and not very
hopeful about the future of the French Ministry, though M. Humann has
accepted office, and the process of patching-up is complete. He adds
the regulation passage about the _impossibility_ of our not returning
to London, and the King's _positive wishes_ in the matter.

M. Raullin, from his little corner, also thinks it necessary to swell
the chorus. He says that Madame de Broglie's doctrinaires are of the
same opinion, but all this coterie, like the Bourse and the
Boulevards, are very much agitated by the news from England. He tells
me some amusing things about the Duc de Bassano and M. Humann. The
courier sent after the latter found him at Bar, and he said he would
not answer till he got to Strasbourg. I like this Alsatian phlegm.

It is also said that Admiral Duperré is very coy about accepting the
Ministry of Marine. Till yesterday morning there were ministers only
_in petto_. M. de Bassano was imperturbably signing things and working
with great ardour at the Ministry of the Interior.

M. de Talleyrand has also received a great many letters. M. Pasquier,
in reply to a letter of excuses for not being able to be present at
the case,[47] insinuates a phrase about the immense services he is
still called upon to render. Madame de Jaucourt writes a few lines, at
the dictation of M. de Rigny saying, "Come, we can't do without you,
and save us." Finally M. de Montrond, who has said nothing for a long
time, writes that the news from England has fallen on every one like a
flood of boiling-water. Every one is distracted, and Lord Granville
takes the change in his country much amiss. He also says he is
commanded by the King to make us understand the _necessity_ of our
return to England, and that MM. Thiers and de Rigny look upon it as
their one hope of salvation.

  [47] Of Armand Carrel, of the _National_.

_Valençay, November 24, 1834._--M. de Talleyrand fortunately refuses
to withdraw his resignation, but such is the singular prestige which
he enjoys that stocks go up and down at Paris according to the greater
or less probability of his departure for London. Letters from all
parts call on him to come to the rescue, and any number of people whom
we do not even know by name, write to beg him not to abandon France.
The reason is twofold. The French public will never regard the Duke of
Wellington as anything else but an ogre, or M. de Talleyrand as
anything but a person whom the Devil will carry off some day, but who
in the meantime, owing to an unholy bargain with the Prince of
Darkness, has the power of bewitching the Universe. How idiotic it all
is! The public is so credulous in its beliefs, so cruel in its revenge
and its injustice!

_Valençay, November 27, 1834._--A letter from the King came yesterday,
in reply to that in which M. de Talleyrand persisted in his
resignation, and among other things contained the following: "My dear
Prince, I have never seen anything more perfect, more honourable, or
better expressed than the letter which I have just received from you.
It has deeply touched me. No doubt it costs me much to recognise the
justice of most of the reasons which make you refuse to return to
London, but I am too sincere, and too much the friend of my friends
not to say that you are right."[48]

  [48] This letter, of which only the beginning is given here, is
  dated November 25, and is quoted in full in _Le Prince de
  Talleyrand et la Maison d'Orléans_, and also in Volume V. of the
  Prince's _Mémoires_.

This exordium is followed by a new invitation to come to Paris with
all speed to talk over everything. M. Bresson writes to M. de
Talleyrand a very witty and clever letter, in which he begs him to be
so kind as to write him all the witticisms with which his _sudden
apotheosis_ will no doubt have inspired him. He is anxious not to miss
a single one.

M. de Montrond writes that the King says there can be nothing finer
than M. de Talleyrand's letter, and that his reasoning is conclusive.
For the rest, they are in great embarrassment, and look back to
Marshal Soult with regret, and are even seeking to get him back. A new
ignominy for our little Ministers! It appears that the Army is in a
state of disorganisation.

The Poles who came here for the funeral of the Princess Tyszkiewicz
are saying kind things about us, it appears, in Paris. Valençay is
approved of only by the Prince Royal, being opposed by the Flahaut
influence. M. de Montrond is furious at the kind things which are
being said about Valençay, which he has always treated with ridicule.

_Valençay, December 1, 1834._--When I was passing through Paris three
months ago I saw M. Daure who, in very bad company, was writing in the
_Constitutionnel_, and seemed to me to be in very poor circumstances.
I offered him my interest with M. Guizot to get him employment in the
researches into the ancient manuscripts and charters of the South,
with which the Ministry of Public Instruction is occupied. I went so
far as to make an application on his behalf, which was well received.
I left for Valençay and heard no more of M. Daure, nor of his
application, till a fortnight ago, when I heard from M. Guizot that
Daure had been nominated to the place for which I had applied. I at
once wrote to Daure, forwarding the Minister's letter, but, not
knowing his address, made inquiries at Paris which remained without
result, and my letter was awaiting some light on the whereabouts of
the poor man, when yesterday evening I received two letters with the
Montauban postmark; one in Daure's handwriting, the other in a
handwriting unknown to me, which I opened first. It was from an abbé,
a friend of Daure, who in accordance with his last wishes, informs me
of his death--and what a death! He has committed suicide! Daure's own
letter, written shortly before his mad act, touched me deeply, and I
will even say, made me very proud. He refers to the people whom he
liked in London. I blame myself very much for not asking him to come
here this year; it would probably have turned him aside from this
dreadful end.

It recurred to my mind last night that last autumn, at Rochecotte,
while walking alone with him on the way to visit my schools I spoke to
him of his future, and lectured him about his carelessness and
extravagance. He replied with much gratitude, and begging me not to be
at all anxious about him as he had a resource in reserve of which he
could not speak to any one, which he had prepared long since, and
which he would have if everything else failed. He was not, he said, so
improvident as he seemed, and was as free as possible from anxiety
about the future. I thought he meant that he had saved a little
money--fool that I was! He killed himself at the very moment that we
were burying poor Princess Tyszkiewicz here. What a sad November it
has been!

Here is a little piece of politics taken from one of yesterday's
letters. "The position of the French Ministers will be decided in a
week. They intend to seize the first opportunity (which will not be
long in coming) to speak frankly of all they have done and all that
has happened, so as to make their position tolerable, or else to go
out. They have had their fill of degradation and do not wish to remain
in power any longer on the present conditions. They must see what the
Chamber means to do and what its attitude will be. There was some talk
of a speech from the Throne but they decided that this would not do,
and I think they were right."

_Valençay, December 2, 1834._--I am on the eve of a new trouble--the
probable death of the Duke of Gloucester, which will be a real sorrow.
How should I not mourn one whose esteem, confidence and friendship
were so sincere and so thoroughly tried?

I hear from Paris that the new Ambassador in London will not be
appointed till Sir Robert Peel has constituted his Government. Sir
Robert, it is thought, was to pass through Paris yesterday. Another
reason for not making the appointment for a week or ten days is that
no one would dream of accepting it till there is some light on the
fate of the French Ministry which is most uncertain. The slackness of
Deputies in attending the Chamber is attracting attention as a
symptom of their disinclination to interest themselves in the quarrels
of the Ministers. These quarrels are subterranean but very real. There
is always the same revolt against the arrogant pedantry of some and
the tangled intrigues of others; it is only their fear of the Chamber
which keeps them together at all.

They say the King is much depressed, and perhaps his Cabinet owe their
remaining in office to the fact that he is as much afraid of the
Chamber as they are. I hear that there is much ridicule of a letter
from M. Bresson in reply to a remark of the _Quotidienne_. "M.
Bresson," writes a friend, "has been giving us his genealogy and has
been telling us that he has been an important person from the day when
he handed the despatches to 'the unfortunate and too much
misunderstood Bolivar,' to that on which he nearly became Minister of
Foreign Affairs! We are very fortunate to be represented at Berlin by
so considerable a personage! Can you understand this mania for writing
to the newspapers? And can you wonder that the importance of the press
is so great?"

M. de Talleyrand is quite furious because diplomatic communications
are being bandied about at the Bourse and the Opera. This as well as
many other things makes it impossible to serve some people.

_Paris, December 7, 1834._--Here we are back in Paris, whose
exhausting and unquiet life is so bad both for M. de Talleyrand and
for me. Yesterday we were already overwhelmed with visits and social
duties.

At twelve I received M. Royer-Collard who, on his way to the Chamber,
called to ask for me. He only came in and went out again, and the real
object of his visit was, I think, to discharge a commission for M.
Molé. The latter asked him to tell me that he wished to come to our
house again, but on the first occasion to come to see only me and to
see me alone. This meeting is fixed for tomorrow, Monday, between four
and five.

M. Royer-Collard gone, M. le Duc d'Orléans arrived, and hardly had he
sat down when he began to discuss a piece of Madame de Flahaut's
gossip. It all passed off with great good temper and good manners, but
I don't think I surrendered any of my advantages. I was quiet and
restrained, without the slightest trace of animosity. This was my
chief position: "Madame de Flahaut's remarks about me do not affect
me. I pay no attention to them. It is impossible that two people whose
circles, habits and positions are so different as ours, could ever
come to quarrelling, or that I could be offended by her. What offends
me is the harm she is doing you, Monseigneur."--"But my principal
reason for liking her is that nobody else does."--"Oh, if you reckon
it proportionately on that principle your Royal Highness must simply
adore her!" We burst out laughing and the matter rested there.

He spoke of another subject, namely, how wrong it was of him not to
write to us for so long after his visit to Valençay. I replied,
"Monseigneur, in view of the great age of M. de Talleyrand it was not
very good manners on your part, but you have a frank and graceful way
of doing things which makes one charmed to forgive you."

He then came to general questions. He is much embarrassed and troubled
by his present situation, annoyed with his dear friend Dupin for the
curious way in which he treated the Monarchy last night, and
astonished at Lord Brougham, of whom he tells the following story. On
the day of Lord Brougham's arrival in Paris, M. le Duc d'Orléans met
him at Lord Granville's. Unsuitable as the place was, in my opinion,
for such a topic, the conversation turned on the Amnesty of which the
ex-Chancellor declared himself a violent partisan. The Duc d'Orléans
disputed this view but without apparently convincing him. The
following day at the Tuileries Lord Brougham drew a paper from his
pocket and, showing a corner of it to the Prince Royal, said, "Here
are my reflections on the Amnesty which I am going to show to the
King." This of course was another piece of ill-breeding on the part of
a foreigner, but he did in fact hand the paper to His Majesty. It was
found to be a violent argument _against_ the Amnesty! When mobility
reaches a certain point it is, I think, an evident symptom of
insanity!

M. le Duc d'Orléans concluded his visit by trying to make me feel that
M. de Talleyrand was under an imperative obligation to attach himself
in a public manner to the Government. I replied by a reference to the
state of his legs. We parted on the best of terms.

When I came down again I found the Entresol crowded. There was
Frederick Lamb, Pozzo, Mollien, Bertin de Veaux, and General Baudrand.
In spite of the great variety of opinions represented they talked as
freely of everything as if they had been in the street. The most
animated was Pozzo, who poured scorn inconceivable on the French
Ministry, pitying the King and speaking very well of him, bemoaning
the embarrassment of his Ambassadors in foreign countries which is
caused by what is going on here, and much annoyed by certain passages
in a speech delivered last night by M. Thiers.

Later on we dined with Count Mollien, where there were M. Pasquier,
Baron Louis, Bertin de Veaux and M. de Rigny, who came late and
brought news of the vote of the Chamber, which is favourable if you
like, but which will cost the Ministry dear, and from which, as M. de
Rigny at least has the sense to see, nothing can be predicted as to
the course of the Session.

It appears that after a speech by M. Sauzet, which is said to have
been admirable, the House wavered and the Ministry gave themselves up
for lost. M. Thiers feared to put it to the touch, but finally did so
almost in despair. He spoke, it is said, _miraculously_, and sent
everybody on the other tack. His speech the night before had been a
fiasco, and the English were furious with him on account of his
strange, and, indeed, inexcusable phrase about England. Yesterday,
however, he seems to have triumphed completely.

Here is a curious fact of which I am quite certain. M. Dupin had
promised the King three days ago to support the order of the day. The
day before yesterday he voted against it; yesterday again he spoke
against it but voted _for_ it. Why? Because after M. Sauzet's speech
the Ministers thought they were lost, and said to M. Dupin: "M. le
Président, prepare yourself to go to the King and have your Cabinet
ready, for, in an hour from now, we shall have resigned." M. Dupin,
much upset, said: "but I didn't think that all this would be so
serious; I have no wish to see you fall, for I do not at all desire
that the burden should again fall on my shoulders." With these words
he tried to escape and leave the Vice-President in his place, when
Thiers taking him by the arm said: "No, M. le Président, you shall not
go till the question is settled; if it goes against us you will go
nowhere else but to the King where you will be condemned to be
Minister."

This, no doubt, is very interesting, but what an atmosphere! What
people!

_Paris, December 8, 1834._--Yesterday, when I got back at four, I was
astonished to see the Duc d'Orléans, whom I supposed to be already on
his way to Brussels. He was not to leave, however, for another hour,
and he came to tell me that Sir Robert Peel had passed through Paris,
and had sent his brother to him (the Duc d'Orléans) as an intimate
friend, to beg him to make his excuses to the King for not requesting
the honour of an audience. His Majesty would, however, easily
understand that in the circumstances hours were centuries. We drew two
conclusions from this: first, that Sir Robert Peel had decided to
accept the Premiership, for an ordinary private individual would not
have considered himself of sufficient importance to send such a
message; secondly, that the courtesy of his language proved a feeling
rather friendly to France than the reverse.

Speaking of Sir Robert Peel, I had a letter from him yesterday,
written from Rome, about the Bassano Ministry, very civil and kind in
its terms, in which he says that what alarms him most in this
combination is that it may prevent M. de Talleyrand from returning to
London.

_Paris, December 9, 1834._--Frederick Lamb, who came to see me
yesterday morning, told me several curious things. He gave me a worse
idea than ever of Lord Palmerston; incredible details, for instance,
on his conduct with regard to the Eastern Question, and many other
matters of which in London we could only form a superficial opinion.
He told me that at the time of the quarrel between England and Russia
about Sir Stratford Canning, Madame de Lieven had wanted the matter to
be arranged so that Frederick Lamb should go to St. Petersburg and Sir
Stratford Canning to Vienna. This was proposed to Prince Metternich,
who replied: "This arrangement will arrange nothing, for the one
ambassador whom we will never agree to accept is Sir Stratford
Canning."

He told me also that M. de Metternich said of Lord Palmerston: "He is
a tyrant, and the age of tyrants is over."

Frederick Lamb detests Lord Granville, but he does not believe that
the Tory Cabinet will succeed, though he does not think that the
Radicals will necessarily be their successors. He thinks Lord Grey
will come back, and is looking for means to extrude Lord Palmerston
and Lord Holland. Like Pozzo and M. Molé, he says extraordinary things
of M. de Broglie. If we may believe them, no one ever made such
blunders.

When I got back yesterday, at four, I received M. Molé. It all passed
off as if we had parted only yesterday. He spoke to me, as he used to
do, of himself, his affections, friends, attitude of mind--all with
the charm which is peculiar to him. He told me that I was much more
amiable even than I was four years ago, and he stayed nearly an hour.
I have always thought that nobody's conversation is so good, so rapid,
or so agreeable as his. He is in very good taste in an age in which
good taste is unknown. Perhaps he is not high-souled enough to rule,
but he is high-minded enough to refuse to be degraded, and that is
already much.

Many names, many facts and deeds, were passed in review during that
hour, and I was much pleased with the natural manner in which he
approached every topic. He told me that my mind was so just that even
those who feared my enmity were reassured; and, in fact, all went off
excellently. I am not sure that this will be so between M. de
Talleyrand and him. I have undertaken to arrange a meeting, and both
parties have begged me to be present at this first interview, which is
rather amusing.

M. Molé told me that he yesterday refused an invitation to dine with
M. Dupin on the ground that the latter had given a distorted version
in the tribune of the purely unofficial relations between them a
fortnight ago. M. Molé added that he had no thoughts of the English
Embassy--as some people were saying--for he did not wish to accept
anything from the present Ministry.

He never sees the Duc de Broglie at all now. He thinks Rayneval is the
only possible Ambassador for London just now, and intends to speak
about it to the King, with whom he says he is on very good terms. He
is scarcely on bowing terms with Guizot, and his relations with Thiers
are very cold.

_Paris, December 10, 1834._--Yesterday evening M. de Talleyrand was
overwhelmed with a procession of visitors. A great many things were
said, of which the following seemed to me the best.

They come from Frederick Lamb, who came first, and with whom we were
for some time alone. He talked a great deal of M. de Metternich and of
his remark made four months ago about King Louis-Philippe: "I thought
he was an intriguer, but now I see quite well he is a King." He also
told us that on the day of the fall of the last English Ministry Lord
Palmerston sent the news to the British _chargé d'affaires_ at Vienna,
and asked him to acquaint M. de Metternich, adding: "You will never be
in a position to make to M. de Metternich a communication which will
give him more pleasure." The _chargé d'affaires_ took the despatch to
the Prince, and for some unknown reason read the whole of it to him,
including even this last phrase. M. de Metternich made the following
reply, which, I think, is in very good taste: "Here is another proof
of Lord Palmerston's ignorance of men and things. I cannot be pleased
at an event the consequences of which I cannot yet measure. Tell him
that I receive the news not with joy but with hope."

_Paris, December 12, 1834._--I dined yesterday at the Tuileries;
besides M. de Talleyrand, there were the Molliens, the Valençays, and
Baron de Montmorency. I sat between the King and the Duc de Nemours;
the last-named has conquered his shyness a little, but he is still
very timid. He is as white and blonde and pink and slim and
transparent as a young girl, and not pretty in my opinion.

No conversation could be more interesting than the King's, especially
when, deserting politics, he plunges into the innumerable memories of
his extraordinary life. I was struck by two anecdotes which he told
extremely well, and though I fear I may spoil them in the repetition,
I will put them down. There was in the room a portrait of M. de Biron,
Duc de Lauzun, which the King has just had copied from one lent him by
M. de Talleyrand. This naturally led the talk to the original of the
portrait, and the King told how, when he came back to Paris in 1814,
he saw at his first reception an old man, who approached him and asked
for a few minutes private conversation away from the crowd. The King
placed himself in the embrasure of a window, and then the unknown drew
from his pocket a ring mounted with the portrait of the Duc d'Orléans,
the King's father, and said: "When the Duc de Lauzun was condemned to
death I was at the Revolutionary Tribunal, and as he was going out M.
de Biron, whom I had met several times, stopped before me, and said:
'Monsieur, take this ring and promise me that if ever occasion offers
you will give it to the children of M. le Duc d'Orléans, assuring them
that I die a faithful friend of their father and a devoted servant of
their House.'" The King was naturally touched by the scrupulous
fidelity with which after so many years the commission had been
discharged, and asked the unknown his name. The latter refused,
however, saying: "My name will not interest you, and might even awake
painful memories. I have carried out the promise I made to a man about
to die. You will never see or hear of me again;" and, in fact, he
never reappeared.

This is the second anecdote. When the present King was still in
England with Louis XVIII. and the Comte d'Artois, the last-named
insisted absolutely on his cousin wearing the uniform of the French
_emigrés_, and especially the white cockade. This the Duc d'Orléans
persistently refused, and said he would never do. He appeared always
in civil dress, which gave rise to many bitter discussions. In 1814,
the Duc d'Orléans, following the whole of France, adopted the white
cockade, and the Comte d'Artois took the uniform of Colonel-General of
the National Guard. The first day on which the Duc d'Orléans appeared
at the Comte d'Artois', the latter said to him, "Give me your hat." He
took it, turned it over, and, playing with the white cockade, said:
"Ah, ah! my dear cousin, what is this cockade? I thought you were
never going to wear it?" "I thought so too, Monsieur; and I thought
also that you were never destined to wear the coat I see you in
to-day. I am very sorry you have not adopted the cockade, which suits
it best." "My dear fellow," replied Monsieur, "do not deceive
yourself. A coat matters nothing. You may take it or leave it; it is
all the same. But a cockade is a different thing; it is a party
symbol, a rallying point; and the symbol which you adopt must never be
withdrawn." What I liked in the King, as he was pleased to recount
this scene, was that he hastened to add: "Well, Madame, Charles X. was
right, and what he said was cleverer than might have been expected."
"What the King says is true," I replied. "Charles X.'s explanation was
that of a man of honour and a gentleman, and it is certain that in him
there was much of both." "Assuredly there was," added the King; "and
besides that he has a very good heart." I was very much pleased to see
justice done to him in that quarter.

At nine I went with Madame Mollien to the Comtesse de Boigne's. She
had been to see me first, and had caused me to be told at Madame
Mollien's that she would be much flattered if I would come and see
her sometimes in the evening. Hers is the leading _salon_ at present;
the one good house which belongs, I will not say to the Court, but to
the Ministry, as that of Madame de Flahaut belongs to the Duc
d'Orléans, and that of Madame de Massa to the Court proper. There is
no fourth. At Madame de Boigne's there is a reception every evening;
politics is the leading subject, and they talk of nothing else. The
conversation seemed to me strained and rather embarrassing owing to
the direct questions which the speakers rather indiscreetly hurled at
each other. "Will the Duke of Wellington be able to go on?"--"Do you
think that Mr. Stanley will join Sir Robert Peel?"--"Do you believe
that a reconciliation between Lord Grey and Lord Brougham is
possible?" These are specimens of the interrogations with which I was
naïvely assailed. I escaped by pleading absolute ignorance, concluding
with a laugh by saying that I did not expect to have to solve
questions of conscience on a festive occasion. The matter ended there,
but I got a disagreeable impression in spite of the excessive
graciousness of our hostess, and I was glad to get away.

_Paris, December 14, 1834._--Lady Clanricarde came to breakfast
yesterday, and at half-past eleven we left for the Académie française.
M. Thiers, who was being received, had secured the best places for us,
which I was grateful to observe were far from those occupied by his
family, who were with the Duchesse de Massa in an elevated gallery. In
our neighbourhood there were only Madame de Boigne, M. and Madame de
Rambuteau, Marshal Gérard, M. Molé, M. de Celles, and Madame de
Castellane. The last-named has got stouter, heavier, and thicker, but
she retains her pleasant face, the mobility of whose lower parts is so
attractive. She seemed so delighted, so moved, and so touched on
seeing me (I used to be intimate with her and knew all about her
affairs, so much that the imprudence of her subsequent quarrel with me
was incredible) that I was quite touched too, and we shook hands. She
said, "May I come and see you again?" and I answered, "Yes, with all
my heart."

Here is the story. When the Tuileries were against me under the
Restoration, Madame de Castellane turned against me, and, without
thinking of the injury it was in my power to inflict on her, she broke
with me. I was deeply hurt, because I was very fond of her; but to
revenge myself would have been mean, and, in spite of all my faults, I
am incapable of doing anything so low as that would have been. I think
that at the bottom of her heart she was grateful to me for having
spared her.

M. de Talleyrand, as a member of the Institute, came into the hall
leaning on the arm of M. de Valençay. The effect of his entry was
unbelievable. Every one rose with one accord in the galleries, as well
as on the floor of the house, and this, no doubt, with a certain
stirring of curiosity, but also with an impulse of respect, of which
he was deeply sensible. I know that in spite of the crowd which
obstructed the approaches every one made way for him.

The sitting began at one. M. Thiers is so small that he entered
without being seen, being surrounded by Villemain, Cousin, and some
others. No one noticed him till he stood up alone to begin his speech.
He spoke with the best possible accent, and pronounced everything
distinctly. His voice was sustained, and his gestures rare. He was not
over voluble, and for the first few moments he was as pale as death
and trembling from head to foot. This made a much better impression
than if he had displayed the insolence with which he is often
reproached. In spite of the disagreeable tone of his voice, he never
offended the ear; he was neither monotonous nor shrill; and, in fact,
Lady Clanricarde went so far as to think him splendid!

M. de Talleyrand and M. Royer-Collard were opposite to him, and he
seemed to speak only for them. His discourse was brilliant. I do not
know whether it was precisely academic, though it was full of wit, of
good taste, and fine language in certain places, but there is no doubt
that it was political, and he spoke it much more as if it was an
improvisation than as if it was a lecture. Certain of his movements,
too, recalled the tribune, and on the audience the effect produced was
much more parliamentary than literary, but always favourable and
sometimes even enthusiastic. M. de Talleyrand was quite moved, and M.
Royer-Collard moved his wig up and down in a way that signified the
most lively approbation! The passage on calumny was spoken with a
conviction and an intimacy which was contagious, and was received with
a salvo of applause.

The discourse is in the highest degree anti-revolutionary. He is
orthodox in his literary principles, he is--and this is what I like in
him above all--he is penetrated through and through with a sentiment
of honesty which greatly pleased me, and which should be useful to M.
Thiers throughout the remainder of his career. This fine speech did
not require the tedious reply of M. Viennet to bring out its
excellence; no one listened to him, and he only succeeded in drawing
attention to the fact that the hour was very late and that it was
dreadfully hot.

It is said that during M. Thiers' speech M. de Broglie was making
merry jests. M. Guizot was cross, and not very well satisfied, I
think, to see his rival make a double success--political and
literary--in the same week.

_Paris, December 16, 1834._--Yesterday I paid several calls, and found
Madame de Castellane in. She had missed me when she came to see me.
She insisted on my hearing her history during the past twelve years;
and she tells it so well that I thought she must have had some
practice in pouring it into the ears of others than myself in these
cooing tones. She has lost all her youth, and is a large, short, squat
person. Except for her smile, she is no longer the same person that I
once knew--physically, that is. Morally, I thought she had made up her
mind to be grave, rather than that she had become serious. She is
witty and caressing as ever, and she talked a great deal; I very
little. My heart was full of many old memories; and though she was
kind I could not recover my old confidence in her. However, I received
all she said well, and I am not sorry to be on good terms with her
again.

_Paris, December 17, 1834._--Yesterday I allowed myself to be
persuaded to go with her to the Court of Peers. We sat, not in a
conspicuous box, but in that of the Duchesse Decazes, which is in a
retired position, and from which one can see and hear without being
seen. I had never been there, the sittings not having been public till
1830. The proceedings of yesterday had been very much advertised and
excited general curiosity, so the House was full.

Whenever one comes to Paris one is always sure of finding some
scandalous drama in progress for the amusement of the public.
Yesterday it was the case against Armand Carrel of the _National_.

M. Carrel did not at all correspond to my expectations. No doubt he
was impertinent, but not with that kind of bold and energetic
insolence, that verve and talent which impress you even while you are
offended with the man himself. The effect of the speech he had written
was very feeble, and he made an impression which was positively
painful when he tried to speak extempore. It was General Exelmans who
vociferated about the _assassination_ of Marshal Ney, and scandalised
every one. His manner was that of a drunken man, and was all the more
ridiculous as no one could help remembering the platitudes he used to
utter during the Restoration; which, I understand, were very cruelly
cast up against him last night at the Minister of Marine's party. In
the morning in the House of Peers he was supported only by M. de
Flahaut, who was in a great state of excitement, and whose behaviour
was most improper.

He disgusted everybody by his cries of "Go on! Go on!" addressed to
Carrel when the President wished to bring him to an end. It was this
encouragement which made Carrel resist M. Pasquier and argue that he
had no right to stop him when a member of the Chamber and, in fact,
one of his judges, pressed him to continue.

On this occasion I learned from every one that M. de Flahaut was
universally detested for his arrogance, ill-temper, acrimony, and
ignorance. He will soon become as unpopular as his wife.

M. Pasquier presided with firmness, moderation, dignity, and coolness.
I confess, however, that I agree with those who would have preferred
him to stop M. Carrel when he spoke of "the young men who had fought
gloriously in the troubles of last April," and not when he referred to
the case of Marshal Ney. The first question dealt with--material
interests--would have found more sympathy both inside and outside the
House.

We had a dinner yesterday--a dozen people, my daughter Pauline being
the twelfth. It is not a bad thing that she should learn to listen to
serious conversation without being bored. She has a good manner in
society, where her open countenance and kindly manners seem to please.
After dinner people came to pay visits just as if we were Ministers.
The fact is that it was Thursday, the reception day at the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Marine, and I suppose that people
took us on the way going or coming.

_Paris, December 19, 1834._--M. le Duc d'Orléans is returned from
Brussels; he came to see me yesterday, and invited me to a ball he is
giving on the 29th. He stayed only a moment, when he was sent for by
the King; the reason for which I learned later.

M. Guizot was the next visitor. He seemed less at his ease than usual,
and tried to compose himself by prosing about England, France, and all
sorts of things, but he must have found me a very unworthy listener.
As a matter of fact, I listened without enthusiasm, for he was
extremely tedious, and soon departed.

Madame de Castellane then came, quite out of breath, from M. Molé, in
order that I might warn M. de Talleyrand of what was going on. M. le
Duc d'Orléans, carried away by the deplorable Flahaut influence,
proposed at the opening of the sitting of the House of Peers to-day
and the reading of the minutes of last meeting, to protest along with
his group against the _assassination_ of Marshal Ney, and to demand
the revision of the case. Fortunately, M. Decazes was warned, and went
and told M. Pasquier. He rushed to M. Molé, who is one of the
twenty-three survivors of the peers who tried the Marshal. There was
a great and well-justified tumult in the camp. They went to Thiers,
who hastened to the King, who knew nothing of the affair, and was very
angry. He sent after his son everywhere, and after a very lively scene
he forbade him to do anything. His great argument was as follows: "If
you demand that Marshal Ney's case shall be re-opened, what will you
say to any Carlist peer who comes (as some one very well may) and asks
that the verdict against Louis XVI.--which was assassination if you
like!--shall be reversed?" I heard the last part of the affair from M.
Thiers, who came to see M. de Talleyrand quite at the end of the
morning. Bertin de Veaux, who had got wind of the thing, also arrived
quite out of breath.

Finally, the King's good sense prevailed and put a stop to this nice
business. But that it should ever have entered any one's head to
propose such a thing is one of the extraordinary features of this age!

_Paris, December 20, 1834._--Yesterday I got a letter from London,
dated the 18th, and took it at once to M. de Talleyrand. I read him a
passage about the terror caused by the suggestion that M. de Broglie
might be sent as Ambassador to England, and the necessity of
nominating M. de Talleyrand's successor. He quite saw the point, and
at once wrote that he wished to see the King. At this very moment M.
de Rigny arrived, bringing him another private letter to see. M. de
Talleyrand has been urging the choice of Rayneval, which, I think, has
not pleased M. de Rigny, if I may judge by what he said to me at
dinner: "There is a very strong reason for not sending M. de Rayneval
to London, but that is the secret of the Minister of Foreign Affairs;
if it was the Admiral's secret I would tell you." I did not insist.

I know that at five o'clock it was arranged with the King that
Rigny should write a letter, confidential but producible, to London,
in which he should say that the King would choose Molé,
Sainte-Aulaire, or Rayneval, and that they would be glad to know which
of the three would be most agreeable to the Duke of Wellington. I
went so far as to say to M. de Talleyrand that this seemed to me a
very maladroit proceeding, as if the Duke chooses Rayneval it will be
very difficult not to appoint him, and if he wants Molé, Molé will
refuse, and they will, in fact, have to take Sainte-Aulaire, who is
not wanted either by the King or by the Council, or by the Duke. How
badly everything is directed and managed here! There is no common
sense or simplicity, or elevation of mind anywhere, and yet they
pretend to govern not only thirty-two millions of subjects, but also
all Europe!

_Paris, December 21, 1834._--I heard the following facts on excellent
authority: (1) They don't want to send Rayneval to London as
ambassador; (2) it is Broglie's doctrinaire group who are opposing it;
(3) London was yesterday offered formally and officially to Molé, who
formally and officially declined it; (4) this morning they had got to
Sébastiani but nothing was settled.

_Paris, December 24, 1834._--Sébastiani was being talked of yesterday
as if his appointment would be in the _Moniteur_ of to-morrow, but the
more public his name is made the greater clamour it excites. M. de
Rigny is dying to resign his Ministry and ask for the London Embassy,
but they are afraid that the machine might go to pieces under the
difficulties caused by the resignation of an important member of the
Cabinet. It seems that it is the condition of Rayneval's financial
affairs which prevents his being appointed. He is said to be over head
and ears in debt and almost bankrupt.

_Paris, December 28, 1834._--I heard through M. Molé that M. de
Broglie had an astonishing influence on the present Ministry, which
was unsuspected by the King, that M. Decazes used to go every morning
and tell him all that went on; that M. de Rigny and M. Guizot allowed
themselves to be much influenced by him, and that no choice was made
without being previously submitted to him.

Will it be believed that in the _Journal des Débats_ they translate
all Sir Robert Peel's speech and leave out--what? The complimentary
passage about the Duke of Wellington which certainly contained nothing
offensive to France. And this when the Duke is Foreign Secretary, and
is extremely well disposed to France, and when the _Débats_ is reputed
the semi-official organ of the Government. Truly people here are
extraordinarily maladroit in spite of the French wit!

_Paris, December 29, 1834._--Poor little Madame de Chalais died last
night. She was such a happy person; with that good and regular
happiness which it is given only to some women to experience. Life
forsakes those who are weary of their pilgrimage all too slowly; it
always goes too quickly from those who are enjoying the journey. In
whatever way one importunes Providence, whether one fatigues one's
self with prayers or allows one's wishes to be divined in discreet
silence, the answer is almost always no, and the sentence usually
irrevocable.

What grief at Saint-Aignan! There she was the darling of all the
inhabitants. I seem to hear the cries of all these old servants whom I
know and for whom she represented the third generation they had
served. The poor, the sick, the well-to-do--all idolised her. She was
so helpful, so kindly, and so gracious! It is more than a death; it is
the destruction of a young happiness and of an ancient and illustrious
race. I am profoundly shaken by it.

_Paris, December 31, 1834._--Yesterday morning I had a good long visit
from M. Royer-Collard. He told me the whole history of his
professorship, and gave me a glimpse of his system of philosophy; then
he talked a great deal about Port Royal. The hours he gives me are
really precious, but too rare and too short for all that there is to
learn from a mind like his.

Madame de Castellane came afterwards; if I were to allow it for an
instant she would constitute herself my sick nurse! She told me that
M. Molé was writing his Memoirs, and that there were already five
volumes.

Then came M. le Duc d'Orléans; he told me a great deal about his Ball
of the night before, of which the following, among the rest, remains
with me. The greatest elegance was blended with the utmost
originality. The company was brilliant, the supper superb; there were
flowers, artistically grouped statues, lights enough to blind you,
white and gold everywhere, new liveries, grooms-of-the-chambers in
full dress with swords by their sides, clad in velvet and powdered.
The women were covered with diamonds; the Queen was charmed and Madame
Adélaïde jealous, saying, "This is pure Louis Quinze." All the men
were in uniform, but in boots and trousers, while M. le Duc de
Nemours, who wore the coat of a general officer covered with gold
lace, and came in short breeches, stockings, and shoes, was voted by
every one extremely distinguished and good-looking. M. le Duc
d'Orléans asked me whether I did not prefer boots and trousers for a
soldier, and I replied, "The Emperor Napoleon, who gained a few
battles, when he dined alone with the Empress wore silk stockings and
buckled shoes every evening."--"Really?"--"Yes, Monseigneur."--"Ah,
that is different." Here is the reverse of the medal. The Deputies
invited (invited I mean as Deputies only, for there were others who
were asked as Ministers and Generals), of whom there were only: MM.
Odillon Barrot, Bignon, and Etienne, came in ordinary evening dress in
order to be more conspicuous.

The Prince Royal is full of singular contrasts. There are, for
instance, his aristocratic tastes and pretensions, and his detestable
politics. Yesterday we had a crow to pluck for the first time on the
subject of the Duke of Wellington. "How like the King you are," said
the Prince. "My father knows you are always talking to me on his side,
and so he likes you very much."--"Monseigneur, I never talk except on
my own side and on the side of your interests: but all the same I am
very proud of the approbation of the King." It all ended very kindly,
for he asked leave to add his portrait to those which I have collected
at Rochecotte.

Here, then, I end this year 1834, memorable in my life because it
closes the English period. The four years which I have just passed in
that country have placed me in a new frame, given me a new point of
departure, and directed me towards a new series of ideas. They have
modified the view taken of me by the world. What I owe to England
will, I hope, never leave me, and will remain with me till the end of
my life. Now let us lay up a provision of strength for the evil days,
which probably will not fail to come, and for which it is well to be
prepared.



CHAPTER V

1835


_Paris, January 3, 1835._--I yesterday received the Duc de Noailles,
who had written me a charming letter to ask leave to call. He came to
talk to me about his wife's niece, Madame de Chalais, whom he loved as
his own child and whom he knew I deeply regretted. We mourned
together; then he spoke a little of politics with good sense and good
taste, a little of society, and much of Maintenon. He stayed a long
time and seemed at his ease and very happy. He expressed the desire to
see me often and to become a little intimate with us. He is one of the
men whom M. Royer-Collard esteems, is very ugly, and older in
appearance than in reality. He is studious, and his manners are
excellent and very distinguished. I saw a great deal of his wife when
she was Mlle. Alicia de Mortemart, and was living with her sister the
Duchesse de Beauvilliers, with whom she went to Saint-Aignan. We are,
moreover, nearly related to the Mortemarts. The old Princesse de
Chalais, who brought up M. de Talleyrand, was a Mortemart, and the
daughter of M. de Vivonne, the brother of Madame de Montespan.

Yesterday I was at the great evening reception at the Tuileries, the
Queen having sent word to me by Madame Mollien that I might come and
go by the private apartments, and so not have to wait for my carriage.
It was the last Court of the season, and I took my daughter-in-law,
Madame de Valençay. The palace, when lit up, is really superb, and
many things look very well--in contrast to many others. This applies
to the black coats scattered here and there among the uniforms, the
elaborate dresses of some women, and the bourgeois caps of others.
There was nothing like disorder, but there was no distinction of rooms
or places. There is no procession; the Court makes its entry when all
the company is assembled and makes a tour of the ladies, after which
the men present file past by themselves. A little man in uniform
precedes their Majesties and asks each lady her name, a proceeding
which in the case of three quarters of them seems absolutely
necessary.

They were very gracious to me, and I think they were pleased that I
went on the day of one of the great receptions which may well be
called "public." They feared that I would restrict myself to special
audiences. That, I think, would have been bad taste. I might perhaps
prefer not to go at all, but when one is pleased to see people in
private it does not do to hide one's self and repudiate them in
public. Whenever she saw me, the Queen herself told me I might go;
they opened the little door and I escaped delighted to be relieved of
the burden.

