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Title: Indoor and Outdoor Recreations for Girls
Author: Beard, Lina, Beard, Adelia B. (Adelia Belle), 1857-1920
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Note: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs= and italic
text is surrounded by _underscores_.]



RECREATIONS FOR GIRLS



[Illustration]

Indoor

and

Outdoor

RECREATIONS FOR GIRLS

BY

Lina Beard and Adelia B. Beard

    New York
    Charles Scribner's
    Sons

    1914



    COPYRIGHT, 1904, 1906, by

    CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS


SPECIAL NOTICE

      The publishers hereby give warning that the
      unauthorized printing of any portion of the text of
      this book, and the reproduction of any of the
      illustrations or diagrams, are expressly forbidden.



EXPLANATORY NOTE TO NEW EDITION


SINCE the publication of this volume two years ago as "Handicraft and
Recreation for Girls," it has occurred to us that "Recreations" alone
much more accurately defines the contents, for the handicrafts
represented are only those that in effect are recreations. Therefore we
have thought it best to drop the word Handicraft and issue the new
edition under the more appropriate title, "Recreations for Girls."

                                                LINA BEARD
                                                ADELIA B. BEARD.

September, 1906.



PREFACE


THIS book, like a girl's life, is divided into two parts: occupation and
amusement, or handicraft and recreation.

It is not equally divided, for handicraft is so much more like play than
work, and is so entertaining in itself, we find difficulty in drawing a
distinct line between that and recreation. The one insists upon blending
with the other and the book, after all, is a book of entertainment.

With the old handicrafts coming back into favor and new ones constantly
being brought forward, a girl's life may be full of delightful
employment. To work with joyous enthusiasm and self-reliant energy, as
well as to play with light-hearted enjoyment, cannot fail to make her
sensible, wholesome, and happy, and it is with this end in view that we
have written and illustrated the book. Our wish is to help our girl
friends to make the most of their girlhood and to enjoy it to its
fullest extent.

We have had practical experience in the actual working out of all the
various handicrafts and recreations, and therefore give only that which
we know can be well and easily done by the average girl.

Thanks are due to the _Delineator_, _Harper's Bazar_, _Woman's Home
Companion_, and _Good Housekeeping_, for their courtesy in promptly
returning for this work the original drawings and material used in their
respective magazines.

                                                         THE AUTHOR.

FLUSHING, August 2, 1904.



CONTENTS


PART I


HANDICRAFT


  CHAPTER I.                                                   PAGE

  SPINNING                                                        3

     The Spinning-Wheel, 4; The Spindle, 5; The Distaff, 7;
       Thoroughly Cleaned, 8; The Band, 8; To Adjust the Band,
       9; The Flax, 10; Practice, 11; How to Spin, 12; When
       the Thread Breaks, 12.



  CHAPTER II.

  WEAVING ON A HOME-MADE LOOM                                    15

     The Pin Loom, 16; The Heddles, 17; The Shuttle, 19; To
       Adjust the Warp, 19; The Woof, 20; How to Weave a
       Miniature Navajo Blanket, 20; Blankets for Dolls' Beds,
       26.


  CHAPTER III.

  A BALL OF TWINE AND WHAT MAY BE MADE OF IT                     27

     Making a Little Hammock, 27; How to Tie the Twine, 29;
       A School-Bag, 31; Twine Curtains, 34.


  CHAPTER IV.

  AN ARMFUL OF SHAVINGS, AND WHAT TO DO WITH THEM                36

     Selecting the Shavings, 36; A Soft Little Basket, 36;
       How to Prepare the Shavings, 37; How to Weave the
       Shavings, 39; Bind the Edges, 40; The Handle, 40; A
       Handkerchief Case, 41.


  CHAPTER V.

  PRIMITIVE REED CURTAINS                                        43

     The Reeds, 43; Raw Material, 43; The Twine-Stick Weave,
       44; The Finished Curtain, 46; Curtain-Bee Frolic, 48;
       Door-way Screens, 49.


  CHAPTER VI.

  THINGS TO MAKE OF COMMON GRASSES                               53

     A Grasshopper House, 53; A Doll's Hammock, 56; A
       Bouquet-Holder, 58; Weaving a Napkin-Ring, 59.


  CHAPTER VII.

  POSSIBILITIES OF A CLOTHES LINE                                62

     Adapted to Decoration, 62; Rope Wood-Basket, 62; Rope
       Net Fringe, 65; The Tassels, 65.


  CHAPTER VIII.

  HOW TO WEAVE A SPLINT BASKET                                   68

     The Material, 68; The Spokes, 68; The Weavers, 70;
       Weaving the Basket, 71; Binding Off, 71; Trimming, 73.


  CHAPTER IX.

  MODELLING IN TISSUE-PAPER                                      75

     Modelling a Chicken, 75; A Turkey, 81; The Sturdy
       Little Elephant, 83.


  CHAPTER X.

  NATURE STUDY WITH TISSUE-PAPER                                 86

     All Flowers from Squares and Circles, 86; The Best
       Models, 86; Material, 87; The Carnation, 87; How to Cut
       a Circle, 88; The Morning-Glory, 94; The Daffodil, 99.


  CHAPTER XI.

  A NEW RACE OF DOLLS                                           103

     Dolls of Substance and Form, 103; The Paper, 104; Making
       the Head, 104; The Arms, 105; The Body, 105; The Legs,
       106; The Feet and Shoes, 107; Doll's Hair, 106; The
       Dress, 108; The Cap, 110.


  CHAPTER XII.

  AN INDIAN ENCAMPMENT ON A PASTRY-BOARD                        111

     The Ground, 111; The Wigwam, 112; Decorating the Wigwam,
       114; The Fire, 114; The Doll Indian, 115; The War
       Head-Dress, 116; A Travois, 118; Pipe of Peace, 119; A
       Perfect Little Tomahawk, 120; The Chieftain's Shield,
       120; Arrow-Heads and Arrows, 122; A Bow That Will
       Shoot, 124; The Doll Squaw, 125; Squaw's Chamois Gown,
       125; Primitive Loom and Navajo Blanket, 125; Papoose,
       130; Cradle for Papoose, 130; Indian Money, 131; Wampum
       Necklace, 131.


  CHAPTER XIII.

  A TOY COLONIAL KITCHEN WITH FAC-SIMILE COLONIAL FURNISHINGS   133

     The Floor, 135; The Fireplace, 138; A Hair-pin Crane,
       138; Little Dutch Oven, 139; Two Andirons, 141; The
       Fire, 142; Iron Pot, 143; The Peel, 144; The Toaster,
       144; Pot-Hooks, 145; The Spinning-Wheel, 147; The
       Little Spinner, 150; The Costume, 150; Flint-Lock
       Rifle, 151; The Bellows, 153; Colonial Pewter Dish,
       154; Grandfather's Clock, 155; Colonial Churn, 160.


  CHAPTER XIV.

  LITTLE PAPER HOUSES OF JAPAN                                  162

     How the People Live, 162; The House, 162; The Floors,
       167; The Fence, 168; The Gateway, 169; Birthday
       Festivals, 169; The Koi, 171; A Kago, 172.


  CHAPTER XV.

  SOME ODD THINGS IN RUSSIA                                     175

     The Coronation Cathedral, 175; Door-way, 177; Cupolas,
       178; A Russian Peasant Doll, 180; A Little Samovar,
       182.


  CHAPTER XVI.

  POTTERY WITHOUT A POTTER'S WHEEL                              185

     Primitive Pottery, 185; The Clay, 187; Moulded on
       Baskets, 187; The Table, 188; The Roll, 189; To Coil
       the Clay, 189.


  CHAPTER XVII.

  BABY ALLIGATORS AND OTHER THINGS OF CLAY                      193

     The Head, 195; The Body, 196; The Tail, 196; Coat of
       Armor, 197; The Legs and Feet, 198; A Banana, 201; A
       Little Bust of Washington, 202.


  CHAPTER XVIII.

  FUNNY LITTLE APPLE TOYS                                       206

     The Porcupine, 206; Sally Walker's Head, 208; Sally's
       Curls, 208; The Indian, 209; A Comical Little Jap, 211;
       An Apple Tower, 214.


  CHAPTER XIX.

  MARVEL PICTURES                                               215

     Mary, 215; Her Dress, 217; Sun-Bonnet, 218; How to Draw
       the Lamb, 219; How to Make the Wool Grow, 219; How to
       Draw the Goose, 221; How to Feather the Goose, 223.


PART II


RECREATION


  CHAPTER XX.

  EGG GAMES FOR THE EASTER HOLIDAYS

  LIFTING FOR PASCH EGGS                                        227

     How to Prepare the Egg-Shells, 227; Hanging the Eggs, 228;
       The Players, 228; The Lifting, 229; The Egg Dance, 230;
       Placing the Eggs, 230; Dividing the Players, 230; The
       Dance, 230; The Reward, 231; Easter Angling, 231;
       Materials for the Game, 231; Fish-poles, 231; Eggs,
       232; Rules of the Game, 234; Table Egg-Rolling, 235.


  CHAPTER XXI.

  MAY DAY AMUSEMENTS                                            237

     How the May King and Queen Are Chosen, 237; Archery, 237;
       The Bows, 238; Arrows, 238; Floral Target, 240; Keeping
       Score, 243; May Baskets and Spring Flowers, 246; How to
       Erect the Pole, 249; Dressing the May-Pole, 250; The
       Balls, 252; The Game, 252.


  CHAPTER XXII.

  HALLOWE'EN REVELS                                             254

     Gold Nuggets, 254; The Mine, 255; The Miners, 255; The
       Apple Witch, 256; Witch's Hair, 257; Hat, 257; Broom,
       258; Ghost Writing, 259; Four-Leaved Clover, 260;
       Apple-seed Fortune Telling; 261; Fortune Bags, 262.


  CHAPTER XXIII.

  THE MAGIC CLOTH AND WHAT IT WILL DO                           264

     Magic in India, 264; A Jumping Frog, 264; The Hungry
       Birds, 267; To make the Children Talk, 268; Moving
       Faces, 269; The High Note, 270.


  CHAPTER XXIV.

  FINGER PLAYS FOR LITTLE FOLK                                  273

     The Teeter, 273; Church, 275; Steeple, 275; Open Door,
       276; The People, 276; The Preacher, 277; Man Chopping
       Wood, 277; My Mother's Knives and Forks, 279; My
       Father's Table, 280; My Sister's Looking-Glass, 280;
       The Little Black Birds, 280; The Baby's Cradle, 281;
       Chin Chopper Chin, 282; Build the Tower, 282; The Five
       Little Pigs, 285; Little Heads for Little Fingers, 285.


  CHAPTER XXV.

  HOW TO ARRANGE FRESH FLOWERS                                  289

     Selecting the Flowers, 289; A Number of Nasturtiums,
       290; Do not Crowd the Flowers, 290; Green Leaves with
       Flowers, 291; Color Schemes, 291; The Vases, 292;
       Colorless Transparent Vases, 292; Arrangement, 293;
       Flower Lifter, 294; Symmetry, 295; Wild Flowers, 295.


  CHAPTER XXVI.

  OPEN AIR PLAYHOUSES                                           298

     A Florida Playhouse, 298; Palm Decorations, 298; Other
       Decorations, 298; An Umbrella Playhouse, 299; A Real
       Teepee, 302; An African Hut, 306; The Floral Tent, 307.


  CHAPTER XXVII.

  KEEPING STORE                                                 308

     The Counter, 308; The Scales, 309; Groceries, 312;
       Vegetables, 312; Candy, 313; Wrapping Paper, 313;
       Money, 314; Paper Pocket-Books, 314; Keeping Accounts,
       316; Bars of Soap, 319; Butter Clay, 319.


  CHAPTER XXVIII.

  A FROLIC WITH THE ROSES                                       320

     Beauty of the Rose, 320; Rose Petal Fleet, 321; Green
       Leaf-Boats, 322; The Lake, 323; A Little Rose Girl,
       325; A Garden, 325; A Peachblow Vase, 327; Candied Rose
       Petals, 327; Rose Petal Cap, 328; Conventional Designs,
       330; A Wreath of Roses, 332; A Rose Book, 332.


  CHAPTER XXIX.

  A STRAW RIDE PICNIC                                           333

     The Season, 333; Games for the Wagon, 333; Simon Says,
       335; Bird Wish, 337; Lines to Be Recited Rapidly, 337;
       At the Grounds, 338; Chasing the Deer, 338; The Swing,
       338; Teeter-Tarter, 338; The Dinner, 339; Dishes, 339;
       Camp-Fire, 342; After Luncheon, 342; Telling Stories,
       343; Game of Menagerie, 343.


  CHAPTER XXX.

  A PAPER CHASE                                                 345

       The Hares and Hounds, 345; The Start, 347; False
       Scents, 347; The Finish, 348; How to Dress, 348.



PART I

HANDICRAFT

[Illustration: The spinning-wheel shall buzz and whirr.]



CHAPTER I

SPINNING


THERE is so much poetry, romance, and history associated with the
distaff and spindle, and later with the old spinning-wheel, that we have
looked upon them with a feeling almost of awe, certainly with a
reverence for the gentle hands that spun so industriously generations
ago. But it has now occurred to us that we too may set the wheel
a-humming, taking up with enthusiastic eagerness the work laid down by
our great-grandmothers so many years ago. The song of even the athletic
girl will soon be like Martha's when she sings in the market-place:

    "I can spin, sir,"

and the wheel will no longer be set aside as a relic of an industry past
and gone.

All the old handicrafts are coming back again, and ere long we shall be
as proud as the maids in Revolutionary times of our hand-spun and
hand-woven fabrics. To be able to spin and weave is to be accomplished
in the newest as well as the oldest of household arts.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--The slender rod tied at the lower end.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--The looped upper end of the rod.]

Is the old spinning-wheel in the attic, neglected and covered with dust,
or in the parlor, decked in all its bravery of blue ribbons and snowy
flax? Bring it out, wherever it may be, and for the first time in many
years it shall buzz and whirr, while a girl's slender fingers part the
flax and a girl's light foot rests upon the treadle. Look well to


The Wheel

and see that none of its parts are missing. There must be the bench, of
course, with its treadle and wheel, then the slender rod which is tied
loosely at the lower end to the cross-piece of the treadle (Fig. 1), and
caught at the looped upper end to the little, curved-metal crank that
extends at right angles from one end of the wheel's axle (Fig. 2).

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--A little peg slipped through two holes.]

The two slanting uprights which hold the wheel in place are slotted at
the upper ends, and in these slots rests the axle. A little peg, slipped
through two holes in one of the uprights, keeps the axle from slipping
out of place (Fig. 3).

The frame that holds


The Spindle

belongs in the position shown in the illustration of the spinning-wheel.
By turning the handle that extends out from the upper end of the bench
this frame may be moved slightly forward or backward when it is
necessary to loosen or tighten the band on the wheel.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--The leather rings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--One ring in each upright.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--The spindle.]

In the two uprights of the spindle-frame there must be leather rings
like Fig. 4, one ring in each upright. The narrow strip extending
outward from the ring is pushed through the hole in the upright, and the
edge of the ring fitted into the little grooves just above and below one
of the holes (Fig. 5). These two leather rings hold the ends of the
spindle, which can be easily taken out and put in by bending one of the
rings backward or slightly turning one of the uprights. Fig. 6 shows the
spindle with the spool, or bobbin, and the small, double-grooved wheel.
The spindle proper is simply the metal rod and horseshoe-shaped piece of
wood with its two rows of little hooks or teeth. Besides the wheel and
spindle there must be


The Distaff

and the arm that holds it. The arm is an upright with a rod extending
out at right angles from the upper end. The lower end of the upright is
slipped into a hole at one corner of the highest part of the bench.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--The tip of your Christmas tree for a distaff.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Bring the four branches up and tie at the top.]

The distaff, which the mountaineers of Kentucky call the "rock," is a
thing you can make for yourself if your wheel happens to have lost its
own. Many are cut from the top points of pine-trees which grow like Fig.
7, and dogwood also is sometimes used. The tip of your Christmas tree
will be just the thing. Strip off the bark, bring the four branches up,
and tie at the top to the middle stem (Fig. 8). Let the lower end of the
stem extend about four inches below the branches and whittle it down to
fit in the hole in the distaff-arm.

These are all the parts of the spinning-wheel, but before you can "see
the wheels go round" every piece of metal must be


Thoroughly Cleaned

and freed from rust. Rub first with kerosene oil and then with the
finest emery paper. Be very careful in polishing the teeth that you do
not bend or break them, as it will not be easy to have them replaced. In
fact, it is difficult to replace any part of the wheel, and though it
has lasted several generations, careless handling may put it past
repair.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Proper size of cord for wheel band.]

When the cleaning is finished, grease with lard the parts where there is
any friction. The slots that hold the axle, the spindle-stem, and the
metal arm, where the treadle-rod rests upon it, all need lubricating.

The best


Band for the Wheel

is hand spun, but at present it is possible to obtain them only of
old-fashioned spinners who make their own bands. You can, however, make
a band of cotton cord, such as is used for cording dresses. Fig. 9 gives
the exact size. The length of cord for a wheel measuring eighteen and a
half inches in diameter is about ten feet five inches. This allows for a
lap of one inch at the joint. Sew together with silk, wrapping and
sewing until the joint is almost invisible.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Make a double loop.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--The band will cross at the bottom.]


To Adjust the Band

loop it together, making it double (Fig. 10), lift the wheel from the
sockets, and slip the band over it. Fit one part of the band into one of
the grooves of the wheel, the other part into the other groove, allowing
it to cross at the bottom (Letter B, Fig. 11). Take the spindle from its
frame and fit the bands into the groove in the end of the bobbin (Letter
C, Fig. 6) and into the first groove in the small wheel (Letter D, Fig.
6).


The Flax

may be obtained from any linen-thread factory and can be bought by the
pound or half-pound. It is graded by color, the darkest being the
cheapest and the whitest the most expensive. For practice-work the
cheapest is as good as the more expensive. When you have learned to spin
a fine, even thread you may choose the color in reference to the article
you intend to make.

[Illustration: The spinning-wheel.]

Open your hank of flax, take part of it, and spread thinly over the
distaff, wrapping it around and around. Put on several layers, each
almost as thin as a spider-web, extending it out widely and smoothly
each time.

You may think the ribbon tied on the distaff of your parlor wheel is
merely for ornament, but it is not. The bands hold the flax in place
while it is being spun, and a crisp, dainty, pretty-colored ribbon is
just as useful for the purpose as one that is old and faded, and it is
far prettier to look upon. Wrap the ribbon around the flax on the
distaff, beginning at the bottom, cross it, and tie as shown in
illustration of the spinning-wheel.

Though everything is ready, before attempting to spin,


Practice,

simply working the treadle until you can manage that part of the work
mechanically and give your whole attention to your hands.

It seems a simple thing to work the treadle, but you will find that
without previous practice you will forget to make your foot go in the
absorbing interest of getting the flax ready to run on the spindle. Curb
your impatience a little while therefore, and resolutely turn the
distaff, with its pretty load, away from you. Place one foot on the
treadle, give the large wheel a turn to the right, or away from the
spindle, and try to keep a steady, even motion with your foot. The jerks
caused by uneven pedalling will always break the thread, so you must
learn to make the wheel turn smoothly and easily, without hurry and
without stopping. Some spinners place only the toe of the foot on the
treadle, others rest on it the heel also; it matters little which
method you adopt so long as the wheel turns evenly. When you are quite
satisfied that you can keep the wheel going without giving it a thought
you may begin


To Spin.

From the lowest ends of the flax draw down several strands and twist
them with your fingers into a thread long enough to reach easily the
bobbin on the spindle. Pass the end of the thread through the hole in
the end of the spindle nearest to you (Letter A, Fig. 6), carry it
across and over the upper row of teeth and tie to the bobbin (Fig. 6).
Start your wheel going, and, forgetting the action of your foot, give
your undivided attention to drawing out the flax. Hold the strands
lightly with your left hand and with your right keep constantly pulling
them down and at the same time twisting them slightly. See illustration
on first page. All this time you must keep the flax from matting and
tangling and the twist from running up into the mass of flax on the
distaff. Only practice will make perfect in this work, though the knack
may come suddenly and you will wonder at your first clumsy attempts. The
little fluster and excitement one feels in beginning and the hurry to
get the flax into shape for the spindle is a drawback that practice will
also overcome.


When the Thread Breaks,

as it will again and again at first, thread your spindle as before, tie
the new thread to the broken end and begin once more. A better way to
mend the thread when you are really doing good work is to unwind a
little from the bobbin, thread it backward through the spindle, bring
the end up to meet the end from the distaff, and let the two lap three
or four inches; then moisten your fingers and twist the threads
together, making one thread again.


Moistening the Fingers

occasionally is a good thing while twisting, as it makes a smoother
thread. In the old days the spinner kept a cocoa-nut-shell, filled with
water, tied to the lower part of the spindle-frame, into which she
daintily dipped the tips of her fingers when necessary. A finger-bowl or
cup of water near by will answer the same purpose.

[Illustration: The little girl and the little loom.]



CHAPTER II

WEAVING ON A HOME-MADE LOOM

[Illustration]


IT is easier than sewing or knitting or crocheting, and comes so natural
to many of us that one would almost think we should know how to weave
without being taught. Why, even some of the birds do a kind of weaving
in their pretty, irregular fashion, and it was probably from the birds
and other small, wild creatures that the earliest human mothers took
their lessons in weaving, and learned to make the mats for their babies
to sleep on and baskets for carrying their food. No one knows how long
ago these first baskets and mats were woven, but in the beginning
weaving was done without looms. Afterward rude frames were tied together
and hung from the limbs of trees, then softer and more flexible material
was used and finer fabrics were woven. To this day almost the same kind
of looms are used by the Indians in our far Western country, many miles
away from the roar and clatter of machinery, and on them are woven the
wonderfully beautiful Navajo blankets for which Eastern people are
willing to pay such large sums.

If it is natural to weave, it should also be natural to make one's own
loom, and


The Pin Loom

is simple in both the making and the working, with material usually
close at hand. The necessary wood you will find at the nearest
carpenter-shop, if not in your own home, and for the rest, a paper of
strong, large-size pins, a yard of colored cord, and one ordinary
carpet-tack are all that is needed.

Make the frame for the loom of a smooth piece of soft pine-board,
fifteen inches long by nine inches wide (Fig. 12). Make the heddles of
two flat sticks, nine inches long, half an inch wide, and one-eighth of
an inch thick (Figs. 13 and 14). From another flat stick of the same
thickness, nine inches long by one inch wide, make the shuttle (Fig.
15).

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--The frame for the loom.]

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Heddle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Heddle.]

With a pencil and ruler draw two straight lines across the board, the
first one inch and a half from the top edge, the other two inches and a
half from the bottom edge. This will make the lines just eleven inches
apart. On these lines, beginning one inch from the side edge of the
board, make a row of dots exactly one-quarter of an inch apart,
twenty-nine dots on each line, as in Fig. 12. At each corner of the
board, one inch above the upper line and one inch below the lower line,
draw a short line, and on each short line, three-quarters of an inch
from the side edge, make one dot.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--The shuttle.]

With a small tack-hammer drive a pin in each of the twenty-nine dots on
each long line, and in each single dot on the four short lines (Fig.
12). When driving in the pins let them all slant evenly outward, the
ones on the top lines slanting toward the upper edge of the board, those
on the lower lines slanting toward the bottom edge, as in Fig. 16. Now
lay your board aside where nothing will be placed on top of it, and make
your heddles.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Let the pins slant outward.]


The Heddles

are for lifting the threads of the warp so that the shuttle may be
passed through. One heddle is left perfectly plain, like Fig. 13. The
other is cut in notches on one edge like Fig. 14.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--The marked-off notches in heddle.]

Along the entire length of one of the sticks rule a line dividing it
exactly in the middle (Fig. 17). On this line, beginning three-quarters
of an inch from the end of the stick, mark off spaces one-quarter of an
inch apart, making thirty-one dots. At the upper edge of the stick mark
off the same number of spaces exactly opposite those on the line. Then
draw straight lines connecting the upper and lower dots, extending the
first and last lines entirely across the stick (Fig. 17.) At a point on
the upper edge, exactly in the middle between the first two lines,
start a slanting line and bring it down to meet the second line where it
touches the long line. Between the second and third lines draw another
slanting line to meet the first at the bottom, forming a V. Leave the
third line, and make another V at the fourth, and so go the length of
the heddle, drawing a V at every other short line. At the top between
the V's make smaller V's, as in Fig. 17. With a sharp knife cut out
these notches, bringing the large ones quite down to the middle line
(Fig. 17). On the end lines just below the middle line bore a hole with
a small gimlet or a hat-pin heated red-hot at Letter A in Fig. 17.
Indeed the notches, too, may be made with a hat-pin by laying the
red-hot end across the edge of the stick at the top of the line, and
pressing it down while rubbing it back and forth. If you are unused to
handling a knife, burning the notches will be the easier way. You can
shape and trim them off afterward with the knife.

[Illustration: The complete pin loom.]

Of the third flat stick make


The Shuttle.

Curve the corners at each end as in Fig. 15. Sharpen one end down to a
thin edge and in the other end cut an eye two inches long and
one-quarter of an inch wide (Fig. 15). Cut your yard of colored cord in
half, pass the end of one piece through one of the holes in the notched
heddle, the end of the other piece through the hole in the opposite end
of the heddle, and tie each end of the cords to one of the pins at the
four corners of the board, drawing the cords taut. This will fasten the
heddle in its place across the loom (Fig. 12).

Near the bottom of the board, directly below the last pin at the right
on the long line, drive the carpet-tack to serve as a cleat for
fastening the end of the warp. All that now remains to be done is


To Adjust the Warp,

and your loom will be ready for weaving. The threads which extend up and
down, or from the top to the bottom of the loom, are called the warp.
Soft, rather coarse knitting-cotton makes a good warp for almost
anything woven on a small loom.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.--Adjusting the warp.]

Tie the end of the warp securely to the first pin on the long line at
the upper left-hand corner of the loom (Fig. 18). Bring the string down
and around the first two pins on the lower line, up again and around the
second and third pins on the upper line, and then down and around the
third and fourth pins on the lower line. Up again, down again, crossing
two pins each time, back and forth until the last pin on the lower line
has been reached. Wrap the warp around this pin several times, and then
around the tack, tying it here so that it cannot slip. The warp must lie
flat on the board where it passes around the pins, and in stringing up
it must be drawn rather tight, though not with sufficient force to pull
the pins out of place.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Putting in the second heddle.]

Turn the heddle on edge, the notches up, and slip the threads of the
warp into the notches, one thread in each notch. This, you will see,
divides the warp into upper and lower threads, and forms what is called
the shed. While the threads are separated take the other heddle and darn
it in and out above the first heddle, taking up the lower threads and
bringing the heddle over the upper ones as in Fig. 19.


The Woof

is the thread which crosses the warp and usually covers it entirely. The
material to use for woof will depend upon what you are going to make.
Germantown wool is used for the woof of the miniature Navajo blanket
shown in the illustration. The warp is knitting-cotton.

[Illustration: A Miniature Navajo Blanket.]

This is


The Way to Weave a Navajo

blanket; simpler things you can easily make after this first lesson: Of
Germantown wool you will need three colors, which are the colors most
frequently used by the Indians--red (scarlet), white, and black, about
half a hank of each. Take five yards of white wool, fold one end over a
two-yard length, fold again, and push the double end through the eye of
the shuttle (Fig. 20).

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--The threaded shuttle.]

Tie the long end of the wool to the first pin at the lower left-hand
corner of the loom, on the long line, making a tight knot and pushing it
down close to the board (Fig. 21).

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--Starting the woof.]

With the notched heddle on edge push the shuttle through the shed--that
is, between the upper and lower threads of the warp. Draw it out on the
other side, then turn the heddle down, notched edge toward you, and
stand the plain heddle on edge. This will lift the lower threads of the
warp above the others and make them the upper ones. Push the shuttle
back through the shed, lay the plain heddle flat, and stand up the
notched heddle. Weaving from the left, the notched heddle always stands,
while the plain one lies flat. Weaving from the right, the plain heddle
stands, and the notched one is turned down.

Do not draw the woof tight across the warp. When you have passed the
shuttle through, leave the thread like Fig. 21, and then push it down
firmly with your finger-tips until it lies close to the pins.


A Coarse Comb

with no fine teeth is very good to use for packing the woof, and takes
the place of what is called the lay. While the woof is looped out like
Fig. 21, comb it down toward you with the comb, and it will fit in
evenly between the threads of the warp. As the woof of the Navajo
blanket must be very tightly packed, use first the comb and then your
fingers to push it down and make it compact.

Weave back and forth until all the wool in the shuttle is used. If the
end of the woof extends beyond the last thread of the warp on either
side, turn it back and weave it under and over several threads, and
start a new piece with the end just lapping the old. The ends of the
woof must never be allowed to extend beyond the warp at the sides. It is
not necessary to tie the new piece of woof; the tight packing will hold
it in place.

In this case the new woof must be of the red wool. Weave it across
twice, or once over and back, making a very narrow red stripe, then cut
it off and thread the shuttle with white. Weave the white twice across,
then change to black and weave a stripe one-quarter of an inch wide.
Above the black weave another narrow white stripe and another narrow red
one. Put a long thread of white wool in the shuttle, and weave a white
stripe one inch wide. You will have to thread the shuttle twice for
this, as too long a thread will make so large a bunch that it will be
difficult to pass it through the shed. After the white stripe weave
another black, white, and red stripe like the first, then another
inch-wide white stripe. Once more weave a black, a white, and a red
stripe. Begin with the narrow black, follow with the narrow white, and
then weave a wider red stripe, taking the thread four times across.
After the red the narrow white, and then the narrow black stripe.

This last stripe is the lower border of


The Central Pattern

of the blanket, where your weaving will become more difficult, and at
the same time more interesting.

[Illustration: Figs. 22 and 23.--Weaving the centre stripe.]

Thread the shuttle with a long piece of red wool and weave it once
across from the left, turn back and weave through five threads of the
warp, draw the shuttle out and weave back again to the edge; again weave
through the five threads, then back as shown at B in Fig. 22. Turn here
and do not take up the last thread of the warp; pass the shuttle under
three threads, turn on the next thread, and bring it back under four
threads (C, Fig. 22), once more under the three threads, turning on the
next as before, but passing back under two threads only. Turn on the
next thread (D), and pass under three. Back under two threads (E), turn
as before on the next thread under two, turn, back under two (F), turn,
under one, turn on the next, under two (G), turn, under one, turn on the
next, back under two, and unthread the shuttle, leaving the woof
hanging.

Begin with a new piece of red wool, follow the same direction, and weave
another red point on the next five threads, then a third one which will
take in the last warp-thread on the left. You will notice in the diagram
that the woof always turns twice on the same thread of warp.

When the three red points are finished fill in the spaces between with
black (Fig. 23), then continue to weave the black up into points as you
did the red, making two whole and two half black diamonds. Leave the
woof quite loose when you make a turn in weaving, and the space left
between the red and black will fill up in packing.

Take up the end of the red wool left at the top of the first red point,
and weave in the space between the half and first black diamond, then
break off. Take the next red end and fill in between the two whole
diamonds, then the next, and fill in between the whole and the last half
diamond. This will give you a pattern of black diamonds on a red ground.
Weave the last of the red woof once across, then break off and weave a
black, white, and red stripe like the one forming the lower border of
the pattern. Finish the blanket with the wide white stripes and narrow
colored ones like those first woven.

To take the work from the loom, cut the threads between the pins at the
top of the loom, and with quick but gentle jerks pull it off the lower
row of pins. Tie together the first and third loose ends of the warp
close to the edge of the blanket, then the second and fourth threads,
and so on across, then cut the ends off rather close to the knots.

The little Navajo blanket woven in this way will closely resemble the
real Indian blanket in texture, pattern, and colors.


Blankets for Dolls' Beds

may also be woven of fine white wool and finished with a pretty pink or
blue border at each end. A wash-cloth, soft and pleasant to the touch,
you can weave in half an hour with candle-wick for woof. This should not
be packed tightly, but woven with rather a loose mesh. Then there are
cunning little rag rugs to be made for the dolls' house, with colored
rags for the woof. But so many materials may be woven on your home-made
loom, that it will be a pleasure for you to discover them for yourself.



CHAPTER III

A BALL OF TWINE AND WHAT MAY BE MADE OF IT


RUN to the kitchen and ask the cook to lend you her pastry-board for a
day or two, to use as a support for holding string from which to make a
toy hammock (Fig. 24).

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--The hammock you can make.]

Drive twelve large tacks in a straight line across the top edge of the
board; place the tacks one inch and a half apart (Fig. 25), and with a
pencil draw lightly a line across the board from side to side, one inch
and a half below the tacks. This will guide you in keeping the knots
even. Be sure that the line is perfectly straight; then draw another
line one inch and a half below the first and continue making lines until
the board is covered with them, at equal distances apart and running
across from side to side. Over each tack on the top of the board hang a
piece of string about two yards long (Fig. 26). Being doubled, each
string makes two lengths of one yard each.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--Tacks in top of board.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.--Over each tack hang a piece of string.]

Bring the two ends of each strand down evenly together that all the
strings may hang exactly the same in length. Fig. 26 is intended only to
show how to hang the strings and gives but a section of the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 27.--With strong pins fasten the first and fourth
strings to the board.]

With strong pins fasten the first and fourth strings down tight to the
board (see B and E, Fig. 27); then tie the second and third strings
together (C, D, Fig. 27), making the knot H (Fig. 27).


To Tie the Knot,

bring the two strings C and D (Fig. 27) together; hold the upper
portions with the thumb and first finger of the left hand and the lower
parts in the right hand, bring the lower parts up above the left
hand--across and over the portion of string held in the left hand--and
turn them down a trifle, running them under the strings in the left hand
just above the thumb and first finger; pull the lower portion of the
strings through the loop out over the first finger of the left hand as
shown in Fig. 29, O. Tighten the knot with the right hand while holding
it in place on the line with the left. The secret of tying the knot
properly is to hold the two strings together and tie them exactly as one
would tie a knot in a single string.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--When knot _H_ is secure stick pin in string
_G_.]

[Illustration: Fig. 29.--Tying the knot.]

When the first knot (H, Fig. 27) is tied, take the pin out of the string
E and stick it in the string G, according to Fig. 28. Fasten down the
knot H with another pin, and you will have the knot H and the string G
firm and tight to the board while you tie the two loose strings F and E
together, forming the knot K. Pin this down to the board and remove the
pin from the string G and place it in the string N, leaving M and G free
to be knotted together.

Continue tying the strings in this way until you have made the first row
of knots across the board, always using pins to hold the
boundary-strings securely to the board on each side of the two you are
tying. As each knot is formed, pin it to the board and allow the pins to
remain in the first row until the second row of knots has been made.

Fig. 29 shows the beginning of the third row of knots in the knot P, the
pin being taken from the first knot, H, ready to be placed in the knot
P. Form row after row of meshes by knotting the strings until the
netting comes too near the bottom of the board to work comfortably, then
slip the top loops off from the tacks and hang a portion of the net over
the top of the board, allowing a lower row of meshes to hang on the
tacks.

Fasten the last row of the knots carefully, binding with strong strings
the short loose ends of the strands securely to the string forming the
mesh each side of the knot. Remove the net from the board and make


A Fringe

of string on each side of the hammock. In Fig. 30, T shows how to place
a strand for the fringe under one side of the mesh on the edge of the
net: and S gives the manner of bringing the ends of the strand down over
the string forming the mesh and under the loop made by the centre of the
fringe-strand. Pull the two ends of the strand down evenly, and bring
the knot up close and tight to the hammock-mesh as shown in the finished
fringe in Fig. 30.

[Illustration: Fig. 30.--Making the fringe.]

When you have made the fringe, thread a separate heavy cord through the
loops on each side of the hammock (Fig. 31). Tie the loops together
(Fig. 32) and fasten together the two ends of each cord, making these
two extra last loops long enough to allow of a free swing for the little
hammock, or you can thread a cord of the same as that used in the
hammock through every loop, tying the ends of each piece together
through a brass ring, and instead of one long loop a number will support
the hammock.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.--Heavy cord through loops on end of hammock.]

[Illustration: Fig. 32.--Tie loops together.]

[Illustration: Making a sash-curtain for her room.]

[Illustration: Fig. 33--Your school-bag made of string.]

Fig. 33 shows a strong, serviceable little


School-Bag

which is easier to make than the hammock. Take a piece of heavy cord
twenty inches long, lap one end to the distance of an inch over the
other and sew the two lapped ends firmly together; then bind them neatly
around and around with string. Bring the two edges or sides of the
circle together, forming two ends (V V, Fig. 34). Tie a strong string
on each end (Fig. 34) and fasten each of the strings to the back of a
chair; you will then have a circle of heavy cord securely suspended in
mid-air. Cut twenty-four lengths of twine, each twenty-five inches long;
double each piece and fasten all the strands on the circle of heavy cord
in the same way you made the fringe on the hammock (X X, Fig. 34),
except that this time the strands must be quite a distance apart. Let
all the spaces between the strands be equal. Having fastened the lengths
of twine on the circle, net them together exactly as you netted the
hammock, but you must depend upon your eye to keep the meshes even and
of the same size, as there will be no board with lines to guide you
(Fig. 34). Tie the knots in circular rows, going around on both sides of
the circle for each row. Continue the meshes until within three and a
half inches of the bottom, then tie the two sides together, closing the
bottom of the bag and forming the fringe shown in Fig. 33.

Having finished the bag, untie the strings attached to the two ends and
make two handles of heavy cord or slender rope. Fasten the handles on
their respective sides of the bag. Loop the ends of the handles under
the cord forming the top of the bag, and bring each end up against its
own side of the handle. Sew each of the two ends of the two handles
securely to the handle proper; then bind the sewed portions neatly
together with fine cord as in Fig. 33.

[Illustration: Fig. 34--Making the school-bag.]

With some firm straws and more string we will make


A Sash-Curtain

for the window of your own room, as the little girl is doing in the
illustration. Loop about thirty strands on the same number of tacks, in
the manner in which you hung those for the hammock (Fig. 26). Make one
row of knots, and before forming the next row slide a piece of straw one
inch long over the two strings which are to be knotted together; the
ends of the string must be moistened and brought together in a point in
order that they may more easily be threaded through the straw. The
letter R in Fig. 35 shows the straw with the ends of the string run
through it, and U gives a straw higher up on the strings. After each
straw is put into place, knot the strings immediately underneath to
prevent the straw from sliding out of position.

Fig. 35 shows how to manage the work. It is almost exactly like that of
the hammock, the only difference being the threading on of the straws
which hold the strings in place without a knot at the top (see W in Fig.
35). Let the bottom of the net end in a fringe. Take the loops off from
the tacks when the curtain is finished, and slide them on a straight,
slender stick, which you can fasten to the window by resting the ends of
the stick through loops of tape tacked on the sides of the window-frame
at the right distance up from the ledge of the window.

[Illustration: Fig. 35.--Sliding straws on strings for curtain.]

If possible, let all the net-work be made of pliable, soft material; it
is easier to handle, and the results are much prettier.

Make the curtains of any color you may fancy.



CHAPTER IV

AN ARMFUL OF SHAVINGS AND WHAT TO DO WITH THEM


DO you love to go into a carpenter-shop, with its sweet-smelling woods
and fascinating tangle of white and rose-tinted shavings, and to watch
the carpenter guide his plane along the edge of a board, shaving off so
evenly and smoothly the long curls which look almost as natural as the
ringlets of a little girl? I am sure that many times you have tucked the
ends of the shavings under your hat and scampered off with the curls
streaming out behind or bobbing up and down delightfully at the sides.

