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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 17, Slice 6 - "Map" to "Mars"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE MAP: "Far superior were the maps found among the
      semi-civilized Mexicans when the Spaniards first discovered and
      invaded their country." 'Spaniards' amended from 'Spainiards'.

    ARTICLE MAP: "... he concluded that a degree of the meridian
      measured 700 stadia." 'meridian' amended from 'meridan'.

    ARTICLE MAP: "Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius
      (135-51), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes ..." '135-51'
      amended from '13-551'.

    ARTICLE MAP: "In Chile a comision topografica was appointed as long
      ago as 1848 ..." 'topografica' amended from 'topografico'.

    ARTICLE MARDUK: "The name Mordecai denotes 'belonging to Marduk.'"
      'Marduk' amended from 'Maduk'.

    ARTICLE MARIGNAN, BATTLE OF: "... who were commanded on this day by
      the famous engineer Pedro Navarro." 'by' amended from 'be'.

    ARTICLE MARINUS OF TYRE: "His chief merits were that he assigned to
      each place its proper latitude and longitude, and introduced
      improvements in the construction of his maps." 'longitude' amended
      from 'longtitude'.

    ARTICLE MARIVAUX, PIERRE CARLET DE CHAMBLAIN DE: "Meanwhile his
      worldly affairs underwent a sudden revolution." 'worldly' amended
      from 'wordly'.

    ARTICLE MARK, ST: "... 285 seq. (with special reference to
      Ps.-Hippolytus and Ps.-Dorotheus)." 'special' amended from
      'sepcial'.

    ARTICLE MARKET: "... Rationale of Market Fluctuations; Robert
      Giffen, Stock Exchange Securities (1879) ..." 'Fluctuations'
      amended from 'Fluctations'.

    ARTICLE MARRIAGE: "... to all this added the impediments created by
      'spiritual affinity,' i.e. the relations established between
      baptizer and baptized ..." 'spiritual' amended from 'spirtual'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XVII, SLICE VI

                  Map to Mars



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  MAP                                MARIE LOUISE
  MAPLE, SIR JOHN BLUNDELL           MARIENBAD
  MAPLE                              MARIENBERG (town of Saxony)
  MAPU, ABRAHAM                      MARIENBURG (town of West Prussia)
  MAQQARI                            MARIENWERDER
  MAQRIZI                            MARIE THÉRÈSE
  MAR, EARLDOM OF                    MARIETTA (Georgia, U.S.A.)
  MAR, ERSKINE (regent of Scotland)  MARIETTA (Ohio, U.S.A.)
  MAR, ERSKINE (Scottish politician) MARIETTE, AUGUSTE FERDINAND FRANÇOIS
  MAR, ERSKINE (Scottish Jacobite)   MARIGNAC, JEAN CHARLES GALISSARD DE
  MARA, GERTRUD ELISABETH            MARIGNAN, BATTLE OF
  MARABOUT                           MARIGNOLLI, GIOVANNI DE'
  MARACAIBO (lake of Venezuela)      MARIGNY, ENGUERRAND DE
  MARACAIBO (city of Venezuela)      MARIGNY, JEAN DE
  MARAGHA                            MARIGOLD
  MARANHÃO                           MARIINSK
  MARANO                             MARILLAC, CHARLES DE
  MARASH                             MARINES
  MARAT, JEAN PAUL                   MARINETTE
  MARATHI                            MARINI, GIAMBATTISTA
  MARATHON                           MARINO
  MARAZION                           MARINUS (popes)
  MARBLE                             MARINUS (philosopher)
  MARBLEHEAD                         MARINUS OF TYRE
  MARBLES                            MARIO, GIUSEPPE
  MARBOT, JEAN BAPTISTE MARCELIN     MARION, FRANCIS
  MARBURG (town of Austria)          MARION, HENRI FRANÇOIS
  MARBURG (town of Germany)          MARION (Indiana, U.S.A.)
  MARBURG, COLLOQUY OF               MARION (Ohio, U.S.A.)
  MARCA, PIERRE DE                   MARIONETTES
  MARCANTONIO                        MARIOTTE, EDME
  MARCASITE                          MARIPOSAN
  MARCEAU-DESGRAVIERS, SÉVERIN       MARIS, JACOB
  MARCEL, ÉTIENNE                    MARITIME PROVINCE
  MARCELLINUS, ST                    MARITIME TERRITORY
  MARCELLO, BENEDETTO                MARIUPOL
  MARCELLUS (popes)                  MARIUS OF AVENCHES
  MARCELLUS (Roman plebeian family)  MARIUS, GAIUS
  MARCESCENT                         MARIVAUX, PIERRE DE CHAMBLAIN DE
  MARCH, EARLS OF                    MARJORAM
  MARCH, AUZIAS                      MARK, ST
  MARCH, FRANCIS ANDREW              MARK
  MARCH (town in England)            MARK, GOSPEL OF ST
  MARCH (month)                      MARKBY, SIR WILLIAM
  MARCH (of military troops)         MARKET
  MARCHE (province of France)        MARKET BOSWORTH
  MARCHE (town of Belgium)           MARKET DRAYTON
  MARCHENA                           MARKET HARBOROUGH
  MARCHENA RUIZ DE CASTRO, JOSÉ      MARKHAM, SIR CLEMENTS ROBERT
  MARCHES, THE                       MARKHAM, GERVASE
  MARCHMONT, EARLS OF                MARKHAM, MRS
  MARCHPANE                          MARKHAM, WILLIAM
  MARCIAN                            MARKHOR
  MARCIANUS                          MARKIRCH
  MARCION & THE MARCIONITE CHURCHES  MARKLAND, JEREMIAH
  MARCOMANNI                         MARKO KRALYEVICH
  MARCOS DE NIZA                     MARK SYSTEM
  MARCOU, JULES                      MARL
  MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS          MARLBOROUGH, EARLS AND DUKES OF
  MARCY, WILLIAM LEARNED             MARLBOROUGH, JOHN CHURCHILL
  MARDIN                             MARLBOROUGH (England)
  MARDUK                             MARLBOROUGH (Massachusetts, U.S.A.)
  MARE                               MARLITT, E.
  MARE CLAUSUM and MARE LIBERUM      MARLOW
  MAREE, LOCH                        MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER
  MAREMMA                            MARLOWE, JULIA
  MARENGO                            MARLY-LE-ROI
  MAREOTIS                           MARMALADE
  MARE'S-TAIL                        MARMANDE
  MARET, HUGUES-BERNARD              MARMIER, XAVIER
  MARGARET (female name)             MARMONT, AUGUSTE FRÉDÉRIC LOUIS DE
  MARGARET, ST (virgin and martyr)   MARMONTEL, JEAN FRANÇOIS
  MARGARET, ST (queen of Malcolm III.)  MARMORA
  MARGARET (queen of Scotland)          MARMORA, SEA OF
  MARGARET (titular queen of Scotland)  MARMOSET
  MARGARET (queen of Denmark)        MARMOT
  MARGARET OF ANJOU                  MARNE (river of France)
  MARGARET OF AUSTRIA (duchess of Savoy) MARNE (department of France)
  MARGARET OF AUSTRIA (duchess of Parma) MARNIAN EPOCH
  MARGARET OF PROVENCE               MAROCHETTI, CARLO
  MARGARET MAULTASCH                 MARONITES
  MARGARINE                          MAROONS
  MARGARITA                          MAROS-VÁSÁRHELY
  MARGATE                            MAROT, CLÉMENT
  MARGGRAF, ANDREAS SIGISMUND        MAROT, DANIEL
  MARGHELAN                          MARPLE
  MARGRAVE                           MARPRELATE CONTROVERSY
  MARGUERITE                         MARQUAND, HENRY GURDON
  MARGUERITE DE VALOIS               MARQUARDT, JOACHIM
  MARGUERITTE, PAUL and VICTOR       MARQUESAS
  MARHEINEKE, PHILIP KONRAD          MARQUESS
  MARIANA, JUAN DE                   MARQUETRY
  MARIANAO                           MARQUETTE, JACQUES
  MARIANAS (archipelago)             MARQUETTE
  MARIANAS (tribe of Indians)        MARR, CARL
  MARIANUS SCOTUS                    MARRADI, GIOVANNI
  MARIA STELLA                       MARRAKESH
  MARIA THERESA                      MARRI
  MARIAZELL                          MARRIAGE
  MARIE AMÉLIE THÉRÈSE               MARRUCINI
  MARIE ANTOINETTE                   MARRUVIUM
  MARIE DE FRANCE                    MARRYAT, FREDERICK
  MARIE DE' MEDICI                   MARS, MLLE [ANNE FRANÇOISE BOUTET]
  MARIE GALANTE                      MARS
  MARIE LESZCZYNSKA



MAP, a representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the
whole of the earth's surface. If specially designed to meet the
requirements of seamen it is called a chart, if on an exceptionally
large scale a plan. The words map and chart are derived from _mappa_ and
_charta_, the former being the Latin for napkin or cloth, the latter for
papyrus or parchment. Maps were thus named after the material upon which
they were drawn or painted, and it should be noted that even at present
maps intended for use in the open air, by cyclists, military men and
others, are frequently printed on cloth. In Italian, Spanish and
Portuguese the word _mappa_ has retained its place, by the side of
_carta_, for marine charts, but in other languages both kinds of maps[1]
are generally known by a word derived from the Latin _charta_, as
_carte_ in French, _Karte_ in German, _Kaart_ in Dutch. A chart, in
French, is called _carte hydrographique, marine or des côtes_; in
Spanish or Portuguese _carta de marear_, in Italian _carta da navigare_,
in German _Seekarte_ (to distinguish it from _Landkarte_), in Dutch
_Zeekaart_ or _Paskaart_. A chart on Mercator's projection is called
_Wassende graadkaart_ in Dutch, _carte réduite_ in French. Lastly, a
collection of maps is called an atlas, after the figure of Atlas, the
Titan, supporting the heavens, which ornamented the title of Lafreri's
and Mercator's atlases in the 16th century.

_Classification of Maps._--Maps differ greatly, not only as to the scale
on which they are drawn, but also with respect to the fullness or the
character of the information which they convey. Broadly speaking, they
may be divided into two classes, of which the first includes
topographical, chorographical and general maps, the second the great
variety designed for special purposes.

Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to
enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to
nature.[2] Its information should not only be accurate, but also
conveyed intelligibly and with taste. Exaggeration, however, is not
always to be avoided, for even on the British 1 in. ordnance map the
roads appear as if they were 130 ft. in width.

Chorographical (Gr. [Greek: chôra], country or region) and general maps
are either reduced from topographical maps or compiled from such
miscellaneous sources as are available. In the former case the
cartographer is merely called upon to reduce and generalize the
information given by his originals, to make a judicious selection of
place names, and to take care that the map is not overcrowded with names
and details. Far more difficult is his task where no surveys are
available, and the map has to be compiled from a variety of sources.
These materials generally include reconnaissance survey of small
districts, route surveys and astronomical observations supplied by
travellers, and information obtained from native sources. The compiler,
in combining these materials, is called upon to examine the various
sources of information, and to form an estimate of their value, which he
can only do if he have himself some knowledge of surveying and of the
methods of determining positions by astronomical observation. A
knowledge of the languages in which the accounts of travellers are
written, and even of native languages, is almost indispensable. He ought
not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but
should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination,
when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the
draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the
whole of the information available. Latitudes from the observations of
travellers may generally be trusted, but longitudes should be accepted
with caution; for so competent an observer as Captain Speke placed the
capital of Uganda in longitude 32° 44´ E., when its true longitude as
determined by more trustworthy observations is 32° 26´ E., an error of
18´. Again, on the map illustrating Livingstone's "Last Journals" the
Luapula is shown as issuing from the Bangweulu in the north-west, when
an examination of the account of the natives who carried the great
explorer's remains to the coast would have shown that it leaves that
lake on the south.

The second group includes all maps compiled for special purposes. Their
variety is considerable, for they are designed to illustrate physical
and political geography, travel and navigation, trade and commerce, and,
in fact, every subject connected with geographical distribution and
capable of being illustrated by means of a map. We thus have (1)
physical maps in great variety, including geological, orographical and
hydrographical maps, maps illustrative of the geographical distribution
of meteorological phenomena, of plants and animals, such as are to be
found in Berghaus's "Physical Atlas," of which an enlarged English
edition is published by J. G. Bartholomew of Edinburgh; (2) political
maps, showing political boundaries; (3) ethnological maps, illustrating
the distribution of the varieties of man, the density of population,
&c.; (4) travel maps, showing roads or railways and ocean-routes (as is
done by Philips' "Marine Atlas"), or designed for the special use of
cyclists or aviators; (5) statistical maps, illustrating commerce and
industries; (6) historical maps; (7) maps specially designed for
educational purposes.

_Scale of Maps._--Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing
upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central
meridian or the equator. They now add the proportion which these units
of length have to nature, or state how many of these units are contained
within some local measure of length. The former method, usually called
the "natural scale," may be described as "international," for it is
quite independent of local measures of length, and depends exclusively
upon the size and figure of the earth. Thus a scale of 1:1,000,000
signifies that each unit of length on the map represents one million of
such units in nature. The second method is still employed in many cases,
and we find thus:--

  1 in. = 1 statute mile (of 63,366 in.) corresponds to 1 :  63,366
  6 in. = 1    "      "         "              "        1 :  10,560
  1 in. = 5 chains (of 858 in.)                "        1 :   4,890
  1 in. = 1 nautical mile (of 73,037 in.)      "        1 :  73,037
  1 in. = 1 verst (of 42,000 in.)              "        1 :  42,000
  2 Vienna in. = 1 Austrian mile (of
      288,000 in.)                             "        1 : 144,000
  1 cm. = 500 metres (of 100 cm.)              "        1 :  50,000

In cases where the draughtsman has omitted to indicate the scale we can
ascertain it by dividing the actual length of a meridian degree by the
length of a degree measure upon the map. Thus a degree between 50° and
51° measures 111,226,000 mm.; on the map it is represented by 111 mm.
Hence the scale is 1:1,000,000 approximately.

The linear scale of maps can obviously be used only in the case of maps
covering a small area, for in the case of maps of greater extension
measurements would be vitiated owing to the distortion or exaggeration
inherent in all projections, not to mention the expansion or shrinking
of the paper in the process of printing. As an extreme instance of the
misleading character of the scale given on maps embracing a wide area we
may refer to a map of a hemisphere. The scale of that map, as determined
by the equator or centre meridian, we will suppose to be 1:125,000,000,
while the encircling meridian indicates a scale of 1:80,000,000; and a
"mean" scale, equal to the square root of the proportion which the area
of the map bears to the actual area of a hemisphere, is 1:112,000,000.
In adopting a scale for their maps, cartographers will do well to choose
a multiple of 1000 if possible, for such a scale can claim to be
international, while in planning an atlas they ought to avoid a needless
multiplicity of scales.

_Map Projections_ are dealt with separately below. It will suffice
therefore to point out that the ordinary needs of the cartographer can
be met by conical projections, and, in the case of maps covering a wide
area, by Lambert's equal area projection. The indiscriminate use of
Mercator's projection, for maps of the world, is to be deprecated owing
to the inordinate exaggeration of areas in high latitudes. In the case
of topographical maps sheets bounded by meridians and parallels are to
be commended.

The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial
meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign
countries local meridians are still adhered to--the more important among
which are:--

  Paris (Obs. nationale)      2° 20´ 14´´ E. of Greenwich.
  Pulkova (St Petersburg)    30° 19´ 39´´ E.        "
  Stockholm                  18°  3´ 30´´ E.        "
  Rome (Collegio Romano)     12° 28´ 40´´ E.        "
  Brussels (Old town)         4° 22´ 11´´ E.        "
  Madrid                      3° 41´ 16´´ W.        "
  Ferro (assumed)            20°  0´  0´´ W. of Paris.

The _outline_ includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all
objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills
and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman
generally describes as "ornament." Conventional signs and symbols are
universally used in depicting these objects.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

_Delineation of the Ground._--The mole-hills and serrated ridges of
medieval maps were still in almost general use at the close of the 18th
century, and are occasionally met with at the present day, being cheaply
produced, readily understood by the unlearned, and in reality preferable
to the uncouth and misleading hatchings still to be seen on many maps.
Far superior are those scenographic representations which enable a
person consulting the map to identify prominent landmarks, such as the
Pic du Midi, which rises like a pillar to the south of Pau, but is not
readily discovered upon an ordinary map. This advantage is still fully
recognized, for such views of distant hills are still commonly given on
the margin of marine charts for the assistance of navigators; military
surveyors are encouraged to introduce sketches of prominent landmarks
upon their reconnaissance plans, and the general public is enabled to
consult "Picturesque Relief Maps"--such as F. W. Delkeskamp's
_Switzerland_ (1830) or his _Panorama of the Rhine_. Delineations such
as these do not, however, satisfy scientific requirements. All objects
on a map are required to be shown as projected horizontally upon a
plane. This principle must naturally be adhered to when delineating the
features of the ground. This was recognized by J. Picard and other
members of the Academy of Science whom Colbert, in 1668, directed to
prepare a new map of France, for on David Vivier's map of the environs
of Paris (1674, scale 1:86,400) very crude hachures bounding the rivers
have been substituted for the scenographic hills of older maps. Little
progress in the delineation of the ground, however, was made until
towards the close of the 18th century, when horizontal contours and
hachures regulated according to the angle of inclination of all slopes,
were adopted. These contours intersect the ground at a given distance
above or below the level of the sea, and thus bound a series of
horizontal planes (see fig. 1). Contours of this kind were first
utilized by M. S. Cruquius in his chart of the Merwede (1728); Philip
Buache (1737) introduced such contours or isobaths (Gr. [Greek: isos],
equal; [Greek: bathys], deep) upon his chart of the Channel, and
intended to introduce similar contours or isohypses ([Greek: hypsos],
height) for a representation of the land. Dupain-Triel, acting upon a
suggestion of his friend M. Ducarla, published his _La France considérée
dans les différentes hauteurs de ses plaines_ (1791), upon which
equidistant contours at intervals of 16 toises found a place. The
scientific value of these contoured maps is fully recognized. They not
only indicate the height of the land, but also enable us to compute the
declivity of the mountain slopes; and if minor features of ground lying
between two contours--such as ravines, as also rocky precipices and
glaciers--are indicated, as is done on the Siegfried atlas of
Switzerland, they fully meet the requirements of the scientific man, the
engineer and the mountain-climber. At the same time it cannot be denied
that these maps, unless the contours are inserted at short intervals,
lack graphic expression. Two methods are employed to attain this: the
first distinguishes the strata or layers by colours; the second
indicates the varying slopes by shades or hachures. The first of these
methods yields a hypsographical, or--if the sea-bottom be included, in
which case all contours are referred to a common datum line--a bathy
hypsographical map. Carl Ritter, in 1806, employed graduated tints,
increasing in lightness on proceeding from the lowlands to the
highlands; while General F. von Hauslab, director of the Austrian
Surveys, in 1842, advised that the darkest tints should be allotted to
the highlands, so that they might not obscure details in the densely
peopled plains. The desired effect may be produced by a graduation of
the same colour, or by a polychromatic scale--such as white, pale red,
pale brown, various shades of green, violet and purple, in ascending
order. C. von Sonklar, in his map of the Hohe Tauern (1:144,000; 1864)
coloured plains and valleys green; mountain slopes in five shades of
brown; glaciers blue or white. E. G. Ravenstein's map of Ben Nevis
(1887) first employed the colours of the spectrum, viz. green to brown,
in ascending order for the land; blue, indigo and violet for the sea,
increasing in intensity with the height or the depth. At first
cartographers chose their colours rather arbitrarily. Thus Horsell, who
was the first to introduce tints on his map of Sweden and Norway
(1:600,000; 1835), coloured the lowlands up to 300 ft. in green,
succeeded by red, yellow and white for the higher ground; while A.
Papen, on his hypsographical map of Central Europe (1857) introduced a
perplexing range of colours. At the present time compilers of strata
maps generally limit themselves to two or three colours, in various
shades, with green for the lowlands, brown for the hills and blue for
the sea. On the international map of the world, planned by Professor A.
Penck on a scale of 1:1,000,000, which has been undertaken by the
leading governments of the world, the ground is shown by contours at
intervals of 100 metres (to be increased to 200 and 500 metres in
mountainous districts); the strata are in graded tints, viz. blue for
the sea, green for lowlands up to 300 metres, yellow between 300 and 500
metres, brown up to 2000 metres, and reddish tints beyond that height.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical
maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L. Chr. Müller
(_Plan und Kartenzeichnen_, 1788) and J. G. Lehmann, who directed a
survey of Saxony, 1780-1806, and published his _Theorie der
Bergzeichnung_ in 1799. By this method the slopes are indicated by
strokes or hachures crossing the contour lines at right angles, in the
direction of flowing water, and varying in thickness according to the
degree of declivity they represent (cf. for example, the map of
SWITZERLAND in this work). The light is supposed to descend vertically
upon the country represented, and in a true scale of shade the intensity
increases with the inclination from 0° to 90°; but as such a scale does
not sufficiently differentiate the lesser inclinations which are the
most important, the author adopted a conventional scale, representing a
slope of 45° or more, supposed to be inaccessible, as absolutely black,
the level surfaces, which reflect all the light which falls upon them,
as perfectly white, and the intervening slopes by a proportion between
black and white, as in fig. 2. The main principles of this system have
been maintained, but its details have been modified frequently to suit
special cases. Thus the French survey commission of 1828 fixed the
proportion of black to white at one and a half times the angle of slope;
while in Austria, where steep mountains constitute an important feature,
solid black has been reserved for a slope of 80°, the proportion of
black to white varying from 80:0 (for 50°) to 8:72 (for 5°). On the map
of Germany (1:100,000) a slope of 50° is shown in solid black while
stippled hachures are used for gentle slopes up to 10°. Instead of
shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the
contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart,
according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be
employed. This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching
the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically
indicating its features by what have been called "form lines." This
method can be recommended in the case of plotting the results of an
explorer's route, or in the case of countries of which we have no
regular survey (cf. the map of AFGHANISTAN in this work).

Instead of supposing the light to fall vertically upon the surface it is
often supposed to fall obliquely, generally at an angle of 45° from the
upper left-hand corner. It is claimed for this method that it affords a
means of giving a graphic representation of Alpine districts where other
methods of shading fail. The Dufour map of Switzerland (1:100,000) is
one of the finest examples of this style of hill-shading. For use in the
field, however, and for scientific work, a contoured map like
Siegfried's atlas of Switzerland, or, in the case of hilly country, a
map shaded on the assumption of a vertical light, will prove more useful
than one of these, notwithstanding that truth to nature and artistic
beauty are claimed on their behalf.

Instead of shading by lines, a like effect may be produced by mezzotint
shading (cf. the map of ITALY, or other maps, in this work, on a similar
method), and if this be combined with contour lines very satisfactory
results can be achieved. If this tint be printed in grey or brown,
isohypses, in black or red, show distinctly above it. The same
combination is possible if hills engraved in the ordinary manner are
printed in colours, as is done in an edition of the 1-inch ordnance map,
with contours in red and hills hachured in brown.

Efforts have been made of late years to improve the available methods of
representing ground, especially in Switzerland, but the so-called
stereoscopic or relief maps produced by F. Becker, X. Imfeld, Kümmerly,
F. Leuzinger and other able cartographers, however admirable as works of
art, do not, from the point of utility, supersede the combination of
horizontal contours with shaded slopes, such as have been long in use.
There seems to be even less chance for the combination of coloured
strata and hachures proposed by K. Peucker, whose theoretical
disquisitions on aerial perspective are of interest, but have not
hitherto led to satisfactory practical results.[3]

The above remarks apply more particularly to topographic maps. In the
case of general maps on a smaller scale, the orographic features must be
generalized by a skilful draughtsman and artist. One of the best modern
examples of this kind is Vogel's map of Germany, on a scale of
1:500,000.

_Selection of Names and Orthography._--The nomenclature or "lettering"
of maps is a subject deserving special attention. Not only should the
names be carefully selected with special reference to the objects which
the map is intended to serve, and to prevent overcrowding by the
introduction of names which can serve no useful object, but they should
also be arranged in such a manner as to be read easily by a person
consulting the map. It is an accepted rule now that the spelling of
names in countries using the Roman alphabet should be retained, with
such exceptions as have been familiarized by long usage. In such cases,
however, the correct native form should be added within brackets, as
Florence (Firenze), Leghorn (Livorno), Cologne (Cöln) and so on. At the
same time these corrupted forms should be eliminated as far as possible.
Names in languages not using the Roman alphabet, or having no written
alphabet should be spelt phonetically, as pronounced on the spot. An
elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been
devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems
have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary
societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach. The following
simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical
Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system
the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in
English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced. The diphthong
_ai_ is to be pronounced as in _aisle_; _au_ as _ow_ in _how_; _aw_ as
in _law_. _Ch_ is always to be sounded as in _church_, _g_ is always
hard; _y_ always represents a consonant; whilst _kh_ and _gh_ stand for
gutturals. One accent only is to be used, the acute, to denote the
syllable on which stress is laid. This system has in great measure been
followed throughout the present work, but it is obvious that in numerous
instances these rules must prove inadequate. The introduction of
additional diacritical marks, such as [macron mark] and [breve mark],
used to express quantity, and the diaeresis, as in _aï_, to express
consecutive vowels, which are to be pronounced separately, may prove of
service, as also such letters as _ä_, _ö_ and _ü_, to be pronounced as
in German, and in lieu of the French _ai_, _eu_ or _u_.

The United States Geographic Board acts upon rules practically identical
with those indicated, and compiles official lists of place-names, the
use of which is binding upon government departments, but which it would
hardly be wise to follow universally in the case of names of places
outside America.


MEASUREMENT ON MAPS

_Measurement of Distance._--The shortest distance between two places on
the surface of a globe is represented by the arc of a great circle. If
the two places are upon the same meridian or upon the equator the exact
distance separating them is to be found by reference to a table giving
the lengths of arcs of a meridian and of the equator. In all other cases
recourse must be had to a map, a globe or mathematical formula.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory
results. Even a general map may be trusted, as long as we keep within
ten degrees of its centre. In the case of more considerable distances,
however, a globe of suitable size should be consulted, or--and this
seems preferable--they should be calculated by the rules of spherical
trigonometry. The problem then resolves itself in the solution of a
spherical triangle.

  In the formulae which follow we suppose l and l´ to represent the
  latitudes, a and b the co-latitudes (90-l or 90° - l´), and t the
  difference in longitude between them or the meridian distance, whilst
  D is the distance required.

  If both places have the same latitude we have to deal with an
  isosceles triangle, of which two sides and the included angle are
  given. This triangle, for the convenience of calculation, we divide
  into two right-angled triangles. Then we have sin ½ D = sin a sin ½ t,
  and since sin a = sin (90° - l) = cos t, it follows that

    sin ½ D = cos l sin ½ t.

  If the latitudes differ, we have to solve an oblique-angled spherical
  triangle, of which two sides and the included angle are given. Thus,

            cos D - cos a cos b
    cos t = -------------------
                sin a sin b

    cos D = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos t

          = sin l sin l´ + cos l cos l´ cos t.

  In order to adapt this formula to logarithms, we introduce a
  subsidiary angle p, such that cot p = cot l cos t; we then have

    cos D = sin l cos(l´ - p) / sin p.

  In the above formulae our earth is assumed to be a sphere, but when
  calculating and reducing to the sea-level, a base-line, or the side of
  a primary triangulation, account must be taken of the spheroidal shape
  of the earth and of the elevation above the sea-level. The error due
  to the neglect of the former would at most amount to 1%, while a
  reduction to the mean level of the sea necessitates but a trifling
  reduction, amounting, in the case of a base-line 100,000 metres in
  length, measured on a plateau of 3700 metres (12,000 ft.) in height,
  to 57 metres only.

  These orthodromic distances are of course shorter than those measured
  along a loxodromic line, which intersects all parallels at the same
  angle. Thus the distance between New York and Oporto, following the
  former (great circle sailing), amounts to 3000 m., while following the
  rhumb, as in Mercator sailing, it would amount to 3120 m.

  These direct distances may of course differ widely with the distance
  which it is necessary to travel between two places along a road, down
  a winding river or a sinuous coast-line. Thus, the direct distance, as
  the crow flies, between Brig and the hospice of the Simplon amounts to
  4.42 geogr. m. (slope nearly 9°), while the distance by road measures
  13.85 geogr. m. (slope nearly 3°). Distances such as these can be
  measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on
  general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer
  be represented. Space runners for facilitating these measurements,
  variously known as chartometers, curvimeters, opisometers, &c., have
  been devised in great variety. Nearly all these instruments register
  the revolution of a small wheel of known circumference, which is run
  along the line to be measured.

  _The Measurement of Areas_ is easily effected if the map at our
  disposal is drawn on an equal area projection. In that case we need
  simply cover the map with a network of squares--the area of each of
  which has been determined with reference to the scale of the
  map--count the squares, and estimate the contents of those only
  partially enclosed within the boundary, and the result will give the
  area desired. Instead of drawing these squares upon the map itself,
  they may be engraved or etched upon glass, or drawn upon transparent
  celluloid or tracing-paper. Still more expeditious is the use of a
  planimeter, such as Captain Prytz's "Hatchet Planimeter," which yields
  fairly accurate results, or G. Coradi's "Polar Planimeter," one of the
  most trustworthy instruments of the kind.[4]

  When dealing with maps not drawn on an equal area projection we
  substitute quadrilaterals bounded by meridians and parallels, the
  areas for which are given in the "Smithsonian Geographical Tables"
  (1894), in Professor H. Wagner's tables in the geographical
  _Jahrbuch_, or similar works.

  It is obvious that the area of a group of mountains projected on a
  horizontal plane, such as is presented by a map, must differ widely
  from the area of the superficies or physical surface of those
  mountains exposed to the air. Thus, a slope of 45° having a surface of
  100 sq. m. projected upon a horizontal plane only measures 59 sq. m.,
  whilst 100 sq. m. of the snowclad Sentis in Appenzell are reduced to
  10 sq. m. A hypsographical map affords the readiest solution of this
  question. Given the area A of the plane between the two horizontal
  contours, the height h of the upper above the lower contour, the
  length of the upper contour l, and the area of the face presented by
  the edge of the upper stratum t·h = A1, the slope [alpha] is found to
  be tan [alpha] = h·l / (A - A1); hence its superficies, A = A2 sec
  [alpha]. The result is an approximation, for inequalities of the
  ground bounded by the two contours have not been considered.

  The hypsographical map facilitates likewise the determination of the
  _mean height_ of a country, and this height, combined with the area,
  the determination of volume, or cubic contents, is a simple matter.[5]

_Relief Maps_ are intended to present a representation of the ground
which shall be absolutely true to nature. The object, however, can be
fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if
the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be
no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the
curvature of the earth's surface. Relief maps on a small scale
necessitate a generalization of the features of the ground, as in the
case of ordinary maps, as likewise an exaggeration of the heights. Thus
on a relief on a scale of 1:1,000,000 a mountain like Ben Nevis would
only rise to a height of 1.3 mm.

The methods of producing reliefs vary according to the scale and the
materials available. A simple plan is as follows--draw an outline of the
country of which a map is to be produced upon a board; mark all points
the altitude of which is known or can be estimated by pins or wires
clipped off so as to denote the heights; mark river-courses and suitable
profiles by strips of vellum and finally finish your model with the aid
of a good map, in clay or wax. If contoured maps are available it is
easy to build up a strata-relief, which facilitates the completion of
the relief so that it shall be a fair representation of nature, which
the strata-relief cannot claim to be. A pantograph armed with
cutting-files[6] which carve the relief out of a block of gypsum, was
employed in 1893-1900 by C. Perron of Geneva, in producing his relief
map of Switzerland on a scale of 1:100,000. After copies of such reliefs
have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust
mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are
painted. If a number of copies is required it may be advisable to print
a map of the country represented in colours, and either to emboss this
map, backed with papier-mâché, or paste it upon a copy of the relief--a
task of some difficulty. Relief maps are frequently objected to on
account of their cost, bulk and weight, but their great use in teaching
geography is undeniable.

_Globes._[7]--It is impossible to represent on a plane the whole of the
earth's surface, or even a large extent of it, without a considerable
amount of distortion. On the other hand a map drawn on the surface of a
sphere representing a terrestrial globe will prove true to nature, for
it possesses, in combination, the qualities which the ingenuity of no
mathematician has hitherto succeeded in imparting to a projection
intended for a map of some extent, namely, equivalence of areas of
distances and angles. Nevertheless, it should be observed that our
globes take no account of the oblateness of our sphere; but as the
difference in length between the circumference of the equator and the
perimeter of a meridian ellipse only amounts to 0.16%, it could be shown
only on a globe of unusual size.

The method of manufacturing a globe is much the same as it was at the
beginning of the 16th century. A matrix of wood or iron is covered with
successive layers of papers, pasted together so as to form pasteboard.
The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator
into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to
revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and
entered a metal meridian circle. The sphere is then coated with plaster
or whiting, and when it has been smoothed on a lathe and dried, the
lines representing meridians and parallels are drawn upon it. Finally
the globe is covered with the paper gores upon which the map is drawn.
The adaption of these gores to the curvature of the sphere calls for
great care. Generally from 12 to 24 gores and two small segments for the
polar regions printed on vellum paper are used for each globe. The
method of preparing these gores was originally found empirically, but
since the days of Albert Dürer it has also engaged the minds of many
mathematicians, foremost among whom was Professor A. G. Kästner of
Göttingen. One of the best instructions for the manufacture of globes we
owe to Altmütter of Vienna.[8]

Larger globes are usually on a stand the top of which supports an
artificial horizon. The globe itself rotates within a metallic meridian
to which its axis is attached. Other accessories are an hour-circle,
around the north pole, a compass placed beneath the globe, and a
flexible quadrant used for finding the distances between places. These
accessories are indispensable if it be proposed to solve the problems
usually propounded in books on the "use of the globes," but can be
dispensed with if the globe is to serve only as a map of the world. The
size of a globe is usually given in terms of its diameter. To find its
scale divide the mean diameter of the earth (1,273,500 m.) by the
diameter of the globe; to find its circumference multiply the diameter
by [pi] (3.1416).

_Map Printing._--Maps were first printed in the second half of the 15th
century. Those in the _Rudimentum novitiarum_ published at Lübeck in
1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of
Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates. Wood
engraving kept its ground for a considerable period, especially in
Germany, but copper in the end supplanted it, and owing to the beauty
and clearness of the maps produced by a combination of engraving and
etching it still maintains its ground. The objection that a copper plate
shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has
been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by
electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or
aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a
printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.[9]
These impressions from transfers, however, are liable to be inferior to
impressions taken from an original plate or an electrotype. The art of
lithography greatly affected the production of maps. The work is either
engraved upon the stone (which yields the most satisfactory result at
half the cost of copper-engraving), or it is drawn upon the stone by
pen, brush or chalk (after the stone has been "grained"), or it is
transferred from a drawing upon transfer paper in lithographic ink. In
chromolithography a stone is required for each colour. Owing to the
great weight of stones, their cost and their liability of being
fractured in the press, zinc plates, and more recently aluminium plates,
have largely taken the place of stone. The processes of zincography and
of algraphy (aluminium printing) are essentially the same as
lithography. Zincographs are generally used for producing surface blocks
or plates which may be printed in the same way as a wood-cut. Another
process of producing such blocks is known as cerography (Gr. [Greek:
kêros]), wax. A copper plate having been coated with wax, outline and
ornament are cut into the wax, the lettering is impressed with type, and
the intaglio thus produced is electrotyped.[10] Movable types are
utilized in several other ways in the production of maps. Thus the
lettering of the map, having been set up in type, is inked in and
transferred to a stone or a zinc-plate, or it is impressed upon
transfer-paper and transferred to the stone. Photographic processes have
been utilized not only in reducing maps to a smaller scale, but also for
producing stones and plates from which they may be printed. The
manuscript maps intended to be produced by photographic processes upon
stone, zinc or aluminium, are drawn on a scale somewhat larger than the
scale on which they are to be printed, thus eliminating all those
imperfections which are inherent in a pen-drawing. The saving in time
and cost by adopting this process is considerable, for a plan, the
engraving of which takes two years, can now be produced in two days.
Another process, photo- or heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image
on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for
producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets,
on a scale of 1 : 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years
(1873-1890). The original drawings for this map had to be done with
exceptional neatness, the draughtsman spending twelve months on that
which he would have completed in four months had it been intended to
engrave the map on copper; yet an average chart, measuring 530 by 630
mm., which would have taken two years and nine months for drawing and
engraving, was completed in less than fifteen months--fifty days of
which were spent in "retouching" the copper plate. It only cost £169 as
compared with £360 had the old method been pursued.

  For details of the various methods of reproduction see LITHOGRAPHY;
  PROCESS, &c.


HISTORY OF CARTOGRAPHY

A capacity to understand the nature of maps is possessed even by peoples
whom we are in the habit of describing as "savages." Wandering tribes
naturally enjoy a great advantage in this respect over sedentary ones.
Our arctic voyagers--Sir E. W. Parry, Sir J. Ross, Sir F. L. MacClintock
and others--have profited from rough maps drawn for them by Eskimos.
Specimens of such maps are given in C. F. Hall's _Life with the
Esquimaux_ (London, 1864). Henry Youle Hind, in his work on the Labrador
Peninsula (London, 1863) praises the map which the Montagnais and
Nasquapee Indians drew upon bark. Similar essays at map-making are
reported in connexion with Australians, Maoris and Polynesians. Tupaya,
a Tahitian, who accompanied Captain Cook in the "Endeavour" to Europe,
supplied his patron with maps; Raraka drew a map in chalk of the Paumotu
archipelago on the deck of Captain Wilkes's vessel; the Marshall
islanders, according to Captain Winkler (_Marine Rundschau_, Oct. 1893)
possess maps upon which the bearings of the islands are indicated by
small strokes. Far superior were the maps found among the semi-civilized
Mexicans when the Spaniards first discovered and invaded their country.
Among them were cadastral plans of villages, maps of the provinces of
the empire of the Aztecs, of towns and of the coast. Montezuma presented
Cortes with a map, painted on Nequen cloth, of the Gulf coast. Another
map did the Conquistador good service on his campaign against Honduras
(Lorenzana, _Historia de nueva España_, Mexico, 1770; W. H. Prescott,
_History of the Conquest of Mexico_, New York, 1843). Peru, the empire
of the Incas, had not only ordinary maps, but also maps in relief, for
Pedro Sarmiento da Gamboa (_History of the Incas_, translated by A. R.
Markham, 1907) tells us that the 9th Inca (who died in 1191) ordered
such reliefs to be produced of certain localities in a district which he
had recently conquered and intended to colonize. These were the first
relief maps on record. It is possible that these primitive efforts of
American Indians might have been further developed, but the Spanish
conquest put a stop to all progress, and for a consecutive history of
the map and map-making we must turn to the Old World, and trace this
history from Egypt and Babylon, through Greece, to our own age.

The ancient Egyptians were famed as "geometers," and as early as the
days of Rameses II. (Sesostris of the Greeks, 1333-1300 B.C.) there had
been made a cadastral survey of the country showing the rows of pillars
which separated the nomens as well as the boundaries of landed estates.
It was upon a map based upon such a source that Eratosthenes (276-196
B.C.) measured the distance between Syene and Alexandria which he
required for his determination of the length of a degree. Ptolemy, who
had access to the treasures of the famous library of Alexandria was
able, no doubt, to utilize these cadastral plans when compiling his
_geography_. It should be noted that he places Syene only two degrees to
the east of Alexandria instead of three degrees, the actual meridian
distance between the two places; a difference which would result from an
error of only 7° is the orientation of the map used by Ptolemy. Scarcely
any specimens of ancient Egyptian cartography have survived. In the
Turin Museum are preserved two papyri with rough drawings of gold mines
established by Sesostris in the Nubian Desert.[11] These drawings have
been commented upon by S. Birch, F. Chabas, R. J. Lauth and other
Egyptologists, and have been referred to as the two most ancient maps in
existence. They can, however, hardly be described as maps, while in age
they are surpassed by several cartographical clay tablets discovered in
Babylonia. On another papyrus in the same museum is depicted the
victorious return of Seti I. (1366-1333) from Syria, showing the road
from Pelusium to Heroopolis, the canal from the Nile with crocodiles,
and a lake (mod. Lake Timsah) with fish in it. Apollonius of Rhodes who
succeeded Eratosthenes as chief librarian at Alexandria (196 B.C.)
reports in his _Argonautica_ (iv. 279) that the inhabitants of Colchis
whom, like Herodotus (ii., 104) he looks upon as the descendants of
Egyptian colonists, preserved, as heirlooms, certain graven tablets
([Greek: kurbeis]) on which land and sea, roads and towns were
accurately indicated.[12] Eustathius (since 1160 archbishop of
Thessalonica) in his commentary on Dionysius Periegetes, mentions
route-maps which Sesostris caused to be prepared, while Strabo (i., 1.
5) dwells at length upon the wealth of geographical documents to be
found in the library of Alexandria.

A cadastral survey for purposes of taxation was already at work in
Babylonia in the age of Sargon of Akkad, 3800 B.C. In the British Museum
may be seen a series of clay tablets, circular in shape and dating back
to 2300 or 2100 B.C., which contain surveys of lands. One of these
depicts in a rough way lower Babylonia encircled by a "salt water
river," Oceanus.

_Development of Map-making among the Greeks._[13]--Ionian mercenaries
and traders first arrived in Egypt, on the invitation of Psammetichus I.
about the middle of the 7th century B.C. Among the visitors to Egypt,
there were, no doubt, some who took an interest in the science of the
Egyptians. One of the most distinguished among them was Thales of
Miletus (640-543 B.C.), the founder of the Ionian school of philosophy,
whose pupil, Anaximander (611-546 B.C.) is credited by Eratosthenes with
having designed the first map of the world. Anaximander looked upon the
earth as a section of a cylinder, of considerable thickness, suspended
in the centre of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps
borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi. 7) already speaks of the
earth as "hanging upon nothing." Like Homer he looked upon the habitable
world ([Greek: oikoumenê]) as being circular in outline and bounded by a
circumfluent river. The geographical knowledge of Anaximander was
naturally more ample than that of Homer, for it extended from the
Cassiterides or Tin Islands in the west to the Caspian in the east,
which he conceived to open out into Oceanus. The Aegean Sea occupied the
centre of the map, while the line where ocean and firmament seemed to
meet represented an enlarged horizon.

Anaximenes, a pupil of Anaximander, was the first to reject the view
that the earth was a circular plane, but held it to be an oblong
rectangle, buoyed up in the midst of the heavens by the compressed air
upon which it rested. Circular maps, however, remained in the popular
favour long after their erroneousness had been recognized by the
learned.

Even Hecataeus of Miletus (549-472 B.C.), the author of a _Periodos_ or
description of the earth, of whom Herodotus borrowed the terse saying
that Egypt was the gift of the Nile, retained this circular shape and
circumfluent ocean when producing his map of the world, although he had
at his disposal the results of the voyage of Scylax of Caryanda from the
Indus to the Red Sea, of Darius' campaign in Scythia (513), the
information to be gathered among the merchants from all parts of the
world who frequented an emporium like Miletus, and what he had learned
in the course of his own extensive travels. Hecataeus was probably the
author of the "bronze tablets upon which was engraved the whole circuit
of the earth, the sea and rivers" (Herod, v. 49), which Aristagoras, the
tyrant of Miletus, showed to Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, in 504,
whose aid he sought in vain in a proposed revolt against Darius, which
resulted disastrously in 494 in the destruction of Miletus. The map of
the world brought upon the stage in Aristophanes' comedy of _The Clouds_
(423 B.C.), whereon a disciple of the Sophists points out upon it the
position of Athens and of other places known to the audience, was
probably of the popular circular type, which Herodotus (iv. 36) not many
years before had derided and which was discarded by Greek cartographers
ever after. Thus Democritus of Abdera (b. _c._ 450, d. after 360), the
great philosopher and founder, with Leucippus, of the atomic theory, was
also the author of a map of the inhabited world which he supposed to be
half as long again from west to east, as it was broad.

Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is
the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which
only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the
size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a
parallel across a map.[14] This parallel, or dividing line, called
_diaphragm_ (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the
Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and
Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean. It divided the inhabited world,
as then known, into a northern and a southern half. In compiling his map
he was able to avail himself of the information obtained by the
_bematists_ (surveyors who determined distances by pacing) who
accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns; of the results of the
voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, and of the
"Periplus" of Scylax of Caryanda, which described the coast from between
India and the head of the Arabian Gulf. On the other hand he unwisely
rejected the results of the observations for latitude made by Pytheas in
326 B.C. at his native town, Massilia, and during a subsequent voyage to
northern Europe. In the end the map of Dicaearcus resembled that of
Democritus.

Scientific geography profited largely from the labours of Eratosthenes
of Cyrene, whom Ptolemy Euergetes appointed keeper of the famous
library of Alexandria in 247 B.C., and died in that city in 195 B.C. He
won fame as having been the first to determine the size of the earth by
a scientific method. Having determined the difference of latitude
between Alexandria and Syene which he erroneously believed to lie on the
same meridian, and obtained the distance of those places from each other
from the surveys made by Egyptian geometers, he concluded that a degree
of the meridian measured 700 stadia.[15]

Eratosthenes is the author of a treatise which deals systematically with
the geographical knowledge of his time, but of which only fragments have
been preserved by Strabo and others. This treatise was intended to
illustrate and explain his map of the world. In this task he was much
helped by the materials collected in his library. Among the travellers
of whose information he was thus able to avail himself were Pytheas of
Massilia, Patroclus, who had visited the Caspian (285-282 B.C.),
Megasthenes, who visited Palibothra on the Ganges, as ambassador of
Seleucus Nicator (302-291 B.C.), Timosthenus of Rhodes, the commander of
the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-246 B.C.) who wrote a treatise
"On harbours," and Philo, who visited Meroe on the upper Nile. His map
formed a parallelogram measuring 75,800 stadia from Usisama (Ushant
island) or Sacrum Promontorium in the west to the mouth of the Ganges
and the land of the Coniaci (Comorin) in the east, and 46,000 stadia
from Thule in the north to the supposed southern limit of Libya. Across
it were drawn seven parallels, running through Meroe, Syene, Alexandria,
Rhodes, Lysimachia on the Hellespont, the mouth of the Borysthenes and
Thule, and these were crossed at right angles by seven meridians, drawn
at irregular intervals, and passing through the Pillars of Hercules,
Carthage, Alexandria, Thapsacus on the Euphrates, the Caspian gates, the
mouth of the Indus and that of the Ganges. The position of all the
places mentioned was supposed to have been determined by trustworthy
authorities. The inhabited world thus delineated formed an island of
irregular shape, surrounded on all sides by the ocean, the Erythrean Sea
freely communicating with the western ocean. In his text Eratosthenes
ignored the popular division of the world into Europe, Asia and Libya,
and substituted for it a northern and southern division, divided by the
parallel of Rhodes, each of which he subdivided into _sphragides_ or
_plinthia_--seals or plinths. The principles on which these divisions
were made remain an enigma to the present day.

This map of Eratosthenes, notwithstanding its many errors, such as the
assumed connexion of the Caspian with a northern ocean and the
supposition that Carthage, Sicily and Rome lay on the same meridian,
enjoyed a high reputation in his day. Even Strabo (_c._ 30 B.C.) adopted
its main features, but while he improved the European frontier, he
rejected the valuable information secured by Pytheas and retained the
connexion between the Caspian and the outer ocean. In the extreme east
his information extended no further than that of Eratosthenes, viz. to
India and Taprobane (Ceylon) and the Sacae (Kirghiz).

Hipparchus, the famous astronomer, on the other hand, (_c._ 150 B.C.)
proved a somewhat captious critic. He justly objected to the arbitrary
network of the map of Eratosthenes. The parallels or _climata_[16] drawn
through places, of which the longest day is of equal length and the
decimation (distance) from the equator is the same, he maintained, ought
to have been inserted at equal intervals, say of half an hour, and the
meridians inserted on a like principle. In fact, he demanded that maps
should be based upon a regular projection, several descriptions of
which he had adopted for his star maps. He moreover accuses
Eratosthenes, (whose determination of a degree he accepts without
hesitation) with trusting too much to hypothesis in compiling his map
instead of having recourse to latitudes and longitudes deduced by
astronomical observations. Such observations, however, were but rarely
available at the time. A few latitudes had indeed been observed, but
although Hipparchus had shown how longitudes could be determined by the
observation of eclipses, this method was in reality not available for
want of trustworthy time-keepers. The determination of an ocean
surrounding the inhabited earth he declared to be based on a mere
hypothesis and that it would be equally allowable to describe the
Erythraea as a sea surrounded by land. Hipparchus is not known to have
compiled a map himself.

About the same time Crates of Mallus (d. 145 B.C.) embodied the views of
the Stoic school of philosophy in a globe which has become typical as
one of the insignia of royalty. On this globe an equatorial and a
meridional ocean divide our earth into four quarters, each inhabited,
thus anticipating the discovery of North and South America and
Australia.[17]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--The Globe of Crates of Mallus.]

The period between Eratosthenes and Marinus of Tyre was one of great
political importance. Carthage had been destroyed (146 B.C.), Julius
Caesar had carried on his campaign in Gaul (58-51 B.C.), Egypt had been
occupied (30 B.C.), Britannia conquered (A.D. 41-79), and the Roman
empire had attained its greatest extent and power under the emperor
Trajan (A.D. 98-117). But although military operations added to our
knowledge of the world, scientific cartography was utterly neglected.

Among Greek works written during this period there are several which
either give us an idea of the maps available at that time, or furnish
information of direct service to the compiler of a map. Among the latter
a Periplus or coastal guide of the Erythrean Sea, which clearly reveals
the peninsular shape of India (A.D. 90) and Arrian's _Periplus Ponti
Euxeni_ (A.D. 131) which Festus Avienus translated into Latin. Among
travellers Eudoxus of Cyzicus occupies a foremost rank, since, between
115-87 B.C. he visited India and the east coast of Africa, which
subsequently he attempted in vain to circumnavigate by following the
route of Hanno, along the west coast. Among geographers should be
mentioned Posidonius (135-51), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes,
who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a
degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose "Geographumena" (c.
100 B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and
above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to. Among historians
who looked upon geography as an important aid in their work are numbered
Polybius (c. 210-120 B.C.), Diodorus Siculus (c. 30 B.C.) and
Agathachidus of Cnidus (c. 120 B.C.) to whom we are indebted for a
valuable account of the Erythrean Sea and the adjoining parts of Arabia
and Ethiopia. The _Periegesis_ of Dionysius of Alexandria is a popular
description of the world in hexameters, of no particular scientific
value (c. A.D. 130). He as well as Artemidorus and others accepted a
circular or ellipsoidal shape of the world and a circumfluent ocean;
Strabo alone adhered to the scientific theories of Eratosthenes.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Ptolemy's Map.]

The credit of having returned to the scientific principles innovated by
Eratosthenes and Hipparchus is due to Marinus of Tyre (c. A.D. 120)
which, though no longer occupying the pre-eminent position of former
times, was yet an emporium of no inconsiderable importance, having
extensive connexions by sea and land. The map of Marinus and the
descriptive accounts which accompanied it have perished, but we learn
sufficient concerning them from Ptolemy to be able to appreciate their
merits and demerits. Marinus was the first who laid down the position of
places on a projection according to their latitude and longitude, but
the projection used by him was of the rudest. Parallels and meridians
were represented by straight lines intersecting each other at right
angles, the relative proportions between degrees of longitude and
latitude being retained only along the parallel of Rhodes. The
distortion of the countries represented would thus increase with the
distance, north and south, from this central parallel. The number of
places whose position had been determined by astronomical observation
was as yet very small, and the map had thus to be compiled mainly from
itineraries furnished by travellers or the dead reckoning of seamen. The
errors due to an exaggeration of distances were still further increased
on account of his assuming a degree to be equal to 500 stadia, as
determined by Posidonius, instead of accepting the 700 stadia of
Eratosthenes. He was thus led to assume that the distance from the first
meridian drawn through the Fortunate islands to Sera (mod. Si-ngan-fu),
the capital of China, was equal to 225°, which Ptolemy reduced to 177°,
but which in reality only amount to 126°. A like overestimate of the
distances covering the march of Julius Maternus to Agisymba, which
Marinus places 24° south of the equator, a latitude which Ptolemy
reduces to 18°, but which is probably no farther south than lat. 12° N.
The map of Marinus was accompanied by a list of places arranged
according to latitude and longitude. It must have been much in demand,
for three editions of it were prepared. Masudi (10th century) saw a copy
of it and declared it to be superior to Ptolemy's map.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

Ptolemy (q.v.) was the author of a _Geography_[18] (c. A.D. 150) in
eight books. "Geography," in the sense in which he uses the term,
signifies the delineation of the known world, in the shape of a map,
while chorography carries out the same objects in fuller detail, with
regard to a particular country. In Book I. he deals with the principles
of mathematical geography, map projections, and sources of information
with special reference to his predecessor Marinus. Books II. to VII.
form an index to the maps. They contain about 8000 names, with their
latitudes and longitudes, and with their aid it is possible to
reconstruct the maps. These maps existed, as a matter of course, before
such an index could be compiled, but it is doubtful whether the maps in
our available manuscript, which are attributed to Agathodaemon, are
copies of Ptolemy's originals or have been compiled, after their loss,
from this index. Book VIII. gives further details with reference to the
principal towns of each map, as to geographical position, length of day,
climata, &c.

Ptolemy's great merit consists in having accepted the views of
Hipparchus with respect to a projection suited for a map of the world.
Of the two projections proposed by him one is a modified conical
projection with curved parallels and straight meridians; in the second
projection (see fig. 3) both parallels and meridians are curved. The
correct relations in the length of degrees of latitude and longitude are
maintained in the first case along the latitude of Thule and the
equator, in the second along the parallel of Agisymba, the equator and
the parallels of Meroe, Syene and Thule. Following Hipparchus he divided
the equator into 360° drawing his prime meridian through the Fortunate
Islands (Canaries). The 26 special maps are drawn on a rectangular
projection. As a map compiler Ptolemy does not take a high rank. In the
main he copied Marinus whose work he revised and supplemented in some
points, but he failed to realize the peninsular shape of India,
erroneously exaggerated the size of Taprobane (Ceylon), and suggested
that the Indian Ocean had no connexion with the western ocean, but
formed Mare Clausum. Ptolemy knew but of a few latitudes which had been
determined by actual observation, while of three longitudes resulting
from simultaneous observation of eclipses he unfortunately accepted the
least satisfactory, namely, that which placed Arbela 45° to the east of
Carthage, while the actual meridian distance only amounts to 34°. An
even graver source of error was Ptolemy's acceptance of a degree of 500
instead of 700 stadia. The extent to which the more correct proportion
would have affected the delineation of the Mediterranean is illustrated
by fig. 4. But in spite of his errors the scientific method pursued by
Ptolemy was correct, and though he was neglected by the Romans and
during the middle ages, once he had become known, in the 15th century,
he became the teacher of the modern world.

_Map-Making among the Romans._--We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca,
Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and
topographical maps. Thus, Varro (_De rustici_) mentions a map of Italy
engraved on marble, in the temple of Tellus, Pliny, a map of the seat of
war in Armenia, of the time of the emperor Nero, and the more famous map
of the Roman Empire which was ordered to be prepared for Julius Caesar
(44 B.C.), but only completed in the reign of Augustus, who placed a
copy of it, engraved in marble, in the Porticus of his sister Octavia (7
B.C.). M. Vipsanius Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus (d. 12 B.C.),
who superintended the completion of this famous map, also wrote a
commentary illustrating it, quotations from which of Ammianus
Marcellinus of Antioch (d. 330), Pliny and others, afford the only means
of judging of its character. The map is supposed to be based upon actual
surveys or rather reconnaissances, and if it be borne in mind that the
Roman Empire at that time was traversed in all directions by roads
furnished with mile-stones, that the Agrimensores employed upon such a
duty were skilled surveyors, and that the official reports of the
commanders of military expeditions and of provincial governors were
available, this map, as well as the provincial maps upon which it was
based, must have been a work of superior excellence, the loss of which
is much to be regretted. A copy of it may possibly have been utilized by
Marinus and Ptolemy in their compilations. The Romans have been
reproached for having neglected the scientific methods of map-making
advocated by Hipparchus. Their maps, however, seem to have met the
practical requirements of political administration and of military
undertakings.

Only two specimens of Roman cartography have come down to us, viz. parts
of a plan of Rome, of the time of the emperor Septimius Severus (A.D.
193-211), now in the Museo Capitolino, and an _itinerarium scriptum_, or
road map of the world, compressed within a strip 745 mm. in length and
34 mm. broad. Of its character the reduced copy of one of its 12
sections (fig. 5) conveys an idea. The map, apparently of the 3rd
century, was copied by a monk at Colmar, in 1265, who fortunately
contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and having been
acquired by the learned Conrad Peutinger of Augsburg it became known as
_Tabula peutingeriana_. The original is now in the imperial library of
Vienna.[19]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--A Section of Peutinger's Tabula.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--The World according to Cosmas Indicopleustes
(535).]

_Map-Making in the Middle Ages._--In scientific matters the early middle
ages were marked by stagnation and retrogression. The fathers of the
church did not encourage scientific pursuits, which Lactantius (4th
century) declared to be unprofitable. The doctrine of the sphericity of
the earth was still held by the more learned, but the heads of the
church held it to be unscriptural. Pope Zachary, when in 741 he
condemned the views of Virgilius, the learned bishop of Salzburg, an
Irishman who had been denounced as a heretic by St Boniface, declares it
to be _perversa et iniqua doctrina_. Even after Gerbert of Aurillac,
better known as Pope Sylvester II. (999-1063), Adam of Bremen (1075),
Albertus Magnus (d. 1286), Roger Bacon (d. 1294), and indeed all men of
leading had accepted as a fact and not a mere hypothesis the geocentric
system of the universe and sphericity of the globe, the authors of maps
of the world, nearly all of whom were monks, still looked in the main to
the Holy Scriptures for guidance in outlining the inhabited world. We
have to deal thus with three types of these early maps, viz. an oblong
rectangular, a circular and an oval type, the latter being either a
compromise between the two former, or an artistic development of the
circular type. In every instance the inhabited world is surrounded by
the ocean. The authors of rectangular maps look upon the Tabernacle as
an image of the world at large, and believe that such expressions as the
"four corners of the earth" (Isa. x. 12), could be reconciled only with
a rectangular world. On the other hand there was the expression "circuit
of the earth" (Isa. xl. 22), and the statement (Ezek. v. 5) that "God
had set Jerusalem in the midst of the nations and countries." In nearly
every case the East occupies the top of the map. Neither parallels nor
meridians are indicated, nor is there a scale. Other features frequently
met with are the Paradise in the Far East, miniatures of towns, plants,
animals, human beings and monsters, and an indication of the twelve
winds around the margin.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Map of Albi (8th century).]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Anglo-Saxon Map of the World (9th century).]

The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable
work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes,
after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled
_Christian Topography_. According to Cosmas (fig. 6) the inhabited earth
has the shape of an oblong rectangle surrounded by an ocean which breaks
in in four great gulfs--the Roman or Mediterranean, the Arabian, Persian
and Caspian Sea. Beyond this ocean lies another world, which was
occupied by man before the Deluge, and within which Cosmas placed the
Terrestrial Paradise. Above this rise the walls of the heavens like unto
the tent of the Tabernacle. Far more simple is a small map of the world
of the 8th century found in a codex in the library of Albi, an
archiepiscopal seat in the department of Tarn. Its scanty nomenclature
is almost wholly derived from the "Historiae adversum paganos" of Paulus
Orosius (418). Far greater interest attaches to the so-called
Anglo-Saxon Map of the World in the British Museum (Cotton MSS.), where
it is bound up in a codex which also contains a copy of the _Periegesis_
of Priscianus. Map and Periegesis are copies by the same hand, but no
other connexion exists between them. More than half the nomenclature of
the map is derived from Orosius, an annotated Anglo-Saxon version of
which had been produced by King Alfred (871-901). The Anglo-Saxons of
the time were of course well acquainted with Island (first thus named in
870) Slesvic and Norweci (Norway), and there is no need to have recourse
to Adam of Bremen (1076) to account for their presence upon this map.
The broad features of the map were derived no doubt from an older
document which may likewise have served as the basis for the map of the
world engraved on silver for Charlemagne, and was also consulted by the
compilers of the Hereford and Ebstorf maps (see fig. 11).

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--T map from Isidor of Seville's _Origines_.]

The map or diagram of which Leonardo Dati in his poem on the Sphere
(Della Spera) wrote in 1422 "un T dentre a uno O mostra il disegno" (a T
within an O shows the design) is one of the most persistent types among
the circular or wheel maps of the world. It perpetuates the tripartite
division of the world by the ancient Greeks and survives in the Royal
Orb. A diagram of this description will be found in Isidor of Seville's
_Origines_ (630), see fig. 9.

T maps of more elaborate design illustrate the MS. copies of Sallust's
_Bellum jugurthinum_; one of these taken from a codex of the 11th
century in the Leipzig town library is shown in fig. 10.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Map illustrating Sallust's _Bellum jugurthinum_
(11th century, Leipzig).]

The outlines of several medieval maps resemble each other to such an
extent that there can be no doubt that they are derived from the same
original source. This source by some authors is assumed to have been the
official map of the Roman Empire, but if we compare the crude outline
given to the Mediterranean with the more correct delineation of Ptolemy,
who was certainly in a position to avail himself of these official
sources, such an assumption is untenable. The earliest delineation of
the description has already been referred to as the Anglo-Saxon map of
the world. Next in the order of age, follows the oval map which Henry,
canon of Mayence Cathedral, dedicated to Mathilda, consort of the
emperor Henry V. (1110). Of far greater importance is the map seen in
Hereford Cathedral. It is the work of Richard of Haldingham, and has a
diameter of 134 cm. (53 ins.). The "survey" ordered by Julius Caesar is
referred to in the legend, evidently derived from the Cosmography of
Aethicus a work widely read at the time, but this does not prove that
the author was able to avail himself of a map based upon that survey. A
map essentially identical with that of Hereford, but larger--its
diameter is 15.6 cm. (6 in.), and consequently fuller of
information--was discovered in 1830 in the old monastery of Ebstorf in
Hanover. Its date is 1484. Both maps abound in miniature pictures of
towns, animals, fabulous beings and other subjects. The Hereford map is
surmounted by a picture of the Day of Judgment. Similar in design,
though much smaller of scale and oval in form, are the maps which
illustrate the popular _Polychronicon_ of Ranulf Higden, a monk of St
Werburgh's Abbey of Chester (d. 1363).

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--The Hereford Map (c. 1280).]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--The Map of Beatus (776).]

Pomponius Mela tells us that beyond the Ethiopian Ocean which sweeps
round Africa in the south and the uninhabitable torrid zone, there lies
an _alter orbis_, or fourth part of the world inhabited by
_Antichthones_. On a diagram illustrating the origines of Isidore of
Seville (d. 636) this country is shown, but is described as a _terra
inhabitabilis_. It is shown likewise upon a number of maps which
illustrate the _Commentaries on the Apocalypse_, by Beatus, a
Benedictine monk of the abbey of Valcavado at the foot of the hills of
Liebana in Asturia (776).

Our little map (fig. 12) is taken from a copy of Beatus' work made in
1203, and preserved at Burgo de Osma in Castille. Similar maps
illustrating the _Commentaries_ exist at St Sever (1050), Paris (1203),
and Tunis; others are rectangular, the oldest being in Lord Ashburnham's
library (970). Beatus, too, describes the southern land as
_inhabitabilis_. The habitable world is divided among the twelve
apostles, whose portraits are given. On the maps illustrating the
encyclopaedic _Liber floridus_ by Lambert, a canon of St Omer (1120),
this south land "unknown to the sons of Adam," is stated to be inhabited
"according to the philosophers" by Antipodes. Lambert, indeed, seems to
have believed in the sphericity of the earth. Fig. 13 shows his map of
the world reduced from a MS. at Wolfenbüttel, to which is added a
diagram of the zones from a MS. at Ghent, which illustrates Macrobius'
commentary on Cicero's _Somnium Scipionis_. Diagrams illustrating the
division of the world into climata, are to be found in the _opus majus_
of Roger Bacon (d. 1294) and in Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly's _De imagine
Mundi_ (1410).

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

Among countries represented on a larger scale on maps, Palestine not
unnaturally occupies a prominent place in this age of pilgrimages and
crusades (1095-1291). The maps which accompany St Jerome's translation
of the _Onomasticon_ of St Eusebius (388). The same subject is
illustrated by a picture-map in mosaic, portions of which were
discovered in 1896 on the floor of the church of Madaba to the east of
the Dead Sea. This is the oldest original of a map in existence, for it
dates back to the 6th century. Among more recent maps of Palestine, that
by Petrus Vesconte (1320) is greatly superior to the earlier maps. It
illustrates Marino Sanuto's _Secreta fidelium crucis_, in which its
author vainly appeals to Christendom to undertake another crusade. One
of the earliest plans of Jerusalem is contained in _Gesta Francorum_, a
history of the Crusades up to 1106, based upon information furnished by
Fulcherius of Chartres (c. 1109).

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Matthew of Paris (1236-1259).]

There existed, no doubt, special maps of European countries, but the
only documents of that description are two maps of Great Britain, the
one of the 12th century, the other by Matthew of Paris, the famous
historiographer of the monastery of St Albans (1236-1259).[20]

Celestial globes were known in the time of Bede; they formed part of the
educational apparatus of the monastic schools. Gerbert of Aurillac is
known to have made such globes (929). Their manufacture is described by
Alphonso the Wise (1252), as also in _De sphaera solida_ of G. Campanus
of Novara (1303). Terrestrial globes, however, are not referred to.

_Map-making among the Arabians and other Nations of the East._--Bagdad
early became a famous seat of learning. Indian astronomers found apt
pupils there among the Arabs; the works of Ptolemy were translated into
Arabic, and in 827, in the reign of the caliph Abdullah al Mamun, an arc
of the meridian was measured in the plain of Mesopotamia. Most famous
among these Arabian astronomers were Al Batani (d. 998), Ibn Yunis of
Cairo (d. 1008), Zarkala (Azarchel), who determined the meridian
distance between his observatory in Toledo and Bagdad to amount to 51°
30´, an error of 3° only, as compared with Ptolemy's error of 18°, and
Abul Hassan (1230) who reduced the great axis of the Mediterranean to
44°.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Idrisi (1154).]

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Idrisi (1154).]

Further materials serviceable to the compilers of maps were supplied by
numerous Arabian travellers and geographers, among whom Masudi
(915-940), Istakhri (950), Ibn Haukal (942-970), Al Biruni (d. 1038),
Ibn Batuta (1325-1356) and Abul Feda (1331-1370), occupy a foremost
place, yet the few maps which have reached us are crude in the extreme.
Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description
of the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of
the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of
Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al
Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type. Nor can Idrisi's
map of the world, which was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a
silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his
geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work. These maps
are based upon information collected during many years at the instance
of King Roger. The seven climates adopted by Idrisi are erroneously
supposed to be equal in latitudinal extent. The Mediterranean occupies
nearly half the inhabited world in longitude, and the east coast of
Africa is shown as if it extended due east.

The Arabians are not known to have produced a terrestrial globe, but
several of their celestial globes are to be found in our collections.
The oldest of these globes was made at Valentia, and is now in the
museum of Florence. Another globe (of 1225) is at Velletri; a third by
Ibn Hula of Mosul (1275) is the property of the Royal Asiatic Society of
London; a fourth (1289) from the observatory of Maragha, in the Dresden
Museum, two globes of uncertain age at Paris (see fig. 17) and another
in London. All these globes are of metal (bronze), or they might not
have survived so many years.

The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean--Arabs,
Persians or Dravidas--were equal in value if not superior to the charts
of the Mediterranean. Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama
(1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is
fully explained in the _Mohit_ or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from
ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.[21]
These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each
other at right angles. The horizontal lines are parallels, depending
upon the altitude of the pole star, the Calves of the Little Bear and
the Barrow of the Great Bear above the horizon. This altitude was
expressed in _isbas_ or inches each equivalent to 1° 42´ 50´´. Each
_isba_ was divided into _zams_ or eights. The interval between two
parallels thus only amounted to 12´ 51´´. These intervals were mistaken
by the Portuguese occasionally for degrees, which account for Malacca,
which is in lat. 2´ 13´´ N., being placed on Cantino's Chart (1502) in
lat. 14´ S. It may have been a map of this kind which accounts for
Ptolemy's moderate exaggerations of the size of Taprobana (Ceylon). A
first meridian, separating a leeward from a windward region, passed
through Ras Kumhari (Comorin) and was thus nearly identical with the
first meridian of the Indian astronomers which passed through the sacred
city of Ujjain (Ozere of Ptolemy) or the meridian of Azin of the Arabs.
Additional meridians were drawn at intervals of _zams_, supposed to be
equal to three hours' sail.

In China, maps in the olden time were engraved on bronze or stone, but
after the 10th century they were printed from wood-blocks. Among the
more important productions of more recent times, may be mentioned a map
of the empire, said to be based upon actual surveys by Yhang (721), who
also manufactured a celestial globe (an older globe by Ho-shing-tien, 4
metres in circumference, was produced in 450), and an atlas of the
empire on a large scale by Thu-sie-pun (1311-1312) of which new enlarged
editions with many maps were published in the 16th century and in 1799.
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the more surprising as
the Chinese astronomers are credited with having made use of the gnomon
as early as 1000 B.C. for determining latitudes.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Globe in Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris]

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--The Indian Ocean according to Mohit, as
interpreted by Dr Tomaschek.]

In the case of Japan, the earliest reference to a map is of 646, in
which year the emperor ordered surveys of certain provinces to be made.

_Portolano Maps._--During the long period of stagnation in cartography,
which we have already dealt with, there survived among the seamen of the
Mediterranean charts of remarkable accuracy, illustrating the
_Portolani_ or sailing directories in use among them. Charts of this
description are first mentioned in connexion with the Crusade of Louis
XI. in 1270, but they originated long before that time, and in the
eastern part of the Mediterranean they embody materials available even
in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west
seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
These charts are based upon estimated bearings and distances between the
principal ports or capes, the intervening coast-line being filled in
from more detailed surveys. The bearings were dependent upon the
seaman's observation of the heavens, for these charts were in use long
before the compass had been introduced on board ship (as early as 1205,
according to Guiot de Provins) although it became fully serviceable only
after the needle had been attached to the compass card, an improvement
probably introduced by Flavio Gioja of Amalfi in the beginning of the
14th century. The compass may of course have been used for improving
these charts, but they originated without its aid, and it is therefore
misleading to describe them as _Compass or Loxodromic_ charts, and they
are now known as _Portolano_ charts.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--The Eastern Mediterranean, by Petrus Vesconte
(1311).]

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--The Mediterranean.

  a, According to A. Dulceti, 1339, and
  b, On Mercator's projection, according to modern maps.]

None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines
which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians.
Their most characteristic feature, and one by which they can most
readily be recognized, is presented by groups or systems of rhumb-lines,
each group of these lines radiating from a common centre, the central
group being generally encircled by eight or sixteen satellite groups. In
the course of time the centres of radiation of all these groups had
imposed upon them ornate _rose dei venti_, or windroses, such as may
still be seen upon our compass-cards. Each chart was furnished with a
scale of miles. These miles, however, were not the ordinary Roman miles
of 1000 paces or 5000 ft., but smaller miles of Greek or Oriental
origin, of which six were equal to five Roman miles, and as the latter
were equal to 1480 metres, the Portolano miles had a length of only 1233
metres, and 75.2 of the former, and 90.3 of the latter were equal to a
degree. The difference between these miles was known, however, only to
the more learned among the map-makers, and when the charts were extended
to the Atlantic seaboard the two were assumed to be identical.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Map illustrating Marino Sanuto's _Liber
secretorum fidelium crucis_.]

On these old charts the Mediterranean is delineated with surprising
fidelity. The meridian distance between the Straits of Gibraltar and
Beirut in Syria amounts upon them to about 3000 Portolano miles, equal
in lat. 36° N. to 40.9°, as compared with an actual difference of 41.2°,
and a difference of 61° assumed by Ptolemy. There exists, however, a
serious error of orientation, due, according to Professor H. Wagner, to
the inexperience of the cartographers who first combined the charts of
the separate basins of the Mediterranean so as to produce a chart of the
whole. This accounts for Gibraltar and Alexandria being shown as lying
due east and west of each other, although there is a difference of 5° of
latitude between them, a fact known long before Ptolemy.

The production of these charts employed numerous licensed draughtsmen in
the principal seaports of Italy and Catalonia, and among seamen these
MS. charts remained popular long after the productions of the
printing-press had become available. The oldest of these maps which have
been preserved, the so-called "Pisan chart," which belongs probably to
the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the
name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later
date, are both the work of Genoese artists. Among more eminent Genoese
cartographers are Joannes da Carignano (d. 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who
worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating
Marino Sanuto's _Liber secretorum fidelium crucis_, which was to have
roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs. 19 and 21)
Battista Beccario (1426, 1435) and Bartolomeo Pareto (1455). Venice
ranks next to Genoa as a centre of cartographic activity. Associated
with it are Francesco Pizigano (1367-1373), Francesco de Cesanis (1421),
Giacomo Giroldi (1422-1446), Andrea Bianco (1436-1448) Giovanni Leardo
(1442-1452), Alvise Cadamosto, who was associated with the Portuguese
explorers on the west coast of Africa (1454-1456) and whose _Portolano_
was printed at Venice in 1490, and Fra Mauro (1457).

Associated with Ancona are Grazioso Benincasa and his son Andreas, whose
numerous charts were produced between 1461 and 1508, and Count Ortomano
Freducci (1497-1538).

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Fra Mauro (1457).]

The earliest among Majorcan and Catalonian cartographers is Angelino
Dulcert (1325-1339) whom A. Managhi claims as a Genoese, whose true name
according to him was Angelino Dalorto. Other Catalans are Jahuda
Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan
map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes
(1413-1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439-1447) and Pietro Roselli, a
pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462).

These maps were originally intended for the use of seamen navigating the
Mediterranean and the coasts of the Atlantic, but in the course of time
they were extended to the mainland and ultimately developed into maps of
the whole world as then known. Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as
far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at
Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of
the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given
to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a
letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252. Most of the
expansions of Portolano maps into maps of the world are circular in
shape, and resemble the wheel maps of an earlier period. This is the
character of the map of Petrus Vesconte of 1320 (fig. 21), of Giovanni
Leardo (1448) and of a Catalan map of 1450. Jerusalem occupies the
centre of these maps, Arab sources of information are largely drawn
upon, while Ptolemy is neglected and contemporary travellers are
ignored. Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the
author has availed himself not only of the information collected by
Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but was able, by personal
intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who
had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians
who lived in Italy at that time. His delineation of Abyssinia, though
unduly spread over a wide area, is indeed wonderfully correct.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Catalan Map of the World (1375).]

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Genoese Map (1457).]

Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author,
discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula. On the other hand, an
anonymous Genoese would-be reformer of maps (1457; fig. 24), still
adheres to the erroneous Ptolemaic delineation of southern Asia, and the
same error is perpetuated by Henricus Marvellus Germanus on a rough map
showing the Portuguese discoveries up to 1489. None of these maps is
graduated, but if we give the Mediterranean a length of 3000 Portolano
miles, equivalent in 36° N. to 41°, then the longitudinal extent of the
old world as measured on the Genoese map of 1457 would be 136° instead
of 177° or more as given by Ptolemy.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--_Claudius Clavus Swartha_ (1427).]

_The Revival of Ptolemy._--Ptolemy's great work became known in western
Europe after Jacobus Angelus de Scarparia had translated it into Latin
in 1410. This version was first printed in 1475 at Vicenza, but its
contents had become known through MS. copies before this, and their
study influenced the construction of maps in two respects. They led
firstly to the addition of degree lines to maps, and secondly to the
compilation of new maps of those countries which had been inadequately
represented by Ptolemy. Thus Claudius Clavus Swartha (Niger), who was at
Rome in 1424, compiled a map of the world, extending westward as far as
Greenland. The learned Cardinal Nicolaus Krebs, of Cusa (Cues) on the
Moselle, who died 1464, drew a map of Germany which was first published
in 1491; D. Nicolaus Germanus, a monk of Reichenbach, in 1466 prepared a
set of Ptolemy's maps on a new projection with converging meridians; and
Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in 1474 compiled a new chart on a rectangular
projection, which was to guide the explorer across the western ocean to
Cathay and India.

Of the seven editions of Ptolemy which were published up to the close of
the 15th century, all except that of Vicenza (1475) contained Ptolemy's
27 maps, while Francesco Berlinghieri's version (Florence 1478), and two
editions published at Ulm (1482 and 1486), contained four or five modern
maps in addition, those of Ulm being by Nicolaus Germanus.

The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in
search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary
globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 1860
at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in
1492 by Martin Behaim.[22] The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a
diameter of 170 mm. The information which it furnishes, in spite of a
legend intended to lead us to believe that it presents us with the
results of Portuguese explorations up to the year 1493, is of more
ancient date. The Nuremberg globe is a work of a more ambitious order.
It was undertaken at the suggestion of George Holzschuher, a travelled
member of the town council. The work was entrusted to Martin Behaim, who
had resided for six years in Portugal and the Azores, and was believed
to be a thoroughly qualified cosmographer. The globe is of pasteboard
covered with whiting and parchment, and has a diameter of 507 mm. The
author followed Ptolemy not only in Asia, but also in the Mediterranean.
He did not avail himself of the materials available in his day. Not even
the coasts of western Africa are laid down correctly, although the
author claimed to have taken part in one of the Portuguese expeditions.
The ocean separating Europe from Asia is assumed as being only 126°
wide, in accordance with Toscanelli's ideas of 1474. Very inadequate use
has been made of the travels of Marco Polo, Nicolo de' Conti, and of
others in the east.[23] On the other hand, the globe is made gay with
flags and other decorations, the work of George Glockendon, a well-known
illuminator of the time.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.]

The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries
were laid down upon so-called "plane-charts," that is, charts having
merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the
equator, the tropics and polar circles, or, in a more advanced stage,
meridians also. The astrolabe quadrant or cross-staff enabled the
mariner to determine his latitude with a certain amount of accuracy, but
for his longitude he was dependent upon dead reckoning, for although
various methods for determining a longitude were known, the available
astronomical ephemerides were not trustworthy, and errors of 30° in
longitude were by no means rare. It was only after the publication of
Kepler's _Rudolphine Table_ (1626) that more exact results could be
obtained. A further difficulty arose in connexion with the variation of
the compass, which induced Pedro Reinel to introduce two scales of
latitude on his map of the northern Atlantic (1504; fig. 27).

[Illustration: FIG. 27.]

The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is
the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world
(1500), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto
Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara
(1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the
Portuguese in the East. Other cosmographers of distinction were Pedro
Reinel (1504-1542), Nuno Garcia de Toreno (1520), to whom we are
indebted for 21 charts, illustrating Magellan's voyage, Diogo Ribero
(maps of the world 1527, 1529),[24] Alonzo de Santa Cruz, of Seville,
whose _Isolario general_ includes charts of all parts of the world
(1541), John Rotz or Rut (1542), Sebastian Cabot (1544), as also Nicolas
Desliens, Pierre Desceliers, G. Breton and V. Vallard, all of Arques,
near Dieppe, whose charts were compiled between 1541 and 1554.

Of the many general maps of the world or of particular countries, a
large number illustrate such works as G. Reisch's _Margarita
philosophica_ (1163), the cosmographies of Peter Apianus or Bienewitz
(1520, 1522, 1530), Seb. Münster (1544), J. Honter (1546) and Gulielmus
Postel (1561) or the _Geographia_ of Livio Sanuto (1588); others, and
these the more numerous and important, supplement the original maps of
several editions of Ptolemy. Thus the Roman edition of 1507, edited by
Marcus Benaventura and Joa Cota, contains 6 modern maps, and to these
was added in 1508 Joh. Ruysch's famous map of the world on a modified
conical projection. The next edition published at Venice in 1511
contained a heart-shaped world by Bernhard Sylvanus. The Strassburg
Ptolemy of 1513 has a supplement of as many as 20 modern maps by Martin
Waldseemüller or Ilacomilus, several among which are copied from
Portuguese originals. Waldseemüller was one of the most distinguished
cartographers of his day. He was born at Radolfzell in Baden in 1470,
was associated with Ringmann at the gymnasium of St Dié, and died in
1521. He published in 1507 a huge map of the world, in 12 sheets,
together with a small globe of a diameter of 110 mm., the segments for
which were printed from wood-blocks. On these documents the new world is
called America, after Amerigo Vespucci, its supposed discoverer. In 1511
Waldseemüller published a large map of Europe, in 1513 he prepared his
maps for the Strassburg edition of Ptolemy, and in 1516 he engraved a
copy of Canerio's map of the world. The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1522
contains Waldseemüller's maps,[25] edited on a reduced scale by
Laurentius Frisius, together with three additional ones. The same set of
maps is reprinted in the Strassburg edition of 1524, newly translated by
W. Pirckheimer with notes by Joh. Müller Regiomontanus, and in the Lyon
edition of 1535, edited by Michael Servetus. The new maps of the Basel
edition of 1540, twenty-one in number, are by Sebastian Münster; Jacob
Gastaldo supplied the Venice edition of 1548 with 34 modern maps, and
these with a few additions are repeated in Girolamo Ruscelli's Italian
translation of Ptolemy published at Venice in 1561.

Equally interesting with these Ptolemaic supplements are collections
like that of Anton Lafreri, which contains reprints of 142 maps of all
parts of the world originally published between 1556 and 1572
(_Geografica tavole moderne_, Rome, n.d.), or that of J. F. Camocio,
published at Venice in 1576, which contains 88 reprints.

The number of cartographers throughout Europe was considerable, and we
confine ourselves to mentioning a few leading men. Among them Germany is
then represented by G. Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map
of central Europe (1501), Sebastian Münster (1489-1552), Elias
Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of
Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of
Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of
Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of
1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of
the 16th century. For maps of Switzerland we are indebted to Konrad
Türst (1495-1497), Johann Stumpf (1548) and Aegidius Tschudi (1538). A
map of the Netherlands from actual survey was produced by Jacob of
Deventer (1536-1539). Leonardo da Vinci, the famous artist, while in the
service of Cesare Borgia as military engineer, made surveys of several
districts in central Italy. Other Italian cartographers of merit were
Giovanni Battiste Agnese of Venice, whose atlases (1517-1564) enjoyed a
wide popularity; Benedetto Bordone (1528); Giacomo Gastaldo,
cosmographer of the Venetian Republic (1534-1568), and his successor,
Paolo Forlani. New maps of Spain and Portugal appeared in 1560, the
former being due to Pedro de Medina, the latter to Fernando Alvarez
Secco and Hernando Alvaro. Among the French map-makers of this period
may be mentioned Oronce Finée (Finaeus), who in 1525 published a map of
France, and Jean Jolivet (c. 1560). Gregorio Lilly (1546) and Humphrey
Lhuyd of Denbigh (d. 1510) furnished maps of the British Isles, Olaus
Magnus (1539) of Scandinavia, Anton Wied (1542), Sigismund von
Herberstein (1549) and Anthony Jenkinson (1562) of Muscovy.

The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy
were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus,
was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th
century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these. The
earliest of these, a trapeziform projection with equidistant parallels,
by D. Nicolaus Germanus (1466), naturally led to what is generally known
as Flamsteed's projection. Joh. Stabius (1502) and his pupil J. Werner
(1514) devised three heart-shaped projections, one of which was
equivalent. Petrus Apianus (1524) gave his map an elliptical shape. H.
Glareanus (1510) was the first to employ an equidistant zenithal polar
projection.

No reasonable fault can be found with the marine surveyors of this
period, but the scientific cartographers allowed themselves too
frequently to be influenced by Ptolemaic traditions. Thus Gastaldo
(1548) presents us with a map of Italy, which, except as to
nomenclature, differs but little from that of Ptolemy, although on the
Portolano charts the peninsula had long since assumed its correct shape.
Many of the local maps, too, were excellent specimens of cartography,
but when we follow any cartographer of the period into regions the
successful delineation of which depended upon an intelligent
interpretation of itineraries, and of information collected by recent
travellers, they are generally found to fail utterly. This is
illustrated by the four sketch maps shown in fig. 28.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.]

Columbus, trusting to Toscanelli's misleading chart, looked upon the
countries discovered by him as belonging to eastern Asia, a view still
shared about 1507 by his brother Bartolomeo. Waldseemüller (1507) was
the first to separate America and Asia by an ocean of considerable
width, but J. Ruysch (1508) returns to the old idea, and even joins
Greenland (Gruenlant) to eastern Asia. Bologninus Zalterius on a map of
1566, and Mercator on his famous chart of 1569, separates the two
continents by a narrow strait which they call Streto de Anian, thus
anticipating the discovery of Bering Strait by more than a hundred and
fifty years. Anian, however, which they place upon the American coast,
is no other than Marco Polo's Anica or Anin, our modern Annam. Such an
error could never have arisen had the old compilers of maps taken the
trouble to plan Marco Polo's routes.

_Globes_, both celestial and terrestrial, became popular after the
discovery of America. They were included among the scientific apparatus
of ships and of educational establishments. Columbus and Magellan had
such globes, those of the latter produced by P. Reinel (1519), and
Conrad Celtes tells us that he illustrated his lectures at the
university of Vienna with the help of globes (1501). Globes were still
engraved on copper, or painted by hand, but since 1507, in which year
Waldseemüller published a small globe of a diameter of 110 mm., covered
with printed segments or gores, this cheap and expeditious method has
come into general use. Waldseemüller constructed his gores graphically,
A. Dürer (1525) and Hen. Loriti Glareanus (1527) were the first who
dealt scientifically with the principles underlying their construction.
Globes covered with printed gores were produced by L. Boulenger (1514),
Joh. Schöner (1515), P. Apianus, Gemma Frisius (1530) and G. Mercator
(1541). Leonardo da Vinci's rough map of the world in 8 segments (c.
1513) seems likewise to have been intended for a globe. Of J. Schöner we
know that he produced four globes, three printed from segments (1515,
1523, 1533), and one of larger size (diam. 822 mm.), which is drawn by
hand, and is preserved in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg. Among
engraved globes, one of the most interesting is that which was
discovered by R. M. Hunt in Paris, and is preserved in the Lenox
Library, New York. Its diameter is only 4½ in. (127 mm.). The so-called
"Nancy globe" is of chased silver, richly ornamented, and formerly
served the purpose of a pyx. Its diameter is 160 mm., its date about
1530. About the same date is assigned to a globe by Robert de Bailly,
engraved on copper and gilt (diam. 440 mm.). Celestial globes were
manufactured by Regiomontanus (d. 1476) at Nuremberg, by Joh. Stöffler
(1499), and by G. Hartmann (1535).

[Illustration: FIG. 29.]

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Lenox Globes (1510).]

_Mercator and his Successors._--Of Gerhard Kremer (1512-1594) the
earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a
double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of
Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541,
diam. 120 mm.), and a large map of Europe which has been praised
deservedly for its accuracy (1554). He is best known by his marine chart
(1569) and his atlas. The projection of the former may have been
suggested by a note by W. Pirkheimer in his edition of Ptolemy (1525).
Mercator constructed it graphically, the mathematical principles
underlying it being first explained by E. Wright (1594). The "Atlas" was
only published after Mercator's death, in 1595. It only contained nine
maps, but after the plates had been sold to Jodocus (Jesse) Hondius the
number of maps was rapidly increased, although Mercator's name was
retained. Mercator's maps are carefully engraved on copper. Latin
letters are used throughout; the miniatures of older maps are superseded
by symbols, and in the better-known countries the maps are fairly
correct, but they fail lamentably when we follow their author into
regions--the successful delineation of which depends upon a critical
combination of imperfect information.

Even before Mercator's death, Antwerp and Amsterdam had become great
centres of cartographic activity, and they maintained their pre-eminence
until the beginning of the 18th century. Abraham Ortelius (1527-1592),
of Antwerp, a man of culture and enterprise, but not a scientific
cartographer, published the first edition of his _Theatrum orbis
terrarum_ in 1570. It then contained 53 maps, by various authors. By
1595 the number of maps had increased to 119, including a _Parergon_ or
supplement of 12 maps illustrating ancient history. In 1578 was
published the _Speculum orbis terrarum_ of Gerard de Jude or de Judaeis.
Lucas Janszon Waghenaer (Aurigarius) of Enkhuizen published the first
edition of his _Spiegel der Zeevaart_ (Mariners' Mirror) at Leiden in
1585. It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many
editions, was issued in several languages and became known as
_Charettier_ and _Waggoner_. In the same year Adrian Gerritsz published
a valuable _Paskaarte_ of the European Sea. Ten years afterwards, in
1595, W. Barentszoon published a marine atlas of the Mediterranean, the
major axis of which he reduced to 42 degrees. Jodocus Hondius has
already been referred to as the purchaser of Mercator's plates. The
business founded by him about 1602 was continued by his sons and his
son-in-law, Jan Janszon (Jansonius) and others. By 1653 this firm had
already produced atlases including 451 charts. Willem Janszon, the
father of Hondius's partner, published a collection of charts (1608), to
which he gave the title of _Het Licht der Zeevaart_ (the seaman's
light). Another cartographic publishing firm was established at
Amsterdam in 1612 by Willem Janszon Blaeu (1571-1638), a friend of Tycho
Brahe, from 1633 "mapmaker" of the states-general, and a man of
scientific culture. He was succeeded by his son Jan (d. 1673) and
grandson Cornelius, and before the end of the century turned out a
_Zee-Spiegel_ of 108 charts (1623), an _Atlas novus_ (_Nieuwe Atlas_),
1642, enlarged in the course of time until it consisted of 12 folio
volumes containing hundreds of maps. J. A. Colom in 1633 published a
collection of maps under the quaint title of _Vurig Colom der Zeevaert_
(Fiery Column of Navigation). Among more recent Dutch map publishers are
Nicolaus Vischer (Piscator), R. Goos, H. Doncker, F. de Wit, and J. and
G. van Keulen, whose atlases were published between 1681 and 1722. These
Dutch maps and charts are generally accompanied by descriptive notes or
sailing directions printed on the back of them. A similar work is the
_Arcano del mare_ of Sir Robert Dudley, duke of Northumberland, the
numerous sheets of which are on Mercator's projection (1631).

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Mercator's Chart of the World (1569).]

In France, in the meantime, an arc of the meridian had been measured
(1669-1670) by Jean Picard, numerous longitudes had been observed
between 1672 and 1680 by the same, and by Phil. de Lahire (d. 1719), and
these were utilized in a _Carte de France_ "as corrected from the
observations of the members of the Academy of Sciences" (1666-1699), in
a map of the world (1694) by D. Cassini, as also in _Le Neptune
François_ (1693) with contributions by Pene, D. Cassini and others.
These corrected longitudes were not yet available for the maps produced
by Nicolas Sanson of Abbeville, since 1627. The cartographical
establishment founded by him in that year was carried on after his death
in 1667 by his sons, his son-in-law, P. Duval (d. 1683) and his grandson
Robert du Vaugondy (d. 1766). Among the cartographers whom he employed
were M. Tavernier and Mariette, and in many instances he mentioned the
authors whose maps he copied. By 1710 the maps published by the firm
numbered 466. Nicolas de Fer, the great rival of Sanson, and his heirs,
are stated to have published as many as 600 maps after 1700.

In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century
a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns
or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many
instances based upon original surveys, was large. Germany is thus
represented, among others, by C. Henneberger (map of Prussia, 1576), by
M. Oeder, (survey of Saxony, 1586-1607), A. Rauh (fine hill features on
a map of the environs of Wangen and Lindau, 1617), W. Schickhardt
(survey of Württemberg, 1624-1635), and G. M. Vischer (map of Austria
and Styrai, 1669-1786); Switzerland by H. C. Gyger (Canton of Zürich, a
masterpiece, 1667); Italy by G. A. Magini (1558-1610), and V. Coronelli,
appointed cosmographer of the Venetian Republic, 1685, and founder of
the Ac. Cosmogr. dei Argonauti, the earliest geographical society, and
Diogo Homem, a Portuguese settled at Venice (1558-1574); Denmark by J.
Mejer of Husum (1650); Sweden by A. Buraeus, the "father of Swedish
cartographers" (1650-1660); the British Islands by Ch. Saxton (County
Atlas of England and Wales 1575), J. Speed (_Theatrum_ of Great Britain,
1610), Timothy Pont and Robert Gordon of Strathloch (map of Scotland,
1608), and A. Moll. A _Novus atlas sinensis_, based upon Chinese
surveys, was published in 1655 by Martin Martini, S.J., a missionary
recently returned from China. Isaac Voss, in his work _De Nili_ (1659),
published a map of central Africa, in which he anticipated D'Anville by
rejecting all the fanciful details which found a place upon Filippo
Pigafetta's map of that continent.

The first maps illustrating the variation of the compass were published
by Chris. Burrus (d. 1632) and Athanasius Kircher (_Magnes_, Rome,
1643), and maps of the ocean and tidal currents by the latter in his
_Mundus subterraneus_ (1665). Edmund Halley, the astronomer, compiled
the first variation chart of scientific value (1683), as also a chart of
the winds (1686).

Globes manufactured for commercial purposes by Blaeu and others have
already been mentioned, but several large globes, for show rather than
for use, were produced in addition to these. Thus A. Busch, of Limburg
(1656-1664), manufactured a globe for Duke Frederick of Holstein,
formerly at Gottorp, but since 1713 at Tsarskoye Zelo. It has a diameter
of 11 ft. (3.57 metres) and is hollow, the inner surface of the shell
being covered with a star map, and the outer surface with a map of the
world. Professor Erh. Weigel (1696) produced a hollow celestial globe in
copper, having a small terrestrial globe in its centre. Its diameter is
3.25 metres. Lastly there is a pair of giant globes of artistic design,
turned out by V. Coronelli (1623), and intended as presents to Louis
XIV. Their diameter is nearly 5 metres. A pair of globes of 1592 by
Emeric Molineux (diam. 610 mm.) is now in the Temple Library, and is
referred to in Blundeville's _Exercises_ (1594).

_The Eighteenth Century._--It was no mere accident which enabled France
to enjoy a pre-eminence in cartographic work during the greater part of
the 18th century. Not only had French men of science and scientific
travellers done excellent work as explorers in different parts of the
world, but France could also boast of two men, Guillaume Delisle and J.
B. Bourguignon d'Anville, able to utilize in the compilation of their
maps the information they acquired.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.]

Delisle (1675-1726) published 98 maps, and although as works of art they
were inferior to the maps of certain contemporaries, they were far
superior to them in scientific value. On one of his earliest maps
compiled under advice of his father Claude (1700), he gave the
Mediterranean its true longitudinal extension of 41°. It was Delisle who
assumed the meridian of Ferro, which had been imposed upon French
navigators by royal order (1634), to lie exactly 20° to the west of
Paris. The work of reform was carried further by B. D'Anville
(1697-1782). Altogether he published 211 maps, of which 66 are included
in his _Atlas général_ (1737-1780); he swept away the fanciful lakes
from off the face of Africa, thus forcibly bringing home to us the
poverty of our knowledge (fig. 32), delineated the Chinese Empire in
accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign
of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and
published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an
Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always
brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the
ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal. Among other
French works of importance deserving notice are _Le Neptune oriental_ of
Mannevillette (1745) and more especially the _Carte géometrique de la
France_, which is based upon surveys carried on (1744-1783) by César
François Cassini de Thury and his son Dominique de Cassini. It is on a
transversal cylindrical (rectangular) projection devised by Jacques
Cassini (d. 1746). The hills are shown in rough hachures.

England, which had entered upon a career of naval conquest and
scientific exploration, had reason to be proud of J. F. W. Desbarres,
_Atlantic Neptune_ (1774), a North-American Pilot (1779), which first
made known the naval surveys of J. Cook and of others; and Tho.
Jefferys's _West Indian_ and _American Atlases_ (1775, 1778). James
Rennell (1742-1830), who was surveyor-general of India, published the
_Bengal Atlas_ (1781), and sagaciously arranged the vast mass of
information collected by British travellers and others in India and
Africa, but it is chiefly with the name of Aaron Arrowsmith, who came to
London in 1778, and his successors, with which the glory of the older
school of cartographers is most intimately connected. His nephew John
died in 1873. Among local cartographers may be mentioned H. Moll (d.
1732), J. Senex, whose atlas was published in 1725, and Dowet, whose
atlas was brought out at the expense of the duke of Argyll.

In Germany J. B. Homann (d. 1724) founded a geographical establishment
in 1702, which depended at first upon copies of British and French maps,
but in course of time published also original maps such as J. M. Hase's
_Africa_ (1727) and Tobias Meyer's _Mappa critica_ of Germany (1780), J.
T. Güssfeld's map of Brandenburg (1773), John Majer's Württemburg
(1710), and J. C. Müller's Bavaria, both based on trigonometrical
surveys. Colonel Schmettau's excellent survey of the country to the west
of the Weser (1767-1787) was never published, as Frederick the Great
feared it might prove of use to his military enemies. Switzerland is
represented by J. J. Scheuchzer (1712), J. Gessner (d. 1790), G. Walser
(_Atlas novus Helvetiae_, 1769), and W. R. Meyer, _Atlas der Schweiz_
(1786-1802). Of the Austrian Netherlands, Count Joseph de Ferrari
published a chorographic map on the same scale as Cassini's _Carte de la
France_ (1777). Of Denmark a fine map was published under the auspices
of the Academy of Science of Copenhagen (1766-1825); of Spain and
Portugal an atlas in 102 sheets by Thomas Lopez (1765-1802); of Russia a
map by J. N. Delisle in 19 sheets (1730-1745); charts illustrating the
variation of the compass and of magnetic "dip" by E. Dunn (1776), J. C.
Wiffe (1768); a chart of the world by W. Dampier (1789). Map projections
were dealt with by two eminent mathematicians, J. H. Lambert (1772) and
Leonh. Euler (1777).

On the maps of Delisle and d'Anville the ground is still represented by
"molehills." Hachures of a rude nature first made their appearance on
David Vivier's map of the environs of Paris (1674), and on Cassini's
_Carte de la France_. Contour lines (isobaths) were introduced for the
first time on a chart of the Merwede by M. S. Cruquius (1728), and on a
chart of the English Channel by Phil. Buache (1737). Dupain-Triel,
acting on a suggestion of Du Carla, compiled a contoured map of France
(1791), and it only needed the introduction of graduated tints between
these contours to secure a graphic picture of the features of the
ground. It was J. G. Lehmann (1783) who based his method of hill-shading
or hachuring upon these horizontal contours. More than 80 methods of
showing the hills have found advocates since that time, but all methods
must be based upon contours to be scientifically satisfactory.

Two relief maps of Central Switzerland deserve to be mentioned, the one
by R. L. Pfyffer in wax, now in Lucerne, the other by J. R. Meyer of
Aarau and Müller of Engelberg in papier mâché, now in Zurich. Globes of
the usual commercial type were manufactured in France by Delisle (1700),
Forbin (1710-1731), R. and J. de Vaugondy (1752), Lalande (1771); in
England by E. and G. Adams (1710-1766); Germany by Homann and Seutter
(1750). A hollow celestial globe 18 ft. in diameter was set up by Dr
Roger Long at Cambridge; the terrestrial globe which Count Ch. Gravie of
Vergennes presented to Louis XVI. in 1787 had a diameter of 26 metres,
or 85 ft.