_Paris, January 7, 1835._--M. Molé came to see me and said many
curious things--among others, that he "had a mission to purge the
Government of doctrinaire influences." He has a terrible hatred of
doctrinaires, and he is a good hater. He quite startled me on this
subject, and I asked myself if he was equally good at loving. The
answer to this embarrassed me and I went no further.

_Paris, January 8, 1835._--Madame Adélaïde having asked me to bring
Pauline to see her, I did so yesterday. The King told me to wait for
him at his sister's which kept me for three hours. The King had just
heard of the strange scene among the Mont Saint-Michel people who were
amnestied. On the very day of their liberation the Republicans among
them (the Carlists said their prayers and went quietly back to La
Vendée) sang the most horrible songs and ended by swearing on their
table knives to compass the death of the King. His Majesty had the
police reports before him and gave us all the details.

He talked for a long time and on all subjects--I must say with much
good sense, ability, clearness, and prudence. He perfectly understood
the destiny of England, judged the European situation very acutely,
and spoke of his son in a most reasonable way. He said two things in
particular to me which struck me very much. The first was that,
without having been carried away so far as his son, he had himself
fallen into several errors of which experience had cured him. He
returned to the subject of the Revolution of July, and was careful to
show that in principle he disapproved of it. Thus he told me that his
Ministers had wished him to wear the July decoration and that he had
refused, saying that he had taken no part in the Revolution except to
put a stop to its disastrous consequences. He added, "You never saw me
wearing that decoration, Madame!"

He is more and more embarrassed in the choice of his Ambassador in
London, for the news received yesterday from Naples proves that
Sébastiani is no longer capable of undertaking the post. I think the
King would like M. de Latour-Maubourg, but he is ill and talks of
nothing but retiring to the country. M. de Sainte-Aulaire will be here
in two or three days, and I imagine that the lot will fall on him. The
King and I discussed the possibility of sending Rigny to London, but
the King said, "Rigny's only possible successor at the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs would be Molé, but Guizot would never dare to stay in
office with him because Broglie would be furious, and they think they
can't do without Guizot in the Chamber." The objection to
Sainte-Aulaire is the influence M. Decazes has over him, which is bad
in itself and justly displeasing to the King.

M. de Talleyrand's letter of November 13 was at last read to the
Council yesterday. It will appear in to-day's _Moniteur_, and there
will also be published a reply from M. de Rigny in the politest terms.
They only asked that one word should be changed, and this was agreed
to, as it made the sense clearer without altering it. They asked M. de
Talleyrand to allow them to say "this propagandist spirit" instead of
"certain doctrines."

Yesterday evening I was at the great ball at the Tuileries. M. le Duc
d'Orléans attacked me again on the subject of the English elections.
He is curiously afraid that they may turn out to the advantage of the
Tory Cabinet. This is the second time we have had it out on this
question. Yesterday I tried to avoid the discussion, but he insisted,
saying that "perhaps I should convert him," to which I replied, "I
should indeed be proud, Monseigneur, to convert you to your own side."

He had just been re-reading M. de Talleyrand's letter of resignation.
He said it was a masterpiece, a real historic document, which would
attract a great deal of attention abroad. Nothing, he thought, could
be so noble or so simple, and it was the more kind to the King as no
one here had the courage to praise him. M. de Talleyrand had, however,
showed himself to be terribly conservative, and this would give rise
to a great controversy in the press. I answered: "Perhaps,
Monseigneur, but what does it matter? Whether M. de Talleyrand speaks
or is silent, he is always attacked by ill-disposed papers. At his
age, when one is taking leave of the public, one may well take the
opportunity of pleasing one's self and showing one's self in one's
true colours to be an honest man as one has always been, the friend of
one's country and of social order, and, what is more, a man of one's
own class, which does not necessarily mean a prejudiced person. You
say that M. de Talleyrand _alone_ has the courage here to praise the
King--and why? Because he is a gentleman, a great personage, and
therefore a Conservative. A monarchy, believe me, must always come
back to people like that." He went on, "Oh, yes, the letter will be
much admired abroad."--"Yes, Monseigneur, it will be admired abroad,
but it will also be admired by every honest man at home, and your
Royal Highness will permit me to neglect the rest." Here is another
specimen of my conversations with this young Prince, who lacks neither
intelligence nor courage nor grace, but whose judgment is still
greatly wanting in prudence and balance.

As to the King, he is prudent above all things, and what is more, he
is very gracious to me. He came up to me and said, with a smile,
"Have you given M. de Talleyrand an account of our long
conversation?"--"Of course, Sire, it was too full of interest not to
make me anxious to give him that pleasure."--"Ah, then I am sure you
will not have forgotten my story about the July decoration."--"It was
the first thing I told M. de Talleyrand, and I am going to tell my son
and my grandson. I wish my descendants to remember it in order that
they may in the future repeat what I now say every day, which is that
the King has a great understanding." It was said long ago that when
flattery did not succeed it was the fault of the flatterer, not of the
flattery. I think that yesterday the flatterer was quite efficient!

_Rochecotte, March 12, 1835._--Our letters from Paris announce that M.
Thiers' refusal to remain in the Ministry with the Duc de Broglie as
President of the Council and Minister of Foreign affairs (a refusal
which the King, who does not wish to be entirely delivered up to the
doctrinaires, will not hear of) is again stopping the machine. The
Chamber of Deputies is beginning to get excited, and it is impossible
to see clearly what the result of all this will be.

There is to be a collection at Saint-Roch for the Asylums directed by
Madame Adélaïde who accordingly has the choice of collectors. She has
chosen Mesdames de Flahaut and Thiers. The former, who is said to be
furious at the choice of her partner, has refused, and this little
difficulty has contrived to attract some attention among the many more
important and insoluble problems of the moment.

_Rochecotte, March 14, 1835._--Yesterday's letters leave no doubt as
to the _dénouement_ of the Ministerial crisis.

It is practically the crisis of last November over again. Then Marshal
Gérard was replaced by Marshal Mortier; now M. de Broglie replaces
Mortier in the Presidency and Rigny gives up to him Foreign Affairs
and takes War until the arrival of Maison, to whom a courier has been
sent. If the latter accepts, the Embassy at St. Petersburg will be
vacant, but it is thought that he will refuse. In that case will Rigny
remain definitely as Minister of War or will he go to Naples, giving
place to some secondary general? No one knows yet. Thus, with the
addition of Broglie and Maison, and the subtraction of Rigny,
practically every one remains at his post. It was hardly worth making
such a fuss about!

This is what I hear as to M. Thiers, who at first refused to take
office with M. de Broglie. He was harried and worried in every
direction, Mignet and Cousin trying to dissuade him, Salvandy to make
him accept. During this period a numerously attended meeting of
deputies assembled at M. Fulchiron's. Thiers, hearing of this, said
that if this meeting asked him he would accept office. Salvandy
hurried with a deputation to obtain Thiers' consent, which was given
in order that he might not be accused of ruining the only possible
combination, and because he is backed by a solemn expression of
opinion from a parliamentary majority. It is thought, however, that he
will soon repent of having yielded. The balance is no longer even.
They will be two to one against him in the Council, and conditions are
quite against the present arrangement lasting.

I have a letter from M. Molé which says, "You have left a gap here
which nothing could fill; no one has felt this more than I have in the
last few days. I hope, I may say I am sure, that you would have
approved of me. You are one of the very few people of whose approval I
think before I act. We have not been fighting about individuals but
for the Amnesty. A complete general Amnesty was my condition. Those
who resigned in order to get their way provoked a demonstration
against it in the Chamber. I alone maintained that facts were on our
side. However, some who, like me, were for the Amnesty lost courage,
and the result is that the old Ministry is being reconstructed under
M. de Broglie. Several of its members are by no means proud of this,
but they are all accepting a position on which the future will
pronounce judgment as well as on many other things."

_Rochecotte, March 16, 1835._--M. Royer-Collard writes to me as
follows about the late Ministerial crisis: "It was on Tuesday the
10th that the King asked Guizot to summon M. de Broglie. No doubt you
expect to hear of the insolence of the conqueror. Nothing of the sort.
M. de Broglie, coached by Guizot, had laid aside not only his
arrogance, but even his personal dignity which should not be
surrendered even in exchange for the Presidency of the Council. He
expressed regret in humble terms for the past and promised to be good
in the future. You may take this for certain--the Necker pride, which
is the same type as the Broglie pride, has given way."

Further on, _à propos_ of the paper signed by the so-called Fulchiron
meeting about Thiers, M. Royer-Collard says: "It is certain that
Thiers has capitulated. He accepts, but is separated and disengaged
from the doctrinaires whom he has humiliated. He _returns_ whereas
Guizot _stays_. No one, I think, gains by this patch work."

Still further on there is this. "When M. Molé came to see me
yesterday, I embraced him as I would the survivor of a shipwreck. He
comes out of the matter best of all, and he has surpassed himself."

_Rochecotte, March 23, 1835._--Yesterday evening I had a very gracious
reply from the Duchesse de Broglie to the letter of congratulation I
had addressed to her. She dissembles her political triumph by the use
of humble Biblical quotations. The note of her letter is kindliness,
and in fact I am pleased with her; she is a deserving person.

I had also written to M. Guizot on the occasion of his brother's
death. He did not reply before the period of mourning was over; he did
finally answer however, and yesterday there came from him a very
cajoling letter. The only phrase dealing with politics is: "I am one
of those who should say that the crisis is over, but I am also one of
those who know that nothing is ever finished in this world, and that
one has to begin again every day. Our life consists of a continual
effort to secure a success which is always incomplete. I accept this
without illusions, and without discouragement."

I shall add an extract from a letter from M. Royer-Collard which also
came yesterday evening. "All that has happened, the _dénouement_ as
well as the crisis, is very sad. The King and Thiers have, as you see,
been conquered by Guizot, and, as a result, M. de Talleyrand as well,
in what remains to him of public life. It is true that this victory
bears no resemblance to a triumph, and makes none of the noise in the
world which a triumph causes. It is obscured by the uncertainty of
things in the Chamber. Guizot however is a skilled intriguer, and his
obstinacy is in proportion to his presumption and to his burning
thirst for personal predominance. He will never stop till he is
conquered by the force of circumstances. I doubt whether there exists
anywhere at present a force which would be sufficient to conquer him.
Thiers had the satisfaction of making them wait thirty-six hours for
him and of going his own way in the tribune, but the fact remains that
he gave in, and that it was the fear of Guizot and the little
doctrinaires that prevented him from entering the Gérard-Molé
Ministry, much as he would have liked to do so. Till something else
turns up he is absorbed in the general submission. From this chaos M.
Molé has emerged with an increased reputation of which you may rest
assured that he owes part to you. You came into his life more than
once and brought succour. He likes you very much and feels the need of
your approbation. I owe his friendship to his belief that I helped to
bring you and him together."

_Rochecotte, May 10, 1835._--Yesterday I had a curious account of what
passed at the secret committee of the House of Peers on the form of
judgment.[49] Several Peers declared that they could not get rid of
the matter by sentencing the accused in default, that is to say by
sentencing empty benches. Of this opinion were MM. Barthè,
Sainte-Aulaire, Séguier and, it is believed, de Bastard. M. Decazes
and some others contended that the cases should be taken separately.
M. Cousin reproached M. Pasquier in the most violent manner for not
having heard counsel for the defence, and the Chamber for being weak
enough to uphold the decision of its President. M. Pasquier in his
reply was sentimental and pathetic, but the most serious incident was
the declaration of M. Molé who said in so many words that if they
passed sentence on the accused in his absence he would protest. This
declaration had a great effect, and several Peers, among them the Duc
de Noailles, adopted M. Molé's view. It is added: "You can easily see
that this declaration is the nucleus of a new Molé Ministry if the
impossibility of carrying on the case should force the present
Ministers to resign. On the other hand it would be so dangerous to be
weak in the presence of such accused that the necessity of standing
fast will override all other considerations. It remains to be seen how
it is to be done. This case is a hydra!"

  [49] A Royal decree had charged the Court of Peers with the duty
  of trying the authors of the Republican insurrection which
  occurred from April 7 to April 13, 1834, in several provincial
  towns and in Paris. The sentences were not passed till December
  1835 and January 1836.

_Langenau (Switzerland), August 18, 1835._--This little chronicle has
been interrupted for some time. I have often been ill, and found any
kind of application impossible. In this way I became more and more
indolent, and got tired of writing down my own thoughts after having
so long dealt with those of others. Then came removals and travels and
all sorts of things which have combined to interrupt my old habits. My
mind has been distracted by too many new scenes; I have had no time
for the reflection and steady work necessary for writing, and my
inspiration was at an end. I had lived prodigally for four years and
my small stock of provisions was exhausted. In short, I may repeat the
rather unfilial remark of M. Cousin, who in speaking of his father,
who had become imbecile, observed, "only the animal survives."

My notes have recorded in their proper sequence the visit of M. le Duc
d'Orléans to Valençay, the drama (as I may well call it) of M. de
Talleyrand's resignation of his Embassy to London; the change of
Ministry at Paris, which only lasted three days; that of the English
Cabinet, which after three months retired on meeting a Parliament
which they had imprudently renewed. How much these events displeased
those about me, how a many-sided intrigue made Sébastiani Ambassador
at London, a post to which M. de Rigny secretly aspired--all this is
well known, and I shall say no more about it.

At Maintenon, where I spent some hours with the Duc de Noailles, I had
the pleasure of hearing a long account of the visit of Charles X. in
1830, when he left Rambouillet to embark at Cherbourg. The Duc de
Noailles describes this dramatic scene with emotion, and consequently
with talent. Unfortunately, I did not write it all down the very day
he told it me, and now I fear that I should spoil it if I tried to
recollect it. Some day or other I shall go to Maintenon again, and
instead of the story, which I shall not hear again, I shall be able to
tell what has become of this venerable and curious old house in the
hands of the Duc de Noailles, who has undertaken many improvements.

Our quiet stay at Rochecotte might also have furnished several pages
which would have contained the piquant anecdotes of M. de la
Besnardière; the frequently agitated correspondence of Madame Adélaïde
during the re-entry last March of the doctrinaire Ministry, and some
characteristic traits of M. de Talleyrand grappling with his
comparative solitude, almost continually trying to put other people in
the wrong in order to manufacture emotions for himself, sometimes
putting himself in the wrong, and thus conducting a solitary warfare
in the midst of a profound peace.

I should have set down, during the days which Madame de Balbi spent
with me, some account of the many-sided vivacity which is so
characteristic of her age and type of mind. Her conversation was full
of it, and what she says is almost always connected with scenes and
persons and situations which prevent it from being trivial and make it
material for serious history. If I had been in form at that time I
should certainly not have passed over in silence the loquacious and
pompous figure of the Comte Alexis de Saint-Priest, a malicious, and
indeed a grotesque person, though not without wit and animation, and a
striking contrast to the restraint, good taste, and incisiveness of
Madame de Balbi. M. de Saint-Priest's total want of manners is his
most unpleasant feature. He thinks he is a born diplomatist, but his
temperament is certainly anything but diplomatic. He is also a man of
letters, and is writing historical memoirs, for which he thought
himself entitled to request Madame de Balbi, on the very first day
they met at Rochecotte, to communicate to him her letters from Louis
XVIII., of which no doubt she must have a great many. This was too
much not to cast a shade of gravity over Madame de Balbi's habitual
gaiety; and she said, very drily, that she would be wanting in every
sentiment of the respect and gratitude which she entertained towards
the late King if a single one of these letters was published or even
shown to any one during her lifetime.

During the month of June which I spent at Paris the King very
graciously showed us Versailles, which should have impelled me to
record here the profound impression made upon me by the first plan and
the actual restoration. Fast as one forgets everything at Paris,
Versailles remains dazzlingly clear in my recollection; all I feared
was to have too much to say. I doubt if I could have revisited the
Palace under more curious circumstances. On one side was M. de
Talleyrand who reconstructed for us the Versailles of Louis XV., Louis
XVI. and the Constituent Assembly, and on the other King Louis
Philippe. In the middle of the hall of 1792 the King was carried back
to the earliest memories of his youth and made them live again by his
words no less than by the fine portraits and interesting pictures he
has collected. I had visited Versailles in April 1812 with the Emperor
Napoleon who then dreamed of establishing his court there, and had
gone to inspect the works which he had put in hand and which first
extricated the palace from the ruin and disorder caused by the
Revolution. The second visit I paid to Versailles might well recall
the first! M. Fontaine, the clever architect, and I were the only
people who could compare both restorations.

_Berne, August 19, 1835._--The month of June which I spent in Paris
was full of incident of all kinds. I am really ashamed that I have
allowed the impressions of these to become so feeble that hardly a
trace remains. I assisted at several conversations between the King
and Madame Adélaïde. There were the little intrigues of the
doctrinaires diffidently developing around me under the auspices of M.
Guizot, in whom I have often remarked an easy hypocrisy which seems to
me quite a new variety of charlatanism. All these, the alternations of
exaltation and despondency through which M. Thiers kept passing, and a
thousand other things which gave each day a character of its own,
would have been well worthy of a few notes. I should have said
something of a dinner at the Villa Orsini given by M. Thiers, where a
motley collection of fifteen people gave the party a stamp of bad
taste which embarrassed me and made M. de Talleyrand observe, "We have
been to a Directoire dinner party."

Personal matters also have not been uninteresting. There was the death
of young Marie Suchet and her mother's grief, the confirmation of my
daughter Pauline on the occasion of which I met the Archbishop of
Paris after five years of separation. All these events, so to speak,
marked out one day from another and kept them from being confused one
with another.

I was the more struck with my interview with M. de Quélen, as it was
the occasion of a conversation which I do not wish to go unrecorded.
The Archbishop returned to a subject which has always much concerned
him, namely, the conversion of M. de Talleyrand, and spoke of it with
the same vivacity as in the days of M. le Cardinal de Périgord. He
repeated how eagerly he wished for this event, assured me that he had
gladly accepted all the tribulations of his episcopal life in the hope
that God would vouchsafe as a recompense for his own sufferings the
return of M. de Talleyrand into the bosom of the Church. He exhorted
me vehemently to co-operate by my own efforts in so meritorious a
work, and added that, knowing how trustworthy I was, and, moreover,
believing that it was well that I should know what he intended to do,
he would confide to me that he had thought that in the last phrase of
M. de Talleyrand's letter of resignation of November 13 last there
was a return to serious thoughts, and that he had become convinced
that the moment had come to act energetically. He had therefore
written straight to the Pope at Rome to inquire what line the Holy
Father thought he should follow. "The Holy Father's answer was not
long in coming," said M. de Quélen; "it refers to M. de Talleyrand in
kindly and affectionate terms. It gives me the right to absolve and
reconcile him, and it extends my powers so far as to permit me to
delegate them to the prelates of the various dioceses in which M. de
Talleyrand might be attacked by his last illness, in particular to the
Archbishops of Bourges and Tours. Finally, the Pope even showed a
willingness to write personally to M. de Talleyrand." In my replies to
M. de Quélen I necessarily temporised. I made it clear in the most
precise terms that any direct overture would probably produce an
effect the very opposite of that which was desired. For my own part I
could never take other than a purely passive part in the matter.
Assuredly I should be equally averse from any action contrary to the
object desired by the Church, as from any which might disturb one for
whose peace I am responsible, without securing the desired effect,
which, if it ever is secured, will be due to a voice more mighty and
more powerful than any human one.

The Archbishop also spoke to me of his own tribulations, of those he
has experienced since 1830; they have been both strange and sad. I
regret that latterly he has not been able to forget them a little
more, and that when he returned to the Tuileries after the attempt of
July 28,[50] and reopened Notre Dame to the King, he did not accompany
what he did with more frank and more definitely pacific words. He
would then have avoided the reproach of speaking to two addresses, one
at Prague, the other at Paris. The Archbishop's misfortune is that he
has not quite the intellectual grasp which is necessary to play the
difficult part which circumstances have imposed upon him. Neither has
he the intense energy which redeems, and sometimes more than redeems,
intellectual shortcomings. No doubt his sentiments are excellent, and
his intentions admirable. He is kind, charitable, affectionate,
grateful, sincerely attached to his duties, and always ready to face
martyrdom, but he is too ready to receive impressions of every kind.
It is easy to gain his confidence and to abuse it by pushing him into
a path the end of which he does not perceive in time. He is afraid of
criticism and is always provoking it by a hesitancy and a want of
balance which arise from a vacillating intelligence, and the scruples
of a conscience which is never certain whether what was good yesterday
is good to-day. He would have been a good pastor in ordinary times;
but in our day, in which no one seems suited to the place he occupies,
the attitude he has taken up has made neither for his reputation with
the public nor the peace of his private life. However, as he has many
noble and good qualities, and as he has the deepest interest in all
who bear the name of Talleyrand, which is much to his credit as it
arises from gratitude to the Cardinal de Périgord, I wish with all my
heart that his life may be made more tranquil than it has been in
these recent years, and that his troubles may come to an end. Another
man might have known how to turn them to his advantage; he can do
nothing but succumb.

  [50] The crime of Fieschi who tried to assassinate King Louis
  Philippe.

I have enjoyed the four weeks which I have lately been spending at
Baden-Baden. I found many old acquaintances and had some agreeable
meetings. There, too, I ought to have fixed my recollections by
putting down a few lines about Madame la Princesse d'Orange, that
pattern of all that education should make a Princess, about the King
of Würtemberg and his daughters the Princesses Sophie and Marie, about
the ill-concealed hostility of Mesdames de Lieven and de Nesselrode,
about the genial philosophy of M. de Falk, about the fine talk of M.
and Madame de Zea, in fact about everything good and bad which struck
me in this gathering, of which each member had a distinction of his
own.

They all group themselves more or less about Madame de Lieven, whose
former glories and recent misfortune (the deaths of her two youngest
sons in the same week), excited sympathy or imposed duties. I was very
sorry for her, and her position seemed to me to contain a great
lesson. She has lost her way and wanders at large. She is not
resigned, and finds no pleasure in her regrets. She finds nothing but
a cruel void in the distraction which she demands of every one. She
finds no pleasure in occupation; she lives in the street, in public
places, talks inconsequently, and never listens, laughs, cries and
acts at a venture, asks questions without interest in the answers.
This misery is the worse, as four months of sorrow have not taught her
patience. She is already astonished that her regrets have lasted so
long; but, as she will not submit herself to trouble, it will not wear
itself out; she prolongs it by struggling against it. In the combat
sorrow triumphs and the victim cries out, but the sound is discordant
and awakes no sympathetic echo in the hearts of others. I have seen
people, one after another, cease to pity her and care for her: she saw
it too and was humiliated. She seemed grateful to me for continuing to
be kind to her. She left me with the conviction that, if I had not
been a consolation to her, I was at least a resource, and I am very
glad of it.

It was a pleasure to me to see the lovely Lake of Constance again a
few days ago. Three years ago I dreamed of taking a small château
which was there. It has been burned down. I am now thinking of a
cottage; I should be sorry not to have some shelter on this promontory
from which the view is so rich, so varied, and so tranquil, and where
it would be so pleasant to rest.

From Wolfsberg where I lived I several times went to Arenenberg to see
the Duchesse de Saint-Leu; she seemed to me rather more tranquil than
three years ago. Madame Campan's pretentious pupil, the Tragedy Queen,
has given place to a good stout Swiss house-wife who talks with
freedom, receives hospitably, and is pleased to see any one who comes
to divert her in her solitude. Her little house is picturesque, but
intended only for summer weather, though she lives there almost all
the year round. The interior is small and narrow, and seems to have
been made only for flowers, reeds, matting, and divans--it is in fact
no more than a summer-house. The relics of imperial magnificence which
are heaped together there are not altogether in keeping. Canova's
marble statue of the Empress Josephine requires a larger setting. I
should have liked with the stroke of an enchanter's wand to have
transported to the Versailles Museum the portrait of the Emperor as
General Bonaparte by Gros, which is certainly the finest modern
portrait that I know. It ought to be the property of the nation, for
the military and political history as well as all the glories and
destinies of France are embodied in this perfect picture. In a little
cabinet in a looking-glass case there are some precious relics mixed
with a number of insignificant trifles. The cashmere scarf worn by
General Bonaparte at the Battle of the Pyramids, the portrait of the
Empress Marie-Louise and her son on which the dying eyes of the exile
of St. Helena were fixed, and several other interesting relics lie
there side by side with wretched little scarabs and a thousand
trifling things without interest or value. Thus an eyeglass left by
the Emperor Alexander at Malmaison, and a fan given by Citizen
Talleyrand to Mlle. Hortense de Beauharnais, preserved in the midst of
the memories of the Empire, show great freedom of thought and a
certain amount of indifference, or else a remarkable facility of
humour and character.

True I saw the Empress Josephine and Madame de Saint-Leu ask to be
received by Louis XVIII. a fortnight after the fall of Napoleon. In
London I saw Lucien Bonaparte make Lady Aldborough introduce him to
the Duke of Wellington, and at the Congress of Vienna Eugène de
Beauharnais sang to oblige the company. Ancient dynasties may be
wanting in ability; new ones are always lacking in dignity.

_Fribourg, August 20, 1835._--It would be, if not dignified, at any
rate well bred, on Madame de Saint-Leu's part if she restored to the
town of Aix-la-Chapelle the magnificent reliquary worn by Charlemagne,
and found on his neck when his tomb was opened. This reliquary, which
contains a piece of the True Cross under a great sapphire, was given
to the Empress Josephine by the Chapter of the Cathedral in order to
conciliate her favour. It must have been a painful sacrifice for them
to part with this relic, to which it would have been a piece of
delicacy and good breeding to put an end. What might be an appropriate
possession for the successor of Charlemagne is a most unsuitable one
for the mistress of the Arenenberg.

I have little to say of the journey which brought me here. Saint-Gall
has a charming situation. The interior of the town is very ugly; the
church and the adjoining buildings, which are now the seat of the
Cantonal Government, have been restored too recently, and they missed
their effect on me. Nothing recalls the strange glories of the ancient
Prince Bishops of Saint-Gall. The nave of the church is fine, but
there is none of the calmness of antiquity in it. The bridge, which
you cross to reach the new road to Heinrichsbad, is a picturesque
incident in a wooded country.

Heinrichsbad is quite a new establishment; and the Alpine situation of
the isolated hotel affords opportunities for the goats'-milk cure. The
part of Appenzell which we crossed on the way to Meynach reminded me
more of the Pyrenees than any other part of Switzerland.

I was pleased to see the Lake of Zurich again; but the Lake of Zug,
along which I passed the next day, being more shaded and retired,
seemed to me even more lovely. There is a view of almost all of it
from the Convent of the Nuns of S. Francis, whose house is high above
the lake. I arrived as the ladies were saying Mass--not very well it
must be confessed, but the organ and voices which come from invisible
persons and an unseen place always affect me too deeply to allow me to
be critical. The nuns are employed in the education of girls. Sister
Seraphina, who showed me over the Convent, speaks French well, and her
cell is extremely clean. The rule of the Convent did not seem to me
very strict.

The chapel of Kussnach--on the very spot where Gessler was killed by
William Tell, has some historic interest no doubt, but as regards
situation it is far inferior to that on the Lake of Four Cantons, at
the place where Tell leapt out of his persecutor's boat and pushed it
back into the raging storm.

The position of Lucerne, which I knew, struck me again as very
picturesque. The lion carved in the rock near Lucerne, after
Thorwaldsen's design, is an imposing monument--a fine thought well
rendered.

Berne, which I reached by way of the Immersthal, a pleasant valley
covered with the most beautiful vegetation and ornamented with
charming villages, has the aspect of a great city, thanks to its
numerous fine streets and buildings. It is a melancholy place,
however, and even in summer one feels how cold it must be in winter.
The terrace, which is planted with trees and hangs high above the Aar,
opposite to the mountains and the glaciers of the Oberland, is a
splendid promenade, to which the Hôtel de la Monnaie on one side and
the Cathedral on the other make a fine finish.

The road from Berne to this place has no remarkable features. The
first view of Fribourg is striking and uncommon. The site is rough and
wild; the towers thrown on the surrounding heights, the depth at which
the river, or rather the torrent, flows at the foot of the rock on
which the town is placed, and the hanging bridge above the houses, all
make the scene exceedingly picturesque. The interior of the town, with
its numerous convents and its population of Jesuits in long black
robes and broad hats, is like a vast monastery, in which there is not
wanting, on occasion, a faint flavour of the Inquisition. It is not in
this mysterious and cloistered place that one feels oneself drinking
in the classic atmosphere of Helvetian liberty. The new Jesuit College
is so placed as to dominate the town, and the influence due to its
importance is very great. To judge by the little which the traveller
is permitted to see, this establishment is on the vastest scale and
perfectly managed. There are three hundred and fifty children being
educated there, most of them French; the buildings appear to me to be
intended for an even larger number. Besides this great boarding-school
the Jesuits have their own house adjoining, and in addition a country
place about a league from the town.

I went to see the Cathedral, which would be quite unworthy of notice
were it not for the organ which was playing as I entered and which
seemed to me the most harmonious and the least harsh of any I have
heard.

I am very glad to have seen Fribourg. I passed through eleven years
ago without examining it. I now understand better the kind of part
which this town plays in the religious history of the present time.

_Lausanne, August 21, 1835._--The broad and easy road from Fribourg
crosses a country partly wooded, partly cultivated, smiling and varied
but not exactly picturesque, except at Lussan. The scenery does not
become grand until the mountain chain which surrounds Lake Leman
appears at the end of a pine wood, which for a long time conceals both
the lake and the town of Lausanne.

Like all Swiss towns Lausanne is ugly inside. Its situation is
picturesque; the variations of level are inconvenient for the
inhabitants, but they provide several terraces from which the view is
very fine. Those at the Cathedral and the Castle are the most thought
of. I prefer the Montbadon promenade which is not so high, but from
which one can see the country better. There are too many roofs in the
other views.

_Bex, August 23, 1835._--Less of wall and vineyard and a few more
trees would make the road from Lausanne to Vevey charming. The country
does not quite take my fancy until Vevey is reached. Chillon above all
impressed me by its situation and its associations. I should like to
have re-read Lord Byron's verses while I was going over the famous
dungeons. His name alone which is scrawled in charcoal on one of the
pillars of the prison (the same to which François de Bonnivard was
chained for six years), is enough to make this dungeon poetic.

At Villeneuve the road leaves Lake Leman and plunges into a wild and
narrow gorge. The sharp and curious indentations of the rocks which
flank the road supply the only beauty which adorns the four long
leagues to Bex. Quite near, on a spur of rock veined with many
colours, and half hidden in a clump of trees, you can see the Castle
of St. Triphon, which seemed to me very fine.

Bex itself is a village which bears no resemblance to the pretty
villages of the Canton of Berne. Everything already suggests the
neighbourhood of Piedmont. We are all at the Auberge de l'Union which
is the only one in the place and is neither good nor bad. The sulphur
baths established here did not succeed; neither did the goat's milk
cure. In fact the place is bare of resources and very sombre and dull,
though for me it is lighted up by the rosy cheeks of Pauline and the
brightness of her blue eyes. I was delighted to get here.

I got a letter on my arrival which had been left for me by Admiral de
Rigny on his way to Naples. He tells me that he has found everywhere
on his way a definite belief that the Duchesse de Berry was at
Chambéry on the 24th, and that on the 30th, Berryer who was going to
take the waters at Aix-en-Savoie disappeared a few hours after the
attempt on the King's life in Paris, and afterwards reappeared at Aix
much upset. Like M. de Rigny I have found this version of the story
current everywhere. The Swiss papers also describe Madame la Duchesse
de Berry, but nothing is certain.

At Maintenon the Duc de Noailles has just been having a party of
clever and intriguing people. M. de Chateaubriand, Madame Récamier,
the Vicomtesse de Noailles, M. Ampère, in fact the whole morning
congregation of the Abbaye-aux-Bois.[51] I am sorry to hear it: the
Duc de Noailles should not forsake the high road for such a byway.

  [51] The Abbaye-aux-Bois was a religious community of women; it
  was situated in Paris at the corner of the Rue de Sèvres and the
  Rue de la Chaise. During the Revolution it was used as a place of
  detention. Later it reverted to its former character, and,
  besides the convent occupied solely by the nuns, it afforded a
  peaceable refuge to ladies of great fashion. Madame Récamier
  settled there.

From what I hear from Touraine I see that the atrocity at Paris of
the 28th July,[52] has aroused indignation there, an indignation,
however, which feared to speak above its breath and which is perhaps
even now forgotten. We live in a time when so many monstrosities are
produced on the stage, when books are so full of them, and when they
are so common in real life that the public have supped full with
horrors and have become indifferent to them and quite familiarised
with crime. The town of Tours, a place so essentially calm, has
distinguished itself by refusing to send addresses from the Tribunal,
the Conseil Municipal and the Conseil d'Arrondissement. Two rogues,
glibly arguing about the letter of the law, were enough to set all the
indifferent at their ease. It appears however that a creditable number
of the Garde Nationale showed themselves the day of the funeral
service and sent an address with some show of cordiality. When one
sees the most violent and criminal passions on the one side and on the
other an exhibition of laziness and indifference, one wonders whether
the repressive laws asked for by the French Ministry will be enough.
Perhaps they will only irritate!

  [52] Fieschi's attempt on the King's life.

This is an evil age of ours; good centuries are rare but there is no
example of one that is worse than this. I pity with all my heart those
who are called upon to govern it, M. Thiers, for example, whose
weariness and anxiety appear in a letter which I received from him
yesterday from which I give an extract. After speaking of the personal
danger from which he escaped at the time of the attempt of July 28, he
adds, "But my only trouble, and it is overwhelming, is the immense
responsibility of my position. I am on my feet day and night. I go
from the Prefecture of Police to the Tuileries, to the Chamber,
without a moment's rest, and without being sure that I have foreseen
everything, for the fertility of evil is infinite, as is the case in
every disordered society in which every criminal has formed a hope
that he may attain anything by setting the world on fire. There are
some scoundrels who would blow up this planet if they were allowed. On
the day after the horrible massacre all that occurred to them to say
was 'we shall see:' these are the very words of the leader of the
assassins. I know not when I shall have the rest which will be the
reward of these troubles, nor what issue out of my affliction will be
vouchsafed to me."

Immediately after the explosion of the infernal machine, when she
learned that her husband and children had not perished, our good Queen
said, "How did my sons behave?" an inquiry which I think was worthy of
her. The young Princes behaved with touching devotion. They gathered
closely round the King, and the next day, when traces of a bullet were
discovered on the King's forehead, the Duc d'Orléans said, "And yet I
made myself as tall as I could yesterday."

While Madame Récamier is at Maintenon with the Duchesse de Noailles,
my sister-in-law, the Princesse de Poix, goes to the Duchesse
d'Abrantès' Mondays where one meets Madame Victor Hugo! Wit and
politics have strangely intermingled all society, good and bad!

M. le Duc de Nemours is going to London. He is nice-looking,
dignified, serious and reserved, with a great air of youth and
nobility. One would expect him to have a great success in England, but
his excessive shyness so completely deprives him of all ease and grace
in conversation that he will perhaps be rated at much less than his
real value.

Of all the congratulatory letters written to the King of the French by
foreign sovereigns on the occasion of the attempt of July 28, the most
cordial was that of the King of the Netherlands. This seems to me very
good taste on his part, and I am very glad of it. I have always
thought that since his misfortunes the King of the Netherlands has
shown ability, readiness, and a persistency which, whatever his
ultimate success, will assure him a fine page in the history of our
time in which there is so little that is good to say about anybody.

While the King of the French submits to escorts and measures of
precaution, and is adopting a more Royal state, the President of his
Council comes to diplomatic dinners at the Tuileries in coloured
trousers and without decorations, and this Minister is the Duc de
Broglie!

Jerome Bonaparte and all his family have left Florence and are now at
Vevey; the cholera is driving every one out of Italy into Switzerland.

_Bex, August 24, 1835._--The weather having cleared, we have been to
see the salt mines near Bex, which are the only ones in Switzerland,
and do not produce enough to supply the needs of the country. We did
not go far into the mine because of the damp cold which we felt
gaining on us, but we saw the refining plant in detail. The salt
seemed to me very pure and white.

We returned through the valley of Cretet along the mountain stream of
Davanson, which is the fullest and the most impetuous I have seen in
this part of the Alps. Its course is long and its descent extremely
rapid. It is caught in a narrow gorge, the sides of which are high and
wooded. It supplies motive power for many factories, and for this
purpose is divided into many little canals and aqueducts. These
establishments are nearly always hung, as it were, on blocks of rock
which seem to have become detached from the high peaks and to be
suspended by a miracle over the abyss. All the road as far as M. de
Gautard's little château is delightful, and I was somewhat reconciled
to the country, the first sight of which was a disagreeable surprise.

I am just come back from a very interesting excursion. The chief
object was the cascade of Pisse-Vache, a fine straight foam-white
column of water which throws far and wide on all sides a damp mist,
and leaps in a single jet from a breach in rocks rising into two
needle-like peaks. The water of the cascade soon mingles with that of
the Rhone, near the bridge where one crosses the river. The current is
almost equally rapid from the source to the mouth and is particularly
so in the narrow gorge through which it passes on leaving the Valais
to enter the Canton de Vaud. The frontier is at Saint Maurice, a
picturesque village, where the convents, the castle, the old town and
the fortifications, lying unevenly on the perpendicular rocks, present
a quaint spectacle. The gate of this town is, so to speak, formed by
the narrow passage between two great rocks which separate the two
cantons. From this point on the right the view reaches to the Canton
de Vaud, ending in the distance beyond Lake Leman at the Jura, and on
the left towards the wilderness of the Valais you can see as far as
the snowy chain of Saint Bernard.

What, in spite of everything, spoiled the expedition for me was the
character of the population. Crétins are numerous, and even those who
are not so afflicted are horribly disfigured by goîtres. The women
sometimes have as many as three. The water coming from melted snow,
and the deficiency of sunlight, which penetrates very little into the
narrow gorges of the Valais, are responsible for the frequency of this
disease.