It is great fun, yet there is still more entertainment to be found in
these pretty shavings.

Gather an armful, then, choosing the most perfect ones, not too thin,
with firm, smooth edges, and you shall weave them into


A Pretty, Soft Little Basket

like the illustration.

[Illustration: The soft little basket made of shavings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36--Directly across the centre draw a straight
line.]

[Illustration: Fig. 37--So that the upper edge of B will touch the
dividing line of A.]

Pine-shavings are the best to use, as they are less brittle than those
of harder woods. Select a number and put them to soak in cold water to
make them soft and pliable. Then, lifting out those of an even width,
place them before you on a lap-board or table, and after passing them
between your fingers several times to take the curl out, cut eight
pieces eleven inches long. Directly across the centre of two of the
strips draw a straight line, as in Fig. 36. Place one of these strips,
A, flat on the table and lay the other, B, across it so that the upper
edge of B will touch the dividing line of A and the mark on B will be on
a line with right-hand edge of A, Fig. 37. Under A slide another strip,
C, Fig. 38. Over B and under C slide the strip D, Fig. 39. Over D and
under A pass the strip E, Fig. 40. Under E, over B and under C weave the
strip F, Fig. 41. Under E, over B, and under C weave the strip G, Fig.
42. Over F, under D, over A, and under G weave the strip H, Fig. 43.
This forms a square for the bottom of the basket.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.--Under A slide the strip C.]

[Illustration: Fig. 39.--Over B and under C slip the strip D.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40.--Over D and under A pass E.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.--Under E, over B and under C weave F.]

Bend up the ends and


Weave the Sides

with longer, narrower shavings which you can make by cutting lengthwise
through the middle of several wide shavings.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.--Under E, over B and under C weave G.]

[Illustration: Fig. 43.--This forms the bottom of the basket.]

If you find any difficulty in keeping in place the part you have woven,
pin it to the board or table with several pins, as in Fig. 44. Bring the
sides up close to the edges of the bottom, then start your weaver at D,
on the inside of the basket (Fig. 44).

[Illustration: Fig. 44.--Bend up the ends now and weave the sides.]

Weave all the way around, turning the corners sharply, until the weaver
meets the first end; lap it over this, cut it off and tuck the last end
under H. Start the next weaver at C, weave it around and tuck under E.
Weave five weavers around the sides of the basket, beginning each time
in a new place that the joints may not all come together, then bend the
upright shavings over the edge of the top weaver, tucking the ends of
each under the third weaver, one inside, the next outside, as they may
come inside or outside the basket (Fig. 45).

[Illustration: Fig. 45--Bend the upright shavings over the top edge.]


Bind the Edge

with two binders the width of the side weavers. Hold one inside, one
outside, and whip them on over and over, taking the stitches with a
narrow strip of shaving as shown in Fig. 46.

[Illustration: Fig. 46.--Bind the edge with two binders.]

Cut two strips the width of your side weavers for


The Handle,

making one twelve inches and the other eleven inches long. One inch from
each end cut notches, as in Fig. 47. Slide the end of the short strip
under the second weaver on one side of the basket and pull it up until
the points catch on the weaver, then tuck the end under the lower weaver
(see illustrations).

[Illustration: Fig. 47.--Notch the ends like this.]

Loop the handle diagonally over the basket and fasten the other end on
the second weaver on the side. Secure the ends of the long strip on the
third weaver, allowing it to cross the other side of the handle at the
top, then bind the two pieces together at the middle by wrapping with a
shaving of the same width over and over. Split this wrapper at the last
end and tuck the two ends in at the sides. Fig. 48 shows the under part
of the handle with one end of the wrapper tucked in.

[Illustration: Fig. 48.--Tuck the two ends in at the sides.]

You can make table-mats, charming little handkerchief-cases, and a
number of other things of the dainty shavings, all on the same principle
as that of the basket.

[Illustration: The handkerchief case.]

To make


The Handkerchief-Case,

weave a square, measuring eight inches, of the narrow shavings, just as
you did for the bottom of the basket. These shavings must be twelve
inches long and you will probably need about thirty-two pieces. When the
square is finished tuck in the ends, as around the edge of the basket,
then bend in three of the corners to meet at the middle and catch with
needle and thread. Sew a quarter of a yard of bright ribbon where the
corners join and another quarter of a yard on the loose corner. (See
illustration.) Put your handkerchiefs in the little pocket, bring up the
loose point, and tie the ribbon in a pretty bow.



CHAPTER V

PRIMITIVE REED CURTAINS


THESE pretty rustic hangings can be made very easily and quickly. They
are light in weight and the general tone of coloring, when the reeds
have been carefully dried at home, is a pleasing soft gray green, with
suggestions here and there of gray browns, reds, and yellows. The
curtains may be either of these reeds or fresh green cat-tails, and even
of the silvered gray stalks left standing from last season. The cost in
actual outlay of money for several curtains need be only a few cents for
cord, staple-tacks or nails, and screw-eyes, but, like the early savage
whose method of work you are imitating, you must collect the


Raw Material

out in the open. So away to the spot where the finest cat-tails grow,
gather a lot of them, cutting the stalks off clean and smooth at the
base, that the cat-tails may not be bent or split, for as reeds in your
curtain they must be as near perfect as possible. Cut the velvety brown
head off from each one, making all of the stalks the same in length;
then, with several long leaves twisted together for string, tie the
stalks into a bundle and march home with the treasure.

[Illustration: Fig. 49.--Beginning a primitive curtain.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50.--Centre of twine tied on long stick.]

An old bamboo fishing-rod, a length of handle from a long-handled
dusting or window brush, or any kind of a long, slender, smooth, round
stick will do for the top curtain-pole from which to hang the reeds. Lay
the pole across a table in front of and parallel to you; then tie the
centres of four pieces of cord of even lengths on it at equal distances
from each other (Fig. 49). Detail of the work is given in Fig. 50. Place
a cat-tail reed up against the four ties, allowing one string from each
tie to come over and the other under the cat-tail (Fig. 51). Cross the
two lengths of each cord over the last cat-tail, bringing the lower
string up and the upper string down (Fig. 52); then lay another reed up
against the crossed strings, carrying the strings in turn over this reed
(Fig. 53). Again bring the lower strings up and the upper down before
placing in another cat-tail, and always alternate the large and small
ends of the reeds as in Fig. 54, in order to have them equally balanced
and to avoid bringing all the small ends on one side and the large ones
on the other side of the curtain.

[Illustration: Fig. 51.--Allow one string to come over and the other
under the cat-tail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.--Cross the two lengths of twine.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53.--Lay another cat-tail up against the crossed
strings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54.--Alternate large and small ends of reeds.]

[Illustration: Fig. 55--Primitive curtain of reeds and twine stitch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 56.--Staple nail in top pole of curtain.]

[Illustration: Fig. 57.--Cord fastened on top pole for rolling up
curtain.]


Continue Crossing the Cord

and adding cat-tails until the curtain is of the desired length. Tie the
ends of the string on each line securely together and tuck them under
the weave, hiding the ends on the wrong side of the curtain (Fig. 55).
At equal short distances from the tips of the head-pole fasten in a
screw-eye large enough to pass readily over the two hooks immediately
above the window where the curtain is to hang (Fig. 55, A, A). On the
centre of the space along the upper side of the top pole, between the
first and second cord and the third and fourth cord, drive in a
staple-nail (Fig. 49, B, B), shown more plainly in Fig. 56. These
staple-nails are for holding in place the long cord used in rolling up
the curtain (Fig. 57, B, B, and Fig. 58, B, B). Thread one end of a
long piece of cord from the back of the curtain through one staple-nail
and the other end through the other staple-nail. Bring both ends of the
cord down over the front of the curtain around the bottom and up over
the back; then tie the ends on the pole (Fig. 57, C, C). Dotted lines
show how the cord runs along the back of the curtain. Have the cord
sufficiently long to allow of the stretch between the two staple-nails B
and B (Figs. 57 and 58), to hang down over the back and extend in a
loop below the bottom edge of the curtain (Fig. 57, D). When you wish to
raise the curtain, pull the bottom loop and up will go the curtain (Fig.
58). These primitive hangings are just the thing for outing cottages on
the sea-shore or log-houses in the mountains. You can have fun weaving
them while at your summer home and in place of the old-fashioned
quilting-bee you might give a


Curtain-Bee Frolic.

The girls and boys could readily make a number of hangings in one
afternoon, and while weaving the reeds together they would weave into
the work all sorts of bright speeches and gay laughter, so that ever
after the curtains would be filled with delightful associations of the
charming summer afternoon. Reed curtains can be fashioned in any width.
If very narrow hangings are in demand, cut your reeds to measure the
length needed for the curtain-width and weave them together with the
same twine cross-weave used in Fig. 55.

[Illustration: Fig. 58.--Cat-tail curtain raised by loop from bottom.]

[Illustration: Fig. 59.--Small end of one cat-tail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 60.--Large end of another.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.--Wide curtain, each reed of two cat-tails
joined.]


Doorway-Screens

hung on a swinging, armlike rod extending, when open, at right angles
with the doorway, and easily moved forward or backward, are attractive
when of woven reeds, especially if dull, green-colored cord is used in
the manufacture in place of ordinary twine. For very wide out-of-door
veranda-shades, select the strongest cat-tails and dig out about two
inches of pith from the large end of one cat-tail very cautiously to
avoid breaking the sides; then push the small end of another cat-tail
into the opening (Figs. 59, 60, 61); weave these long pieces together as
you wove the single reeds in the first curtain, using extra lines of
weave. If you cannot obtain cat-tails, take other reeds; or cut some
straight, slender poles from shrubs or trees, and weave them into
curtains with colored cord of reds or browns. Such pole-hangings would
be excellent for the open front of your mountain shack or lean-to, and
they could do service in screening the sunlight, when too strong, from
the central open way of your saddle-bag log-house.

[Illustration: Sitting in the orchard]



CHAPTER VI

THINGS TO MAKE OF COMMON GRASSES


A Grasshopper-House

"MAMMY, make me a grasshopper-house."

"Go 'long, chile, I done got 'nough to do 'thout makin' no
hoppergrass-houses."

"Please, mammy, only one, and then I can make them for myself. I'll
watch you just as close. Won't you, mammy?"

"Pick me some grasses, then; I 'low I has to, but don't yo' come
pesterin' me no more after this time.

"Seed-top grasses, honey, seed-top grasses; don't git me none of them
blade kind. Ketch hol' near the top and pull 'em up slow like, then
they'll come out nice and smooth, an' leave they ole rough skins behind,
just like a eel does when you skins him. That's it, you got 'nough now;
bring 'em 'long here an' we'll make the hoppergrass-house.

"Hol' your own hand, honey, you'll learn best that-a-way. Can't forgit
the feelin' of it once you build it on yo' fingers.

[Illustration: Fig. 62.--Put the grass around your middle finger with
the end inside.]

[Illustration: Fig. 63.--Lay the next grass across the first.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.--Bend back the ends of the first grass.]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.--Put the next grass across your hand.]

"Take one piece o' grass an' put it round yo' middle finger with the
ends inside like this (Fig. 62). Now lay the next piece right across the
first (Fig. 63), an' bend back the ends of the first grass over the
tother an' tuck 'em 'tween yo' fingers just like that (Fig. 64). Put the
next grass across yo' hand (Fig. 65), an' take up the second grass-ends,
bendin' 'em back to keep company with first grass-ends. That makes
another bar (Fig. 66). Now yo' do it an' let mammy see how yo' git
along. That's right, lay the grass across an' put the under ends back
ev'ry time. How many bars has yo' got now? Six? That's 'nough fo' any
hoppergrass, an' is as many as yo' little hand can hol' anyway.

"Now slip it offen yo' fingers, bring the ends together an' tie with a
blade o' grass just above these here blossom ends (see illustration).
There now, yo' done made a hoppergrass-house, an' don' yo' come askin'
yo' ole mammy to stop her work no more."

[Illustration: Fig. 66.--Bend back the second grass ends like the
first.]

[Illustration: Fig. 67.--Tie them together at the root ends.]

[Illustration: Fig. 68.--Lift two of the grasses and tie them
together.]

That is the way the little girls and boys in the South are taught to
make the grasshopper-houses, by the old colored "mammies." They are
funny little cages, and, of course, will not hold a grasshopper or any
other insect, but we like to imagine they will.

There are other things to make of grasses, any one of them requiring
only a few moments' work, and it is a pretty, quiet occupation for
restless little fingers. Sitting in the orchard, nestling like little
partridges amid the tall grasses, all your materials are close at hand.
Reach out and gather some of the long-bladed grass, and we will make


A Doll's Hammock

Some of this grass measures twenty-five inches in length. It does not
grow on stalks, but the blade appears to spring directly from the root,
and it is smooth and pliable. You may find orchard-grass almost any
where, generally in neglected corners and close to fences where the
scythe does not reach.

[Illustration: Fig. 69.--Tie them all in pairs.]

[Illustration: The grasshopper-house.]

Take eight or ten of the blades of this grass and tie them together at
the root-ends as in Fig. 67, drawing the knot tight as in Fig. 68. Stick
a pin through just below the knot and fasten to your knee; then lift two
of the grasses at the right-hand side, and tie them together about one
inch below the pin (Fig. 68). Tie the next two grasses together in the
same manner, the next, and the next, until you have tied them all in
pairs (Fig. 69). Make the second row by separating the pairs of the
first and tying one grass of one pair to the neighboring grass of the
next pair, making the knots one inch below the first row. This leaves
the first and last grasses hanging loose (Fig. 70). On the third row the
first and last grasses are tied in once more (Fig. 70). On the fourth
they are left again, and so they alternate until the hammock is
finished. Keep the rows of knots at even distances apart, and make the
hammock as long as the length of the grass will allow. Leave about three
inches of the grass below the last row of knots, and then tie the ends
together as in the illustration. Swing the little hammock between the
low-hanging branches of a tree; put your dolly in it and let the summer
breezes rock her to sleep while you sing:

    Rock-a-by baby in the tree-top.

[Illustration: Fig. 70.--Make the knots of the second row one inch below
the first row.]

[Illustration: The grass hammock.]

A very pretty


Bouquet-Holder

can be made of seed-grasses and one long blade of grass. In this you may
carry the most delicate wild flowers and ferns without wilting them by
the warmth of your hand.

[Illustration: Bouquet-holder made of seed-grass.]

[Illustration: Fig. 71.--Bunch together the seed-grass stalks.]

Bunch together seven fine, strong seed-grass stalks and tie just below
the blossoms, with the root-end of your long-blade grass (Fig. 71). The
stems of the seed-grasses are the spokes, the long grass the weaver.
Turn the blossom-ends down, the stem-ends up, and close to where it is
tied, begin to weave the long grass in and out, under one spoke, over
the next, under the third, over the fourth, going around and around
spirally until the end of the weaver is reached, then tie it to one of
the spokes. Keep forcing the spokes farther and farther apart as you
weave until the holder is shaped like a cone. As you see in the
illustration, the weaver never passes over one of the spokes twice in
succession. In one row it goes over a spoke, in the next row under it,
in the third over again, and so on. In order that it may always come
this way you must have an uneven number of spokes. Four will not do, nor
six, nor eight, but five, seven, or nine spokes will bring the weave out
all right.


A Grass Napkin-Ring

is another thing that can be made by weaving or braiding the grasses.

[Illustration: Grass napkin-ring.]

[Illustration: Fig. 72.--Take one blade from each bunch and cross them.]

[Illustration: Fig. 73.--Bring C over A and D under B and over C.]

Select ten fine long blades of grass, divide them into two bunches of
five each, put the root-ends together, and tie them as when making the
hammock. Pin these two bunches to your knee about two inches apart, and
taking one blade from each bunch, cross them as in Fig. 72, the
right-hand grass A on top of the left-hand grass B. Now bring the
left-hand grass C over A, and the right-hand grass D under B and over C
(Fig. 73). Next weave the left-hand grass E under A and over D, then the
right-hand grass F over B, under C, and over E. Weave the remaining four
grasses in the same way, taking first from one side, then from the
other. When your work has reached the stage shown in Fig. 74, take the
grass A, turn it _under_ and weave it in and out as in Fig. 76, then the
grass B, turn it _over_ and weave until it crosses A (Fig. 76). D comes
next, to be woven until it crosses B, then C, which will cross D. On the
left hand always turn the grasses under before beginning to weave, on
the right hand turn them over before beginning to weave.

[Illustration: Fig. 74--Weave the remaining grasses in the same way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 76.--Turn the grass A under, and weave it in and
out.]


When You Have Woven

or braided a strip about five inches long, untie the two knots at the
top, form the braid into a ring and tie the opposite ends together in
two knots. The groups G and G in Fig. 77 form one knot, the groups H and
H the other knot. Trim the ends off neatly and the napkin-ring will look
like the one in the illustration.

Do not use rough or saw-edged grasses for any of this work, for they
sometimes cut the hands, and the seed-top grasses must not be old enough
to shed their seeds into your eyes. When dry most grass is quite brittle
and will break if you attempt to bend it. The fresh, green, soft and
pliable grasses are the kind you need and these you may always find in
season.

[Illustration: Fig. 77.--Tie the opposite ends together.]



CHAPTER VII

THE POSSIBILITIES OF A CLOTHES-LINE


YOU can form it into graceful patterns of curves and coils, loops and
rings; you can weave it basket-fashion or net it together with brass
curtain-rings, and you can fray it out into soft, pretty tassels. You
can make it into a decorative wood-basket, a grille for an open doorway,
fringe for curtains and portières, or decoration for the top of a wooden
chest. One use will suggest another and you will probably find some way
of adapting the rope that has never yet been thought of.

Hemp rope and cotton, large rope and small, down to the ordinary heavy
twine, all lend themselves to this work.

It requires a rather heavy clothes-line, one considerably lighter,
called by some rope-cord, and a piece of strong twine for the


Wood-Basket

shown in the illustration.

Make the bottom of a board two feet long and sixteen inches wide, and on
each end of the board nail securely one-half of a barrel-hoop (Fig. 78).
From an old broom-stick cut four rounds one inch thick for the feet
(Fig. 79), and fasten one round to each corner underneath the board with
strong screws or wire nails (Fig. 78, Z Z). This is all the wood you
will need for the basket, the rest is to be made entirely of rope.

[Illustration: The wood-basket.]

[Illustration: Fig. 78--On each end nail one-half of a barrel-hoop.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79--For the feet.]

Take your small rope and nail one end of it to the edge of the bottom,
close to one end of one of the barrel-hoops (Fig. 80), then wrap the
hoop with the rope, one row close to another until it is completely
covered. Cut off the rope when it reaches the end of the hoop and nail
it down as you did the first end of the rope in beginning. Fasten a
piece of the heavy rope entirely around the edge of the board, nailing
it at intervals along each side, but leaving loose that at the end edges
until later. Make the


End Pieces

of the basket by looping and twisting the heavy rope into the pattern
shown in Fig. 81, forming as many loops as are required to reach across
the end of the bottom. Wrap and tie one row of the loops to the rope on
the end edge of the board and the side loops to the hoops, using the
twine for this purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.--Nail one end of the small rope to the edge of
the bottom.]

Eight inches from the end of the bottom, underneath but near the side
edge, nail one end of your heavy rope; bring it up slantingly and wrap
and tie it to the hoop just above and touching the top edge of the
loops, stretch the rope tightly across the hoop and tie at the other
side, then carry the end down and fasten underneath the bottom eight
inches from the end of the board (see illustration). Wrap and tie the
top loops of the end piece to the top rope as shown in illustration.
Finish the other end of the basket in the same manner, not forgetting to
nail in place the rope left loose at the end edges. Give the completed
wood-basket several coats of dark varnish. The varnish not only produces
a nice finish, smoothing down both wood and rope, but also stiffens and
helps to hold the rope in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 81.--Make the end pieces like this.]


A Rope Netting

at once simple and effective is made like Fig. 82.

This netting may be made of heavy rope for a grille in an open doorway,
or of lighter rope for fringe. In either case the method is the same.

[Illustration: Fig. 82.--A Rope netting.]

In a board, at regular distances apart, along a straight line, drive a
row of wire nails. It depends upon the size of the rope how far apart
the nails should be placed. For a heavy rope there must be at least four
inches between, and this distance should lessen as the rope decreases in
size.

Cut your rope into pieces four feet in length if it is heavy, not so
long if it is light rope. Loop one piece of rope over each nail and let
it hang down evenly, then bring the first and fourth strands together
and slip on them a small brass curtain or embroidery ring (Letter A,
Fig. 83). Push the ring up to within four inches of the line of nails if
the nails are four inches apart. If the distance between the nails is
three inches the ring must be three inches below the line. Catch the
ring to each strand of rope with needle and thread to hold it in place.
Bring the third and sixth strands together and slip on a ring (Letter B,
Fig. 83). Then the fifth and seventh, and so across the board.

[Illustration: Fig. 83.--Slip on a small brass curtain ring.]

Begin the next row by slipping a ring on the first and second strands,
placing it the same distance below the first row of rings that the first
row of rings is below the line of nails (Letter C, Fig. 83). Bring the
third and fourth strands together with a ring, the fifth and sixth,
continuing the original pairing of the strands until the row is
complete. The third row of rings brings together again the second and
fourth strands, the third and sixth, as in the first row, and the fourth
row of rings goes back to pairing the first and second, third and fourth
strands.


The Tassels

Below the last row of rings wrap and tie the strands together, then
untwist the ends of the rope up to where it is tied and fray it out
until it becomes fluffy. Make the head of the tassel by wrapping closely
with twine a short distance below the ring, or you may slip on several
of the brass rings as a finish.

The board on which you make your netting need not be any longer than is
convenient to handle, for when one part of the netting is finished it
can be taken off the nails and new strands added to carry on the work.

Fig. 84 is an ornamental design suitable for decorating a wooden chest
or, if sewed on cloth, for a hanging. By studying the design you can
easily reproduce it without the aid of description or other diagram.

[Illustration: Fig. 84.--Ornamental design.]



CHAPTER VIII

HOW TO WEAVE A SPLINT BASKET


YOUR enthusiasm will begin when you find how easily the splint can be
cut and shaped after it has soaked for a while in water. It is
delightful to work with, almost as soft and pliable as ribbon, while
having more substance. Although there is apparently such diversity in
the material shown in the illustration, it all comes from one roll of
splint, which is uniform in width and thickness.

[Illustration: Weaving the sides of basket with long weaver.]

A basket measuring about six inches in diameter and three inches in
height is a convenient size on which to learn.


Open Your Roll of Splint,

put two pieces to soak in a bowlful of cold water, and let them remain
twenty minutes. Have ready a clean lap-board, a pair of large scissors,
and an old towel. The lap-board not only serves for a work-table, but
also keeps the water out of your lap.

Wipe the dripping water from the splint, and cut off six pieces nineteen
inches long; then cut these into sixteen strips one-half inch wide, for
the spokes of the basket. Do not attempt to tear the splint, for it will
not tear evenly. From the other piece of splint cut four strips for
weavers, making the first one-half of an inch wide, the next one-fourth
of an inch wide, another one-eighth of an inch wide, and the last
one-sixteenth of an inch wide. Place all the weavers in the water and
leave them until you are ready to begin weaving.


Take Up the Spokes,

one at a time, and pass them between your fingers until they are
perfectly straight and flat; then number them all by writing the number
with a pencil on each end of every spoke; see diagram (Fig. 85). Lay the
spokes in front of you on the lap-board crossing the first four at the
centre (Fig. 85). Place the next four spokes in the spaces between the
ones you have just arranged in the order shown in Fig. 86, then the
remaining eight in the spaces left between these.

[Illustration: Fig. 85.--The first four spokes.]

For instance, the ninth spoke should come between No. 1 and No. 5, the
tenth spoke between No. 5 and No. 3, the eleventh spoke between No. 3
and No. 6, and so on around the circle (Fig. 87). Be sure the lower end
of a spoke fits between the same numbers as the upper end. When all the
spokes are placed hammer a strong pin directly through the centre where
they are crossed, to hold them together while you begin.

[Illustration: Bottom of basket completed.]

[Illustration: Material for weaving basket.]

[Illustration: Small basket with two rows of trimming on different
colored weaver between.]

[Illustration: Lining the basket.]


The Weaving

With the spokes lying in the position shown in diagram (Fig. 87), take
the eighth-inch weaver, and begin to weave it in and out of the spokes.
Start it under spoke No. 1 about two and one-half inches from the
centre, bring it over No. 9, under No. 5, over No. 10, under No. 3,
over, under, over, under, until it has crossed spoke No. 16; then skip
No. 1, bring the weaver under No. 9, and weave another row. You will
find it necessary to skip one spoke at the beginning of each row, in
order to make a continuous under-and-over weave. Weave five rows with
the eighth-inch weaver, then slide the end under the last row, lapping
it an inch or so and running it under several spokes, to hide the joint.
Slip the first end under a spoke also. During this part of the work your
main endeavor must be to weave in a perfect circle. The illustration
shows the bottom of the basket completed.

[Illustration: Fig. 86.--Eight spokes in place.]

Before bending the spokes for the sides of the basket, let them soak
in the water a few minutes, then place the work on the lap-board, the
same side up as when started, and carefully bend the spokes up at
right-angles with the bottom (Fig. 88). Start a half-inch weaver inside
the basket, close to the bottom, and weave under and over until the row
is complete; then, allowing for a lap of about three inches, cut the
weaver off and slide the end under the first end of the weaver, making
the invisible joint by tucking each end under a spoke. Start the next
row a little beyond the joint of the first row, that the joining may not
all come in one place. Weave five rows of the half-inch weaver, then two
rows of the fourth-inch weaver and then bind off (Fig. 89).

[Illustration: Fig. 87.--All of the spokes in place.]

[Illustration: Fig. 88.--Bend the spokes up.]


Binding Off

Cut the spokes off evenly, leaving about two inches extending above the
top of the basket, then put the basket in the water, spokes down, and
soak until pliable. Bend each spoke down snugly over the top weaver, and
slip the end through the next weaver, pushing it down until its end is
hidden under one of the weavers. Bend one spoke inside, the next outside
the basket, according as they come inside or outside of the top weaver
(Fig. 89).

[Illustration: Fig. 89.--Binding off.]

This binding off holds the top weaver in place and makes the basket very
firm; but the spokes must be protected from wear where they are bent,
and it is necessary to put a double band around the edge. For this band
cut two pieces of the fourth-inch weaver which will go around the basket
and lap about an inch. Place one piece along the inside edge, the other
along the outside edge of the basket, and with the sixteenth-inch weaver
bind them to the top weaver, as shown in Diagram 90. Fasten the end by
taking several cross-stitches with the narrow weaver, passing it under
the inside band only, and tucking the end under the same band.

[Illustration: Fig. 90.--Putting on the band.]


The Trimming

Many splint baskets are trimmed with twisted loops of the same material.
For this trimming take one of the half-inch weavers and cut a thread's
width off its edge, making it just a trifle narrower than the other
weaver. Insert the end of this weaver under a spoke at the top of the
basket (letter A, Diagram 91), give a twist to the left, and pass it
beneath the next spoke, as shown in Diagram 91, letter B. Pull the loop
down and flatten it a little with your thumb, then twist the weaver
again, this time to the right, and slip the end under the next spoke,
letter C. Continue this around the basket, and make the joint of the
trimming as you did the other joints, by lapping the ends and slipping
them under the spokes, which makes the last loop of double thickness.

[Illustration: Fig. 91.--Making the trimming.]

The small basket shown in the illustration has two rows of trimming, and
between them is run a weaver of another color pulled out into loops at
the sides.

The illustration on the first page of this chapter shows a large basket
with four rows of trimming and handles. The handles are made of the
fourth-inch weaver, which is brought around twice, making a ring of
double thickness. The ring is then wrapped with the eighth-inch weaver,
and fastened to the basket with loops of the same. The weaving of this
large basket differs from the smaller one, in that the weaver is not cut
at the end of each row, but is continued around row after row. For a
large basket the half-inch weaver can be used in this way, but in a
small basket the slant of the weaver as it runs around is too apparent.
If a long weaver is used in a small basket it must not be more than
one-eighth of an inch in width.

While baskets of the natural white splint are extremely dainty, color
certainly gives variety and adds interest to the work, and the splints
will take dye readily. You might also line your basket with silk of a
color to harmonize with the splint.

The white-ash splint one and one-half inches wide comes in rolls of
twenty-five yards, and a roll will make several medium-sized baskets.
The material may be obtained of almost any kindergarten supply firm.



CHAPTER IX

MODELLING IN TISSUE-PAPER


A FEW cents will be sufficient to buy enough tissue-paper to model
good-sized elephants, too large to stuff into the Christmas stocking,
for they measure six or seven inches in length and stand four or five
inches high; and you can make chickens nearly life-size, and the queer
little turkeys, too.

You must select paper of the necessary color, and fold, roll, fold,
squeeze, fold, tie, with here a little pull and there a little pat, a
spreading out, a pinching in; that is all. There is no sewing, no
pasting, no pinning, merely modelling and tying, using only tissue-paper
and string.

These animals are very substantial and unique. They are not at all thin
or flat, but well rounded out and lifelike, with character and
independence enough to stand alone--just the kind your little brother
and sister will be delighted with, for they may play with the toys free
from all danger of hurts or bruises. To


Make the Chicken

select a sheet of tissue-paper of a soft yellow color, cut it through
the centre, fold into two pieces. Take one of the halves and gather up
the long edge where it has been cut (Fig. 92), then gather the opposite
edge (Fig. 93). Crease the paper as it is folded by holding one end with
the right hand (Fig. 92), and drawing the paper several times through
the partially closed left hand. This will cause it to retain the
creases, as seen in Fig. 93.

[Illustration: Fig. 92.--The beginning of the paper chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 93--Second step in modelling chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94.--Third step in modelling chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 95.--Fourth step in modelling chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 96.--Fifth step in modelling chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 97.--Head and body of chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98.--Modelling the chicken's legs.]

Roll a separate piece of paper into a little wad and lay it on the
creased strip (Fig. 93) about one-fourth of the distance from one end.
Bend the short end of the strip over the wad of paper, as in Fig. 94;
then fold up the strip where the end of the short fold lies, bend this
over the first fold (Fig. 95) and bring the loose end on the bottom of
the three layers. Fig. 96 shows a wad of paper inserted at one end of a
strip of creased paper folded over and over three times, making four
layers, two on top and two on the bottom of the paper wad. Wind a string
around the paper tight up to the wad and tie it securely to form the
head (Fig. 97). You now have the body and head of the chicken. Make the
legs and feet of a strip of paper about sixteen inches long and seven
and one-half wide. Gather up the two long sides with your fingers as you
did the paper in Fig. 93; crease the paper, then wind each leg with
string, leaving one inch free at each end to form the feet (Fig. 98).
Lift up the free end of the folded paper (Fig. 97) and place the centre
of the legs (Fig. 98) midway under the last fold as in Fig. 99. Tie the
end of the loose layer of the body securely on the body, and you will
have the foundation ready for the beak, wings, and tail (Fig. 100).

[Illustration: Fig. 99.--Modelling body and legs of chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 100.--Partially modelled ready for beak, wings and
tail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 101.--The beak of chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 102.--Modelling beak on chicken.]

[Illustration: Fig. 103.--Paper chicken nearly finished.]

[Illustration: Fig. 104.--Hungry little paper chicken.]

Cut a square of the same kind of tissue paper, measuring nine and
one-half inches on all four sides; fold diagonally twice across the
square as when making a paper pin-wheel. The centre of the square is
exactly where the diagonal lines meet and cross; pinch the centre
portion up into a beak and tie it with a string (Fig. 101); then fit the
beak over the centre of the chicken's head, bringing the paper entirely
over the head on all sides; tie the square around the chicken's neck
close up to the head (Fig. 102). The two points A and B of the square
must form the wings, while C is carried backward over the under portion
of the body and D back over the upper part, the two ends C and D being
brought together and tied tight up to the body to form the tail. In Fig.
103 you will see exactly how to pinch up the wing if you notice
particularly the upper part of the wing B, next to the body. The wing A
on Fig. 103 shows how the two wings must be tied close to, but not on,
the body. When each wing is tied, make the tail of C and D by tying the
extensions together as explained above; that done, bend down the legs,
spread out the wings and tail, open out and flatten the feet, then
stand the little chicken on a level surface (Fig. 104). Remember always
to crease the tissue-paper with the grain of the paper; if you attempt
to cross the grain the paper will be very apt to tear.


The Turkey

[Illustration: Fig. 105.--The astonished paper turkey.]

[Illustration: Fig. 106.--Modelling turkey's body.]

[Illustration: Fig. 107.--Legs and feet of turkey.]

[Illustration: Fig. 108.--Head modelled on turkey.]

(Fig. 105) is also modelled from half a sheet of tissue-paper as near
the general color of a turkey as can be found. Make Fig. 92 and Fig. 93
of the paper; then fold Fig. 93 five and three-quarter inches from one
end (Fig. 106, F). Three inches from this end tie the two layers
together (Fig. 106, G). Fold the strips back and tie a string through
the lower loop up over the loose top layer (Fig. 106, H). Wind the
extreme end of the paper (Fig. 106, O), with string to form the beak
(Fig. 107), bend the beak down and tie it to the neck to form the top of
the head (Fig. 108, P). Make the legs and feet as you did those for the
chicken (Fig. 98) and slide them through the body so that one fold of
the body will be above and two beneath the legs (Fig. 107). Cut the
wings from a separate piece of tissue-paper (Fig. 109). Let the paper
measure seven inches on the widest side, five on the opposite side, and
four and one-half on each of the other sides. Pinch the paper together
through the centre and tie (Fig. 110). Gather up one wing, so that it
will not tear, and slip it through the body, immediately over the legs,
with the widest side toward the front (Fig. 105), leaving the other wing
out free on the other side of the turkey. Bend down the legs, spread the
tail out fan shape and bend it up; open out the wings and drop them
downward and forward (Fig. 105). Flatten out the feet and stand up the
turkey (Fig. 105).

[Illustration: Fig. 109.--Paper for turkey wings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 110.--Turkey wings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 111.--Elephant modelled of tissue-paper.]


The Elephant

(Fig. 111) will require two sheets of brown tissue-paper for its body,
head, and trunk, which are all made of a single strip of paper. Unfold,
spread out and fit the two sheets of tissue-paper together; then gather
up one side, as in Fig. 92, crease and gather up the other side (Fig.
93). Bind one end with black thread to the distance of four and one-half
inches to form the trunk; then fold the remainder of the strip into four
layers, beginning with the free end of the paper; fold over and over
three times. This gives the body and head. Bind black thread around the
folds next to the trunk to form the head. Make four legs of two pieces
of paper in the same way you formed those of the chicken (Fig. 98), only
the elephant's legs must be very much thicker. Slide the legs through
the body between the two layers of paper, shove the front legs forward
and the hind legs backward. For the tail use a small strip of the brown
tissue-paper. Wrap it around and around with black thread to within an
inch of the bottom and cut this end up into fringe. Fasten the tail on
the elephant with black thread, pass the thread between the first and
second layers of paper forming the back of the body of the animal and
tie the tail on the outside threads which cross from side to side of the
elephant; bend the top of the tail over the thread, as you would hang a
garment on a clothes-line, and tie the bent-over end down on to the tail
proper. Shape the ears like Fig. 112, pinch together the end S and tuck
it under the thread which separates the head from the body. Allow the
long side, M, to form the front of the ears. You can add white ivory
tusks if desired. Roll up two white writing-paper lighters and push an
end of each up in the head under the trunk, forming one tusk on each
side.

[Illustration: Fig. 112.--Elephant's ear.]

In making these little creatures do not forget that you must do some
modelling, bending and shaping them with your fingers, squeezing up the
paper where it stands out too far, and gently pulling it out in places
where it flattens too much. The heads can be turned to suit the fancy,
the bodies inclined this or that way, or they may stand stiff and erect.
You might model a number of chickens, of different-colored paper, some
yellow, some white, and others black, like real chickens; or make
several turkeys and two or three elephants, some of the latter with
tusks and others without. The toys when finished will cause exclamations
of delight and approval. They are simple and easy to put together,
something which will not cost much and yet be worth many times the
amount expended for the necessary material to manufacture. The little
animals are attractive, substantial toys, entirely different from the
common ones which any girl or boy with sufficient pocket money may
purchase.



CHAPTER X

NATURE STUDY WITH TISSUE-PAPER


A natural flower, some tissue-paper, a pair of scissors, a spool of
thread, and nimble fingers are all you need.

There are no patterns, only circles and squares and strips of paper
which you gather here, spread out there, wrap and tie some place else
and, with deft fingers, model into almost exact reproductions of the
natural flower before you.

With its unfamiliar terms to be committed to memory and the many parts
of the flower to be distinguished, botany is apt to prove dry and
tiresome to the little child, but to study nature by copying the flowers
in this marvellously adaptable material is only a beautiful game which
every child, and indeed many grown people, will delight in. The form of
the flower, its name and color, may, by this means, be indelibly stamped
upon the memory, and a good foundation laid for further study.


The Best Models

Ordinary garden flowers and those most easily procured make the best
models. The carnation-pink, the morning-glory, and the rarer blossoms of
the hibiscus, are well adapted to the work, also the daffodil and some
of the wonderful orchids.

Even holly with its sharp-spiked leaves and scarlet berries and the
white-berried, pale-green mistletoe may be closely copied. All these and
many more are made on the same principle and in so simple a manner even
quite a little child may succeed in producing very good copies from
Nature.


Material

Buy a sheet of light pink tissue-paper, another of darker pink, and one
of the darkest red you can find. Then a sheet of light yellow-green and
one of dark green. Have a table "cleared for action" and place your
paper on the right-hand side, adding a pair of scissors and a spool of
coarse thread, or, better still, of soft darning-cotton.

[Illustration: Carnations modelled from tissue-paper.]

With all this you are to copy the


Carnation-pink

which someone has given you or you have growing in your own garden. Make
one of your light pink paper, one of the darker pink, and another of the
rich, deep red to have a variety.

Lay your natural flower down on the left-hand side of the table, away
from your material but quite within easy reach, for it must be consulted
frequently. Seat yourself comfortably and don't work hurriedly.

[Illustration: Fig. 113.--Fold the square diagonally through the
centre.]

The first thing necessary in this system of squares and circles is to
know


How to Cut a Circle Quickly,

easily and accurately, and always without a pattern. Here is a method
which never fails:

[Illustration: Fig. 114.--The first triangle.]

Cut a square the size you wish to make your circle. That is, if you want
a circle with a diameter of four inches cut a four-inch square (Fig.
113). Fold the square diagonally through the centre according to the
dotted line on Fig. 113, and you have the triangle (Fig. 114). Fold this
at the dotted line and it will make another triangle (Fig. 115). Again
fold through the middle and you have the third triangle (Fig. 116). Fold
once more and Fig. 117 is the result. Measure the distance from the
edge, B, to the centre A in Fig. 117 and mark the same distance on the
other side of the angle shown by the dot, C (Fig. 117). With your
scissors cut across from C to B, curving the edge slightly, as shown by
the dotted line from C to B (Fig. 118). Fig. 119 is the circle still in
its folds. Fig. 120 is the circle opened, the dotted lines indicating
where it has been folded.