_Modern Cartography._--The compiler of maps of the present day enjoys
many advantages not enjoyed by men similarly occupied a hundred years
ago. Topographical surveys are gradually extending, and explorers of
recent years are better trained for their work than they were a
generation ago, whilst technical processes of recent invention--such as
lithography, photography and heliogravure--facilitate or expedite the
completion of his task. This task, however, has grown more difficult and
exacting. Mere outline maps, such as formerly satisfied the public,
suffice no longer. He is called upon more especially to give a
satisfactory delineation of the ground, he must meet the requirements of
various classes of the public, and be prepared to record
cartographically all the facts of physical or political geography which
are capable of being recorded on his maps. The ingenuity of the compiler
is frequently taxed when called upon to illustrate graphically the
results of statistical information of every description.

Germany since the middle of the 19th century has become the headquarters
of scientific cartography. This is due as much to the inspiriting
teachings of Ritter and Humboldt as to the general culture and
scientific training combined with technical skill commanded by the men
who more especially devote themselves to this branch of geography, which
elsewhere is too frequently allowed to fall into the hands of mere
mechanics. Men like H. Berghaus (1797-1884), H. Kiepert (1818-1899), and
A. Petermann (1822-1878) must always occupy a foremost place in the
history of cartography. Among the geographical establishments of
Germany, that founded by Justus Perthes (1785), at Gotha, occupies the
highest rank. Among its publications are A. Stieler's _Hand-Atlas_
(1817-1832), K. von Spruner's _Historical Atlas_ (1438-1488), H.
Berghaus' _Physical Atlas_ (1838-1842), E. von Sydow's _Wall Maps for
Schools_ (1838-1840) and _School Atlas_ (1847). The titles of these
atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long
dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing
the information up to the date of publication. To the same firm we are
indebted for Petermann's _Mitteilungen_, started in 1855 by A.
Petermann, after whose death in 1902 they were successively edited by E.
Behm, A. Supan and P. Langhans, as also the _Geographisches Jahrbuch_
(since 1866), at first edited by E. Behm, afterwards by Professor H.
Wagner. Among other geographical institutes in Germany which deserve
mention are the Weimar Institut, founded in 1791 by F. J. Bertuch, and
directed in 1845-1852 by H. Kiepert; Paul Fleming at Glogau (K. Sohr's
Handatlas, 1845), A. Ravenstein at Frankfort, D. Reimer at Berlin (H.
Kiepert, _Handatlas_, 1860); R. Andree (_Hand-Atlas_, 1880), and E.
Debes (_Hand-Atlas_, 1894) in Leipzig, and E. Hölzer in Vienna (Vincenz
von Haardt's maps). France is represented by the publishing firms of Ch.
Delagrave (Levaseur's maps), Hachette (Vivien de St Martin's _Atlas
universel_, in progress since 1875, F. Schrader's _Atlas de géographie
moderne_, 1880), and Armand Colin (Vidal de la Blache's _Atlas général_,
1894). In Great Britain A. Arrowsmith established himself in London in
1770 (_General Atlas_, 1817), but the cartographical business ceased on
the death of John Arrowsmith in 1873. John Walker, to whose initiative
the charts published by the admiralty are indebted for the perspicuous,
firm and yet artistic execution, which facilitate their use by the
mariner, was also the author of the maps published by the Society for
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1820-1840). Among more recent firms
are W. and A. K. Johnston (founded 1825; _Royal Atlas_, 1855); J.
Bartholomew & Co., now carried on by J. G. Bartholomew (Reduced Survey
maps, _Atlas of the World's Commerce_, 1906); Philip & Sons (_Imperial
Atlas_, 1890; _Systematic Atlas_ by E. G. Ravenstein, 1894; _Mercantile
Marine Atlas_, 1904, globes), and E. Stanford (_London Atlas_).

In 1890 Professor A. Penck proposed to prepare a map of the world,
including the oceans, on a scale of 1:1,000,000, and his scheme was
promised the support of a committee which met in London in 1909, and
upon which were represented the leading powers of the world. Maps on
that scale of a great part of Africa, Asia and America have been
published by British, French, German and United States authorities. A
bathymetrical chart of the oceans, by Professor J. Thoulet was published
in 1904 at the expense of Prince Albert of Monaco.

Reliefs from printed maps were first produced by Bauerkeller of
Darmstadt and Dondorf at Frankfort, from originals furnished by A.
Ravenstein (1838-1844). The exaggeration in altitude, on these maps and
on those of a later date and on a larger scale, was very considerable.
No such exaggeration exists in the case of reliefs of parts of the Alps,
on a large scale, by P. Keil and Pelikan (1890), X. Imfeld (1891), P.
Oberlerchner (1891-1895), C. Perron (1893-1900), F. Becker (1900), A.
Heim (1904) and others. A relief globe was first suggested in a letter
of M. Maestlin to J. Kepler (1596). The first globe of this description
for the use of the blind, was made by A. Zeune in 1810. H. Erben is the
author of a rough relief on a convex surface (1842), but the finest
example of this description is a relief of Italy, by César Pomba and H.
Fritsche, on a scale of 1:1,000,000 and without exaggeration of heights
(1880-1884). A map of Italy in the baptistery of St Peter at Rome has
occasionally been described as a relief, though it is merely a rude
outline map of Italy, by Carlo Fontana (1698), carved into a convex
surface.

Several globes of unusual dimensions were produced in the course of last
century. That which Colonel Langlois erected in the Champs Elysées
(1824) had a diameter of 39 metres. James Wyld's hollow globe, or
"Georama," diam. 18 metres, occupied Leicester Square until swept away
as a nuisance. The giant globe proposed by Elisée Reclus in 1895 has
never been erected; he has, however, produced maps on a concave surface,
as suggested by J. D. Hauber in 1742.

  AUTHORITIES.--The history of maps is dealt with ably in Vivien de
  Saint Martin's _Histoire de la géographie_ (Paris, 1875), and in
  Peschel's _Geschichte der Erdkunde_ (2nd ed. by Sophus Ruge, Berlin,
  1877), as also by W. Wollkenhauer (_Leitfaden zur Geschichte der
  Kartographie_, Breslau, 1895), and H. Zondervan (_Allgemeine
  Kartenkunde_, Leipzig, 1901). J. Lelewel's _Geographie du moyen âge_,
  with an atlas (Brussels, 1850-1857), has in part been superseded by
  more recent researches. There are, however, a number of works,
  beautifully illustrated, which deal fully with particular periods of
  the subject. Among these may be mentioned Konrad Miller's _Die
  ältesten Weltkarten_ (Stuttgart, 1895-1897), which only deals with
  maps not influenced by the ideas of Ptolemy. The contents of the
  following collections are more varied in their nature, viz. E. F.
  Jomard's _Monuments de la géographie_ (Paris, 1862), Santarem's _Atlas
  composé de mappemondes et de portulans_, &c. (Paris, 1842-1853, 78
  plates). A. E. Nordenskiöld's _Facsimile Atlas_ (Stockholm, 1889),
  Gabriel Marcell, _Choix de cartes et de mappemondes XIV^e et XV^e
  siècles_ (Paris, 1896). C. H. Coote's _Remarkable Maps of the XVth,
  XVIth and XVIIth Centuries reproduced in their Original Size_
  (Amsterdam, 1894-1897), and _Bibliotheca lindesiana_ (London, 1898)
  with facsimiles of the Harleian and other Dieppese maps of the 16th
  century. Nautical charts are dealt with in A. E. Nordenskiöld's
  _Periplus_ (Stockholm, 1869), and Th. Fischer's _Sammlung
  mittelälterlicher Welt- und Seekarten_ (Vienna, 1886). The discovery
  and mapping of America are illustrated by F. Kunstmann's _Entdeckung
  Amerikas_ (Munich, 1859), K. Kretschmer's _Atlas zur Entdeckung
  Amerikas_ (Berlin, 1892), G. Marcel's _Reproductions de cartes et de
  globes relatives à la découverte de l'Amérique du XVI^e au XVIII^e
  siècle_ (Paris, 1893) and E. L. Stevenson's _Maps Illustrating the
  early Discovery and Exploration of America, 1502-1530_ (New Brunswick,
  N.J., 1906). In addition to these collections, numerous single maps
  have been published in geographical periodicals or separately. See
  also V. Hantzsch and L. Schmidt, _Kartog. Denkmäler zur
  Entdeckungsgeschichte von Amerika, Asien, Australien und Afrika aus
  der k. Bibliothek zu Dresden_ (Leipzig, 1903), and the Crown
  Collection of photographs of American maps (1600-1800), selected and
  edited by A. B. Hulbert (Cleveland, 1904-1909).

  For reports on the progress of cartography, see _Geographisches
  Jahrbuch_ (Gotha, since 1866); for announcements of new publications,
  _Bibliotheca geographica_, published annually by the Berlin
  Geographical Society, and to the _geographical Journal_ (London).


_Topographical Surveys._

  United Kingdom.

The year 1784 marks the beginning of the ordnance survey, for in that
year Major-General Roy measured a base line of 27,404 ft. on Hounslow
Heath. Six additional base lines were measured up to 1849, including the
Lough Foyle, in 1827-1828, and that on Salisbury Plain, in 1849. The
primary triangulation was only completed in 1858, but in the meantime,
in 1791, the detail survey had begun. At first it was merely intended to
produce a map sufficiently accurate on a scale of 1 in. to a mile
(1:63,360). Ireland having been surveyed (1824-1842) on a scale of 6 in.
to a mile (1:10,560), it was determined in 1840, after the whole of
England and Wales, with the exception of Lancashire and Yorkshire, had
been completed on one-inch scales, to adopt that scale for the whole of
the United Kingdom. Finally, in 1854, a cadastral survey of the whole of
the United Kingdom, only excepting uncultivated districts, was resolved
upon, on a scale of 1:2500, still larger scales (1:500 or 1:1000) being
adopted for town plans. Parish boundaries are laid down with the help of
local meresmen appointed by justices at quarter sessions. The horizontal
contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these
ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare
exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments. Even
though the hill hachures on the older one-inch maps are not quite
satisfactory, this deficiency is in a large measure compensated for by
the presence of absolutely trustworthy contours. Originally the maps
were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but
since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in
1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been
rapid. A plan, the engraving of which formerly took two years, can now
be produced in two days.

The one-inch map for the whole of the United Kingdom was completed in
1890. It covers 697 sheets (or 488 of a "new series" in large sheets),
and is published in three editions, viz. (a) in outline, with contours
in black, (b) with hills hachured in brown or black, and (c) printed in
five colours. Carefully revised editions of these and of the other maps
are brought out at intervals of 15 years at most. Since 1898 the
department has also published maps on a smaller scale, viz. a map of
England and Wales, on a scale of 2 m. to 1 in., in two editions, both
printed in colour, the one with hills stippled in brown, the other
coloured on the "layer system" as a strata-relief map; a map of the
United Kingdom on a scale of 4 m. to 1 in., also in two editions, the
one in outline, showing five classes of roads and parish boundaries, the
other in colours, with stippled hills; a map on a scale of 10 m. to 1
in., also in two editions, and finally a map of the United Kingdom on a
scale of 1:1,000,000.

The geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland were connected from
1832 to 1853 with the ordnance survey, but are now carried on
independently. The ordnance survey, too, no longer depends on the war
office but upon the board of agriculture and fisheries. A _Bathymetrical
Survey of the Freshwater Lochs of Scotland_, under the direction of Sir
John Murray and L. Pullar, was completed in 1908, and the results
published by the Royal Geographical Society.


  France.

Proposals for a new map of France, to replace the famous Cassini map of
1744-1793 were made in 1802 and again by R. Bonne in 1808, but owing to
the wars then devastating Europe no steps were taken until 1817, and the
_Carte de France de l'état major_ on a scale of 1:80,000 was only
completed in 1880. It is engraved on copper. The hachured hills are
based upon contours, and are of admirable commensurability. It has
served as a basis for a _Carte de la France_, published by the Service
Vicinal on a scale of 1:100,000, in 596 sheets, and of a general map
prepared by the ministère des travaux publics on a scale of 1:200,000 in
80 sheets. On both these maps the hills are printed in grey chalk. A
third topographical map of France is being published in accordance with
the recommendation of a committee presided over by General de la Noix in
1897. The surveys for this map were begun in 1905. The maps are based
upon the cadastral plans (1:1000), thoroughly revised and connected with
the triangulation of France and furnished with contours at intervals of
5 m. by precise measurement. These _minutes_ are published on a scale of
1:10,000 or 1:20,000 for mountain districts, while the scale of the
general map is 1:50,000. Each sheet is bounded by parallels and
meridians. The hills are shown in brown contours at intervals of 10 m.
and grey shading in chalk (Berthaut, _La Carte de France, 1750-1898_;
Paris, 1899). A geological map of France on a scale of 1:80,000 is
nearly completed, there are also a map (1:500,000) by Carez and Vasseur,
and an official _Carte géologique_ (1:1,000,000; 1906).


  Germany.

By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various
German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a
more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the
governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Württemberg agreed to
supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (_Reichskarte_)
in 674 sheets on a scale of 1:100,000. The earlier sheets of this
excellent map were lithographed, but these are gradually being
superseded by maps engraved on copper. Colour-printing is employed
since 1901. The hills are hachured and in some instances contours at
intervals of 50 metres are introduced. The map was completed in 1909,
but is continually undergoing renewal. The _Messtischblätter_, called
_Positionsblätter_ in Bavaria, are on a scale of 1:25,000. The older
among them leave much to be desired, but those of a later date are
satisfactory. This applies more especially to the maps of Saxony (since
1879) and Württemberg (since 1893). The features of the ground on most
of these maps are shown by contours at intervals of 10 metres. The map
produced on this large scale numbers over 5000 sheets, and is used as a
basis for the geological surveys carried on in several of the states of
Germany. A general map of the German Empire (_Uebersichtskarte_) on a
scale of 1:200,000, in 196 sheets, is in progress since 1893. It is
printed in three colours, and gives contours at intervals of 10 metres.
In addition to these maps there are D. G. Reymann's well-known
_Specialkarte von Mittel Europa_ (1:200,000), acquired by the Prussian
government in 1874 (it will ultimately consist of 796 sheets), a
government and Liebenow's map of central Europe (1:300,000) and C.
Vogel's beautiful map of Germany (1:500,000).


  Austria-Hungary.

The _Specialkarte_ of Austria-Hungary on a scale of 1:75,000 (765
sheets), based upon a triangulation and cadastral surveys (1816-1867),
was completed in 1889, and published in heliogravure. This map was
repeatedly revised, but as it no longer met modern requirements as to
accuracy the director of the military geographical establishment at
Vienna, Field Marshal Chr. von Steeb, in 1896, organized what
practically amounts to a re-survey of the entire monarchy, to be
completed in 75 years. At the same time the cadastral plans, reduced to
a scale of 1:25,000, are being published in photo-lithography. A general
map of central Europe in 283 sheets published by the Austrian government
(1:200,000) includes nearly the whole of the Balkan Peninsula.


  Switzerland.

The famous map of Switzerland, with which is associated the name of
General H. Dufour (d. 1875), is based upon a triangulation (1809-1833)
and surveys on a scale of 1:25,000 for the lowlands, 1:50,000 for the
alpine districts, and was published (1842-1865) on a scale of 1:100,000.
The hills are hachured, the light, in the case of the loftier regions,
being supposed to fall obliquely. The original surveys, carefully
revised, have been published since 1870 as a _Topographical Atlas of
Switzerland_--the so-called _Siegfried Atlas_, in 552 sheets. They are
printed in three colours, contours at intervals of 10 and 20 metres
being in brown, incidental features (ravines, cliffs, glaciers) in black
or blue. To mountain-climbers these contour maps are invaluable, but for
ordinary purposes "strata maps," such as J. M. Ziegler's hypsometric
maps (1856) or so-called "relief maps," which attempt to delineate the
ground so as to give the impression of a relief, are generally
preferred.


  Belgium.

The new survey of Belgium was completed in 1872 and there have been
published 527 plane-table sections or _planchettes_ on a scale of
1:20,000 (1866-1880), a "Carte topographique de la Belgique," in 72
sheets, on a scale of 1:40,000 (1861-1883), and a more recent map in 26
sheets on a scale of 1:100,000 (1903-1912). The last is printed in five
colours, the ground is shown in contours of 10 metres interval and grey
stippling.


  Holland.

The new survey of the Netherlands, based upon General Krayenhoff's
primary triangulation (1802-1811) was completed in 1855. The results
have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866),
1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a
Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21
sheets, 1868-1871).


  Denmark.

In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was
carried out in 1766-1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general
staff depend upon more recent surveys. These include plane-table
sections (_Maalebordsblade_), 1209 sheets on a scale of 1:20,000, with
contours at intervals of 5 to 10 ft., published since 1830; _Atlasblade_
of Jutland and of _De Danske Öer_, on a scale of 1:40,000, the former
in 131 sheets, since 1870, the latter, on the same scale, in 94 sheets,
since 1890, and still in progress, and a general staff map on a scale of
1:100,000, in 68 sheets, since 1890. Maps of the Faroer and of Iceland
have likewise been issued.


  Scandinavia.

Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of
"Landemätare," known since 1874 as a topographical department of the
general staff. The maps issued by this authority include one of southern
Sweden, 1:100,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general
map on a scale of 1:1,000,000. In Norway a geographical survey
(_Opmaaling_) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map
of the kingdom on a scale of 1:100,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been
completed.


  Russia.

Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been
surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other European countries, while
for most regions there are only so-called "military surveys." The most
readily available map of the whole country is the 10-verst map
(1:420,000), known as General J. A. Strelbitzki's, and published
1865-1880. A topographic map (1:126,000) embracing the whole of western
Russia, with Poland and the country of the Don Cossacks, is designed to
be extended over the whole empire. Certain governments--Moscow, Kief,
Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.--have been published on a scale of
1:24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895,
and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion.

Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments
organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis. To the latter
we are indebted for a valuable map of Caucasia, 1:210,000, which since
the first publication (1863-1885) has undergone careful revision. The
Siberian departments have published a number of maps on a scale of
1:420,000. In addition to these the survey for the Trans-Siberian
railway has been published on a scale of 1:630,000, as also maps of the
Russo-Chinese frontier districts, 1:210,000 and 1:1,168,000. A map of
Asiatic Russia, 1:420,000, by Bolshef, in 192 sheets, is in course of
publication.


  Portugal and Spain.

Passing to southern Europe we find that Portugal has completed a _Charta
chorographica_ (1:100,000) since 1856. In Spain a plane-table survey on
a scale of 1:20,000 has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of
Spain in 1078 sheets on a scale of 1:50,000 only 150 had been issued by
the depósito de la guerra up to 1910. Meanwhile reference may be made to
B. F. Coello's _Atlas de la España_ (1848-1890), the maps of which are
on a scale of 1:200,000.


  Italy.

In Italy _Tavulette rilevata_ on a scale of 1:25,000 or 1:50,000, with
contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being published, and a
_Carta del regno d'Italia_, 1:100,000, is practically complete. There
are a _Carta idrologica_ and a _Carta geologica_ on the same scale, and
a _Carta orografica_ on a scale of 1:500,000.


  Greece.

Greece is still dependent upon foreigners for its maps, among which the
_Carte de Grèce_ (1:200,000) from rapid surveys made by General Palet in
1828, was published in a new edition in 1880. A similar map, mainly
based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H. Kiepert
(1:300,000), was published by the Military Geographical Institute of
Vienna in 1885. Far superior to these maps is the _Karte von Attika_
(1:100,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian
officers and published by E. Curtius and J. H. Kaupert on behalf of the
German Archaeological Institute in Athens (1878), or A. Philippson's map
of the Peloponnese (1:300,000; 1901).


  Balkan States.

For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the
rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers. The Austrian
map of central Europe embraces the whole of the Balkan Peninsula on a
scale of 1:200,000; the Russian surveys (1877-1879) are embodied in a
map of the eastern part of the Balkan on a scale 1:126,000, and a map
of Bulgaria and southern Rumelia, on a scale 1:200,000, both published
in 1883. A map of Turkey in Europe, scale 1:210,000, was published by
the Turkish general staff (1899), and another map, scale 1:250,000, by
the intelligence division of the British war office is in progress since
1906. Bosnia and Herzegovina are now included with the surveys of the
Austrian Empire, the kingdom of Servia has been surveyed (1880-1891) and
the results published on a scale of 1:75,000; in eastern Rumania surveys
have been in progress since 1874 and the results have been published on
a scale of 1:50,000; a general map of the entire kingdom, scale
1:200,000, was published in 1906-1907; a map of Montenegro (1:75,000),
based on surveys by Austrian and Russian officers, was published at
Vienna in 1894.


  Asia.

In Asiatic Turkey several districts of historical interest have been
surveyed, and surveys have likewise been made in the interest of
railways, or by boundary commissions, but there is no such thing as a
general survey carried on under the direction of government. We are
thus, to a large extent, still dependent upon compilations, such as R.
Kiepert's _Asia Minor_ (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey
in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 1910), published by the
Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000,
published 1880-1885). Among maps based upon actual surveys those of
Palestine, by Lieutenant G. R. Conder and H. H. (afterwards Lord)
Kitchener (1:63,360, 1880), of the Sinai Peninsula by Sir C. W. Wilson
and H. S. Palmer (1:126,730, 1870), of Arabia Petraea by Dr A. Musil
(1:300,000, 1907) or of the Aden territory (1905) are among the more
interesting. Of Cyprus an excellent map from surveys by Major (Lord) H.
H. Kitchener was published in 1884 (1:63,360).

In the case of Persia and Afghanistan we are still dependent upon
compilations such as a Russian staff map (1:840,000, published in 1886),
Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich's map of Persia (1:1,014,000, Simla,
1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056,000), published by
the geographical division of the general staff. The settlement of
boundaries in northern Afghanistan (1883) and in Seistan (1870) has
necessitated surveys of some interest.

A trigonometrical survey of British India was begun in 1800 and the
country can now boast of a survey which in most respects is equal to
those of most European states. The surveys are made on scales varying
according to the necessities of the case or the nature of the country,
and they have been extended since 1862 beyond the boundaries of India
proper. Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of
1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360. An
_Indian Atlas_, on a scale of 1:255,660, includes also Ceylon and the
Malay Peninsula, but although begun so long ago as 1827 many of its
sheets are unpublished. There are in addition an official map of India
(1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also
maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of
1:2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps. Ceylon and
the Straits Settlements, with the Federal Malay States, have their own
surveyors-general. The British North Borneo Company published a _Map of
British North Borneo_, on a scale of 1:633,600 (1905).

In Siam a regular survey was organized by Mr J. McCarthy (1881-1883), a
former official of the Indian survey, which did good work in connexion
with the determination of the Franco-Siamese frontier (1906). The
surveys are made on the scales of 1:4000, 1:31,680 and 1:63,360.

In French Indo-China surveys have been in progress since 1881. The
Bureau of the Indo-Chinese general staff, has published a map of
Indo-China, including Cambodia, in 45 sheets (1:200,000, 1895), while to
the service géographique de l'Indo-Chine, organized in 1899, we owe a
_Carte de l'Indo-Chine_ (1:500,000).

For China we are still largely dependent upon careful compilations like
Baron F. von Richthofen's _Atlas von China_ (1:750,000, Berlin,
1885-1890) or Bretschneider's _Map of China_ (1:4,600,000) a new edition
of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900. There are good survey maps
of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country
around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at
Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys. In the
meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be
welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from
surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China
(1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of
the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper
Yangtsze-kiang by S. Chevalier (Shanghai, 1900).

Japan has a regular survey department originated by Europeans and
successfully carried on by natives. The primary triangulation was
completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (1:200,000)
was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being
published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and
others. The Japanese government has likewise published a map of Korea
(1:1,000,000; 1898).

The Philippine Islands are represented in a carefully compiled map by C.
W. Hodgson (1:1,115,000, New York, 1908). Of Java we possess an
excellent topographical map based upon surveys made 1850-1887
(1:100,000). A similar map has been in progress for Sumatra since 1883,
while the maps for the remaining Dutch Indies are still based, almost
exclusively, upon flying surveys. For general purposes the _Atlas der
Nederlandsche Bezittingen in Oost-Indie_ by J. N. Stemfoort and J. J.
Ten Siethoff, of which a new edition has been published since 1900, may
be consulted with confidence.


  Africa.

In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully
surveyed and marked on the ground, since 1880, and yield a good basis as
a guide for the map compiler. A general map of Africa, by Colonel Lannoy
de Bissy, on a scale of 1:2,000,000 was first published in 1882-1888,
but is carefully revised from time to time. The geographical section of
the British general staff is publishing maps of all Africa on scales of
1:250,000 and 1:1,000,000. In Egypt excellent work has been done by a
survey department organized and directed by Captain H. G. Lyons up to
1909. It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley
(1:50,000), an irrigation map (1:100,000), a general map (1:250,000),
numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Algeria has been in course of survey since 1868,
Tunis since 1878, and the results have been published on scales of
1:50,000 and 1:250,000. Of Morocco there are many maps, among which
several compiled by the French service géographique de l'armée,
including a _Carte du Maroc_ (1:200,000), in progress since 1909. In the
British colonies of tropical and of South Africa[26] surveys for the
most part are carried on actively. Of the Gambia Colony there is a map
by Major E. L. Cowie (1:250,000, 1904-1905); the survey of the Gold
Coast Colony is being published by Major F. G. Guggisberg since 1907
(1:125,000 and 1:200,000); southern and northern Nigeria are adequately
represented on the maps of the general staff (1:250,000). The states of
British South Africa have each their surveyor-general, and a
reconnaissance survey has been in progress since 1903. It is based upon
a careful triangulation, superintended by Sir D. Gill, and carried in
1907 within 70 m. of Lake Tanganyika. This survey is rapidly superseding
other maps, such as the surveyor-general's map of Cape Colony
(1:127,000); A. Duncan's map of the Orange River State (1:148,705;
1902-1904) and Jeppe's map of the Transvaal (1:476,000; 1899). The
results of a survey of southern Rhodesia are given on the map of the
British general staff (1:500,000; 1909), while of north-eastern Rhodesia
we have an excellent map compiled by C. L. Beringer in 1907
(1:1,000,000). Surveys in British Central Africa were taken up in 1894;
a survey of Lake Nyasa, by Lieut. E. L. Rhoades and W. B. Phillips, was
published in 1902. As regards British East Africa and Uganda, the
surveys in the latter (on scales of 1:10,000 and 1:125,000) have made
considerable progress. The Victoria Nyanza was surveyed by Captain B.
Whitehouse (1898-1900), and the results have been published on a scale
of 1:292,000. These British possessions, together with the whole of
Somaliland and southern Abyssinia, are satisfactorily represented on the
maps of the British general staff.

Maps of the French Africa Colonies have been published by the service
géographique de l'Afrique occidental and the service géographique des
colonies. A map of Senegal (1:100,000) is in progress since 1905. The
official maps of the other colonies have been compiled by A. Meunier
between 1902 and 1909. They include French West Africa, (1:2,000,000;
2nd ed., 1908), French Guinea (1:500,000; 1902) and the Ivory Coast and
Dahomey (1:1,500,000; 1907-1908). A map of the French Congo by J. Hansen
(1:1,500,000), was published in 1907. In Madagascar a topographical
bureau was established by General J. S. Gallieni in 1896, and the
surveys are being published since 1900 on a scale of 1:100,000.

As regards the German colonies we are dependent upon compilations by R.
Kiepert, P. Sprigade and M. Moisel. Good maps of the Portuguese colonies
are to be found in an _Atlas colonial Portugues_, a second edition of
which was published by the Commissão de Cartographia in 1909. Of the
Congo State we have an official map on a scale of 1:1,000,000, published
in 1907. Of Italian Eritrea we have excellent maps on various scales of
1:100,000, 1:200,000 and 1:500,000, based upon surveys made between 1888
and 1900.


  Australia.

In the states of Australia cadastral surveys conducted by
surveyors-general have been in progress for many years, as also
trigonometrical surveys (Western Australia excepted), and the
publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the
settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of
these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy
to similar maps published in Europe. In Victoria the so-called geodetic
survey was begun in 1858; the maps are published on a scale of
1:126,730. There exists also a general map, on a scale of 1:506,930.
Maps on the same scale are available of New South Wales, South Australia
and Tasmania, on a scale of 1:560,000 for Western Australia, on a scale
of 1:253,460 for Queensland. There are likewise maps on smaller scales,
which undergo frequent revision. The map of British New Guinea is on a
scale of 1:330,200 (1898). New Zealand has a good general map on a scale
of 1:633,700. A trigonometrical survey was given up and only details of
immediate practical use are required. The "Lands Department" of the Fiji
Islands has published a map on a scale of 1:380,000 (1908).


  North America.

The cadastral surveys in Canada are carried on by a commission of
Crown-lands in the old provinces and by a Dominion land office, which
lays out townships as in the United States, but with greater accuracy. A
surveyor-general is attached to the department of the interior, at
Ottawa. He publishes the topographical maps (1:63,366) since 1906. They
are based upon theodolite traverses 15 m. apart, and connected with the
United States lake and coast surveys, the details being filled in by
plane-table surveys on a scale of 1:31,680. The contours, 25 ft. apart,
depend upon spirit-levelling. In the Rocky Mountains surveys
photographic apparatus is successfully employed. The surveyor-general
issues also "sectional maps" (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called
"Standard" topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of
1:250,000 and 1:500,000. He is responsible likewise for maps of Yukon
and of Labrador, supplied by the geological survey, the former on a
scale of 1:380,200, the latter of 1:1,584,000. The intelligence branch
of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904
topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours. A
geodetic survey department, under Dr. W. F. King, chief astronomer of
the Dominion, was established in 1909.

Maps of Newfoundland, orographical as well as geological, scale
1:1,584,200, have been published.

In the United States a "geological survey" was organized in 1879, under
Clarence King as director, whose successor, Major J. W. Powell, rightly
conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps
before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage. It is under
his wise guidance that the survey has attained its present efficiency.
It is based upon a triangulation by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
The maps of the more densely peopled parts of the Union are published on
a scale of 1:62,500, and those of the remainder of the country on half
or a quarter of that scale. The hills are shown by contours at intervals
of 10 or 100 ft. The details given are considered sufficient to admit of
the selection of general routes for railways or other public works. The
survey progresses at the rate of about 40,000 sq. m. annually, and in
course of time it will supersede the map of the separate states, based
on older surveys. A "reconnaissance" map of Alaska (on a scale of
1:250,000) was published in 1908.


  Central America.

In Mexico the surveys are in charge of a comision geografica-exploradora
attached to the secretaria de Fomento, but only about 140 sheets of a
_Carta general_ on a scale of 1:100,000 have been published. There are
also a map of the state of S. Luis Potosi (1:250,000), of the environs
of Puebla (1:50,000) and a _Carta general de la republica mexicana_
(1:250,000).

A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical
section of the British general staff on a scale of 1:170,300. Of great
value for cartographical work is a careful survey, carried out by
American engineers (1897-1898), for a continental railway running along
the west coast from Mexico to Chile. In South America, in proportion to
the area of the country, only few surveys of a thoroughly scientific
nature have been made, and it is therefore satisfactory that the service
géographique of the French army should be publishing, since 1900, a map
of the entire continent on a scale of 1:1,000,000.

Colombia is but inadequately represented by rough maps. For Colombia we
have F. L. Vergara y Velasco's _Atlas de geografia colombiana_
(1906-1908); Ecuador is fairly well represented by Th. Wolf (1892) and
Hans Meier (1907); in the case of Peru we still largely depend upon Paz
Soldan's _Atlas geografica_ (1865-1867) and A. Raimondi's _Mapa del
Peru_ (1:500,000) based upon surveys made before 1869. Sir Martin
Conway's "Map of the Andes of La Paz" (1:600,000; 1900) as well as Major
P. H. Fawcett's survey of the Brazilian boundary (1906-1907) are welcome
additions to our knowledge of Bolivia. In Chile a comision topografica
was appointed as long ago as 1848, but the map produced under its
auspices by Professor F. Pissis (1:250,000, 1870-1877), leaves much to
be desired. Since that time, however, valuable maps have been published
by an _Oficina de mensura de tierras_, by a _seccion de geografia y
minas_ connected with the department of public works, by the _Oficina
hidrografica_, and more especially in connexion with surveys
necessitated by the boundary disputes with Argentina, which were settled
by arbitration in 1899 and 1902. The surveys which led to the latter
were conducted by Sir Thomas Holdich.

In Venezuela a commission for producing a _plano militar_ or military
map of the country was appointed by General Castro in 1904, but little
progress seems to have been made, and meantime we are dependent upon a
revised edition of A. Codazzi's map of 1840 which was published in 1884.
In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the
progressive states of São Paulo and Mines Gerães have commissãos
geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical
maps. Valuable materials have likewise been acquired by several river
surveys including those of the Amazonas by Azevedo and Pinto (1862-1864)
and W. Chandless (1862-1869) and of the Rio Madeira by Colonel G. Earl
Church and Keller-Leuzinger (1860-1875). The proposal of a committee
presided over by the Marshal H. de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a
map of Brazil on a scale of 1:200,000 has never been acted upon, and in
the meantime we are dependent upon works like the _Atlas do imperio do
Brazil_ by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases.

In Argentina an official geographical institute was established in 1879,
but neither A. Seelstrang's _Atlas_ (1886-1892) nor H. Hoskold's _Mapa
topografica_ (1:2,000,000; London, 1895), which were published by it,
nor any of the numerous provincial maps are based upon scientific
surveys.

  It need hardly be said that hydrographic surveys have been of great
  service to compilers of maps. There are few coast-lines, frequented by
  shipping, which have not yet been surveyed in a definite manner. In
  this work the British hydrographic office may justly claim the credit
  of having contributed the chief share. Great Britain has likewise
  taken the lead in those deep-sea explorations which reveal to us the
  configuration of the sea-bottom, and enable us to construct charts of
  the ocean bed corresponding to the contoured maps of dry land yielded
  by topographical surveys.     (E. G. R.)


MAP PROJECTIONS

In the construction of maps, one has to consider how a portion of
spherical surface, or a configuration traced on a sphere, can be
represented on a plane. If the area to be represented bear a very small
ratio to the whole surface of the sphere, the matter is easy: thus, for
instance, there is no difficulty in making a map of a parish, for in
such cases the curvature of the surface does not make itself evident. If
the district is larger and reaches the size of a county, as Yorkshire
for instance, then the curvature begins to be sensible, and one requires
to consider how it is to be dealt with. The sphere cannot be opened out
into a plane like the cone or cylinder; consequently in a plane
representation of configurations on a sphere it is impossible to retain
the desired proportions of lines or areas or equality of angles. But
though one cannot fulfil all the requirements of the case, we may fulfil
some by sacrificing others; we may, for instance, have in the
representation exact similarity to all very small portions of the
original, but at the expense of the areas, which will be quite
misrepresented. Or we may retain equality of areas if we give up the
idea of similarity. It is therefore usual, excepting in special cases,
to steer a middle course, and, by making compromises, endeavour to
obtain a representation which shall not involve large errors of scale.

A globe gives a perfect representation of the surface of the earth; but,
practically, the necessary limits to its size make it impossible to
represent in this manner the details of countries. A globe of the
ordinary dimensions serves scarcely any other purpose than to convey a
clear conception of the earth's surface as a whole, exhibiting the
figure, extent, position and general features of the continents and
islands, with the intervening oceans and seas; and for this purpose it
is indeed absolutely essential and cannot be replaced by any kind of
map.

The construction of a map virtually resolves itself into the drawing of
two sets of lines, one set to represent meridians, the other to
represent parallels. These being drawn, the filling in of the outlines
of countries presents no difficulty. The first and most natural idea
that occurs to one as to the manner of drawing the circles of latitude
and longitude is to draw them according to the laws of perspective.
Perhaps the next idea which would occur would be to derive the meridians
and parallels in some other simple geometrical way.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

_Cylindrical Equal Area Projection._--Let us suppose a model of the
earth to be enveloped by a cylinder in such a way that the cylinder
touches the equator, and let the plane of each parallel such as PR be
prolonged to intersect the cylinder in the circle pr. Now unroll the
cylinder and the projection will appear as in fig. 2. The whole world is
now represented as a rectangle, each parallel is a straight line, and
its total length is the same as that of the equator, the distance of
each parallel from the equator is sin l (where l is the latitude and the
radius of the model earth is taken as unity). The meridians are parallel
straight lines spaced at equal distances.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

This projection possesses an important property. From the elementary
geometry of sphere and cylinder it is clear that each strip of the
projection is _equal in area_ to the zone on the model which it
represents, and that each portion of a strip is equal in area to the
corresponding portion of a zone. Thus, each small four-sided figure (on
the model) bounded by meridians and parallels [symbol] is represented on
the projection by a rectangle [symbol] which is of exactly the same
area, and this applies to any such figure however small. It therefore
follows that any figure, of any shape on the model, is correctly
represented as regards area by its corresponding figure on the
projection. Projections having this property are said to be _equal-area
projections_ or _equivalent projections_; the name of the projection
just described is "the cylindrical equal-area projection." This
projection will serve to exemplify the remark made in the first
paragraph that it is possible to select certain qualities of the model
which shall be represented truthfully, but only at the expense of other
qualities. For instance, it is clear that in this case all meridian
lengths are too small and all lengths along the parallels, except the
equator, are too large. Thus although the areas are preserved the shapes
are, especially away from the equator, much distorted.

The property of preserving areas is, however, a valuable one when the
purpose of the map is to exhibit areas. If, for example, it is desired
to give an idea of the area and distribution of the various states
comprising the British Empire, this is a fairly good projection.
Mercator's, which is commonly used in atlases, preserves local shape at
the expense of area, and is valueless for the purpose of showing areas.

Many other projections can be and have been devised, which depend for
their construction on a purely geometrical relationship between the
imaginary model and the plane. Thus projections may be drawn which are
derived from cones which touch or cut the sphere, the parallels being
formed by the intersection with the cones of planes parallel to the
equator, or by lines drawn radially from the centre. It is convenient to
describe all projections which are derived from the model by a simple
and direct geometrical construction as "geometrical projections." All
other projections may be known as "non-geometrical projections."
Geometrical projections, which include perspective projections, are
generally speaking of small practical value. They have loomed much more
largely on the map-maker's horizon than their importance warrants. It is
not going too far to say that the expression "map projection" conveys to
most well-informed persons the notion of a geometrical projection; and
yet by far the greater number of useful projections are non-geometrical.
The notion referred to is no doubt due to the very term "projection,"
which unfortunately appears to indicate an arrangement of the
terrestrial parallels and meridians which can be arrived at by direct
geometrical construction. Especially has harm been caused by this idea
when dealing with the group of conical projections. The most useful
conical projections have nothing to do with the secant cones, but are
simply projections in which the meridians are straight lines which
converge to a point which is the centre of the circular parallels. The
number of really useful geometrical projections may be said to be four:
the _equal-area cylindrical_ just described, and the following
perspective projections--the _central_, the _stereographic_ and
_Clarke's external_.


_Perspective Projections._

In perspective drawings of the sphere, the plane on which the
representation is actually made may generally be any plane perpendicular
to the line joining the centre of the sphere and the point of vision. If
V be the point of vision, P any point on the spherical surface, then p,
the point in which the straight line VP intersects the plane of the
representation, is the projection of P.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

_Orthographic Projection._--In this projection the point of vision is at
an infinite distance and the rays consequently parallel; in this case
the plane of the drawing may be supposed to pass through the centre of
the sphere. Let the circle (fig. 3) represent the plane of the equator
on which we propose to make an orthographic representation of meridians
and parallels. The centre of this circle is clearly the projection of
the pole, and the parallels are projected into circles having the pole
for a common centre. The diameters aa´, bb´ being at right angles, let
the semicircle bab´ be divided into the required number of equal parts;
the diameters drawn through these points are the projections of
meridians. The distances of c, of d and of e from the diameter aa´ are
the radii of the successive circles representing the parallels. It is
clear that, when the points of division are very close, the parallels
will be very much crowded towards the outside of the map; so much so,
that this projection is not much used.

  For an orthographic projection of the globe on a meridian plane let
  qnrs (fig. 4) be the meridian, ns the axis of rotation, then qr is the
  projection of the equator. The parallels will be represented by
  straight lines passing through the points of equal division; these
  lines are, like the equator, perpendicular to ns. The meridians will
  in this case be ellipses described on ns as a common major axis, the
  distances of c, of d and of e from ns being the minor semiaxes.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

  Let us next construct an orthographic projection of the sphere on the
  horizon of any place.

  Set off the angle aop (fig. 5) from the radius oa, equal to the
  latitude. Drop the perpendicular pP on oa, then P is the projection of
  the pole. On ao produced take ob = pP, then ob is the minor semiaxis
  of the ellipse representing the equator, its major axis being qr at
  right angles to ao. The points in which the meridians meet this
  elliptic equator are determined by lines drawn parallel to aob through
  the points of equal subdivision cdefgh. Take two points, as d and g,
  which are 90° apart, and let ik be their projections on the equator;
  then i is the pole of the meridian which passes through k. This
  meridian is of course an ellipse, and is described with reference to i
  exactly as the equator was described with reference to P. Produce io
  to l, and make lo equal to half the shortest chord that can be drawn
  through i; then lo is the semiaxis of the elliptic meridian, and the
  major axis is the diameter perpendicular to iol.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--Orthographic Projection.]

  For the parallels: let it be required to describe the parallel whose
  co-latitude is u; take pm = pn = u, and let m´n´ be the projections of
  m and n on oPa; then m´n´ is the minor axis of the ellipse
  representing the parallel. Its centre is of course midway between m´
  and n´, and the greater axis is equal to mn. Thus the construction is
  obvious. When pm is less than pa the whole of the ellipse is to be
  drawn. When pm is greater than pa the ellipse touches the circle in
  two points; these points divide the ellipse into two parts, one of
  which, being on the other side of the meridian plane aqr, is
  invisible. Fig. 6 shows the complete orthographic projection.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

_Stereographic Projection._--In this case the point of vision is on the
surface, and the projection is made on the plane of the great circle
whose pole is V. Let kplV (fig. 7) be a great circle through the point
of vision, and ors the trace of the plane of projection. Let c be the
centre of a small circle whose radius is cp = cl; the straight line pl
represents this small circle in orthographic projection.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

  We have first to show that the stereographic projection of the small
  circle pl is itself a circle; that is to say, a straight line through
  V, moving along the circumference of pl, traces a circle on the plane
  of projection ors. This line generates an oblique cone standing on a
  circular base, its axis being cV (since the angle pVc = angle cVl);
  this cone is divided symmetrically by the plane of the great circle
  kpl, and also by the plane which passes through the axis Vc,
  perpendicular to the plane kpl. Now Vr·Vp, being = Vo sec kVp·Vk cos
  kVp = Vo·Vk, is equal to Vs·Vl; therefore the triangles Vrs, Vlp are
  similar, and it follows that the section of the cone by the plane rs
  is similar to the section by the plane pl. But the latter is a circle,
  hence also the projection is a circle; and since the representation of
  every infinitely small circle on the surface is itself a circle, it
  follows that in this projection the representation of small parts is
  strictly similar. Another inference is that the angle in which two
  lines on the sphere intersect is represented by the same angle in the
  projection. This may otherwise be proved by means of fig. 8, where Vok
  is the diameter of the sphere passing through the point of vision, fgh
  the plane of projection, kt a great circle, passing of course through
  V, and ouv the line of intersection of these two planes. A tangent
  plane to the surface at t cuts the plane of projection in the line rvs
  perpendicular to ov; tv is a tangent to the circle kt at t, tr and ts
  are any two tangents to the surface at t. Now the angle vtu (u being
  the projection of t) is 90° - otV = 90° - oVt = ouV = tuv, therefore
  tv is equal to uv; and since tvs and uvs are right angles, it follows
  that the angles vts and vus are equal. Hence the angle rts also is
  equal to its projection rus; that is, any angle formed by two
  intersecting lines on the surface is truly represented in the
  stereographic projection.

In this projection, therefore, angles are correctly represented and
every small triangle is represented by a similar triangle. Projections
having this property of similar representation of small parts are called
_orthomorphic_, _conform_ or _conformable_. The word orthomorphic, which
was introduced by Germain[27] and adopted by Craig,[28] is perhaps the
best to use.

Since in orthomorphic projections very small figures are correctly
represented, it follows that the scale is the same in all directions
round a point in its immediate neighbourhood, and orthomorphic
projections may be defined as possessing this property. There are many
other orthomorphic projections, of which the best known is Mercator's.
These are described below.

We have seen that the stereographic projection of any circle of the
sphere is itself a circle. But in the case in which the circle to be
projected passes through V, the projection becomes, for a great circle,
a line through the centre of the sphere; otherwise, a line anywhere. It
follows that meridians and parallels are represented in a projection on
the horizon of any place by two systems of orthogonally cutting circles,
one system passing through two fixed points, namely, the poles; and the
projected meridians as they pass through the poles show the proper
differences of longitude.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

  To construct a stereographic projection of the sphere on the horizon
  of a given place. Draw the circle vlkr (fig. 9) with the diameters
  kv, lr at right angles; the latter is to represent the central
  meridian. Take koP equal to the co-latitude of the given place, say u;
  draw the diameter PoP¹, and vP, vP´ cutting lr in pp´: these are the
  projections of the poles, through which all the circles representing
  meridians have to pass. All their centres then will be in a line smn
  which crosses pp´ at right angles through its middle point m. Now to
  describe the meridian whose west longitude is [omega], draw pn making
  the angle opn = 90° - [omega], then n is the centre of the required
  circle, whose direction as it passes through p will make an angle opg
  = [omega] with pp´. The lengths of the several lines are

    op = tan ½u; op´ = cot ½u; om = cot u; mn = cosec u cot [omega].

  Again, for the parallels, take Pb = Pc equal to the co-latitude, say
  c, of the parallel to be projected; join vb, vc cutting lr in e, d.
  Then ed is the diameter of the circle which is the required
  projection; its centre is of course the middle point of ed, and the
  lengths of the lines are

    od = tan ½(u - c); oe = tan ½(u + c).

  The line sn itself is the projection of a parallel, namely, that of
  which the co-latitude c = 180° - u, a parallel which passes through
  the point of vision.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

Notwithstanding the facility of construction, the stereographic
projection is not much used in map-making. It is sometimes used for maps
of the hemispheres in atlases, and for star charts.

_External Perspective Projection._--We now come to the general case in
which the point of vision has any position outside the sphere. Let abcd
(fig. 10) be the great circle section of the sphere by a plane passing
through c, the central point of the portion of surface to be
represented, and V the point of vision. Let pj perpendicular to Vc be
the plane of representation, join mV cutting pj in f, then f is the
projection of any point m in the circle abc, and ef is the
representation of cm.

  Let the angle com = u, Ve = k, Vo = h, ef = [rho]; then, since ef: eV
  = mg:gV, we have [rho] = k sin u/(h + cos u), which gives the law
  connecting a spherical distance u with its rectilinear representation
  [rho]. The relative scale at any point in this system of projection is
  given by

    [sigma] = d[rho]/du, [sigma]´ = [rho]/sin u,
    [sigma] = k(1 + h cos u)/(h + cos u)²; [sigma]´ = k/(h + cos u),

  the former applying to measurements made in a direction which passes
  through the centre of the map, the latter to the transverse direction.
  The product [sigma][sigma]´ gives the exaggeration of areas. With
  respect to the alteration of angles we have [Sigma] = (h + cos u)/(l +
  kcos u), and the greatest alteration of angle is

                /h - 1       u \
    = sin^(-1) ( ----- tan² --- ).
                \h + 1       2 /

  This vanishes when h = 1, that is if the projection be stereographic;
  or for u = 0, that is at the centre of the map. At a distance of 90°
  from the centre, the greatest alteration is 90° - 2 cot^(-1) [root]h.
  (See _Phil. Mag._ 1862.)

  _Clarke's Projection._--The constants h and k can be determined, so
  that the total misrepresentation, viz.:
         _
        / [beta]
    M = |      {([sigma] - 1)² + ([sigma]´ - 1)²} sin u du,
       _/ 0

  shall be a minimum, [beta] being the greatest value of u, or the
  spherical radius of the map. On substituting the expressions for
  [sigma] and [sigma]´ the integration is effected without difficulty.
  Put

    [lambda] = (1 - cos [beta])/(h + cos [beta]); [nu] = (h - 1)[lambda],

    H = [nu] - (h + 1) log_e ([lambda] + 1), H´ = [lambda](2 - [nu] + (1/3)[nu]²)/(h + 1).

  Then the value of M is

    M = 4 sin² ½[beta] + 2kH + k²H´.

  When this is a minimum,

    dM/dh = 0; dM/dk = 0

    :. kH´ + H = 0; 2 dH/dh + k dh H´/dh = 0.

  Therefore M = 4 sin² ½[beta] - H²/H^1, and h must be determined so as
  to make H²:H´ a maximum. In any particular case this maximum can only
  be ascertained by trial, that is to say, log H² - log H´ must be
  calculated for certain equidistant values of h, and then the
  particular value of h which corresponds to the required maximum can
  be obtained by interpolation. Thus we find that if it be required to
  make the best possible perspective representation of a hemisphere, the
  values of h and k are h = 1.47 and k = 2.034; so that in this case

             2.034 sin u
    [rho] = ------------.
            1.47 + cos u

  For a map of Africa or South America, the limiting radius [beta] we
  may take as 40°; then in this case

            2.543 sin u
   [rho] = -------------.
           1.625 + cos u

  For Asia, [beta] = 54, and the distance h of the point of sight in
  this case is 1.61. Fig. 11 is a map of Asia having the meridians and
  parallels laid down on this system.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

  Fig. 12 is a perspective representation of more than a hemisphere, the
  radius [beta] being 108°, and the distance h of the point of vision,
  1.40.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Twilight Projection. Clarke's Perspective
  Projection for a Spherical Radius of 108°.]

  The co-ordinates xy of any point in this perspective may be expressed
  in terms of latitude and longitude of the corresponding point on the
  sphere in the following manner. The co-ordinates originating at the
  centre take the central meridian for the axis of y and a line
  perpendicular to it for the axis of x. Let the latitude of the point
  G, which is to occupy the centre of the map, be [gamma]; if [phi],
  [omega] be the latitude and longitude of any point P (the longitude
  being reckoned from the meridian of G), u the distance PG, and [mu]
  the azimuth of P at G, then the spherical triangle whose sides are 90°
  - [gamma], 90° - [phi], and u gives these relations--

    sin u sin [mu] = cos [phi] sin [omega],
    sin u cos [mu] = cos [gamma] sin [phi] - sin [gamma] cos [phi] cos [omega],
    cos u          = sin [gamma] sin [phi] + cos [gamma] cos [phi] cos [omega].

  Now x = [rho] sin [mu], y = [rho] cos [mu], that is,

     x                       cos [phi] sin [omega]
    --- = -------------------------------------------------------------,
     k    h + sin [gamma] sin [phi] + cos [gamma] cos [phi] cos [omega]

     y      cos [gamma] sin [phi] - sin [gamma] cos [phi] cos [omega]
    --- = -------------------------------------------------------------,
     k    h + sin [gamma] sin [phi] + cos [gamma] cos [phi] cos [omega]

  by which x and y can be computed for any point of the sphere. If from
  these equations we eliminate [omega], we get the equation to the
  parallel whose latitude is [phi]; it is an ellipse whose centre is in
  the central meridian, and its greater axis perpendicular to the same.
  The radius of curvature of this ellipse at its intersection with the
  centre meridian is k cos [phi] / (h sin [gamma] + sin [phi]).

  The elimination of [phi] between x and y gives the equation of the
  meridian whose longitude is [omega], which also is an ellipse whose
  centre and axes may be determined.

  The following table contains the computed co-ordinates for a map of
  Africa, which is included between latitudes 40° north and 40° south
  and 40° of longitude east and west of a central meridian.

    +-----+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    |     |                              Values of x and y.                              |
    |[phi]+--------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |     | [omega] = 0° | [omega] = 10° | [omega] = 20° | [omega] = 30° | [omega] = 40° |
    +-----+--------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |  0° |  x =  0.00   |      9.69     |     19.43     |     29.25     |     39.17     |
    |     |  y =  0.00   |      0.00     |      0.00     |      0.00     |      0.00     |
    |     |              |               |               |               |               |
    | 10° |  x =  0.00   |      9.60     |     19.24     |     28.95     |     38.76     |
    |     |  y =  9.69   |      9.75     |      9.92     |     10.21     |     10.63     |
    |     |              |               |               |               |               |
    | 20° |  x =  0.00   |      9.32     |     18.67     |     28.07     |     37.53     |
    |     |  y = 19.43   |     19.54     |     19.87     |     20.43     |     21.25     |
    |     |              |               |               |               |               |
    | 30° |  x =  0.00   |      8.84     |     17.70     |     26.56     |     35.44     |
    |     |  y = 29.25   |     29.40     |     29.87     |     30.67     |     31.83     |
    |     |              |               |               |               |               |
    | 40° |  x =  0.00   |      8.15     |     16.28     |     24.39     |     32.44     |
    |     |  y = 39.17   |     39.36     |     39.94     |     40.93     |     42.34     |
    +-----+--------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

_Central or Gnomonic (Perspective) Projection._--In this projection the
eye is imagined to be at the centre of the sphere. It is evident that,
since the planes of all great circles of the sphere pass through the
centre, the representations of all great circles on this projection will
be straight lines, and this is the special property of the _central
projection_, that any great circle (i.e. shortest line on the spherical
surface) is represented by a straight line. The plane of projection may
be either parallel to the plane of the equator, in which case the
parallels are represented by concentric circles and the meridians by
straight lines radiating from the common centre; or the plane of
projection may be parallel to the plane of some meridian, in which case
the meridians are parallel straight lines and the parallels are
hyperbolas; or the plane of projection may be inclined to the axis of
the sphere at any angle [lambda].

  In the latter case, which is the most general, if [theta] is the angle
  any meridian makes (on paper) with the central meridian, [alpha] the
  longitude of any point P with reference to the central meridian, l the
  latitude of P, then it is clear that the central meridian is a
  straight line at right angles to the equator, which is also a straight
  line, also tan [theta] = sin [lambda] tan [alpha], and the distance of
  p, the projection of P, from the equator along its meridian is (on
  paper) m sec [alpha] sin l / sin (l + x), where tan x = cot [lambda]
  cos [alpha], and m is a constant which defines the scale.

The three varieties of the central projection are, as is the case with
other perspective projections, known as polar, meridian or horizontal,
according to the inclination of the plane of projection.

[Illustration: (From _Text Book of Topographical Surveying_, by
permission of the Controller of H. M. Stationery Office.)

FIG. 14.--Part of the Atlantic Ocean on a Meridian Central Projection.
The shortest path between any two points is shown on this projection by
a straight line.]

Fig. 14 is an example of a _meridian central projection_ of part of the
Atlantic Ocean. The term "gnomonic" was applied to this projection
because the projection of the meridians is a similar problem to that of
the graduation of a sun-dial. It is, however, better to use the term
"central," which explains itself. The central projection is useful for
the study of direct routes by sea and land. The United States
Hydrographic Department has published some charts on this projection.
False notions of the direction of shortest lines, which are engendered
by a study of maps on Mercator's projection, may be corrected by an
inspection of maps drawn on the central projection.

There is no projection which accurately possesses the property of
showing shortest paths by straight lines when applied to the spheroid;
one which very nearly does so is that which results from the
intersection of terrestrial normals with a plane.

We have briefly reviewed the most important projections which are
derived from the sphere by direct geometrical construction, and we pass
to that more important branch of the subject which deals with
projections which are not subject to this limitation.


_Conical Projections._

Conical projections are those in which the parallels are represented by
concentric circles and the meridians by equally spaced radii. There is
no necessary connexion between a conical projection and any touching or
secant cone. Projections for instance which are derived by geometrical
construction from secant cones are very poor projections, exhibiting
large errors, and they will not be discussed. The name conical is given
to the group embraced by the above definition, because, as is obvious, a
projection so drawn can be bent round to form a cone. The simplest and,
at the same time, one of the most useful forms of conical projection is
the following:

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

_Conical Projection with Rectified Meridians and Two Standard
Parallels._--In some books this has been, most unfortunately, termed the
"secant conical," on account of the fact that there are two parallels of
the correct length. The use of this term in the past has caused much
confusion. Two selected parallels are represented by concentric circular
arcs of their true lengths; the meridians are their radii. The degrees
along the meridians are represented by their true lengths; and the other
parallels are circular arcs through points so determined and are
concentric with the chosen parallels.

  Thus in fig. 15 two parallels Gn and G´n´ are represented by their
  true lengths on the sphere; all the distances along the meridian PGG´,
  pnn´ are the true spherical lengths rectified.

  Let [gamma] be the co-latitude of Gn; [gamma]´ that of Gn´; [omega] be
  the true difference of longitude of PGG´ and pnn´; h[omega] be the
  angle at O; and OP = z, where Pp is the representation of the pole.
  Then the true length of parallel Gn on the sphere is [omega] sin
  [gamma], and this is equal to the length on the projection, i.e.
  [omega] sin [gamma] = h[omega](z + [gamma]); similarly [omega] sin
  [gamma]´= h[omega](z + [gamma]´).

  The radius of the sphere is assumed to be unity, and z and [gamma] are
  expressed in circular measure. Hence h = sin [gamma]/(z + [gamma]) =
  sin [gamma]´(z + [gamma]´); from this h and z are easily found.

In the above description it has been assumed that the two errorless
parallels have been _selected_. But it is usually desirable to impose
some condition which itself will fix the errorless parallels. There are
many conditions, any one of which may be imposed. In fig. 15 let Cm and
C´m´ represent the extreme parallels of the map, and let the
co-latitudes of these parallels be c and c´, then any one of the
following conditions may be fulfilled:--

(a) The errors of scale of the extreme parallels may be made equal and
may be equated to the error of scale of the parallel of maximum error
(which is near the mean parallel).

(b) Or the errors of scale of the extreme parallels may be equated to
that of the mean parallel. This is not so good a projection as (a).

(c) Or the absolute errors of the extreme and mean parallels may be
equated.

(d) Or in the last the parallel of maximum error may be considered
instead of the mean parallel.

(e) Or the mean length of all the parallels may be made correct. This is
equivalent to making the total area between the extreme parallels
correct, and must be combined with another condition, for example, that
the errors of scale on the extreme parallels shall be equal.

  We will now discuss (a) above, viz. a conical projection with
  rectified meridians and two standard parallels, the scale errors of
  the extreme parallels and parallel of maximum error being equated.

  Since the scale errors of the extreme parallels are to be equal,

    h(z + c)       h(z + c´)                 c´ sin c - c sin c´
    -------- - 1 = --------- - 1, whence z = -------------------  (i.)
      sin c          sin c´                     sin c´ - sin c

  The error of scale along any parallel (near the centre), of which the
  co-latitude is b is

    1 - {h(z + b)/sin b}.  (ii.)

  This is a maximum when

    (tan b) - b = z, whence b is found.

  Also

        h(z + b)   h(z + c)
    1 - -------- = -------- - 1 whence h is found.  (iii.)
          sin b      sin c

  For the errorless parallels of co-latitudes [gamma] and [gamma]´ we
  have

    h = (z + [gamma])/sin [gamma] = (z + [gamma]´)/sin [gamma]´.

  If this is applied to the case of a map of South Africa between the
  limits 15° S. and 35° S. (see fig. 16) it will be found that the
  parallel of maximum error is 25° 20´; the errorless parallels, to the
  nearest degree, are those of 18° and 32°. The greatest scale error in
  this case is about 0.7%.

  In the above account the earth has been treated as a sphere. Of course
  its real shape is approximately a spheroid of revolution, and the
  values of the axes most commonly employed are those of Clarke or of
  Bessel. For the spheroid, formulae arrived at by the same principles
  but more cumbrous in shape must be used. But it will usually be
  sufficient for the selection of the errorless parallels to use the
  simple spherical formulae given above; then, having made the selection
  of these parallels, the true spheroidal lengths along the meridians
  between them can be taken out of the ordinary tables (such as those
  published by the Ordnance Survey or by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic
  Survey). Thus, if a1, a2, are the lengths of 1° of the errorless
  parallels (taken from the tables), d the true rectified length of the
  meridian arc between them (taken from the tables),

    h = {(a2 - a1)/d}180/[pi],

  and the radius on paper of parallel, a1 is a1d/(a2 - a1), and the
  radius of any other parallel = radius of a1 ± the true meridian
  distance between the parallels.

  This class of projection was used for the 1/1,000,000 Ordnance map of
  the British Isles. The three maximum scale errors in this case work
  out to 0.23%, the range of the projection being from 50° N. to 61° N.,
  and the errorless parallels are 59° 31´ and 51°44´.

  Where no great refinement is required it will be sufficient to take
  the errorless parallels as those distant from the extreme parallels
  about one-sixth of the total range in latitude. Thus suppose it is
  required to plot a projection for India between latitudes 8° and 40°
  N. By this rough rule the errorless parallels should be distant from
  the extreme parallels about 32°/6, i.e. 5° 20´; they should therefore,
  to the nearest degree, be 13° and 35° N. The maximum scale errors will
  be about 2%.

  The scale errors vary approximately as the square of the range of
  latitude; a rough rule is, largest scale error = L²/50,000, where L is
  the range in the latitude in degrees. Thus a country with a range of
  7° in latitude (nearly 500 m.) can be plotted on this projection with
  a maximum linear scale error (along a parallel) of about 0.1%;[29]
  there is no error along any meridian. It is immaterial with this
  projection (or with any conical projection) what the extent in
  longitude is. It is clear that this class of projection is accurate,
  simple and useful.

  [Illustration: (From _Text Book of Topographical Surveying_, by
  permission of the Controller of H. M. Stationery Office.)

  FIG. 16.--South Africa on a conical projection with rectified
  meridians and two standard parallels. Scale 800 m. to 1 in.]

  In the projections designated by (c) and (d) above, absolute errors of
  length are considered in the place of errors of scale, i.e. between
  any two meridians (c) the absolute errors of length of the extreme
  parallels are equated to the absolute error of length of the middle
  parallel. Using the same notation

    h(z + c) - sin c = h(z + c´) - sin c´ = -h(z + ½c + ½c´) - sin ½(c + c´).

  L. Euler, in the _Acta Acad. Imp. Petrop._ (1778), first discussed
  this projection.

  If a map of Asia between parallels 10° N. and 70° N. is constructed on
  this system, we have c = 20°, c´ = 80°, whence from the above
  equations z = 66.7° and h = .6138. The absolute errors of length along
  parallels 10°, 40° and 70° between any two meridians are equal but the
  scale errors are respectively 5, 6.7, and 15%.

  The modification (d) of this projection was selected for the
  1:1,000,000 map of _India and Adjacent Countries_ under publication by
  the Survey of India. An account of this is given in a pamphlet
  produced by that department in 1903. The limiting parallels are 8° and
  40° N., and the parallel of greatest error is 23° 40´ 51´´. The errors
  of scale are 1.8, 2.3, and 1.9%.

  It is not as a rule desirable to select this form of the projection.
  If the surface of the map is everywhere equally valuable it is clear
  that an arrangement by which errors of scale are larger towards the
  pole than towards the equator is unsound, and it is to be noted that
  in the case quoted the great bulk of the land is in the north of the
  map. Projection (a) would for the same region have three equal maximum
  scale errors of 2%. It may be admitted that the practical difference
  between the two forms is in this case insignificant, but linear scale
  errors should be reduced as much as possible in maps intended for
  general use.

  f. In the fifth form of the projection, the total area of the
  projection between the extreme parallels and any two meridians is
  equated to the area of the portion of the sphere which it represents,
  and the errors of scale of the extreme parallels are equated. Then it
  is easy to show that

    z = (c´ sin c - c sin c´) / (sin c´ - sin c);
    h = (cos c - cos c´) / (c´ - c){z + ½(c + c´)}.

  It can also be shown that any other zone of the same range in latitude
  will have the same scale errors along its limiting parallels. For
  instance, a series of projections may be constructed for zones, each
  having a range of 10° of latitude, from the equator to the pole.
  Treating the earth as a sphere and using the above formulae, the
  series will possess the following properties: the meridians will all
  be true to scale, the area of each zone will be correct, the scale
  errors of the limiting parallels will all be the same, so that the
  length of the upper parallel of any zone will be equal to that of the
  lower parallel of the zone above it. But the curvatures of these
  parallels will be different, and two adjacent zones will not fit but
  will be capable of exact rolling contact. Thus a very instructive flat
  model of the globe may be constructed which will show by suitably
  arranging the points of contact of the zones the paths of great
  circles on the sphere. The flat model was devised by Professor J. D.
  Everett, F.R.S., who also pointed out that the projection had the
  property of the equality of scale errors of the limiting parallels for
  zones of the same width. The projection may be termed _Everett's
  Projection_.

_Simple Conical Projection._--If in the last group of projections the
two selected parallels which are to be errorless approach each other
indefinitely closely, we get a projection in which all the meridians
are, as before, of the true rectified lengths, in which one parallel is
errorless, the curvature of that parallel being clearly that which would
result from the unrolling of a cone touching the sphere along the
parallel represented. And it was in fact originally by a consideration
of the tangent cone that the whole group of conical projections came
into being. The quasi-geometrical way of regarding conical projections
is legitimate in this instance.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

  The simple conical projection is therefore arrived at in this way:
  imagine a cone to touch the sphere along any selected parallel, the
  radius of this parallel on paper (Pp, fig. 17) will be r cot [phi],
  where r is the radius of the sphere and [phi] is the latitude; or if
  the spheroidal shape is taken into account, the radius of the parallel
  on paper will be [nu] cot [phi] where [nu] is the normal terminated by
  the minor axis (the value [nu] can be found from ordinary geodetic
  tables). The meridians are generators of the cone and every parallel
  such as HH´ is a circle, concentric with the selected parallel Pp and
  distant from it the true rectified length of the meridian arc between
  them.

  This projection has no merits as compared with the group just
  described. The errors of scale along the parallels increase rapidly as
  the selected parallel is departed from, the parallels on paper being
  always too large. As an example we may take the case of a map of South
  Africa of the same range as that of the example given in (a) above,
  viz. from 15° S. to 35° S. Let the selected parallel be 25° S.; the
  radius of this parallel on paper (taking the radius of the sphere as
  unity) is cot 25°; the radius of parallel 35° S. = radius of 25° -
  meridian distance between 25° and 35° = cot 25° - 10[pi]/180 = 1·970.
  Also h = sin of selected latitude = sin 25°, and length on paper along
  parallel 35° of [omega]° = [omega]h × 1.970 = [omega] × 1.970 × sin
  25°,

  but length on sphere of [omega] = [omega] cos 35°,

                        1.970 sin 25°
    hence scale error = ------------- - 1 = 1.6%,
                           cos 35°

  an error which is more than twice as great as that obtained by method
  (a).

_Bonne's Projection._--This projection, which is also called the
"modified conical projection," is derived from the simple conical, just
described, in the following way: a central meridian is chosen and drawn
as a straight line; degrees of latitude spaced at the true rectified
distances are marked along this line; the parallels are concentric
circular arcs drawn through the proper points on the central meridian,
the centre of the arcs being fixed by describing one chosen parallel
with a radius of [nu] cot [phi] as before; the meridians on each side of
the central meridian are drawn as follows: along _each_ parallel
distances are marked equal to the true lengths along the parallels on
sphere or spheroid, and the curve through corresponding points so fixed
are the meridians (fig. 18).

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]

This system is that which was adopted in 1803 by the "Dépôt de la
Guerre" for the map of France, and is there known by the title of
_Projection de Bonne_. It is that on which the ordnance survey map of
Scotland on the scale of 1 in. to a mile is constructed, and it is
frequently met with in ordinary atlases. It is ill-adapted for countries
having great extent in longitude, as the intersections of the meridians
and parallels become very oblique--as will be seen on examining the map
of Asia in most atlases.

  If [phi]0 be taken as the latitude of the centre parallel, and
  co-ordinates be measured from the intersection of this parallel with
  the central meridian, then, if [rho] be the radius of the parallel of
  latitude [phi], we have [rho] = cot [phi]0 + [phi]0 - [phi]. Also, if
  S be a point on this parallel whose co-ordinates are x, y, so that VS
  = [rho], and [theta] be the angle VS makes with the central meridian,
  then [rho][theta] = [omega] cos [phi]; and x = [rho] sin [theta], y =
  cot [phi]0 - [rho] cos [theta].

The projection has the property of equal areas, since each small element
bounded by two infinitely close parallels is equal in length and width
to the corresponding element on the sphere or spheroid. Also all the
meridians cross the chosen parallel (but no other) at right angles,
since in the immediate neighbourhood of that parallel the projection is
identical with the simple conical projection. Where an equal-area
projection is required for a country having no great extent in
longitude, such as France, Scotland or Madagascar, this projection is a
good one to select.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Sinusoidal Equal-area Projection.]

_Sinusoidal Equal-area Projection._--This projection, which is
sometimes known as Sanson's, and is also sometimes incorrectly called
Flamsteed's, is a particular case of Bonne's in which the selected
parallel is the equator. The equator is a straight line at right angles
to the central meridian which is also a straight line. Along the central
meridian the latitudes are marked off at the true rectified distances,
and from points so found the parallels are drawn as straight lines
parallel to the equator, and therefore at right angles to the central
meridian. True rectified lengths are marked along the parallels and
through corresponding points the meridians are drawn. If the earth is
treated as a sphere the meridians are clearly sine curves, and for this
reason d'Avezac has given the projection the name sinusoidal. But it is
equally easy to plot the spheroidal lengths. It is a very suitable
projection for an equal-area map of Africa.

_Werner's Projection._--This is another limiting case of Bonne's
equal-area projection in which the selected parallel is the pole. The
parallels on paper then become incomplete circular arcs of which the
pole is the centre. The central meridian is still a straight line which
is cut by the parallels at true distances. The projection (after Johann
Werner, 1468-1528), though interesting, is practically useless.


_Polyconic Projections._

These pseudo-conical projections are valuable not so much for their
intrinsic merits as for the fact that they lend themselves to
tabulation. There are two forms, the _simple_ or _equidistant
polyconic_, and the _rectangular polyconic_.

_The Simple Polyconic._--If a cone touches the sphere or spheroid along
a parallel of latitude [phi] and is then unrolled, the parallel will on
paper have a radius of [nu] cot [phi], where [nu] is the normal
terminated by the minor axis. If we imagine a series of cones, each of
which touches one of a selected series of parallels, the apex of each
cone will lie on the prolonged axis of the spheroid; the generators of
each cone lie in meridian planes, and if each cone is unrolled and the
generators in any one plane are superposed to form a straight central
meridian, we obtain a projection in which the central meridian is a
straight line and the parallels are circular arcs each of which has a
different centre which lies on the prolongation of the central meridian,
the radius of any parallel being [nu] cot [phi].

So far the construction is the same for both forms of polyconic. In the
_simple polyconic_ the meridians are obtained by measuring outwards from
the central meridian along each parallel the true lengths of the degrees
of longitude. Through corresponding points so found the meridian curves
are drawn. The resulting projection is accurate near the central
meridian, but as this is departed from the parallels increasingly
separate from each other, and the parallels and meridians (except along
the equator) intersect at angles which increasingly differ from a right
angle. The real merit of the projection is that each particular parallel
has for every map the same absolute radius, and it is thus easy to
construct tables which shall be of universal use. This is especially
valuable for the projection of single sheets on comparatively large
scales. A sheet of a degree square on a scale of 1:250,000 projected in
this manner differs inappreciably from the same sheet projected on a
better system, e.g. an orthomorphic conical projection or the conical
with rectified meridians and two standard parallels; there is thus the
advantage that the simple polyconic when used for single sheets and
large scales is a sufficiently close approximation to the better forms
of conical projection. The simple polyconic is used by the
topographical section of the general staff, by the United States coast
and geodetic survey and by the topographical division of the U.S.
geological survey. Useful tables, based on Clarke's spheroid of 1866,
have been published by the war office and by the U.S. coast and geodetic
survey.

_Rectangular Polyconic._--In this the central meridian and the parallels
are drawn as in the simple polyconic, but the meridians are curves which
cut the parallels at right angles.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.]

  In this case, let P (fig. 20) be the north pole, CPU the central
  meridian, U, U´ points in that meridian whose co-latitudes are z and
  z+dz, so that UU´ = dz. Make PU = z, UC = tan z, U´C´ = tan (z + dz);
  and with CC´ as centres describe the arcs UQ, U´Q´, which represent
  the parallels of co-latitude z and z+dz. Let PQQ´ be part of a
  meridian curve cutting the parallels at right angles. Join CQ, C´Q´;
  these being perpendicular to the circles will be tangents to the
  curve. Let UCQ = 2[alpha], UC´Q´ = 2([alpha] + d[alpha]), then the
  small angle CQC´, or the angle between the tangents at QQ´, will =
  2d[alpha]. Now

    CC´ = C´U´- CU - UU´ = tan (z + dz) - tan z - dz = tan² z dz.

  The tangents CQ, C´Q´ will intersect at q, and in the triangle CC´q
  the perpendicular from C on C´q is (omitting small quantities of the
  second order) equal to either side of the equation

    tan² z dz sin 2[alpha] = -2 tan zd [alpha].
                 -tan z dz = 2d[alpha] / sin 2[alpha],

  which is the differential equation of the meridian: the integral is
  tan [alpha] = [omega] cos z, where [omega], a constant, determines a
  particular meridian curve. The distance of Q from the central
  meridian, tan z sin 2[alpha], is equal to

    2 tan z tan [alpha]        2[omega] sin z
    ------------------- = -------------------------
      1 + tan² [alpha]    1 + [omega]² cos² [alpha]

  [Illustration: FIG. 21.]

  At the equator this becomes simply 2[omega]. Let any equatorial point
  whose actual longitude is 2[omega] be represented by a point on the
  developed equator at the distance 2[omega] from the central meridian,
  then we have the following very simple construction (due to O'Farrell
  of the ordnance survey). Let P (fig. 21) be the pole, U any point in
  the central meridian, QUQ´ the represented parallel whose radius CU =
  tan z. Draw SUS´ perpendicular to the meridian through U; then to
  determine the point Q, whose longitude is, say, 3°, lay off US equal
  to half the true length of the arc of parallel on the sphere, i.e. 1°
  30´ to radius sin z, and with the centre S and radius SU describe a
  circular arc, which will intersect the parallel in the required point
  Q. For if we suppose 2[omega] to be the longitude of the required
  point Q, US is by construction = [omega] sin z, and the angle
  subtended by SU at C is

              /[omega] sin z\
    tan^(-1) ( ------------- ) = tan^(-1) ([omega] cos z) = [alpha],
              \    tan z    /

  and therefore UCQ = 2[alpha] as it should be. The advantages of this
  method are that with a remarkably simple and convenient mode of
  construction we have a map in which the parallels and meridians
  intersect at right angles.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

Fig. 22 is a representation of this system of the continents of Europe
and Africa, for which it is well suited. For Asia this system would not
do, as in the northern latitudes, say along the parallel of 70°, the
representation is much cramped.

With regard to the distortion in the map of Africa as thus constructed,
consider a small square in latitude 40° and in 40° longitude east or
west of the central meridian, the square being so placed as to be
transformed into a rectangle. The sides, originally unity, became 0.95
and 1.13, and the area 1.08, the diagonals intersecting at 90° ± 9° 56´.
In Clarke's perspective projection a square of unit side occupying the
same position, when transformed to a rectangle, has its sides 1.02 and
1.15, its area 1.17, and its diagonals intersect at 90° ± 7° 6´. The
latter projection is therefore the best in point of "similarity," but
the former represents areas best. This applies, however, only to a
particular part of the map; along the equator towards 30° or 40°
longitude, the polyconic is certainly inferior, while along the meridian
it is better than the perspective--except, of course, near the centre.
Upon the whole the more even distribution of distortion gives the
advantage to the perspective system. For single sheets on large scales
there is nothing to choose between this projection and the simple
polyconic. Both are sensibly perfect representations. The rectangular
polyconic is occasionally used by the topographical section of the
general staff.


_Zenithal Projections._

Some point on the earth is selected as the central point of the map;
great circles radiating from this point are represented by straight
lines which are inclined at their true angles at the point of
intersection. Distances along the radiating lines vary according to any
law outwards from the centre. It follows (on the spherical assumption),
that circles of which the selected point is the centre are also circles
on the projection. It is obvious that all perspective projections are
zenithal.

_Equidistant Zenithal Projection._--In this projection, which is
commonly called the "equidistant projection," any point on the sphere
being taken as the centre of the map, great circles through this point
are represented by straight lines of the true rectified lengths, and
intersect each other at the true angles.

  In the general case--

  if z1 is the co-latitude of the centre of the map, z the co-latitude
  of any other point, [alpha] the difference of longitude of the two
  points, A the azimuth of the line joining them, and c the spherical
  length of the line joining them, then the position of the intersection
  of any meridian with any parallel is given (on the spherical
  assumption) by the solution of a simple spherical triangle.

  Thus--

  let tan [theta] = tan z cos [alpha], then cos c = cos z sec [theta]
  cos (z - [theta]), and sin A = sin z sin [alpha] cosec c.

The most useful case is that in which the central point is the pole; the
meridians are straight lines inclined to each other at the true angular
differences of longitude, and the parallels are equidistant circles with
the pole as centre. This is the best projection to use for maps
exhibiting the progress of polar discovery, and is called the _polar
equidistant projection_. The errors are smaller than might be supposed.
There are no scale errors along the meridians, and along the parallels
the scale error is (z / sin x) - 1, where z is the co-latitude of the
parallel. On a parallel 10° distant from the pole the error of scale is
only 0.5%.

  _General Theory of Zenithal Projections._--For the sake of simplicity
  it will be at first assumed that the pole is the centre of the map,
  and that the earth is a sphere. According to what has been said above,
  the meridians are now straight lines diverging from the pole, dividing
  the 360° into equal angles; and the parallels are represented by
  circles having the pole as centre, the radius of the parallel whose
  co-latitude is z being [rho], a certain function of z. The particular
  function selected determines the nature of the projection.

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.]

  Let Ppq, Prs (fig. 23) be two contiguous meridians crossed by
  parallels rp, sq, and Op´q´, Or´s´ the straight lines representing
  these meridians. If the angle at P is d[mu], this also is the value of
  the angle at O. Let the co-latitude

    Pp = z, Pq = z + dz; Op´ = [rho], Oq´ = [rho] + d[rho],

  the circular arcs p´r´, q´s´ representing the parallels pr, qs. If the
  radius of the sphere be unity,

    p´q´ = d[rho]; p´r´ = [rho] d[mu],
    pq   = dz; pr = sin z d[mu].

  Put

    [sigma] = d[rho]/dz; [sigma]´ = [rho]/sin z,

  then p´q´ = [sigma]pq and p´r´ = [sigma]´pr. That is to say, [sigma],
  [sigma]´ may be regarded as the relative scales, at co-latitude z, of
  the representation, [sigma] applying to meridional measurements,
  [sigma]´ to measurements perpendicular to the meridian. A small square
  situated in co-latitude z, having one side in the direction of the
  meridian--the length of its side being i--is represented by a
  rectangle whose sides are i[sigma] and i[sigma]´; its area
  consequently is i²[sigma][sigma]´.


If it were possible to make a perfect representation, then we should
have [sigma] = 1, [sigma]´ = 1 throughout. This, however, is impossible.
We may make [sigma] = 1 throughout by taking [rho] = z. This is the
_Equidistant Projection_ just described, a very simple and effective
method of representation.

Or we may make [sigma]´= 1 throughout. This gives [rho] = sin z, a
perspective projection, namely, the _Orthographic_.

Or we may require that areas be strictly represented in the development.
This will be effected by making [sigma][sigma]´ = 1, or [rho]d[rho] =
sin z dz, the integral of which is [rho] = 2 sin ½z, which is the
_Zenithal Equal-area Projection_ of Lambert, sometimes, though wrongly
referred to as _Lorgna's Projection_ after Antonio Lorgna (b. 1736). In
this system there is misrepresentation of form, but no misrepresentation
of areas.

Or we may require a projection in which all small parts are to be
represented in their true forms i.e. an orthomorphic projection. For
instance, a small square on the spherical surface is to be represented
as a small square in the development. This condition will be attained by
making [sigma] = [sigma]´, or d[rho]/[rho] = dz/sin z, the integral of
which is, c being an arbitrary constant, [rho] = c tan ½z. This, again,
is a perspective projection, namely, the _Stereographic_. In this,
though all small parts of the surface are represented in their correct
shapes, yet, the scale varying from one part of the map to another, the
_whole_ is not a similar representation of the original. The scale,
[sigma] = ½c sec² ½z, at any point, applies to all directions round that
point.

  These two last projections are, as it were, at the extremes of the
  scale; each, perfect in its own way, is in other respects
  objectionable. We may avoid both extremes by the following
  considerations. Although we cannot make [sigma] = 1 and [sigma]´ = 1,
  so as to have a perfect picture of the spherical surface, yet
  considering [sigma] - 1 and [sigma]´ - 1 as the local errors of the
  representation, we may make ([sigma] - 1)² + ([sigma]´ - 1)² a minimum
  over the whole surface to be represented. To effect this we must
  multiply this expression by the element of surface to which it
  applies, viz. sin zd zd [mu], and then integrate from the centre to
  the (circular) limits of the map. Let [beta] be the spherical radius
  of the segment to be represented, then the total misrepresentation is
  to be taken as
      _        _                              _
     / [beta] |  /d[rho]    \²    /[rho]    \² |
     |        | ( ------ - 1 ) + ( ----- - 1 ) | sin z dz,
    _/ 0      |_ \  dz      /     \sin z    / _|

  which is to be made a minimum. Putting [rho] = z + y, and giving to y
  only a variation subject to the condition [delta]y = 0 when z = 0, the
  equations of solution--using the ordinary notation of the calculus of
  variations--are

        d(P)
    N - ---- = 0; P[beta] = 0,
         dz

  P[beta] being the value of 2p sin z when z = [beta]. This gives

           d²y               dy                  /dy\
    sin² z --- + sin z cos z -- - y = z - sin z ( -- )[beta] = 0.
           dz²               dz                  \dz/

  This method of development is due to Sir George Airy, whose original
  paper--the investigation is different in form from the above, which is
  due to Colonel Clarke--will be found in the _Philosophical Magazine_
  for 1861. The solution of the differential equation leads to this
  result--

    [rho] = 2 cot ½z log_e sec ½z + C tan ½z,
    C     = 2 cot² ½[beta] log_e sec ½[beta].

  The limiting radius of the map is R = 2C tan ½[beta]. In this system,
  called by Sir George Airy _Projection by balance of errors_, the total
  misrepresentation is an absolute minimum. For short it may be called
  _Airy's Projection_.

  Returning to the general case where [rho] is any function of z, let us
  consider the local misrepresentation of direction. Take any
  indefinitely small line, length = i, making an angle [alpha] with the
  meridian in co-latitude z. Its projections on a meridian and parallel
  are i cos [alpha], i sin [alpha], which in the map are represented by
  i[sigma] cos [alpha], i[sigma]´ sin [alpha]. If then [alpha]´ be the
  angle in the map corresponding to [alpha],

    tan [alpha]´ = ([sigma]´/[sigma]) tan [alpha].

  Put

    [sigma]´/[sigma] = [rho]dz/sin z d[rho] = [Sigma],

  and the error [alpha]´ - [alpha] of representation = [epsilon], then

                    ([Sigma] - 1) tan [alpha]
    tan [epsilon] = -------------------------.
                    1 + [Sigma] tan² [alpha]

  Put [Sigma] = cot²[zeta], then [epsilon] is a maximum when [alpha] =
  [zeta], and the corresponding value of [epsilon] is

    [epsilon] = ½[pi] - 2[zeta].

For simplicity of explanation we have supposed this method of
development so applied as to have the pole in the centre. There is,
however, no necessity for this, and any point on the surface of the
sphere may be taken as the centre. All that is necessary is to calculate
by spherical trigonometry the azimuth and distance, with reference to
the assumed centre, of all the points of intersection of meridians and
parallels within the space which is to be represented in a plane. Then
the azimuth is represented unaltered, and any spherical distance z is
represented by [rho]. Thus we get all the points of intersection
transferred to the representation, and it remains merely to draw
continuous lines through these points, which lines will be the meridians
and parallels in the representation.

Thus treating the earth as a sphere and applying the _Zenithal
Equal-area Projection_ to the case of Africa, the central point selected
being on the equator, we have, if [theta] be the spherical distance of
any point from the centre, [phi], [alpha] the latitude and longitude
(with reference to the centre), of this point, cos [theta] = cos [phi]
cos [alpha]. If A is the azimuth of this point at the centre, tan A =
sin [alpha] cot [phi]. On paper a line from the centre is drawn at an
azimuth A, and the distance [theta] is represented by 2 sin ½[theta].
This makes a very good projection for a single-sheet equal-area map of
Africa. The exaggeration in such systems, it is important to remember,
whether of linear scale, area, or angle, is the same for a given
distance from the centre, whatever be the azimuth; that is, the
exaggeration is a function of the distance from the centre only.


_General Theory of Conical Projections._

Meridians are represented by straight lines drawn through a point, and a
difference of longitude [omega] is represented by an angle h[omega]. The
parallels of latitude are circular arcs, all having as centre the point
of divergence of the meridian lines. It is clear that perspective and
zenithal projections are particular groups of conical projections.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

  Let z be the co-latitude of a parallel, and [rho], a function of z,
  the radius of the circle representing this parallel. Consider the
  infinitely small space on the sphere contained by two consecutive
  meridians, the difference of whose longitude is d[mu], and two
  consecutive parallels whose co-latitudes are z and z + dz. The sides
  of this rectangle are pq = dz, pr = sin z d[mu]; in the projection
  p´q´r´s´ these become p´q´ = d[rho], and p´r´ = [rho]h d[mu].

  The scales of the projection as compared with the sphere are p´q´/pq =
  d[rho]/dz = the scale of meridian measurements = [sigma], say, and
  p´r´/pr = [rho]h d[mu]/sin z d[mu] = [rho]h/sin z = scale of
  measurements perpendicular to the meridian = [sigma]´, say.

  Now we may make [sigma] = 1 throughout, then [rho] = z + const. This
  gives either the group of _conical projections with rectified
  meridians_, or as a particular case the _equidistant zenithal_.

  We may make [sigma] = [sigma]´ throughout, which is the same as
  requiring that at any point the scale shall be the same in all
  directions. This gives a group of _orthomorphic projections_.

  In this case d[rho]/dz = [rho]h/sin z, or d[rho]/[rho] = h dz/sin z.

  Integrating,

    [rho] = k(tan ½z)^h, (i.)

  where k is a constant.

  Now h is at our disposal and we may give it such a value that two
  selected parallels are of the correct lengths. Let z1, z2 be the
  co-latitudes of these parallels, then it is easy to show that

         log sin z1 - log sin z2
    h = -------------------------  (ii.)
        log tan ½z1 - log tan ½z2

  This projection, given by equations (i.) and (ii.), is Lambert's
  orthomorphic projection--commonly called Gauss's projection; its
  descriptive name is the _orthomorphic conical projection with two
  standard parallels_.

  The constant k in (i.) defines the scale and may be used to render the
  scale errors along the selected parallels not nil but the same; and
  some other parallel, e.g. the central parallel may then be made
  errorless.

  The value h = 1/3, as suggested by Sir John Herschel, is admirably
  suited for a map of the world. The representation is fan-shaped, with
  remarkably little distortion (fig. 24).

  If any parallel of co-latitude z is true to scale hk(tan ½z1)^h = sin
  z, if this parallel is the equator, so that z1 = 90°, kh = 1, then
  equation (i.) becomes [rho] = (tan ½z)^h/h, and the radius of the
  equator = 1/h. The distance r of any parallel from the equator is 1/h
  - (tan ½z)^h/h = (1/h){1 - (tan ½z)^h}.

  If, instead of taking the radius of the earth as unity we call it a, r
  = (a/h){1 - (tan ½z)^h}. When h is very small, the angles between the
  meridian lines in the representation are very small; and proceeding to
  the limit, when h is zero the meridians are parallel--that is, the
  vertex of the cone has removed to infinity. And at the limit when h is
  zero we have r = a log_e cot ½z, which is the characteristic equation
  of Mercator's projection.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Elliptical equal-area Projection, showing the
whole surface of the globe.]

_Mercator's Projection._--From the manner in which we have arrived at
this projection it is clear that it retains the characteristic property
of orthomorphic projections--namely, similarity of representation of
small parts of the surface. In Mercator's chart the equator is
represented by a straight line, which is crossed at right angles by a
system of parallel and equidistant straight lines representing the
meridians. The parallels are straight lines parallel to the equator, and
the distance of the parallel of latitude [phi] from the equator is, as
we have seen above, r = a log_e tan (45° + ½[phi]). In the vicinity of
the equator, or indeed within 30° of latitude of the equator, the
representation is very accurate, but as we proceed northwards or
southwards the exaggeration of area becomes larger, and eventually
excessive--the poles being at infinity. This distance of the parallels
may be expressed in the form r = a (sin [phi] + 1/3 sin ^3[phi] + 1/5
sin ^5[phi] + ...), showing that near the equator r is nearly
proportional to the latitude. As a consequence of the similar
representation of small parts, a curve drawn on the sphere cutting all
meridians at the same angle--the loxodromic curve--is projected into a
straight line, and it is this property which renders Mercator's chart so
valuable to seamen. For instance: join by a straight line on the chart
Land's End and Bermuda, and measure the angle of intersection of this
line with the meridian. We get thus the bearing which a ship has to
retain during its course between these ports. This is not great-circle
sailing, and the ship so navigated does not take the shortest path. The
projection of a great circle (being neither a meridian nor the equator)
is a curve which cannot be represented by a simple algebraic equation.

  If the true spheroidal shape of the earth is considered, the semiaxes
  being a and b, putting e = [root] (a² - b²)/a, and using common
  logarithms, the distance of any parallel from the equator can be shown
  to be

    (a/M) {log tan (45° + ½[phi]) - e² sin [phi] - 1/3 e^4 sin ^3[phi] ...}

  where M, the modulus of common logarithms, = 0.434294. Of course
  Mercator's projection was not originally arrived at in the manner
  above described; the description has been given to show that
  Mercator's projection is a particular case of the conical orthomorphic
  group. The introduction of the projection is due to the fact that for
  navigation it is very desirable to possess charts which shall give
  correct local outlines (i.e. in modern phraseology shall be
  orthomorphic) and shall at the same time show as a straight line any
  line which cuts the meridians at a constant angle. The latter
  condition clearly necessitates parallel meridians, and the former a
  continuous increase of scale as the equator is departed from, i.e. the
  scale at any point must be equal to the scale at the equator × sec.
  latitude. In early days the calculations were made by assuming that
  for a small increase of latitude, say 1´, the scale was constant, then
  summing up the small lengths so obtained. Nowadays (for simplicity the
  earth will be taken as a sphere) we should say that a small length of
  meridian ad[phi] is represented in this projection by a sec [phi]
  d[phi], and the length of the meridian in the projection between the
  equator and latitude [phi],

       /[phi]
      /      a sec [phi] d[phi] = a log_e tan (45° + ½[phi]),
    \/ 0

  which is the direct way of arriving at the law of the construction of
  this very important projection.

  Mercator's projection, although indispensable at sea, is of little
  value for land maps. For topographical sheets it is obviously
  unsuitable; and in cases in which it is required to show large areas
  on small scales on an orthomorphic projection, that form should be
  chosen which gives two standard parallels (Lambert's conical
  orthomorphic). Mercator's projection is often used in atlases for maps
  of the world. It is not a good projection to select for this purpose
  on account of the great exaggeration of scale near the poles. The
  misconceptions arising from this exaggeration of scale may, however,
  be corrected by the juxtaposition of a map of the world on an
  equal-area projection.

It is now necessary to revert to the general consideration of conical
projections.

  It has been shown that the scales of the projection (fig. 23) as
  compared with the sphere are p´q´/pq = dp/dz = [sigma] along a
  meridian, and p´r´/pr´ = [rho]h / sin z = [sigma]´ at right angles to
  a meridian.

  Now if [sigma][sigma]´ = 1 the areas are correctly represented, then

    h[rho] d[rho] = sin z dz, and integrating ½h[rho]² = C - cos z;  (i.)

  this gives the whole group of _equal-area conical projections_.

  As a special case let the pole be the centre of the projected
  parallels, then when

    z = 0, [rho] = 0, and const = 1, we have p = 2 sin ½z/[delta]h  (ii.)

  Let z1 be the co-latitude of some parallel which is to be correctly
  represented, then 2h sin ½z1/[delta]h = sin z1, and h = cos² ½z1;
  putting this value of h in equation (ii.) the radius of any parallel

    = [rho] = 2 sin ½z sec ½z1  (iii.)

  This is Lambert's _conical equal-area projection with one standard
  parallel_, the pole being the centre of the parallels.

  If we put z1 = [theta], then h = 1, and the meridians are inclined at
  their true angles, also the scale at the pole becomes correct, and
  equation (iii.) becomes

    [rho] = 2 sin ½z;  (iv.)

  this is the _zenithal equal-area projection_.

  Reverting to the general expression for equal-area conical projections

   [rho] = [root]{2(C - cos z)/h},  (i.)

  we can dispose of C and h so that any two selected parallels shall be
  their true lengths; let their co-latitudes be z1 and z2, then

    2h(C - cos z1) = sin² z1  (v.)
    2h(C - cos z2) = sin² z2  (vi.)

  from which C and h are easily found, and the radii are obtained from
  (i.) above. This is H. C. Albers' _conical equal-area projection with
  two standard parallels_. The pole is not the centre of the parallels.


_Projection by Rectangular Spheroidal Co-ordinates._

If in the simple conical projection the selected parallel is the
equator, this and the other parallels become parallel straight lines and
the meridians are straight lines spaced at equatorial distances, cutting
the parallels at right angles; the parallels are their true distances
apart. This projection is the _simple cylindrical_. If now we imagine
the touching cylinder turned through a right-angle In such a way as to
touch the sphere along any meridian, a projection is obtained exactly
similar to the last, except that in this case we represent, not
parallels and meridians, but small circles parallel to the given
meridian and great circles at right angles to it. It is clear that the
projection is a special case of conical projection. The position of any
point on the earth's surface is thus referred, on this projection, to a
selected meridian as one axis, and any great circle at right angles to
it as the other. Or, in other words, any point is fixed by the length of
the perpendicular from it on to the fixed meridian and the distance of
the foot of the perpendicular from some fixed point on the meridian,
these spherical or spheroidal co-ordinates being plotted as plane
rectangular co-ordinates.

  The perpendicular is really a plane section of the surface through the
  given point at right angles to the chosen meridian, and may be briefly
  called a great circle. Such a great circle clearly diverges from the
  parallel; the exact difference in latitude and longitude between the
  point and the foot of the perpendicular can be at once obtained by
  ordinary geodetic formulae, putting the azimuth = 90°. Approximately
  the difference of latitude in seconds is x² tan [phi] cosec 1´´ /
  2[rho][nu] where x is the length of the perpendicular, [rho] that of
  the radius of curvature to the meridian, [nu] that of the normal
  terminated by the minor axis, [phi] the latitude of the foot of the
  perpendicular. The difference of longitude in seconds is approximately
  x sec [rho] cosec 1´´ / [nu]. The resulting error consists principally
  of an exaggeration of scale north and south and is approximately equal
  to sec x (expressing x in arc); it is practically independent of the
  extent in latitude.

It is on this projection that the 1/2,500 Ordnance maps and the 6-in.
Ordnance maps of the United Kingdom are plotted, a meridian being chosen
for a group of counties. It is also used for the 1-in., ½ in. and ¼ in.
Ordnance maps of England, the central meridian chosen being that which
passes through a point in Delamere Forest in Cheshire. This projection
should not as a rule be used for topographical maps, but is suitable for
cadastral plans on account of the convenience of plotting the
rectangular co-ordinates of the very numerous trigonometrical or
traverse points required in the construction of such plans. As regards
the errors involved, a range of about 150 miles each side of the central
meridian will give a maximum error in scale in a north and south
direction of about 0.1%.


_Elliptical Equal-area Projection._

In this projection, which is also called Mollweide's projection the
parallels are parallel straight lines and the meridians are ellipses,
the central meridian being a straight line at right angles to the
equator, which is equally divided. If the whole world is represented on
the spherical assumption, the equator is twice the length of the central
meridian. Each elliptical meridian has for one axis the central
meridian, and for the other the intercepted portion of the equally
divided equator. It follows that the meridians 90° east and west of the
central meridian form a circle. It is easy to show that to preserve the
property of equal areas the distance of any parallel from the equator
must be [root]2 sin [delta] where [pi] sin [phi] = 2[delta] + sin
2[delta], [phi] being the latitude of the parallel. The length of the
central meridian from pole to pole = 2 [root]2, where the radius of the
sphere is unity. The length of the equator = 4 [root]2.

The following equal-area projections may be used to exhibit the entire
surface of the globe: Cylindrical equal area, Sinusoidal equal area and
Elliptical equal area.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--Globular Projection.]

_Conventional or Arbitrary Projections._

These projections are devised for simplicity of drawing and not for any
special properties. The most useful projection of this class is the
_globular projection_. This is a conventional representation of a
hemisphere in which the equator and central meridian are two equal
straight lines at right angles, their intersection being the centre of
the circular boundary. The meridians divide the equator into equal parts
and are arcs of circles passing through points so determined and the
poles. The parallels are arcs of circles which divide the central and
extreme meridians into equal parts. Thus in fig. 26 NS = EW and each is
divided into equal parts (in this case each division is 10°); the
circumference NESW is also divided into 10° spaces and circular arcs are
drawn through the corresponding points. This is a simple and effective
projection and one well suited for conveying ideas of the general shape
and position of the chief land masses; it is better for this purpose
than the stereographic, which is commonly employed in atlases.

[Illustration: (From _Text Book of Topographical Surveying_, by
permission of the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office.)

FIG. 27.--Plane Table Graticule, dimensions in inches, for a scale of 4
in. to 1 m.]


_Projections for Field Sheets._

Field sheets for topographical surveys should be on conical projections
with rectified meridians; these projections for small areas and ordinary
topographical scales--not less than 1/500,000--are sensibly errorless.
But to save labour it is customary to employ for this purpose either
form of polyconic projection, in which the errors for such scales are
also negligible. In some surveys, to avoid the difficulty of plotting
the flat arcs required for the parallels, the arcs are replaced by
polygons, each side being the length of the portion of the arc it
replaces. This method is especially suitable for scales of 1:125,000 and
larger, but it is also sometimes used for smaller scales.

  Fig. 27 shows the method of plotting the projection for a field sheet.
  Such a projection is usually called a graticule. In this case ABC is
  the central meridian; the true meridian lengths of 30´ spaces are
  marked on this meridian, and to each of these, such as AB, the figure
  (in this case representing a square half degree), such as ABED, is
  applied. Thus the point D is the intersection of a circle of radius AD
  with a circle of radius BD, these lengths being taken from geodetic
  tables. The method has no merit except that of convenience.

  _Summary._

  The following projections have been briefly described:--

                 /  1. Cylindrical equal-area.
                 |  2. Orthographic.
                 |  3. Stereographic (which is orthomorphic).
    Perspective <   4. General external perspective.
                 |  5. Minimum error         "      (Clarke's).
                 \  6. Central.