_Geneva, August 26, 1835._--We left Bex this morning and went along
the Rhone to the point at which it enters Lake Leman. Thence to Thonon
by a pleasant road boldly tunnelled in the rock and built out over the
lake. The view was a picturesque mixture of superb lawns, lovely
chestnut trees and majestic rocks, which form a very fine spectacle.
From Thonon the road is monotonous until within two leagues from
Geneva. There the natural beauty of the country is enhanced by
numerous ornamental gardens cared for as well as they are in England,
by pretty country houses and magnificent avenues, the whole being
grouped like the town of Geneva itself in an amphitheatre round the
lake.

We are at the Hotel des Bergues. My window looks out on a new wire
bridge which spans the Rhone and joins the two parts of the town,
leading at the same time to a small island on which is the statue of
Jean-Jacques Rousseau surrounded by a clump of great trees. A great
part of the lake is simply covered with little boats; nothing could be
gayer or more animated.

_Geneva, August 27, 1835._--The Duc de Périgord whom I met yesterday
here, and who is a good authority about everything that concerns the
Archbishop of Paris, explained to me as follows the _rapprochement_
of the Archbishop with the present Government. After the attempt
of July 28, the Curé of Saint Roch, whose church has become the
place of worship of the Royal Family since the destruction of
Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, went to the King, who intimated to him his
intentions as to the funeral service. The Curé, whose name is the Abbé
Olivier, observed that after the funeral service a _Te Deum_ in
thanksgiving for the preservation of the King and his children would
be an obvious and proper ceremony. The King adopted this idea adding:
"This _Te Deum_ will have to take place at Saint-Roch as the
Archbishop continues to oppose my Government." The Curé of Saint-Roch
immediately informed the Archbishop of the innovation which his
attitude was about to cause, and it was this which made M. de Quélen
decide to go to the King. He was received and thereafter officiated at
the Invalides and at Notre-Dame. I shall hear later what passed
between the King and him.

I hear from Paris that Marshal Maison, who takes no part in the
debates in the Chamber, takes out every day in a phaeton, at the
fashionable hour, a young lady whom he has brought back from St.
Petersburg. He is the dandy of the Cabinet!

_Geneva, August 29, 1835._--The environs of Geneva have improved as
much as the interior of the town. Every year new country houses
replace and augment the number of those which used to cover the coasts
of the lake. The most elaborate belongs to a banker named Bartholony.
The Italian taste predominates in the construction of these villas;
the gardens and the arrangement of the flowers recall England. The
frame of the picture alone is Swiss and it could not be more
grandiose. Coppet, which is further from Geneva, has no particular
style. It is now occupied by the young Madame de Staël who lives there
in all the austerity of early Christian widowhood, and it has a
deserted and lugubrious air. The village separates the château from
the lake and blocks the view. M. and Madame Necker and the famous
Madame de Staël are buried in a part of the park shut off by brushwood
and very difficult to approach. Moreover, by the orders of the dead,
no one (not even their children) is allowed to enter this enclosure.
The rest of the Park is full of fine trees which, however, are too
close together. They are wanting in style and neatness like the
general impression produced by the whole place. Strangers are no
longer admitted to the house. I had been there on a former occasion.
The apartments are well arranged and well enough proportioned, but
they are furnished without taste or elegance. It is in every way an
establishment characteristic of a Puritan banker, vast and austere but
neither noble nor imposing.

The position of Ferney is very agreeable; the house is embellished by
terraces and vegetation. In itself it is small and all on the old
French model of last century. The salon and bedchamber of M. de
Voltaire alone remain open to the public and consecrated to the memory
of the great mind who, during thirty years made this little manor the
fire from whence issued so many dazzling flames of wit. We stayed a
long time examining the little relics preserved by the gardener. When
M. de Voltaire died he was fourteen; he recites his story well, for I
do not believe that it is his own.

In a letter I had yesterday from the Duc d'Orléans occurs the
following passage: "On the day on which the laws under discussion are
voted, and this dangerous weapon is placed in the hands of the
executive, the difficulty will begin. It is nothing to have got them
through, the trouble is to carry them into execution. Will they be
able to carry on this unceasing struggle? Will they be able each day
to defeat the stratagems, and to resist the tenacious purpose of men
who are driven to desperation and have only one thought and one end?
Hostile critics here assert that it is much more difficult to govern
regularly and coherently than to carry new laws by violent speeches
while not even enforcing those which are already provided. For my part
all I say is that, now Ministers have involved us in so grave a
struggle, I can find no words with which to describe their conduct if
they do not make a proper use of the powers which they have thought it
their duty to demand, or if they try to transfer to others the burden
of executing what they alone have conceived and insisted on in what
they believe to be their own interests."

_Lons-le-Saulnier, August 31, 1835._--I got here last night very late,
after having traversed the wild, melancholy and arid Jura. Great
efforts have been used there to create an easy road, on which however
you get on slowly owing to the constant ascents and descents. The
roads themselves, cut out of the living rock and protected by
encasements skilfully contrived so as to prevent infiltration of
water, are perfectly smooth, wide and well protected against the
dangers of this rugged country. From the heights of Saint Cergue I
cast a last look at the lovely lake of Geneva and the Alps. The view
stretches out magnificently before one and leaves a fine image in
one's memory.

_Arlay, September 1, 1835._--This place, which was part of the ancient
duchy of Isenghien, came to Prince Pierre d'Arenberg from his maternal
grandmother, the heiress of the house of Isenghien, which descended
from those of Châlons and Orange. The nobility of such an origin is
unquestionable, and is much in the mind of the present owner. The view
from my room, and in fact from all parts of the house, is wide without
being picturesque; and in this it is like the house itself, which is
vast and well restored, but rather bare of furniture and rather
chilly, as the ridge above it comes between it and the south.

On the summit of this ridge there are the ruins of the Gothic manor,
which have not character enough to be interesting. The approaches are
short, there being no other avenue than a courtyard planted with
trees. There are many things wanting which are necessary to make it
agreeable and effective, but it is a substantial piece of wreckage
saved from the revolutionary catastrophe. The master of the house and
the Duchesse de Périgord received me with the utmost kindness.

I received here a letter from M. Royer-Collard, who was returning to
his country house "after having done what he believed to be his duty
and due to his honour in the Chamber," and without waiting for the
vote on the law as a whole. His speech, the thought, sentiment and
language of which I admire (he did not intend it to create a sensation
or to carry people away), was made to satisfy the demands of his
conscience. He also wished to make his position quite clear (a long
silence had made some people uncertain about it) and to lay down
clearly the line of his opinions. This is why, though far from well,
he made this speech which is so short and yet so full of matter. It is
the first time that, without exciting any murmuring or appearing
ridiculous, hypocritical or imprudent, any one has praised, honoured,
and defended the peers, and that the spirit of religion, the words God
and Providence, have been heard in the precincts of the Chamber of
Deputies. The respect with which such words were heard seemed to me,
more than anything else, to place M. Royer-Collard apart in the
exalted regions to which he naturally belongs.

The man in whose pay Fieschi seems to have been, and whose name is
Pépin, has at last been arrested. It was a great triumph, but--he has
escaped! A few hours after his arrest, following an order of the
Court, this Pépin had been taken to his house from the Conciergerie
where he was confined in order that a search might be made in his
presence. He was taken by a Commissaire de Police and two men only,
and the moment he got home he disappeared! It is extraordinary that a
man whose arrest and safe keeping were so important should be
entrusted _at midnight_ to the care of two guards, that he should not
have been handcuffed, and that he should have been taken to his own
house from which he no doubt knew of exits unknown to those in charge
of him! It seems that since the affair of June 6, 1832,[53] in which
Pépin was implicated, his house has been so arranged as to furnish him
with means of escape. The Juge d'Instruction who allowed Pépin to
escape by not having him properly guarded is called Legonidec; he is a
young Judge of the Paris Cour d'Assises. Some people think he will be
seriously compromised by the carelessness (if it is no worse) with
which he has treated this very important matter.

  [53] The burial of General Lamarque, who died of cholera on June
  2, 1832, took place on June 5, and was the occasion of a revolt
  which continued all day on the 6th.

They took me to see the ruins of the old castle, which are more
extensive and important than I thought when I came. It was an
important fortress in its day and was dismantled by the orders of
Louis XI. in the time of the wars against Burgundy.

_Dijon, September 3, 1835._--I left Arlay this morning with grateful
memories of the kindness with which Pauline and I were received. The
Princesse d'Arenberg became a special friend of mine; her politeness,
her kindness and simplicity, combined with much good sense and good
manners, her education and talents, and her power of making good use
of all these, assure this young woman a distinguished position among
those of her age and rank of whom very few in my opinion are her
equals.

I went by the new road which goes by Saint Jean-de-Losne and is much
shorter. The road is good and easy, but the country it crosses--rich
no doubt and well cultivated--has no special beauty or even interest
apart from its many châteaux and the Burgundian canal which is finely
shaded by poplars.

Pierres, the château of M. de Thiard, is the most important of those
on the road. It seemed to me large and the surroundings of it are
splendid, but its situation is not pleasant. It is a pity they are
pulling down the castle of Seurre on the bank of the Saône. It seemed
to me to be well placed. Toiran, La Bretonnière, and some others show
that the province is well inhabited.

I regret having arrived too late to see Dijon. It is a fine town with
splendid buildings. The streets are animated. The park, an excellent
public promenade about a quarter of a league from the town and
connected with it by long avenues, must be a source of great pleasure
to the inhabitants.

_Tonnerre, September 4, 1835._--The road from Dijon to Montbard is
bare and flat and fatiguing to the eye. Montbard is an old feudal
castle of the Dukes of Burgundy situated on a considerable eminence.
It was presented by Louis XV. to M. de Buffon, who already possessed
at the foot of the hill a rather large and melancholy house in one of
the streets of the little town. He continued to live in this house
which has nothing interesting in it except a fairly good portrait of
the celebrated owner. He demolished four of the five surviving towers
on the walls of the old château. The one he left still survives, as
well as the enormous outside wall which now encloses nothing but a
"quincunx" of fine trees planted by M. de Buffon, from which fine
alleys lead to his house below. The trees make a delightful shady
promenade. At the top of the grove there is a little house containing
a single room in which M. de Buffon used to establish himself for
several hours every day in order to work uninterruptedly. He had a
church built on part of the foundations of the fortress, and is buried
there. M. de Buffon's house is occupied by his daughter-in-law, a
widow with no children.

The country becomes more varied as one approaches Ancy-le-Franc, a
great and noble château built in the sixteenth century by Madame de
Clermont-Tonnerre and afterwards bought by the celebrated Louvois, to
one of whose descendants it still belongs. This château is perfectly
regular in form; it consists of four buildings joined at each corner
by a square tower. There is no principal staircase; each tower has its
own--a very narrow one. The bedrooms are well proportioned and well
furnished, but the public rooms are ill-arranged. They are small,
especially the salon, in which the heavy gilding seems to add to the
effect of smallness. Some ancient ceilings with panelling to match
give some of the rooms a Gothic character, which is interesting. The
windows are few and narrow, and the courtyard small and sombre. The
castle is entirely surrounded by a vast and well planted park. The
water is ugly and muddy and I saw neither glass-houses nor flowers,
though the offices are considerable. The high road crosses the
fore-court a few yards from the house, which I think is carrying the
principle of accessibility a trifle too far.

What pleases me least is the situation of this abode. It lies at the
bottom of a valley and lacks light, air, and a view. The English word
"gloomy" seems made for Ancy-le-Franc. The chapel is fine, and it is
needless to say that there is a theatre. How could the M. Louvois of
to-day do without one?

I had often heard Ancy-le-Franc and Valençay mentioned as the two most
considerable and remarkable châteaux in France. I cannot admit that
there is any comparison. Valençay is much more imposing, and at the
same time cheerful to live in. Its situation is picturesque and
healthy: it is much richer in architectural ornament, and its finest
part, which dates from the fifteenth century, is a hundred years older
than Ancy-le-Franc, and in the purest Renaissance style.

It has just occurred to me that I saw no library in M. Louvois' house.
I am sorry I did not mention it to the _concierge_, who seemed,
however, to be conscientiously showing us all there was to be seen.

I prefer not only Valençay to Ancy-le-Franc, but, apart from
tradition, even Chenonceaux, and I should prefer Ussé also if it were
put in order and furnished.

_Melun, September 6, 1835._--The banks of the Yonne are pleasant
enough, and are a welcome rest after the melancholy road from Dijon.
It is a pity, however, that the vegetation is, so to speak,
factitious. Up to Sens I saw no other trees than poplars planted in
quincunxes or in avenues. This in the end becomes exceedingly
monotonous, and gives a stiff and artificial look to the landscape.

The Cathedral at Sens is fine, and its proportions elegant. Two
sculptures attract particular attention, the Mausoleum of the Dauphin
father of Louis XVI., and the altar of Saint Leu, on which this good
Bishop of Sens is represented undergoing his martyrdom, which, as a
matter of fact, took place at Sens itself. The group is in white
marble, and very effective. I think the general effect of the
Dauphin's mausoleum is heavy. The composition lacks simplicity, but
some of the parts are fine. The Treasury of the Cathedral is not only
very rich in relics whose authenticity is beyond question, but also in
antiquities, which interested me because they bore the stamp of being
genuine. Thus I saw the Episcopal throne of Saint Leu, his pastoral
ring, his mitre, the pastoral ring of Gregory VII., the comb used by
Saint Leu at ordinations, vestments used by Thomas Becket, who, as I
lately read in Lingard, had taken refuge on the Continent when first
persecuted, and had resided chiefly in France. These vestments are
locked up with great care in an iron case. There is a fine crucifix by
Girardon, which is worth seeing.

In a letter from the Princesse de Lieven at Baden, dated August 29,
which reached me at Sens, the following passage occurs: "We have
strange news from England. Will Ministers really have the courage to
carry out their threats against the Lords? Will the latter give way
before these threats? I doubt it; but the collision so long postponed
is coming at last. In France all is going well. M. de Broglie's speech
is splendid. Lord William Russell is always saying 'Our alliance is at
an end.' As France is repudiating revolutionary principles and England
is going more and more in that direction, there is no basis of
agreement. The alliance was one of principles, and as the principles
are no longer identical the alliance is dead."

_Paris, September 7, 1835._--It is always a great event for me to get
back to Paris where I have had so many bad moments. All my past
unrolls itself before me as I pass through these streets and squares,
which awake so many memories, almost all of them painful.

As we passed along the boulevards I glanced with a shudder at the
house from which Fieschi committed his crime. It is quite small and of
a mean appearance. The too celebrated window is boarded up. In a year
or two perhaps this house will be demolished, and I shall be sorry.
They will no doubt build some memorial on the site, which will
disappear in its turn with the first turn of the political
weathercock, and will, in any case, be much less impressive than would
be the preservation of the scene of the atrocity exactly as it is. If
it were preserved it would assist tradition; every one knows the
history of the event, and may find a lesson in it. The Rue de la
Ferronnerie still exists. They pulled down the Opera house in which
the Duc de Berry was assassinated only to demolish thereafter the
chapel which was built in its place. And yet the chapel from which
Charles IX. shot his subjects is still there, always pointed out,
always referred to. Why should the crimes of monarchs be made manifest
and those of peoples remain concealed?

I shall give some extracts from the letters from M. de Talleyrand
which awaited me at Paris: "In the Ministry here you will find more
politeness than friendship. To be intimate with M. Royer-Collard and
not to have prevented him speaking against the press law is too bad!
That is our real crime. Even Thiers has not been here for two days. I
am not sorry, as I should have told him very plainly that I thought
the articles in the _Journal de Paris_ which he writes or inspires
very improper, and that he should have so much respect for M.
Royer-Collard as at least to keep silent. The confidence of the
Tuileries is also one of the causes of the Ministerial coolness....
Thiers has lost a great deal at the recent sittings of the Chamber. To
appear in the tribune with a copy of the _National_ dating from before
1830 in order to prove that one did not say so and so, is to rate
oneself very low! Men who have not been properly educated to begin
with grow up with great difficulty; they lose their heads whenever
they are contradicted.... You cannot too highly praise M. de Broglie's
speech; all the incense bearers in Paris have passed through his
salon.... The affair of the escape of Pépin has much diminished the
stability of the Ministry, which has shown itself so incompetent to
deal with a serious situation. People say, 'If the Government doesn't
serve the King better than that what have we to rely upon?' Thiers,
instead of using his ability to consolidate his position, has used it
to produce an impression of mere cleverness. He came badly out of
these sittings. In the first place, he was beaten on an amendment of
Firmin Didot's, then he brought his claims as a journalist into the
tribune which produced a bad effect everywhere. And yet he is the best
the Ministry have got, because he has humanity behind all his
cleverness; he loves his friends, he is a good creature (in the best
sense of the term), but he requires to have good people about him, and
those he has are the reverse.... Do not forget that espionage in the
Chamber, in the streets, and in letters is pushed to the utmost
lengths.... The King, the Queen, and Madame Adélaïde look forward to
seeing you among the greatest of their consolations. They need
consolation, for I assure you they are very unhappy. The Guizots and
the Broglies will perhaps talk to you of my coldness; you can say to
them that the coldness is not on my side. It did not come from me, but
from them."

Here now is an extract from a letter from Madame de Lieven, dated
Baden, September 2: "I have reason to believe, from a few lines I have
from England, that there is an understanding between Peel and Lord
Grey. The quarrel of the two Houses will be adjusted, I understand
from Lady Cowper. They think very well of M. le Duc de Nemours in
England."

_Paris, September 8, 1835._--M. Thiers is aged and ill; his illness is
nothing but fatigue and exhaustion, but what a life! He is angry with
his colleagues for grudging him the days of rest for which he asks,
and roundly accuses them of cowardice for shrinking from assuming for
three weeks a responsibility which burdens him all the year. But what
a responsibility it is to preserve the King from the daggers of
assassins! Every day there is a new conspiracy; to defeat them all is
a superhuman task.

Up till now Fieschi's crime has not been connected with anything of
importance. There are a few obscure public-house accomplices and that
is all; the Ministry cannot find anything bigger. M. Thiers even goes
so far as to think it the most ominous feature of the case that such
an atrocity should be the fruit not of fanaticism or intense passion,
or even of some deep laid political conspiracy, but simply the product
of the licence and anarchy which dominate the public mind.

Fieschi, being pressed by a doctor to declare the motive which led him
to commit the crime, replied, "I did it as a boy lets off a cracker."
Hideous frivolity! He asserts that all the clubs and secret societies,
Carlist and others, were informed that on July 28 an attempt would be
made to kill the King. Fieschi had relations with some ruffians of his
own stamp; these talked to their friends, and thus a vague rumour
spread and even reached the Government. No details however were given,
no proper names, nothing precise. As for Fieschi himself, he is simply
an Italian bravo, who is always ready to set his hand to a crime even
though the reward is not great.

M. Guizot, who had to break the news to the Queen, told me that she
was seized with an attack of nerves, that Madame Adélaïde was in
despair, and yet so angry that she lost all self-control and literally
did not know what she was doing. As for Madame de Broglie, who was
also at the Chancellerie at the Place Vendôme with the Queen, she was
much affected, but had her emotion under control. On this occasion M.
Guizot told me that he felt inclined to compare Madame de Broglie's
soul to a great desert in which there are beautiful oases. There are
many gaps in her nature, and yet much force and power.

_Paris, September 9, 1835._--The absurdities of Sébastiani are talked
of even in the cabinet of Madame Adélaïde; and they seem in fact to
pass all bounds. He is much laughed at in London, which he does not
like at all. He says, in his dogmatic and paralytic way, "English
society gives me indigestion." As for his wife, her silliness and
simplicity have become proverbial. They entertain very little, and no
one comes near them; Lord Palmerston alone, in order to mark the
contrast with the insolence with which he honoured M. de Talleyrand,
is constantly paying little attentions to the General. He is always
coming to see him, and is most careful to keep him supplied with all
the news.

The English Legion raised by General Alava has just been beaten in
Spain. The abominable _canaille_ he recruited turned and fled at once.

The compromise between the two Houses in England has taken place; it
is a truce until next Session.

I have seen the King, who gave me his account of July 28. It is a very
curious thing that on the evening before he had told his Ministers
that they would shoot at him from a window, that being the surest
method of assassination. M. Thiers and General Athalin feared an
attack at close quarters, and wished the King to take precautions
against this, but he absolutely refused to do so as being useless. The
King's advisers partly adopted his Majesty's view, but said they
thought the attempt, if made at all, would be made in a narrow street.
The King, on the other hand, maintained that they were wrong, and that
the attempt would be made on the Boulevard because of the trees, which
would afford better cover for the assassin. The King's predictions all
came true. He told me that the most cruel moment in his life--which
has certainly not been without incident--was when the order of the
review brought him back after half an hour to the scene of the crime,
and he was forced to pass through pools of blood and among the dead
and wounded, amid the cries and lamentations of the people who had
been torn to pieces because of him. When he rejoined his family he
burst into tears, and his first words were, "Poor Marshal Mortier is
dead." No one could have been more self-forgetful, more simply
courageous, and yet more moved by the misfortunes of others. His
conduct was really admirable, as is unanimously admitted.

The Emperor of Russia did not write personally, but contented himself
with sending condolences by a _chargé d'affaires_. This is all the
worse, as he wrote a letter with his own hand to the widow of the Duc
de Trévise, who had been Ambassador at St. Petersburg. Several small
Sovereigns were also silent. The letters from Austria were cordial,
those from Prussia excellent, Saxony was tender, England correct,
Holland kind but otherwise without interest.

The King, who very justly fears any shock, wishes to keep the present
Ministry as long as possible, but he thinks he already sees some new
germs of division which he fears will develop during the sick leave
for which M. Thiers has applied and which will be accorded. The
composition of a new Cabinet would be very difficult, chiefly owing to
the question of the Presidency, which touches everybody's vanity. The
King would like to abolish the Presidency altogether, and with this in
view he would like to entrust it for a short time to some exceptional
person with whom no one would compete and who could have no successor.
It is thus that he comes to think of M. de Talleyrand. His Majesty is
at least as antagonistic as ever to the doctrinaire party in the
Cabinet, and fears above all that if there were a partial dissolution
it would be this factor which would be strengthened.

I am always surprised when people lie without any particular object.
It is quite natural that newspapers should amuse themselves by
deceiving the public, but when Ministers of State amuse themselves by
telling falsehoods the effect is curious. Thus M. Guizot told me the
day before yesterday that it was he who broke the news of the
catastrophe of July 28 to the Queen at the Hôtel de la Chancellerie.
Well, it appears that the Princesses were told of the danger to which
the King had just been exposed while they were still at the Tuileries
and on the point of leaving for the Chancellerie, by two aides-de-camp
sent by the King for that purpose! Vanity leads people into very
contemptible things. Could anything be more childish than to invent a
lying story about a fact of this kind?

_Paris, September 10, 1835._--M. le Duc d'Orléans regrets that the
Würtemberg project of marriage has not come off. He says he wishes to
settle the matter as regards Princess Sophia, and to visit Stuttgart
when he next goes to Germany. He says that if he married some one else
without having seen her, he would be convinced that he had missed his
true fate.

M. le Duc d'Orléans is very bitter about the Ministry in general; the
royal family is disposed to blame the negligence and obstinacy (if it
is no worse) of the police for what has happened. He is sure that for
some time back the police have been wanting in ability, but as for
the escape of Pépin, he is convinced it is due to the negligence of M.
Pasquier, who sits languidly in an arm-chair and gives incomplete
orders, and also to some extent to M. Martin du Nord, who transmits
these orders, with even less detail, to inferior agents, who carry
them out in the slackest way. M. Legonidec, in exculpating himself,
makes very grave charges against his superiors, and some go so far as
to say that M. Pasquier is negligent because he fears to find some
Carlist at the bottom of the Fieschi affair. This is what Madame
Adélaïde wants, and what the Queen fears above all things. The King
thinks that the attempt has a Republican origin. The essential thing
is to get at the truth if possible, and the determination of Ministers
to see nothing in the whole affair but a conspiracy conceived in a
cabaret is not one which is likely to lead to new discoveries.

Prince Leopold of Naples is accused of practising such duplicity in
the matter of his marriage that any other than Princess Marie might
have been disgusted with the affair. She is, however, anxious to be
settled; no other match offers, and, as the King says, "You know, of
course, that Neapolitan princesses simply must be married." His
daughter is half a Neapolitan.

The eldest of our Princesses, the Queen of the Belgians, had so little
inclination for the King, her husband, that she refuses ever to return
to Compiègne, where her marriage was solemnised; and it is chiefly for
this reason that the Court is arranging to go to Fontainebleau.
However, this disinclination on the part of Queen Louise has been
transformed into a conjugal affection so intense that she lives almost
shut up with the King in a _tête-à-tête_ which is hardly interrupted
even by her ladies or the Master of the Household who receive all
their orders in writing. The King and the Queen occupy adjoining
rooms, the doors of which are left open. The King, who is timid and
domestic in his habits, likes this sort of life very well, and it is
much to his wife's taste, for she is only loved by her husband, while
he is adored by her. I have these details from her brother, the Duc
d'Orléans.

_Paris, September 11, 1835._--My son Alexander, who is just returned
from Italy, says that the country is covered with monks flying from
Spain and taking with them the treasures of their convents. The
precious stones which come from this source are being sold cheap.

The Queen of the French, though in delicate health, goes to bed late,
and never retires without having herself read all the petitions
addressed to her. She does this chiefly because she fears she might
miss some information which might be given in this form and might
concern the King's safety.

On July 28, at the very moment when he saw his three sons round him,
he turned to M. Thiers and, stretching out his hand, said, "Do not be
alarmed: I am alive and well." These are words worthy of Henri IV.!

_Maintenon, September_ 12, 1835.--This place is quite restored and
furnished. The rooms are fine; there is a large establishment. The
river is clear, and the aqueducts are on a great scale. For any one
who does not miss a view, and who does not fear the damp, this old
château, which has so many associations, is one of the most splendid
and attractive abodes possible.

_Courtalin, September 13, 1835._[54]--Here they know all about what is
passing at the Court of Charles X. It is said that the language there
on the subject of the crime of July 28 has been very kind and correct.
That unhappy Court spends its time in internal warfare and animosity.
There are exactly the same intrigues and rivalries as there used to be
at Rome at the Court of the Pretender.

  [54] A castle belonging to the Duc de Montmorency.

_Rochecotte, September 14, 1835._--This morning I went to see the
Prince de Laval at his pretty manor of Montigny, which he is arranging
and adorning in the most delightful manner, while trying to preserve
its Gothic character. It is a place which suits well with the heraldic
tastes of its possessor.

At Tours I found the Prefect rather irritated at a Ministerial order
requiring an exact report of the newspapers which the officials of the
Government take in. This little inquisition does, in fact, somewhat
recall the curiosity which used to be displayed under the Restoration.

_Valençay, September 15, 1835._--To-day I dined at Beauregard with
Madame de Sainte-Aldegonde. It is a fine house, an old hunting lodge
of François I., which he used when stag hunting from Chambord, in the
Forest of Roussé. There is a gallery with a hundred and twenty
portraits, which are very bad but interesting because they represent
all the celebrated people of the period in Europe. The gallery is
paved with tiles contemporary with the house. There is a good deal of
old panelling and furniture very well preserved by their present
owner.

I arrived late at Valençay and found M. de Talleyrand thinner,
complaining of palpitation of the heart, and of some rather painful
trouble in his left arm. He had just got a letter from the King
announcing the appointment of M. de Bacourt as Minister at Carlsruhe.
The following extract refers to the want of deference with which M. de
Broglie treats him: "My dear Prince, the method which in my
'impotence' I decided to use has proved completely successful, and
what you desired[55] has been done. I wished to have at any rate the
pleasure of announcing this to you myself while renewing most
cordially the assurance of my old friendship for you which you have
known so long."

  [55] An allusion to the request made to the King by M. de
  Talleyrand that M. de Bacourt should be appointed to Carlsruhe.

The King of the French is not the only Sovereign who does not like his
Ministers. The King of England hates his and speaks openly against
them at table, as well as against his sister-in-law, the Duchess of
Kent, who meanwhile is taking her daughter about from county to county
receiving addresses and answering them just as if she were Regent
already.

_Valençay, September 16, 1835._--Mlle. Sabine de Noailles is sixteen,
very beautiful, very clever and well educated, with a voice like a
man, an excellent memory like all the Noailles, and rather brusque
manners. At dinner at Courtalin she raised her voice, and addressing
M. de Talleyrand, who was not next to her, she said: "Uncle, will you
drink a glass of wine with me?" "With great pleasure, my dear
_nephew_!" replied M. de Talleyrand.

The Duke of Modena is playing the petty tyrant in his Duchy. One of
his commonest practices is to have the whiskers and moustaches of
those whose passports are in any way irregular cut off. The fashion of
the day makes this a more cruel punishment than imprisonment, which,
however, his victims have usually to suffer in addition!

The grandmother of the present Duc d'Arenberg, an intimate friend of
Maria Theresa, a great and noble lady in all respects, came to France
under the Consulate to secure her removal from the list of _émigrés_
and the restoration of such of her property as was still sequestrated.
She stayed with the Maréchale de Beauveau, who was a friend of hers.
She had to write to Fouché requesting an interview, which being
granted she went to the Hôtel de Police. Her carriage was not allowed
to enter, and she had to alight and cross the dirty courtyard. The
Minister was engaged and could not receive the Duchess, whom he
referred to his principal clerk. The latter said she might sit down
while he was looking for the box with the papers about her case. He
began to turn over an index and exclaimed, "But your name was removed
a fortnight ago; it is struck out altogether, and since I am the first
to give you the good news I must have a kiss, Citoyenne d'Arenberg."
Whereupon he seized the Duchess and kissed her on both cheeks. But
before Madame d'Arenberg was at the bottom of the steps he called her
back, shouting: "Hi! Citoyenne d'Arenberg! I made a mistake; it is not
you but one d'Alembert who is struck out!" So the poor Duchess had to
go back to Madame de Beauveau having been kissed by the clerk but not
struck out of the list. The First Consul, who heard the story next
day, ordered the Duchess's name to be struck out at once and she got
back her property.

_Valençay, September 17, 1835._--The Princesse de Lieven has had a
curious conversation at Baden with M. Berryer the Advocate and Deputy.
"What do you think, monsieur, of the new laws proposed by the French
Government on the occasion of the attempt of July 28?" "I approve of
them in principle, and that is why I intend to absent myself from the
Chamber, where my position would oblige me to oppose them."--"Do you
think the Government will last?"--"No."--"Do you think there will
be a Republic?"--"No."--"Do you think Henri V. will come
in?"--"No."--"What, then, do you think?"--"Nothing, for in France it
is impossible to establish anything." M. Berryer left the next day for
Ischl to see Madame la Duchesse de Berry there, and is bound thence
for Naples.

_Valençay, September 18, 1835._--I am anxious about M. de
Talleyrand--not that I think that the symptoms he complains of are
serious, but he is impressed by them. He often speaks of his end, and
is evidently afraid of it, and thrusts the idea away from him with
horror. He often sighs, and yesterday I heard him exclaim, "Ah, mon
Dieu!" in a tone of the deepest dejection. Politics and news interest
him, but there is not much of those to be had here.

_Valençay, September 19, 1835._--Lord Alvanly came back in a cab from
the scene of his duel with O'Connell's son and gave a piece of gold to
the cabman. The latter, surprised at this generosity, said, "What, my
lord, a sovereign for taking you so near your death?"--"No, my man,
but for taking me back!"

I sent for the excellent Dr. Bretonneau from Tours to examine M. de
Talleyrand. He says that the trouble is only muscular, the muscles
being bruised and weary with the efforts M. de Talleyrand has to make
owing to the failure of his legs. He thinks, moreover, that he is in a
nervous state and is languid and bored, but that there is nothing
dangerous. The worst feature is the growing weakness of his
extremities which might at any moment reduce him to complete
helplessness. In short all the circumstances point to living with
difficulty, but none suggest that the end is near. I hope that
Bretonneau's presence and his kind and clever talk will have calmed M.
de Talleyrand's mind.

_Valençay, September 20, 1835._--General Sébastiani has been nearly
blown up in Manchester Square in London. A new Fieschi had deposited
an infernal machine there with the result that one poor woman was
injured. There are as yet no further particulars. There is nothing but
crime and mystery in these days!

M. Royer-Collard spoke to us yesterday of his last speech in the
Chamber of Deputies. He said that if he had held his peace he would
have thought himself dishonoured, that he would rather have had
himself carried to the tribune than be silent in a situation in which
the glory of his whole life was at stake, and finally that he would be
dead now if he had not spoken and that the only reason he is not
better than he is, is that he did not manage to express all that he
was thinking.

I was bold enough to touch on the subject of the Cours Prévôtales[56]
at the time of the second Restoration, for which he has been so much
blamed lately, and M. Royer-Collard replied: "It is true that I, with
several Councillors of State, was appointed to examine the Bill before
the Minister introduced it in the Chamber. M. Cuvier and I opposed it
in principle and secured many modifications in detail. M. de Marbois,
who was then Garde des Sceaux, and who did not like the law, wished it
to be introduced in the Chamber by people who were opposed to it, and
appointed me Government Commissary without consulting me. I did not
know what had been done till I saw the _Moniteur_ and I complained
bitterly. I did not appear in the Chamber as Commissary during the
discussion of the law, and I defy any one to quote a word I ever said
in its favour." He added that M. Guizot, then Secretary-General at the
Ministry of Justice, should not have contented himself with being so
good as to quote to his colleagues in the present Cabinet the
_Moniteur_ which contained his name. He should at the same time have
explained how it happened. If this accusation had been made in the
Chamber instead of merely in the Ministerial press M. Royer-Collard
would have ascended the tribune to give the true version of the
matter.

  [56] In 1789 the Cours Prévôtales were tribunals empowered to
  punish summarily and without appeal certain crimes and offences
  defined by an Ordinance of 1731. Under the Consulate and the
  Empire exceptional jurisdictions were established under the same
  name to deal with desertions, mutiny, political offences and
  smuggling. The Cours Prévôtales of the Restoration were composed
  of Judges of Courts of first instance, and were directed by a
  Prévôt, a superior officer of the army. These Courts from 1815 to
  1817 took cognisance of offences against the public safety and
  acted retrospectively; they were an instrument of Reaction and
  Political vengeance.

He is sorry to have wounded M. Thiers by his speech, which was not
aimed at him, and he would have liked to be able to make an exception
in his favour.

M. Royer-Collard, who has not always either thought or spoken well of
King Louis-Philippe, has changed his mind to a remarkable extent. Last
night, _à propos_ of the fine portrait of the King which is here, he
said he had gone up very much in his opinion, more than he was willing
to admit to himself, so great was the contradiction between his past
and present opinions on this point, and between his reason and his
prejudices.

_Valençay, September 21, 1835._--M. de Talleyrand was reassured for a
day or two by the conscientious and satisfactory report of Bretonneau,
but has now relapsed into anxieties about his health. He admits that
he thinks of nothing else and says that the cause lies in his state of
mind, which is depressed and weary. Yesterday evening when I went back
to his room I found him reading a medical book, studying the subject
of heart disease, and fancying he had a polypus. Yet he suffers very
little, only at long intervals, and then not without a purely natural
cause. It is clear to me (and I know something about it) that he has
an attack of nerves. He had no experience of this protean malady. He
denied its existence in others and now he is a victim himself and will
not admit it.

They say that General Alava has been appointed President of the
Council at Madrid. He has been saying for the last year that he only
accepted the mission to London because the Duke of Wellington was in
office. He remained in spite of the Duke's resignation because, he
said, Martinez de la Rosa was Premier at Madrid. The reason why he did
not retire along with Martinez de la Rosa was, he explained, because
Toreno was also his friend! He led the English Legion he had raised
in London to Spain in person, after having sworn to declare for Don
Carlos on the day the Queen Regent should summon a single foreigner to
defend her cause, and finally he seems to have been placed at the head
of the Spanish Cabinet by Mendezabal, whom he once drove out of his
house as a rascal and a thief! This, it must be confessed, is to push
the logic of inconsistency to its furthest limits!

_Valençay, September 22, 1835._--This is the first occasion for twenty
years that I have spent this anniversary[57] away from M. de
Talleyrand. He went away yesterday to the Conseil Général at
Châteauroux. I remained alone here with the generation which is
destined to succeed him. This gave rise to one or two reflections,
among which was that when M. de Talleyrand departs this life I should
come here very seldom--not that I fear that I should not be well
treated, but the memories of the past would make everything painful to
me, and that the contrast which even yesterday was visible would
become more marked. I did not feel that it was my business to manage
and carry on the salon. It was not my house, and I longed for wings in
order to fly to Rochecotte.

  [57] September 22 is the day of Saint Maurice, the patron Saint
  of M. de Talleyrand.

M. Mennechet, up to the present time editor of _la Mode_, a Carlist
paper, and defamatory on principle, says, "Just fancy; for five years
I have been leading forlorn hopes on behalf of the Prague people and I
have only had two letters from them, one from King Charles X. bitterly
complaining of the caricatures of Louis-Philippe which we had sent him
and which he ordered us to stop, and the other from Madame la Dauphine
who two months ago wrote me a very severe letter, sending me back my
paper and saying that she would give up her subscription because we
had published an article in which it was said that we had seen or
received a letter containing good news about the Duc de Bordeaux." M.
Mennechet, much distressed by these two letters, has resigned the
editorship. I think the letters are very reasonable and very
creditable to the writers.

_Valençay, September 23, 1835._--I am impatiently awaiting M. de
Talleyrand's return from Châteauroux. Though he has become depressed
and irritable, his presence does good here. It fills this great
castle, and maintains good conversation and manners. Moreover, when he
is here I feel there is a reason for my presence.

_Valençay, September 24, 1835._--Bretonneau's diagnosis is justified.
M. de Talleyrand has returned from Châteauroux revived and pleased
with the reception of the Prefect and the enthusiasm of the whole town
as well as by the success of the road in which he is interested.

Madame Adélaïde writes that the King's expedition to the town of Eu
has been not only good for his health but gratifying to him personally
and to all his family. The testimonies of affection which he received
all along the way were impossible to describe.