[Illustration: Fig. 115.--Second triangle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 116.--Third triangle.]

Your eye will soon become sufficiently accurate to enable you to gauge
the distance from A to B, and you can then cut from C to B without
measuring.

[Illustration: Fig. 117.--Fold once more.]

[Illustration: Fig. 118.--Cut from C to B, curving the edge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 119.--The circle still in its folds.]


Before Beginning Your Flower

take up the natural one and examine it carefully. You will notice that
it has a great many petals crowded closely together and that their
edges are pointed like a saw. You will also see that the green calyx is
wrapped snugly around the lower part of the flower and that it, too, has
a pointed edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 120.--The circle opened.]

Now hold the pink off at arm's length. The separateness of the petals
disappears and you see them only as a mass; the points on the edges are
not noticeable except as they give the flower a crimped appearance, and
the edge of the calyx looks almost straight. It is this last appearance
or the impression of the flower that you are to produce rather than its
many and separate little parts. So now to work.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.--The petals.]

[Illustration: Fig. 122.--Crimp the edge with your fingers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 123.--Draw these through your hand to bring them
closely together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 124.--Make a slender lighter.]


Cut Two Squares for Each Pink,

one measuring five and one-quarter inches, the other four and
three-quarter inches, and turn them into circles (Fig. 121) by the
method just explained. Take one of the circles at the centre, where the
folding lines cross, with the tips of the fingers of your left hand and
pinch it together; then, while still holding it, crimp the edge with the
fingers of your right hand (Fig. 122). Do this always with every kind of
flower, whether it is made of circles or squares. Without loosening your
hold of the centre, draw the paper lightly through your right hand
several times, then crimp the edge again, this time with the blade of
your scissors. Treat all the circles alike, then place a small circle
inside a larger one and draw them through your hand to bring them
together, pinching them closely until within a little over an inch of
the edge (Fig. 123). Make a slender lighter of ordinary writing-paper
(Fig. 124), snip off the point of the flower (D, Fig. 123), open the
other end a little and push the lighter through until its head is
hidden. This forms the stem. Wrap and tie with thread at the bottom of
the flower (Fig. 125), and again where the petals spread. This last is
to be but temporary, as you will remove the thread when the flower is
sufficiently pressed together to hold its shape.

[Illustration: Fig. 126.--The calyx.]

[Illustration: Fig. 125.--Wrap and tie at the bottom and where the
petals spread.]

[Illustration: Fig. 127.--Wrap the paper spirally around the stem.]

From your light-green paper cut a circle measuring three and one-quarter
inches through its diameter and cut it in two to make the half circle
for the calyx (Fig. 126). Remove the thread that holds the flower just
below its petals and wrap the calyx closely around the lower part, tying
it at the bottom; then cut a narrow strip of dark-green paper and wrap
it spirally around the stem, beginning at the top (Fig. 127). Let the
wrapper extend a little below the lighter and twist the end to hold it
in place. Spread the petals of your flower as much like the natural
blossom as possible.


Leaves

[Illustration: Fig. 128.--The leaves.]

For the leaves cut a strip of dark-green paper six inches long and
three-quarters of an inch wide (Fig. 128). Find the centre by folding
the paper end to end and making the crease shown by dotted line in Fig.
128. Gather it along this line, not with needle and thread--we use no
needle in this work--but with your fingers, and pinch it together; then
twist each end into a point (Fig. 129). With the sharp point of your
scissors punch a hole directly through the centre (E, Fig. 129), and
push the point of the stem through the hole, bringing the leaves as far
up on the stem as you find them on the natural flower; then wrap and tie
them in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 129.--Twist each end into a point.]


The Bud

is made of a circle of dark-green paper the diameter of which is three
and one-quarter inches (Fig. 130). Gather this circle between your
fingers as you did the others and crimp the edge with the scissors. It
will then form a little bag or cup like Fig. 131. Slip the bag over the
head of a lighter and tie at the bottom as in Fig. 132. If the bud does
not take the proper shape at first, model it with your fingers until it
is correct. Start the wrapping of the stem just above where the bud is
tied and finish as you did the stem of the pink. Use small leaves on the
bud stem, having the strip of paper just as wide, but considerably
shorter than for the leaves on the stem of the open flower.

[Illustration: Fig. 130.--The bud.

Fig. 131.]

It is wonderful how very natural these blossoms appear. At a short
distance no one would think they are not the real, old and familiar
pinks. Only the fragrance is missing, and that may also be supplied and
a spicy odor given by enclosing a whole clove in the heart of each
flower.


The Morning-Glory

From your pale-pink paper you can make the delicately beautiful
morning-glory. Have the natural flower with its stem and leaves to copy
from, even if the blossom is not the color you want. As with the pink,
it is the general form and appearance we strive for in the
morning-glory, not the detail.

[Illustration: Fig. 132.--Slip the bag over the head of a lighter.]

Make your pink circles with a diameter of about seven inches. It is
always better to have your flowers a trifle larger than the natural
ones, rather than smaller.

But one circle is required for each morning-glory. Crimp this in your
fingers and draw through your hand as you did the circles for the pinks;
then, pinching it together to within one and one-half inches of the
edge, hold it in your left hand and flatten out the top as in Fig. 133.
See that the fulness is evenly distributed, and pull and straighten out
the edges until you are satisfied with its appearance.

[Illustration: Morning-glory modelled from tissue-paper.]

[Illustration: Fig. 133.--Flatten out the top of the flower.]

A piece of bonnet-wire makes the best stem if you wish to give the true
viney effect of the growth. If it is only the blossom you are making, a
paper lighter will answer. When you use the wire bend one end over to
form a small loop; this is to keep the stem from slipping through the
flower. Pass the straight end of the wire through the centre of the
flower and draw it down until the loop is hidden.

[Illustration: Fig. 134.--Green square for calyx.]

[Illustration: Fig. 135.--Draw the edges down.]

[Illustration: Fig. 136.--Form a leaf-shaped point.]

Make


The Calyx

of a square of light-green paper measuring about four and one-half
inches. Fold the square four times through the centre to form the
creases shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 134. Hold the square at the
centre and draw the edges down as in Fig. 135; then bring the two edges
together in gathers, just below one of the corners, to form a
leaf-shaped point as in Fig. 136. Gather below each corner, tie as in
Fig. 137, and twist each corner into a sharp point like F, Fig. 137.
Draw the calyx through your hand, bringing the points together (Fig.
138). Push the calyx up on the stem and tie just at the base of the
flower, then tie again about three-quarters of an inch below and wrap
the remainder of the calyx close to the stem. Wind the stem with
light-green tissue-paper and bend it as the natural one is bent and
curved.

[Illustration: Fig. 137.--Twist each corner into a point.]

Make several buds of the pink paper, following the directions given for
the green bud of the pink; then twist each bud at the point and add a
calyx.

The wilted flower shown in the illustration is made by taking one of the
morning-glories you have just finished and actually wilting it by
drawing the flower together and creasing and pressing it to resemble the
partially closed and drooping natural blossom.

Only a piece of dark-green paper six inches square is required to model
two almost perfectly shaped morning-glory leaves.

[Illustration: Fig. 138.--Bring the points together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 139.--Gather along one of the creases.]

[Illustration: Fig. 140.--The morning-glory leaves.]

Fold the square twice diagonally across from corner to corner to find
its centre; then begin at one corner and gather along one of the
creases until you reach the centre (Fig. 139). Start again at the
opposite corner, gather along the crease to the centre, then wrap and
tie (Fig. 140). Pinch each leaf from underneath along the crease in the
middle, to give the depression at the midrib. Straighten the leaf out a
little at its widest part and you will find you have made a pair of
leaves which are surprisingly natural. Wrap and tie these to the stem
and make as many more as you think are needed.


The Daffodil

is of such a different nature it hardly seems possible that it can be
made on the same principle as the other flowers, yet the work is
practically the same.

[Illustration: Daffodils modelled from tissue-paper.]

[Illustration: Fig. 141.--For the two extra petals.]

[Illustration: Fig. 142.--Pinch and tie in place.]

[Illustration: Fig. 144.--Cut off the ragged end.]

[Illustration: Fig. 145.--Fit each loose petal between two of the
others.]

[Illustration: Fig. 143.--Bring together the fan of paper below the
petal.]

Match the tint of your natural daffodil in yellow tissue-paper as nearly
as possible, and then cut two squares for each flower measuring about
five and one-half inches. Fold the squares crosswise and diagonally
through the centre as you did for the calyx of the morning-glory (Fig.
134), and cut one square in half along one of its diagonal folds (Fig.
141). Gather the square two and a quarter inches below each corner and
tie as in Fig. 137, but do not twist the points. This gives you four
petals, but as the daffodil has six, you must make two more from the
triangular halves of the square you have just cut. Gather each triangle
across from side to side, according to the dotted line in Fig. 141, and
pinch and tie in place as in Fig. 142, making sure the petal is of
exactly the same size as those on the square. Bring together the fan of
paper left below the petal and wrap and tie as in Fig. 143, then cut off
the ragged end (Fig. 144). Draw the petals of the square together as
you did the calyx, and insert the stem made of a paper lighter. Put in
place the two extra petals, pushing the wrapped ends down into the heart
of the flower; fit each loose petal between two of the others and tie
(Fig. 145).

[Illustration: Fig. 146.--Pinch the cup together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 147.--Slip the cup on your finger like a thimble.]

[Illustration: Fig. 148.--Insert the stem of the cup into the centre of
the flower.]

Turn back to the bud of the pink (Fig. 130), and from a circle of the
yellow paper, with a diameter of four inches, make the cup (Fig. 131),
using the scissors to give a fine crimp to the edges. Pinch the cup
together at the bottom almost half-way up and tie (Fig. 146); slip it on
your finger like a thimble and press it into shape like Fig. 147. Insert
the point or stem of the cup into the centre of the flower and tie in
place just below the petals (Fig. 148).

Cut a two and three-quarter-inch square from light-brown paper and
divide it diagonally in half for the calyx. Examine your natural
daffodil and notice how loosely the calyx seems to be wrapped around the
flower. Imitate this by leaving the point loose at the top, while you
wrap the bottom of the calyx closely around the stem. Allow the wrapping
for the stem to cover the lower part of the brown calyx. Make several
long, narrow leaves from strips of dark-green paper, two inches wide and
of varying lengths. Twist one end of each leaf into a point and,
gathering the other end, draw it through your hands until it stands up
stiffly. Wrap each leaf partly around the stem and tie in place,
following as closely as possible the natural growth of the leaf on the
stem. Bend the stem just below each flower, being careful not to break
the paper lighter which forms it.

If you use thread the color of the flowers for tying and green for the
stems the effect will be almost perfect.



CHAPTER XI

A NEW RACE OF DOLLS


LIKE the little animals, these dolls are modelled of tissue-paper and
they are equally substantial and durable. The dolls, as well as their
dresses, shoes, and bonnets, are made without taking a stitch or using
glue or paste. Nothing could be prettier or more suitable to hang on the
Christmas-tree than these little ladies decked out in their fluffy
tissue-paper skirts, and nothing will give greater delight to the
children.

[Illustration: Here she comes. Little Miss Muffett.]

To make


Little Miss Muffett

you will need eight sheets of white tissue-paper, two sheets of flesh
pink, not too deep in color, a quarter of a sheet of light-brown or
yellow, and a small piece of black. Her underclothes will require one
sheet of white and her dress and bonnet one sheet of any color you
consider most becoming.

[Illustration: Fig. 149.--Creased tissue-paper for making doll.]

[Illustration: Fig. 150.--Six sheets of tissue-paper folded together for
making doll.]

[Illustration: Fig. 151.--Head of doll.]

[Illustration: Fig. 152.--Head tied on body.]

Take one sheet of the white paper at a time and draw it lengthwise
through your hands, creasing or crimping it as in Fig. 149. Do this to
all the eight sheets. Then, pulling six of them partly open, place them
evenly one on top of another and fold through the middle (Fig. 150).
Take another sheet of the crimped paper and roll it into a ball like
Fig. 151. Open the folded paper, place the ball in the middle, bring the
paper down over the ball and wrap and tie just below with coarse linen
thread or white darning-cotton (Fig. 152). This is the head, which you
must model into shape with your fingers, squeezing it out to make it
fuller and rounder at the back and pinching it to give a chin to the
face. Fold another crimped sheet like Fig. 153 for the arms. You will
notice the ends do not quite reach the folds. The space left should
measure a little over one inch. Crimp half a sheet of the pink paper
and with it cover the arms; allow the pink to extend equally at each end
beyond the white and fold over the ends, tying them as in Fig. 154. Then
tie the loose ends down as in Fig. 155. Open the paper just below the
head, slip the arms in place and tie below (Fig. 156).

[Illustration: Fig. 153.--Beginning the arms.]

[Illustration: Fig. 154.--Pink paper over arms.]

[Illustration: Fig. 155.--Outside of arms tied over inside.]

Spread out your smooth sheet of pink paper, place the doll's head
directly in the centre and draw the paper down over head and body; keep
it as smooth as possible over the face and wrap and tie at the neck
(Fig. 157). Push the pink paper up on the shoulders and cut a slit about
six inches long lengthwise through the middle of the entire mass of
paper, as shown in Fig. 157. Wrap and tie each of the legs (Fig. 158)
and tie once more under the arms (Fig. 161). Fold the bottom edges under
and model the feet in shape (Fig. 158). The wrappings at the thighs and
knees take slanting lines, which give a more natural shape to the legs
than if the thread were simply wrapped round and round as at the ankles.

[Illustration: Fig. 156.--Arms in place.]


Paint the Face

of Little Miss Muffett with water-colors, placing the features low on
the head to give a babyish look, and make the eyes large and mouth
small. Color the cheeks and chin a deeper pink, and put little touches
of red just above the eyes near the inner corners and little streaks of
blue just below the eyes.

[Illustration: Fig. 157.--The pink skin of tissue-paper over doll.]

[Illustration: Fig. 158.--Modelling legs of doll.]

Miss Muffett's curls are furnished by


The Wig,

which you are to make of brown or yellow paper, or black if you want a
little brunette.

Cut a circle seven and one-half inches in diameter, and on the edge cut
a fringe one inch in depth (Fig. 159). This is the hair, which you must
curl by drawing it lightly over the blade of a penknife or scissors
(Fig. 159).

Fit the wig on Miss Muffett's head, holding it in place with pins until
you can tie it on just back of the curls (Fig. 161).

[Illustration: Fig. 159.--The wig.]

Now for the little lady's clothes. To make


The Shoes,

which will be her first article of dress, cut out of the black
tissue-paper two circles measuring four and one-half inches in diameter
(Fig. 160); place one foot in the middle of a circle, draw the paper up
around the ankle and wrap a number of times before tying. Put the other
shoe on the other foot in the same manner, and your doll will look like
Fig. 161.

[Illustration: The shoe.]

[Illustration: Fig. 160.--Pattern of shoe.]


Miss Muffett's Lingerie

consists of a union garment (Fig. 162) and a white skirt (Fig. 163).
From one end of your remaining sheet of white paper cut a strip about
seven inches wide, and at the middle cut a slit half-way up (Fig. 162).
Draw this through your hands to crimp it, the creases to run lengthwise,
that is, from top to bottom. Fit the little garment to the body, tying
it just below the arms and again above the knees, where it will form
ruffles.

Cut the white skirt in a circle seventeen inches in diameter with a
circular opening in the centre (Fig. 163). Crimp the skirt and put it on
over the feet, not the head, of the doll, wrapping and tying it in place
around the waist.

Not only may tissue-paper be purchased in all colors, with their various
shades and tints, but in pretty little checks, plaids, and figures as
well, so Miss Muffett may have a dress equal in appearance to the cotton
or silk gown of her china sisters.

[Illustration: Fig. 161.--Ready to be dressed.]

Cut the skirt of


The Dress

after the white skirt pattern (Fig. 163), and the waist like the smaller
circle (Fig. 164), which has one slit, from outer to inner edge, added
to the opening at the centre.

[Illustration: Fig. 162.--Union garment.]

[Illustration: Fig. 163.--White skirt.]

[Illustration: Fig. 164.--Waist pattern.]

[Illustration: Fig. 165.--Pattern for sun-bonnet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 166.--Bonnet folded.]

This waist circle should measure ten inches in diameter. Do not crimp
the dress skirt, but put it on in all its crisp freshness, and tie in
place at the waist-line. Adjust the waist on Miss Muffett, bringing the
slit opening at the back. It looks very much like a cape now, doesn't
it? But draw the fulness in at the bottom and around the arms at the
shoulders, and you have a little waist with full short sleeves. Tie the
waist rather high, and bring it down to bag slightly over the skirt as
shown in the illustration of Miss Muffett. Cut


The Sun-Bonnet

of the same paper as the dress. Fig. 165 shows the pattern, which is ten
inches long and nine inches wide. Fold the straight edge over three
times, according to the dotted lines in Fig. 165, making the folds one
and one-quarter inches wide. Fig. 166 shows the bonnet folded, and the
dotted line around the curve indicates where it is to be gathered in at
the neck.

[Illustration: The sun-bonnet.]

Fit Fig. 166 on Miss Muffett's head, allowing the folded edge to extend
slightly beyond her face, then draw the bonnet down at the back and
gather it in with your fingers until it sits snugly to the neck. Through
the middle of the fold, one inch from each end, puncture a hole, and
through these two holes pass the thread that goes around the back of the
bonnet and ties under Miss Muffett's chin. See illustration of
sun-bonnet.



CHAPTER XII

AN INDIAN ENCAMPMENT


AN Indian encampment for your very own! A wigwam, camp-fire, Indian
travois, blanket-weaving loom, gorgeous feathered head-dress, bow,
arrows and shield, tomahawk, wampum, and a little copper-colored papoose
in its funny stiff cradle, hanging on a tree entirely alone! Does not
all that sound delightful? The complete scene can actually be made to
appear in your room at home.

Take for


The Ground

a common pastry-board or any kind of board of the desired size--about
nineteen by twenty-six inches--and for grass cover one side and the four
edges of the board with a piece of light-green cotton flannel stretched
tight, fleece side up, and tacked to the under side of the board.
Sprinkle sand and small stones on the grass at one side of the wigwam,
to show where the grass has been worn off by the tramping of the
Indians, the bronco pony, and the dog, for all Indians possess dogs of
some description. If you have a toy dog of suitable size, stand him by
the fire where he will be comfortable. Before the red men owned horses,
a dog was always used to drag the travois, and to this day the braves
care as much for a dog as does any pale-faced boy--which is saying
much, for a white boy and any kind of a dog make devoted friends and
comrades.

[Illustration: Fig. 167.--Home-made compass.]

Now that we have our camping-ground, the first thing we must do is to


Put Up the Wigwam

for shelter. Draw an eight-inch diameter circle on the grass near one
end of the ground. Fold a strip of paper lengthwise, stick a pin through
one end of the paper and drive it down into the board where you wish the
centre of the circle, push the point of a lead pencil through the other
end of the paper four inches from the pin; keep the pin steady while you
move the pencil around many times until a circle appears plainly on the
grass (Fig. 167).

[Illustration: Fig. 168.--Pole sharpened to flat point.]

Cut twelve slender sticks eleven inches long and sharpen the heavy end
of each into a flat point (Fig. 168). The sticks must be straight, for
they are wigwam-poles. Tie three poles together two inches from their
tops and spread out the sharpened ends at nearly equal distances apart
on the circle line; mark the spots where they rest and bore gimlet-holes
in each place through the cloth into the wood. Enlarge each hole with a
penknife and insert the poles, pushing the sharpened points down firmly
into the holes (Fig. 169). Add seven more poles around the circle,
keeping the spaces between all about even. Sink these last poles in the
ground as you did the first three; then tie the tops together around
the first three poles, and you will have the wigwam framework of ten
poles standing strong and firm.

[Illustration: Fig. 169.--First three poles planted firmly in edge of
circle for wigwam.]

[Illustration: Fig. 170.--Cover for wigwam.]

Make the cover of unbleached or brown-tinted cotton cloth cut like Fig.
170. Mark the curved lower edge with the home-made compass used for the
grass circle. Fasten the pin and pencil in the paper strip nine and
one-half inches apart; draw almost a half circle, then an inch and a
half from the spot A (Fig. 170), where the pin is stationed, begin to
cut the opening for the top of the wigwam poles, B (Fig. 170). Slash the
point C in as far as D, sew pieces of cloth over the points E and E,
leaving the opening at dotted lines to form pockets for the smoke-poles.
Cut two rows of little holes on each side of the upper part of the
wigwam to run the pinsticks through when fastening the wigwam together
(Fig. 171).

Now comes the fun of decorating the cover. Pin the cloth out flat and
smooth, and paint in brilliant red, yellow, black, green, white, and
blue the designs given in Fig. 170. When finished, fit the cover over
the wigwam-poles and with short, slender sticks pin the fronts together.
Peg the lower edge down to the ground with short black pins and slide a
pole in each pocket of the smoke-flaps E and E (Fig. 170). Bring the
poles around and cross them at the back of the wigwam. As you do this
you will exclaim with delight at the result, for the little wigwam will
be very realistic.

In front of your wigwam or tepee


Build a Make-Believe Fire

of bits of orange and scarlet tissue-paper mixed in with short twigs,
and then you must manufacture something to cook in. Bore a hole in the
ground near the fire and fit in the fire-pole, making it slant over to
one side and hang directly above the fire. Place a stone over the
embedded end of the pole to keep it firm. Suspend an acorn kettle or any
little kettle of the right size for the Indians to use on the pole and
the camp will begin to look cosey for the red men to enjoy. Hunt up a
jointed doll about five inches high, paint it copper color, ink its
hair, and the doll will be a fairly


Good Indian.

If you can find a Zulu doll of the required size, with long, straight
black hair, and give him a wash of dull red paint, you can turn him into
a fine Indian. Failing these dolls, make an Indian doll of dull red
raffia or cloth. This you can do if you try, and remember to have your
red man a little more slender than store dolls; most of these are rather
too stout to make good Indians.

[Illustration: Fig. 171.--Wigwam with make-believe camp-fire.]

Real chiefs like Turning Eagle, Swift Dog, Crazy Bull, and others, wore
gorgeous feather headdresses, and gloried in the strange war bonnets,
not because they were gay and startling, but for the reason that each
separate feather in the head-band meant that the owner had performed a
brave deed of which the tribe was proud, and the greater the number of
brave deeds the greater the number of feathers; consequently the longer
the bonnet-trail. This explains the real meaning of the common
expression, "A feather in your cap."

[Illustration: Fig. 172.--Pattern for war bonnet.]

Your Indian must be a mighty chief and will need a very long-trailing


War Bonnet.

Cut the head-dress like Fig. 172 of white paper. Paint all the paper
horse-hair tips on the paper eagle feathers red, the tops of the
feathers black, and the band in which they are fastened yellow, red, and
green, leaving white spaces between the colors (Fig. 173). Cut out, then
turn the end of the band F (Fig. 172) until the loop fits the Indian's
head, and glue the end of the loop on the strip (Fig. 173). Paste
fringed yellow paper around each of the chieftain's feet, fringed edge
uppermost, to serve as moccasins. Part the Indian's hair at the back,
bring the two divisions in front, one on each side of the head, and wind
each with scarlet worsted as the real Indian wears his hair, then wrap
around your red man a soft, dull-colored cloth extending from the waist
to the knees. Pin the drapery in place and the chief will be ready to
take charge of his bronco pony, which may be any toy horse you happen to
possess. The horse in the illustration is an ordinary cloth toy.

[Illustration: Fig. 173.--Indian war bonnet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 174.--Tie the four poles together and tie thongs
across centre for your travois.]

Red men are not fond of remaining long in one place, and naturally your
Indian will soon want to break camp and carry his belongings elsewhere.
Help him prepare by making


A Travois.

You will need four slender poles, two fifteen and one-half inches long,
one five and one-half and another six and one-half inches long. Bind the
six-and-a-half-inch pole across the two long poles four inches from
their heavy ends; fasten the five-and-a-half-inch pole across the long
poles two and one-half inches above the first cross-piece. Instead of
thongs of buffalo hide, such as the real red man would use, take narrow
strips of light-brown cloth to form the rude net-work over the space
bounded by the four poles. Tie the top ends of the long poles together
(Fig. 174), then tie the travois to the horse, as in Fig. 175. In most
of these conveyances the thongs are tied across one way only, from short
pole to short pole, forming a ladder-like arrangement.

[Illustration: Fig. 175.--Travois ready for camping outfit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 176.--Different parts of straw calumet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 177.--Calumet finished.]

A chief must always have his


Calumet,

or "pipe of peace," to smoke and pass around the council circle, when
all the leaders of the different tribes meet to talk over important
matters concerning the welfare of their people. Real calumets are
generally large and of goodly length, some of them being four feet long.
They are made of dull-red stone, which, when first cut from the large
mass, is soft enough to be carved out with a knife; later the pipe
becomes hard and capable of receiving a polish. But as the red stone is
not within our reach, we must use dull red-colored straw for the
calumet. Soak the straw in hot water to render it less brittle. Then cut
a three-inch length piece; make a hole in it a short distance from one
end (Fig. 176, G) and insert a three-quarter inch length of straw for
the pipe bowl (Fig. 176, H). For the mouthpiece take a half-inch length
of white straw (Fig. 176, I), and slide it in the other end of the pipe.
Glue both bowl and mouthpiece in place and decorate the calumet with
red, green, and white silk floss tied on the pipe stem (Fig. 177).


The Tomahawk

must not be forgotten. Soak a stick two and one-half inches long in hot
water; when it is pliable, split an end down one inch, no more (Fig.
178, J), and in true Indian fashion bind a stone hatchet (Fig. 178, K)
between the split sides of the stick handle with thongs of hide. Whittle
the little hatchet from a piece of wood, cover it with glue, then with
sand. When dry it will be difficult for others to believe that the
implement is not of real stone. Instead of thongs use thread (Fig. 179).

[Illustration: Fig. 178.--Handle and hatchet for tomahawk.]

[Illustration: Fig. 179.--Tomahawk ready for use.]


The Chieftain's Shield

is of hide taken from the neck of the bull bison; the piece must be
twice the required size for a finished shield to allow for the necessary
shrinkage. Over a fire built in a hole in the ground the skin is
stretched and pegged down. When heated, it is covered with a strong glue
made from the hoofs and joints of the bison, which causes the hide to
contract and thicken. As this process goes on the pegs are loosened and
again adjusted until the skin ceases to contract and absorb the glue.
Then the hide is much smaller and thicker than at first. When it has
slowly cooled, the skin is cut into a circle and decorated. Though
pliable, the shield is strong enough to ward off blows from arrows or
spears.

[Illustration: Fig. 180.--Diagram for shield.]

[Illustration: Fig. 181. Eagle feather of paper.]

[Illustration: Fig. 182.--Decorated Indian shield.]

Bison hide is something you cannot obtain, so take writing paper for the
shield. Cut it into a circle an inch and a half in diameter, with an
extension for the handle (Fig. 180). Glue the free end of the handle on
the opposite side of the back of the shield. Make ten paper eagle
feathers (Fig. 181), hang seven on the bottom of the shield with red
thread, after first decorating the centre of the shield with given
designs and the edge with colored bands, using any or all of the
following colors, but no others: positive red, blue for the sky, green
for the grass, yellow for the sun, white for the clouds and snow, and
black. To the Indian color is a part of religion. Purple, pinks, and
some other colors, the red man, loyal to his beliefs, can never bring
himself to use. Attach two of the remaining feathers at the top and
another on the centre of the shield, as shown in Fig. 182.

The Indian makes his


Arrow-heads

of triangular flakes of flint chipped from a stone held between his
knees and struck with a rude stone hammer. The pieces knocked off are
carefully examined, and only those without flaws are kept. Stones for
arrow-heads must be very hard. When found, the red men bury them in wet
ground and build fires over them, causing the stones to show all cracks
and checks. This enables the arrow-maker to discard those unfitted for
his work.

[Illustration: Fig. 183.--Paper flint arrow-head.]

Though you cannot make a real flint arrow-head, you can manufacture a
toy one. Take a piece of stiff pasteboard and cut it like Fig. 183. Let
the length be a trifle over half an inch. Cover the arrow-head all over
with a light coat of glue, then dip it in sand, and the arrow-head will
come out as if made of stone. Were it actually hard stone and large size
you would be obliged, as the Indians do, to trim and shape more
perfectly the point and edges of the arrow-head. You would hold a pad of
buckskin in your left hand to protect it from the sharp flint, and on
your right hand would be a piece of dressed hide to guard it from the
straight piece of bone, pointed on the end, which you would use to
strike off little bits of stone along both edges, working cautiously as
you neared the point in order not to break it. But such work will not be
needed on your arrow-head.

[Illustration: Fig. 184.--Insert arrow-head in shaft.]

[Illustration: Fig. 185.--Arrow-head and shaft bound together.]

For


The Shaft

hunt up a piece of wood strong and straight. Cut it three inches in
length, remove the bark and scrape the wood until it is about the
thickness of an ordinary match. Notch one end and split the other end
down one-quarter of an inch, insert the arrow-head (Fig. 184), then bind
the shaft and head together with thread (Fig. 185), in place of the wet
sinew an Indian would use for a real arrow, after he had first fastened
the head in the shaft with glue from buffalo hoofs.

[Illustration: Fig. 186.--Paper feather for arrow.]

[Illustration: Fig. 187.]

Cut three paper feather strips (Fig. 186), each an inch in length, paint
black bands on them, bend at dotted line and glue the feathers on the
shaft one-quarter of an inch from the notch, allowing them to stand out
at angles equally distant from each other (Fig. 187). Bind the
extensions L and M (Fig. 186) to the shaft, and tie tufts of white and
red worsted on immediately above the feathers to help in finding the
arrow (Fig. 188). Paint the shaft in brilliant colors.

Almost any kind of wood that has a spring will make


A Good Bow

for your little Indian. Cut the piece of wood four inches long and an
eighth of an inch wide. Scrape it flat on one side and slightly rounded
on the other, notch the stick at each end, wind the centre with red
worsted and paint the bow in bright hues (Fig. 189). Tie a strong thread
in one notch and bring it across to the other notch; tighten until it
bends the bow centre half an inch from the straight thread; tie the
thread around the notch (Fig. 190). Now try the wee weapon; hold it
vertically and shoot the little arrow into the air. It will fly very
swiftly away, landing many yards from where you stand.

[Illustration: Fig. 188.--Finished arrow.]

[Illustration: Fig. 189.--Bow ready for string.]

[Illustration: Fig. 190. Bow string.]

Make the bow case (Fig. 192) of ordinary wrapping paper cut like Fig.
191, three and a half inches long and two and a half inches wide. Fold
the paper lengthwise through the centre and glue the sides together
along the dotted lines; then fringe the edge up to the dotted line and
decorate with gay paint.

[Illustration: Fig. 191.--Cut bow case like this]

[Illustration: Fig. 192.--Bow case finished.]

Dress the jointed doll squaw in a fringed


Chamois-Skin Gown;

fold the skin and let one half form the front, the other half the back.
Cut the garment like the half N, in Fig. 193, stitch the sides together,
stitch the under part of the sleeves together and fringe both sleeves
and bottom of the dress (O, Fig. 193). Belt the gown in with scarlet
worsted and load the squaw down with strands of colored beads; then seat
her on the grass (Fig. 194) while you make the primitive loom for her to
use in weaving one of the famous


Navajo Blankets.

[Illustration: Fig. 193.--Squaw's chamois dress.]

Paint a two by four inch piece of white cotton cloth with a blanket
design in red and black, with white between the markings, and pin it
securely on a board (Fig. 195). Tie stones to a pole six inches in
length (Fig. 196); with long stitches fasten the stone-weighted pole to
the bottom edge of the painted cloth blanket (Fig. 197).

[Illustration: Fig. 194.--Squaw doll make-believe weaving Navajo blanket
on primitive loom.]

Two inches above the blanket attach a six-inch pole to the board with
pins and use a coarse needle and heavy thread to make the warp. Run the
thread through the wrong side of the blanket and up around the pole.
Cross it on the under side of the long thread (P, Fig. 197) which
extends from blanket to pole.

[Illustration: Fig. 195.--Indian blanket pinned on board.]

[Illustration: Fig. 196.--Stones tied to pole for bottom of loom.]

[Illustration: Fig. 197.--Building primitive loom.]

Carry the thread along the pole a short distance, loop it over (Q, Fig.
197) and bring the thread down through the right side of the blanket.
Take a long stitch and again carry the thread up over the pole. Continue
until the warp is entirely across the blanket. Pin another pole six and
a half inches long, three-quarters of an inch above the top pole, and
fasten the two poles together by tying loops of string across from one
to the other (Fig. 198).

[Illustration: Fig. 198.--Primitive loom ready for frame.]

Make the loom frame of two seven-inch poles four and a half inches apart
and crossed at the top by another seven-inch pole, the three firmly tied
together and made to stand erect on the grass by planting the two
upright poles in holes bored through the cloth grass into the board
ground. Hang the loom on this frame by winding a narrow strip of cloth
loosely around the top of the frame and top of loom (Fig. 194).

[Illustration: Fig. 199.--Natural twig and tissue-paper tree.]

Find a stout, short-branched twig for


The Tree

(Fig. 199). Sharpen the bottom and drive it into a hole in the ground.
For the foliage cut a fringe of soft green and olive-brown tissue-paper
folded lengthwise in strips. Crimp the strips with a blade of the
scissors, then open out the fringe; gather each one through the centre,
give the paper a twist, and the two ends will form bunches of foliage.
Work the twisted centre of one piece down into a crack at the top of the
tree. Over across this at right angles in another opening, fit in the
second twist of paper foliage and crown all with a bunch standing
upright as shown at Fig. 199.

[Illustration: Fig. 200.--The little papoose you can make.]

[Illustration: Cradle for papoose.]

A solemn


Little Papoose

bound in its stiff cradle is one of the drollest things imaginable.
Paint a small doll copper color, make its hair black, and bind the baby
in a cradle cut from brown pasteboard (Fig. 200). Cut along heavy line
and bend forward the tongue R along the dotted line, bring the strap S
across and glue the end on the under side of the cradle; then line the
cradle with white tissue-paper and place the Indian child on it; spread
a piece of vivid red tissue-paper over the infant, bringing the sides of
the cover on the under side of the cradle, where you must glue them.
Fold over the lower end of the paper and glue that also on the back of
the cradle. Paint the cradle and portions of the cover white, green,
black, and yellow (Fig. 200); then hang the cradle and baby on the limb
of the tree (Fig. 199), where the little papoose will be safe while his
squaw-mother works at her weaving.

The red men use queer money which they call


Wampum.

It is made of shells found usually along the borders of rivers and
lakes. The Indians cut the thick part of the shell into cylinders about
an inch long, bore holes lengthwise through the centres and string them
like beads on fine, strong sinews (Fig. 201), but this money is not as
pretty as glass beads, for it resembles pieces of common clay pipe
stems. A certain number of hand-breadths of wampum will buy a gun, a
skin, a robe, or a horse, and when presented by one chief to another the
wampum means good-will and peace. Of course, you will want to supply
your Indians with their own kind of money. You can string the wampum
into a necklace and decorate the strand with eagle claws, bright beads,
and tufts of gay worsted.

[Illustration: Fig. 201. Wampum, Indian money.]

[Illustration: Fig. 202. Buffalo claw cut from wood.]

Find some beads much smaller, but as near as possible in color and form
to real wampum, and string them with tiny eagle claws made of wood cut
like Fig. 202, only smaller. Paint the claws very dark gray, almost
black, and bore a hole through the heavy end with a hat-pin heated red
hot. The claws will then string easily and give quite a savage
appearance to the necklace (Fig. 203).

Let the colored worsted tufts, which must take the place of hair, be
bright-red, and the strands of round beads on each side of the necklace
of various colors (Fig. 203).

[Illustration: Fig. 203.--Indian necklace of wampum, eagle claws, tufts
of hair, and bone beads.]

Indians when they cannot obtain beads use gayly colored porcupine quills
for their embroidery. You need not try the embroidery, but be sure to
make the entire Indian encampment with everything pertaining to it.



CHAPTER XIII

A TOY COLONIAL KITCHEN WITH FAC-SIMILE COLONIAL FURNISHINGS.


WOULD it not be fun to see a yoke of real live oxen come slowly walking
into the kitchen dragging a load of logs? That is what many of the
colonial boys and girls saw every day, and frequently the boys helped
their fathers cut the logs which were for the big kitchen fireplace. And
such a fireplace! Large enough for the huge, roaring fire and the
chimney-seats also. These were placed close against the sides of the
opening, making fine places for the boys and girls to sit and listen to
thrilling tales of adventure or delightful fairy stories.

[Illustration: A LITTLE COLONIAL KITCHEN, DRAWN FROM ONE MADE BY THE
AUTHOR.

Fig. 204.]

The kitchen in those days was the chief apartment and the most
interesting room in the house. Who would want to go into the stiff, prim
"best room" when they could be so much more comfortable in the spacious
kitchen where everyone was busy and happy, and where apples could be
hung by a string in front of the fire to roast and made to spin cheerily
when the string was twisted, that all sides might be equally heated? Any
girl or boy to-day would be only too glad of a chance to sit on a log
in front of such a fire and watch red apples turn and sputter as the
heat broke the apple skin, setting free the luscious juice to trickle
down the sides.

As the Indian's first thought was for shelter, and he put up his wigwam,
so the early settler's first thought was for shelter, and he built, not
a wigwam, but a log-house with a kitchen large enough to serve as a
general utility room. It was filled with various things, and all
articles in it were used constantly. Everything not brought from the
mother country the settlers made by hand. The colonial kitchen you can
build may be of gray or white cardboard. Old boxes, if large enough,
will answer the purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 205.--Kitchen floor.]

I will tell you exactly how I built the colonial kitchen seen in Fig.
204. I made the floor (Fig. 205), the two side walls both alike (Fig.
206), the back wall (Fig. 207), and the interior of the fireplace (Fig.
208) of light-gray cardboard. I cut all the heavy lines, scored and
then bent all the dotted lines.

[Illustration: Fig. 206.--Side wall.]

[Illustration: Fig. 207.--Back wall.]

Now you do the same thing. Get your measurements correct and be careful
to make the lines perfectly straight. Before putting the kitchen
together, fasten the rustic brackets, cut from a branching twig (Fig.
209), on the wall above the mantel-piece to support the flintlock gun.
Take two stitches through the wall around each twig, as shown in Fig.
210, at the dots A and A and B and B (Fig. 207).

[Illustration: Fig. 208.--Interior of fireplace.]

Every colonial fireplace boasted of


A Strong Crane

upon which to hang the pots and kettles over the fire. One end of the
crane was bent down and attached to the side chimney wall by iron rings.
These rings allowed the crane to turn so that the extending iron rod
could be swung forward to receive the hanging cooking utensils and then
pushed back, carrying the pot and kettles over the fire for the contents
to cook. The crane was black and of iron. A hair-pin (Fig. 211) makes a
fine crane. Bend yours, as shown in Fig. 212, then with two socket-rings
made with stitches of black darning-cotton fasten the crane to the side
of the chimney at the dots C and C (Fig. 207), and tie a piece of the
darning-cotton on the little crane immediately below the lower
socket-ring; bring the thread diagonally across to the top arm of the
crane an inch and a quarter from the free end and again tie it securely
(Fig. 213).

[Illustration: Fig. 209.--A forked twig for the bracket.]

[Illustration: Fig. 210.--Put the brackets up in this way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 211.--The crane is made of a hair-pin.]