                 /  7. Conical, with rectified meridians and two
                 |      standard parallels (5 forms).
                 |  8. Simple conical.
                 |  9. Simple cylindrical (a special case of 8).
                 | 10. Modified conical equal-area (Bonne's).
                 | 11. Sinusoidal         "     "  (Sanson's).
                 | 12. Werner's conical   "     "
    Conical     < 13. Simple polyconic.
                 | 14. Rectangular polyconic.
                 | 15. Conical orthomorphic with 2 standard parallels
                 |      (Lambert's, commonly called Gauss's).
                 | 16. Cylindrical orthomorphic (Mercator's).
                 | 17. Conical equal-area with one standard parallel.
                 | 18.    "      "     "    "  two     "    parallels.
                 \ 19. Projection by rectangular spheroidal co-ordinates.

                 / 20. Equidistant zenithal.
                 | 21. Zenithal equal-area.
                 | 22. Zenithal projection by balance of errors (Airy's).
    Zenithal    <  23. Elliptical equal-area (Mollweide's).
                 | 24. Globular (conventional).
                 \ 25. Field sheet graticule.

  Of the above 25 projections, 23 are conical or quasi-conical, if
  zenithal and perspective projections be included. The projections may,
  if it is preferred, be grouped according to their properties. Thus in
  the above list 8 are equal-area, 3 are orthomorphic, 1 balances
  errors, 1 represents all great circles by straight lines, and in 5 one
  system of great circles is represented correctly.

  Among projections which have not been described may be mentioned the
  circular orthomorphic (Lagrange's) and the rectilinear equal-area
  (Collignon's) and a considerable number of conventional projections,
  which latter are for the most part of little value.

  The choice of a projection depends on the function which the map is
  intended to fulfil. If the map is intended for statistical purposes to
  show areas, density of population, incidence of rainfall, of disease,
  distribution of wealth, &c., an _equal-area_ projection should be
  chosen. In such a case an area scale should be given. At sea,
  _Mercator's_ is practically the only projection used except when it is
  desired to determine graphically great circle courses in great oceans,
  when the _central_ projection must be employed. For conveying good
  general ideas of the shape and distribution of the surface features of
  continents or of a hemisphere _Clarke's perspective_ projection is the
  best. For exhibiting the progress of polar exploration the _polar
  equidistant_ projection should be selected. For special maps for
  general use on scales of 1/1,000,000 and smaller, and for a series of
  which the sheets are to fit together, the _conical, with rectified
  meridians and two standard parallels_, is a good projection. For
  topographical maps, in which each sheet is plotted independently and
  the scale is not smaller than 1/500,000, either form of _polyconic_ is
  very convenient.

  The following are the projections adopted for some of the principal
  official maps of the British Empire:--

  _Conical, with Rectified Meridians and Two Standard Parallels._--The
  1:1,000,000 Ordnance map of the United Kingdom, special maps of the
  topographical section, General Staff, e.g. the 64-mile map of
  Afghanistan and Persia. The 1:1,000,000 Survey of India series of
  India and adjacent countries.

  _Modified Conical, Equal-area (Bonne's)._--The 1 in., ½ in., ¼ in. and
  1/10 in. Ordnance maps of Scotland and Ireland. The 1:800,000 map of
  the Cape Colony, published by the Surveyor-General.

  _Simple Polyconic and Rectangular Polyconic_ maps on scales of
  1:1,000,000, 1:500,000, 1:250,000 and 1:125,000 of the topographical
  section of the General Staff, including all maps on these scales of
  British Africa. A rectilinear approximation to the simple polyconic is
  also used for the topographical sheets of the Survey of India. The
  simple polyconic is used for the 1 in. maps of the Militia Department
  of Canada.

  _Zenithal Projection by Balance of Errors (Airy's)._--The 10-mile to 1
  in. Ordnance map of England.

  _Projection by Rectangular Spheroidal Co-ordinates._--The 1:2500 and
  the 6 in. Ordnance sheets of the United Kingdom, and the 1 in., ½ in.
  and ¼ in. Ordnance maps of England. The cadastral plans of the Survey
  of India, and cadastral plans throughout the empire.

  AUTHORITIES.--See _Traité des projections des cartes géographiques_,
  by A. Germain (Paris, 1865) and _A Treatise on Projections_, by T.
  Craig, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (Washington, 1882).
  Both Germain and Craig (following Germain) make use of the term
  _projections by development_, a term which is apt to convey the
  impression that the spherical surface is developable. As this is not
  the case, and since such projections are conical, it is best to avoid
  the use of the term. For the history of the subject see d'Avezac,
  "Coup d'oeil historique sur la projection des cartes géographiques,"
  _Société de géographie de Paris_ (1863).

  J. H. Lambert (_Beiträge zum Gebrauch der Mathematik, u.s.w._ Berlin,
  1772) devised the following projections of the above list: 1, 15, 17,
  and 21; his transverse cylindrical orthomorphic and the transverse
  cylindrical equal-area have not been described, as they are seldom
  used. Among other contributors we mention Mercator, Euler, Gauss, C.
  B. Mollweide (1774-1825), Lagrange, Cassini, R. Bonne (1727-1795),
  Airy and Colonel A. R. Clarke.     (C. F. Cl.; A. R. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The ancient Greeks called a map _Pinax_, The Romans _Tabula
    geographica_. _Mappa mundi_ was the medieval Latin for a map of the
    world which the ancients called _Tabula totius orbis descriptionem
    continens_.

  [2] Close, "The Ideal Topographical Map," _Geog. Journal_, vol. xxv.
    (1905).

  [3] K. Peucker, _Schattenplastik und Farbenplastik_ (Vienna, 1898);
    _Geograph. Zeitschrift_ (1902 and 1908).

  [4] Professor Henrici, _Report on Planimeters_ (64th meeting of the
    British Association, Oxford, 1894); J. Tennant, "The Planimeter"
    (_Engineering_, xlv. 1903).

  [5] H. Wagner's _Lehrbuch_ (Hanover, 1908, pp. 241-252) refers to
    numerous authorities who deal fully with the whole question of
    measurement.

  [6] Kienzl of Leoben in 1891 had invented a similar apparatus which
    he called a Relief Pantograph (_Zeitschrift_, Vienna Geog. Soc.
    1891).

  [7] M. Fiorini, _Erd- und Himmelsgloben, frei bearbeitet von S.
    Günther_ (Leipzig, 1895).

  [8] _Jahrb. des polytechn. Instituts in Wien_, vol. xv.

  [9] Compare the maps of EUROPE, ASIA, &c., in this work.

  [10] The great majority of the maps in this work are made by this
    process.

  [11] Lepsius, _Urkundenbuch_, Pl. XXII.

  [12] These Colchians certainly were not Egyptians. The maps referred
    to may have been Assyrian.

  [13] We are indebted to Strabo for nearly all we know about Greek
    cartographers anterior to Ptolemy, for none of their maps has been
    preserved.

  [14] The gnomon was known to the Chinese in the 5th century B.C., and
    reached the Greeks (Anaximander) through Babylon. Pytheas, as far as
    known, was the first to utilize it for the determination of a
    latitude.

  [15] If, with W. Dörpfeld, we assume an Attic stadium of 200 steps
    (500 ft.) to be equal to 164 metres, a degree of 700 stad. would be
    equal to 114,800 metres, its actual length according to modern
    measurement being 110,808 metres.

  [16] _Climata_ based on the length of the longest day were introduced
    by Hippocrates (_c._ 400 B.C.). _Zones_ similar to those already
    drawn out for the celestial sphere were first introduced by the
    Pythagoreans. Parmenides of Elea (544-430 B.C.) distinguishes five of
    these zones, viz. a torrid zone, between the tropics of summer and
    winter, which was uninhabitable on account of heat; two frigid zones,
    uninhabitable on account of cold, and two intermediate temperate
    zones.

  [17] Celestial globes were made much earlier than terrestrial ones.
    In the museum of Naples there is a celestial globe, 2 metres in
    diameter, supported upon the shoulders of an Atlas, which E. Heis,
    judging by the constellations engraved upon it (_Atlas coelestis
    novus_, Bonn, 1872) judges to date from the 4th century B.C. It may
    even be the work of Eudoxus (d. 386 B.C.) the famous astronomer.
    Aratus of Soli in Cilicia, in his poetical _Prognostics of Stars and
    the World_, refers to a globe in his possession. Archimedes, the
    famous mathematician, had a celestial globe of glass, in the centre
    of which was a small terrestrial globe. Hero of Alexandria (284-221
    B.C.), the ingenious inventor of "Hero's Fountain," is believed to
    have possessed a similar apparatus. The celestial globe of Hipparchus
    still existed in the Alexandrian library in the time of Ptolemy, who
    himself refers to globes in his _Almagest_, as also in the
    _Geography_. Leontius, who wrote a book on the manufacture of globes
    (first published at Basel in 1539), is identified by Fiorini with a
    bishop of Neapolis (Cyprus) of the time of Constantine III.
    (642-668).

  [18] The oldest MS. of Ptolemy's _Geography_ is found in the Vatopedi
    monastery of Mt Athos. It dates from the 12th or 13th century and was
    published by Victor Langlois in 1867. For the latest edition we are
    indebted to the late Carl Müller (Paris, 1883-1906) to whom we are
    likewise indebted for an edition of the _Geographi graeci minores_
    (1855-1861).

  [19] Facsimiles of it have been published by Desjardins(1869-1871),
    by K. Miller (1886), who ascribes it to Castorius, A.D. 366, and by
    others.

  [20] R. Gough, _British Topography_ (London 1768). His "Histories"
    are published in _Rerum brit. scriptores_ XL. and LVII. 1866-1869.

  [21] M. Bittner, _Die topogr. Capital des ind. Seespiegels_ (Vienna,
    1897).

  [22] E. G. Ravenstein, _Martin Behaim, his Life and his Globe_
    (London, 1908). On the original only equator, ecliptics, tropics,
    polar circles and one meridian 80° to the west of Lisbon are laid
    down.

  [23] See fig. 23, Catalan Map of the World (1375).

  [24] J. G. Kohl published facsimiles of the American section of the
    maps (Weimar, 1860).

  [25] Facsimiles of the maps of 1507 and 1517 were published by J.
    Fischer and F. M. von Wieser (Innsbruck, 1903).

  [26] See "The Survey in British Africa": the _Annual Report_ of the
    Colonial Survey Commission.

  [27] A. Germain, _Traité des Projections_ (Paris, 1865).

  [28] T. Craig, _A Treatise on Projections_ (U.S. Coast and Geodetic
    Survey, Washington, 1882).

  [29] This error is much less than that which may be expected from
    contraction and expansion of the paper upon which the projection is
    drawn or printed.



MAPLE, SIR JOHN BLUNDELL, BART. (1845-1903), English business magnate,
was born on the 1st of March 1845. His father, John Maple (d. 1900), had
a small furniture shop in Tottenham Court Road, London, and his business
began to develop about the time that his son entered it. The practical
management soon devolved on the younger Maple, under whom it attained
colossal dimensions. The firm became a limited liability company, with a
capital of two millions, in 1890, with Mr Maple as chairman. He entered
parliament as Conservative member for Dulwich in 1887, was knighted in
1892, and was made a baronet in 1897. He was the owner of a large stud
of race-horses, and from 1885 onwards won many important races,
appearing at first under the name of "Mr Childwick." His public
benefactions included a hospital and a recreation ground to the city of
St Albans, near which his residence, Childwickbury, was situated, and
the rebuilding, at a cost of more than £150,000, of University College
Hospital, London. He died on the 24th of November 1903. His only
surviving daughter married in 1896 Baron von Eckhardstein, of the German
Embassy.



MAPLE, in botany. The maple (O.E. _mapel-tréow, mapulder_) and sycamore
trees are species of _Acer_, of the order _Acerineae_. The genus
includes about sixty species, natives of Europe, North America and Asia,
especially the Himalayas, China and Japan. Maples are for the most part
trees with opposite, long-stalked, palmately lobed leaves. The flowers
are in fascicles, appearing before the leaves as in the Norway maple, or
in racemes or panicles appearing with, or later than, the leaves as in
sycamore. Some of the flowers are often imperfect, the stamens or pistil
being more or less aborted. The fruit is a two-winged "samara." The
genus was represented in the Tertiary flora of Europe, when it extended
into the polar regions; nineteen species have been recorded from the
Miocene strata of Oeningen in Switzerland. The common maple, _A.
campestre_, is the only species indigenous to Great Britain. This and
the sycamore were described by Gerard in 1597 (_Herball_, p. 1299), the
latter being "a stranger to England." Many species have been introduced,
especially from Japan, for ornamental purposes. The following are more
especially worthy of notice.

  _Acer campestre_, the common maple, is common in hedgerows, but less
  often seen as a tree, when it is seldom more than 20 ft. high, though
  in sheltered situations 30 ft. or more is attained. The leaves are
  generally less than 2 in. across, and the five main lobes are blunter
  than in the sycamore. The clusters of green flowers terminate the
  young shoots and are erect; the two wings of the fruit spread almost
  horizontally, and are smaller than in the sycamore. It occurs in
  northern Europe, the Caucasus, and northern Asia. The wood is
  excellent fuel, and makes the best charcoal. It is compact, of a fine
  grain, sometimes beautifully veined, and takes a high polish. Hence it
  has been celebrated from antiquity for tables, &c. The wood of the
  roots is frequently knotted, and valuable for small objects of cabinet
  work. The young shoots, being flexible and tough, are employed in
  France as whips.

  _A. pseudo-platanus_, the sycamore or great maple, is a handsome tree
  of quick growth, with a smooth bark. The leaves are large, with finely
  acute and serrated lobes, affording abundant shade. The flowers are
  borne in long pendulous racemes, and the two wings of the fruit are
  ascending. It lives from 140 to 200 years. It is found wild chiefly in
  wooded mountainous situations in central Europe. The wood when young
  is white, but old heartwood is yellow or brownish. Like the common
  maple it is hard and takes a high polish. It is much prized by
  wheelwrights, cabinet-makers, sculptors, &c., on the Continent; while
  knotted roots are used for inlaying. Sugar has been obtained from the
  sap of this as from other species, the most being one ounce from a
  quart of sap. The latter has also been made into wine in the Highlands
  of Scotland. It withstands the sea and mountain breezes better than
  most other timber trees, and is often planted near farm-houses and
  cottages in exposed localities for the sake of its dense foliage. Its
  wood is valued in turnery for cups, bowls and pattern blocks. It
  produces abundance of seeds, and is easily raised, but it requires
  good and tolerably dry soil; it will not thrive on stiff clays nor on
  dry sands or chalks. There are many varieties, the variegated and
  cut-leaved being the most noticeable. The lobed shape of its leaf and
  its dense foliage caused it to be confused with the true
  sycamore--_Ficus sycamorus_--of scripture.

  _A. platanoides_, the Norway maple, is met with from Norway to Italy,
  Greece, and central and south Russia. It was introduced into Britain
  in 1683. It is a lofty tree (from 40 to 70 ft.), resembling the
  sycamore, but with yellow flowers, appearing before the leaves, and
  more spreading wings to the fruit. There are several varieties. The
  wood is used for the same purposes as that of the sycamore. Sugar has
  been made from the sap in Norway and Sweden.

  Many varieties of _A. palmatum_, generally known as _polymorphum_,
  with variously laciniated and more or less coloured foliage, have been
  introduced from Japan as ornamental shrubs. The branches and corolla
  are purple, the fruit woolly. The foliage of the typical form is
  bright green with very pointed lobes. It occurs in the central
  mountains of Nippon and near Nagasaki. Beautiful varieties have been
  introduced under the varietal names, _ampelopsifolium_,
  _atropurpureum_, _dissectum_, &c. They are remarkable for the coppery
  purple tint that pervades the leaves and young growths of some of the
  varieties. Other Japanese species are _A. japonicum_, the varieties of
  which are among the most handsome of small deciduous shrubs; _A.
  rufinerve_, with the habit of the sycamore; _A. distylum_, bearing
  leaves without lobes; _A. diabolicum_, with large plane-like leaves;
  and _A. carpinifolium_, with foliage resembling that of the hornbeam.

  _A. saccharinum_, a North American species, the sugar, rock, or
  bird's-eye maple, was introduced in 1735. It sometimes attains to 70
  or even over 100 ft., more commonly 50 to 60 ft. It is remarkable for
  the whiteness of the bark. The wood is white, but acquires a rosy
  tinge after exposure to light. The grain is fine and close, and when
  polished has a silky lustre. The timber is used instead of oak where
  the latter is scarce, and is employed for axle-trees and spokes, as
  well as for Windsor chairs, &c. It exhibits two accidental forms in
  the arrangement of the fibres, an undulated one like those of the
  curled maple (_A. rubrum_), and one of spots, which gives the name
  bird's-eye to the wood of this species. Like the curled maple, it is
  used for inlaying mahogany. It is much prized for bedsteads,
  writing-desks, shoe-lasts, &c. The wood forms excellent fuel and
  charcoal, while the ashes are rich in alkaline principles, furnishing
  a large proportion of the potash exported from Boston and New York.
  Sugar is principally extracted from this species, the sap being boiled
  and the syrup when reduced to a proper consistence runs into moulds to
  form cakes. Trees growing in low and moist situations afford the most
  sap but least sugar. A cold north-west wind, with frosty nights and
  sunny days in alternation, tends to incite the flow, which is more
  abundant during the day than the night. A thawing night is said to
  promote the flow, and it ceases during a south-west wind and at the
  approach of a storm; and so sensitive are the trees to aspect and
  climatic variations that the flow of sap on the south and east side
  has been noticed to be earlier than on the north and west side of the
  same tree. The average quantity of sap per tree is from 12 to 24
  gallons in a season.

  _A. rubrum_, the red-flowering or scarlet maple, is a middle-sized
  tree, and was introduced in 1656. The bright scarlet or dull red
  flowers appear before the leaves in March and April. The wood, like
  that of other species, is applicable to many purposes--as for the
  seats of Windsor chairs, turnery, &c. The grain in very old trees is
  sometimes undulated, which suggested the name of curled maple, and
  gives beautiful effects of light and shade on polished surfaces. The
  most constant use of curled maple is for the stocks of fowling-pieces
  and rifles, as it affords toughness and strength combined with
  lightness and elegance. The inner bark is dusky red. On boiling, it
  yields a purple colour which with sulphate of iron affords a black
  dye. The wood is inferior to that of the preceding species in strength
  and as fuel. Sugar was made from the sap by the French Canadians, but
  the production is only half as great as that from the sugar maple. In
  Britain it is cultivated as an ornamental tree, as being conspicuous
  for its flowers in spring, and for its red fruit and foliage in
  autumn.

  _A. macrophyllum_, a north-western American species, is a valuable
  timber tree.

  For a good account of the North American species see C. S. Sargent's
  _Silva of North America_, vol. ii. See also under SUGAR.



MAPU, ABRAHAM (1808-1867), Hebrew novelist. His works are chiefly
historical romances in Hebrew. His most famous books were _The Love of
Zion_ and the _Transgression of Samaria_. Besides their intrinsic
merits, these novels stand high among the works which produced the
romantic movement in modern Hebrew literature. Mapu's plots were
somewhat sensational, incident being more prominent than
characterization. But underlying all was a criticism of contemporary
life. His novels made a deep impression and became instantly popular.
Mapu's Hebrew style is simple and classical. An English translation of
the _Love of Zion_ bears the title _Amnon, Prince and Peasant_, by F.
Jaffe (1887). Mapu's stories have been often translated into other
languages.

  See N. Slouschz, _The Renascence of Hebrew Literature_ (1909), ch. v.
       (I. A.)



MAQQARI, or Makkari [Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn Mahommed ul-Maqqari] (c.
1591-1632), Arabian historian, was born at Tlemcen in Algeria and
studied at Fez and Marrakesh, where he remained engaged in literary work
until he made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 1618. In the following year he
settled in Cairo. In 1620 he visited Jerusalem and Damascus, and during
the next six years made the pilgrimage five times. In 1628 he was again
in Damascus, where he gave a course of lectures on Bukhari's collection
of _Traditions_, spoke much of the glories of Moslem Spain, and received
the impulse to write his work on this subject later. In the same year he
returned to Cairo, where he spent a year in writing his history. He was
just making preparations to settle definitely in Damascus when he died
in 1632.

  His great work, _The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green
  Andalusia and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan ud-Din ibn ul-Khat[-i]b_,
  consists of two parts. The first is a compilation from many authors on
  the description and history of Moslem Spain; it was published by
  Wright, Krehl, Dozy and Dugat as _Analectes sur l'histoire et la
  littérature des Arabes d'Espagne_ (Leiden, 1855-1861), and in an
  abridged English translation by P. de Gayangos (London, 1840-1843).
  The whole work has been published at Bulaq (1863) and Cairo (1885).

  For other works of Maqqari see C. Brockelmann's _Gesch. der arabischen
  Litteratur_ (Berlin, 1902), ii. 297.     (G. W. T.)



MAQRIZI, or MAKRIZI [Taqi ud-Din Ahmad ibn 'Ali] (1364-1442), Arabian
historian, known as al-Maqrizi because of his ancestral connexion with
Maqriz, a suburb of Baalbek, was born at Cairo and spent most of his
life in Egypt, where he was trained in the Hanifite school of law,
though later he became a Shafi'ite with an inclination to Zahirite
views. In 1385 he made the pilgrimage. For some time he was secretary in
a government office, and in 1399 became inspector of markets for Cairo
and northern Egypt. This post he soon gave up to become preacher at the
mosque of 'Amr, president of the mosque ul-Hakim, and a lecturer on
tradition. In 1408 he went to Damascus to become inspector of the
Qalanisiyya and lecturer. Later he retired into private life at Cairo.
In 1430 he made the pilgrimage with his family and travelled for some
five years. His learning was great, his observation accurate and his
judgment good, but his books are largely compilations, and he does not
always acknowledge the sources to which he is indebted. Most of his
works are concerned with Egypt. The most important is the _Mawa'iz
wal-I'tibar fi dhikr ul-Hitat wal-Aihar_ (2 vols., Bulaq, 1854),
translated into French by U. Bouriant as _Description topographique et
historique de l'Égypte_ (Paris, 1895-1900; cf. A. R. Guest, "A List of
Writers, Books and other Authorities mentioned by El Maqrizi in his
_Khitat_," in _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_, 1902, pp.
103-125). Of his _History of the Fatimites_ an extract was published by
J. G. L. Kosegarten in his _Chrestomathia_ (Leipzig, 1828), pp. 115-123;
the _History of the Ayyubit and Mameluke Rulers_ has been translated
into French by E. Quatremère (2 vols., Paris, 1837-1845). Maqrizi began
a large work called the _Muqaffa_, a cyclopaedia of Egyptian biography
in alphabetic order. It was intended to be in 80 volumes, but only 16
were written. Three autograph volumes exist in MS. in Leiden, and one in
Paris.

  Among smaller works published are the _Mahommedan Coinage_ (ed. O. G.
  Tychsen, Rostock, 1797; French translation by S. de Sacy, Paris,
  1797); _Arab Weights and Measures_ (ed. Tychsen, Rostock, 1800); the
  _Arabian Tribes that migrated to Egypt_ (ed. F. Wüstenfeld, Göttingen,
  1847); the _Account of Hadhramaut_ (ed. P. B. Noskowyj, Bonn, 1866);
  the _Strife between the Bani Umayya and the Bani Hashim_ (ed G. Vos,
  Leiden, 1888), and the _Moslems in Abyssinia_ (ed. F. T. Rink, Leiden,
  1790). For Maqrizi's life see the quotations from contemporary
  biographies in S. de Sacy's _Chrestomathie arabe_ (2nd ed., Paris,
  1826), ii. 112 seq., and for other works still in MS. C. Brockelmann,
  _Gesch. der arabischen Litteratur_ (Berlin, 1902), ii. 38-41.
       (G. W. T.)



MAR, EARLDOM OF. Mar, one of the ancient divisions or provinces of
Scotland, comprised the larger portion of Aberdeenshire, extending from
north of the Don southward to the Mounth. Like other such districts, it
was in Celtic times under the rule of a _mormaer_. In the 12th century
his place was taken by an earl, but no definite succession of earls
appears till the 13th century, nor is any connexion established between
them and the _mormaers_. From the middle of the 13th century the earls
were recognized as among "the seven earls of Scotland" and held a great
position. Earl Gratney (fl. c. 1300) married a sister of (King) Robert
Bruce, who brought him the lordship of Garioch and castle of Kildrummy,
which she held against the earl of Athole, an ally of the English
(1335). Their son Donald was made regent in July 1332, but was
disastrously defeated and slain at Dupplin next month. His daughter and
eventual heir, Margaret, brought the earldom to her husband, William,
earl of Douglas, and on the accession of her daughter Isabél a troublous
time followed.

While she was living as a widow at her castle of Kildrummy, it was
stormed by Alexander Stewart, a bastard, who forced her to execute a
charter (August 12, 1404) settling the reversion to the earldom on
himself and his heirs. This act she revoked by a charter of the 19th of
September 1404, which cannot now be found; but on marrying him, on the
9th of December 1404, she granted him the earldom for life, the king
confirming this on the 21st of June 1405. After her death in 1408 the
earl played a great part, commanding the royal forces at the battle of
Harlaw, when the Lord of the Isles was defeated in 1411, and afterwards
acting as warden of the Marches. In 1426 he resigned the earldom to the
Crown, the king granting it by a fresh creation to him and certain
heirs, with reversion to the Crown. On the earl's death in 1435 the
earldom was claimed by Robert, Lord Erskine, as heir of Gratney, earl of
Mar, through a daughter; but the Crown claimed as reversionary under the
creation of 1426. A long struggle followed, till in 1457 James II.
obtained from a justiciary court at Aberdeen a recognition of the
Crown's right to the earldom and its lands, and shortly after bestowed
them on his son John as earl of Mar and Garioch. He died unmarried in
1479, and in 1483 his elder brother Alexander duke of Albany received
the earldom, but was soon forfeited. James III. created his son John
earl of Mar and Garioch in 1486, and after his death unmarried in 1503,
James IV. alienated to Lord Elphinstone (1507-1510) many of the Mar
lands, including Kildrummy. The title was not revived till 1562, when
James Stewart, earl of Murray, held it for a few months.

In 1565 John, Lord Erskine, succeeded in getting returned heir to the
earldom, and shortly after (June 23, 1565) Queen Margaret restored the
charter to him and his heirs "all and hail the said earldom of Mar." As
earl he took part against the queen in 1567, and in 1571 was made regent
of Scotland, which post he retained till his death (1572). His son, earl
John (c. 1558-1634), played a great part in the history of the family.
His great achievement was the recovery of the Mar estates, alienated by
the Crown during the long period that his family had been out of
possession, including Kildrummy, the "head" of the earldom. It was in
his time that the precedence of the earldom (see below) was settled.
John, the next earl (c. 1585-1654) was a Royalist, as was his son John
(d. 1668), much to the injury of the family fortune, which was further
impaired by the attachment of the family, after the Revolution, to the
Stuarts. His son Charles (1650-1689) was arrested by the government just
before his death (1689), and the next earl, John (1675-1732), a
prominent Jacobite (see below), was attainted, the earldom remaining
under forfeiture for 108 years; by the Old Pretender he was created duke
of Mar.

Alloa and other Erskine estates of the attainted earl were repurchased
for the family, and descended to John Francis Erskine (1741-1825), his
heir-male, who was also his heir of line through his daughter. To him,
in his eighty-third year, as grandson and lineal representative of the
attainted earl, the earldom was restored by act of parliament in 1824.
His grandson, who succeeded him in 1828, inherited the earldom of Kellie
(1619) and other Erskine dignities by decision of 1835. At his death in
1866, his earldom of Mar was the subject of rival claims, and the right
to the succession was not determined till 1875. His estates passed to
his cousin and heir-male, who succeeded to his earldom of Kellie and
claimed "the honour and dignity of earl of Mar." But the latter was also
claimed by a Mr Goodeve, whose father had married the late earl's eldest
sister, and who assumed the title. It was not suggested that the late
earl had more than one earldom of Mar, but Lord Kellie claimed it as
descendible to heirs-male under a creation by Queen Mary, and Mr Goodeve
as descendible to heirs of line under an earlier creation. The House of
Lords decided (Feb. 25, 1875) that Lord Kellie was entitled to the
earldom as having been created by Queen Mary in 1565, with a limitation
which must be presumed to be to heirs-male of the body. This decision
gave great dissatisfaction, but was described as "final, right or wrong,
and not to be questioned" by Lord Selborne and the lord chancellor in
1877, and Lord Kellie was thenceforth recognized as holding the earldom
on the Union Roll, the only one known, though Mr Goodeve continued to
assume the title. The Lords' decision could not be reversed, but in
1885, after much agitation, a means was found of evading it in practice
by the "Earldom of Mar Restitution Act." By "an equivocation on the
facts of the case," it was recited that "doubts may exist whether the
said ancient honour, dignity, and title of peerage of earl of Mar ...
was or was not ... by any lawful means surrendered or merged in the
Crown" before 1565, and that the House of Lords had decided that Queen
Mary's known charter of 1565 applied only to lands and "did not operate
or extend to restore" the peerage dignity, and enacted that "John
Francis Erskine Goodeve Erskine" (which last name the claimant had
added) should be "restored to" the ancient earldom. His previous
assumption of the title was thus rejected as invalid, but from the
passing of the act two earldoms of Mar were in existence, that of Lord
Kellie being confirmed and allowed the precedence of 1565, while the
restored earldom was allowed that of the dignity on the Union Roll, the
only one known till then. This precedence had been assigned to it by the
Decreet of Ranking (1606), and assigns to it an origin in 1404 (or, as
some say, 1395). It is frequently, but absurdly, stated to have been
"created before 1014," and wrongly spoken of as the Premier Scottish
Earldom (see EARL). A barony of Garioch is also wrongly said to be
annexed to it, but the title is used by the earl's eldest son in default
of any other.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Minutes of Evidence_, 1875 and 1885; Riddell's
  _Peerage and Consistorial Law_; Skene, _Celtic Scotland_; Lord
  Crawford's _Earldom of Mar in Sunshine and Shade_; articles by G.
  Burnett (Lyon), Sir H. Barkly, Cornelius Hallen, W. A. Lindsay and J.
  H. Round in _Genealogist_ (N.S.), vols. 3, 4, 9; Lord Redesdale's _The
  Earldom of Mar, a Letter to the Lord Clerk Register_ (reply to Lord
  Crawford) (1883); J. H. Round's "Are there two Earls of Mar?" in
  Foster's _Collectanea genealogica_, and "The later Earldom of Mar" in
  Walford's _Antiquarian Magazine_, vol. ii.; also his _Studies in
  Peerage and Family History_.     (J. H. R.)



MAR, JOHN ERSKINE, 1ST OR 6TH EARL OF (d. 1572), regent of Scotland, was
a son of John, 5th Lord Erskine (d. 1552), who was guardian of King
James V., and afterwards of Mary Queen of Scots. The younger John, who
succeeded his father as 6th Lord Erskine in 1552, joined the religious
reformers, but he was never very ardent in the cause, although he
subscribed the letter asking Knox to return to Scotland in 1557. The
custody of Edinburgh Castle was in his hands, and during the struggle
between the regent, Mary of Lorraine, and the lords of the Congregation
he appears to have acted consistently in the interests of peace. When
Mary Stuart returned to Scotland in 1561 Lord Erskine was a member of
her council, he favoured her marriage with Lord Darnley, and his wife,
Annabella Murray, called by Knox a "verray Jesabell," was a frequent
companion of the queen. In 1565 Erskine was granted the earldom of Mar
(see above). As guardian of James, afterwards King James VI., he
prevented the young prince from falling into the hands of Bothwell, and
when the Scottish nobles rose against Mary and Both well, Mar was one of
their leaders; he took part in the government of Scotland during Mary's
imprisonment at Lochleven, and also after her subsequent abdication. In
September 1571 he was chosen regent of Scotland, but he was overshadowed
and perhaps slighted by the earl of Morton, and he died at Stirling on
the 29th of October 1572.



MAR, JOHN ERSKINE, 2ND OR 7TH EARL OF (c. 1558-1634), Scottish
politician, was the only son of the preceding. Together with King James
VI. he was educated by George Buchanan. After attaining his majority he
was nominally the guardian of the young king, who was about seven years
his junior, and who lived with him at Stirling; but he was in reality a
puppet in the hands of the regent, the earl of Morton; and he lost power
and position when Morton was imprisoned. He was concerned in the seizure
of James VI. in 1582 (a plot known as the raid of Ruthven); but when
James escaped from his new custodians the earl fled into the west of
Scotland. Then leaving his hiding-place Mar seized Stirling Castle,
whereupon James marched against him, and he took refuge in England.
Queen Elizabeth interceded for him, but in vain, and after some futile
communications between the governments of England and Scotland Mar and
his friends gathered an army, entered the presence of the king at
Stirling, and were soon in supreme authority (1585). Mar was restored to
his lands and titles. Henceforward he stood high in the royal favour; he
became governor of Edinburgh Castle and was made tutor to James's son,
Prince Henry, and for his second wife he married Mary, daughter of Esmé
Stewart, duke of Lennox. In 1601 the earl was sent as envoy to London;
here Elizabeth assured him that James should be her successor, and his
mission was conducted with tact and prudence. Having joined the English
privy council Mar was created Lord Cardross in 1610; he was a member of
the Court of High Commission and was lord high treasurer of Scotland
from 1615 to 1630. He died at Stirling on the 14th of December 1634.
John (c. 1585-1654), his only son by his first wife, succeeded to his
earldom; by his second wife he had five sons, among them being James (d.
1640), earl of Buchan; Henry (d. 1628), whose son David (d. 1671)
succeeded to the barony of Cardross; and Charles, the ancestor of the
earls of Rosslyn.



MAR, JOHN ERSKINE, 6TH OR 11TH EARL OF (1675-1732), Scottish Jacobite,
was the eldest son of Charles, the 5th earl (1650-1689), from whom he
inherited estates which were heavily loaded with debt. He was associated
with the party favourable to the English government; he was one of the
commissioners for the Union, and was made a Scottish secretary of state,
becoming after the Union of 1707 a representative peer for Scotland,
keeper of the signet and a privy councillor. In 1713 Mar was made an
English secretary of state by the Tories, but he seems to have been
equally ready to side with the Whigs, and in 1714 he assured the new
king, George I., of his loyalty. However, like the other Tories, he was
deprived of his office, and in August 1715 he went in disguise to
Scotland and placed himself at the head of the adherents of James
Edward, the Old Pretender. Meeting many Highland chieftains at Aboyne he
avowed an earnest desire for the independence of Scotland, and at
Braemar on the 6th of September 1715 he proclaimed James VIII. king of
Scotland, England, France and Ireland. Gradually the forces under his
command were augmented, but as a general he was a complete failure.
Precious time was wasted at Perth, a feigned attack on Stirling was
resultless, and he could give little assistance to the English
Jacobites. At Sheriffmuir, where a battle was fought in November 1715,
Mar's forces largely outnumbered those of his opponent, Archibald
Campbell, afterwards 3rd duke of Argyll; but no bravery could atone for
the signal incompetence displayed by the earl, and the fight was
virtually a decisive defeat for the Jacobites. Mar then met James Edward
at Fetteresso; the cause however was lost, and the prince and the earl
fled to France. Mar sought to interest foreign powers in the cause of
the Stuarts; but in the course of time he became thoroughly distrusted
by the Jacobites. In 1721 he accepted a pension of £3500 a year from
George I., and in the following year his name was freely mentioned in
connexion with the trial of Bishop Atterbury, whom it was asserted that
Mar had betrayed. This charge may perhaps be summarized as not proven.
At the best his conduct was highly imprudent, and in 1724 he left the
Pretender's service. His later years were spent in Paris and at
Aix-la-Chapelle, where he died in May 1732.

Mar, who was known as "bobbing John," married for his second wife,
Frances (d. 1761), daughter of the 1st duke of Kingston, and was thus a
brother-in-law of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. He had been attainted in
1716, and his only son, Thomas, Lord Erskine, died childless in March
1766.

Mar's brother, JAMES ERSKINE (1679-1754), was educated as a lawyer and
became lord justice clerk of the Court of Session and Lord Grange in
1710. He took no part in the rising of 1715, although there is little
doubt that at times he was in communication with the Jacobites; but was
rather known for his piety and for his sympathy with the Presbyterians.
He is more famous, however, owing to the story of his wife's
disappearance. This lady, Rachel Chicely, was a woman of disordered
intellect; probably with reason she suspected her husband of infidelity,
and after some years of unhappiness Grange arranged a plan for her
seizure. In January 1732 she was conveyed with great secrecy from
Edinburgh to the island of Hesker, thence to St Kilda, where she
remained for about ten years, thence she was taken to Assynt in
Sutherland, and finally to Skye. To complete the idea that she was dead
her funeral was publicly celebrated, but she survived until May 1745.
Meanwhile in 1734 Grange had resigned his judgeship and had become an
English member of parliament; here he was a bitter opponent of Sir
Robert Walpole. He died in London on the 20th of January 1754.

  See the _Journal of the Earl of Mar_ (1716); R. Patten, _History of
  the late Rebellion_ (1717); and A. Lang, _History of Scotland_, vol.
  iv. (1907).



MARA, GERTRUD ELISABETH (1749-1833), German singer, was born at Cassel,
the daughter of a poor musician named Schmeling. From him she learnt the
violin, and while still a child her playing at the fair at Frankfort was
so remarkable that money was collected to provide for her. She was
helped by influential friends, and studied under Hillel at Leipzig for
five years, proving to be endowed with a wonderful soprano voice. She
began to sing in public in 1771, and was soon recognized as the greatest
singer that Germany had produced. She was permanently engaged for the
Prussian Court, but her marriage to a debauched violinist named Mara
created difficulties, and in 1780 she was released. After singing at
Vienna, Munich and elsewhere, she appeared in Paris in 1782, where her
rivalry with the singer Todi developed into a regular faction. In 1784
she went to London, and continued to appear there with great success,
with visits at intervals to Italy and to Paris till 1802, when for some
years she retired to Russia. She visited England again in 1819, but then
abandoned the stage. She went to Livonia, and died on the 20th of
January 1833 at Revel.



MARABOUT (the French form of the Arab. _murabit_, "one who pickets his
horse on a hostile frontier"; cf. Portug. _marabute_; Span. _morabito_),
in Mahommedan religion a hermit or devotee. The word is derived from
_ribat_, a fortified frontier station. To such stations pious men betook
them to win religious merit in war against the infidel; their leisure
was spent in devotion, and the habits of the convent superseded those of
the camp (see M'G. De Slane in _Jour. As._, 1842, i. 168; Dozy, _Suppl._
i. 502). Thus _ribat_ came to mean a religious house or hospice
(_zawiya_). The great sphere of the marabouts is North Africa. There it
was that the community formed by Yahya b. Ibrahim and the doctor
Abdullah developed into the conquering empire of the Murabits, or, as
Christian writers call them, the ALMORAVIDES (q.v.), and there still,
among the Berbers, the marabouts enjoy extraordinary influence, being
esteemed as living saints and mediators. They are liberally supported by
alms, direct all popular assemblies, and have a decisive voice in
intertribal quarrels and all matters of consequence. On their death
their sanctity is transferred to their tombs (also called marabouts),
where chapels are erected and gifts and prayers offered. The marabouts
took a prominent part in the resistance offered to the French by the
Algerian Moslems; and they have been similarly active in
politico-religious movements in Tunisia and Tripoli.

  See L. Rinn, _Marabouts et Khouan_ (Algiers, 1884); and the article
  DERVISH.



MARACAIBO, a large lake of western Venezuela, extending southward from
the Gulf of Venezuela, into which it opens through a long neck, or
strait, obstructed at its mouth by islands and bars, and having a large
drainage basin bounded on the W. by the Eastern Cordillera, on the S.E.
by the Cordillera de Merida, and on the E. by a low range of mountains
extending N. by W. from Trujillo to the coast. The lake is roughly
quadrangular in shape, and extends from the 9th to the 11th parallel of
S. lat. and from the 71st to the 72nd meridian. It opens into the Gulf
through 13 channels, the depth on the bar in the main channel ranging
from 7 ft. at low water to 12 ft. at high water. Inside the bar the
depth is about 30 ft., and the lake is navigable for vessels of large
size. It receives the waters of many rivers, principally on its west and
south sides, the largest of which are the Catatumbo and Zulia,
Escalante, Chanudo, Ceniza, Sant'Ana, Negro, Apan and Palmar. The first
three have navigable channels for river steamers. There are a number of
small lakes near Lake Maracaibo's southern and western margins, the
largest of which is the Laguna de Zulia. The heavy rainfall on the
eastern slopes of the Eastern Cordillera, which is said to exceed 86 in.
per annum, is responsible for the great volume of water discharged into
the lake. The average annual precipitation over the whole basin is said
to be 70 in. In the upper half of the lake the water is sweet, but below
that, where the tidal influence is stronger, it becomes brackish. The
only port of consequence on the lake is Maracaibo, but there are small
ports at its upper end which are in direct communication with the inland
cities of Trujillo, Merida and San Cristobal. The Catatumbo River, which
enters from the west near the north end of the lake, and its principal
tributary, the Zulia, are navigable as far as Villamizar, in Colombia,
and afford an excellent transportation route for the coffee and other
products of Santander.



MARACAIBO (sometimes MARACAYBO), a city and seaport of Venezuela and
capital of the state of Zulia (formerly Maracaibo), on the west shore of
the broad channel or neck which connects Lake Maracaibo with the Gulf of
Venezuela, or Maracaibo, about 25 m. from the mouth of the channel
opening into the latter. Pop. (1889), 34,284; (1905), 49,817; there is a
considerable German element in the vicinity. The best residential
suburb, Haticos, extends along the lake shore toward the south. The city
is provided with tramways, telephone service and electric lighting, but
the water supply and drainage are inferior. The most important buildings
are the executive's residence, the legislative chambers, the municipal
hall, the Baralt theatre, the prison, the market, a hospital and six
churches. The city also has a school of arts, a public library, and a
public garden. In colonial times Maracaibo had a famous Jesuits' college
(now gone) and was one of the educational centres of Spanish America;
the city now has a national college and a nautical school. The
industries include shipbuilding, and the manufacture of saddlery and
other leather products, bricks and tile, rum, beer, chocolate and
coco-nut oil. Maracaibo is chiefly known, however, as one of the
principal commercial centres and shipping ports on the northern coast of
South America. The bar at the entrance to Maracaibo channel does not
admit vessels drawing more than 12 ft., but there is a depth of 30 ft.
inside and near the city. Steam communication is maintained on the
Catatumbo and Zulia rivers to Villamizar, and on the Escalante to Santa
Cruz. The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins,
cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added
dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and
fruits. In 1906, 26% of the coffee exports was of Colombian origin.

Maracaibo was founded in 1571 by Alonso Pacheco, who gave it the name
Nueva Zamora. Up to 1668 the entrepôt for the inland settlements was a
station named Gibraltar at the head of the lake, but the destruction of
that station by pirates in that year transferred this valuable trade to
Maracaibo. The city did not figure actively in the War of Independence
until 1821 (Jan. 28), when the province declared its independence and
sought an alliance with Colombia. This brought to an end the armistice
between Bolívar and Morillo, and thenceforward the city experienced all
the changing fortunes of war until its final capture by the
revolutionists in 1823.



MARAGHA, a town of Persia in the province of Azerbaijan, on the Safi
River, in 37° 23´ N., 46° 16´ E., 80 m. from Tabriz. Pop. about 16,000.
It is pleasantly situated in a narrow valley running nearly north and
south at the eastern extremity of a well-cultivated plain opening
towards Lake Urmia, which lies 18 m. to the west. The town is
encompassed by a high wall ruined in many places, and has four gates.
Two stone bridges in good condition, said to have been constructed
during the reign of Hulaku Khan (1256-1265), and since then several
times repaired, lead over the Safi River on the western side of the
town. The place is surrounded by extensive vineyards and orchards, all
well watered by canals led from the river, and producing great
quantities of fruit for exportation to Russia. On a hill west of the
town are the remains of a famous observatory (_rasad_) constructed under
the direction of the great astronomer Nasr-ud-din of Tus. The hills west
of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with
irregular pieces of basalt and the top of the hill on which the
observatory stood was made level by taking away the basalt. The
building, which no doubt served as a citadel as well, enclosed a space
of 380 yds. by 150, and the foundations of the walls were 4½ to 5 ft. in
thickness. The marble, which is known throughout Persia as Maragha
marble, is a travertine obtained at the village of Dashkesen (Turkish
for "stone-breakers") about 30 m. north-west from Maragha. It is
deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the
form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can easily
be broken, but gradually solidify and harden into blocks with a
thickness of 7 to 8 in. It is a singularly beautiful substance, being of
pink, greenish, or milk-white colour, streaked with reddish,
copper-coloured veins. An analysis of the marble gave the following
result: calcium carbonate, 90.93; magnesium, .75; iron, 1.37; manganese,
4.34; calcium sulphate, 2.30; calcium phosphate, .24 (R. T. Günther,
_Geog. Journ._ xiv. 517).



MARANHÃO, or MARANHAM (Span. _Marañon_, the name given to the upper
Amazon), a northern state of Brazil, bounded N. by the Atlantic, E. and
S.E. by Piauhy, S.W. and W. by Goyaz and Pará. Area, 177,569 sq. m.;
pop. (1890), 430,854; (1900), 499,308. The coastal zone and the
north-west corner of the state belong to the Amazon valley region, being
a heavily forested plain traversed by numerous rivers. The eastern and
southern parts, however, belong to the lower terraces of the great
Brazilian plateau, broken by eroded river-courses between which are high
open plains. There are no true mountain ranges in Maranhão, those
indicated on the maps being only plateau escarpments marking either its
northern margin or the outlines of river valleys. The climate is hot,
and the year is divided into a wet and dry season, extreme humidity
being characteristic of the former. The heat, however, is greatly
modified on the coast by the south-east trade winds, and the climate is
generally considered healthy, though beri-beri and eruptive diseases are
common on the coast. The coast itself is broken and dangerous, there
being many small indentations, which are usually masked by islands or
shoals. The largest of these are the Bay of Tury-assú, facing which is
the island of São João, and several others of small size, and the
contiguous bays of São Marcos and São José, between which is the large
island of Maranhão. The rivers of the state all flow northward to the
Atlantic and a majority of them have navigable channels. The Parnahyba
forms the eastern boundary of Maranhão, but it has one large tributary,
the Balsas, entirely within the state. A part of the western boundary is
formed by the Tocantins, and another part by the Gurupy, which separates
the state from Pará. The principal rivers of the state are the
Maracassumé and Tury-assú, the Mearim and its larger tributaries (the
Pindaré, Grajahú, Flôres and Corda) which discharge into the Bay of São
Marcos, and the Itapicurú and Monim which discharge into the Bay of São
José. Like the Amazon, the Mearim has a _pororoca_ or bore in its lower
channel, which greatly interferes with navigation. There are a number of
small lakes in the state, some of which are, apparently, merely
reservoirs for the annual floods of the rainy season.

The principal industries of Maranhão are agricultural, the river valleys
and coastal zone being highly fertile and being devoted to the
cultivation of sugar-cane, cotton, rice, coffee, tobacco, mandioca and a
great variety of fruits. The southern highlands, however, are devoted to
stock-raising, which was once an important industry. Troublesome
insects, vampire bats, and the failure to introduce new blood into the
degenerated herds, are responsible for its decline. Agriculture has also
greatly declined, the state producing for export only a comparatively
small quantity of cotton, rice, sugar and _aguardiente_. Besides São
Luiz, the capital of the state, the principal towns, with the population
of their municipal districts in 1890, are: Caxias (19,443), Alcantara
(4730), Carolina (7266), Grajahú (11,704), Tury-assú (8983) and Viana
(9965).

The coast of Maranhão was first discovered by Pinzon in 1500, but it was
included in the Portuguese grant of captaincies in 1534. The first
European settlement, however, was made by a French trading expedition
under Jacques Riffault, of Dieppe, in 1594, who lost two of his three
vessels in the vicinity of the island of Maranhão, and left a part of
his men on that island when he returned home. Subsequently Daniel de la
Rivardière was sent to report on the place, and was then commissioned by
the French crown to found a colony on the island; this was done in 1612.
The French were expelled by the Portuguese in 1615, and the Dutch held
the island from 1641 to 1644. In 1621 Ceará, Maranhão and Pará were
united and called the "Estado do Maranhão," which was made independent
of the southern captaincies. Ceará was subsequently detached, but the
"state" of Maranhão remained independent until 1774, when it again
became subject to the colonial administration of Brazil. Maranhão did
not join in the declaration of independence of 1822, but in the
following year the Portuguese were driven out by Admiral Lord Cochrane
and the province became a part of the new empire of Brazil.



MARANO (accursed or banned), a term applied to Jewish Christians in
Spain. Converted to Roman Catholicism under compulsion, these "New
Christians" often continued to observe Jewish rites in their homes, as
the Inquisition records attest. It was in fact largely due to the
Maranos that the Spanish Inquisition was founded. The Maranos made rapid
strides in prosperity, and "accumulated honours, wealth and popular
hatred" (Lea, _History of the Spanish Inquisition_, i. 125). This was
one of the causes that led to the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in
1492. Maranos emigrated to various countries, but many remained in the
Peninsula. Subsequently distinguished individuals left home for more
tolerant lands. The Jewish community in London was refounded by Maranos
in the first half of the 17th century. Hamburg commerce, too, owed much
to the enterprise of Portuguese Maranos. In Amsterdam many Maranos found
asylum; Spinoza was descended from such a family. There are still
remnants of Marano families in Portugal.

  See Lea, _loc. cit._ and elsewhere; see index s.v. "New Christian";
  Graetz, _History of the Jews_, Eng. trans. see index s.v. "Marranos";
  M. Kayserling, in _Jewish Encyclopedia_, viii. 318 seq.; and for the
  present day _Jewish Quarterly Review_, xv. 251 seq.     (I. A.)



MARASH (anc. _Germanicia-Marasion_), the chief town of a sanjak of the
same name in the Aleppo vilayet, altitude 2600 ft. situated E. of the
Jihan river, at the foot of Mt Taurus. The sanjak lies almost wholly in
Mt Taurus, and includes the Armenian town of Zeitun. Marash is
prosperous, and has a large trade in Kurd carpets and embroideries. The
climate is good, except in summer. Of the population (50,000) about half
are Turkish-speaking Armenians. There are a college, church and schools
belonging to the American mission, a native Protestant church and a
Jesuit establishment. The site, which lies near the mouths of the three
main passes over the eastern Taurus--viz. those descending from Geuksun
(Cocysus), Albistan-Yarpuz (Arabissus), and Malatia (Melitene)--is shown
to have had early importance, not only by the occurrence of _Marasi_ in
Assyrian inscriptions, but by the discovery of several "Hittite"
monuments on the spot. These, said to have been unearthed, for the most
part, near the Kirk Geuz spring above the modern town, are now in
Constantinople and America, and include an inscribed lion, once built
into the wall of the citadel known in the middle ages as al-Marwani, and
several _stelae_. No more is known of the place until it appears as
Germanicia-Caesarea, striking imperial coins with the head of L. Verus
(middle of 2nd cent. A.D.). The identification of Marash with Germanicia
has been disputed, but successfully defended by Sir W. M. Ramsay; and it
is borne out by the Armenian name _Kermanig_, which has been given to
the place since at least the 12th century. Before the Roman period
Marash doubtless shared the fortunes of the Seleucid kingdom of
Commagene. _Germanicia-Marasion_ played a great part in Byzantine border
warfare: Heraclius was there in A.D. 640; but before 700 it had passed
into Saracen hands and been rebuilt by the caliph Moawiya. During the
8th and 9th centuries, when the direct pass from Cocysus came into
military use, Marasion (the older name had returned into general use)
was often the Byzantine objective and was more than once retaken; but
after 770, when Mansur incorporated it in "Palestine" it remained
definitely in Moslem power and was refortified by Harun-al-Rashid. It
was seized by the crusaders after their march across Mt Taurus, A.D.
1097, became an important town of Lesser Armenia and was taken by the
Seljuks in 1147. In the 16th century it was added to the Osmanli Empire
by Selim I. Marash passed with the rest of Syria into Egyptian hands in
1832, and in 1839 received fugitives from the defeat of Nizib, among
whom was Moltke. Ibrahim Pasha was encamped near it when directed by his
father, at the bidding of the powers, to stay his further advance. Since
its reversion to Ottoman power (1840) the history of Marash has been
varied only by Armenian troubles, largely connected with the fortunes of
Zeitun, for the reduction of which place it has more than once been used
as a base. There was less disturbance there in 1895-1896 than in other
north Syrian towns.     (D. G. H.)



MARAT, JEAN PAUL (1743-1793), French revolutionary leader, eldest child
of Jean Paul Marat, a native of Cagliari in Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol
of Geneva, was born at Boudry, in the principality of Neuchâtel, on the
24th of May 1743. His father was a designer, who had abandoned his
country and his religion, and married a Swiss Protestant. On his
mother's death in 1759 Marat set out on his travels, and spent two years
at Bordeaux in the study of medicine, whence he moved to Paris, where he
made use of his knowledge of his two favourite sciences, optics and
electricity, to subdue an obstinate disease of the eyes. After some
years in Paris he went to Holland, and then on to London, where he
practised his profession. In 1773 he made his first appearance as an
author with a _Philosophical Essay on Man_. The book shows a wonderful
knowledge of English, French, German, Italian and Spanish philosophers,
and directly attacks Helvetius, who had in his _De l'esprit_ declared a
knowledge of science unnecessary for a philosopher. Marat declares that
physiology alone can solve the problems of the connexion between soul
and body, and proposes the existence of a nervous fluid as the true
solution. In 1774 he published _The Chains of Slavery_, which was
intended to influence constituencies to return popular members, and
reject the king's friends. Its author declared later that it procured
him an honorary membership of the patriotic societies of Carlisle,
Berwick and Newcastle. He remained devoted to his profession, and in
1775 published in London a little _Essay on Gleets_, and in Amsterdam a
French translation of the first two volumes of his _Essay on Man_. In
this year he visited Edinburgh, and on the recommendation of certain
Edinburgh physicians was made an M. D. of St Andrews. On his return to
London he published an _Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a
Singular Disease of the Eyes_, with a dedication to the Royal Society.
In the same year there appeared the third volume of the French edition
of the _Essay on Man_, which reached Ferney, and exasperated Voltaire,
by its onslaught on Helvetius, into a sharp attack which only made the
young author more conspicuous. His fame as a clever doctor was now
great, and on the 24th of June 1777, the comte d'Artois, afterwards
Charles X. of France, made him by brevet physician to his guards with
2000 livres a year and allowances.

Marat was soon in great request as a court doctor among the aristocracy;
and even Brissot, in his _Mémoires_, admits his influence in the
scientific world of Paris. The next years were much occupied with
scientific work, especially the study of heat, light and electricity, on
which he presented memoirs to the Académie des Sciences, but the
academicians were horrified at his temerity in differing from Newton,
and, though acknowledging his industry, would not receive him among
them. His experiments greatly interested Benjamin Franklin, who used to
visit him and Goethe always regarded his rejection by the academy as a
glaring instance of scientific despotism. In 1780 he had published at
Neuchâtel a _Plan de législation criminelle_, founded on the principles
of Beccaria. In April 1786 he resigned his court appointment. The
results of his leisure were in 1787 a new translation of Newton's
_Optics_, and in 1788 his _Mémoires académiques, ou nouvelles
découvertes sur la lumière_.

His scientific life was now over, his political life was to begin; in
the notoriety of that political life his great scientific and
philosophical knowledge was to be forgotten, the high position he had
given up denied, and he himself scoffed at as an ignorant charlatan, who
had sold quack medicines about the streets of Paris, and been glad to
earn a few sous in the stables of the comte d'Artois. In 1788 the
notables had met, and advised the assembling of the states-general. The
elections were the cause of a flood of pamphlets, of which one,
_Offrande à la patrie_, was by Marat, and, though now forgotten, dwelt
on much the same points as the famous brochure of the Abbé Siéyès:
_Qu'est-ce que le tiers état?_ When the states-general met, Marat's
interest was as great as ever, and in June 1789 he published a
supplement to his _Offrande_, followed in July by _La constitution_, in
which he embodies his idea of a constitution for France, and in
September by his _Tableau des vices de la constitution d'Angleterre_,
which he presented to the Assembly. The latter alone deserves remark.
The Assembly was at this time full of anglomaniacs, who desired to
establish in France a constitution similar to that of England. Marat had
seen that England was at this time being ruled by an oligarchy using the
forms of liberty, which, while pretending to represent the country, was
really being gradually mastered by the royal power. His heart was now
all in politics; and he decided to start a paper. At first appeared a
single number of the _Moniteur patriote_, followed on the 12th of
September by the first number of the _Publiciste parisien_, which on the
16th of September took the title of _L'Ami du peuple_ and which he
edited, with some interruptions, until the 21st of September 1792.

The life of Marat now becomes part of the history of the French
Revolution. From the beginning to the end he stood alone. He was never
attached to any party; the tone of his mind was to suspect whoever was
in power. About his paper, the incarnation of himself, the first thing
to be said is that the man always meant what he said; no poverty, no
misery or persecution, could keep him quiet; he was perpetually crying,
"Nous sommes trahis." Whoever suspected any one had only to denounce him
to the _Ami du peuple_, and the denounced was never let alone till he
was proved innocent or guilty. Marat began by attacking the most
powerful bodies in Paris--the Constituent Assembly, the ministers, the
corps municipal, and the court of the Châtelet. Denounced and arrested,
he was imprisoned from the 8th of October to the 5th of November 1789. A
second time, owing to his violent campaign against Lafayette, he
narrowly escaped arrest and had to flee to London (Jan. 1790). There he
wrote his _Dénonciation contre Necker_, and in May dared to return to
Paris and continue the _Ami du peuple_. He was embittered by
persecution, and continued his vehement attacks against all in power,
and at last, after the day of the Champs du Mars (July 17, 1790),
against the king himself. All this time he was in hiding in cellars and
sewers, where he was attacked by a horrible skin disease, tended only by
the woman Simonne Evrard, who remained true to him. The end of the
Constituent Assembly he heard of with joy and with bright hopes for the
future, soon dashed by the behaviour of the Legislative Assembly. When
almost despairing, in December 1791, he fled once more to London, where
he wrote his _Ecole du citoyen_. In April 1792, summoned again by the
Cordeliers' Club, he returned to Paris, and published No. 627 of the
_Ami_. The war was now the question, and Marat saw clearly that it was
to serve the purposes of the Royalists and the Girondins, who thought of
themselves alone. Again denounced, Marat had to remain in hiding until
the 10th of August. The early days of the war being unsuccessful, the
proclamation of the duke of Brunswick excited all hearts; who could go
to save France on the frontiers and leave Paris in the hands of his
enemies? Marat, like Danton, foresaw the massacres of September. After
the events of the 10th of August he took his seat at the commune, and
demanded a tribunal to try the Royalists in prison. No tribunal was
formed, and the massacres in the prisons were the inevitable result. In
the elections to the Convention, Marat was elected seventh out of the
twenty-four deputies for Paris, and for the first time took his seat in
an assembly of the nation. At the declaration of the republic, he closed
his _Ami du peuple_, and commenced, on the 25th, a new paper, the
_Journal de la république française_, which was to contain his
sentiments as its predecessor had done, and to be always on the watch.
In the Assembly Marat had no party; he would always suspect and oppose
the powerful, refuse power for himself. After the battle of Valmy,
Dumouriez was the greatest man in France; he could almost have restored
the monarchy; yet Marat did not fear to denounce him in placards as a
traitor.

His unpopularity in the Assembly was extreme, yet he insisted on
speaking on the question of the king's trial, declared it unfair to
accuse Louis for anything anterior to his acceptance of _the_
constitution, and though implacable towards the king, as the one man who
must die for the people's good, he would not allow Malesherbes, the
king's counsel, to be attacked in his paper, and speaks of him as a
"sage et respectable vieillard." The king dead, the months from January
to May 1793 were spent in an unrelenting struggle between Marat and the
Girondins. Marat despised the ruling party because they had suffered
nothing for the republic, because they talked too much of their feelings
and their antique virtue, because they had for their own virtues plunged
the country into war; while the Girondins hated Marat as representative
of that rough red republicanism which would not yield itself to a Roman
republic, with themselves for tribunes, orators and generals. The
Girondins conquered at first in the Convention, and ordered that Marat
should be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal. But their victory
ruined them, for on the 24th of April Marat was acquitted, and returned
to the Convention with the people at his back. The fall of the Girondins
on the 31st of May was a triumph for Marat. But it was his last. The
skin disease he had contracted in the subterranean haunts was rapidly
closing his life; he could only ease his pain by sitting in a warm bath,
where he wrote his journal, and accused the Girondins, who were trying
to raise France against Paris. Sitting thus on the 13th of July he heard
in the evening a young woman begging to be admitted to see him, saying
that she brought news from Caen, where the escaped Girondins were trying
to rouse Normandy. He ordered her to be admitted, asked her the names of
the deputies then at Caen, and, after writing their names, said, "They
shall be soon guillotined," when the young girl, whose name was
Charlotte Corday (q.v.), stabbed him to the heart.

His death caused a great commotion at Paris. The Convention attended his
funeral, and placed his bust in the hall where it held its sessions.
Louis David painted "Marat Assassinated," and a veritable cult was
rendered to the Friend of the People, whose ashes were transferred to
the Panthéon with great pomp on the 21st of September 1794--to be cast
out again in virtue of the decree of the 8th of February 1795.

Marat's name was long an object of execration on account of his
insistence on the death penalty. He stands in history as a bloodthirsty
monster, yet in judging him one must remember the persecutions he
endured and the terrible disease from which he suffered.

  Besides the works mentioned above, Marat wrote: _Recherches physiques
  sur l'électricité, &c._ (1782); _Recherches sur l'électricité
  médicale_ (1783); _Notions élémentaires d'optique_ (1764); _Lettres de
  l'observateur Bon Sens à M. de M. ... sur la fatale catastrophe des
  infortunés Pilatre de Rozier et Romain, les aéronautes et
  l'aérostation_ (1785); _Observations de M. l'amateur Avec à M. l'abbé
  Sans ... &c._, (1785); _Éloge de Montesquieu_ (1785), published 1883
  by M. de Bresetz; _Les Charlatans modernes, ou lettres sur le
  charlatanisme académique_ (1791); _Les Aventures du comte Potowski_
  (published in 1847 by Paul Lacroix, the "bibliophile Jacob"); _Lettres
  polonaises_ (unpublished). Marat's works were published by A.
  Vermorel, _Oeuvres de J. P. Marat, l'ami du peuple, recueillies et
  annotées_ (1869). Two of his tracts, (1) _On Gleets_, (2) _A Disease
  of the Eyes_, were reprinted, ed. J. B. Bailey, in 1891.

  See A. Vermorel, _Jean Paul Marat_ (1880); François Chévremont,
  _Marat: esprit politique, accomp. de sa vie_ (2 vols., 1880); Auguste
  Cabanès, _Marat inconnu_ (1891); A. Bougeait, _Marat, l'ami du peuple_
  (2 vols., 1865); M. Tourneux, _Bibliographie de l'histoire de Paris
  pendant la révolution française_ (vol. ii., 1894; vol. iv., 1906), and
  E. B. Bax, J. P. Marat (1900). _The Correspondance de Marat_ has been
  edited with notes by C. Villay (1908).     (R. A.*)



MARATHI (properly _Marathi_),[1] the name of an important Indo-Aryan
language spoken in western and central India. In 1901 the number of
speakers was 18,237,899, or about the same as the population of Spain.
Marathi occupies an irregular triangular area of approximately 100,000
sq.m., having its apex about the district of Balaghat in the Central
Provinces, and for its base the western coast of the peninsula from
Daman on the Gulf of Cambay in the north to Karwar on the open Arabian
Sea in the south. It covers parts of two provinces of British
India--Bombay and the Central Provinces (including Berar)--with numerous
settlers in Central India and Madras, and is also the principal language
of Portuguese India and of the north-western portion of His Highness the
Nizam's dominions. The standard form of speech is that of Poona in
Bombay, and, in its various dialects it covers the larger part of that
province, in which it is the vernacular of more than eight and a half
millions of people.

As explained in the article INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES, there were in ancient
times two main groups of these forms of speech--one, the language of the
Midland, spoken in the country near the Gangetic Doab, and the other,
the languages of the so-called "Outer Band," containing the Midland on
three sides, west, east and south. The country to the south of the
Midland, in which members of this Outer group of languages were formerly
spoken, included the modern Rajputana and Gujarat, and extended to the
basin of the river Nerbudda, being bounded on the south by the Vindhya
hills. In the course of time the population of the Midland expanded, and
gradually occupied this tract, reaching the sea in Gujarat. The language
of the Outer Band was thus forced farther afield. Its speakers crossed
the Vindhyas and settled in the central plateau of the Deccan and on the
Konkan coast. Here they came into contact with speakers of the Dravidian
languages of southern India. As happened elsewhere in India, they
retained their own Aryan tongue, and gradually through the influence of
their superior civilization imposed it upon the aborigines, so that all
the inhabitants of this tract became the ancestors of the speakers of
modern Marathi.

In Rajputana and Gujarat the language (see GUJARAT) is to a certain
extent mixed. Near the original Midland there are few traces of the
Outer language, but as we go farther and farther away from that centre
we find, as might be expected, the influence of the Midland language
becoming weaker and weaker, and traces of the Outer language becoming
more and more evident, until in Gujarati we recognize several important
survivals of the old language once spoken by the earlier Aryan
inhabitants.

_Dialects._--Besides the standard form of speech, there is only one real
dialect of Marathi, viz. Konkani (Konkani), spoken in the country near
Goa. There are also several local varieties, and we may conveniently
distinguish between the Marathi of the Deccan, that of the Central
Provinces (including Berar), and that of the northern and central
Konkan. In the southern part of the district of Ratnagiri this latter
Konkani variety of Marathi gradually merges into the true Konkani
dialect through a number of intermediate forms of speech. There are also
several broken jargones, based upon Marathi, employed by aboriginal
tribes surviving in the hill country.

_Relations with other Indo-Aryan Languages._--Marathi has to its north,
in order from west to east, Gujarati, Rajasthani, Western Hindi and
Eastern Hindi. To its east and south it has the Dravidian languages,
Gondi, Telugu and Kanarese. Elsewhere in India Aryan languages gradually
fade away into each other, so that it is impossible to fix any definite
boundary line between them. But this is not the case with Marathi. It
does not merge into any of the cognate neighbouring forms of speech, but
possesses a distinct linguistic frontier. A native writer[2] says: "The
Gujarati language agrees very closely with the languages of the
countries lying to the north of it, because the Gujarati people came
from the north. If a native of Delhi, Ajmere, Marwar, Mewar, Jaipur,
&c., comes into Gujarat, the Gujarati people find no difficulty in
understanding his language. But it is very wonderful that when people
from countries bordering Gujarat on the south, as the Konkan,
Maharashtra, &c. (i.e. people speaking Marathi) come to Gujarat, the
Gujarati people do not in the least comprehend what they say." This
isolated character of Marathi is partly due to the barrier of the
Vindhya range which lies to its north, and partly to the fact that none
of the northern languages belongs now to the Outer Band, but are in more
or less close relationship to the language of the Midland. There was no
common ground either physical or linguistic, upon which the colliding
forms of speech could meet on equal terms. Eastern Hindi is more closely
related to Marathi than the others, and in its case, in its bordering
dialects, we do find a few traces of the influence of Marathi--traces
which are part of the essence of the language, and not mere borrowed
waifs floating on the top of a sea of alien speech and not absorbed by
it.

_Written Character._--Marathi books are generally printed in the
well-known Nagari character (see SANSKRIT), and this is also used to a
great extent in private transactions and correspondence. In the Maratha
country it is known as the _Balbodh_ ("teachable to children," i.e.
"easy") character. A cursive form of Nagari called _Modi_, or "twisted,"
is also employed as a handwriting. It is said to have been invented in
the 17th century by Balaji Avaji, the secretary of the celebrated
Sivaji. Its chief merit is that each word can be written as a whole
without lifting the pen from the paper, a feat which is impossible in
the case of Nagari.[3]

_Origin of the Language._--The word "Marathi" signifies (the language)
of the Maratha country. It is the modern form of the Sanskrit
_Maharastri_, just as "Maratha" represents the old _Maha-rastra_, or
Great Kingdom. _Maharastri_ was the name given by Sanskrit writers to
the particular form of Prakrit spoken in Maharastra, the great Aryan
kingdom extending southwards from the Vindhya range to the Kistna,
broadly corresponding to the southern part of the Bombay Presidency and
to the state of Hyderabad. As pointed out in the article PRAKRIT this
Maharastri early obtained literary pre-eminence in India, and became the
form of Prakrit employed as the language not only of lyric poetry but
also of the formal epic (_kavya_). Dramatic works were composed in it,
and it was the vehicle of the non-canonical scriptures of the Jaina
religion. The oldest work in the language of which we have any knowledge
is the _Sattasai_, or Seven Centuries of verses, compiled at
Pratisthana, on the Godavari, the capital of King Hala, at some time
between the 3rd and 7th centuries A.D. Pratisthana is the modern Paithan
in the Aurangabad district of Hyderabad, and that city was for long
famous as a centre of literary composition. In later times the political
centre of gravity was changed to Poona, the language of which district
is now accepted as the standard of the best Marathi.

_General Character of the Language._--In the following account of the
main features of Marathi, the reader is presumed to be familiar with the
leading facts stated in the articles INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES and PRAKRIT.
In the Prakrit stage of the Indo-Aryan languages we can divide the
Prakrits into two well-defined groups, an Inner, Sauraseni and its
connected dialects on the one hand, and an Outer, Maharastri,
Ardhamagadhi, and Magadhi with their connected dialects on the other.
These two groups differed in their phonetic laws, in their systems of
declension and conjugation, in vocabulary, and in general character.[4]
In regard to the last point reference may be made to the frequent use of
meaningless suffixes, such as -_alla_, -_illa_, -_ulla_, &c., which can
be added, almost _ad libitum_ to any noun, adjective or particle in
Maharastri and Ardhamagadhi, but which are hardly ever met in Sauraseni.
These give rise to numerous secondary forms of words, used, it might be
said, in a spirit of playfulness, which give a distinct flavour to the
whole language. Similarly the late Mr Beames (_Comparative Grammar_, i.
103) well describes Marathi as possessing "a very decided individuality,
a type quite its own, arising from its comparative isolation for so
many centuries." Elsewhere (p. 38) he uses language which would easily
well apply to Maharastri Prakrit when he says, "Marathi is one of those
languages which we may call playful--it delights in all sorts of
jingling formations, and has struck out a larger quantity of secondary
and tertiary words, diminutives, and the like, than any of the cognate
tongues," and again (p. 52):--

  "In Marathi we see the results of the Pandit's file applied to a form
  of speech originally possessed of much natural wildness and licence.
  The hedgerows have been pruned and the wild briars and roses trained
  into order. It is a copious and beautiful language, second only to
  Hindi. It has three genders, and the same elaborate preparation of the
  base as Sindhi, and, owing to the great corruption which has taken
  place in its terminations, the difficulty of determining the gender of
  nouns is as great in Marathi as in German. In fact, if we were to
  institute a parallel in this respect, we might appropriately describe
  Hindi as the English, Marathi as the German of the Indian group--Hindi
  having cast aside whatever could possibly be dispensed with, Marathi
  having retained whatever has been spared by the action of time. To an
  Englishman Hindi commends itself by its absence of form, and the
  positional structure of its sentences resulting therefrom; to our
  High-German cousins the Marathi, with its fuller array of genders,
  terminations, and inflexions, would probably seem the completer and
  finer language."

In the article PRAKRIT it is explained that the literary Prakrits were
not the direct parents of the modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars. Each
Prakrit had first to pass through an intermediate stage--that of the
Apabhramsa--before it took the form current at the present day. While we
know a good deal about Maharastri and very little about Sauraseni
Prakrit, the case is reversed in regard to their respective Apabhramsas.
The Saurasena Apabhramsa is the only one concerning which we have
definite information. Although it would be quite possible to reason from
analogy, and thus to obtain what would be the corresponding forms of
Maharastra Apabhramsa, we should often be travelling upon insecure
ground, and it is therefore advisable to compare Marathi, not with the
Apabhramsa from which it is immediately derived, but with its
grandmother, Maharastri Prakrit. We shall adopt this course, so far as
possible, in the following pages.

  _Vocabulary._--In the article INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES it is explained
  that, allowing for phonetic development, the vocabulary of Sauraseni
  Prakrit was the same as that of Sanskrit, but that the farther we go
  from the Midland, the more examples we meet of a new class of words,
  the so-called _desyas_, descendants of the old Primary Prakrits spoken
  outside the Midland, and strange to Sanskrit. Maharastri Prakrit, the
  most independent of the Outer languages, was distinguished by the
  large proportion of these _desyas_ found in its vocabulary, and the
  same is consequently the case in Marathi. The Brahmins of the Maratha
  country have always had a great reputation for learning, and their
  efforts to create a literary language out of their vernacular took, as
  in other parts of India, the direction of borrowing _tatsamas_ from
  Sanskrit, to lend what they considered to be dignity to their
  sentences. But the richness of the language in _desya_ words has often
  rendered such borrowing unnecessary, and has saved Marathi, although
  the proportion of _tatsamas_ to _tadbhavas_[5] in the language is more
  than sufficiently high, from the fate of the Pandit-ridden literary
  Bengali, in which 80 to 90% of the vocabulary is pure Sanskrit. There
  is indeed a tradition of stylistic chastity in the Maratha country
  from the earliest times, and even Sanskrit writers contrasted the
  simple elegance of the Deccan (or _Vaidarbhi_) style with the flowery
  complexity of eastern India.

  The proportion of Persian and, through Persian, of Arabic words in the
  Marathi vocabulary is comparatively low, when compared with, say,
  Hindostani. The reason is, firstly, the predominance in the literary
  world of these learned Brahmins, and, secondly, the fact that the
  Maratha country was not conquered by the Mussulmans till a fairly late
  period, nor was it so thoroughly occupied by them as were Sind, the
  Punjab, and the Gangetic valley.

  _Phonetics._[6]--In the standard dialect the vowels are the same as in
  Sanskrit, but _r_ and _l_ only appear in words borrowed directly from
  that language (_tatsamas_). Final short vowels (_a_, _i_ and _u_) have
  all disappeared in prose pronunciation, except in a few local
  dialects, and final _i_ and _u_ are not even written. On the other
  hand, in the Nagari character, the non-pronunciation of a final _a_ is
  not indicated. After an accented syllable a medial _a_ is pronounced
  very lightly, even when the accent is not the main accent of the word.
  Thus, if we indicate the main accent by ', and subsidiary accents
  (equivalent to the Hebrew _methegh_) by `, then the word _kárawat_, a
  saw, is pronounced _kár^awat_; and _kàlakálane_, to be agitated, is
  pronounced _kàl^akál^an_e. In Konkani the vowel _a_ assumes the sound
  of o in "hot," a sound which is also heard in the language of Bengal.
  In dialectic speech _e_ is often interchangeable with short or long
  _a_, so that the standard _sangit^al_e, it was said, may appear as
  _sangit^ala_ or _sangit^ala_. The vowels _e_ and _o_ are apparently
  always long in the standard dialect, thus following Sanskrit; but in
  Konkani there is a short and a long form of each vowel. Very probably,
  although the distinction is not observed in writing, and has not been
  noticed by native scholars, these vowels are also pronounced short in
  the standard dialect under the circumstances to be now described. When
  a long _a_, _i_ or _u_ precedes an accented syllable it is usually
  shortened. In the case of _a_ the shortening is not indicated by the
  spelling, but the written long _a_ is pronounced short like the _a_ in
  the Italian _ballo_. Thus, the dative of _pik_, a ripe crop, is
  _pikas_, and that of _hat_, a hand, is _hatas_, pronounced _hatas_.
  Almost the only compound consonants which survived in the Prakrit
  stage were double letters, and in M. these are usually simplified, the
  preceding vowel being lengthened in compensation. Thus, the Prakrit
  _kanno_ becomes _kan_, an ear; Pr. _bhikkha_ becomes _bhik_, alms; and
  Pr. _putto_ becomes _put_, a son. In the Pisaca (see INDO-ARYAN
  LANGUAGES) and other languages of north-western India it is not usual
  to lengthen the vowel in compensation, and the same tendency is
  observable in Konkani, which, it may be remarked, appears to contain
  many relics of the old Prakrit (Saurastri) spoken in the Gujarat
  country before the invasion from the Midland. Thus, in Konkani, we
  have _put_ as well as _put_, while the word corresponding to the Pr.
  _ekko_, one, is _ek_ as well as the standard _ek_.

  On the whole, the consonantal system is much the same as in other
  Indian languages. Nasalization of long vowels is very common,
  especially in Konkani. In this article it is indicated by the sign ~
  placed over the affected vowel. The palatals are pronounced as in Skr.
  in words borrowed from that language or from Hindostani, and also in
  Marathi _tadbhavas_ before _i_, _i_, _e_ or _y_. Thus, _cand_
  (_tatsama_), fierce; _jama_ (Hindostani), collected; _cikhal_ (M.
  _tadbhava_), mud. In other cases they are pronounced _ts_, _tsh_,
  _dz_, _dzh_ respectively. Thus _tsakar_ (for _cakar_), a servant;
  _dzane_ (for _jane_), to go. There are two _s_-sounds in the standard
  dialect which are very similarly distinguished. _S_, pronounced like
  an English _sh_, is used before _i_, _i_, _e_ or _y_; and _s_, as in
  English "sin," elsewhere. Thus, _simphi_, a caste-name; _sil_, a
  stone; _set_, a field; _syam_, dark blue; but _sap_, a snake; _sumar_
  (Persian _shumar_), an estimate; _stri_, a woman. In the dialects _s_
  is practically the only sibilant used, and that is changed by the
  vulgar speakers of Konkani to _h_ (again as in north-western India).
  Aspirated letters show a tendency to lose their aspiration, especially
  in Konkani. Thus, _bhik_ (for _bhikh_), alms, quoted above; _hat_ (Pr.
  _hattho_), a hand. In Konkani we have words such as _boin_, a sister,
  against standard _bhain_; _ger_, standard _ghari_, in a house; _ami_,
  standard _amhi_, we. Here again we have agreement with north-western
  India. Generally speaking Marathi closely follows Maharastra when that
  differs from the Prakrits of other parts of India. Thus we have Skr.
  _vrajati_, Maharastri _vaccai_ (instead of _vajjai_), he goes; Konkani
  _votsu_, to go; Sauraseni _genhiduim_, Maharastri _ghettum_, to take;
  Marathi _ghet^ale_, taken. There is similarly both in Marathi and
  Maharastri a laxness in distinguishing between cerebral and dental
  letters (which again reminds us of north-western India). Thus, Skr.
  _dasati_, Maharastri _dasai_, he bites; M. _das^ane_ to bite; Skr.
  _dahati_, Maharastri _dahai_, he burns; M. _dadz^ane_, to be hot; Skr.
  _gardabhas_; Sauraseni _gaddaho_; Hindostani _gadha_; but Maharastri
  _gaddaho_; M. _gadhav_, an ass; and so many others. In Maharastri
  every _n_ becomes _n_, but in Jaina MSS. when the _n_ was initial or
  doubled it remained unchanged. A similar rule is followed regarding
  _l_ and the cerebral _l_ common in Vedic Sanskrit, in MSS. coming from
  southern India, and, according to the grammarians, also in the Pisaca
  dialects of the north-west. In M. a Pr. double _nn_ or _ll_ is
  simplified, according to the usual rule, to _n_ or _l_ respectively,
  with lengthening of the preceding vowel in compensation. Both _n_ and
  _l_ are of frequent occurrence in M., but only as medial letters, and
  then only when they represent _n_ or _l_ in the Pr. stage. When the
  letter is initial or represents a double _nn_ or _ll_ of Pr. it is
  always _n_ or _l_ respectively, thus offering a striking testimony to
  the accuracy of the Jaina and southern MSS. Thus, ordinary Maharastri
  _na_, but Jaina Maharastri _na_, M. na, not; Maharastri (both kinds)
  _ghano_, M. _ghan_, dense; Maharastri _sonnaam_, Jaina _sonnaam_, M.
  _sone_, gold; Maharastri _kalo_, time, southern MSS. of the same
  _kalo_, M. _kal_, time; Maharastri _callai_, M. _tsale_, he goes or
  used to go. In some of the local dialects, following the Vedic
  practice, we find _l_ where _d_ is employed elsewhere, as in (Berar)
  _ghola_ for _ghoda_, a horse; and there are instances of this change
  occurring even in Maharastri; e.g. Skr. _tadagam_, Maharastri
  _talaam_, M. _tale_, a pond.

  The Skr. compound consonant _jñ_ is pronounced _dny_ in the standard
  dialect, but _gy_ in the Konkan. Thus, Skr. _jñanam_ becomes _dnyan_
  or _gyan_ according to locality.

  _Declension._--Marathi and Gujarati are the only Indo-Aryan languages
  which have retained the three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter,
  of Sanskrit and Prakrit. In rural dialects of Western Hindi and of
  Rajasthani sporadic instances of the neuter gender have survived, but
  elsewhere the only example occurs in the interrogative pronoun. In
  Marathi the neuter denotes not only inanimate things but also animate
  beings when both sexes are included, or when the sex is left
  undecided. Thus, _ghode_, neut., a horse, without regard to sex. In
  the Konkan the neuter gender is further employed to denote females
  below the age of puberty, as in _cedu_, a girl. Numerous masculine and
  feminine words, however, denote inanimate objects. The rules for
  distinguishing the gender of such nouns are as complicated as in
  German, and must be learned from the grammars. For the most part, but
  not always, words follow the genders of their Skr. originals, and the
  abrasion of terminations in the modern language renders it impossible
  to lay down any complete set of rules on the subject. We may, however,
  say that strong bases (see below) in _a_--and these do not include
  _tatsamas_--are masculine, and that the corresponding feminine and
  neuter words end in _i_ and _e_ respectively. Thus, _mul^aga_, a son;
  _mul^agi_, a daughter; _mul^age_, a child of so and so. As a further
  guide we may say that sex is usually distinguished by the use of the
  masculine and feminine genders, and that large and powerful inanimate
  objects are generally masculine, while small, delicate things are
  generally feminine. In the case of some animals (as in our "horse" and
  "mare") sex is distinguished by the use of different words; e.g.
  _bokad_, he-goat, and _seli_, a nanny-goat.

  The nominative form of a _tadbhava_ word is derived from the
  nominative form in Sanskrit and Prakrit, but _tatsama_ words are
  generally borrowed in the form of the Sanskrit crude base. Thus, Skr.
  crude base _malin_, nom. sing, _mali_; Pr. nom. _malio_ (_malio_); M.
  _mali_ (_tadbhava_), a gardener; Skr. base _mati_-; nom. _matis_; M.
  _mati_ (_tatsama_). Some _tatsamas_ are, however, borrowed in the
  nominative form, as in Skr. _dhanin_, nom. _dhani_; M. _dhani_, a rich
  man. In Prakrit the nominative singular of many masculine _tatsamas_
  ended in _o_. In the Apabhramsa stage this _o_ was weakened to _u_,
  and in modern Marathi, under the general rule, this final short _u_
  was dropped, the noun thus reverting as stated above to the form of
  the Sanskrit crude base. But in old Marathi, the short u was still
  retained. Thus, the Sanskrit _isvaras_, lord, became, as a Prakrit
  _tatsama_, _isvaro_, which in Apabhramsa took the form _isvaru_. The
  old Marathi form was also _isvaru_, but in modern Marathi we have
  _isvar_. _Tadbhavas_ derived from Sanskrit bases in _a_ are treated
  very similarly, the termination being dropped in the modern language.
  Thus, Skr. nom. masc. _karnas_, Pr. _kanno_, M. _kan_; Skr. nom. sing.
  fem. _khatva_, Pr. _khatta_, M. _khat_, a bed; Skr. nom. sing. neut.
  _grham_, Pr. _gharam_, M. _ghar_, a house. Sometimes the Skr. nom.
  sing. fem. of these nouns ends in _i_, but this makes no difference,
  as in Skr. and Pr. _culli_, M. _cul_, a fireplace. There is one
  important set of exceptions to this rule. In the article PRAKRIT
  attention is drawn to the frequent use of pleonastic suffixes,
  especially of -(a)_ka_- (masc. and neut.), -(i)_ka_(fem.). This could
  in Sanskrit be added to any noun, whatever the termination of the base
  might be. In Prakrit the _k_ of this suffix, being medial, was elided,
  so that we get forms like Skr. nom. sing. masc. _ghota-kas_, Pr.
  ghoda-o, M. ghoda, a horse; Skr. nom. sing. fem. ghoti-ka, Pr.
  _ghodi-a_, M. _ghodi_, a mare; Skr. _ghota-kam_, Pr. _ghoda-(y)am_, M.
  _ghode_, a horse (without distinction of sex). Such modern forms made
  with this pleonastic suffix, and ending in _a_, _i_ or _e_ are called
  "strong forms," while all those made without it are called "weak
  forms." As a rule the fact that a noun is in a weak or a strong form
  does not affect its meaning, but sometimes the use of a masculine
  strong form indicates clumsiness or hugeness. Thus _bhakar_ (weak
  form) means "bread," while _bhak^ara_ (strong form) means "a huge loaf
  of bread." The other pleonastic suffixes mentioned under PRAKRIT are
  also employed in Marathi, but usually with specific senses. Thus the
  suffix -_illa_- generally forms adjectives, while -_da-ka_- (in M.
  -_da_, fem. -_di_, neut. -_de_) implies contempt.

  The synthetic declension of Sanskrit and Prakrit has been preserved in
  Marathi more completely than in any other Indo-Aryan language. While
  Maharastri Prakrit, like all others, passed through the Apabhramsa
  stage in the course of its development, the conservative character of
  the language retained even in that stage some of the old pure
  Maharastri forms. In the article PRAKRIT we have seen how there
  gradually arose a laxity in distinguishing the cases. In Maharastri
  the Sanskrit dative fell into almost entire disuse, the genitive being
  used in its place, while in Apabhramsa the case terminations become
  worn down to -_hu_, -_ho_, -_hi_, -_hi_ and -_ha_, of which -_hi_ and
  -_hi_ were employed for several cases, both singular and plural. There
  was also a marked tendency for these terminations to become confused,
  so that in the earliest stages of most of the modern Indo-Aryan
  vernaculars we find -_hi_ freely employed for any oblique case of the
  singular, and -_hi_ for any oblique case of the plural. Another
  feature of Prakrit was the simplification of the complicated
  declensional system of Sanskrit by assimilating it in all cases to the
  declension of _a_-bases, corresponding to the first and second
  declensions in Latin.

  In the formation of the plural the Prakrit declensions are very
  closely followed by Marathi. We shall confine our remarks to
  _a_-bases, which may be either weak or strong forms, and of which the
  feminine ends sometimes in _a_, and sometimes in _i_. In Prakrit the
  nom. plur. of these nouns ends masc. _a_, fem. _ao_, _io_, neut.
  _aim_. We thus get the following:--

    +--------------+-------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------+
    |              |        Masculine.       |                       Feminine.                      |          Neuter.        |
    |              +------------+------------+------------+------------+---------------+------------+------------+------------+
    |              | Nom. Sing. | Nom. Plur. | Nom. Sing. | Nom. Plur. |   Nom. Sing.  | Nom. Plur. | Nom. Sing. | Nom. Plur. |
    +--------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+---------------+------------+------------+------------+
    | Weak form.   |            |            |            |            |               |            |            |            |
    |  Prakrit     | kanno,     | kanna      | khatta,    | khattao    | culli,        | cullio     | gharam,    | gharaim    |
    |              |   an ear.  |            |   a bed.   |            |   a fireplace.|            |   a house. |            |
    |  Marathi     | kan        | kan        | khat       | khata      | cul           | culi       | ghar       | ghare      |
    | Strong form. |            |            |            |            |               |            |            |            |
    |  Prakrit     | ghodao,    | ghodaya    | ghodia,    | ghodiao    |       --      |     --     | *ghodayam, | *ghodayaim |
    |              |   a horse. |            |   a mare.  |            |               |            |   a horse. |            |
    |  Marathi     | ghoda      | ghode      | ghodi      | ghodya     |       --      |     --     | ghode      | ghodi      |
    +--------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+---------------+------------+------------+------------+

  Several of the old synthetic cases have survived in Marathi,
  especially in the antique form of the language preserved in poetry.
  Most of them have fallen into disuse in the modern prose language. We
  may note the following, some of which have preserved the Maharastri
  forms, while others are directly derived from the Apabhramsa stage of
  the language. We content ourselves with giving some of the synthetic
  cases of one noun, a weak neuter a-base, ghar, a house.

    +------------------+--------------------+-------------------+----------------+
    |                  | Maharastri Prakrit.|    Apabhramsa.    |    Marathi.    |
    |                  +--------------------+-------------------+----------------+
    |Sing.             |                    |                   |                |
    |  Nominative      | gharam             | gharu             | ghar           |
    |  Dative          | gharassa (genitive)| gharaho (genitive)| gharas (dative)|
    |  Locative        | ghare              | gharahi (-hi)     | ghari, ghara   |
    |  General oblique | gharassa (genitive)| gharaho (genitive)| gharas, ghara  |
    |Plur.             |                    |                   |                |
    |  Nominative      | gharaim            | gharai            | ghare          |
    |  Locative        | gharesu            | gharahi (-hi)     | ghari          |
    |  General oblique | gharana (genitive) | gharaha (genitive)| ghara          |
    +------------------+--------------------+-------------------+----------------+

  As already stated, in Prakrit the genitive is employed instead of the
  dative, and thus forms the basis of the Marathi dative singular. The
  genitive plural is not used as a dative plural in Marathi, but it is
  the basis of the plural general oblique case. The Marathi singular
  general oblique case is really the same as the Marathi dative
  singular, but in the standard form of speech when so used the final
  _s_ is dropped, _gharas_, as a general oblique case, being only found
  in dialects. This general oblique case is the result of the confusion
  of the various oblique cases originally distinguished in Sanskrit and
  in literary Prakrit. In Apabhramsa the genitive began to usurp the
  function of all the other cases. It is obvious that if it were
  regularly employed in so indeterminate a sense, it would give rise to
  great confusion. Hence when it was intended to show clearly what
  particular case was meant, it became usual to add, to this
  indeterminate genitive, defining particles corresponding to the
  English "of," "to," "from," "by," &c., which, as in all Indo-Aryan
  languages they follow the main word, are called "postpositions."
  Before dealing with these, it will be convenient to give the modern
  Marathi synthetic declension of the commoner forms of nouns. The only
  synthetic case which is now employed in prose is the dative, and this
  can always be formed from the general oblique case by adding an s to
  the end of the word. It is therefore not given in the following table.

    +-----------+---------------------------+----------------------------+-------------------------+
    |           |         Masculine.        |          Feminine.         |         Neuter.         |
    +-----------+------+--------+-----------+-------+-----------+--------+-------+--------+--------+
    |  Meaning. | Ear. | Horse. | Gardener. |  Bed. | Fireplace.|  Mare. | House.| Horse. | Pearl. |
    +-----------+------+--------+-----------+-------+-----------+--------+-------+--------+--------+
    |Sing.      |      |        |           |       |           |        |       |        |        |
    |  Nom.     | kan  | ghoda  | mali      | khat  | cul       | ghodi  | ghar  | ghode  | moti   |
    |  Gen. obl.| kana | ghodya | malya     | khate | culi      | ghodi  | ghara | ghodya | motya  |
    |Plur.      |      |        |           |       |           |        |       |        |        |
    |  Nom.     | kan  | ghode  | mali      | khata | culi      | ghodya | ghare | ghodi  | motye  |
    |  Gen. obl.| kana | ghodya | malya     | khata | culi      | ghodya | ghara | ghodya | motya  |
    +-----------+------+--------+-----------+-------+-----------+--------+-------+--------+--------+

  The usual postpositions are:--

  Instrumental: _ne_, plural _ni_, by. Dative: _la_, plural also _na_,
  to or for. Ablative: _hun_, _un_, from. Genitive: _tsa_, of. Locative:
  _~t_, in. We thus get the following complete modern declension of
  _ghar_, a house (neut.):--

            Sing.             Plur.

    Nom.    ghar              ghare
    Acc.    ghar              ghare
    Instr.  gharane           gharani
    Dat.    gharas, gharala   gharas, gharala, gharana
    Abl.    gharahun, gharun  gharahun
    Gen.    gharatsa          gharatsa
    Loc.    gharat            gharat

  The accusative is usually the same as the nominative, but when
  definiteness is required the dative is employed instead. The
  termination _ne_, with its plural _ni_, is, as explained in the
  article GUJARATI, really the oblique form, by origin a locative, of
  the _na_ or _no_, employed in Gujarati to form the genitive. The
  suffix _na_ of the dative plural is derived from the same word. Here
  it is probably a corruption of the Apabhramsa _nau_ or _naho_. The
  postposition la is probably a corruption of the Sanskrit _labhe_,
  Apabhramsa _lahi_, for the benefit (of). As regards the ablative, we
  have in old Marathi poetry a form corresponding to _gharahu-niya_,
  which explains the derivation. _Gharahu_ is a by-form of the Prakrit
  synthetic ablative _gharau_, to which _niya_, another oblique form of
  _na_, is added to define the meaning. The locative termination _~t_ is
  a contraction of the Pr. _anto_, Skr. antar, within.

  The genitive _gharatsa_ is really an adjective meaning "belonging to
  the house," and agrees in gender, number and case with the noun which
  is possessed. Thus:

    _malyatsa ghoda_, the gardener's horse. _malyace ghode_, the
    gardener's horses.

    _malyaci ghodi_, the gardener's mare. _malyacya ghodya_, the
    gardener's mares.

    _malyace ghode_, the gardener's horse (neut.). _malyaci ghodi_, the
    gardener's horses (neut.).

  The suffix _tsa_, _ci_, _ce_, is derived from the Sanskrit suffix
  _tyakas_, Pr. _cao_, which is used in much the same sense. In Sanskrit
  it may be added either to the locative or to the unmodified base of
  the word to which it is attached, thus, _ghotake-tyakas_ or
  _ghotaka-tyakas_. Similarly in Marathi, while it is usually added to
  the general oblique base, it may also be added to the unmodified noun,
  in which case it has a more distinctly adjectival force. The use of
  _tsa_ has been influenced by the fact that the Sanskrit word _krtyas_,
  Pr. _kiccao_, also takes the same form in Marathi. As explained in the
  article HINDOSTANI, synonyms of this word are used in other Indo-Aryan
  languages to form suffixes of the genitive.[7]

  Strong adjectives, including genitives, can be declined like
  substantives, and agree with the qualified noun in gender, number and
  case. When the substantive is in an oblique case, the adjective is put
  into the general oblique form without any defining postposition, which
  is added to the substantive alone. Weak adjectives are not inflected
  in modern prose, but are inflected in poetry. As in other Indo-Aryan
  languages, comparison is effected by putting the noun with which
  comparison is made in the ablative case.

  The pronouns closely follow the Prakrit originals. The origin of all
  these is discussed in the article HINDOSTANI, and the account need not
  be repeated here. As usual in these languages, there is no pronoun of
  the third person, its place being supplied by the demonstratives. The
  following are the principal pronominal forms:--

  _mi_, I, instr. _mi_, _mya_, dat. _mala_, obl. _madz_; _amhi_, we,
  instr. _amhi_, obl. _amha_; _madzha_, my, of me; _amtsa_, our, of us.

  _tu_, thou, instr. _tu_, _twa_, dat. _tula_, obl. _tudz_; _tumhi_,
  you, instr. _tumhi_, obl. _tumha_; _tudzha_, thy, of thee; _tumtsa_,
  your, of you.

  _apan_, self, obl. _ap^ana_, gen. _ap^ala_. This is also employed as
  an honorific pronoun of the second person, and, in addition, to mean
  "we including you."

  _ha_, this, fem., _hi_, neut. _he_; _to_, he, that, fem. _ti_, neut.
  _te_; _dzo_, who, fem., _ji_, neut. _je_.

  _kon_, who? _kay_, what? obl. _kasa_; _koni_, any one; _kahi_,
  anything.

  In all these the plural is employed honorifically instead of the
  singular.

  _Conjugation._--In Prakrit (q.v.) the complicated system of Sanskrit
  conjugation had already disappeared, and all verbs fell into two
  classes, the first, or _a_-, conjugation, and the second, or _e_-,
  conjugation, in which the _e_ represents the _aya_ of the Sanskrit
  tenth conjugation and of causal and denominative verbs. Marathi
  follows Prakrit in this respect and has two conjugations. The first,
  corresponding to the Prakrit _a_-class, as a rule consists of
  intransitive verbs, and the second, corresponding to the _e_- or
  causal class, of transitive verbs, but there are numerous exceptions.
  Verbs whose roots end in vowels or in _h_ belong partly to one and
  partly to the other conjugation. These conjugations differ only in the
  present and past participles and in the tenses formed from them. Here,
  in the first conjugation an _a_, and in the second conjugation an _i_,
  is inserted between the base and the termination.

  The only original Prakrit tenses which have survived in Marathi are
  the present and the imperative. The present has lost its original
  meaning and is now a habitual past. It is also the base of the Marathi
  future. These three tenses, the habitual past, the imperative and the
  future, are conjugated as follows. They should be compared with the
  corresponding forms in the article PRAKRIT. The verb selected is the
  root _uth_, rise, of the first conjugation.

    +--------+------------------+-----------------+---------------------+
    |        |  Habitual past   |                 |                     |
    |        |  (old present),  |   Imperative.   |       Future.       |
    | Person.| I used to rise.  |  Let me rise.   |    I shall rise.    |
    |        +--------+---------+-------+---------+----------+----------+
    |        |  Sing. | Plural. | Sing. | Plural. |   Sing.  |  Plural. |
    +--------+--------+---------+-------+---------+----------+----------+
    |   1    | uthe   | uthu    | uthu  | uthu    | uthen    | uthu     |
    |   2    | uthes  | utha    | uth   | utha    | uth^asil | uthal    |
    |   3    | uthe   | uthat   | utho  | uthot   | uthel    | uth^atil |
    +--------+--------+---------+-------+---------+----------+----------+

  As in Rajasthani, Bihari and the Indo-Aryan language of Nepal (see
  PAHARI), the future is formed by adding _l_, or in the first person
  singular _n_, to the old present. In the second person singular the
  _l_ has been added to a form derived from the Pr. _utthasi_, which is
  also the origin of the old present _uthes_. Some scholars, however,
  see in _uthasi_ a derivation of the Prakrit future _utthihisi_, thou
  shalt arise, and a confusion of the Prakrit present and future is
  quite possible.

  The remaining tenses are modern forms derived from the participles.
  The verbal nouns, participles and infinitives are as follows:--

    +------------------+---------------+------------------+------------------+
    |                  |   Prakrit     |     Marathi      |     Marathi      |
    |                  |   (First      |      First       |     Second       |
    |                  | Conjugation). |   Conjugation.   |   Conjugation.   |
    |                  +---------------+------------------+------------------+
    | Verbal Noun      | utthaniam     | uth^ane, the act | mar^ane, the act |
    |                  |               |   of rising.     |   of killing.    |
    | Infinitive       | utthium       | uthu, to rise.   | maru, to kill.   |
    | Present          | utthanto,     | uthat, uth^ata,  | marit, marita,   |
    |   Participle     |   utthantao   |   rising.        |   killing.       |
    | Past Participle  | utthiallao    | uth^ala, risen.  | marila, killed.  |
    | Future Participle| utthanaado    | uth^anar, about  | mar^anar, about  |
    |   Active         |               |   to rise.       |   to kill.       |
    | Future Participle| utthiavvao    | uthawa, about    | marawa, about    |
    |   Passive        |               |   to be risen.   |   to be killed.  |
    | Conjunctive      | utthiu        | uthun, having    | marun, having    |
    |   Participle     |               |   risen.         |   killed.        |
    +------------------+---------------+------------------+------------------+

  The only form that requires notice is that of the conjunctive
  participle. It is derived from the Apabhrarmsa form _utthiu_, to which
  the dative suffix _n_ (old Marathi _ni_, _niya_) has been added.