Pépin was at last recaptured on the morning of the 22nd. This also I
learn from Madame, but she had only just heard, and gives no details.

M. de Rigny is said to be at Toulon, which proves that he has not been
successful in his negotiations for the Neapolitan marriage.

_Valençay, September 28, 1835_.--M. Brenier, who has just come from
London, tells me that General Sébastiani hates music as much as his
wife loves it. He will not allow her to go to the Opera or to
concerts. One day, however, after many prayers, Madame Sébastiani
obtained permission to go to a concert at Lady Antrobus's. It was on
June 18, and the General was to call for his wife later. He arrived
simultaneously with the Duke of Wellington, who was in uniform and
surrounded by many officers, all coming from the great military dinner
given on the occasion of the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo.
The singers were at the moment singing a hymn in honour of the
conqueror. Sébastiani was furious, and told M. de Bourqueney, his
First Secretary, who had gone with him, to tell Madame Sébastiani that
she must leave. She does not understand English, and therefore did not
grasp what the words of the cantata meant, and at first refused to
leave her place. M. de Bourqueney, stimulated by the furious gestures
of the General, almost dragged the poor woman out by force over the
seats. When she finally got to her husband he said to her, in his
pompous and sententious manner, "I told you, madame, that music would
be your ruin!"

It was this same M. Bourqueney, who was lately writing for the
_Journal des Débats_ before he went to London with Sébastiani, who had
the impudence to insinuate that he prepared for M. de Talleyrand from
Paris the speech which the Prince made to the King of England in
delivering the letters accrediting him to the Court of St. James's in
1830. The following is the history of this speech. M. de Talleyrand
was just finishing dressing to go to the King, and said to me that it
had occurred to him that it would not be amiss to say a word or two,
as was the old fashion. In the peculiar circumstances of the time he
thought it would be a good thing, but he had no time to prepare
anything. Then he added: "Come, Madame de Dino, sit down and find me a
few phrases, and please write them in your largest hand." I did so. He
changed two or three words in my draft, which I recopied while his
orders were being pinned on and his hat and cane were being brought.
This is the precise history of this little speech, which by its
fortunate allusions and a comparison between 1688 and 1830 attracted
some attention at the time.[58]

  [58] This speech is given at the end of this volume. I shall
  quote only the phrase here referred to. "England, like France,
  repudiates in her foreign relations the principle of interfering
  in the affairs of her neighbours, and the ambassador of a
  monarchy established by the unanimous votes of a great people
  feels himself at ease in a land of liberty, in the presence of a
  scion of the illustrious House of Brunswick."

It is the same with the letter of resignation which M. de Talleyrand
wrote less than a year ago. The general idea is that M. Royer-Collard
was its author, so here again follows an exact account of what passed.
My conscience had told me that it was absolutely necessary that M. de
Talleyrand should send in his resignation, and I familiarised him by
degrees with this idea. I knew that he always found it difficult to
express his thoughts in words, and that he preferred to act. I had,
therefore, for a long time been considering what words it would be
best to use. At last, one day last November, when we were alone here,
I spoke again to M. de Talleyrand of the propriety, which was daily
growing more obvious, of his sending in his resignation--a step from
which he still shrank a little. He then said that the necessary letter
would be very hard to write. Thereupon I immediately gathered together
all that I had prepared in thought and put it into writing. I came
back in half an hour and read what I had written to M. de Talleyrand,
who was much struck with it and adopted it entire, all but two words,
which he thought affected. I then asked him to submit the proposed
letter to M. Royer-Collard, which he was quite willing to do. Next
morning I left for Châteauvieux. M. Royer-Collard thought well of the
letter, only putting at the end "the thoughts which it suggests"
instead of "the warning which it gives," as I had written, and
replacing one expression at the beginning, which he thought too
pompous, by another in better taste. Thus, without any further
alteration, this letter afterwards appeared in the _Moniteur_, and for
a good while occupied public attention. All the letters of this period
written by M. de Talleyrand to the King, Madame Adélaïde, and the Duke
of Wellington, were first thrown on paper by me and then rehandled by
him. It was only the first above-mentioned, which contained his
resignation, which was corrected by M. Royer-Collard. The others were
merely communicated to him, and he approved them all.

_Valençay, October 1, 1835._--Yesterday I went to Châteauvieux; the
weather was terrible.

M. Royer-Collard said that, of all the people he had ever met, the two
most alike were Charles X. and M. de la Fayette. They were both
equally mad, equally obstinate, and equally honest. Speaking of M.
Thiers, he said: "He is a good-humoured rascal with plenty of
cleverness and some sparks of greatness, but capable of losing an
empire by his recklessness and excitability." Referring to the recent
repressive laws, he said: "I have no love for dictators, but reason
tells me that they are necessary at times. Perhaps the present is one
of these times. But where are we to find the Dictator? If they frankly
proposed the King I could understand it, but to think of the present
Cabinet occupying such a position!"

_Valençay, October 4, 1835._--Yesterday I heard some singular stories
of M. Cousin, whose formerly revolutionary ideas have changed into
monarchical sentiments of the most exalted character. Some delightful
remarks on the subject are quoted. It seems that this illustrious Peer
has composed a monarchical and Catholic Catechism. The work being
completed it was laid before M. Guizot, who gave it his approval, as
did M. Persil, Minister of Public Worship. The book was printed, sent
out to educational establishments, and recommended to all the
institutions under the University. After all this there came a poor
priest with the book in his hand and proved that all these doctors had
only forgotten one little thing in the whole system of Catholic
doctrine, which was the doctrine of Purgatory, to which not the
slightest allusion was made throughout the catechism, verified and
approved as it was by M. Guizot, Minister of Public Instruction and a
Calvinist!

_Valençay, October 10, 1835._--A pedantic and ill-mannered Prefect
spitefully refused permission to M. de Talleyrand to plant a few
trees, saying that he was "_à cheval sur la loi_." "Dear me," replied
M. de Talleyrand, "you have chosen to ride a sorry jade!"

The celebrated Alfieri was at first attracted by the ideas of the
French Revolution, but became so disgusted with them, that he
determined to leave France. The reason of this was that one day he was
driving four-in-hand in the Bois de Boulogne at a great pace, himself
holding the reins, when the horses were requisitioned by force for the
public service. That very evening he announced his departure, and in
reply to entreaties that he should remain, he observed, "What on earth
is one to do in a country where the nobility have no daggers and the
priests no poison!"

_Valençay, October 16, 1835._--I am confronted with new anxieties. I
had heard that the Princesse de Talleyrand was in an alarming
condition, and that her end appeared to be approaching. The Baronne de
Talleyrand, who told me, asked me to prepare M. de Talleyrand for this
event. I confess I shrank from this mission. The gloomy ideas which
have so frequently recurred to M. de Talleyrand's mind for some time,
the depression caused by his great age, the anxiety which he feels at
the slightest symptoms, the sharp and painful impression made on him
by the deaths of his contemporaries--all this made me hesitate to tell
him that his wife's days were numbered. I was not afraid of the shock
of the bereavement, for his heart is not interested. But the
disappearance of a person much of his own age, with whom he had lived
and of whom he had once been fond, or who had been so indispensable to
him that he had given her his name--all this made me think that the
Princess's danger would affect him deeply.

I racked my brains to find some oblique way of getting at the subject
without speaking directly of a seizure. My first remarks were received
in silence, after which M. de Talleyrand immediately changed the
subject. Next day, however, he returned to it, but only to refer to
the embarrassment it would be to be in mourning if she did die, of the
funeral, and of the cards that would be sent out. If the Princess did
die, he said, he would go out of Paris for a week or a fortnight, and
all this he said, not only without any trace of grief, but even in a
tone of obvious relief. He immediately proceeded to enter on the
financial questions of importance which are involved in his wife's
death which would repossess him not only of her annuity, but also of
other monies in which she has only a life interest. All the rest of
the day M. de Talleyrand showed a kind of serenity and gaiety which I
have not seen in him for a long time, and which struck me so much,
that when I heard him positively humming a tune, I could not help
asking him "if it was the fact that he was soon to be a widower that
put him in such spirits." He made a face at me like a mischievous
child, and went on talking about all there would be to do if the
Princess were to die. He will have the satisfaction of an easier
income, which will be a relief to him, as for some years past his
revenues have, to his great annoyance, notably diminished owing to
several causes. Besides this, it is probably a relief to him (though
he will not acknowledge this even to me), to see a bond snapped which
was the greatest scandal of his life because it was the only one which
was irremediable.

_Valençay, October 18, 1835._--After several months of silence, during
which General Alava has come to grief at the head of the English
ruffians he took with him to Spain, I have received a letter from him
at Madrid, dated the 6th instant, which begins thus: "You were right,
my dear Duchesse, when you once said that to enter Spain with foreign
troops was to tempt Providence." The letter ends with another allusion
to my prediction, which seems to have come true to a degree which poor
absurd Alava can hardly bear. He insists, however, that he was in
honour bound to this partisan existence which he dignifies with the
epithet chivalrous, although it is merely Quixotic in the bad sense.

He does not need to explain why he refused the Premiership, but he
says he took the Ministry of Foreign Affairs because he saw the safety
of the Queen Regent was compromised. He does not say how. He then adds
that as soon as he was reassured on this point he retired completely
from the Cabinet, that his only desire is to resume his duties in
London as soon as the session of the Cortès is over. He seems to feel
the uncertainty of this, for he says, "Heaven alone knows what
obstacles may come between me and London before then." He ends by
saying that if he goes back to England it will be by sea in order to
avoid Paris which, according to him, is a very dangerous place for a
Spanish diplomatist.

As regards France, he says: "As they waited for the _casus fœderis_
before they acted, the _casus mortis_ in which we find ourselves,
relieves us of the necessity of thinking of our liberation, which is a
thing of which dead men have no need."

_Paris, October 23, 1835._--We have been back in Paris some days.

M. le Duc d'Orléans was speaking to me yesterday of the Neapolitan
marriage planned for his sister Princess Marie, which did not come
off, and he told me that he had applied to his brother-in-law, the
King of the Belgians, who is here just now, to find some younger son
of a great German House who would be willing to marry the Princess and
come and live at Paris. Princess Marie is clever, but her imagination
is vivid and restless; she is fond of the arts, and is little used to
restraint or to pomp and ceremony. They think she would be happier if
established in Paris, and certainly freer than she would be elsewhere.
No opportunity seems likely to occur of a foreign marriage; even the
chance of such a thing seems more remote. The Princess is
twenty-three, and the Queen is worried and anxious about it.

The pretensions of the King's children are in all things much reduced,
for M. Guizot said the other day, when M. de Bacourt was leaving for
Carlsruhe, that there might not be much to do, but there was one
thing, which was to preserve the last Princess of Baden for M. le Duc
d'Orléans. This Princess is the daughter of Stéphanie de Beauharnais.
I doubt if this marriage would be agreeable to the young Prince, who
only yesterday, _à propos_ of the Leuchtenbergs, said some hard things
of the Beauharnais family. He said they were all intriguers, and would
not make an exception even in favour of the Grand Duchess Stéphanie of
Baden who, in my opinion, deserves a place apart. She is not only a
kindly woman, but there is in her a touch of sublimity, though she is
a trifle too energetic and her pretensions to wit are excessive.

The Princesse de Talleyrand is better, and so little concerned about
her condition that all she thinks of is how to secure further
advantages for herself at her husband's death.

_Paris, October 24, 1835._--M. Pasquier told us yesterday that they
had been obliged to amputate one of Fieschi's finger-joints as a
result of the wound caused by the bursting of his infernal machine,
and that the patient grasped the injured finger with the other hand
before the surgeons began their work saying: "Little one, I am sorry,
but you are going to lose your head before I lose mine." His coolness,
courage and physical strength are only equalled by his excessive
vanity.

I find the Tuileries depressing, Madame Adélaïde aged, the King
flushed and stouter. They are both cast down by the departure of the
Prince Royal for Algeria. The punishment of an African brigand does
not seem a sufficient motive for risking so precious a life. They are
displeased with Ministers for having rather encouraged than checked
the adventurous and highly natural impulse of the young Prince.

The cholera has ceased neither at Toulon nor in Africa; it may yet
cause some calamity to the King. The failure of the Neapolitan
marriage disappoints, and the extreme coldness of the new Russian
Ambassador discourages them.

In the thirty-six hours he spent in Vienna with the ostensible purpose
of paying his respects to the last Emperor of Austria, and with the
real object of charming M. de Metternich through his wife, and the
Archduke Louis through the Archduchess Sophia, the Czar of Russia
rushed all over the city in a cab, forced the vault in which the last
Emperor is buried, and contrived to change his uniform four times!

_A propos_ of the appointment of Count Pahlen as Russian Ambassador in
France the Carlists are saying that nothing can more clearly prove the
_rapprochement_ of the Czar Nicholas with King Louis-Philippe than the
choice of the son of a murderer as Ambassador at the Court of the son
of a regicide.

_Paris, October 27, 1835._--M. de Talleyrand said yesterday that on
his return from America, after all the horrors of the Revolution, he
met Sieyès and asked him how he had got through that frightful time,
and what he did during those miserable years. "I lived," replied
Sieyès! It was in fact the best, and the most difficult, thing to do!

The Government, wishing to find a pretext for the liberation of the
Ham prisoners,[59] eagerly seized on some symptoms of mental
derangement shown by M. de Chantelauze. M. Thiers intended after some
months of an asylum to remove the prisoners to the country houses of
friends who would be answerable for them, and with this end in view he
had appointed a commission of celebrated physicians to inquire into
the condition of M. de Chantelauze and at the same time that of the
other ex-Ministers. M. de Chantelauze however, as soon as he heard of
the impending arrival of the doctors, hastened to declare that he
would receive them politely as eminent persons but not in their
medical capacity, that he would answer none of their questions, and
that he desired his complete and instantaneous liberation or nothing.
I much doubt whether his companions in misfortune are pleased with him
for showing so much disdain.

  [59] In 1830 the signatories of the celebrated decrees which led
  to the fall of Charles X., MM. de Polignac, de Peyronnet, Guernon
  de Ranville, and Chantelauze, were prosecuted before the House of
  Peers, deprived of their titles, and condemned to perpetual
  imprisonment. They were then confined at Ham.

_Paris, November 14, 1835._--I have just had very friendly letters
from Lord and Lady Grey. They are very busy with their estate of
Howick, from which they write, and seem to be quite out of politics.

Lady Grey says a thing which I echo with all my heart. "If my friends
will only love me and I can possess a garden in summer and an armchair
in winter I am perfectly happy in leading the life of an
oyster.--Don't expose me to Madame de Lieven, she would think me unfit
to live!"

_Paris, November 16, 1835._--M. de Barante came to say good-bye. He
leaves to-morrow for St. Petersburg with a full heart and an anxious
mind. Since the famous speech[60] of the Czar Nicolas at Warsaw, which
Madame de Lieven herself refers to as a catastrophe, and since the
commentary of the articles in the _Journal des Débats_ on this speech,
the position of the French Ambassador is a very difficult one. The
line he is to take seems to me a good one and all the more prudent as
it was traced for him by the King.

  [60] The speech here mentioned was made on October 10, 1835, at
  Warsaw by the Emperor Nicolas, in the presence of the Corporation
  of that City, whom he was addressing. The Imperial words were
  filled with threats and reproaches to the Poles, formulated in
  terms so violent that they astonished Europe, where their
  authenticity was largely doubted. The allusions to clandestine
  relations maintained by the Polish rebels with foreign Powers,
  embarrassed more than one diplomatist, and more than one
  Government. This speech was published by the _Journal des Débats_
  of November 11, 1835, and will be found in the Appendix to this
  volume.

We dined last night at the Tuileries, where there were only the Royal
Family, the ladies and gentlemen actually in attendance, and some
young people, the friends of the little Princes. M. le Duc d'Aumale
had just been head of his class, which put him in high spirits. He was
the only member of the company who appeared to me to be so.

The King was so kind as to have a charming portrait of Mary Stuart
brought for me to see. It was all the more interesting as its history
is pathetic. Mary Stuart's ladies went from England to Belgium
immediately after their mistress's execution, and took with them this
portrait which they placed in a public building where it still is. The
Queen of the Belgians had a perfect copy of it made for the King, her
father, and it is this copy which I saw.

In the course of the evening the King had a long talk with M. de
Talleyrand and asked him to take a journey to Vienna. This however he
declined, alleging in excuse the season of the year, his age, and the
presence of another Ambassador already accredited to Vienna.

_Paris, November 20, 1835._--The effect of the famous speech of the
Emperor Nicolas to the municipality of Warsaw has been no less
disagreeable at Vienna than at Berlin. The English papers have
attacked it violently. The _Morning Chronicle_, the organ of the Whig
Cabinet, has been much more violent even than the _Journal des
Débats_. _A propos_ of the latter a curious thing has happened. The
Government, wearied of all the indiscretions and improprieties
committed by the _Débats_, which are becoming embarrassing owing to
the semi-official colour of the paper, formed the idea of giving more
importance to the _Moniteur_ by inserting carefully-written articles,
thus taking away the Ministerial importance of the _Débats_. This was
the King's idea, and was adopted by the Cabinet. When, however, the
question arose who should have the direct control of the _Moniteur_
the Duc de Broglie claimed it as President of the Council, whereupon
the King at once dropped the plan, and things are as they were before.

Letters from England report that the English Ministry is much
embarrassed. Lord John Russell's timid speech at Bristol, without
satisfying the Conservatives has irritated the Radicals and the Irish
Catholics extremely, and the Cabinet's very existence appears to be
seriously threatened though the question is adjourned until the
opening of Parliament.

The more I see of Count Pahlen, the new Russian Ambassador, the more
excellent I find his disposition. I know on excellent authority that
he has written to his Court in clear, simple, straightforward and
kindly terms about what he has lately thought and seen. He did not
conceal how much his social position was suffering owing to the
instructions he had received, and he added that he did not feel bound
to remain in such a position, declaring finally that his Government
should either modify its first instructions or recall him. This
declaration was sent off yesterday. The King and Madame Adélaïde are
impatiently awaiting the answer, which of course will decide what
relations there will be in future between our Government and that of
Russia.

_Paris, November 23, 1835._--Here are the leading points of a letter
which I have just received from the Duke of Wellington. "We are still
on the path on which we entered five years ago. All we can hope for is
that the pace will not be too fast. To stop, and, above all, to
return, is impossible. Robespierre was at least honest as regards
money, his power was founded on disinterestedness; but those who
intend to govern us and who are going to be our rulers will not be
guided by the same considerations. At least I fear not."

_Paris, November 24, 1835._--I spent a curious morning yesterday of
which I wish to give a detailed description, but in order to be
understood I must say a few words by way of preface.

I have a cousin named Louisa de Chabannes. In her early youth she was
very pretty, and sang and painted. She was well bred but poor, and got
no opportunity of marrying. She became retired, unsociable, weakly,
and almost ugly. I used to see her three or four times a year, and I
was always struck by the weariness of her manner, by her pallor and
thinness, and by her silence and nervousness. Seven years ago I heard
that she had joined the _Grandes Carmélites_. I was not surprised, for
though she had never been exactly pious, it was quite clear that she
was ill at ease in the world. However, like all her relations, I was
quite convinced that the austerities of this severe Order would soon
destroy that fragile and ailing organism. I heard, however, at long
intervals, from her brother Alfred that she was still alive, and
indeed much better than she used to be.

Yesterday morning I got a letter beginning, "My dear Cousin," and
ending "Sœur Thérèse de Jésus." For a moment I did not understand;
then I recollected Louisa de Chabannes. In this letter she said that
having at last obtained permission to see me from her Superior she
begged me to come at once. Yesterday was one of the very few days on
which visits are allowed, and she added that in order that I should
not be terrified she had as a great favour obtained permission to see
me with her face uncovered and without witnesses. I should have been
very sorry to disappoint the poor woman, and as I had business with
the Archbishop, who lives in the same neighbourhood, I resolved to do
both on the same day.

I left at two, and drew up at the end of the Rue d'Enfer before a
doorway surmounted by a cross. The doorkeeper told me that Vespers
were not over, for the nuns said the Great Office every day, and that
I should go into the Chapel. I did so. At the end of the choir there
is a grille armed with projecting points, behind which is a great
brown veil, and the voices of the Sisters come from beyond this.
Besides myself there were only two old ladies in the chapel, the only
ornaments of which are a kneeling statue of Cardinal Bérulle in white
marble and several portraits of S. Theresa. I did not know my cousin
well enough to recognise her voice, but the Office came to an end
almost immediately, and I went back to the doorkeeper's room, where I
found the convent doctor, who had just called.

While they were away announcing his arrival and mine he saw that I
was shivering, for in this house there never is any fire except in the
infirmary and in the kitchen. The doctor then spoke to me of the
régime of the establishment, which he declares is not unwholesome, and
to prove it said that after numerous observations he had come to the
conclusion that the average age reached by women outside was
thirty-seven, whereas among the Carmélites it was as much as
fifty-four. He left me to go to the infirmary and soon afterwards they
took me to the parlour, which also was without a fire. A little cane
arm-chair, on which was spread a mat also of cane, was drawn up to an
iron grille lined with a wooden casing, and behind this double barrier
there was a curtain of brown wool.

After a few moments I heard a lock turned and some one came forward to
the grille and said in a clear voice, "_Deo gratias_." I did not know
what to reply and was silent, when the same voice repeated "_Deo
gratias_." Thereupon I had to say "I have not been told what answer I
should give." A little burst of laughter disconcerted me--"My dear
cousin, I only wanted to be sure that it was you." The curtain was
drawn and I saw before me a round fresh smiling countenance lit up by
two bright blue eyes. Instead of the feeble voice I expected I heard
rich, animated, and rapid accents. The thoughts which she expressed
were kindly and sweet, and the assurances she gave of her happiness
and contentment were corroborated by her appearance, which certainly
was strikingly reassuring in a nun so strictly cloistered. She is
forty-eight and does not look thirty-six. She thanked me very much for
having come, and handed me a little medal with an effigy of the
Blessed Virgin, begging me to make M. de Talleyrand wear it without
his knowledge. "This medal," she said, "brings back to the Faith even
those who have wandered furthest from it." I did not refuse to do as
she wished, as to do so would have been horribly unkind. Besides,
there is something catching in a faith so sincere and so vivid! I said
that I would look for a favourable moment for carrying out her blessed
purpose.

I left much touched, and very thoughtful after saying adieu, probably
for ever, to this charming and happy woman, who sleeps on a board,
never has a fire, fasts the whole year round, and would be distressed
if she did not say with S. Theresa, "may I suffer or else die."

I went on the Rue Saint-Jacques to the Convent of the Dames
Saint-Michel to see the Archbishop, to whom I wished to speak about a
project of marriage between my second son and Mlle. de Fougères. I was
conducted by one of the sisters, clad in white from head to foot, to a
little separate building which looks into the immense garden of the
Convent. M. de Quélen has lived here almost entirely since the
destruction of his palace. His apartments are clean, pretty, and very
well looked after.

I found the Archbishop well and in good spirits and very much pleased
to see me. He at once began to talk to me about my children, of their
future and their marriages. I did not hesitate to go into details with
him on this subject. He listened kindly and said that he would always
be delighted to testify the interest he took in the family of the
Cardinal de Périgord, and particularly in my children. I must know
that he had a special interest in me which was due to the qualities I
possessed, and to the fact that he had always regarded me as the
instrument which Providence would probably use to accomplish its
merciful and redeeming work on M. de Talleyrand. I made him promise to
pay a morning call on M. de Talleyrand from time to time, as he used
to do before our departure for England. When I left he said "Treat me
as you used to do, as a relative, and promise me that you will come
and see me again about the New Year." I said I would, and asked if I
might then present my daughter, who had been baptized and confirmed by
him. "And who, I hope, will not be married by any one else," he
replied, on which I took my leave.

_Paris, December 6, 1835._--Here is a story which M. Molé told me last
night. Madame de Caulaincourt (Mlle. d'Aubusson) married in 1812. On
leaving the church after the ceremony she went back to the convent
where she had been educated, and her husband left for the front. He
was killed at the battle of La Moskowa, where his brother-in-law, a
young page of the Emperor, disappeared and was never heard of again.
Madame de Caulaincourt, after her year of mourning, returned to
Society, but did not go out much. She kept her father's house, he
having been for long a widower. Her eldest brother, shortly after his
marriage with Mlle. de Boissy, became completely insane, and her
sister, the Duchesse de Vantadour, was attacked by a slow consumption.
The father, all of whose children were stricken, decided to marry
again, and did, in fact, marry Madame Greffulhe, mother of Madame de
Castellane. Madame de Caulaincourt then retired to a convent, where
she wished to take the veil. Her father opposed this and the
Archbishop of Paris, whose consent was necessary, refused to give it
so long as M. d'Aubusson withheld his approval. Madame de Caulaincourt
was forced to give up her idea, but she took part in the exercises of
the Sisterhood and wore their habit, never leaving the convent except
when her father was ill. Her grief at not being allowed to follow her
vocation undermined her health and the mischief settled naturally on
her chest. On her deathbed she at last obtained her father's
permission and sent for the Archbishop, to whom she communicated her
desire to take the veil at the same time as she received extreme
unction. There were some difficulties about this, but they were
overcome, and forty-eight hours before she breathed her last she
received the last sacraments and the veil that she so ardently
desired! She died yesterday morning, in the odour of sanctity, a young
woman.

_Paris, December 9, 1835._--Madame la Princesse de Talleyrand died an
hour ago. I have not yet told M. de Talleyrand more than that she was
dying. Even where there is no affection the word "dead" has a sinister
sound, and I do not like to say it to an aged man in ill-health--the
less so as when he awoke to-day he had another slight heart attack,
which abated on the application of mustard to his legs. He fell asleep
again, and I shall tell him of his wife's death when he again awakes.
He is in haste, I think, to be free at all costs from the agitations
of these last days.

_Paris, December 15, 1835._--M. Guizot came to see M. de Talleyrand
yesterday, and told us that among the papers of M. Réal, formerly
Chief of the Imperial Police, there had been discovered the original
manuscript of the Memoirs of the Cardinal de Retz, with the erasures
made by the monks of Saint Mihiel. The manuscript had been bought by
the Government, which had invoked the aid of the cleverest chemist in
Paris, who, having vainly tried various methods, had finally
discovered one which enabled the superimposed text to be removed and
the original to be read. A new edition of the Memoirs, based on this
manuscript, is to be published.

Madame d'Esclignac, who is behaving very badly about the property of
the Princesse de Talleyrand, had a discussion on the subject yesterday
with the Duchesse de Poix. The latter tried to make her see the
impropriety of her conduct, how odious the publicity of a lawsuit
would be, and how ungrateful to M. de Talleyrand, who gave her a dowry
and is still paying a pension to her old nurse, whom she had left to
die of hunger. To all this Madame d'Esclignac replied: "For my own
part I do not fear any scandal, and as far as my uncle is concerned I
desire it. I shall have the Faubourg Saint-Germain on my side, for I
had the Archbishop of Paris to administer the last sacraments to
Madame de Talleyrand."

_Paris, December 21, 1835._--Count Pahlen received from his Government
yesterday very satisfactory despatches, which assure him that the
extravagances of the _Journal des Débats_ are not confounded with the
views of the King and his Ministers. These despatches, which came by
post, were quite obviously intended to be read by the public. The
Ambassador expects a courier every day, who will no doubt bring an
expression of the private views of the Czar.

The Princesse de Lieven, whom I met yesterday at Madame Apponyi's,
spoke to me about her affairs, and said that for a long time back her
husband and she had invested all their savings out of Russia in order
that they might be safe from ukases.

The Prince de Laval said yesterday, amusingly enough, that M. de
Montrond's wit "fed on human flesh!" M. de Talleyrand thinks this
"_very true and very neat!_"

_Paris, December 30, 1835._--I saw Madame Adélaïde yesterday. She was
much satisfied with the opening sitting of the Chambers, which had
taken place that very morning. She was pleased with the reception the
King had, both coming and going, and along all the way from the Garde
Nationale. There had been great difficulties in settling the terms of
the speech from the Throne, which was still under discussion ten
minutes before the sitting. The words "the Head of my Family," which
are causing a great sensation, which are thought bold, but which
please the diplomatic corps and every one who is on the side of
stability, originate neither in the Palace nor in the Cabinet. They
come from a sentence composed by M. de Talleyrand and me, which the
King eagerly adopted, but the Cabinet would only authorise the words
"the Head of my Family." The Carlists think them insolent! They are
horrified at the idea of a fourth family! The Republicans like them no
better, perhaps rather worse; ... every one else approves of them
highly.

Yesterday we had at dinner Madame de Lieven, Mr. Edward Ellice, Count
Pahlen, Matuczewicz, and M. Thiers, who was in high spirits and very
brilliant in conversation. He took me into a corner and told me that
le Bergeron, of Port Royal, had a new criminal enterprise in hand. He
had disguised himself in woman's clothes along with one of his
friends, with the intention of making as if to present a petition to
the King, and while doing so to shoot him point blank. The plan
miscarried because the King, instead of riding to the Chamber as he
had intended, went in a carriage because of the frost. Several arrests
were made, but as nothing was actually attempted it is thought that
they will have to release the suspects.

The fact that eight horses were attached for the first time to the
King's carriage attracted attention. The real reason for this is
unknown to the public, and is as follows. For greater safety the King
(without his knowledge) was given the carriage formerly used by the
Emperor Napoleon, which is lined with iron throughout to protect it
from shots; it is extremely heavy, and requires eight horses.

Count Pahlen yesterday received despatches modifying his first
instructions, which were very severe in their terms and made his
position here impossible. It appears that this has been clearly
understood at St. Petersburg, and that he is to be given more scope.
This will greatly please Madame de Lieven!



APPENDIX


I

   _Speech made on October 6, 1830, by_ M. DE TALLEYRAND _on the
   occasion of his presenting his credentials to the_ KING OF
   ENGLAND _as Ambassador of France at the Court of St. James's.
   See page 270._

SIR,

His Majesty the King of the French has chosen me to be the interpreter
of his sentiments towards Your Majesty, and I have joyfully accepted a
mission which sheds so much lustre on the end of my long career.

Sir, of all the vicissitudes which I have seen in the course of my
long life, in all the changes of fortune which I have experienced
during forty eventful years, nothing perhaps could have so completely
satisfied my desires as an appointment which would bring me back to
this happy country. But how times change! The jealousies and
prejudices which so long divided France and England have given place
to sentiments of esteem and enlightened affection. Common principles
bind the two countries even more closely together. England in her
foreign policy repudiates, like France, the principle of interfering
in her neighbour's foreign relations, and the Ambassador of a Monarch
who is the unanimous choice of a great people feels himself at ease in
a land of liberty in the presence of a scion of the illustrious House
of Brunswick. I appeal, Sir, with confidence for your countenance in
the duties with which I am charged at your Majesty's Court, and I pray
that your Majesty will be pleased to accept the homage of my profound
respect.


II

   _Speech addressed by_ H.I.M. _the_ CZAR NICOLAS _to the
   Municipality of Warsaw on October 10, 1835._[61]

  [61] This speech first appeared in the _National_. The _Moniteur_
  reproduced it some days later.

GENTLEMEN, I know that you wished to speak to me, and I even know the
contents of the speech you proposed to make. It is in order to save
you from uttering a lie that I do not allow that speech to be
made--Yes, Gentlemen, a lie--for I know that your sentiments are not
what you would have me believe. How could I believe you whose language
on the eve of the Revolution was the same? Was it not you who five
years since, aye eight years since, talked to me of your fidelity and
devotion, and made the finest protestations? Before a fortnight had
gone you broke your oaths and committed the most atrocious crimes.

The Emperor Alexander, who did more for you than an Emperor of Russia
should have done, was recompensed with the blackest ingratitude. You
have never been content with your position, however advantageous it
has been made for you, and you have ended by destroying your own
happiness--I am telling you the truth as this is the first time that I
have had occasion to see you since the late troubles. Deeds,
Gentlemen, are required, not words. Repentance must come from the
heart. I am speaking without heat; you see that I am calm: I bear you
no malice and I will do you good in spite of yourselves.

The Marshal here is carrying out my intentions and assisting me in my
plans; he too is concerning himself with your welfare. (_Here the
members of the deputation bowed to the Marshal_). Well, Gentlemen,
what do these bows mean? Before all things you must do your duty and
behave like decent people. You have to choose one of two courses,
either to persist in your illusions about the independence of Poland,
or to live quietly like faithful subjects under my government.

If you are obstinate enough to go on dreaming of a separate
nationality, of an independent Poland and chimeras of that kind the
only possible result will be that you will bring disaster on your own
heads. I have built a fortress here and I assure you that on the
slightest symptom of revolt I will have the town bombarded. I will
destroy Warsaw, and most assuredly it will not be I who will rebuild
it.

It is very painful to me to speak to you thus. It is very painful for
any sovereign to have to address his subjects in such terms; but I do
so for your good. Your business, Gentlemen, is to labour to deserve
that the past should be forgotten, and it is only by your devotion to
my government that you can achieve this.

I know that correspondence is carried on with foreign countries and
that malignant persons are sent here to pervert you. But with the best
police in the world clandestine relations cannot be altogether
suppressed on a frontier like yours. You must yourselves act as police
for the suppression of the evil. Bring up your children well and
inculcate good principles of religion and fidelity to their sovereign,
and you will have no difficulty in keeping the right road.

In the midst of all the troubles which are agitating Europe and all
the theories which threaten the fabric of society, Russia alone stands
firm and intact. Believe me, gentlemen, it is a piece of real good
fortune to belong to her and to enjoy her protection. If you behave
well and fulfil all your duties my paternal solicitude will be
extended to you all, and in spite of all that has passed my government
will constantly study your welfare.

Think well of what I have said to you!



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF THE NAMES OF PERSONS MENTIONED IN THIS BOOK


A

  ABERCROMBY, George Ralph (1800-1852). A colonel in the British
    Army; also a Member of Parliament and a Lord Lieutenant. He was
    a member of Lord Grey's Cabinet.

  ABERDEEN, George Hamilton Gordon, Earl of (1784-1860). He served
    with distinction in the British Diplomatic Service, was a member
    of several Ministries, and became Prime Minister in 1852 for
    three years.

  ABERGAVENNY, Henry, Earl of (1755-1843). Married in 1781 Mary,
    only daughter of Lord Robinson. The family name is Nevill.

  ABRANTÈS, Laure de Saint-Martin-Permon, Duchesse d' (1784-1838).
    Descended through her mother from the Imperial family of the
    Comneni. Born at Montpellier, she married General Junot on his
    return from Egypt, followed him on his campaigns, studied and
    observed much, and on her husband's death in 1813 devoted
    herself to the education of her children. She wrote several
    novels more suited for the circulating library than for serious
    reading.

  ADÉLAÏDE D'ORLÉANS, Madame (1777-1847). Youngest sister of King
    Louis-Philippe, to whom she was devotedly attached. This
    Princess had much influence on her brother, and was spoken of as
    his Egeria. She was a woman of intellect, and in the time of the
    Restoration she helped to gather round Louis-Philippe the most
    distinguished men of the Liberal Party, and in 1830 she
    persuaded him to accept the Crown. She never married, and left
    her immense fortune to her nephews.

  ADELAIDE, Queen (1792-1849). Daughter of the Duke of
    Saxe-Meiningen. In 1818 she married the Duke of Clarence, who
    ascended the throne of England as William IV.

  AGOULT, Anne Henriette Charlotte de Choisy, Vicomtesse d'. Died in
    1841. She was lady-in-waiting to Madame la Dauphine, whom she
    followed into exile. She died at Goritz. She married the Vicomte
    Antoine Jean d'Agoult, who died in 1828. He was a Grand Cross of
    the Order of St. Louis, and Governor of Saint Cloud. He was made
    a Peer of France in 1823 and a Knight of the Saint Esprit in
    1825.

  ALAVA, Don Ricardo de (1780-1843). Lieutenant-General in the
    Spanish Army. Along with the Prince of Orange he was
    aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington during the war, and at
    that time became intimate with the future King of the
    Netherlands. He was Minister Plenipotentiary of Spain in
    Holland, in London, and in Paris after the death of Ferdinand
    VII. In 1834 he was made a Senator by the Queen Regent, Maria
    Christina. After the insurrection of La Granja he retired from
    public life and settled in France, where he died.

  ALBANY, Countess of (1753-1814). Caroline de Stolberg. She married
    in 1773 the Pretender, Charles Edward, who had taken the title
    of Count of Albany. She separated from him in 1780 and lived
    with the poet Alfieri, who had a great passion for her, and who
    secretly married her after the death of the Count of Albany.
    After Alfieri's death the Countess returned to Florence, where
    she formed relations with the French painter Fabre.

  ALCUDIA, Comte d'. A Spanish statesman. He was a member of the
    Calomarde Ministry during the lifetime of Ferdinand VII., and
    replaced Salmon at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was,
    however, always a person of secondary importance, and lost his
    place at Calomarde's death.

  ALDBOROUGH, Cornelia, Lady. The eldest daughter of Charles Landry;
    she married Lord Aldborough in 1804.

  ALEXANDER THE GREAT, King of Macedon (356-323 B.C.).

  ALEXANDER I., Czar of Russia (1777-1825). Eldest son and successor
    of the Czar Paul I., he was celebrated for his great struggle
    with Napoleon.

  ALFIERI, Count Victor (1749-1803). The great Italian tragic poet.
    Left an orphan at an early age his education was much neglected,
    but at the age of twenty-five a sudden change took place in him.
    To please the Countess of Albany, who had inspired him with a
    taste for poetry and literature, he undertook a most elaborate
    course of study, created a new system of poetical composition,
    and wrote prose works which entitle him to rank with Machiavelli
    himself.

  ALLEN, George (1770-1843). A learned English doctor, who produced
    numerous works on history, metaphysics, and physiology. He was
    very intimate with Lord Holland and lived with him.

  ALTHORP, John Charles Spencer, Lord (1782-1845). An English
    statesman. He was made Chancellor of the Exchequer after having
    been Home Secretary and a Lord of the Admiralty. His eloquence
    and financial capacity were only moderate, but he was a
    laborious and conscientious Minister and proverbial for his
    political honesty.