[Illustration: Fig. 212.--The crane.]

Bend the two sides of


The Fireplace

F and F (Fig. 207) as in Fig. 213. Bend forward the interior of the
fireplace (Fig. 208) at dotted lines, and fit Fig. 208 on the back of
Fig. 207 to form the inside of the fireplace and the mantel-piece. Slide
the slashed top strips of the sides of the fireplace D,D,D,D (Fig. 207),
back of the slashed strips D,D,D,D (Fig. 208), which will bring the two
centres E and E of the sides in Fig. 208 behind F and F in Fig. 207,
and will thus form two layers on the sides of the chimney. Push the edge
G and G of Fig. 208 through the slit G and G in Fig. 207 to form the
mantel-piece, then bend down the edge of mantel-piece along dotted line.

[Illustration: Fig. 213.--Back wall, showing crane hung and oven door
open.]

You must have


An Oven

at one side of the great fireplace for baking the wholesome "rye and
Indian" bread, and the delicious home-made apple, pumpkin, rice and
cranberry pies. In colonial days thirty large loaves of bread or forty
pies would often be baked at one time, so spacious were the ovens. These
side-ovens used to be heated by roaring wood fires built inside of them
and kept burning for hours. When the oven was thoroughly hot the cinders
and ashes were brushed out and in went the pies with a lot of little
ones called "patties," for the children. When these were cooked to a
golden brown each child was given his own piping hot "patty."

Make your box-like oven according to Fig. 214, cut the heavy lines,
score and bend the dotted lines. Bring the side H to the side I; lap I
over H so that the two slits, J and J, will exactly fit one over the
other; then bend the back down and run the flap J on the back through
the two slits J on the side, and the flap K through the slit K.

[Illustration: Fig. 214.--The oven.]

Adjust the oven back of the oven door L (Fig. 207), and fasten it tight
on the wall by sliding the flap M of the oven (Fig. 214) through the
slit M (Fig. 207) above the oven door; bend it down flat against the
wall. Bring the bottom oven-flap N in through and over the lower edge of
the oven door-way N (Fig. 207) and bend that also flat against the wall
(Fig. 213). The two side oven flaps will rest against the back of the
wall on each side of the oven door-way.

Now that is finished firm and strong, and you can


Put the Kitchen Together

in a few moments. Lay the floor (Fig. 205) down flat on a table; bend up
the two diagonal sides O and O, and slide the slit P in the side wall
(Fig. 206) down into the slit P of the floor (Fig. 205), bringing the
wall (Fig. 206) in front of the upturned floor-piece O (Fig. 205). In
the same way fasten the other side wall on the floor. Slip the two slits
Q and Q of the back wall (Fig. 207) down across the top slits (Q, Fig.
206) of the side walls. While bringing the back wall (Fig. 207) down to
the floor, slide its outside strips S and S over and outside of the
upturned pieces of the floor, S and S (Fig. 205), to hold them in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 215.--Pattern for andiron.]

As soon as the Indian's wigwam was up, he had a brisk fire to cook by,
for after shelter came food. The white man did likewise after his house
was built. Though he had andirons to help with his fire, even then to


Lay the Fire

in the immense fireplace required some skill. Cut two andirons of
cardboard (Fig. 215), bend at dotted lines, paint black, and the
andirons will stand alone and look like real ones (Fig. 216).

[Illustration: Fig. 216.--The andiron.]

[Illustration: Fig. 217.--The flames.]

Cut from red, orange, yellow, and black tissue-paper flames like Fig.
217; bend at dotted line and paste the mingled flames one at a time and
turned in varying directions on a piece of cardboard made to fit the
bottom of the fireplace. Adjust the little black andirons to the fire
and glue them in place; select a large log for the "back-log," and a
more slender one to lay across the front of the andirons. Place smaller
wood in between with the flames, and scatter a few bits of black paper
on the hearth underneath to appear like fallen charred wood. When
finished the fire should look as if it were actually sparkling, roaring,
and blazing (Fig. 218).

[Illustration: Fig. 218.--The flames leap up the chimney.]

[Illustration: Fig. 219.--Cut the shell in half.]

Your fire is ready, so you must hurry and get the


Great Iron Pot

to hang over the flames. Break an egg in halves as indicated by dotted
lines in Fig. 219; even off the edge of the larger half shell with a
pair of scissors, paste a strip of tissue-paper over the edge and glue
on a stiff paper handle (Fig. 220). Cut three pieces of heavy, stiff
paper like Fig. 221, bend at dotted line and pinch the two lower corners
on part T together to form the pot legs (Fig. 222). Turn the egg-shell
upside down and fasten the legs on by gluing the flap U (Fig. 221) on
the bottom of the shell; the legs should enable the pot to stand
upright. Turn the egg-shell into iron by painting the handle and outside
of the pot jet black (Fig. 223). Swing the crane forward, hang on the
pot, pretend you have something to cook in it, then move the crane back
over the fire.

[Illustration: Fig. 220.--A strip of paper for the handle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 221.--Cut the pot leg like this.]

[Illustration: Fig. 222.--Bend the pot leg like this.]

[Illustration: Fig. 223.--Paint the pot black.]

Remember all the time you are playing, that this is the way your
colonial ancestors cooked.

In days of long ago, they had many other


Odd Utensils

One of the easiest for you to make is the long-handled iron shovel
called a "peel" (Fig. 224), used to place bread and pie in the great
oven. Cut the peel from stiff cardboard, paint it black and stand it up
by the side of the chimney (Fig. 204). Trace the toaster (Fig. 225) on
cardboard, paint it black, bend up the four semicircular rings and bend
down the two feet, one on each side (Fig. 226).

[Illustration: Fig. 224.--A queer shovel called the "peel."]

[Illustration: Fig. 225.--Make the toaster by this pattern.]

Chicken and other eatables were placed between the front and back rings
on the toaster and broiled before the fire, which was so hot that it
was necessary to have long handles on all cooking utensils.

[Illustration: Fig. 226.--The toaster.]

[Illustration: Fig. 227.--Make a pot-hook like this.]

Several pieces of iron of varying lengths, generally made into the shape
of the letter S, were called "pot-hooks"; they hung on the crane. Make
two or three pot-hooks of cardboard and paint them black (Fig. 227).
When you are not using the little toaster, bend up the handle and hang
it on a pin stuck in the wall (Fig. 204).

[Illustration: Fig. 228.--The spinning-wheel and jointed doll
spinning.]

[Illustration: Fig. 229.--Spokes.]

Just look at your little colonial friend, Thankful Parker! (Fig. 228).
The tiny maid seems almost to be stepping lightly forward and backward
as she spins out long threads of the soft, warm yarn, singing softly all
the while a little old-fashioned song. How busily she works, and listen!
you can all but hear the wheel's cheery hum, hum, hum! That's the way
the real colonial dames used to spin. Such a


Spinning-Wheel

belonged to every family, for all had to do their own spinning or go
without the yarn, as they could obtain no assistance from others.

[Illustration: Fig. 231.--Small wheel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 232.--Stand.]

[Illustration: Fig. 233.--Wheel brace.]

Cut from cardboard the spokes (Fig. 229) for your miniature colonial
spinning-wheel, the tire (Fig. 230), and the two small wheels (Fig.
231). Bend forward the fan-shaped ends of each spoke (Fig. 229) and glue
the tire (Fig. 230) around on them; let one edge of tire lie flush on
the edges of the bent ends of the spokes.

[Illustration: Fig. 230.--Tire of wheel.]

With the exception of the square spaces AA and BB on the stand (Fig.
232) cut the heavy lines and the little holes; score, then bend the
dotted lines. Bend down the long sides and the ends fitting the corners
against and on the inside of the same letters on the sides, glue these
in place and you have a long, narrow box with two extensions on one side
(HH and GG). Bend these extensions, also their ends II and JJ, and glue
the ends on the inside of the opposite side of the box against the
places marked II and JJ.

Turn the box over, bringing the level smooth side uppermost. Cut out the
wheel brace (Fig. 233), turn it over on the other side, then bend AA
backward and BB forward, and glue the brace on the box-like stand (Fig.
232) on the squares AA and BB. See Fig. 228.

[Illustration: Fig. 234.--Upright.]

Make the upright (Fig. 234) of wood; shave both sides of the end, KK,
until it is flat and thin, then glue a small wheel (Fig. 231) on each
side, raising the wheels above the wood that the flat end of the
upright may reach only to their centres. Glue the wheels together to
within a short distance of their edges.

With the red-hot end of a hat-pin bore the hole LL through the front of
the upright, and below bore another hole, MM, through the side. Make the
screw (Fig. 238) and the block (Fig. 239) of wood. Run the screw through
the side hole MM in the upright (Fig. 234), and push the screw on
through the hole in the top of the block (Fig. 239). Break off more than
half of a wooden toothpick for the spindle (Fig. 236) and pass it
through the hole LL (Fig. 234).

[Illustration: Fig. 235.--Hub.]

Make the hub (Fig. 235) of wood and thread it in through the wheel and
brace (Fig. 233), to hold the wheel in place. Use two wooden toothpicks,
with the ends broken off (Fig. 237), for legs; insert these slantingly
into the holes, GG (Fig. 232), on the under part of the stand, allowing
the top ends to reach up and rest against the under side of the top of
the stand. Spread out the bottom ends of the legs.

[Illustration: Fig. 236.--Spindle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 237.--Leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 238.--Screw.]

[Illustration: Fig. 239.--Block.]

Run the upright (Fig. 234) through the single hole near one end of the
stand (Fig. 232) and pass it down through the under hole on HH. The
lower part of the upright forms the third leg. See that all three legs
set evenly when the wheel stands, and that the box part is raised
slightly higher at the upright end, slanting downward toward the other
end (Fig. 228). Glue the three legs firmly in place.

Connect the two small wheels (Fig. 231) and the large wheel together by
passing a string between the small wheels and over around the outside of
the tire of the large wheel, fastening it on here and there with a
little glue (Fig. 228). Twist a piece of raw cotton on the spindle and
tie a length of white darning-cotton to the end of the cotton (Fig.
228).

[Illustration: Fig. 241.--Hair-pin.]

[Illustration: Fig. 240.--Do her hair up in this fashion.]

Stretch the thread across to the hand of your colonial-dressed doll,
glue it in place, and the next time your mother attends a meeting of the
Society of Colonial Dames tell her to show your little maid Thankful
Parker and her spinning-wheel. When you


Dress the Doll

coil her hair up on top of her head (Fig. 240) and fasten it in place
with common pins (Fig. 241). Make the straight bang look as nearly as
possible as though the hair were drawn up into a Pompadour such as was
worn in Colonial times.

[Illustration: Fig. 242.--Pattern of cap.]

[Illustration: Fig. 243.--The cap.]

[Illustration: Fig. 244.--Cap band.]

[Illustration: Fig. 245.--Pattern of kerchief.]

Make the cap (Fig. 243) of thin white material cut like Fig. 242, and
the band (Fig. 244) of the same color as the dress. Cut the thin white
kerchief like Fig. 245, and fold it as in Fig. 246. Fig. 247 gives the
design for the dress waist, and Fig. 248 the sleeve. The skirt is a
straight piece gathered into a waistband. The apron (Fig. 249) is white.
When the doll is dressed it should resemble little Thankful Parker (Fig.
228). An


Old-Fashioned Flintlock Rifle

with its long, slender barrel was used almost daily by our forefathers
for securing game as food.

[Illustration: Fig. 246.--Fold the kerchief like this.]

[Illustration: Fig. 247.--Pattern of waist.]

[Illustration: Fig. 248.--Pattern of sleeve.]

[Illustration: Fig. 249.--The apron.]

The gun was kept hanging in plain sight over the kitchen mantel-piece,
ready for defence at a moment's notice, for in those early days wolves
and other wild animals were numerous and dangerous, and enemies were
also likely to appear at any time.

[Illustration: Fig. 250.--Lock and band of tinfoil.]

[Illustration: Fig. 251.--Make this part of pasteboard.]

You should have one of those queer old guns to adorn your kitchen wall.
Get some heavy tinfoil off the top of a bottle, or take a collapsible
tube and from it cut a wide strip like Fig. 250, one narrow, straight
strip and two medium-wide straight strips, four in all. Cut the butt end
of the gun (Fig. 251) of stiff cardboard. Break a piece measuring four
and one-half inches from a common coarse steel knitting-needle for your
gun-barrel and use a slender, round stick, or the small holder of a
draughtsman's pen, cutting it a trifle more than three and one-half
inches in length for the ramrod groove.

[Illustration: Fig. 252.--A pin for a ramrod.]

[Illustration: Fig. 253.--Slide the paper end in the wood like this.]

In the centre of one end of the stick bore a deep hole with the red-hot
point of a hat-pin and insert the pointed end of an ordinary pin for a
ramrod (Fig. 252). Split the other end of the stick up through the
centre not quite half an inch and work the butt end of the gun in the
opening (Fig. 253).

[Illustration: Fig. 254.--Ready for the tinfoil bands.]

Lay the gun-barrel above the wooden part (Fig. 254) and fasten the two
together with the four bands of tinfoil (Fig. 255), allowing the top
part of Fig. 250 to stand up free to represent the flintlock. We must be
content without a trigger unless you can manage to make one by bending
down and cutting a part of Fig. 250. Paint the butt and wooden portion
of the gun brown before binding on the barrel, and you will find that
you have made a very real-looking little rifle to hang upon the rustic
brackets over the mantel-piece.

[Illustration: Fig. 255.--Colonial flintlock made of knitting-needle and
small pen-holder.]

When the fire in your big kitchen fireplace needs brightening, use the


Little Bellows

to send fresh air circulating through the smouldering embers. The
bellows are easy to make. Cut two pieces of pasteboard like Fig. 256,
and cut two short strips of thin paper. Paste one edge of each strip to
each side of one piece of cardboard bellows, fold the strips across the
centre (Fig. 256), and attach the free ends of the folded strips to the
other piece of pasteboard bellows, forming a hinge-like connection on
each side between the two pasteboard sides. Paste the points of the two
sides together up as far as the dotted line (Fig. 256). When thoroughly
dry you can work the bellows by bringing the handles together and
opening them as you would real bellows (Fig. 257).

[Illustration: Fig. 257.--The finished bellows.]

[Illustration: Fig. 256.--Cut the bellows by this pattern.]

Heavy tinfoil must furnish material for your


Pewter Ware;

much of it has the same dull, leaden color and the peculiar look of old
pewter. Should the pieces of tinfoil you find be twisted and uneven, lay
them on a table and smooth out the creases with scissors or the dull
edge of a knife-blade; then cut out round, flat pieces and holding one
at a time in the palm of your left hand, round up the edges by rolling
the ball of a hat-pin around and around the plate; press rather hard and
soon the edges will begin to crinkle and turn upward (Fig. 258). You may
mould some deeper than others and have a row of different-sized pewter
plates on the kitchen mantel-piece, and you can make a wee pie in the
deepest plate, open the oven-door and shove the pastry into the oven
with the little iron peel. Try it.

[Illustration: Fig. 258.--Colonial pewter dish made of tinfoil.]

[Illustration: Fig. 259.--The warp.]

The colonial kitchen would be incomplete without a bright,


Home-like Rag Rug

to place over the bare board floor, and it will be fun for you to weave
it. Take a piece of smooth brown wrapping-paper the size you want your
mat, fold it crosswise through the centre and cut across the fold (Fig.
259), making a fringe of double pieces which we will call the warp.
Unfold the paper and weave various colored tissue-strips in and out
through the brown foundations (Fig. 260), until the paper warp is all
filled in with pretty, bright colors. You can weave the rug "hit or
miss" or in stripes wide or narrow as you choose, only make the rugs as
pretty as possible.

[Illustration: Fig. 260.--Weave the rug in this way.]

Now we must manufacture a fine


Old Colonial Clock

[Illustration: Fig. 261.--Colonial clock with movable weights.]

[Illustration: Fig. 262.--The clock is cut in one piece.]

(Fig. 261). It would never do to forget the clock, for poor little
Thankful would not know how long her many loaves of bread were baking in
the big oven, and the bread might burn. Cut Fig. 262 of cardboard and
score all dotted lines, except NN-OO, which forms the hinge of the door.
Mark this with a pinhole at top and bottom, turn the cardboard over and
draw a line from pinhole to pinhole; then score it on this line that the
door may open properly outward. Try to draw the face of the clock
correctly. Make it in pencil first so that any mistake may be erased and
corrected. When you have the face drawn as it should be, go over the
pencil lines with pen and ink. Begin the face with a circle (Fig. 263).
Make it as you made the circle for the wigwam, only, of course, very
much smaller. Above the circle, at the distance of half the diameter of
the circle, draw a curve with your home-made compass (Fig. 264).
Lengthen the compass a little and make another curve a trifle above the
first (Fig. 265). Connect the lower curve with the circle by two
straight lines (Fig. 266), draw a small circle above the large one (Fig.
267), connect the two circles by two scallops (Fig. 268), and bring the
upper curve down into a square (Fig. 269). The small top circle stands
for the moon; draw a simple face on it like Fig. 270, then make the
numbers on the large circle (Fig. 271) and also the hands (Fig. 272).
Both numbers and hands must be on the same circle on the clock. They are
on two different circles in the diagrams that you may see exactly how to
draw them.

[Illustration: Fig. 263.--Draw the circle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 264.--Then a curve above the circle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 265.--Another curve above the first one.]

[Illustration: Fig. 266.--Connect the lower curve with the circle by two
lines.]

Leave Fig. 269 white, but paint the other portions of the clock a light
reddish brown with black lines above and below the door, and a black
band almost entirely across the bottom edge of the front of the clock
that the clock may appear to be standing on feet. Gild the three points
on the top to make them look as if made of brass.

Be sure that the four holes in the top (Fig. 262) are fully large enough
to allow a coarse darning-needle to be passed readily through them; then
bend the clock into shape, fitting the extension PP over the extension
QQ; the two holes in PP must lie exactly over those in QQ. Glue the
clock together, using the blunt end of a lead-pencil, or any kind of a
stick, to assist in holding the sides and tops together until the glue
is perfectly dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 267.--Draw a small circle above the large one.]

[Illustration: Fig. 268.--Connect the two circles by two scallops.]

[Illustration: Fig. 269.--Extend line of upper circle down to form a
square.]

[Illustration: Fig. 270.--Make this face in the small circle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 271.--Put the numbers on the clock face in this
way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 272.--Make the hands of the clock like these.]

Thread a piece of heavy black darning-cotton in the largest-sized long
darning-needle you can find; on one end of the thread mould a
cylinder-shaped piece of beeswax, cover it with thin tinfoil, then open
the clock-door and hold the clock with its head bent outward and
downward from you. Look through the open door and see the holes on the
inside of the top; run your needle through one of these holes and
across the top on the outside, bringing it down through the other hole
into the clock. Slip the needle off the thread and mould another piece
of beeswax on the free end of the thread, make it the same size and
shape as the first weight, cover this also with tinfoil and you will
have clock-weights (Fig. 273) for winding up the old-fashioned
timepiece. Gently pull down one weight and the other will go up, just as
your colonial forefathers wound their clocks. When the weight is pulled
down in the real clock it winds up the machinery, and the clock
continues its tick, tack, tick, like the ancient timepiece Longfellow
tells us of, stationed in the hall of the old-fashioned country-seat.

[Illustration: Fig. 273.--Weights for winding the clock.]

[Illustration: Fig. 274.--Pattern of the churn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 275.--The churn.]

Do you like real country buttermilk, and have you ever helped churn? If
you live in the city or for some other reason are not able to make the
butter, you can still enjoy manufacturing a little


Colonial Churn

that will look capable of producing the best sweet country butter (Fig.
275).

[Illustration: Fig. 276--Cork lid to the churn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 278.--Dasher.]

[Illustration: Fig. 279.--Push the end of the handle through the
dasher.]

[Illustration: Fig. 280.--Cut end of handle pasted on the dasher.]

[Illustration: Fig. 277.--Handle of the dasher.]

[Illustration: Fig. 281.--Put the handle of the dasher through the lid.]

Cut Fig. 274 of heavy paper or light-weight cardboard; mark three bands
on it (Fig. 275). Make your churn much larger than pattern, have it deep
enough to stand as high as Fig. 275. Glue the sides together along the
dotted lines, turn up the circular bottom and glue the extensions up
around the bottom of the churn. Fit a cork in the top for the churn-lid
and make a hole through the centre of the cork for the handle of the
dasher (Fig. 276). Make the handle by rolling up a strip of paper as you
would roll a paper lighter. Glue the loose top end of the handle on its
roll; then cut the large end of the handle up a short distance through
its centre (Fig. 277). Cut the dasher (Fig. 278) from cardboard, slide
it over the divided end of handle (Fig. 279), bend the two halves of the
handle-end in opposite directions, and glue them on the dasher as shown
in Fig. 280. Slip the handle of dasher through the cork lid (Fig. 281),
and fit the lid in the churn (Fig. 275). Paint the churn and handle of
dasher a light-yellow-brown wood color, the bands black, and when dry
you can work the dasher up and down the same as if the churn were a real
one. Stand the churn in your kitchen not far from the fire so that
little Thankful may attend to the cooking while she is churning.



CHAPTER XIV

LITTLE PAPER HOUSES OF JAPAN


FRAGILE, quaint and full of sunshine and color are the typical houses of
Japan. They are so simple in construction a child might almost build
them, generally only one story in height and always without a cellar,
chimneys, fireplaces, windows, and even without a door. Yet the dainty
abodes are flooded with light and fresh air. How is it managed? Simply
by sliding the entire front of the house to one side, leaving the
building wide open. Often the back walls, too, are opened, and in some
houses the sides also. These cottages are usually part wood and part
paper. It seems strange to think of people actually living in paper
dwellings, but the Japanese understand how to manufacture strong,
durable paper. They delight in making all sorts of paper, from the
tough, well-nigh indestructible kind to the delicate, filmy variety, and
it is adapted to innumerable uses. In Japan people not only build paper
walls, but the very poor wear paper clothing.

We will make our


Japanese House

entirely of paper (Fig. 282). Take medium-weight water-color paper, or
any kind that is stiff enough and not too brittle, cut a piece sixteen
inches long and seventeen inches wide and on it mark the plan of the
large room (Fig. 283). This should measure sixteen inches across the
back from A to A, seventeen inches along the side from A to B, and
thirteen inches across the front from B to C. The back division forms
the foliage and the back of the room, the centre division the roof, and
the front division the front and sides of the room.

[Illustration: Fig. 282.--The little paper house.]

[Illustration: Fig. 283.--Plan of large room.]

No paste is used in making the building; the design is merely cut out,
bent into shape, and fastened together with projecting tongues run
through slits. Cut all the heavy lines, lightly score, then bend all the
dotted lines, except the two immediately across the front of the room at
top and bottom. This front is five inches wide and four and a half
inches high, with two openings in it and a portion extending down in
front to form the little porch. Make a pinhole at each end of the two
lines forming top and bottom of the front of the room A and B, then turn
the paper over and draw a top line and a bottom line across on the wrong
side of the paper from pin-point to pin-point. Score these on the wrong
side of the paper, for they must bend from that side in order to extend
inward from the right side to form the projection of the roof and the
top landing of the veranda. Fasten the room together, then cut out the
floor (Fig. 284), slide it in place and also the steps (Fig. 285),
marking straight lines across the diagram to indicate steps.

[Illustration: Fig. 284.--Floor of large room.]

Build the small room (Fig. 286) in the same way that you made the large
one. Cut it from a piece of paper nine and one-half inches wide and
thirteen and one-half inches long. This room has no floor. When finished
run the tongues extending out on the back of the room through the
remaining four slits at the side of the foliage on the back of the large
room (Fig. 283). Work carefully and you will be fully repaid.

[Illustration: Fig. 285.--The steps.]

Paint the roof of each room in little black squares with white markings
between to represent black tiling. Paint the outside of the house
yellow, the back wall of the large room pale blue, the floor light
brown. Paint the back of the small room mottled green and pink. Make a
band of light blue edged with black across the outside top of the front
opening and a red band across the bottom. Let the projecting veranda be
yellow, with vines across the lower part. Edge the openings of the large
room with two narrow bands, one purple the other black, and mark black
lines from side to side crossed with lines running from top to bottom
to form a lattice-like work on the side of the smaller opening (Fig.
282).

[Illustration: Fig. 286.--Plan of small room.]

The sides of the house are supposed to be formed of paper-covered
screens which slide in grooves and may be removed entirely when
desired. The interior of a real Japanese house is divided into rooms
merely by the use of sliding paper screens, and the entire floor may
readily be thrown into one large apartment, there being no solid
partitions as in our houses. Cut out flat round paper lanterns, paint
them with the gayest of colors and make the small top and bottom bands
black; then with needle and thread fasten the lanterns along the top
front of the large opening of the small room (Fig. 282).

You need not be concerned in the least about furnishing the little
house: it does not need any furniture, for the Japanese have no stoves,
chairs, tables, knives or forks, carpets, bedsteads, washstands,
bookcases, desks, framed pictures, nor any comforts like ours.


The Floors

are covered with clean, thick, soft matting rugs and are just the place
for girls and boys to play, and have a good time running about in their
stocking feet, for in Japan people always take off their shoes before
entering a house and everyone goes either stocking-footed or barefooted
when indoors, so the floor-mats are kept free from dust.

Of course, men, women, and children all sit on the floor; and when


Breakfast is Ready

the floor is set instead of a table, and each person receives his own
little lacquer tray placed on the floor, or on a low wooden stool, with
the individual portion of rice in a delicate china bowl, pale tea in
dainty teacups and shredded or diced raw fish in china a queen might
envy. On the tray are also a pair of ivory chopsticks, which even a
little child can manage skilfully, in place of the spoon, knife, or
fork that our girls or boys would use. The Japanese do not have bread,
butter, milk, or coffee, and never any meat, but they cultivate a
mammoth radish which is cut up, pickled and eaten with relish. For
dinner they take pale tea, rice, and fish, and for supper fish, pale
tea, and rice. Often the fish is cooked, sweetmeats are served and
pickled radish also, but frequently the breakfast consists of merely a
bowl of cold rice. These unique people do not seem to think or care much
about their food; many times they deny themselves a meal that they may
spend the money on a feast of flowers in some garden where they can
enjoy gazing upon masses of exquisite cherry blossoms, chrysanthemums,
or other flowers. No nation in the world loves flowers more than the
Japanese, and none can rival them in the beautiful arrangement of their
blossoms.

When night comes the natives


Never Go to Bed,

for there are no beds. Soft silk or cotton comforts are brought to each
person, and the people roll themselves up in the comforts and sleep any
place they wish on the floor, using little wooden or lacquer benches for
pillows; usually these have a roll of soft paper on the top, making them
a little more comfortable. Take a comfort and try sleeping on the floor
with some books under your head and you will know how it feels to sleep
in Japanese style.

Every Japanese house should have its


Fenced-in Garden.

Make your fence of paper cut according to Fig. 287, and mark the pattern
(Fig. 288) on it with two tones of yellow paint. Paint the convex top of
the gate-way a bright red with narrow black border, and mark the white
gate-posts with black Japanese lettering like Fig. 289. Paint the
remaining portions of the gate-way yellow, the edges black. Fig. 282
will help you to grasp the idea of the fence and gate-way. The names of
the streets are not on the corners as in our cities, so a panel of white
wood is nailed to the gate-posts with both the name of the street and
householder on it, and often a charm sign is added.

[Illustration: Fig. 287.--Fence and gate-way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 288.--Draw this pattern on the fence.]

Put up the fence by slipping the upper tongues on each end through the
slit on the outside front edge of each room, then sliding the lower
tongues of the fence through the lower outside edges of rooms and
porches (Fig. 282).

[Illustration: Fig. 289.--Signs for gate-posts.]

Both boys and girls have fine times in Japan, and they are as happy as
the day is long. On the fifth day of the fifth month the boys reign
supreme, and their relatives and friends vie with each other in their
endeavors to render the day a happy one for the little fellows. All
Japan is alive and anxious to celebrate the occasion. Quaint flags in
the shape of enormous fish swim in the air and float over the towns,
forming bright masses of color. Every home that is blessed with one or
more boys displays a fish banner for each son, the younger the child the
larger the fish, and the proudest house is the one that can boast of the
greatest number of fish flying from its bamboo pole. Every Japanese
boy's birthday is celebrated on this day with great rejoicing, no matter
at what time of the year he was born.

[Illustration: Fig. 290.--Upper half of koi.]

[Illustration: Fig. 291.--Under half of koi.]

[Illustration: Fig. 292.--The koi--emblem of undaunted determination.]

[Illustration: Fig. 293.--Boy's birthday pole.]

Make


Several Fish

for the pole to be placed in front of the little paper house; they look
very comical, bobbing and swinging high in air with their wide-open
mouths. Cut Fig. 290 of white tissue-paper, also Fig. 291, which is a
trifle larger than the first and is slashed along three edges. Lay Fig.
290 on top of Fig. 291; bend the flaps over and paste them on Fig. 290.
Form a little hoop of a strip of stiff paper with the ends pasted
together; blow the fish open, then paste the hoop on the inside of the
open edge of the head to form its immense mouth. When dry mark the fish
with red paint like Fig. 292. Tie a thread on the two opposite sides of
the mouth and with another thread attach the loop to a slender stick on
the end of which you have fastened a gold disk made of two pieces of
gilt paper. This is intended to represent the rice ball with which the
real fish are fed. The fish banners are hollow so that the wind may fill
them, causing the fish to rise and fall as the breeze comes and goes.
Push the end of your fish-pole through the centre of a small box-lid or
button mould (Fig. 293) and stand the decoration outside the gate-way of
the little house. The fish used on this eventful day are the famous
carp, which the natives call _koi_, the unconquerable. The Japanese carp
stands for good cheer, indomitable will, perseverance and fortitude, and
it is used to impress these virtues upon the boys, but all the good
qualities named are fully as necessary for girls even though the
Japanese do not mention the fact, but girls are not forgotten. The
nation gives them the third day of the third month for their festival.
It is called the


"Feast of Dolls,"

and is a gala day for little girls. Dolls and gorgeously dressed images,
representing the Mikado, nobles, and ladies, are brought out and placed
on exhibition, along with beautiful jars containing queer little trees
and rare vases filled with flowers. The day is made a joyous one and a
day long to be remembered by the little girls.

[Illustration: Fig. 294. Pattern of kago.]

There are no sidewalks in Japan, the pavements being laid lengthwise
through the centre of the streets, and on this path people stroll or
hurry along. Mingled with the others are the Japanese laboring men,
called coolies, carrying between them


The Kago,

which swings from a pole the ends of which rest on the men's shoulders.
The _kago_ is a sort of canopied hammock chair. You can easily fashion a
tiny one from paper and straw. Cut Fig. 294 of stiff paper, make it
three inches long and at the broadest part an inch and a quarter wide.
Paint the _kago_ yellow, and to form the framework sew on each end a
piece of heavy broom straw, jointed grass, or straw which has been
limbered by soaking, and cut a piece six and three-quarter inches long
for each side. Bring the side straws together beyond each end and bind
them (Fig. 295). Then hunt up a slender round stick six inches long and
sew the _kago_ on it by means of thread loops at each end (Fig. 296).
Make the canopy of a piece of stiff paper three and one-half inches long
and two and one-quarter inches wide, paint it yellow, and with stitches
only at each end sew it firmly on the pole over the seat of the _kago_
(Fig. 297).

[Illustration: Fig. 295.--Bind the edges of the kago with grass or straw
like this to make the frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 296.--Tie the kago to the pole.]

[Illustration: Fig. 297.--Sew the top on over the pole.]

[Illustration: Fig. 298.--The little lady rides in her kago.]

Either buy a little


Japanese Umbrella

or make one of a disk of green tissue-paper folded and crimped from
centre to edge. Use a heavy broom straw for the handle and lighter ones
for the ribs; stick them in, gluing them only to the centre, which is
now the top of the umbrella; wind the top of the umbrella, the ribs, and
the handle firmly together with black thread. The umbrella will not open
but looks well closed. Place a tied bundle of red tissue-paper and the
green umbrella on top of the yellow _kago_ and fasten them securely in
place with black thread (Fig. 298). Fold a piece of soft,
lavender-colored material on the seat of the _kago_ as a comfort for the
doll to sit on; then fit in a little Japanese doll or any kind of doll
dressed and painted to resemble a little Jap. The doll's head should
reach up, or almost up, to the canopy. Pull part of the comfort over the
doll and fasten her snugly up in a sitting position. Make a gay paper
fan and attach it to one of the doll's hands, and the little lady will
be ready to go on her journey.



CHAPTER XV

SOME ODD THINGS IN RUSSIA


IN his own country the Czar is almost worshipped by the people, and when
his coronation takes place, crowds of loyal Russians flock to Moscow,
the former in hopes of obtaining a glimpse of their beloved ruler, or at
least of seeing portions of the grand procession, the beautiful
decorations and the gay festivities which always form part of the
jubilant occasion.

For centuries the great white Czars have been crowned in the


Cathedral of the Assumption,

which, though not large, is magnificent, and is the most important
building in all Russia. The structure stands, surrounded by many other
sacred edifices, in an enclosure known as the Kremlin, situated in the
centre of the city of Moscow. Its white walls support a vaulted roof of
soft, dull green crowned with golden cupolas, each cupola surmounted by
a shining golden cross. The interior is resplendent almost beyond
description with its rich coloring, its jewel-framed paintings, its
sculptures, its gold, silver, and precious stones, its priceless robes
and holy relics.

[Illustration: Fig. 299.--Miniature Cathedral of the Assumption.]

To give a true conception of the wonderful interior of the sacred
cathedral to one who has never seen it, is impossible, but we can gain
an idea of the general appearance of the exterior by making a miniature
Cathedral of the Assumption (Fig. 299). Find, or make, a firm white
pasteboard box seven inches long, five and one-quarter inches wide, and
four and one-half inches high; this is for the body of the building.
Fold a strip of paper seven inches in length, crosswise, through the
centre, and bring the ends together, making another fold crosswise
through the centre of the doubled strip, which will give four layers of
paper of equal length. Cut this into a scallop three-quarters of an inch
deep, open out the strip and you will have four scallops, each one and
three-quarters inch wide, at its base. Lay the strip in turn along each
of the top edges of the sides of the box, and mark the box around the
edges of the scallops, drawing four scallops on the two long sides of
the box, and three on each of the short sides. Cut out the scallops on
top of the box; then take the cover of the box, which must form the roof
of the structure, and remove the bent-down sides; trim off with scissors
the extreme edge of one long side and one short side, until the cover
forms a tight fit in the top of the box, but may, with gentle pressure,
be made to slide down one inch. Fasten the roof in place at each corner
by running a strong pin from the outside wall through into the roof,
until the pin is embedded its full length in the roof.

[Illustration: Fig. 300.--The Door-way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 301. The door.]

[Illustration: Fig. 302.--Door window.]

[Illustration: Fig. 303.--Upper window.]

[Illustration: Fig. 304.--Lower front windows.]

[Illustration: Fig. 305.--Lower side windows]

Now cut the


Door-way

(Fig. 300) of light reddish-brown paper; make it three inches high and
one and one-half inch wide. Let the door proper (Fig. 301) be of inked
paper an inch and a half high by an inch and a quarter wide, the
door-window (Fig. 302) one inch and a quarter high by three-quarters of
an inch wide. Cut the upper row of windows like Fig. 303 and the lower
front windows according to Fig. 304. Make the lower side windows double
(Fig. 305). The door-arch (Fig. 306) must be a trifle over two and
one-quarter inches long. Curve the arch by drawing it across a blade of
the scissors, paint it green on both sides, bend down the slashed
portion, and paste the arch over the door-way, as in Fig. 299.

[Illustration: Fig. 306.--The door-arch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 307.--The paper cross.]

[Illustration: Fig. 308.--A cross on the top of each cupola.]

Make five


Cupolas

of white writing-paper. For each cupola, cut a piece of paper five
inches long. Let the first be three inches wide and the remaining four
two and one-quarter inches wide; slash up the bottom edge of each cupola
one-quarter of an inch; then half an inch below the top edge of each
cupola paste a row of narrow, three-quarter-inch high windows cut from
inked paper (Fig. 303). When the windows are on, paste the two ends of
each cupola together, lapping them one-quarter of an inch. Bend out the
lower slashed edge and glue the highest cupola on top of the centre of
the roof; fasten the other four on the roof near the corners and at
equal distances from the centre (Fig. 299). Have ready five half
egg-shells and glue one on the top of each cupola. Then cut five paper
crosses (Fig. 307), each measuring about two inches in height,
including the lower slashed portion. Fasten a cross on top of each
egg-shell (Fig. 308). Gild all the crosses and shells, bringing the gilt
down into a narrow band on the paper below the shells. On the edge of
each shell paste a narrow black-painted paper strip (Fig. 309),
adjusting it so that the gilt on the white paper will show below the
points.

[Illustration: Fig. 309.--A narrow black strip.]


To Make the Roof

fasten a five-eighths-inch wide strip of paper along and over the
scalloped top edge of the four sides of the building, using strong paste
or glue for the purpose (Fig. 310); be sure that the strip is on even
and firm; then let it dry. Paint the entire flat roof and flat top
surface of the scallops green, using the same paint selected for the
door-arch. Oil paint is best. Be careful not to spatter green on the
white and gold cupolas.

[Illustration: Fig. 310.--Fasten a strip of paper along the edge.]

When finished, place your little cathedral up high on a level with your
eyes, turn it until you have the view which is given in Fig. 299, and
you can very easily imagine just how the real Cathedral of the
Assumption appears.

Thousands of girls, boys, and grown-up men and women in freezing, snowy
Russia,


Sleep On Their Stoves

every night during the long winter months. How strange it would seem to
be away up on top of a great warm stove, built of brick and nearly as
high as the ceiling! The Russians do not bother about making the bed, or
rather the stove, for they have no sheets, blankets, or bedspreads. When
it is time to retire, the inmates climb up on top of the great
whitewashed stove and sleep just as they are, in the clothing they wear
during the day.

[Illustration: Fig. 311.--Dress a doll like a Russian.]

[Illustration: Fig. 312.--Half of cap.]

If you would know how the average Russian looks,


Dress a Doll Like a Russian

(Fig. 311). Cut two halves of a muslin cap (Fig. 312) and sew them
together (Fig. 313). Sew in strands of tan-colored darning cotton on a
line around the cap, midway from top and bottom (A-B, Fig. 312), and
also sew a line of tan-colored strands on each side of the middle
stitching of the white cap, until the lower fringe is reached. Fig. 314
shows the fringe of hair partially sewed on the cap. Glue this cap on
the doll's head, smooth down the hair and cut it off straight around,
making the hair a trifle shorter at the back than the front.

[Illustration: Fig. 313.--The cap.]

[Illustration: Fig. 314.--The fringe of hair partially sewed on.]

Cut another piece of cloth (Fig. 315), and sew in a fringe of the
tan-colored cotton (Fig. 316); glue this on the doll to form the beard,
and trim off the edges. Paint the moustache on the face, making it the
color of the hair. Russians, as a rule, are blonds, having either red or
lighter-colored hair.

[Illustration: Fig. 315.--Another piece of cloth.]

[Illustration: Fig. 316.--The beard.]

Make the trousers loose and bind them to the doll below the knees. The
Russian leather boots which the natives wear always reach up over the
trousers, and you can make such boots by painting the doll's feet black
and sewing straight pieces of black material on the doll for boot-legs,
allowing the cloth to be long enough to wrinkle around the ankle.