  Various tenses are formed by adding personal suffixes to the present,
  past or future passive participle. When the subject of the verb is in
  the nominative the tense so formed agrees with it in gender, number
  and person. We may note four such tenses: a present, _uth^ato_, I
  rise; a past, _uth^alo_, I rose; past conditional, _uth^ato_, had I
  risen; and a subjunctive, _uthawa_, I should rise. In the present, the
  terminations are relics of the verb substantive, and in the other
  tenses of the personal pronouns. In these latter, as there is no
  pronoun of the third person, the third persons have no termination,
  but are simply the unmodified participle. We thus get the present and
  the past conjugated as follows, with a masculine subject:--

    +---+----------------------+---------------------+
    |   |   Present, I rise.   |    Past, I rose.    |
    |   +-----------+----------+-----------+---------+
    |   | Singular. |  Plural. | Singular. | Plural. |
    |   +-----------+----------+-----------+---------+
    | 1 | uth^ato   | uth^ato  | uth^alo   | uth^alo |
    | 2 | uth^atos  | uth^ata  | uth^alas  | uth^ala |
    | 3 | uth^ato   | uth^atat | uth^ala   | uth^ale |
    +---+-----------+----------+-----------+---------+

  The feminine and neuter forms differ from the above: thus, _uth^ates_,
  thou (fem.) risest; _uth^alis_, thou (fem.) didst rise; and so on for
  the other persons and for the neuter.

  It will be observed that, in the case of transitive verbs, while the
  present participle is active, the past and future passive participles
  are passive in meaning. The same is the case with the future passive
  participle of the intransitive verb. In tenses, therefore, formed from
  these participles the sentence must be construed passively. The
  subject must be put into the instrumental case, and the participle
  inflected to agree with the object. If the object is not expressed,
  or, as is sometimes the case, is expressed in the guise of a kind of
  ethic dative, the participle is construed impersonally, and is
  employed in the neuter form. Thus (present tense) _mul^aga_ (nom.
  masc.) _pothi vacito_, the boy reads a book, but (past tense)
  _mul^agyane_ (instrumental _pothi_ (nom. fem.) _vacili_ (fem.) the boy
  read a book, literally, by-the-boy a-book was-read; or _mul^agyane
  pothila_ (dative) _vacile_ (neuter), the boy read the book, literally,
  by-the-boy, with-reference-to-the-book, it-(impersonal)-was-read.
  Similarly in the subjunctive formed from the future passive
  participle, _mul^agyane pothi vacawi_, the boy should read a book
  (by-the-boy a-book is-to-be-read) or _mul^agyane pothila vacawe_, the
  boy should read the book [by-the-boy with-reference-to-the-book, it
  (impersonal)-is-to-be-read]. As an example of the subjunctive of an
  intransitive verb, we have _twa uthawe_, by-thee it-is-to-be-risen,
  thou shouldst rise. As in intransitive verbs the passive sense is not
  so strong, in their case the tense may also be used actively, as in
  _tu uthawas_, thou shouldst rise, _lit._, thou (art) to-be-risen. It
  will be noted that when a participle is used passively it takes no
  personal suffix.

  We have seen that the present tense is formed by compounding the
  present participle with the verb substantive. Further tenses are
  similarly made by suffixing, without compounding, various tenses of
  the verb substantive to the various participles. Thus _mi uthat ahe_,
  I am rising; _mi uthat hoto_, I was rising; _mya uthave hote_
  (impersonal construction), I should have risen. In the case of tenses
  formed from the past participle, the auxiliary is appended, not to the
  participle, but to the past tense, as in _mi uth^alo ahe_, I have
  risen; _mya marila ahe_ (personal passive construction) or _mya
  marile_ ahe (impersonal passive construction), I have killed.
  Similarly _mi uth^alo hoto_ (active construction), I had risen. The
  usual forms of the present and past of the verb substantive are:--

    +---+---------------------+---------------------+
    |   |   Present, I am.    | Past, I was (masc). |
    |   +-----------+---------+-----------+---------+
    |   | Singular. | Plural. | Singular. | Plural. |
    |   +-----------+---------+-----------+---------+
    | 1 | ahe       | ahe     | hoto      | hoto    |
    | 2 | ahes      | aha     | hotas     | hota    |
    | 3 | ahe       | ahet    | hota      | hote    |
    +---+-----------+---------+-----------+---------+

  The past changes for gender, but the present is immutable in this
  respect. _Ahe_ is usually considered to be a descendant of the
  Sanskrit _asmi_, I am,[8] while _hoto_ is derived from the Pr.
  _homtao_, the present participle of what corresponds to the Skr. root
  _bhu_, become.

  A potential passive and a causal are formed by adding _av_ to the root
  of a simple verb. The former follows the first, or intransitive, and
  the latter the second or transitive conjugation. The potential passive
  of a neuter verb is necessarily construed impersonally. The causal
  verb denotes indirect agency; thus, _kar^ane_, to do, _karav^ane_, to
  cause a person to do; _tyacya-kadun mya te karavile_, I caused him to
  do that, literally, by-means-of-him by-me that was-caused-to-be-done.
  The potential, being passive, has the subject in the dative (cf. Latin
  _mihi est ludendum_) or in the instrumental of the genitive, as in
  _mala_ (dative), or _majhyane_ (instr. of _madzha_, of me),
  _uth^avate_, I can rise, literally, for-me, or by-my-(action),
  rising-can-be-done. So, _Ramala_, or _Ramacyane_, _pothi vac^avali_,
  Ram could read a book (by R. a book could be read).

  Several verbs are irregular. These must be learnt from the grammars.
  Here we may mention _hone_, to become, past participle _dzhala_;
  _yene_, to come, past participle _ala_; and _dzane_, to go, past
  participle _gela_. There are also numerous compound verbs. One of
  these, making a passive, is formed by conjugating the verb _dzane_, to
  go, with the past participle of the principal verb. Thus, _marila
  dzato_, he is being killed, literally, he goes killed.

  _Literature._--As elsewhere in India, the modern vernacular literature
  of the Maratha country arose under the influence of the religious
  reformation inaugurated by Ramanuja early in the 12th century. He and
  his followers taught devotion to a personal deity instead of the
  pantheism hitherto prevalent. The earliest writer of whom we have any
  record is Namdev (13th century), whose hymns in honour of Vithoba, a
  personal form of Vishnu, have travelled far beyond the home of their
  writer, and are even found in the Sikh _Àdi Granth_. Dnyanoba, a
  younger contemporary, wrote a paraphrase of the Sanskrit _Bhagavad
  Gita_, which is still much admired. Passing over several intermediate
  writers we come to the period of the warrior Sivaji, the opponent of
  Aurangzeb. He was a disciple of Ramdas (1608-1681), who exercised
  great influence over him, and whose _Dasbodh_, a work on religious
  duty, is a classic. Contemporary with Ramdas and Sivaji was Tukaram
  (1608-1649), a Sudra by caste, and yet the greatest writer in the
  language. He began life as a petty shopkeeper, and being unsuccessful
  both in his business and in his family relations, he abandoned the
  world and became a wandering ascetic. His _Abhangs_ or "unbroken"
  hymns, probably so called from their indefinite length and loose,
  flowing metre, are famous in the country of his birth. They are
  fervent, but though abounding in excellent morality, do not rise to
  any great height as poetry. Other Marathi poets who may be mentioned
  are Sridhar (1678-1728), the most copious of all, who translated the
  _Bhagavata Purana_, and the learned Mayura or Moropant (1729-1794),
  whose works smell too much of the lamp to satisfy European standards
  of criticism. Mahipati (1715-1790) was an imitator of Tukaram, but his
  chief importance rests on the fact that he collected the popular
  traditions about national saints, and was thus the author of the _Acta
  sanctorum_ of the Marathas. Lavanis, or erotic lyrics, by various
  writers, are popular, but are often more passionate than decent.
  Another branch of Marathi literature is composed of _Pawadas_ or
  war-ballads, mostly by nameless poets, which are sung everywhere
  throughout the country. There is a small prose literature, consisting
  of narratives of historical events (the so-called _Bakhars_), moral
  maxims and popular tales.

  In the 19th century the facilities of the printing press are
  responsible for a great mass of published matter. Most of the best
  works have been written in English by learned natives, upon whom the
  methods of European scholarship have exercised more influence than
  elsewhere in India, and have given rise to a happy combination of
  western science with Oriental lore. No vernacular authors of
  outstanding merit have appeared during the last century.

  Konkani once had a literature of its own, which is said to have been
  destroyed by the Inquisition at Goa. Temples and manuscripts were
  burnt wholesale. Under Roman Catholic auspices a new literature arose,
  the earliest writer being an Englishman, Thomas Stephens (Thomaz
  Estevão), who came to Goa in 1579, wrote the first Konkani grammar,
  and died there in 1619. Amongst other works, he was the author of a
  Konkani paraphrase of the New Testament in metrical form, which has
  been several times reprinted and is still a favourite work with the
  native Christians. Since his time there has grown up a considerable
  body of Christian literature from the pens of Portuguese missionaries
  and native converts.

  AUTHORITIES.--Marathi is fortunate in possessing the best dictionary
  of any modern Indian language, J. T. Molesworth's (2nd ed., Bombay,
  1857). Navalkar's (3rd ed., Bombay, 1894) is the best grammar. The
  earliest students of Marathi were the Portuguese, who were familiar
  only with the language as spoken on the coast, i.e. with the standard
  dialect of the northern Konkan and with Konkani. They have since
  devoted themselves to these two forms of speech. For the former,
  reference may be made to the _Grammatica da lingua Concani no dialecto
  do norte_, by J. F. da Cunha Rivara (Goa, 1858). For Konkani proper,
  see A. F. X. Maffei's _Grammar_ (Mangalore, 1882) and _Dictionaries_
  (ibid., 1883). These are in English. Monsenhor S. R. Dalgado is the
  author of a _Konkan-Portuguese Dictionary_ (Bombay, 1893).

  For further information regarding Marathi in general, see the list of
  authorities under INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES. For accounts of Marathi
  literature, see the preface to Molesworth's _Dictionary_; also J.
  Murray Mitchell's "The Chief Marathi Poets" in _Transactions of the
  Congress of Orientalists, London, 1892_, i. 282 sqq., and ch. viii. of
  M. G. Ranade's _Rise of the Maratha Power_ (Bombay, 1900). For Konkani
  literature, see J. Gerson da Cunha's "Materials for the History of
  Oriental Studies among the Portuguese," in the _Proceedings of the
  Fourth International Congress of Orientalists_, ii. 179 sqq.
  (Florence, 1881). A full account of Marathi, given in great detail,
  will be found in vol. vii. of the _Linguistic Survey of India_
  (Calcutta, 1905).     (G. A. Gr.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The name is sometimes spelt _Mahrathi_, with an _h_ before the
    _r_, but, according to a phonetic law of the Aryan languages of
    western India, this is incorrect. The original _h_ in "Maharastri,"
    from which the word is derived, is liable to elision on coming
    between two vowels.

  [2] Shastri Vrajlal Kalidas, quoted by Beames in _Comparative
    Grammar_, i. 102.

  [3] See B. A. Gupte in _Indian Antiquary_ (1905), xxxiv. 27.

  [4] For details see Dr Sten Konow's article on Maharastri and Marathi
    in _Indian Antiquary_ (1903), xxxii. 180 seq.

  [5] For the explanation of these terms see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES.

  [6] Abbreviations: Skr. = Sanskrit. Pr. = Maharastri Prakrit. M. =
    Marathi.

  [7] Fuller information regarding all the above postpositions will be
    found in G. A. Grierson's article "On Certain Suffixes in the Modern
    Indo-Aryan Vernaculars," on pp. 473 seq. of the _Zeitschrift für
    vergleichende Sprachforschung_ for 1903.

  [8] See, however, Hoernle, _Comparative Grammar_, p. 364.



MARATHON,, a plain on the N.E. coast of Attica, divided from the plain
of Athens by the range of Pentelicus; it contained four
villages--Marathon, Probalinthos, Tricorythos and Oenoe--which
originally formed an independent _tetrapolis_ and in historical times
still upheld peculiar rites and legendary associations, chiefly
connected with Heracles and Theseus. In the 6th century B.C. it served
as a base for Peisistratus (q.v.), who owned much property in that
district, for securing the rest of Attica. The plain derives its fame
mainly from the battle in which the Athenians and Plataeans defeated the
Persians (490 B.C.). The Persian force had been sent by King Darius to
punish the Athenians for previous interferences in Asia and to restore
their tyrant Hippias. It was probably by advice of the latter that the
generals Datis and Artaphernes landed their troops, numbering perhaps
50,000, at Marathon. The Athenians, on the recommendation of their
strategus Miltiades, resolved to meet this force in the open field, and
sent out their full levy of 9000 heavy infantry under the polemarch
Callimachus. They were joined on the way by 1000 Plataeans, but were
disappointed of the assistance which they expected from Sparta. From
their station at the head of the Vrana valley, which slopes down to
Marathon plain, the Athenians for some days observed the Persian army,
which gave no sign of proceeding to attack. After some waiting,
Miltiades, who seems throughout to have played a more prominent part
than his superior Callimachus, drew up the Athenian army for battle and
charged down upon the enemy, whose line was formed on the level about a
mile distant. The Athenian wings, whose formation had been made
specially deep, broke the opposing divisions by their impact; the centre
was at first overborne by the superior weight of the native Persians,
but ultimately was relieved by the victorious wings, which closed in
upon the Persian centre. The Persians were thereupon driven back into
the sea all along the line, and, although the majority regained their
ships, no less than 6400 were left dead, as against 192 Athenians. The
Persian fleet, of which perhaps a detachment had been sent on before the
battle, now sailed round Cape Sunium in order to effect a landing at
Phalerum, close by Athens, and with the help of traitors within the
walls to take the city by surprise. But Miltiades, who had suspected
some plot all along, and had lately been warned by a signal on Mt
Pentelicus which he interpreted as a message to the Persians, marched
back the victorious army in time to defend Athens. The enemy, upon
noticing his presence, did not venture a second disembarcation and
retired straightway out of Greek waters. The details of the battle, and
the Persian plan of campaign, are not made clear by our ancient sources,
but reconstructions have been attempted by numerous modern authorities.
     (M. O. B. C.)

The tumulus or "Soros" was excavated by M. Stais in 1891 and 1892. A
slight previous excavation had brought to light some prehistoric
implements, and it was supposed that the mound had no connexion with the
battle; but it has now been discovered that the presence of those
prehistoric objects was accidental. Underlying the mound was found a
stratum about 85 ft. long by 20 broad, consisting of a layer of sand,
above which lay the ashes and bones of many corpses; together with these
were the remains of many lecythi and other vases, some of them
contemporary with the Persian wars, some of them of much earlier style,
and probably taken in the emergency from neighbouring cemeteries. It is
conjectured with some probability that a large vase containing ashes may
have been used as the burial urn of one of the Athenian generals who
fell. There was also, in the middle of the stratum, a trench for funeral
offerings about 30 ft. by 3; it contained bones of beasts, with ashes
and fragments of vases. There can therefore be no doubt that the tumulus
was piled up to commemorate the Athenians who fell in the battle, and
that it marks the place where the carnage was thickest. A selection from
the contents of the tumulus has been placed in the National Museum at
Athens.     (E. Gr.)

  See Herodotus vi. 102-117; W. M. Leake, _The Topography of Athens_
  (London, 1841), ii. 203-227; R. W. Macan, _Herodotus_, iv.-vi.
  (London, 1895), ii. 149-248; G. B. Grundy, _The Great Persian War_
  (London, 1901), pp. 145-194; J. A. Munro in _Journal of Hellenic
  Studies_, 1899, pp. 186-197. For the tumulus, [Greek: Harchaiologikon
  Aeltion] 1891, pp. 67 sqq. See also MILTIADES.



MARAZION, a small seaport in the St Ives parliamentary division of
Cornwall, England, on the shore of Mount's Bay, 2 m. E. of Penzance,
served by the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901), 1251. A causeway of
boulders and pebbles, thrown up by the sea and passable at low tide,
unites Marazion with the insular St Michael's Mount (q.v.). The church
of St Hilary, destroyed by fire in 1853, had a very fine spire, which
has been faithfully reproduced in the restored building. Unusual
archaeological interest attaches to the churchyard. Its inscribed stones
date from the 4th century, one being in honour of Constantine the Great.
Another has Cornish lettering, which can no longer be deciphered; and
there are British and Roman crosses. Market gardening and fishing are
the main industries.

The charter attributed to Robert count of Mortain, granting lands and
liberties to St Michael's Mount, opposite Marazion, included a market on
Thursdays. This appears to have been held from the first on the
mainland. From it is probably derived the Marghasbigan (_Parvum Forum_)
of the earlier and the Marghasyewe or Marketjew (_Forum Jovis_) of the
later charters. It may be added that a Jewish origin has been ascribed
to the place from the name Marketjew. It is certain that Richard king of
the Romans provided that the three fairs, on the two feasts of St
Michael and at Mid-Lent, and the three markets which had hitherto been
held by the priors of St Michael's Mount on land not their own at
Marghasbighan, should in future be held on their own land at Marchadyou.
He transferred in fact the fairs and markets from the demesne lands of
the Bloyous in Marazion to those of the prior. To remedy the loss
incurred by this measure Ralph Bloyou in 1331 procured for himself and
his heirs a market on Mondays and a fair on the vigil, feast and morrow
of St Andrew at Marghasyon. In Leland's time the market was held at
Marhasdeythyow (_Forum Jovis_), and both Norden (1582) and Carew (1602)
tell us that Marcajewe signifies the Thursday's market, which, whether
etymologically sound or not, shows that the prior's market had prevailed
over its rival. In 1595 Queen Elizabeth granted to Marazion a charter of
incorporation. This ratified the grant of St Andrew's fair, provided for
another on the Feast of St Barnabas and established a market on
Saturdays. The corporation was to consist of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 12
capital burgesses. This corporation continued to administer the affairs
of the borough until it was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations
Act in 1835, when the property belonging to it was vested in charity
commissioners. The chairman of the commissioners retains possession of
the regalia. Of the fairs only the Michaelmas fair has survived and all
the markets have gone. It is frequently stated that Marazion had
formerly the right of returning two members to parliament, but that
owing to its inability to pay the members' expenses the right was lost.
Under the Commonwealth an attempt was made to secure or recover the
right, and two members are said to have been returned, but they were not
allowed to take their seats. Remains of an ancient bronze furnace,
discovered near the town, tend to prove that tin-smelting was practised
here at an early period. Marazion was once a flourishing town, and owed
its prosperity to the throng of pilgrims who came to visit St Michael's
Mount. During the first half of the 16th century it was twice plundered;
first by the French, and later by the Cornish rebels. The rise and
progress of the neighbouring borough of Penzance in the 17th century was
the undoing of Marazion.



MARBLE (from Lat. _marmar_, Gr. [Greek: marmaros], shining stone), a
term applied to any limestone or dolomite which is sufficiently close in
texture to admit of being polished. Many other ornamental stones--such
as serpentine, alabaster and even granite--are sometimes loosely
designated marble, but by accurate writers the term is invariably
restricted to those crystalline and compact varieties of carbonate of
lime (occasionally with carbonate of magnesia) which, when polished, are
applicable to purposes of decoration. The crystalline structure is
typically shown in statuary marble. A fractured surface of this stone
displays a multitude of sparkling facets, which are the rhombohedral
cleavage-planes of the component grains. The beautiful lustre of
polished statuary marble is due to the light penetrating for a short
distance into the rock and then suffering reflection at the surfaces of
the deeper-lying crystals. The durability of marble in a dry atmosphere
or when protected from rain renders it a valuable building stone (q.v.);
on the other hand, when exposed to the weather or the acid atmosphere of
large cities, its surface readily crumbles.

_Statuary and Economic Marbles._--Among statuary marbles the first place
may be assigned to the famous Pentelic marble, the material in which
Pheidias, Praxiteles, and other Greek sculptors executed their principal
works. The characteristics of this stone are well seen in the Elgin
marbles, which were removed from the Parthenon at Athens, and are now at
the British Museum. The marble was derived from the quarries of Mount
Pentelicus in Attica. Several large buildings have recently been
constructed with this marble in London. The neighbouring mountain of
Hymettus likewise yielded marbles, but these were neither so pure in
colour nor so fine in texture as those of Pentelicus. Parian marble,
another stone much used by Greek sculptors and architects, was quarried
in the isle of Paros, chiefly at Mount Marpessa. It is called by ancient
writers _lychnites_ (from the Gr. [Greek: lychnos], a lamp) in allusion
to the fact that the quarries were worked by the light of lamps. The
Venus de' Medici is a notable example of work in this material. Carrara
marble is better known than any of the Greek marbles, inasmuch as it
constitutes the stone invariably employed by the best sculptors of the
present day. This marble occurs abundantly in the Apuan Alps, an
offshoot of the Apennines, and is largely worked in the neighbourhood of
Carrara, Massa and Serravezza. Stone from this district was employed in
Rome for architectural purposes in the time of Augustus, but the finer
varieties, adapted to the needs of the sculptor, were not discovered
until some time later. It is in Carrara marble that the finest works of
Michelangelo and of Canova are executed. The purest varieties of this
stone are of snow-white colour and of fine saccharoidal texture. Silica
is disseminated through some of the marble, becoming a source of
annoyance to the workman; while occasionally it separates as beautifully
pellucid crystals of quartz known as "Carrara diamonds." The geological
age of the marbles of the Apuan Alps has been a subject of much dispute,
some geologists regarding them as metamorphosed Triassic, Liassic or
Rhaetic rocks. Much of the common marble is of a bluish colour, and
therefore unfit for statuary purposes; when streaked with blue and grey
veins the stone is known as _bardiglio_. Curiously enough, the common
white marble of Tuscany comes to England as Sicilian marble--a name
probably due to its having been formerly re-shipped from some port in
Sicily.

Although crystalline marbles fit for statuary work are not found to any
extent in Great Britain, the limestones of the Palaeozoic formations
yield a great variety of marbles well suited for architectural purposes.
The Devonian rocks of south Devon are rich in handsome marbles,
presenting great diversity of tint and pattern. Plymouth, Torquay,
Ipplepen, Babbacombe and Chudleigh may be named as the principal
localities. Many of these limestones owe their beauty to the fossil
corals which they contain, and are hence known as "madrepore marbles."

Of far greater importance than the marbles of the Devonian system are
those of Carboniferous age. It is from the Carboniferous or Mountain
Limestone that British marbles are mainly derived. Marbles of this age
are worked in Derbyshire and Yorkshire, in the neighbourhood of Bristol,
in North Wales, in the Isle of Man, and in various parts of Ireland. One
of the most beautiful of these stones is the "encrinital marble," a
material which owes its peculiarities to the presence of numerous
encrinites, or stone-lilies. These fossils, when cut in various
directions, give a characteristic pattern to the stone. The joints of
the stems and arms are known from their shape as "wheel-stones," and the
rock itself has been called "entrochal marble." The most beautiful
varieties are those in which the calcareous fossils appear as white
markings on a ground of grey limestone. In Belgium a black marble with
small sections of crinoid stems is known as _petit granit_, while in
Derbyshire a similar rock, crowded with fragments of minute encrinites,
is termed "bird's-eye marble."

Perhaps the most generally useful marbles yielded by the Carboniferous
system are the black varieties, which are largely employed for
chimney-pieces, vases, and other ornamental objects. The colour of most
black limestone is due to the presence of bituminous matter. Such
limestone commonly emits a fetid odour when struck; and the colour,
being of organic origin, is discharged on calcination. Black marbles,
more or less dense in colour, are quarried in various parts of Ireland,
especially at Kilkenny and near Galway, but the finest kind is obtained
from near Ashford in Derbyshire. From Ashford is also derived a very
beautiful stone known as "rosewood marble." This is a dense brown
laminated limestone, displaying when polished a handsome pattern
somewhat resembling the grain of rosewood; it occurs in very limited
quantity, and is used chiefly for inlaid work. The black marble of
Frosterley, Yorkshire, is another Carboniferous example which owes its
"figure" or pattern to the presence of large corals.

With the rosewood marble may be compared the well-known "landscape
marble" or Cotham stone, an argillaceous limestone with peculiar
dendritic markings, due probably to the infiltration of water containing
oxide of manganese. This limestone occurs in irregular masses near the
base of the White Lias, or uppermost division of the Rhaetic series. It
is found principally in the neighbourhood of Bristol. The arborescent
forms depicted in bluish-grey upon this landscape marble form a marked
contrast to the angular markings of warm brown colour which are seen on
slabs of "ruin marble" from Florence--a stone occasionally known also as
landscape stone, or _pietra paesina_.

British limestones of Secondary and Tertiary age are not generally
compact enough to be used as marbles, but some of the shelly beds are
employed to a limited extent for decorative purposes. "Ammonite marble"
is a dark brown limestone from the Lower Lias of Somersetshire, crowded
with ammonites, principally _A. planicostata_. Under the name of Forest
marble, geologists recognize a local division of the Lower Oolitic
series, so named by W. Smith from Wychwood Forest in Oxfordshire, where
shelly limestones occur; and these, though of little economic value, are
capable of being used as rough marbles. But the most important marbles
of the Secondary series are the shelly limestones of the Purbeck
formation. Purbeck marble was a favourite material with medieval
architects, who used it freely for slender clustered columns and for
sepulchral monuments. It consists of a mass of the shells of a
fresh-water snail, _Paludina carinifera_, embedded in a blue, grey or
greenish limestone, and is found in the Upper Purbeck beds of Swanage in
Dorsetshire. Excellent examples of its use may be seen in Westminster
Abbey and in the Temple Church, as well as in the cathedrals of
Salisbury, Winchester, Worcester and Lincoln. Sussex marble is a very
similar stone, occurring in thin beds in the Weald clay, and consisting
largely of the shells of _Paludina_, principally _P. sussexiensis_ and
_P. fluviorum_. The altar stones and the episcopal chair in Canterbury
Cathedral are of this material.

Certain calcareous metamorphic rocks frequently form stones which are
sufficiently beautiful to be used for ornamental purposes, and are
generally classed as marbles. Such serpentinous limestones are included
by petrologists under the term "ophicalcite." The famous _verde antico_
is a rock of this character. Mona marble is an ophicalcite from the
metamorphic series of the Isle of Anglesey, while the "Irish green" of
architects is a similar rock from Connemara in western Galway. It is
notable that some of the "white marble" of Connemara has been found by
W. King and T. H. Rowney to consist almost wholly of malacolite, a
silicate of calcium and magnesium.

A beautiful marble has been worked to a limited extent in the island of
Tiree, one of the Hebrides, but the quarry appears to be now exhausted.
This Tiree marble is a limestone having a delicate carnelian colour
diffused through it in irregular patches, and containing rounded
crystals of sahlite, a green augitic mineral resembling malacolite in
composition.

Many marbles which are prized for the variegated patterns they display
owe these patterns to their formation in concentric zones--such marbles
being in fact stalagmitic deposits of carbonate of lime, sometimes
consisting of aragonite. One of the most beautiful stalagmitic rocks is
the so-called onyx marble of Algeria. This stone was largely used in the
buildings of Carthage and Rome, but the quarries which yielded it were
not known to modern sculptors until 1849, when it was rediscovered near
Oued-Abdallah. The stone is a beautifully translucent material,
delicately clouded with yellow and brown, and is greatly prized by
French workmen. Large deposits of a very fine onyx-like marble, similar
to the Algerian stone, have been worked at Técali, about 35 miles from
the city of Mexico. Among other stalagmitic marbles, mention may be made
of the well-known Gibraltar stone, which is often worked into models of
cannon and other ornamental objects. This stalagmite is much deeper in
colour and less translucent than the onyx marbles of Algeria and Mexico.
A richly tinted stalagmitic stone worked in California is known as
Californian marble. It is worth noting that the "alabaster" of the
ancients was stalagmitic carbonate of lime, and that this stone is
therefore called by mineralogists "Oriental alabaster" in order to
distinguish it from our modern "alabaster," which is a sulphate, and not
a carbonate, of lime. Gypsum capable of taking a polish is found at
Fauld in Staffordshire and in Italy and Spain.

The brown and yellow colours which stalagmitic marbles usually present
are due to the presence of oxide of iron. This colouring matter gives
special characters to certain stones, such as the _giallo antico_, or
antique yellow marble of the Italian antiquaries. Siena marble is a
reddish mottled stone obtained from the neighbourhood of Siena in
Tuscany; and a somewhat similar stone is found in King's County,
Ireland. True red marble is by no means common, but it does occur, of
bright and uniform colour, though in very small quantity, in the
Carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire and north-east Staffordshire. The
red marble called _rosso antico_ is often confounded with the _porfiro
rosso antico_, which is really a mica-hornblende porphyrite owing its
red colour to the mineral withamite.

Fire marble is the name given to a brown shelly limestone containing
ammonites and other fossil shells, which present a brilliant display of
iridescent colours, like those of precious opal. It occurs in rocks of
Liassic age at the lead-mines of Bleiberg in Carinthia, and is worked
into snuff-boxes and other small objects. By mineralogists it is often
termed _lumachella_, an Italian name which may, however, be
appropriately applied to any marble which contains small shells.

The quarries of France, Belgium, Italy and Spain, not to mention less
important localities, yield a great diversity of marbles, and almost
each stone bears a distinctive name, often of trivial meaning; but in
this article it is impossible to enumerate the local names used by
marble-workers in different countries to distinguish the various stones
which pass under their hands.

America possesses some valuable deposits of marble, which in the eastern
States have been extensively worked. The crystalline limestones of
western New England furnish an abundance of white and grey marble, while
a beautiful material fit for statuary work has been quarried near
Rutland in Vermont. A grey bird's-eye marble is obtained from central
New York, and the greyish clouded limestones of Thomaston in Maine have
been extensively quarried. Of the variegated and coloured marbles,
perhaps the most beautiful are those from the northern part of Vermont,
in the neighbourhood of Lake Champlain. A fine brecciated marble is
found on the Maryland side of the Potomac, below Point of Rocks. Among
the principal localities for black marble may be mentioned Shoreham in
Vermont and Glen Falls in New York. In 1908 the American States
producing marble were, in order of value, Vermont, Georgia, Tennessee,
New York, Massachusetts, Alabama, Pennsylvania, Maryland, California,
Colorado, Alaska, N. Carolina, Kentucky, New Mexico, Utah, Missouri and
Idaho. In Canada the crystalline limestones of the pre-Cambrian series
yield beautiful marbles.

In India we find important quarries at Makrana in Rajputana,--a locality
which is said to have yielded the marble for the famous Taj Mahal at
Agra. In the valley of the Nerbudda, near Jabalpur, there is a large
development of marble. The white marble which is used for the delicately
pierced screens called _jalee_ work is obtained from near Raialo, in
Ulwar.     (F. W. R.*)

  _Petrography._--Marbles are uniformly crystalline, and hence have no
  bedding or schistosity which would tend to make them fissile, but are
  entirely massive and free from grain. The microstructure of pure
  marble is comparatively simple. In thin sections they are seen to be
  built up of somewhat rounded grains of calcite, fitting closely
  together in a mosaic; very rarely do any grains show traces of
  crystalline form. They are colourless and transparent, and are usually
  traversed by a lattice-work of sharply defined cleavage cracks, which
  correspond to the rhombohedral faces. In polarized light the colours
  are pinkish or greenish white, or in very thin sections iridescent
  because the mineral has a very strong double refraction. They may also
  be crossed by bars or stripes, each of which indicates a twin plate,
  for the crystals are usually polysynthetic. This twinning may be
  produced by pressure acting either during the crystallization of the
  rock or at a later period.

  The purest marbles generally contain some accessory minerals, and in
  many of these rocks they form a considerable proportion of the whole
  mass. The commonest are quartz in small rounded grains, scales of
  colourless or pale yellow mica (muscovite and phlogopite), dark
  shining flakes of graphite and small crystals of pyrites or iron
  oxides. Even fine Carrara marble leaves a residue of this sort when
  dissolved in acid. Many marbles contain other minerals which are
  usually silicates of lime or magnesia. The list of these accessories
  is a very large one. Augite is very frequent and may be white
  (malacolite) or pale green (coccolite, sahlite, diopside); hornblende
  occurs as white bladed tremolite or pale green actinolite; feldspars
  may be present also, such as orthoclase, or more frequently some
  plagioclase such as albite, labradorite and anorthite; scapolite (or
  wernerite); various kinds of garnet; vesuvianite, spinel, forsterite,
  periclase, brucite, talc, zoisite and epidote, chondrodite, biotite,
  datolite, sphene and apatite may be mentioned as typical accessory
  minerals. The presence of metalliferous minerals such as galena, grey
  or red silver ores, zinc blende, antimonite, chalcopyrite,
  molybdenite, cassiterite, usually indicates impregnation by
  ore-bearing solutions, especially if these substances occur in
  workable quantities. The rubies of Burma are found in crystalline
  limestones and are constantly accompanied by precious spinel (or
  balas-ruby).

  These minerals represent impurities in the original limestone which
  crystallized at the time that the marble became crystalline. The
  silicates derive their silica mainly from sand or infiltrated
  siliceous deposits; the alumina represents an admixture of clay; the
  iron came from limonite or hematite in the original state of the rock.
  Where the silicates bulk largely because the original limestone was
  highly impure, all the carbonic acid may be driven out and replaced by
  silica during the process of recrystallization. The rock is then a
  calc-silicate rock, hard, tough, flinty and no longer readily soluble
  in acids. They are sometimes fine-grained hornstones (known as
  calc-silicate hornfelses). Where white minerals predominate
  (wollastonite, tremolite, feldspar) these rocks may have a close
  resemblance to marbles, but often they are green from the abundance of
  green augites and amphiboles, or brown (when garnet and vesuvianite
  are present in quantity) or yellow (with epidote, chondrodite or
  sphene). Decomposition induces further changes in colour owing to the
  formation of green or yellow serpentine, pale green talc, red
  hematite, and brown limonite. Most of the coloured or variegated
  crystalline marbles have originated in this manner. Often bands of
  calc-silicate rock alternate with bands of marble, and they may be
  folded or bent; in other cases, nodules and patches of silicates occur
  in a matrix of pure marble. Earth movements may shatter the rocks,
  producing fissures afterwards filled with veins of calcite; in this
  way the beautiful brecciated or veined marbles are produced. Sometimes
  the broken fragments are rolled and rounded by the flow of the marble
  under pressure and pseudo-conglomerates or "crush conglomerates"
  result. In other cases the banding of the marble indicates the
  original bedding of the calcareous sediments. Crystalline limestones
  which contain much mica may be called cipollins; in them quartz,
  garnet and hornblende often also occur. The ophicalcites are marbles
  containing much serpentine, which has been formed by the decomposition
  of forsterite, olivine or augite. The much-discussed _Eozoon_, at one
  time supposed to be the earliest known fossil and found in Archaean
  limestones in Canada, is now known to be inorganic and to belong to
  the ophicalcites.

  Many marbles, probably all of them, are metamorphosed limestones. The
  passage of limestones rich in fossils into true marbles as they
  approach great crystalline intrusions of granite is a phenomenon seen
  in many parts of the world; occasionally the recrystallization of the
  rock has not completely obliterated the organic structures (e.g. at
  Carrara and at Bergen in Norway). The agencies which have induced the
  metamorphism are heat and pressure, the heat arising from the granite
  and the pressure from overlying masses of rock, for these changes took
  place before the granite cooled and while it was still deeply buried
  beneath the surface. In 1806 Sir James Hall described a series of
  experiments proving this. He enclosed chalk in a gun-barrel securely
  plugged and heated it to a high temperature in a furnace. Carbonic
  acid was given off by the chalk and produced a great pressure in the
  interior of the tube. After slow cooling the mass was found to have
  become converted into granular crystalline marble. As rocks which have
  undergone changes of this kind are commonest in the oldest and deepest
  layers of the earth's crust, most marbles are Palaeozoic or
  pre-Cambrian. They occur very often with mica schists, phyllites,
  &c., which were beds of clay alternating with the original limestone.
  Formerly it was supposed that some of these marbles were crystalline
  sediments or even igneous rocks, but the tendency of modern geology is
  to assume that they were ordinary limestones, many of which may have
  been fossiliferous. In regions where the sedimentary rocks have been
  converted into schists, gneisses and granulites, the limestones are
  represented by calc schists, cipollins and marbles. Often no granite
  or other intrusive rock is present which may be regarded as the cause
  of the metamorphism. The marbles are often banded or schistose, and
  under the microscope show crushing and deformation of the component
  crystals, such as would have been produced by the earth pressures
  which accompany rock-folding. These crush structures have been
  obtained experimentally in marbles subjected to great pressures in
  steel cylinders. In the recrystallization of these limestones the
  direct heating action of igneous intrusions may have played no part,
  but the rise of temperature and increase of pressure due to the
  folding of great rock masses have probably been the operating causes.
  This type of metamorphism has been distinguished by the name
  _marmarosis_ (Sir A. Geikie, _Text Book of Geology_, 1882).

  For descriptions of ancient marbles see F. Corsi, _Delle pietre
  antiche_ (Rome, 1845); M. W. Porter, _What Rome was built with_
  (Oxford, 1907), and for marbles in general consult E. Hull, _Building
  and Ornamental Stones_ (1872); G. P. Merrill, _Stones for Building and
  Decoration_ (3rd ed., 1905, New York).     (J. S. F.)



MARBLEHEAD, a township of Essex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., occupying
a rocky promontory on Massachusetts Bay, about 16 m. N. of Boston. Pop.
(1890), 8202; (1900), 7582; (1905), 7209; (1910), 7338. Area, about 4
sq. m. Marblehead is served by the Boston & Maine railroad, and by
electric railways connecting with Salem, Lynn and Boston. It is a quaint
old town, with a number of houses dating back to the 17th and 18th
centuries. Among the older buildings are the Lee mansion (1768), St
Michael's church (P. E., 1714), and the old town-hall (1727), sometimes
called Marblehead's "Cradle of Liberty." Abbot Hall (1877), the
municipal building, also contains the public library and several
noteworthy paintings, including "The Spirit of '76" or "Yankee Doodle"
by Archibald M. Willard. The post office and custom-house was completed
in 1904. There are several parks (Crocker, Fort Sewall, Seaside, and
Fountain), and an old burying-ground, in which many of the early
settlers and a number of soldiers of the War of Independence (including
General John Glover) are buried; and a granite monument near the railway
station commemorates the taking of the British supply and powder ship
"Hope" off Marblehead in 1776 by Captain James Mugford, who was killed
during the fight. The commodious harbour, nearly landlocked, is formed
by a rocky peninsula known as Marblehead Neck. On this are the
club-houses of the Eastern and Corinthian Yacht clubs; and Marblehead is
a popular yachting centre. The manufacture of children's shoes is the
principal industry. Shipbuilding, once important, has been superseded by
yacht and launch construction.

Marblehead, originally a part of Salem, known as Marble Harbor, was
settled about 1629 by English emigrants (probably mostly from
Lincolnshire and Devonshire); later (after about 1700) many emigrants
from the Channel Islands settled here, and to them the dialectical
peculiarities of Marblehead have often (perhaps mistakenly) been
attributed. Marblehead was separately incorporated as a town in 1649. In
the colonial period Marblehead was an important commercial port, and at
one time was one of the most populous places in Massachusetts. After the
passage of the Boston Port Bill (1774) it was made the port of entry
instead of Boston, but its merchants refused to take advantage of this
opportunity and patriotically invited the Boston merchants to use their
wharves and warehouses. During the War of Independence many "state
cruisers" (chartered at the Continental expense) set out from this port,
the most famous being the "Lee," commanded by John Manley[1] (1733-93);
in November 1775 this cruiser captured the "Nancy" with military stores
valued at £20,541, which were taken to the American army at Cambridge.
The "Lee" was manned by fifty men of the "amphibious regiment," which
under General John Glover (1732-1797) rendered invaluable services to
Washington in conveying his troops across the East River after the
battle of Long Island, and later in ferrying them across the Delaware
before the battle of Trenton. Marblehead furnished more than 1000 men to
the Continental army. During the war of 1812 the sea fight between the
"Chesapeake" and the "Shannon" took place (June 1, 1813) off the
adjacent coast. Marblehead was the scene of Benjamin (nicknamed "Flood")
Ireson's ride, immortalized by J. G. Whittier.

  See Samuel Roads, jun., _The History and Traditions of Marblehead_
  (Boston, 1880; 3rd ed., Marblehead, 1897).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See Robert E. Peabody, "Naval Career of Captain John Manley of
    Marblehead", in _Essex Institute Historical Collections_ (Salem,
    Mass.) for January 1909.



MARBLES, a children's game of great antiquity, wide distribution, and
uncertain origin, played with small spheres of stone, glass, baked clay
or other material, from one-third of an inch to two inches in diameter.
The game was once popular with all classes. Tradition, both at Oxford
and Cambridge, attests that the game was formerly prohibited among
undergraduates on the steps of the Bodleian or the Senate House. There
is a similar tradition at Westminster School that the boys were
forbidden to play marbles in Westminster Hall on account of the
complaints made by members of parliament and lawyers. An anonymous poem
of the 17th century speaks of a boy about to leave Eton as

  "A dunce at syntax, but a dab at taw."

Rogers, in _The Pleasures of Memory_, recalls how

  "On yon grey stone that fronts the chancel-door,
   Worn smooth by busy feet, now seen no more,
   Each eve we shot the marble through the ring."

Defoe (1720) writes of the seer Duncan Campbell: "Marbles, which he used
to call children's playing at bowls, yielded him mighty diversion; and
he was so dexterous an artist at shooting that little alabaster globe
from between the end of his forefinger and the knuckle of his thumb,
that he seldom missed hitting plumb, as the boys call it, the marble he
aimed at, though at the distance of two or three yards." The _locus
classicus_ on marbles in the 19th century is in the trial in _Pickwick_,
where Serjeant Buzfuz pathetically says of Master Bardell that "his
'alley tors' and his 'commoneys' are alike neglected; he forgets the
long familiar cry of 'knuckle down,' and at tip-cheese, or odd and even,
his hand is out." Many similar passages might be adduced to prove the
former popularity of marbles with the young of all classes. In some
rural parts of Sussex Good Friday was known as "marble-day" till late in
the 19th century, since on that day both old and young, including many
who would never have thought of playing marbles at other times, took
part in the game. There was some traditional reason for regarding
marbles as a Lenten sport--perhaps, as the Rev. W. D. Parish suggests,
"to keep people from more boisterous and mischievous enjoyments."

The origin of the game is concealed in the mists of antiquity. Marbles
used by Egyptian and Roman children before the Christian era are to be
seen in the British Museum. Probably some of the small stone spheres
found among neolithic remains, which Evans (_Ancient Stone Implements_,
2nd ed., p. 420) admits to be too small for projectiles, are prehistoric
marbles. It is commonly assumed that the game which the youthful
Augustus, like other Roman children, played with nuts was a form of
marbles, and that the Latin phrase of _relinquere nuces_, in the sense
of putting away childish things, referred to this game. Strutt believed
that nuts of the roundest sort were the original "marbles." The earliest
unmistakable reference to marbles in literature seems to be in a French
poem of the 12th century, quoted by Littré s.v. _Bille_.

The marbles with which various games are nowadays played are small
spheres of stone, glass or baked clay. In the 18th century they were
mostly made from chips of marble (whence the name) or other stone, which
were ground into a roughly spherical shape by attrition in a special
iron mill. Nuremberg was then the centre of the trade in marbles, though
some were made in Derbyshire, and indeed wherever there was a
stonemason's yard to afford raw material. The "alley taw," as its name
indicates, was made of alabaster. In the first decade of the 20th
century English marbles were all imported from central Germany, and the
alleys, or most valuable marbles, used for shooting, were mostly made of
coloured glass, sold retail from ten a penny to a penny each. Coloured
stone marbles and so-called china marbles--really of baked clay--were
sold at prices varying from forty to a hundred a penny, though even the
cheapest of these were painted by hand with concentric rings. The
well-made and highly valued alleys of earlier times were no longer
procurable, owing to the decline in popularity of the sport. In the
United States, however, much more expensive and accurately rounded
marbles were still manufactured, the latest being of hollow steel.

  There has never been any recognized authority on the game of marbles,
  and it is probable that, in the past as in the present, every parish
  and school and set of boys made its own rules. There are, however,
  three or four distinct games which are traditional, and may be found,
  with trifling variations, wherever the game is played. Strutt, writing
  at the end of the 18th century, describes these as follows: (1) "Taw,
  wherein a number of boys put each of them one or two marbles in a ring
  and shoot at them alternately with other marbles, and he who obtains
  the most of them by beating them out of the ring is the conqueror."
  The marbles placed in the ring--whence the game is often known as
  "ring-taw"--are usually of the cheaper kind known as "commoneys,"
  "stoneys" or "potteys," and the marble with which the player shoots is
  a more valuable one, known as an "alley," or "alley taw," sometimes
  spelt "tor," as by Dickens. Usually it is necessary that the alley
  should emerge from the ring as well as drive out another marble; under
  other rules the ring is smaller, not more than a foot in diameter, and
  the player must be skilful enough to leave his alley inside it, whilst
  driving the object marble outside. (2) "Nine holes: which consists in
  bowling of marbles at a wooden bridge with nine arches." Each arch
  bears a number, and the owner of the bridge pays that number of
  marbles to the player who shoots through it, making his profit from
  the missing marbles, which he confiscates; or the game may simply be
  played so many up--usually 100. (3) "There is also another game of
  marbles where four, five or six holes, and sometimes more, are made in
  the ground at a distance from each other; and the business of every
  one of the players is to bowl a marble by a regular succession into
  all the holes, which he who completes in the fewest bowls obtains the
  victory." This primitive form of golf is played by Zulu adults with
  great enthusiasm, and is still popular among the car-drivers of
  Belfast. (4) "Boss out, or boss and span, also called hit and span,
  wherein one bowls a marble to any distance that he pleases, which
  serves as a mark for his antagonist to bowl at, whose business it is
  to hit the marble first bowled, or lay his own near enough to it for
  him to span the space between them and touch both marbles; in either
  case he wins, if not, his marble remains where it lay and becomes a
  mark for the first player, and so alternately until the game be won."
  In rural parts of England this was known as a "going-to-school game,"
  because it helped the players along the road.

  Mr F. W. Hackwood states that, in the middle of the 19th century,
  taverns in the Black Country had regular marble alleys, consisting of
  a cement bed 20 ft. long by 12 ft. wide and 18 in. from the ground,
  with a raised wooden rim to prevent the marbles from running off.
  Players knelt down to shoot, and had to "knuckle down" fairly--i.e. to
  place the knuckle of the shooting hand on the ground, so that the flip
  of the thumb was not aided by a jerk of the wrist. The game was
  usually ring-taw. But marbles is now obsolete in England as a game for
  adults (_Old English Sports_, London, 1907).

  A writer in _Notes and Queries_ (IX. ii. 314) thus describes the
  marbles used by English boys in the middle of the 19th century: "In
  ring-taw the player put only commoneys in the ring, and shot with the
  taws, which included stoneys, alleys and blood-alleys. Commoneys were
  unglazed; potteys glazed in the kiln. Stoneys were made from common
  pebbles such as were used for road-mending; alleys and blood-alleys
  out of marble. The blood-alleys were highly prized, and were called by
  this name because of the spots or streaks of red in them. In
  Derbyshire, where large numbers were made, they had relative values.
  The stoney was worth three commoneys or two potteys. An alley was
  worth six commoneys or four potteys. Blood-alleys were worth more,
  according to the depth and arrangement of colour--from twelve to fifty
  commoneys and stoneys in proportion." "A taw with a history was prized
  above rubies," another correspondent observes (IX. ii. 76). "All the
  best-made marbles were taws, and no commoneys or potteys were used for
  shooting with, either in ring-taw or the various hole-games." In
  Belfast, 1854-1858, the marble season extended from Easter to June,
  when the ground was usually dry and hard. The marbles were stoneys, of
  composition painted; crockeries, of slightly glazed stone-ware, dark
  brown and yellow; clayeys, of red brick clay baked in the fire;
  marbles, of white marble; china alleys, with white glaze and painted
  rings; and glass marbles. The two chief games were ring-taw and hole
  and taw; in the latter three holes were made in a line, 6 ft. to 12
  ft. apart, and the player had to go three times up and down according
  to somewhat elaborate rules (_Notes and Queries_, IX. iii. 65). The
  stoneys and crockeries were sold at twenty a penny; the clayeys were
  cheaper and were not used as stakes; the marbles proper and china
  alleys, used as taws for shooting, cost a halfpenny and a farthing
  respectively. In other parts of the country the phraseology of marbles
  affords some interesting problems for the philologist. We hear of
  "alleys, barios, poppos and stoneys"; of "marididdles," home-made
  marbles of rolled and baked clay; in Scotland of "bools, whinnies,
  glassies, jauries"; of "Dutch alleys," and so forth. "Dubs, trebs and
  fobs," stand for twos, threes and fours. To be "mucked" is to lose all
  one's "mivvies" or marbles. When the taw stayed in the ring it was a
  "chuck." "Phobbo slips" was a phrase used to forbid the correction of
  an error.

  The fullest account of the various games of marbles played by English
  children is to be found in Mrs Gomme's _Traditional Games of England,
  Scotland and Ireland_ (London, 1898), under the headings Boss-out,
  Bridgeboard, Bun-hole, Cob, Ho-go, Holy Bang, Hundreds, Lag,
  Long-Tawl, Marbles, Nine-Holes, Ring-taw, Three-Holes. Other games are
  known as Plum-pudding, or Picking the Plums, in which one shoots at
  marbles in a row; Pyramids, in which the marbles are arranged in a
  pyramid; Bounce About, Bounce Eye, Conqueror, Die Shot,
  Fortifications, Handers, Increase Pound, Knock Out, Rising Taw,
  Spanners, Tip-shears; Strutt's _Sports and Pastimes_, ed. J. C. Cox
  (London, 1902). Much information will also be found in _Notes and
  Queries, passim_--especially the 9th series. For marbles in France see
  Larousse, s.v. _Billes_. See also SOLITAIRE.     (W. E. G. F.)



MARBOT, JEAN BAPTISTE ANTOINE MARCELIN, BARON DE (1782-1854), French
soldier, son of General Jean Antoine de Marbot (1754-1800), who died in
the defence of Genoa under Masséna, was born at La Rivière (Corrèze), on
the 18th of August 1782. He joined the republican army as a volunteer in
1799, rose rapidly to commissioned rank, and was aide-de-camp to Marshal
Augereau, commanding the VII. corps, in the war against Prussia and
Russia in 1806-7. After this he served with great distinction in the
Peninsular War under Lannes and Masséna, and showed himself to be a
dashing leader of light cavalry in the Russian War of 1812 and the
German campaign of the following year. After a slow recovery from the
wounds he had received at Leipzig and Hanau, he was promoted general of
brigade by Napoleon during the Hundred Days, and took part in, and was
wounded at, the battle of Waterloo. He was exiled at the second
restoration and only returned to France in 1819, after which, however,
his intimacy with the duke of Orleans secured him important military
positions. After the July restoration he was made _maréchal-de-camp_,
and in this rank he was present at the siege of Antwerp in 1832. He was
promoted lieutenant-general in 1836. From 1835 to 1840 he served in
various Algerian expeditions, and in 1845 he was made a member of the
Chamber of Peers. Three years later, at the fall of Louis Philippe, he
retired into private life. He died at Paris on the 16th of November
1854. Marbot wrote two pamphlets, _Remarques critiques sur l'ouvrage de
M. le général Roguet, intitulé Considérations sur l'art de la guerre_
(1820), and _La Nécessité d'augmenter les forces militaires de la
France_ (1825), but his fame rests chiefly, if not indeed wholly, on the
fascinating Memoirs of his _Life and Campaigns_ which were published in
Paris in 1891 (Eng. trans., 1902). To ordinary readers and to students
of history alike these give a picture of the Napoleonic age of warfare
which for vividness and romantic interest has never been surpassed.

His elder brother, ANTOINE ADOLPHE MARCELIN DE MARBOT (1781-1844), was
born at La Rivière, on the 22nd of March 1781, entered the army at an
early age, obtained commissioned rank in the revolutionary wars and
became aide-de-camp to Bernadotte. In 1802 he was arrested on the ground
of being concerned in a plot of the Republicans against the Consulate,
but he was released, though Napoleon continued to regard him as an
opponent of the established régime. After a term of duty with the army
in Santo Domingo he participated in the campaigns of 1806-7, and from
1808 to 1811 he was employed in the Peninsular War. In the Russian War
of 1812 he was wounded and made prisoner. At the end of two years of
captivity he returned to France at the general peace, was aide-de-camp
to Marshal Davout during the Hundred Days, and thereafter passed into
retirement, from which he did not emerge till 1830. He attained the
rank of _maréchal-de-camp_ under Louis Philippe, and died at Bra, near
Tulle, on the 2nd of June 1844.



MARBURG, a town of Austria, in Styria, 41 m. S. of Graz by rail. Pop.
(1900), 24,501. It is very picturesquely situated on the left bank of
the river Drave, on a plain called the Pettauer-Feld, at the base of the
well-wooded Bachergebirge. To the north of the town the train passes
through the Leitersberg tunnel (725 yds. long), opened in 1846, while
the Drave, which has here a width of 200 yds., is spanned by a
magnificent iron bridge, built in 1845. The principal buildings are the
cathedral, dating from the 16th century, the tower of which, erected in
1623, is 136 ft. high, and the old castle. Its situation in the midst of
a fertile vine and fruit-growing district, connected by the navigable
Drave with Hungary, and by railway with Vienna, Trieste, Tirol and
Carinthia, makes it the centre of a considerable traffic in wine and
grain. Its industrial products are leather, boots and shoes, iron and
tin wares, liqueurs and sparkling wine, and it also contains the
extensive workshops of the South Austrian railway. Marburg is the seat
of the bishop of Lavant, and is the native town of the famous Austrian
admiral, Baron Wilhelm of Tegetthoff (1827-1871). Near Marburg is the
village of Mariarast, the church of which is a popular place of
pilgrimage.



MARBURG, an ancient university town of Germany, in the Prussian province
of Hesse-Nassau, situated on the slope of a hill on the right bank of
the Lahn, 60 m. by rail N. of Frankfort-on-Main, on the main line to
Cassel. Pop. (1905), 20,137. On the opposite bank of the river, here
spanned by two bridges, lie the suburb of Weidenhausen and the railway
station of the Prussian state railway. The hill on which the town lies
is crowned by the extensive old Schloss, a fine Gothic building, the
most noteworthy parts of which are the Rittersaal, dating from
1277-1312, and the beautiful little chapel. This Schloss was formerly
the residence of the landgraves of Hesse, served afterwards as a prison,
and is now the repository of the historically interesting and valuable
archives of Hesse. The chief architectural ornament of Marburg is,
however, the Elisabethenkirche, a veritable gem of the purest Early
Gothic style, erected by the grand master of the Teutonic Order in
1235-1283, to contain the tomb of St Elizabeth of Hungary. The remains
of the saint were deposited in a rich silver-gilt sarcophagus, which may
still be seen, and were afterwards visited by myriads of pilgrims, until
the Protestant zeal of Landgrave Philip the Generous caused him to
remove the body to some unknown spot in the church. The church also
contains the tombs of numerous Hessian landgraves and knights of the
Teutonic Order. The Lutheran church is another good Gothic edifice,
dating mainly from the 15th century. The town-hall, built in 1512, and
several fine houses in the Renaissance style, also deserve mention. The
university of Marburg, founded by Philip the Magnanimous in 1527, was
the first university established without papal privileges, and speedily
acquired a great reputation throughout Protestant Europe. It has a
library of 140,000 volumes, is admirably equipped with medical and other
institutes, which form some of the finest modern buildings in the town,
and was attended, in 1905, by 1576 students. Marburg also possesses a
gymnasium, a "Realschule," an agricultural school, a society of
naturalists, a hospital, and an extensive lunatic asylum. It is the seat
of a district court, and of superintendents of the Lutheran and Reformed
Churches. Marburg pottery is renowned; and leather, iron wares and
surgical instruments are also manufactured there. The environs are very
picturesque.

Marburg is first historically mentioned in a document of the beginning
of the 13th century, and received its municipal charter from the
landgrave Louis of Thuringia in 1227. On his death it became the
residence of his wife, Elizabeth of Hungary, who built a hospital there,
and died in 1231, at the age of twenty-four, worn out with works of
religion and charity. She was canonized in 1235 at the instance of the
Teutonic Knights, who had settled in Marburg in 1233 and were zealous in
promoting her cult. By 1247 Marburg had already become the second town
of Hesse, and in the 15th and 16th centuries it alternated with Cassel
as the seat of the landgraves. In 1529 the famous conference between
Luther and Zwingli on the subject of Transubstantiation took place there
in the Rittersaal of the Schloss (see MARBURG, COLLOQUY OF). During the
Thirty Years' and Seven Years' Wars Marburg suffered considerably from
sieges and famine. In 1806, and again in 1810, it was the centre of an
abortive rising against the French, in consequence of which the
fortifications of the castle were destroyed.

  See Kolbe, _Marburg im Mittelalter_ (Marb., 1879); Bücking,
  _Mittheilungen aus Marburgs Vorzeit_ (Marb., 1886); Schoof, _Marburg
  die Perle des Hessenlandes_ (2nd ed., 1903).



MARBURG, COLLOQUY OF (_Marburger Religionsgespräch_), the name given to
a conference of divines held in 1529 in the interests of the unity of
Protestant Germany. The circumstances in which it was held, the
influence of the men who conducted its deliberations, and the result of
its proceedings, combine to render it of no small importance for the
history of the Reformation in Germany.

After the Imperial Diet of Spires in 1526 had decreed that all states of
the empire should observe the Edict of Worms (1521), banning Luther and
his adherents, in such a manner that they should not be afraid to answer
it before God and the emperor, the reform movement had received such an
access of strength that the Catholic party felt itself menaced in
earnest, and in 1529 again passed a resolution at Spires, deigned not
merely to preclude any further expansion of the Reformation, but even to
prevent it from maintaining the ground already won. This decision was at
once challenged, on the 19th of April, by the protest of the Evangelical
states (whence the name Protestants); and the effect of this disclaimer
was not small. Still, it was devoid of political significance, unless
backed by the united force of all the princes and states subscribing to
the Evangelical teaching; and this unity was wanting. The feud which
raged round the doctrine of the Lord's Supper had already broken out
before the first diet of Spires, and had aroused great and immediate
excitement. At a very early period, however, efforts were made to allay
the dissension. Strassburg pronounced for conciliation: but the most
powerful and zealous champion of peace was to be found in the landgrave
Philip of Hesse, who recognized the absolute necessity--from a political
standpoint--of the union of all German Protestants. It is probable that
he had invited Luther to a religious conference as early as the year
1527; but on that occasion he met with a refusal. True, the impression
conveyed by the attitude of the Catholic party at the second Diet of
Spires had served to awaken the feeling for solidarity among the
Evangelicals there assembled; and on the 22nd of April they had even
secured the basis for a provisional alliance in the shape of a formula
drawn up by Bucer and dealing with the Lord's Supper. But it was obvious
that a permanent coalition could not be expected unless some definite
understanding on the debated point could be attained; and on the very
same day the landgrave despatched to Zwingli an invitation to a
colloquy, and received his prompt acquiescence. Melanchthon, who in the
tension which prevailed at the synod had shown himself inclined to
negotiation, became suspicious on his return, and endeavoured to
influence the elector of Saxony and Luther in accordance with his views.
The landgrave, however, was so far successful that the beginning of
October (1529) saw the colloquy opened in the castle at Marburg. With
Zwingli, who had arrived on the 27th of September, he had several
interviews of considerable political importance before the Wittenberg
divines made their appearance. These interviews settled the
preliminaries of an alliance; but they rested on the assumption that the
theological feud between Wittenberg and Zürich could be removed, or its
violence at least abated.

The proceedings opened on the 1st of October with conferences between
Luther and Oecolampadius, and Melanchthon and Zwingli: then on the two
following days the discussion proper--confined almost entirely to Luther
and Zwingli--was held before the landgrave and his guest Duke Ulrich of
Württemberg, in the presence of more than fifty persons. As regards the
main point of contention, i.e. the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, no
agreement was found practicable; and the private conversations on the
4th of October, which formed the sequel of the debate, carried matters
no farther. "You have another spirit," said Luther. Since the landgrave,
however, was reluctant to see the colloquy brought to an absolutely
fruitless close, he requested Luther to draw up a list of the most
important points of doctrine on which it might yet be possible to arrive
at some degree of unanimity. This was done on the 4th of October; and a
few alterations were introduced to meet the wishes of the Swiss
deputies. The _Articles of Marburg_, which thus came into being, contain
the doctrine of the Trinity, of the personality of Christ, of faith and
justification, of the Scriptures, of baptism, of good works, of
confession, of government, of tradition, and of infant baptism. The
fifteenth article, treating of the Lord's Supper, defines the ground
common to both parties even in this debateable region, recognizing the
necessity of participation in both kinds, and rejecting the sacrifice of
the Mass. It then proceeds to fix the point of difference in the fact
that no agreement had been reached on the question "whether the true
body and blood of Christ are corporeally present in the bread and wine"
("Nit vergleicht haben wir uns, ob der war leib und plut Christi
leiblich im brot und wein sey"). Nevertheless, the adherents of each
doctrine are recommended to display Christian charity to those of the
other. These articles were signed by the ten official members of the
colloquy: Luther, Jonas, Melanchthon, Osiander, Agricola, Brenz,
Oecolampadius, Bucer, Hedio and Zwingli. The personal contact between
Luther and Zwingli led to no mental _rapprochement_ between the two; but
in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of
the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable
document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and
Reformed Churches.

  See T. Kolde, s.v. "Marburger Religionsgespräch," in _Realencyklopädie
  f. protestant. Theologie_, 3rd ed. xii. 248 seq.     (C. M.)



MARCA, PIERRE DE (1594-1662), French prelate and historian, was born at
Gan, near Pau, on the 24th of January 1594. His family was known among
judicial circles in the 16th century, and maintained the Roman Catholic
faith after the official introduction of the Reformed religion into
Navarre. After having studied law at the university of Toulouse he
practised successfully at Pau. But he was ambitious, and turned to a
larger sphere. He ardently called for the armed intervention of King
Louis XIII. in Béarn, and on this occasion published his first writing,
_Discours d'un Béarnais, très fidèle sujet du roi, sur l'édit du
rétablissement de l'exercice de la religion catholique dans tout le
Béarn_ (1618). After the easy campaign of 1620, the possessions which
had been taken by the Protestants were given back to the Roman Catholic
church; this task was performed, under his supervision, with judgment
and moderation. During the siege of La Rochelle he performed a mission
which brought him in touch with Richelieu, who shortly afterwards
nominated him _intendant de justice_ in Béarn (1631), and in 1639
summoned him to Paris with the title of counsellor of state. The
following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the
election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent
(_Optalus Gallus de cavendo schismate_, 1640), Marca defended what were
then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated
treatise _De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertalibus
ecclesiae gallicanae_ (1641). He was soon rewarded for this service.
Although he had not yet taken even the minor holy orders, he was
nominated bishop of Couserans by the king on the 28th of December 1641,
but the pope refused to give his sanction. It was only after Marca had
formally denied those propositions contained in _De concordia_ which
were displeasing to Rome that he was proclaimed in the consistory (Jan.
13, 1648). During this time, and until 1651, he was governor of the
province of Catalonia, then occupied by the French. After the Treaty of
the Pyrenees, he was sent to direct the conference which had been formed
to fix the limits of Roussillon, which had just been ceded to France
(1660). Marca now interested himself in the fortunes of Mazarin, and
remained faithful to him even during the Fronde. As a recompense, he
was nominated archbishop of Toulouse (May 28, 1652), but had to wait for
the bulls of investiture till the 23rd of March 1654. It was difficult
for him to please both pope and king. In the struggle against the
Jansenists he used all the influence he had with the clergy to secure
the passage of the apostolic constitution of the 31st of March 1653
(_Relation de ce qui s'est fait depuis 1653 dans les assemblées des
évêques au sujet des cinq propositions_, 1657); but in the rebellion
raised by Retz, archbishop of Paris, against the king, he took the part
of the king against the pope. Michel Le Tellier having ordered him to
refute a thesis of the college of Clermont on the infallibility of the
pope, Marca wrote a treatise which was most Gallican in its ideas, but
refused to publish it for fear of drawing down "the indignation of
Rome." These tactics were successful, and when Retz, weary of a struggle
without definite results, resigned the archbishopric, Marca became his
successor (Feb. 26, 1662). He did not derive much profit from this new
favour, as he died on the 29th of June following, without his nomination
having been sanctioned by the pope.

Marca, clever and covetous, was also an historian of note. When very
young he showed his interest in the past history of his native land, and
in 1617, at the age of twenty-three, he had set to work looking through
archives, copying charters, and corresponding with the principal men of
learning of his time, the brothers Dupuy, André Duchesne and Jean Besly,
whom he visited in Poitou. His _Histoire de Béarn_ was published at
Paris in 1640. It was not so well received as his _De concordia_, but is
more appreciated by posterity. If Marca's criticism is too often
undecided, both in the ancient epochs, where he supports the text by a
certain amount of guesswork and in certain points where he touches on
religion, yet he always gives the text correctly. A number of chapters
end with an interesting collection of charters. It is to be regretted
that this incomplete work does not go beyond 1300. During his long stay
in Catalonia he made preparations for a geographical and historical
description of this province, which was bound to France by so many
political and literary associations. Baluze, who became his secretary in
1656, helped him with the work and finished it, adding clever appendices
and publishing the whole in 1688 under the title _Marca hispanica_.

Marca married Marguerite de Forgues on the 4th of June 1618, and had one
son and three daughters. His son, Galactoire, who was president of the
parlement of Navarre, died on the 10th of February 1689.

  Marca's biography was written in Latin by two of his intimate friends,
  Étienne Baluze, his secretary (_Epistola ad Samuelem Sorbierium, de
  vita, gestis et scriptis Petri de Marca_, Paris, 1663), and his
  cousin, Paul de Faget (at the beginning of a collection of Marca's
  theological pamphlets, first published by Paul de Faget in 1668). This
  contained four treatises on the Eucharist, the sacrifice of the Mass,
  the erection of the patriarchate of Constantinople (in Latin), and the
  sacrament of the Eucharist (in French). It was supposed to contain
  heretical propositions and caused a good deal of scandal, inciting
  Baluze against Faget, both of whom abused the other, to defend the
  memory of the prelate.

  See Bayle's article in the _Dictionnaire historique et critique_ (s.v.
  "Marca"), and the Vie de Marca in the _Histoire de Béarn_ (vol. i.,
  1894) of V. Dubarat.



MARCANTONIO [MARCANTONIO RAIMONDI], the chief Italian master of the art
of engraving in the age of the Renaissance, and the first who practised
it in order to reproduce, not designs of his own invention, as earlier
craftsmen had commonly done, but those of other artists almost
exclusively. The date of his birth is uncertain, nor is there any good
authority for assigning it, as is commonly done, approximately to the
year 1488. He was probably born some years at least earlier than this,
inasmuch as he is mentioned by a contemporary writer, Achillini, as
being an artist of repute in 1504. His earliest dated plate,
illustrating the story of Pyramus and Thisbe, belongs to the following
year, 1505. Marcantonio received his training in the workshop of the
famous goldsmith and painter of Bologna, Francesco Raibolini, usually
called Francia. "Having more aptitude in design," says Vasari, "than his
master, and managing the graver with facility and grace, he made
waist-buckles and many other things in niello, such being then greatly
in fashion, and made them most beautifully, as being in truth most
excellent in that craft." The real fame, however, of Marcantonio was
destined to be founded on his attainments, not in the goldsmith's art
generally, but in that particular development of it which consists of
engraving designs on metal plates for the purpose of reproduction by the
printing press. This art was not new in Italy in the days of
Marcantonio's apprenticeship. It had been practised, in a more or less
elementary form, for not less than forty or fifty years in the workshops
alike of Venetia, the Emilia, Tuscany and Lombardy. But the technical
aim of the Italian engravers had not hitherto been directed, like that
of Schongauer or Dürer north of the Alps, towards securing such freedom
and precision in the use of the burin as should impart to the
impressions taken from their engraved plates both a striking decorative
effect and a power of suggesting to the eye a complex variety of natural
objects and surfaces in light and shade. The Italian masters had been
satisfied with much more rudimentary effects. The Florentine primitives
had been content either with very simple cloudy patches of
cross-hatching in fine straight lines, or with broad open shadings in
the manner of a bold pen-drawing. Mantegna and Pollaiuolo, the two chief
original masters who practised the art, had used the latter method with
great power but at the same time great simplicity.

By the beginning of the 16th century a desire for a more complicated
kind of effects was already arising among the followers of the art in
Italy. Both backgrounds and passages of foreground detail were often
imitated, inartificially enough, from the works of the northern masters.
Marcantonio himself was among the foremost in this movement. About
eighty engravings can be referred to the first five or six years of his
career (1505-1511). Their subjects are very various, including many of
pagan mythology, and some of obscure allegory, along with those of
Christian devotion. The types of figures and drapery, and the general
character of the compositions, bespeak for the most part the
inspiration, and sometimes the direct authorship, of Francia. But the
influence of German example is very perceptible also, particularly in
the landscape backgrounds, and in the endeavour to express form by means
of light and shadow with greater freedom than had been hitherto the
practice of the southern schools. In a few subjects also the figures
themselves correspond to a coarse Teutonic, instead of to the refined
Italian, ideal. But so far we find Marcantonio only indirectly leaning
on the north for the sake of self-improvement. It must have been for the
sake of commercial profit that he by-and-by produced a series of direct
counterfeits on copper from Albert Dürer's woodcuts. These facsimiles
are sixty-nine in number, including seventeen of Dürer's "Life of the
Virgin," thirty-seven of his "Little Passion," on wood, and a number of
single pieces. According to Vasari, Dürer's indignation over those
counterfeits was the cause of his journey to Venice, where he is said to
have lodged a complaint against Marcantonio, and induced the Senate to
prohibit the counterfeiting of his monogram, at any rate, upon any
future imitations of the kind. Vasari's account must certainly be
mistaken, inasmuch as Dürer's journey to Venice took place in 1506, and
neither of the two series of woodcuts imitated by Marcantonio was
published until 1511. The greater part of the designs for the "Life of
the Virgin" had, it is true, been made and engraved seven years earlier
than the date of their publication; and it is to be remarked that,
whereas Marcantonio's copies of the "Little Passion" leave out the
monogram of Dürer, it is inserted in his copies of the "Life of the
Virgin"; whence it would, after all, seem possible that he had seen and
counterfeited a set of impressions of this series at the time when they
were originally executed, and before their publication. But the real
nature of the transaction, if transaction there was, which took place
between Dürer and Marcantonio we cannot now hope to recover. Enough that
the Bolognese engraver evidently profited, both in money and in
education of the hand, by his work in imitating in a finer material the
energetic characters of these northern woodcuts. He was soon to come
under a totally different influence, and to turn the experience he had
gained to account in interpreting the work of a master of a quite other
stamp. Up till the year 1510 Marcantonio had lived entirely at Bologna,
with the exception, it would appear, of a visit or visits to Venice. (A
few of his early engravings are from drawings of the school of
Giorgione.) Very soon afterwards he was attracted, for good and all,
into the circle which surrounded Raphael at Rome. Where or when he had
first made Raphael's acquaintance is uncertain. His passage to Rome by
way of Florence has been supposed to be marked by an engraving, dated
1510, and known as "The Climbers," _Les Grimpeurs_ (Bartsch, 487), in
which he has reproduced a portion of the design of Michelangelo's
cartoon of the Soldiers surprised bathing, and has added behind the
figures a landscape imitated from the then young Dutch engraver Lucas of
Leiden. Contemporary or somewhat earlier than this is a large engraving
done by him from a design by Baldassare Peruzzi, a Sienese artist drawn
about the same time into the Raphael circle. The piece in which he is
recorded to have first tried his hand after Raphael himself is the
Lucretia (Bartsch 192). From that time until he disappears in the
catastrophe of 1527, Marcantonio was almost exclusively engaged in
reproducing by means of engraving the designs of Raphael or of his
immediate pupils. Raphael, the story goes, was so delighted with the
print of the Lucretia that he personally trained and helped Marcantonio
afterwards. A printing establishment was set up under the charge of
Raphael's colour-grinder, Il Baviera, and the profits, in the early
stage of the business, were shared between the engraver and the printer.
The sale soon became very great; pupils gathered round about
Marcantonio, of whom the two most distinguished were Marco Dente, known
as Marco da Ravenna, and Agostino de' Musi, known as Agostino Veneziano;
and he and they, during the last ten years of Raphael's life, and for
several years following his death, gave forth a great profusion of
engravings after the master's work--not copying, in most instances, his
finished paintings, but working up, with the addition of simple
backgrounds and accessories, his first sketches and trials, which often
give the composition in a different form from the finished work, and are
all the more interesting on that account.

The best of these engravings produced in the workshop of
Marcantonio--those, namely, done by his own hand, and especially those
done during the first few years after he had attached himself to
Raphael--count among the most prized and coveted examples of the art. In
them he enters into the genius of his master, and loses little of the
chastened science and rhythmical purity of Raphael's contours, or of the
inspired and winning sentiment of his faces; while in the parts where he
is left to himself--the rounding and shading, the background and
landscape--he manages his burin with all the skill and freedom which he
had gained by the imitation of northern models, but puts away the
northern emphasis and redundance of detail. His work, however, does not
long remain at the height marked by pieces like the Lucretia, the Dido,
the Judgment of Paris, the Poetry, the Philosophy, or the first Massacre
of the Innocents. Marcantonio's engravings after the works of Raphael's
later years are cold, ostentatious, and soulless by comparison. Still
more so, as is natural, were those which he and his pupils produced
after the designs of the degenerate scholars of Raphael and
Michelangelo, of a Giulio Romano, a Polidoro, or a Bandinelli.
Marcantonio's association with Giulio Romano was the cause of his first
great disaster in life. He engraved a series of obscene designs by that
painter in illustration of the _Sonnetti lussuriosi_ of Pietro Aretino,
and thereby incurred the anger of pope Clement VII., at whose order he
was thrown into prison. Marcantonio's ruin was completed by the
calamities attendant on the sack of Rome in 1527. He had to pay a heavy
ransom in order to escape from the hands of the Spaniards, and fled from
Rome, in the words of Vasari, "all but a beggar." It is said that he
took refuge in his native city, Bologna; but he never again emerges from
obscurity, and all we know with certainty is that in 1534 he was dead.
     (S. C.)



MARCASITE, a mineral with the same chemical composition as pyrites,
being iron disulphide FeS2, but crystallizing in the orthorhombic
instead of in the cubic system. The name is of Arabic origin and was
long applied to crystallized pyrites (q.v.); it was restricted to the
present species by W. Haidinger in 1845. The mineral was known to G.
Agricola in 1546 under the names _Wasserkies_ or _Weisserkies_ and
_Leberkies_, and it has been variously known as white pyrites, hepatic
pyrites, lamellar pyrites, radiated pyrites (German _Strahlkies_) and
prismatic pyrites. The orthorhombic form of the crystals, as distinct
from the cubic form of pyrites, was recognized by Romé de l'Isle in
1772, though later R. J. Haüy considered the crystals to be only
distorted cubic forms.

[Illustration]

The crystals are isomorphous with mispickel (q.v.), but only rarely are
they distinctly developed and simple (fig.). Usually they are twinned on
a prism plane, M, producing pentagonal stellate groups of five crystals;
twinning on the plain g, in which the crystals intercross at angles of
nearly 60°, is less common. This frequent twinning gives rise to
characteristic forms, with many re-entrant angles, to which the names
"spear pyrites" and "cockscomb pyrites" are applied. The commonest state
of aggregation is that of radially arranged fibres, the external surface
of the mass being globular, nodular or stalactitic in form.

Apart from crystalline form, the external characters of marcasite are
very similar to those of pyrites, and when distinct crystals are not
available the two species cannot always be easily distinguished. The
colour is usually pale bronze-yellow, often rather lighter than that of
pyrites; on freshly fractured surfaces of pure marcasite the colour is
tin-white, but this rapidly tarnishes on exposure to air. The lustre is
metallic and brilliant. The streak is greyish or brownish-black. The
hardness (6-6½) is the same as that of pyrites, and the specific gravity
(4.8-4.9) as a rule rather less. Arsenical varieties of marcasite,
containing up to 5% of arsenic, are known as lonchidite and kyrosite.

  Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the
  production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of
  ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often
  became completely disintegrated. In nature it is frequently altered to
  limonite with the separation of native sulphur. Marcasite is thus the
  less stable of the two modifications of iron disulphide. Many
  experiments have been made with a view to determining the difference
  in chemical constitution of marcasite and pyrites, but with no very
  definite results. It is a noteworthy fact that whilst pyrites has been
  prepared artificially, marcasite has not.

  Marcasite occurs under the same conditions as pyrites, but is much
  less common. Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older
  crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and
  has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains. It is
  abundant, for example, in the plastic clay of the Brown Coal formation
  at Littmitz, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, at which place it has been
  extensively mined for the manufacture of sulphur and ferrous sulphate.
  In the Chalk of the south-east of England nodules of marcasite with a
  fibrous radiated structure are abundant, and in the Chalk Marl between
  Dover and Folkestone fine twinned groups of "spear pyrites" are
  common. The mineral is also met with in metalliferous veins, though
  much less frequently than pyrites; for example the "cockscomb pyrites"
  of the lead mines of Derbyshire and Cumberland.     (L. J. S.)



MARCEAU-DESGRAVIERS, FRANÇOIS SÉVERIN (1769-1796), French general, was
born at Chartres on the 1st of March 1769. His father was a law officer,
and he was educated for a legal career, but at the age of sixteen he
enlisted in the regiment of Savoy-Carignan. Whilst on furlough in Paris
Marceau joined in the attack on the Bastille (July 14, 1789); after that
event he took his discharge from the regular army and returned to
Chartres, but the embarrassments of his family soon compelled him to
seek fresh military employment. He became drill instructor, and
afterwards captain in the departmental (Eure-et-Loire) regiment of the
National Guard. Early in March 1792 he was elected lieutenant-colonel
of one of the battalions of the Eure-et-Loire; he took part in the
defence of Verdun in 1792, and it fell to his lot to bear the proposals
of capitulation to the Prussian camp. The spiritless conduct of the
defenders excited the wrath of the revolutionary authorities, and
Marceau was fortunate in escaping arrest and finding re-employment as a
captain in the regular service. Early in 1793 he became with other
officers "suspect," and was for some time imprisoned. On his release he
hurried to take part in the defence of Saumur against the Vendéan
royalists, and distinguished himself at the combat of Saumur (June 10,
1793) by gallantly rescuing the representative Bourbotte from the hands
of the insurgents. The Convention voted him the thanks of the country,
and thenceforward his rise was rapid. His conduct at Chantonnay (Sept.
5) won him the provisional rank of general of brigade. On the 17th of
October he bore a great part in the victory of Cholet, and on the field
of this battle began his friendship with Kléber. For the victory of
Cholet Kléber was made general of division and Marceau confirmed as
general of brigade. Their advice was of the greatest value to the
generals in command, and the military talents of each were the
complement of the other's. Marceau, who became general of division (Nov.
10), succeeded to the chief command _ad interim_, and with his friend
won important victories near Le Mans (Dec 12-13) and Savenay (Dec. 23).
After the battle of Le Mans, Marceau rescued and protected a young
Royalist lady, Angélique des Mesliers. It is often supposed that he was
in love with his prisoner; but the help even of the commander-in-chief
did not avail to save her from the guillotine (Jan. 22, 1794). Marceau
had already retired from the war, exhausted by the fatigues of the
campaign, and he and Kléber were saved from arrest and execution only by
the intervention of Bourbotte. Marceau became affianced about this time
to Agathe Leprêtre de Châteaugiron, but his constant military
employment, his broken health, and the opposition of the comte de
Châteaugiron on the one hand and of Marceau's devoted half-sister
"Emira," wife of the Republican politician Sergent, on the other,
prevented the realization of his hopes. After spending the winter of
1793-1794 in Paris he took a command in the army under Jourdan, in which
Kléber also served. He took part in the various battles about Charleroi,
and at the final victory of Fleurus (June 26, 1794) he had a horse shot
under him. He distinguished himself again at Jülich and at Aldenhoven,
and stormed the fines of Coblenz on the 23rd of October. With the Army
of the Sambre and Meuse he took his share in the campaign of 1795 on the
Rhine and the Lahn, distinguishing himself particularly with Kléber in
the fighting about Neuwied on the 18th and 19th of October, and at
Sulzbach on the 17th of December. In the campaign of 1796 the famous
invasion of Germany by the armies of Jourdan and Moreau ended in
disaster, and Marceau's men covered Jourdan's retreat over the Rhine. He
fought the desperate actions on the Lahn (Sept. 16 and 18), and at
Altenkirchen on the 19th received a mortal wound, of which he died on
the 21st, at the early age of twenty-seven. The Austrians vied with his
own countrymen in doing honour to the dead general. His body was burned,
and his ashes, which at the time were placed under a pyramid designed by
Kléber, were transferred in 1889 to the Pantheon at Paris.

  See Maze, _Le Général Marceau_ (1889); Parfait, _Le Général Marceau_
  (1892); and T. C. Johnson, _Marceau_ (London, 1896).



MARCEL, ÉTIENNE (d. 1358), provost of the merchants of Paris under King
John II., belonged by birth to the wealthy Parisian _bourgeoisie_, being
the son of a clothier named Simon Marcel and of Isabelle Barbou. He is
mentioned as provost of the Grande-Confrérie of Notre Dame in 1350, and
in 1354 he succeeded Jean de Pacy as provost of the Parisian merchants.
His political career began in 1356, when John was made prisoner after
the battle of Poitiers. In conjunction with Robert le Coq, bishop of
Laon, he played a leading part in the states-general called together by
the dauphin Charles on the 17th of October. A committee of eighty
members, constituted on their initiative, pressed their demands with
such insistence that the dauphin prorogued the states-general; but
financial straits obliged him to summon them once more on the 3rd of
February 1357, and the promulgation of a great edict of reform was the
consequence. John the Good forbade its being put into effect, whereupon
a conflict began between Marcel and the dauphin, Marcel endeavouring to
set up Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, in opposition to him. The
states-general assembled again on the 13th of January 1358, and on the
22nd of February the populace of Paris, led by Marcel, invaded the
palace and murdered the marshals of Champagne and Normandy before the
prince's eyes. Thenceforward Marcel was in open hostility to the throne.
After vainly hoping that the insurrection of the Jacquerie might turn to
his advantage, he next supported the king of Navarre, whose armed bands
infested the neighbourhood of Paris. On the night of the 31st of July
Marcel was about to open the gates of the capital to them, but Jean
Maillart prevented the execution of this design, and killed him before
the Porte Saint-Antoine. During the following days his adherents were
likewise put to death, and the dauphin was enabled to re-enter Paris.
Étienne Marcel married first Jeanne de Dammartin, and secondly
Marguerite des Essars, who survived him.

  See F. T. Perrens, _Étienne Marcel et le gouvernement de la
  bourgeoisie au xiv^e siècle_ (Paris, 1860); P. Frémaux, _La Famille
  d'Étienne Marcel_, in the _Mémoires_ of the _Société de l'histoire de
  Paris et de l'Île de France_ (1903), vol. xxx.; and Hon. R. D. Denman,
  _Étienne Marcel_ (1898).     (J. V.*)



MARCELLINUS, ST, according to the Liberian catalogue, became bishop of
Rome on the 30th of June, 296; his predecessor was Caius or Gaius. He is
not mentioned in the _Martyrologium hieronymianum_, or in the _Depositio
episcoporum_, or in the _Depositio martyrum_. The _Liber pontificalis_,
basing itself on the Acts of St Marcellinus, the text of which is lost,
relates that during Diocletian's persecution Marcellinus was called upon
to sacrifice, and offered incense to idols, but that, repenting shortly
afterwards, he confessed the faith of Christ and suffered martyrdom with
several companions. Other documents speak of his defection, and it is
probably this lapse that explains the silence of the ancient liturgical
calendars. In the beginning of the 5th century Petilianus, the Donatist
bishop of Constantine, affirmed that Marcellinus and his priests had
given up the holy books to the pagans during the persecution and offered
incense to false gods. St Augustine contents himself with denying the
affair (_Contra litt. Petiliani_, ii. 202; _De unico baptismo_, 27). The
records of the pseudo-council of Sinuessa, which were fabricated at the
beginning of the 6th century, state that Marcellinus after his fall
presented himself before a council, which refused to try him on the
ground that _prima sedes a nemine iudicatur_. According to the _Liber
pontificalis_, Marcellinus was buried, on the 26th of April 304, in the
cemetery of Priscilla, on the Via Salaria, 25 days after his martyrdom;
the Liberian catalogue gives as the date the 25th of October. The fact
of the martyrdom, too, is not established with certainty. After a
considerable interregnum he was succeeded by Marcellus, with whom he has
sometimes been confounded.

  See L. Duchesne, _Liber pontificalis_, I. lxxiii.-lxxiv. 162-163, and
  II. 563.     (H. De.)



MARCELLO, BENEDETTO (1686-1739), Italian musical composer, was born in
1686, either on the 31st of July or on the 1st of August. He was of
noble family (in his compositions he is frequently described as
"Patrizio Veneto"), and although a pupil of Lotti and Gasparini, was
intended by his father to devote himself to the law. In 1711 he was a
member of the Council of Forty, and in 1730 went to Pola as
Provveditore. His health having been impaired by the climate of Istria,
he retired after eight years to Brescia in the capacity of Camerlengo,
and died there on the 24th of July 1739.

Marcello is best remembered by his _Estro poetico-armonico_ (Venice,
1724-1727), a musical setting for voices and strings of the first fifty
Psalms, as paraphrased in Italian by G. Giustiniani. They were much
admired by Charles Avison, who with John Garth brought out an edition
with English words (London, 1757). Some extracts are to be found in
Hawkins's _History of Music_. His other works are chiefly cantatas,
either for one voice or several; the library of the Brussels
conservatoire possesses some interesting volumes of chamber-cantatas
composed for his mistress. Although he produced an opera, _La Fede
riconosciuta_, at Vicenza in 1702, he had little sympathy with this form
of composition, and vented his opinions on the state of musical drama at
the time in the satirical pamphlet _Il Teatro alla moda_, published
anonymously in Venice in 1720. This little work, which was frequently
reprinted, is not only extremely amusing, but is also most valuable as a
contribution to the history of opera.

  A catalogue of his works is given in _Monatshefte für
  Musikgeschichte_, vol. xxiii. (1891).



MARCELLUS, the name of two popes.

MARCELLUS I. succeeded Marcellinus, after a considerable interval, most
probably in May 308, under Maxentius. He was banished from Rome in 309
on account of the tumult caused by the severity of the penances he had
imposed on Christians who had lapsed under the recent persecution. He
died the same year, being succeeded by Eusebius. He is commemorated on
the 16th of January.

MARCELLUS II. (Marcello Cervini), the successor of Julius III., was born
on the 6th of May 1501, and was elected pope on the 9th of April 1555.
He had long been identified with the rigorist party in the church, and
as president of the Council of Trent had incurred the anger of the
emperor by his jealous defence of papal prerogative. His motives were
lofty, his life blameless, his plans for reform nobly conceived. But
death removed him (April 30, 1555) before he could do more than give an
earnest of his intentions. He was followed by Paul IV.

  Contemporary lives are to be found in Panvinio, continuator of
  Platina, _De vitis pontiff, rom._; and Ciaconius, _Vitae et res gestae
  summorum pontiff. rom._ (Rome, 1601-1602). P. Polidoro, _De gestis,
  vita et moribus Marcelli II._ (Rome, 1744), makes use of an
  unpublished biography of the pope by his brother, Alessandro Cervini.
  See also Brilli, _Intorno alla vita e alle azioni di Marcello II._
  (Montepulciano, 1846); Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans., Austin), i. 284
  seq.; A. von Reumont, _Gesch. der Stadt Rom_, iii. 2, 512, seq.
       (T. F. C.)



MARCELLUS, a Roman plebeian family belonging to the Claudian gens. Its
most distinguished members were the following:--

1. MARCUS CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS (c. 268-208 B.C.), one of the Roman
generals during the Second Punic War and conqueror of Syracuse. He first
served against Hamilcar in Sicily. In his first consulship (222) he was
engaged, with Cn. Cornelius Scipio as colleague, in war against the
Insubrian Gauls, and won the _spolia opima_ for the third and last time
in Roman history by slaying their chief Viridomarus or Virdumarus
(Polybius ii. 34; Propertius v. 10, 39). In 216, after the defeat at
Cannae, he took command of the remnant of the army at Canusium, and
although he was unable to prevent Capua going over to Hannibal, he saved
Nola and southern Campania. In 214 he was in Sicily as consul at the
time of the revolt of Syracuse; he stormed Leontini and besieged
Syracuse, but the skill of Archimedes repelled his attacks. After a two
years' siege he gradually forced his way into the city and took it in
the face of strong Punic reinforcements. He spared the lives of the
inhabitants, but carried off their art treasures to Rome, the first
instance of a practice afterwards common. Consul again in 210, he took
Salapia in Apulia, which had revolted to Hannibal, by help of the Roman
party there, and put to death the Numidian garrison. Proconsul in 209,
he attacked Hannibal near Venusia, and after a desperate battle retired
to that town; he was accused of bad generalship, and had to leave the
army to defend himself in Rome. In his last consulship (208), he and his
colleague, while reconnoitring near Venusia, were unexpectedly attacked,
and Marcellus was killed. His successes have been exaggerated by Livy,
but the name often given to him, the "sword of Rome," was well deserved.


  Livy xxiii. 14-17, 41-46; xxiv. 27-32, 35-39; xxv. 5-7, 23-31; xxvi.
  26, 29-32; xxvii. 1-5, 21-28; Polybius viii. 5-9, x. 32; Appian,
  _Hannib._ 50; Florus ii. 6.

2. M. CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS, an inveterate opponent of Julius Caesar.
During his consulship (51 B.C.) he proposed to remove Caesar from his
army in March 49, but this decision was delayed by Pompey's irresolution
and the skilful opposition of the tribune C. Curio (see CAESAR, JULIUS).
In January 49 he tried to put off declaring war against Caesar till an
army could be got ready, but his advice was not taken. When Pompey left
Italy, Marcus and his brother Gaius followed, while his cousin withdrew
to Liternum. After Pharsalus M. Marcellus retired to Mytilene, where he
practised rhetoric and studied philosophy. In 46 his cousin and the
senate successfully appealed to Caesar to pardon him, and Marcellus
reluctantly consented to return. On this occasion Cicero's[1] speech
_Pro Marcello_ was delivered. Marcellus left for Italy, but was murdered
in May by one of his own attendants, P. Magius Chilo, in the Peiraeus.
Marcellus was a thorough aristocrat. He was an eloquent speaker (Cicero,
_Brutus_, 71), and a man of firm character, although not free from
avarice.

  See Cicero, _Ad fam._ iv. 4, 7, 10, and _Ad Att._ v. 11 (ed. Tyrrell
  and Purser); Caesar, _B. C._ i. 2; Suetonius, _Caesar_, 29; G.
  Boissier, _Cicero and his Friends_ (Eng. trans., 1897).

3. M. CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS (c. 43-23 B.C.), son of C. Marcellus and
Octavia, sister of Augustus. In 25 he was adopted by the emperor and
married to his daughter Julia. This seemed to mark him out as the heir
to the throne, but Augustus, when attacked by a serious illness, gave
his signet to M. Vipsanius Agrippa. In 23 Marcellus, then curule aedile,
died at Baiae. Livia was suspected of having poisoned him to get the
empire for her son Tiberius. Great hopes had been built on the youth,
and he was celebrated by many writers, especially by Virgil in a famous
passage (_Aeneid_, vi. 860). He was buried in the Campus Martius, and
Augustus himself pronounced the funeral oration. The Theatrum Marcelli
(remains of which can still be seen) was afterwards dedicated in his
honour.

  Horace, _Odes_, i. 12; Propertius iii. 18; Dio Cassius liii. 28, 30;
  Tacitus, _Annals_, ii. 41; Suetonius, _Augustus_, 63; Vell. Pat. ii.
  93.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The authorship of this speech has been disputed.



MARCESCENT (Lat. _marcescens_, withering), a botanical term for
withering without falling off.



MARCH, EARLS OF, title derived from the "marches" or boundaries (1)
between England and Wales, and (2) England and Scotland, and held
severally by great feudal families possessed of lands in those border
districts. The earls of March on the Welsh borders were descended from
Roger de Mortemer (so called from his castle of Mortemer in Normandy),
who was connected by marriage with the dukes of Normandy. His son Ralph
(d. c. 1104) figures in Domesday as the holder of vast estates in
Shropshire, Herefordshire and other parts of England, especially in the
west; and his grandson Hugh de Mortimer, founder of the priory of
Wigmore in Herefordshire, was one of the most powerful of the barons
reduced to submission by Henry II., who compelled him to surrender his
castles of Cleobury and Wigmore. The Mortimers, however, continued to
exercise almost undisputed sway, as lords of Wigmore, over the western
counties and the Welsh marches.

I. _Welsh Marches._--ROGER DE MORTIMER (c. 1286-1330), 8th baron of
Wigmore and 1st earl of March, being an infant at the death of his
father, Edmund, was placed by Edward I. under the guardianship of Piers
Gaveston, and was knighted by Edward in 1306; Mortimer's mother being a
relative of Edward's consort, Eleanor of Castile. Through his marriage
with Joan de Joinville, or Genevill, Roger not only acquired increased
possessions on the Welsh marches, including the important castle of
Ludlow, which became the chief stronghold of the Mortimers, but also
extensive estates and influence in Ireland, whither he went in 1308 to
enforce his authority. This brought him into conflict with the De Lacys,
who turned for support to Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, king of
Scotland. Mortimer was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland by Edward
II. in 1316, and at the head of a large army drove Bruce to
Carrickfergus, and the De Lacys into Connaught, wreaking vengeance on
their adherents whenever they were to be found. He was then occupied for
some years with baronial disputes on the Welsh border until about 1318,
when he began to interest himself in the growing opposition to Edward
II. and his favourites, the Despensers; and he supported Humphrey de
Bohun, earl of Hereford, in refusing to obey the king's summons to
appear before him in 1321. Forced to surrender to the king at Shrewsbury
in January 1322, Mortimer was consigned to the Tower of London, whence
he escaped to France in August 1324. In the following year Isabella,
wife of Edward II., anxious to escape from her husband, obtained his
consent to her going to France to use her influence with her brother,
Charles IV., in favour of peace. At the French court the queen found
Roger Mortimer; she became his mistress soon afterwards, and at his
instigation refused to return to England so long as the Despensers
retained power as the king's favourites. The scandal of Isabella's
relations with Mortimer compelled them both to withdraw from the French
court to Flanders, where they obtained assistance for an invasion of
England. Landing in England in September 1326, they were joined by
Henry, earl of Lancaster; London rose in support of the queen; and
Edward took flight to the west, whither he was pursued by Mortimer and
Isabella. After wandering helplessly for some weeks in Wales, the king
was taken on the 16th of November, and was compelled to abdicate in
favour of his son. But though the latter was crowned as Edward III. in
January 1327, the country was ruled by Mortimer and Isabella, who
procured the murder of Edward II. in the following September. Rich
estates and offices of profit and power were now heaped on Mortimer, and
in September 1328 he was created earl of March. Greedy and grasping, he
was no more competent than the Despensers to conduct the government of
the country. The jealousy and anger of Lancaster having been excited by
March's arrogance, Lancaster prevailed upon the young king, Edward III.,
to throw off the yoke of his mother's paramour. At a parliament held at
Nottingham in October 1330 a plot was successfully carried out by which
March was arrested in the castle, and, in spite of Isabella's entreaty
to her son to "have pity on the gentle Mortimer," was conveyed to the
Tower. Accused of assuming royal power and of various other high
misdemeanours, he was condemned without trial and hanged at Tyburn on
the 29th of November 1330, his vast estates being forfeited to the
crown. March's wife, by whom he had four sons and eleven daughters,
survived till 1356. The daughters all married into powerful families,
chiefly of Marcher houses. His eldest son, Edmund, was father of Roger
Mortimer (c. 1328-1360), who was knighted by Edward III. in 1346, and
restored to his grandfather's title as 2nd earl of March.

EDMUND DE MORTIMER (1351-1381), 3rd earl of March, was son of Roger, 2nd
earl of March, by his wife Philippa, daughter of William Montacute, 1st
earl of Salisbury. Being an infant at the death of his father, Edmund,
as a ward of the crown, was placed by Edward III. under the care of
William of Wykeham and Richard Fitzalan, earl of Arundel. The position
of the young earl, powerful on account of his possessions and hereditary
influence in the Welsh marches, was rendered still more important by his
marriage in 1368 to Philippa, only daughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence,
third son of Edward III. Lionel's wife was Elizabeth, daughter and
heiress of William de Burgh, 6th Lord of Connaught and 3rd earl of
Ulster, and Lionel had himself been created earl of Ulster before his
marriage. The earl of March, therefore, not only became the
representative of one of the chief Anglo-Norman lordships in Ireland in
right of his wife Philippa, but the latter, on the death of her father
shortly after her marriage, stood next in succession to the crown after
the Black Prince and his sickly son Richard, afterwards king Richard II.
This marriage had, therefore, far-reaching consequences in the history
of England, giving rise to the claim of the house of York to the crown
of England, contested in the War of the Roses; Edward IV. being
descended from the third son of Edward III. as great-great-grandson of
Philippa, countess of March, and in the male line from Edmund, duke of
York, fifth son of Edward III.

Mortimer, now styled earl of March and Ulster, became marshal of England
in 1369, and was employed in various diplomatic missions during the next
following years. He was a member of the committee appointed by the Peers
to confer with the Commons in 1373--the first instance of such a joint
conference since the institution of representative parliaments--on the
question of granting supplies for John of Gaunt's war in France; and in
the opposition to Edward III. and the court party, which grew in
strength towards the end of the reign, March took the popular side,
being prominent in the Good Parliament of 1376 among the lords who,
encouraged by the Prince of Wales, concerted an attack upon the court
party led by John of Gaunt. The Speaker of the Commons in this
parliament was March's steward, Peter de la Mare; he firmly withstood
John of Gaunt in stating the grievances of the Commons, in supporting
the impeachment of several high court officials, and in procuring the
banishment of the king's mistress, Alice Perrers. March was a member of
the administrative council appointed by the same parliament after the
death of the Black Prince to attend the king and advise him in all
public affairs. On the accession of Richard II., a minor, in 1377, the
earl became a member of the standing council of government; though as
father of the heir-presumptive to the crown he wisely abstained from
claiming any actually administrative office. The most powerful person in
the realm was, however, John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, whose jealousy
of March led to the acceptance by the latter of the lieutenancy of
Ireland in 1379. March succeeded in asserting his authority in eastern
Ulster, but failed to subdue the O'Neills farther west. Proceeding to
Munster to put down the turbulency of the chieftains of the south, March
died at Cork on the 27th of December 1381. He was buried in Wigmore
Abbey, of which he had been a benefactor, and where his wife Philippa
who died about the same time was also interred. The earl had two sons
and two daughters, the elder of whom, Elizabeth, married Henry Percy
(Hotspur), son of the earl of Northumberland. His eldest son Roger
succeeded him as 4th earl of March and Ulster. His second son Edmund
(1376-1409) played an important part in conjunction with his
brother-in-law Hotspur against Owen Glendower; but afterwards joined the
latter, whose daughter he married about 1402.