  ALVANLEY, Lord (1787-1849). Son of Richard Pepper-Arden. Created
    Lord Alvanley in 1801. He had a duel with Morgan, son of
    O'Connell.

  AMELIA, Princess of England (1783-1810). The last of King George
    III.'s fourteen children, her father's favourite and companion.
    She died unmarried at the age of twenty-seven.

  AMPÈRE, Jean-Jacques (1800-1864). Professor at the Collège de
    France. A distinguished man of letters, member of the Académie
    des inscriptions et belles-lettres, and of the Académie
    française.

  ANNE OF AUSTRIA, Queen of France (1602-1666). Eldest daughter of
    Philip II., King of Spain. She married Louis XIII., King of
    France, and at his death became regent during the minority of
    her son, Louis XIV.

  ANNA PAULOWNA, Queen of the Netherlands (1795-1865). She was a
    daughter of the Czar Paul of Russia, and in 1816 married King
    William II. of the Netherlands.

  ANNE, Queen of England (1665-1714). Daughter of James II. During
    her reign there was a long struggle with Louis XIV., and the
    Union of England and Scotland was brought about.

  ANTROBUS, Lady (1800-1885). Only daughter of Hugh Lindsay and wife
    of Sir Edmund Antrobus.

  APPONYI. Countess (1798-1874). Daughter of Count Nogarola; married
    in 1818 Count Antony Apponyi, who for many years was Austrian
    Ambassador at Paris.

  ARBUTHNOT, Mrs. Died in 1834. Mrs. Arbuthnot and her husband,
    Charles Arbuthnot, nicknamed "Gosh" in society, were the most
    intimate friends of the Duke of Wellington, with whom they
    lived, and were very well known in the best London society.

  ARENBERG, Louise Marguerite, Duchesse d'. Born 1730. She was the
    only daughter and heiress of the last Count de la Mark, and
    married in 1748 Duke Charles d'Arenberg.

  ARENBERG, Prosper-Louis, Duc d' (1785-1861). Married a Princess
    Lobkowitz in 1819.

  ARENBERG, Prince Pierre d'(1790-1877). Married first, in 1829,
    Mlle. de Talleyrand-Périgord, who died in 1842. In 1860 he
    married the daughter of Count Kannitz Rietberg, widow of Count
    Antony Starhemberg.

  ARENBERG, Princesse Pierre d' (1808-1842). Alix Marie Charlotte,
    daughter of the Duc de Périgord.

  ARGENSON, Comte Voyer d' (1771-1842). Grandson of Marc-Pierre
    d'Argenson, Minister of War under Louis XV. He entered the army
    in 1791. In 1809 he was Prefect of the Department of Deux-Nèthes
    (Antwerp). Under the Restoration and the Monarchy of July he was
    a Deputy and conspicuous for his liberal opinions. He married
    the widow of Prince Victor de Broglie, mother of Duke Victor.

  ARNAULT, Antoine Vincent (1766-1834). A French tragic poet and
    fabulist. He attached himself to Bonaparte at an early period,
    and accompanied him to Egypt, and was made by him Governor of
    the Ionian Islands. He then worked at the organisation of Public
    Instruction. He was made a member of the Institut in 1799, and
    in 1833 became Perpetual Secretary of the Académie française.

  ASHLEY, Lord (1801-1881). An English statesman and philanthropist.
    In 1830 he married Lady Emily Cooper, and in 1851, on the death
    of his father, became Earl of Shaftesbury. In 1826 he was
    elected to the House of Commons, and was a member of several
    Ministries.

  ATHALIN, Baron Louis Marie (1784-1856). A French General of
    Engineers. Served with distinction in the Imperial Campaigns,
    received the title of Baron after the Battle of Dresden, and
    under the Restoration became aide-de-camp to the Duc d'Orléans.
    He was entrusted with several diplomatic missions and was made a
    Peer of France when Louis-Philippe ascended the throne. After
    1848 he retired into private life.

  AUBUSSON DE LA FEUILLADE, Pierre Hector Raymond Comte d'
    (1765-1848). Under the First Empire he was Chamberlain to the
    Empress Josephine, then Minister Plenipotentiary and Ambassador.
    The Emperor made him a Peer during the Hundred Days, but the
    Restoration removed him. He did not re-enter the House of Peers
    till November 1831. He was the father of the Duchesse de Lévis
    and the last of his name, having in 1842 lost his son who had
    become insane.

  AUGEREAU, Pierre François Charles (1757-1816). Marshal of France
    under the First Empire and Duc de Castiglione. He distinguished
    himself in several campaigns and carried out the _coup d'état_
    of 18th Fructidor.

  AUGUSTA, Princess of England, daughter of King George III., died
    unmarried.

  AUSTRIA, Emperor of, Ferdinand I. (1793-1875). Son of Francis II.,
    ascended the throne in 1835. His incapacity for Government and
    his bad health obliged him to leave the control of affairs to a
    regency chiefly directed by Prince Metternich. He abdicated in
    1848 in favour of his nephew Francis Joseph I.

  AUSTRIA, Archduke Louis Joseph of (1784-1864). Son of the Emperor
    Leopold II. and of the Empress Marie Louise, daughter of Charles
    III. of Spain; he was Director-General of Artillery.

  AUSTRIA, Archduchess Sophia of (1805-1872). Daughter of Maximilian
    I., King of Bavaria, married in 1824 the Archduke
    Francis-Charles, and was the mother of Francis Joseph I.


B

  BACKHOUSE, John, died in 1845. An English author and statesman.
    He was for some years Canning's private secretary, and was
    twice Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

  BACOURT, Adolphe Fourrier de (1801-1865). A French Diplomatist and
    a Peer of France. He was sent to assist the Prince de Talleyrand
    while the latter was King Louis-Philippe's Ambassador in London,
    and was afterwards Minister at Carlsruhe and Washington, and
    Ambassador at Turin. He resigned in 1848.

  BAILLOT, a young officer and an only son who was killed in Paris
    during the _émeute_ of April 13, 1834, by a pistol shot fired at
    him point blank while he was carrying an order from Marshal
    Lobau.

  BALBI, Comtesse de (1753-1839). She was the daughter of the
    Marquis de Caumont la Force and married the Comte de Balbi, a
    Genoese. She was lady-in-waiting to the Comtesse de Provence,
    and was honoured with the friendship of the Comte de Provence
    (afterwards Louis XVIII.).

  BARANTE, Baron de (1782-1866). He was successively Auditor of the
    Conseil d'État, charged with various diplomatic missions,
    Prefect of La Vendée, and then of Nantes, Deputy, Peer of France
    and Ambassador at St. Petersburg. He was very successful as a
    historian and was elected to the Academy.

  BARBÉ-MARBOIS, François, Marquis de (1745-1837). Before the
    Revolution he held several diplomatic appointments. At the
    Revolution he was deported to La Guyane, and did not return
    until after the 18th brumaire. The First Consul made him
    President of the Cour des Comptes, an office which he held till
    1834.

  BARRINGTON, Charles, a young Englishman intimate with Lord Holland
    towards 1832.

  BARROT, Odilon (1781-1873). A French politician. He began as a
    lawyer and took an active part in the Revolution of 1830. Under
    Louis-Philippe he was the leader of the dynastic Left.

  BARTHE, Felix (1795-1863). French magistrate and statesman. He was
    connected with the Carbonari and a violent opponent of the
    Restoration. In 1830 he was a Deputy and was subsequently
    Minister of Public Instruction, Garde des Sceaux, and President
    of the Cour des Comptes. In 1831 he was made a Peer. In the Molé
    Cabinet he was Minister of Justice, and in 1852 he was summoned
    to the Senate.

  BASTARD D'ETANG, Comte (1794-1844). French magistrate and
    politician. Conseiller à la Cour in 1810, in 1819 he was
    summoned to the House of Peers. He conducted the prosecution of
    Louvel with integrity, showed much political independence, and
    after 1830 was one of the members of the Upper House charged
    with the prosecution of Charles X.'s ministers.

  BASSANO, Hughes Bernard Maret, Duc de (1763-1839). Began as a
    lawyer, and in 1789 published the bulletins of the National
    Assembly, thus founding the _Moniteur Universel_. Bonaparte
    after the 18th Brumaire made him Secretary General to the
    Consuls, and afterwards a Minister. He always accompanied the
    Emperor, was made Duc de Bassano in 1811 and Minister of Foreign
    Affairs. In 1831 Louis-Philippe made him a Peer of France, and
    in 1834 he was for a very brief period Minister of the Interior
    and President of the Council.

  BASSANO, Duchesse de, Madame Maret, wife of the Duc de Bassano,
    was Maid of Honour to the Empresses Josephine and Marie-Louise.

  BATHURST, Henry, Earl (1762-1834). An English Statesman and one of
    the most eminent members of the Tory Party. He was Secretary of
    State for Foreign Affairs, for War and for the Colonies, as well
    as President of the Board of Trade and Lord President of the
    Council in the Duke of Wellington's Ministry. He was an intimate
    friend of the Duke and an implacable enemy of Napoleon I., whom
    he caused to be banished to St. Helena.

  BATTHYANY, Countess (1798-1840). _Née_ Baroness von Ahrenfeldt.
    She married Field-Marshal Count Bubna. She became a widow in
    1825 and married in 1828 Count Gustave Batthyany Stratlman.

  BAUDRAND, Marie-Etienne François, Comte de (1774-1848). A French
    General. Served under the Republic in the Armies of the Rhine
    and Italy, took part in the Battle of Mont Saint Jean as Chief
    of Staff, became a Peer of France under Louis-Philippe, was
    aide-de-camp to the Duc d'Orléans at the siege of Antwerp in
    1832, and in 1837 became Governor of the Comte de Paris.

  BEAUHARNAIS, Eugène de (1781-1824). Son of General de Beauharnais
    and Josephine Tascher de la Pagerie, who afterwards became
    Empress by her second marriage with Bonaparte. Eugène de
    Beauharnais took an active part in the Wars of the Empire. In
    1805 he was appointed Viceroy of Italy, and in 1806 he married
    the Princess Augusta, daughter of the King of Bavaria. After the
    fall of Napoleon he retired to Bavaria with the title of Duke of
    Leuchtenburg.

  BEAUHARNAIS, Hortense de (1783-1837). Daughter of the Empress
    Josephine, married in 1802 Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and
    became the mother of Napoleon III. Under the Restoration she
    received a pension and the title of Duchesse de Saint-Leu.

  BEAUHARNAIS, Stéphanie de (1789-1860). Daughter of Claude de
    Beauharnais, Chamberlain of the Empress Marie-Louise, married in
    1806 the Grand Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Baden, who died
    in 1818.

  BEAUVEAU, Maréchale, Princesse de (1720-1807). Marie Charlotte de
    Rohan-Chabot; married first in 1749 J. B. de Clermont d'Amboise,
    and secondly, in 1764, the Prince de Beauveau.

  BEAUVILLIERS, Duchesse de (1774-1824). She was the seventh
    daughter of the Duc de Mortemart by his first marriage with
    Mlle. d'Harcourt. She married François, Duc de Beauvilliers de
    Saint-Aignan, Peer of France.

  BEDFORD, John, Duke of (1766-1839). Married, firstly, a daughter
    of Viscount Torrington; and, secondly, a daughter of the Duke of
    Gordon. His third son was Lord John Russell.

  BEDFORD, Duchess of. Died 1853. Daughter of Alexander, Duke of
    Gordon. Married in 1803 the Duke of Bedford.

  BEÏRA, Duchesse de (1793-1874). Marie-Thérèse, Infanta of
    Portugal. In 1813 she lost her husband, Don Pedro Carlos,
    Infante of Spain, and married, secondly, the Infante Don
    Carlos of Spain in 1828. He died in 1855.

  BELFAST, Anne Henrietta, Lady (1799-1860). Married Lord Belfast in
    1822.

  BELGIUM, Princess Louise d'Orléans, Queen of (1812-1850). Second
    wife of King Leopold I. of Belgium, and daughter of Louis
    Philippe, King of France.

  BENCKENDORFF, Alexander, Count (1784-1844). A Russian officer. In
    the rebellion of 1825 he showed great devotion to the Emperor
    Nicolas, who made him his aide-de-camp and created him Count and
    Senator. He was the brother of the Princesse de Lieven.

  BÉRANGER, Madame de. Died in 1826. She was a Mlle. de Lannois and
    married in 1793 the Duc de Châtillon Montmorency. In 1806 she
    married, secondly, Comte Gua de Béranger.

  BÉRANGER, Mlle. Elisabeth de. A daughter of the Duchesse de
    Châtillon by her second marriage. She married the Comte Charles
    de Vogüé, brother of the Marquis.

  BERGAMI, Barthélemy. An Italian postillion in the stables of Queen
    Caroline, wife of George IV. of England. The Queen raised him to
    the rank of Chamberlain after she had left England and taken
    refuge in Italy. He was very good-looking, and had two brothers,
    Balloti and Louis. The Queen made the latter her steward, and
    entrusted her financial affairs to the former. Their sister, who
    had married a Count Oldi, became her Lady-in-Waiting.

  BERGERON, Louis. Born in 1811: a French journalist. After 1830 he
    threw himself into the Republican movement, and in November,
    1832, was accused of having shot at Louis-Philippe. He was
    acquitted, but in 1840, having struck M. de Girardin at the
    Opera in the course of a polemical discussion, he was condemned
    to three years' imprisonment.

  BERRY, Duc de (1778-1820). Second son of the Comte d'Artois
    (Charles X.). He followed his family during the Emigration, and
    returned to France in 1814. In 1816 he married the Princess
    Caroline of Naples. He was assassinated at Paris on February 13,
    1820, by Louvel, who wished to extinguish in him the race of the
    Bourbons. He left, however, a posthumous child, the Duc de
    Bordeaux.

  BERRY, Duchesse de (1798-1870). Princess Caroline, daughter of
    Francis I., King of the Two Sicilies. Married in 1816 the Duc de
    Berry, and was the mother of the Comte de Chambord.

  BERRYER, Antoine (1790-1868). An advocate of the first rank, and
    the orator of the Legitimist party. He was several times Deputy,
    and was elected to the Académie in 1855. At twenty years of age
    he married Mlle. Caroline Gauthier. His last years were spent in
    retirement on his estate of Augerville.

  BERULLE, Cardinal Pierre de (1575-1629). Distinguished alike by
    his kindly and conciliatory temper, by his religious firmness
    and by the extent of his knowledge. He powerfully assisted
    Cardinal de Peyron in his controversies with the Protestants; he
    established the Order of the Carmelites in France, and founded
    the Congregation of the Oratory.

  BERTIN DE VEAUX (1766-1842). Born at Essonnes. He founded in 1799
    the _Journal des Débats_, along with his brother. He was
    Conseiller d'État, Deputy, Vice-President of the Chamber,
    Minister at the Hague, and a Peer of France.

  BIGNON, Louis Pierre Edouard, Baron (1771-1841). A French
    diplomatist; Secretary of Legation in Switzerland, Sardinia, and
    Prussia. He was Minister at Cassel and Carlsruhe, and
    Administrator in Poland and Austria under the First Empire. He
    was made a Deputy in 1817 and a Peer of France in 1837.

  BIRON, Armand Louis, Duc de (1747-1793). Known under the name of
    Lauzun. He took part in the American War of Independence. In
    1792 he was made Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the Rhine.
    Accused of treason by the Committee of Public Safety and tried
    before the Revolutionary Tribunal, he was condemned to death and
    executed.

  BIRON-COURLANDE, Princess Antoinette de (1813-1881). Married the
    Comte de Lazareff, a Russian colonel.

  BJOERNSTERNA, Magnus Frederick Ferdinand. After the Battle of
    Eckmühl he was sent on a mission to Napoleon I. He was
    afterwards Minister-Plenipotentiary at London.

  BLACAS, Pierre Louis Jean, Duc de (1770-1839). Attached himself to
    the person of Louis XVIII. during his exile, and at the
    Restoration was made Minister of the King's Household. He became
    a member of the House of Peers, and was sent to Naples to
    negotiate the marriage of the Duc de Berry with the Princess
    Caroline, and to Rome to conclude a concordat which never came
    into operation.

  BOIGNE, Comtesse de (1780-1866). Adèle d'Osmond married the Comte
    de Boigne in 1798 during the Emigration. The Comte, after an
    adventurous life, had returned from India with a large fortune.
    From 1814 to 1859 Madame de Boigne's salon was one of the most
    important in aristocratic, diplomatic, and political circles in
    Paris. The Duc Pasquier was its most regular _habitué_.

  BOISMILON, Jacques Dominique de (1795-1871). A French teacher who
    was made Secretary to the Duc d'Orléans. He was afterwards
    attached to the Comte de Paris, and was promoted Officer of the
    Legion of Honour in 1845.

  BOISSY, Mlle. Rouillé de. Sister of the Marquis de Boissy, Peer of
    France. She married Comte Pierre d'Aubusson, who became insane
    and died in 1842. She herself died in 1855.

  BOLIVAR, Simon (1783-1830). The Liberator of America. He freed
    Venezuela and New Granada, which he united in a single Republic
    under the name of Columbia.

  BONAPARTE, General. _See_ NAPOLEON.

  BONAPARTE, Jerome (1784-1860). King of Westphalia. The youngest
    brother of Napoleon I. In his youth he had married a Miss
    Paterson, whom the Emperor forced him to divorce in order that
    he might marry Princess Catherine of Würtemberg.

  BONAPARTE, Lucien (1773-1840). The third brother of Napoleon I. He
    had many talents, but an independent character. He was in
    disgrace with his brother and retired to Rome, where Pope Pius
    VII. raised his estate of Canino to the rank of a Principality.

  BONNIVARD. François de (1494-1571). Historian and politician;
    Prior of Saint-Victor in the territories of Geneva. He made
    common cause with the Genevan patriots against Charles III.,
    Duke of Savoy, who coveted the place. When the Duke became
    master of Geneva he imprisoned Bonnivard at Chillon, where he
    remained six years. He is the subject of Lord Byron's fine poem
    "The Prisoner of Chillon."

  BORDEAUX, Duc de (1820-1883). Son of the Duc de Berry and grandson
    of Charles X. He lived in exile with his family from the year
    1830, either at Frohsdorff in Styria or at Venice. He used the
    title of Comte de Chambord. He married an Archduchess of
    Austria, and never had any children.

  BOULLE, André Charles (1642-1732). A celebrated cabinet maker.

  BOURQUENEY, Baron, afterwards Comte de (1800-1869). Connected with
    the _Journal des Débats_, then Maître des Requêtes to the
    Conseil d'Etat. He afterwards took up diplomacy, and was
    Secretary of Embassy in London, and thereafter, in 1844,
    Ambassador at Constantinople, and, in 1859, at Vienna. He soon
    afterwards gave up diplomacy and entered the Senate.

  BRAGANZA, Duchess of (1812-1873). Amelia Augusta, daughter of
    Eugène de Beauharnais, Viceroy of Italy, and of a Bavarian
    Princess. She was the second wife of Dom Pedro I., Emperor of
    Brazil, who died in 1834.

  BRENIER, de Renaudière, Baron (1807-1885). He was sent on a
    mission to Greece in 1828, and was afterwards Secretary of
    Embassy at London, Lisbon, and Brussels. In 1855 he was French
    Minister at Naples.

  BRESSON, Charles, Comte (1788-1847). A French diplomatist who
    under Napoleon I. was an official in the Ministry of Foreign
    Affairs. In 1833 he was appointed First Secretary at London, and
    in 1835 he was made Minister at Berlin, where he re-established
    friendly relations between France and Prussia. In 1841 he became
    Ambassador at Madrid, and in 1847 at Naples, where he killed
    himself in a fit of insanity.

  BRETONNEAU, Dr. Pierre (1788-1862). A celebrated French physician,
    who lived at Tours, his native place, where he settled, being
    indifferent to fame. He was one of the greatest ornaments of the
    French medical school, and did much good among the poor.

  BROGLIE, Duc de, Achille Charles Victor (1785-1870). Member of the
    House of Peers, where he distinguished himself by defending
    Marshal Ney on the occasion of his case. He belonged to the
    doctrinaire party, and was several times in office under Louis
    Philippe. He was a member of the Académie française, and was
    married to a daughter of Madame de Staël.

  BROGLIE, Duchesse de (1797-1840). Albertine de Staël married the
    Duc Victor de Broglie in 1814. Madame de Broglie was beautiful,
    serious, and pious, and had the reputation of being rather
    severe.

  BROOKE, Lord. Born in 1818. Married in 1852 Anne, daughter of the
    Earl of Wemyss, and succeeded his father as Earl of Warwick in
    1853.

  BROUGHAM, Henry, Lord (1778-1868). An English politician and man
    of letters, a brilliant contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_,
    and after making a great success at the Bar, entered Parliament
    in 1810. He was the celebrated and successful defender of Queen
    Caroline, who had been accused of adultery. He was made a Peer
    and Lord Chancellor in the Ministry of Lord Grey in 1830.

  BROUGHAM, Lady. Died 1865. Mary Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Eden,
    married firstly Lord Spalding. On his death she married Lord
    Brougham in 1819, by whom she had one daughter named Eleonora,
    who died of consumption at the age of seventeen. In the hope
    that the fine climate might cure her, Lord Brougham built a
    house at Cannes, and so laid the foundation of the prosperity of
    that resort.

  BÜLOW, Henry, Baron von (1790-1846). A Prussian diplomatist. In
    1827 he was appointed Prussian Minister in England, and took
    part in the Conference of London in 1831. Afterwards he held the
    portfolio of Foreign Affairs in Prussia. He married the daughter
    of Wilhelm von Humboldt.

  BURGERSH, John, Lord (1811-1859). After the death of his father he
    became Earl of Westmorland. After being aide-de-camp to the Duke
    of Wellington, he adopted the career of diplomacy and was
    Minister at Florence, Berlin, and Vienna. He was a great
    musician and composed several operas.

  BUTERA, Prince di; died 1841. He was an Englishman named Wilding,
    who married the Princesse di Butera, the representative of a
    great family of Palermo. By decree of the king of the Two
    Sicilies in 1822 he was authorised to add the title to his name.
    In 1835 another decree made him in his own right Prince di
    Radoli, a title which he bore until his death. He left no heir.

  BYRON, George Gordon, Lord (1788-1824). A celebrated English poet.
    At the commencement of the Greek War of Independence he went to
    the scene of action and died at Missolonghi.


C

  CALOMARDE, Francis Thadé (1775-1842). A Spanish statesman who was
    the life and soul of his country's policy after the restoration
    of Ferdinand VII. He was a member of the Ministry of Grace and
    Justice in 1824, and managed to preserve a preponderating
    influence over the king. He became the leading spirit of the
    reactionary party, was partly responsible for the decree
    whereby Ferdinand VII. abolished Salic law in Spain, and
    severely punished the Carlist risings. However, when the King
    was struck down by serious illness in 1832, and was believed to
    be dead, Calomarde was the first to salute Don Carlos with the
    title of King, and Queen Christina exiled him to his estates
    when she became Regent. He was on the point of being arrested
    when he fled to France, where he lived in retirement until his
    death.

  CAMBRIDGE, Augusta, Duchess of, daughter of the Landgrave
    Frederick of Hesse-Cassel. Married in 1818 Adolphus Frederick,
    Duke of Cambridge, seventh son of George III. of England. He
    died in 1857.

  CAMPAN, Madame (1752-1822). Jeanne Genet who, at fifteen years of
    age, became lectrice to Mesdames, daughters of Louis XV. She
    married M. Campan, and became first woman of the Bedchamber to
    Marie Antoinette. During the Revolution she retired to the
    Valley of Chevreuse, and founded a school for young ladies to
    which Madame de Beauharnais sent her daughter. Napoleon I.
    afterwards made Madame Campan superintendent of the school which
    he founded at Ecouen for the education of daughters of Members
    of the Legion of Honour.

  CANINO, Charles Jules Laurent, Prince of Canino and Musignano
    (1803-1857). Son of Lucien Bonaparte. Married a daughter of
    Joseph Bonaparte. He was President of the Roman Constituent
    Assembly in 1848, was a distinguished naturalist and a
    corresponding member of the Institute of France.

  CANIZZARO, Duchess of. An Englishwoman who married François de
    Plantamone, Duke of Canizzaro, who for several years was
    Minister of the Two Sicilies at the Court of England.

  CANNING, George (1770-1827). An English statesman. He left the Bar
    and entered the House of Commons in 1793 as a supporter of Pitt,
    who made him an Under Secretary of State. Afterwards he was in
    Opposition, and later was Ambassador at Lisbon. He travelled on
    the Continent, and his association with the Parisian Liberals
    altered his principles. In 1822 he became Foreign Secretary, and
    thenceforward concerned himself with Liberal reforms. He was a
    generous friend of the Catholics.

  CANNING, Charles John, Earl (1812-1862). An English statesman, son
    of George Canning. He entered the House of Commons in 1836 and
    took the side of the Opposition led by Sir Robert Peel. On his
    father's death he went to the House of Lords, and became Under
    Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In 1846 he was appointed
    to the Woods and Forests, and in 1852 was made
    Postmaster-General. He was subsequently Governor-General of
    India, where for two years he had to struggle with the Mutiny.

  CANNING, Lady (1817-1864). Eldest daughter of Lord Stuart of
    Rothesay. Married Lord Canning in 1835 and died childless.

  CANOVA, Antony (1757-1822). A celebrated Italian sculptor.

  CAPO D'ISTRIA, Jean Antoine, Count (1776-1831). Born at Corfu, he
    was educated in Italy and entered the Russian service. The Czar,
    Alexander I., sent him on several missions to Germany, Turkey,
    and Switzerland. He was a plenipotentiary on the occasion of the
    second Treaty of Paris in 1815. He afterwards retired to
    Switzerland and supported the Greeks in their revolt. He was
    assassinated by the sons of the Bey of the Maniotes.

  CARLISLE, George William, Earl of, Viscount Morpeth (1802-1864).
    On his mother's side he was the grandson of the beautiful
    Duchess of Devonshire. He filled with distinction the position
    of Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under the Liberal Administration
    of Lord John Russell.

  CARLOTTA, The Infanta (1804-1844). Daughter of the King of the Two
    Sicilies and sister of Queen Marie Christina of Spain, wife of
    Don Francesco de Paulo, Infante of Spain.

  CAROLINE, Queen (1781-1821). Daughter of the Duke of Brunswick;
    married in 1795 the Prince of Wales, who became Regent in 1810,
    and King of England in 1820 as George IV. Her husband publicly
    accused her of adultery, and the resulting case is famous. The
    inquiry only proved that her Majesty had been guilty of
    indiscretions.

  CARRACI, Annibale (1560-1609). Considered the greatest of the
    painters of his family, the members of which were almost all
    distinguished artists.

  CARREL, Armand (1800-1836). A celebrated French publicist. He was
    educated at Saint Cyr, and took an active part in the
    semi-Liberal, semi-Bonapartist conspiracies of the time of the
    Restoration. On the occasion of the Spanish Revolution he went
    in secret to fight for the Constitutionalists. He quitted the
    sword for the pen, and became editor in chief of the _National_,
    a newspaper founded by Messieurs Thiers and Mignet for the
    purpose of hastening the downfall of the Bourbons and the
    elevation of the House of Orleans to the throne. It was only in
    1832 that the _National_ adopted the principles of
    Republicanism. Carrel fought a duel with M. de Girardin, and
    died forty-eight hours later as the result of the wounds he
    received.

  CASTELLANE, André, Marquis de (1758-1837). Deputy for the nobility
    in 1789, he joined the Tiers État, and was secretary of the
    Constituent Assembly. During the Terror he was thrown into
    prison and only escaped the guillotine owing to the death of
    Robespierre. In 1802 he was made Prefect of the Basses Pyrénées,
    and thereafter Maître des Requêtes to the Council of State.
    Louis XVIII. made him a Peer of France in 1815, and
    Lieutenant-General in the following year. He was the father of
    Marshal de Castellane.

  CASTELLANE, Comtesse de (1796-1847). Cordelia Greffulhe married
    the Comte de Castellane, afterwards Marshal of France, in 1813.

  CASTLEREAGH, Robert Stuart, Viscount, Marquess of Londonderry
    (1769-1822). He entered the House of Commons, where he supported
    the policy of Pitt. He was a fierce enemy of the French
    Revolution, and the life and soul of the coalitions against
    Napoleon I. While he was Secretary for War he furnished
    subsidies to the Powers fighting against the Emperor. At the
    Congress of Vienna in 1815 he sacrificed Poland, Belgium,
    Saxony, and Genoa. He was vehemently attacked in Parliament, and
    killed himself in a fit of insanity.

  CASTRIES, Armand Charles Augustin de la Croix, Duc de (1756-1842).
    A deputy to the States General, he had taken part as a Colonel
    in the American War of Independence. He was an energetic
    defender of the Royal prerogatives, and in a duel which sprang
    from a political discussion he wounded Charles de Lameth in the
    arm. As a result of this he was obliged to retire to Germany. In
    1814 he was made a General of Division and a Peer of France. He
    afterwards rallied to the July monarchy.

  CATHERINE of Aragon (1483-1536). Daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon
    and of Isabella of Castille. Married successively Henry VII. and
    Henry VIII. of England. The latter repudiated her in order to
    marry Anne Boleyn, and this divorce was the origin of the
    English schism.

  CATHERINE dei Medici (1519-1589). Queen of France, daughter of
    Lorenzo II. dei Medici, married Henry II. King of France, and
    was Regent during the minority of her second son, Charles IX.
    Catherine brought from Italy a taste for art. She built the
    palace of the Tuileries and continued the building of the
    Louvre.

  CATHERINE Paulowna, the Grand Duchess (1788-1819). Daughter of the
    Czar Paul I. of Russia. Married first Prince Peter of Holstein,
    then William I., King of Würtemberg, by whom she had a daughter.

  CAULAINCOURT, Comtesse de. Died in 1835. Blanche d'Aubusson
    married in 1812 Auguste Jean Gabriel de Caulaincourt, who was
    killed at the Battle of La Moskowa, and who was the brother of
    the Duc de Vincence.

  CELLES, Antoine Charles, Comte de Visher de (1769-1841). A member
    of an illustrious family of Brabant, he was elected a member of
    the States General for that province. Napoleon I. made him
    Maître des Requêtes to the Council of State and Prefect of the
    Loire-Inférieure, and afterwards of the Zuyder-sée. After 1814
    he became a subject of the King of the Netherlands, and was for
    some time a member of the provincial estates. King Leopold
    having sent him to France as Minister Plenipotentiary, M. de
    Celles became naturalised and became a Councillor of State in
    France in 1833. He was the brother-in-law of Marshal Gérard.

  CHABANNES la Palice, Comte Alfred de (1799-1868). He was first a
    member of the Garde du Corps of Louis XVIII.; then Chef
    d'Escadron and colonel after the siege of Antwerp. He became
    General of Brigade and aide-de-camp to the King in 1840. He left
    the service in 1848, and followed the royal family into exile.

  CHABANNES, Louisa de (1701-1869). A Carmelite nun: she became
    Superior of the Paris Convent, and after some years became
    Superior of that at Brussels, where she died.

  CHALAIS, Princesse de, Marie Françoise de Rochechouart-Mortemart.
    Married, first, the Marquis de Cany, by whom she had a daughter,
    who became the grandmother of the Prince de Talleyrand. She
    married secondly Louis Charles de Talleyrand, Prince de Chalais,
    who died in 1757. She was lady-in-waiting to the Queen.

  CHALAIS, Princesse de. Died 1834. Élolie Pauline Beauvilliers de
    Saint-Aignan married in 1832 Hélie-Royer de Talleyrand-Périgord,
    Prince de Chalais, a title borne by the eldest son of the head
    of this House.

  CHANTELAUZE, Victor de (1787-1859). A Deputy; Charles X.'s last
    Garde des Sceaux. He drafted the famous decrees which caused the
    Revolution of July. He was arrested and sentenced to
    imprisonment for life. The Amnesty of 1837 set him at liberty.

  CHARLEMAGNE (742-814). King of the Franks and head of the
    Carolingian dynasty. He succeeded his father Pepin the Short in
    768. In 800 Pope Leo III. crowned him Emperor of the West.

  CHARLES I., King of England (1600-1649). Son of James I.: he
    married Henrietta of France, daughter of Henri IV. and sister of
    Louis XIII. He died on the scaffold.

  CHARLES IX., King of France (1550-1574). Second son of Henri II.
    and Catherine dei Medici. In his reign the kingdom was
    distracted by religious wars.

  CHARLES X., King of France (1757-1836). Brother of Louis XVI. and
    Louis XVIII., whom he succeeded in 1824. He bore the title of
    Comte d'Artois until his accession. He died in exile at Goritz.

  CHARLES JOHN, King of Sweden (1764-1844). General Bernadotte,
    Prince de Ponte Corvo, Marshal of France. He married Mlle.
    Clary, sister of Joseph Bonaparte's wife. After the death of
    Charles XIII. of Sweden, by whom he had been adopted, he became
    in 1818 King of Sweden and Norway.

  CHARLOTTE, Princess of Prussia (1798-1860). Daughter of King
    Frederick William III. Married in 1817 the Grand Duke Nicolas of
    Russia, who succeeded his brother Alexander I. on the throne.

  CHATEAUBRIAND, François René, Vicomte de (1768-1848). One of the
    most illustrious of the French authors of the nineteenth
    century. He was intimate with many women celebrated for their
    talent, their grace, or their beauty. Under the Restoration he
    was for some years in the diplomatic service, and as Minister
    of Foreign Affairs had much to do with the Spanish war of 1822.

  CHATILLON-MONTMORENCY, Duc de, husband of Mlle. Lannois. He
    perished in the wreck of the frigate _Blanche_ at the mouth of
    the Elbe.

  CHODRON, Jules (1804-1870). Son of M. de Talleyrand's notary. M.
    de Talleyrand obtained for him the grant of the name Courcel
    from King Louis-Philippe. He entered the diplomatic service, in
    which he attained an honourable and distinguished position. His
    son was for several years Ambassador at Berlin and London.

  CHOISEUL-STAINVILLE, Etienne François, Duc de (1719-1785). A
    French statesman, Ambassador, and afterwards Minister from 1758
    to 1770 under Louis XV. He was responsible for the conclusion of
    the Family Compact. He was overthrown by a Court intrigue
    because he would not give way to Madame Dubarry. Banished to his
    estate of Chanteloup, he received there, in spite of the King,
    many tokens of public esteem. He married Mlle. Crozat du Châtel,
    who paid the debts which her husband's generosity had led him to
    contract, and passed the last years of her life, after becoming
    a widow, in a poor convent at Paris.

  CLANRICARDE, Marquess of (1802-1874). An English politician.
    Married in 1825 the daughter of George Canning, and was in the
    following year summoned to the House of Lords. He was Under
    Secretary for Foreign Affairs in 1826, Ambassador to Russia from
    1838 to 1841, Postmaster-General from 1846 to 1852, and Lord
    Privy Seal in 1857.

  CLANRICARDE, Lady. Died 1876. Henrietta, only daughter of George
    Canning; wife of Lord Clanricarde.

  CLARENCE, Duchess of (1792-1849). _See_ Adelaide, Queen.

  CLARENDON, Edward Hyde, Earl of (1608-1674). An English Minister
    and historian. In the Civil War, under Charles I., he took the
    Royalist side. Charles II. made him Lord Chancellor. He retired
    to France, and died at Rouen.

  CLARENDON, Earl of (1800-1870). British Minister at Madrid in
    1833. Afterwards President of the Board of Trade and Lord
    Lieutenant of Ireland. In 1853 he became Secretary of State for
    Foreign Affairs, represented England at the Congress of Paris in
    1856, and was afterwards Ambassador to Italy in 1868.

  COBBETT, William (1766-1835). An English demagogue. He spent
    several years in the United States, and on his return to England
    in 1804 he edited a Radical journal, which was often prosecuted.
    In 1832 he was elected to the House of Commons, where he was a
    warm supporter of Parliamentary Reform.

  COBURG, Prince Ferdinand of (1816-1888). He was the second husband
    of Queen Doña Maria da Gloria, whom he married in 1836. He
    received the title of King in 1837. His wife died in 1853, and
    he became Regent during his son's minority. In 1869 he
    contracted a morganatic marriage with Mlle. Hensler, who was
    made Countess Elice d'Edla. He was the brother of King Leopold
    of Belgium and of the Duchess of Kent.

  COLNAGHI, a London print and picture dealer. The origin of this
    firm goes back to 1750 when Paul Colnaghi, an Italian who came
    from Paris, opened a shop in partnership with a M. Nolteno. King
    George IV. was a constant patron.

  CONROY, Sir John (1786-1854). An English officer, Gentleman in
    Waiting to the Duchess of Kent. On her accession Queen Victoria
    made him a baronet. He married in 1808 the daughter and heiress
    of Major Fisher, brother of the Bishop of Salisbury.

  CONYNGHAM, William, Lord (1765-1854). An Irish barrister and
    member of the House of Commons. He belonged to the Liberal group
    of which Burke was a member. Towards the end of his life he
    leaned towards the Tories. He was raised to the Peerage.

  CONYNGHAM, Henry, Lord (1766-1832), married the eldest daughter of
    Joseph Denison.

  CONYNGHAM, Lady, died 1861. Elizabeth, daughter of J. Denison, a
    London banker, married in 1794 Henry, Baron Conyngham, who was
    made a Marquis in 1816. She was intimate with the Prince Regent
    and turned her influence over him to good account.

  CONYNGHAM, Francis Nathaniel, Marquis of (1797-1882). During his
    father's lifetime he bore the name of Mount Charles. He
    distinguished himself in public life by his liberal ideas, was
    Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a Lord of the
    Treasury, and Postmaster General in 1834, a Privy Councillor in
    1835, and Vice-Admiral of Ulster in 1849.

  CORINNA, A Grecian poetess of the fifth century, B.C.

  COUSIN, Victor (1792-1867). A French philosopher and author, a
    Peer of France, director of the Ecole Normale and a member of
    the Académie française. For a very short time he was Minister of
    Public Instruction under M. Thiers in 1840.