Try to make the boots appear as if laced up the front, for many wear
them so in Russia. The blouse should be loose and belted in at the
waist, hanging straight and square around the bottom. In case your doll
has real hair, omit the wig and cut the real hair in Russian style.

These people never use their immense stove for heating a teakettle,
though they drink tea upon all occasions. To make tea they resort to a
samovar, which is a curious brass or copper vessel, shaped something
like an urn. When the tea is ready, it is poured into tall glasses, a
slice of lemon is put in each glass, and the tea drunk scalding hot. The
beverage is called _chai_, and the Russians enjoy it so much that they
often take twenty glasses in succession. When one desires sugar, it is
not put in the tea, but held in one hand, and a portion bitten off from
time to time between the swallows of tea.

[Illustration: Fig. 317.--A little Russian samovar.]

If you will empty an egg-shell of its contents and get a sheet of white
writing-paper, a small square box, a piece of yellow sealing-wax, some
liquid gilt, and five gilt beads, four about the size of large peas, and
the fifth a trifle larger, we can manufacture


A Little Russian Samovar

like Fig. 317. Should you have no box, make one of pasteboard one inch
square and half an inch high; if you cannot get the beads, use small,
round buttons. The four beads or buttons are feet for the samovar.
Fasten one on each corner of the bottom of the box with sealing-wax,
then glue the broken centre of the large end of the egg-shell on the
middle of the top of the box. Cut the handles from paper according to
Fig. 318, making each handle one inch and a half long and half an inch
wide. Run the half of one handle over the edge of a blade of the
scissors; this will cause the paper to curl. Turn the handle over and
curl the other half in the opposite direction; bend the handle at the
dotted line, one-quarter of an inch from the lower edge, and paste it on
one side of the samovar, midway between top and bottom. Make the other
handle in the same way, and fasten it on the opposite side.

[Illustration: Fig. 318. The handle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 319.--The faucet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 320.--The different parts of the samovar.]

Cut the faucet (Fig. 319) of paper one inch wide; roll the paper up from
the bottom, bringing the handle on top; bend the handle straight up,
and bend the spout down in front of the handle. Glue the other end of
the faucet to the front of the samovar with sealing-wax, placing it near
the bottom, half-way between the two handles.

Make the top chimney of a roll of paper a generous inch in width. Paste
the loose edge of the paper down on the roll, and pierce a hole in the
roll one-quarter inch from the bottom, making it large enough to admit
the end of a match. Glue a burned match in this hole, allowing the main
part to extend out one-quarter of an inch from the chimney. Fasten a
small, round, flat button on the end, and attach a round paper disk
three-quarters of an inch in diameter to the top of the chimney,
crowning the disk with the large bead.

Fig. 320 gives all the different parts of the samovar and shows as
nearly as possible how they should be put together. When the samovar is
finished, gild it all over, and you will have a unique little creation
that would delight the heart of a Russian.



CHAPTER XVI

POTTERY WITHOUT A POTTER'S WHEEL


ALMOST every girl at one time in her life has loved dearly to make
mud-pies, and it is not strange, for her mother, grandmother, and many,
many times great-great-grandmother before her delighted in making
mud-pies. The last, the primitive women of our race, made them to some
purpose, for they were the inventors of pottery. The home-making,
house-keeping instinct was strong even in these women, who had no houses
to keep, and they did their best with the material at hand.

First they wove rude baskets for holding and carrying food; then they
learned that cooked food was better than uncooked and could be preserved
much longer, so they made baskets of a closer weave and cooked in them
by means of water heated by hot stones; finally, they tried cooking over
the fire in shallow baskets lined with clay. The clay came out of the
basket baked and hard, and behold, they had a new kind of
vessel--fire-proof and water-proof.

We may imagine with what joy they welcomed this addition to their meagre
store of home-making utensils and with what patient industry they strove
to improve upon this discovery.

[Illustration: Making coiled pottery]

They used their baskets as moulds to hold the soft clay, and they
fashioned the clay without moulds into shapes suggested by natural
objects. The sea-shells furnished inspiration and many vessels were made
in their beautiful forms.

The first potter was a woman, even as the first basket-maker was a
woman, and, coming down to our own times, the important discovery of the
production of exquisite colors and blending of colors in the Rookwood
pottery was made by a woman.

Discovered, developed, and still, in many cases, carried on by women,
surely pottery is a woman's art, and as a girl inheriting the old
instincts, you may find it the simplest and most natural means of
expressing your individuality and love of the beautiful. Beginning as
these gentle savages began, using their primitive method, you may be
inspired to study deeper into the art, and perhaps become the discoverer
of some new process that will give to the world a still more beautiful
pottery.

Even the smallest girls may do something in


Coiled Pottery,

for it is very simple and easy at first, growing more difficult only as
one grows ambitious to attempt more intricate forms.


The Clay

ready for use you will find at any pottery. If it is dry break into
small pieces, put it in a large stone jar, and cover with cold water;
let it stand until thoroughly soaked through and then stir with a stick
until well mixed, and work with your hands--squeezing and kneading until
free from lumps and perfectly smooth. When it is dry enough not to be
muddy, and is of the consistency of dough, it is in good working
condition.

Keep the clay always in the jar and closely covered that it may not
again become too dry.

Besides the clay you will need a table to work on, a pastry-board, a
thin block of wood about twelve inches square, a wet sponge for cleaning
and moistening your fingers, and several simple tools.


The Table.

If you stand at your work, a tall office stool with rotating seat will
be just the thing you want, for by turning the seat this way and that
you may look at your work from all sides without disturbing its
position. Any kind of ordinary table will answer the purpose, however.
On top of the table or stool place your pastry-board, and at the
right-hand side the sponge, which must be kept quite damp.

[Illustration: Fig. 321.--A short, flat stick.]

[Illustration: Fig. 322.--The tools. Piece of round stick sharpened at
each end.]

You will want but


Few Tools

as most of the work is done by the fingers alone. A short, flat stick,
sharpened on one side like the blade of a knife (Fig. 321), an old
penknife, a piece of round stick sharpened at each end like Fig. 322,
and some emery-paper are all you will need at first.

On the pastry-board place a large lump of clay, then take a handful of
the clay and begin to make


The Roll

by turning it lightly between your hands (Fig. 323). When the clay
lengthens out lay it on the board, and roll under your hands, as perhaps
you have done when making dough snakes. Keep your clay snake of an even
size its entire length, be careful not to flatten any part, and continue
to roll it with a light touch until it is about the thickness of your
little finger. Place your square block on the stand before you, and in
the centre begin


To Coil the Clay

(Fig. 324). When you have made a disk about two and one-half inches in
diameter, lift the roll and build up the sides, coiling slowly round and
round, pinching it slightly as you go, with the last row always resting
on the one just beneath (Fig. 325).

[Illustration: Fig. 323.--Turn it lightly between your hands.]

[Illustration: Fig. 324.--Begin to coil the clay.]

Unless you have made a very long roll, which is not easy to handle at
first, you will soon have to stop coiling for lack of material. Do not
use all of the first roll, but allow the end to rest on the table, where
it can be joined to the new roll you are to make. Pinch the end of the
new roll to that of the old and round the joint between your hands.

[Illustration: Fig. 325.--Lift the roll and build up the sides.]

Continue coiling until you have made a cup-shaped vessel three inches
high, then break off the roll and flatten the end to meet the surface of
the brim. Moisten your fingers on the sponge, and smooth the inside of
the cup, holding the walls in place with your left hand curved around
the outside (Fig. 326). Do not press too hard with either hand, but
slide your fingers gently round and round over the inner surface. When
the coils on the inside have become well flattened mix a little clay and
water into a paste, and spread it on, filling any cracks that may still
be left between the coils, constantly smoothing all the time.

[Illustration: Fig. 326.--Smooth the inside of the cup.]

You will find that this process has, at first, the effect of broadening
the base and lowering the sides of the cup, and until you have quite
mastered the method you must allow for the broadening and flattening of
your work. Your cup, with a base of two and one-half inches and sides
three inches in height, will now probably be a saucer measuring about
four inches across the bottom, and not more than one inch and a half in
height. It matters little, though, at this stage what shapes you turn
out. Do your best with each piece, and if the work flattens turn it into
a pretty dish by pinching the edge to form a little lip, and adding a
handle like Fig. 327.

[Illustration: Fig. 327.--Turn it into a pretty dish.]

As you are working without a wheel the symmetry of your pottery must
depend entirely upon your eye and hand, therefore keep turning the block
upon which it stands that no irregularity may be overlooked.

When you add ornaments or handles see that the roll of clay from which
you make them adheres closely to the vessel. Add soft clay to the joints
and smooth until the whole seems to be of one piece.

[Illustration: Fig. 328.--The outside corrugated by the coil.]

In your first attempts leave the outside of the pottery corrugated by
the coils (Fig. 328); later work you may smooth, making a surface equal
to that turned on a wheel. Do not try to finish a piece in one day; it
is much better to allow it to harden a little and become set, then make
it as smooth as you can with your tools, levelling the edges and taking
away extra thicknesses. If this cannot be done at one time, set the work
away once more covered with a damp cloth and it will keep in good
working condition for any length of time, but remember, the cloth must
be kept damp, otherwise the clay will harden.

When you have perfected your piece of pottery to your satisfaction put
it away to dry, _not_ in the sun. Several days later, after it has
become quite hard, go over the surface again with knife and emery-paper,
scraping and rubbing down until it is entirely smooth and free from
flaws. The work will then be ready to take to the potter for firing.

The color of clay changes in firing, and your little piece of pottery
will probably come back to you almost the color of old ivory. One cannot
be very positive about the color, however, for clays vary, and perhaps
yours may be of a kind that will fire another color. The potter will
glaze your work for you if you wish, or leave it in the bisque. Nothing
has been said about what


Shapes to Make the Pottery,

for that will depend much upon your own taste and ability. Rather low,
flat, dish shapes are most easily handled and variations in the cup or
flower-pot shape. After these may come the jars and vases. Set a
well-shaped piece of pottery before you as a model to copy, until you
have ideas of your own to carry out, and learn to handle your clay
before attempting too ambitious a subject.



CHAPTER XVII

BABY ALLIGATORS AND OTHER THINGS OF CLAY


THE first chance you have go to Florida; you will be charmed with all
you see. Go where the sky is bluest, where winter is changed to summer,
where the wild mocking-bird, the Kentucky cardinal, the scarlet tanager,
the blue jay and a host of other birds are on most friendly terms with
girls and boys. Go where the wild squirrels live unmolested in the
beautiful great live-oaks, whose branches are hung with long, soft gray
moss which swings and sways with the slightest breeze. There you will
find the home of many baby alligators, queer little things whose eyes
are provided with three eyelids; one is transparent and slides across
sidewise like a window-glass to keep the water out of the eyes when the
little fellows want to see what is going on beneath the surface. A
number of baby alligators in a dry, sunny spot, will delight in piling
upon each other four and five deep. The young owner of twenty of these
pets declares that on such occasions all the alligators sleep except one
who, wide-awake, acts as sentinel. At the approach of anyone he will
swing his long tail over all his companions to awaken them and warn them
of the danger that may be near. Fig. 329 was modelled from a baby
alligator who conducted himself in a most dignified and exemplary manner
when placed flat down on a shingle lying on a table; but first he had to
be held in position for a moment in order to recover from the excitement
caused by being taken from his out-of-door home and brought into strange
quarters.

[Illustration: Fig. 329.--Alligator modelled from life.]

It is not difficult to model a


Baby Alligator of Clay.

[Illustration: Fig. 330.--Clay for modelling alligator.]

[Illustration: Fig. 331.--Clay rolled between the hands.]

[Illustration: Fig. 332.--Beginning the head.]

[Illustration: Fig. 333.--Extra pieces on for eyes and nose.]

[Illustration: Fig. 334.--Head almost in shape.]

[Illustration: Fig. 335.--Head finished.]

All you need for the work is a lump of soft clay, a hat-pin, your
fingers, and determination to succeed. Take a piece of clay (Fig. 330)
and roll it between your hands until it resembles Fig. 331. Push the two
ends together, causing the roll to hump up slightly near the centre, lay
it down on a board or any hard, flat surface, and with the fingers
carefully pat, squeeze, and push it into the form of Fig. 332. Gently
smooth out all roughness; then nip off little pieces of clay from the
big lump for the nose and two eyes; stick them on as in Fig. 333. Again
smooth the rough edges until the clay looks like Fig. 334. With a little
careful modelling you can make the head exactly like Fig. 335. Mark the
eyes, mouth, and nose with the flat point of the pin. If portions of the
head become too thick, take off some of the clay, and if at any time the
head is worked down too thin fill in the hollow spots with clay. In
modelling one can always pinch off pieces here and there when necessary;
or add little bits, smooth it all down, and the places altered will
never show the marks of the change.

When the head is finished cover it with a wet cloth to keep the clay
moist, and begin to make


The Body.

[Illustration: Fig. 336.--Clay for body of alligator.]

[Illustration: Fig. 337.--Body of alligator.]

Mould another piece of clay like Fig. 336. Run the ball of your thumb
along the sides, making the body the form of Fig. 337, broader and
thicker through the centre than at the two ends. For the tail pull from
the large lump a smaller amount of clay, roll it and model it like Fig.
338, larger at one end than at the other. The last portion (Fig. 339),
like the others, is flat on the bottom, and with the exception of a
small triangle at the heavy end of the tail the two sides meet at the
top, forming a sharp ridge which decreases in height as it tapers down
to a point at the extreme end. As each part is finished keep it moist
with a wet cloth, and when the four sections are made place them in a
row (Fig. 340), then join them together, rounding all the edges
slightly. Fig. 341 shows how to mark the back of the alligator.

[Illustration: Fig. 338.--Section of tail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 339.--Tail of alligator.]

[Illustration: Fig. 340.--Ready to be put together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 341.--Marking the back.]

[Illustration: Fig. 342.--Roll a small piece of clay.]

Live alligators, you know, are encased in a natural


Coat of Armor

formed of small plates or shields, and in the clay one must imitate the
real. Use the hat-pin for marking the lines on the head, and trace
stripes sidewise across the entire length of the body in the manner
shown by Fig. 341 from C to D, continuing the stripes down each side of
the first section of the tail (Fig. 329). Next run a line lengthwise
through the entire centre. D to E (Fig. 341) shows how to begin, only
you must commence the central lengthwise line at C. Mark the plates on
one side starting at C, as indicated from E to F (Fig. 341); then make
them on the other side, which will cause a pointed scallop to stand out
and up on both sides of the space from G to H (Fig. 341). On the last
section the top ridge will be scalloped H to K (Fig. 341). The nostrils
are distinctly marked by two round holes; make these with the point of
the pin. Cover the alligator over with a wet cloth while you model his


Legs.

[Illustration: Fig. 343.--Break off a part.]

[Illustration: Fig. 344.--Turn back the end.]

[Illustration: Fig. 345.--Add another piece.]

[Illustration: Fig. 346.--Press end of leg out flat.]

Roll a small piece of clay (Fig. 342), break off a part (Fig. 343) and
turn back the broken end (Fig. 344). Add another piece to it (Fig. 345),
smooth the edges together, forming a bend like an elbow (Fig. 346), and
press the end of the leg out flat (Fig. 346). Roll five small pieces
(Fig. 347) and fasten them on the flattened portion of the leg in the
positions shown by Fig. 348. The foot suggests a human hand, the toes
taking the places of thumb and fingers. Rub the toes into the foot and
spread out the extended, flattened part of the leg, making it appear
web-like between the toes (Fig. 349). The foot of the real animal has
nails or claws on three of the toes (Fig. 350), but you need not attempt
this detail. If the foot is correct in form and proportion you have made
it well. Fig. 350 is given merely to show how the natural foot looks.

[Illustration: Fig. 347.--Ready to begin the foot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 348.--Modelling the foot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 349.--Fore-foot and leg of alligator.]

[Illustration: Fig. 350.--Fore-foot of alligator.]

Model two front and two hind legs and feet; see that the hind feet and
legs are larger and differently formed from the front ones. The hind
feet have only four toes (Fig. 351). The line A (Fig. 340) designates
the place where the front legs should be joined to the body, and the
line B (Fig. 340) shows where to fasten on the hind legs. That you may
have a thorough understanding of the manner and direction in which the
joints of the legs bend, we will suppose that you rest on the floor on
your knees and elbows. You will then find that your knees bend forward
and your elbows backward, with your arms corresponding to the front legs
and your legs to the hind legs. Now, when you draw or model hereafter,
you will not make any mistake in regard to it. Look again at Fig. 349.
The foot, V, corresponds to or rudely resembles your hand; T, your
wrist; P, your elbow; O, your shoulder. Examine Fig. 329. On the hind
leg are the foot, ankle, knee and hip joint. While the alligator is in a
plastic state make him open his mouth, by cutting a slit in the head
from the front along the waved line up back beyond the eye; carefully
pull apart the jaws (Fig. 352). Have your alligator measure at least
fourteen inches from tip to tip, for it will be more difficult to model
a smaller one. Once having made the little creature, you will find it
easy to model similar animals; select something else in the same line
and try to make it.

[Illustration: Fig. 351.--Alligator's hind-foot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 352.--Cut open the mouth.]

Most fruits are readily reproduced in clay.


The Banana

is very simple to copy. Roll a piece of clay, making the ends bluntly
pointed; bend it slightly as in Fig. 353 and, paying strict attention to
proportion, carefully form the work like the original, adding, taking
from, smoothing and flattening as may be required (Fig. 354).

[Illustration: Fig. 353.--Clay ready for modelling banana.]

[Illustration: Fig. 354.--Banana modelled in clay.]

The "Father of His Country" always commands admiration, and everything
pertaining to him is interesting.

[Illustration: Fig. 355.--Egg-shaped clay for head.]


A Head of Washington

modelled with your own hands would have a double value. You could show
the head to your friends and tell them how you made it, and should they
wish to become amateur sculptors, you might help them with their work.
Make a thick cake of clay for the bust. On the back part of the top lay
a small, round cake to form the neck, and push a stick down the centre
of the neck through the bust to the board beneath, allowing a portion of
the stick to extend up beyond the neck; then roll a piece of clay into
the form of an egg for the head--three times the size of a hen's
egg--and push it down on the stick (Fig. 355). The stick enters the
head near the centre of one side, so do not push the clay egg on through
one end. Continue to push the head down until it meets the neck. The
stick is necessary to give firmness and support to the work. Model the
head, neck, and bust until it looks like Fig. 356. While modelling you
must not neglect any part of the head; the work should go on at the
sides and back as well as the front; every now and then turn the stand
on which your work is placed that you may model other portions of the
head. In sculpture it is essential that objects be made as they are;
therein lies the difference between sculpture and painting; in painting
and drawing objects are not made as they actually exist but as they
appear.

[Illustration: Fig. 356.--Head blocked in.]

[Illustration: Fig. 357.--Modelling features.]

[Illustration: Fig. 358.--George Washington.]

Be sure to have the head of correct proportions before beginning the
features; then take away a little of the clay where the nose joins the
forehead and cut away more clay under the nose straight down to the
chin, according to the dotted lines which appear in Fig. 357. Hollow out
places for the eyes and indicate the mouth with a straight line. Add
more clay for the hair, forming it into a queue at the back.

[Illustration: Fig. 359.--Washington's profile. Finished head.]

[Illustration: Fig. 360.--Back of Washington's head.]

Be careful to study well the character of Washington's face before going
on with the work. Notice that it is strong, the chin firm and square,
the lips tightly closed and the mouth almost a straight line, the nose
not perfectly straight but inclined to be aquiline, the eyes rather
heavy-lidded; and the hair, following the line of the head on the top,
is puffed out on the sides, covering both ears. Fig. 358 gives the front
view, Fig. 359 the profile, and Fig. 360 the back view of the head. Make
the neck full and large. You can keep the clay moist with a wet cloth
and work on the head a little each day. Persevere until you make so good
a likeness of George Washington that it will be recognized at a glance,
and ever afterward you will enjoy and appreciate much more all portraits
of him.



CHAPTER XVIII

FUNNY LITTLE APPLE TOYS


SUCH a funny little porcupine! See how his pointed spears bristle out in
every direction, forming a fine coat of mail (Fig. 362). If he was only
alive, he could coil himself up into a prickly ball--not a ball, though,
that one could handle without being hurt. This little fellows differs
from the _Hystrix cristata_, or real porcupine, in that he did not wait
until his quills grew to turn into a ball, but was a ball to begin with,
for he commenced life as an apple, and an apple is one of the nicest
kinds of balls, as it may be tossed back and forth and then eaten later.

[Illustration: Fig. 361.--Bent toothpick.]

[Illustration: Fig. 362.--The apple porcupine.]

If you can find an apple with a bump on one side, you may make a
porcupine in less than five minutes, for all that is necessary is to
stick the apple full of wooden toothpicks, and that work will be as easy
as putting pins into a cushion. Let the bump on the apple form the head
of the animal. Bend four toothpicks like Fig. 361 and push them up into
the apple to serve as legs and feet. Make the bent toothpicks balance
the apple perfectly, so that the porcupine will stand firmly on its feet
without other support. Use black pins for eyes and broom straws for the
whiskers. Stick them into the head of the animal as shown in Fig. 362.
Begin at the extreme back of the porcupine to insert the wooden
toothpicks that are to serve as quills; although they are not hollow it
makes very little difference, as this wee creature cannot shake them,
causing the quills to knock against each other, as does the real animal
when he wants to produce a rustling sound to warn off an enemy. Continue
pushing in the toothpicks until the apple resembles Fig. 362. Keep the
quills inclined backward and be careful not to have them stand out too
far; slant the quills as much as possible, as the length of the
porcupine must appear greater than the breadth. Now, if you could endow
the animal with life, you would find that he was a vegetarian; that is,
he could not eat meat, and you would be obliged to feed him on fruit,
roots, and certain kinds of bark. You may be glad, though, that this
porcupine is only a "make-believe one," for, if he lived, he would sleep
all day and want to run about and take his exercise during the night;
and, more than that, you would feel very sorry for the poor little
fellow, because he would be extremely lonesome so far away from his
native land of India, Africa, or some part of Southern Europe. So of the
two, all things considered, the apple porcupine makes a better pet for
the small members of the household.

[Illustration: Fig. 364.--Shape of eye.]

[Illustration: Fig. 365.--Apple seed in centre of eye.]

[Illustration: Fig. 366.--The nose.]

[Illustration: Fig. 367.--Sally's open mouth.]

[Illustration: Fig. 368.--Strip of paper rolled up tight.]

[Illustration: Fig. 363.--Sally Walker's head.]

A round, delicately pink-tinted apple is best for


Little Sally Walker's Head

(Fig. 363). With the small blade of a pocket-knife cut the eyes near the
centre of the apple, placing them far apart to give an innocent
expression to the face (Fig. 363). Cut the lower line of the eyes
straight and the upper curved, as in Fig. 364; then push the small,
pointed end of an apple-seed in the centre of each eye; run the seed in
so far that only a small portion of the blunt end stands out (Fig. 365).
Cut away a small, half-moon-shaped piece of the skin (Fig. 366) to
indicate the nose. The mouth must be open and made the shape of Fig.
367. Cut it into the apple a trifle more than an eighth of an inch in
depth. Make the curls of two narrow strips of paper rolled up tight
like Fig. 368; then pulled out as in Fig. 369. Pin one curl on each side
of the head (Fig. 363). Cut a round piece of white paper for Sally's
collar. Make a small hole in its centre and slip the collar on the end
of a stick; then push the stick well up into the lower part of the head
(Fig. 363). Keep the collar in place by two pins stuck through it into
the apple.

[Illustration: Fig. 369.--Sally's curl.]

[Illustration: Fig. 370.--The apple Indian.]

[Illustration: Fig. 371.--Indian's nose.]

[Illustration: Fig. 372.--Paper feather for apple Indian.]

[Illustration: Fig. 373.--The apple Jap.]


The Indian

is very different in coloring and expression from Sally (Fig. 370).
Notice how near together his eyes are; and see how long and narrow his
nose is. If you examine the face of the next red man you see, or the
picture of one, you will probably find that he has two deep, decided
lines from his nose to his mouth, and that the mouth itself is firm and
straight. Remember these hints when making the Indian's head. Select a
dark-red apple, one that is rather long and narrow, if possible, for
the red man seldom has a round face. Cut two eyes of white paper and pin
them on the apple with black-headed pins pierced through the centre of
each eye. Make the long nose of paper (Fig. 371). Cut two slits close
together on the face and slide the sides of the nose (AA, Fig. 371) into
the slits (Fig. 370). Cut two more slits, one on each side of the nose,
down to the corners of the mouth, and insert in each a piece of narrow
white paper to form the lines; then cut one more slit for the mouth and
push in a strip of white paper, which may be bent down to show a wider
portion (Fig. 370). Last, but not least, come the ornamental feathers.
If you can obtain natural ones so much the better; if not, make paper
feathers of bright, differently colored paper. Fig. 372 shows how to
cut them. Roll the bottom portion to make a stiff stem and after
punching holes in the top of the apple, forming them in a row around the
crown of the head, push each feather in place, having the tallest in the
centre, as in Fig. 370. Run a slender stick up into the bottom of the
head and you will have something better than taffy-on-a-stick.

[Illustration: Fig. 374.--Apple Jap's eye.]

[Illustration: Fig. 375.--For apple Jap's hair.]

[Illustration: Fig. 376.--Apple Jap's hair.]

[Illustration: Fig. 377.--Stick frame for apple Jap.]


The Jap's

(Fig. 373) features are formed very differently from those of either
Sally or the Indian. His eyes are shaped like narrow almonds, rather
bluntly rounded at the inner corners and pointed at the outer corners.
Cut the eyes like Fig. 374 of black paper and stick them on the head
with white-headed pins driven through the centre of each. Let the eyes
slant up at the outer corners, for that is the way real Japanese eyes
grow. They never have eyes like Sally's.

[Illustration: Fig. 379.--Foundation of apple tower.]

[Illustration: Fig. 380.--Second floor of apple tower.]

[Illustration: Fig. 381.--Ready for third floor.]

[Illustration: Fig. 378.--Apple tower.]

Make the nose crescent-shaped, and pin it on with two white pins. The
mouth must be much larger than the nose, though cut in similar shape.
Hold the mouth in position by running a row of white pins through it
into the head. The pins will also form the Jap's teeth. Cut the hair of
black paper (Fig. 375); if you have no black paper, make some with ink.
Fringe the hair as in Fig. 376; then fasten the circle of stiff black
hair on top of the head with black pins. Use a russet apple or a yellow
one for the Jap, because, you know, these people do not have red cheeks
or fair skins. When the head is finished, push it down on the top of a
stick across which has been fastened another shorter stick near the top
(Fig. 377). Make a simple kimono-like gown of paper and hang it on
over the Jap's arms. If you wish, you can paste the edges or seams of
the garment together (Fig. 373).

Find a firm, sound, round apple, and we can


Build a Tower

(Fig. 378). Cut the fruit into rather thick slices, select the middle
slice, that being the largest, and stick four toothpicks into it (Fig.
379). Take the slice next in size and push it down tight on top of the
four toothpicks (Fig. 380). Stick four more toothpicks into the second
slice (Fig. 381), placing the toothpicks in the spaces on the second
slice between the lower first four toothpicks (Fig. 381). On the tops of
the last toothpicks fasten another slice of apple, then stick in more
toothpicks and so on, always remembering to place the top toothpicks in
the spaces on the apple slice left between the lower toothpicks. Build
up the tower at least seven slices high and do the work carefully,
keeping the toothpicks straight and even, that the apple tower may stand
erect and not resemble the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa; for if your
building should incline to one side, as does the Pisa tower, it would
not long retain that position, but the entire structure would come
tumbling down, obliging you to try building again with another apple.

A fine Dutch windmill can be made of one apple and a paper pin-wheel,
and there are lots of other interesting things you may manufacture from
the same fruit.



CHAPTER XIX

MARVEL PICTURES


HERE are Mary, Mary's lamb, and Mother Goose's goose all waiting for you
to dress them and make them into Marvel pictures. Mary must be attired
in her clothes, the lamb in his wool, and Mother Goose's goose in its
feathers, and you can do it every bit yourself. Then when all are nicely
finished you can tack them up in your room for everyone to admire and
wonder over. We will begin with


Mary,

because a little girl is vastly more important than a lamb or a goose,
however much the others may be petted and loved.

[Illustration: Mary.]

Take a smooth piece of white tissue-paper, lay it over the drawing of
Mary given here, and with a moderately soft pencil make a careful
tracing of the little figure. Turn the paper the other side up and go
over the lines again with a very soft pencil; then lay the paper right
side up on a piece of white cardboard, a little larger than the page
of this book. See that the figure is exactly in the middle and again
go over the lines with your pencil. Remove the tissue-paper and
strengthen the lines of your drawing with your hardest pencil. If you
have a box of water-color paints, tint Mary's face, her neck and arms
flesh-pink. Redden her cheeks a little, and paint her lips a darker red.
Make her eyes blue and her hair a light brown and she will be quite
ready for


Her Dress.

Fig. 382 is the pattern, which you must make by tracing it on
tissue-paper and then cutting it out. Choose any material you
like--wool, cotton, or silk, for her dress and any color, only let it be
quite smooth. Lay the tissue-paper pattern down on the goods, pin it in
place and cut around close to the edges. Try the dress on Mary to see
that it fits perfectly; then cover the wrong side thinly with paste,
adjust it to the little figure and press down firmly, smoothing out any
wrinkles that may appear. Cut a white lawn apron like the pattern (Fig.
383), and paste it over the dress bringing the upper edge up to the
waist line.

[Illustration: Fig. 382.--Mary's dress.]

[Illustration: Fig. 383.--Mary's apron.]

[Illustration: Fig. 384.--The brim of sun-bonnet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 385.--Crown of sun-bonnet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 386.--Plait like this.]

[Illustration: Fig. 387.--Cut like this.]

[Illustration: Fig. 388.--Mary's sun-bonnet.]

Make a cunning little


Sun-bonnet

of the white lawn also. Fig. 384 is the brim, Fig. 385 the crown of the
bonnet. Cut out Fig. 384 first and fold back the flap according to the
dotted lines, then Fig. 385, which you must plait fan-shape like Fig.
386, and then cut the shape of Fig. 387. Put a little paste along the
lower edge of Fig. 387, and over it lay the top edge of the brim (Fig.
384), pasting them together like Fig. 388. Fit the bonnet on Mary's head
and paste it in place, but leave the side-flaps to stand out loosely
from her face.


Mary's Lamb

can be traced and then drawn on cardboard in exactly the same manner as
Mary, or it may be drawn on white writing-paper, cut out carefully and
pasted on black or colored cardboard. This last is perhaps the better
plan as the white lamb will show more plainly on a colored background.

[Illustration: Fig. 389.--Pattern of lamb's coat.]

Fig. 389 is the pattern for Master Lamb's coat, which you are to cut
from a sheet of white cotton wadding, opened through the centre to give
the wooliness of the raw cotton. A sheep's wool does not grow long on
its legs, so you need not wonder that the lamb is not provided with
leggings.

[Illustration: Fig. 390.--Lamb's cap.]

[Illustration: Fig. 390.--Lamb's cap.]

Paste the coat on the lamb's back and the little cap (Fig. 390) on top
of his head and he will have all the clothing to which he is entitled.
The dotted line below the lamb's ear shows how far the wool is to reach
on his face, and that on the top of his head gives the limit for the
edge of the cap.

[Illustration: Mary's lamb.]

When you have traced


Mother Goose's Goose

and transferred it to a sheet of cardboard, you must collect a number of
small feathers as much as possible like the shapes given in the page of
diagrams. Perhaps you can get those plucked from the chicken for
to-day's dinner, or you may be allowed to take a few from mother's
feather pillows or cushions. If you do not find feathers of just the
right shapes take a pair of sharp scissors and trim them down to suit.

[Illustration: Fig. 391.--Tail feather.]

[Illustration: Fig. 392.--How to paste on the tail feathers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 393.--Body feather.]

[Illustration: Fig. 395.--Wing feather.]

[Illustration: Fig. 394.--How to paste on the body feathers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 396.--Wing feather.]

[Illustration: Fig. 398.--Neck and breast feather.]

[Illustration: Fig. 397.--How to paste on the wing feathers.]

[Illustration: Caption of Figures 391-397: How to put the feathers on
Mother Goose's goose.]

[Illustration: Mother Goose's goose.]

Select three feathers for the tail like the tail feather Fig. 391, and
fit them in place on the goose to see just where they are to go; then
take them off, cover the tail with glue and carefully put the feathers
back in place, pressing them down until they stick fast (Fig. 392). Find
body feathers like Fig. 393 and, beginning near the tail, cover part of
the body with glue, then stick the feathers on, overlapping them as in
Fig. 394. The under part of the body must be entirely covered with these
feathers, but before going on to the breast and neck the wing must be
attended to.

[Illustration: Fig. 399.]

There are two kinds of wing feathers--some long and narrow (Fig. 395),
and others much shorter (Fig. 396). Begin at the lower edge of the wing
and glue a row of the long feathers in place, allowing the lower edge of
one feather to overlap the upper edge of another, as in Fig. 397. Along
the top edge of the wing glue a row of the small feathers (Fig. 397),
and then, beginning again at the lower edge of the wing, cover the
remainder with the small feathers.

The short, broad feather (Fig. 398), is the kind to use on breast and
neck. Begin at the wing and fasten them on, going upward until the head
is reached, then trim off the stems of the feathers to fit the space
shown by the dotted line on the goose's head (Fig. 399). Do not put too
much glue on the goose at one time, only enough for one row of feathers,
and spread it very thinly, for it takes but little to catch and hold the
light feathers in place.



PART II

RECREATION

[Illustration: Lifting for Pasch eggs.]



CHAPTER XX

EGG GAMES FOR THE EASTER HOLIDAYS


Lifting for Pasch Eggs

"LIFTING" was one of the many curious and interesting Easter customs of
the "good old days" in merry England, and we introduce it here in the
form of a very jolly Easter game.

First you must


Prepare the Pasch, or Easter Eggs

in this way: Select three large white eggs, make a minute hole in the
small end of each, and another hole the size of a silver dime in the
large end. Place the hole at the small end of each shell to your lips
and blow steadily until all the egg has run out. Then set the shells in
a warm place to dry while you make ready "something bitter and something
sweet" with which to fill them. Soft, creamy candies of a small size are
the best for this. Select several pieces for each egg, and pour on each
of these one drop of a weak solution of wormwood or quinine. Mix the
bitter candy with the sweet, and fill the egg-shells.

Cut from gilt or colored paper three scalloped disks four inches in
diameter (Fig. 400). Through the centre of each disk pass a needle
threaded with doubled black linen thread, cover the under side of the
disk with paste, separate the two ends of the thread and hold them down
on each side of the large end of a shell, as shown in Fig. 401; then
draw the disk down and paste it upon the shell over the threads. If the
ends of the thread extend below the disk, clip them off with sharp
scissors. Wait until the paste is quite dry and the paper firmly
attached to the shells, then hang the eggs by their threads in a
door-way so that they will be just one foot higher than you can reach.

[Illustration: Fig. 400.--Cut three scalloped disks like this.]


The Game

There must be at least two girls and two boys to play the game. Fold a
shawl or wide scarf until it forms a narrow band. Wrap it around the
waist of one of the girls, fasten it securely, and blindfold her with a
handkerchief. Let a boy stand on either side of her, grasp the band
firmly, and then march her up to the door-way where the eggs are
suspended, chanting these words:

    "Tid, Mid and Mi-se-ra,
     Carling, Palm, and Pasch-egg day.
     Lift you now off your feet,
     Take your bitter with your sweet."

Reaching the door-way they must halt just before it, and when the girl
says "Ready" she must jump, the boys at the same time lifting her by the
band around her waist. As she jumps she must try to catch one of the
eggs. She can have but one trial, and if she succeeds in bringing down
an egg it is hers; failing, she must wait until her turn comes again for
the chance of securing a prize.

One of the boys must have the next trial, while the two girls become the
"lifters." The same ceremony must be gone through with for each player,
a girl and a boy alternately, and the same verse repeated.

[Illustration: Fig. 401.--Paste the disk on the shell.]

It is not necessary to expend any strength in the "lifting," for the
players should jump, and not depend upon the helpers to be lifted up
within reach of the eggs. When the eggs have been pulled down, the fun
consists in eating the candy, with always the certainty of finding some
bitter drops among the sweet, and the uncertainty of how soon and how
often the bitter will be found.


The Egg Dance

The egg dance is very old, so old that it is a novelty to young people
of this generation. It is said that this dance formerly created much
mirth, and no doubt it will afford our modern girls and boys an equal
amount of merriment.


The Eggs

To prepare for it, take thirteen eggs, blow the contents from the
shells, color eight red, gild four, and leave one white. The object in
removing the egg from the shell is to save the carpet from being soiled
should the eggs be trampled on. If the carpet is protected by a linen
cover hard-boiled eggs may be used.

Place the eggs on the floor in two circles, one within the other. The
outer circle, formed of the red eggs placed at equal distances apart,
should measure about eight feet in diameter; the inner circle, formed of
the gilded eggs, should be four feet in diameter, and the white egg must
be placed directly in the centre of the inner circle.


The Dance

The eggs being arranged the company is divided into couples, each in
turn to try the dance. The first couple takes position within the outer
circle--that is, between the red eggs and the gilded ones--and, to waltz
music, they dance around the circle three times, keeping within the
space between the two circles. Entering the inner circle they waltz
three times around the central egg, and all this must be done without
breaking or greatly disturbing any of the eggs. When an egg is broken or
knocked more than twelve inches from its position, the dancers retire
and give place to the next couple. The broken eggs are not replaced, but
those out of position are set in order before the succeeding couple
commence the dance. When each couple has had a turn and none have
accomplished the feat, all change partners and the trial begins again.

The first couple to go through the mazes of the dance without breaking
or disturbing any of the eggs win each a first prize; the next
successful couple receive second prizes, and the third are rewarded with
one colored hard-boiled egg which they may divide between them.

[Illustration: Angling for Easter eggs.]


Easter Angling

The appliances for this game are manufactured at home, and consist of
three toy hoops, such as children use for rolling, eight bamboo
walking-canes, and eight hooks made of wire like Fig. 402. A piece of
twine three-quarters of a yard long is tied to the small end of each
stick, and to the other end of the twine is fastened a hook.

[Illustration: Fig. 402.--Eight hooks made of wire.]

Smooth, stiff, light-brown paper is pasted or tacked over each hoop like
a drum-head, and in this paper covering of each hoop six round holes are
cut, just large enough to admit the small end of an egg, or about the
size of a silver quarter of a dollar. Four of the holes are made at
equal distances apart, twelve inches from the edge of the paper, and the
other two are near the centre (Fig. 403).

Eighteen eggs to be angled for are provided. They are not boiled, but
the shells are emptied and prepared for decoration in the manner
previously described.

[Illustration: Fig. 403.--Cut six holes in the paper like these.]

They may be painted with water-colors, with designs of spring flowers
and butterflies, gilded or silvered, or colored with dyes.

A circle of gilt paper is folded twice, which forms Fig. 404, and an
eight-pointed star is cut by following the dotted lines in Fig. 404. In
the centre of this is cut a round hole, and when opened, the star (Fig.
405) is the result.

[Illustration: Fig. 404.--Cut the star by following dotted lines.]