ROGER DE MORTIMER, 4th earl of March and Ulster (1374-1398), son of the
3rd earl, succeeded to the titles and estates of his family when a child
of seven, and a month afterwards he was appointed lord-lieutenant of
Ireland, his uncle Sir Thomas Mortimer acting as his deputy. Being a
ward of the Crown, his guardian was the earl of Kent, half-brother to
Richard II.; and in 1388 he married Kent's daughter, Eleanor. The
importance which he owed to his hereditary influence and possessions,
and especially to his descent from Edward III., was immensely increased
when Richard II. publicly acknowledged him as heir-presumptive to the
crown in 1385. In 1394 he accompanied Richard to Ireland, but
notwithstanding a commission from the king as lieutenant of the
districts over which he exercised nominal authority by hereditary right,
he made little headway against the native Irish chieftains. March
enjoyed great popularity in England though he took no active part in
opposing the despotic measures of the king; in Ireland he illegally
assumed the native Irish costume. In August 1398 he was killed in fight
with an Irish clan, and was buried in Wigmore Abbey. March's daughter
Anne married Richard earl of Cambridge, son of Edmund duke of York,
fifth son of Edward III.; their son Richard, duke of York, was father of
King Edward IV., who thus derived his title to the crown and acquired
the estates of the house of Mortimer.

EDMUND DE MORTIMER (1391-1425), 5th earl of March and Ulster, son of the
4th earl, succeeded to his father's claim to the crown as well as to his
title and estates on the death of the latter in Ireland in 1398. In the
following year Richard II. was deposed and the crown seized by Henry of
Lancaster. The young earl of March and his brother Roger were then kept
in custody by Henry IV., who, however, treated them honourably, until
March 1405, when they were carried off from Windsor Castle by the
opponents of the Lancastrian dynasty, of whom their uncle Sir Edmund
Mortimer (see above) and his brother-in-law Henry Percy (Hotspur) were
leaders in league with Owen Glendower. The boys were recaptured, and in
1409 were committed to the care of the prince of Wales. On the accession
of the latter as Henry V., in 1413, the earl of March was set at liberty
and restored to his estates, his brother Roger having died some years
previously; and he continued to enjoy the favour of the king in spite of
a conspiracy in 1415 to place him on the throne, in which his
brother-in-law, the earl of Cambridge, played the leading part. March
accompanied Henry V. throughout his wars in France, and on the king's
death in 1422 became a member of the council of regency. He died in
Ireland in 1425, and as he left no issue the earldom of March in the
house of Mortimer became extinct, the estates passing to the last earl's
nephew Richard, who in 1435 was officially styled duke of York, earl of
March and Ulster, and baron of Wigmore. Richard's son Edward having
ascended the throne in 1461 as Edward IV., the earldom of March became
merged in the crown.

  See Thomas Rymer, _Foedera_, &c. (London, 1704-1732); T. F. Tout, _The
  Political History of England_, vol. iii., ed. by William Hunt and R.
  L. Poole (London, 1905); Sir William Dugdale, _Monasticon anglicanum_
  (3 vols., London, 1655-1673); William Stubbs, _Constitutional History
  of England_, vol. ii.

II. _Scottish Marches._--The Scottish earls of March were descended from
Crinan, whose son Maldred married Algitha, daughter of Ughtred, earl of
Northumberland, by Elgiva, daughter of the Saxon king Æthelred.
Maldred's son Cospatrick, or Gospatrick, was made earl of Northumberland
by William the Conqueror; but being soon afterwards deprived of this
position he fled to Scotland, where Malcolm Canmore, king of Scotland,
welcomed him and granted him Dunbar and the adjoining lands. Two
generations of Cospatricks followed in lineal succession, bearing the
title of earl, but without territorial designation. Cospatrick II.
witnessed the charter of Alexander I. founding the abbey of Scone in
1115. The 3rd earl, also named Cospatrick, a liberal benefactor of
Melrose Abbey, died in 1166, leaving two sons, the younger of whom was
the ancestor of the earls of Home. The elder son, Waltheof, was the
first of the family to be styled "Comes de Dunbar," about the year 1174.
His importance is proved by the fact that he was one of the hostages for
the performance of the Treaty of Falaise for the liberation of William
the Lion in 1175. Waltheof's son Patrick Dunbar (the name Dunbar,
derived from the family estates, now becoming an hereditary surname),
styled 5th earl of Dunbar, although his father had been the first to
adopt the territorial designation, was keeper of Berwick Castle, and
married Ada, natural daughter of William the Lion. His grandson Patrick,
7th earl, headed the party that liberated King Alexander III. in 1255
from the Comyns, and in the same year was nominated guardian of the king
and queen by the Treaty of Roxburgh. He signed the Treaty of Perth (July
6, 1266) by which Magnus VI. of Norway ceded the Isle of Man and the
Hebrides to Scotland. His wife was Christian, daughter of Robert Bruce,
the competitor for the crown of Scotland.

PATRICK DUNBAR, 8th earl of Dunbar and 1st earl of March, claimed the
crown of Scotland in 1291 as descendant of Ada, daughter of William the
Lion. He was one of the "seven earls of Scotland," a distinct body
separate from the other estates of the realm, who claimed the right to
elect a king in cases of disputed succession, and whose authority was,
perhaps, to be traced to the seven provinces of the Pictish kingdom. He
was the first of the earls of Dunbar to appear in the records as "comes
de Marchia," or earl of March. Like most of his family in later times,
he was favourable to the English interest in Scottish affairs, and he
did homage to Edward I. of England. His wife Marjory, daughter of
Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan, took the other side and held the castle
of Dunbar for Baliol, but was forced to surrender it to Edward in 1296.
In 1298 he was appointed the English king's lieutenant in Scotland.

PATRICK DUNBAR (1285-1369), 9th earl of Dunbar and 2nd earl of March,
son of the preceding, gave refuge to Edward II. of England after
Bannockburn, and contrived his escape by sea to England. Later, he made
peace with Robert Bruce, and by him was appointed governor of Berwick
Castle, which he held against Edward III. until the defeat of the Scots
at Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333) made it no longer tenable. His countess,
known in Scottish history and romance as "Black Agnes," daughter of
Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray (Murray), and grandniece of Robert Bruce,
is famous for her defence of Dunbar Castle against the English under the
earl of Salisbury in 1338, Salisbury being forced to abandon the attempt
after a fierce siege lasting nineteen weeks. This lady succeeded to the
estates and titles of her brother, John Randolph, 3rd earl of Moray. The
earldom of Moray passed after her death to her second son, John Dunbar,
who married Marjory, daughter of King Robert II. Black Agnes also bore
to the earl of March two daughters, the elder of whom, Agnes, after
being the mistress of King David II., married Sir James Douglas, lord of
Dalkeith, from whom were descended the first three earls of Morton; the
younger, Elizabeth, married John Maitland of Lethington, ancestor of the
duke of Lauderdale, whose second title was marquess of March.

GEORGE DUNBAR (d. 1420), 10th earl of Dunbar and 3rd earl of March,
great-nephew of the 8th earl and warden of the marches, accompanied
Douglas in his foray into England in 1388, and commanded the Scots after
Otterburn. He afterwards quarrelled with the Douglases, because his
daughter was passed over in favour of a daughter of Archibald, "the Grim
Earl of Douglas," as wife for David, duke of Rothesay, son of Robert
III. When Douglas seized March's lands the latter fled to England, where
he was welcomed by Henry IV., to whom he was related. He fought on the
English side at Homildon Hill; and, having revealed to Henry the
defection of the Percies, who were in league with Douglas and Owen
Glendower, he fought against those allies at the battle of Shrewsbury
(July 23, 1403). Becoming reconciled with Douglas, he returned to
Scotland in 1409, and was restored to his earldom by the regent Albany.
He died in 1420.

GEORGE DUNBAR, 11th earl of Dunbar and 4th earl of March, was one of the
negotiators for the release of James I. of Scotland in 1423 from his
captivity in England, and was knighted at that king's coronation. In
1434, however, on the ground that the regent had had no power to reverse
his father's forfeiture for treason, March was imprisoned and his castle
of Dunbar seized by the king; and the parliament at Perth declared his
lands and titles forfeited to the crown. The earl, being released,
retired to England with his son Patrick, whose daughter and heiress
Margaret was ancestress of Patrick, 5th earl of Dumfries, now
represented by the marquess of Bute.

The earldom of March in the house of Dunbar having thus been forfeited
to the crown, James II. in 1455 conferred the title, together with that
of warden of the marches, on his second son Alexander, duke of Albany;
but this prince entered into treasonable correspondence with Edward IV.
of England, and in 1487 the earldom of March and the barony and castle
of Dunbar were again declared forfeited and annexed to the crown of
Scotland.

The title of earl of March was next held by the house of Lennox. In 1576
the earldom of Lennox became extinct on the death without male issue of
Charles (father of Lady Arabella Stuart), 5th earl of Lennox; and it was
then revived in favour of Robert Stuart, a grand-uncle of King James
VI., second son of John, 3rd earl of Lennox. But in 1579 Esmé Stuart, a
member of a collateral branch which in 1508 had inherited the lordship
of Aubigny in France, came to Scotland and obtained much favour with
James VI. The earldom of Lennox (soon afterwards raised to a dukedom)
was taken from Robert and conferred upon Esmé; and Robert was
compensated by being created earl of March and baron of Dunbar (1582).
Robert died without legitimate issue in 1586, when the earldom of March
again reverted to the crown. In 1619 Esmé, 3rd duke of Lennox, was
created earl of March; and his son James was created duke of Richmond
in 1641. On the death without issue of Charles, 6th duke of Lennox and
3rd duke of Richmond, in 1672, his titles devolved upon King Charles II.
as nearest collateral heir-male. In 1675 Charles conferred the titles of
duke of Richmond and Lennox and earl of March on Charles Lennox, his
natural son by Louise de Keroualle, duchess of Portsmouth, from whom the
earldom of March has descended to its present holder the duke of
Richmond and Gordon. (See RICHMOND, EARLS AND DUKES OF; and LENNOX.)

The title of earl of March in the peerage of Scotland, by another
creation, was conferred in 1697 on William Douglas, second son of
William, 1st duke of Queensberry. His grandson William, 3rd earl of
March, became 4th duke of Queensberry on the death without surviving
male issue of his cousin Charles, 3rd duke of Queensberry, in 1778.
Dying unmarried in 1810, the several titles of the duke passed to
different branches of the house of Douglas. The earldom of March is
stated by Sir Bernard Burke and other authorities to have devolved upon
Francis, 8th earl of Wemyss, great-great-grandson of David, 3rd earl of
Wemyss, whose wife was Anne, daughter of the 1st duke of Queensberry and
sister of the 1st earl of March; and the title is now assumed by the
earl of Wemyss. On the other hand, Francis, 8th earl of Wemyss, not
having been an heir of the body of the 1st earl of March, Sir Robert
Douglas says in _The Peerage of Scotland_ that on the death of the 4th
duke of Queensberry in 1810 "the earldom of March, it is supposed,
became extinct."

  See Andrew Lang, _History of Scotland_ (4 vols., London, 1900-1907);
  Sir Bernard Burke, _A Genealogical History of Dormant and Extinct
  Peerages_ (London, 1866); Sir Robert Douglas, _The Peerage of
  Scotland_ (2 vols., Edinburgh 1813); Lady Elizabeth Cust, _Some
  Account of the Stuarts of Aubigny in France_ (London, 1891).
       (R. J. M.)



MARCH, AUZIAS (c. 1395-1458), Catalan poet, was born at Valencia towards
the end of the 14th century. Little is known of his career except that
he was twice married--first to Na Ysabel Martorell, and second to Na
Johanna Scorna--that he died on the 4th of November 1458, and that he
left several natural children. Inheriting an easy fortune from his
father, the treasurer to the duke of Gandia, and enjoying the powerful
patronage of Prince Carlos de Viana of Aragon, March was enabled to
devote himself to poetical composition. He is an undisguised follower of
Petrarch, carrying the imitation to such a point that he addresses his
_Cants d'amor_ to a lady whom he professes to have seen first in church
on Good Friday; so far as the difference of language allows, he
reproduces the rhythmical cadences of his model, and in the _Cants de
mort_ touches a note of brooding sentiment peculiar to himself. Though
his poems are disfigured by obscurity and a monotonous morbidity, he was
fully entitled to the supremacy which he enjoyed among his
contemporaries, and the success of his innovation no doubt encouraged
Boscán to introduce the Italian metres into Castilian.

  His verses were first printed in Catalan in 1543, but they had already
  become known through the Castilian translation published by Baltasar
  de Romani in 1539.



MARCH, FRANCIS ANDREW (1825-   ), American philologist and
educationalist, was born on the 25th of October 1825 in Millbury,
Massachusetts. He graduated in 1845 at Amherst, where his attention was
turned to the study of Anglo-Saxon by Noah Webster. He was a teacher at
Swanzey, New Hampshire, and at the Leicester Academy, Massachusetts, in
1845-1847, and attempted the philological method of teaching English
"like Latin and Greek," later described in his _Method of Philological
Study of the English Language_ (1865); at Amherst in 1847-1849; at
Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1852-1855; and in 1855 became a tutor at
Lafayette College, where he became adjunct professor of belles-lettres
and English literature in 1856, and professor of English language and
comparative philology--the first chair of the kind established--in 1857.
He lectured on constitutional and public law and Roman law in 1875-1877,
and also taught subjects as diverse as botany and political economy. In
1907 he became professor emeritus. At Lafayette he introduced the first
carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in
1870 published _A Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language, in
which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin,
Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German_, and _An
Anglo-Saxon Reader_; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian
Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed _Latin Hymns_ (1874);
he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on
Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the _Standard
Dictionary_, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for
the Philological Society's (New Oxford) _Dictionary_. He was president
of the American Philological Association in 1873-1874 and in 1895-1896,
of the Spelling Reform Association after 1876, and of the Modern
Language Association in 1891-1893. Among American linguistic scholars
March ranks with Whitney, Child and Gildersleeve; and his studies in
English, though practically pioneer work in America, are of undoubted
value. His article "On Recent Discussions of Grimm's Law" in the
_Transactions and Proceedings_ of the American Philological Association
for 1873 in large part anticipated Verner's law. With his son, Francis
Andrew March, jun. (b. 1863), adjunct-professor of modern languages in
1884-1891 and subsequently professor of English literature at Lafayette,
he edited _A Thesaurus Dictionary of the English Language_ (1903).

  See _Addresses in Honor of Professor Francis A. March, LL.D., L.H.D._,
  delivered at Easton, Pennsylvania, on the 24th of October 1895.



MARCH, a market town in the Wisbech parliamentary division of
Cambridgeshire, England, 30 m. N. by W. of Cambridge. Pop. of urban
district (1901), 7565. It lies in the midst of the flat fen country, on
the old course of the river Nene. It is an important junction on the
Great Eastern railway and the starting-point of a line worked by that
company jointly with the Great Northern to Lincoln and Doncaster. The
church of St Wendreda, in Early English and later styles, is remarkable
for a magnificent Perpendicular timber roof, beautifully carved. There
are agricultural implement and engineering works, and corn mills.



MARCH, the third month of the modern calendar, containing thirty-one
days. It was the Romans' first month until the adoption of the Julian
calendar, 46 B.C., and it continued to be the beginning of the legal
year in England until the 18th century. In France it was reckoned the
first month of the year until 1564, when, by an edict of Charles IX.,
January was decreed to be thenceforth the first month. Scotland followed
the example of France in 1599; but in England the change did not take
place before 1752. The Romans called the month _Martius_, a name
supposed to have been conferred on it by Romulus in honour of his
putative father, Mars, the god of war; but Ovid declares the month to
have existed before the time of Romulus, though in a different position
in the calendar. The Anglo-Saxons called March _Hlyd-monath_, "loud or
stormy month," or _Lencten-monath_, "lengthening month," in allusion to
the fact that the days then rapidly become longer. There is an old
saying, common to both England and Scotland--which has its equivalent
among the Basques and many European peoples--representing March as
borrowing three days from April; the last three days of March being
called the "borrowing" or the "borrowed days." As late as the end of the
18th century the first three days of March were known in Devonshire as
"Blind Days," and were deemed so unlucky that no farmer would sow seed
then.

The chief festival days of March are the 1st, St David; the 12th, St
Gregory; the 17th, St Patrick; and the 25th, Lady Day, one of the
quarter days in England.



MARCH (1) (from Fr. _marcher_, to walk; the earliest sense in French
appears to be "to trample," and the origin has usually been found in the
Lat. _marcus_, hammer; Low Lat. _marcare_, to hammer; hence to beat the
road with the regular tread of a soldier: cf. "beat," of a policeman's
round), the movement of military troops with regular rhythmical steps,
often with the time marked by the beat of drum, the sound of pipes or
bugles or the music of a military band; hence the advance or movement of
a body of troops from one point to another, and the distance covered in
so doing. The word is also naturally applied to the music composed for
marching to, and to the steady regular advance or progress of
non-military bodies or persons, or of events, &c. In the military sense,
"marching" is walking in formed bodies of troops, either during drill
evolutions on parade or on the "line of march" from one place to
another. In both senses the word is used with mounted troops as well as
with dismounted men. Formerly all evolutions were carried out at the
so-called "parade-march" pace of about 75-80 paces to the minute, and in
one or two armies of the 18th century the parade step cadence was as
slow as 60. These cadences are now, however, reserved in all armies for
ceremonial occasions, and the usual manoeuvre and marching pace ("quick
march") is about 120, the "double" march pace (_pas gymnastique_) about
180. The "quick" march, translated into miles and hours, is about 3½ or
3(5/8) miles an hour in all armies, though a few special bodies of light
troops such as the Italian _Bersaglieri_ are trained to move at a much
faster rate for hours together, either by alternate "quick" and "double"
marching or by an unvarying "jog-trot." The paces recognized for cavalry
are the walk, the trot, the canter and the gallop; the usual practice on
the line of march being to alternate the walk and the trot, which
combination gives a speed of about 5 miles an hour for many hours
together. A "day's march," or more simply a "march," is usually reckoned
to be 15-16 miles for a large body of troops, a "forced" march being one
of 20 miles or over, or one in which, from whatever cause, the troops
are on foot for more than about seven hours. For large bodies of troops
the rate of movement on the line of march rarely exceeds 3 miles an
hour. The immense assistance afforded by music to marching troops has
been recognized from the earliest times of organized armies, and a great
deal of special march-music has been written for military bands,
formerly often in ¾ or 6/8 time (one bar representing one pace with the
foot), but now almost invariably in common or 2/4 time, which is more
suitable for the "quick march." The music itself is usually a
combination of simple, lively melody and well-marked accents for the
drums, with little attempt at contrapuntal writing. The fife or piccolo,
the natural bugle (in Italy and elsewhere the chromatic key-bugle is
used), and the drum are the principal instruments, the "band," as
distinct from the "drums" and "bugles," having in addition to drum and
fifes clarinets (saxophones in France and Belgium) and saxhorns of all
types. In Scottish regiments, and in a few isolated cases elsewhere,
bagpipes provide the marching music. The importance of music on the
march is attested further by the almost universal practice of singing or
whistling marching songs, and even playing them on concertinas, &c., in
the absence of the band and drums.

2. From _marche_, the French form of a common Teutonic word represented
in English by "mark" (q.v.), a boundary or frontier region between two
countries or districts. The word appears to have been first used in this
sense in the 8th century, and the earliest "mark" or "march" districts
were tracts of land on the borders of the Carolingian Empire. Wherever
Charlemagne pushed forward the frontiers of the Frankish realm he
provided for the security of his lands, new and old alike, by
establishing mark districts on the borders. The defence and oversight of
these were entrusted to special officers, afterwards called margraves,
or counts of the mark, who usually enjoyed more extensive powers than
fell to the lot of an ordinary count. It is at this time that we hear
first of the Spanish mark (_marca hispanica_) and the Bavarian mark
(_marca bajoariae_). These mark districts were practically obliterated
during the reigns of the feeble sovereigns who succeeded Charlemagne,
but the system was revived with the accession of Henry the Fowler to the
German throne early in the 10th century and with a renewal of the work
of conquering and colonizing the regions east of the Elbe, and in
eastern Germany generally. Under Henry and his son, Otto the Great,
marks were again set upon the borders of Germany, and this time the
organization was more lasting. The mark districts increased in size and
strength, especially those which fell under the dominion of an able and
energetic ruler, and some of them became powerful states, retaining the
name mark long after the original significance of the word had been
forgotten. It is interesting to note that the two most important of the
modern German states, Austria and Prussia, both had their origin in mark
districts, the mark of Brandenburg, the nucleus of the kingdom of
Prussia, being at first a border district to the east of the duchy of
Saxony, and the east mark, or mark of Austria, being a border district
of the duchy of Bavaria. In Italy march districts made their appearance
about the same time as in other parts of the Frankish Empire. The best
known of these is the march of Ancona, which with other marches and
adjoining districts, was known later as the Marches, a province lying
about the centre of Italy between the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea.
After forming part of the states of the Church the Marches were united
with the kingdom of Italy in 1860 (see MARCHES, THE).

In England in the same connexion the plural word "marches" was the form
commonly adopted, and soon after the Norman Conquest the disturbed
districts on the borders of Wales began to be known as the Welsh
marches. Lands therein were granted to powerful nobles on condition that
they undertook the defence of the neighbouring counties of England.
These lords of the marches, or lords marcher, as they were often called,
had special privileges, but they were generally so fully occupied in
fighting against each other and in seeking to increase their own wealth
and power that the original object of their appointment was entirely
forgotten. The condition of the marches grew worse and worse, and during
disturbed reigns, like those of Henry III. and Edward II., lawlessness
was rampant and rebellion was centred therein. A more satisfactory
condition of affairs, however, prevailed after the conclusion of the
Wars of the Roses; and the establishment by Henry VIII. in 1542 of a
council of Wales and the marches was followed by a notable diminution of
disorder in this region. About the time of Elizabeth the Welsh marches
ceased to have any but an historical importance. In 1328 Roger Mortimer,
a member of one of the most powerful of the marcher families, was
created earl of March (_comes de marchia Waliae_), and in the reign of
Edward III. (1354) the marches were declared to be no part of the
principality, but directly subject to the English crown. It is difficult
to define the boundaries of the Welsh marches, as their extent varied
considerably from time to time, but under Edward I. and again under the
Lancastrian kings the marcher lordships included more than half of the
area of Wales; they embraced practically the whole of the principality
except the counties of Anglesea, Carnarvon and Merioneth in the north
and Carmarthen and Cardigan in the south, together with parts of the
English border counties, Monmouth, Hereford and Shropshire.

The debateable ground between England and Scotland was also known as the
marches, although its condition began to attract the attention of the
southern kingdom somewhat later than was the case with Wales.
Arrangements were made for garrisoning them and at one time they were
divided into three sections: the east, the west, and the middle marches,
the oversight of each being entrusted to a warden. Roughly speaking,
they embraced the modern counties of Northumberland and Cumberland,
together with a tract on the Scottish side of the border. The need for
protecting them ceased soon after the accession of James VI. of Scotland
to the English throne, and they have now only an historical and
legendary significance. About 1200 Patrick de Dunbar, earl of Dunbar,
called himself earl of March, taking the name from the merse, or march,
a tract of land in Berwickshire.

In France under the _ancien régime_ there was a county of La Marche, and
in north-east Germany there was the county of La Marck, now part of the
kingdom of Prussia.



MARCHE, or LA MARCHE, one of the former provinces of France. It owes its
name to its position, it having been in the 10th century a march or
border district between the duchy of Aquitaine and the domains of the
Frankish kings in central France. Sometimes it was called the _Marche
Limousine_, and originally it was a small district cut partly from
Limousin and partly from Poitou. Its area was increased during the 13th
century, after which, however, it remained unaltered until the time of
the Revolution. It was bounded on the N. by Berry; on the E. by
Bourbonnais and Auvergne; on the S. by Limousin; and on the W. by
Poitou. It embraced the greater part of the modern department of Creuse,
a considerable part of Haute Vienne, and a fragment of Indre. Its area
was about 1900 sq. m.; its capital was Charroux and later Guéret, and
among its other principal towns were Dorat, Bellac and Confolens.

Marche first appears as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th
century when William III., duke of Aquitaine, gave it to one of his
vassals named Boso, who took the title of count. In the 12th century it
passed to the counts of Limousin, and this house retained it until the
death of the childless Count Hugh in 1303, when it was seized by the
French king, Philip IV. In 1316 it was made a duchy for Prince Charles,
afterwards King Charles IV., and a few years later (1327) it passed into
the hands of the family of Bourbon. The family of Armagnac held it from
1435 to 1477, when it reverted to the Bourbons, and in 1527 it was
seized by Francis I. and became part of the domains of the French crown.
It was divided into Haute Marche and Basse Marche, the estates of the
former being in existence until the 17th century. From 1470 until the
Revolution the province was under the jurisdiction of the parlement of
Paris.

  See A. Thomas, _Les États provinciaux de la France centrale_ (1879).



MARCHE, a town of Belgium in the province of Luxemburg, 33 m. S.W. of
Liége and about 28 m. S.E. of Namur. Pop. (1904), 3540. It dates from
the 7th century, when it was the chief town of the _pagus falmiensis_,
as it still is of the same district now called Famène. Formerly it was
fortified, and a treaty was signed there in 1577 between Philip II. and
the United Provinces. In 1792 Lafayette was taken prisoner by the
Austrians in a skirmish near it.



MARCHENA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Seville, on the
Cordova-Utrera and Marchena-La Roda railways. Pop. (1900), 12,468.
Marchena occupies a sandy valley near the river Corbones, a left-hand
territory of the Guadalquivir. Formerly it was surrounded with walls and
towers, a large portion of which still remains. Among the principal
buildings is the palace of the dukes of Arcos, within the enclosure of
which is an ancient Moorish building, now the church of Santa Maria de
la Mota. At the eastern end of the town is a sulphur spring. There is
some trade in wheat, barley, olives, oil and wine. Marchena (perhaps the
_Castra Gemina_ of Pliny) was taken from the Moors by St Ferdinand in
1240.



MARCHENA RUIZ DE CASTRO, JOSÉ (1768-1821?), Spanish author, was born at
Utrera on the 18th of November 1768 and studied with distinction at the
university of Seville. He took minor orders and was for some time
professor at the seminary of Vergara, but he became a convert to the
doctrines of the French _philosophes_, scandalizing his acquaintances by
his professions of materialism and his denunciations of celibacy. His
writings being brought before the Inquisition in 1792, Marchena escaped
to Paris, where he is said to have collaborated with Marat in _L'Ami du
peuple_; at a later date he organized a revolutionary movement at
Bayonne, returned to Paris, avowed his sympathies with the Girondists,
and refused the advances of Robespierre. He acted as editor of _L'Ami
des lois_ and other French journals till 1799, when he was expelled from
France; he succeeded, however, in obtaining employment under Moreau,
upon whose fall in 1804 he declared himself a Bonapartist. In 1808 he
accompanied Murat to Spain as private secretary; in this same year he
was imprisoned by the Inquisition, but was released by Joseph Bonaparte,
who appointed him editor of the official _Gaceta_. In 1813 Marchena
retired to Valencia, and thence to France, where he supported himself by
translating into Spanish the works of Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire
and Volney. The Liberal triumph of 1820 opened Spain to him once more,
but he was coldly received by the revolutionary party. He died at
Madrid shortly before the 26th of February 1821. The interest of his
voluminous writings is almost wholly ephemeral, but they are excellent
specimens of trenchant journalism. His _Fragmentum Petronii_ (Basel,
1802), which purports to reconstruct missing passages in the current
text of Petronius, is a testimony to Marchena's fine scholarship; but,
by the irony of fate, Marchena is best known by his ode to Christ
Crucified, which breathes a spirit of profound and tender piety.



MARCHES, THE (It. _Le Marche_), a territorial division of Italy,
embracing the provinces of Pesaro and Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, and
Ascoli Piceno, with an area of 3763 sq. m., and a population of
1,088,763 in 1901. It is bounded by the Emilia on the N., the Adriatic
on the E., the Abruzzi on the S., and Umbria and Tuscany on the W. The
four provinces follow one another in the order given from north to south
and have a certain amount of coast-line. The chief rivers, all of which
run into the Adriatic eastwards and north-eastwards, are the Metauro
(anc. _Metaurus_, q.v.) and the Tronto (anc. _Truentus_), the latter
forming the southern boundary of the _compartimento_ for some distance.
Except for the river valleys and the often very narrow coast strip, the
general level is more than 500 ft. above the sea. The lower hills are
very largely composed of loose, clayey, unstable earth, while the
Apennines are of limestone. The province of Pesaro and Urbino falls
within the boundaries of the ancient Umbria (q.v.), while the territory
of the other three belonged to Picenum (q.v.). The railway from Bologna
to Brindisi runs along the coast-line of the entire territory. At Ancona
it is joined by the main line from Foligno and Rome; at Porto Civitanova
is a branch to Macerata, San Severino and Fabriano (a station on the
line from Ancona to Rome and the junction for Urbino); at Porto S.
Giorgio is a branch to Fermo and, at Porto d'Ascoli, a branch to Ascoli
Piceno. But, with the exception of the railway along the coast, there is
no communication north and south, owing to the mountainous nature of the
country, except by somewhat devious roads.

Owing largely to the _mezzadria_ or _métayer_ system, under which
products are equally divided between the owners and the cultivators of
the land, the soil is fairly highly cultivated, though naturally poor in
quality. The silk industries, making of straw-plait and straw hats,
rearing of silkworms and cocoons, with some sugar-refining, tobacco,
terra-cotta manufacture, brickworks and ironworks, furnish the chief
occupations of the people next after agriculture and pastoral pursuits.
Another important branch of activity is the paper industry, especially
at Fabriano. Chiaravalle possesses one of the largest tobacco factories
of the Italian _régie_. Limestone quarries and sulphur mines supply
building stone and sulphur to the regions of central Italy; chalk and
petroleum are also found. As regards maritime trade the province
possesses facilities in the port of Ancona (the only really good
harbour, where are also important shipbuilding works), the canal ports
of Senegallia (Sinigaglia), Pesaro, Fano and other smaller harbours
chiefly used by fishing boats. Fishing is carried on by the entire coast
population, which furnishes a large contingent of sailors to the Italian
navy.

For the early history of the territory of the Marches see PICENUM. From
the Carolingian period onwards the name Marca begins to appear--first
the Marca Fermana for the mountainous part of Picenum, the Marca
Camerinese for the district farther north, including a part of Umbria,
and the Marca Anconitana for the former Pentapolis. In 1080 the Marca
Anconitana was given in investiture to Robert Guiscard by Gregory VII.,
to whom the countess Matilda ceded the Marches of Camerino and of Fermo.
In 1105 we find the emperor Henry IV. investing Werner with the whole
territory of the three marches under the name of March of Ancona. It was
afterwards once more recovered by the Church and governed by papal
legates. It became part of the kingdom of Italy in 1860.

The pictorial art of the Marches from the 13th century onwards has
become the object of considerable interest since the important
exhibition held at Macerata in 1905, when many interesting works,
scattered all over the district in small towns and villages, were
brought together. The result was something of a revelation, for, though
the influence of Umbria was always considerable, there were many
independent elements (see F. M. Perkins in _Rassegna d' Arte_, 1906, 49
sqq.).     (T. As.)



MARCHMONT, EARLS OF. The 1st earl of Marchmont was Sir Patrick Hume or
Home (1641-1724), son of Sir Patrick Hume, bart. (d. 1648), of Polwarth,
Berwickshire, and a descendant of another Sir Patrick Hume, a supporter
of the Reformation in Scotland. A member of the same family was
Alexander Hume (c. 1560-1609), the Scottish poet, whose _Hymns and
Sacred Songs_ were published in 1599 (new ed. 1832). Polwarth, as
Patrick Hume was usually called, became a member of the Scottish
parliament in 1665. Here he was active in opposing the harsh policy of
the earl of Lauderdale towards the Covenanters, and for his contumacy he
was imprisoned. After his release he went to London, where he associated
himself with the duke of Monmouth. Suspected of complicity in the Rye
House plot, he remained for a time in hiding and then crossed over to
the Netherlands, where he took part in the deliberations of Monmouth,
the earl of Argyll and other exiles about the projected invasion of
Great Britain. Although he appeared to distrust Argyll, Polwarth sailed
to Scotland with him in 1685, and after the failure of the rising he
escaped to Utrecht, where he lived in great poverty until 1688. He
accompanied William of Orange to England, and in 1689 he was again a
member of the Scottish parliament. In 1690 he was made a peer as Lord
Polwarth; in 1696 he became lord high chancellor of Scotland, and in
1697 was created earl of Marchmont. When Anne became queen in 1702 he
was deprived of the chancellorship. He died on the 2nd of August 1724.
His son Alexander, the 2nd earl (1676-1740), took the name of Campbell
instead of Hume after his marriage in 1697 with Margaret, daughter and
heiress of Sir George Campbell of Cessnock, Ayrshire. He was a lord of
session from 1704 to 1714; ambassador to Denmark from 1715 to 1721, and
lord clerk register from 1716 to 1733. His son Hugh Hume, 3rd earl
(1708-1794), who entered parliament in 1734 at the same time as his twin
brother Alexander (d. 1756), afterwards lord clerk register of Scotland,
was keeper of the great seal of Scotland, one of Bolingbroke's most
intimate friends and one of Pope's executors. His two sons having
predeceased their father, the earldom became dormant, Marchmont House,
Berwickshire, and the estates passing to Sir Hugh Purves, bart., a
descendant of the 2nd earl, who took the name of Hume-Campbell. The 3rd
earl had, however, three daughters, one of whom, Diana (d. 1827),
married Walter Scott of Harden, Berwickshire; and in 1835 her son Hugh
Hepburne-Scott (1758-1841) successfully claimed the Scottish barony of
Polwarth. In 1867 his grandson, Walter Hugh (b. 1838), became 6th Lord
Polwarth.

  See _The Marchmont Papers_, ed. Sir G. H. Rose (1831).



MARCHPANE, or MARZIPAN, a sweetmeat made of sweet almonds and sugar
pounded and worked into a paste, and moulded into various shapes, or
used in the icing of cakes, &c. The best marchpane comes from Germany,
that from Königsberg being celebrated. The origin of the word has been
much discussed. It is common in various forms in most European
languages, Romanic or Teutonic; Italian has _marzapane_, French
_massepain_, and German _marzipan_, which has in English to some extent
superseded the true English form "marchpane." Italian seems to have been
the source from which the word passed into other languages. In Johann
Burchard's _Diarium curiae romanae_ (1483-1492) the Latin form appears
as _martiapanis_ (Du Cange, _Glossarium_ s.v.), and Minshseu explains
the word as _Martius Panis_, bread of Mars, from the "towers, castles
and such like" that appeared on elaborate works of the confectioner's
art made of this sweatmeat. Another derivation is that from Gr. [Greek:
maza], barley cake, and Lat. _panis_. A connexion has been sought with
the name of a Venetian coin, _matapanus_ (Du Cange, s.v.), on which was
a figure of Christ enthroned, struck by Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice
(1192-1205). From the coin the word was applied to a small box, and
hence apparently to the sweetmeat contained in it.



MARCIAN (c. 390-457), emperor of the East (450-457), was born in Thrace
or Illyria, and spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He
subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and
took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. Through the
influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was
later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of
Theodosius II. he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and
successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly
humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns. Marcian repudiated
the payment of tribute to Attila; he reformed the finances, checked
extravagance, and repeopled the devastated districts. He repelled
attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the
Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the
Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate
between the rival schools of theology.

  See Gibbon, _The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_ (ed. Bury,
  London, 1896), iii. 384, iv. 444-445; J. Bury, _The Later Roman
  Empire_ (London, 1889), i. 135-136.



MARCIANUS (c. A.D. 400), Greek geographer, was born at Heraclea in
Pontus. Two of his works have been preserved in a more or less mutilated
condition. In the first, the _Periplus of the Outer Sea_, in two books,
in which he proposed to give a complete description of the coasts of the
eastern and western oceans, his chief authority is Ptolemy; the
distances from one point to another are given in stades, with the object
of rendering the work easier for the ordinary student. In this he
follows Protagoras, who, according to Photius (cod. 188), wrote a sketch
of geography in six books. The work contains nothing that cannot be
learned from Ptolemy, whom he follows in calling the promontory of the
Novantae (_Mull of Galloway_) the most northern point of Britain.
Improving on Ptolemy, he makes the island of Taprobane (_Ceylon_) twenty
times as large as it is in reality. The second, the _Periplus of the
Inner Sea_ (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by
Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and
Tiberius. It contains a description of the southern coast of the Euxine
from the Thracian Bosporus to the river Iris in Pontus. A few fragments
remain of an epitome by Marcianus of the eleven books of the
_Geographumena_ of Artemidorus of Ephesus.

  See J. Hudson, _Geographiae veteris scriptores graeci minores_, vol.
  i. (1698), with Dodwell's dissertation; C. W. Müller, _Geographici
  graeci minores_, vol. i. pp. cxxix., 515-573; E. Miller, _Périple de
  Marcien d'Héraclée_ (1839); S. F. G. Hoffmann, _Marciani Periplus_
  (1841); E. H. Bunbury, _Hist. of Ancient Geography_ (1879), ii. 660;
  A. Forbiger, _Handbuch der alten Geographie_, vol. i. (1842).



MARCION and THE MARCIONITE CHURCHES. In the period between 130 and 180
A.D. the varied and complicated Christian fellowships in the Roman Empire
crystallized into close and mutually exclusive societies--churches with
fixed constitutions and creeds, schools with distinctive esoteric
doctrines, associations for worship with peculiar mysteries, and ascetic
sects with special rules of conduct. Of ecclesiastical organizations the
most important, next to Catholicism, was the Marcionite community. Like
the Catholic Church, this body professed to comprehend everything
belonging to Christianity. It admitted all believers without distinction
of age, sex, rank or culture. It was no mere school for the learned,
disclosed no mysteries for the privileged, but sought to lay the
foundation of the Christian community on the pure gospel, the authentic
institutes of Christ. The pure gospel, however, Marcion found to be
everywhere more or less corrupted and mutilated in the Christian circles
of his time. His undertaking thus resolved itself into a reformation of
Christendom. This reformation was to deliver Christendom from false
Jewish doctrines by restoring the Pauline conception of the gospel,--Paul
being, according to Marcion, the only apostle who had rightly understood
the new message of salvation as delivered by Christ. In Marcion's own
view, therefore, the founding of his church--to which he was first driven
by opposition--amounts to a reformation of Christendom through a return
to the gospel of Christ and to Paul; nothing was to be accepted beyond
that. This of itself shows that it is a mistake to reckon Marcion among
the Gnostics. A dualist he certainly was, but he was not a Gnostic. For
he ascribed salvation, not to "knowledge" but to "faith"; he appealed
openly to the whole Christian world; and he nowhere consciously added
foreign elements to the revelation given through Christ. It is true that
in many features his Christian system--if we may use the
expression--resembles the so-called Gnostic systems; but the first duty
of the historian is to point out what Marcion plainly aimed at; only in
the second place have we to inquire how far the result corresponded with
those purposes.

  The doctrines of Marcion and the history of his churches from the 2nd
  to the 7th century are known to us from the controversial works of the
  Catholic fathers. From Justin onwards, almost every eminent Church
  teacher takes some notice of Marcion, while very many write extensive
  treatises against him. The most important of those which have come
  down to us are the controversial pieces of Irenaeus (in his great work
  against heretics), Tertullian (_Adv. Marc._ i.-v.), Hippolytus,
  Pseudo-Origen Adamantius, Epiphanius, and the Armenian Esnik.[1] From
  these works the contents of the Marcionite Gospel, and also the text
  of Paul's epistles in Marcion's recension, can be settled with
  tolerable accuracy. His opponents, moreover, have preserved some
  expressions of his, with extracts from his principal work; so that our
  knowledge of Marcion's views is in part derived from the best sources.

Marcion was a wealthy shipowner, belonging to Sinope in Pontus. He
appears to have been a convert from Paganism to Christianity, although
it was asserted in later times that his father had been a bishop. That
report is probably as untrustworthy as another, that he was
excommunicated from the Church for seducing a virgin. What we know for
certain is that after the death of Hyginus, bishop of Rome (or c. 139
A.D.), he arrived, in the course of his travels, at Rome, and made a
handsome donation of money to the local church. Even then, however, the
leading features of his peculiar system must have been already thought
out. At Rome he tried to gain acceptance for them in the college of
presbyters and in the church; indeed he had previously made similar
attempts in Asia Minor. But he now encountered such determined
opposition from the majority of the congregation that he found it
necessary to withdraw from the great church and establish in Rome a
community of his own. This was about the year 144. The new society
increased in the two following decades; and very soon numerous
sister-churches were flourishing in the east and west of the empire.
Marcion took up his residence permanently in Rome, but still undertook
journeys for the propagation of his opinions. In Rome he became
acquainted with the Syrian Gnostic Cerdo, whose speculations influenced
the development of the Marcionite theology. Still Marcion seems never to
have abandoned his design of gaining over the whole Church to his
gospel. The proof of this is found, partly in the fact that he tried to
establish relations with Polycarp of Smyrna, from whom he got a sharp
rebuff, partly in a legend to the effect that towards the end of his
life he sought readmission to the Church. Such, presumably, was the
construction put in after times on his earnest endeavour to unite
Christians on the footing of the "pure gospel." When he died is not
known, but his death can scarcely have been much later than the year
165.

The distinctive teaching of Marcion originated in a comparison of the
Old Testament with the gospel of Christ and the theology of the apostle
Paul. Its motive was not cosmological or metaphysical, but religious and
historical. In the gospel he found a God revealed who is goodness and
love, and who desires faith and love from men. This God he could not
discover in the Old Testament; on the contrary, he saw there the
revelation of a just, stern, jealous, wrathful and variable God, who
requires from his servants blind obedience, fear and outward
righteousness. Overpowered by the majesty and novelty of the Christian
message of salvation, too conscientious to rest satisfied with the
ordinary attempts at the solution of difficulties, while prevented by
the limitations of his time from reaching an historical insight into the
relation of Christianity to the Old Testament and to Judaism, he
believed that he expressed Paul's view by the hypothesis of two Gods:
the just God of the law (the God of the Jews, who is also the Creator of
the world), and the good God, the Father of Jesus Christ. Paradoxes in
the history of religion and revelation which Paul draws out, and which
Marcion's contemporaries passed by as utterly incomprehensible, are here
made the foundation of an ethico-dualistic conception of history and of
religion. It may be said that in the 2nd century only one
Christian--Marcion--took the trouble to understand Paul; but it must be
added that he misunderstood him. The profound reflections of the apostle
on the radical antithesis of law and gospel, works and faith, were not
appreciated in the 2nd century. Marcion alone perceived their decisive
religious importance, and with them confronted the legalizing, and in
this sense judaizing, tendencies of his Christian contemporaries. But
the Pauline ideas lost their truth under his treatment; for, when it is
denied that the God of redemption is at the same time the almighty Lord
of heaven and earth, the gospel is turned upside down.

The assumption of two Gods necessarily led to cosmological speculations.
Under the influence of Cerdo, Marcion carried out his ethical dualism in
the sphere of cosmology; but the fact that his system is not free from
contradictions is the best proof that all along religious knowledge, and
not philosophical, had the chief values in his eyes. The main outlines
of his teaching are as follows. Man is, in spirit, soul and body, a
creature of the just and wrathful god. This god created man from [Greek:
ulê] (matter),[2] and imposed on him a strict law. Since no one could
keep this law, the whole human race fell under the curse, temporal and
eternal, of the Demiurge. Then a higher God, hitherto unknown, and
concealed even from the Demiurge, took pity on the wretched, condemned
race of men. He sent his Son (whom Marcion probably regarded as a
manifestation of the supreme God Himself)[3] down to this earth in order
to redeem men. Clothed in a visionary body, in the likeness of a man of
thirty years old, the Son made his appearance in the fifteenth year of
Tiberius, and preached in the synagogue at Capernaum. But none of the
Jewish people understood him. Even the disciples whom he chose did not
recognize his true nature, but mistook him for the Messiah promised by
the Demiurge through the prophets, who as warrior and king was to come
and set up the Jewish empire. The Demiurge himself did not suspect who
the stranger was; nevertheless he became angry with him, and, although
Jesus had punctually fulfilled his law, caused him to be nailed to the
cross. By that act, however, he pronounced his own doom. For the risen
Christ appeared before him in his glory, and charged him with having
acted contrary to his own law. To make amends for this crime, the
Demiurge had now to deliver up to the good God the souls of those who
were to be redeemed; they are, as it were, purchased from him by the
death of Christ. Christ then proceeded to the underworld to deliver the
spirits of the departed. It was not the Old Testament saints, however,
but only sinners and malefactors like Cain, Esau and Saul, who obeyed
his summons. The prophets and patriarchs, having been often deceived by
the Demiurge, suspected a trick and would not avail themselves of the
promised salvation, remaining content with the bliss of being in
Abraham's bosom. Then, to gain the living, Christ raised up Paul as his
apostle. He alone understood the gospel, and recognized the difference
between the just God and the good. Accordingly, he opposed the original
apostles with their Judaistic doctrines, and founded small congregations
of true Christians. But the preaching of the false Jewish Christians
gained the upper hand; nay, they even falsified the evangelical oracles
and the letters of Paul. Marcion himself was the next raised up by the
good God, to proclaim once more the true gospel. This he did by setting
aside the spurious gospels, purging the real gospel (the Gospel of Luke)
from supposed judaizing interpolations, and restoring the true text of
the Pauline epistles.[4] He likewise composed a book, called the
_Antitheses_,[5] in which he proved the disparity of the two Gods, from
a comparison of the Old Testament with the evangelical writings.

On the basis of these writings Marcion proclaimed the true Christianity,
and founded churches. He taught that all who put their trust in the good
God, and his crucified Son, renounce their allegiance to the Demiurge,
and approve themselves by good works of love, shall be saved. But he
taught further--and here we trace the influence of the current
gnosticism on Marcion--that only the spirit of man is saved by the good
God; the body, because material, perishes. Accordingly his ethics also
were thoroughly dualistic. By the "works of the Demiurge," which the
Christian is to flee, he meant the whole "service of the perishable."
The Christian must shun everything sensual, and especially marriage, and
free himself from the body by strict asceticism. The original ethical
contrast of "good" and "just" is thus transformed into the cosmological
contrast of "spirit" and "matter." The good God appears as the god of
spirit, the Old Testament God as the god of matter. That is Gnosticism;
but it is at the same time illogical. For, since, according to Marcion,
the spirit of man is derived, not from the good, but from the just God,
it is impossible to see why the spiritual should yet be more closely
related to the good God than the material. There is yet another
direction in which the system ends with a contradiction. According to
Marcion, the good God never judges, but everywhere manifests His
goodness--is, therefore, not to be feared, but simply to be loved, as a
father. But here the question occurs, What becomes of the men who do not
believe the gospel? Marcion answers, The good God does not judge them,
but merely removes them from His presence. Then they fall under the
power of the Demiurge, who--rewards them for their fidelity? No, says
Marcion, but on the contrary--punishes them in his hell! The
contradiction here is palpable; and at the same time the antithesis of
"just" and "good" ultimately vanishes. For the Demiurge now appears as
an inferior being, who in reality executes the purposes of the good God.
It is plain that dualism here terminates in the idea of the sole
supremacy of the good God.

It is not surprising, therefore, that even in the 2nd century the
disciples of Marcion diverged in several directions. Rigorous
asceticism, the rejection of the Old Testament, and the recognition of
the "new God" remained common to all Marcionites, who, moreover, like
the Catholics, lived together in close communities ruled by bishops and
presbyters (although their constitution was originally very loose, and
sought to avoid every appearance of "legality"). Some, however, accepted
three first principles (the evil, the just, the good); others held by
two, but regarded the Demiurge as the god of evil, i.e. the devil; while
a third party, like Apelles, the most distinguished of Marcion's pupils,
saw in the Demiurge only an apostate angel of the good God--thus
returning to monotheism. The golden age of the Marcionite churches falls
between the years 150 and 250. During that time they were really
dangerous to the great Church; for in fact they maintained certain
genuine Christian ideas, which the Catholic Church had forgotten. The
earliest inscription (A.D. 318) on a Christian place of worship is
Marcionite, and was found on a stone which had stood over the doorway of
a house in a Syrian village. From the beginning of the 4th century they
began to die out in the West, or rather they fell a prey to Manichaeism.
In the East also many Marcionites went over to the Manichaeans; but
there they survived much longer. They can be traced down to the 7th
century, and then they seem to vanish. But it was unquestionably from
Marcionite impulses that the new sects of the Paulicians and Bogomils
arose; and in so far as the western Cathari, and the antinomian and
anticlerical sects of the 13th century are connected with these, they
also may be included in the history of Marcionitism.

  See A. Harnack, _History of Dogma_, i. 266, 286; F. Loofs,
  _Dogmengeschichte_ pp. 111-114; G. Krüger, _Early Christian
  Literature_, and art. in Hauck-Herzog's _Realencyklopädie für prot.
  Theol. und Kirche_, xii.; F. J. Foakes Jackson's _Christian
  Difficulties of the Second and Twentieth Centuries_, is a study of
  Marcion and his relation to modern thought.     (A. Ha.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Esnik's presentation of the Marcionite system is a late
    production, and contains many speculations that cannot be charged
    upon Marcion himself.

  [2] On the relation of matter to the Creator, Marcion himself seems
    not to have speculated, though his followers may have done so.

  [3] Marcion's teaching at this point forestalls the patripassian
    christology of Noetus and Praxeas (see Neander, _Church Hist._ ii.
    143).--[ED.]

  [4] Marcion was the earliest critical student of the New Testament
    canon and text. It is noteworthy that he refused to admit the
    genuineness of the Pastoral Epistles and said that the letter to the
    Ephesians was really addressed to the Laodiceans (Tertullian, _Adv.
    Marc._ v. 11, 21).--(ED.)

  [5] Some have seen a reference to this work in 1 Tim. vi. 20.--(ED.)



MARCOMANNI (i.e. men of the mark, or border), the name of a Suevic
tribe. With kindred peoples they were often in conflict with the Roman
Empire, and gave their name to the Marcomannic War, a struggle waged by
the emperor Marcus Aurelius against them and the Quadi. The Marcomanni
disappeared from history during the 4th century, being probably merged
in the Baiouarii, the later Bavarians.

  See SUEBI; also F. M. Wittmann, _Die älteste Geschichte der
  Markomannen_ (Munich, 1855), and E. Devrient, "Hermunduren und
  Markomannen" in _Neues Jahrb. f. das klassische Altertum_ (1901), 51.



MARCOS DE NIZA (c. 1495-1558), a Franciscan friar born in Nice about
1495. He went to America in 1531, and after serving his order zealously
in Peru, Guatemala and Mexico, was chosen to explore the country north
of Sonora, whose wealth was pictured in the hearsay stories of Alvar
Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. Preceded by Estevanico, the negro companion of
Cabeza de Vaca in his wanderings and the "Black Mexican" of Zuni
traditions, Fray Marcos left Culiacan in March 1539, crossed
south-eastern Arizona, penetrated to Zuni or the "Seven Cities of
Cibola," and in September returned to Culiacan. He saw Zuni only from a
distance, and his description of it as equal in size to the city of
Mexico was probably exact; but he embodied much mere hearsay in his
report, the _Descubrimiento de las siete ciudades_, which led F. V. de
Coronado to make his famous expedition next year to Zuni, of which Fray
Marcos was the guide; and the realities proved a great disappointment.
Fray Marcos was made Provincial of his order for Mexico before the
second trip to Zuni, and returned in 1541 to the capital, where he died
on the 25th of March 1558.

  The _Descubrimiento_ is one of the world's famous narratives of
  travel. It may be found in J. F. Pacheco's _Documentos_ (vol. iii.)
  and Hakluyt's _Voyages_ (vol. iii.); also in G. Ramusio, _Navigazione_
  (vol. iii.) and H. Ternaux-Compans, _Voyages_ (vol. iii.). See A. F.
  A. Bandelier, _The Gilded Man_ (_El Dorado_), (New York, 1893); H. H.
  Bancroft, _Arizona and New Mexico_ (San Francisco, 1888), and, for
  critical opinions, G. P. Winship, "The Coronado Expedition," in _U.S.
  Bureau of Ethnology, Fourteenth Annual Report_ (for 1892-1893),
  (Washington, 1896).



MARCOU, JULES (1824-1898), Swiss-American geologist, was born at Salins,
in the department of Jura, in France, on the 20th of April 1824. He was
educated at Besançon and at the college of St Louis, Paris. He worked in
early years with J. Thurmann (1804-1855) on the geology of the Jura
mountains. In 1847 he went to North America as travelling geologist for
the _Jardin des Plantes_, and in the following year in Boston he joined
Agassiz, whom he had met in Switzerland, and accompanied him to the Lake
Superior region. Marcou spent two years in studying the geology of
various parts of the United States and Canada, and returned to Europe
for a short time in 1850. In 1853 he published a _Geological Map of the
United States, and the British Provinces of North America_. In 1855 he
became professor of geology and palaeontology at the polytechnic school
of Zurich, but relinquished this office in 1859, and in 1861 again
returned to the United States, when he assisted Agassiz in founding the
Museum of Comparative Zoology. In 1861 he published his _Geological Map
of the World_ (2nd ed. 1875). Of his published papers the more
noteworthy are those on the Jura-Cretaceous formations of the Jura, on
the "Dyas" (Permian) of Nebraska, and on the Taconic rocks of Vermont
and Canada. His other works include _Lettres sur les roches du Jura et
leur distribution géographique dans les deux hémisphères_ (1857-1860)
and _Geology of North America_ (1858). Marcou died at Cambridge, Mass.,
on the 17th of April 1898.



MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS (121-180), Roman emperor and Stoic
philosopher, was born in Rome A.D. 121, the date of his birth being
variously stated as the 6th, 21st and 26th of April. His original name
was Marcus Annius Verus.[1] His mother Domitia Calvilla (or Lucilla) was
a lady of consular rank, and the family of his father Annius Verus
(prefect of the city and thrice consul), originally Spanish, had
received patrician rank from Vespasian. Marcus was three months old when
his father died, and was thereupon adopted by his grandfather. The moral
training which he received from his grandfather and his mother must have
been all but perfect. The noble qualities of the child attracted the
attention of Hadrian, who, playing upon the name "Verus," said that it
should be changed to "Verissimus" (BHPICCIMOC on medals). Hadrian
adopted, as his successor, Titus Antoninus Pius (uncle of Marcus), on
condition that he in turn adopted both Marcus (then seventeen) and
Lucius Ceionius Commodus, the son of Aelius Caesar, who had originally
been intended by Hadrian as his successor, but had died before him.
Marcus had been, at the age of fifteen, betrothed to Fabia, the sister
of Commodus; the engagement was broken off by Antoninus Pius, and he was
betrothed to Faustina, the daughter of the latter. In 139 the title of
Caesar was conferred upon him and he dropped the name of Verus. The full
name he then bore was Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus, Aelius coming
from Hadrian's family, and Aurelius being the original name of Antoninus
Pius. In 140 he was made consul.

The education of Aurelius in his youth was minute (see _Medit._ i.
1-16). A better guardian than Antoninus Pius could not be conceived.
Marcus himself says, "To the gods I am indebted for having good
grandfathers, good parents, a good sister, good teachers, good
associates, good kinsmen and friends, nearly everything good." He was
educated, not at school, but by tutors, Herodes Atticus and M. Cornelius
Fronto (q.v.) in the usual curriculum of rhetoric and poetry; but at the
age of eleven he became acquainted with Diognetus the painter and Stoic
philosopher (_Hist. script. aug._ i. 305, notes), was fascinated by the
philosophy he taught, assumed the dress of his sect, and ultimately
abandoned rhetoric and poetry for philosophy and law, having among his
teachers of the one Sextus of Chaeronea, grandson of Plutarch, and later
Q. Junius Rusticus, and of the other L. Volusius Maecianus (or
Metianus), a distinguished jurist. He went thoroughly into the practice
as well as the theory of Stoicism, and lived so abstemious and laborious
a life that he injured his health. From his Stoic teachers he learned to
work hard, to deny himself, to avoid listening to slander, to endure
misfortunes, never to deviate from his purpose, to be grave without
affectation, delicate in correcting others, "not frequently to say to
any one, nor to write in a letter, that I have no leisure," nor to
excuse the neglect of duties by alleging urgent occupations. Through all
his Stoical training Aurelius preserved the natural sweetness of his
nature.

During the reign of Antoninus Pius (138 to 161), the concord between him
and Aurelius was complete; Capitolinus (_c_. 7) says "nec praeter duas
noctes per tot annos mansit diversis vicibus." The two were associated
in the administration and in the simple country occupations of the
seaside villa of Lorium, the birthplace of Pius, to which he loved to
retire. It has been assumed on the strength of a passage in Capitolinus
that Aurelius married Faustina in 146, but the passage is not clear, and
other evidence points strongly to 140; at all events it seems certain
that a daughter was born to him in 140. Antoninus Pius died in 161,
having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age,
without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called
Lucius Verus. It is believed that the senate urged Aurelius to take the
sole administration. But he showed the magnanimity of his nature by at
once admitting Verus as his partner, giving him the tribunician and
proconsular powers, and the titles Caesar and Augustus. This was the
first time that Rome had two emperors as colleagues. Verus, a weak,
self-indulgent man, had a high respect for his adoptive brother, and
deferred uniformly to his judgment. In the first year of his reign
Faustina gave birth to twins, one of whom became the emperor Commodus.

The early part of the reign of Aurelius was clouded by national
misfortunes. An inundation of the Tiber swept away a large part of Rome,
destroying fields, drowning cattle, and causing a famine (162); then
came earthquakes, fires and plagues of insects; the soldiers in Britain
tried to induce their general Statius Priscus to proclaim himself
emperor; finally, the Parthians under Vologaeses III. resumed
hostilities, annihilated the Roman forces under Severianus at Elegia in
Cappadocia, and devastated Syria. Verus, originally a man of
considerable courage and ability, was sent to oppose the Parthians, but
gave himself up to sensual excesses, and the Roman cause in Armenia
would have been lost, and the empire itself, perhaps, imperilled, had
not Verus had under him able generals,[2] the chief of whom was Avidius
Cassius (see CASSIUS, AVIDIUS). By them the Parthian War was brought to
a conclusion in 165, but Verus and his army brought back with them a
terrible pestilence, which spread through the whole empire. The people
seem to have thought that the last days of the empire had come. The
Parthians had at the best been beaten, not subdued; the Britons
threatened revolt; there were signs that various tribes beyond the Alps
intended to break into Italy. Indeed, the bulk of the reign of Aurelius
was spent in efforts to ward off the attacks of the barbarians. He went
himself to the wars with Verus in 167, first to Aquileia and then on
into Pannonia and Noricum, wintering at Sirmium in Pannonia. Ultimately
the Marcomanni, the fiercest of the tribes that inhabited the country
between Illyria and the sources of the Danube, sued for peace in 168. In
January or February 160 Verus died at Altinum, apparently of apoplexy,
though some ventured to say that he was poisoned by Aurelius.

Aurelius was thenceforth indisputed master of the empire, during one of
the most troubled periods of its history. His reign is well described by
F. W. Farrar (_Seekers after God_): "He regarded himself as being, in
fact, the servant of all. The registry of the citizens, the suppression
of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the
retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games
and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges,
the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of
street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed
his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him
at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight. His
position, indeed, often necessitated his presence at games and shows,
but on these occasions he occupied himself either in reading, in being
read to, or in writing notes. He was one of those who held that nothing
should be done hastily, and that few crimes were worse than the waste of
time." The comprehensiveness of his legal and judicial reforms is very
striking. Slaves, heirs, women and children, were benefited, and he made
serious attempts to deal with the steady fall in the birth-rate of
legitimate children.

In the autumn of 169 two of the German tribes, the Quadi and the
Marcomanni, with their allies the Vandals, Iazyges and Sarmatians,
renewed hostilities and, for three years, Aurelius resided almost
constantly at Carnuntum. In the end the Marcomanni were driven out of
Pannonia, and were almost destroyed in their retreat across the Danube.
In 174 Aurelius gained over the Quadi a decisive victory, which is
commemorated by one of the sculptures on the column of Antonine. The
story is that the Romans, entangled in a defile, were suffering from
thirst. A sudden storm gave abundance of rain, while hail and thunder
confounded their enemies, and enabled the Romans to gain an easy and
complete victory. This triumph was universally considered at the time,
and for long afterwards, to have been a miracle, and bore the title of
"The Miracle of the Thundering Legion." The pagan writers (e.g. Dio
Cassius, lxx. 8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an
Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to give
relief, while the Christians attributed it to the prayers of their
brethren in a legion to which, they affirmed, the emperor then gave the
name of "The Thundering." Dacier, however, and others who adhere to the
Christian view of the miracle, admit that the appellation of
"Thundering" or "Lightning" ([Greek: keraunobolos], or [Greek:
keraunophoros]) was given to the legion because there was a figure of
lightning on their shields. It has also been virtually proved that it
had the title even in the reign of Augustus.

Aurelius next marched to Germany. There news reached him that Avidius
Cassius, the commander of the Roman troops in Asia, had revolted and
proclaimed himself emperor (175). But after three months Cassius was
assassinated, and his head was brought to Aurelius, who with
characteristic magnanimity, persuaded the senate to pardon all the
family of Cassius. It is a proof of the wisdom of Aurelius's clemency
that he had little or no trouble in pacifying the provinces which had
been the scene of rebellion. He treated them all with forbearance, and
it is said that when the correspondence of Cassius was brought him he
burnt it without reading it. During his journey of pacification,
Faustina, who had borne him eleven children, died. Dio Cassius and
Capitolinus charge Faustina with the most shameless infidelity to her
husband, who is even blamed for not paying heed to her crimes. But none
of these stories rests on trustworthy evidence; on the other hand, there
can be no doubt that Aurelius trusted her while she lived, and mourned
her loss.

After the death of Faustina and the pacification of Syria, Aurelius
proceeded, on his return to Italy, through Athens, and was initiated in
the Eleusinian mysteries, the reason assigned for his doing so being
that it was his custom to conform to the established rites of the
countries he visited. He gave large sums of money for the endowment of
chairs in philosophy and rhetoric, with a view to making the schools the
resort of students from all parts of the empire. Along with his son
Commodus he entered Rome in 176, and obtained a triumph for victories in
Germany. In 177 occurred that persecution of Christians, the share of
Aurelius in which has been the subject of so much controversy. Meanwhile
the German War continued, and the two Quintilii, who had been left in
command, begged Aurelius once more to take the field. In this campaign
Aurelius, after a series of successes, was attacked, according to some
authorities, by an infectious disease, of which he died after a seven
days' illness, either in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovitz), on the Save,
in Lower Pannonia, or at Vindobona (Vienna), on the 17th of March 180,
in the fifty-ninth year of his age. Other accounts are: (1) that he was
poisoned in the interests of Commodus (Dio. Cass. lxxi. 33, 4), (2) that
he died of a chronic stomachic disease; the latter is perhaps the most
likely. His ashes (according to some authorities, his body) were taken
to Rome. By common consent he was deified and all those who could afford
the cost obtained his statue or bust; for a long time his statues held a
place among the penates of the Romans. Commodus, who was with his father
when he died, erected to his memory the Antonine column (now in the
Piazza Colonna at Rome), round the shaft of which are sculptures in
relief commemorating the miracle of the Thundering Legion and the
various victories of Aurelius over the Quadi and the Marcomanni. A
bronze equestrian statue was set up in the Forum, now on the Capitol.

Aurelius throughout his reign was hostile to Christianity. The
Christians suffered from systematic persecution, and many historians,
with a strange lack of historical insight, have poured denunciation upon
him for an attitude which was the natural outcome of his convictions.
During his reign the atmosphere of Roman society was heavily charged
with the popular Greek philosophy to which, ethics apart, Christianity
was diametrically opposed. Under Antoninus the "pursuit" of Christians
was unknown; under Trajan and Hadrian it was forbidden (cf. Keim, _Aus
dem Urchrist_, p. 99). But Aurelius was an eager patriot and a man of
logical mind. From his earliest youth he had learned to identify the
ritual of the Roman religion with the very essence of the imperial idea.
He became a Salian priest at the age of eight, and soon knew by heart
all the forms and liturgical order of the official worship, and even the
sacred music. In the earliest statue we have he is a youth offering
incense; he is a priest at the sacrificial altar in the latest triumphal
reliefs. Naturally he felt that the prevalence of Christianity was
incompatible with his ideal of Roman prosperity, and therefore that the
policy of the Flavian emperors was the only logical solution of an
important problem. Neumann argued that the recrudescence of active
persecution was initiated by a deliberate ad hoc rescript issued
probably in A.D. 176. Sir W. M. Ramsay, however, doubts this (_The
Church in the Roman Empire_, London, 1893), and argues that it was due
to a long series of instructions to provincial governors (_mandata_, not
_decreta_) who interpreted their duty largely in conformity with the
attitude of the reigning emperor. In other words the governors were
ordered merely to punish sacrilege, and, under Aurelius, Christianity
was regarded as such. In the second place, though it is true that the
persecutions indicated by Celsus (Origen, _Celsus_, viii. 69), Justin,
Melito (in Eusebius, _H.E._, iv. 26), Athenagoras (_Libellus pro
Christianis_) and the _Acts of Martyrs_, were greatly in excess of those
recorded in previous reigns, it must not be forgotten that it was only
in this period that the Christians began to keep records. Thirdly, there
can be no doubt that the Christians had recently assumed a much bolder
attitude, and thus segregated themselves from the mass of those
unorthodox sects which the Roman could afford to despise. Like the
Druids in Gaul (cf. T. Mommsen, _Prov. Rom. Emp._, Eng. trans. i. 105,
and V. Duruy, _Rev. archéol._, Apr. 1880), the Christians were
particularly dangerous, inasmuch as they taught a unity which
transcended that of the Roman Empire, and must, therefore, have been
regarded as antagonistic to the existing political and social organism.

When, therefore, we remember that Aurelius knew little of the
Christians, that the only mention of them in the _Meditations_ is a
contemptuous reference to certain fanatics of their number whom even
Clement of Alexandria compares for their thirst for martyrdom to the
Indian gymnosophists, and finally that the least worthy of them were
doubtless the most prominent, we cannot doubt that Aurelius was acting
unquestionably in the best interests of a perfectly intelligible ideal.
He was "Roman in resolution and repression, Roman in civic nobility and
pride, Roman in tenacity of imperial aim, Roman in respect for law,
Roman in self-effacement for the service of the State" (G. H. Rendall).

  _Philosophy._--The book which contains the philosophy of Aurelius is
  known by the title of his _Reflections_, or _Meditations_, although
  that is not the name which he gave to it himself ([Greek: Tà eis
  heauton]). Of the genuineness of the work no doubts are now
  entertained. It is believed that he wrote also an autobiography, which
  has perished. The _Meditations_ were written, it is evident, as
  occasion offered--in the midst of public business, and on the eve of
  battles on which the fate of the empire depended--hence their
  fragmentary appearance, but hence also much of their practical value
  and even of their charm. It is believed by many critics that they were
  intended for the guidance of Aurelius's son, Commodus (q.v.); at all
  events they are generally considered as one of the most precious of
  the legacies of antiquity. Renan even called them "the most human of
  all books," and they are described by J. S. Mill in his _Utility of
  Religion_ as almost equal in ethical elevation to the Sermon on the
  Mount.

  Aurelius throughout his life adhered to the Stoical philosophy. But,
  as Tenneman says, he imparted to it "a character of gentleness and
  benevolence, by making it subordinate to a love of mankind, allied to
  religion." His thoughts represent a transitional movement, and it is
  difficult to discover in them anything like a systematic philosophy.
  From the manner, however, in which he seeks to distinguish between
  matter and cause or reason, and from the earnestness with which he
  advises men to examine all the impressions on their minds, it may be
  inferred that he held the view of Anaxagoras--that God and matter
  exist independently, but that God governs matter. There can be no
  doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably
  right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this--the soul
  of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make
  one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately
  united to the world or the material universe, and together they form
  one whole. We find in the _Meditations_ no speculations on the
  absolute nature of the deity, and no clear expressions of opinion as
  to a future state. We may also observe here that, like Epictetus, he
  is by no means so decided on the subject of suicide as the older
  Stoics. Aurelius is, above all things, a practical moralist. The goal
  in life to be aimed at, according to him, is not happiness, but
  tranquillity, or equanimity. This condition of mind can be obtained
  only by "living conformably to nature," that is to say, one's whole
  nature, and as a means to that man must cultivate the four chief
  virtues, each of which has its distinct sphere--wisdom, or the
  knowledge of good and evil; justice, or the giving to every man his
  due; fortitude, or the enduring of labour and pain; and temperance, or
  moderation in all things. It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue"
  that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the
  "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is
  an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from
  the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the
  things which happen." While the prime principle in man is the social,
  "the next in order is not to yield to the persuasions of the body,
  when they are not conformable to the rational principle which must
  govern." This divinity "within a man," this "legislating faculty,"
  which, looked at from one point of view, is conscience, and from
  another is reason, must be implicitly obeyed. He who thus obeys it
  will attain tranquillity of mind; nothing can irritate him, for
  everything is according to nature, and death itself "is such as
  generation is, a mystery of nature, a composition out of the same
  elements, and a decomposition into the same, and altogether not a
  thing of which any man should be ashamed, for it is not contrary to
  the nature of a reasonable animal, and not contrary to the reason of
  our constitution."

  The morality of Marcus Aurelius cannot be said to have been new when
  it was given to the world. Its charm lies in its exquisite accent and
  its infinite tenderness. But above all, what gives the sentences of
  Marcus Aurelius their enduring value and fascination, and renders them
  superior to the utterances of Epictetus and Seneca, is that they are
  the gospel of his life. His precepts are simply the records of his
  practice. To the saintliness of the cloister he added the wisdom of
  the man of the world; he was constant in misfortune, not elated by
  prosperity, never "carrying things to the sweating-point," but
  preserving, in a time of universal corruption, unreality and
  self-indulgence, a nature sweet, pure, self-denying, unaffected.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--P. B. Watson's _M. Aurelius Antoninus_ (1884) contains
  a general account--life, character, philosophy, relations with
  Christianity--as well as a bibliography; see also art. in
  Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_, s.v. "Annius" (No. 94), col. 2279.
  For special points see: (1) _Historical:_ Authorities under ROME:
  _Ancient History_; S. Dill, _Roman Society from Nero to M. Aurelius_
  (London, 1904). (2) _Relations to Christianity:_ Sir W. M. Ramsay,
  _op. cit._; W. Moeller, _History of the Christian Church_, A.D. 1-600
  (Eng. trans., A. Rutherford, 1892); W. E. Addis, _Christianity and the
  Roman Empire_ (1893); E. G. Hardy, _Christianity and the Roman
  Government_ (1894), pp. 145 sqq., which criticizes both Neumann and
  Ramsay; Leonard Alston, _Stoic and Christian of the 2nd century_
  (1906); J. Dartigue-Peyrou, _Marc-Aurèle dans ses rapports avec le
  christianisme_ (Paris, 1897). (3) _Philosophical:_ Besides article
  STOICS, E. Renan, _Marc. Antoninus et la fin du monde antique_ (Paris,
  1882; Eng. trans., W. Hutchinson, 1904); W. Pater, _Marius the
  Epicurean_ (London, 1888); Matthew Arnold's _Essays_; C. H. W. Davis,
  _Greek and Roman Stoicism_ (1903); editions of the _Meditations_ (5,
  below). (4) _Military:_ E. Napp, _De rebus imperat. M. Aurel. Anton,
  in oriente gestis_ (Bonn, 1879); Conrad, _Mark Aurels
  Markomannenkrieg_ (1889); Th. Mommsen, _Provinces of the Roman Empire_
  (Eng. trans., W. P. Dickson, London, 1886); for the Aurelius column,
  E. Petersen, A. von Domaszewski, and G. Calderini, _Die Marcussäule_
  (Munich, 1896), with historical introduction by Th. Mommsen. (5) The
  _Meditations_ were published by Xylander in 1558; the best critical
  edition is that of J. Stich in the Teubner series (Leipzig, 1882; 2nd
  ed., 1903); textual emendations also in _Journal of Philology_, xxiii.
  116-160 (G. H. Rendall); _Classical Review_, xix. (1905), pp. 18 sqq.
  (Herbert Richards), ibid., pp. 301 sqq. (A. J. Kronenberg).
  Translations exist in almost every language; that of George Long
  (London, 1862, re-edited 1900) has been superseded by those of G. H.
  Rendall (London, 1898, with valuable introduction) and J. Jackson
  (Oxford, 1906, with introduction by Charles Bigg). (6) For a full
  account of the correspondence of Aurelius and Fronto, see Robinson
  Ellis, _Correspondence of Fronto and M. Aurelius_ (Oxford, 1904).
       (J. M. M.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Capitolinus states that he was originally called Catilius Severus
    after his mother's grandfather; if so the name was early discarded.

  [2] Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus. Among
    various reasons, the most convincing is that the presence of Aurelius
    was required in Rome; moreover, the real leader was evidently
    Cassius.



MARCY, WILLIAM LEARNED (1786-1857), American statesman, was born in
Southbridge (then part of Sturbridge), Massachusetts, on the 12th of
December 1786. He graduated at Brown University in 1808, studied law,
was admitted to the bar in Troy, New York, and began practice there in
1810. During the War of 1812 he served first as a lieutenant and
afterwards as a captain of volunteers, and on the 22nd of October 1812
took part in the storming of the British post at St Regis, Canada. In
1816 he became recorder of Troy, but as he sided with the Anti-Clinton
faction of the Democratic-Republican Party, known as the "Bucktails," he
was removed from office in 1818 by his political opponents. As editor of
the Troy _Budget_ (daily) he was a vigorous supporter of Martin Van
Buren, and when Van Buren's followers acquired control of the
legislature in 1821 Marcy was made adjutant-general of the New York
militia. From 1823 to 1829 Marcy was comptroller of the state, an office
then especially important on account of the large expenditures for
internal improvements, and during this period he became the leading
member of the famous "Albany Regency," a group of able Democratic
politicians who exerted a powerful influence throughout the state by
their control of the party patronage and machinery. He was one of the
associate justices of the New York Supreme Court from 1829 to 1831,
presiding over the trial of the alleged murderers of William Morgan and
in other important cases; and was a member of the United States Senate
from December 1831 to July 1832, when he resigned to become governor of
New York. In a speech in the Senate defending Van Buren against an
attack by Henry Clay, Marcy made the unfortunate remark that "to the
victors belong the spoils of the enemy," and thereby became widely known
as a champion of the proscription of political opponents. He served as
governor of New York for six years (Jan. 1, 1833 to Dec. 31, 1838), but
was defeated in 1838 by the Whig candidate, William H. Seward. As
governor he checked the issue of bank charters by the legislature and
secured the enactment, in 1838, of a general banking law, which
abolished the monopoly features incident to the old banking system. In
1839-1842 Marcy was a member of a commission appointed by President Van
Buren, in accordance with the treaty of 1839 between the United States
and Mexico to "examine and decide upon" certain claims of citizens of
the United States against Mexico. In 1843 he presided over the
Democratic state convention at Syracuse, and in 1844-1845 he was
recognized as one of the leaders of the "Hunkers," or regular Democrats
in New York, and an active opponent of the "Barnburners." He was
secretary of war under President Polk from 1845 to 1849, and as such,
discharged with ability the especially onerous duties incident to the
conduct of the Mexican War; he became involved, however, in
controversies with Generals Scott and Taylor, who accused him, it seems
very unjustly, of seeking to embarrass their operations in the field
because they were political opponents of the administration. In the
Democratic convention at Baltimore, in 1852, Marcy was a prominent
candidate for the presidential nomination, and from 1853 to 1857 he was
secretary of state in the cabinet of President Pierce. Few cabinet
officers in time of peace have had more engrossing duties. His circular
of the 1st of June 1853 to American diplomatic agents abroad,
recommending that, whenever practicable, they should "appear in the
simple dress of an American citizen," created much discussion in Europe;
in 1867 his recommendation was enacted into a law of Congress. One of
the most important matters with which he was called upon to deal was the
"Koszta Affair";[1] his "Hülsemann letter" (1853), is an important
state paper, and the principles it enunciates have been approved by
leading authorities on international law. In the same year he secured
the negotiation of the Gadsden Treaty (see GADSDEN, JAMES), by which the
boundary dispute between Mexico and the United States was adjusted and a
large area was added to the Federal domain; and in June 1854 he
concluded with Lord Elgin, governor-general of Canada, acting for the
British Government, a treaty designed to settle the fisheries question
and providing for tariff reciprocity (as regards certain enumerated
commodities) between Canada and the United States. In 1854 Marcy had to
deal with the complications growing out of the bombardment of San Juan
del Norte (Greytown), Nicaragua, by the United States sloop-of-war
"Cyane" for insults offered the American minister by its inhabitants and
for their refusal to make restitution for damages to American property.
The expedition of William Walker (q.v.) to Nicaragua in 1855 further
complicated the Central American question. The Crimean War, on account
of the extensive recruiting therefor by British consuls in several
American cities, in violation of American neutrality, led to a
diplomatic controversy with Great Britain, and in May 1856 the British
minister, John F. T. Crampton (1805-1886), received his passports, and
the exequaturs of the British consuls at New York, Philadelphia and
Cincinnati were revoked. The incident created great excitement in
England, but in 1857 the British government sent Sir Francis Napier to
Washington to take Crampton's place. To the Declaration of Paris of
1856, prescribing certain rules of naval warfare, Marcy on behalf of his
government refused to subscribe, because Great Britain had rejected his
proposed amendment exempting from seizure in time of war all private
property not contraband. The diplomatic relations of the United States
and Spain furnished, perhaps, the most perplexing of Marcy's problems.
Upon the seizure (on Feb. 28, 1854) of the American vessel "Black
Warrior," the confiscation of her cargo, and the fining of her captain
by the Cuban authorities, on the ground that this vessel had violated
the customs regulations of the port of Havana, slavery propagandists
sought to force the administration into an attitude that would lead to
war with Spain and make possible the seizure of Cuba; and it was largely
due to Marcy's influence that war was averted, Spain restoring the
confiscated cargo and remitting the captain's fine.[2] The secretary,
however, was not averse to increasing his popularity and his chances for
the presidency by obtaining Cuba in an honourable manner, and it was at
his suggestion that James Buchanan, J. Y. Mason and Pierre Soulé, the
ministers respectively to Great Britain, France and Spain, met at Ostend
and Aix-la-Chapelle in October 1854 to discuss the Cuban question. But
the remarkable "Ostend Manifesto" (see BUCHANAN, JAMES), the outcome of
their conference, was quite unexpected, and Marcy promptly disavowed the
document. Marcy died at Ballston Spa, New York, on the 4th of July 1857,
a short time after the close of Pierce's administration. In domestic
affairs Marcy was a shrewd, but honest partisan; in diplomacy he
exhibited the qualities of a broad-minded, patriotic statesman, endowed,
however, with vigour, rather than brilliancy, of intellect.

  For his early career, consult J. S. Jenkins, _Lives of the Governors
  of New York_ (Auburn, New York, 1851), and for his work as secretary
  of state, see James Ford Rhodes, _History of the United States_ (vols.
  i. and ii., New York, 1892), and an article by Sidney Webster, "Mr
  Marcy, the Cuban Question, and the Ostend Manifesto," in vol. viii. of
  the _Political Science Quarterly_ (New York, 1893).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The "Koszta Affair" involved an interesting question of
    international law--i.e. the right of an alien domiciled in any
    country to the protection of that country--and has served as a
    precedent for the American government in somewhat similar cases that
    have arisen. Martin Koszta, a Hungarian revolutionist of 1848, had
    emigrated to the United States and had there taken the preliminary
    step for naturalization by formally declaring his intention to become
    a citizen of the United States. In 1853 he went on personal business
    to Smyrna, where he secured a passport from the American consul; the
    Austrian consul, however, caused him to be seized and detained on an
    Austrian brig-of-war. Soon afterward Captain Duncan N. Ingraham
    (1802-1891), in command of a United States sloop-of-war, arrived at
    Smyrna, and threatened to attack the Austrian vessel unless Koszta
    were released; and as a compromise Koszta was placed in the custody
    of the French consul. To Chevalier Hülsemann, then representing
    Austria at Washington, who had demanded from the United States the
    disavowal of the acts of its agents, the complete surrender of
    Koszta, and "satisfaction proportionate to the magnitude of the
    outrage," Marcy wrote on the 26th of September 1853, that Koszta
    "when seized and imprisoned was invested with the nationality of the
    United States" and had a right to the protection of the United States
    government, and added: "Whenever by the law of nations an individual
    becomes clothed with our national character--he can claim the
    protection of this government, and it may respond to that claim
    without being obliged to explain its conduct to any foreign power;
    for it is its duty to make its nationality respected by other nations
    and respectable in every quarter of the globe." Eventually Koszta was
    released and returned to the United States. The Hülsemann letter was
    published and greatly increased Marcy's popularity.

  [2] See Henry L. James, "The Black Warrior Affair" in the _American
    Historical Review_, vol. xii. (1907).



MARDIN, the chief town of a sanjak of the Diarbekr vilayet of Asiatic
Turkey. It is a military station on the Diarbekr-Mosul road. It occupies
a remarkable site on the south side of a conical hill of soft limestone,
and the houses rise tier above tier. The streets are narrow and paved
in steps, while often the roadway runs along the roof of the house in
the tier below. The hill is almost surrounded by old walls, while on the
summit are the remains of the famous castle of the Kaleh Shubha (Lat.
_Maride_ or _Marde_,) which from Roman times has played an important
part in history. The Arab geographers considered it impregnable, and
from its steep approaches and well-arranged defences it was able to
offer a protracted resistance to the Mongolian conqueror Hulagu and to
the armies of Timur. It was also for several centuries the residence of
more or less independent princes of the Ortokid Turkoman dynasty. The
climate is healthy and dry, and fruit grows well, but water is sometimes
scanty in the summer. Mardin is the centre of a good corn-growing
district, and is important chiefly as a border town for the Kurds on the
north and the Arab tribes to the south. It is the chief centre of the
Jacobite Christians, who have many villages in the Tor Abdin hills to
the north-east, and whose patriarch lives at Deir Zaferan, a Syrian
monastery of the 9th century not far off in the same direction. The
population is estimated at 27,000, of whom about one-half are Christians
of the Armenian, Chaldean, Jacobite, Protestant and Roman Catholic
communities. Besides many mosques and churches there are three
monasteries (Syrian, Franciscan and Capuchin), and an important American
Mission station, with church, schools and a medical officer.



MARDUK (Bibl. MERODACH[1]), the name of the patron deity of the city of
Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political centre of
the united states of the Euphrates valley under Khammurabi (c. 2250
B.C.), rose to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon. His
original character was that of a solar deity, and he personifies more
specifically the sun of the spring-time who conquers the storms of the
winter season. He was thus fitted to become the god who triumphs over
chaos that reigned in the beginning of time. This earlier Marduk,
however, was effaced by the reflex of the political development through
which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to imbuing him with
traits belonging to gods who at an earlier period were recognized as the
heads of the pantheon. There are more particularly two gods--Ea and
Bel--whose powers and attributes pass over to Marduk. In the case of Ea
the transfer proceeds pacifically and without involving the effacement
of the older god. Marduk is viewed as the son of Ea. The father
voluntarily recognizes the superiority of the son and hands over to him
the control of humanity. This association of Marduk and Ea, while
indicating primarily the passing of the supremacy once enjoyed by Eridu
to Babylon as a religious and political centre, may also reflect an
early dependence of Babylon upon Eridu, not necessarily of a political
character but, in view of the spread of culture in the Euphrates valley
from the south to the north, the recognition of Eridu as the older
centre on the part of the younger one. At all events, traces of a cult
of Marduk at Eridu are to be noted in the religious literature, and the
most reasonable explanation for the existence of a god Marduk in Eridu
is to assume that Babylon in this way paid its homage to the old
settlement at the head of the Persian Gulf.

While the relationship between Ea (q.v.) and Marduk is thus marked by
harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour
of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Bel of
Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige. After the days of
Khammurabi, the cult of Marduk eclipses that of Bel (q.v.), and although
during the five centuries of Cassite control in Babylonia (c. 1750-1200
B.C.), Nippur and the cult of the older Bel enjoy a period of
renaissance, when the reaction ensued it marked the definite and
permanent triumph of Marduk over Bel until the end of the Babylonian
empire. The only serious rival to Marduk after 1200 B.C. is Assur (q.v.)
in Assyria. In the south Marduk reigns supreme, and his supremacy is
indicated most significantly by making him the _Bel_, "the lord," _par
excellence_.

The old myths in which Bel of Nippur was celebrated as the hero were
transformed by the priests of Babylon in the interest of the Marduk
cult with the chief rôle assigned to their favourite. The hymns once
sung in the temple of Bel were re-edited and adapted to the cult of
Babylon. In this process the older Bel was deliberately set aside, and
the climax was reached when the conquest of the monster Tiamat,
symbolizing the chaos prevailing in primeval days, was ascribed to
Marduk instead of, as in the older form of the epic, to Bel. With this
stroke Marduk became the creator of the world, including mankind--again
setting aside the far older claims of Bel to this distinction.

Besides absorbing the prerogatives of Ea and Bel, Marduk was also imbued
with the attributes of other of the great gods, such as Adad, Shamash,
Nergal and Ninib, so that, more particularly as we approach the days of
the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the impression is created that Marduk was the
only real deity recognized, and that the other gods were merely the
various forms under which he manifested himself. So far as one can speak
of a monotheistic tendency in Babylonia it connects itself with this
conception that was gradually crystallized in regard to the old solar
deity of Babylon.

The history of the city of Babylon can now be traced back to the days of
Sargon of Agade (before 3000 B.C.) who appears to have given the city
its name. There is every reason to assume, therefore, that the cult of
Marduk existed already at this early period, though it must always be
borne in mind that, until the days of Khammurabi, his jurisdiction was
limited to the city of which he was the patron and that he was viewed
solely as a solar deity.

On monuments and cylinders he is represented as armed with the weapon
with which he despatched the monster Tiamat. At times this monster is
also depicted lying vanquished at his feet, and occasionally the monster
with the lance or the lance alone is reproduced instead of the god
himself.

In the astral-theological system, Marduk is identified with the planet
Jupiter. As the creator of the world, the New Year's festival, known as
Zagmuk and celebrated at the time of the vernal equinox, was sacred to
him. The festival, which lasted for eleven days, symbolized the new
birth of nature--a reproduction therefore of the creation of the world.
The arbiter of all fates, Marduk, was pictured as holding an assembly of
the gods during the New Year's festival for the purpose of deciding the
lot of each individual for the year to come. The epic reciting his
wonderful deed in despatching the monster Tiamat and in establishing law
and order in the world in the place of chaos was recited in his temple
at Babylon known as E-Saggila, "the lofty house," and there are some
reasons for believing that the recital was accompanied by a dramatical
representation of the epic.

The meaning of the name Marduk is unknown. By a species of word-play the
name was interpreted as "the son of the chamber," with reference perhaps
to the sacred chamber of fate in which he sat in judgment on the New
Year's festival. Ideographically he is represented by two signs
signifying "child of the day" (or "of the sun") which is a distinct
allusion to his original solar character. Other ideographic signs
describe him as the "strong and universal ruler." The name of his
consort was Sarpanit, i.e. the shining or brilliant one--again an
allusion to Marduk's solar traits--and this name was playfully twisted
by the Babylonian priests to mean "the seed-producing" (as though
compounded of _zer_, seed, and _banit_, producing), which was regarded
as an appropriate appellation for the female counterpart of the creator
of mankind and of life in general. The punning etymology betrays the
evident desire of the priests to see in Marduk's consort a form or
manifestation of the great mother-goddess Ishtar (q.v.), just as in
Assyria Ishtar frequently appears as the consort of the chief god of
Assyria, known as Assur (q.v.).     (M. JA.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The name Mordecai denotes "belonging to Marduk."



MARE, the English term for the female of any animal of the family
_Equidae_, of the ass, or zebra, but particularly of the horse. It is
also used of the camel. To find a "mare's nest" is an old proverbial
saying for a purely imaginary discovery. In "night-mare," an oppressive
or terrifying dream, the termination is a word appearing as _mar_,
_maer_ and _mara_ in various Teutonic languages for a goblin, supposed
to sit on a sleeper's chest and cause these dreams: cf. elf. This
Teutonic word also appears in the French _cauchemar_, the first part
being from _caucher_, to tread or trample upon, Lat. _calcare_.



MARE CLAUSUM and MARE LIBERUM (Lat. for "closed sea" and "free sea"), in
international law, terms associated with the historic controversy which
arose out of demands on the part of different states to assert exclusive
dominion over areas of the open or high sea. Thus Spain laid claim to
exclusive dominion over whole oceans, Great Britain to all her
environing narrow seas and so on. These claims gave rise to vigorous
opposition by other powers and led to the publication of Grotius's work
(1609) called _Mare liberum_. In _Mare clausum_ (1635) John Selden
endeavoured to prove that the sea was practically as capable of
appropriation as territory. Owing to the conflict of claims which grew
out of the controversy, maritime states had to moderate their demands
and base their pretensions to maritime dominion on the principle that it
extended seawards from land.

A formula was found by Bynkershoek in his _De dominio maris_ (1702) for
the restriction of dominion over the sea to the actual distance to which
cannon range could protect it. This became universally adopted and
developed into the three-mile belt (see TERRITORIAL WATERS). In recent
times controversies have arisen in connexion with the Baltic, the Black
Sea and more especially the Bering Sea. In the latter case the United
States, after the purchase of Alaska, vainly attempted to assert
dominion beyond the three-mile limit. Still more recently the hardship
of treating the greater part of Moray Firth as open sea to the exclusion
of British and to the advantage of foreign fishermen has been raised
(see NORTH SEA FISHERIES CONVENTION; TERRITORIAL WATERS).

Conventions for the suppression of the slave trade, including the
Brussels General Act of 1885, and the North Sea Fisheries Convention,
have placed restrictions on the freedom of the high sea, and possibly,
in the general interest, other agreements will bring it further under
control, on the principle that what is the property of all nations must
be used without detriment to its use by others (see HIGH SEAS).
     (T. Ba.)



MAREE, LOCH, a fresh-water lake in the county of Ross and Cromarty,
Scotland. Its name--of which Maroy and Mourie are older variants--does
not, as is often supposed, commemorate the Virgin, but St Maelrubha, who
came from Bangor in Ireland in 671 and founded a monastery at Applecross
and a chapel (now in ruins) on Isle Maree. Trending in a south-easterly
to north-westerly direction, the lake has a length of 13½ m. from
Kinlochewe at the head of the dam erected in the 16th century (or
earlier) by the iron-smelters of the Cheardach Ruardh, or Red Smiddy, on
the short but impetuous river Ewe by which it drains to the sea. It lies
at a height of 32 ft. above sea-level; the greatest breadth is just over
2 m. at Slattadale, the mean breadth being 9/10 of a mile; and the
greatest depth, 367 ft., occurs in the upper basin, the mean depth being
125 ft. Its waters cover an area of fully 11 sq. m., and its islands
nearly 1 sq. m., while the drainage area is 171 sq. m. A remarkable
feature is the large number (more than 30) and considerable area of the
islands. Excepting Loch Cròcach, a small lake in the Assynt district of
Sutherlandshire, its insularity (i.e. the ratio of the total area of the
islands to that of the water surface) is higher than that of any other
lake in Great Britain, Loch Lomond coming next. Nearly all the islands
lie north and east of Slattadale, the largest being Eilean Subhainn, or
St Swithin's Isle, which contains a small lake 750 ft. long, 300 ft.
broad and 64 ft. deep. For two-thirds of its length the loch is flanked
by magnificent mountains. On the north-east the principal heights are
Ben Slioch (3217 ft.), whose sugar-loaf form dominates the landscape,
Ben Lair (2817) and Ben Airidh-a-Char (2593), and, on the south-west,
the peaks of Ben Eay, four of which exceed 3000 ft.



MAREMMA (a corruption of _Marittima_, "situated on the sea"), a marshy
region of Tuscany, Italy, extending from the mouth of the Cecina to
Orbetello and varying in breadth from 15 to 20 m. In Etruscan and Roman
times the Maremma was a populous and fertile coast plain, with
considerable towns situated on the hills--Populonia, Russellae, Cosa,
&c., and was drained by a complete system of subterranean canals which
were brought to light by the excavations made in connexion with the
railways passing through the district. But the decline of agriculture at
the end of the Republic led to a conversion of the land to pasture, and
later the unsettled state of affairs consequent on the fall of the Roman
Empire resulted in neglect of the watercourses. Leopold II. of Tuscany
(1822-1844) made the first successful efforts to counteract the malaria
which has affected the district, by drainage, the filling up of swamps,
and the establishment of new farms, and since his time continuous
efforts have been made with considerable success.



MARENGO, a village of north Italy, on the road between Alessandria and
Tortona, and 4¾ m. E.S.E. of the gates of the former. It is situated on
the Fontanone brook, a small affluent of the Tanaro which marks the
western edge of the plain of Marengo, the scene of the great victory won
by Napoleon over the Austrians under Baron Melas (1729-1806) on the 14th
of June 1800. (The antecedents of the battle are described under FRENCH
REVOLUTIONARY WARS).

[Illustration: Map.]

The French army, in ignorance of its opponent's position, had advanced
westward from the Scrivia towards Alessandria on the 12th, and its
outposts had reached the Bormida on the evening of the 13th. But contact
with the main Austrian army was not obtained, and on the assumption that
it was moving towards either Valenza or Genoa Napoleon weakened his army
by considerable detachments sent out right and left to find the enemy
and to delay his progress. Unknown, however, to Napoleon Melas's army
was still at Alessandria, and on the morning of the 14th of June it
filed out of the fortress and began its advance into the great plain of
Marengo, one of the few favourable cavalry battle-grounds in north
Italy.

The dispersion of the French army allowed only a fragmentary, though
most energetic, resistance to be offered to the Austrian onset. The
latter, considerably delayed at first by the crossing of the river
Bormida, broke up into two columns,[1] which advanced, the right by the
main road on Marengo, the left on Castel Ceriolo. The former, personally
commanded by Melas, was 20,000 strong, and General Victor, its immediate
opponent, about 10,000, or including some 5000 of Lannes' corps who
fought on his right, about 15,000 strong; the Austrians were, moreover,
greatly superior in guns and cavalry. The French disputed every yard of
ground, holding their first line until they had by fire and
counter-attack forced practically the whole of the Austrian right to
deploy, and two hours passed before the Austrians managed to reach the
Fontanone brook. But Victor's troops, being disorganized and short of
ammunition, had then to retire more rapidly across the plain. The
retreat was orderly, according to Victor's report, and made in échelon
from the centre, and it is certain that at any rate the regiments held
together, for the 6000 Austrian sabres found no opportunity to charge
home. Many guns and wagons were, however, abandoned.

On the French right, opposed to the column of Lieut.-Field-Marshal Ott,
was Lannes, with some 4000 men (excluding Watrin's division which was
with Victor) against 7500. He too was after a time forced to retire,
with heavy losses. Thus, about 11 a.m. the First Consul, who was at some
distance from the field, was at last convinced that he had to deal with
Melas's army. At once he sent out his staff officers to bring back his
detachments, and pushed forward his only reserve, Monnier's division, to
support Lannes and Victor. But before this help arrived Lannes had been
driven out of Castel Ceriolo, and Victor and Watrin forced back almost
to San Giuliano. A little after 2 p.m. Monnier's division (3500) came
into action, and its impetuous advance drove the Austrians out of Castel
Ceriolo. But after an hour it was forced back in its turn, and by 3 p.m.
therefore, the 20,000 French troops, disordered and exhausted, and in
one line without reserves,[2] held a ragged line of battle to the right
and left of San Giuliano. The best that could be expected was a
prolongation of the struggle till nightfall and a fairly orderly
retreat. The Austrian general, believing that the battle was won,
returned to Alessandria, leaving a younger man, his chief of staff Zach,
to organize the pursuit.

Then followed one of the most dramatic events in military history. Of
the two detachments sent away by Napoleon in search of the enemy, one
only received its orders of recall. This was Boudet's division of
Desaix's corps, away to the south at Rivalta and at noon heading for
Pozzolo-Formigaro on the Alessandria-Genoa road. At 1 p.m. a brief
message, "Revenez, au nom de Díeu!" altered the direction of the column,
and between 4 and 5, after a forced march, the division, headed by
Desaix, came on to the battle-field. It was deployed as a unit and moved
forward at the word of command along the main road Alessandria-Tortona,
the sight of their closed line giving fresh courage to the men of Lannes
and Victor. Then, while on the other side Zach was arraying a deep
column of troops to pursue along the main road, Napoleon and Desaix,
themselves under fire, hastily framed a plan of attack. All arms were
combined. First, Marmont with eight of Boudet's guns and ten others (the
rest had been abandoned in the retirement) came into action on the right
of the road, replying to the fire of the Austrian guns and checking
their advanced infantry; close in rear of the artillery was Desaix's
infantry with the remnants of Lannes' and Victor's troops rallying on
its right and left; on Lannes' right, still facing Ott's column, was
Monnier, supported by the Consular Guard of horse and foot; lastly 400
sabres of Kellermann's cavalry brigade, which had already been engaged
several times and had lost heavily, formed up on the right of Desaix.
About 5 p.m. Desaix advanced against the head of the Austrian main
column formed by Zach. He himself fell in the attack, but the onset of
his intact troops drove back the leading Austrians upon their supports,
and at the critical moment when the attack of Boudet's single weak
division had almost spent its force, Kellermann with his 400 sabres
sallied out of the French line. Marmont had brought up two guns to
assist the infantry, and as he fired his last round of case-shot the
cavalry raced past him to the front, wheeled inwards against the flank
of the great column, and rode through and through it. Zach was taken
prisoner with more than 2000 men, and Kellermann, rallying some of his
troopers, flung himself upon the astonished Austrian cavalry and with
the assistance of the Consular Guard cavalry defeated it. The "will to
conquer" spread along the whole French line, while the surprise of the
Austrians suddenly and strangely became mere panic. Lannes, Victor and
Monnier advanced afresh, pushing the Austrians back on Marengo. A few
Austrian battalions made a gallant stand at that place, while Melas
himself, as night came on, rallied the fugitives beyond. Next day the
completely exhausted, but victorious, French army extorted from the
dazed Austrians a convention by which all Italy up to the Mincio was
evacuated by them. The respective losses were: French about 4000,
Austrians 9500.

  See the French official _Campagne de l'armée de réserve_, vol. ii., by
  C. de Cugnac.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] A third column was sent out to the extreme right (3000 under
    O'Reilly). This destroyed a small French detachment on the extreme
    left, but took little or no part in the main battle.

  [2] The Austrians, too, fighting in "linear" formation had few
    reserves. About one-third only of the imperial forces in Italy was
    actually engaged in the battle.



MAREOTIS (Arabic _Mariut_), the most westerly of the lakes in the Delta
of Egypt. On the narrow strip of land separating the lake from the
Mediterranean the city of Alexandria is built. (See EGYPT; and
ALEXANDRIA.)