  COWLEY, Lady (1796-1860). Georgiana Augusta, eldest daughter of
    the Marquis of Salisbury, married in 1816 the Hon. Henry
    Wellesley, who in 1828 was created Baron Cowley.

  COWPER, Lady, Sister of W. Lamb, Lord Melbourne. She married Lord
    Palmerston (secondly) in 1840, being then fifty years of age.

  CRANMER, Thomas (1489-1556). Archbishop of Canterbury, a promoter
    of the Reformation in England. He pronounced, himself, the
    divorce against Catherine of Aragon, which the Pope had refused
    to Henry VIII. On the Accession of Queen Mary Tudor he was
    arrested as a heretic and burned at the stake.

  CROMWELL, Oliver (1599-1658). Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
    of England in 1653. He brought about the ruin of the Royalist
    Cause, and the misfortunes of Charles I., for whose condemnation
    he was responsible.

  CUMBERLAND, Ernest Augustus, Duke of (1771-1851). The last of the
    sons of George III. In 1837 he mounted the throne of Hanover.

  CUMBERLAND, Duchess of (1778-1841). Frederica, Princess of
    Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Younger sister of Queen Louise of Prussia.
    She married in 1793 Prince Louis of Prussia, brother of
    Frederick William III. On his death she married secondly Prince
    Frederick William of Solms-Braunfels, and finally, thirdly, the
    Duke of Cumberland who was called to the Throne of Hanover in
    1837. She was the mother of King George V. of Hanover.

  CUVIER, Georges (1769-1838). A celebrated naturalist, member of
    the Académie française, Councillor of State in 1814, and Peer of
    France in 1831.

  CZARTORYSKI, Prince Adam (1770-1860). Son of Adam Casimi
    Czartoryski, who on the death of Augustus III. King of Poland
    was proposed as a candidate for the Throne, but was set aside in
    favour of Stanislas Poniatowski at the instance of Catherine II.
    After the partition of Poland, he was sent as a hostage to St.
    Petersburg where he enjoyed high favour with the Czar Alexander
    I., became Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1801 to 1805, and in
    1815 became Senator Palatine of Poland and Curator of the
    University of Vilna. He retired from public life in 1821, and
    after 1830 established himself at Paris. In 1817 he married the
    Princess Anna Sapieha.


D

  DACRE, Thomas Brand, Lord (1774-1851), married in 1819, Barbara,
    daughter of Sir C. Ogle.

  DALBERG, Duc de (1773-1833). Son of the Primate and
    Arch-Chancellor of the same name, member of the Conseil
    provisoire at Paris after the fall of Napoleon, and
    plenipotentiary at the Congress of Vienna.

  DAUPHIN DE FRANCE, Louis, son of Louis XV. (1729-1765), married
    first the Infanta Maria of Spain, who died soon afterwards. He
    had several children by his second marriage with Princess
    Josepha, daughter of the Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.
    He never came to the Throne, but was father of Louis XVI., Louis
    XVIII., and Charles X. He was a model of all the virtues and
    lived a saintly life.

  DAURE, M. A teacher at the Collège Henri IV. in Paris, who wrote
    for the _Constitutionnel_.

  DAVOUT, Napoleon Louis (1810-1853). Son of the Marshal. He was on
    Marshal Gérard's Staff at the siege of Antwerp. He entered the
    House of Peers in 1836 and bore the title of Prince d'Eckmühl.

  DAWSON DAMER, George Lionel, born in 1788. A colonel in the
    British Army. He married the niece and adopted daughter of Mrs.
    Fitzherbert, who died in 1848.

  DECAZES, Elie, Duc (1780-1846). He was at first a lawyer and was
    then attached to the service of King Louis of Holland. Louis
    XVIII. afterwards made him a Minister and a Peer of France. In
    1820 he had to quit the Ministry as the more fanatical Royalists
    did not scruple to blame him for the assassination of the Duc de
    Berry. He was created a Duke and sent as Ambassador to England.
    After 1830 he rallied to Louis-Philippe, and was made Grand
    Référendaire de la Cour des Pairs.

  DECAZES, Duchesse, daughter of the Comte de Saint-Helaire by his
    marriage with Mlle. de Soycourt, and grand-daughter on her
    mother's side of the last Prince of Nassau-Sarbrück, and
    grand-niece of the Duchess of Brunswick-Beovern, who obtained
    from Frederick VI. of Denmark the transmission of the Duchy of
    Glucksburg in favour of the Duc and Duchesse Decazes on their
    marriage in 1818. She was the second wife of the Duc Decazes.

  DEDEL, Solomon (1775-1846). A Danish diplomatist. He was
    Ambassador to Sweden, Spain and England, and died at London.

  DEMION, M. Agent for the Montmorency family, for the Prince de
    Talleyrand, and for the James Rothschilds. For several years he
    administered the estates of Valençay.

  DENISON, Albert (1805-1860). Second son of the Marquis of
    Conyngham. Through his mother he inherited a large fortune from
    his uncle, Denison, and took his name. He was raised to the
    Peerage as Lord Londesborough in 1850.

  DESAGES, Emile (1793-1850). Son of a high official in the Ministry
    of Foreign Affairs, he entered that office at the age of
    sixteen. In 1820 he was appointed Secretary of Embassy at
    Constantinople. In 1830 General Sébastiani then Minister of
    Foreign Affairs, made him head of the Political Branch of the
    Department. He retired after 1848 to Menesele in the Charente.

  DEVONSHIRE, William, Duke of (1760-1835). He belonged to the
    Courtenay family. The title being extinct in the elder branch,
    the Duke succeeded in regaining it, after having proved before
    the House of Lords in 1831 that by Letters Patent of 1553 Queen
    Mary had laid down that the title, in default of direct heirs,
    should pass to collateral branches.

  DEVONSHIRE, Marchioness of. Died 1806, daughter of Lord Spencer,
    married in 1774 the Marquis of Devonshire.

  DIANE DE POITIERS (1499-1586). Eldest daughter of Jean de Poitiers
    Seigneur de Saint-Vallier. Diane married Louis de Brézé, when
    she was thirteen. She was the favourite of Henri II., who made
    her Duchesse de Valentinois and gave her the Château d'Anet, one
    of the finest pieces of architecture of this period.

  DIDOT, Firmin (1764-1836). He distinguished himself early in life,
    by the advances in the art of printing which were due to him.
    His father and elder brother had already similarly distinguished
    themselves. He was elected Deputy in 1827. Decorated with the
    Legion of Honour, he was appointed by King Louis-Philippe,
    Printer to the King and to the Institut de France.

  DINO, Duchesse de (1793-1862). The title borne by the Comtesse
    Edmond de Périgord from 1815 onwards. It had been granted by the
    King of Naples to the Prince de Talleyrand, who had so
    successfully defended his interests at the Congress of Vienna,
    and M. de Talleyrand bestowed it as a compliment on his niece.

  DOLOMIEU, Marquise de (1779-1849). Lady-in-waiting to Queen Maria
    Amelia, to whom she was most devoted. Madame de Dolomieu was the
    sister of Madame de Montjoye, Mme. Adélaïde's lady-in-waiting.

  DOM MIGUEL (1802-1866). He was Regent of the Kingdom of Portugal
    during the minority of his niece Queen Doña Maria da Gloria. He
    seized the opportunity to possess himself of the Throne, and had
    himself proclaimed king in 1828. Dom Pedro I. then returned from
    Brazil, and after a sharp struggle he succeeded in re-conquering
    the crown for his daughter, and in forcing Dom Miguel to leave
    Portugal.

  DON ANTONIO, the Infante (1755-1817). One of the Spanish princes
    confined at Valençay by Napoleon I. On his return from captivity
    he was made Grand Admiral of Castille.

  DON CARLOS DE BOURBON (1788-1855). Second son of Charles IV. and
    brother of Ferdinand VII., King of Spain. He was detained with
    his brother at Valençay. At the close of his reign in 1833
    Ferdinand abolished the Spanish law of succession and left his
    crown to his daughter Isabella. Don Carlos protested, was
    banished, returned to Spain in 1834 and began a civil war.
    Conquered in 1839 he took refuge first in France, and then in
    1847 at Trieste, where he died.

  DON FRANCESCO (1794-1865). Infante of Spain, married in 1819 the
    Princess Carlotta, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies and
    sister of Queen Christina.

  DONNADIEU, Gabriel (1777-1849). A French general. He embraced with
    ardour the principles of the Revolution, enrolled himself in
    Moreau's Corps d'Armée and remained in it for a long time.
    Suspected of conspiracy under the Consulate and the Empire he
    passed through several vicissitudes of favour and disgrace. He
    rallied to Louis XVIII. who made him a Lieutenant-General.

  DORSET, Duke of (1795-1815). He died, childless, as the result of
    a fall from his horse. He was the brother of Lady Plymouth. The
    title of Earl of Dorset was given to the Sackville family by
    Queen Elizabeth.

  DORSET, Charles, Viscount Sackville, Duke of (1767-1843). Uncle of
    the foregoing and heir to his title. He never married. He was a
    very intimate friend of King William IV. of England.

  DOSNE, Mme. Mlle. Sophie Eurydice Matheron married M. Dosne, an
    Agent de Change, in 1816. She was born in 1788. Her parents kept
    a wholesale drapery establishment in the Faubourg Montmartre.

  DOUGLAS, Marquis of (1811-1863). Afterwards Duke of Hamilton. In
    1843 he married Princess Maria of Baden. He died at Paris as the
    result of an accident.

  DROUET D'ERLON (1765-1844). Marshal of France. He joined the army
    under the Republic and took part in the Campaigns of the Empire.
    He was one of the first to recognise Napoleon on his return from
    Elba, and commanded the first Corps d'Armée during the Hundred
    Days. He fought at Waterloo, and was condemned in his absence.
    He found an asylum in Prussia, and did not resume his service in
    France until 1830. In 1834 he was made Governor of Algeria.

  DUCHATEL, Charles Tanneguy, Comte (1803-1867). A French
    politician. He was successively Councillor of State, Deputy, and
    Minister. He was a member of the Académie des Sciences morales
    et politiques.

  DUNCANNON, John William (1781-1847). Married in 1805 Mary,
    daughter of Lord Westmorland. He held advanced Liberal views,
    and was in 1834 Member of Lord Melbourne's Ministry as Home
    Secretary. He was raised to the Peerage as Lord Bessborough.

  DUPERRÉ, Admiral (1775-1846). Distinguished himself early in
    action with the English and was made Rear-Admiral and a Baron in
    1811. In 1830 he commanded the fleet which conveyed the French
    Army to Algeria, and was promoted Admiral and made a Peer of
    France. He was several times Minister of Marine.

  DUPIN, André Marie (1783-1865). Called Dupin the elder. A French
    jurisconsult, magistrate, and deputy. He took an active part in
    the election of Louis-Philippe as King of the French. From 1832
    till 1840 he was President of the Chamber of Deputies. Under the
    Second Empire he was made a Senator.

  DUPIN, Pierre Charles François, Baron (1784-1873). The last of the
    three Dupins. A French statistician, a member of the Institut
    and of the House of Peers, he showed himself equally devoted to
    the Orleans Dynasty and to the Charte of 1830.

  DURHAM, John Lambton, Earl of (1792-1840). Son-in-law of Lord
    Grey. He entered Parliament, where he sat among the advanced
    Whigs. In collaboration with Lord John Russell he drafted the
    Great Reform Bill of 1831. He was afterwards Ambassador to
    Russia and Governor-General of Canada.

  DURHAM, Lady (1816-1841). Louisa Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Grey,
    and second wife of the Earl of Durham.


E

  EASTNOR, Lord (1788-1873). He married in 1815 the daughter of
    Lord Hardwicke.

  EASTNOR, Lady (died 1873). Daughter of Lord Hardwicke and sister
    of Lady Stuart of Rothesay.

  EBRINGTON, Hugh, Lord, Earl Fortescue (1783-1861). Entered the
    House of Commons early in life. In 1839 he was made a Privy
    Councillor and Viceroy of Ireland. He retired in 1850. He was a
    consistent Whig.

  ELIZABETH, Queen of England (1533-1603). Daughter of Henry VIII.
    and Anne Boleyn. She never married, and left the crown to James
    I., King of Scotland and son of Mary Stuart.

  ELLICE, The Hon. Edward (1787-1863). Son-in-law of Lord Grey. He
    was a Member of the House of Commons, and contributed much to
    the passage of the Reform Bill. He was Secretary to the Treasury
    and Secretary at War. He was a rich merchant and possessed vast
    estates in Canada.

  ENTRAIGUES, Amédée Goveau d'. Born in 1785. Prefect at Tours
    1830-1847. He married a Princess Santa-Croce, whose father had
    been concerned in the events of 1798, which resulted in taking
    Rome from the Pope and the proclamation of a Republic. This
    Prince had made his daughter a ward of Talleyrand, who brought
    her up and gave her a dowry.

  ENTRAIGUES, Jules d'. Born in 1787, he died at a very advanced
    age. He was the brother of the Prefect of Tours, and possessed
    in the neighbourhood of Valençay a charming château called _La
    Moustière_.

  ESCLIGNAC. Duchesse d' (1801-1868). Georgine, daughter of the
    Baron Jacques de Talleyrand-Périgord, third brother of the
    Prince de Talleyrand and of Charlotte Louise de Puissigneux.

  ESTERHAZY, Paul Antoine, Prince (1786-1866). An Austrian
    diplomatist who was Ambassador at London during the Conferences
    of 1831, and a member of the Batthyany Ministry in Hungary. He
    was always a faithful friend of the Duchesse de Dino.

  ETIENNE, Charles Guillaume (1777-1845). A French journalist and
    dramatist. He became a deputy in 1832, voted with the Liberals,
    and in 1839 obtained a seat in the House of Peers.

  ETIENNE DE BLOIS, Stephen, King of England (1105-1154). His mother
    was a daughter of William the Conqueror. He married the heiress
    of the Counts of Boulogne.

  EXELMANS, Isidore, Count (1775-1852). One of the most brilliant
    generals of the First Empire. Exiled on the return of the
    Bourbons he returned to France only in 1823. Made a Peer of
    France by Louis-Philippe, he became in 1849 Grand Chancellor of
    the Legion of Honour, and in 1851 a Marshal of France. He died
    as the result of a fall from his horse.


F

  FABRE, François Xavier (1766-1837). A French painter and a pupil
    of David. He was intimate at Florence with the Comtesse
    d'Albany, widow of the last of the Stuarts, and of Alfieri who
    was her second husband.

  FAGEL, General Robert. Born in Holland of Dutch parents. He fought
    against France in the Wars of the Republic. Under the
    Restoration he was appointed Netherlands Ambassador at the
    Tuileries.

  FALK, Anton Reinhard (1776-1843). A Dutch statesman. He was
    Secretary of Legation at Madrid and afterwards Minister of
    Foreign Affairs, of Public Instruction, of Commerce, and of the
    Colonies. In 1824 he went as Ambassador to London, and after the
    separation of Belgium from Holland he became Ambassador at
    Brussels, where he died.

  FALK, Madame (1792-1851) (Rose, Baroness de Roisin). She was maid
    of honour to the Queen of the Netherlands and married M. Falk in
    1817. After her husband's death she was appointed "_grande
    maîtresse_" of the Princess of Orange, and resigned this
    position when the Princess ascended the throne.

  FARNBOROUGH, Lord (1761-1838). An intimate friend of Pitt. He was
    Postmaster-General.

  FERDINAND II., King of the Two Sicilies (1810-1859). He ascended
    the throne in 1830, and by his unpopularity brought about the
    fall of his dynasty. He was nicknamed "King Bomba."

  FERDINAND VII., King of Spain (1784-1833). Eldest son of Charles
    IV. and Marie Louise of Parma. In 1808, the very year of his
    accession, he was imprisoned at Valençay, but reascended the
    throne in 1814.

  FERGUSSON, Robert Cutler (1768-1838). An English lawyer and
    magistrate. He spent twenty-five years at Calcutta where he made
    a large fortune, and in 1826 he returned to England where he
    became an ardent supporter of Liberal reforms. In 1830 he took
    up the cause of Poland. In 1831 he married Mlle. Auger, a
    Frenchwoman by whom he had two children.

  FERRETTE, Étienne, Bailli de (1747-1831). In 1767 he was already
    Bailli of the Knights of Malta and their Ambassador at Paris. In
    1805, when the domains of the Order at Heitersheim were
    secularised and incorporated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, the
    Baron de Ferrette was indemnified by a pension of 60,000 livres
    for life and made Minister of Baden at the Court of Napoleon I.,
    and thereafter at that of Louis XVIII. He resigned in 1830. He
    had many friends in Paris and was a friend of the Prince de
    Talleyrand.

  FERRERS, Lady. Married in 1844 Earl Ferrers (1822-1859). She was
    called Arabella, and was a daughter of the Marquess of Donegal.

  FIESCHI, Joseph (1790-1835). Born at Murano, Corsica, he attempted
    the life of Louis-Philippe at Paris during a review on July 28,
    1835, by means of an infernal machine which he prepared in a
    house about the middle of the Boulevard du Temple. The King and
    the Princes escaped, but twenty-two people were wounded and
    eighteen killed, among whom was Marshal Mortier, Duc de Trévise,
    Minister of War. Fieschi was condemned to death with his two
    accomplices Pépin and Morey.

  FITZCLARENCE, Lord Adolphus (1802-1856). Third illegitimate son of
    King William IV. of England and the actress Mrs. Jordan. He was
    a Rear-Admiral and naval aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria.

  FITZPATRICK, Richard (1747-1813). He was a British general and
    distinguished himself in the American War. He entered Parliament
    in 1770, was Secretary to the Duke of Portland, Lord Lieutenant
    of Ireland, and in 1783 Secretary at War; he was an attached
    friend of Fox.

  FITZPATRICK, M. Born in 1809, he married in 1830 the daughter of
    Augustus Douglas. He was a Captain in the British Army and a
    Member of Parliament.

  FITZROY SOMERSET, Lord (1788-1855). Afterwards Lord Raglan.
    Younger son of the Earl of Beaufort and aide-de-camp of the Duke
    of Wellington, by whose side he lost his right arm at Waterloo.
    He died of cholera under Sebastopol where he was
    Commander-in-Chief of the British Army.

  FITZROY SOMERSET, Lady. Died 1881. She was a daughter of Lord
    Wellesley and a niece of the Duke of Wellington, the chief and
    friend of Lord Fitzroy Somerset, whom she married in 1814.

  FLAHAUT, General Comte de (1785-1870). Aide-de-camp of Napoleon
    I., he became a Peer of France under Louis-Philippe and under
    Napoleon III. Senator and Ambassador. His family was poor, and
    the Prince de Talleyrand had contributed to the cost of his
    education.

  FLAHAUT, Comtesse de. Died 1867. She was a daughter of Lord Keith
    and Nairn, an English Admiral.

  FOUCHE, Joseph, Duc d'Otrante (1763-1820). Chief of Police under
    the Empire. An able but unscrupulous man without convictions.

  FOUGIÈRES, Mlle. de. She married the Marquis Christian de Nicolay.
    Her son Antoine married Mlle., de Vogüé and her daughter
    Aymardine married Paul de Larges.

  FOX, Charles James (1748-1806). One of the greatest of English
    orators. He entered Parliament, joined the Opposition, and soon
    became the leader of the Whigs. He was a defender of tolerance
    and liberty and was favourable to the French Revolution, never
    ceasing to advise peace with France.

  FRANÇOIS I., King of France (1494-1547). Son of Charles d'Orléans,
    Comte d'Angoulême, and of Louise de Savoie, he succeeded in 1515
    King Louis XII., whose daughter he had married.

  FREDERICK THE GREAT, King of Prussia (1712-1786). Illustrious in
    war, he laid the foundations of Prussia's military power. He was
    an amateur of letters and prided himself on his philosophic
    attainments. He attracted Voltaire to his Court and kept up
    correspondence with the Encyclopédistes.

  FRIAS, Duc de (1783-1851). Don Bernardino Fernandez Vilano, Comte
    de Haro, Duc de Frias, Duc de Meda, Marquis de Villena. From
    1796 he served in the _Guardia Volona_ and became a Captain. He
    married Doña Marianna de Silva, daughter of the Marquis de Santa
    Cruz. The Duc de Frias was Spanish Ambassador at London and
    afterwards became President of the Upper Chamber established by
    the Constitution granted by Queen Maria Christina in 1834, and
    called _El Estatuto Real_. He was a man of letters and has left
    some poems behind him.

  FULCHIRON, Jean Claude (1774-1859). A French Statesman and man of
    letters. A pupil of the École Polytechnique, he served in the
    Artillery. In 1831 he was elected a deputy, and for fifteen
    years was the constant advocate of a Conservative policy. He was
    made a Peer of France in 1845, and in 1848 he retired into
    private life.


G

  GAËTE, Martin Charles Gaudin, Duc de (1756-1841). Minister of
    Finance under Napoleon I., who made him a Duke. He was Deputy
    under the Restoration, and in 1820 was made Governor of the
    Bank of France.

  GARCIA, Manuel (1775-1832). A Spanish composer and musical artist.
    He was the father of Mme. Malibran and Mme. Viardot.

  GARROUBE, Jean Alexandre Valleton de (1790-1859). He adopted the
    profession of arms and distinguished himself at first by his
    zeal in the legitimist cause. His devotion to the Duchesse
    d'Angoulême won him the nickname of _Chevalier du Brassard_, and
    Royal favours which continued unabated for fifteen years. In
    1830 he rallied to Louis-Philippe. In 1831 he was colonel and
    deputy. In general he remained faithful to the doctrinaire
    party, and in 1852 was placed on the retired list with the rank
    of General of Brigade.

  GASTON D'ORLÉANS (1608-1660). Third son of Henri IV. and brother
    of Louis XIII. He bore the title of Duc d'Anjou till 1624 when
    the Duchy of Orléans was conferred upon him as an appanage. He
    played a sorry part in the Fronde, passing repeatedly from one
    side to another. He was for the rest a wit and a cultivator of
    literature and science. He left an only daughter, the celebrated
    Mademoiselle, Duchesse de Montpensier.

  GAUTARD, M. de, died 1837. He possessed the Château Grenier near
    Bex. He was highly respected, and his death, which was due to an
    accident, was much regretted. The accident was caused by the
    explosion of some spirits of wine, the manufacture of which he
    was supervising.

  GEORGE III., King of England (1738-1820). He ascended the throne
    in 1760 succeeding his grandfather George II. He extended the
    English conquests in India and finally united Ireland to Great
    Britain. His reign was marked by the loss of the American
    Colonies. He fought against the French Revolution with all his
    strength, and for ten years before his death he was out of his
    mind.

  GEORGE IV., King of England (1762-1830). A dissipated youth,
    enormous debts, and his marriage with Mrs. Fitzherbert, a
    Catholic, alienated from him the respect of the country. In 1795
    he married Caroline of Brunswick against whom he afterwards
    instituted scandalous proceedings. In 1811 he was made Regent by
    Parliament owing to his father's insanity, and he succeeded to
    the throne in 1820. It was to him that Napoleon wrote his letter
    requesting the hospitality of England after his second
    abdication.

  GEORGE V., King of Hanover (1819-1878). He succeeded his father,
    King Ernest Augustus, in 1851, in spite of his blindness. In
    1866 he lost his kingdom, which was absorbed in Prussia, after
    having absolutely refused to come to any understanding with that
    country.

  GÉRARD, Étienne Maurice, Comte (1773-1852). He adopted the
    military career, and took part in all the campaigns under the
    Republic and the Empire. At the Restoration he retired, but in
    1830 he became Minister of War, and in 1831 was made a Marshal.
    He commanded the Belgian Expedition, took the Citadel of
    Antwerp, and was made a Peer in 1832.

  GESSLER, Hermann. Governed the Cantons of Schwytz and Uri for
    Albert I., Archduke of Austria. His cruelty caused an
    insurrection in the country in 1307, and, according to
    tradition, he perished by the hand of William Tell.

  GILLES, Le Grand. A figure of farcical comedy, deriving his name
    from a celebrated actor of the seventeenth century.

  GIRARDON, François (1630-1715). A sculptor, whose patron was the
    Chancellor Séguier, who sent him to study at Rome. He produced
    several pieces which are much admired.

  GIROLET, Jean Baptiste Simon, Abbé (1765-1836). A Benedictine
    priest of the congregation of Saint Maur, who was forced to
    emigrate at the Revolution. He found a place as tutor in Poland,
    where he became known to the Princess Tyszkiewicz. She
    recommended him to the Prince de Talleyrand, who procured his
    appointment as Almoner to the House of Peers. He was a great
    friend of the Talleyrand family, and towards the end of his life
    established himself at Rochecotte, where he founded a school
    which bears his name.

  GLOUCESTER, Frederick, Duke of (1776-1834). Son of William Henry,
    Duke of Gloucester, who died in 1805. He married, in 1816, the
    fourth daughter of King George III., and was on that occasion
    raised to the rank of Prince of the Blood.

  GLOUCESTER, Duchess of (1776-1857). Mary, daughter of George III.
    and Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

  GONTAUT-BIRON, Duchesse de (1773-1858). Née Montault-Navailles,
    Governess of the children of France, whom she followed into
    exile. Charles X. made her a Duchess in 1827.

  GRAFTON, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of (1790-1863). Entered the House of
    Commons in 1826 as a Liberal and a promoter of Parliamentary
    Reform. On his father's death he went to the House of Lords,
    where he preserved his Liberal views and was a faithful
    supporter of the policy of Lord John Russell. He married a
    daughter of Admiral Berkeley.

  GRAHAM, Sir James (1792-1861). He became Duke of Montrose on his
    father's death in 1836, and sat in the House of Lords as a
    Conservative. In 1837 he became Chancellor of the University of
    Glasgow, in 1852 Comptroller of the Household. He was also a
    Lord-Lieutenant and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

  GRANT, Charles, afterwards Lord Glenelg. He was born in 1780, and
    was a member of the House of Commons. From 1817 till 1822 he was
    Chief Secretary for Ireland. In 1830 he was a member of Lord
    Grey's Ministry, and in 1835 of that of Lord Melbourne.

  GRANVILLE, Lord (1775-1846). Younger son of the Marquis of
    Stafford. He represented England at Paris for many years, and
    made many powerful friends there. His wife was a daughter of the
    beautiful Duchess of Devonshire.

  GRANVILLE, Lady. Henrietta Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of the
    Duke of Devonshire, married Lord Granville in 1809, and died in
    1862.

  GREFFULHE, Madame (1766-1859). Pauline de Randan Pully, married in
    1793 M. Louis Greffulhe, by whom she had a daughter, who became
    Comtesse de Castellane. Her first husband having died in 1821,
    Madame Greffulhe married again Comte d'Aubusson la Feuillade, a
    Peer of France and formerly an Ambassador, who died in 1848.

  GRENVILLE, William Wyndham, Lord (1759-1834). A relative of Pitt
    and a member of his party. He played some part in politics.

  GREVILLE, Henry. He held a post at the Viceregal Court at Dublin
    under Lord Clarendon. Afterwards he held a position at the
    Foreign Office, and was the Duke of Wellington's private
    secretary.

  GREY, Charles Grey, Viscount Howick, Earl (1764-1845). A member of
    the Liberal Party, Lord Grey was a Minister with Fox, and played
    a great part in the case of Queen Caroline, and also in the
    affairs of Belgium in 1830. It is to him that England owes
    parliamentary Reform.

  GREY, Lady (1775-1861). Daughter of William Ponsonby and of
    Louise, daughter of Viscount Molesworth. She married Lord Grey
    in 1794.

  GREY, Lady Elizabeth and Lady Georgiana. Daughters of Lord Grey
    who died unmarried.

  GRISI, Giulia (1812-1869). A celebrated singer, daughter of an
    Italian officer in the French service and niece of Madame
    Grassini. She was born at Milan, entered the Conservatoire at an
    early age, and became an artist famous over all Europe and
    America. In 1836 she married Comte Gérard de Melcy at Paris, but
    this union was soon afterwards broken as the result of a duel
    between M. de Melcy and Lord Castlereagh, son of the celebrated
    statesman. She afterwards married again, her second husband
    being her colleague Mario, Comte de Candia.

  GROSVENOR, Lady. Born in 1797. Elizabeth, younger daughter of the
    Duke of Sutherland. She married the Duke of Westminster in 1819.

  GUISE, Henri de Lorraine, Duc de, surnamed _Le Balafré_
    (1550-1588). Eldest son of François de Guise, head of the
    League. He was assassinated at the Castle of Blois by order of
    Henri III. He had directed the massacre of S. Bartholomew.

  GUIZOT, François Pierre Guillaume (1787-1874). A French statesman
    and author. He was Minister under Louis-Philippe, Ambassador to
    London and member of the Académie française.

  GUIZOT, Madame (1803-1833). Eliza Dillon, the second wife of M.
    Guizot, whom he married in 1828, after the death of his first
    wife, Pauline de Meulan.


H

  HANDEL, George Frederick (1685-1759). A German composer, born at
    Halle, in Saxony. He died blind in London.

  HALFORD, Sir Henry (1766-1844). Chief physician to King George
    III. He had a great reputation.

  HARDWICKE, Lady (1763-1858). Elizabeth, daughter of the Earl of
    Balcarres. She married, in 1782, Charles Philip Yorke, who, on
    the death of his uncle, Lord Hardwicke, took his name and title.
    He was an Admiral and a member of Lord Derby's Ministry in 1852.

  HAREWOOD, Henry, Lord (1797-1857). Married Lady Louise Thynne,
    daughter of the Marquis of Bath.

  HARISPE, General (1768-1854). Distinguished himself in the
    campaigns of the Revolution and the Empire. Set aside by the
    Restoration, he was recalled in 1830, made a Peer and a Marshal
    of France in 1851.

  HAYDN (1732-1809). A German composer; the author of symphonies and
    oratorios of great merit.

  HENRI III. of France (1551-1589). Third son of Henri II. He was at
    first styled Duc d'Anjou; was elected King of Poland, but
    abandoned that kingdom after a few months to succeed his
    brother, Charles IX., as King of France. He was assassinated by
    Jacques Clément, and with him the Valois family became extinct.

  HENRI IV., King of France (1553-1610). Son of Antoine de Bourbon
    and of Jeanne d'Albret. He succeeded to the throne in 1589, and
    was assassinated by Ravaillac.

  HENRI V. The Legitimists so styled the Duc de Bordeaux.

  HENRY III. of England (1216-1272). Son of King John, whom he
    succeeded at the age of nine.

  HENRY VIII. of England (1491-1547). Succeeded his father, Henry
    VII., in 1509. Supported Charles V. against François I., and
    broke with the Catholic Church.

  HERTFORD, Lady. Died 1836. Married Seymour Conway, Marquis of
    Hertford. She was a friend of George IV.

  HESSE-DARMSTADT, Louis II., Grand Duke of (1777-1848). Married, in
    1830, Princess Wilhelmina of Baden, who died in 1836.

  HESSE-DARMSTADT, Mathilde Caroline, Grand Duchess of (1813-1842).
    She was a daughter of King Louis of Bavaria, and married Louis
    III., Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt.

  HESSE-HOMBURG, Elizabeth Landgravine of (1770-1840). A daughter of
    King George III. of England, she married, in 1818, Frederick
    Joseph, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, who died in 1829.

  HESSE-HOMBURG, Augusta Landgravine of. Born in 1778, she was the
    daughter of the Duke of Nassau-Usingen, and married in 1804
    Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.

  HEYTESBURY, William Lord (1779-1860). An English statesman, a
    Privy Councillor, and distinguished as a diplomatist. His last
    Embassy was St. Petersburg (1828-1833). From 1844 till 1846 he
    was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. He married a daughter of Mr. W.
    Bouverie.

  HILL, Rowland, Lord (1773-1842). A British general who
    distinguished himself in the Peninsula and in 1815. In 1827 he
    became Governor of Plymouth, and the following year he was made
    Commander-in-Chief of the British Army.

  HOBHOUSE, Sir John Cam (1785-1869). An English author and
    politician. He was a contemporary of Lord Byron at Cambridge,
    and remained on the most intimate terms with him. They travelled
    together in the East and on the Continent, and Sir J. Hobhouse
    published in 1814 a volume entitled "Journey across Albania,"
    which led to his election to the Royal Society. Being at Paris
    when Napoleon returned from Elba Sir J. Hobhouse published after
    Waterloo the "Letters of an Englishman during the Hundred Days,"
    which made a sensation, as it attacked the Government and
    expressed Liberal ideas. Hobhouse entered the House of Commons
    in 1820, and thereafter occupied several administrative
    positions. He was raised to the Peerage as Baron Broughton
    Gyfford in 1851.

  HOHENTHAL, Countess von (1808-1845). Born Princess Louise of
    Biron-Courlande, sister of the Comtesse de Lazareff and Madame
    de Boyen.

  HOLLAND, Lord (1772-1840). Nephew of Fox, he was, like his uncle,
    the champion of public liberty. With Lady Holland he contributed
    to ameliorating Napoleon's condition at St. Helena.

  HOLLAND, Lady, died 1840. By her first marriage she was Lady
    Webster. Lord Holland had known her at Florence, and married her
    after having previously had a liaison with her, and after she
    had been divorced from Sir Godfrey Webster. Lady Holland was
    very witty and Holland House was for a long time the rendezvous
    of the literary celebrities of the period.

  HOPE, Thomas (1774-1835). A rich connoisseur. He travelled a great
    deal and then settled in London, where he formed a magnificent
    collection of pictures and sculpture.

  HOWE, Richard William Penn, Lord. Died 1870. Son of Lord Curzon.
    In 1831 he had a post at the Court of Queen Adelaide.

  HOWICK, Henry Grey, Viscount (1802-1894). Eldest son of Earl Grey
    and Under Secretary of State for the Colonies in his father's
    Ministry in 1830. In 1845, on the death of his father, he
    entered the House of Lords. He held advanced Liberal opinions.

  HUGO, Madame Victor. Born in 1810. Her maiden name was Adèle
    Foucher. She was the daughter of Paul Henry Foucher, a French
    politician and man of letters.

  HUMANN, Jean Georges (1780-1842). A French financier and
    statesman. He sat in the Chamber of Deputies from 1820, was one
    of the 221 Signatories who brought about the Revolution of 1830,
    was Minister of Finance 1832-1836, and from 1840 till his death.

  HURE, M. A great friend of Fox.

  HUSS, John (1373-1415). A Bohemian theologian and heresiarch.
    Excommunicated by Pope Alexander V. for having adopted the
    doctrines of Wyclif, he appealed to the Council of Trent and,
    having refused to retract, was burned at the stake.


I

  INEZ DE CASTRO. Murdered in 1355, celebrated for her beauty and
    misfortunes. She was married to the Infante Pedro of Portugal.
    In the sixteenth century Ferreira wrote a tragedy about her.

  ISABELLA, Doña (1801-1876). Regent of Portugal 1826-1828.

  ISABELLA II. Queen of Spain (1830-1904). She succeeded her father
    King Frederick VII. in 1833 under the guardianship of her
    mother, Queen Christina. Isabella II. married her cousin german
    François d'Assise de Bourbon, who took the title of King. She
    abdicated in 1870, in favour of her son Alphonso XII., after
    having quitted Spain in consequence of the Revolution of 1868.


J

  JACOB, Louis Léon, Comte (1768-1854). A French sailor. He
    invented signalling by semaphore in 1805, and became Rear
    Admiral in 1812. He was made a Peer of France after 1830, and
    was for a short period Minister of Marine.

  JAMES I., King of England and Scotland (1566-1625). Son of Mary
    Stuart. He succeeded to the throne of Scotland at the age of
    one, in 1567. In 1603 he ascended the throne of England on the
    death of Elizabeth.

  JAUCOURT, Marquise de (1762-1848). Mademoiselle Charlotte de
    Bontemps married the Marquis de Jaucourt, great nephew of the
    Chevalier de Jaucourt, editor of the _Encyclopédie_.

  JERNINGHAM, Miss. Eldest daughter of Lord Stafford, died 1838.

  JERSEY, Lady (1787-1867). Sarah, daughter of the Earl of
    Westmorland. Lord Jersey, her husband, filled several positions
    at Court and Lady Jersey was for long the leader of smart
    society in London.

  JOSEPHINE. The Empress (1763-1814). Josephine Tascher de la
    Pagerie was born in Martinique, and married in 1779 the Vicomte
    de Beauharnais who died on the scaffold in 1794. In 1796 she
    married General Bonaparte and became Empress in 1804. In 1809,
    however, Napoleon divorced her and she died five years later at
    Malmaison, near Paris.


K

  KENT, Duchess of (1786-1861). Daughter of the Duke of
    Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and mother of Queen Victoria. She married
    first the Prince of Leiningen and secondly the Duke of Kent,
    fourth son of George III.

  KOREFF, David Ferdinand (1783-1851). Son of a Jewish doctor, he
    was born at Breslau and studied at Halle, Berlin and Paris. He
    travelled in Italy with the de Custine family, and being at
    Vienna in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Hardenberg,
    Chancellor to the King of Prussia, whose service he then
    entered, having been baptized. In 1821 he went to Paris and
    subsequently spent some years in England.

  KÜPER, The Rev. William. A German by birth and a Lutheran. He was
    for many years reader to Queen Adelaide. His son was Admiral
    Augustus Leopold Küper.


L

  LA BESNARDIÈRE, Jean Baptiste Goney de (1765-1843). In 1805 he
    followed the _Grande Armée_ in company with the Prince de
    Talleyrand. During the last years of the Empire he represented
    the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the Conseil d'État along
    with MM. d'Hauterive and Dalberg; in 1814 he accompanied the
    Prince de Talleyrand to Vienna and in 1819 he retired to
    Touraine.

  LABOUCHÈRE, Henry (1798-1861). An Englishman whose family was of
    French origin. He was Member for Taunton from 1830. He was the
    second son of Peter Cæsar Labouchère, a partner in the Amsterdam
    firm of Hope & Co., who married a daughter of Sir Francis
    Baring. He also married a Baring, his cousin german. In 1858 he
    was raised to the Peerage as Lord Taunton.

  LA BRUYÈRE, Jean de (1645-1696). A French moralist. He was tutor
    to the grandson of the great Condé and the author of the
    _Caractères_.