[Illustration: Fig. 405.--The gilt star.]

A piece of narrow white satin ribbon, three inches long, is folded and
pushed through the hole in the centre of the star, forming a loop; the
ends are then pasted to the point on either side of the star.

When the egg-shell has received its decoration, this star and loop are
glued to the large end of each shell, as shown in Fig. 406.

In twelve of the egg-shells are hidden trifling gifts of candy, a tiny
penknife, silver thimble, or a trinket of any kind; in four are slips of
paper on which are written "Prize Ring," and in the other two are also
slips of paper; on one is written "First Prize," and on the other
"Second Prize."

Every shell being supplied with its gift the holes at the small end of
the egg are covered by pasting over each a small round of white paper,
the edge of which is cut in points to make it fit more easily to the
shell.


Rules of the Game.

1st. Eight players only can take part in the game.

2d. The three hoops are placed on the floor, paper side up, at some
distance apart. In each of the two ordinary rings are placed six eggs
standing upright in the holes, small end down; four eggs contain
presents and two the papers bearing the words "Prize Ring." In the
third, or prize ring, are four eggs containing presents, and the two
which hold the papers with the words "First Prize" and "Second Prize."

[Illustration: Fig. 406.--Glue the star and loop to the shell.]

3d. There must be no distinguishing mark upon any of the prize eggs.

4th. Four players stand around each of the ordinary rings. Having once
chosen their places they must keep them until all the eggs have been
taken from the ring.

5th. Every player is provided with a fishing-rod which is held by one
end, _not_ in the middle.

6th. The endeavor of each player is to insert his hook through the
ribbon loop on one of the eggs and lift it out of the ring, doing this
as quickly as possible and catching as many as he can.

As each egg is taken from the ring its contents are examined and the
player who first gets a prize-ring egg ceases angling until the other
prize-ring egg has been caught.

7th. When the eggs have all been taken out of both ordinary rings, the
two players in each ring who have the prize-ring eggs move to the prize
ring and angle for the eggs which it contains.

8th. Two prizes, the first and second, fall to the lot of the two
players who are fortunate enough to secure the prize eggs in the prize
ring.

The prizes given for the prize eggs at the prize ring should be of a
little more importance than those contained in the eggs. Instead of
trinkets these eggs may contain only candy, which will give more
prominence to the two real prizes given at the end of the game.


Table Egg-rolling.

Everyone knows about the egg-rolling where the eggs are started at the
top of a hill and rolled to the bottom, for it has become almost a
national game, being played annually on the White House grounds in
Washington on Easter Monday; but there is a new game of egg-rolling to
be played in the house, in which any person in any place may take part.
This is played, not with cooked eggs, as in the Washington game, but
with empty egg-shells, which have been blown and left as nearly perfect
as possible; and the field for the game is a table with a chalked line
across either end about eight inches from the edge and another line
directly across the centre.

The players are divided into


Two Equal Forces

which take their places at opposite ends of the table. Each player is
provided with a fan and the egg-shell is placed directly in the centre
of the table on the dividing line. At the word "Ready" all begin to fan,
the object of each side being to send the egg to its goal across the
line at the opposite end of the table, and to prevent its being rolled
into the goal at its own end.

On no account must the egg be touched except in placing and replacing it
on the centre line, which is done whenever a score is made, and when the
egg rolls off the table; in all other cases it may be moved only by
fanning. Each time the egg enters a goal it counts one for the side at
the opposite end of the table, and when the score is marked the egg must
be replaced in the centre; then, at the given signal, the fanning is
renewed.

The winning score may be ten, fifteen, or twenty-five, but it is best
not to make it too large, for several short games are more enjoyable
than one long one.



CHAPTER XXI

MAY DAY AMUSEMENTS


MINGLING with the festivities of May day in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries were certain games intended to represent the adventures of
Robin Hood, that bold forest chieftain who with his band of merry men,
all clad in Lincoln green, held many a contest with bow and arrows; and
though most of them were masters of the sport, none could quite equal
the leader, Robin Hood.

From certain customs of these bygone days we can evolve a delightful
entertainment and call it the Twentieth Century May day. The most
important personage on this occasion is the May Queen, who must win her
crown by skill in archery. The next in importance is the King who wins
his title in the same way. Of course,


Bows

and arrows will be needed for the sport, and these we will make at home.
They will be quite small and easy to manufacture, but the bows, though
tiny, will work to a charm and send the home-made arrows flying with
swiftness and precision to their goal. Look up a piece of flat rattan,
from which to form the bow, such as is often used to stiffen stays and
dress waists; cut it eleven and one-half inches in length and burn a
hole in each end by boring through the rattan with a hair-pin heated red
hot at one end (Fig. 407). Holes made in this way will not split or
break the rattan. Pass a strong linen thread through the hole in one end
of the bow and tie it firmly (Fig. 408); then bring the thread across to
the other end, pass it through the hole, leaving a stretch of eight and
one-quarter inches from end to end of the bow, and tie the end securely
(Fig. 410).

[Illustration: Fig. 407.--The bow of rattan.]

[Illustration: Fig. 408.--Fastening on the bow-string.]


Make the Arrows

of slender sticks ten inches in length and sharpened to a point at the
heavier end (Fig. 409). Whittle the arrows as round as possible. If you
happen to have old, slender, long-handled paint brushes, they will make
fine arrows with the brush taken off and the large end pointed.

[Illustration: Fig. 410.--Bow strung ready for arrow.]

[Illustration: Fig. 409.--Arrow of paint brush handle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 411.--Paper cover for target.]

[Illustration: Fig. 412.--Cowslip for target.]


The Target

may also be home-made; for this use a small hoop--a barrel hoop will
do--and cover it with paper. Take any kind of paper strong enough to
hold, but not too stiff, and cut it three or four inches larger in
circumference than the hoop. Lay the hoop down flat on the paper and
draw a line around its edge; then slash the paper around the edge,
cutting deep enough to almost reach the circle marked by the hoop (Fig.
411). Cut silhouettes of spring flowers from various bright-colored
tissue-paper. Lay a piece of tissue-paper over each flower pattern here
given, and trace the outline directly on the tissue-paper. Make a
cowslip (Fig. 412) of yellow paper for the centre of the target, and
above it place (Fig. 413) a violet of violet tissue-paper, and under
the centre fasten a Jack-in-the-pulpit of green tissue-paper (Fig.
414); at the right attach a pink azalia (Fig. 415) and at the left a
scarlet tulip (Fig. 416). Over the remaining blank portion scatter
bright silhouettes of other flowers. Each wild blossom has its own value:
the yellow centre cowslip counts 10; violet, 9; Jack-in-the-pulpit,
8; pink azalia, 7; scarlet tulip, 6, etc. When the paper flowers are
ready, lay the large target paper on a perfectly flat, hard surface;
then, using paste only around the edges of the flowers, fasten each one
in position on the target paper, beginning with the central cowslip.
When finished turn the paper over on the wrong side and lay the hoop on
it over the circular line previously drawn. The hoop must first have a
strong staple driven in its top (Fig. 417). Turn up the slashed edge of
the paper and paste it down over the hoop. Fig. 418 shows a portion of
the flaps glued over it. Be sure when covering the hoop to keep the
paper perfectly smooth and free from all wrinkles or fulness, as shown
in the target (Fig. 419).

[Illustration: Fig. 413.--Violet for target.]

[Illustration: Fig. 414.--Jack-in-the-pulpit for target.]

[Illustration: Fig. 415.--Azalia for target.]

[Illustration: Fig. 416.--Tulip for target.]

[Illustration: Fig. 417.--Staple in hoop.]

[Illustration: May Queen and King and loyal subjects.]

Select a good position on a tree or fence. Drive in a nail at the
proper height and hang the target by the staple in its rim; then with a
stick or stone mark a line on the ground about three yards from and
directly in front of the target. Let each player in turn stand with toes
touching the mark and shoot one arrow at the target. Someone must keep
tally, and as each arrow strikes or misses make a record of the shot.
When all have had one trial the second round may be played; then the
third, which finishes the game of archery and decides the relative
places of all the company.

[Illustration: Fig. 418.--Portion of flaps glued over hoop.]

[Illustration: Fig. 419.--Target with silhouettes of flowers.]

The girl and boy with highest records are


Queen and King,

the next highest maids-of-honor and gentlemen-of-the-Court; the others
fall in line according to their records on the target, and the entire
party strikes out for the nearest stretch of land where wild flowers are
to be found. Out from the shade they go into the sunshine, where the
new springing grass is tender and green, and a little beyond under the
trees where a mysterious perfume, the breath of awakening Nature,
pervades the air, where grow the modest blue-eyed violets, the fragrant
trailing arbutus, spicy and sweet, the funny Jack-in-the-pulpit, without
which no collection of wild flowers would be complete, and where also
may be found the rare and beautiful bloodroot, whose stay is so short
one can scarce catch a glimpse of its pure, white blossoms ere they
vanish.


The Queen Rules,

and the King shares her honors. All the subjects must yield implicit
obedience; but, on the other hand, the Queen should issue only unselfish
and kind commands, such as are sure to render her people happy, for the
thought of their comfort and pleasure should ever be uppermost.

[Illustration: Fig. 420.--Take the flowers up roots and all.]

The delicate little blossoms of early spring need very careful handling,
and it would be well for the King and his gentlemen to be provided with
old kitchen knives or trowels, that they may be able to dig around and
under the little plants in order to take the flowers up root and all,
with the earth clinging to them (Fig. 420); each one can then be
carefully placed upright in a flat-bottomed basket or box and carried
home in safety. Better still would be a number of tiny water-proof paper
flower-pots, which may be purchased per dozen for a trifling sum. In
each pot place one plant with plenty of damp earth surrounding it, and
upon reaching home tie a gay narrow ribbon through holes pierced on each
side; the little receptacle will then make a charming May-basket, and
the wild flowers will keep fresh and blooming for a long time (Fig.
421).

[Illustration: Fig. 421.--Water-proof paper flower-pot May-basket.]

While the King and his men are at work digging up the plants the Queen
and her ladies can gather the buds and blossoms, picking them with as
long stems as possible and remembering to have a few green leaves of
each plant with its blossoms. To keep the flowers from wilting, as they
would if held in the hand, let each girl be provided with a clean,
perfectly dry baking-powder can which has a lid that fits tightly; the
blossoms must be without moisture and very carefully placed within the
can as soon as they are plucked. When the tin box is filled the cover
can be fitted on securely to exclude all the air. The green leaves may
be carried in the hand, and when they droop they can be revived by being
placed in fresh water. The bit of wildwood brought home in the form of
dainty cut flowers could be put in water until dark, when the little


May-baskets

are ready for their reception. These baskets should always be small and
must never be crowded with flowers; it is better to have only one
variety of blossom with its foliage for each basket.

[Illustration: Fig. 422.--Beginning wire May-basket.]

[Illustration: Fig. 423.--Basket ready for handle.]

Manufacture the May-baskets of paper boxes, colored straws, wire, and
cardboard. Those of wire can be made to resemble coral and are pretty
when shaped like that shown at Fig. 425. Make a ring of wire about the
size of the top of a very large teacup by twisting the two ends of the
wire together, then pull it into an oblong shape curved downward at the
two ends. Form another smaller ring, connect the two by a length of wire
fastened on one end (Fig. 422); twist the wire on the bottom loop and
bring it across the bottom and up on the other side end (Fig. 423).
Proceed the same way with the broad sides, extending the wire up and
across the top to form the handle (Fig. 424); if more braces are needed,
add them, and tie bits of string in knots of various sizes at intervals
all over the basket frame to form projections for the branches of coral.

[Illustration: Fig. 424.--Wire basket to be turned into coral.]

Transform the wire into coral by melting some white wax and mixing with
it powdered vermilion. While the wax is in a liquid state hang the
basket on the end of a poker or stick and, holding it over the hot wax,
carefully cover the frame with the red mixture by pouring the wax over
the basket with a long-handled spoon. The wax cools rapidly and forms a
coating closely resembling coral; the little lumps and projections that
form give the basket the appearance of real coral, which is branching
and uneven.

[Illustration: Fig. 425.--Coral May-basket.]

As soon as the wax has hardened (Fig. 425) insert in the basket a
pasteboard bottom cut to fit; and when filling this basket with flowers
place the foliage around the sides first. The fresh green contrasting
with the red coral gives a pretty effect, and the leaves filling the
spaces between the wires prevent the flowers from falling through.


The "Old Oaken, Moss-covered Bucket"

is very appropriate for woodland blossoms. Make the bucket of a strip of
cardboard ten by four inches; sew the two ends together and cut a
circular piece for the bottom; fit it in and fasten with long stitches.
Cut the handle of cardboard one-quarter of an inch wide and sew it in
place. Cover the bucket with strips of olive-green tissue-paper an inch
and a half wide which have previously been crimped by being folded
backward and forward. Cut the strips in very fine fringe, unfold and gum
them on the bucket in closely overlapping rows, as the cardboard must be
entirely concealed to have the appearance of being covered with natural
moss (Fig. 426).

[Illustration: Fig. 426.--Old oaken bucket May-basket.]


A May-basket

which can be made in a moment is simply a bright-colored paper six
inches long and three inches wide, with one of its long sides brought
together at the two corners from the middle and fastened securely. A
narrow ribbon forms the handle (Fig. 427).

Just at dusk the flowers may be arranged in the baskets with as little
handling as possible. Then, when twilight comes, the May day party can
steal cautiously to the door of the house fortunate enough to be favored
by a May-token, hang one of the little baskets of flowers on the
door-knob, ring the bell and scamper away before they are seen, for no
one of the party must be present when the door opens.

[Illustration: Fig. 427.--Colored paper May-basket.]


Bell and Ball May-pole Game for Country or City

If you live in the country erect your May pole on the lawn or in an open
field; if in the city put it up in the back-yard, or if it rains or is
cold hold your May day games in the house. In any case the pole should
be planted in a tub as in Fig. 428, and decorated as shown in the
illustration. The pole must be round and smooth and stout enough to
support the weight of the hoops at the top. For an out-of-doors pole
from ten to twelve feet is a good height, but an indoor pole must be
adapted to the height of the ceiling of the room it will occupy.

Before placing the pole in the tub nail securely to its base a piece of
board eighteen inches square, as shown in Fig. 428. Erect the pole in
the middle of the tub, put in cross-pieces (Fig. 428), nailing them at
the ends and fill in all around with stones or bricks, as in Fig. 429.

[Illustration: Fig. 428.--The pole is planted in a tub.]

[Illustration: Fig. 429.--Fill in with stones.]

[Illustration: The first player throws the ball.]


How to Dress the May-pole

Cover the tub with green crimped tissue-paper and bank up with
flowers--paper flowers if no others can be obtained. Beginning at the
top, wrap the pole with ribbon or strips of pink and white cambric in
alternate stripes. This can best be done before the pole is erected. Buy
two toy hoops, the smallest measuring about three feet, the largest four
feet in diameter. Wrap these hoops with greens of some kind--evergreens
if you can find no others--adding sprays of tree blossoms and all the
flowers you can manage to get.

[Illustration: Fig. 430.--On the end of each ribbon fasten a small
bell.]

Besides the two large hoops you will need fourteen small ones about nine
inches in diameter. These you can make of wire for yourself. Wrap eight
of the small hoops with pink, and six with white cambric, then decorate
with flowers and green leaves. Keep the decoration quite narrow, in
order to leave as large an opening as possible in the centre. Get two
and two-thirds yards of narrow pink ribbon and two yards of narrow white
ribbon; divide the pink into eight and the white into six pieces. On the
end of each ribbon fasten a small toy bell; tie the ribbon on the small
hoops, the white ones on the white hoops, the pink on the pink hoops, as
shown in Fig. 430. Space the largest hoop off into eight equal parts and
tie the small pink hoops to it at these points by their ribbons. Divide
the other hoops into six equal parts and attach the small white hoops in
the same manner. With wire or ribbon suspend the hoops from the top of
the pole as in the illustration. Decorate the top of the pole with small
flags and flowers.


The Balls

Make four paper balls in this way: Take a piece of newspaper and,
placing a small weight of some kind in the middle, crush it and roll it
into a ball four inches in diameter; place the ball in the centre of a
square of tissue-paper and bring the four corners of the paper together
over the top; overlap the corners and fold and smooth down the fulness
at the sides. Wrap the ball with fine cord, making six melon-like
divisions, as in Fig. 431. Make two of the balls of pink tissue-paper
and two of white. Have ready on a tray a number of small favors
consisting of two or three flowers tied together, some with pink, some
with white ribbon.

[Illustration: Fig. 431.--Wrap the ball with fine cord.]

The decorations of the pole may be added to or curtailed as
circumstances permit, and if flowers are scarce paper flowers may be
mingled with the natural ones, and the difference will hardly be
noticed. When


The Game

is held in the house the room is cleared of as much furniture as
possible. The prettily decorated May-pole stands in the middle of the
floor, and the children join hands and dance around it to the
accompaniment of the piano or an appropriate song sung by all. Beginning
with slow time, the music grows faster; faster and faster the wheel of
children spins around the pole until some hand slips from the one
clasping it and the wheel parts. When this happens the circle opens at
the break and the children, still keeping their places, back up against
the wall.

To the first four children at the right end of the line the four paper
balls are given, one to each. The first child, or Number One, takes
three steps forward and, aiming at the bell in one of the hoops, throws
the ball with the purpose of sending it through the hoop and at the same
time striking the bell hard enough to make it ring. If successful,
Number One is given a favor, to be pinned to the front of the coat or
dress, as the case may be, the color of the ribbon attached to the favor
being in accordance with the color of the hoop through which the ball
passed. As it is more difficult to send the ball through the hoops in
the second row, the white-ribboned favors confer the most honor.

As soon as Number One has played he or she gives the ball to Number Five
and returns to his or her place; then Number Two takes a turn, giving
his ball afterward to Number Six, and so on down the line, thus always
keeping the children about to play supplied with balls.

The game goes on until the players are tired or the favors give out, and
the object of the players is to win as many favors as possible.



CHAPTER XXII

HALLOWE'EN REVELS


ON Hallowe'en you will not be obliged to travel way off to shivery, cold
Klondike to dig for your fortune, because the fairies bring the


Gold Nuggets

nearer home; possibly you may have to work a little for the precious
metal, but the exertion will be only fun. Ten little fairies--your ten
fingers--will cheerfully supply the gold as well as the mine from which
the nuggets must come on the eventful night. The fairies should make a
number of small gold parcels which when finished form the nuggets (Fig.
432). Inside of each package is a piece of candy and a strip of paper
with a fortune written upon it, so whatever may be the fate sent by the
gnomes in the mine, it is sure to be sweet. Have enough lumps of gold to
furnish each player with equal portions of one or more nuggets. Let the
little fairies secure a tub, half-fill it with sand or saw-dust and hide
the gold nuggets well in this home-made gold mine, scattering the
little parcels through the sand like plums through a pudding. The
fairies must stand a small shovel by the side of the mine, then all will
be ready and the miners can dig for their fortunes (Fig. 433).

[Illustration: Fig. 432.--The gold nugget.]

[Illustration: Fig. 433.--Hallowe'en miners at work.]

Each player in turn must take the shovel and dig in the mine until one
gold nugget is found. He must then open the package carefully and read
aloud the fortune Fate has given him, while the other players look on
and listen. The fairies can readily whittle or saw out a wooden mining
shovel from a shingle or thin box-lid. Tell them to make it about four
inches long and three wide, with a handle eleven inches in length. Try
to think of original ideas to write on the slips of fortune paper, or,
failing these, look up apt quotations for the prophecies. If you can
have the lines bright and witty, writing something that will cause a
laugh when read aloud, without hurting anyone's feelings, your
Hallowe'en mining will be a great success.

[Illustration: Fig. 434.--Stick for apple witch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 435.--Tissue-paper for making witch.]


The Apple Witch

understands well the art of fortune-telling. She is a funny little
creature made of a stick (Fig. 434), some yellow tissue-paper and an
apple. A strip of the tissue-paper is gathered (Fig. 435), drawn tight
together at the top and placed over the stick with a thread wound around
a short distance from the top to form the head (Fig. 436). The arms are
pieces of tissue-paper (Fig. 437) folded lengthwise (Fig. 438) and run
through a hole punched in the body (Fig. 439). The face is marked with
ink on the head (Fig. 439). Small strips of tissue-paper gathered like
Fig. 440 are sewed on each arm to form the sleeves. Hair of black thread
or darning cotton tied in the centre (Fig. 441) is sewed on the yellow
paper head.

[Illustration: Fig. 436.--Head formed for witch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 437.--Tissue-paper for witch arms.]

[Illustration: Fig. 438.--Paper folded for arms.]


The Witch's Hat

is a triangular piece of paper (Fig. 442) with edges pasted together and
a circular piece of paper slightly slashed around the small hole in the
centre (Fig. 443). The circular piece is slid down over the peak to form
the brim (Fig. 444), glued on, and the entire hat is inked all over,
dried and fitted on the little woman's head. A broom made of a strip of
folded tissue-paper (Fig. 445) with a fringed piece of the same paper
bound on for the broom part (Fig. 446) is sewed in the folded-over end
of the witch's arm. When finished the point of the stick is pushed into
an apple, and the apple placed upon a piece of paper divided into
squares in which different fortunes are written (Fig. 447). When you
want the witch to tell your fortune, spin the apple on the blank centre
of the paper and wait until the witch is again quiet, and she will point
with her broom to some spot where the fortune is written especially for
you. Each girl and boy must be allowed three trials with this apple
witch (Fig. 448).

[Illustration: Fig. 439.--Arms run through hole in body of witch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 440.--Sleeves for witch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 441.--Black hair for witch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 442.--Crown of witch hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 443.--Brim of witch hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 444.--Witch hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 445.--Witch broom handle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 446.--Witch broom.]


Ghost Writing

is very mysterious and exciting. Dip a new clean pen in pure lemon juice
and with this queer ink write mottoes or charms on a number of pieces of
writing-paper. Allow the ink to become perfectly dry, when it will fade
out completely; then place the charms in a box and let each girl and boy
in turn draw what appears to be a blank slip of paper. After examining
it, the paper should be handed to some grown person present who is in
the secret and who has provided a lighted candle by means of which he
may read the ghost writing. All the young people will cluster around and
with bated breath watch the magical developing of the words on the blank
paper as the reader moves the message back and forth over the lighted
candle. The heat brings out the writing in distinct letters that all may
see. A second charm must not be taken from the pile until the first has
been read aloud.

  +------------+-------------+-----------+---------------+------------+---------------+---------------+
  |  YOU WILL  |  YOU WILL   | YOU WILL  |   YOU WILL BE | YOU WILL   |YOU WILL ALWAYS|    YOU WILL   |
  | PASS YOUR  |    BE A     | WRITE A   |  A COMFORT TO | LEARN TO   |  BE KIND AND  |    PAINT A    |
  |EXAMINATION.|  FAVORITE.  |  BOOK.    |  YOUR FAMILY. | SING WELL. | CONSIDERATE.  |    PICTURE.   |
  +------------+-------------+-----------+---------------+------------+---------------+---------------+
  |  YOU WILL  |  YOU WILL   | YOU WILL  | YOU WILL HAVE | YOU WILL   |   YOU WILL    |   YOU WILL    |
  |  GO ON A   |  HAVE A     | COMPOSE   |  BEAUTIFUL    |  HAVE A    |    GO TO      |    EARN A     |
  |  JOURNEY.  |   HORSE.    |  MUSIC.   |    GARDEN.    |CANDY PULL. |    A FAIR.    |   FORTUNE.    |
  +------------+-------------+-----------+     _____     +------------+---------------+---------------+
  |  YOU WILL  |  YOU WILL   | YOU WILL      /       \    YOU WILL BE |   YOU WILL    |   YOU WILL    |
  |  ALWAYS BE |  MEET NEW   | GO TO A       |       |    A CHAMPION  |   GO TO A     |   ALWAYS BE   |
  |   HAPPY.   |  FRIENDS.   |  DANCE.       \       /    GOLF PLAYER.|   CIRCUS.     |BRIGHT & SUNNY.|
  +------------+-------------+-----------+     -----     +------------+---------------+---------------+
  | YOU WILL   |  YOU WILL   | YOU WILL  |    YOU WILL   |  YOU WILL  |   YOU WILL    |   YOU WILL    |
  | LIVE IN A  |   BE WISE   |  BE AN    |   HAVE LOTS   |    HELP    |     WRITE     |   PADDLE      |
  |  CASTLE.   | WHEN GROWN. | INVENTOR. |    OF PETS.   |   OTHERS.  |    POETRY.    |   A CANOE.    |
  +------------+-------------+-----------+---------------+------------+---------------+---------------+
  |  YOU WILL  |  YOU WILL   | YOU WILL  |YOU WILL BE THE|  YOU WILL  |   YOU WILL    |  YOU WILL     |
  |    BE      |  LIVE IN A  | VISIT THE | BEST SCHOLAR  |  WALK ON   |    SAIL A     |   RUN A       |
  |  FAMOUS.   |FOREIGN LAND.|WHITEHOUSE.| IN THE CLASS. |  STILTS.   |     BOAT.     |    RACE.      |
  +------------+-------------+-----------+---------------+------------+---------------+---------------+

[Illustration: Fig. 447.--Fortune chart.]

If you have


A Four-leaved Clover,

even though it be a pressed one, you can put it in your shoe on the
morning of October 31 and wear it until you retire at night. The clover
is a charm which will bring good luck and will insure at least one
hearty laugh before the next day.

[Illustration: Fig. 448.--Apple witch.]

A glimpse into the future showing the disposition of your sweetheart may
be had by


Tasting Apple-seeds

which have previously been dampened and each dipped into a separate
flavoring. The moisture will cause the spices, etc., to cling to the
seed, giving various flavors. Those dipped in liquids must, of course,
be afterward dried. If to your lot falls a seed which has been powdered
with pulverized cloves, your life companion will never be dull and
uninteresting; pepper denotes quick temper; sugar, affection and
kindness; cinnamon is lively, buoyant and bright; vinegar, sour and
cross; gall, bitter and morose; molasses, loving but stupid; lemon,
refreshing and interesting. Add as many more flavors as you wish. When
the seeds have been prepared and dried wrap each one in a small piece of
white tissue-paper and pass them around to the young people, allowing
each girl and boy to take two of the prophecies; then all the children
must be quiet while each in turn tastes first one, then the other seed,
telling aloud as he does so the particular flavor he has received.
Should a player find the first seed sweet and the other sour, it would
mean that the disposition of the future wife or husband will vary,
partaking more of the stronger flavoring. If the taste of the first
apple seed is pleasant, the married life of the player will be
reasonably happy. If the flavor is very agreeable, the married life will
be very happy; if the flavor proves unpleasant, it is best to remain
single.

A very jolly time may be had with


Fortune Bags.

Purchase or make a number of brown paper bags of medium size. In each
place a simple little gift such as a tiny home-made doll, a paper toy
you have manufactured or a picture of a young woman or man cut from a
newspaper and pasted neatly on a half sheet of fresh writing-paper, drop
a nut in the fifth bag and add other home-made gifts for other bags, and
label each appropriately. Pin a piece of paper on the doll with these
words written on it, "Dorothy's new doll" (if none of the girls happens
to have that name use another in its place). Under the young woman's
picture write, "Marie when she is grown," and under the young man's
write, "This is Malcolm when he is a man." Change the names if they do
not represent any of the party. After a gift has been dropped in, take
the bags one at a time and blow them full of air, do not allow the air
to escape while you wind a string around the openings and tie them
securely. The bags, being puffed out with air, will appear much the
same, rendering it impossible to tell, by merely looking at them, which
contain the largest gifts. All the bags should be tied on a strong
string, forming a fringe of bags stretched across the room. The young
people should draw lots for first choice of the fortune bags, then each
player in turn must point to the bag selected, no one being allowed to
touch a bag until the leader has clipped it from the string. Only one
bag can be given out and opened at a time, in order that all may see and
enjoy the contents of each separate fortune. All young people enjoy the
fun of trying their fortunes. Even when convalescent and not yet quite
strong enough to join in the general frolic, they may, in a quiet way
test many old-time and some new prophecies. The three saucers is one as
in the illustration. The apple seeds charm commencing with "One I love"
is another and for new ideas there is The Feather test, Witch Writing,
etc.

[Illustration: A Convalescent Witch.]



CHAPTER XXIII

THE MAGIC CLOTH AND WHAT IT WILL DO


IN India there live wonderful men who can perform the most startling
feats, such as making small plants grow up tall and large in a few
moments, and who, by repeating certain magic words, cause water to
mysteriously spring from the dry earth and fill a hollow, producing a
tiny lake on which little boats can sail. Of course, we do not
understand how such things can be done, never having seen them; but
there are certain amazing and astonishing feats that we do comprehend
and which we can perform. Our jumping frog is so lively and funny that
even the most grave and serious person would smile to see the little
animal actually move and suddenly leap up in the air.

[Illustration: Fig. 449.--One for the money, two for the show,]

[Illustration: Fig. 450.--Three to make ready]


Make the Frog Jump

With a soft lead-pencil trace the frog (Fig. 449) on tracing-paper; then
transfer it to a very soft, pliable piece of _white cotton mull_ or any
white cloth that will stretch readily when pulled, for stretch it must,
or the frog will not jump. Turn the square of cloth so that it will
resemble the ace of diamonds in a pack of playing-cards, having one
point up, one down, one at the right and one at the left hand. Fasten
the cloth over a piece of white paper on a smooth board or table with
thumb-tacks or strong pins. Very carefully place the tracing-paper, on
which you have drawn the frog (Fig. 449), over the cloth, allowing the
head to come under the top point of the square and the feet to extend
toward the lower point. Mr. Frog may then be drawn exactly on the bias
weave of the cloth. When you have finished the tracing, go over the
lines again with a soft lead-pencil to make the markings clear and
distinct.

[Illustration: Fig. 451.--And four to go.]

Look at the frog to be sure he is correctly drawn; then remove the pins
and, allowing the cloth to remain on the table over the piece of smooth
white paper, spread both of your hands out on the cloth, one at each
side of the frog, and, keeping your eyes on the drawing, move your hands
gradually outward, at the same time moving the mull with them. The
stretching of the bias material will cause the frog to flatten out until
he crouches for a spring (Fig. 450). Cautiously raise your hands up and
off the cloth and place them down again in a different way; put one
above and the other below his Frogship, and, still keeping your eyes on
the figure, suddenly move your hands, stretching the square up and
down, when the frog will give a quick leap and spring straight upward in
the most unexpected manner (Fig. 451).

[Illustration: Fig. 452.--"We are hungry."]

Cut the squares of material large enough to be easily handled; if made
too small your hands will slip off the edges.


Feed the Birds

Have you ever seen little young birds in their nest? How they huddle
together with their large yellow mouths open wide watching for their
mother to return with their dinner! Trace the drawing (Fig. 452) on bias
cloth and you can make these little birds move and really stretch up
their heads for their dinner as you slowly pull the cloth upward and
downward (Fig. 453). Watch them. Then stretch the cloth out sidewise and
see the birdlings quietly settle down in their nests with a "Thank you"
and "Good-by." (Fig. 454).

[Illustration: Fig. 453--"Here comes our dinner."]

[Illustration: Fig. 454.--"Thank you" and "Good-by."]


See the Children Talk

Trace the girl and boy (Fig. 455) on bias cloth as you did the frog.
Fig. 455 shows how the children appear when they meet. Pull the cloth
sidewise and their faces change expression (Fig. 456); they do not seem
to enjoy their chat. Now pull the cloth in the opposite direction, and
in an instant their faces show surprise and dismay (Fig. 457).

[Illustration: Fig. 455.--"I can beat you spelling."]

[Illustration: Fig. 456.--"You can't, either." "I can, too."]

[Illustration: Fig. 457.--"Oh! Oh! We are both at the foot of the
class."]


Make the Tenor Sing

[Illustration: Fig. 458.--D O.]

I wonder if you ever attended a concert where the tenor had difficulty
in reaching his high notes, where he fairly seemed to rise up on his
toes in his efforts to attain the notes as his voice ran up the scale,
and everyone in the audience sympathized to such an extent that they,
too, felt like rising and stretching up their heads in search of the
difficult note. Such a tenor is shown at Fig. 459. Trace him on bias
cloth and pull the cloth out sidewise (Fig. 458); then, beginning with
the lower note, _do_, slowly sing the scale as you leisurely pull the
cloth upward and downward at the same time. When you come to _sol_ the
face should be like Fig. 459, and as you continue singing and
stretching the cloth, the tenor should resemble Fig. 460 when you reach
your highest _do_. Though not a very high note it is the best he can do,
and he looks very comical while his face is changing, his eyes and mouth
opening wider and wider and his hair rising up straight on the top of
his head.

[Illustration: Fig. 459.--S O L.]

The objects which are here illustrated may be replaced by others with
equally amusing results; any animals, such as goats, rabbits, camels,
hounds, may be drawn on the cloth and then manipulated so as to afford
the greatest amusement.

[Illustration: Fig. 460.--D O.]

You can have any amount of fun with the moving figures on your magic
cloth if you will remember the important points, which we will repeat to
be sure you understand. Have the squares of cloth for all the drawings
sufficiently large to be easily manipulated. Draw the design clearly and
distinctly. Draw it on the exact bias of the cloth; move the two sides
of the cloth at precisely the same time. Move the cloth always with both
hands spread out flat on top of the cloth. Place the cloth over a large
piece of white paper that the picture may be plainly seen. Care should
be taken to obtain soft cloth that will stretch readily. These
diversions will afford fine sport for a quiet evening and will be
enjoyed by the entire family. If painted the designs will be still more
comical.



CHAPTER XXIV

FINGER-PLAYS FOR LITTLE FOLKS


NOW we must play in-doors, and if you will spread out your little hands
and slide them together, back to back, with the palms outward, so that
the longest finger of the left hand rests on the back of the right hand
and the longest finger of the right hand lies on the back of the left
hand, you will have a


Queer Little Teeter-tarter

which will move when and how you wish. The two longest fingers form the
teeter-tarter; half of the teeter is on one side and half on the
opposite side of the fence. The fence is made by the other parts of the
hands, which, crossing each other, fit snugly and tightly, leaving the
teeter free to swing back and forth at will. Fig. 461 shows how your
hands should be placed together: the long finger marked A is half of the
teeter; the other half is on the opposite side. Move the long fingers
and watch the teeter go up and down, first one end then the other, just
like a real teeter made of a board across a fence. If you bend back both
of your wrists, the right wrist will drop while the left wrist will be
raised above it. This will bring one edge of the fence or hands toward
you, and looking down, you can see both ends of the little teeter.

[Illustration: Fig. 461.--The queer little teeter.]

You might cut out of writing-paper two small dolls and bend them so that
they will sit on the teeter. The least bit of paste on the ball of the
teeter finger of your left hand and some more on the nail of the teeter
finger of your right hand will fix the paper children securely on the
teeter, and you can make it go as fast as you please without danger of
the dolls' falling off. Fig. 462 gives the pattern for the dolls; Fig.
463 shows how to bend them, and Fig. 464 gives a little paper girl
seated on one end of the teeter.

[Illustration: Fig. 462.--Pattern of doll.]

[Illustration: Fig. 463.--Doll ready for teeter.]

Take the dollies off the teeter and let them rest for a while and watch
you build a church. Place your two hands back to back, with the ends of
the fingers of the right loosely crossing those of the left hand; then,
bring the palms of the hands together, fingers inside and thumbs outside
and lo!

[Illustration: Fig. 464.--Doll on teeter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 465.--"Here is the church,"]

[Illustration: Fig. 466.--"And here is the steeple,"]


Here is the Church

(Fig. 465). But it is without a steeple. Build one by raising the two
first fingers, without disturbing the remainder of the hands; bring the
raised finger-tips together and, "Here is the steeple" (Fig. 466). A
church, like any other building, to be of use, must have people in it,
and if we could only look inside this building we might find them; move
your thumbs apart, or "Open the doors and see all the people" (Fig.
467). There they are sitting in rows; don't you see them? Now let the
people go up-stairs. Cross your two smallest fingers on the inside,
which will bring the backs of the hands toward each other; keeping the
little fingers together, cross the third fingers, next the second, then
the first fingers. The fingers on the left hand form the stairs for the
people or fingers of the right hand to climb. Try it again, allowing the
people to ascend slowly one by one: "Here are the people climbing
up-stairs" (Fig. 468). Keep your hands loosely in the last position and
raise your right elbow; while holding that up, twist your left hand
around forward until the left thumb rests on the inside of the right
hand. Both hands will now be turned downward with the wrists uppermost.

[Illustration: Fig. 467.--"Open the door and see all the people."]

[Illustration: Fig. 468.--"Here are the people climbing up-stairs,"]

Leaving the hands in this position, turn your two elbows outward and
down, which will bring your hands up; slide your right thumb outside and
around your left thumb, the left thumb will then be the minister and,
though you cannot see them, the fingers clasped inside the hands are the
people, but you can see the thumb, preacher, standing up ready to talk
to the people, and you may say, "Here is the preacher who for them
cares" (Fig. 469).

If you want to form


A Bird's Head

of your hand, lift up the second finger of the left hand with your right
hand, and cross the lifted finger well over the back of the first finger
of the left hand. Again, use your right hand to lift the third finger of
the left hand and twist it over the second left-hand finger. The last
finger is the little one of the left hand; lap this over the left third
finger and you will have all the left-hand fingers crossed, one on top
of the other. Bring the top of the left thumb up to meet the tip of the
second left-hand finger, which will finish the bird's head. The head
does not greatly resemble that of a real bird, but we will pretend it
does, for the fun of seeing who can build the head first.

[Illustration: Fig. 469.--"Here is the preacher who for them cares."]

[Illustration: Fig. 470.--Preparing for man chopping wood.]

[Illustration: Fig. 471.--Man chopping wood.]

To make a


Man Chopping Wood,

place the inside of the little finger of the right hand on the inside of
the little finger of the left hand, and the inside of the third finger
of the right hand over the inside of the third finger of the left hand;
then bring the second and third fingers of the right hand up and over
the inside of the palm of the left hand, as in Fig. 470. Rest the tip of
the second finger of the right hand on the tip of the thumb of the left
hand. The second finger is the stick of wood. Strike the wood with the
first finger of the left hand (C, Fig. 471); raising that, bring down
the second finger of the left hand (B, Fig. 471). Keep them moving,
first one, then the other, and you will have "the man chopping wood"
(Fig. 471). It is a pity to waste the chips which always fall when wood
is being cut, so let two children, the thumb and first finger of the
right hand, pick them up. Do this by tapping the palm of the left hand
with the thumb and first finger of the right hand, while the man cuts
the wood.

The four fingers working at the same time make it quite lively, but you
will find that if the man chops fast, the children will pick the chips
very quickly, and if the man works slowly the children will not hurry
about gathering the chips. It will be very difficult for you to have the
man chop slowly when the children are eager and quick at their task. The
feat will be almost as hard as patting your chest with the left hand
while you rub the right hand back and forth over the top of your little
head. You will laugh to see the left hand rub, when you told it to pat;
the poor little left hand tries to mind, but just as soon as its twin
brother, the right hand, begins rubbing, the left hand has to stop
patting and rub too.