MARE'S-TAIL, in botany, the popular name for an aquatic herb known
botanically as _Hippuris vulgaris_ (natural order Haloragaceae). It
grows on margins of lakes, ponds and similar localities, and has a
submerged stout creeping rootstock from which spring many-jointed
cylindrical stems bearing numerous narrow leaves close-set in whorls.
The minute greenish flowers are borne in the leaf-axils. Like many
fresh-water plants it has a wide distribution, occurring in arctic and
temperate regions in the northern hemisphere and reappearing in
antarctic South America.



MARET, HUGUES-BERNARD, DUC DE BASSANO (1763-1839), French statesman and
publicist, was born at Dijon. After receiving a sound education, he
entered the legal profession and became advocate at the King's Council
at Paris. The ideas of the French Revolution profoundly influenced him,
and wholly altered his career. The interest aroused by the debates of
the first National Assembly suggested to him the idea of publishing
them, conjointly with Méjean, in the _Bulletin de l'Assemblée_. The
publicist Charles Joseph Panckoucke (1736-1798), owner of the _Mercure
de France_ and publisher of the famous _Encyclopédie_ (1781), persuaded
him to merge this in a larger paper, the _Moniteur universel_, which
gained a wide repute for correctness and impartiality. He was a member
of the moderate club, the Feuillants; but after the overthrow of the
monarchy on the 10th of August 1792 he accepted an office in the
ministry of foreign affairs, where he sometimes exercised a steadying
influence. On the withdrawal of the British legation from Paris Maret
went on a mission to London, where he had a favourable interview with
Pitt on the 2nd of December 1792. All hope of an accommodation was,
however, in vain. After the execution of Louis XVI. (Jan. 21, 1793), the
chief French diplomatic agent, Chauvelin, was ordered to leave England,
while the French Convention declared war (Feb. 1, 1793). These events
precluded the possibility of success attending a second mission of Maret
to London in January. After a space, in which he held no diplomatic
post, he became ambassador of the French Republic at Naples; but, while
repairing thither with De Sémonville he was captured by the Austrians
and was kept in durance by them for some thirty months, until, at the
close of 1795, the two were set free in return for the liberation of the
daughter of Louis XVI. For a time Maret betook himself to journalism;
but he played a useful part in the negotiations for a peace with Great
Britain which went on at Lille during the summer of 1797, until the
victory of the Jacobins at Paris in the _coup d'état_ of Fructidor
(Sept. 1797) frustrated the hopes of Pitt for peace and inflicted on
Maret another reverse of fortune. On the return of Bonaparte from Egypt
in 1799 Maret joined the general's party which came to power with the
_coup d'état_ of Brumaire (Nov. 9-10, 1799).

Maret now became one of the First Consul's secretaries and shortly
afterwards secretary of state. In this position his moderation,
industry, good sense, knowledge of men and of affairs, made his services
of great value. The _Moniteur_, which became the official journal of the
state in 1800, was placed under his control. He sometimes succeeded in
toning down the hard, abrupt language of Napoleon's communications, and
in every way proved a useful intermediary. It is known that he had a
share in the drawing up of the new constitutions for the Batavian and
Italian Republics. In 1804 he became Minister; in 1807 he was named
count, and in 1809 he received the title of duc de Bassano, an honour
which marked the sense entertained by Napoleon of his strenuous toil,
especially in connexion with the diplomatic negotiations and treaties of
this period. His personal devotion to the emperor was of that absolute
unwavering kind which Napoleon highly valued; it is seen in the attempt
to defend the unworthy artifices adopted by the great man in April-May
1808 in order to make himself master of the destinies of Spain. Maret
also assisted in drawing up the constitution destined for Spain, which
the Spaniards at once rejected.

Maret accompanied Napoleon through most of his campaigns, including that
of 1809; and at its close he expressed himself in favour of the marriage
alliance with the archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, which took place
in 1810. In the spring of 1811, the duc de Bassano replaced Champagny,
duc de Cadore, as minister of Foreign Affairs. In this capacity he
showed his usual industry and devotion, concluding the treaties between
France and Austria and France and Prussia, which preceded the French
invasion of Russia in 1812. He was with Napoleon through the greater
part of that campaign; and after its disastrous conclusion helped to
prepare the new forces with which Napoleon waged the equally disastrous
campaign of 1813. But in November 1813 Napoleon replaced him by
Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence, who was thought to be more devoted to the
cause of peace and personally grateful to the emperor Alexander I. of
Russia. Maret, however, as private secretary of the emperor, remained
with his master through the campaign of 1814, as also during that of
1815. After the second restoration of the Bourbons he was exiled, and
retired to Grätz where he occupied himself with literary work. In 1820
he was allowed to return to France, and after the Revolution of 1830,
Louis Philippe, king of the French, made him a peer of France; he also
held two high offices for a few days. He died at Paris in 1839. He
shares with Daru the honour of being the hardest worker and most devoted
supporter in Napoleon's service; but it has generally been considered
that he carried devotion to the length of servility, and thus often
compromised the real interests of France. This view has been contested
by Baron Ernouf in his work _Maret, duc de Bassano_, which is the best
biography.

  For Maret's mission to England in 1792 and his work at Lille in 1797,
  see Augustus W. Miles, _Letters on the French Revolution_; J. H. Rose,
  _The Life and Times of William Pitt_, and for other incidents of
  Maret's career, the memoirs of Bourrienne, Pasquier, Méneval and
  Savary (duc de Rovigo), may be consulted. Thiers's account of Maret is
  in general hostile to him.     (J. Hl. R.)



MARGARET (Fr. _Marguerite_, It. _Margherita_, Ger. _Margareta_, and
_Margarete_, with dim. _Grete_, _Gretchen_, _Meta_, fr. Lat.
_margarita_, Gr. [Greek: margaritês], a pearl), a female proper name,
which became very popular in all Christian countries as that of the
saint noticed below. Biographies of some who have borne it are arranged
below in the following order: saints, queens of Scotland, queens of
other countries, princesses and duchesses.



MARGARET, ST (SANCTA MARGARITA), virgin and martyr, is celebrated by the
Church of Rome on the 20th of July. According to the legend, she was a
native of Antioch, daughter of a pagan priest named Aedesius. She was
scorned by her father for her Christian faith, and lived in the country
with a foster mother keeping sheep. Olybrius, the "praeses orientis,"
offered her marriage as the price of her renunciation of Christianity.
Her refusal led to her being cruelly tortured, and after various
miraculous incidents, she was put to death. Among the Greeks she is
known as Marina, and her festival is on the 17th of July. She has been
identified with St Pelagia (q.v.)--Marina being the Latin equivalent of
Pelagia--who, according to a legend, was also called Margarito. We
possess no historical documents on St Margaret as distinct from St
Pelagia. An attempt has been made, but without success, to prove that
the group of legends with which that of St Margaret is connected is
derived from a transformation of the pagan divinity Aphrodite into a
Christian saint. The problem of her identity is a purely literary
question. The cult of St Margaret was very widespread in England, where
more than 250 churches are dedicated to her.

  See _Acta sanctorum_, July, v. 24-45; _Bibliotheca hagiographica.
  Latina_ (Brussels, 1899), n. 5303-5313; Frances Arnold-Forster,
  _Studies in Church Dedications_ (London, 1899), i. 131-133 and iii.
  19.     (H. De.)



MARGARET, ST (c. 1045-1093), the queen of Malcolm III. Canmore king of
Scotland, was the daughter of the English prince Edward, son of Edmund
Ironside, and sister of Edgar Ætheling, and was probably born in
Hungary. In 1067 the widow and children of Edward fled from
Northumberland with a large number of followers and sought the
protection of the Scottish king. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret
soon took place and was followed by several invasions of Northumberland
by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his
brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the
devastation of the province. Far more important were the effects of this
alliance upon the history of Scotland. A considerable portion of the old
Northumbrian kingdom had been reduced by the Scottish kings in the
previous century, but up to this time the English population had little
influence upon the ruling element of the kingdom. Malcolm's marriage
undoubtedly improved the condition of the English to a great extent, and
under Margaret's sons, Edgar, Alexander I. and David I., the Scottish
court practically became anglicized. Margaret died on the 17th of
November 1093, four days after her husband and her eldest son Edward,
who were slain in an invasion of Northumberland. She rebuilt the
monastery of Iona, and was canonized in 1251 on account of her great
benefactions to the Church.

  See _Chronicles of the Picts and Scots_ (Edinburgh, 1867), edited
  1876, by W. F. Skene; and W. F. Skene, _Celtic Scotland_ (Edinburgh).



MARGARET (1489-1541), queen of Scotland, eldest daughter of Henry VII.,
king of England, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., was born
at Westminster on the 29th of November 1489. Before she was six years
old negotiations were opened, which dragged on for several years, for
marrying the princess to James IV. of Scotland, whose support of the
pretender Perkin Warbeck it was hoped to avert by such an alliance.
Eventually the marriage was celebrated in Edinburgh on the 8th of August
1503. The avaricious Henry VII. gave his daughter a scanty dowry and
quarrels on this head embittered the relations between the two kingdoms,
which the marriage, although accompanied by a treaty of perpetual peace,
did nothing to heal. The whole of Margaret's life after her marriage
with James IV. was an unending series of intrigues, first with one
political faction then with another; at one time in favour of her native
country, at another in hostility to it, her conduct being mainly
influenced at all times by considerations affecting her pocket.

Margaret was crowned at Edinburgh in March 1504. Until 1507 she had no
children; between that date and 1510 two sons and a daughter were born,
all of whom died in infancy; in 1512 she gave birth to a son who
succeeded his father as James V.; in 1514 she bore a posthumous son,
Alexander, created duke of Ross, who died in the following year. A
dispute with her brother Henry VIII. over a legacy claimed by Margaret
was a contributory cause of the war which ended at Flodden, where James
IV. was killed on the 9th of September 1513, having by his will
appointed Margaret sole guardian of her infant son, now King James V.
Scotland was divided mainly into two parties, one in favour of alliance
with England, and the other with France. The leader of the latter was
John Stewart, duke of Albany, next heir to the crown of Scotland after
Margaret's sons; Margaret herself for the most part inclined to the
English faction; and when Albany returned to Scotland from France on the
invitation of the Scottish parliament in the spring of 1514, the
conflict grew almost to civil war. Various projects for Margaret's
remarriage had already been started, Louis XII. of France and the
emperor Maximilian being proposed as suitable husbands for the young
widow, when the queen privately married Archibald Douglas, earl of
Angus, on the 6th of August 1514. The consequences of this marriage were
to alienate many of the most powerful of the nobility, especially the
earls of Arran and Home, and to make Margaret entirely dependent on the
house of Douglas; while it furnished the council with a pretext for
removing her from the regency and guardianship of the king in favour of
Albany in July 1515. Albany had to blockade Margaret in Stirling Castle
before she would surrender her sons. After being obliged to capitulate,
Margaret returned to Edinburgh, and being no longer responsible for the
custody of the king she fled to England in September, where a month
later she bore to Angus a daughter, Margaret, who afterwards became
countess of Lennox, mother of Lord Darnley and grandmother of James I.
of England.

In the summer of 1516 Margaret went to her brother's court in London,
while Angus, much to his wife's displeasure, returned to Scotland, where
he made his peace with Albany and was restored to his estates. The
rivalry between the French and English factions in Scotland was
complicated by private feuds of the Hamiltons and Douglases, the
respective heads of which houses, Arran and Angus, were contending for
the supreme power in the absence of Albany in France, where at the
instance of Henry VIII. he was detained by Francis I. Margaret,
quarrelling with her husband over money matters, sided at first with
Arran and began to agitate for a divorce from Angus. In this she was
probably aided by Albany, who had been in Rome, and who found an
unexpected ally in the queen-mother, Margaret being temporarily
alienated from the English party by her brother Henry's opposition to
her divorce. When Albany returned to Scotland in 1521 his association
with Margaret gave rise to the accusation that it was with the intention
of marrying her himself that he favoured her divorce from Angus, and it
was even suggested that she was Albany's mistress. As Albany was
strongly supported by the Scottish parliament, Angus found it necessary
to withdraw to France till 1524. During these years there was constant
warfare between the English and the Scots on the border, but in May 1524
Albany was obliged to retire to France. Henry VIII. continually aimed at
securing the person of his nephew, the king of Scots; while Margaret
veered from faction to faction without any settled policy, unless it
were the "erection" of her son, i.e. his proclamation as a reigning
sovereign, which she successfully brought about in July 1524. The
queen-mother had at this time fallen in love with Henry Stewart, second
son of Lord Avondale, whom she married immediately after obtaining her
divorce from Angus in 1527. Margaret and her new husband, who was
created Lord Methven, now became for a time the ruling influence in the
counsels of James V. But when her desire to arrange a meeting between
James and Henry VIII. in 1534 was frustrated by the opposition of the
clergy and the council, Margaret in her disappointment revealed certain
secrets to Henry which led to her being accused by her son of betraying
him for money and of acting as an English spy. In 1537 she was anxious
to obtain a divorce from Methven, and her desire was on the point of
being realized when it was defeated by the intervention of James. Two
years later she was reconciled to her husband, by whom she had no
children; and, continuing to the end to intrigue both in Scotland and
England, she died at Methven Castle on the 18th of October 1541.

  See Andrew Lang, _History of Scotland_, vol. i. (London, 1900); Mary
  A. E. Green, _Lives of the Princesses of England_ (6 vols., London,
  1849-1855); _The Hamilton Papers_, ed. by J. Bain (2 vols., Edinburgh,
  1890); John Leslie, _History of Scotland_, ed. by T. Thompson (4
  vols., Edinburgh, 1830); Sir H. Ellis, _Original Letters Illustrative
  of English History_ (London, 1825-1846).     (R. J. M.)



MARGARET (1283-1290), titular queen of Scotland, and generally known as
the "maid of Norway," was the daughter of Eric II. king of Norway, and
Margaret, daughter of Alexander III. king of Scotland. Her mother died
soon after Margaret's birth, and in 1284 the estates of Scotland decided
that if Alexander died childless the crown should pass to his
granddaughter. In March 1286 Alexander was killed and Margaret became
queen. The English king Edward I. was closely watching affairs in
Scotland, and in 1289 a marriage was arranged between the infant queen
and Edward's son, afterwards Edward II. Margaret sailed from Norway and
reached the Orkneys, where she died about the end of September 1290. The
news of this occurrence was first made known in a letter dated the 7th
of October 1290. Some mystery, however, surrounded her death, and about
1300 a woman from Leipzig declared she was Queen Margaret. The impostor,
if she were such, was burned as a witch at Bergen.

  See A. Lang, _History of Scotland_, vol. i. (Edinburgh, 1904).



MARGARET (1353-1412), queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the daughter
of Valdemar IV. of Denmark, was born in 1353 and married ten years later
to King Haakon VI. of Norway. Her first act, after her father's death
(1375), was to procure the election of her infant son Olaf as king of
Denmark. Olaf died in 1387, having in 1380 also succeeded his father;
and in the following year Margaret, who had ruled both kingdoms in his
name, was chosen regent of Norway and Denmark. She had already given
proofs of her superior statesmanship by recovering possession of
Schleswig from the Holstein counts, who had held it absolutely for a
generation, and who now received it back indeed as a fief (by the
compact of Nyborg 1386), but under such stringent conditions that the
Danish crown got all the advantage of the arrangement. By this compact,
moreover, the chronically rebellious Jutish nobility lost the support
they had hitherto always found in Schleswig-Holstein, and Margaret, free
from all fear of domestic sedition, could now give her undivided
attention to Sweden, where the mutinous nobles were already in arms
against their unpopular king, Albert of Mecklenburg. At a conference
held at Dalaborg Castle, in March 1388, the Swedes were compelled to
accept all Margaret's conditions, elected her "Sovereign Lady and
Ruler," and engaged to accept from her any king she chose to appoint. On
the 24th of February 1389, Albert, who had returned from Mecklenburg
with an army of mercenaries, was routed and taken prisoner at Aasle near
Falköping, and Margaret was now the omnipotent mistress of three
kingdoms. Stockholm then almost entirely a German city, still held out;
fear of Margaret induced both the Mecklenburg princes and the Wendish
towns to hasten to its assistance; and the Baltic and the North Sea
speedily swarmed with the privateers of the _Viktualien brödre or
Vitalianer_, so called because their professed object was to revictual
Stockholm. Finally the Hansa intervened, and by the compact of Lindholm
(1395) Albert was released by Margaret on promising to pay 60,000 marks
within three years, the Hansa in the meantime to hold Stockholm in pawn.
Albert failing to pay his ransom within the stipulated time, the Hansa
surrendered Stockholm to Margaret in September 1398, in exchange for
very considerable commercial privileges.

It had been understood that Margaret should, at the first convenient
opportunity, provide the three kingdoms with a king who was to be her
nearest kinsman, and in 1389 she proclaimed her infant cousin, Eric of
Pomerania, king of Norway. In 1396 homage was rendered to him in Denmark
and Sweden likewise, Margaret reserving to herself the office of regent
during his minority. To weld the united kingdoms still more closely
together, Margaret summoned a congress of the three councils of state to
Kalmar in June 1397; and on Trinity Sunday, the 17th of June, Eric was
solemnly crowned king of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed act of
union divided the three _Rigsraads_, but the actual deed embodying the
terms of the union never got beyond the stage of an unratified draft.
Margaret revolted at the clauses which insisted that each country should
retain exclusive possession of its own laws and customs, and be
administered by its own dignitaries, as tending in her opinion to
prevent the complete amalgamation of Scandinavia. But with her usual
prudence she avoided every appearance of an open rupture.

A few years after the union of Kalmar, Eric, now in his eighteenth year,
was declared of age and homage was rendered to him in all his three
kingdoms, but during her lifetime Margaret was the real ruler of
Scandinavia. So long as the union was insecure, Margaret had tolerated
the presence near the throne of "good men" from all three realms (the
_Rigsraad_, or council of state, as these councillors now began to be
called); but their influence was always insignificant. In every
direction the royal authority remained supreme. The offices of high
constable and earl marshal were left vacant; the _Danehoffer_ or
national assemblies fell into desuetude, and the great queen, an ideal
despot, ruled through her court officials acting as superior clerks. But
law and order were well maintained; the licence of the nobility was
sternly repressed; the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway were treated as
integral parts of the Danish state, and national aspirations were
frowned upon or checked, though Norway, as being more loyal, was treated
more indulgently than Sweden. Margaret also recovered for the Crown all
the landed property which had been alienated during the troublous days
of Valdemar IV. This so-called "reduktion," or land-recovery, was
carried out with the utmost rigour, and hundreds of estates fell into
the Crown. Margaret also reformed the Danish currency, substituting good
silver coins for the old and worthless copper tokens, to the great
advantage both of herself and the state. She had always large sums of
money to dispose of, and a considerable proportion of this treasure was
dispensed in works of charity. Margaret's foreign policy was sagaciously
circumspect, in sharp contrast with the venturesomeness of her father's.
The most tempting offer of alliance, the most favourable conjunctures,
could never move her from her system of neutrality. On the other hand
she spared no pains to recover lost Danish territory. Gotland she
purchased from its actual possessors, Albert of Mecklenburg and the
Livonian Order, and the greater part of Schleswig was regained in the
same way.

Margaret died suddenly on board her ship in Flensborg harbour on the
28th of October 1412. We know very little of her private character.
Contemporary records are both scanty and hostile to a sovereign who
squeezed the utmost out of the people. Craft and wiliness are the
qualities most generally attributed to her, coupled with the cynical
praise that "in temporal matters she was very lucky."

  See _Danmarks riges historie, den senere Middelalder_, pp. 358-412
  (Copenhagen, 1897-1905); Erslev, _Danmarks historie under dronning
  Margrethe_ (Copenhagen, 1882-1901); Hill, _Margaret of Denmark_
  (London, 1898).     (R. N. B.)



MARGARET OF ANJOU (1430-1482), queen of England, daughter of René of
Anjou, titular king of Naples and Jerusalem, was born on the 23rd of
March 1430. When just fourteen she was betrothed to Henry VI. king of
England, and in the following year was brought to England and married at
Titchfield Abbey, near Southampton, on the 23rd of April 1445. On the
28th of May she was welcomed at London with a great pageant, and two
days later crowned at Westminster. Margaret's marriage had been
negotiated by William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, and when she came to
England, Suffolk and his wife were her only friends. Naturally she fell
under Suffolk's influence, and supported his policy. This, added to her
French origin and sympathies, made her from the start unpopular. Though
clever and good-looking, she was self-willed and imperious, and without
the conciliatory manners which her difficult position required. In
almost everything she was the opposite of her gentle husband, but
entered into his educational schemes, and gave her patronage to the
foundation of Queen's College, Cambridge. Margaret's really active share
in politics began after Suffolk's fall in 1450. She not only supported
Edmond Beaufort, duke of Somerset, in his opposition to Richard of York,
but concerned herself also in the details of government, seeking not
over-wisely pecuniary benefits for herself and her friends. But as a
childless queen her influence was limited; and when at last her only
son, Edward, was born on the 13th of October 1453, her husband was
stricken with insanity. From this time she was the ardent champion of
her husband's and son's rights; to her energy the cause of Lancaster
owed its endurance, but her implacable spirit contributed to its
failure. When York's protectorate was ended by Henry's recovery in
January 1455, Margaret, not content with the restoration of Somerset and
her other friends to liberty and office, pushed her politics to
extremes. The result was the defeat of the Lancastrians at St Albans,
and for a year Margaret had to acquiesce in York's power. Yet at this
time one wrote of her: "The queen is a great and strong laboured woman,
for she spareth no pain to sue her things to an intent and conclusion to
her power" (_Paston Letters_, i. 378). All the while she was organizing
her party; and ultimately, in October 1456 at Coventry, procured some
change in the government. Though formally reconciled to York in March
1458, she continued to intrigue with her partisans in England, and even
with friends in France, like Pierre de Brezé, the seneschal of Normandy.
After the Yorkist failure at Ludlow in 1459, it was Margaret's
vindictiveness that embittered the struggle by a wholesale proscription
of her opponents in the parliament at Coventry. She was not present with
her husband at Northampton on the 10th of July 1460. After romantic
adventures, in which she owed her safety to the loyalty of a boy of
fourteen, her only companion, she escaped with her little son to
Harlech. Thence after a while she made her way to Scotland. From Mary of
Gelderland, the queen regent, she purchased the promise of help at the
price of surrendering Berwick. Margaret was still in Scotland at the
date of Wakefield, so was not, as alleged by hostile writers,
responsible for the barbarous treatment of York's body. But she at once
joined her friends, and was with the northern army which defeated
Warwick at St Albans on the 17th of February 1461; for the executions
which followed she must bear the blame. After Towton Margaret with her
husband and son once more took refuge in Scotland.

A year later she went to France, and with help from her father and Louis
XI. equipped an expedition under Pierre de Brezé. She landed in
Northumberland in October, and achieved some slight success; but when on
the way to seek further help from Scotland the fleet was overwhelmed in
a storm, and Margaret herself barely escaped in an open boat to Berwick.
In the spring she was again trying to raid Northumberland, meeting with
many hardships and adventures. Once she owed her escape from capture to
the generosity of a Yorkist squire, who carried her off on his own
horse; finally she and her son were brought to Bamburgh through the
compassionate help of a robber, whom they had encountered in the forest.
Thence in August 1463 she crossed to Sluys in Flanders. She was almost
destitute, but was courteously treated by Charles the Bold, then count
of Charolais, and so made her way to her father in France. For seven
years she lived at Saint-Michel-en-Barrois, educating her son with the
help of Sir John Fortescue, who wrote at this time: "We be all in great
poverty, but yet the queen sustaineth us in meat and drink. Her highness
may do no more than she doth" (_Works_, ii. 72, ed. Clermont). Margaret
never lost her hopes of her son's restoration. But when at last the
quarrel between Warwick and Edward IV. brought her the opportunity, it
was with difficulty that she could consent to be reconciled to so old
and bitter an enemy. After Warwick's success and Henry's restoration
Margaret still remained in France. When at last she was ready to sail
she was delayed by contrary winds. So it was only on the very day of
Warwick's defeat at Barnet (14th of April) that Margaret and Edward
landed at Weymouth. Three weeks later the Lancastrians were defeated at
Tewkesbury, and Edward was killed. Margaret was not at the battle; she
was captured a few days after, and brought to London on the 21st of May.
For five years she remained a prisoner, but was treated honourably and
for part at least of the time was in charge of her old friend the
duchess of Suffolk. Finally Louis XI. ransomed her under the Treaty of
Pecquigny, and she returned to France on the 29th of January 1476.
Margaret lived for six years at different places in Bar and Anjou, in
poverty and dependent for a pension on Louis, who made her surrender in
return her claims to her father's inheritance. She died on the 25th of
April 1482 and was buried at Angers Cathedral. René, whom she probably
never saw after 1470, had died in the previous year. During her last
years Chastellain wrote for her consolation his _Temple de Bocace_
dealing with the misfortunes of contemporary princes.

As the courageous champion of the rights of her son and her husband,
Margaret must command a certain sympathy. But she was politically
unwise, and injured their cause by her readiness to purchase foreign
help at the price of English interests. Comines wrote well of her that
she would have done more prudently if she had endeavoured to adjust the
disputes of the rival factions instead of saying "I am of this party,
and will maintain it" (_Mémoires_ vi. ch. 13). Her fierce partisanship
embittered her enemies, and the Yorkists did not hesitate to allege that
her son was a bastard. This, like the scandal concerning Margaret and
Suffolk, is baseless; the tradition, however, continued and found
expression in the _Mirror for Magistrates_ and in Drayton's _Heroical
Epistles_, as well as in Shakespeare's _Henry VI_.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For contemporary English authorities see under HENRY
  VI. French authorities and especially the _Chroniques_ of George de
  Chastellain, and the _Mémoires_ of Philippes de Comines contain much
  that is of value. The _Letters of Margaret of Anjou_ (Camden Soc.,
  1863) have small historical importance. There have been numerous
  biographies, the chief is Mrs Hookham's _Life of Margaret of Anjou_
  (1872). But the best modern accounts are to be found in G. du Fresne
  de Beaucourt's _Histoire de Charles VII._, Dr Gairdner's Introductions
  to the _Paston Letters_, Sir James Ramsay's _Lancaster and York_
  (1892), and _The Political History of England_, vol. iv. (1906), by
  Professor C. Oman. Dr Karl Schmidt's _Margareta von Anjou, vor und bei
  Shakespeare_ (Palaestra, liv., Berlin, 1906) is a useful digest of
  authorities.     (C. L. K.)



MARGARET OF AUSTRIA (1480-1530), duchess of Savoy and regent of the
Netherlands from 1507 to 1530, daughter of the archduke Maximilian of
Austria, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I., was born at Brussels on
the 10th of January 1480. At two years of age she was betrothed to the
dauphin Charles, son of Louis XI. of France, and was brought up at the
French court. In 1489, however, Charles, now king as Charles VIII., to
prevent Maximilian taking as his second wife the duchess Anne of
Brittany, threw over Margaret and married the Breton heiress himself.
Her ambitious father now sought for Margaret another throne, and in
April 1497 she was married at Burgos to the Infant John, heir to the
throne of Castile and Aragon. She was left a widow, however, a few
months later. In 1501 Margaret became the wife of Philibert II., duke of
Savoy, who only survived until 1504. The sudden death of her brother the
archduke, Philip the Handsome (Sept 25, 1506), opened out to her a new
career. In 1507 she was appointed by her father regent of the
Netherlands and guardian of her nephew Charles, afterwards the emperor
Charles V. Charles came of age in 1515, but he entrusted Margaret with
the regency, as the vast extent of his dominions permitted him but
seldom to visit the Netherlands, and she continued to hold the post
until her death in 1530. She was a wise and prudent ruler, of masculine
temper and intrepidity, and very capable in affairs.

  See E. Münch, _Margaretha von Österreich_ (Leipzig, 1883); Th. Juste,
  _Charles-Quint et Marguérite d'Autriche_ (Brussels, 1858); A. Le Glay,
  _Maximilien I. et Marguérite d'Autriche_ (with correspondence, Paris,
  1839); De Quinsonas, _Matériaux pour servir à l'histoire de Marguérite
  d'Autriche_ (Paris, 1855), and E. E. Tremayne, _The First Governors of
  the Netherlands: Margaret of Austria_ (1908).



MARGARET OF AUSTRIA (1522-1586), duchess of Parma and regent of the
Netherlands from 1559 to 1567, was a natural daughter of Charles V. Her
mother, Margaret van Ghent, was a Fleming. She was brought up by her
aunts Margaret of Austria and Maria of Hungary, who were successively
regents of the Netherlands from 1507 to 1530 and from 1530 to 1555. In
1533 she was married to Alexander de' Medici, duke of Florence, who was
assassinated in 1537, after which she became the wife of Ottavio
Farnese, duke of Parma, in 1542. The union proved an unhappy one. Like
her aunts, who had trained her, she was a woman of masculine abilities,
and Philip II., when he left the Netherlands in 1559 for Spain, acted
wisely in appointing her regent. In ordinary times she would probably
have proved as successful a ruler as her two predecessors in that post,
but her task was very different from theirs. She had to face the rising
storm of discontent against the Inquisition and Spanish despotism, and
Philip left her but nominal authority. He was determined to pursue his
own arbitrary course, and the issue was the revolt of the Netherlands.
In 1567 Margaret resigned her post into the hands of the duke of Alva
and retired to Italy. She had the satisfaction of seeing her son
Alexander Farnese appointed to the office she had laid down, and to
watch his successful career as governor-general of the Netherlands. She
died at Ortona in 1586.

  See L. P. Gachard, _Correspondance de Marguérite d'Autriche avec
  Phillippe II. 1554-1568_ (Brussels, 1867-1887); R. Fruin, _Het
  voorspel van den tachtig jarigen vorlog_ (Amsterdam, 1856); E.
  Rachfahl, _Margaretha von Parma, Statthalterin der Niederlande,
  1559-1567_ (Munich, 1895); also bibliography in _Cambridge Modern
  History_, iii. 795-809 (1904).



MARGARET OF PROVENCE (1221-1295), queen of France, was the daughter of
Raymond Berenger V., count of Provence. She was married to Saint Louis
at Sens on the 27th of May 1234, and was crowned the next day. Blanche
of Castile, the queen-mother, arranged the marriage to win over to the
cause of France the powerful count of Provence, but treated her
daughter-in-law most unkindly, and her jealousy of the energetic young
queen was naturally shared by Louis, whose coldness towards and
suspicion of his wife are well known. Margaret did not lack courage, she
followed the king on his crusade, and bore herself heroically at
Damietta. But her ambition and strong personal prejudices often led her
to actions injurious to the realm. This is most noticeable in her
hostility to her brother-in-law Charles of Anjou, who had married her
sister Beatrice, and her devotion to Henry III. of England, who had
married her other sister Eleanor. Aspiring during the reign of her son
to the same rôle which she had seen Blanche of Castile play, she
induced, in 1263, the young Philip, heir to the throne, to promise to
obey her in everything up to the age of thirty; and Saint Louis was
obliged to ask for a bull from Urban IV. which would release the prince
from his oath. After Saint Louis' death, Margaret continued obstinately
to claim her rights on the county of Provence against Charles of Anjou.
She sought to employ force of arms, calling upon her son, her nephew
Edward II. of England, and the German king Rudolph of Habsburg. She did
not give up her claim until after the death of Charles of Anjou (1285),
when Philip the Bold succeeded in getting her to accept an income from
the county of Anjou in exchange for her rights in Provence. She died on
the 31st of December 1295.

  See E. Boutaric, _Marguérite de Provence_, in _Revue des questions
  historiques_ (1867), pp. 417-458.



MARGARET MAULTASCH (1318-1369), countess of Tirol, who received the name
of Maultasch (pocket-mouth) on account of the shape of her mouth, was
the daughter and heiress of Henry, duke of Carinthia and count of Tirol.
When Henry died in 1335 Carinthia passed to Albert II., duke of Austria;
but Tirol was inherited by Margaret and her young husband, John Henry,
son of John, king of Bohemia, whom she had married in 1330. This union
was not a happy one, and the Tirolese disliked the government of
Charles, afterwards the emperor Charles IV., who ruled the county for
his brother. The result was that John Henry was driven from Tirol, and
Margaret's cause was espoused by the emperor Louis IV., who was anxious
to add the county to his possessions. Declaring her marriage dissolved
on the ground that it had not been consummated, Louis married Margaret
in 1342 to his own son Louis, margrave of Brandenburg. But as this
action on the emperor's part entrenched on the privileges of the Church,
Pope Clement VI. placed father and son under the ban, from which they
were not released until 1359. In 1361 Margaret's husband died, followed
two years later by her only son, Meinhard, when she handed over Tirol to
Rudolph IV., duke of Austria, and retired to Vienna, where she died on
the 3rd of October 1369. She lived long in the memory of the people of
Carinthia, who regarded her as an amazon, and called her the _Wicked
Gretl_.

  See A. Huber, _Geschichte der Vereinigung Tirols mit Oesterreich_
  (Innsbruck, 1864).



MARGARINE, the name, first given by Chevreul, to an artificial
substitute for butter, made from beef and other animal fats, and
sometimes mixed with real butter. The name of "butterine" has also been
used. Artificial butter, or "margarine-mouries," was for some years
manufactured in Paris according to a method made public by the eminent
chemist Mège-Mouries. Having surmised that the formation of butter
contained in milk was due to the absorption of fat contained in the
animal tissues, he was led to experiment on the splitting up of animal
fat. The process he ultimately adopted consisted in heating finely
minced beef suet with water, carbonate of potash, and fresh sheep's
stomach cut up into small fragments. The mixture he raised to a
temperature of 45° C. (113° F.). The influence of the pepsine of the
sheep's stomach with the heat separated the fat from the cellular
tissue; he removed the fatty matter, and submitted it when cool to
powerful hydraulic pressure, separating it into stearin and
oleomargarin, which last alone he used for butter-making. Of this fat
about the proportions of 10 lb. with 4 pints of milk, and 3 pints of
water were placed in a churn, to which a small quantity of anatto was
added for colouring, and the whole churned together. The compound so
obtained when well washed was in general appearance, taste and
consistency like ordinary butter, and when well freed from water it was
found to keep a longer time. Margarine is a perfectly wholesome
butter-substitute, and is now largely used, but the ease with which it
may be passed off as real butter has led to much discussion and
legislative action. (See ADULTERATION.)



MARGARITA, an island in the Caribbean Sea belonging to Venezuela, about
12 m. N. of the peninsula of Araya, and constituting, under the
constitution of 1904,--with Tortuga, Cubagua and Coche--a political
division called the Eastern Federal District. The island is about 40 m.
long from east to west, has an area of 400 sq. m., and consists of two
mountainous extremities, nearly separated by the Laguna Grande on the
south, but connected by a low, narrow isthmus. The highest elevation on
the island is the peak of Macanao, 4484 ft., in the western part, the
highest point in the eastern part being the peak of Copei, 4170 ft. The
higher valleys of the interior are highly fertile and are well adapted
to grazing and stock-raising. The principal industries are fishing and
the making of salt. The pearl fisheries, which were so productive in the
16th and 17th centuries, are no longer important. A domestic industry of
the women is that of making coarse straw hats, which are sold on the
mainland. The products of Margarita, however, are insufficient to
support its population, and large numbers periodically emigrate to the
mainland, preventing the increase in population which its healthful
climate favours. The population was estimated in 1904 at 40,000,
composed in great part of half-caste Guayqueri Indians. The capital is
Asunción (pop. about 3000), on the east side of the island, and its
principal port is Pompatar on the south coast. The two small ports of
Puebla de la Mar (_Porlamar_) and Puebla del Norte are merely open
roadsteads.

The island of Margarita (from Span. _Margarita_, pearl) was discovered
by Columbus in 1498, and was bestowed in 1524 upon Marceto Villalobos by
Charles V. In 1561 the freebooter Lope de Aguirre ravaged the island,
and in 1662 the town of Pompatar was destroyed by the Dutch. For a long
time Margarita was attached to Cumana, but in the eighteenth century it
was made administratively independent. Its traders and sailors rendered
invaluable assistance to the revolutionists in the war of independence,
and the Spanish general, Morillo, was driven from its shores in 1817; in
recognition of this it was made a separate state and was renamed Nueva
Esparta (New Sparta). In 1904-1909 it was a part of the Federal District
with Asunción as its capital. The first Spanish settlement in South
America was Nueva Cadiz, founded in 1515 on the barren island of
Cubagua; but the place was abandoned when pearl-fishing and
slave-trading ceased to be profitable.



MARGATE, a municipal borough and seaside resort in the Isle of Thanet
parliamentary division of Kent, England, 74 m. E. by S. of London by the
South Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1891), 18,662; (1901), 23,118. It
lies on the north coast of Thanet, and is practically contiguous with
Westgate on the west and with Broadstairs on the south-east, owing to
the modern extension of these popular watering-places. An electric
tramway connects Margate with Broadstairs and Ramsgate, and during the
season it is served by numerous pleasure steamers from London. An
esplanade faces the sea along nearly the entire front of the town, and
is lined with hotels, shops and dwelling-houses. A jetty exceeding a
quarter of a mile in length permits the approach of vessels at all
tides. It was built in 1854 and subsequently enlarged, but a pier was
constructed by John Rennie in 1815, and is now chiefly used by fishermen
and colliers. The church of St John the Baptist, founded in 1050,
contains some portions of Norman architecture, the remainder being
Decorated and Perpendicular. It is rich in ancient brasses and
monuments, including a brass to Sir John Daundelyon (1443), whose family
occupied a manor in the neighbourhood as early as the 13th century. The
manor house of Daundelyon, or Dent de Lion, with its gateway of the
early part of the 15th century, remains between Margate and Westgate.
Charitable institutions include a deaf and dumb asylum (1875-1886), the
Metropolitan infirmary for children (1841), and the royal sea-bathing
infirmary, established in 1791 and enlarged through the munificence of
Sir Erasmus Wilson in 1882. Dane Park (33 acres) was opened in 1898.

Margate (Meregate, Mergate), formerly a small fishing village, was an
ancient and senior non-corporate member of Dover. In 1347 it contributed
15 ships of small tonnage at the time of the siege of Calais. Throughout
the 14th century references are made to Margate in crown regulations
regarding fisheries and shipping. A pier existed before 1500, but by the
reign of Henry VIII. it was in a decayed condition. The amount of corn
shipped was evidently small, the droits being insufficient to keep the
pier in repair. Under Elizabeth Margate was still an obscure fishing
village employing about 20 small vessels ("hoys") in the coasting and
river trades, chiefly in the conveyance of grain, on which in 1791 it
chiefly subsisted. The droits increased, but were not properly collected
until 1724. In 1777 the pier was rebuilt. It was about this time that
Margate first began to be known as a bathing-place owing to its fine
stretch of firm sand. In 1835 Margate was still a liberty of Dover and
no right of citizenship could be acquired. In 1857 it was incorporated.
In 1777 a weekly market was granted on Wednesday and Saturday. It is now
held daily, but principally on those two days.



MARGGRAF, ANDREAS SIGISMUND (1709-1782), German chemist, was born at
Berlin on the 3rd of March 1709. After studying chemistry at Berlin and
Strassburg, medicine at Halle, and mineralogy and metallurgy at
Freiberg, he returned to his native city in 1735 as assistant to his
father, Henning Christian Marggraf, chief apothecary at the court. Three
years later he was elected to the Berlin Academy of Sciences, which in
1754 put him in charge of its chemical laboratory and in 1760 appointed
him director of its physics class. He died in Berlin on the 7th of
August 1782. His name is especially associated with the discovery of
sugar in beetroot. In 1747 he published an account of experiments
undertaken with the definite view of obtaining true sugar from
indigenous plants, and found that for this purpose the first place is
taken by beetroot and carrot, that in those plants sugar like that of
cane exists ready formed, and that it may be extracted by boiling the
dried roots in alcohol, from which it is deposited on cooling. This
investigation is also memorable because he detected the minute
sugar-crystals in the roots by the help of the microscope, which was
thus introduced as an adjunct to chemical inquiry. In another research
dealing with the nature of alum he showed that one of the constituents
of that substance, alumina, is contained in common clay, and further
that the salt cannot be prepared by the action of sulphuric acid on
alumina alone, the addition of an alkali being necessary. He explained
and simplified the process of obtaining phosphorus from urine, and made
some admirable observations on phosphoric acid; but though he noted the
increase in weight that attends the conversion of phosphorus into
phosphoric acid he was content to remain an adherent of the phlogistic
doctrine. For his time he was a skilful chemical analyst; he knew how to
distinguish potash and soda by the different colorations they produce in
flame, and how to test for iron with prussiate of potash: he was aware
that sulphate of potash, gypsum and heavy spar, in spite of their
different appearances, all contain sulphuric acid; and he recognized
that there are different varieties of urinary calculi. In metallurgy he
devised improved methods for the manufacture of zinc and the
purification of silver, tin and other metals.

  His papers, mostly written in French, were presented to the Berlin
  Academy, and with the exception of a few of the latest were collected
  in two volumes of _Chymische Schriften_ in 1761-1767.



MARGHELAN, or MARGHILAN, a town of Asiatic Russia, situated in 40° 28´
N. and 71° 45´ E., the administrative centre of the province of
Ferghana. Pop. (1900), 42,855, mostly Sarts, with Tajiks and Jews. It is
a very old town, with high earthen walls and twelve gates, commanded by
a fort. It lies in a beautiful, extraordinary fertile and well irrigated
district. The heat in summer is excessive. The principal industry is the
manufacture of silk; camels' hair and woollen fabrics are also made. The
new Russian town, founded in 1877, is 10 m. distant to the south-east,
and has a population (1897) of 8977.



MARGRAVE (Ger. _Markgraf_), a German title meaning literally "count of
the March" (Lat. _marchio_, _comes marchae_, _marchisus_). The margraves
had their origin in the counts established by Charlemagne and his
successors to guard the frontier districts of the empire, and for
centuries the title was always associated with this function. The
margraves had within their own jurisdiction the authority of dukes, but
at the outset they were subordinate to the dukes in the feudal army of
the empire. In the 12th century, however, the margraves of Brandenburg
and Austria (the north and east marks) asserted their position as
tenants-in-chief of the empire; with the break-up of the great duchies
the others did the same; and the margraves henceforward took rank with
the great German princes. The title of margrave very early lost its
original significance, and was borne by princes whose territories were
in no sense frontier districts, e.g. by Hermann, a son of Hermann,
margrave of Verona, who assumed in 1112 the title of margrave of Baden.
Thus, too, when the elector Albert Achilles of Brandenburg in 1473 gave
Bayreuth and Ansbach as apanages to his sons and their descendants these
styled themselves margraves. The title, however, retained in Germany its
sovereign significance, and has not, like "marquis" in France and
"marchese" in Italy, sunk into a mere title of nobility; it is not,
therefore, in its present sense the equivalent of the English title
"marquess." The German margraviates have now all been absorbed into
other sovereignties, and the title margrave is borne only as a
subsidiary title in the full style of their sovereigns.



MARGUERITE, the popular name for the plant known botanically as
_Pyrethrum_ (or _Chrysanthemum_) _frutescens_ (natural order
Compositae), a shrubby perennial with smooth leaves cut pinnately into
narrow segments and flower-heads two to three inches across produced
singly in summer and autumn on slender erect stalks. The white
ray-florets surround a yellow disk. It is a native of the Canary Isles,
and a favourite for decoration and for greenhouse cultivation,
window-boxes and open ground in the summer. The yellow marguerite
(_étoile d'or_) has somewhat larger pale yellow flowers and glaucous
leaves. The plant is propagated from cuttings taken in autumn from old
plants and placed in sandy loamy soil in cold frames. By pruning the
shoots in autumn the plants may be grown into very large specimens in
the course of a few seasons.



MARGUERITE DE VALOIS. The name Marguerite was common in the Valois
dynasty, and during the 16th century there were three princesses, all of
whom figure in the political as well as in the literary history of the
time, and who have been not unfrequently confounded. The first and last
are the most important, but all deserve some account.

I. MARGUERITE D'ANGOULÊME (1492-1549). This, the most celebrated of the
Marguerites, bore no less than four surnames. By family she was entitled
to the name of Marguerite de Valois; as the daughter of Charles
d'Orléans, count d'Angoulême, she is more properly, and by careful
writers almost invariably, called Marguerite d'Angoulême. From her first
husband she took, during no small part of her life, the appellation
Marguerite d'Alençon, and from her second, Henri d'Albret, king of
Navarre, that of Marguerite de Navarre. She was born at Angoulême on the
11th of April 1492, and was two years older than her brother Francis I.
She was betrothed early to Charles, duke d'Alençon, and married him in
1509. She was not very fortunate in this first marriage, but her
brother's accession to the throne made her, next to their mother Louise
of Savoy, the most powerful woman of the kingdom. She became a widow in
1525, and was sought in marriage by many persons of distinction,
including, it is said, Charles V. and Henry VIII. In 1527 she married
Henri d'Albret, titular king of Navarre, who was considerably younger
than herself, and whose character was not faultless, but who seems on
the whole, despite slander, to have both loved and valued his wife.
Navarre was not reconquered for the couple as Francis had promised, but
ample apanages were assigned to Marguerite, and at Nérac and Pau
miniature courts were kept up, which yielded to none in Europe in the
intellectual brilliancy of their frequenters. Marguerite was at once one
of the chief patronesses of letters that France possessed, and the chief
refuge and defender of advocates of the Reformed doctrines. Round her
gathered C. Marot, Bonaventure Des Périers, N. Denisot, J. Peletier, V.
Brodeau, and many other men of letters, while she protected Rabelais, E.
Dolet, &c. For a time her influence with her brother, to whom she was
entirely devoted, and whom she visited when he was imprisoned in Spain,
was effectual, but latterly political rather than religious
considerations made him discourage Lutheranism, and a fierce persecution
was begun against both Protestants and freethinkers, a persecution which
drove Des Périers to suicide and brought Dolet to the stake. Marguerite
herself, however, was protected by her brother, and her personal
inclinations seem to have been rather towards a mystical pietism than
towards dogmatic Protestant sentiments. Nevertheless bigotry and the
desire to tarnish the reputation of women of letters have led to the
bringing of odious accusations against her character, for which there is
not the smallest foundation. Marguerite died at Odot-en-Bigorre on the
21st of September 1549. By her first husband she had no children, by her
second a son who died in infancy, and a daughter, Jeanne d'Albret, who
became the mother of Henry IV. Although the poets of the time are
unwearied in celebrating her charms, she does not, from the portraits
which exist, appear to have been regularly beautiful, but as to her
sweetness of disposition and strength of mind there is universal
consent.

  Her literary work consists of the _Heptameron_, of poems entitled _Les
  Marguerites de la marguerite des princesses_, and of _Letters_. The
  _Heptameron_, constructed, as its name indicates, on the lines of the
  _Decameron_ of Boccaccio, consists of seventy-two short stories told
  to each other by a company of ladies and gentlemen who are stopped in
  the journey homewards from Cauterets by the swelling of a river. It
  was not printed till 1558, ten years after the author's death, and
  then under the title of _Les Amants fortunés_. Internal evidence is
  strongly in favour of its having been a joint work, in which more than
  one of the men of letters who composed Marguerite's household took
  part. It is a delightful book, and strongly characteristic of the
  French Renaissance. The sensuality which characterized the period
  appears in it, but in a less coarse form than in the great work of
  Rabelais; and there is a poetical spirit which, except in rare
  instances, is absent from _Pantagruel_. The _Letters_ are interesting
  and good. The _Marguerites_ consist of a very miscellaneous collection
  of poems, mysteries, farces, devotional poems of considerable length,
  spiritual and miscellaneous songs, &c. The _Dernières poésies_, not
  printed till 1896 (by M. A. Lefranc), are interesting and
  characteristic, consisting of verse-epistles, _comédies_ (pieces in
  dramatic form on the death of Francis I., &c.), _Les Prisons_, a long
  allegorical poem of amorous-religious-historical tenor; some
  miscellaneous verse chiefly in dizains, and a later and remarkable
  piece, _Le Navire_, expressing her despair at her brother's death. Of
  the other works, never yet completely edited, the best editions are,
  for the _Heptameron_, Leroux de Lincy (1855); for the _Lettres_, Genin
  (1841-1842); and for the _Marguerites_, &c., Frank (1873). English
  translations of the _Heptameron_ are rather numerous: one appeared in
  1887 by A. Machen, with an introduction by Miss A. M. F. Robinson (Mme
  Darmesteter) and another (anonymous) in 1894, with an essay by G.
  Saintsbury. The religious poem, _Le Miroir de l'âme pécheresse_ was
  translated by Queen Elizabeth. Books on Marguerite and her court are
  also many. There may be noted Durand's _Marguerite de Valois et la
  cour de François I^er_ (1848); La Ferrière's _Marguerite d'Angoulême_
  (1891); Lotheissen's _Königin Margareta von Navarra_ (1885); Miss
  Edith Sichel's _Women and Men of the French Renaissance_ (1901), and
  P. Courtault's _Marguerite de Navarre_ (1904).

II. The second MARGUERITE (1523-1574), daughter of Francis I., was born
on the 5th of June, 1523, at St Germain-en-Laye, and, at an age the
lateness of which caused lampoons, married Emmanuel Philibert, duke of
Savoy, in 1559. Like her aunt and her niece she was a good scholar and
strongly interested in men of letters. She is noteworthy as having given
the chief impulse at the court of her brother Henry II. to the first
efforts of the Pléiade (see RONSARD), and as having continued her
patronage of literature at Turin. The poet Marc Antonio Flaminio, for
instance, congratulates himself in pretty Latin verses on her singing
his poems.

  Her _Letters_ have been published by A. G. Spinelli.

III. The third MARGUERITE (1553-1615), called more particularly
Marguerite de Valois, was great-niece of the first and niece of the
second, being daughter of Henry II. by Catherine de' Medici. She was
born on the 14th of May 1553. When very young she became famous for her
beauty, her learning, and the looseness of her conduct. She was married,
after a liaison with the duke of Guise, to Henry of Navarre, afterwards
Henry IV., on the eve of St Bartholomew's Day. Both husband and wife
were extreme examples of the licentious manners of the time, but they
not unfrequently lived together for considerable periods, and nearly
always on good terms. Later, however, Marguerite was established in the
castle of Usson in Auvergne, and after the accession of Henry the
marriage was dissolved by the pope. But Henry and Marguerite still
continued friends; she still bore the title of queen; she visited Marie
de' Medici on equal terms; and the king frequently consulted her on
important affairs, though his somewhat parsimonious spirit was grieved
by her extravagance. Marguerite exhibited during the rest of her life,
which was not a short one, the strange Valois mixture of licentiousness,
pious exercises, and the cultivation of art and letters, and died in
Paris on the 27th of March 1615. She left letters and memoirs the latter
of which are admirably written, and rank among the best of the 16th
century. She was the idol of Pierre de Bourdeille Brantôme, and is the
"Reine Margot" of anecdotic history and romance.

  The _Mémoires_ are contained in the collection of Michaud and
  Poujoulat, and have been published separately by Guessard (the best,
  1842), Lalanne, Caboche, &c. An English translation with introduction
  by Violet Fane appeared in 1892. Her character, and still more her
  circumstances, made the pen very unamiably busy with her in her
  lifetime, the chief of many lampoons being the famous _Divorce
  satirique_, variously attributed to Agrippa d'Aubigné, Palma Cayet,
  and others. The chief recent book on her is Saint Poucy's _Histoire de
  Marguerite de Valois_ (1887).     (G. Sa.)



MARGUERITTE, PAUL (1860-   ) and VICTOR (1866-   ), French novelists,
both born in Algeria, were the sons of General Jean Auguste Marguerite
(1823-1870), who after an honourable career in Algeria was mortally
wounded in the great cavalry charge at Sedan, and died in Belgium, on
the 6th of September 1870. An account of his life was published by Paul
Marguerite as _Mon père_ (1884; enlarged ed., 1897). The names of the
two brothers are generally associated, on account of their
collaboration. Paul Marguerite, who has given a picture of his home in
Algiers in _Le Jardin du passé_ (1895), was sent to the military school
of La Flèche for the sons of officers, and became in 1880 clerk to the
minister of public instruction. He designed two pantomimes, _Pierrot
assassin de sa femme_ (Théâtre Libre, 1882), and _Colombine pardonnée_
(Cercle funambulesque, 1888), in which the traditional Pierrot, played
by Margueritte himself, became a nervous, tragic creature. He resigned
his clerkship in 1889 to devote himself entirely to literature,
producing in rapid succession a series of novels, among which were _Tous
quatre_ (1885), _La Confession posthume_ (1886), _Maison ouverte_
(1887), _Pascal Géfosse_ (1887), _Jours d'épreuve_ (1889), _Amants_
(1890), _La Force des choses_ (1891), _Sur le retour_ (1892), _La
Tourmente_ (1893), _Ma grande_ (1892), _Âme d'enfant_ (1894) and _L'Eau
qui dort_ (1896). Paul Margueritte had begun as a realistic novelist,
but he was one of the five writers who signed a manifesto against Zola's
_La Terre_, and he made his reputation by delicate, sober studies of the
by-ways of sentiment. His brother Victor entered his father's regiment,
the 1st chasseurs d'Afrique, in 1888, and served in the army until 1896,
when he resigned his commission. He was already known by some volumes of
poetry, and by a translation from Calderon (_La Double méprise_, played
at the Odéon, 1898) when he began to collaborate with his brother. From
the time of this collaboration Paul Margueritte's work gained in colour
and force.

Among the books written in common by the brothers, the most famous is
the series known under the collective title, _Une Époque_, dealing with
the events of 1870-1871, and including the novels _Le Désastre_ (1898),
_Les Tronçons du glaive_ (1900), _Les Braves gens_ (1901), _La Commune_
(1904). They also collaborated in an _Histoire de la guerre de
1870-1877_ (1903). These books were founded on a mass of documentary and
verbal information, amassed with great care and arranged with admirable
art; the authors are historians rather than novelists. The disasters and
humiliations of the campaigns are faithfully described, but are traced
to defects of organization and leadership; while the courage and
patriotism of the army itself is made the basis of an assured confidence
in the destinies of France. _La Commune_ is a bold indictment of the
methods adopted by the victorious party. The novelists also attacked the
laws governing marriage and divorce and the abuses entailed by the dowry
demanded from the bride, in pamphlets and in the novels, _Femmes
nouvelles_ (1899), _Les Deux vies_ (1902), and _Le Prisme_ (1905). Their
literary partnership was dissolved in 1907. Paul Marguerite was one of
the original members of the Académie de Goncourt.

  See _P. et V. Margueritte_ (1905) by E. Pilon, in the series of
  _Célébrités d'aujourd'hui_, and A. France, _La Vie littéraire_ (4th
  series, 1892).



MARHEINEKE, PHILIP KONRAD (1780-1846), German Protestant divine, was
born at Hildesheim, Hanover, on the 1st of May 1780. He studied at
Göttingen, and in 1805 was appointed professor extraordinarius of
philosophy at Erlangen; in 1807 he moved to Heidelberg. In 1811 he
became professor ordinarius at Berlin, where from 1820 he was also
preacher at Trinity Church and worked with Schleiermacher. When he died,
on the 31st of May 1846, he was a member of the supreme consistorial
council. At first influenced by Schelling, Marheineke found a new master
in Hegel, and came to be regarded as the leader of the Hegelian Right.
He sought to defend and explain all the orthodox doctrines of the Church
in an orthodox way in the terms of Hegel's philosophy. The dogmatic
system that resulted from this procedure was inevitably more Hegelian
than Christian; it was in fact an essentially new form of Christianity.
Marheineke's developed views on dogmatics are given in the third edition
(1847) of his _Die Grundlehren der christlichen Dogmatik als
Wissenschaft_. When he published the first edition (1819) he was still
under the influence of Schelling; the second edition (1827) marked his
change of view. His works on symbolics show profound scholarship, keen
critical insight, and rare impartiality. The _Christliche Symbolik_
(1810-1814) has been pronounced his masterpiece.

  His other works include _Institutiones symbolicae_ (1812; 3rd ed.,
  1830), _Geschichte der deutschen Reformation_ (1816; 2nd ed.,
  1831-1834); _Die Reformation, ihre Entstehung und Verbreitung in
  Deutschland_ (1846; 2nd ed., 1858), and the posthumous _Theol.
  Vorlesungen_ (1847-1849).

  See F. Lichtenberger, _History of German Theology_ (1889); A. Weber,
  _Le Système dogmatique de Marheineke_ (1857); and cf. O. Pfleiderer,
  _Development of Theology in Germany_ (1890).



MARIANA, JUAN DE (1536-1624), Spanish historian, was born at Talavera.
He studied at the university of Alcalá, and was admitted at the age of
seventeen into the Society of Jesus. In 1561 he went to teach theology
in Rome, reckoning among his pupils Robert Bellarmine, afterwards
cardinal; then passed into Sicily; and in 1569 he was sent to Paris,
where his expositions of the writings of Thomas Aquinas attracted large
audiences. In 1574, owing to ill health, he obtained permission to
return to Spain; the rest of his life being passed at the Jesuits' house
in Toledo in vigorous literary activity. He died at Madrid, on the 17th
of February 1624.

  Mariana's great work, _Historiae de rebus Hispaniae_, first appeared
  in twenty books at Toledo in 1592; ten books were subsequently added
  (1605), bringing the work down to the accession of Charles V. in 1519,
  and in a still later abstract of events the author completed it to the
  accession of Philip IV. in 1621. It was so well received that Mariana
  was induced to translate it into Spanish (the first part in 1601;
  completed, 1609; Eng. trans., by J. Stevens, 1699). Mariana's
  _Historiae_, though in many parts uncritical, is justly esteemed for
  its research, accuracy, sagacity and style. Of his other works the
  most interesting is the treatise _De rege et regis institutione_
  (Toledo, 1598). In its sixth chapter the question whether it is lawful
  to overthrow a tyrant is freely discussed and answered in the
  affirmative, a circumstance which brought much odium upon the Jesuits,
  especially after the assassination of Henry IV. of France, in 1610. A
  volume entitled _Tractatus VII. theologici et historici_ (published by
  Mariana at Cologne, in 1609, containing in particular a tract, "_De
  morte et immortalitate_," and another, _"De mutatione monetae"_) was
  put upon the index expurgatorius, and led to the confinement of its
  author by the Inquisition. During his confinement there was found
  among his papers a criticism upon the Jesuits, which was printed after
  his death as _Discursus de erroribus qui in forma gubernationis
  societatis Jesu occurrunt_ (Bordeaux, 1625), and was reprinted by
  order of Charles III. when he banished the Jesuits from Spain.

  See L. von Ranke, _Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtsschreiber_ (Leipzig,
  1874), and Cirot, _Études sur les historiographes espagnols_;
  _Mariana, historien_ (Bordeaux, 1905).



MARIANAO, a city of the province of Havana, Cuba, 6 m. W. by S. of the
city of Havana, with which it is connected by the Marianao railway. Pop.
(1899), 5416; (1907), 9332. Marianao is on a range of hills about 1500
ft. above the sea, is noted for its salubrious climate, and is mainly a
place of residence for the families of prosperous business men of
Havana. On the neighbouring coast is Marianao Beach, a popular bathing
resort. The city dates from about 1830.



MARIANAS, MARIANNES, or LADRONES (Ger. _Marianen_), an archipelago in
the north-western Pacific Ocean, in about 12° to 21° N. and 145° E. With
the exception of the island of Guam (United States) it belongs to
Germany, and administratively forms part of the New Guinea protectorate.
It consists of two groups--a northern of ten volcanic main islands, of
which only four (Agrigan, Anatahan, Alamagan and Pagan) are inhabited;
and a southern of five coralline limestone islands (Rota, Guam, Aguijan,
Tinian and Saypan), all inhabited save Aguijan. In the volcanic group an
extreme elevation of about 2700 ft. is reached, and there are craters
showing signs of activity, while earthquakes are not uncommon. Coral
reefs fringe the coasts of the southern isles, which are of slight
elevation. The total area, excluding Guam, is about 245 sq. m. and the
population 2500, mostly descendants of the Tagal immigrants from the
Philippines. All the islands except Farallon de Medinilla and Urracas or
Mangs (in the northern group) are more or less densely wooded, and the
vegetation is luxuriant, much resembling that of the Carolines, and also
of the Philippines, whence many species of plants have been introduced.
Owing to the humidity of the soil cryptogams are numerous, as also most
kinds of grasses. Coco-nut and areca palms, yams, sweet potatoes,
manioc, coffee, cocoa, sugar, cotton, tobacco and mother-of-pearl are
the chief products, and copra is the principal export. Agriculture is
neglected, in spite of the exceptional advantages offered by the climate
and soil. On most of the islands there is a plentiful supply of water.
The native population known to the early Spanish colonists as Chamorros
has died out as a distinct people, though their descendants have
intermarried with the immigrant Tagals and natives of the Carolines. At
the Spanish occupation in 1668 the Chamorros were estimated at 40,000 to
60,000, but less than a century later only 1800 remained. They were
typical Micronesians, with a considerable civilization. In the island of
Tinian are some remarkable remains attributed to them, consisting of two
rows of massive square stone columns, about 5 ft. 4 in. broad and 14 ft.
high, with heavy round capitals. According to early Spanish accounts
cinerary urns were found imbedded in the capitals.

The fauna of the Marianas, though inferior in number and variety, is
similar in character to that of the Carolines, and certain species are
indigenous to both colonies. Swine and oxen run wild, and are hunted
when required: the former were known to the earlier inhabitants; the
latter with most other domestic animals were introduced by the
Spaniards. The climate though damp is healthy, while the heat, being
tempered by the trade winds, is milder than that of the Philippines; the
variations of temperature are not great.

  The discovery of this archipelago is due to Magellan, who on the 6th
  of March 1521 observed the two southernmost islands, and sailed
  between them (O. Peschel, _Geschichte des Zeitalters der
  Entdeckungen_, Stuttgart, 1877). The name _Islas de los Ladrones_ (or
  "Islands of the Thieves") was given them by the ship's crew of
  Magellan on account of the thieving propensity of the inhabitants; and
  the islands are still commonly called the Ladrones. Magellan himself
  styled them _Islas de las Velas Latinas_ ("Islands of the Lateen
  Sails"). San Lazarus archipelago, Jardines and Prazeres are among the
  names applied to them by later navigators. They received the name _Las
  Marianas_ in 1668 in honour of Maria Anna of Austria, widow of Philip
  IV. of Spain. Research in the archipelago was carried out by Commodore
  Anson, who in August 1742 landed upon the island of Tinian (George,
  Lord Anson, _Voyage round the World_, bk. iii., 1748). The Ladrones
  were visited by Byron in 1765, Wallis in 1767 and Crozet in 1772. The
  entire archipelago (except Guam) together with the Caroline and Pelew
  Islands was sold by Spain to Germany for £837,500 in 1899.

  See Anson, _op. cit._; L. de Freycinet, _Voyage autour du monde_
  (Paris, 1826-1844); "The Marianas Islands" in _Nautical Magazine_,
  xxxiv., xxxv. (London, 1865-1866); O. Finsch, _Karolinen und Marianen_
  (Hamburg, 1900); Costenoble, _"Die Marianen"_ in Globus, lxxxviii.
  (1905).



MARIANAS, or MARANHAS, a tribe of South American Indians on the river
Jutahy, north-western Brazil. They wear small pieces of wood in their
ears and lips, but are not tattooed. Marianas are also found on the
upper reaches of the Putumayo across to the Yapurá.



MARIANUS SCOTUS (1028-1082 or 1083), chronicler (who must be
distinguished from his namesake Marianus Scotus, d. 1088, abbot of St
Peter's, Regensburg), was an Irishman by birth, and called Moelbrigte,
or servant of Bridget. He was educated by a certain Tigernach, and
having become a monk he crossed over to the continent of Europe in 1056,
and his subsequent life was passed in the abbeys of St Martin at Cologne
and of Fulda, and at Mainz. He died at Mainz, on the 22nd of December
1082 or 1083.

  Marianus wrote a _Chronicon_, which purports to be a universal history
  from the creation of the world to 1082. The _Chronicon_ was very
  popular during the middle ages, and in England was extensively used by
  Florence of Worcester and other writers. It was first printed at Basel
  in 1559, and has been edited with an introduction by G. Waitz for the
  _Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores_ (Bd. v.). See also W.
  Wattenbach, _Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen_ (Bd. ii., 1894).



MARIA STELLA, the self-styled legitimate daughter of Philip, duke of
Orleans. According to her, Louis Philippe was not the son of Philip duke
of Orleans, but a suppositious child, his father being one Lorenzo
Chiappini, constable at the village of Modigliana in Tuscany. The story
is that the duke and duchess of Orleans, travelling under the incognito
of Comte and Comtesse de Joinville, were at this village in April 1773,
when the duchess gave birth to a daughter; and that the duke, desiring a
son in order to prevent the rich Penthièvre inheritance from reverting
to his wife's relations in the event of her death, bribed the Chiappinis
to substitute their newly-born male child for his own.

Maria Stella, the supposed daughter of Chiappini, went on the stage at
Florence, where her putative parents had settled, and there at the age
of thirteen became the wife of the first Lord Newborough, after whose
death she married the Russian Count Ungern-Sternberg. On the death of
her putative father in 1821 she received a letter, written by him
shortly before his death, in which he confessed that she was not his
daughter, adding "Heaven has repaired my fault, since you are in a
better position than your real father, though he was of almost similar
rank" (i.e. a French nobleman). Maria Stella henceforward devoted her
time and fortune to establishing her identity. Her first success was the
judgment of the episcopal court at Faenza, which in 1824 declared that
the Comte Louis de Joinville exchanged his daughter for the son of
Lorenzo Chiappini, and that the Demoiselle de Joinville had been
baptized as Maria Stella, "with the false statement that she was the
daughter of L. Chiappini and his wife." The discovery that Joinville was
a countship of the Orleans family, and a real or fancied resemblance of
Louis Philippe to Chiappini, convinced her that the duke of Orleans was
the person for whose sake she had been cheated of her birthright, a
conviction strengthened by the striking resemblance which many people
discovered in her to the princesses of the Orleans family. In 1830 she
published her proofs under the title _Maria Stella ou un échange d'une
demoiselle du plus haut rang contre un garçon de plus vile condition_
(reprinted 1839 and 1849). This coincided with the advent of Louis
Philippe to the throne, and her claim became a weapon for those who
wished to throw discredit and ridicule on the "bourgeois monarch." He
for his part treated the whole thing with amused contempt, and Baroness
Newborough-Sternburg de Joinville, or Marie Étoile d'Orléans, as she
called herself, was suffered to live in Paris until on the 23rd of
December 1843 she died in poverty and obscurity.

  In spite of much discussion and investigation, the case of Maria
  Stella remains one of the unsolved problems of history. Sir Ralph
  Payne Gallwey's _Mystery of Maria Stella, Lady Newborough_ (London,
  1907), is founded on her own accounts and argues in favour of her
  point of view. More convincing, however, is Maurice Vitrac's
  _Philippe-Egalité et M. Chiappini_ (Paris, 1907), which is based on
  unpublished material in the _Archives nationales_. M. Vitrac seeks to
  overthrow Maria Stella's case by an alibi. The duke and duchess of
  Chartres could not have been at Modigliana in April 1773, for the
  simple reason that they can be proved at that time to have been in
  Paris. On the 8th of April the duke, according to the official
  _Gazette de France_, took part in the Maundy Thursday ceremonies at
  Versailles; from the 7th to the 14th he was in constant attendance at
  the lodge of Freemasons of which he had just been elected grand
  master. Moreover, it was impossible for the first prince of the blood
  royal to leave France without the royal permission, and his absence
  would certainly have been remarked. Lastly, the duchess's
  accouchement, a semi-public function in the case of royal princesses,
  did not take place till the 6th of October. M. Vitrac identifies the
  real father of Maria Stella with Count Carlo Battaglini of Rimini, who
  died in 1796 without issue: the case being not one of substitution,
  but of ordinary "farming out" to avoid a scandal.



MARIA THERESA (1717-1780), archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary and
Bohemia, and wife of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I., was born at Vienna
on the 13th of May 1717. She was the eldest daughter of the Emperor
Charles VI. (q.v.) and his wife Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. On
the 12th of February 1736 she was married to her cousin Francis of
Lorraine (q.v.), then grand duke of Tuscany, and afterwards emperor. Five
sons and eleven daughters were born of this marriage. From the date of her
father's death on the 20th of October 1740, till her own death in 1780,
Maria Theresa was one of the central figures in the wars and politics of
Europe. But unlike some sovereigns, whose reigns have been agitated, but
whose personal character has left little trace, Maria Theresa had a strong
and in the main a noble individuality. Her great qualities were relieved
by human traits which make her more sympathetic. It must be allowed that
she was fairly open to the criticism implied in a husbandly jest
attributed to Francis I. While they were returning from the opera house at
Vienna she said to him that the singer they had just heard was the
greatest actress who had ever lived, and he answered "Next to you, Madam."
Maria Theresa had undoubtedly an instinctive histrionic sense of the
perspective of the theatre, and could adopt the appropriate attitude and
gesture, passionate, dignified or pathetic, required to impress those she
wished to influence. But there was no affectation in her assumption of a
becoming bearing or in her picturesque words. The common story, that she
appeared before the Hungarian magnates in the diet at Pressburg in 1741
with her infant son, afterwards Joseph II., in her arms, and so worked on
their feelings that they shouted _Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria
Theresia_, is only mythically true. But during the delicate negotiations
which were required to secure the support of the Hungarian nobles she
undoubtedly did appeal to them with passionate eloquence, and, we may
believe, with a very pardonable sense of the advantage she obtained from
her youth, her beauty and her sex. Her beauty, inherited from her mother,
was of an open and noble German type. The official portrait by Muytens,
engraved by Petit, gives a less convincing impression that an excellent
chalk drawing of the head by Gabriel Mattei. In the conflict between her
sense of what was morally just and her sense of duty to the state she laid
herself open to the scoffing taunt of Frederick of Prussia, who said that
in the first partition of Poland _elle pleurait et prenait toujours_. But
the king of Prussia's taunt is deprived of its sting by the almost
incredible candour of her own words to Kaunitz, that if she was to lose
her reputation before God and man for respecting the rights of others it
must not be for a small advantage--if, in fact, Austria was to share in
the plunder of Poland, she was to be consoled for the distress caused to
her feelings by the magnitude of her share of the booty. There was no
hypocrisy in the tears of the empress. Her intellectual honesty was as
perfect as Frederick's own, and she was as incapable as he was of
endeavouring to blind herself to the quality of her own acts. No ruler was
ever more loyal to a conception of duty. Maria Theresa considered herself
first and foremost as the heiress of the rights of the house of Austria.
Therefore, when her inheritance was assailed at the beginning of her
reign, she fought for it with every weapon an honest woman could employ,
and for years she cherished the hope of recovering the lost province of
Silesia, conquered by Frederick. Her practical sense showed her the
necessity of submitting to spoliation when she was overpowered. She
accepted the peace of Berlin in 1742 in order to have a free hand against
her Bavarian enemy, the emperor Charles VII. (q.v.). When Frederick
renewed the war she accepted the struggle cheerfully, because she hoped to
recover her own. Down to the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 she went on
fighting for Silesia or its equivalent. In the years following the peace
she applied herself to finding allies in France and Russia who would help
her to recover Silesia. Here, as later in the case of Poland, she
subordinated her feelings to her duty to the state. Though she denied that
she had ever written directly to Madame de Pompadour, it is certain that
she allowed her ministers to make use of the favourite's influence over
the French king. When fate decided against her in the Seven Years' War she
bowed to the inevitable, and was thenceforward a resolute advocate of
peace.

In her internal government she showed herself anxious to promote the
prosperity of her people, and to give more unity to an administration
made up by the juxtaposition of many states and races with different
characters and constitutions. Her instincts, like those of her enemy
Frederick and her son Joseph II., were emphatically absolutist. She
suspended the meetings of the estates in most parts of her dominions.
She was able to do so because the mass of her subjects found her hand
much lighter than that of the privileged classes who composed these
bodies. Education, trade, religious toleration, the emancipation of the
agricultural population from feudal burdens--all had her approval up to
a certain point. She would favour them, but on the distinct condition
that nothing was to be done to weaken the bonds of authority. She took
part in the suppression of the Jesuits, and she resisted the pope in the
interest of the state. Her methods were those of her cautious younger
son, Leopold II., and not of her eldest son and immediate successor,
Joseph II. She did not give her consent even to the suppression of
torture in legal procedure without hesitation, lest the authority of the
law should be weakened. Her caution had its reward, for whatever she did
was permanently gained, whereas her successor in his boundless zeal for
reform brought his empire to the verge of a general rebellion.

In her private life Maria Theresa was equally the servant of the state
and the sovereign of all about her. She was an affectionate wife to her
husband Francis I.; but she was always the queen of Hungary and Bohemia
and archduchess of Austria, like her ancestress, Isabella the Catholic,
who never forgot, nor allowed her husband to forget, that she was
"proprietary queen" of Castile and Leon. She married her daughters in
the interest of Austria, and taught them _not_ to forget their people
and their father's house. In the case of Marie Antoinette (q.v.), who
married the dauphin, afterwards Louis XVI., she gave an extraordinary
proof of her readiness to subordinate everything to the reason of state.
She instructed her daughter to show a proper respect to her husband's
grandfather, Louis XV., by behaving with politeness to his mistresses,
in order that the alliance between the two courts might run no risk. The
signing of the peace of Teschen, which averted a great war with Prussia,
on the 13th of May 1779, was the last great act of her reign, and so
Maria Theresa judged it to be in a letter to Prince Kaunitz; she said
that she had now finished her life's journey and could sing a _Te Deum_,
for she had secured the repose of her people at whatever cost to
herself. The rest, she said, would not last long. Her fatal illness
developed in the autumn of the following year, and she died on the 28th
of November 1780. When she lay painfully on her deathbed her son Joseph
said to her, "You are not at ease," and her last words were the answer,
"I am sufficiently at my ease to die."

  See A. von Arneth, _Geschichte Maria Theresas_ (Vienna, 1863-1879) and
  J. F. Bright, _Maria Theresa_ (London, 1897); also the article
  AUSTRIA.



MARIAZELL, a village of Austria, in Styria, 89 m. N. of Graz. Pop.
(1900), 1499. It is picturesquely situated in the valley of the Salza,
amid the north Styrian Alps. Its entire claim to notice lies in the fact
that it is the most frequented sanctuary in Austria, being visited
annually by about 200,000 pilgrims. The object of veneration is a
miracle-working image of the Virgin, carved in lime-tree wood, and about
18 in. high. This was presented to the place in 1157, and is now
enshrined in a chapel lavishly adorned with objects of silver and other
costly materials. The large church of which the chapel forms part was
erected in 1644 as an expansion of a smaller church built by Louis I.,
king of Hungary, after a victory over the Turks in 1363. In the vicinity
of Mariazell is the pretty Alpine lake of Erlafsee.

  See M. M. Rabenlehrer, _Mariazell, Österreichs Loreto_ (Vienna, 1891);
  and O. Eigner, _Geschichte des aufgeshobenen Benedictinerstiftes
  Mariazell_ (Vienna, 1900).



MARIE AMÉLIE THÉRÈSE (1782-1866), queen of Louis Philippe, king of the
French, was the daughter of Ferdinand IV., king of Naples, and the
archduchess Maria Carolina, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa, and
belonged to the house of Bourbon. She was born at Caserta, on the 26th
of April 1782, and received a careful education which developed the
naturally pious and honourable disposition that earned for her in the
family circle the nickname of La Santa. Driven from Naples in 1798, the
Neapolitan royal family fled to Palermo, and the years from 1800 to 1802
were spent by Marie Amélie with her mother at the Austrian court. In
1806 they were again in flight before the armies of Masséna, and it was
during the second residence of her father's court at Palermo that she
met the exiled Louis Philippe, then duke of Orleans, whom she married in
November 1809. Returning to France in 1814, the duke and duchess of
Orleans had barely established themselves in the Palais Royal in Paris
when the Hundred Days drove them into exile. Marie Amélie took refuge
with her four children in England, where she spent two years at Orleans
House, Twickenham. Again in France in 1817, her life at Neuilly until
1828 was the happiest period of her existence. Neither then nor at any
other time did she take any active share in politics; but she was not
without indirect influence on affairs, because her strong royalist and
legitimist traditions prevented the court from including her in the
suspicion with which her husband's liberal views were regarded. Her
attention was absorbed by the care and education of her numerous family,
even after the revolution of 1830 had made her queen of the French, a
position accepted by her with forebodings of disaster justified by her
early experience of revolutions. During her second exile, from 1848 to
the end of her life, she lived at Claremont, where her charity and piety
endeared her to the many English friends of the Orleans family. Marie
Amélie died at Claremont, on the 24th of March 1866.

  See A. Trognon, _Vie de Marie Amélie_ (1872); A. L. Baron Imbert de St
  Amand, _La Jeunesse de Marie Amélie_ (1891), _Marie Amélie au Palais
  Royal_ (1892), _Marie Amélie et la cour de Palerme_ (1891), _Marie
  Amélie et la cour des Tuileries_ (1892), _Marie Amélie et l'apogée de
  règne de Louis Philippe_ (1893), _Marie Amélie et la société française
  en 1847_ (1894), and _Marie Amélie et la duchesse d'Orleans_ (1893).



MARIE ANTOINETTE (1755-1793), queen of France, ninth child of Maria
Theresa and the emperor Francis I., was born at Vienna, on the 2nd of
November 1755. She was brought up under a simple and austere régime and
educated with a view to the French marriage arranged by Maria Theresa,
the abbé Vermond being appointed as her tutor in 1769. Her marriage with
the dauphin, which took place at Versailles on the 16th of May 1770, was
intended to crown the policy of Choiseul and confirm the alliance
between Austria and France. This fact, combined with her youth and the
extreme corruption of the French court, made her position very
difficult. Madame du Barry, whose influence over Louis XV. was at that
time supreme, formed the centre of a powerful anti-Choiseul cabal, which
succeeded in less than a year after the dauphin's marriage in bringing
about the fall of Choiseul and seriously threatening the stability of
the Austrian alliance. Thus the young princess was surrounded by enemies
both at court and in the dauphin's household, and came to rely almost
entirely upon the Austrian ambassador, the comte de Mercy-Argenteau,
whom Maria Theresa had instructed to act as her mentor, at the same time
arranging that she herself should be kept informed of all that concerned
her daughter, so that she might at once advise her and safeguard the
alliance. Hence arose the famous secret correspondence of
Mercy-Argenteau, an invaluable record of all the details of Marie
Antoinette's life from her marriage in 1770 till the death of Maria
Theresa in 1780.

Marie Antoinette soon won the affection and confidence of the dauphin
and endeared herself to the king, but her position was precarious, and
both Mercy and Maria Theresa had continually to urge her to conquer her
violent dislike for the favourite and try to conciliate her.

The accession of the young king and queen on the death of Louis XV. (May
10, 1774), was hailed with great popular enthusiasm. But her first steps
brought Marie Antoinette into open hostility with the anti-Austrian
party. She was urgent in obtaining the dismissal of d'Aiguillon, and did
all in her power to secure the recall of Choiseul, though without
success. Thus from the very first she appeared in the light of a
partisan, having against her all the enemies of Choiseul and of the
Austrian alliance, and was already given the nickname of
"l'autrichienne" by mesdames the king's aunts. At the same time her
undisguised impatience of the cumbrous court etiquette shocked many
people, and her taste for pleasure led her to seek the society of the
comte d'Artois and his young and dissolute circle. But the greatest
weakness in her position lay in her unsatisfactory relations with her
husband. The king, though affectionate, was cold and apathetic, and it
was not till seven years after her marriage that there was any
possibility of her bearing him an heir. This fact naturally decreased
her popularity, and as early as September 1774, was made the subject of
offensive pamphlets and the like, as in the case of the _affaire
Beaumarchais_. (See BEAUMARCHAIS.)

The end of the period of mourning for the late king was the signal for a
succession of gaieties, during which the queen displayed a passion for
amusement and excitement which led to unfortunate results. Being
childless, and with a husband who could not command her respect, her
longing for affection led her to form various intimate friendships,
above all with the princesse de Lamballe and the comtesse Jules de
Polignac, who soon obtained such an empire over her affections that no
favour was too great for them to ask, and often to obtain. Thus for the
benefit of Madame de Lamballe the queen revived the superfluous and
expensive office of superintendent of her household, which led to
constant disagreements and jealousies among her ladies and offended
many important families. In frequenting the salons of her friends the
queen not only came in contact with a number of the younger and more
dissipated courtiers, whose high play and unseemly amusements she
countenanced, but she fell under the influence of various ambitious
intriguers, such as the baron de Bésenval, the comte de Vaudreuil, the
duc de Lauzun and the comte d'Adhémar, whose interested manoeuvres she
was induced to further by her affection for her favourites. Thus she was
often led to interfere for frivolous reasons in public affairs,
sometimes with serious results, as in the case of the trial of the comte
de Guines (1776), when her interference was responsible for the fall of
Turgot. At the same time her extravagance in dress, jewelry and
amusements (including the gardens and theatricals at Trianon, of the
cost of which such exaggerated reports were spread about) and her
presence at horse-races and masked balls in Paris without the king, gave
rise to great scandal, which was seized upon by her enemies, among whom
were Mesdames, the count of Provence, and the duke of Orleans and the
Palais Royal clique.

At this critical period her brother, the emperor Joseph II., decided to
visit France. As the result of his visit he left with the queen a
memorandum in which he pointed out to her in plain terms the dangers of
her conduct.[1] He also took advantage of his visit to advise the king,
with such success that at last, in 1778, the queen had the hope of
becoming a mother. For a time the emperor's remonstrances had some
effect, and after the birth of her daughter, Marie Thérèse Charlotte
(afterwards duchesse d'Angoulême) in December 1778, the queen lived a
more quiet life. The death of Maria Theresa (Nov. 29, 1780) deprived her
of a wise and devoted friend, and by removing all restraint on the
rashness of Joseph II. was bound to increase the dislike of the Austrian
alliance and cause embarrassment to Marie Antoinette. Her position was
very much strengthened by the birth (Oct. 22, 1781) of a dauphin, Louis
Joseph Xavier François, and on the death of Maurepas, which left the
king without a chief minister, she might have exerted a considerable
influence in public affairs had she taken a consistent interest in them;
but her repugnance to serious matters triumphed, and she preferred to
occupy herself with the education of her children, to whom she was a
wise and devoted mother,[2] and with her friends and amusements at
Trianon. Personal motives alone would lead her to interfere in public
affairs, especially when it was a question of obtaining places or
favours for her favourites and their friends. The influence of the
Polignacs was now at its height, and they obtained large sums of money,
a dukedom, and many nominations to places. It was Madame de Polignac who
obtained the appointment of Calonne as controller-general of the
finances,[3] and who succeeded Madame de Guéménée as "governess of the
children of France" after the bankruptcy of the prince de Guéménée in
1782.[4] Again, in response to Mercy and Joseph II.'s urgent
representations, Marie Antoinette exerted herself on behalf of Austria
in the affairs of the opening of the Scheldt (1783-1784) and the
exchange of Bavaria (1785), in which, though she failed to provoke
active interference on the part of France, she succeeded in obtaining
the payment of considerable indemnities to Austria, a fact which led to
the popular legend of her having sent millions to Austria, and aroused
much indignation against her. Later, on the recommendation of Mercy and
Vermond, she supported the nomination of Loménie de Brienne in 1787, an
appointment which, though widely approved at the time, was laid to the
queen's blame when it ended in failure.

Two more children were born to her; Louis Charles, duke of Normandy,
afterwards dauphin, on the 27th of March 1785, and Sophie Hélène Beatrix
(d. June 19, 1787), on the 9th of July 1786. In 1785-1786 the affair of
the Diamond Necklace (q.v.) revealed the depth of the hatred which her
own follies and the calumnies of her enemies had aroused against her.
The public held her responsible for the bankrupt state of the country;
and though in 1788, following the popular outcry, she prevailed upon the
king to recall Necker, it was impossible for him to avert the
Revolution. The year 1789 was one of disaster for Marie Antoinette; on
the 10th of March her brother Joseph II. died, and on the 4th of June
her eldest son. The same year saw the assembling of the States-general,
which she had dreaded; the taking of the Bastille, and the events
leading to the terrible days of the 5th and 6th of October at Versailles
and the removal of the royal family to the Tuileries. Then began the
negotiations with Mirabeau, whose high estimate of the queen is
well-known (e.g. his famous remark, "The king has only one man on his
side, and that is his wife"). But the queen was violently prejudiced
against him, believing him among other things to be responsible for the
events of the 5th and 6th of October, and he never gained her full
confidence. She was naturally incapable of seeing the full import of the
Revolution, and merely temporised with Mirabeau. She dreaded the thought
of civil war; and even when she had realized the necessity for decisive
action the king's apathy and indecision made it impossible for her to
persuade him to carry into effect Mirabeau's plan of leaving Paris and
appealing to the provinces. Her difficulties were increased by the
departure of Mercy for the Hague in September 1790, for Montmorin who
now took his place in the negotiations had not her confidence to the
same extent. Feeling herself helpless and almost isolated in Paris, she
now relied chiefly on her friends outside France--Mercy, Count Axel
Fersen, and the baron de Breteuil; and it was by their help and that of
Bouillé that after the death of Mirabeau, on the 8th of April 1791, the
plan was arranged of escaping to Montmédy, which ended in the flight to
Varennes (June 21, 1791).

After the return from Varennes the royal family were closely guarded,
but in spite of this they still found channels of communication with the
outside world. The king being sunk in apathy, the task of negotiation
devolved upon the queen; but in her inexperience and ignorance of
affairs, and the uncertainty of information from abroad, it was hard for
her to follow any clear policy. Her courageous bearing during the return
from Varennes had greatly impressed Barnave, and he now approached her
on behalf of the Feuillants and the constitutional party. For about a
year she continued to negotiate with them, forwarding to Mercy and the
emperor Leopold II. letters and memoranda dictated by them, while at the
same time secretly warning her friends not to accept these letters as
her own opinions, but to realize that she was dependent on the
Constitutionals.[5] She agreed with their plan of an armed congress, and
on this idea both she and Fersen insisted with all their might, Fersen
leaving Brussels and going on a mission to the emperor to try and gain
support and checkmate the _émigrés_, whose desertion the queen bitterly
resented, and whose rashness threatened to frustrate her plans and
endanger the lives of her family.

As to the acceptance of the constitution (Sept. 1791), "tissue of
absurdities" though the queen thought it, and much as she would have
preferred a bolder course, she considered that in the circumstances the
king was bound to accept it in order to inspire confidence.[6] Mercy was
also in correspondence with the Constitutionals, and in letter after
letter to him and the emperor, the queen, strongly supported by Fersen,
insisted that the congress should be formed as soon as possible, her
appeals increasing in urgency as she saw that Barnave's party would soon
be powerless against the extremists. But owing to the lengthy
negotiations of the powers the congress was continually postponed. On
the 1st of March 1792 Leopold II. died, and was succeeded by the young
Francis II. Marie Antoinette's actions were now directed entirely by
Fersen, for she suspected Mercy and the emperor of sacrificing her to
the interests of Austria (_Fersen_, i. 251; Arneth, pp. 254, 256, &c.).
The declaration of war which the king was forced to make (April 20)
threw her definitely into opposition to the Revolution, and she betrayed
to Mercy and Fersen the plans of the French generals (Arneth, p. 259;
_Fersen_, ii. 220, 289, 308, 325, 327). She was now certain that the
life of the king was threatened, and the events of the 20th of June
added to her terrors. She considered their only hope to lie in the
intervention of the powers and in the appeal to force, and endorsed the
suggestion of a threatening manifesto[6] which should hold the National
Assembly and Paris responsible for the safety of the king and royal
family. Immediately after Brunswick's manifesto followed the storming of
the Tuileries and the removal of the royal family to the Temple (Aug.
10). During all these events and the captivity in the Temple Marie
Antoinette showed an unvarying courage and dignity, in spite of her
failing health and the illness of her son. After the execution of the
king (Jan. 17, 1793) several unsuccessful attempts were made by her
friends to rescue her and her children, among others by Jarjayes, Toulan
and Lepître, and the "baron de Batz," and negotiations for her release
or exchange were even opened with Danton; but as the allied armies
approached her trial and condemnation became a certainty. She had
already been separated from her son, the sight of whose ill-treatment
added terribly to her sufferings; she was now parted from her daughter
and Madame Elizabeth, and removed on the 1st of August 1793 to the
Conciergerie. Even here, where she was under the closest guard and
subjected to the most offensive espionnage, attempts were made to rescue
her, among others Michonis' "Conspiration de l'oeillet."

On the 14th of October began her trial, her defence being entrusted to
Chauveau-Lagarde and Tronson-Ducourdray. Her noble attitude, even in the
face of the atrocious accusations of Fouquier-Tinville, commanded the
admiration even of her enemies, and her answers during her long
examination were clear and skilful. The following were the questions
finally put to the jury:--

  (1) Is it established that manoeuvres and communications have existed
  with foreign powers and other external enemies of the republic, the
  said manoeuvres, &c., tending to furnish them with assistance in
  money, give them an entry into French territory, and facilitate the
  progress of their armies?

  (2) Is Marie Antoinette of Austria, the widow Capet, convicted of
  having co-operated in these manoeuvres and maintained these
  communications?

  (3) Is it established that a plot and conspiracy has existed tending
  to kindle civil war within the republic, by arming the citizens
  against one another?

  (4) Is Marie Antoinette, the widow Capet, convicted of having
  participated in this plot and conspiracy?

The jury decided unanimously in the affirmative, and on the 16th of
October 1793 Marie Antoinette was led to the guillotine, leaving behind
her a touching letter to Madame Elizabeth, known as her "Testament."

As to the justice of these charges, we have seen how the queen was
actually guilty of betraying her country, though it was only natural for
her to identify the cause of the monarchy with that of France. To civil
war she was consistently opposed, and never ceased to dissociate herself
from the plans of the _émigrés_, but here again her very position made
her an enemy of the republic. In any case, all her actions had as their
aim--firstly, the safeguarding of the monarchy and the king's position,
and later, when she saw this to be impossible, that of securing the
safety of her husband and her son.

  For a bibliographical study see: M. Tourneux, _Marie Antoinette devant
  l'histoire. Essai bibliographique_ (2nd ed., Paris, 1901); id.
  _Bibliogr. de la ville de Paris ..._ (vol. iv. 1906), nos.
  20980-21338; also _Bibliogr. de femmes célèbres_ (Turin and Paris,
  1892, &c.). The most important material for her life is to be found in
  her letters and in the correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, but a large
  number of forgeries have found their way into certain of the
  collections, such as those of Paul Vogt d'Hunolstein (_Correspondance
  inédite de Marie Antoinette_, (3rd ed., Paris, 1864), and F. Feuillet
  des Conches _Louis XVI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Élisabeth, lettres
  et documents inédits_ (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the
  works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's
  publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries. For a
  detailed examination of the question of the authenticity of the
  letters see the introduction to _Lettres de Marie Antoinette. Recueil
  des lettres authentiques de la reine, publié pour la société
  d'histoire contemporaine, par M. de la Rocheterie et le marquis de
  Beaucourt_ (2 vols., Paris, 1895-1896); also A. Geffroy, _Gustave III.
  et la cour de France_ (2 vols., Paris, 1869), vol. ii., appendix. Of
  the highest importance are the letters from the archives of Vienna
  published by Alfred von Arneth and others: A. von Arneth, _Maria
  Theresia und Marie Antoinette, ihr Briefwechsel_ 1770-1780 (Paris and
  Vienna, 1865); id., _Marie Antoinette, Joseph II. und Leopold II. ihr
  Briefwechsel_ (Leipzig, Paris and Vienna, 1866); id. and A. Geffroy,
  _Correspondance secrète de Marie-Thérèse et du comte de
  Mercy-Argenteau_ (3 vols., Paris, 1874); id. and J. Flammermont,
  _Correspondance secrète du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec Joseph II. et
  le prince de Kaunitz_ (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters
  see Comte de Reiset, _Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette à la
  landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt_ (1865); id. _Lettres inédites de
  Marie Antoinette et de Marie-Clotilde, reine de Sardaigne_ (1877). See
  also _Correspondance entre le comte de Mirabeau et le comte de la
  Marck, 1789-1791, recueillie ... par F. de Bacourt_ (3 vols., Paris,
  1857), and Baron R. M. de Klinckowström, _Le Comte de Fersen et la
  cour de France_ (2 vols., Paris, 1877-1878). _Memoirs_: See most
  contemporary memoirs, e.g. those of the prince de Ligne, Choiseul,
  Ségur, Bouillé, Dumouriez, &c. Some, such as those of Madame Campan,
  Weber, Cléry, Mme de Tourzel, are prejudiced in her favour; others,
  such as those of Besenval, Lauzun, Soulavie, are equally prejudiced
  against her. M. Tourneux (_op. cit._) discusses the authenticity of
  the memoirs of Tilly, Cléry, Lauzun, &c. The chief of these memoirs
  are: Mme Campan, _Mémoires sur la vie privée de Marie Antoinette_ (5th
  ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1823, Eng. trans. 1887), the inaccuracy of which
  is clearly demonstrated by J. Flammermont in _Études critiques sur les
  sources de l'histoire du xviii^e siècle: Les Mémoires de Mme Campan_,
  in the _Bulletin de la Faculté des lettres de Poitiers_ (4th year,
  1886, pp. 56, 109); J. Weber, _Mémoires concernant Marie Antoinette_
  (3 vols., London, 1804-1809; Eng. trans., 3 vols., London, 1805-1806);
  _Mémoires de M. le baron de Besenval_ (3 vols., Paris, 1805);
  _Mémoires de M. le duc de Lauzun_ (2nd ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1822); E.
  Bavoux, _Méms. secrets de J. M. Augeard, secrétaire des commandements
  de la reine M. Antoinette_ (Paris, 1866); Mme Vigée-Le-Brun, _Mes
  souvenirs_ (2 vols., Paris, 1867); _Mémoires de Mme la duchesse de
  Tourzel_, ed. by the duc de Cars (2 vols., Paris, 1883); _Mémoires de
  la baronne d'Oberkirch_ (2 vols., Paris, 1853).

  GENERAL WORKS:--See the general works on the period and on Louis XVI.,
  and bibliographies to articles LOUIS XVI. and FRENCH REVOLUTION. A.
  Sorel, _L'Europe et la Rév. fr._ (ii. _passim_) contains a good
  estimate of Marie Antoinette. See also E. and J. de Goncourt,
  _Histoire de Marie Antoinette_ (Paris, 1859); P. de Nolhac, _Marie
  Antoinette, dauphine_ (Paris, 1897); id. _La Reine Marie Antoinette_
  (8th cd., 1898), which gives good descriptions of Versailles, Trianon,
  &c.; M. de la Rocheterie, _Histoire de Marie Antoinette_ (2 vols.,
  Paris, 1890); A. L. Bicknell, _The Story of Marie Antoinette_; R.
  Prölss, _Königin Marie Antoinette, Bilder aus ihrem Leben_ (Leipzig,
  1894); G. Desjardins, _Le Petit-Trianon_ (Versailles, 1885). For her
  trial and death, see E. Campardon, _Marie Antoinette à la
  Conciergerie_ (1863). H. Belloc's _Marie Antoinette_ (London, 1909) is
  very biassed and sometimes misleading.     (C. B. P.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See Arneth, _Marie Antoinette, Joseph II. and Leopold II._, pp.
    1-18.

  [2] v. the _Instructions données à la marquise de Tourzel_, governess
    of the children of France, dated the 24th of July, 1789, in la
    Rocheterie and Beaucourt, _Lettres de Marie Antoinette_, ii. 131.

  [3] But see Arneth and Flammermont, i. 228, foot-note.

  [4] This had reflected discredit on the queen, Madame de Guéménée
    having been one of her intimate friends.

  [5] Letters of 31st July 1791 to Mercy. Arneth, p. 193 and 194, and
    letter of 1st August.

  [6] Arneth, pp. 196, 203; Klinekowström, _Fersen_, i. 192.

  [7] H. Belloc, _Marie-Antoinett_, pp. 311-312, states that clause
    VIII. of Brunswick's manifesto was "drafted" by Marie Antoinette,
    i.e. that the idea of holding Paris responsible for the safety of the
    royal family was first suggested by her. He bases this statement
    entirely upon the queen's letters of July 3rd to Fersen, of July 4th
    to Mercy, the reception of which Fersen notes in his Journal on July
    8th and 9th (Fersen ii. 21). But these letters were obviously the
    answer to Fersen's letter of June 30th to the queen (Fersen ii. 315),
    in which he tells her the terms of the manifesto. Moreover, the
    suggestion of holding the Assembly responsible is to be found as
    early as in the memo. of the Constitutionals of September the 8th,
    1791, and is included in the Instructions of Mallet du Pan (Mems. ed.
    Sayous, i. 281, and appendix 445). Fersen (_Fersen_ ii. 329, 337,
    18th July and 28th July to the queen, and p. 338, 29th July to Taube)
    states that it was he who drew up the manifesto by means of the
    marquis de Limon.



MARIE DE FRANCE (fl. c. 1175-1190), French poet and fabulist. In the
introduction (c. 1240) to his _Vie Seint Edmund le Rey_[1] Denis Pyramus
says she was one of the most popular of authors with counts, barons and
knights, but especially with ladies. She is also mentioned by the
anonymous author of the _Couronnement Renart_. Her lays were translated
into Norwegian[2] by order of Haakon IV.; and Thomas Chestre, who is
generally supposed to have lived in the reign of Henry VI., gave a
version of _Lanval_.[3] Very little is known about her history, and
until comparatively recently the very century in which she lived
remained a matter of dispute. In spite of her own statement in the
epilogue to her fables: "Marie ai num, si suis de France," generally
interpreted to mean that Marie was a native of the Île de France, she
seems to have been of Norman origin, and certainly spent most of her
life in England. Her language, however, shows little trace of
Anglo-Norman provincialism. Like Wace, she used a literary dialect which
probably differed very widely from common Norman speech. The manuscripts
in which Marie's poems are preserved date from the late 13th or even the
14th century, but the language fixes the date of the poems in the second
half of the 12th century. The _Lais_ are dedicated to an unknown king,
who is identified as Henry II. of England; and the fables, her _Ysopet_,
were written according to the _Epilogus_ for a Count William, generally
recognized to be William Longsword, earl of Salisbury. The author of
_Couronnement Renart_, says that Marie had dedicated her poem to the
count William to whom the unknown poet addresses himself. This is
William of Dampierre (d. 1251), the husband of the countess Margaret of
Flanders, and his identification with Marie's count William is almost
certainly an error. Marie lived and wrote at the court of Henry II.,
which was very literary and purely French. Queen Eleanor was a
Provençal, and belonged to a family in which the patronage of poetry was
a tradition. There is no evidence to show whether Marie was of noble
origin or simply pursued the profession of a _trouvère_ for her living.

The origin of the _lais_ has been the subject of much discussion. Marie
herself says that she had heard them sung by Breton minstrels. It seems
probable that it is the lesser or French Brittany from which the stories
were derived, though something may be due to Welsh and Cornish sources.
Gaston Paris (_Romania_, vol. xv.) maintained that Marie had heard the
stories from English minstrels, who had assimilated the Celtic legends.
In any case the Breton lays offer abundant evidence of traditions from
Scandinavian and Oriental sources. The _Guigemar_ of Marie de France
presents marked analogies with the ordinary Oriental romance of escape
from a harem, for instance, with details superadded from classical
mythology. Marie seems to have contented herself with giving new
literary form to the stories she heard by turning them into Norman
octosyllabic verse, and apparently made few radical changes from her
originals. Joseph Bédier thinks that the lays of the Breton minstrels
were prose recitals interspersed with short lyrics something after the
manner of the cante-fable of _Aucassin et Nicolette_. Marie's task was
to give these cante-fables a narrative form destined to be read rather
than sung or recited.