  LACRETELLE, Jean Claude Dominique (1766-1855). Author of several
    works more distinguished by a certain skill in arrangement than
    by profundity of thought.

  LA FAYETTE, Gilbert Mortier, Marquis de (1757-1834). After having
    taken part in the American War in extreme youth he was elected
    Deputy to the States-General in 1788. Outlawed after June 20,
    1792, he fled, but was arrested by the Austrians and remained
    for five years in prison at Olmütz. In 1814 he was a Deputy, and
    voted for the deposition of the Emperor. Under the Restoration
    he remained attached to the Opposition. As Chief of the National
    Guard in 1830 he contributed to the accession to power of
    Louis-Philippe.

  LAGRANGE-CHANCEL, Joseph de (1676-1758). A French author, who
    wrote some feeble tragedies and some bitter satires, entitled
    _Philippiques_.

  LAMB, Sir Frederick (1782-1852). An English diplomatist, brother
    of Lord Melbourne. He was Ambassador to Venice, to Munich, and
    to Spain, and in 1821 was raised to the Peerage as Lord
    Beauvale. In 1848 he became Viscount Melbourne on his brother's
    death.

  LAMMENAIS, Hughes Félicité Robert, Abbé de (1782-1854). Catholic
    writer, philosopher, reformer, journalist, and revolutionary. He
    broke with the Church, by which his works had been condemned.

  LANGWARD. A German improvisatore, of no particular celebrity.

  LANSDOWNE, Henry, Marquess of (1780-1863). An English statesman.
    He was a moderate Whig, and has left behind him a well-merited
    reputation for political uprightness and honesty. He entered
    Parliament in 1802, showed much zeal for the abolition of
    slavery, and ardently defended the Irish Catholics. In 1830 he
    became a member of Lord Grey's Reform Cabinet as Lord President
    of the Council.

  LANSDOWNE, Lady, died 1865. She was a daughter of Sir Henry Vane
    Tempest, and married the Marquess of Lansdowne in 1819.

  LARCHER, Mlle. Henriette (1782-1860). She was a native of Geneva,
    and was the governess of Mlle. Pauline de Périgord, afterwards
    Marquise de Castellane.

  LA REDORTE, Joseph Charles Maurice, Comte de (1804-1886). A pupil
    of the École Polytechnique, he became Lieutenant in 1826, and
    was made aide-de-camp to the Duc d'Orléans in 1833. Elected
    Deputy for Carcassone in 1835, he left the army, was ambassador
    at Madrid for a few months in 1840, and entered the House of
    Peers in the following year.

  LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Vicomtesse Sosthène de (1790-1834). She was the
    only daughter of Matthieu, Duc de Montmorency.

  LA RONCIÈRE LE NOURY, Émile Clément de (1804-1874). Son of General
    de La Roncière. He entered the cavalry at the age of seventeen,
    and was sent as Lieutenant to the École de Saumur in 1833. He
    was condemned to ten years' imprisonment for the offence
    mentioned in the text, after which he retired into obscurity. He
    emerged under the Second Empire, and became successively
    Inspector of Colonisation in Algeria and Chef de Service at
    Chandernagore and the Islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

  LATOUR-MAUBOURG, Marquis de (1781-1847). A French diplomatist.
    Under the First Empire he was Chargé d'Affaires at
    Constantinople and Minister Plenipotentiary at Würtemberg. Under
    the Restoration he became successively Minister to Hanover and
    Saxony, Ambassador at Constantinople in 1823, at Naples in 1830,
    at Rome in 1831. In that year he was made a Peer of France.

  LAURENCE, Justin (1791-1863). Son of a jeweller of Mont de Marsan,
    he was the leading spirit of the Liberal opposition in his
    Department. He became in turn Conseiller de Préfecture des
    Landes, and Avocat Général a la Cour Royale de Pau, and was
    elected Deputy in 1831. He was made Directeur Général des
    Contributions in 1844, and his political career terminated with
    the Revolution of 1848.

  LAUZUN, Duc de (1652-1733). He played a brilliant but adventurous
    part at the Court of Louis XIV. He married La Grande
    Mademoiselle, cousin german to the King.

  LAVAL, Adrien, Prince de (1768-1837). A Peer of France and Duc de
    Fernando in Spain. He was French Ambassador at Rome, and married
    his cousin, Mlle. de Montmorency-Luxembourg.

  LAVRADIO, Don Francisco de Almeida, Comte de (1796-1870). A
    Portuguese, a Peer of the Realm and a Councillor of State. He
    was Minister in 1825 and 1846. In 1851 he was Minister at London
    and had just been transferred to Rome when he died.

  LAZAREFF, Count Lazare de (1792-1871). A Russian Colonel, who
    married the Princesse Antoinette de Biron-Courlande.

  LEGONIDEC, Joseph Julien (1763-1814). A French Magistrate. Avocat
    au Parlement de Paris, he went to America at the Revolution and
    did not return till 1797. In 1815 the Restoration Government
    made him Conseiller à la Cour de Cassation, in which he sat till
    his death as _doyen_ of the Chambre Civile.

  LE HON, Comte Charles (1792-1868). Born at Tournay, in Belgium, he
    was a prominent member of the Opposition in that country before
    1830. He was thereafter for many years Belgian Minister at
    Paris, where he remained until 1852.

  LEHZEN, Mlle. Louise, died 1870. Daughter of a Hanoverian
    Protestant pastor. She came to England in 1818 to be governess
    to the Princess Feodora of Leiningen, daughter of the Duchess of
    Kent by her first marriage. She discharged the same duties to
    the Princess Victoria, afterwards Queen of England. In 1827
    George IV. made her a Baroness. She remained at the Court of
    England till 1849, when she returned to Germany.

  LEICESTER, Richard Dudley, Earl of (1531-1588). A great favourite
    of Queen Elizabeth.

  LENORMAND, Marie Anne (1772-1843). A celebrated fortune-teller.
    She was brought up by the Benedictines of Alençon, where she
    began her career as a soothsayer, and came to Paris in 1800,
    where she predicted the future by means of cards, being
    consulted by the Empress Josephine and other distinguished
    personages.

  LÉON, Princesse de (died 1815). Her maiden name was Mlle. de
    Seran. She died as the result of an accident, her dress having
    caught fire. Her husband three years later took Orders, and was
    made successively Bishop of Auch and Besançon, receiving a
    cardinal's hat in 1830. After his father's death the Prince de
    Léon took the title of Duc de Rohan.

  LÉON, Bishop of, Don Joachim, Albarca y Blanquès (1781-1844). One
    of the councillors of the Pretender Don Carlos, whom he
    accompanied to London in 1834, and who afterwards made him his
    Minister of Justice. He had been made Bishop of Léon in 1825.

  LEOPOLD I., King of the Belgians (1790-1865). George Christian
    Frederick, Prince of Coburg-Gotha, was elected King of the
    Belgians in 1831. He married first, in 1816, Princess Charlotte
    of England, and secondly, Princess Louise d'Orléans, daughter of
    King Louis-Philippe.

  LESLIE, Charles Robert (1791-1839). An English painter of great
    excellence, famous for his portraits of the authors from whose
    works he derived most of the subjects of his pictures,
    Shakespeare, Cervantes, Molière, Sterne, Walter Scott.

  LEUCHTENBERG, Prince Auguste Charles of (1807-1835). Married in
    1835 Doña Maria, Queen of Portugal, and died the same year.

  LEUCHTENBERG, Prince Max of (1817-1852). Son of Eugène de
    Beauharnais. Married in 1839 the Grand Duchess Marie, daughter
    of the Czar Nicolas I. of Russia.

  LEZAY-MARNESIA, Albert, Comte de. He occupied several prefectures,
    among others that of Loir-et-Cher, where he was stationed in
    1834.

  LICHTENSTEIN, Aloys Joseph, Prince de (1796-1858). An Austrian
    diplomatist attaché at London, The Hague, and Dresden. He
    married a Countess Kinsky.

  LIEVEN, Christophe, Prince de (1770-1839). A Russian General. He
    was Ambassador at Paris and London, and in 1834 was made
    Governor of the Heir to the throne of Russia, afterwards
    Alexander II.

  LIEVEN, Princesse de (1787-1857). Dorothea de Benckendorff, wife
    of the above. Celebrated for her wit and judgment, she made her
    house in London the rendezvous of the most distinguished men of
    the time, and passed the last years of her life at Paris, where
    she was much sought after by important political personages.

  LITTELTON, Edward John Walhouse (1791-1863). For many years a
    Member of the British Parliament. In 1834 he was made Chief
    Secretary for Ireland. He married, first, in 1812, a daughter of
    the Marquess Wellesley; and, secondly, in 1858, the widow of
    Edward Davenport.

  LONDONDERRY, Charles William, Lord (1778-1854). An English soldier
    and diplomatist. He was Ambassador at Vienna, a general, and a
    lord-lieutenant. He married, first, a daughter of Lord Darnley;
    and, secondly, in 1819, a daughter of Sir H. Vane Tempest, who
    died in 1865.

  LOUIS, Baron (1755-1837). A French Minister of Finance. He had
    been a subordinate of the Prince de Talleyrand, and was a close
    friend of his. From 1815 he sat as Deputy in almost all the
    legislative assemblies, where he distinguished himself by the
    moderation and sagacity of his views.

  LOUIS XI., King of France (1423-1483). Son of Charles VII. No
    prince of his time better understood the subtleties of politics
    and the art of managing men.

  LOUIS XII., King of France (1462-1515). At first bore the title of
    Duc d'Orléans. He succeeded to the throne of France on the death
    of Charles VIII.

  LOUIS XIII., King of France (1601-1643). Son of Henry IV. and
    Marie de' Medici, under whose Regency he at first reigned. He
    married Anne of Austria.

  LOUIS XIV., King of France (1638-1715). Son of Louis XIII.; he
    succeeded his father before he was five years old, under the
    Regency of his mother, Anne of Austria. He married the Infanta
    Maria Theresa, and (later) secretly Madame de Maintenon.

  LOUIS XV., King of France (1710-1774). Son of the Duc de Bourgogne
    and of Princess Adélaïde of Savoy. He succeeded his grandfather,
    Louis XIV., on the throne.

  LOUIS XVI., King of France (1754-1793). He perished on the
    scaffold as one of the first victims of the Revolution.

  LOUIS XVIII., King of France (1755-1824). At first styled Comte de
    Provence; he married in 1771 Louise Marie Josephine of Savoy.
    His reign began in 1814.

  LOUIS-PHILIPPE I., King of the French (1773-1849). Son of
    Philippe-Égalité, Duc d'Orléans, he was proclaimed King after
    the Revolution of 1830 and the abdication of Charles X. He was
    obliged in his turn to abdicate by the Revolution of 1848.

  LOUISE, Queen of Prussia (1776-1810). Daughter of the Grand Duke
    of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and wife of King Frederick William III.
    of Prussia. She was mother of King Frederick William IV. and of
    William I., who in 1870 was proclaimed German Emperor.

  LOULÉ, Marquise de (1806-1857). Anne, Infanta of Portugal, married
    in 1827 to Mendoça, Marquis de Loulé, a Minister of State. The
    Marquis was made a Duke, but his children never enjoyed any
    Royal privilege.

  LOUVOIS, Marquis de (1639-1691). A French statesman, Minister of
    War under Louis XIV. He was the son of the Chancellor le
    Tellier.

  LOUVOIS, Marquis de (1783-1844). Chamberlain of Napoleon I.
    Established foundries at Ancy-le-Franc, also a glass
    manufactory, a mill, and a saw-mill, which made the district
    very prosperous. Under the Restoration he became a Peer of
    France.

  LUDOLF, William Constantine, Count (1759-1839). Minister of the
    King of Naples at London for many years. His family was of
    Austrian origin.

  LYNDHURST, Lady. Sarah Grey, widow of Lieut.-Colonel Charles
    Thomas, who fell at Waterloo, married in 1819 Lord Lyndhurst, as
    his second wife. She was of Jewish extraction.


M

  MAINTENON, Marquise de (1635-1719). Françoise d'Aubigné, married
    in 1652 the poet Scarron. Having lost her husband she was
    entrusted with the education of the children of Louis XIV. and
    Madame de Montespan. After the Queen's death Louis XIV.
    secretly married Madame de Maintenon.

  MAISON, Marshal (1771-1840). Distinguished himself in the wars of
    the Revolution and the Empire, and was made a Peer of France at
    the Restoration. In 1828 he commanded the expedition to the
    Morea, in which he achieved complete success. He was made a
    Marshal, and under Louis-Philippe became successively Minister
    for Foreign Affairs and of War, and Ambassador at Vienna and St.
    Petersburg.

  MALIBRAN, Madame Marie Félicité (1808-1836). A famous singer
    daughter of Manuel Garcia. She married first the banker
    Malibran, and secondly de Bériot the violinist.

  MAREUIL, Joseph Durand, Comte de (1769-1855). A French
    diplomatist. At the Second Restoration he was made Conseiller
    d'État and employed on several missions. Made a Peer of France
    in 1833, and given the grand cordon of the Legion of Honour in
    1834, he was sent to Naples as Ambassador and recalled eighteen
    months later. Thereafter he lived in retirement.

  MARIA, the Infanta (1793-1874). Daughter of John VI. of Portugal.
    She married first the Infante Dom Pedro, and secondly Don
    Carlos, Infante of Spain.

  MARIA II., or MARIA DA GLORIA, Queen of Portugal (1819-1853).
    Daughter of Dom Pedro I. who, recognising the impossibility of
    retaining both the throne of Portugal and that of Brazil,
    abdicated the former in favour of Doña Maria, his second child,
    after having granted the Kingdom a liberal constitution. Doña
    Maria married first the Duke of Leuchtenberg, and secondly
    Prince Ferdinand of Coburg.

  MARIA AMELIA, Queen (1782-1866). Daughter of Ferdinand I., King of
    the Two Sicilies, married in 1809 the Duc d'Orléans, who became
    Louis-Philippe I., King of the French.

  MARIA THERESA, the Empress (1717-1780). Daughter of the Emperor
    Charles VI., whom she succeeded on the Austrian throne. She had
    to struggle with Frederick II., King of Prussia, who deprived
    her of Silesia. She married François de Lorraine.

  MARIE, Casimire d'Arquien (1630-1699). Queen of Poland. She
    accompanied to Poland Queen Maria Gonzaga. She married first
    Zamoyski, and secondly King John Sobieski. Having become a widow
    she retired first to Rome, and then to Blois, where she died.

  MARIE DE' MEDICI, Queen of France (1573-1642). Daughter of the
    Grand Duke Francis I. of Tuscany, she married Henri IV., King of
    France, became the mother of Louis XIII., and held the Regency
    during her son's minority.

  MARIE D'ORLÉANS, Princess (1813-1839). Daughter of King
    Louis-Philippe. She married Prince Alexander of Würtemberg. She
    had a talent for sculpture, and is the author of a statue of
    Jeanne d'Arc placed in the Court of the Hotel de Ville at
    Orléans.

  MARIE LOUISE, the Empress (1791-1847). Daughter of Francis II.,
    Emperor of Austria. Married Napoleon I. in 1810.

  MARY STUART, Queen of Scots (1542-1587). Married Francis II., King
    of France, who died in 1560. She returned to Scotland, where she
    had to struggle against the Reformation and the intrigues of
    Queen Elizabeth. She was imprisoned in England for eighteen
    years, and was finally executed.

  MARTIN, M., a pupil of the École Normale. He became professor in a
    Parisian institution, from which he was taken by the Prince de
    Talleyrand to superintend the education of his two nephews,
    Louis and Alexandre de Périgord. He afterwards became Rector of
    the Académie d'Amiens.

  MARTIN DU NORD, Nicolas Ferdinand (1789-1862). A French statesman
    and man of letters. Elected Deputy in 1830, he sat among the
    Conservatives. He was Avocat Général à la Cour de Cassation in
    1842, then Procureur Général à la Cour Royale de Paris. In 1834
    he became Minister of Public Works, and in 1839 Minister of
    Justice and Public Worship.

  MARTINEZ DE LA ROSA, Francis (1789-1862). A Spanish statesman and
    man of letters. A Deputy in the Cortes in 1812, he there
    advocated the most advanced ideas, for which he was condemned to
    ten years' imprisonment in Morocco. He was liberated by the
    Revolution of 1820, and became President of the Council. Under
    the Queen Regent he became head of a Constitutional Cabinet,
    which signed the Quadruple Alliance, but he retired in 1835. He
    was afterwards Ambassador at Paris and Rome, and President of
    the Cortes.

  MASSA, Duchesse de. Born 1792. Daughter of the Duc de Tarente. She
    married Régnier, Duc de Massa, who died in 1861.

  MATUCZEWIECZ, Count André Joseph (1790-1842). A diplomatist in the
    Russian service of Polish birth. Was Minister of Russia in
    England _ad interim_, Minister of Naples and Stockholm.

  MAUGUIN, François (1785-1854). An ardent Liberal. He was elected
    Deputy in 1827, and played a prominent part until 1848. After
    the _coup d'état_ of 1851, he retired to Saumur, where he lived
    with his daughter, the Comtesse de Rochefort.

  MEDEM, Count Paul (1800-1854). A Russian diplomatist. Chargé
    d'Affaires at Paris, and then at London. In 1839 he was Minister
    at Stuttgart.

  MELBOURNE, William Lamb, Viscount (1779-1848). An English
    statesman. He was made Home Secretary by Lord Grey in 1830. He
    was a moderate Whig, and acquitted himself with much tact and
    devotion in the task which afterwards fell on him as Premier, of
    initiating the young Queen Victoria into her duties as
    Sovereign. Separated from his wife, Lady Catherine Ponsonby,
    famous for her liaison with Lord Byron, Lord Melbourne formed a
    connection with Mrs. Norton which, in 1836, ended in divorce
    proceedings and caused much scandal.

  MENDELSLOH, Charles Augustus Francis, Count (1788-1852). A
    Würtemberg diplomatist, who was Minister successively at St.
    Petersburg, London and Vienna.

  MENDIZABAL, Don Juan Alvarez y (1790-1853). A Spanish statesman,
    son of a poor shopkeeper, he made a great fortune in trade. He
    became Minister of Finance in 1835, but soon had to retire.

  MENNECHET, Édouard (1794-1845). A French man of letters. Private
    secretary to the Duc de Duras, who introduced him to Louis
    XVIII. The latter made him head of his private office, a post
    which Mennechet held also under Charles X.

  METTERNICH, Clement Wenceslas Lothair, Count, afterwards Prince
    (1773-1859). An Austrian statesman. He was Minister at The
    Hague, at Dresden, at Berlin, and Paris. In 1809 he became
    Austrian Minister for Foreign Affairs and remained in power
    until 1848, when the Revolution forced him to fly.

  MIAOULIS, André (1771-1835). A Greek admiral. He was
    commander-in-chief of the insurgent fleet in 1821, beat the
    Turks at Patras, set fire to the ships of Ibrahim Pasha at
    Modon, but failed to prevent the fall of Missolonghi. In 1831 he
    put himself at the head of the Hydriotes, who had revolted
    against the President Capo d'Istria.

  MIGNET, François Auguste Marie (1796-1884). A French historian, a
    member of the Académie française, and Keeper of the Archives of
    the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  MINA, Don Francisco Espozy (1781-1836). A famous Spanish party
    leader. In 1809, at the time of the French invasion, he placed
    himself at the head of a guerilla band and obstructed the French
    operations for five years. In 1820, during the Spanish
    Revolution, he held his own against Marshal Moncey. In 1834 he
    defended the Constitutional throne against the pretensions of
    Don Carlos.

  MIRABEAU, Victor Riquetti, Marquis de (1749-1791). The most
    eminent orator of the French Revolution. In 1789 he was a member
    of the States-General, and contributed by his eloquence to the
    success of the Constituent Assembly.

  MIRAFLORÈS, Don Manuel, Marquis de (1792-1867). Descended from a
    mercantile family enriched by the wars of the eighteenth
    century, he was ennobled and made a grandee of Spain. He was
    Ambassador to London in 1834, and there signed the celebrated
    treaty of the Quadruple Alliance. In 1846 he became Grand
    Chamberlain to Queen Isabella, and in 1864 President of the
    Council of Ministers. An eminent _littérateur_, he was a member
    of the Historical Academy of Madrid.

  MIRAFLORÈS, Marquise de (1795-1867). Doña Vicenta Monina y
    Pontejos, heiress and niece of the celebrated Count de
    Florida-Blanca. Married the Marquis de Miraflorès in 1814.

  MODENA, Duke of (1779-1846). Francis IV. of Modena, son of the
    Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. He married Princess Maria
    Beatrice, daughter of Victor Emmanuel, King of Sardinia.

  MOLÉ, Comte Matthieu (1781-1855). Descended from a parliamentary
    family. He replaced the Duc de Massa as Minister of Justice in
    1813, and then received the title of Count of the Empire. He
    rallied to Louis-Philippe, and in 1830 became Minister for
    Foreign Affairs. In 1840 he was elected a member of the Académie
    française.

  MOLÉ, Comtesse, died 1845. Mlle. Caroline de la Briche met Comte
    Molé as a young man in her mother's salon and married him in
    1798. The Comtesse Molé published anonymously several works
    translated from the English.

  MOLLIEN, François, Comte (1758-1850). A clever financier. He was
    made Minister of the Treasury in 1866. Louis XVIII. made him a
    Peer in 1819.

  MOLLIEN, Comtesse (1785-1878). Mlle. Juliette Dutilleul, wife of
    François Mollien. She was a distinguished and attractive person,
    and was Lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Amélie.

  MONSON, Lord (1809-1841). Son of Lady Warwick by her first
    marriage. He left no children, and his cousin became his heir.

  MONSON, Lady Theodosia, daughter of Latham Blacker. Married Lord
    Monson in 1832.

  MONTESPAN, Marquise de (1641-1707). Françoise Athénais de
    Rochechouart, the favourite of Louis XIV.

  MONTMORENCY, Raoul, Baron de (1790-1862). He took the title of
    Duke, in 1846, on his father's death. He married Euphémie de
    Harchies, by whom he had no children. His sisters were the
    Princesse de Bauffrement-Courtenay and the Duchesse de Valençay.

  MONTMORENCY, Duchesse de (1774-1846). Anne Louise Caroline de
    Matignon, mother of Raoul de Montmorency, of the Princesse de
    Bauffrement, and the Duchesse de Valençay.

  MONTPENSIER, Duchesse de (1627-1693). Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans,
    known as La Grande Mademoiselle, was the only daughter of Gaston
    d'Orléans. She was several times on the verge of making the most
    brilliant marriages without ever succeeding. At forty-two she
    conceived a violent passion for a private gentleman, the Comte
    de Lauzun, whom she secretly married. She had taken a very
    active part in the Fronde.

  MONTROND, Comte Casimir de (1757-1843). A friend of M. de
    Talleyrand, and a _habitué_ of his house. Napoleon I., on his
    return from Elba, sent him to Vienna, where the Congress was
    sitting, to persuade M. de Talleyrand to join him, but M. de
    Talleyrand was inflexible in his loyalty to Louis XVIII.

  MONTROND, Comtesse de (1769-1820). Aimée de Coigny, who inspired
    André Chénier's _Jeune Captive_. Married first the Duc de
    Fleury, and divorced him in order to marry the Comte de
    Montrond.

  MORELL, Baronne de. Mlle. de Mornay, sister of the Marquis and the
    Comte de Mornay, married General Baron de Morell, who, in 1834,
    was in command of the cavalry school at Saumur.

  MORELL, Mlle. Marie de. Born in 1818. Celebrated for her beauty.
    Was the daughter of General Baron de Morell. She married the
    Marquis d'Eyrargues, who filled various diplomatic positions in
    the reign of Louis-Philippe.

  MORELLET, Abbé André (1727-1819). The friend of the most eminent
    personages of his time. The Abbé was especially celebrated for
    his subtle and mocking wit. He was a laborious contributor to
    the _Encyclopédie_ and to the _Dictionnaire de l'Académie_, the
    archives of which he saved at the Revolution.

  MORNAY, Comte Charles de (1803-1878). A Peer of France, Ambassador
    to Sweden, brother of Jules, Marquis de Mornay, Deputy for the
    Oise. He was devoted to the Monarchy of July, and was raised to
    the Peerage in 1845, and made Grand Officer of the Legion of
    Honour. In 1848 he retired into private life.

  MORNINGTON, Lady (1742-1834). Anne, eldest daughter of Viscount
    Duncannon, married in 1759 the Earl of Mornington. One of her
    sons was the famous Duke of Wellington.

  MORTEMART, Mlle. Alicia de (1800-1887). Daughter of the Duc de
    Mortemart and his second wife. Born a de Cossé-Brissac; she
    married in 1823 Paul, Duc de Noailles.

  MORTIER, Marshal, Duc de Trévise (1768-1835). Distinguished
    himself in the campaigns of the Revolution and the Empire. A
    Deputy and Peer of France in 1834. He accepted the Ministry of
    War together with the Presidency of the Council, and was killed
    by the explosion of Fieschi's infernal machine by the side of
    Louis-Philippe.

  MOSKOWA, Prince de la (1803-1857). Eldest son of Marshal Ney. He
    first entered the Swedish service, and did not return to France
    until after the Revolution of July. He was made a Peer of France
    under Louis-Philippe, and married the daughter of Jacques
    Lafitte.

  MOTTEUX, M. A _habitué_ of Holland House, and a great favourite of
    the Prince de Talleyrand. He was very intimate with Lady Cowper,
    afterwards Lady Palmerston, and left all his fortune to her
    second son.

  MOUNT-EDGCUMBE, Richard, Lord (1764-1839). One of the intimates of
    King William I. He married in 1789 a daughter of the Earl of
    Buckinghamshire.

  MULGRAVE, Lord (1797-1863). Constantine Henry Phipps, afterwards
    Lord Normanby. He was a member of the Whig Ministry of Lord
    Melbourne, was Governor of Jamaica, and afterwards
    Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. In 1846 he was sent to Paris as
    Ambassador, and went to Tuscany in the same capacity.

  MUNIER DE LA CONVERSERIE, General, Count (1766-1837).

  MUNSTER-LEDENBURG, Count Ernest Frederick Herbert von (1766-1839).
    As envoy of the Elector of Hanover, King of England, he helped
    to form several coalitions against France. He was Hanoverian
    Minister in London. He married in 1814 Wilhelmina Charlotte
    (1785-1858), sister of the Duke of Schaumburg-Lippe.

  MUSSET, Alfred de (1810-1857). A French poet, son of an official
    of the Ministry of War. He was a fellow-pupil of the Duc
    d'Orléans at the Collège Henri IV., and became his friend.


N

  NANTES, Mlle. de (1673-1743). Fourth child of Louis XIV. and
    Madame de Montespan, legitimated by Royal Letters Patent, and
    married in 1785 to the Duc de Bourbon.

  NAPLES, Princess Marie of (1820-1861). Married in 1850 Charles de
    Bourbon, Comte de Montemolin.

  NAPOLEON I., Emperor of the French (1769-1821). Second son of
    Charles Bonaparte and Laetitia Ramolino. Married first Josephine
    Tascher de la Pagerie, widow of General de Beauharnais, whom he
    divorced in 1810, and married Marie Louise, Archduchess of
    Austria, by whom he had a son.

  NASSAU, William George Augustus, Duke of (1782-1839).

  NECKER, Jacques (1732-1804). A banker of Geneva, who became
    Director of French Finances under Louis XVI. He was the father
    of Madame de Staël.

  NECKER, Madame (1739-1794). Suzanne Curchot, daughter of a Swiss
    Calvinist Pastor, wife of Jacques Necker, who was celebrated for
    her beauty, her wit, and her goodness.

  NEELD, Lady Caroline, died 1869. Daughter of the Earl of
    Shaftesbury. She married Joseph Neeld in 1831.

  NEMOURS, Duc de (1814-1896). Louis Charles d'Orléans, son of King
    Louis-Philippe. He married a Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

  NESSELRODE, Count (1780-1862). He belonged to a Westphalian
    family, a branch of which settled in Livonia. He entered the
    Russian diplomatic service, and was _attaché_ at various
    Embassies, notably at that of Paris. He afterwards became
    Chancellor of the Russian Empire. He married the daughter of
    Count Gourieff, Russian Finance Minister. The Countess died in
    1849.

  NETHERLANDS, Prince Frederick of the (1797-1881). Admiral of the
    Fleet. In 1825 he married Princess Louise of Prussia
    (1808-1870), daughter of King Frederick William III.

  NEY, Michel (1769-1815). Duc d'Elchingen, Prince de la Moskowa,
    Marshal of France. He covered himself with glory in the wars of
    the Revolution and the Empire. Napoleon called him _le brave des
    braves_. Made a Peer of France by Louis XVIII. he declared for
    Napoleon in the Hundred Days. At the Second Restoration he was
    condemned by the House of Peers and shot.

  NICOLAS I., Czar of Russia (1776-1855). Third son of Paul I. He
    ascended the throne in 1825, succeeding his brother Alexander I.
    on the renunciation of his brother, the Grand Duke Constantine.


  NOAILLES, Paul, Duc de (1802-1885). Attached himself to the
    Government of Louis-Philippe and frequently took part in
    important debates in the House of Peers. At the Revolution of
    1848 he retired into private life, and thenceforth occupied
    himself with literature. He was elected to the Academy in 1849.

  NOAILLES, Duchesse de. _See_ MORTEMART.

  NOAILLES, Vicomtesse de (1792-1851). Charlotte Marie Antoinette,
    daughter of the Duc de Poix, married her cousin Alfred, Vicomte
    de Noailles, who was killed in 1812 at the crossing of the
    Beresina.

  NOAILLES, Mlle. Sabineide (1819-1870). Married, 1846, Lionel
    Widdrington Standish.

  NORFOLK, Duke of (1791-1856). Married, 1814, Charlotte Sophia,
    daughter of the Duke of Sutherland. William IV. conferred the
    Order of the Garter on him in 1834.

  NORTHUMBERLAND, Duchess of. Died 1848. She was Lady Louisa Stuart
    Wortley.


O

  O'CONNELL, Daniel (1775-1847). Early in life he became connected
    with associations for the emancipation of Irish Catholics. In
    1823 he founded a Catholic Association embracing all Ireland.
    As member of the House of Commons he had much influence;
    brought about the triumph of the Whigs and supported
    Parliamentary Reform.

  OLIVIER, Abbé Nicolas Théodore. Born 1798. He was Curé de
    Saint-Roch in Paris, and in 1841 became Bishop of Évreux.

  OMPTEDA, Charles Georges, Baron (1767-1857). A Hanoverian
    diplomatist, Minister of State, and Chief of the Hanoverian
    Cabinet in 1823. From 1831 he was accredited to the Court of St.
    James. He resigned on the death of William IV.

  OMPTEDA, Baroness (1767-1843). Frederica Christina, Countess von
    Schlippenbach. She married first Count Solms-Sonnenwald, and
    secondly Baron Ompteda.

  ORANGE, William, Prince of (1793-1849). Ascended the throne of
    Holland in 1840. He married, in 1816, Anna Paulowna, _q.v._

  ORLÉANS, Duc d' (1741-1793). Louis-Philippe Joseph, known as
    Philippe Égalité. He systematically opposed the Court throughout
    his life, and in 1787 became the leader of all the malcontents.
    He was elected to the States-General, and became a member of the
    Jacobin Club, but this did not prevent his being guillotined.

  ORLÉANS, Duc d' (1810-1842). Ferdinand, eldest son of King
    Louis-Philippe and Queen Marie Amélie. He served under Marshal
    Gérard in Belgium, commanded in the Algerian campaigns, and died
    as the result of a carriage accident near Paris.

  ORSAY, Count Alfred d' (1801-1852). Surnamed the King of Fashion.
    Good looks were hereditary in the d'Orsay family and the Count
    was a dandy by vocation. He went early in life to London, then
    regarded as the centre of masculine elegance. He ruined himself
    by his extravagant though artistic tastes, and died miserably of
    a spinal complaint.

  OSSULSTON, Lord, born 1810. He married a daughter of the Duke of
    Manchester and in 1859 became Lord Tankerville.


P

  PAHLEN, Peter, Count, born in 1775, a Russian General. He played
    a distinguished part in the campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814,
    was Russian Ambassador at Paris from 1835 till 1841, and was
    afterwards made a member of the Council of the Empire and
    Inspector-General of the Cavalry.

  PALAFOX, Don José de (1780-1847). The intrepid defender of
    Saragossa. In 1808 he accompanied the Royal Family to France as
    an officer, and escaped when he saw Ferdinand VII. detained as a
    prisoner. He raised all Aragon, and, after vigorously defending
    Saragossa, forced the French to retreat. They returned, however,
    to the charge with all their forces and compelled him to
    capitulate. Palafox powerfully contributed to the restoration of
    Ferdinand VII. to the throne. In 1820 he declared for the
    Constitution, and thereafter lived in retirement. On her
    accession as Regent, Queen Maria Christina made him Duke of
    Saragossa and a Grandee of Spain.

  PALMELLA, P. de Souza Holstein, Duc de (1786-1850). A Portuguese
    statesman. He was Regent of Portugal in 1830, and made the cause
    of Doña Maria prevail over that of Dom Miguel. He was one of the
    plenipotentiaries at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

  PALMERSTON, Lord (1784-1865). An English statesman. Elected to the
    Commons in 1807, he was a Lord of the Admiralty in 1808,
    Secretary for War 1809-1828, Secretary of State for Foreign
    Affairs 1830-1841, and 1846-1851, Home Secretary 1852-1855,
    First Lord of the Treasury 1855-1858, and from 1859 till his
    death.

  PALMERSTON, Lady (1787-1869). Sister of Lord Melbourne, married
    first Lord Cowper and secondly Lord Palmerston.

  PALMYRE, Mlle. The first dressmaker in Paris in the time of
    Louis-Philippe.

  PARRY, Sir William Edward (1790-1855). An English navigator famous
    for his expeditions to the North Pole. He was hydrographer to
    the Admiralty, and accompanied Ross on his first voyage of
    discovery.

  PASQUIER, Étienne, Duc (1767-1862). Napoleon made him Maître des
    Requêtes, then Conseiller d'État. He rallied to the Bourbons in
    1814, was made Garde des Sceaux in 1815, and afterwards a member
    of the Upper House, the Presidency of which he received under
    Louis-Philippe. He was raised to the dignity of Chancellor in
    1837.

  PASSY, Hypolite Philibert (1793-1880). A French politician and
    member of the Institute, elected Deputy in 1830. He was a member
    of the ephemeral Cabinet of the Duc de Bassano in 1834. In 1838
    he succeeded M. de Talleyrand as member of the Academy of Moral
    and Political Science.

  PASTA, Judith (1798-1865). An Italian singer of Jewish origin. She
    came to Paris in 1821 and made a great name for herself. She
    retired in 1849 to her beautiful house by the lake of Como.

  PEDRO I., Dom (1798-1834). Emperor of Brazil and King of Portugal,
    father of Queen Doña Maria of Portugal.

  PEEL, Sir Robert (1788-1850). An English statesman. Elected to the
    House of Commons in 1809, he was Home Secretary in 1822. He was
    Conservative in politics, but held Liberal views on questions of
    criminal legislation and administration. He was a member of
    several Ministries and in 1838 re-established the financial
    equilibrium of the country, disturbed by the Whig deficit of
    £30,000,000, by the introduction of the Income Tax, while he
    opened new sources of revenue by the abolition of the Corn Laws.

  PEEL, Lady, died 1849. Julia, daughter of General Sir John Lloyd,
    Bart., married Sir Robert Peel in 1820.

  PÉPIN (1780-1836). A grocer of the Place de la Bastille, Paris.
    Pépin was elected Captain of the Garde Nationale after the
    events of July 1830. He was implicated in Fieschi's crime in
    1835 and was arrested, condemned to death and executed.

  PÉRIER, Casimir (1777-1832). He entered politics in 1817. After
    1830 he was elected President of the Chamber of Deputies, and
    shortly afterwards was made Minister without a portfolio. In
    1831 he was President of the Council, and governed in a firm and
    resolute manner. He succumbed to an attack of cholera contracted
    as the consequence of a visit to the Hôtel Dieu with the Duc
    d'Orléans.

  PÉRIGORD, Duc de (1788-1879). Augustin Marie Élie Charles de
    Talleyrand-Périgord. A Grandee of Spain of the first class.

  PÉRIGORD, Duchesse de (1789-1866). Marie Nicolette, daughter of
    the Comte de Choiseul-Praslin, married, in 1807, the Duc de
    Périgord.

  PÉRIGORD, Alexandre, Comte de, afterwards Duc de Dino (1813-1894).
    Second son of the Duc de Talleyrand and the Princess Dorothea of
    Courland. Alexandre de Périgord was at first in the Navy, but
    soon abandoned that career. In 1849 he took part in the campaign
    of Piedmont against Austria as a member of the Staff of King
    Charles Albert, and during the Crimean War he was attached to
    the Sardinian Army Corps as French Commissary. He married Mlle.
    Valentine de Sainte-Aldegonde.

  PÉRIGORD, Mlle. Pauline de (1820-1890). Daughter of the Duc de
    Talleyrand and of the author of these Memoirs. She married, in
    1839 Henri, Marquis de Castellane, who died in 1847. From that
    time she lived a retired life, distinguished by the practice of
    the highest virtues. She lived for the most of the year at her
    estate of Rochecotte, in the Valley of the Loire.

  PERSIL, Jean Charles (1785-1870). A French magistrate and
    statesman. Elected Deputy in 1830, he immediately attacked the
    Polignac Ministry, protesting against the decrees. He was
    Minister of Justice in 1834, but, having had a difference of
    opinion with M. Molé, he resigned. In 1839 he entered the Upper
    House, and took the Direction of the Hôtel des Monnaies.
    Napoleon III. made him a member of the Conseil d'État.

  PETER, Mrs. An English lady very well known in London society
    about 1835, and the friend of several statesmen.

  PETIT, General (1772-1856). Distinguished himself in the campaigns
    of the Revolution and the Empire. It was he who, at
    Fontainebleau, received the last accolade of the Emperor and the
    touching adieux which he addressed to the whole army. He was
    made a Peer of France in 1838.