[Illustration: Fig. 472.--"Here are my mother's knives and forks,"]

Lay your two hands down showing the palms; lace the fingers together and
say,


"Here Are My Mother's Knives and Forks"

(Fig. 472). Of course, the fingers are the knives and forks. Turn your
hands over while the fingers remain in place, bring the wrists down and
say, "Here is my father's table" (Fig. 473). Raise the two first
fingers, bringing their tips together, and say, "Here is my sister's
looking-glass" (Fig. 474). Then raise your two little fingers and,
rocking the hands from side to side, say, "And here is the baby's
cradle" (Fig. 475).

[Illustration: Fig. 473.--"Here is my father's table,"]

There is another little finger game, which we will call


"The Blackbirds."

[Illustration: Fig. 474.--"Here is my sister's looking-glass,"]

[Illustration: Fig. 475.--"And here is the baby's cradle."]

Dampen two bits of paper and press one down tight on the nail of the
first finger of your right hand and the other on the nail of the first
finger of your left hand. The two pieces of paper are the two
blackbirds. Now hold your first fingers, on which the birds are resting,
out stiff and double up the remaining fingers; then let your father see
how well you have taught these little pet birds to mind, for they will
do exactly as you say, going and coming at your command. Place the tips
of your two first fingers on a chair, which you must pretend is a hill,
and raising first one finger to make the bird fly, then the other, keep
the pets flying up and down while you repeat these lines:

    "Two little blackbirds sitting on a hill;
     One named Jack and the other named Jill.
     Fly away, Jack!--"

As you say the last line raise the right finger up and back over your
right shoulder; while there, quickly bend down the right finger with
Jack on it and stiffen out the second finger in its place. Bring your
right hand down with Jack hidden and put the empty second finger on the
chair instead of the first. The bird will be gone and lonesome little
Jill will perch on the hill with no playmate, so you must let her go
too. Repeat these words, "Fly away, Jill," and make her disappear as you
did Jack, bringing down the empty second finger of your left hand and
your father will find that both birds have gone; but you may make them
return by saying, "Come back, Jack," as you raise your right hand and
close down the second finger while you straighten out the first and
bring it again to the chair with Jack upon it. Call Jill also that Jack
may have some one to sing to, and as you say, "Come back, Jill," bend
down the second finger and straighten out the first one with Jill on it,
and let her fly down to Jack. You may repeat the lines again and again,
making the pets come and go.

You can play


"Chin Chopper Chin"

with your sister, but you must be careful and touch her face very
lightly. As you say "Knock at the door," softly tap her forehead, and at
"Peep in," gently raise the outside of her eyelid by pushing the top of
your finger upward on her temple near the eye, but not too near, as you
might accidentally strike the eye. "Lift up the latch" by slightly
raising the tip of her nose with the end of your finger. At "Walk in"
gently place your finger between her lips; end the play by saying "Chin
Chopper Chin" as you lightly tap several times under her chin.

Were I with you now we would play


"Build the Tower."

[Illustration: Fig. 476.--The famous five little pigs.]

I would place my right hand down flat on my lap with the back of the
hand uppermost, and say to you, "Lay your right hand out flat on top of
mine;" then I would place my left hand over yours, and you would cover
mine with your left hand. That would make four hands all piled up in a
tower; but the moment your left hand came down on top of mine I would
pull my right hand out from under the tower and lay it on top, covering
your left hand; then you would hurry to take your right hand from under
the pile and place it on top. So we would continue to play, always
drawing the hand out from the bottom of the pile and placing it on top
until we were able to build the tower very rapidly, and, when either of
us took too long a time to draw her hand out from under the pile, a
forfeit would have to be given to the other.

[Illustration: Fig. 477.--"This little pig went to market,"]

[Illustration: Fig. 479.--"This little pig had roast beef,"]

[Illustration: Fig. 478.--"This little pig stayed at home,"]

[Illustration: Fig. 480.--"This little pig had none,"]

[Illustration: Fig. 481.--"This little pig said wee, wee, all the way
home."]

[Illustration: Fig. 482.--Ring of paper on pig.]

Ask your older sister or brother to trace the


Famous Five Little Pigs

(Figs. 477, 478, 479, 480, 481) on unruled white writing-paper and cut
them out. The strip of paper extending from one side of each little pig
must be made into a ring (Fig. 482) to fit the end of one of the five
fingers on your right hand (Fig. 476). Begin with "This little pig went
to market" (Fig. 477) for the thumb, next, "This little pig stayed at
home" (Fig. 478) for the first finger, then "This little pig had roast
beef" (Fig. 479) for the second finger, and "This little pig had none"
(Fig. 480) for the third finger; to the little finger belongs (Fig. 481)
"This little pig said wee, wee, all the way home." Adjust the bands
until they fit perfectly, then paste the end of each band under the free
side of the attached pig. If the bands are too long they can be cut to
proper length. Fig. 482 gives the wrong side of a pig with band curled
around and pasted on back of pig, and Fig. 476 shows how the Five Little
Pigs will look when on your fingers. If you can give each little pig a
flat wash of pink water-color paint, and when dry ink the outlines, they
will appear more real. After you have played with the wee pigs, try


The Children's Heads

(Figs. 483, 484, 485, 486, 487), and ask some one to fold paper into
hats for your finger-heads, as shown in Figs. 488, 489, 490, 491, 492.
You might ask to have the various children's heads painted, giving each
girl and boy different colored hair--black, brown, red, deep yellow,
and pale yellow. If the hats are of colored tissue-paper the effect will
be fine, especially if a bit of gay cloth be wound around each finger
for clothing. Then the five alive little dolls can bow to each other and
dance.

[Illustration: Fig. 483.--"I am sleepy."]

[Illustration: Fig. 488.--Sleepy boy's hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 484.--"Where is my hat?"]

[Illustration: Fig. 489.--Crying boy's hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 485.--"I think you are funny."]

[Illustration: Fig. 490.--Hat for little girl who wants to play.]

[Illustration: Fig. 486.--"Will you play with me?"]

[Illustration: Fig. 491.--Laughing boy's hat.]

[Illustration: Fig. 487.--"I'll give you a good time."]

[Illustration: Fig. 492.--Little girl's hat.]

[Illustration: Arranging the flowers.]



CHAPTER XXV

HOW TO ARRANGE FRESH FLOWERS


I THINK one must really love the flowers in order to arrange them
perfectly. If you love them you will feel in sympathy with them, and
that alone will help you to understand what is needed to bring out and
emphasize their exquisite beauty. Yet some knowledge of the rules that
govern the best arrangement of flowers is necessary also, for it saves
many experiments and makes the pretty task much more enjoyable and
satisfactory.

You may crowd a room with the rarest and most expensive flowers, but so
arrange them that more than half of the effect of their beauty is lost;
and you may have only one flower, but if it be the right kind of flower
in the right kind of vase, and placed in just the right spot, your room
will appear abundantly decorated and be filled with the beauty and
sweetness of the one blossom.

In a house where good taste always prevailed there stood, one day, on
the uncovered top of a grand piano a tall, colorless, transparent vase
which held just one long-stemmed American Beauty rose. The queenly
flower with its stem showing through the glass and the few green leaves
attached were all reflected in the highly polished piano, and the effect
of the colors reproduced in deepened, darkened tones by the rich
rosewood was indescribably lovely. There were no other flowers and,
though the room was a large one, none were needed. One's eyes fell
immediately upon the rose when entering, and lingered there with no wish
to be drawn away by lesser attractions.

It was not merely a happy accident that placed the one flower in its
prominent and effective position, but the experience and unerring taste
of the daughter of the house.


Imagine a Number of Nasturtiums,

with no green leaves to relieve them, packed tightly into the neck of a
brightly colored porcelain vase, and set primly on a stiff mantel-piece
amid other prim ornaments. Then think of a clear glass rose-bowl
standing on a table, where lie the newest magazines or books, filled and
running over in riotous beauty with the same nasturtiums in their free,
untrammelled state. The viney stems with leaf, bud, and blossom drooping
to the table or hanging over its edge, and the other blossoms standing
up in sweet liberty with room to move about if they will. Can you
hesitate between the two arrangements? Yet I found the first in a
flower-lover's home.


Do Not Crowd the Flowers

Few flowers look well packed tightly together and all are better for
loosening up a trifle. Purple violets are almost the only flowers that
will bear crowding, though many think wild daisies adapted to this
arrangement, and spoil their beauty by making them into hard, tight
bunches. A good rule is to follow Nature as far as possible in this
direction. Flowers that grow singly and far apart, should not be
crowded, but those which grow thickly clustered may be more closely
massed.

It is almost always well to


Combine Green Leaves with the Flowers

although there are some that do not need this relief. Closely packed
flowers should have no foliage; chrysanthemums, one species of the
brilliant poppy and the sweet-pea need none, but there are few others
that do not show better amid green leaves.

While flowers of different varieties seldom look well together, you may
sometimes add much to its beauty by giving a flower the foliage of
another plant, and a trailing green vine will often be just the touch
needed to soften a stiff arrangement.

Asparagus fern is an airy and feathery green, but you must use it with
discretion, as it is suitable only for fragile, delicate flowers in very
loose arrangements. Other ferns, though often used, do not really
combine well with any flowers, they are too distinctly another species
of plant and hold themselves aloof in their separateness. The wild
oxalis, wood-sorrel, or, as the children call it, sour grass, has pretty
delicate leaves that look well with sweet-peas and other small flowers.
As a rule, a flower's own foliage suits it best, however, and you may be
certain not to offend good taste by keeping to it.


Do Not Combine Flowers

that are different in kind or color, it can seldom be done successfully.
To be sure, a mass of sweet-peas in all their variety of color is very
lovely, but even they are more effective when separated into bunches
each of one color. White flowers sometimes are the better for a touch
of color, and white and yellow roses make a pretty combination, or white
and delicate pink, but the strong contrast of white and dark red is not
pleasing. Lilies should always have a vase to themselves, and the
Ascension lily must under all circumstances stand alone. Neither the
quality of the flower nor the associations connected with it permit of
its being grouped with any other.


Vases

In the careful arrangement of flowers your object should always be to
bring out their whole beauty, and let all else be secondary to that. One
vase, though beautiful in itself, may not be at all suitable for holding
flowers, while another, of no value as an ornament, will display them to
their best advantage.


Colorless Transparent Vases

are always safe and in many cases absolutely necessary. Give your roses
transparent vases or bowls whenever possible. If they have long stems,
tall, slender vases, if their stems are short the clear glass rose-bowls
are more suitable. Short-stemmed flowers do not look well in tall vases,
and a flower should always stand some distance above the top of the
vase. Someone gives as a rule that the height of long-stemmed flowers
should be one and one-half times the height of the vase, but when the
vase contains several, of course the height must vary.


The Vases and Bowls

need not be expensive, for they are now in the market at extremely low
prices. Knowing what to choose you can find for a very moderate sum
tall, slender vases with almost no markings, that will show the long
stem and so display the entire loveliness of the rose. Fig. 493 is one
of the least expensive of these vases. Even the colorless glass
olive-bottle, shaped like Fig. 494, makes a pretty and suitable vase,
and an ordinary fish-globe displays the rose-stems to far greater
advantage than a cut-glass rose-bowl. A clear glass water-pitcher
without tracing of any kind is another appropriate receptacle for these
lovely blossoms. When the stems of any flowers have beauty of their own,
they should never be hidden in opaque vases. So it is not for roses
alone these transparent vases are suitable.

[Illustration: Fig. 493.--An inexpensive clear glass vase.]

[Illustration: Fig. 494.--The olive bottle.]


Colored Vases and Jars

will sometimes enhance the brilliancy of flowers of contrasting or
complementary colors. A pale-yellow jar will intensify the richness of
the purple of the violet, and a soft green will harmonize with it most
delightfully. The neutral gray often found in Japanese ware will not
clash with any color, and is especially suited to brilliant red flowers;
yellow flowers in a dark-blue jar are quite effective.

Do not use ornate or highly decorated vases. No design should conflict
with the natural flowers, and the shape of the vase should also be
simple.

Cylindrical jars, like Fig. 495, are suited to heavy clustering flowers
like the lilac and also to the large chrysanthemums. Fig. 496 is another
good shape; but avoid vases like Fig. 497 with a neck so small it will
admit only one or two stems, while the bowl is much too large for the
few flowers standing stiffly erect.

[Illustration: Fig. 495.--A cylindrical jar.]

[Illustration: Fig. 496.--Another good shape.]

[Illustration: Fig. 497.--Avoid vases like this.]

Place short-stemmed flowers, like the pansy and violet, in low jars or
bowls, and it is not necessary to have them lie flat on the water. A
friend of mine has invented for her own use this little


Flower Lifter

which holds the flowers above the water while allowing nearly the whole
of their short stems to be immersed.

With an old pair of shears, or a wire-cutter, snip off a dozen or more
pieces of copper wire of varying lengths between ten inches for the
longest and five for the shortest piece. At each end of every wire make
a loop like Fig. 498; bend the loops over (Fig. 499), then fasten all
the pieces to a brass curtain-ring by twisting each piece once around
the ring at the centre of the wire (Fig. 500). Bunch the wires together
and stand the lifter in a bowl of water; put your flower-stems through
the wire loops, as in Fig. 501, and the wires under water will look like
the flower-stems, the loops being hidden by the blossoms.

[Illustration: Fig. 498.--At each end of the wire make a loop.]

[Illustration: Fig. 499.--Bend the loops over.]


Symmetry

is pleasing and necessary in many things, but not in the grouping of
flowers. You must strive for apparent carelessness in effect while
taking the utmost care, and for irregularity and naturalness rather than
stiff, formal arrangement. A bowl of flowers need not look, as it
sometimes does, like a dish for the table, served with the
confectioner's symmetrical decorations; it should rather seem as if the
sweet blossoms were growing in a bed of their own.

If you can take


Wild Flowers

up in a clump, roots and all; they will look far better than the cut
flowers arranged in vases, and the roots may afterward be planted in
your wild-flower garden.

[Illustration: Fig. 500.--Fasten the pieces to a brass curtain-ring.]

Bloodroot will keep a long while if the roots are not disturbed, and one
of the loveliest flower-pieces we ever had in the house was a gray-green
Japanese bowl filled with the growing bloodroot. The blossoms stand
closely together and a small bowl will hold quite a number.

[Illustration: Fig. 501.--Put the flower stems through the wire loops.]

Wood anemones, hepaticas, and wild violets are all adapted to this
temporary transplanting. I have kept ferns in this way for several
weeks and the centre-piece for the table in our mountain camp was at one
time a clump of maiden-hair fern in a small china bowl, which lasted
fresh and perfect many days. As there can be comparatively little soil
with the roots of these wild flowers, they must be kept very damp all
the while, and ferns, especially, will do best when set in a pan or bowl
of water.



CHAPTER XXVI

OPEN-AIR PLAYHOUSES


IN many places in the South the children have most beautiful material
with which to build out-of-door playhouses. Large green palm-leaves grow
close to the ground and point their slender fingers out in many
directions as though holding up their outstretched hands, asking the
girls and boys to come and take them. These palms, together with small,
full-leaved live-oak twigs, Cherokee roses, trailing vines, and long
gray moss, are fashioned into bouquets and tied in great bunches to the
trees with strings made of strips of palms. Four trees growing near
together are usually selected as the boundary lines of the


Florida Playhouse,

their branches overhead serving as a roof. The walls are open, allowing
a free passage of air and plenty of light (Fig. 502).

Similar playhouses may be built by children in any spot where trees grow
within a short distance of each other. In place of tropical decorations
the young builders can use the most ornamental bouquets within reach,
selecting foliage and flowers which will keep fresh at least for a few
hours.

If trees are not available, make the open-air

[Illustration: Fig. 502.--Florida playhouse.]

[Illustration: Fig. 503.--Framework for umbrella playhouse.]


Playhouse of a Large Umbrella.

Tie a strong piece of twine securely to the end of each of the ribs and
tie the loose end of each piece of twine around the notch cut in a
pointed wooden peg a short distance from its top. This will give an
umbrella with a fringe of dangling pegs. Open the umbrella and fasten
the handle securely to a long, sharp-pointed stick, binding the two
together with strong twine. First run one end of the twine down the
length you intend binding, allowing enough to tie at the bottom; then
commence binding at the top over all three--the umbrella handle, the
twine, and the stick. Wind the string around very tight, and when you
reach the bottom, tie the twine you hold to the loose end of the length
under the wrappings. Examine carefully and be sure the handle does not
slide or twist on the stick; then push the point of the stick down into
the ground at the place decided upon for the playhouse. If you are not
strong enough to erect the house by yourself, ask some companions to
lend a hand and help sink the stick firmly in the earth. When this is
accomplished stretch out each length of twine in turn and drive the peg
in the ground (Fig. 503). You will need a wide ruffle on the edge of the
umbrella of some kind of material full enough to reach around the outer
circle of pegs on the ground beneath its lower edge. The stretched twine
will hold the ruffle out, forming an odd little playhouse with a smooth,
round roof and drapery walls. Plait the ruffle and pin it on the
umbrella with safety-pins; also fasten it at the bottom to each peg
(Fig. 504). Newspapers pasted together and made of double thickness may
be used for the ruffle, if more convenient, but be careful in handling
the paper, as it tears readily. The longer the pole the higher and
larger will be your house, for the strings also must be longer.

[Illustration: Fig. 504.--Umbrella playhouse.]

[Illustration: Fig. 505.--Frame for wigwam.]

When you want to play Indian and pretend you live in the Wild West, your
home must be


A Wigwam

Get a dozen slender poles about as large around as a broom-stick, and
twice and one-half as tall as yourself. Tie three poles securely
together near the tops and stack the others around the first three as a
foundation or framework for the house. Settle each pole firmly in the
ground, forming a circle, and bring the tops together at the centre,
where each pole should form a support for the others, and all should
lean against and across each other; then bind all the poles together at
the top of the framework (Fig. 505). Covers of real wigwams are usually
cut to fit the framework and often decorated in savage fashion.
Sometimes they are composed of skins of wild beasts. If you can make
yours in Indian style, it will be very realistic and lots of fun. Find
some inexpensive dull-brown or gray outing cloth or Canton flannel and
sew several lengths together. Fig. 506 gives the pattern of a wigwam
covering, and the dotted lines enclosing B-B-B-B show how the breadths
are sewed together. C is the chimney-opening where the poles come
through at the top. O is one of the flaps held back with an extra pole;
D, one of the lower front sides folded over for the door-way. The dotted
line A indicates the slit to be cut for the chimney-flap. The two
chimney-flaps can be brought together for protection when necessary.
Along the curved edge of the blank side of the diagram (Fig. 506) holes
are shown for the wooden stakes to be used in pinning the wigwam to the
ground. The holes must be continued along the entire edge of the
covering.

[Illustration: Fig. 506.--Cover for playhouse wigwam.]


Cut Your Wigwam

similar to diagram (Fig. 506), making an immense cape-like affair. Try
the covering over the framework of poles; if it fits fairly well, hem
the raw edges and bind the small, round holes cut at intervals in the
lower edge, to prevent them from tearing. When finished tie each of the
two top points to a separate pole. Ask someone to assist you and let the
two poles be raised at the same time to the top of the Wigwam framework;
in this way the entire upper part of the covering may be hoisted in
place; then the sides can be spread out and adjusted. Indians, having no
chimneys, always leave quite a large opening at the top of their wigwams
to serve this purpose; the space also admits light into their houses.
Commence near the top at the place where the flaps are cut, and pin the
fronts together with large thorns or sharp-pointed slender sticks.
Fasten the fronts to within a few feet of the ground. The opening left
at the bottom takes the place of a door. Sharpen as many wooden pegs as
there are holes in the bottom of the covering and push a peg through
each hole into the ground, bending the pegs outward a little in order to
keep the tent-like covering from slipping off the tops of the pegs. The
two poles attached to the chimney points must now be carried backward on
each side of the wigwam, to be brought forward again when desired (Fig.
507). When other material is lacking, shawls, bedspreads, or sheets
pinned together may be used for your wigwam-cover.

[Illustration: Fig. 507.--Your wigwam playhouse.]

[Illustration: Fig. 508.--African hut playhouse.]

[Illustration: Fig. 510.--Framework ready for floral tent.]

[Illustration: Fig. 509.--Binding branch on forked stick.]

[Illustration: Fig. 511.--Building the floral tent playhouse.]

With a large-sized Japanese umbrella, a breadth of cloth, a stick, and
some straw you can make an


African Hut

Take the straw or hay and divide some of it into bunches twelve inches
in length. Tie these all together in a long row, forming a straw fringe.
Sew the fringe around the edge of the umbrella with a coarse needle and
thread, allowing it to hang over and down. Overlap the first row with
another straw fringe and continue to sew on row after row until the top
is reached and the umbrella entirely covered; then fasten the handle
securely to a sharp-pointed stick and plant it firmly in the ground.
Measure the distance around the outer edge of the umbrella, not
including the straw thatch, and cut the cloth long enough to reach
around, leaving an open space for the door-way. Use more straw to cover
the cloth completely and sew the straw on in overlapping layers
lengthwise of the material. With safety-pins fasten the wall around the
inner edge of the umbrella, pinning the cloth to little loops of tape
you have tied at intervals over the ribs of the umbrella (Fig. 508).

[Illustration: Fig. 512.--Floral tent playhouse.]

The


Floral Tent

is easy to erect. Push two forked sticks into the ground and on one bind
an upright slender branch (Fig. 509); then lay a pole across from one
crotch to another (Figs. 510 and 511). On the upright branch tie flowers
and grasses, twisting a wreath of the same around the forked stick.
Procure some bright-colored flowered material, or cloth of any kind and
hang it over the central pole. Stretch out the four corners and peg them
to the ground (Fig. 512).



CHAPTER XXVII

KEEPING STORE


THE best place for keeping store is out-of-doors, where there will be
plenty of room and no fear of disturbing the grown people. Select a
shady spot by the side of a house, fence, or tree, carry your supplies
there and set up the store.


Build the Counter

by placing a board across from one empty barrel to another (Fig. 513).
Turn the barrels upside down, bringing the covered side uppermost that
there may be no possibility of losing articles down through the open
barrel heads. Large, strong wooden boxes or two chairs may serve to
support the ends of the counter if barrels are not at hand.

[Illustration: Fig. 513.--The counter for your store.]

On each end of the counter nail an empty wooden box. Stand the box on
one end and let the open part face backward; put your hand inside and
drive a few nails through box and counter to fasten the box securely in
place. Do the same with the second box and your counter will be ready
for


The Scales.

[Illustration: Fig. 514.--Tin cover for scale.]

[Illustration: Fig. 515.--Tin cover pierced with three holes.]

[Illustration: Fig. 516.--Band for measuring holes.]

[Illustration: Fig. 517.--Folded paper for measuring.]

[Illustration: Fig. 518.--Strings tied on tin lid.]

These are very necessary in weighing different articles. They can be
made of the round covers of two large-sized baking-powder or cracker
cans (Fig. 514). Have the covers exactly the same size, and punch three
holes in the rim of each at equal distances apart (Fig. 515). To obtain
the exact measurements for placing the holes, take a strip of paper and
wrap it smoothly and tightly around the outside of the rim of the cover.
Let the paper be a trifle narrower than the rim of the lid, and be sure
to fold over the long end exactly where it meets the first end (Fig.
516, A). Remove the paper, cut off the fold, and again try the strip on
the cover. See that the measurement is perfectly correct, then take the
paper off and fold it into three equal sections, making two folds and
two ends (Fig. 517), and for the third time wrap the strip of paper
around the cover rim. Mark the tin at the point where the ends meet, and
where the two creases in the paper strike the tin; this will give three
marks on the rim equally distant from each other. Drive a wire nail
through the tin rim at the three marked places to make the necessary
holes (Fig. 515); then tie knots in the ends of six pieces of string of
equal length, and thread a string through each of the three holes in
each of the lids. Fasten the three strings on each lid together at the
top (Fig. 518). Cut a notch at each end of a stick and tie the scales in
place (Fig. 519). Make two notches in the centre of the stick, one on
the top, the other on the bottom, and tie a string around the stick at
the centre notches by which to suspend the scales. This centre string
may be fastened to an overhanging tree-branch, or you can make a support
for it. Nail an upright stick to the end of the counter and box,
allowing it to come a little below the board; then nail another upright
stick in the same way to the other end of the counter. Notch the tops of
the uprights, lay a long, slender stick across from one to the other and
tie the centre string of the scales on the cross-stick (Fig. 520). Fig.
521 gives an end view and shows exactly how to nail the upright on the
box and end of board. Use different-sized stones as weights; a small
one for a quarter of a pound, one twice as large for a half pound, and
another twice the size of the last for a whole pound.

[Illustration: Fig. 519.--Scales of tin can lids.]

[Illustration: Fig. 521.--Nail upright on box and end of board this
way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 520.--Take your place behind the counter and keep
store.]

Find a number of empty boxes in which to keep


Your Supplies,

and stand them in a row on another counter back of the first (Fig. 522).
Fill each box a little more than half full of sand, earth, pebbles, or
dried leaves, which you must pretend is flour, sugar, coffee, tea, or
other things in stock. Find a large shell, a piece of shingle, or
anything else that will answer the purpose, for a scoop to use in
handling many of the groceries. Label each box with the name of the
article you intend it to contain; then look up your vegetables and nuts.

[Illustration: Fig. 522.--Supplies for your store.]

Acorns make fine nuts. Gather a quantity of them, and for cabbage tie a
number of corn-husks together, or grape-vine or hollyhock leaves; any
kind of large leaves will answer the purpose. Take a small, short stick
and with a string wind the ends of the leaves, one leaf at a time, on
the stick, folding the first leaf opposite to and inside the second, the
second in the third, and so on, always allowing each succeeding leaf to
overlap the last until the cabbage-head is large enough; the resemblance
to the real cabbage will be remarkable. Spinach may be made of small
leaves. For asparagus pick a number of long, slender seed stems of the
plantain. Short, slender sticks placed in a glass jar may serve as
sticks of candy, licorice, or licorice root. You can utilize various
grasses, leaves, roots, and seeds in many ways.

When selling groceries you will need


Wrapping Paper

in which the customers may carry away their goods. Cut newspaper into
uniform sheets of two or three sizes and lay them conveniently near for
use. String will not be necessary if you twist the paper into
cornucopias. Hold the lower right-hand corner of a sheet of paper with
your right hand and the other lower corner on the same edge with your
left hand; pull the corner in your right hand forward, continue to bring
it toward you until it stretches out and up from the corner in your left
hand and covers well within the upper corner diagonally from it. Hold
these two corners together with the right hand while with the left you
roll the bottom corner, held in that hand, outside, forming the lower
point of the cornucopia. Fold up the bottom point to keep the cornucopia
from unrolling (Fig. 523), and it will be ready for whatever it is to
hold. The top point, B, can be turned down as a cover.

[Illustration: Fig. 523.--Newspaper cornucopia.]

Flower-pots or tin cans, large and small, may serve for pint and quart
measures. Always give _generous measure_ and _full weight_ when selling
your supplies. This item is very important; remember it every time you
make a sale, for the act will help to build up true ideas of justice and
honesty.

Now make


The Money

necessary to use in the store. Take ordinary white writing-paper not too
heavy and lay it over a coin; hold the paper down securely with the
thumb and first finger of your left hand while you rub an old spoon or
smooth metal of some kind over and over the paper-covered coin. The
metal end of the handle of a penknife is convenient to use for this
purpose. After one or two rubs you will see indications of the print of
the coin; a few more rubs will bring out the lines distinctly. Make as
many coins as you will need, of different denominations. Money of any
country may be coined in this manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 524.--Paper for your pocket-book.]

After printing all money necessary, cut it out ready for use and put the
change into


Paper Pocket-books.

[Illustration: Fig. 525.--Fold down the two top corners until they
meet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 526.--Fold the other two corners in the same way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 527.--Fold top point to meet centre of folded edge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 528.--Fold bottom point to meet centre of folded
edge.]

It requires only a few moments to make them. Cut a piece of smooth paper
eleven and one-half inches long and seven wide (Fig. 524). Fold down
diagonally the two top corners until they meet (Fig. 525); fold the
other two corners in the same way (Fig. 526). Fold the top point down to
meet centre of folded edge (Fig. 527); do likewise with the bottom point
(Fig. 528). Turn the top over and fold to centre (Fig. 529); bring the
bottom up to meet the edge of the folded top (Fig. 530). Now fold back
and under one of the sides (Fig. 531), fold under the other side (Fig.
532), and bend back lengthwise through the centre until top and bottom
meet (Fig. 533). Lay the pocket-book down on one side and the lower part
will resemble Fig. 534. The lower portion of the sides O and P, Fig.
534, must be fastened together that the bottom may be tight and secure.
Cut a strip of paper a trifle shorter than the length of (Fig. 534),
and insert it at the bottom by first folding the strip through the
centre lengthwise, then sliding one edge in at O and the other in at P.
Push the two sides of the strip well up in the pocket-book, and the
bottom will be tightly bound (Fig. 535). Turn the pocket-book right side
up, and you will find two nice, firm little pockets. Slip your finger in
one pocket and pull out the point to serve as a cover (Fig. 536). Cut a
short slit through one layer of the front of the pocket-book for
securing the point of the cover when the pocket-book is closed (Fig.
537).

[Illustration: Fig. 529.--Turn the top over and fold to centre]

[Illustration: Fig. 530.--Bring the bottom up to meet edge of folded
top.]

Divide the money among those taking part in the sport; then


Take Your Place Behind the Counter

and let your little friends call and purchase whatever they choose.

[Illustration: Fig. 531.--Fold back and under one of the sides.]

Be careful in making change that there are no mistakes, and insist that
each customer count the money received in change before leaving the
store. If you wish to be very business-like, take account of all goods
sold. Write down the articles with the measure or weight and the price
received, as nearly as possible as accounts are kept in real stores.
Should customers keep you too busy to put down the items yourself, let
another person act as bookkeeper and cashier, and when you make a sale
call out to your assistant the item with amount sold and money
received; for instance, should a boy purchase a pound of sugar, call to
the bookkeeper: "One pound of sugar, ten cents;" then turn your
attention to the next customer while your comrade writes down the
amount. If the weather continues fine, you can leave your store
undisturbed for several days in succession and conduct it after school
hours.

[Illustration: Fig. 532.--Fold under the other side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 533.--Bend backward until top and bottom meet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 534.--Showing under part of pocket-book.]

[Illustration: Fig. 535.--Bottom of pocket-book tightly bound.]

[Illustration: Fig. 536.--Pointed cover of pocket-book.]

[Illustration: Fig. 537.--Pocket-book closed.]


If you find that you need more and a greater


Variety of Candy

manufacture it of strips of bright-colored paper rolled into the form of
paper lighters about the length and thickness of ordinary stick candy.
These mingled together in a separate glass jar or piled upon the counter
add to the attractiveness of the store. Hard lump candy of various-sized
pebbles will probably sell well, but if upon trial the demand is not as
great as desired, you might wrap each pebble in a bit of bright paper to
enhance its appearance; then the customers will doubtless invest more
liberally in the gay-colored sweetmeats. Small candy balls, red and
white, may be made of the red and white clover-heads picked close to
the blossom, leaving no sign of the green stem visible. Keep the
different colors separate, placing all of the red clover candy flat down
in one layer on the inside of a box-lid, where it will look bright and
pretty. The upturned edges of the lid prevent the clover from rolling
out. White-clover candy will appear to better advantage if you place a
piece of colored tissue-paper in a box-lid, allowing the edges of the
paper to stand up a trifle beyond the sides before arranging the white
clover in the lid. Gather a variety of grasses, roots, and leaves, tie
them up in little bunches with strings formed of several pieces of long
grass twisted or braided together, and sell them as soup-seasoning
herbs. Large bouquets of white clover-blossoms with long stems and no
leaves when bunched together, forming a white mass on the top, and then
surrounded by large green leaves tied in place with braided grass, make
excellent imitations of cauliflowers. Use the round, flat hollyhock-seed
for crackers; peel off the outside green cover and the crackers will be
white. You can pretend large-sized poppy-seed vessels are green
tomatoes, which your customers will be glad to buy for making pickles.
Have everything connected with your store neat and orderly, and conduct
it in a business-like manner.

Do not forget to make bars of soap of moist clay or earth. Have the clay
only soft enough to mould and cut with an old knife; when of the right
consistency form the cakes, making them all the same size. Cut the edges
smooth and even and lay the soap on a board in the sun to harden
sufficiently to handle with ease.

You might also use moist clay for butter, and cut off portions as
customers call for it, weighing the butter in your scales to obtain the
exact quantity desired by each purchaser. Now try and think of other
supplies you can make of the moist clay.



CHAPTER XXVIII

A FROLIC WITH THE ROSES


SELECT one rose from the many you have gathered and hold the blossom
tenderly while you look down into its heart and breathe in its beauty
and fragrance; then gently turn the rose over and find how wonderfully
all the petals fit in and are held together in their pretty green cup
with its long green streamers, which we call the calyx. Is there any
flower more beautiful? See how daintily it is formed, how exquisite the
coloring and how wonderful the texture! Could a manufacturer furnish you
with such enchanting material from which to make your toys?


Boats of Rose Petals

Carefully detach the rose petals one by one, beginning with the
outermost and largest. Be cautious not to bruise or injure the fragile
little things. Cut the sail and mast all in one piece from tissue-paper
(Fig. 538). Fold the mast over twice, according to the dotted lines,
that it may be stiff and able to stand erect. Bend the lower portion of
the mast as in Fig. 539. Paste the inner sides of the fold together, and
it will form a flat piece extending out on each side of the mast (Fig.
540). Over the bottom of this spread the least bit of strong paste or
glue and place the mast well forward on one of the largest rose petals.
The portion of the petal which grew inside the calyx forms the front
part or bow of the boat. Have the mast stand perfectly erect; if it is
inclined to bend toward either side, straighten it and keep it upright.
Before launching the vessel allow a few moments for the glue to dry,
then lift the boat very carefully by the top of the mast with your thumb
and first finger and set it down on the water, which must be without
even a ripple. When once the boat is well launched the waves may come
with slight risk of damage to the craft.

[Illustration: Fig. 538.--Tissue-paper sail and mast cut in one piece.]

[Illustration: Fig. 539.--Bend lower portion of mast.]

Let the first boat be of a large pink rose petal and have its sail of
the same color.


Make Two Vessels

of white rose petals with white sails and join the boats with a strip of
white tissue-paper. Paste one end of the paper strip on the inner part
of the right-hand side of one boat and fasten the other end of the paper
strip on the inner part of the left-hand side of the other boat,
allowing sufficient space between the two boats to keep them from
touching. The twins will then sail together like two beautiful white
sea-gulls floating on the crest of a wave.

[Illustration: Fig. 540.--Form a flat stand.]

[Illustration: Fig. 541.--Green tissue-paper sail and mast.]

Take one of the green leaves and fasten on it a green sail different in
shape from the white (Fig. 541). Place this boat with the other pretty
craft on the miniature lake in the large glass dish or basin. Though not
so fragile and delicate, the green bark is charming. Agitate and move
the water as the boats lie at anchor, and watch the effect. Drifting,
floating, and dancing, the fleet of tiny boats will begin to move: the
mingling of the different tints and colors, the various beautiful
reflections cast in the clear water by the little vessels with their
spreading sails, form a delightful fairy-like spectacle. Fig. 542 gives
only a faint idea of the actual scene, which is all color, life,
fragrance, and beauty.

When you keep the dainty fleet on the water in-doors, it ought to remain
in good condition for several days. If you wish to have the


Lake in the Open Air,

dig a hole in the ground sufficiently large and deep to hold the pan you
intend to use as a lake. Sink the tin in the hole, fit it in perfectly
steady and firm, then pour clear water into the pan, and when it is
quiet launch the fleet.

[Illustration: Fig. 542.--Fairy fleet of rose-petal boats.]

You will need a little


Rose Girl

like Fig. 544, to help you enjoy the boats, a girl who can stand by the
water and watch the sailing-vessels; you can make such a one of a rose
turned upside down. Choose the largest and most fully blown rose for the
rose girl. Cut the stem off about two inches from the blossom, and push
a common wooden toothpick through the stem midway between the rose and
the end of the stem. The toothpick forms the girl's two arms (Fig. 543).

[Illustration: Fig. 543.--How to make the rose girl.]

Fashion the head from an old seed-vessel, which you will probably find
still clinging to one of the rose-bushes. First make a small hole quite
deep in the top of the seed-vessel; then push the end of the stem of the
rose up into the head (Fig. 543). Run each toothpick arm through a green
leaf and use a white or pale-pink rose petal for the girl's face (Fig.
544). Pin the petal to the head with four rose thorns, using two for the
eyes, one for the nose, and one for the mouth. Pin a rose petal on the
top of the head for a hat. Turn backward two petals, without breaking
them from the rose, to form the dress waist; pin or gum one petal to the
arms and neck in front and the other to the arms and neck at the back.
Then stick three wooden toothpicks in the top of the rose (Fig. 544);
place the toothpicks so they will form a tripod, two on a line across
the front and the third a trifle back of and midway between the front
ones. These three toothpicks will enable the rose girl to stand alone;
the two foremost serve as legs and the other as a support. You can make
feet of two green leaves stuck on the ends of the two front toothpicks
(Fig. 544).

[Illustration: Fig. 544.--The wide-awake rose girl.]

Perhaps the little rose girl would like


A Garden

of her own, enclosed by a fence made of green leaves, thorns, short
slender sticks and a pliable rose stem. Bend the stem into an arch and
pin it down to a board with ordinary pins, each end over a green leaf
(Fig. 545). Begin at the bottom and attach the leaves to the arch with
thorns, allowing all leaves to point upward. Decorate one side, then
begin again at the bottom and fasten leaves on the other side; finish
the arch by pinning a leaf upright in the centre. Build the fence of
green leaves pinned together at their sides with slender sticks or broom
straws; stand the fence upright in a circular form, and fasten one end
leaf on each side of the arch (Fig. 546).

[Illustration: Fig. 545.--Bent rose-stem for arch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 546.--The rose-girl's garden fence.]

Of course you must


Give the Rose Girl a Party;

you might call it "The Feast of Roses," and decorate the four corners
of a wee table with vases which would rival in color and beauty the
famous "Peachblow Vase" for which such a fabulous price was paid. Make
the little vases of large pink rosebuds; those beginning to unfold are
the best. Peel off the outside petals and, grasping each bud, in turn,
near its base with the thumb and first two fingers, gently work it back
and forth until it is loosened and can be removed entire without damage.
Stand each vase on a level surface and gather spears of grass to place
in them. Push some of the grass ends down into the vases, but do not
crowd them; have only two or three in each vase (Fig. 547). The pink
color of the vase will contrast pleasingly with the green of the grass,
and the feast will be laden with the delicate perfume of roses. You
might candy different colored rose petals by dipping them in hot sugar
syrup boiled until it spins like a thread, and then drying the petals
separately on oiled paper; they will be appropriate for the party.

[Illustration: Fig. 547.--Peachblow vase of rosebud.]

[Illustration: Fig. 548.--Green rose-leaf for part of turtle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 549.--Rose petal and green leaf turtle.]

In addition to these things the rose girl must have a little


Pet Turtle

to take out walking in her garden. Cut a green leaf of a rose like Fig.
548. Cover the top with a rose petal gummed on around its edges, and the
turtle will be ready for a stroll (Fig. 549).

Draw a face with ink on your finger, and make a


Rose-petal Cap

for the finger-head by lapping two petals over each other, leaving the
outer edges for the sides and bottom of the cap. Gum one petal upon the
other and put the cap on your finger (Fig. 550).

[Illustration: Fig. 550.--Rose-petal cap for finger-head.]