  The _Lais_ which may be definitely attributed to Marie are:
  _Guigemar_, _Equitan_, _Le Frêne_, _Le Bisclavret_ (the werewolf),
  _Les Deux amants_, _Laustic_, _Chaitivel_, _Lanval_, _Le
  Chèvrefeuille_, _Milon_, _Yonec_ and _Eliduc_. The other similar lays
  are anonymous except the _Lai d'Ignaure_ by Renant and the Lai du cor
  of Robert Biket, two authors otherwise unknown. They vary in length
  from some twelve thousand lines to about a hundred. _Le
  Chèvrefeuille_, a short episode of the Tristan story, telling how
  Tristan makes known his presence in the wood to Iseult, is the best
  known of them all. Laustic[4] (_Le Rossignol_) is almost as short and
  simple. In _Yonec_ a mysterious bird visits the lady kept in durance
  by an old husband, and is turned into a valiant knight. The lover is
  killed by the husband, but in due time is avenged by his son. The
  scene of the story is partly laid in Chester, but the fable in
  slightly different forms occurs in the folk-lore of many countries.[5]
  _Lanval_[6] is a fairy story, and the hero vanishes eventually with
  his fairy princess to the island of Avallon or Avilion. _Eliduc_ is
  more elaborately planned than any of these, and the action is divided
  between Exeter and Brittany. Here again the story of the man with two
  brides is not new, but the three characters of the story are so dealt
  with that each wins the reader's sympathy. The resignation of the wife
  of Eliduc and her reception of the new bride find a parallel in
  another of the lays, _Le Frêne_. The story is in both cases more
  human and less repugnant than the, in some respects, similar story of
  Griselda.

  Marie's _Ysopet_ is translated from an English original which she
  erroneously attributed to Alfred the Great, who had, she said,
  translated it from the Latin. The collection includes many fables that
  have come down from Phaedrus, some Oriental stories derived from
  Jewish sources, with many popular apologues that belong to the Renard
  cycle, and differ from those of older origin in that they are intended
  to amuse rather than to instruct. Marie describes the misery of the
  poor under the feudal régime, but she preaches resignation rather than
  revolt. The popularity of this collection is attested by the
  twenty-three MSS. of it that have been preserved.

  Another poem attributed to Marie de France is _L'Espurgatoire Seint
  Patriz_, a translation from the _Tractatus de purgatorio S. Patricii_
  (c. 1185) of Henri de Salterey, which brings her activity down almost
  to the close of the century.

  See _Die Fabeln der Marie de France_ (1898), edited by Karl Warnke
  with the help of materials left by Eduard Mall; and _Die Lais der
  Marie de France_ (2nd ed., 1900), edited by Karl Warnke, with
  comparative notes by Reinhold Köhler; the two works being vols. vi.
  and iii. of the _Bibliotheca Normannica_ of Hermann Suchier; also an
  extremely interesting article by Joseph Bédier in the _Revue des deux
  mondes_ (Oct. 1891); another by Alice Kemp-Welch in the _Nineteenth
  Century_ (Dec. 1907). For an analysis of the _Lais_ see _Revue de
  philologie française_, viii. 161 seq.; Karl Warnke, _Die Quellen der
  Esope der Marie de France_ (1900). The _Lais_ were first published in
  1819 by B. de Roquefort. _L'Espurgatoire Seint Patriz_ was edited by
  T. A. Jenkins (Philadelphia, 1894). Some of the _Lays_ were
  paraphrased by Arthur O'Shaughnessy in his _Lays of France_ (1872).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Cotton MS. Domit. A xi. (British Museum), edited for the Rolls
    Series by Thomas Arnold in 1892.

  [2] Edited by R. Keyser and C. R. Unger as _Strengleikar eða
    Lioðabok_ (Christiania, 1850).

  [3] Chestre's _Sir Launfal_ was printed by J. Ritson in _Ancient
    English Metrical Romances_ (1802); and by L. Erling (Kempten, 1883).

  [4] The _soi-disant_ Breton folk-song "Ann Eostik" on the same
    subject translated by La Villemarque in his _Barzaz-Breiz_ (1840) is
    rejected by competent authorities. Similar stories in which the
    nightingale is slain by an angry husband occur in Renard _contrefait_
    and in the _Gesta Romanorum_.

  [5] Cf. the _Oiseau bleu_ of Mme d'Aulnoy.

  [6] Sir Lambewell in Bishop Percy's Folio MS. (ed. Hales and
    Furnivall, vol. ii., 1867), is another version of _Lanval_, and
    differs from Chestre's. For the relations between _Lanval_ and the
    _Lai de Graelent_, wrongly ascribed to Marie by Roquefort, see W. H.
    Schofield, "The Lays of Graelent and Lanval, and the story of
    Wayland," in the _Publications_ of the Mod. Lang. Assoc. of America,
    vol. xv. (Baltimore, 1900).



MARIE DE' MEDICI (1573-1642), queen consort and queen regent of France,
daughter of Francis de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany, and Joanna, an
Austrian archduchess, was born in Florence on the 26th of April 1573.
After Joanna's death in 1578 duke Francis married the notorious Bianca
Capello, and the grand-ducal children were brought up away from their
father at the Pitti Palace in Florence, where after the death of her
brother and sister and the marriage of her elder sister Eleonora,
duchess of Mantua, a companion was chosen for Marie, this being Leonora
Dori, afterwards known as Leonora Galigaï. She received a good education
in company with her half-brother Antonio. After many projects of
marriage for Marie had failed Henry IV. of France, who was under great
monetary obligations to the house of Medici, offered himself as a suitor
although his marriage with Marguerite de Valois was not yet dissolved;
but the marriage was not celebrated until October 1600. Her eldest son,
the future Louis XIII., was born at Fontainebleau in September of the
next year; the other children who survived were Gaston duke of Orleans;
Elizabeth queen of Spain; Christine duchess of Savoy; and Henrietta
Maria queen of England. During her husband's lifetime Marie de' Medici
showed little sign of political taste or ability; but after his murder
in 1610 when she became regent, she devoted herself to affairs with
unfailing regularity and developed an inherited passion for power. She
gave her confidence chiefly to Concini, the husband of Leonora Galigaï,
who squandered the public money and secured a series of important
charges with the title of Maréchal d'Ancre. Under the regent's lax and
capricious rule the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the
kingdom revolted; and the queen, too weak to assert her authority,
consented at Sainte Menehould (May 15, 1614) to buy off the discontented
princes. In 1616 her policy was strengthened by the accession to her
councils of Richelieu, who had come to the front at the meeting of the
states general in 1614; but Louis XIII., who was now sixteen years old,
was determined to throw off the tutelage of his mother and Concini. By
his orders Concini was murdered, Leonora Galigaï was tried for sorcery
and beheaded, Richelieu was banished to his bishopric, and the queen was
exiled to Blois. After two years of virtual imprisonment she escaped in
1619 and became the centre of a new revolt. Louis XIII. easily dispersed
the rebels, but through the mediation of Richelieu was reconciled with
his mother, who was allowed to hold a small court at Angers, and resumed
her place in the royal council in 1621. But differences between her and
the cardinal rapidly arose, and the queen mother intrigued to drive
Richelieu again from court. For a single day the _journée des dupes_,
the 12th of November 1630, she seemed to have succeeded; but the triumph
of Richelieu was followed by her exile to Compiêgne, whence she escaped
in 1631 to Brussels. From that time till her death at Cologne on the 3rd
of July 1642 she intrigued in vain against the cardinal.

  Among contemporary authorities for the history of Marie de' Medici,
  see Mathieu de Morgues, _Deux faces de la vie et de la mort de Marie
  de Médicis_ (Antwerp, 1643); J. B. Matthieu, _Éloge historial de Marie
  de Médicis_ (Paris, 1626); Florentin du Ruau, _Le Tableau de la
  régence de Marie de Médicis_ (Poitiers, 1615); F. E. Mézeray,
  _Histoire de la mère et du fils, ou de Marie de Médicis et de Louis
  XIII._ (Amsterdam, 1730); and A. P. Lord, _The Regency of Marie de
  Médicis_ (London, 1904). For the political history see the
  bibliographies to HENRY IV. and LOUIS XIII.

  There are lives by Thiroux d'Arconville (3 vols., Paris, 1774) by Miss
  J. S. H. Pardoe (London, 1852, and again 1890); and by B. Zeller,
  _Henri IV. et Marie de Médicis_ (Paris, 1877). There is a technical
  discussion of the causes of her death in A. Masson's _La Sorcellerie
  et la science des poisons au xvii^e siècle_ (Paris, 1904), and the
  minutest details of her private life are in L. Batiffol's _La Vie
  intime d'une reine de France_ (Paris, 1906; Eng. trans., 1908).



MARIE GALANTE, an island in the French West Indies. It lies in 15° 55´
N. and 61° 17´ W., 16 m. S.E. of Guadeloupe, of which it is a
dependency. It is nearly circular in shape and 55 sq. m. in area. A
rocky limestone plateau, rising in the east to a height of 675 ft.,
occupies the centre of the island, and from it the land descends in a
series of well-wooded terraces to the sea. The shores are rocky, there
are no harbours, and the roadstead off Grand Bourg is difficult of
access, owing to the surrounding reefs. The climate is healthy and the
soil rich; sugar, coffee and cotton being the chief products. The
largest town is Grand Bourg (pop. 6901) on the south-west coast. The
island was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and received its name from
the vessel on which he was sailing. The French who settled here in 1648
suffered numerous attacks both from the Dutch and the British, but since
1766, except for a short period of British rule in the early part of the
19th century, they have held undisturbed possession.



MARIE LESZCZYNSKA (1703-1768), queen consort of France, was born at
Breslau on the 23rd of June 1703, being the daughter of Stanislas
Leszczynski (who in 1704 became king of Poland) and of Catherine
Opalinska. During a temporary flight from Warsaw the child was lost, and
eventually discovered in a stable; on another occasion she was for
safety's sake hidden in an oven. In his exile Stanislas found his chief
consolation in superintending the education of his daughter. Madame de
Prie first suggested the Polish princess as a bride for Louis duke of
Bourbon, but she was soon betrothed not to him but to Louis XV., a step
which was the outcome of the jealousies of the houses of Condé and
Orléans, and was everywhere regarded as a _mésalliance_ for the French
king. The marriage took place at Fontainebleau on the 5th of September
1725. Marie's one attempt to interfere in politics, an effort to prevent
the disgrace of the duke of Bourbon, was the beginning of her husband's
alienation from her; and after the birth of her seventh child Louise,
Marie was practically deserted by Louis, who openly avowed his _liaison_
with Louise de Nesle, comtesse de Mailly, who was replaced in turn by
her sisters Pauline marquise de Vintimille, and Marie Anne, duchess de
Châteauroux, and these by Madame de Pompadour. In the meantime the queen
saw her father Stanislas established in Lorraine, and the affectionate
intimacy which she maintained with him was the chief consolation of her
harassed life. After a momentary reconciliation with Louis during his
illness at Metz in 1744, Marie shut herself up more closely with her own
circle of friends until her death at Versailles on the 24th of June
1768.

  See V. des Diguières, _Lettres inédites de le reine Marie Leczinska et
  de la duchesse de Luynes au Président Hénault_ (1886); Marquise des
  Réaux, _Le Roi Stanislas et Marie Leczinska_ (1895); P. de Raynal, _Le
  Mariage d'un roi_ (Paris, 1887); H. Gauthier Villars, _Le Mariage de
  Louis XV. d'après des documents nouveaux_ (1900); P. de Nolhac, _La
  Reine Marie Leczinska_ (1900) and _Louis XV. et Marie Leczynska_
  (1900); P. Boyé, _Lettres du roi Stanislas à Marie Leszczynska
  1754-1766_ (Paris and Nancy, 1901); and C. Stryienski's book on Marie
  Joséphs de Saxe (_La Mère des trois derniers Bourbons_, Paris, 1902).
  See also the memoirs of Président Hénault and of the duc de Luynes
  (ed. Dussieux and Soulié, 1860, &c.).



MARIE LOUISE (1791-1847), second wife of Napoleon I., was the daughter
of Francis I., emperor of Austria, and of the princess Theresa of
Naples, and was born on the 12th of December 1791. Her disposition,
fresh and natural but lacking the qualities that make for distinction,
gave no promise of eminence until reasons of state brought Napoleon
shortly after his divorce of Josephine to sue for her hand (see NAPOLEON
and JOSEPHINE). It is probable, though not quite certain, that the first
suggestions as to this marriage alliance emanated secretly from the
Austrian chancellor, Metternich. The prince de Ligne claimed to have
been instrumental in arranging it. In any case the proposal was well
received at Paris both by Napoleon and by his ministers; and though
there were difficulties respecting the divorce, of Josephine, yet these
were surmounted in a way satisfactory to the emperor and the prelates of
Austria. The marriage took place by proxy in the church of St Augustine,
Vienna, on the 11th of March 1810. The new empress was escorted into
France by Queen Caroline Murat, for whom she soon conceived a feeling of
distrust. The civil and religious contracts took place at Paris early in
April, and during the honeymoon, spent at the palace of Compiègne, the
emperor showed the greatest regard for his wife. "He is so evidently in
love with her," wrote Metternich "that he cannot conceal his feelings,
and all his customary ways of life are subordinate to her wishes." His
joy was complete when on the 20th of March 1811 she bore him a son who
was destined to bear the empty titles of "king of Rome" and "Napoleon
II." The regard of Napoleon for his consort was evidenced shortly before
the birth of this prince, when he bade the physicians, if the lives of
the mother and of the child could not both be saved, to spare her life.
Under Marie Louise the etiquette of the court of France became more
stately and the ritual of religious ceremonies more elaborate. Before
the campaign of 1812 she accompanied the emperor to Dresden; but after
that scene of splendour misfortunes crowded upon Napoleon. In January
1814 he appointed her to act as regent of France (with Joseph Bonaparte
as lieutenant-general) during his absence in the field.

At the time of Napoleon's first abdication (April 11, 1814), Joseph and
Jerome Bonaparte tried to keep the empress under some measure of
restraint at Blois; but she succeeded in reaching her father the emperor
Francis while Napoleon was on his way to Elba. She, along with her son,
was escorted into Austria by Count von Neipperg, and refused to comply
with the entreaties and commands of Napoleon to proceed to Elba; and her
alienation from him was completed when he ventured to threaten her with
a forcible abduction if she did not obey. During the Hundred Days she
remained in Austria and manifested no desire for the success of Napoleon
in France. At the Congress of Vienna the Powers awarded to her and her
son the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, in conformity with the
terms of the treaty of Fontainebleau (March, 1814); in spite of the
determined opposition of Louis XVIII. she gained this right for herself
owing largely to the support of the emperor Alexander, but she failed to
make good the claims of her son to the inheritance (see NAPOLEON II.).
She proceeded alone to Parma, where she fell more and more under the
influence of the count von Neipperg, and had to acquiesce in the title
"duke of Reichstadt" accorded to her son. Long before the tidings of the
death of Napoleon at St Helena reached her she was living in intimate
relations with Neipperg at Parma, and bore a son to him not long after
that event. Napoleon on the other hand spoke of her in his will with
marked tenderness, and both excused and forgave her infidelity to him.
Thereafter Neipperg became her morganatic husband; and they had other
children. In 1832, at the time of the last illness of the duke of
Reichstadt, she visited him at Vienna and was there at the time of his
death; but in other respects she shook off all association with
Napoleon. Her rule in Parma, conjointly with Neipperg, was characterized
by a clemency and moderation which were lacking in the other Italian
states in that time of reaction. She preserved some of the Napoleonic
laws and institutions; in 1817 she established the equality of women in
heritage, and ordered the compilation of a civil code which was
promulgated in January 1820. The penal code of November 1821 abolished
many odious customs and punishments of the old code, and allowed
publicity in criminal trials. On the death of Neipperg in 1829 his place
was taken by Baron Werklein, whose influence was hostile to popular
liberty. During the popular movements of 1831 Marie Louise had to take
refuge with the Austrian garrison at Piacenza; on the restoration of her
rule by the Austrians its character deteriorated, Parma becoming an
outwork of the Austrian empire. She died at Vienna on the 18th of
December 1847.

  See _Correspondance de Marie Louise 1799-1847_ (Vienna, 1887); J. A.
  Baron von Helfert, _Marie Louise_ (Vienna, 1873); E. Wertheimer, _Die
  Heirath der Erzherzogin Marie Louise mit Napoléon I._ (Vienna, 1882);
  and _The Duke of Reichstadt_ (Eng. ed., London, 1905). See also the
  _Memoirs_ of Bausset, Mme Durand Méneval and Metternich; and Max
  Billard, _The Marriage Ventures of Marie Louise_, English version by
  Evelyn duchess of Wellington (1910).



MARIENBAD, a town of Bohemia, Austria, 115 m. W. of Prague by rail. Pop.
(1900), 4588. It is one of the most frequented watering-places of
Europe, lying on the outskirts of the Kaiserwald at an altitude of 2093
ft., and is 40 m. S.W. of Carlsbad by rail. Marienbad is enclosed on all
sides except the south by gently sloping hills clad with fragrant pine
forests, which are intersected by lovely walks. The principal buildings
are: the Roman Catholic church, which was completed in 1851; the English
church, the theatre, the _Kurhaus_, built in 1901, and several bathing
establishments and hospitals. The mineral springs, which belong to the
adjoining abbey of Tepl, are eight in number, and are used both for
bathing and drinking, except the Marienquelle, which is used only for
bathing. Some of them, like the Kreuzbrunnen and the Ferdinandsbrunnen,
contain alkaline-saline waters which resemble those of Carlsbad, except
that they are cold and contain nearly twice the quantity of purgative
salts. Others, like the Ambrosiusbrunnen and the Karolinenbrunnen, are
among the strongest iron waters in the world, while the Rudolfsbrunnen
is an earthy-alkaline spring. The waters are used in cases of liver
affections, gout, diabetes and obesity; and the patients must conform
during the cure to a strictly regulated diet. Besides the mineral water
baths there are also _moor_ or mud-baths, and the peat used for these
baths is the richest in iron in the world. About 1,000,000 bottles of
mineral water are exported annually.

Amongst the places of interest round Marienbad is the basaltic rock of
Podhorn (2776 ft.), situated about 3 m. to the east, from which an
extensive view of the Böhmerwald, Fichtelgebirge and Erzgebirge is
obtained. About 7 m. in the same direction lies the old and wealthy
abbey of Tepl, founded in 1193. The actual building dates from the end
of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, and contains a fine
library with a collection of rare manuscripts and incunabula; near it is
the small and old town of Tepl (pop. 2789). To the north-east of
Marienbad lies the small watering-place of Königswart; near it is a
castle belonging since 1618 to the princes of Metternich, which contains
an interesting museum, created by the famous Austrian statesman in the
first part of the 19th century. It contains, besides a fine library, a
collection of the presents he received during his long career; numerous
autographs, and other historical relics, a collection of rare coins,
armour, portraits and various minerals.

Marienbad is among the youngest of the Bohemian watering-places,
although its springs were known from of old. They appear in a document
dating from 1341, where they are called "the Auschowitzer springs
belonging to the abbey of Tepl;" but it was only through the efforts of
Dr Josef Nehr, the doctor of the abbey, who from 1779 until his death in
1820 worked hard to demonstrate the curative properties of the springs,
that the waters began to be used for medicinal purposes. The place
obtained its actual name of Marienbad in 1808; became a watering-place
in 1818, and received its charter as a town in 1868.

  See Lang, _Führer durch Marienbad und Umgebung_ (Marienbad, 1902); and
  Kisch, Marienbad, seine Umgebung und Heilmittel (Marienbad, 1895).



MARIENBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony 16 m. S.E. of
Chemnitz on the Flöha-Reitzenhain railway. Pop. (1905), 7603. It has an
Evangelical church, a Roman Catholic church, a non-commissioned
officers' school and a preparatory school; and the industries comprise
wool-spinning, flax-dressing, the making of lace, toys and cigars, and
silver-mining.



MARIENBURG (Polish, _Malborg_), a town of Germany, in the Prussian
province of West Prussia, 30 m. by rail to the S.E. of Danzig in a
fertile plain on the right bank of the Nogat, a channel of the Vistula,
here spanned by a handsome railway bridge and by a bridge of boats. Pop.
(1905), 13,095. Marienburg contains large chemical wool-cleaning works
and several other factories, carries on a considerable trade in grain,
wood, linen, feathers and brushes, and is the seat of important cattle,
horse and wool markets. Its educational institutions include a gymnasium
and a Protestant normal school. In the old market-place, many of the
houses in which are built with arcades, stands a Gothic town-hall,
dating from the end of the 14th century. The town is also embellished
with a fine statue of Frederick the Great, who added this district to
Prussia, and a monument commemorating the war of 1870-71. Marienburg is
chiefly interesting from its having been for a century and a half the
residence of the grand masters of the Teutonic order. The large castle
of the order here was originally founded in 1274 as the seat of a simple
commandery against the pagan Prussians, but in 1309 the headquarters of
the grand master were transferred hither from Venice, and the
"Marienburger Schloss" soon became one of the largest and most strongly
fortified buildings in Germany. On the decline of the order in the
middle of the 15th century, the castle passed into the hands of the
Poles, by whom it was allowed to fall into neglect and decay. It came
into the possession of Prussia in 1772, and was carefully restored at
the beginning of the 19th century. This interesting and curious building
consists of three parts, the Alt- or Hochschloss, the Mittelschloss, and
the Vorburg. It is built of brick, in a style of architecture peculiar
to the Baltic provinces, and is undoubtedly one of the most important
secular buildings of the middle ages in Germany.

  Of the numerous monographs published in Germany on the castle of
  Marienburg, it will suffice to mention here Büsching's _Schloss der
  deutschen Ritter zu Marienburg_ (Berlin, 1828); Voigt's _Geschichte
  von Marienburg_ (Königsberg, 1824); Bergau's _Ordenshaupthaus
  Marienburg_ (Berlin, 1871); and Steinbrecht, _Schloss Marienburg in
  Preussen_ (8th ed., Berlin, 1905).



MARIENWERDER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of West
Prussia, 3 m. E. of the Vistula, 23 m. S. of Marienburg by rail. Pop.
(1905), 10,258. The town was founded in the year 1233 by the Teutonic
order. It has a cathedral of the same century, a triple Gothic edifice,
restored in 1874 and containing the tombs of several grand masters of
the Teutonic order; a (Gothic) town-hall (1880); a Roman Catholic
basilica (1858); a non-commissioned officers' school; a monument of the
war of 1870-71 (1897); an archaeological collection; and a seminary for
female teachers. The industries include iron-foundries, saw-mills,
sugar-refineries, breweries and printing-works.



MARIE THÉRÈSE (1638-1683), queen consort of France, was born on the 10th
of September 1638 at the Escurial, being the daughter of Philip IV. of
Spain and Elizabeth of France. By pretending to seek a bride for his
master in Margaret of Savoy, Mazarin had induced the king of Spain to
make proposals for the marriage of his daughter with Louis XIV., and the
treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 stipulated for her marriage with the
French king, Marie renouncing any claim to the Spanish succession. As
the treaty, however, hinged on the payment of her dowry, which was
practically impossible for Spain, Mazarin could evade the other terms of
the contract. Marie Thérèse was married in June 1660, when Philip IV.
with his whole court accompanied the bride to the Isle of Pheasants in
the Bidassoa, where she was met by Louis. The new queen's amiability and
her undoubted virtues failed to secure her husband's regard and
affection. She saw herself neglected in turn for Louise de la Vallière,
Mme. de Montespan and others; but Marie Thérèse was too pious and too
humble openly to resent the position in which she was placed by the
king's avowed infidelities. With the growing influence of Madame de
Maintenon over his mind and affections he bestowed more attention on his
wife, which she repaid by lavishing kindness on the mistress. She had no
part in political affairs except in 1672, when she acted as regent
during Louis XIV.'s campaign in Holland. She died on the 30th of July
1683 at Versailles, not without suspicion of foul play on the part of
her doctors. Of her six children only one survived her, the dauphin
Louis, who died in 1711.

  See the funeral oration of Bossuet (Paris, 1684), E. Ducéré, _Le
  Mariage de Louis XIV. d'après les contemporains et des documents
  inédits_ (Bayonne, 1905); Dr Cabanès, _Les Morts mystérieuses de
  l'histoire_ (1900), and the literature dealing with her rivals Louise
  de la Vallière, Madame de Montespan and Madame de Maintenon.



MARIETTA, a city and the county-seat of Cobb county, Georgia, U.S.A., in
the N.W. of the state, about 17 m. N.W. of Atlanta. Pop. (1890), 3384;
(1900), 4446, of whom 1928 were negroes; (1910), 5940. The city is
served by the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St.
Louis, and the Western & Atlantic railways, and is connected with
Atlanta by an electric line. Marietta is situated about 1118 ft. above
the sea, has a good climate, and is both a summer and a winter resort.
The principal industries are the manufacture of chairs and paper, and
the preparation of marble for the markets; there are also locomotive
works, planing mills, a canning factory, a knitting mill, &c. At
Marietta there is a national cemetery, in which more than 10,000 Federal
soldiers are buried, and at Kenesaw Mountain (1809 ft.), about 2½ m.
west of the city, one of the fiercest battles of the Civil War was
fought. After the Confederate retreat from Dalton in May 1864, General
William T. Sherman, the Federal commander, made Marietta his next
intermediate point in his Atlanta campaign, and the Confederate
commander, General Joseph E. Johnston, established a line of defence
west of the town. After several preliminary engagements Sherman on the
26th and 27th of June made repeated unsuccessful attempts to drive the
Confederates from their defences at Kenesaw Mountain; he then resorted
to a flanking movement which forced the Confederate general to retire
(July 2) toward Atlanta. Marietta was settled about 1840, and was
chartered as a city in 1852.



MARIETTA, a city and the county-seat of Washington county, Ohio, U.S.A.,
on the Ohio River, at the mouth of the Muskingum, about 115 m. S.E. of
Columbus. Pop. (1890), 8273; (1900), 13,348, including 679 foreign-born
and 361 negroes; (1910), 12,923. It is served by the Pennsylvania
(Marietta Division), the Baltimore & Ohio (Marietta & Parkersburg,
Marietta & Zanesville, and Ohio River divisions) and the Marietta,
Columbus & Cleveland railways, and by steamboat lines to several river
ports; a bridge across the Ohio connects it with Williamstown, West
Virginia. The city is in a hilly country of much natural beauty, and is
of considerable historic interest. On the banks of the Muskingum is a
public park, facing which stood the oldest church in the state; this was
burned in 1905, but was subsequently rebuilt in the old style. Near by
are some 18th century buildings, some interesting earthworks of the
"mound-builders," and a cemetery in which are buried many soldiers who
fought in the War of Independence. Marietta is the seat of Marietta
College, dating from 1830, which in 1908 had more than 500 students. It
possesses a library of 60,000 volumes, including some rare collections,
especially the Stimson collection of books bearing on the history of the
North-West Territory. Petroleum, coal, and iron-ore abound in the
neighbouring region, and the city has a considerable trade in these and
in its manufactures of chairs, leather, flour, carriages, wagons, boats,
boilers, bricks and glass. In 1905 the factory products were valued at
$2,599,287.

Marietta, named in honour of Marie Antoinette, is the oldest settlement
in the state and in the North-west Territory. It was founded in 1788 by
a company of Revolutionary officers from New England under the
leadership of General Rufus Putnam, and in the same year the North-West
Territory was formally organized here. The pseudo-classicism of the
period of Marietta's foundation is indicated by the names--_Capitolium_
for one of the public squares, _Sacra Via_ for one of the principal
streets, and _Campus Martius_ for the fortification. The settlement was
incorporated as a town in 1800 and chartered as a city in 1852. In 1800
the village of Harmar, including the site on which Fort Harmar was built
in 1785, was annexed.

  See Henry Howe, _Historical Collections of Ohio_ (Columbus, 1891).



MARIETTE, AUGUSTE FERDINAND FRANÇOIS (1821-1881), French Egyptologist,
was born on the 11th of February 1821 at Boulogne, where his father was
town clerk. Educated at the Boulogne municipal college, where he
distinguished himself and showed much artistic talent, he went to
England in 1839 when eighteen as professor of French and drawing at a
boys' school at Stratford-on-Avon. In 1840 he became pattern-designer to
a ribbon manufacturer at Coventry; but weary of ill-paid exile he
returned the same year to Boulogne, and in 1841 took his degree at
Douai. He now became a professor at his old college, and for some years
supplemented his salary by giving private lessons and writing on
historical and archaeological subjects for local periodicals. Meanwhile
his cousin Nestor L'Hôte, the friend and fellow-traveller of
Champollion, died, and upon Mariette devolved the task of sorting the
papers of the deceased savant. He thenceforth became passionately
interested in Egyptology, devoted himself to the study of hieroglyphs
and Coptic, and in 1847 published a _Catalogue analytique_ of the
Egyptian Gallery of the Boulogne Museum; in 1849, being appointed to a
subordinate position in the Louvre, he left Boulogne for Paris.
Entrusted with a government mission for the purpose of seeking and
purchasing Coptic, Syriac, Arabic and Ethiopic MSS. for the national
collection, he started for Egypt in 1850; and soon after his arrival he
made his celebrated discovery of the ruins of the Serapeum and the
subterraneous catacombs of the Apisbulls. His original mission being
abandoned, funds were now advanced for the prosecution of his
researches, and he remained in Egypt for four years, excavating,
discovering and despatching archaeological treasures to the Louvre, of
which museum he was on his return appointed an assistant conservator. In
1858 he accepted the position of conservator of Egyptian monuments to
the ex-khedive, Ismail Pasha, and removed with his family to Cairo. His
history thenceforth becomes a chronicle of unwearied exploration and
brilliant success. The museum at Bula was founded immediately. The
pyramid-fields of Memphis and Sakkara, and the necropolis of Meydum, and
those of Abydos and Thebes were examined; the great temples of Dendera
and Edfu were disinterred; important excavations were carried out at
Karnak, Medinet-Habu and Deir el-Bahri; Tanis (the Zoan of the Bible)
was partially explored in the Delta; and even Gebel Barkal in the Sudan.
The Sphinx was bared to the rock-level, and the famous granite and
alabaster monument miscalled the "Temple of the Sphinx" was discovered.
Mariette was raised successively to the rank of bey and pasha in his own
service. Honours and orders were showered on him: the Legion of Honour
and the Medjidie in 1852; the Red Eagle (first class) of Prussia in
1855; the Italian order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus in 1857; and the
Austrian order of Francis-Joseph in 1858. In 1873 the Academy of
Inscriptions decreed to him the biennial prize of 20,000 francs, and in
1878 he was elected a member of the Institute. He was also an honorary
member of most of the learned societies of Europe. In 1877 his health
broke down through overwork. He lingered for a few years, working to the
last, and died at Cairo on the 19th of January 1881.

  His chief published works are: _Le Sérapéum de Memphis_ (1857 and
  following years); _Dendérah_, five folios and one 4to (1873-1875);
  _Abydos_, two folios and one 4to (1870-1880); _Karnak_, folio and 4to
  (1875); _Deir el-Bahari_, folio and 4to (1877); _Listes géographiques
  des pylônes de Karnak_, folio (1875); _Catalogue du Musée de Boulaq_
  (six editions 1864-1876); _Aperçu de l'histoire d'Égypte_ (four
  editions, 1864-1874, &c.); _Les Mastabas de l'ancien empire_ (edited
  by Maspero) (1883). See "Notice biographique," by Maspero in _Auguste
  Mariette. Oeuvres diverses_ (tome 1, Paris, 1904), and art. EGYPT:
  _Exploration and Research_.



MARIGNAC, JEAN CHARLES GALISSARD DE (1817-1894), Swiss chemist, was born
at Geneva on the 24th of April 1817. When sixteen years old he began to
attend the École Polytechnique in Paris, and from 1837 to 1839 studied
at the École des Mines. Then, after a short time in Liebig's laboratory
at Giessen, and in the Sèvres porcelain factory, he became in 1841
professor of chemistry in the academy of Geneva. In 1845 he was
appointed professor of mineralogy also, and held both chairs till 1878,
when ill-health obliged him to resign. He died at Geneva on the 15th of
April 1894. Marignac's name is well known for the careful and exact
determinations of atomic weights which he carried out for twenty-eight
of the elements. In undertaking this work he had, like J. S. Stas, the
purpose of testing Prout's hypothesis, but he remained more disposed
than the Belgian chemist to consider the possibility that it may have
some degree of validity. Throughout his life he paid great attention to
the "rare earths" and the problem of separating and distinguishing them;
in 1878 he extracted ytterbia from what was supposed to be pure erbia,
and two years later found gadolinia and samaria in the samarskite
earths. In 1858 he pointed out the isomorphism of the fluostannates and
the fluosilicates, thus settling the then vexed question of the
composition of silicic acid; and subsequently he studied the fluosalts
of zirconium, boron, tungsten, &c., and prepared silicotungstic acid,
one of the first examples of the complex inorganic acids. In physical
chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of
solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by
the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of
saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena
of liquid diffusion.

  A memorial lecture by P. T. Cleve, printed in the _Journal of the
  London Chemical Society_ for 1895, contains a list of Marignac's
  papers.



MARIGNAN, BATTLE OF, fought on the 13th and 14th of September 1515
between the French army under Francis I. and the Swiss. The scene of the
battle--which was also that of a hard fought engagement in 1859 (see
ITALIAN WARS)--was the northern outskirts of the village of Melegnano,
on the river Lambro, 10 m. S.E. of Milan. The circumstances out of which
the battle of Marignan arose, almost inconceivable to the modern mind,
were not abnormal in the conditions of Italian warfare and politics then
prevailing. The young king of France had gathered an army about Lyons,
wherewith to overrun the Milanese; his allies were the republics of
Venice and Genoa. The duke of Milan, Maximilian Sforza, had secured the
support of the emperor, the king of Spain, and the pope, and also that
of the Swiss cantons, which then supplied the best and most numerous
mercenary soldiers in Europe. The practicable passes of the Alps and the
Apennines were held by Swiss and papal troops. Francis however boldly
crossed the Col de l'Argentière (Aug. 1515) by paths that no army had
hitherto used, and Marshal de La Palisse surprised and captured a papal
corps at Villafranca near Pinerolo, whereupon the whole of the enemy's
troops fell back on Milan. The king then marching by Vercelli, Novara
and Pavia, joined hands with Alviano, the Venetian commander, and
secured a foothold in the Milanese. But in order to avoid the necessity
of besieging Milan itself, he offered the Swiss a large sum to retire
into their own country. They were about to accept his offer, not having
received their subsidies from the pope and the king of Spain, when a
fresh corps of mercenaries descended into Italy, desirous both of
gaining booty and of showing their prowess against their new rivals the
French and Lower Rhine "lansquenets" (Landsknechts) and against the
French gendarmerie, whom (alluding to the "Battle of the Spurs" at
Guinegatte in 1513) they called "hares in armour." The French took
position at Melegnano to face the Swiss, the Venetians at Lodi to hold
in check the Spanish army at Piacenza. Alviano, who was visiting the
king when the Swiss appeared before Melegnano, hurried off to bring
thither his own army. Meantime the French and the Swiss engaged in an
incredibly fierce struggle.

The king's army was grouped in front of the village, facing in the
direction of Milan, with a small stream separating it from the oncoming
Swiss. On either side of the Milan road was a large body of
landsknechts, a third being in reserve. The French and Gascon infantry
(largely armed with arquebuses) was on the extreme right, the various
bodies of gendarmerie in the centre. In front of all was the French
artillery. The battle opened in the afternoon of the 13th of September.
As the Swiss advanced in three huge columns, the French guns fired into
them with terrible effect, but the assailants reached the intersected
ground bordering the stream, and thus protected from the rush of the
French gendarmerie, they debouched on the other side, and fell upon the
landsknechts. The crowd of combatants, the gathering darkness, and the
dust, prevented any general direction being given to the battle by the
leaders of either side. Francis himself at the head of two hundred
gendarmes charged and drove back two large bodies of Swiss which were
pressing the landsknechts hard. The battle went on by moonlight till
close on midnight, when the Swiss retired a short distance. Both sides
spent the rest of the night on the battlefield, reorganizing their
broken corps. Francis and his gendarmes were the outpost line of the
French army, and remained all night mounted, lance in hand and helmet on
head. Next morning at sunrise, the battle was renewed. The Swiss now
left their centre inactive opposite the king and with two strong corps
attempted to work round his flanks. That on the left made for the French
baggage, but found it strongly guarded by landsknechts, who drove them
back. The nearest French gendarmerie joined in the pursuit, but a
detachment from the Swiss centre fell upon these and destroyed them.
This detachment in turn followed up its advantage until as Francis
himself expressed it, "the whole camp turned out" to aid the
landsknechts and "hunted out" the Swiss. Meantime the Swiss left attack
had closed with the French infantry bands and the "aventuriers"
(afterwards the famous corps of Picardie and Piedmont), who were
commanded on this day by the famous engineer Pedro Navarro. It was in
the main struggle of arquebus against pike, but it was not the arquebus
alone, or even principally, that gave the victory to the French. When
the Swiss ranks had been disordered, the short pike and the sword came
into play, and aided by the constable de Bourbon with a handful of the
gendarmerie, the French right more than held its own until Alviano with
the cavalry from Lodi rode on to the field and completed the rout of the
Swiss. In the centre meanwhile the two infantries stood fast for eight
hours, separated by the brook, while the artillery on both sides fired
into it at short range. But the landsknechts, animated by the king,
endured it as well as the Swiss; and at the last, Francis leading a
final advance of his exhausted troops, the Swiss gave way and fled. Only
3000 Swiss escaped out of some 25,000 who fought. On the French side
probably 8000 were killed or died of wounds. The battle lasted
twenty-eight hours. Its tactical lesson was the efficacy of combining
two arms against one. The French gendarmerie, burning to avenge the
insult of "hares in armour," made more than thirty charges by squadrons,
and they were admirably supported by their light artillery. The
landsknechts retrieved their first day's defeat by their conduct on the
second day. Nevertheless Marignan was in the main the work of the
gendarmerie, the last and greatest triumph of the armoured lancer; and
as a fitting close to the battle the young king was knighted by Bayard
on the field.



MARIGNOLLI, GIOVANNI DE', a notable traveller to the Far East in the
14th century, born probably before 1290, and sprung from a noble family
in Florence. The family is long extinct, but a street near the cathedral
(Via de' Cerretani) formerly bore the name of the Marignolli. In 1338
there arrived at Avignon, where Benedict XII. held his court, an embassy
from the great khan of Cathay (the Mongol-Chinese emperor), bearing
letters to the pontiff from the khan himself, and from certain Christian
nobles of the Alan race in his service. These latter represented that
they had been eight years (since Monte Corvino's death) without a
spiritual guide, and earnestly desired one. The pope replied to the
letters, and appointed four ecclesiastics as his legates to the khan's
court. The name of John of Florence, i.e. Marignolli, appears third on
the letters of commission. A large party was associated with the four
chief envoys; when in Peking the embassy still numbered thirty-two, out
of an original fifty.

The mission left Avignon in December 1338; picked up the Tatar envoys at
Naples; stayed nearly two months in Constantinople (Pera, May 1-June 24,
1339); and sailed across the Black Sea to Kaffa, whence they travelled
to the court of Mahommed Uzbeg, khan of the Golden Horde, at Sarai on
the Volga. The khan entertained them hospitably during the winter of
1339-1340 and then sent them across the steppes to Armalec, Almalig or
Almaligh (Kulja), the northern seat of the house of Chaghatai, in what
is now the province of Ili. "There," says Marignolli, "we built a
church, bought a piece of ground ... sung masses, and baptized several
persons, notwithstanding that only the year before the bishop and six
other minor friars had there undergone glorious martyrdom for Christ's
salvation." Quitting Almaligh in 1341, they seem to have reached Peking
(by way of Kamul or Hami) in May or June 1342. They were well received
by the reigning khan, the last of the Mongol dynasty in China. An entry
in the Chinese annals fixes the year of Marignolli's presentation by its
mention of the arrival of the great horses from the kingdom of Fulang
(_Farang_ or Europe), one of which was 11 ft. 6 in. in length, and 6 ft.
8 in. high, and black all over.

Marignolli stayed at Peking or Cambalec three or four years, after which
he travelled through eastern China to Zayton or Amoy Harbour, quitting
China apparently in December 1347, and reaching Columbum (Kaulam or
Quilon in Malabar) in Easter week of 1348. At this place he found a
church of the Latin communion, probably founded by Jordanus of Séverac,
who had been appointed bishop of Columbum by Pope John XXII. in 1330.
Here Marignolli remained sixteen months, after which he proceeded on
what seems a most devious voyage. First he visited the shrine of St
Thomas near the modern Madras, and then proceeded to what he calls the
kingdom of Saba, and identifies with the Sheba of Scripture, but which
seems from various particulars to have been Java. Taking ship again for
Malabar on his way to Europe, he encountered great storms. They found
shelter in the little port of _Pervily_ or _Pervilis_ (Beruwala or
Berberyn) in the south-west of Ceylon; but here the legate fell into the
hands of "a certain tyrant Coya Jaan (Khoja Jahan), a eunuch and an
accursed Saracen," who professed to treat him with all deference, but
detained him four months, and plundered all the gifts and Eastern
rarities that he was carrying home. This detention in _Seyllan_ enables
Marignolli to give a variety of curious particulars regarding Adam's
Peak, Buddhist monasticism, the aboriginal races of Ceylon, and other
marvels. After this we have only fragmentary notices, showing that his
route to Europe lay by Ormuz, the ruins of Babel, Bagdad, Mosul, Aleppo
and thence to Damascus and Jerusalem. In 1353 he arrived at Avignon, and
delivered a letter from the great khan to Pope Innocent VI. In the
following year the emperor Charles IV., on a visit to Italy, made
Marignolli one of his chaplains. Soon after, the pope made him bishop of
Bisignano; but he seems to have been in no hurry to reside there. He
appears to have accompanied the emperor to Prague in 1354-1355; in 1356
he is found acting as envoy to the Pope from Florence; and in 1357 he is
at Bologna. We know not when he died. The last trace of Marignolli is a
letter addressed to him, which was found in the 18th century among the
records in the Chapter Library at Prague. The writer is an unnamed
bishop of Armagh, easily identified with Richard Fitz Ralph, a strenuous
foe of the Franciscans, who had broken lances in controversy with Ockham
and Burley. The letter implies that some intention had been intimated
from Avignon of sending Marignolli to Ireland in connexion with matters
then in debate--a project which stirs Fitz Ralph's wrath.

  The fragmentary notes of Marignolli's Eastern travels often contain
  vivid remembrance and graphic description, but combined with an
  incontinent vanity, and an incoherent lapse from one thing to another.
  They have no claim to be called a narrative, and it is with no small
  pains that anything like a narrative can be pieced out of them. Indeed
  the mode in which they were elicited curiously illustrates how little
  medieval travellers thought of publication The emperor Charles,
  instead of urging his chaplain to write a history of his vast
  journeys, set him to the repugnant task of recasting the annals of
  Bohemia; and he consoled himself by salting the insipid stuff by
  interpolations, _à propos de bottes_, of his recollections of Asiatic
  travel.

  Nobody seems to have noticed the work till 1768, when the chronicle
  was published in vol. ii. of the _Monumenta hist. Bohemiae nusquam
  antehac edita_ by Father Gelasius Dobner. But, though Marignolli was
  thus at last in type, no one seems to have read him till 1820, when an
  interesting paper on his travels was published by J. G. Meinert.
  Professor Friedrich Kunstmann of Munich also devoted to the subject
  one of his admirable series of papers on the ecclesiastical travellers
  of the middle ages.

  See _Fontes rerum bohemicarum_, iii. 492-604 (1882, best text); G.
  Dobner's _Monumenta hist. boh._, vol. ii. (Prague, 1768); J. G.
  Meinert, in _Abhandl. der k. böhm. Gesellsch. der Wissenschaften_,
  vol. vii.; F. Kunstmann, in _Historisch-politische Blätter von
  Phillips und Görres_, xxxviii. 701-719, 793-813 (Munich, 1859); Luke
  Wadding, _Annales minorum, A.D. 1338_, vii. 210-219 (ed. of 1733,
  &c.); Sbaralea, _Supplementum et castigatio ad scriptores trium
  ordinum S. Francisci a Waddingo_, p. 436 (Rome, 1806); John of
  Winterthur, in Eccard, _Corpus historicum medii aevi_, vol. i., 1852;
  Mosheim, _Historia Tartarorum ecclesiastica_, part i., p. 115; Henry
  Yule, _Cathay and the Way Thither_, ii. 309-394 (Hak. Soc., 1866); C.
  Raymond Beazley, _Dawn of Modern Geography_, iii. 142, 180-181,
  184-185, 215, 231, 236, 288-309 (1906).     (H. Y.; C. R. B.)



MARIGNY, ENGUERRAND DE (1260-1315), French chamberlain, and minister of
Philip IV. the Fair, was born at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy, of an old
Norman family of the smaller baronage called Le Portier, which took the
name of Marigny about 1200. Enguerrand entered the service of Hugues de
Bonville, chamberlain and secretary of Philip IV., as a squire, and then
was attached to the household of Queen Jeanne, who made him one of the
executors of her will. He married her god-daughter, Jeanne de St Martin.
In 1298 he received the custody of the castle of Issoudun. After the
death of Pierre Flotte and Hugues de Bonville at the battle of
Mons-en-Pevèle in 1304, he became Philip's grand chamberlain and chief
minister. In 1306 he was sent to preside over the exchequer of Normandy.
He received numerous gifts of land and money from Philip as well as a
pension from Edward II. of England. Possessed of an ingratiating manner,
politic, learned and astute, he acted as an able instrument in carrying
out Philip's plans, and received corresponding confidence. He shared the
popular odium which Philip incurred by debasing the coinage. He acted as
the agent of Philip in his contest with Louis de Nevers, the son of
Robert count of Flanders, imprisoning Louis and forcing Robert to
surrender Lille, Douay and Béthune. He obtained for his half-brother
Philip de Marigny in 1301 the bishopric of Cambray, and in 1309 the
archbishopric of Sens, and for his brother Jean in 1312 the bishopric of
Beauvais. Still another relative, Nicolas de Fréauville, became the
king's confessor and a cardinal. He addressed the estates general in
1314 and succeeded in getting further taxes for the Flemish war,
incurring at the same time much ill will. This soon came to a head when
the princes of the blood, eager to fight the Flemings, were disappointed
by his negotiating a peace in September. He was accused of receiving
bribes, and Charles of Valois denounced him to the king himself; but
Philip stood by him and the attack was of no avail. The death of Philip
IV. on the 29th of November 1314 was a signal for a reaction against his
policy. The feudal party, whose power the king had tried to limit,
turned on his ministers and chiefly on his chamberlain. Enguerrand was
arrested by Louis X. at the instigation of Charles of Valois, and
twenty-eight articles of accusation including charges of receiving
bribes were brought against him. He was refused a hearing; but his
accounts were correct, and Louis was inclined to spare him anything more
than banishment to the island of Cyprus. Charles then brought forward a
charge of sorcery which was more effectual. He was condemned at once and
hanged on the public gallows at Montfaucon, protesting that in all his
acts he had only been carrying out Philip's commands (April 30, 1315).
Louis X. seems to have repented of his treatment of Marigny, and left
legacies to his children. When his chief enemy, Charles of Valois, lay
dying in 1325, he was stricken with remorse and ordered alms to be
distributed among the poor of Paris with a request to "pray for the
souls of Enguerrand and Charles." Marigny founded the collegiate church
of Notre Dame d'Escoës near Rouen in 1313. He was twice married, first
to Jeanne de St Martin, by whom he had three children, Louis, Marie and
Isabelle (who married Robert, son of Robert de Tancarville); and the
second time to Alips de Mons.

  See contemporary chroniclers in vols. xx. to xxiii. of D. Bouquet,
  _Historiens de la France_; P. Clément, _Trois drames historiques_
  (Paris, 1857); Ch. Dufayard, _La Réaction féodale sous les fils de
  Philippe le Bel_, in the _Revue historique_ (1894, liv. 241-272) and
  lv. 241-290.



MARIGNY, JEAN DE (d. 1350), French bishop, was a younger brother of the
preceding. Entering the church at an early age, he was rapidly advanced
until in 1313 he was made bishop of Beauvais. During the next twenty
years he was one of the most notable of the members of the French
episcopate, and was particularly in favour with King Philip VI. He
devoted himself in 1335 to the completion of the choir of Beauvais
Cathedral, the enormous windows of which were filled with the richest
glass. But this building activity, which has left one of the most
notable Gothic monuments in Europe, was broken into by the Hundred
Years' War. Jean de Marigny, a successful administrator and man of
affairs rather than a saintly churchman, was made one of the king's
lieutenants in southern France in 1341 against the English invasion. His
most important military operation, however, was when in 1346 he
successfully held out in Beauvais against a siege by the English, who
had overrun the country up to the walls of the city. Created archbishop
of Rouen in 1347 as a reward for this defence, he enjoyed his new
honours only three years; he died on the 26th of December 1350.



MARIGOLD. This name has been given to several plants, of which the
following are the best known: _Calendula officinalis_, the pot-marigold;
_Tagetes erecta_, the African marigold; _T. patula_, the French
marigold; and _Chrysanthemum segetum_, the corn marigold. All these
belong to the order Compositae; but _Caltha palustris_, the marsh
marigold, belongs to the order Ranunculaceae.

The first-mentioned is the familiar garden plant with large
orange-coloured blossoms, and is probably not known in a wild state.
There are now many fine garden varieties of it. The florets are
unisexual, the "ray" florets being female, the "disk" florets male. This
and the double variety have been in cultivation for at least three
hundred years, as well as a proliferous form, _C. prolifera_, or the
"fruitful marigolde" of Gerard (_Herball_, p. 602), in which small
flower-heads proceed from beneath the circumference of the flower. The
figure of "the greatest double marigold," _C. multiflora maxima_, given
by Gerard (loc. cit. p. 600) is larger than most specimens now seen,
being 3 in. in diameter. He remarks of "the marigolde" that it is called
_Calendula_ "as it is to be seene to flower in the calends of almost
euerie moneth." It was supposed to have several specific virtues, but
they are non-existent. "The marigold, that goes to bed wi' the sun," is
mentioned by Shakespeare, _Winter's Tale_, iv. 3.

_Tagetes patula_, and _T. erecta_, the French and African marigolds, are
natives of Mexico, and are equally familiar garden plants, having been
long in cultivation. Gerard figures five varieties of _Flos africanus_,
of the single and double kind (loc. cit., p. 609). Besides the above
species the following have been introduced later, _T. lucida_, _T.
signata_, also from Mexico, and _T. tenuifolia_ from Peru.

_Chrysanthemum segetum_, the yellow corn marigold, is indigenous to
Great Britain, and is frequent in corn-fields in most parts of England.
When dried it has been employed as hay. It is also used in Germany for
dyeing yellow. Gerard observes that in his day "the stalke and leaues of
Corne Marigolde, as Dioscorides saith, are eaten as other potherbes
are."

_Caltha palustris_, the marsh marigold, or king-cups, the "winking
Mary-buds" of Shakespeare (_Cymb._, ii. 3), is a common British plant in
marshy meadows and beside water. It bears smooth heart-shaped leaves,
and flowers with a golden yellow calyx but no corolla, blossoming in
March and April. The flower-buds preserved in salted vinegar are a good
substitute for capers. A double-flowered variety is often cultivated,
and is occasionally found wild.



MARIINSK, a town of Russia, in West Siberia and the government of Tomsk,
on the bank of the Kiya river and on the Siberian railway, 147 m. E.S.E.
of Tomsk. Pop. (1897), 8300. It is built of timber, but has a stately
cathedral. There are tanneries and soapworks; and Mariinsk is an
entrepôt for the goldmines.



MARILLAC, CHARLES DE (c. 1510-1560), French prelate and diplomatist,
came of a good family of Auvergne, and at the age of twenty-two was
advocate at the parlement of Paris. Suspected, however, of sympathizing
with the reformers, he deemed it prudent to leave Paris, and in 1535
went to the East with his cousin Jean de la Forêt, the first French
ambassador at Constantinople. Cunning and ambitious, he soon made his
mark, and his cousin having died during his embassy, Marillac was
appointed his successor. He did not return from the East until 1538,
when he was sent almost immediately to England, where he remained
ambassador until 1543. He retained his influence during the reign of
Henry II., fulfilling important missions in Switzerland and at the
imperial court (1547-1551), and at the courts of the German princes
(1553-1554). In 1555 he was one of the French deputies at the
conferences held at Mark near Ardres to discuss peace with England. His
two last missions were at Rome (1557) and at the Diet of Augsburg
(1559). In 1550 he was given the bishopric of Vannes, and in 1557 the
archbishopric of Vienne; he also became a member of the privy council.
He distinguished himself as a statesman at the Assembly of Notables at
Fontainebleau in 1560, when he delivered an exceedingly brilliant
discourse, in which he opposed the policy of violence and demanded a
national council and the assembly of the states general. Irritated by
his opposition, the Guises compelled him to leave the court, and he died
on the 2nd of December of the same year.

  His works include: _Discours sur la roupture de la Trefve en l'an
  1556_ (Paris, 1556), and "Sommaire de l'ambassade en Allemagne de feu
  M^r. l'archévesque de Vienne en l'an 1550," published in Ranke's
  _Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation_, vol. vi. (Leipzig,
  1882). See J. Kaulek, _Correspondance politique de Castillon et
  Marillac (1537-1542)_ (Paris, 1885); P. de Vassière, _Charles de
  Marillac_ (Paris, 1896).



MARINES (from Lat. _mare_, sea), the technical term for sea-soldiers,
i.e. troops appropriated and specially adapted to the requirements of
maritime war. This force--formerly (1694) styled "mariners"--is in
origin, use and application peculiarly British. The only other nation
possessing a special force discharging exactly similar functions is the
United States (see below). In the armed forces of the great European
Powers marines and marine artillery are mentioned, but these troops have
little in common with British and American marines. In France their
duties are to garrison military forts and colonies and take part in
marine and other wars. In Germany they are used for coast defence. In
Holland, Austria and Italy they have a military organization, but not as
complements of sea-going ships.

The origin of the British marine force was an order in council 1664,
directing "1200 Land souldgers to be forthwith rayzed to be in readiness
to be distributed in His Majesty's fleete prepared for sea service."
This body was named the "Admiral's regiment." At this period land
warfare had developed a system and was waged by men organized,
disciplined and trained. Sea warfare was left "to every man's own
conceit." War-ships were built to be manned in a hurry, by "the press,"
when needed. Men were thus obtained by force and grouped without
organization or previous training in ships. When no longer required they
were turned adrift. The administration of England's fleet was "a prodigy
of wastefulness, corruption and indolence; no estimate could be trusted,
no contract was performed, no check was enforced." Such officers as had
been "bred to the sea seemed a strange and savage race." They robbed the
king and cheated the seamen. As regards land force, it was a violation
of the law to keep at home in the king's pay "any other body of armed
men, save as a guard for the royal person." On the other hand it was
"illegal to land press men" in a foreign country, but soldiers "only
required a little persuasion to land." Thus by thrusting into naval
chaos and confusion a nucleus of disciplined, trained and organized
land troops, an expedient was found which offered a solution of the many
political and administrative difficulties of the time. This "Admiral's
regiment." was the germ which by a constant process of evolution during
a period of over 235 years has produced not merely the marine forces,
but the royal navy, organized, disciplined and trained as it is to-day.
In 1668 the experiment of the Admiral's regiment was extended. At a
council held "to discourse about the fitness for entering men presently
for manning the fleete," King Charles II. "cried very civilly, 'If ever
you intend to man the fleet without being cheated by the captains and
pursers, you may go to bed and resolve never to have it manned.'" This
seems to throw some light on the council's order a few days later "to
draw out and furnish such numbers of His Majesty's Foot Guards for His
Majesty's service at sea this summer, as H.R.H. the duke of York, lord
high admiral of England, shall from time to time desire." The men were
to be paid and accounted for by their own officers. This maritime force
subsequently disappeared, but two new regiments of "marines" were raised
in 1694, the House of Commons directing they "were to be employed in the
service of the navy only." One regiment only was to be on shore at a
time, and to be employed in the dockyards with extra pay. None of the
officers were to be sea commanders, save two colonels. The intention was
to make these regiments feeders for the navy, captains being ordered to
report periodically "the names of such soldiers as shall in any measure
be made seamen, and how far each of them is qualified toward being an
able seaman." In 1697 these regiments were disbanded, but early in the
reign of Queen Anne a number of regiments of marines were raised, and
independent companies of marines were also enlisted in the West Indies.
At the peace of Utrecht (1713) the marines were disbanded, but
reappeared in 1739 as part of the army; and in 1740 three regiments of
marines were raised in America, the colonels being appointed by the
crown, the captains by the provinces. In 1747 the marine regiments were
transferred from the control of the secretary at war to that of the
admiralty, and the next year once more wholly disappeared on the treaty
of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748).

During the preceding period of fifty-four years the marine force
appeared and disappeared with war. It was a military body, applied to
naval purposes. Its main functions were three-fold--(1) for fighting in
ships; (2) for seizing and holding land positions necessary or
advantageous to the naval operations of war; (3) for maintaining
discipline of the ships, and by "expertness in handling arms to incite
our seamen to the imitation of them." Incidentally the force came to be
regarded as so good a feeder for the navy that Admiral Vernon (1739)
urged "the necessity of converting most of our marching regiments into
marines, and if, as they became seamen they were admitted to be
discharged as such, that would make a good nursery for the breeding of
them."

The organization of the force was purely military. Regiments were
embarked in fleets, and distributed in the ships. The officers were
interchangeable with those of the guards and line. John Churchill
(afterwards duke of Marlborough) and George Rooke (afterwards Admiral
Sir George Rooke) were together at one time ensigns of marines. During
this period the marines were never regarded as a reserve for the fleet.
The navy in peace did without them. The necessities of maritime war
demanded a mobile military force adapted to naval conditions and at
naval disposal, and so in all naval operations during these eighty-four
years the marines played a conspicuous part. The navy had been slowly
groping towards a system. For example, sea officers had been granted a
uniform, and a naval academy (1729) had been established for the
education of young gentlemen for the sea service. But in its main
features the navy remained in 1748 as it was in 1664. The sailor was
kidnapped and forced into ships, to become an outcast when no longer
wanted. The marine when not in a ship was comfortably housed and looked
after by his officers in barracks on shore.

In 1755 the marine force once more reappeared under the Admiralty, and
from that date its history has been continuous. But the regimental
system was abandoned, and an entirely new principle of organization was
applied. Companies were raised, and these companies were grouped into
great depots, called divisions, at Portsmouth, Plymouth and Chatham. At
these divisions this force could be increased and reduced at pleasure,
without disturbing the basis of organization, and from them could be
supplied as many or as few sea-soldiers as fleets or ships needed, while
preserving in the varying units so provided all the essentials of
uniformity of system, drill, training, ties of comradeship and _esprit
de corps_. This force then and for ninety-eight years afterwards was the
only continuously trained, disciplined and organized fighting force
placed by the country at the disposal of naval officers. On the
establishment of this new marine force the purchase of commissions was
abolished, but interchange with the army was for a time permitted. When
embarked, marines were under the naval code of discipline; when on
shore, under the marine Mutiny Act, identical with that of the army.
When the seamen of the fleet mutinied at the Nore, at the close of the
18th century, and turned their officers out of the ships, the marines,
undaunted, stood firm by theirs.

Mutiny lurked beneath the deck of many a ship before and long years
after that event. The control of admirals and captains over their own
men was precarious in the extreme. This was the natural result of the
country's neglect of its seamen. The discipline of the fleet in those
days rested on the firm bayonets of the marines. What England owes to
them may be gathered from Lord St Vincent's recorded testimony: "There
never was an appeal made to them for honour, courage or loyalty, that
they did not more than realize my highest expectation. If ever real
danger should come to England, the marines will be found the country's
sheet-anchor." At his earnest solicitation the marines were made a royal
corps in 1802. It is worthy of note that in those days of masts, yards,
sails and pure seamanship, this greatest of naval statesmen, this
matchless naval strategist, whose practical experience of maritime war
was unrivalled, strenuously advocated as the true policy for England
what in these days of steam and mastless ships would be scouted and
ridiculed. It was to make service afloat as marines a part of the duty
of every regiment of the line in rotation.

Down to 1804 the marines were an infantry force; the improvement in
artillery towards the close of the century had necessitated the
occasional putting into the fleet of detachments of Royal Artillery.
This, as regards gunnery duties in the fleet, was repeating on a smaller
scale the expedient adopted in the time of Charles II. So much friction
arose between the naval and the artillery officers that a special corps
of Royal Marine Artillery was raised in 1804, on the recommendation of
Nelson. This special corps fulfilled the expectations of its founders.
It was charged with the care, equipment and working of the larger
ordnance afloat and field-guns ashore, and was employed also as a body
of gunnery instructors to the fleet. In 1831, a certain number of naval
officers being thought to be sufficiently trained in gunnery, this
corps, of which Napier wrote, "Never in my life have I seen soldiers
like the Royal Marine Artillery," was, without warning, abolished. Then
the marine force ceased to be composed of two corps, artillery and
infantry, and it reverted to a single one of infantry. Very soon
afterwards, however, the Admiralty began to build up what they had so
suddenly and ruthlessly destroyed, by ordering the conversion of one
company of each infantry marine division into artillery. The number of
these artillery companies gradually increased, and were grouped in a
separate depot. Just as the wars from Charles II. to George III. had
demanded marines, so the Crimean War led to their increase. Thus in 1859
the artillery companies of marines were formed into a separate division,
and in 1862 the old name of Royal Marine Artillery was restored.

The marines thus became once more and still remain two corps, the
official designation of the whole being Royal Marine Forces. In 1855 the
marine infantry corps became light infantry, and in 1869 the Woolwich
division (added in 1805) was abolished; and more recently a marine
depot, as a feeder of the other divisions, was established at Walmer.
The headquarters of the R.M.A. are at Eastney, Southsea. The divisions
R.M.L.I. are at Gosport, Chatham and Devonport. The uniform of the
R.M.A. is blue with red facings, that of R.M.L.I. red with blue facings.
The badge of both corps is the globe surrounded with the laurel wreath,
with the motto "Per mare per terram." The Royal Marine Forces share with
the 3rd Battalion Grenadier Guards, the East Kent Regiment (formerly the
Buffs), and the Royal London Militia the privilege of marching through
the city of London with colours flying, bands playing and bayonets
fixed. This is due to a common original association with the London
train bands.

  _War Services._--To describe these would be to review the wars waged
  by England by sea and by land for over 200 years. In every sea fight,
  great or small, marines have taken part, and on every continent they
  have served in big and little wars, sometimes as part of the army,
  sometimes with naval contingents, sometimes alone.

  Throughout the Napoleonic war the marines took part in every sort of
  operation afloat and ashore. During the Crimean War, mortar-boat
  flotillas in the Baltic and Black Sea were commanded and manned by
  R.M.A., while comrades in the same corps served with the Royal
  Artillery in the trenches before Sebastopol--a marine infantry brigade
  occupying the heights of Balaclava. During the Indian Mutiny, marines
  (artillery and infantry) served with the Naval Brigade under Peel. In
  the China wars batteries and brigades of the marine force played a
  prominent part, and likewise were represented in all the Egyptian and
  Sudan campaigns, 1881 to 1898. In one action the R.M.A. gunners came
  to the relief of the Royal Horse Artillery when exhausted, and fought
  their guns; in another the R.M.A., out of the débris of the enemy's
  Krupp guns captured, built up one complete gun and fought it with
  effect; in the final campaign gunboats were brought up in pieces, put
  together and fought by a detachment of the R.M.A.

  In 1899 in the Boer War the marine artillery and infantry took part
  with the Naval Brigade, maintaining their historic reputation, and at
  the battle of Enslin their losses were exceptionally severe.

  _Characteristics of Marine System._--The recruit first goes to the
  depot at Walmer, and is trained as a soldier before joining his
  division to complete instruction as a marine. His division is his
  permanent military home, from which he goes on service and to which he
  returns at its conclusion. Restrictions on marriage, necessary under
  the army system, are not necessary in the marine forces. The permanent
  home of the wife and family is not broken up by the marine going
  abroad; the wife thus can continue any local goodwill in any business
  her industry may secure. This fixed home enables a marine to learn a
  trade in the workshops of his division which supply the clothing, &c.,
  to the corps. Marines are enlisted for 12 years, and if of good
  character they can re-engage to complete 21 years, entitling to
  pension. The periods of service abroad for marines are shorter
  (generally 3 years), but more constantly recurrent than for the army.
  The administrative, as distinct from the instructional, staff
  necessary for a marine division is more simple and less expensive than
  that of a numerical army equivalent expressed in regiments. The system
  of pay and accounts is also less complex. The following table shows
  the relative proportions of marine forces to the whole navy at
  different periods up to the South African War of 1899:--

    +------+----------+----------+---------+------------+----------+------------------------------+
    |      |   Navy   | Marines. |         |  Maritime. | Percent. |                              |
    | Year.|  proper. | Officers |  Grand  |  Peace or  | Marines  |       Nature of Ships.       |
    |      | Officers | and Men. |  Total. |    War.    | to Total |                              |
    |      | and Men. |          |         |            | Forces.  |                              |
    +------+----------+----------+---------+------------+----------+------------------------------+
    | 1805 | 90,000   |  30,000  | 120,000 |    War     |    25    | Sailing.                     |
    |      |          |          |         |(Trafalgar) |          |                              |
    | 1838 | 23,165   |   9,000  |  32,165 | \          |    28    | Sailing.                     |
    | 1858 | 40,219   |  14,919  |  55,138 |  > Peace   |    27    | Sailing with auxiliary steam.|
    | 1878 | 42,046   |  13,727  |  55,773 | |          |    24    | Steam with auxiliary sail.   |
    | 1898 | 78,441[1]|  17,099  |  95,540 | /          |    17    | Steam and mastless ships.    |
    +------+----------+----------+---------+------------+----------+------------------------------+

  The above table indicates a gradual change in naval policy and
  practice as regards marines. It will be observed that, concurrently
  with the gradual disappearance of masts, sails and yards, the
  proportion of marines has steadily declined. Down to very recent times
  the marine spent more time ashore than afloat. Now the reverse is the
  case.

  By the introduction of the Continuous Service Act 1853, the
  blue-jacket was placed on exactly the same footing as the marine in
  respect of conditions of service and pension, and now the blue-jacket
  when not afloat is quartered in barracks. The main difference between
  the blue-jacket and marine is the dress and the pay. The blue-jacket
  is better paid than the marine. As regards opportunity of discipline,
  there is now no difference; and in short, all the reasons for the
  existence of a marine force have disappeared except as regards duties
  on shore incidental to naval operations of war, e.g. the holding of
  ports and the seizing of minor positions necessary to prosecution of
  maritime war. The facts that modern ships cannot now as formerly carry
  a supernumerary force sufficient for such purposes, and are more
  dependent on fixed bases of supply and repair than in old days, point
  to a different method of using and applying the marine force to the
  sole purpose for which they are now necessary as a distinct branch of
  the naval service. If employed at the headquarters of a naval station,
  their efficiency as marines could be preserved by occasional
  embarcation of the officers and men in rotation. The substitution of
  marine for army garrisons at coaling stations would also relieve the
  army of a class of duties incidental to naval warfare which the marine
  force formerly performed, and which prejudicially affects the
  organization and arrangement of the army as a mobile field force.

_Marine Corps, United States._--This dates from the establishment of the
American navy. It is a wholly separate military body, though under the
control of the Navy Department. It was formed in 1775, and it has a
history of brilliant services rendered by land and sea in all the wars
of America since that date. The headquarters of the corps are at
Washington, and the strength of the corps was fixed by Act of Congress
(March 3, 1899) at 211 officers and 5920 non-commissioned officers and
men. Its organization and system are based on the British model, and the
dress corresponds to that of the United States army. The corps is
commanded by a brigadier-general who bears to the secretary a relation
similar to that of a chief of bureau. Although the organization closely
follows the army system, regimental or even permanent battalion
organizations are impracticable, owing to their numerous and
widely-separated stations. Practically all shore stations have barracks
where marines are enlisted and drilled. At these places they also do
sentry, police and orderly duties. From such stations they are sent to
ships for sea duty. Nearly all ships carry a body of marines known as
the guard, varying in size from a few men commanded by a sergeant, on
small ships, to eighty or more, with one or more commissioned officers,
on large vessels. It is customary to cause all marines to serve at sea
three of the four years of each enlistment. On board ship they perform
sentry and orderly duty, and assist in police duties. They are also
instructed in many exercises pertaining to the navy, as rowing, naval
signalling, gun drill, &c. In action they act as riflemen, and on many
ships serve a portion of the guns. When circumstances require a force to
be landed from ships present to guard American interests in foreign
countries, legations, &c., the marine guard is usually sent, though, if
numerically insufficient, sailors are landed also. Marines also garrison
places beyond the territorial limits of the United States which are
under navy control. Candidates for first enlistment must be between the
ages of 21 and 35 and unmarried, must be citizens of the United States,
be able to read, write and speak English, and pass a physical
examination. Second lieutenants are appointed from civil life after
examination or from the graduates of the Naval Academy. Promotion is by
seniority as in the navy.

  Admiral Farragut's opinion that "the marine guard is one of the great
  essentials of a man-of-war" is corroborated by that of Admiral Wilkes,
  who considered that "marines constituted the great difference between
  a man-of-war and a privateer." In the famous battles between the
  "Bonhomme Richard" and "Serapis" in 1777, and in that between the
  "Chesapeake" and "Shannon," the American marines displayed brilliant
  gallantry; and while on the one hand they at Derne in 1803 first
  planted the American flag on a fortress of the Old World, for which
  exploit "Tripoli" is inscribed on their colours, they on the other
  shared in the hard fighting of the Mexican War as well as all the
  important coast actions of the Civil War of 1861-65. A proposal to
  incorporate them with the army after the struggle met with universal
  condemnation from the authorities best qualified to judge of their
  value. A brigade of three battalions served in the Philippines in
  1899. Their device is a globe resting on an anchor and surmounted by
  an eagle. "Ever faithful" is the title which Captain Luce, the
  historian of the force, appropriately applies to them.
       (J. C. R. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Including 22,289 of the engineer branch providing the locomotion
    of modern ships--just as seamen from 1805-1858 provided it for ships
    of the past.



MARINETTE, a city and the county-seat of Marinette county, Wisconsin,
U.S.A., 162 m. N. of Milwaukee, on the W. shore of Green Bay, at the
mouth of the Menominee River. Pop. (1890), 11,523; (1900), 16,195, of
whom 5542 were foreign-born; (1905), 15,354; (1910), 14,610. It is
served directly by the Wisconsin & Michigan, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St
Paul, and the Chicago & North-Western railways, and by several steamboat
lines connecting with lake ports; and is connected by ferry with
Frankfort, Michigan (served by the Ann Arbor railroad). The city has a
fine harbour and a considerable commerce in iron and lumber products.
Five bridges connect Marinette with Menominee, Michigan, on the other
side of the river. Marinette has a Federal building; the Stephenson
public library, founded by Senator Isaac Stephenson (b. 1829), a local
"lumber king"; a county agricultural school and training school for
rural teachers, and three public parks. The Northern Chautauqua Assembly
holds its annual summer session in Chautauqua Park, on the shore of
Green Bay. The growth of Marinette began with the development of the
neighbouring pine forests; and the manufacture of lumber and lumber
products has always been its principal industry. The water-power of the
Menominee River is largely utilized for the manufacture of paper and
flour. Other manufactures are boxes, furniture and woodware, boats,
boilers and agricultural machinery. In 1905 the factory products were
valued at $3,633,399. The first white settlement was made here on the
site of a Menominee Indian village in 1830, and the city was named in
honour of the daughter of an Indian chief, Marinette (Jacobs), whose
name was a composite of Marie and Antoinette. A city charter was granted
in 1887.



MARINI (or MARINO), GIAMBATTISTA (1560-1625), Italian poet, was born at
Naples on the 18th of October 1569. After a somewhat disreputable youth,
during which he became known for his _Canzone de' baci_, he secured the
powerful patronage of Cardinal Aldobrandini, whom he accompanied from
Rome to Ravenna and Turin. An edition of his poems, _La Lira_, was
published at Venice in 1602-1614. His ungoverned pen and disordered life
compelled him to leave Turin and take refuge from 1615 to 1622 in Paris,
where he was favourably recognized by Marie de' Medici. There his long
poem _Adone_ was published in 1623. He died at Naples on the 25th of
March 1625. The licence, extravagance and conceits of Marini, the chief
of the school of "Secentisti" (see ITALY: _Literature_), were
characteristic of a period of literary decadence.

  See M. Menghini, _G. B. Marini_ (Rome, 1888).



MARINO, a town of Italy, in the province of Rome, 15 m. S.E. of it by
rail, and also accessible by electric tramway. Pop. (1901), 7307. It is
picturesquely situated on a spur of the Alban Hills, 1165 ft. above sea
level, and occupies the site of the ancient Castrimoenium, a
_municipium_ of no great importance, though the surrounding district,
which now produces much wine, is full of remains of ancient villas. The
origin of the name is uncertain; perhaps it is derived from the medieval
_Morena_ (itself derived from the Latin _Murena_, from one of the Roman
owners of the district), a name originally given to the lower ground
between the 9th and 11th mile of the Via Latina. In the early 13th
century it belonged to the Frangipani family, but passed into the hands
of the Orsini in 1266. In 1378 a battle took place here between the
partisans of Urban VI. and those of the anti-pope Clement VII. of Geneva
(the Orsini having taken the side of the latter), who were, however,
defeated; and in 1399 Marino was apparently under the Papacy. In 1408 it
passed to the Colonna family, to whom it still belongs. There are some
remains of the medieval fortifications.

  See G. Tomassetti, _La Via latina nel medio evo_ (Rome, 1886), p. 96
  seq.; T. Ashby, in _Papers of the British School at Rome_, vol. iv.
  (1907).     (T. As.)



MARINUS, the name of two popes. MARINUS I., sometimes called Martin II.,
pope from 882 to 884, was the son of a Tuscan priest, and entered the
church at an early age, becoming a deacon about 862. Three successive
popes sent him as legate to Constantinople, his mission in each case
having reference to the controversy excited by Photius (q.v.); and
having become an archdeacon and a bishop, he also negotiated on behalf
of pope John VIII. with the emperor Charles the Fat. About the end of
December 882 he succeeded John VIII. as pope, but his election did not
pass unchallenged either in eastern or in western Europe. However,
having secured his position, Marinus restored Formosus, cardinal-bishop
of Porto, and anathematized Photius. This pope was on friendly terms
with the English king, Alfred the Great. He died in May 884, and was
succeeded by Adrian III.

MARINUS II., sometimes called Martin III., pope from 942 to 946, was
merely the puppet of Alberic (d. 954), prince and senator of the Romans.
He died in May 946, and was succeeded by Agapetus II.



MARINUS, neo-Platonist philosopher, was born in Palestine and was early
converted to the old Greek religion. He came to Athens at a time when,
with the exception of Proclus, there was a great dearth of eminent men
in the neo-Platonic school. It was for this reason rather than for any
striking ability of his own that he succeeded to the headship of the
school on the death of Proclus. During this period the professors of the
old Greek religion suffered severe persecution at the hands of the
Christians and Marinus was compelled to seek refuge at Epidaurus. His
chief work was a biography of Proclus, which is extant. It was first
published with the works of Marcus Antoninus in 1559; it was republished
separately by Fabricius at Hamburg in 1700, and re-edited in 1814 by
Boissonade with emendations and notes. Other philosophical works are
attributed to him, including commentaries on Aristotle and on the
_Philebus_. It is said that he destroyed the latter because Isidore, his
successor, expressed disapproval of it.



MARINUS OF TYRE, geographer and mathematician, the founder of
mathematical geography, flourished in the 2nd century A.D. He lived
before Ptolemy, who acknowledges his great obligations to him. His chief
merits were that he assigned to each place its proper latitude and
longitude, and introduced improvements in the construction of his maps.
He also carefully studied the works of his predecessors and the diaries
of travellers. His geographical treatise is lost.

  See A. Forbiger, _Handbuch der alten Geographie_, vol. i. (1842); E.
  H. Bunbury, _Hist. of Ancient Geography_ (1879), ii. p. 519; and
  especially E. H. Berger, _Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde
  der Griechen_ (1903).



MARIO, GIUSEPPE, COUNT OF CANDIA (1810-1883), Italian singer, the most
famous tenor of the 19th century, son of General di Candia, was born at
Cagliari in 1810. His career as a singer was the result of accidental
circumstances. While serving as an officer in the Sardinian army he was
imprisoned at Cagliari for some trifling offence. When his period of
confinement was over, he resigned his commission. His resignation was
refused, and he fled to Paris. There his success as an amateur vocalist
produced an offer of an engagement at the Opera. He studied singing for
two years under M. Ponchard and Signor Bordogni, and made his début in
1838 as the hero of Meyerheer's _Robert le Diable_. His success was
immediate and complete, but he did not stay long at the Opera. In 1839
he joined the company of the Théâtre Italien, which then included
Malibran, Sontag, Persiani and Grisi, Rubini, Tamburini and Lablache.
His first appearance here was made in the character of Nemorino in
Donizetti's _Elisir d'Amore_. He sang in London for the first time in
the same year. His success in Italian opera far surpassed that which he
had won in French, and in a short time he acquired a European
reputation. He had a handsome face and a graceful figure, and his voice,
though less powerful than that of Rubini or that of Tamberlik, had a
velvety softness and richness which have never been equalled. Experience
gave him ease as an actor, but he never excelled in tragic parts. He was
an ideal stage lover, and he retained the grace and charm of youth long
after his voice had begun to show signs of decay. He created very few
new parts, that of Ernesto in _Don Pasquale_ (1843) being perhaps the
only one deserving of mention. Among the most successful of his other
parts were Otello in Rossini's opera of that name, Gennaro in _Lucrezia
Borgia_, Alamviva in _Il Barbiere di Siviglia_, Fernando in _La
Favorita_, and Manrico in _Il Trovatore_. Mario made occasional
appearances in oratorio singing at the Birmingham Festival of 1849 and
at the Hereford Festival of 1855, and undertook various concert tours in
the United Kingdom, but his name is principally associated with triumphs
in the theatre. In 1856 he married Giulia Grisi, the famous soprano, by
whom he had five daughters. Mario bade farewell to the stage in 1871. He
died at Rome in reduced circumstances on the 11th of December 1883.



MARION, FRANCIS (1732-1795), American soldier, was born in 1732,
probably at Winyah, near Georgetown, South Carolina, of Huguenot
ancestry. In 1759 he settled on Pond Bluff plantation near Eutaw
Springs, in St John's parish, Berkeley county. In 1761 he served as a
lieutenant under William Moultrie in a campaign against the Cherokees.
In 1775 he was a member of the South Carolina Provincial Congress; and
on the 21st of June was commissioned captain in the 2nd South Carolina
regiment under W. Moultrie, with whom he served in June 1776 in the
defence of Fort Sullivan (Fort Moultrie), in Charleston Harbor. In
September 1776 the Continental Congress commissioned him a
lieutenant-colonel. In the autumn of 1779 he took part in the siege of
Savannah, and early in 1780, under General Benjamin Lincoln, was engaged
in drilling militia. After the capture of Charleston (May 12,1780) and
the defeats of General Isaac Huger at Monk's Corner (Berkeley county,
South Carolina) and Lieut.-Colonel Abraham Buford at the Waxhaws (near
the North Carolina line, in what is now Lancaster county), Marion
organized a small troop--which usually consisted of between 20 and 70
men--the only force then opposing the British in the state. Governor
John Rutledge made him a brigadier-general of state troops, and in
August 1780 Marion took command of the scanty militia, ill equipped and
ill fed. With this force he was identified for almost all the remainder
of the war in a partisan warfare in which he showed himself a singularly
able leader of irregular troops. On the 20th of August he captured 150
Maryland prisoners, and about a score of their British guard; and in
September and October repeatedly surprised larger bodies of Loyalists or
British regulars. Colonel Banastre Tarleton, sent out to capture him,
despaired of finding the "old swamp fox," who eluded him by following
swamp paths. When General Nathanael Greene took command in the south,
Marion and Colonel Henry Lee were ordered in January 1781 to attack
Georgetown, but they were unsuccessful. In April, however, they took
Fort Watson and in May Fort Motte, and they succeeded in breaking
communications between the British posts in the Carolinas. On the 31st
of August Marion rescued a small American force hemmed in by Major C.
Fraser with 500 British; and for this he received the thanks of
Congress. He commanded the right wing under General Greene at Eutaw
Springs. In 1782, during his absence as state senator at Jacksonborough,
his brigade deteriorated and there was a conspiracy to turn him over to
the British. In June of the same year he put down a Loyalist uprising on
the banks of the Pedee river; and in August he left his brigade and
returned to his plantation. He served several terms in the state Senate,
and in 1784, in recognition of his services, was made commander of Fort
Johnson, practically a courtesy title with a salary of £500 per annum.
He died on his estate on the 27th of February 1795. Marion was small,
slight and sickly-looking. As a soldier he was quick, watchful,
resourceful and calm, the greatest of partisan leaders in the bitter
struggle in the Carolinas.

  See the _Life_ (New York, 1844) by W. G. Simms; Edward McCrady, _South
  Carolina in the Revolution_ (New York, 1901-1902); and a careful study
  of Marion's ancestry and early life by "R. Y." in vols. i. and ii. of
  the _Southern and Western Monthly Magazine and Review_ (Charleston,
  1845).



MARION, HENRI FRANÇOIS (1846-1896), French philosopher and
educationalist, was born at Saint-Parize-en-Viry (Nièvre) on the 9th of
September 1846. He studied at Nevers, and at the École Normale, where he
graduated in 1868. After occupying several minor positions, he returned
to Paris in 1875 as professor of the Lycée Henri IV., and in 1880 he
became _docteur-ès-lettres_. In the same year he was elected a member of
the Council of Public Instruction, and devoted himself to improving the
scheme of French education, especially in girls' schools. He was largely
instrumental in the foundation of _écoles normales_ in provincial towns,
and himself gave courses of lectures on psychology and practical ethics
in their early days. He died in Paris on the 5th of April 1896.

  His chief philosophical works were an edition of the _Théodicée_ of
  Leibnitz (1874), a monograph on Locke (1878), _Devoirs et droits de
  l'homme_ (1880), _Glissonius utrum Leibnitio de natura substantiae
  cogitanti quidquam tribuerit_ (1880); _De La solidarité morale_ (4th
  ed., 1893). His lectures at Fontenoy have been published in two
  volumes entitled _Leçons de psychologie appliquée à l'éducation_, and
  _Leçons de morale_; those delivered at the Sorbonne are collected in
  _L'Éducation dans l'université_ (1892).



MARION, a city and the county-seat of Grant county, Indiana, U.S.A.,
about 60 m. N.E. of Indianapolis, on the Mississinewa River. Pop.
(1910), 19,359. It is served by the Chicago, Cincinnati & Louisville,
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh,
Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western
railways, and by interurban electric lines connecting with Indianapolis,
Muncie, Fort Wayne, Kokomo and many other towns and cities. The city is
the seat of the Marion Normal College and Business University, and has a
Carnegie library. Marion lies in a good farming country and in the
centre of the state's natural gas region. Among the manufactures are
glass, stoves, iron bedsteads, foundry and machine-shop products, steel,
planing-mill products, paper and pulp, and leather. The total value of
the factory products in 1905 was $4,290,166, the value of the glass
product alone being $1,042,057, or 24.3% of the total. Marion was
settled in 1832, and was named in honour of General Francis Marion.



MARION, a city and the county-seat of Marion county, Ohio, U.S.A., 44 m.
N. by W. of Columbus. Pop. (1900), 11,862, including 782 foreign-born
and 112 negroes; (1900), 18,232. Marion is served by the Pennsylvania,
the Erie, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, and the
Hocking Valley railways, and by interurban electric railway to Columbus.
It is the trade centre of a rich farming district. Limestone is
abundant, and the city has various manufactures, including lime, foundry
and machine-shop products, agricultural implements, planing-mill
products, engines, steam shovels, dredges, pianos and silks. In 1905 the
value of factory products was $3,227,712, being 33.1% greater than in
1900. Marion was laid out in 1821, and was chartered as a city in 1890.



MARIONETTES (probably from Ital. _morio_, a fool or buffoon, but also
said to be derived from the _mariolettes_, or little figures of the
Virgin Mary), FANTOCCINI (from _fantino_, a child) or PUPPETS (Fr.
_poupée_ Lat. _pupa_, a baby or doll), the names given to figures,
generally below life-size, suspended by threads or wires and imitating
with their limbs and heads the movements of living persons.

The high antiquity of puppets appears from the fact that figures with
movable limbs have been discovered in the tombs of Egypt and among the
remains of Etruria; they were also common among the Greeks, from whom
they were imported to Rome. Plays in which the characters are
represented by puppets or by the shadows of moving figures, worked by
concealed performers who deliver the dialogue, are not only popular in
India and China, but during several centuries past maintained an
important position among the amusements of the people in most European
countries. Goethe and Lessing deemed them worthy of attention; and in
1721 Le Sage wrote plays for puppets to perform.

The earliest performances in English were drawn or founded upon Bible
narratives and the lives of the saints, in the same vein as the
"morality" plays which they succeeded. Popular subjects in the 16th
century were _The Prodigal Son_ and _Nineveh, with Jonah and the Whale_.
And in a pamphlet of 1641, describing Bartholomew Fair, we read, "Here a
knave in a fool's coat, with a trumpet sounding or a drum beating,
invites you to see his puppets. Here a rogue like a wild woodman, or in
an antic shape like an incubus, desires your company to view his
motion." In 1667 Pepys recorded how at Bartholomew Fair he found "my
Lady Castlemaine at a puppet play, Patient Grizill." Besides _The
Sorrows of Griselda_, other puppet plays of the period were _Dick
Whittington_, _The Vagaries of Merry Andrew_, and _The Humours of
Bartholomew Fair_. Powell's noted marionette show was the subject of an
article in _The Tatler_, 1709, and again in _The Spectator_, 1711. The
latter refers also to Pinkethman, a "motion-maker," in whose scenes the
divinities of Olympus ascended and descended to the strains of music. An
idea of the class of representation may be gathered from an
advertisement of Crawley, a rival of Pinkethman, which sets forth--"The
Old Creation of the World, with the addition of Noah's Flood," also
several fountains playing water during the time of the play. The best
scene represented "Noah and his family coming out of the ark, with all
the animals two by two, and all the fowls of the air seen in a prospect
sitting upon trees; likewise over the ark is the sun rising in a
gorgeous manner; moreover a multitude of angels in a double rank," the
angels ringing bells. "Likewise machines descending from above, double,
with Dives rising out of hell and Lazarus seen in Abraham's bosom;
besides several figures dancing jiggs, sarabands, and country dances,
with the merry conceits of Squire Punch and Sir John Spendall." Yates
showed a moving picture of a city, with an artificial cascade, and a
temple--with mechanical birds in which attention was called to the exact
imitation of living birds, the quick motion of the bills, just swelling
of the throat, and fluttering of the wings. The puppets were wax figures
5 ft. in stature. Toward the end of the 18th century, Flockton's show
presented five hundred figures at work at various trades. Brown's
Theatre of Arts showed at country fairs, from 1830 to 1840, the battle
of Trafalgar, Napoleon's army crossing the Alps, and the marble palace
of St Petersburg; and at a still later date Clapton's similar exhibition
presented Grace Darling rescuing the crew of the "Forfarshire" steamer
wrecked on the Fern Islands, with many ingenious moving figures of
quadrupeds, and, in particular, a swan which dipped its head into
imitation water, opened its wings, and with flexible neck preened and
trimmed its plumage. In these mechanical scenes the figures, painted
upon a flat surface and cut out, commonly of pasteboard, are slid along
grooves arranged transversely in front of the set scenery, the actions
of legs and arms being worked by wires from the hands of persons below
the stage, though sometimes use is made of clockwork. In recent days the
literature for the marionette stage has had an important literary
recruit in the person of the Belgian author Maurice Maeterlinck.

  Marionettes proper, and the dolls exhibited in puppet shows (not
  including Punch and his companion actors), are constructed of wood or
  of pasteboard, with faces of composition, sometimes of wax; and each
  figure is suspended by a number of threads to a short bar of wood
  which is commonly held in one hand of the hidden performer while the
  finger of his other hand poses the figure or gives action to it by
  means of the threads. In the mode of constructing the joints, and the
  greater elaboration with which the several parts of the limbs are
  supported and moved, and especially in the fine degrees of movement
  given to the heads, marionettes have been so improved as to present
  very exact imitations of the gestures of actors and actresses, and the
  postures and evolutions of acrobats; and, in addition, ingenious
  exhibitors such as Theodon, who introduced many novelties in the
  'sixties of the 19th century, have employed mechanical arrangements
  for accomplishing the tricks of pantomime harlequinade. Among the
  puppet personages presented in the small street shows are generally
  included a sailor who dances a hornpipe, a hoop-dancer, a dancer of
  the Highland fling, a wooden-legged pensioner, a vaulter on a pole
  also balancing two chairs, a clown playing with a butterfly, a dancing
  figure without head until the head rises out of the body, gradually
  displaying an enormously long neck, and a skeleton, seen at first in
  scattered parts lying about the stage, but piece successively flying
  to piece, the body first sitting up, then standing, and finally capped
  by the skull, when the completed figure begins to dance.

  _Ombres Chinoises_ are performances by means of the shadows of figures
  projected upon a stretched sheet of thin calico or a gauze scene
  painted as a transparency. The cardboard flat figures are held behind
  this screen, illuminated from behind--the performer supporting each
  figure by a long wire held in one hand while wires from all the
  movable parts terminate in rings in which are inserted the fingers of
  his other hand.

  See also C. Magnin, _Histoire des marionettes_ (1852; 2nd ed., 1862);
  L. de Neuville, _Histoire des marionettes_ (1892).



MARIOTTE, EDME (c. 1620-1684), French physicist, spent most of his life
at Dijon, where he was prior of St Martin sous Beaune. He was one of the
first members of the Academy of Sciences founded at Paris in 1666. He
died at Paris on the 12th of May 1684. The first volume of the _Histoire
et mémoires de l'Académie_ (1733) contains many original papers by him
upon a great variety of physical subjects, such as the motion of fluids,
the nature of colour, the notes of the trumpet, the barometer, the fall
of bodies, the recoil of guns, the freezing of water, &c.

  His _Essais de physique_, four in number, of which the first three
  were published at Paris between 1676 and 1679, are his most important
  works, and form, together with a _Traité de la percussion des corps_,
  the first volume of the _Oeuvres de Mariotte_ (2 vols., Leiden, 1717).
  The second of these essays (_De La nature de l'air_) contains the
  statement of the law that the volume of a gas varies inversely as the
  pressure, which, though very generally called by the name of Mariotte,
  had been discovered in 1660 by Robert Boyle. The fourth essay is a
  systematic treatment of the nature of colour, with a description of
  many curious experiments and a discussion of the rainbow, halos,
  parhelia, diffraction, and the more purely physiological phenomena of
  colour. The discovery of the blind spot is noted in a short paper in
  the second volume of his collected works.



MARIPOSAN, or YOKUTS, a linguistic stock of North American Indians,
including some 40 small tribes. Its former territory was in southern
California, around Tulare lake. The Mariposans were fishers and hunters.
Their villages consisted of a single row of wedge-shaped huts, with an
awning of brush along the front. In 1850 they numbered some 3000; in
1905 there were 154 on the Tule river reservation.



MARIS, JACOB (1837-1899), Dutch painter, first studied at the Antwerp
Academy, and subsequently in Hébert's studio during a stay in Paris from
1865 till 1871. He returned to Holland when the Franco-Prussian War
broke out, and died there in August 1899. Though he painted, especially
in early life, domestic scenes and interiors invested with deeply
sympathetic feeling, it is as a landscape painter that Maris will be
famous. He was the painter of bridges and windmills, of old quays,
massive towers, and level banks; even more was he the painter of water,
and misty skies, and chasing clouds. In all his works, whether in water
or oil colour, and in his etchings, the subject is always subordinate to
the effect. His art is suggestive rather than decorative, and his force
does not seem to depend on any preconceived method, such as a
synthetical treatment of form or gradations of tone. And yet, though his
means appear so simple, the artist's mind seems to communicate with the
spectator's by directness of pictorial instinct, and we have only to
observe the admirable balance of composition and truthful perspective to
understand the sure knowledge of his business that underlies such purely
impressionist handling. Maris has shown all that is gravest or brightest
in the landscape of Holland, all that is heaviest or clearest in its
atmosphere--for instance, in the "Grey Tower, Old Amsterdam," in the
"Landscape near Dordrecht," in the "Sea-weed Carts, Scheveningen," in "A
Village Scene," and in the numerous other pictures which have been
exhibited in the Royal Academy, London, in Edinburgh (1885), Paris,
Brussels and Holland, and in various private collections. "No painter,"
says M. Philippe Zilcken, "has so well expressed the ethereal effects,
bathed in air and light through floating silvery mist, in which painters
delight, and the characteristic remote horizons blurred by haze; or
again, the grey yet luminous weather of Holland, unlike the dead grey
rain of England or the heavy sky of Paris."

  See Max Rooses, _Dutch Painters of the Nineteenth Century_ (London,
  1899); R. A. M. Stevenson, "Jacob Maris," _Magazine of Art_ (1900);
  Ph. Zilcken, _Peintres Hollandais modernes_ (Amsterdam, 1893); Jan
  Veth, "Een Studie over Jacob Maris," _Onze Kunst_ (Antwerp, 1902).



MARITIME PROVINCE (Russ., _Primorskaya Oblast_), a province of Russia,
in East Siberia. It consists of a strip of territory along the coast of
the Pacific from Korea to the Arctic Ocean, including also the peninsula
of Kamchatka, part of the island of Sakhalin, and several small islands
along the coast. Its western boundary stretches northwards from a point
S.W. of Peter the Great Bay (42° 40´ N.) by Lake Hanka or Khanka and
along the Usuri, then goes due north from the mouth of the Usuri as far
as 52° N., runs along the Stanovoi watershed, crosses the spurs of this
plateau through barren _tundras_, and finally reaches the Arctic Ocean
at Chaun Bay (70° N.). Area, 715,735 sq. m.

  The northern part lies between the Arctic Ocean and the Seas of Bering
  and Okhotsk, and has the character of a barren plateau 1000 to 2000
  ft. high, deeply indented by the rivers of the Anadyr basin and by
  long fiords, such as Kolyuchin Bay (the wintering-place of
  Nordenskjöld s "Vega"), the Gulf of Anadyr, and the Bays of Penzhina
  and Ghizhiga. To the north this plateau is bordered by a chain of
  mountains, several summits of which reach 8000 ft. (Makachinga peak),
  while the promontories by which the Asiatic continent terminates
  towards Bering Strait run up to 1000 to 2000 ft. Only lichens and
  mosses, with a few dwarf species of Siberian trees, grow in this
  district. The fauna, however, is far richer than might be expected. A
  few American birds and mammals cross the strait when it is frozen.
  This country, and the seas which surround it, have for the last two
  centuries supplied Siberian trade with its best furs. The blue fox and
  black sable have been nearly exterminated, and the whale has become
  very rare. The sea-otter is rapidly becoming extinct, as well as the
  sea-lion (_Otaria stelleri_); while the sea-cow (_Rhytina stelleri_)
  was completely extirpated in the course of forty years. The sea-bear
  (_Otaria ursina_), which at one time seemed likely to meet with the
  same fate, is now nearly domesticated, and multiplies rapidly. The
  middle part of the province is a narrow strip (40 to 60 m. wide) along
  the Sea of Okhotsk, including the basin of the Uda in the south. This
  area is occupied by rugged mountains, 4000 to 7000 ft. high, forming
  the eastern border of the high plateau of East Siberia. Thick forests
  of larch clothe the mountains half way up, as well as the deep
  valleys. The undulating hills of the basin of the Uda, which is a
  continuation to the south-west, between the Stanovoi and Bureya
  mountains, of the deep indentation of the Sea of Okhotsk, are covered
  with forests and marshes.

  The southern part of the province includes two distinct regions. From
  the north-eastern extremity of the Bureya, or Little Khingan range, of
  which the group of the Shantar Islands is a continuation, a wide, deep
  depression runs south-west to the confluence of the Amur and the
  Usuri, and thence to the lowlands of the lower Sungari. This is for
  the most part less than 500 ft. above sea-level. The region on the
  right banks of the Amur and the Usuri, between these rivers and the
  coast, is occupied by several systems of mountains, usually
  represented as a single range, the Sikhota-alin. The summits reach
  5150 ft. (Golaya Gora), and the average elevation of the few passes is
  about 2500 ft. There is, however, one depression occupied by Lake
  Kidzi, which may have been at one time an outflow of the Amur to the
  sea. The Sikhota-alin mountains are covered with impenetrable forests.
  The flora and fauna of this region (especially in the Usuri district)
  exhibit a striking combination of species of warm climates with those
  of subarctic regions; the wild vine clings to the larch and the
  cedar-pine, and the tiger meets the bear and the sable. The quantity
  of fish in the rivers is immense, and in August the Amur and the Usuri
  swarm with salmon.

  The best part of the Maritime Province is at its southern extremity in
  the valley of the Suifeng river, which enters the Pacific in the Gulf
  of Peter the Great, and on the shores of the bays of the southern
  coast. But even there the climate is very harsh. The warm sea-current
  of the Kuro-Siwo does not reach the coasts of Siberia, while a cold
  current originating in the Sea of Okhotsk brings its icy water and
  chilling fogs to the coasts of Sakhalin, and flows along the Pacific
  shore to the eastern coast of Korea. The high mountains of the
  sea-coast and the monsoons of the Chinese Sea produce in the southern
  parts of the Maritime Province cold winters and wet summers.
  Accordingly, at Vladivostok (on the Gulf of Peter the Great), although
  it has the same latitude as Marseilles, the average yearly temperature
  is only 39.5° F., and the harbour is frozen for nearly three months in
  the year; the Amur and the Usuri are frozen in November. Towards the
  end of summer the moist monsoons bring heavy rains, which destroy the
  harvests and give rise to serious inundations of the Amur. The
  sea-coast farther north has a continental and arctic climate. At
  Nikolayevsk, temperatures as low as -41.5° F. are observed in winter,
  and as high as 94.6° in summer, the average yearly temperature being
  below zero (-0.9°). At Ayan (56° 27´ N.) the average temperature of
  the year is 25.5° (-0.4° in winter and 50.5° in summer), and at
  Okhotsk (59° 21´ N.) it is 23° (-6° in winter and 52.5° in summer).

  Russian settlements occur throughout the whole of the province, but,
  with the exception of those on the banks of the Amur and the Usuri,
  and the southern ports of the sea-coast, they are mere centres of
  administration.

  Okhotsk is one of the oldest towns of East Siberia, having been
  founded in 1649. Nikolayevsk, on the left bank of the Amur, was
  formerly the capital of the Maritime Province; but the difficulties of
  navigation and of communication with the interior, and the complete
  failure of the governmental colonization of the Amur, caused the seat
  of government to be transferred to Khabarovsk. Since the loss (1905)
  of Port Arthur to the Japanese, Vladivostok on Peter the Great Bay has
  again become the chief naval station of Russia on the Pacific. The
  trade is in the hands of the Chinese, who export stags' horns, seaweed
  and mushrooms, and of the Germans, who import groceries and spirits.