  PIRON, M. (1802-1865). Son of a landed proprietor in the
    Nivernais. He was well educated, and occupied an important
    position in the French Post Office. His duties brought him into
    contact with the English postal officials, and he knew England
    well. In 1834 M. Dupin, who came from the same part of France,
    took him with him on his journey to London in order that M.
    Piron might act as his guide to English society, with which he
    had for some time been in touch. He had, for instance, known the
    Duke of Richmond (who had been Postmaster-General) and Lord
    Brougham. The premature death of his son, to whom he was deeply
    attached, inflicted such a blow on M. Piron that he too died of
    a seizure some weeks later.

  PITT, William (1759-1806). Followed in the footsteps of his
    father, the celebrated English statesman. After the French
    Revolution he displayed a great hatred of France and made three
    coalitions against her. He was a great administrator.

  PLANTAGENET. A dynasty which occupied the throne of England from
    Henry II. till the accession of Henry VII. In the fourteenth
    century the family separated into two rival branches, from whose
    quarrels arose the Wars of the Roses.

  PLYMOUTH, Lady (1792-1864). She was a daughter of the Duke of
    Dorset, and married first, in 1811, Lord Plymouth. Having become
    a widow she married, secondly, William Pitt, Lord Amherst. She
    died childless.

  POIX, Duchesse-Princesse de (1785-1862). Mélanie de Périgord,
    daughter of the Duc de Talleyrand and Mlle. de Senozan, married,
    in 1809, Juste, Comte de Noailles, Prince de Poix. The Duchesse
    de Poix had been Lady-in-waiting to the Duchesse de Berry.

  POLIGNAC, Jules Armand, Prince de (1780-1847). President of the
    Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs at the end of the reign
    of Charles X. On July 29, 1830, he signed the famous decrees
    which caused the Revolution and the fall of the elder branch of
    the Bourbons.

  POLIGNAC, Princesse de. _Née_ Miss Barbara Campbell, a Scottish
    lady. She was very beautiful and very rich, but of obscure
    family. She had to abjure the Protestant religion and become a
    Catholic in order to marry the Prince de Polignac. She died in
    1819.

  PONIATOWSKI, Prince Joseph (1762-1803). A Polish general. He
    served in the Polish Legion under Napoleon I., was made a
    Marshal of France at Leipzig, and perished in the waters of the
    Elster. His chivalrous courage won him the surname of the Bayard
    of Poland.

  PONSONBY, Lord (1770-1855). Brother-in-law of Lord Grey.
    Ambassador at Constantinople, 1822-1827.

  PORCHESTER, Lord (1800-1849). Henry John Charles, Earl of
    Carnarvon. Married, in 1830, the daughter of Lord Molyneux.

  POTOCKI, Stanislas, Count (1757-1821). Fought against Russia in
    1793, in which year he left Poland. On the creation of the Grand
    Duchy of Warsaw by Napoleon I., he was made Senator Palatine and
    Chief of the Council of State. He was retained in office by the
    Czar Alexander I. On the formation of the new kingdom of Poland
    Count Potocki was appointed Minister of Public Worship and
    Instruction, and afterwards President of the Council of State.

  POZZO DI BORGO, Count (1764-1842). A Corsican, who took service
    under different Powers, and finally under Russia. He was one of
    the Czar's representatives at the Congress of Vienna, and was
    afterwards Ambassador.

  PRUDHON, Pierre (1760-1822). A French painter. He spent several
    years at Rome, where he became intimate with Canova. He was
    selected by Napoleon I. to give drawing lessons to the Empress
    Marie Louise.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Louis of (1773-1796). Brother of King
    Frederick-William III. He married Princess Frederica of
    Mecklenburg-Strelitz, sister of Queen Louise of Prussia.


Q

  QUÉLEN, Comte de (1778-1839). A member of a Breton family, he
    took Orders early in life. Cardinal Fesch favoured him, and
    made him his secretary. Under the Restoration he became
    Coadjutor of Cardinal de Talleyrand-Périgord, and in 1821 he
    succeeded him as Archbishop of Paris. In 1831 his palace was
    sacked during a riot. Mgr. de Quélen showed the utmost
    devotion during the cholera epidemic of 1832. His pastoral
    letters and several elegantly written funeral sermons secured
    his election to the Académie française.


R

  RADNOR, William, Lord (1779-1869). A Member of the British
    Parliament and a friend of Lord Brougham. He married three
    times; first in 1814, the daughter of the Duke of Montrose;
    secondly, in 1837, Emily Bagot; and finally, Fanny Royd-Rice.

  RAMBUTEAU, Claude Philibert Bertelot, Comte de (1781-1869).
    Chamberlain to Napoleon I. in 1809. Peer of France in 1835, a
    Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1843. In 1833
    Louis-Philippe made him Prefect of the Seine, and he held this
    post for fifteen years. He married in 1809 the daughter of
    Louis, Comte de Narbonne.

  RAPHAEL SANZIO (1483-1520). The celebrated painter of the Roman
    School.

  RAULLIN, M. Son of an official in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
    who was much esteemed by the Prince de Talleyrand. He became a
    Conseiller d'État.

  RAYNEVAL, Maximilien, Comte de (1778-1836). A French diplomatist.
    Secretary of Embassy at Lisbon, then at St. Petersburg; he was
    made Consul-General at London at the Restoration. He then became
    successively Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs,
    Ambassador at Berlin, in Switzerland, at Vienna and at Madrid.
    In every case he rendered eminent services, and was made a Count
    and raised to the Peerage.

  RÉAL, Comte (1765-1834). Procureur au Châtelet before the
    Revolution, Conseiller d'État after the 18th brumaire, Prefect
    of Police during the Hundred Days. He was proscribed by the
    Second Restoration, and did not return to France till 1818. In
    1830 he had a post in the office of the Prefect of Police, and
    thereafter lived in retirement.

  RÉCAMIER, (1777-1849). Julie Bernard, married when she was sixteen
    M. Récamier, a rich Parisian banker. She was both witty and
    good, and under the Consulate and the Empire she collected in
    her salon a crowd of distinguished persons. Exiled from Paris
    she returned after the fall of Napoleon. Madame Récamier retired
    in 1819 to the Abbaye-aux-Bois, where she continued to receive
    all the celebrities of the period.

  REGENT, The, Philippe d'Orléans (1674-1723). Governed France
    during the minority of Louis XV.

  RÉMUSAT, Charles, Comte de (1797-1875). A French author and
    politician. A member of the Institut and a Minister of State.

  RETZ, Cardinal de (1614-1679). Jean François Paul de Gondi played
    a prominent part in the Fronde troubles. He was forced into
    exile until the death of Mazarin. He left Memoirs which are one
    of the masterpieces of French literature.

  RICHMOND, Duke of (1799-1860). Charles Lennox, a British officer,
    Lord Lieutenant of Sussex. Became Postmaster-General in the
    Reform Government of 1830. He married a sister of the Marquess
    of Anglesea.

  RIGNY, Henri Gauthier, Comte de (1783-1835). Entered the Navy 1798
    and took part in the campaigns of the First Empire. He was made
    a Rear-Admiral at the Restoration, and distinguished himself at
    Navarino, on which occasion he received the title of Count and
    was made Maritime Prefect of Toulon. He became Minister of
    Marine in 1831, then Minister for Foreign Affairs, and
    afterwards Ambassador to Naples.

  RIPON, Lord (1781-1859). Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1833. He
    was originally a Tory but joined the Whigs.

  ROBESPIERRE, Maximilien (1758-1794). A lawyer and member of the
    Convention. He governed by terror through the Committee of
    Public Safety, but a reaction set in and he perished on the
    scaffold.

  ROBSHART, Amy (1532-1560). Married Robert Dudley, Earl of
    Leicester in 1550, but soon separated from him. She was found
    dead, and it was never discovered whether she had committed
    suicide or if Leicester had killed her in the hope of marrying
    Queen Elizabeth. She is the heroine of Sir Walter Scott's novel
    _Kenilworth_.

  RODIL, Marquis de (1789-1853). Don José Ronion Rodil joined the
    battalion called the "literary cadets" in 1808, at the time of
    the French invasion of Spain. In 1816 he sailed for the revolted
    South American colonies, and distinguished himself at the
    defence of Callao. He returned to Spain in 1825, and in 1833
    assisted Dom Pedro in Portugal against Dom Miguel and Don
    Carlos. In 1836 he was Minister of War for a few months. From
    1840 till 1843 he was President of the Council in the last
    Ministry of the Espartero Regency.

  ROGERS, Samuel (1763-1855). An English poet. He was a man of a
    good and generous nature, but his sarcasm spared no one.

  ROLAND, Madame (1754-1793). Manon Philipon, a woman of a
    distinguished intellect, who married a member of the Convention.
    She died on the scaffold.

  ROMERO-ALPUENDE. A Spanish Deputy. He was an extreme Radical of an
    extravagant temperament, but of little importance.

  ROSS, Sir John (1777-1856). Son of the Rev. Andrew Ross, and a
    Captain in the British Navy. He made himself famous by his two
    expeditions to the Polar Sea along with Sir Edward Parry in 1818
    and 1819. Sir John Ross made the second expedition at his own
    expense and found the Northern magnetic pole. He lost his ship,
    and it was not until the fourth winter after his departure that
    he was rescued by a Hull vessel and brought back to England.

  ROTHSCHILD, Nathan (1777-1826). Third son of Mayer Anselme
    Rothschild, founder of the famous banking house. He was head of
    the London Branch.

  ROTHSCHILD, Madame Salomon de (1771-1855). Wife of Salomon
    Rothschild, who founded a branch of the business at Vienna, and
    divided the German business with his brother Mayer. Towards 1835
    he left the management of the Viennese business to his son and
    came to Paris with his wife to join his brother James.

  ROUSSIN, Admiral (1781-1854). Post-Captain in 1814; corrected the
    charts of the coasts of Africa and Brazil; Rear-Admiral in 1822,
    he was a member of the Admiralty Council in 1824. In 1831 he
    commanded the French Squadron sent to demand satisfaction from
    Portugal for the insults offered to French residents. He forced
    the entrance to the Tagus, reputed impregnable, and obtained all
    that he demanded. At the close of this brilliantly successful
    expedition Louis-Philippe, in 1832, raised him to the Peerage
    with the title of Baron.

  ROYER-COLLARD, Pierre Paul (1763-1845). A French philosopher and
    statesman. He was a lawyer, and in 1797 a member of the Conseil
    des Cinq Cents. Under the First Empire he gave up politics and
    occupied himself entirely with the study of philosophy. He was
    made a member of the Académie française in 1827. M.
    Royer-Collard lived at Châteauvieux, near Valençay, and was a
    great friend of the Prince de Talleyrand and the Duchesse de
    Dino.

  RUBINI, Jean Baptiste (1795-1854). A celebrated Italian singer.
    Bellini's operas owed much of their success to him.

  RUSSELL, Lord William (1799-1846). An English diplomatist. He was
    for some years Ambassador at Berlin. He married Elizabeth
    Rawdon, niece of the Marquess of Hastings.

  RUSSELL, Lord John (1792-1878). An English statesman; third son of
    the Duke of Bedford. He was one of the authors of the celebrated
    Reform Bill. In 1831 he was Home Secretary, Secretary for the
    Colonies, and Head of the Whig Cabinet. In 1859 he was Foreign
    Secretary, and again Premier on the death of Lord Palmerston.


S

  SAINTE-ALDEGONDE, Comtesse de (1793-1869); _née_ de Chavagnes. A
    Creole by origin, she married Marshal Augereau, Duc de
    Castiglione, who died in 1816. In 1817 she married the Comte de
    Sainte-Aldegonde. She had two daughters, the second of whom
    married Alexandre de Périgord, Duc de Dino.

  SAINTE-AULAIRE, Louis Beaupoil, Comte de. He was Chamberlain to
    Napoleon I., a Prefect under Louis XVIII., and a Deputy. After
    1830 he was one of the ablest supporters of the Monarchy of
    July, was successively Ambassador at Rome, Vienna, and London,
    and was raised to the Peerage.

  SAINT THERESA (1515-1582). Of a rich and noble family of Avila in
    Old Castile. She reformed the Carmelite Order, St. John of the
    Cross, reformed that of the Carmelite Monks. She was canonised
    in 1621. Her numerous writings led to her being named a doctor
    of the Church by Popes Gregory XV. and Urban VIII.

  SAINT-LEU or SAINT-LOUP (573-623). Archbishop of Sens from 609,
    famous for his charity. King Clotaire II., deceived by false
    reports, exiled him to Picardy in 613, but on better knowledge
    of the facts, recalled him in the following year and loaded him
    with honours.

  SAINT-LEU, Duchesse de. _See_ BEAUHARNAIS, Hortense de.

  SAINT-PAUL, Vergibier de. A French general who commanded the
    troops of the Indre in 1834.

  SAINT-PRIEST, Alexis, Comte de (1805-1851). Son of the Comte de
    Saint-Priest, Governor of Odessa, and of a Princess Galitzin. He
    did not come to France till 1822, when he attracted much notice
    owing to his literary tastes. An intimate friend of the Duc
    d'Orléans, he entered the diplomatic service in 1833 and became
    French Minister in Brazil, at Lisbon and Copenhagen. He was made
    a Peer of France in 1841, and a Member of the Académie française
    in 1849. He married Mlle. de La Guiche.

  SALISBURY, Marchioness of (1750-1835). Mary Amelia, daughter of
    the Marquess of Devonshire. Married in 1773. She was burned to
    death in a fire at Hatfield House.

  SALVANDY, Comte de (1795-1856). At first a soldier, he took part
    in the Campaigns of 1813 and 1814, retiring from the service at
    the Restoration, under which he held several posts at the Court
    of Louis XVIII. He resigned in 1823, and turned to literature.
    After 1830 he was elected Deputy and was Minister of Public
    Instruction 1837-1839, Ambassador at Madrid 1841, at Turin,
    1843. From 1845 till 1848 he was again Minister of Public
    Instruction. In 1835 he was elected to the Académie française.

  SAMPAÏO, Antonio Rodriguez (1806-1882). A Portuguese journalist
    and statesman, a consistent Liberal.

  SAND, George (1804-1876). Aurore Dupin, Baroness Dudevant, one of
    the most celebrated authoresses of the nineteenth century.

  SARAÏVA, Antonio Ribeira (1800-1890). A Portuguese diplomatist.
    Under Dom Miguel's Regency he was sent on a secret mission to
    Spain and England. He was a fanatical partisan of absolute power
    and did not return to Portugal after the fall of the Pretender
    but lived in London till his death.

  SARMENTO, M. de. A Portuguese diplomatist, the representative of
    Dom Pedro in London at the Conferences after 1830.

  SAUZET, Paul (1800-1877). A member of the Lyons bar. He was
    elected Deputy in 1834, and two years later was made Minister of
    Justice in the Thiers Cabinet.

  SAXE, Maurice, Comte de (1695-1750). Marshal of France. He was
    natural son of Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, and the Countess
    Aurora von Koenigsmark. He covered himself with glory in the war
    of the Austrian Succession, and in recompense of his services
    King Louis XIV. gave him the Château of Chambord and 40,000
    livres a year.

  SAXE-MEININGEN, Bernard, Duke of (1800-1882). Brother of Queen
    Adelaide of England. In 1866 he abdicated in favour of his son,
    Duke George II.

  SCHEFFER, Ary (1785-1858). A French painter whose family was of
    German origin. He was a great favourite of King Louis-Philippe
    and his family.

  SÉBASTIANI DE LA PORTA, Marshal (1775-1851). A Corsican by birth,
    he distinguished himself with the army of Italy. In 1806 he was
    sent as Ambassador to Constantinople, where he made the Sultan
    Selim declare war on Russia, and directed the operations which
    compelled the British Fleet to repass the Dardanelles. After
    Waterloo he was one of the Commissaries appointed to treat for
    peace. Under Louis-Philippe he was Minister for Foreign Affairs,
    and afterwards Ambassador at Naples and London. He married Fanny
    de Coigny, who died in 1807 in giving birth to a daughter, who
    married the Duc de Praslin.

  SEFTON, Lord (1772-1838). Made a Peer in 1831. He married in 1791
    Maria Margaret, daughter of Lord Craven, who died in 1851.

  SÉGUIER, Comte (1768-1848). An _émigré_ during the Revolution. He
    returned in 1800 and, thanks to Cambacérès, he had a fine
    judicial career under the Empire. In 1815 Louis XVIII. made him
    a Peer of France, and appointed him to prosecute Marshal Ney. He
    rallied to Louis-Philippe in 1830.

  SÉGUR, Louis-Philippe, Comte de (1753-1833). Took part in the
    American war in 1781. Was Ambassador at St. Petersburg. Lived by
    his pen during the Revolution, was afterwards called to the
    Corps Législatif by the First Consul and became Grand Master of
    the Ceremonies at the Imperial Court. He was a member of the
    Académie française from 1803, and Louis XVIII. made him a Peer.

  SÉMONVILLE, Marquis de (1754-1839). He was charged with several
    foreign missions. A Peer of France in 1814, he was the first to
    receive the title of Grand Référendaire de la Cour des Pairs, a
    position which he did not resign till 1834.

  SÉVIGNÉ, Marquise de (1626-1696). Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, one of
    the most distinguished women of the seventeenth century, famous
    for the letters which she wrote to her daughter Madame de
    Grignan. She married in 1644 the Marquis de Sévigné, who was
    killed in a duel, leaving her a widow at twenty-five.

  SGRICCI, Thomas (1788-1836). A celebrated Italian improvisatore
    and a great scholar. He revealed his prodigious facility in
    versification at a masked ball, where in the costume of the
    Sibyl he delivered oracles in verse with an ease and promptitude
    which were much admired.

  SHAFTESBURY, Cropley Ashley (1768-1851). A member of the House of
    Lords. He married Anne, daughter of the Duke of Marlborough.

  SIDNEY, John Robert, Lord. Born 1805. Lord Chamberlain; married,
    in 1832, Lady Emily Caroline Paget, daughter of the Marquis of
    Anglesey.

  SIDNEY, Sophia, Lady. Lady Sophia Fitzclarence, a natural daughter
    of William IV. of England. Married, in 1825, Philip Charles
    Sidney, Baron de l'Isle and Dudley.

  SIEYÈS, Abbé (1748-1836). He was Vicar-General of Chartres, and
    one of the greatest politicians of his time. He made manifest
    the power of the Tiers État, and was the author of several of
    the most important measures of the Revolution. He was a member
    of the Conseil des Cinq Cents, and was made a Senator and a
    Count by Napoleon.

  SOBIESKI, John III., King of Poland (1629-1696). One of the
    national heroes of his country; he conquered the Turks and
    delivered Vienna when besieged by Kara Mustapha.

  SOMERSET, Duke of (1773-1855). Edward Saint Maur, Baron Seymour.
    He married Lady Hamilton.

  SOPHIA OF ENGLAND, Princess (1777-1848). One of the daughters of
    George III. of England. She died unmarried.

  SOULT, Nicholas Jean de Dieu (1769-1852). He took part in all the
    Campaigns of the Revolution and the Empire. After the taking of
    Königsberg, he was made Duc de Dalmatie. Exiled by the Second
    Restoration he attached himself to the Government of 1830, and
    was twice Minister of War, and President of the Council.

  SPRING RICE, Sir Thomas (1790-1866). He was raised to the Peerage
    in 1839, as Lord Monteagle of Brandon. He was Under Secretary of
    State for the Home Department in 1827, then Secretary to the
    Treasury, and in 1834, Secretary of State for the Colonies. In
    1835 he became Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was a Fellow of
    the Royal Society, and of the Royal Astronomical Society.

  STAËL, Madame de (1766-1817). _Née_ Necker, famous for her talent
    and her banishment.

  STAËL, Baronne de. Adelaïde Vernet, grand-daughter of the Swiss
    Professor Pictet. Married in 1826 Auguste, Baron de Staël, son
    of the famous Madame de Staël.

  STANLEY, Edward Geoffrey (1799-1869). An English statesman better
    known as the Earl of Derby, to which title he succeeded in 1831.
    He was Under Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1827. Then
    (1830-1833) Chief Secretary for Ireland. As Secretary of State
    for the Colonies in 1833 he passed the Bill for the
    Emancipation of Slaves. In 1858 he pacified India and
    reorganised its administration. He married in 1825 the second
    daughter of Lord Skelmersdale.

  STANLEY, Edward, Baron (1801-1869). Member of the British
    Parliament from 1831. He was Under Secretary of State, Under
    Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and Postmaster-General. He
    married in 1826 a daughter of Viscount Dillon.

  STEVENS, Catherine (1794-1872). An English singer who was much
    admired. She appeared at Covent Garden, then at Drury Lane. She
    retired in 1815, and in 1838 married the Earl of Essex.

  STRATFORD DE REDCLIFFE, Lord. Sir Stratford Canning (1788-1880).
    Cousin of the celebrated Canning and an English diplomatist. He
    was Minister Plenipotentiary in Switzerland, took part in the
    Congress of Vienna in 1815, and was Ambassador at Constantinople
    from 1851 till 1858, when he retired. He was created Viscount
    Stratford de Redcliffe.

  STUART OF ROTHESAY, Lady (1789-1867). A daughter of Lord
    Hardwicke. She married in 1816.

  SURREY, Earl of (1815-1860). Eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk.
    Elected to Parliament in 1837, where he posed as a zealous
    Catholic. In 1839 he married a daughter of Lord Lyons, and he
    became Duke of Norfolk on the death of his father in 1856.

  SUSSEX, Augustus Frederick, Duke of (1773-1843). One of the sons
    of King George III. of England. He was Grand Master of
    Freemasons in that country.

  SUCHET, Marie (1820-1835). Daughter of Marshal Suchet, Duc
    d'Albuféra. She was an intimate friend of Mlle. Pauline de
    Périgord, and died young.

  SUTHERLAND, Duchess of, died 1868. Daughter of Lord Carlisle; she
    married the Duke of Sutherland in 1823. The Duchess was Mistress
    of the Robes to Queen Victoria.


T

  TAHMASP-KOULI-KHAN, NADIR SHAH, King of Persia (1688-1747). At
    first a camel driver and then a brigand. He entered the service
    of Tahmasp II., brought the affairs of that Prince into a most
    flourishing condition by defeating the Turks, and then deposed
    him. After an interval of regency, he caused himself to be
    proclaimed Shah of Persia. He reduced the Afghans, who had
    revolted, and attacked the Empire of the Great Mogul. He
    oppressed the Persians, who hated him, and he was killed by his
    own generals.

  TALLEYRAND-PÉRIGORD, Cardinal de (1736-1821). Alexandre Angélique,
    second son of Daniel de Talleyrand-Périgord and Marie de
    Chamillart, Lady-in-Waiting to the Queen. He entered the Church,
    was made almoner to the King, Vicar-general of Verdun, and in
    1766 coadjutor to the Archbishop of Rheims, whom he succeeded
    in 1777. Deputy to the States-General in 1789, he struggled
    against innovation and left the country. A councillor of Louis
    XVIII. at Mittau, Mouseigneur de Périgord became, in 1808, his
    grand almoner; his was the first name inscribed on the list of
    Peers in 1814, and in 1817 he obtained the Cardinal's hat and
    the Archbishopric of Paris.

  TALLEYRAND, Prince de (1754-1838). Charles Maurice de
    Talleyrand-Périgord, Prince of Benevento, Duc de Dino, a Peer,
    Grand Chamberlain of France, and a member of the Institut. Lame
    from birth he was destined for the Church, although the eldest
    of his family. A pupil of Saint-Sulpice, he completed his
    ecclesiastical studies there, and was at first known as the Abbé
    de Périgord. In 1788 he was Bishop of Autun; in 1789 a member of
    the States-General. Afterwards he was obliged to take refuge in
    America, from which he returned in 1797. He was made Minister
    for Foreign Affairs by the Directory, and for eight years
    directed the external policy of France. In his capacity of
    Vice-Grand Elector of the Empire he was able, in 1814, to
    convoke the Senate and proclaim the deposition of the Emperor.
    He represented Louis XVIII. at the Congress of Vienna. In 1830
    Louis-Philippe appointed him Ambassador in London. The last act
    of his public life was the conclusion of the Quadruple Alliance
    between France, England, Spain and Portugal.

  TALLEYRAND, Princesse de (1762-1835). Daughter of Captain Werlée
    of the navy and Laurence Allany. She was born on the Coromandel
    Coast of India, and at the age of fifteen she married at
    Calcutta a Civil Servant named George Grant; she was, however,
    divorced a year later. Towards 1780 Mrs. Grant sailed for
    Europe, and settled at Paris, where she married the Prince de
    Talleyrand in 1802. She separated from her husband and retired
    to Auteuil. She died in 1835 and was buried at Montparnasse with
    this inscription: "The widow of Mr. Grant, afterwards civilly
    married to the Prince de Talleyrand."

  TALLEYRAND-PÉRIGORD, Baronne de (1800-1873). Charlotte-Alix-Sarah,
    wife of Baron Alexandre-Daniel de Talleyrand, Conseiller d'État,
    by whom she had three children.

  TALLEYRAND-PÉRIGORD, Edmond, Comte de (1787-1872). Duc de Dino
    from 1817, and Duc de Talleyrand after the death of his father
    in 1838. He married in 1809 Princess Dorothea of Courlande. A
    brave officer and a good comrade, he was singled out for praise
    among the aides-de-camp of Major-General Berthier. He took part
    in the campaigns of the Grand Armée. He was Commander of the
    Order of Saint-Louis, Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, and
    Knight Grand Cross of the Order of S. Ferdinand of Spain. He
    passed the last forty years of his life at Florence, where he
    died.

  TALMA, François Joseph (1766-1826). A celebrated tragic actor much
    liked by Napoleon, who paid his debts more than once.

  TANKERVILLE, Lady. Died 1865. Daughter of Antoine, Duc de Gramont.
    She married Lord Tankerville in 1806.

  TAYLOR, Sir Herbert (1775-1839). At first an officer in the army,
    he became private secretary to his friend the Duke of York, and
    was transferred in the same capacity to the service of King
    George III. He was charged with several delicate missions in
    Sweden and Holland. He married a daughter of Edward Disbrowe.

  TERCEIRA, Duke of, Marquis of Villaflor (1790-1860). A Portuguese
    General. He placed himself at the head of the partisans of Dom
    Pedro and helped him to expel Dom Miguel. He married as his
    second wife the daughter of the Marquis de Loulé.

  TESTE, Jean Baptiste (1780-1852). A French jurisconsult. Deputy in
    1831; a Liberal. In 1839 he became Minister of Justice, in 1840
    of Public Works. In 1843 he was made a Peer of France and
    President of the Cour de Cassation, but the end of his life was
    saddened by a deplorable case in which he was compromised.

  THIARD DE BUSSY, Comte de (1772-1852). A French General,
    Chamberlain to Napoleon in 1804. He accompanied him as
    aide-de-camp in the campaigns of 1805-1807, but afterwards
    retired. Louis XVIII. made him Maréchal de Camp. A Deputy in
    1815, he sat almost without interruption until 1848, and then
    became for a year Minister in Switzerland.

  THIERS, Adolphe (1797-1877). A French statesman and historian. He
    commenced his career in Paris as a journalist, founded the
    _National_ in 1830, became Minister in 1832, and President of
    the Council in 1836 and 1840. As Deputy he vainly opposed the
    war of 1870. He was President of the Republic in 1871.

  THIERS, Madame (1815-1880). Elise Dosne; she was only sixteen when
    she married M. Thiers, to whom she brought a large fortune.

  THORWALDSEN, Bartholomew (1769-1844). A celebrated Danish
    sculptor. Son of a poor sailor in Copenhagen, he paid long
    visits to Italy, where he worked very hard. He founded a museum
    at Copenhagen, to which he left his immense fortune.

  TORENO, José, Count (1786-1843). A Spanish statesman. A member of
    the Cortes from 1811, he procured the abolition of the
    Inquisition. He was made Finance Minister, then President of the
    Council with the portfolio of Foreign Affairs. He retired from
    public life in 1835.

  TRÉVISE, Duc de. _See_ MORTIER.

  TULLEMORE, Lady. Died 1848. Sister of the Duke of Argyll. Married
    1821.

  TYSKIEWICZ, Princess (1765-1834). Maria Theresa, daughter of
    Prince Andrew Poniatowski, second brother of the King. She
    married Count Vincent Tyskiewicz, but kept her title of
    Princess. Her husband was Referendary of the Grand Duchy of
    Lithuania. The Princess was a great friend of the Prince de
    Talleyrand. She almost always stayed at Valençay when in France,
    and is buried there.


V

  VALENÇAY, Duc de (1811-1898). Louis de Talleyrand-Périgord, Duc
    de Talleyrand et de Valençay, Duc de Sagan after the death of
    his mother; son of Edmond, Duc de Talleyrand, and Princess
    Dorothea of Courlande, Knight of the Golden Fleece of Spain and
    of the Black Eagle of Prussia. He married first in 1829 Alix,
    daughter of the Duc de Montmorency; then Countess Hatzfeld,
    daughter of Marshal de Castellane. The Duc de Valençay was the
    eldest son of the Duchesse de Dino.

  VALENÇAY, Duchesse de (1810-1858). Alix, daughter of the Duc de
    Montmorency and Caroline de Matignon.

  VALOIS, a French dynasty which came to the throne with Philip VI.
    in 1328 and ended with Henri III. in 1576.

  VAN DYCK, Sir Antony (1599-1641). A Flemish painter, a pupil of
    Rubens. He travelled in Italy, Holland, France and England,
    where he went and settled on the invitation of Charles I.

  VANTADOUR, Duchesse de (1799-1863). Daughter of Comte d'Aubusson
    la Feuillade and his first wife, Mlle. de Refouville. She
    married the Duc de Lévis et de Vantadour.

  VAUDÉMONT, Princesse de (1763-1832). Elise Marie Colette de
    Montmorency Logny married in 1778 Prince Joseph de Vaudémont, of
    the House of Lorraine, who died in 1812. She was an intimate
    friend of M. de Talleyrand and was a good and clever woman who
    had retained many of the customs of the _ancien régime_.

  VICTORIA, Queen (1819-1901). Daughter of the Duke of Kent, fourth
    son of George III., who died in 1820. She ascended the throne in
    1837 on the death of her uncle William IV. In 1840 the young
    queen married her cousin Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

  VIENNET, Jean Guillaume (1777-1868). A French man of letters who
    was elected to the Academy in 1830.

  VILLEMAIN, Abel François (1790-1870). A professor, author and
    politician. A member of the Académie française from 1822 and a
    Peer of France. He was twice Minister of Public Instruction and
    from 1835 was Perpetual Secretary of the Académie.

  VISCONTI-AYMI, Marchesa, died 1831 at Paris. Née Carcano. She
    belonged to the most elegant society of Milan in the days of the
    vice-royalty of Eugène de Beauharnais. She married first the
    Comte Sopranzi by whom she had a son who was aide-de-camp to
    Marshal Berthier, a great friend of hers.

  VITROLLES, Eugène d'Arnaud, Baron de (1774-1854). Served in
    Condé's Army, was appointed Minister of State in 1814, but was
    so violent that Louis XVIII. dismissed him. At his accession
    Charles X. made him Ambassador at Turin. In 1795 he married
    Mlle. de Folleville.

  VIVONNE, Louis Victor de Rochechouart, Comte de (1636-1688).
    Afterwards Duc de Mortemart, and a Marshal of France. He enjoyed
    rapid promotion owing to the influence of his sister, Madame de
    Montespan. He was celebrated for his wit, his epigrams and his
    corpulence.

  VOGÜÉ, Charles, Comte de. He married Mlle. de Béranger, and was a
    brother of the Marquis de Vogüé.

  VOLTAIRE, M. de (1694-1778). François Marie Arouet de Voltaire,
    son of a treasurer of the Chambre des Comptes. He exercised an
    immense influence on the literature and philosophy of the
    eighteenth century.


W

  WARD, Sir Henry George (1798-1860). Son-in-law of Lord Grey,
    entered the British Diplomatic Service in 1816 as Attaché at
    Stockholm, a position he also occupied at The Hague and Madrid.
    He entered Parliament in 1832 and was made Commissioner for the
    Ionian Islands in 1849. From 1856 until his death he was
    Governor of Ceylon.

  WARWICK, Guy, Earl of, died 1471. Surnamed the King-maker. Brother
    of Richard of York, he urged him to make good his claim to the
    Crown, then he caused Edward IV. to be proclaimed, and finally
    set Henry VI. on the throne and procured the Regency for
    himself.

  WARWICK, Earl of (1779-1853). Henry Richard Greville, Lord Brooke.
    Through the female line he was descended from the ancient family
    of Beauchamp.

  WARWICK, Lady, died 1851. Married first Lord Monson, and secondly
    the Earl of Warwick.

  WEIMAR, Charles Bernard, Duke of (1792-1862). A general in the
    service of the Netherlands. He married in 1815 Ida, Princess of
    Saxe-Meiningen, Sister of Queen Adelaide. His son Prince Edward
    of Weimar entered the British service.

  WELLESLEY, Marquess (1760-1842). Richard, Earl of Mornington,
    elder brother of the Duke of Wellington. Governor-General of
    India in 1797, he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1810
    and Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1822.

  WELLINGTON, Duke of (1769-1852). Third son of Viscount Wellesley,
    Earl of Mornington, served in 1797 in the Indian army, returned
    to England in 1805. Commanded the British army in the Peninsula
    and conquered Napoleon at Waterloo. He was a member of several
    Ministries.

  WERTHER, Wilhelm, Baron von (1772-1859). A Prussian diplomatist.
    Was Minister at Paris (1824-1837) and Minister for Foreign
    Affairs at Berlin (1837-1841). He married Sophia, Countess
    Sandizell, a Bavarian lady who died in 1853.

  WESSENBERG, Ampringen, Baron (1773-1858). An Austrian diplomatist,
    was a member of the Conferences at London in 1830, and in 1848
    was for a short time Minister for Foreign Affairs.

  WEYER, Sylvan van de (1803-1874). A Belgian statesman and man of
    letters. He was charged with an important mission to London, and
    succeeded in obtaining the acceptance of the proposition to
    summon a Conference in London to settle the new Belgian
    constitution, and the recognition of Prince Leopold of Coburg as
    King of the Belgians. In 1845 he was recalled to preside over
    the Cabinet, and in 1846 again became Ambassador in London till
    1867, when he retired from public life.

  WILLIAM II., King of the Netherlands (1792-1849). Married in 1818
    Anna Paulowna, daughter of the Czar Paul of Russia, and had a
    peaceful and prosperous reign.

  WILLIAM IV., King of England (1765-1837). He ascended the throne
    at the age of sixty-five, succeeding his brother, George IV. He
    reigned from 1830 to 1837. He married in 1818 Adelaide, daughter
    of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen.

  WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, or the Bastard, Duke of Normandy and King
    of England (1027-1087). He conquered England in 1066, and
    strongly organised his kingdom by creating a feudal nobility.

  WILLIAM TELL. Died 1354. One of the leaders of the revolt which
    freed Switzerland in 1307.

  WILLOUGHBY COTTON, Sir Henry (1796-1865). A Member of the House of
    Commons.

  WINCHELSEA, Lord (1791-1858). George William Hatton. His first
    wife was a daughter of the Duke of Montrose. In 1829 he had a
    famous duel with the Duke of Wellington. The Duke missed his
    adversary, and Lord Winchelsea fired in the air.

  WORONZOFF, Countess. Died in 1832 in London. Catherine Siniavin,
    wife of General Woronzoff.

  WÜRTEMBERG, King of (1781-1864). William I. succeeded to the
    throne in 1816. He married, first, the Grand Duchess Catherine
    of Russia, and secondly, his cousin, the Duchess Pauline of
    Würtemberg.

  WÜRTEMBERG, Princess Maria of (1816-1863). Daughter of King
    William I. She married in 1840 Major-General Count Neipperg.

  WÜRTEMBERG, Princess Sophia of (1818-1877). Sister of the
    foregoing. Married in 1839 William III., King of the
    Netherlands.


Y

  YARBOROUGH, Lord (1812-1851). An officer of the Royal Household
    in 1831.

  YORK, Duke of (1763-1827). Brother of King George IV. and King
    William IV. He married Princess Frederica of Prussia.


Z

   ZEA BERMEDEZ, Don Francisco (1772-1850). A Spanish diplomatist.
   _Chargé d'Affaires_ at St. Petersburg 1809-1820, afterwards
   Ambassador at Constantinople. In 1824 he was appointed Minister
   for Foreign Affairs; in 1825 was Ambassador at Dresden; and from
   1828 till 1833 Ambassador in London. From 1834 he almost
   constantly lived in Paris, where he died.

   ZEA BERMEDEZ, Madame, wife of the foregoing. She was very popular
   in Society, owing to her distinction and amiability. She was born
   at Malaga.

   ZUMALACARREGUY, Thomas (1789-1835). A Spanish general in command
   of the Royal Guard at the death of Ferdinand VII. He resigned his
   appointment and declared for Don Carlos, and waged a terrible war
   on the followers of Queen Christina.

   ZUYLEN VAN NYEVELT, Baron Hugo (1781-1853). A Dutch statesman. He
   took an active part in his country's efforts to shake off the
   rule of Napoleon I. He was Ambassador at Paris, Madrid,
   Stockholm, and Constantinople. He returned to The Hague in 1829,
   and was very active in 1830, on the occasion of the Belgian
   Revolution. He was afterwards sent with Falk to the Conference of
   London. From 1833 till 1848 he held several portfolios, and soon
   after the latter date retired into private life.


Printed by BALLANTYNE & CO. LIMITED Tavistock Street, Covent Garden,
London



Transcriber's Note:

In the Biographical Index of the names of persons mentioned in this
book,

   MARBOIS, François, Marquis de Barbé- (1745-1837)
     has been corrected to:
   BARBÉ-MARBOIS, François, Marquis de (1745-1837).

   SAXE-MAURICE, Comte de
     has been corrected to:
   SAXE Maurice, Comte de

   ZUYLEN VAN NEVELT
     has been corrected to:
   ZUYLEN VAN NYEVELT.





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