[Illustration: Fig. 551.--Two cream-colored rose-petals for part of
pansy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 552.--Pink rose petals partially over light ones.]

[Illustration: Fig. 553.--Pansy ready for last rose petal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 554.--Pansy ready for green leaves.]

[Illustration: Fig. 555.--Pansy green leaf cut from rose leaf.]

We have not enough rose petals to serve for a shower, as had a Roman
emperor long ago when he made bushels of them rain down upon his guests
from the ceiling of his banquet-hall, but we can collect sufficient


Rose Petals to Use in Painting

some pretty designs. You will need neither paints nor brushes, for the
roses are the colors and deft little fingers the brushes. You must take
the paints as you find them and work this way: Place two cream-colored
petals on a smooth blank paper laid over a flat surface (Fig. 551);
arrange two pink petals partially over the light ones (Fig. 552); lay
down a stem from which you have taken the thorns (Fig. 553); add to the
flower a fifth petal, which should be pink, and you will have painted a
pansy (Fig. 554). Cut two of the green leaves of the rose according to
Fig. 555, and place them as if growing at different distances on
opposite sides of the stem (Fig. 556). Glue or strong paste dropped
sparingly on the paper where you intend to put the centre of the flower
will hold the petals in position, and, if necessary, you may use a
trifle more glue as the work proceeds.

[Illustration: Fig. 556.--Painting of pansy made with rose petals.]

Rose butterflies do not look exactly like real ones, but they are very
pretty, and you can readily paint one. Arrange two large red rose petals
for the front wings (Fig. 557); slightly over-lapping the lower edges of
these lay two smaller white petals, and make the body of a green leaf
cut like Fig. 558. Gum it down over the lengthwise centre of the group
of petals.

[Illustration: Fig. 557.--Red rose-petal wings and green rose-leaf
body.]

[Illustration: Fig. 558.--Body of butterfly.]


Conventional Designs

are very easy to paint. Take the rose calyx, cut off its lower half and
place the calyx flat down on smooth blank white paper; it resembles a
five-pointed star.

Under the tip of each point slide the inner end of a rose petal, any
color you choose. Between each two rose petals gum a green leaf (Fig.
559). Now take away the star centre and use rose petals in its place,
and you will have a "rose window" design. Try alternating red and
dark-red velvet petals, or use all yellow petals. In this way you may
form a variety of patterns painted with roses.

[Illustration: Fig. 559.--Conventional design painted with roses.]

[Illustration: Fig. 560.--Rose petals pinned together for wreath.]

To make


Dainty Wreaths of Rose Petals,

pin them together in a long row with slender sticks or broom straws
(Fig. 560). You can weave larger and more substantial wreaths, strong
enough to place on your mother's head when crowning her "Queen of Beauty
and Kindness." Use the entire blossom mingled with buds and green
leaves, all short stemmed, not longer than three or four inches. Bind
the stems with string on a circle made of a piece of willow or some
other pliable material, and be sure to remove the thorns from all the
stems before weaving the wreath (Fig. 561).

[Illustration: Fig. 561.--Wreath of roses.]

Try to find some new beauty in every rose you see this summer. Write it
all down, and the following June you will discover still other beauties
to jot in your rose book.



CHAPTER XXIX

A STRAW-RIDE PICNIC


THERE is a charm in the very word picnic, for it brings with it a
breezy, wholesome, out-of-door atmosphere, quickening the pulse and
causing the lips to smile with delight and the eyes to sparkle with
merriment. A genuine American picnic means a jolly little party in the
open air with plenty of space for all sorts of games and amusements; and
then the dinner! Its equal could not be enjoyed in an ordinary
dining-room. There is no need of chairs when the party is gathered
around the feast, for the novelty and fascination of sitting on the
ground while dining are thoroughly enjoyed, and everyone knows how
delicious a mere bit of bread and butter may taste when eaten from the
low, green table, the general enchantment of place and scene giving an
added flavor.

[Illustration: Going on a straw-ride picnic.]

June is the ideal time for picnics; in this month there are so many
perfect days, when none should work, but all should play, that one is
prompted to plan for a little fun and frolic, including an informal


Straw Ride,

which shall form part of the programme of the entertainment. Choose for
the ride a large, roomy wagon, remove all the seats except the one
reserved for the driver, and fill the bottom of the vehicle with plenty
of fresh, clean straw. Let all the party be seated on this, have within
reach warm wraps for protection in case of cooler weather or a shower;
and stow the luncheon away under the seat of the driver. The horse
should not be too spirited for such an occasion, and the driver must be
a strong, reliable man who understands perfectly the management of the
reins. Thus equipped, with two or three grown persons in charge, the
girls and boys may throw care to the winds and enjoy their ride over
hill and dale, through sweet meadows and along leafy lanes dappled with
golden sunshine; again on the highway, past field and wood, driving
gayly along until the picnic ground is reached.

Should the ride be more than a mile or two, the way may be beguiled with
gay songs and choruses, or games in which all may join while sitting
quietly in their places. Such a game is the old one


"Simon Says."

[Illustration: Fig. 562.--Simon says "Thumbs up."]

It is played with the hands only; each person doubles up his right hand,
resting it on his lap and allowing his thumb to stand erect (Fig. 562).
When all are in position the leader calls out: "Simon says 'Thumbs
down,'" at the same time turning his thumb downward (Fig. 563). All
follow his example; then comes the bidding "Thumbs up," and many will
resume the first position before they realize that the leader omitted to
prefix the order with "Simon says." Therein lies the catch, for no
command must be obeyed unless it comes from Simon.

[Illustration: Fig. 563.--Simon says "Thumbs down."]

[Illustration: Fig. 564.--Simon says "Wiggle waggle."]

The leader proceeds with "Simon says, 'Thumbs up,'" then up must go all
thumbs, and when "Simon says 'Wiggle waggle,'" all move their thumbs
from side to side while the hand rests in position (Fig. 564)--dotted
lines show the swing of the thumb. If any neglect to do so it counts one
against him; next comes the order "Stop"; the thumbs continuing to wag,
the leader calls "Simon says 'Thumbs stop.'" The leader may command a
change in the position and movement of the hand and thumb according to
his fancy, but the hand cannot be unclasped nor the thumb folded down
during the game. Three failures count the player out, and he must then
content himself with watching the others until the play ends. The
leader, being privileged, follows all directions in order to confuse the
others. The game is short, consisting of ten commands from the leader.
It may be played with sides, the group dividing into two parties; the
young people at one end of the wagon form one side, while those at the
other end constitute the other side. The party losing fewest players
wins the game.

Another interesting amusement, easily played as the wagon rolls along,
is the


"Bird Wish."

At a given signal each boy and girl must close both eyes tight and make
a wish, not opening the eyes until the leader calls out "Look," when all
may scan the blue heavens and the surrounding country in search of
birds. The first to discover one cries out "Bird," which insures the
fulfilment of the wish. The other players are obliged to try again.
There being but three chances in this game, only three of the company
can be sure of successful wishes.

If more diversions are needed during the drive, try the following


Word Tangle.

Ask each boy and girl to repeat in turn these lines:

    "She says she sells sea-shells;
     Shall she sell sea-shells?"

The words must not be recited too slowly, as that would spoil the sport.
Let the verse be said a trifle faster than ordinary speech. The tongues
of most of the players will probably become twisted, causing the words
to sound unintelligible to the rest of the company, and a hearty laugh
will follow the effort. Only one trial is accorded each player. When the
line has gone the rounds, repeat in the same manner:

    "Fred fetched freshly fried flying fish."

These little trials of skill in speech not only give you much fun, but
at the same time they cure hesitancy of speech and brighten the mind;
but do not let that frighten you and deter you from profiting by the
sport. Never be afraid of advantageous learning; let it come in what
guise it may, it will surely add to your pleasure as well as your worth.

When the picnic grounds are reached and all have had time to look about,
everyone will be ready for exercise. So prepare for a grand rush after
one of the group chosen as


The "Deer,"

who, stepping directly in front of the others, calls "Ready," when the
group standing still immediately sings to the air of "Yankee Doodle,"

    "My heart is in the Highlands,
       My heart isn't here.
     My heart is in the Highlands,
       Chasing the deer."

At the word "ready" the "deer" starts to run, and as the pursuers cannot
follow until the song is ended, the "deer" has time to get a certain
distance ahead before the others give chase; this they do as they sing
the last word in the verse. The "deer" runs a short distance, circles
around and returns to the starting-point, or "home" as it is called, the
followers endeavoring to catch him before he reaches his goal.

After resting from this game bring the rope from its hiding-place in the
wagon, also the long board stowed away flat against the side of the
vehicle, and in less time than you imagine the rope can be securely
fastened on a strong branch of a tree to serve as


A Swing,

while the board may be used for a "Teeter-tarter"; balance the plank
across a log or the lower bars of a fence; then when two players take
their seats at the ends of the board, if it is properly adjusted, they
will rise and sink alternately as the ends move up and down, keeping
time as the players sing:

    "Teeter-tarter, bread and water,
     Come and see the pretty daughter."

    "See-saw, Margery Daw,
     Came to town to study law."

If the players are of unequal weight, the heavier one shortens his half
of the plank by shoving it along farther across the fence or log,
preserving in this way the equilibrium. To start the "Teeter-tarter" one
of the players should give a slight spring upward with the feet while
retaining his sitting posture on the board.

Prepare


The Dinner

early, as the brisk drive in the morning air tends to stimulate the
appetite. Bring the lunch-boxes to the place selected for the meal; let
one person take full charge and give directions, while the others
unpack, build the fire, and go to the spring for water.

The lunch should have been packed in paper boxes, to avoid the care of
baskets. In the first box might be the loaves of fresh uncut bread and a
tin baking-powder can of sweet butter, the bread to be cut into thin
slices, buttered and prepared for sandwiches of various kinds. These can
be easily made by adding either the chopped nuts that have been packed
in a separate small box, or crisp lettuce leaves which have been
detached from the stalk, well cleaned and sprinkled with fresh water,
then carefully placed by themselves in a box lined with waxed or oiled
paper such as is used by confectioners for sweetmeats. Or the
sandwiches may be of sliced ham, tongue, roast-beef or lamb, each kind
of meat being folded in waxed paper and packed in its own box. When the
different articles of food are managed in this way they are much more
attractive and palatable, each retaining its own flavor, and there is no
danger of their being mashed and jumbled together, as happens too often
when the dinner is indifferently arranged and put together in a
thoughtless manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 565.--Picnic salt-box.]

The best way to carry salt, pepper, etc., is to put each into a small
paper box, the salt in one of cylindrical form, the lid of which has
previously been punched full of holes with the aid of a tack or a
slender wire nail (Fig. 565). The pepper can be in a smaller and
differently shaped box, and sugar in a box of still another size and
shape, that there may be no chance of mistaking one for the other and
covering the meat with sugar or trying to sweeten the lemonade with
salt. The perforations in the lid of the pepper-box must be quite small;
punch them with a large-sized needle. After the boxes are filled the
lids can be fastened securely with strong paste and, before they are
packed, may have paper tied down over the tops (Fig. 566), to preclude
all chance of the contents sprinkling out during the journey.

If mustard is needed, it should be prepared at home and carried in a
small, wide-mouthed bottle. Mayonnaise dressing is best conveyed corked
up in a small stone china jar, such as is often used for jam.

[Illustration: Fig. 566.--Paper over the top.]

Boiled, fried, or broiled chicken is always acceptable at a picnic
dinner; the chicken must be well cooked, cut into pieces and each
portion wrapped in a separate piece of waxed paper, then packed together
in a box. Cold-boiled asparagus or string beans, with fresh lettuce and
mayonnaise dressing, may take the place of a meat salad if desired.

Fruit is very refreshing and always welcome if consisting of fresh
berries, cherries, etc.; pack it in the same manner as lettuce, omitting
the sprinkling and washing.

[Illustration: Fig. 567.--Picnic wooden-spoon.]

[Illustration: Fig. 568.--Flat sticks to use as spoons.]

Of course, young people do not care for coffee, but the grown ones would
like it, and they must be remembered. Grind the coffee and mix with raw
egg; it may then be carried in the tin coffee-pot, the coffee to be made
after the grounds are reached. If cake is taken, do not let it be rich;
sponge or plain cup-cake, made in layers with apple-sauce between, is
best.

As far as possible have the table equipment of paper, that it may not be
necessary to carry it back home. A tablecloth composed of large sheets
of smooth white wrapping-paper will answer the purpose very well. Paper
plates such as are used by bakers, make excellent substitutes for china
ones and are the very thing for outing parties. Spoons may be home-made,
whittled of wood; should the bowls of the spoons prove too difficult to
manage, make them like small shovels (Fig. 567). If time will not allow
of this, flat, smooth sticks larger at one end than the other (Fig. 568)
may take their place. Knives are not absolutely necessary. Only one need
be taken, but that must be of good size and sharp, to be used for
cutting bread. It is a mistake to carry fine table linen or silver,
they always prove a great care and are apt to be injured or lost, but
not being skilled in the art of eating with chopsticks, like the
Chinese, you will have to be supplied with forks. Take barely enough for
the purpose and have them of the most inexpensive quality; then it will
not matter if one or two happen to be lost. Only a few cups will be
required and no saucers; the company can take turns using the cups. One
item more--a pail for the water.

A small


Camp-fire

is very important. Build it on a spot where there is not the slightest
danger of its spreading, and into the embers and ashes roll small raw
potatoes. They will be delicious baked--velvety black on the outside
and, when broken open while steaming hot, soft, mealy, and snowy white
on the inside. Before boiling the coffee, pile a layer of flat stones on
two sides of the fire and set the coffee-pot on them, bridging across
the open space over the fire. Water can be heated in this way for tea or
chocolate.

After luncheon gather all the boxes and paper and burn them in the
camp-fire, being careful not to put too much on the fire at a time and
waiting until one portion is burned before adding more. The paper should
be rolled in small, tight balls to prevent a possible breeze from
wafting it in the air.

All can join in feeding the fire and enjoy


The Game

which accompanies it. When each one has secured his contribution of box
or paper, all must stand around the fire and in turn cast the fuel on
the flames. The first to do so begins telling any kind of an original
tale which imagination may suggest, such as,

      "The Prince, arrayed in gorgeous and rich apparel, was
      about to enter his crystal palace when----"

There he stops, because the rules of the game do not allow one person to
speak longer than his paper burns, but until it is consumed he must not
cease talking. The next in turn drops her paper on the flame and
continuing the story, says,

      "he was startled by a peculiar noise from the grove
      near by. Rushing to discover the cause, he saw
      something dark moving among the trees, it turned and
      slowly approached----"

Her paper having completely burned, the third player takes up the plot,
and tossing his box on the glowing coals, says,

      "Nearer and nearer the something came, when, lo! it
      proved to be a baby bear walking erect and carrying in
      his paws----"

So it goes on, and everyone adding a little, the story grows. Each
player being at liberty to turn the romance to suit his mind, the story
is apt to assume sudden and comical changes, giving it a peculiar charm
both to those who take part and to those who listen.

A short, quiet time with jack-stones, played with small stones found on
the ground, will allow of sufficient rest before participating in the
exhilarating sport of


"Menagerie."

In this choose a keeper, whose duty it is to give the name of a
different animal to each player. Then all must form in line for the
grand march. Headed by the keeper, the procession twists and winds
through the trees, this way and that, returning soon to the
starting-point, when all join hands, forming a circle around the keeper
who is then blindfolded. The circle spins merrily around until the
keeper calls out "Jungle," the signal for all the players to shout in
chorus, each one giving the cry of the animal he represents. After that
they stand perfectly still. The keeper next calls to one of the animals
to enter the cage. The player named must break from the circle and,
standing within the ring, gently give the cry peculiar to the animal
represented, at the same time changing his position so that the keeper
may not be able to catch him, as the latter tries to do, guided by the
cry. If the keeper succeeds at the first trial, the two change places,
and the game commences over again, but without the march. Should the
keeper not be able to catch the animal in his first attempt, the bandage
must be removed from his eyes, and the circle standing clasping hands
and elevating them high in air, give space for the animal to dart out of
the cage, followed by the keeper. In and out of the circle they run,
going not more than three times around the ring; if in that time the
keeper does not succeed in capturing his game, he must again be
blindfolded and stand in the middle of the ring while the game
continues. If captured, the animal becomes the keeper and the keeper the
animal.

Only a short while will remain before it will be time for returning
home, a few moments more for tumbling about close to Nature; then comes
the ride back home in the big wagon filled with gay and happy girls and
boys.



CHAPTER XXX

A PAPER CHASE


FUN! Why what can compare with it? The clear frosty air is full of life,
the blood is rushing tumultuously through your veins and your feet are
tingling to be off on the chase. It is healthful, it is inspiring, it is
glorious fun. You must think, too, in order to be successful either as
hare or hound, for the object of each is to outwit the other, and Paper
Chase is a game that requires the use of brains as well as muscle.


The Hares and Hounds

compose the party. Two hares and as many hounds as you will, the more
the merrier. Each hare must carry a bag filled with paper cut into small
strips. The hounds carry only the weight of their responsibility to
entrap and catch the hares.

[Illustration: Over Fences.]


The Game

is a country game, of course. Who would think of the hares and hounds
dashing in a mad run through the streets of town or village. And it is
a noisy game with the Kee-ooi! Kee-ooi! of the fleeing hares, and
answering La-ha-hoo, La-ha-hoo! of the pursuing hounds.

Select a convenient club-house or residence for the meet and let there
be two hares and at least six hounds.

The first thing to be decided upon is the distance of the run, which
should not be too great, especially for beginners. The next is the
agreement between the hares upon a general plan to be pursued in their
tactics, which must be kept secret from the hounds.

The morning hours are best for the game, and a hearty appetite for
lunch, or the hunt-breakfast, it might be called, is the result.


At a Given Time

let the hares start off together, scattering their bits of paper as they
go, to be followed ten or fifteen minutes later by the hounds, who are
led by the paper on the tracks of the hares.

The object of the hares is so to scatter the paper in their
cross-country run as to lead the hounds on


A False Scent.

This is sometimes done by the hares making a detour into a field,
doubling back on their tracks and running in quite another direction. Or
they may provide a number of false scents leading from one point.

To be sure all this uses up much precious time, but the compensation
lies in mystifying and delaying the hounds, each of whom must decide for
herself which trail is the most likely to prove the one the hares have
really taken.

When


The Hares Are Off

and the fifteen minutes up, the hounds must start in pursuit. Their
object is to head off and catch the hares before they can cover the
given distance and again reach the place of meeting. A hound must not
only come in sight of a hare but must touch her in order to make a
catch. Each player in the paper chase acts for herself, and if she
succeeds in catching a hare she wins the honors. And a hare reaching
home without being caught wins great honor. The hares keep together, but
the hounds may scatter at will, though no girl should risk going too far
alone.

From time to time the hares must give their cry Kee-ooi! Kee-ooi! that
the hounds may not go too far astray, and the hounds reply with their
La-ha-hoo! to let the hares know they are on their tracks.


Over Fences, Across Brooks,

taking to the cover of the woods, or speeding along the roads, it
matters little how you get there, the object is to reach the point you
have decided upon over the shortest route and in the least possible
time.

This is the fun of it, the wild scramble over all obstacles and the
exultant moment when, if a hound, you have run down the hares or, if a
hare, you outwit the hounds and make the home-run in safety. The game
requires good generalship on both sides, quick thought and ready
decision.


How to Dress.

A short skirt, loose, stout walking shoes, and a sweater make the most
comfortable costume. Wraps will be found in the way and uncomfortably
warm, and you cannot run very well in overshoes. If your feet get wet
keep on running and you will not take cold, but have a change of
foot-wear ready that you may replace wet shoes and stockings with dry
ones as soon as you reach the house. Also throw a wrap over you upon
your return so that you may not cool off too suddenly after your long
run.

Light bags for the hares to carry may be made of cotton cloth with
straps of the same to throw over the shoulder.

Good health, good-fellowship, good-nature, and fair play are the
requisites for the complete enjoyment of this most exhilarating of all
games.



INDEX


    A

    Adjusting warp, 19
    African hut, 306
    Alligators, clay, 193
    Amusements, Mayday, 237
    Andirons, 142
    Anemones, 296
    Angling, Easter, 231
    Animals, tissue-paper, 75
    Apple, Indian, 209
    Apple, Jap, 211
    Apple-seeds, 261
    Apple tower, 214
    Apple toys, 206
    Arch, door, 177
    Armor, alligator, 197
    Arrow-heads, 122
    Arrow-shaft, 123
    Arrows for Mayday, 238
    Assumption, Cathedral of, 175


    B

    Baby alligators, 193
    Bag, school, 31
    Bags, fortune, 262
    Ball game, May, 251
    Ball of twine, 27
    Banana, clay, 201
    Band, spinning-wheel, 8
      To adjust, 9
    Banners, Japanese fish, 171
    Barrel-hoop, 62
    Basket of shavings, 36
    Basket, to make wood, 62
    Basket, to weave splint, 68
    Baskets as moulds, 187
    Baskets, May, 248
    Beads, 182
    Bed, Japanese, 168
    Beds, blankets for dolls', 26
    Bell and ball game, 251
    Bellows, 153
    Binding basket edges, 40
    Binding off, 71
    "Bird Wish," 337
    Birds, tissue-paper, 75, 93
    Birds, to feed, 267
    Bird's head, finger, 277
    Birthday festivals, 170
    Blackbirds, finger, 280
    Blanket, Navajo, 20, 125
      Doll's bed, 26
    Blood root, 296
    Blouse, Russian, 181
    Boats, rose petals, 320
    Body, alligator, 196
    Bonnet, war, 116
    Bonnet-wire stem, 95
    Boots, Russian, 182
    Bouquet-holder, 58
    Bow, 124
    Bow case, 124
    Bowls, 292
    Bows for Mayday amusements, 237
    Breakfast, Japan, 168
    Broom, show, 172
    "Build the Tower," 282
    Butt, rifle, 152
    Button-mould, 171


    C

    Calumet, 119
    Calyx, tissue-paper, 96
    Camp-fire, 342
    Cap, rose petal, 328
    Card-board, pot hooks of, 145
    Carnation-pink, 86, 87
    Case, handkerchief, 41
    Cathedral of Assumption, 176
    "Chai," Russian, 181
    Chamois skin gown, 125
    Chase, paper, 345
    Chicken, tissue-paper, 75
    Chieftain's shield, 120
    Children, talking, 268
    Chimney samovar, 184
    "Chin Chopper Chin," 282
    Churn, 160
    Circle, to cut a, 88
    Clay, 187
    Clay alligators, 193
    Cleaning for spinning-wheel, 8
    Cloak, old colonial, 155
    Cloth, magic, 264
    Clothes-line, possibilities of, 162
    Clover, four-leaved, 260
    Coat of armor, alligator, 197
    Coiled pottery, 187
    Colonial kitchen, toy, 133
    Colorless vases, 292
    Combinations, flower, 291
    Common grasses, 53
    Conventional designs, 330
    Cork churn lid, 160
    Counter, store, 308
    Cradle, papoose, 130
    Crane, 137
    Crazy bull, 116
    Crosses, paper, 178
    Crowding, flower, 290
    Cupola, Russian cathedral, 178
    Curtain-bee frolic, 48
    Curtain, sash, 34
    Curtains, primitive reed, 43


    D

    Daffodil, tissue-paper, 99
    Dance, egg, 230
    Dasher, churn, 160
    "Deer," 338
    Design, ornamental, 67
    Designs, conventional, 330
    Dinner, straw ride, 339
    Distaff, 7
    Doll, Japanese, 174
    Doll, Russian, 180
    Dolls' beds, blankets for, 26
    Dolls, feast of, 172
    Dolls' hammock, 56
    Dolls, new race of, 103
    Door-way, Russian cathedral, 177
    Door-way screens, 149
    Dress, Mary's, 217
    Dress, May-pole to, 252
    Dress, Miss Muffet's, 108
    Dress, paper-chase, 348
    Dutch windmill, 214


    E

    Eagle feather of paper, 121
    Easter egg games, 227
    Edges, basket, 40
    Egg games, 227
    Elephant, tissue-paper, 83
    Encampment, Indian, 111
    End-pieces, 63


    F

    Face, Miss Muffet's, 106
    False scent, 347
    Faucet, samovar, 182
    Feast of dolls, 172
    Feather, eagle paper, 121
    Feathers, for goose, 221
    Fence, paper, 168
    Fenced in garden, 168
    Ferns, 297
    Festivals, Japanese, 169
    Finger church, 275
    Finger plays, 273
    Finger steeple, 275
    Fire, tissue-paper, 114
    Fireplace, 138
    Fish, Japanese paper, 170
    Five little pigs, 285
    Flax, 10
    Flintlock rifle, 151
    Floors, Japan paper house, 167
    Floral tent, 307
    Florida playhouse, 298
    Floor, colonial kitchen, 136
    Flower lifter, 294
    Flowers, to arrange, 289
    Folks, finger plays for little, 273
    Food, alligator, 198
    Fortune bags, 262
    Four-leaved clover, 260
    Fresh flowers, to arrange, 289
    Fringe, to make hammock, 30
    Frog, jumping, 264
    Frolic, curtain-bee, 48
    Frolic with roses, 320
    Funny little apple toys, 206


    G

    Games, egg, 227
    Garden, fenced in, 168
    Garden, rose girls, 325
    Germantown wool for Navajo blanket, 20
    Ghost writing, 259
    Girl, rose, 323
    Gold nuggets, 254
    Good Indian, 115
    Goose, Mother Goose's, 220
    Gown, chamois skin, 125
    Grass, napkin ring, 59
    Grasses, common, 53
    Grasshopper house, 53
    Green leaf boat, 322
    Green leaves, 291
    Groceries, 312
    Gun, flintlock, 151


    H

    Hallowe'en revels, 259
    Hammock, dolls', 56
    Handkerchief case, 41
    Handle, basket, 40
    Handle, churn, 160
    Hares, 345
    Hut, African, 306
    Hat, witch's, 257
    Head, Washington, 202
    Headdress, Indian, 116
    Heddles, how to make loom, 17
    Hepaticas, 296
    Hibiscus, 86
    Holder, bouquet, 58
    Home-like rag rug, 154
    Home-made loom, weaving on, 15
    Hooks, pot, 145
    Hounds, 345
    Houses, Japan paper, 162
    House, grasshopper, 53
    Hub, spinning-wheel, 149


    I

    Indian apple, 209
    Indian Encampment, 111
    Indian pot, 143
    Indian travois, 118


    J

    Jap apple, 210
    Japan, paper houses of, 162
    Japanese doll, 174
    Japanese paper, 162
    Japanese umbrella, 173
    Jars, flower, 293
    Jumping frog, 264


    K

    Kago, 172
    Keeping store, 308
    King, May, 245
    Kitchen, toy colonial, 133
    Kneading clay, 187
    Knitting needle, gun-barrel, 152
    "Knives and Forks," "Here are my Mother's," 279
    Koi, Japanese, 171
    Kremlin, 175


    L

    Lake, open air, 323
    Lamb, Mary's, 219
    Lanterns, paper, 167
    Leather boots, 181
    Leaves, green, 291
    Leaves, tissue-paper, 193
    Legs, alligator, 198
    Lifter, flower, 294
    Lifting for Pasch eggs, 227
    Line, clothes, 62
    Lingerie, Miss Muffet's, 107
    Little apple toys, 206
    Little bellows, 153
    Little Miss Muffet, 103
    Little paper houses, 162
    Little pigs, famous five, 285
    Loom, weaving on home-made, 15


    M

    Magic cloth, 264
    Marvel pictures, 215
    Mary, 215
    Material, reed curtain, 43
    Mats, table, 41
    May baskets, 248
    Mayday amusements, 237
    May-pole, 252
    Menagerie, game of, 343
    Miniature cathedral, 176
    Miss Muffet, tissue-paper, 103
    Moccasins, 117
    Modelling in tissue-paper, 75
    Money, store, 314
    Morning glory, tissue-paper, 86, 94
    Mother Goose's goose, 220
    Mother's knives and forks, 280


    N

    Navajo blanket, 20
    Navajo blankets, 125
    Nail, staple, 46
    Napkin-ring, grass, 59
    Nasturtiums, 290
    Nature study, tissue-paper, 86
    Netting, rope, 65
    Nuggets, gold, 254


    O

    Odd things in Russia, 175
    Odd utensils, 144
    Odd colonial clock, 155
    Old-fashioned flintlock rifle, 151
    Old oaken bucket, 250
    Open air lake, 323
    Open air play houses, 298
    Ornamental design, 67
    Oven, 139


    P

    Paint, for Japan houses, 165
    Painting, rose petals for, 328
    Paper chase, 345
    Paper houses of Japan, 162
    Paper lanterns, 167
    Paper modelling, in tissue, 75
    Paper, store wrapping, 313
    Papoose, 130
    Parker, Thankful, 146
    Party, rose girls, 326
    Pasch eggs, 227
    Pattern, blanket, 24
    "Peel," 144
    Pet turtle, 327
    Pewter ware, 154
    Picnic, straw ride, 333
    Pictures, marvel, 215
    Pigs, five little, 285
    Pin loom, how to make, 16
    Pine-shavings, 36
    Pipe of peace, 119
    Play house, open air, 298
    Plays, finger, 273
    Pocket-books, store, 314
    Pole, May, 252
    Possibilities of a clothes-line, 62
    Pot hooks, 145
    Pot, iron, 143
    Pottery, 185
    Practice on spinning-wheel, 11
    Primitive reed curtains, 43


    Q

    Queen May, 245
    Queer little teeter-tarter, 273


    R

    Race of dolls, new, 103
    Rag rug, home-like, 154
    Rare frolic, 320
    Reed curtains, primitive, 43
    Revels, Hallowe'en, 254
    Rice ball, 171
    Rifle, 151
    Ring, grass napkin, 59
    "Rock," 7
    Roll, clay, 189
    Roll of splint, 68
    Rolling, egg, 235
    Roof, Russian cathedral, 177
    Rookwood pottery, 187
    Rope netting, 65
    Rose girl, 323
    Rose petal boats, 320
    Rug, 154
    Rules, Pasch game, 234
    Russia, odd things in, 175
    Russian doll, 180


    S

    Sally Walker's hood, 208
    Samovar, 182
    Sash-curtain, 34
    Scales, store, 309
    Scent, false, 347
    School-boy, 31
    Screens, doorway, 49
    Seed-top grasses, 61
    Shafts, arrow, 123
    Shapes, pottery, 192
    Shavings, armful of, 36
    Shield, Indian, 120
    Shoes, Miss Muffet's, 107
    Shovel, 144
    Shuttle, 19
    Sides, to weave basket, 39
    "Simon Says," 335
    Spindle, 5
    Spindle-frame, 5
    Spinning, 3
    Spinning wheel, 3
    Spinning wheel, colonial kitchen, 147
    Splint basket, to weave, 68
    Splint, roll of, 68
    Spokes, splint basket, 69
    Staple-nail, 46
    Straw, bonnet wire, 95
    Store, keeping, 308
    Stories, telling, 343
    Stoves, Russian, 180
    Straw ride, 333
    Straw ride picnic, 333
    Study, tissue-paper, nature, 86
    Sun-bonnet, Mary's, 218
    Sun-bonnet, Miss Muffet's, 110
    Supplies, store, 312
    Supplies, straw ride picnic, 341
    Swift dog, 116
    Swing, 338
    Symmetry, 295


    T

    Table egg rolling, 235
    Table mats, 41
    Table, moulding, 188
    Talking children, 268
    Tangle, word, 337
    Targets, Mayday, 240
    Tassels, 66
    Tea, how Russians make, 188
    Teeter tarter, 273
    Tenor, singing, 269
    Tent, floral, 317
    Thankful Parker, 146
    Things to make of common grasses, 53
    Thread, when broken, 12
    Time-piece, old fashioned, 159
    Tinfoil, 153
    Tissue paper, moulding in, 75
    Toaster, 144
    Tomahawk, 120
    Tools, moulding, 188
    Tower, apple, 214
    Tower, finger, 282
    Toy colonial kitchen, 133
    Toys, apples, 206
    Toys, tissue-paper, 75
    Transparent vases, 292
    Travois, to make, 118
    Tree, Indian encampment, 129
    Trimming, 73
    Trousers, Russian, 181
    Turkey, tissue-paper, 81
    Turning eagle, 116
    Turtle, pet, 327
    Twine, what may be made of ball of, 27


    U

    Umbrella, Japanese, 173
    Umbrella play house, 299
    Uprights, spindle-frame, 5
    Utensils, colonial kitchen, 144


    V

    Variety of candy, 317
    Vases, 292
    Vases, colorless, 292
    Violets, 296


    W

    Walker, Sally, 208
    Wampum, 131
    War bonnet, 116
    Ware, pewter, 154
    Warp, to adjust, 19
    Washington, clay head of, 202
    Weavers, 68
    Weaving on home-made loom, 15
    Weaving splint basket, 70
    Weights, clock, 159
    Wheel, spinning, 3
    White-ash splint, 74
    Wig, Miss Muffet's, 106
    Wigwam, playhouse, 301
    Wigwam, to make, 112
    Wild flowers, 295
    Wild violets 296
    Windmill, Dutch, 214
    Windows, Russian cathedral, 177
    Wing feathers, 222
    Wish, bird, 337
    Witch apple, 256
    Wood-basket, 62
    Wood chopper, finger, 277
    Word tangle, 337
    Woof, 20
    Wool, Germantown, 20
    Wrapping paper, 313
    Wreaths, rose petal, 331


    Z

    Zulu doll, 115



THE BEARD BOOKS FOR GIRLS By LINA and ADELIA B. BEARD


Handicraft and Recreation for Girls

  =With over 700 illustrations by the Authors=
  =8vo. $1.50 net=

An elaborate book for girls, by Lina and Adelia Beard whose former books
on girls' sports have become classic, which contains a mass of practical
instruction on handicrafts and recreations. So many and so various are
the things it tells how to do and make that it will give occupation to
any sort of girl in all seasons and all weathers.

      "The girl who gets this book will not lack for
      occupation and pleasure."--_Chicago Evening Post._


What a Girl Can Make and Do

New Ideas for Work and Play

  =With more than 300 illustrations by the Authors=
  =Square 8vo. $1.50 net=

This book is the result of the authors' earnest desire to encourage in
their young friends the wish to do things for themselves. Its aim is to
give suggestions that will help them to satisfy this wish. Within its
covers are described a great variety of things useful, instructive, and
entertaining, suited for both indoors and out.

      "It would be a dull girl who could not make herself
      busy and happy following its precepts."--_Chicago
      Record-Herald._


THE AMERICAN GIRL'S HANDY BOOK

How To Amuse Yourself and Others

    =With nearly 500 illustrations=
    =8vo. $1.50 net=

In this book Lina and Adelia Beard, the authors, tell everything the
girls of to-day want to know about sports, games, and winter afternoon
and evening amusements and work, in a clear, simple, entertaining way.
Eight new chapters have been added to the original forty-two that made
the book famous.

      "It is a treasure which, once possessed, no practical
      girl would willingly part with."--_Grace Greenwood._



Things Worth Doing and How To Do Them

With some 600 drawings by the Authors that show exactly how they should
be done

    =8vo. $1.50 net=

This book by Lina and Adelia Beard comprises an infinite variety of
amusing things that are worth doing. Some of these things are:--"A
Wonderful Circus at Home," "The Wild West on a Table," "How to Weave
Without a Loom," "How to Make Friends with the Stars," "A Living
Christmas Tree," etc.

      "Everything is so plainly set forth and so fully
      illustrated with drawings that the happy owners of the
      book should find it easy to follow its
      suggestions."--_New York Tribune._



THE BEARD BOOKS FOR BOYS

By DAN C. BEARD


Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties

  =Illustrated by the Author=   =$1.25 net (postage extra)=

He gives easily workable directions, accompanied by very full
illustration, for over fifty shelters, shacks, and shanties, ranging
from the most primitive shelter to a fully equipped log cabin. Boys will
find it an invaluable guide in constructing temporary or permanent
shelters in their hikes or encampments.


Boat-Building and Boating

A Handy Book for Beginners

  =Illustrated by the Author=      =$1.00 net=

The directions for making boats are practical and illustrated by simple
diagrams, and the work is full of new and suggestive ideas for all kinds
of craft.


The Boy Pioneers

Sons of Daniel Boone

  =Illustrated by the Author=      =$1.50 net=

      "A book that is truly fine and will probably have a
      wider influence on the lives of boys into whose hands
      it falls than almost any other book that comes their
      way."--_The Interior._


The Field and Forest Handy Book

Or, New Ideas for Out of Doors

  =Illustrated by the Author=      =$1.50 net=

      "Instructions as to ways to build boats and
      fire-engines, make aquariums, rafts and sleds, to camp
      in a back-yard, etc. No better book of the kind
      exists."--_Chicago Record-Herald._


The Jack of All Trades

Or, New Ideas for American Boys

  =Illustrated by the Author=      =$1.50 net=

      "Every boy who is handy with tools of any sort will
      enjoy this book."--_Youth's Companion._

      "Full of new ideas for active boys who like to use
      tools and see interesting things growing under their
      hands."--_New York Tribune._

      "A perfect treasure-house of things that delight the
      soul of a boy."--_The Interior._


The Outdoor Handy Book

For Playground, Field and Forest

  =Illustrated by the Author=      =$1.50 net=

      "It tells how to play all sorts of games with marbles,
      how to make and spin more kinds of tops than most boys
      ever heard of, how to make the latest things in plain
      and fancy kites, where to dig bait and how to fish,
      all about boats and sailing, and a host of other
      things which can be done out of doors. The volume is
      profusely illustrated and will be an unmixed delight
      to any boy."--_New York Tribune._


The American Boys Handy Book

Or, What To Do and How To Do It

  =Illustrated by the Author=      =$1.50 net=

      "It tells boys how to make all kinds of things-boats,
      traps, toys, puzzles, aquariums, fishing tackle; how
      to tie knots, splice ropes, make bird calls, sleds,
      blow guns, balloons; how to rear wild birds, to train
      dogs, and do a thousand and one things that boys take
      delight in. The book is illustrated in such a way that
      no mistake can be made; and the boy who gets a copy of
      this book will consider himself set up in
      business."--_The Indianapolis Journal._

                      CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. There is no figure 75.

Page xi, "Witche's" changed to "Witch's" (Witch's Hair)

Page xii, CHAPTER XXVI, "Play-House" and "Play-Houses" changed to
"Playhouse" and "Playhouses" to match usage in text.

Page 193, "tanger" changed to "tanager" (cardinal, the scarlet tanager)

Page 206, "fellows" changed to "fellow" (little fellow differs)

Page 273, CHAPTER XXIV came after the chapter title, FINGER-PLAYS FOR
LITTLE FOLKS, in the original text. These were switched to follow the
form of the rest of the book.

Page 308, "Flay" changed to "Fly" ("Fly away, Jill,")

Page 337, "payed" changed to "played" (easily played as the)

Page 353, "Face, Miss Muffet's" was moved from the last place in the "E"
section to the first place of the "F" section.

Page 354, the section titles for "I" and "J" were added to the text.

Page 355, since the text capitalizes all uses of Pasch, the index was
changed to reflect this (Lifting for Pasch eggs) and also on page 355
(Rules, Pasch game)

Page 355, "Pocketbooks" changed to "Pocket-books" to match usage in text
(Pocket-books, store)

Page 357, "play-house" changed to "playhouse" to match usage in text
(Wigwam, playhouse)





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