  The total population was 209,516 in 1897, of whom 57.7% were Russians,
  the others being Tunguses, Golds, Orochons, Lamuts, Chuvantses,
  Chukchis, Koryaks, Ghilyaks and Kamchadales. Their chief occupations
  are hunting and fishing; the Russians carry on agriculture and trade
  in furs. Active measures were taken in 1883-1897 for increasing the
  Russian population in the South Usuri district, the result being that
  over 29,000 immigrants, chiefly Little Russian peasants, settled
  there; while Cossacks from the Don and Orenburg came to settle among
  the Usuri Cossacks. Agriculture is gradually developing in the South
  Usuri region. Gold-mining has been started on the Amguñ, a tributary
  of the Amur. Coal is found near Vladivostok, as well as in Kamchatka.
  Roads exist only in the South Usuri district. A railway runs from
  Vladivostok to Nikolsk (69 m.), and thence to Khabarovsk along the
  right bank of the Usuri (412 m.). At Nikolsk the Manchurian railway
  begins.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



MARITIME TERRITORY, a term used in international law to denote coastal
waters which are not Territorial Waters though in immediate contact with
the sea. In the case of Territorial Waters (q.v.) the dominion of the
adjacent state is subject to a limitation. Dominion over maritime
territory is not subject to any limitation. Thus any strait through
which the right of passage of foreign vessels can be forbidden (as the
Solent or the Inland Sea of Japan), or bays so land-locked that they
cannot be held to form part of any ocean-highway, are maritime
territory.



MARIUPOL, a seaport of Russia, on the north shore of the Sea of Azov, at
the mouth of the Kalmius, in the government of Ekaterinoslav, 67 m. W.
of Taganrog. Pop. (1900), 52,770, including the inhabitants of two
suburbs, Mariinsk and Kara-su. The place is said to have been inhabited
in remote times under the name of Adamakha; the present town was built
only in 1779, by Greek emigrants from the Crimea. Its inhabitants are
engaged in agriculture, cattle-breeding, fishing, and the manufacture of
leather, agricultural implements, iron goods and bricks. In export trade
Mariupol ranks next to Taganrog among the ports of the Sea of Azov; but
its harbour is open to the south-east and shallow, though it is being
gradually deepened by systematic dredging. The principal articles of
export are cereals, with some oilcake, phosphate and coal; but the total
value is only about £2,000,000 annually. The imports do not reach a
quarter of a million sterling.



MARIUS OF AVENCHES (or AVENTICUM) (d. 593 or 594), chronicler and
ecclesiastic, was born in the neighbourhood of Autun probably in 530,
and became bishop of Avenches about 573. In addition to being a good
bishop, Marius was a clever goldsmith; he was present at the council of
Mâcon in 585, and transferred the seat of his bishopric from Avenches to
Lausanne. He died on the 31st of December 593 or 594. As a continuation
of the _Chronicon_ of Prosper of Aquitaine, Marius wrote a short
_Chronicon_ dealing with the period from 455 to 581; and although he
borrowed from various sources his work has some importance for the
history of Burgundy. Regarding himself and his land as still under the
authority of the Roman empire, he dates his _Chronicon_ according to the
years of the Roman consuls and of the East Roman emperors.

  The only extant manuscript of the _Chronicon_ is in the British
  Museum. Among several editions may be mentioned the one in the
  _Monumenta Germaniae historica, chronica minora_, Band II. (1893),
  with introduction by T. Mommsen. See also W. Arndt, _Bischof Marius
  von Aventicum_ (Leipzig, 1875); and W. Wattenbach, _Deutschlands
  Geschichtsquellen_, Bd. I. (1904).



MARIUS, GAIUS (155-86 B.C.), Roman general, of plebeian descent, the son
of a small farmer of Cereatae (mod. _Casamare_, "home of Marius") near
Arpinum. He served first in Spain under the great Scipio Africanus, and
rose from the ranks to be an officer. In 119 as tribune he proposed a
law intended to limit the influence of the nobles at elections. This
brought him into conflict with the aristocratic party, who prevented him
from obtaining the aedileship. When about forty years of age he married
a lady of patrician rank, Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar. This gave
him a new social status, and being at the same time a popular favourite
and a brave, energetic soldier, he was in 115 elected praetor, in which
capacity he effected the subjugation of the troublesome province of
Further Spain. In the war with Jugurtha (109-106) he came to the front
as lieutenant of the consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus. When
he had already achieved some important successes over Jugurtha (q.v.),
in 107 he was elected consul for the first time (an almost unheard-of
honour for a "new man"), his popularity with the army and people being
sufficient to bear down all opposition. In the following year, in
conjunction with Sulla, he brought the war to a triumphant issue, and
passed two years in his province of Numidia, which he thoroughly subdued
and annexed. The surrender of the person of Jugurtha to Sulla gave rise
to the view that he, not Marius, had really ended the war, and so laid
the foundation of the subsequent enmity between the two leaders.

By this time Marius was generally recognized as the ablest general of
the day, and was appointed to the chief command against the Cimbri and
Teutones. Two Roman armies had been destroyed near the Lake of Geneva,
and it seemed as if a repetition of the disaster of the Allia and the
capture of Rome itself might not be impossible. Marius, out of
unpromising materials and a demoralized soldiery, organized a
well-disciplined army, with which he inflicted on the invaders two
decisive defeats, the first in 102 at Aquae Sextiae (_Aix_), 18 m. north
of Marseilles, and the second in the following year on the Raudian plain
near Vercellae (_Vercelli_), about midway between Turin and Milan. For
some centuries afterwards Rome remained unmolested by northern
barbarians. In 101 Marius was elected consul a fifth time (previously in
107, 104, 103, 102), hailed as the "saviour of his country," and
honoured with a triumph of unprecedented splendour.

The glorious part of his career was now over. Though a very able
soldier, he was without the intellectual culture which the Gracchi, his
political ancestors, possessed. As a politician he on the whole failed,
though he retained the confidence of the popular party almost to the
last. But he unfortunately associated himself with the demagogues
_Saturninus_ (q.v.) and Glaucia, in order to secure the consulship for
the sixth time (100). The manner in which he turned against his former
associates (although he probably had no choice in the matter) alienated
the sympathies of the plebs; and Marius, feeling that his only chance of
rehabilitation lay in war, left Rome for Asia, where he endeavoured to
provoke Mithradates to hostilities. On his return he served as legate in
the Social War (90), and defeated the Marsi on two occasions. In 88 war
broke out with Mithradates, and Sulla was appointed by the senate to the
chief command, which was eagerly desired by Marius. This led to a
rupture. With the assistance of the tribune Sulpicius Rufus, Marius
succeeded in getting the command transferred to himself. Sulla marched
upon Rome and defeated Marius, who fled to the marshes of Minturnae in
Latium. He was discovered and taken prisoner; and the local magistrates,
in accordance with Sulla's proclamation, resolved to put him to death.
The Gallic trooper sent to strike off the old man's head quailed, it is
said, before the fire of his eyes, and fled exclaiming, "I cannot kill
Gaius Marius." The inhabitants out of compassion then allowed Marius to
depart, and put him on board a ship which conveyed him to Carthage. When
forbidden to land, he told the messenger to inform the governor that he
had seen Marius sitting as a fugitive among the ruins of Carthage.
Having been joined by his son, he took refuge in the island of Cercina.
Meantime, Sulla having left Italy for the Mithradatic war, Cinna's
sudden and violent revolution put the senate at the mercy of the popular
leaders, and Marius greedily caught at the opportunity of a bloody
vengeance, which became in fact a reign of terror in which senators and
nobles were slaughtered wholesale. He had himself elected consul for the
seventh time, in fulfilment of a prophecy given to him in early manhood.
Less than three weeks afterwards he died of fever, on the 13th of
January 86.

Marius was not only a great general, but also a great military reformer.
From his time a citizen militia was replaced by a professional soldiery,
which had hitherto been little liked by the Roman people. He further
made the cohort the military unit instead of the maniple, and his
cavalry and light-armed troops were drawn from foreign countries, so
that it may be said that Marius was the originator of the mercenary
army. The Roman soldier was henceforth a man who had no trade but war. A
great general could hardly fail to become the foremost man in the state.
Marius, however, unlike Caesar, did not attempt to overturn the
oligarchy by means of the army; he used rather such expedients as the
constitution seemed to allow, though they had to be backed up by riot
and violence. He failed as a political reformer because the merchants
and the moneyed classes, whom the Gracchi had tried to conciliate,
feared that they would themselves be swept away by a revolution of which
the mob and its leaders would be the ultimate controllers. Marius had a
decided tinge of fanaticism and superstition. In canvassing for the
consulship he was guided by the counsels of an Etruscan soothsayer, and
was accompanied in his campaigns by a Syrian prophetess. The fashionable
accomplishments of the day, and the new Greek culture, were wholly alien
to his taste.

  For the life of Marius the original sources are numerous passages in
  Cicero's works, Sallust's _Jugurtha_, the epitomes of the lost books
  of Livy, Plutarch's _Lives_ of Sulla and Marius, Velleius Paterculus,
  Florus and Appian's _Bellum civite_. See F. D. Gerlach, _Marius und
  Sulla_ (Basel, 1856); I. Gilles, _Campagne de Marius dans la Gaule_
  (1870); W. Votsch, _Marius als Reformator des römischen Heerwesens_
  (with notes and references to ancient authorities, 1886); A. H. J.
  Greenidge, _History of Rome_, vol. i. (1904); also ROME: _History_,
  II. "The Republic."



MARIVAUX, PIERRE CARLET DE CHAMBLAIN DE (1688-1763), French novelist and
dramatist, was born at Paris on the 4th of February 1688. His father was
a financier of Norman extraction whose real name was Carlet, but who
assumed the surname of Chamblain, and then superadded that of Marivaux.
M. Carlet de Marivaux was a man of good reputation, and he received the
appointment of director of the mint at Riom in Auvergne, where and at
Limoges the young Pierre was brought up. It is said that he developed
literary tastes early, and wrote his first play, the _Père prudent et
équitable_, when he was only eighteen; it was not, however, published
till 1712, when he was twenty-four. His chief attention in those early
days was paid to novel writing, not the drama. In the three years from
1713 to 1715 he produced three novels--_Effets surprenants de la
sympathie_; _La Voiture embourbée_, and a book which had three
titles--_Pharsamon_, _Les Folies romanesques_, and _Le Don Quichotte
moderne_. All these books were in a curious strain, not in the least
resembling the pieces which long afterwards were to make his reputation,
but following partly the Spanish romances and partly the heroic novels
of the preceding century, with a certain intermixture of the marvellous.
Then Marivaux's literary ardour took a new phase. He fell under the
influence of Antoine Hondar [d] de La Motte, and thought to serve the
cause of that ingenious paradoxer by travestying Homer, an ignoble task,
which he followed up (perhaps, for it is not certain) by performing the
same office in regard to Fénelon. His friendship for La Motte, however,
introduced him to the _Mercure_, the chief newspaper of France, where in
1717 he produced various articles of the "Spectator" kind, which were
distinguished by much keenness of observation and not a little literary
skill. It was at this time that the peculiar style called Marivaudage
first made its appearance in him. The year 1720 and those immediately
following were very important ones for Marivaux; not only did he produce
a comedy, now lost except in small part, entitled _L'Amour et la
vérité_, and another and far better one entitled _Arlequin poli par
l'amour_, but he wrote a tragedy, _Annibal_ (printed 1737), which was
and deserved to be unsuccessful. Meanwhile his worldly affairs underwent
a sudden revolution. His father had left him a comfortable subsistence,
but he was persuaded by friends to risk it in the Mississippi scheme,
and after vastly increasing it for a time lost all that he had. His
prosperity had enabled him to marry (perhaps in 1721) a certain Mlle
Martin, of whom much good is said, and to whom he was deeply attached,
but who died very shortly. His pen now became almost his sole resource.
He had a connexion with both the fashionable theatres, for his _Annibal_
had been played at the Comédie Française and his _Arlequin poli_ at the
Comédie Italienne, where at the time a company who were extremely
popular, despite their imperfect command of French, were established. He
endeavoured too to turn his newspaper practice in the _Mercure_ to more
account by starting a weekly _Spectateur Français_ (1722-1723), to which
he was the sole contributor. But his habits were the reverse of
methodical; the paper appeared at the most irregular intervals; and,
though it contained some excellent work, its irregularity killed it. For
nearly twenty years the theatre, and especially the Italian theatre, was
Marivaux's chief support, for his pieces, though they were not ill
received by the actors at the Français, were rarely successful there.
The best of a very large number of plays (Marivaux's theatre numbers
between thirty and forty items) were the _Surprise de l'amour_ (1722),
the _Triomphe de Plutus_ (1728), the _Jeu de l'amour et du hasard_
(1730), _Les Fausses confidences_ (1737), all produced at the Italian
theatre, and _Le Legs_ (1736), produced at the French. Meanwhile he had
at intervals returned to both his other lines of composition. A
periodical publication called _L'Indigent philosophe_ appeared in 1727,
and another called _Le Cabinet du philosophe_ in 1734, but the same
causes which had proved fatal to the _Spectateur_ prevented these later
efforts from succeeding. In 1731 Marivaux published the first two parts
of his best and greatest work, _Marianne_, a novel of a new and
remarkable kind. The eleven parts appeared in batches at intervals
during a period of exactly the same number of years, and after all it
was left unfinished. In 1735 another novel, _Le Paysan parvenu_, was
begun, but this also was left unfinished. He was elected a member of the
Academy in 1742. He survived for more than twenty years, and was not
idle, again contributing occasionally to the _Mercure_, writing plays,
"reflections" (which were seldom of much worth), and so forth. He died
on the 12th February 1763, aged seventy-five years.

  The personal character of Marivaux was curious and somewhat
  contradictory, though not without analogies, one of the closest of
  which is to be found in Goldsmith. He was, however, unlike Goldsmith,
  at least as brilliant in conversation as with the pen. He was
  extremely good-natured, but fond of saying very severe things,
  unhesitating in his acceptance of favours (he drew a regular annuity
  from Helvetius), but exceedingly touchy if he thought himself in any
  way slighted. He was, though a great cultivator of _sensibilité_, on
  the whole decent and moral in his writings, and was unsparing in his
  criticism of the rising _Philosophes_. This last circumstance, and
  perhaps jealousy as well, made him a dangerous enemy in Voltaire, who
  lost but few opportunities of speaking disparagingly of him. He had
  good friends, not merely in the rich, generous and amiable Helvetius,
  but in Mme de Tencin, in Fontenelle and even in Mme de Pompadour, who
  gave him, it is said, a considerable pension, of the source of which
  he was ignorant. His extreme sensitiveness is shown by many stories.
  He had one daughter, who took the veil, the duke of Orleans, the
  regent's successor, furnishing her with her dowry.

  The so-called Marivaudage is the main point of importance about
  Marivaux's literary work, though the best of the comedies have great
  merits, and _Marianne_ is an extremely important step in the
  legitimate development of the French novel--legitimate, that is, in
  opposition to the brilliant but episodic productions of Le Sage. Its
  connexion, and that of _Le Paysan parvenu_, with the work not only of
  Richardson but of Fielding is also an interesting though a difficult
  subject. The subject matter of Marivaux's peculiar style has been
  generally and with tolerable exactness described as the metaphysic of
  love-making. His characters, in a happy phrase of Claude Prosper
  Jolyot Crébillon's, not only tell each other and the reader everything
  they have thought, but everything that they would like to persuade
  themselves that they have thought. The style chosen for this is justly
  regarded as derived mainly from Fontenelle, and through him from the
  Précieuses, though there are traces of it even in La Bruyère. It
  abuses metaphor somewhat, and delights to turn off a metaphor itself
  in some unexpected and bizarre fashion. Now it is a familiar phrase
  which is used where dignified language would be expected; now the
  reverse. In the criticism of Crébillon's already quoted occurs another
  happy description of Marivaux's style as being "an introduction to
  each other of words which have never made acquaintance, and which
  think that they will not get on together," a phrase as happy in its
  imitation as in its satire of the style itself. This kind of writing,
  of course, recurs at several periods of literature, and did so
  remarkably at the end of the 19th century in more countries than one.
  Yet this fantastic embroidery of language has a certain charm, and
  suits perhaps better than any other style the somewhat unreal
  gallantry and _sensibilité_ which it describes and exhibits. The
  author possessed, moreover, both thought and observation, besides
  considerable command of pathos.

  The best and most complete edition of Marivaux is that of 1781 in 12
  vols. reprinted with additions 1825-1830. The plays had been published
  during the author's lifetime in 1740 and 1748. There are modern
  editions by Paul de Saint Heylli Victor (1863), by G. d'Heylli (1876)
  and by E. Fournier (1878), while issues of selections and separate
  plays and novels are numerous. Of works concerning him J. Fleury's
  _Marivaux et le Marivaudage_ (Paris, 1881), G. Larroumet's _Marivaux,
  sa vie et ses oeuvres_ (1882; new ed., 1894), the standard work on the
  subject, and G. Deschamps's _Marivaux_ (1897), in the _Grands
  écrivains français_, are the most important. Separate articles on him
  will be found in the collected essays of the chief modern French
  critics from Sainte-Beuve onwards.     (G. Sa.)



MARJORAM, (O. Fr. _majorane_, Med. Lat. _majorana_; not connected with
_major_, greater, nor with _amaracus_), in botany, the common name for
some aromatic herbs or undershrubs, belonging to the genus _Origanum_
(natural order Labiatae). Wild marjoram is _O. vulgare_, a perennial
common in England in dry copses and on hedge-banks, with many stout
stems 1 to 3 ft. high, bearing short-stalked somewhat ovate leaves and
clusters of purple flowers. Sweet or knotted marjoram, _O. Marjorana_,
and pot marjoram, _O. Onites_, are cultivated for the use of their
aromatic leaves, either green or dry, for culinary purposes; the tops
are cut as the plants begin to flower and are dried slowly in the shade.



MARK, ST, the traditional author of the second Gospel. His name occurs
in several books of the New Testament, and doubtless refers in all cases
to the same person, though this has been questioned. In the Acts of the
Apostles (xii. 12) we read of "John, whose surname was Mark," and gather
that Peter was a familiar visitor at the house of his mother Mary, which
was a centre of Christian life in Jerusalem. That he was, as his Roman
surname would suggest, a Hellenist, follows from the fact that he was
also cousin ("nephew" is a later sense of [Greek: anepsios], see J. B.
Lightfoot on Col. iv. 10) of Barnabas, who belonged to Cyprus. When
Barnabas and Paul returned from their relief visit to Judaea (c. A.D.
46), Mark accompanied them (xii. 25). Possibly he had shown in connexion
with their relief work that practical capacity which seems to have been
his distinctive excellence (cf. 2 Tim. iv. 11). When, not long after,
they started on a joint mission beyond Syria, Mark went as their
assistant, undertaking the minor personal duties connected with travel,
as well as with their work proper (xiii. 5). As soon, however, as their
plans developed, after leaving Cyprus and on arrival at Perga in
Pamphylia (see PAUL), Mark withdrew, probably on some matter of
principle, and returned to Jerusalem (xiii. 13). When, then, Paul
proposed, after the Jerusalem council of Acts xv., to revisit with
Barnabas the scenes of their joint labours, he naturally demurred to
taking Mark with them again, feeling that he could not be relied on
should fresh openings demand a new policy. But Barnabas stood by his
younger kinsman and "took Mark and sailed away to Cyprus" (xv. 38 seq.).
Barnabas does not reappear, unless we trust the tradition which makes
him an evangelist in Alexandria (Clem. _Hom._ i. 9 seq., cf. the
attribution to him of the Alexandrine _Epistle of Barnabas_).

When Mark appears once more, it is in Paul's company at Rome, as a
fellow-worker joining in salutations to Christians at Colossae (Col. iv.
10; Philem. 24). We gather, too, that his restoration to Paul's
confidence took place some time earlier, as the Colossians had already
been bidden by oral message or letter to welcome him if he should visit
them. This points to a reconciliation during Paul's last sojourn in
Jerusalem or Caesarea. Not long after Col. iv. 10 Mark seems to have
been sent by Paul to some place in the province of Asia, lying on the
route between Ephesus and Rome. For in 2 Tim. iv. 11 Paul bids Timothy,
"Pick up Mark and bring him with thee, for he is useful to me for
ministering."

Once more Mark's name occurs in the New Testament, this time with yet
another leader, Peter, the friend of his earliest Christian years in
Jerusalem, to whom he attached himself after the deaths of Barnabas and
Paul. Peter's words, "Mark, my son," show how close was the spiritual
tie between the older and the younger man (1 Pet. v. 13); and as he is
writing from Rome ("Babylon," since Paul's death and the change of
policy it implied), this forms a link between the New Testament and
early tradition, which speaks of Mark as an Evangelist writing his
Gospel under the influence of Peter's preaching (in Rome). This is the
essence of the tradition preserved from "the elders of former days" by
Clement of Alexandria (in Eus. ii. 15, vi. 14), a tradition probably
based on Papias's record (cf. Eus. iii. 39) of the explanation given by
"the Elder" (John) as to the contrast in form between Mark's memoirs of
Peter's discourses and the Gospel of Matthew (see GOSPELS; PAPIAS), but
defining the place where these memoirs were written as Rome. That he
acted to some degree as Peter's interpreter or dragoman ([Greek:
hermêneus]), owing to the apostle's imperfect mastery of Greek, is held
by some but denied by others (e.g. by Zahn). His rôle throughout his
career was _servus servorum dei_; and the fact that he was this
successively to Barnabas, Paul and Peter, helps to show the essential
harmony of their message.

The identification of the author of the second Gospel with Mark, which
we owe to tradition, enables us to fill in our picture of him a little
further. Thus it is possible that Mark was himself the youth ([Greek:
neaniskos]) to whom his Gospel refers as present at Jesus's arrest (xiv.
51 seq.; cf. his detailed knowledge as to the place of the last supper,
13 seq.). It is probably as evangelist, and not in his own person, that
he became known as "he of the stunted extremities" ([Greek:
kolobodaktulos], "curt-fingered"), a title first found in Hippolytus
(_Haer._ vii. 30), in a context which makes its metaphorical reference
to his Gospel pretty evident.[1] It was too as evangelist that he became
personally a subject of later interest, and of speculative legends due
to this, e.g. he was one of the Seventy (first found in Adamantius,
_Dial. de recta fide_, 4th century), he was the founder of the
Alexandrine Church (recorded as a tradition by Eusebius, ii. 16) and its
first bishop (id. ii. 2), and was author of the local type of liturgy
(cf. the _Acts of Mark_, ch. vii., not earlier than the end of the 4th
century).

As to his last days and death nothing is really known. It is
possible--even probable, if we accept the theory that he had already[2]
been there with Barnabas--that Alexandria was his final sphere of work,
as the earliest tradition on the point implies (the Latin _Prologue_,
and Eusebius as above, probably after Julius Africanus in the early 3rd
century), and as was widely assumed in the 4th century. That he died and
was buried there is first stated by Jerome (_De vir. ill._ 8), to which
his _Acts_ adds the glory of martyrdom (cf. Ps.-Hippolytus, _De LXX
Apostolis_).

  LITERATURE.--H. B. Swete, _The Gospel acc. to St Mark_ (1898),
  Introduction, § I., where the authorities are fully cited; also the
  art. in Hastings's _Dict. Bible_. The Patristic and other legends are
  discussed at length by R. A. Lipsius, _Die apokr. Apostelgesch.
  u.s.w._ (1884), ii. 2, and T. Schermann, _Propheten- und
  Apostellegenden_ (1907), 285 seq. (with special reference to
  Ps.-Hippolytus and Ps.-Dorotheus).     (J. V. B.)


  _Medieval Legends._

  The majority of medieval writers on the subject state that Mark was a
  Levite; but this is probably no more than an inference from his
  supposed relationship to Barnabas. The Alexandrian tradition seems to
  have been that he was of Cyrenaean origin; and Severus, a writer of
  the 10th century, adds to this the statement that his father's name
  was Aristobulus, who, with his wife Mary, was driven from the
  Pentapolis to Jerusalem by an invasion of barbarians (Severus
  Aschimon in Renaudot, _Hist. patriarch. alex._, p. 2). In the
  apocryphal Acts of Barnabas, which profess to be written by him, he
  speaks of himself as having been formerly a servant of Cyrillus, the
  high priest of Zeus, and as having been baptized at Iconium. The
  presbyter John, whom Papias quotes, says distinctly that "he neither
  heard the Lord nor accompanied Him" (Eusebius, _loc. cit._); and this
  positive statement is fatal to the tradition, which does not appear
  until about two hundred and fifty years afterwards, that he was one of
  the seventy disciples (Epiphanius, pseudo-Origen _De recta in Deum
  fide_, and the author of the _Paschal Chronicle_). Various other
  results of the tendency to fill up blank names in the gospel history
  must be set aside on the same ground; it was, for example, believed
  that Mark was one of the disciples who "went back" because of the
  "hard saying" (pseudo-Hippolyt., _De LXX Apostolis_ in Cod. Barocc.
  Migne, _Patrol. graec._ x. 955); there was an Alexandrian tradition
  that he was one of the servants at the miracle of Cana of Galilee,
  that he was the "man bearing a pitcher of water" in whose house the
  last supper was prepared, and that he was also the owner of the house
  in which the disciples met on the evening of the resurrection
  (Renaudot, _loc. cit._); and even in modern times there has been the
  conjecture that he was the "certain young man" who "fled naked" from
  Gethsemane, Mark xiv. 51, 52 (Olshausen).

  A tradition which was widely diffused, and which is not in itself
  improbable, was that he afterwards preached the gospel and presided
  over the church at Alexandria (the earliest extant testimony is that
  of Eusebius, _H. E._ ii. 16, 1; ii. 24; for the fully-developed legend
  of later times see Symeon Metaphrastes, _Vita S. Marci_, and Eutychius
  _Origines ecclesiae Alexandrinae_). There was another, though perhaps
  not incompatible, tradition that he preached the gospel and presided
  over the church at Aquileia in North Italy. The earliest testimony in
  favour of this tradition is the vague statement of Gregory of
  Nazianzus that Mark preached in Italy, but its existence in the 7th
  century is shown by the fact that in A.D. 629 Heraclius sent the
  patriarchal chair from Alexandria to Grado, to which city the
  patriarchate of Aquileia had been then transferred (_Chron. patriarch.
  Gradens._, in Ughelli, _Italia sacra_, tom. v. p. 1086; for other
  references to the general tradition see De Rubeis, _Monum. eccles.
  aquileien._, c. 1; _Acta sanctorum_, ad April, xxv.). It was through
  this tradition that Mark became connected with Venice, whither the
  patriarchate was further transferred from Grado; an early Venetian
  legend, which is represented in the Cappella Zen in the basilica of St
  Mark, antedates this connexion by picturing the evangelist as having
  been stranded on the Rialto, while it was still an uninhabited island,
  and as having had the future greatness of the city revealed to him
  (Danduli, _Chron._ iv. 1, ap. Muratori, _Rer. ital. script._ xii. 14).

  The earliest traditions appear to imply that he died a natural death
  (Eusebius, Jerome, and even Isidore of Seville); but the Martyrologies
  claim him as a martyr, though they do not agree as to the manner of
  his martyrdom. According to the pseudo-Hippolytus he was burned; but
  Symeon Metaphrastes and the _Paschal Chronicle_ represent him to have
  been dragged over rough stones until he died. But, however that may
  be, his tomb appears to have been venerated at Alexandria, and there
  was a firm belief at Venice in the middle ages that his remains had
  been translated thither in the 9th century (the fact of the
  translation is denied even by Tillemont; the weakness of the evidence
  in support of the tradition is apparent even in Molini's vigorous
  defence of it, lib. ii. c. 2; the minute account which the same writer
  gives, lib., ii. c. 11, of the discovery of the supposed actual bones
  of the evangelist in A.D. 1811, is interesting). There was another
  though less widely accepted tradition, that the remains soon after
  their translation to Venice were retranslated to the abbey of
  Reichenau on Lake Constance; a circumstantial account of this
  retranslation is given in the treatise _Ex miraculis S. Marci_, in
  Pertz, _Mon. hist. german. script._, tom. iv. p. 449. It may be added
  that the Venetians prided themselves on possessing, not only the body
  of St Mark, but also the autograph of his Gospel; this autograph,
  however, proved on examination to be only part of a 6th-century book
  of the Gospels, the remainder of which was published by Bianchini as
  the _Evangeliarium forojuliense_; the Venetian part of this MS. was
  found some years ago to have been wholly destroyed by damp.

  It has been at various times supposed that Mark wrote other works
  besides the Gospel. Several books of the New Testament have been
  attributed to him: viz. the Epistle to the Hebrews (Spanheim, _Op.
  miscell._ ii. 240), the Epistle of Jude (cf. Holtzmann, _Die
  synoptischen Evangelien_, p. 373), the Apocalypse (Hitzig, _Ueber
  Johannes Marcus_, Zürich, 1843). The apocryphal _Acta Barnabae_
  purport to have been written by him. There is a liturgy which bears
  his name, and which exists in two forms; the one form was found in a
  MS. of the 12th century in Calabria, and is, according to Renaudot,
  the foundation of the three liturgies of St Basil, St Gregory
  Nazianzen and St Cyril; the other is that which is used by the
  Maronite and Jacobite Syrians. Both forms have been published by
  Renaudot, _Liturg. oriental. collect_, i. 127, and ii. 176, and in
  Neale's _History of the Holy Eastern Church_; but neither has any
  substantial claim to belong to the ante-Nicene period of Christian
  literature.

  The symbol by which Mark is designated in Christian art is usually
  that of a lion. Each of the "four living creatures" of Ezekiel and the
  Apocalypse has been attributed to each of the four evangelists in
  turn; Augustine and Bede think that Mark is designated by the "man";
  Theophylact and others think that he is designated by the eagle;
  Anastasius Sinaita makes his symbol the ox; but medieval art
  acquiesced in the opinion of Jerome that he was indicated by the lion.
  Most of the martyrologies and calendars assign April 25 as the day on
  which he should be commemorated; but the _Martyr. Hieron._ gives the
  23rd of September, and some Greek martyrologies give the 11th of
  January. This unusual variation probably arises from early differences
  of opinion as to whether there was one Mark or more than one.

  See Canon Molini of Venice, _De vita et lipsanis S. Marci
  Evangelistae_, edited, after the author's death, by S. Pieralisi, the
  librarian of the Barberini library (1864); R. A. Lipsius, _Die
  apokryphen Apostelgesch. und Apostellegenden_ (1883 foll). vol. ii.
  part 2, pp. 321-353.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The divergent lines of the later attempts at a literal
    interpretation--e.g. he amputated his thumb in order to escape the
    Levitical priesthood (Latin _Prologue_), or it was a natural defect
    (_Cod. Tolet._)--suggest that all they had to start from was the
    epithet itself.

  [2] Nicephorus Callistus, _Hist. Eccl._ ii. 43, assumes this in his
    picturesque account of Mark's preaching in a quarter of the city
    which seems to have contained the tomb of the early bishops of
    Alexandria (cf. his _Acts_).



MARK, a word of which the principal meanings are in their probable order
of development,--boundary, an object set up to indicate a boundary or
position; hence a sign or token, impression or trace. The word in O.
Eng. is _mearc_, and appears in all Teutonic languages, cf. Du. _merk_,
Ger. _Mark_, boundary, _marke_, sign, impression; Romanic languages have
borrowed the word, cf. Fr. _marque_, Ital. _marca_. Cognate forms
outside Teutonic have been found in Lat. _margo_, "margin," and Pers.
_marz_, boundary. Others would refer to the Lith. _margas_, striped,
parti-coloured, and Sanskrit _marga_, trace, especially of hunted game.
In the sense of boundary, or a tract of country on or near a boundary or
frontier, "mark" in English usage proper is obsolete, and "march" (q.v.)
has established itself. It still remains, however, to represent the
German _mark_, a tract of land held in common by a village community
(see MARK SYSTEM), and also historically the name of certain
principalities, such as the mark of Brandenburg. The Italian _marca_ is
also sometimes rendered by "mark," as in the mark of Ancona.

Mark is also the name of a modern silver coin of the German empire. This
is apparently a distinct word and not of Teutonic origin; it is found in
all Teutonic and Romanic languages, Latinized as _marca_ or _marcus_.
The mark was originally a measure of weight only for gold and silver and
was common throughout western Europe and was equivalent to 8 oz. The
variations, however, throughout the middle ages were considerable (see
Du Cange, _Gloss. med. et infim. Lat., s.v. Marca_ for a full list). In
England the "mark" was never a coin, but a money of account only, and
apparently came into use in the 10th century through the Danes. It first
was taken as equal to 100 pennies, but after the Norman Conquest was
equal to 160 pennies (20 pennies to the oz.) = 2/3 of the pound
sterling, or 13s. 4d., and therefore in Scotland 13½d. English; the mark
(merk) Scots was a silver coin of this value, issued first in 1570 and
afterwards in 1663. The modern German _mark_ was adopted in 1873 as the
standard of value and the money of account. It is of the value of 6.146
grains of gold, 900 fine, and is equal to English standard gold of the
value of 11.747 pence. The modern silver coin, nearly equal in value to
the English shilling, was first issued in 1875. (See NUMISMATICS, § iv.)



MARK, GOSPEL OF ST, the second of the four canonical Gospels of the
Christian Church. Till quite recent times this Gospel, though nominally
equal to the others in authority, has unquestionably not aroused the
same interest or feelings of attachment as they have, partly from its
not bearing the name of an apostle for its author, as the first and
fourth do, partly, also, owing to the fact that the first and third,
while they include most of what is found in it, contain much additional
matter, which is of the highest value. Of late, however, it has acquired
new importance through the critical inquiries which have led to the
conclusion that the two other synoptic Gospels are based upon it, or
upon a document which is upon the whole most truly represented in it
(see GOSPEL), so that it possesses the advantage of being an earlier
source of information, or at least of bringing us more fully into
contact with such a source. The significance of all that we can learn as
to the history of the composition of Mark's Gospel is clearly enhanced
by this consideration.

(1) _Early Account of a Writing by Mark._--According to a fragment of
Papias (ap. Eus. _Hist. Eccl._ III. 39) taken from a work probably
written c. A.D. 140, Mark, who was the follower and interpreter of
Peter, recorded after the latter's decease the words of Christ and the
narratives of His deeds which he had heard the Apostle deliver, but he
could not arrange the matter "in order," because he had not himself been
a personal follower of Jesus. This account Papias had derived, he tells
us, from an informant who had heard it repeatedly given by "the elder,"
a Christian of the first generation.

There can be little doubt that the work to which Papias himself supposed
this story to apply was the Gospel of Mark virtually as we know it. The
tradition in regard to this work must have been continuous between his
time and that of Irenaeus, who (c. A.D. 180) gives a similar account of
its composition. It may be noted also that the same view of the origin
of the Gospel of Mark appears to have been held by a contemporary of
Papias, Justin Martyr. In his _Dialogue with Trypho_ (c. 106) he cites a
fact about the name of Peter from "his Memoirs," and adds also another
similar fact about the name given to the sons of Zebedee, just as they
are stated in Mark iii. 16, 17, and nowhere else so far as we know. He
may well have been ready to call the work "Peter's," though he believed
that Mark actually composed it, on the ground that the latter recorded
what the Apostle said (cf. ibid. c. 103).

But is our Gospel of Mark also to be identified with the writing by Mark
spoken of by "the elder" whose account had been reported to Papias? Some
confusion is here more conceivable; while, if it is supposed that such a
writing was worked up in our second Gospel, this may seem sufficient to
explain the connexion of Mark's name with the latter.

In support of this view it is urged, though it is so much less often now
than it used to be, that the description "not in order" does not fit our
Gospel of Mark, the order in which is from an historical point of view
as good as, if not better than, in the other Gospels. But from
whomsoever the expression proceeds--whether from Papias, or his
informant, or "the elder"--we may feel sure that considerations such as
appeal to us from our training in historical criticism are not those
which suggested it, but rather the want of agreement between this Gospel
and some standard which on altogether different grounds was applied to
it. This argument, then, for supposing that the original writing by Mark
differed widely in form and contents from the Gospel which now bears his
name appears to be without force. The question whether the two differed
to any, and if so to what, extent can be decided only from an
examination of the Gospel itself.

(2) _The Question of the Integrity of the Gospel of Mark._--There are in
a good many parts of this Gospel indications that the narrative has been
derived from Simon Peter, or some one else who was a personal follower
of Jesus in the days of His earthly ministry. It has been widely felt
that the account of the call of the first four disciples and of the
events which immediately followed (i. 15-39) at the opening of the
Galilean ministry, bears strong marks of proceeding from Simon Peter.
Other passages might be pointed out in which it is suitable to suppose
that this disciple in particular was the informant. But we will content
ourselves with noticing signs that the reminiscences of some eyewitness
are recorded. (a) Traits appear which are wholly without importance, and
upon which no stress is laid in the context, but which it was natural
for a narrator who was actually present, and only for such a one to
introduce, because he remembered them as associated with the principal
events. The following are instances and others might be cited: the
mention of "other boats," iv. 36; the half-foolish remark made by Peter
when in a dazed condition at the Transfiguration, ix. 5, 6; the young
man who, when Jesus was arrested, followed, "having a linen cloth cast
about him," xiv. 51, 52; the fact that Simon of Cyrene was "coming from
the country," xv. 21. (b) There is great truth of local colouring. The
references to places and the descriptions of natural features (the
lake-shore, i. 16; ii. 13; iii. 7; the hills near at hand, iii. 13; v.
5, 13; vi. 46; the desert places among the hills or by the shore, i. 35,
45; vi. 31, 32) appear to be accurate; the routes indicated in the
journeys that are taken are probable (vii. 24, 31; viii. 27; x. 17, 32,
46; xi. 1). Again, the term "village-towns" (i. 38) is a remarkably
appropriate one (cf. Josephus, B. I. III. iii. 2). There would, indeed,
be an exception to the general correctness of the topography if we were
compelled to suppose that "country of the Gerasenes" (which is the best
reading according to existing MS. evidence at Mark v. 1) must mean the
territory of the city of Gerasa. But it is easy to imagine that some
confusion may have arisen in the transliteration of the name into Greek,
and that the place really indicated is Khersa, near the middle of the
eastern shore of the lake. The pair of references (vi. 45, 53) which
might also be adduced as an exception, will be noticed below. Further,
the conditions of life and thought in Palestine at the time in question
are faithfully represented, Aramaic words spoken on some important
occasions are preserved (iii. 17; v. 41; xv. 34). And, to mention a
point of a different kind, the parts played by different sections among
the Jewish people are such as might be expected. The point of view of
speakers and actors is throughout that belonging to the time of the
ministry of Jesus, not to that when the Christian Church had come into
existence. (c) The good order in this Gospel, i.e. the natural
development of the narrative, will be indicated below. It has without
good reason, as we have seen, been supposed to show that it cannot be
the record by Mark referred to by Papias. And in reality it would be
difficult to account for this feature except on the supposition that one
who had lived through the events had been accustomed, when required to
give a comprehensive sketch of the history of the ministry and
sufferings of Jesus, to relate the facts in the main as they happened;
and that a hearer of his has to a considerable extent reproduced them in
the same order.

The last consideration seems to show that the general form and structure
of the Gospel, and not merely certain portions of it, are original. In
point of style, also, there is a large amount of uniformity. The chief
exceptions are that, whereas some incidents are related in a very
concise manner (e.g. i. 23-28, and 40-45), there is in other cases
considerable amplitude of description (see esp. v. 1-20, 35-43 and ix.
14-27). But Mark's own writing might exhibit this variety, according to
what he had been told or could remember. Moreover, a tendency to
amplitude of language may be noticed here and there in some of the more
concise narratives. Further, it would be unreasonable to suppose that
Mark, even if he relied chiefly on what he had heard Peter teach, would
refrain from using any other sources of information which he possessed.
Some have supposed that the same Logian document in Greek which was used
by the first and third evangelists was also used by Mark. This is highly
improbable, but he may have derived particular sayings from the Aramaic
source itself of that document by independent translation; and may also
have learned both sayings and narratives in other ways. It would seem
also that the Discourse on the Last Things in ch. xiii., differing as it
does both in its greater length and in its systematic structure from
other discourses recorded by him, must have come to his hands in a
written form. In it some genuine sayings of Christ appear to have been
worked up along with matter taken from Jewish Apocalypses and in
accordance with an Apocalyptic model.

There does not, then, seem to be good reason for thinking that the work
which proceeded from the hands of Mark differed widely in character and
contents from the Gospel which now bears his name. But there are
indications that some passages have been interpolated in it: e.g. in
Mark iv. 10 there is some want of fitness in the inquiry of the
disciples as to the meaning of "the parables" after only one has been
given, and again a want of agreement between that inquiry and the words
of Jesus at _v._ 13, "Know ye not _this_ parable, and how shall ye know
all the parables?" We notice further that the two parables in _vv._
26-32 are somewhat loosely appended. It looks as if they were insertions
in the passage as it originally stood, and that the references to
parables in the plural, together with the statement at vv. 33, 34, had
been introduced in order to adapt the context to these additions. This
view is confirmed by the fact that in Luke viii. 4 seq. only one
parable, that of the sower, is given or referred to. This evangelist has
probably here followed the original form of Mark. Similarly the
collection of sayings after Mark ix. 40 (vv. 41-50) has probably been
interpolated. They are thrown together in a way unusual with Mark, who
is accustomed to place each important saying in a setting of its own.
Here again we note that they do not appear at the corresponding point in
Luke, though some of them are given by him in other contexts. The
account of the crossing of the lake (vi. 45-53) after the feeding of the
five thousand furnishes an instance of a different kind. The difficulty
as to the position of Bethsaida, or (if [Greek: eis to peran], "unto the
other side," at v. 45 is taken to refer only to the crossing of a bay at
the north-eastern corner of the lake) the discrepancy between "crossing"
in this sense and in that of v. 53 would be explained if the narrative
(which is not in Luke) may be held to be an interpolation by one not
familiar with the localities. Once more, the account of the feeding of
the four thousand (viii. 1-9) resembles that of the feeding of the five
thousand (vi. 35-44) closely in all respects except that of the numbers
given, about which differences might easily arise in tradition, and it
looks therefore as if it might be a "doublet," i.e. another form of the
same narrative derived through a different channel. And it is not so
likely that Mark should have mistaken it for a distinct incident as that
an editor of his Gospel should have done so. Some other instances, of
greater or less probability, might be mentioned.

In addition to such larger insertions, the text of the original document
seems to have undergone a certain amount of revision. Some of the cases
in which the first and third evangelist agree against Mark in a word or
clause may be best accounted for by their both having reproduced the
common source (an example may be seen under 4 below).

As we have found it necessary to distinguish between the original
composition by Mark, to whom in the main the work appears to be due, and
some enlargement and alteration which it subsequently underwent whereby
it reached its present form, these stages must be borne in mind in
considering dates that may be assigned in connexion with this Gospel.
According to Papias, Mark wrote after the death of Peter, i.e. after
A.D. 64, if we suppose, as it is usual to do, that Peter was martyred in
the massacre by Nero after the burning of Rome. It would be natural for
Mark to set himself to make his record soon after the Apostle's death;
and in confirmation of the view that he did so it may be pointed out
that in the form of the prophecy in ch. xiii. of the calamities that
were to come upon Jerusalem, no details occur of a kind to suggest that
it had actually taken place. Further, Mark's work may very probably have
been used by Luke in its original form. On the other hand, it was known
to our first evangelist very nearly in the form in which we have it. The
chief revision of Mark would seem, then, to have taken place between the
times of the composition of the first and third Gospels, which cannot be
far removed from one another (see MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF ST). The last
twelve verses were added later still, probably early in the 2nd century,
probably to take the place of the ending which had been lost, or which
was regarded as defective. (On the evidence that the last 12 verses are
not by the same hand as the rest of the Gospels see Westcott and Hort's
_New Testament in Greek_, append., p. 29 seq. and Swete's _St Mark in
loc._ and p. xcvi. seq. of his introduction.)

  (3) _The Gospel History as represented in Mark._--After a (i)
  prefatory passage, i. 1-13, the Gospel deals with (ii) _Christ's
  ministry in Galilee and other parts of northern Palestine_, i. 14-ix.
  50. This portion of the history may suitably be divided into three
  periods: (a) _Early period._ From the opening of the work of Jesus to
  the first plot to destroy Him (i. 14-iii. 6). (b) _Middle period._
  From the gathering of crowds from all parts and appointment of the
  Twelve to the sending forth of the Twelve to extend Christ's work and
  the alarm of Herod (iii. 7-vi. 29). (c) _Closing period._ From
  Christ's withdrawal with His disciples after their return from their
  mission to His final departure from Galilee (vi. 30-ix. 50).
  Throughout we can trace a development as to (a) the stir created and
  the attitude of men towards Jesus: i. 32-34, 37 (excitement at
  Capernaum); 38, 45 (fame spreads through a wide district); iii. 7, 8
  (people from distant parts appear in the crowds); iv. 2 seq. (the word
  of the Kingdom is received in very various ways); viii. 28 (great
  diversity of opinions as to the claims of Jesus); (b) the opposition
  to Him, ii. 1-iii. 6-iii. 22 (scribes come from Jerusalem and a more
  heinous charge is preferred); (c) the formation of a band of disciples
  and the position accorded to them: i. 16-20 (four are called to follow
  Him); ii. 14 (yet another); iii. 14 (He "makes twelve" including those
  before called); vi. 7 seq (He sends them out to preach and work
  cures); (d) the methods which he adopts: i. 21, 39-iii. 1 (preaches in
  the synagogues, later more commonly by the lake-shore or on the
  mountain sides; or He teaches in a house where He happens to be); at
  iv. 1 seq. he adopts a new mode of address because a sifting-process
  was required; from vi. 45 onwards He mainly devotes Himself to the
  training of the Twelve, while seeking retirement from the multitude;
  (e) in the districts which he visits: i. 38 (tour in the neighbourhood
  of Capernaum); v. 1 (crosses to eastern shore of the lake); vi. 6b (a
  tour which includes Nazareth); vi. 45 (Bethsaida); vii. 31 (journey to
  Tyre and Sidon and back through Decapolis); viii. 22, 27 (is at
  Bethsaida and visits neighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi); (f) His
  self-revelation; viii. 27 seq. (first unambiguous declaration of His
  Messiahship).

  (iii) _The Journey from Galilee to Jerusalem, the Last Days, Passion
  and Resurrection_, x. 1 to end. He goes first to "the borders of
  Judaea and beyond Jordan" (Peraea), and exercises His ministry there,
  x. 1-16. In connexion with the journey from this region to Jerusalem
  three striking incidents are recorded, x. 17-52. The account of the
  time in Jerusalem includes a series of conflicts with opponents xi.
  27-xii. 40, and the discourse on the Last Things, xiii. The only notes
  of time in the Gospel occur in connexion with the conspiracy to kill
  Jesus (xiv. 1) and the Last Supper (verse 12).

(4) _The Leading Ideas of St Mark._--Ch. i. 1, which stands as a title,
was probably, even according to the short form of it which is supported
by MS. evidence, due to a reviser of the original. Both Matthew and Luke
show signs of having had a somewhat different beginning before them.
Nevertheless, that title fitly describes the work. It is emphatically
"the Gospel," because it sets forth the person and work of the Christ.
The evangelist is conscious of this aim. It appears not only at great
moments of the history such as the Baptism (i. 11), the confession of
Peter (viii. 29), the Transfiguration (ix. 7); nor again merely in the
prominence given to the miracles of Jesus and in particular to the
casting out of devils, but also in many of the sayings recorded in it,
as in the great series contained in the narratives in ch. ii. 5, 10, 17,
19; and again in the reply of Jesus to those who charged Him with being
in collusion with Satan (iii. 27). The character of the genuine
disciples of the Christ and the demands that are made of them form, as
it were, the complement to the representation of what He Himself is, and
are set forth in other striking sayings, related along with the
memorable occasions on which they were spoken: (iii. 34, 35; viii.
34-36; ix. 23, 29, 35-37; x. 14, 15, 42-45).

  See Swete, _Commentary on St Mark_ (2nd ed., 1902); A. Menzies, _The
  Earliest Gospel_ (1901); D. W. Wrede, _Das Messiasgeheimniss in den
  Evangelien, zugleich ein Beitrag zum Verständniss des
  Markusevangeliums_ (1901); E. J. Weiss, _Das älteste Evangelium_
  (1903). Also bibliography to the article GOSPEL.     (V. H. S.)



MARKBY, SIR WILLIAM (1829-   ), English jurist, the fourth son of the
Rev. William Henry Markby, rector of Duxford St Peter's, was born at
Duxford, Cambridge, in 1829. He was educated at Bury St Edmunds and
Merton College, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1850. In 1856 he was
called to the bar, and in 1865 he became recorder of Buckingham. In 1866
he went to India as judge of the High Court of Calcutta. This post he
held for twelve years, and on his retirement was appointed Reader in
Indian Law at Oxford. In 1892 he was a member of the Commission to
inquire into the administration of justice at Trinidad and Tobago.
Besides _Lectures on Indian Law_, he wrote _Elements of Law considered
with reference to the General Principles of Jurisprudence_. The latter,
being intended in the first place for Indian students, calls attention
to many difficulties in the definition and application of legal
conceptions which are usually passed over in textbooks, and it ranks as
one of the few books on the philosophy of law which are both useful to
beginners and profitable to teachers and thinkers. In 1897 appeared _The
Indian Evidence Act, with Notes_. Sir William Markby also contributed
to the law magazines, articles on _Law and Fact_, _German Jurists and
Roman Law_, _Legal Fictions_, &c., several of which are embodied in the
later editions of the _Elements_. He was made D.C.L. of Oxford in 1879,
and K.C.I.E. in 1889.



MARKET (Lat. _mercatus_, trade or place of trade). This term is used in
two well-defined senses. (1) It means a definite place where (a) traders
who are retail sellers of a specific class of commodity or commodities
are in the habit of awaiting buyers every day in shops or stalls; or
whither (b) they are in the habit of proceeding on specified days at
more or less frequent regular intervals. Covent Garden market for fruit
and flowers, and Leadenhall market for meat and poultry, are good
examples in London of the kind of institution included in class (a).
They are a very ancient economic phenomenon, dating from the earliest
period of the development of organized communities of human beings, and
in general characteristics have changed little since they began to
exist. Markets of the type of class (b) are also of very ancient origin
(see FAIRS), but inasmuch as they are constituted essentially by the
presence of persons, many of whom assemble from various places outside
the place of meeting, they were capable of a little more development
than those belonging to class (a), owing to increased facilities for
locomotion. The nature of an ancient market of class (a), whither a
citizen, say of Athens, or his chief slave, proceeded daily to make
household purchases, differs little from the group of shops visited by
the wives of the less wealthy citizens of modern states. In many places
abroad, and not a few in England, actual markets still exist. It may be
said that the huge collections of shops, such as the various cooperative
stores, are only a revival of the old "market-place," with its shops or
booths gathered round a central area, adapted to the needs of modern big
cities. (2) The term "market" has come to be used in another and more
general sense in modern times. According to Jevons, a market is "any
body of persons who are in intimate business relations, and carry on
extensive transactions in any commodity." He adds that "these markets
may or may not be localized," and he instances the money market as a
case in which the term "market" denotes no special locality. As a rule,
however, most of the business of a market is transacted at some
particular place, such as the London Stock Exchange, the Baltic, the
Bourse of Paris, the Chicago "Wheat-pit." Even in the case of the London
money market, merchants still meet twice a week at the Royal Exchange to
deal in foreign bills, although a considerable part of the dealings in
these securities is arranged daily at offices and counting-houses by
personal visits or by telegraphic or telephonic communication. The
markets in any important article are all closely interconnected. The
submarine cable has long ago made Chicago as important an influence on
the London corn market as Liverpool, or rather both London and Liverpool
affect and are simultaneously affected by Chicago and other foreign
markets. In like manner the Liverpool cotton market is influenced by the
markets in New Orleans and other American cities separated from it
widely in space. In a minor degree the dealers in all places where a
cotton market exists affect the bigger markets to some extent. What is
true of the cotton market is also true to some extent of all markets,
though few markets are so highly organized or show such large
transactions as that for cotton. Among other markets of the first class
may be mentioned those for pig-iron, wheat, copper, coffee, and sugar.
There are many articles the markets for which are of considerable
dimensions at times, but are of an intermittent character, such as the
London Wool Sales, which take place now in five "series" during the
year. Formerly the number of "series" was four. (For "market overt," see
SALE OF GOODS and STOLEN GOODS.)

_Characteristics of Markets._--The conditions required in order that the
operations of a trading body may display the fully-developed features of
a modern market, whether for commodities or securities, are:--

(1) A large number of parties dealing.

(2) A large amount of the commodities or securities to be dealt with.

(3) An organization by which all persons interested in the commodity or
security can rapidly communicate with one another.

(4) Existence and frequent publication of statistical and other
information as to the present and probable future supply of the
commodity or security.


  Movements of Prices.

The movements which take place in prices in any market, whether fully
organized or not, depend largely on changes of opinion among buyers and
sellers. The changes of opinion may be caused by erroneous as well as by
correct information. They may also be the result of wrong inferences
drawn from correct information. In markets for commodities of the first
importance, such as wheat, cotton, iron, and other articles which are
dealt in daily, the state of opinion may vary much during a few hours.
The broad characteristics of markets of this class are similar. There is
a tendency in all of them to show phenomena of annual periodicity, due
partly to the seasons, the activity of certain months being in normal
years greater in the case of any given market than that of other months.
This tendency was always liable to be interfered with by the special
forces at work in particular years; and the great increase in the
facilities of communication between dealers by telegraph, and of
transportation of commodities between widely distant points, which was
one of the marked features of the development of the economic organism
in all actively commercial countries during the last thirty years of the
19th century, has still further interfered with it. Nevertheless, a
tendency to annual periodicity is still perceptible, especially in
markets for produce of the soil, the supply of which largely depends on
the meteorological conditions of the areas where they are grown on a
scale sufficient to furnish an appreciable proportion of the total
produce.


  Cycles.

Periodicity of another kind known as "cyclic," and due to a different
set of causes, is believed to exist by many persons competent to form a
judgment; but although the evidence for this view is very strong, the
theory expounding it is not yet in a sufficiently advanced state to
admit of its being regarded as established.

_Phenomena of Markets._--Bagehot said of the money market that it is
"often very dull and sometimes extremely excited." This classical
description of the market for "money" applies to a large extent to all
markets.


  Tendency to Equilibrium.

Every market is at every moment tending to an equilibrium between the
quantity of commodities offered and that of commodities desired;
supposing equilibrium to have been attained in a given market, and that
for some appreciable period it is not disturbed, the price for the
commodity dealt in, in the market, will remain practically unchanged
during that period. Not that there will be no transactions going on, but
that the amounts offered daily will be approximately equal to the
amounts demanded daily.


  Disturbance of Equilibrium.

We have briefly described the statical condition of a market; we must
now briefly examine its dynamics. Disturbance may take place through a
change in--

(1) Supply, or opinion as to future probable supply.

(2) Demand, or opinion as to future probable demand.

(3) In both simultaneously, but such a change that demand is increased
or decreased more than the supply, or vice versa.

A moderate disturbance caused by one of the above changes, or a
combination of them, will produce an immediate effect on the price of
the commodity, which again will tend to react on both the supply and the
demand by altering the opinions of sellers and buyers. If no further
change tending to disturb the market takes place, the market will
gradually settle down again to a state of equilibrium. But if the
disturbance has been considerable, a relatively long time may elapse
before the market becomes quiet; and very likely the level of price at
which the new equilibrium is established will be very different from
that ruling before the disturbance set in. Further scientific
investigation of the dynamics of a market is in any case very
difficult, and is impossible without a complete analysis of the statical
condition, such as is found at length in the textbooks of mathematical
economics; but it is possible to describe briefly certain dynamical
phenomena of markets which are of a comparatively simple character, and
are also of practical interest.


  Future Delivery.

Every great market is organized with a view not merely to the purchase
and sale of a commodity at once, or "on the spot," but also with a view
to the future requirements of buyers and sellers. This organization
arises naturally from the necessities of business, since modern industry
and commerce are carried on continuously, and provision has to be made
for the requirements, say, of a spinning-mill, by arranging for the
delivery of successive quantities of cotton, wool or silk over a period
of months "ahead." In the case of cotton, "forward deliveries" can be
purchased six or seven months in advance, and the person who undertakes
to deliver the cotton at the times stated is said in the language of the
market to "sell forward." If the quantity of cotton produced each year
were always the same, no very remarkable results would follow from this
mode of doing business, except the economy resulting to the spinner from
not being compelled to lock up part of his capital in raw material
before he could use it. But as the cotton and other crops vary
considerably from year to year, some curious consequences follow from
the practice of "selling forward." The seller, of course, makes his
bargain in the belief that he will be able to "cover" the sale he has
made at a profit--that is, he hopes to be able to buy the cotton he has
to deliver at a lower price than he undertook to deliver it at. If so,
all is well for both parties, for the buyer has had the advantage of
having insured a supply of cotton. But supposing something has happened
to raise the price considerably, such as a great "shortage" of the crop,
the seller may lose. If a great many other persons have taken the same
mistaken view of the probabilities of the market, a condition of things
may arise in which they may be "cornered." (See COTTON.)


  "Corners."

A "corner" in an exchangeable article is an abnormal condition of the
market for it, in which, owing to a serious miscalculation of probable
supply, many traders who have made contracts to deliver at a certain
date are unable to fulfil them. In most cases the fact that the market
is "oversold" becomes known some time before the date for the completion
of the contracts, and other traders take advantage of the position to
raise the price against those who are "short" of the article. A corner
is therefore usually a result of the failure of a speculation for the
fall. Theoretically a trader who has undertaken to deliver 100 tons of
an article, but cannot, after every endeavour, obtain more than 90 tons,
could be made to pay his whole capital in order to be relieved from the
bargain. In practice he gets off more easily than this. Frequently when
many traders have sold largely "forward" other traders deliberately try
to use that position as a basis for creating a "corner." Generally,
however, they only succeed in causing great inconvenience to all
parties, themselves included, for as a rule they are only able to make
the "corner" effective by buying up so much of the article that when
they have compelled their opponents to pay largely to be relieved of
contracts to deliver, they are left with so big a stock of the article
that they cannot sell it except at a loss, which is sometimes big enough
to absorb the gain previously secured. In the case of very small markets
"corners" may be complete, but in big markets they are never complete,
something always happening to prevent the full realization of the
operators' plans. The idea of a "corner" is, however, so fascinating to
the commercial mind, especially in the United States, that probably no
year passes without an attempt at some operation of the kind, though the
conditions may in most cases prevent any serious result.

"Corners" have what is called a "moral" aspect. It is curious to note
that the indignation of the "market" at the disturbance to prices which
results from operations of this kind is generally directed against the
speculators for the fall, while that of the public, including trade
consumers, is directed against the operator for the rise. The operator
for the fall, or "bear," is denounced for "selling what he has not got,"
a very inaccurate description of his action, while the "bull" or
operator for the rise is spoken of by a much wider circle as a heartless
person who endeavours to make a profit out of the necessities of others.
From a strict ethical standpoint there is really nothing to choose
between the two.

_The Money Market._--There is one market which presents features of so
peculiar a character that it is necessary to describe it more
particularly than other phenomena of the kind, and that is the money
market. The term money is here used to denote "money-market money" or
"bankers' money," a form of wealth which has existed from early times,
but not in great abundance until within the last two or three hundred
years. Immense wealth has existed in certain countries at various
epochs, owing to the fertility of the soil, success in trade, or the
plunder of other communities, and all states which have been great have
at the time of their greatness possessed wealth; but the wealth which
the countries, or a few fortunate individuals belonging to them, owned
consisted largely of what is still called real property--that is, land
and buildings--and of the produce of the soil or of mines. The balance
consisted partly of merchandise of various kinds and shipping, and to a
large extent of the precious metals in the form of coin or bullion, or
of precious stones and jewelry. Where no settled government was
established no one could become or remain very wealthy who was not in a
position to defend himself by the strong hand or allied with those who
were; and as a rule the only people who could so defend themselves were
possessors of large areas of rich land, who were able to retain the
services of those who dwelt on it either through their personal military
qualities or in virtue of habit and custom. The inhabitants of wealthy
cities were able to protect themselves to some extent, but they nearly
always found it necessary to ally themselves with the neighbouring
land-owners, whom they aided with money in return for military support.

A money market in the modern sense of the word could only exist in a
rudimentary form under these conditions. There was a sort of money
market, for there was a changing rate of interest and a whole code of
law relating to it (Macleod, _Banking_, 3rd ed., p. 174) in republican
Rome; but although large lending and borrowing transactions were part of
the daily life of the Roman business world, as well as of those of the
Greek cities and of Carthage and its dependencies, none of these
communities presented the phenomena of a highly organised market.
Money-lending was also a regular practice in Egypt, Chaldea and other
ancient seats of civilization, as recent discoveries show. It was only
in comparatively recent times, however, when Europe had formed itself
into more or less organized states, with conditions fairly favourable to
the steady growth of trade and industry, that organized money markets
came into existence in places such as Venice, Genoa, Augsburg, Basel,
the Hanse towns, and various cities in the Low Countries, Spain and
Portugal, as well as in London. The financial strength of these
rudimentary money markets was not very great, and as it depended a good
deal on the possession by individuals of actual cash, the existence of
these markets was precarious. "Hoarded ducats" were too often an
attraction to needy princes, whose unwelcome attentions a rich merchant,
even when an influential burgher of a powerful city, was less able to
resist than the violence of a housebreaker, against whom strong vaults
and well-secured chests situated in defensible mansions were a good
protection. The necessitous potentate could often urge his desire for a
"loan" by very persuasive methods. Occasionally, if his predecessors had
acquired the confidence of the banking class sufficiently to induce them
to place their cash reserves in one of his strong places "for safety" an
unscrupulous ruler could help himself, as Charles II. helped himself to
the stores of the London goldsmiths which were left in the Mint. The
power of the banking class continued to grow, however, and a real market
for money had come into existence in many cities of Europe by the
middle of the 17th century. (See BANKS AND BANKING.)


  The Early Money Market.

In the 18th century the "money market" consisted of the Bank of England
and various banks and merchants, and distinction between the two being
still not complete. Towards the end of that century arose an important
class of dealers in credit, the bill brokers, and with their appearance
the modern money market of London may be said to have assumed its
present form, for though the process of development has not ceased, the
changes have been of the nature of growth and not of the acquisition of
new organs. The formation of joint-stock banks and discount companies,
however, and the reconstitution of the Bank of England by the Act of
1844, exercised an important influence on the way in which the money
market of London has developed. It must be explained that in the
every-day talk of the City "the market" has a special meaning, by which
only the banks and discount houses, or even only the latter in some
cases, are denoted, as in the phrases constantly seen in the daily
reports published in the newspapers towards the end of a quarter, "the
market has to-day borrowed largely from the Bank of England," or, "the
market was obliged to renew part of the loans which fell due to the Bank
to-day." But this use of the term in a special sense, thoroughly
understood by those to whom it is habitual, and resulting in no
ambiguity in practice, is not in accord with the requirements of
economic analysis.


  The Modern Money Market of London.

The working organs of the money market of London at the beginning of the
20th century were:--

  A. (1) The Bank of England.
     (2) Banks, joint-stock and private, including several great foreign
           banks.
     (3) Discount houses and bill-brokers.

  B. (4) Certain members of the Stock Exchange.
     (5) Certain great merchants and finance houses.

The institutions included in group A are the most constantly active
organs of the money market; those included in group B are intermittently
active, but in the case of section (4), though their activity is greater
at some times than others, they are never wholly outside the market.
Even in the case of (5) a certain amount of qualification is needed,
which is indicated by the fact that most of the great merchant houses
are "registered" as bankers, though they do not perform the functions
usually associated with that term in the United Kingdom. Several of the
great houses were originally and still are nominally merchants, but are
largely concerned with finance business--that is, with the making of
loans to foreign governments and the issue of capital on behalf of
companies. These powerful capitalists often have large amounts of money
temporarily in their hands, and lend it in the money market or on the
Stock Exchange; one or two of them are large buyers of bills from time
to time, and generally the members of this group may be said to be in
sufficiently close touch with the active organs of the money market to
form part of it.


  The Working of the Money Market.

The actual working of the money market has been described by Walter
Bagehot in his _Lombard Street_, a work which has attained the rank of a
classic. Most of what he said in 1873 is true now, but in certain minor
respects developments have taken place, the most important being the
greater extent to which money is "used up" every day, or rather every
night. In Bagehot's time the discount houses only quoted "allowance"
rates for "loans at call and short notice," based on the rate "allowed"
by the banks for loans at seven days' notice; but since then the
bill-brokers have been obliged--(1) occasionally to fix their terms
independently of the banks, and (2) to "allow" a rate for "money for the
night." This latter practice became usual about 1888 or 1889. The change
it introduced was not a vital one, but has some importance from the
point of view of the historian. A good deal of the "money" thus dealt
with is derived from the group of traders included in class (5). It is
(a) money which is temporarily in the hands of houses or institutions
which have just received subscriptions to loans or other capital offered
to the public; (b) balances left temporarily with finance houses or
banks on behalf of foreign governments or other parties who have
payments to make in London. In the former case the "money" is almost
invariably only available for a short time, probably only for a few
days; in the latter case also it probably will be only available for a
few days, but _may_ be available for months. Money derived from either
of these sources is usually to be had cheap, but is not, in the slang of
the City, "good," because it is uncertain how long loans at call
obtained from either of them will remain undisturbed. Nevertheless,
there has been at times so much "money" of this fugitive character, and
derived from such varied sources since about 1888, that its cheapness
has been an attraction to the less wealthy bill-brokers, who have
occasionally been able to go on using it profitably for many continuous
weeks, or even months, in their business. The risk run by employing it
is, of course, the certainty that it will be "called" from the borrower
sooner or later, and probably at a time when it is very inconvenient to
repay it. The more wealthy houses take money of this kind when it suits
them, but never rely on it as a basis for business.


  The Great Banks.

Since Bagehot wrote the growth of the big joint-stock banks has been
enormous, not so much through the increased business done by banks
generally, though the expansion in banking has been considerable, as by
the absorption of a great number of small banks by three or four large
institutions (see BANKS AND BANKING). The growth of these large
institutions tends to facilitate combination for purposes of common
concern among banks generally--e.g. to support the Bank of England in
maintaining its reserve, which is the sole reserve of all the banks, at
a proper level, and thus render the money market more stable. Two or
three of the banks have for a long time, owing to their large holding of
bills, had much more influence than the Bank of England over the foreign
exchanges, on which the foreign bullion movements chiefly depend; and
since 1890 persons of weight in the joint-stock banking body have
implicitly, though not explicitly, admitted a certain degree of
responsibility in the matter on behalf of their institutions. It is,
however, characteristic of British business arrangements that the
question of the responsibility for the reserve of the Bank of England,
the ultimate reserve of the whole country, is still in as nebulous a
condition, so far as explicit acceptance of responsibility by any
institution is concerned, as it was in 1870. There has been no
improvement in theory, though in practice there has been real
improvement, since Bagehot's time. The tendency is, indeed, decidedly in
the direction of closer combination between the Bank and the banks. On
more than one occasion the Bank has, not merely by borrowing "in the
market," but by more or less private negotiations with the big banks,
obtained temporary control of large sums belonging to the banks in order
to take cash off the market. This proceeding, and its concomitants, did
not meet with universal approval; but the results were satisfactory on
the whole, and on the later occasions when the measure was carried out
there was little or no friction.


  Effect of Big Foreign Loans.

The enormous war loans raised by Japan in 1904, 1905, 1906 exemplified
aptly the more modern methods of dealing with the disturbance to the
money market which such operations produce. The loans were issued by
three banks, one of which was a Japanese institution and represented the
Japanese government in the operations connected with the various loans.
Of the other two, one was a leading London bank and the other the
principal British bank doing business in China. These large loans were
issued with the minimum of disturbance to the London money market. The
very large amounts of cash which were suddenly withdrawn from other
banks, and deposited with the institutions issuing the loan as
"application money," were lent out again in the short loan market as
soon as possible, usually on the afternoon of the day of issue. The work
involved was very heavy, as a great number of cheques had to be cleared
in a brief space of time, but by skilful organization this was done.
Similar promptitude was displayed when the successive instalments on the
loans became due and were paid, most of the cash being available for
borrowers a few hours after it was paid in by the holders of the scrip
which represented the loans until the definitive bonds were ready. The
task of dealing with cash forming instalments of the loans was not,
however, the only problem before the banks which issued them. As the
scrip of each loan gradually became "fully paid" the proceeds of the
loan in the hands of the banks became a very large sum. The Japanese
government held the whole of it at its disposal, and might have
seriously embarrassed the London money market if it had not dealt with
its huge balances considerately. The Japanese government had promised
not to withdraw any portion of the loans raised in London in gold, but
it was under no restrictions as to how it should employ the money lying
to its account. It might have kept it locked up until it had a bill for
ships or clothing to pay. As might be expected, the government from the
outset transferred a portion of what was deposited with the banks to the
Bank of England, finding it advantageous on various grounds to do so.
The remainder was lent for short periods by the banks, but for some time
no means were available for lending for any considerable length of time,
though the Japanese government had no immediate use for the whole of it.
It was suggested to the government by its advisers that it would be a
convenience to the money market, and no inconvenience to Japanese
policy, if any balances which were not likely to be wanted for some
months were invested in British treasury bills, and the government,
after fully acquainting itself with the nature of the operation, agreed
to it. The plan was found to work well; it released for definite periods
money that would otherwise have been of little use to the money market,
and it was of pecuniary benefit to the Japanese exchequer to the extent
of the interest earned by the portion of the balances so employed.
Incidentally it suited the British treasury; the Japanese demand, which
became a constant feature in connexion with treasury bill issues,
lowered the discount rates at which "sixes" were placed. The Japanese
not only applied for treasury bills and bought them in the market, but
they also took up some of the exchequer bonds issued in connexion with
the South African war towards the end of their currency, thus relieving
the money market of a further part of the weight of British government
paper which it would otherwise have had to take on itself. A further
important development of Japanese management of its London balances took
place in 1906, when a portion of these balances was placed under the
control of agents of the Bank of England, to be lent, or not lent, in
the market as suited the Bank's policy, which was at that time directed
to raising the value of money in order to protect and increase its
reserve. The plan worked very well on the whole. It was merely an
adaptation of a practice initiated some years before, whereby the Bank
sometimes obtained temporary control of moneys belonging to the India
Council. The same idea, that of "intercepting" market funds, which were
beating down the discount rate, depressing the foreign exchanges and
depleting the Bank's reserve, has been employed in regard to the
clearing banks themselves, the banks having on more than one occasion
agreed to lend the Bank of England a certain portion of their balances.


  The Discount Houses.

The discount houses, though an important body of institutions, are not
of so much importance as they were before 1866, when they suffered a
serious blow through the failure of "Overend's," from which as a body
they have never fully recovered. The five large concerns which still
exist are, however, very powerful and exercise considerable influence on
the market. They hold considerable quantities of bills at all times;
occasionally their holdings are very large, but they turn out the
contents of their bill cases readily if they think fit. Their business
is different in practice from that of the smaller "bill-brokers," who
usually are what their name suggests, namely, persons who do not hold
many bills, but find them for banks who need them, charging a small
commission. The small bill-brokers borrow from the Bank of England much
more freely than the big discount houses. The latter only "go to the
bank" in ordinary times perhaps once or twice a year. During the South
African War, which disturbed the money market very much, they obtained
accommodation from the Bank more frequently than usual. The small
brokers almost always have to borrow from the Bank at the end of every
quarter, when money is scarce owing to the regular quarterly
requirements of business, and also, to some extent, because certain of
the banks make it a practice to call in loans at the end of each month
in order to show a satisfactory cash reserve in their monthly
balance-sheet. This practice is not approved by the best authorities,
for although it does no great harm in quiet times, the banks who follow
it might find it difficult, or even impossible, to call in their loans
in times of severe stringency.

  AUTHORITIES.--Walter Bagehot, _Lombard Street_ (1873); Arthur Ellis,
  _Rationale of Market Fluctuations_; Robert Giffen, _Stock Exchange
  Securities_ (1879); W. Stanley Jevons, _Theory of Political Economy_
  (2nd ed., 1879), pp. 91 seq., and _Investigations in Currency and
  Finance_; Henry Sidgwick, _Principles of Political Economy_, book ii.
  ch. ii.; Augustin Cournot, _Theory of Wealth_ (1838), translated by
  Nathaniel T. Bacon; George Clare, _A Money Market Primer and Key to
  the Exchanges_; John Stuart Mill, _Principles of Political Economy_,
  book iii. ch. i.-vi.; John Shield Nicholson, _Bankers' Money_; Hartley
  Withers, _The Meaning of Money_ (1909).     (W. Ho.)



MARKET BOSWORTH, a market town in the Bosworth parliamentary division of
Leicestershire, England; 105 m. N.N.W. from London on a branch from
Nuneaton of the London & North Western and Midland railways, near the
Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal. Pop. (1901), 659. The church of St Peter is
Perpendicular, with a lofty tower and spire. At the grammar school,
founded in 1528, Dr Samuel Johnson was a master about 1732, but found
the work unbearable. The trade of Market Bosworth is principally
agricultural, and there are brickworks. Two miles south is the scene of
the battle of Bosworth, in 1485, where Richard III. fell before Henry
earl of Richmond, who thereupon assumed the crown as Henry VII.



MARKET DRAYTON, a market town in the Newport division of Shropshire,
England, on the river Tern and the Shropshire Union canal, 178 m. N.W.
from London. Pop. (civil parish of Drayton-in-Hales, 1901), 5167. The
Wellington-Crewe line of the Great Western railway is here joined by a
branch into Staffordshire of the North Staffordshire railway. The church
of St Mary has Norman remains but is modernised by restoration. The town
is a centre of agricultural trade, and there are large iron foundries.
It is in the parish of Drayton-in-Hales, a name sometimes applied to it;
and it is also known as Drayton Magna. It is an ancient town, of which
the manor was held successively by the abbots of St Ebrulph in Normandy
and Combermere in Cheshire. On Blore Heath, 3 m. east in Staffordshire,
Audley Cross marks a great battle in the Wars of the Roses (1459), in
which the Yorkists were successful and Lord Audley fell.



MARKET HARBOROUGH, a market town in the Harborough parliamentary
division of Leicestershire, England; on the river Welland and the Grand
Union Canal. Pop. of urban district (1901), 7735. It is 81 m. N.N.W.
from London by the Midland railway, and is served by branches of the
London & North Western and Great Northern railways. The church of St
Dionysius is Decorated and Perpendicular, with a fine tower and spire.
The grammar school was founded in 1614; it occupies modern buildings,
but the original house remains, a picturesque half-timbered building,
raised upon pillars of wood. Both British and Roman remains have been
found in the vicinity. There are malt-houses and boot, shoe and stay
factories. The town is also an important fox-hunting centre.



MARKHAM, SIR CLEMENTS ROBERT (1830-   ), English traveller, geographer
and author, son of the Rev. David F. Markham, canon of Windsor, and of
Catherine, daughter of Sir W. Milner, Bart., of Nunappleton, Yorkshire,
was born on the 20th of July 1830 at Stillingfleet, near York, and
educated at Westminster School. He entered the navy in 1844, became
midshipman in 1846, and passed for a lieutenant in 1851. In 1850-1851 he
served on the Franklin search expedition in the Arctic regions, under
Captain Austin. He retired from the navy in 1852, and in 1852-1854
travelled in Peru and the forests of the eastern Andes. He visited South
America again in 1860-1861, in order to arrange for the introduction of
the cinchona plant into India, a service of the highest value to
humanity. In 1865-1866 he visited Ceylon and India, to inspect and
report upon the Tinnevelly pearl-fishery and the cinchona plantations.
On the Abyssinian expedition of 1867-68 he served as geographer, and was
present at the storming of Magdala. In 1874 he accompanied the Arctic
expedition under Sir George Nares as far as Greenland. In later years
Sir Clements Markham travelled extensively in western Asia and the
United States. In 1855 he became a clerk in the Board of Control. From
1867-1877 he was in charge of the geographical department of the Indian
Office. He was secretary to the Hakluyt Society from 1858-1887, and
became its president in 1890. From 1863-1888 he acted as secretary to
the Royal Geographical Society, and on his retirement received the
society's gold medal for his distinguished services to geography. He was
elected president of the same society in 1893, and retained office for
the unprecedented period of twelve years, taking an active share in the
work of the society and in increasing its usefulness in various
directions. It was almost entirely due to his exertions that funds were
obtained for the National Antarctic Expedition under Captain Robert
Scott, which left England in the summer of 1901. Sir Clements Markham
was elected F.R.S. in 1873; was created C.B. in 1871, and K.C.B. in
1896; became an honorary member of the principal geographical societies;
and was president of the International Geographical Congress which met
in London in 1895.

  Sir Clements Markham conducted the _Geographical Magazine_ from
  1872-1878, when it became merged in the _Proceedings of the Royal
  Geographical Society_. Among his other publications may be mentioned
  the following: _Franklin's Footsteps_ (1852); _Cuzco and Lima_ (1856);
  _Travels in Peru and India_ (1862); _A Quichua Grammar and Dictionary_
  (1863); _Spanish Irrigation_ (1867); _A History of the Abyssinian
  Expedition_ (1869); _A Life of the Great Lord Fairfax_ (1870);
  _Ollanta, a Quichua Drama_ (1871); _Memoir on the Indian Surveys_
  (1871; 2nd ed., 1878); _General Sketch of the History of Persia_
  (1873); _The Threshold of the Unknown Region_ (1874, 4 editions); _A
  Memoir of the Countess of Chinchon_, (1875); _Missions to Thibet_,
  (1877; 2nd ed., 1879); _Memoir of the Indian Surveys_; _Peruvian Bark_
  (1880); _Peru_ (1880); _The War between Chili and Peru_ (1879-81; 3rd
  ed., 1883); _The Sea Fathers_ (1885); _The Fighting Veres_ (1888);
  _Paladins of King Edwin_ (1896); _Life of John Davis the Navigator_
  (1889); a _Life of Richard III._ (1906), in which he maintained that
  the king was not guilty of the murder of the two princes in the Tower;
  also lives of _Admiral Fairfax_, _Admiral John Markham_, _Columbus_
  and _Major Rennel_; _A History of Peru_; editions with introductions
  of twenty works for the Hakluyt Society, of which fourteen were also
  translations; about seventy papers in the Royal Geographical Society's
  _Journal_; the _Reports on the Moral and Material Progress of India_
  for 1871-1872 and 1872-1873; _Memoir of Sir John Harington_ for the
  Roxburghe Club (1880); the Peruvian chapters for J. Winsor's _History
  of America_, and the chapters on discovery and surveying for Clowes's
  _History of the Navy_.



MARKHAM, GERVASE (or JERVIS) (1568?-1637), English poet and
miscellaneous writer, third son of Sir Robert Markham of Cotham,
Nottinghamshire, was born probably in 1568. He was a soldier of fortune
in the Low Countries, and later was a captain under the earl of Essex's
command in Ireland. He was acquainted with Latin and several modern
languages, and had an exhaustive practical acquaintance with the arts of
forestry and agriculture. He was a noted horse-breeder, and is said to
have imported the first Arab. Very little is known of the events of his
life. The story of the murderous quarrel between Gervase Markham and Sir
John Holles related in the _Biographia Britannica_ (s.v. Holles) has
been generally connected with him, but in the _Dictionary of National
Biography_, Sir Clements R. Markham, a descendant from the same family,
refers it to another contemporary of the same name, whose monument is
still to be seen in Laneham church. Gervase Markham was buried at St
Giles's, Cripplegate, London, on the 3rd of February 1637. He was a
voluminous writer on many subjects, but he repeated himself considerably
in his works, sometimes reprinting the same books under other titles.
His booksellers procured a declaration from him in 1617 that he would
produce no more on certain topics.

  Markham's writings include: _The Teares of the Beloved_ (1600) and
  _Marie Magdalene's Teares_ (1601) long and rather commonplace poems on
  the Passion and Resurrection of Christ, both reprinted by Dr A. B.
  Grosart in the _Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies Library_ (1871);
  _The most Honorable Tragedy of Sir Richard Grinvile_ (1595), reprinted
  (1871) by Professor E. Arber, a prolix and euphuistic poem in
  eight-lined stanzas which was no doubt in Tennyson's mind when he
  wrote his stirring ballad; _The Poem of Poems, or Syon's Muse_ (1595),
  dedicated to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Philip Sidney; _Devoreux,
  Vertues Teares_ (1597). _Herod and Antipater, a Tragedy_ (1622) was
  written in conjunction with William Sampson, and with Henry Machin he
  wrote a comedy called _The Dumbe Knight_ (1608). _A Discourse of
  Horsemanshippe_ (1593) was followed by other popular treatises on
  horsemanship and farriery. _Honour in his Perfection_ (1624) is in
  praise of the earls of Oxford, Southampton and Essex, and the
  _Souldier's Accidence_ (1625) turns his military experiences to
  account. He edited Juliana Berners's _Boke of Saint Albans_ under the
  title of _The Gentleman's Academie_ (1595), and produced numerous
  books on husbandry, many of which are catalogued in Lowndes's
  _Bibliographer's Manual_ (Bohn's ed., 1857-1864).



MARKHAM, MRS, the pseudonym of Elizabeth Penrose (1780-1837), English
writer, daughter of Edmund Cartwright, the inventor of the power-loom.
She was born at her father's rectory at Goadby Marwood, Leicestershire,
on the 3rd of August 1780. In 1804 she married the Rev. John Penrose, a
country clergyman in Lincolnshire and a voluminous theological writer.
During her girlhood Mrs Penrose had frequently stayed with relatives at
Markham, a village in Nottinghamshire, and from this place she took the
_nom de plume_ of "Mrs Markham," under which she gained celebrity as a
writer of history and other books for the young. The best known of her
books was _A History of England from the First Invasion by the Romans to
the End of the Reign of George III._ (1823), which went through numerous
editions. In 1828 she published a _History of France_. Both these works
enjoyed a wide popularity in America as well as in England. The
distinctive characteristic of "Mrs Markham's" histories was the
elimination of all the "horrors" of history, and of the complications of
modern party politics, as being unsuitable for the youthful mind; and
the addition to each chapter of "Conversations" between a fictitious
group consisting of teacher and pupils bearing upon the subject matter.
Her less well-known works were _Amusements of Westernheath, or Moral
Stories for Children_ (2 vols., 1824); _A Visit to the Zoological
Gardens_ (1829); two volumes of stories entitled _The New Children's
Friend_ (1832); _Historical Conversations for Young People_ (1836);
_Sermons for Children_ (1837). Mrs Markham died at Lincoln on the 24th
of January 1837.

  See Samuel Smiles, _A Publisher and his Friends_ (2 vols., London,
  1891); G. C. Boase and W. P. Courtney, _Bibliotheca Cornubiensis_ (3
  vols., London, 1874-1882).



MARKHAM, WILLIAM (1719-1807), archbishop of York, was educated at
Westminster and at Christ Church, Oxford. He was one of the best
scholars of his day, and attained to the headship of his old school and
college in 1753 and 1767 respectively. He held from time to time a
number of livings, and in 1771 was made bishop of Chester and tutor to
George prince of Wales. In 1777 he became archbishop of York, and also
lord high almoner and privy councillor. He was for some time a close
friend of Edmund Burke, but his strong championship of Warren Hastings
caused a breach. He was accused by Lord Chatham of preaching pernicious
doctrines, and was a victim of the Gordon riots in 1780. He died in
1807.



MARKHOR ("snake-eater"), the Pushtu name of a large Himalayan wild goat
(_Capra falconeri_), characterized by its spirally twisted horns, and
long shaggy winter coat. From the Pir-Panjal range of Kashmir the
markhor extends westwards into Baltistan, Astor, Hunza, Afghanistan and
the trans-Indus ranges of the Punjab. The twist of the horns varies to a
great extent locally, the spiral being most open and corkscrew-like in
the typical Astor animal, and closest and most screw-like in the race
(_C. falconeri jerdoni_) inhabiting the Suleiman and adjacent ranges.



MARKIRCH (French, _Ste-Marie-aux-Mines_), a town of Germany, in Upper
Alsace, prettily situated in the valley of the Leber, an affluent of the
Rhine, near the French frontier. Pop. (1900), 12,372. The once
productive silver, copper and lead mines of the neighbourhood were
practically unworked during the whole of the 19th century, but have
recently been reopened. The main industries of the place are, however,
weaving and dyeing, and it is estimated that there are about 40,000
work-people in the industrial district of which Markirch is the centre.
The small river Leber, which intersects the town, was at one time the
boundary between the German and French languages, and traces of this
separation still exist. The German-speaking inhabitants on the right
bank were Protestants, and subject to the counts of Rappoltstein, while
the French inhabitants were Roman Catholics, and under the rule of the
dukes of Lorraine.

  See Mühlenbeck, _Documents historiques concernant Ste-Marie aux Mines_
  (Markirch, 1876-1877); Hauser, _Das Bergbaugebiet von Markirch_
  (Strass., 1900).



MARKLAND, JEREMIAH (1693-1776), English classical scholar, was born at
Childwall in Lancashire on the 29th (or 18th) of October 1693. He was
educated at Christ's Hospital and Peterhouse, Cambridge. He died at
Milton, near Dorking, on the 7th of July 1776.

  His most important works are _Epistola critica_ (1723), the _Sylvae_
  of Statius (1728), notes to the editions of Lysias by Taylor, of
  Maximus of Tyre by Davies, of Euripides' _Hippolytus_ by Musgrave,
  editions of Euripides' _Supplices_, _Iphigenia in Tauride_ and _in
  Aulide_ (ed. T. Gaisford, 1811); and _Remarks on the Epistles of
  Cicero to Brutus_ (1745).

  See J. Nichols's _Literary Anecdotes_ (1812), iv. 272; also biography
  by F. A. Wolf, _Literarische Analekten_, ii. 370 (1818).



MARKO KRALYEVICH, Servian hero, was a son of the Servian king or prince,
Vukashin (d. 1371). Chagrined at not himself becoming king after his
father's death, he headed a revolt against the new ruler of the
Servians. Later he passed into the service of the sultan of Turkey, and
was killed in battle about 1394. Marko, however, is more celebrated in
legend than in history. He is regarded as the personification of the
Servian race, and stories of strength and wonder have gathered round his
name. He is supposed to have lived for 300 years, to have ridden a horse
150 years old, and to have used his enormous physical strength against
oppressors, especially against the Turks. He is a great figure in
Servian poetry, and his deeds are also told in the epic poems of the
Rumanians and the Bulgarians. One tradition relates how he retired from
the world owing to the advent of firearms, which, he held, made strength
and valour of no account in battle. Goethe regards Marko as the
counterpart of Hercules and of the Persian Rustem.

  The Servian poems about him were published in 1878; a German
  translation by Gröber (_Marko, der Königssohn_) appeared at Vienna in
  1883.



MARK SYSTEM, the name given to a social organization which rests on the
common tenure and common cultivation of the land by small groups of
freemen. Both politically and economically the mark was an independent
community, and its earliest members were doubtless blood relatives. In
its origin the word is the same as mark or march (q.v.), a boundary.
First used in this sense, it was then applied to the land cleared by the
settlers in the forest areas of Germany, and later it was used for the
system which prevailed--to what extent or for how long is uncertain--in
that country. It is generally assumed that the lands of the mark were
divided into three portions, forest, meadow and arable, and as in the
manorial system which was later in vogue elsewhere, a system of rotation
of crops in two, three or even six fields was adopted, each member of
the community having rights of pasture in the forest and the meadow, and
a certain share of the arable. The mark was a self-governing community.
Its affairs were ordered by the markmen who met together at stated times
in the markmoot. Soon, however, their freedom was encroached upon, and
in the course of a very short time it disappeared altogether.

The extent and nature of the mark system has been, and still is, a
subject of controversy among historians. One school holds that it was
almost universal in Germany; that it was, in fact, the typical Teutonic
method of holding and cultivating the land. From Germany, it is argued,
it was introduced by the Angle and Saxon invaders into England, where it
was extensively adopted, being the foundation upon which the prevailing
land system in early England was built. An opposing school denies
entirely the existence of the mark system, and a French writer, Fustel
de Coulanges, refers to it contemptuously as "a figment of the Teutonic
imagination." This view is based largely upon the supposition that
common ownership of the land was practically unknown among the early
Germans, and was by no means general among the early English. The truth
will doubtless be found to lie somewhere between the two extremes. The
complete mark system was certainly not prevalent in Anglo-Saxon England,
nor did it exist very widely, or for any very long period in Germany,
but the system which did prevail in these two countries contained
elements which are also found in the mark system.

  The chief authority on the mark system is G. L. von Maurer, who has
  written _Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark- Hof- Dorf- und
  Stadtverfassung und der öffentlichen Gewalt_ (Munich, 1854; new ed.,
  Vienna, 1896), and _Geschichte der Markenverfassung in Deutschland_
  (Erlangen, 1856). See also N. D. Fustel de Coulanges, _Recherches sur
  quelques problèmes de l'histoire_ (1885); and a translation from the
  same writer's works called _The Origin of Property in Land_, by M.
  Ashley. This contains an introductory chapter by Professor W. J.
  Ashley. Other authorities are K. Lamprecht, _Deutsches
  Wirtschaftsleben im Mittelalter_ (Leipzig, 1886); R. Schröder,
  _Lehrbuch der deutschen Rechtsgeschichte_ (Leipzig, 1902); and W.
  Stubbs, _Constitutional History of England_, vol. i. (1891).



MARL (from O. Fr. _marle_, Late Lat. _margila_, dim. of _marga_; cf. Du.
and Ger. _Mergel_), a calcareous clay, or a mixture of carbonate of lime
with argillaceous matter. It is impossible to give a strict definition
of a marl, for the term is applied to a great variety of rocks and soils
with a considerable range of composition. On the one hand, the marls
graduate into clays by diminution in the amount of lime that they
contain, and on the other hand they pass into argillaceous limestones
(see LIMESTONE). From 25-75% of carbonate of lime may be regarded as
characteristic of the marls. But in popular usage many substances are
called marls which would not be included under the definition given
here. The practice formerly much in vogue of top-dressing land with
marls, and the use of many different kinds of earth and clay for that
purpose, has led to a very general misapplication of the term; for all
sorts of rotted rock, some being of igneous origin while others are
rain-wash, loams, and various superficial deposits, have been called
"marls" in different parts of Britain, if only it was believed that an
application of them to the surface of the fields would result in
increased fertility.

The typical marls are soft, earthy, and of a white, grey or brownish
colour. Many of them disintegrate in water; and they are readily
attacked by dilute hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the carbonate of
lime rapidly, giving off bubbles of carbon dioxide. The lime of some
marls is present in the form of shells, whole or broken; in others it is
a fine impalpable powder mixed with the clay. In many marls there is
organic matter (plant fragments or humus). Sand is usually not abundant
but is rarely absent. Gypsum occurs in some marls, occasionally in large
simple crystals with the form of lozenge-shaped plates or in twinned
groups resembling an arrow-head; fine examples of these are obtained in
the marls of Montmartre near Paris, where celestine (strontium sulphate)
occurs also in nodular or concretionary masses. Large crystals of
calcite or of dolomite, lumps of iron pyrites or radiate nodules of
marcasite, and small crystals of quartz are found in certain marl
deposits; and in Westphalia the marls of the Senonian (part of the
Cretaceous system) at Hamm yield masses of strontianite up to two feet
in length. A very large variety of accessory minerals may be proved to
exist in marls by microscopic examination.

  The rocks known as shell marls are found in many parts of Britain and
  other northern countries, and are much valued by farmers as a source
  of carbonate of lime, though rarely burned to produce quicklime. They
  are generally obtained by digging pits in marshy spots or meadows, and
  often occur below considerable thicknesses of peat. Large numbers of
  shells of fresh-water mollusca are scattered through a matrix of clay;
  usually retaining their shapes though they are in a friable and
  semi-decomposed state. The species represented are very few, and from
  their unbroken state it is obvious that they have not been
  transported but lived in the place where their remains are found. As
  mollusca of this kind thrive best in open stretches of clear water,
  the sites of the marl deposits must have been shallow lakes and open
  pools.

  Among the older strata it is not uncommon to find beds which have the
  same composition and in many cases the same origin as shell marl.
  While some of them are fresh-water deposits, others are of marine
  origin. The "crag beds" of the Pliocene formation in Norfolk, Suffolk
  and Essex are essentially sand and gravel, which are often rich in
  shells; with them occur clays such as the Chillesford clay; and many
  of these beds have actually been used as marls for dressing the
  surface of agricultural land. Better examples occur among the
  Oligocene beds of the Hampshire basin and the Isle of Wight, where the
  Steadon, Bembridge and Hempstead marls are clays, more or less sandy,
  containing fresh-water shells. In the Cretaceous rocks of the south of
  England soft argillaceous limestones of marine origin, which may be
  described as marls, occur on several horizons. At its base the white
  chalk is often mixed with clay, and the "chalk marl" is a rock of this
  kind; it is known in Cambridgeshire, at Folkestone, in the Isle of
  Wight, &c. The chloritic marl, which underlies the chalk and is well
  developed in the Isle of Wight, is a greenish argillaceous limestone,
  the colour being due to the presence of glauconite, not of chlorite;
  it is often very fossiliferous. The Gault, an argillaceous type of the
  Upper Greensand, is a stiff greyish calcareous clay, beneath the white
  chalk, well known for the excellent preservation of its fossils. It
  outcrops along the base of the escarpment of the North and South
  Downs; the original name given to it by William Smith was "the blue
  marl." In the Jurassic rocks of England there are marls or shelly
  fresh-water clays in the Purbeck series and also in the estuarine beds
  of the Great Oolite, but the name "marlstone" has long been reserved
  for the argillaceous limestone of the Middle Lias. It ranges from the
  Dorset coast, through Edge Hill in Warwickshire and Lincolnshire, and
  thence to the sea in the north of Yorkshire, presenting many
  variations in this long extent of country and often accompanied by, or
  converted into, beds of clay ironstone. The marlstone is typically a
  firm, greyish limestone weathering to a rusty brown colour, and is
  always more or less argillaceous.

  In the Triassic rocks of Britain there is a very important series of
  red, green and mottled clays, over a thousand feet thick in some
  places, which have been called the New Red marls. They belong to the
  Keuper or uppermost division of the system, and in Cheshire contain
  valuable deposits of rock salt, the principal sources of that mineral
  in Great Britain. In the strict sense these rocks are not marls, being
  ferruginous clays rather than calcareous clays. Most of them appear to
  have been laid down in saline lakes in desert regions. As a rule they
  contain very few fossils, and often they have little or no carbonate
  of lime, but beds and veins of fibrous gypsum occur in them in
  considerable profusion. These rocks cover a wide area in the midland
  counties extending to the south coast near Exmouth, and reappear in
  the north in the Vale of Eden and a few places in southern Scotland.
  The clays are used for brick-making, and yield a stiff soil, mostly
  devoted to pasture and dairy farming. In the Rhaetic beds which
  immediately overlie the Triassic rocks there are three seams of
  calcareous clay, often only a few feet thick, which have been called
  the "grey marls" and the "tea-green marls."

  To rocks older than these the name marl has not often been given,
  probably because, though argillaceous limestones are often common in
  the Carboniferous and Silurian rocks, they are usually firm and
  compact, while marls usually comprise rocks which are more or less
  soft and friable. In other countries, and especially in Germany, many
  different kinds of marl and of marl-slate are described. Two of these
  are of especial importance--the dark copper-bearing marl slate of the
  Permian rocks near Mansfeld in Germany, which has been long and
  extensively worked as sources of copper, and the white or creamy
  Solenhofen limestone, much quarried in Bavaria, and used as a
  lithographic stone.     (J. S. F.)



MARLBOROUGH, EARLS AND DUKES OF. The earldom of Marlborough was held by
the family of Ley from 1626 to 1679. James Ley, the 1st earl (c.
1550-1629), was lord chief justice of the King's Bench in Ireland and
then in England; he was an English member of parliament and was lord
high treasurer from 1624 to 1628. In 1624 he was created Baron Ley and
in 1626 earl of Marlborough. The 3rd earl was his grandson James
(1618-1665), a naval officer who was killed in action with the Dutch.
James was succeeded by his uncle William, a younger son of the 1st earl,
on whose death in 1679 the earldom became extinct.

In 1689 John Churchill was created earl and in 1702 duke of Marlborough
(see below). After the death of his only son Charles in 1703 an act of
parliament was passed in 1706 settling the duke's titles upon his
daughters and their issue. Consequently when he died in June 1722 his
eldest daughter Henrietta (1681-1733), wife of Francis Godolphin, 2nd
earl of Godolphin, became duchess of Marlborough. She died without sons
and was succeeded by her nephew Charles Spencer, 5th earl of Sunderland
(1706-1758), a son of the great duke's second daughter Anne (d. 1716).
Although at this time Charles handed over the Sunderland estates to his
younger brother John, the ancestor of the earls Spencer, he did not
obtain Blenheim until Sarah, the dowager duchess, died in 1744. His
eldest son George Spencer, the 4th duke (1739-1817), left three sons.
The eldest, George Spencer, the 5th duke (1766-1840), was summoned to
the House of Lords as Baron Spencer of Wormleighton in 1806, and in
1817, after succeeding to the dukedom, he took the name of
Spencer-Churchill. The 4th duke's second son was Lord Henry John Spencer
(1770-1795), envoy to Sweden and to Prussia; and his third son was Lord
Francis Almeric Spencer (1779-1845), who was created a peer as Baron
Churchill of Whichwood in 1815. His grandson Victor Albert Francis
Charles Spencer (b. 1864) succeeded his father as 3rd Baron Churchill in
1886, and was raised to the rank of a viscount in 1902.

The 7th duke of Marlborough, John Winston Spencer-Churchill (1822-1883),
a prominent Conservative politician, was lord-lieutenant of Ireland
1876-1880, and when marquess of Blandford (the courtesy title borne by
the duke's eldest son in his father's lifetime) was responsible for the
act of 1856 called the "Blandford Act," enabling populous parishes to be
divided for purposes of Church work. In 1892 his grandson Charles
Richard John Spencer-Churchill (b. 1871) became 9th duke of Marlborough.



MARLBOROUGH, JOHN CHURCHILL, 1ST DUKE OF (1650-1722), English soldier,
was born in the small manor house of Ash, in Musbury, Devonshire, near
Axminster, in May or June 1650. Arabella Churchill, his eldest sister,
and the mother of the duke of Berwick, was born in the same house on the
28th of February 1648. They were the children of Winston Churchill of
Glanville Wotton in Dorset and Elizabeth the fourth daughter of Sir John
Drake, who died in 1636; his widow, after the close of the civil war,
received her son-in-law into her own house. From 1663 to 1665 John
Churchill went to St Paul's school, and there is a tradition that during
this period he showed the bent of his taste by reading and re-reading
Vegetius _De re militari_. When fifteen years old he became page of
honour to the duke of York, and about the same time his sister Arabella
became maid of honour to the duchess, two events which contributed
greatly to the advancement of the Churchills. On the 14th of September
1667 he received through the influence of his master a commission in the
Guards, and left England for service at Tangier but returned home in the
winter of 1670-1671. For a short interval Churchill remained in
attendance at the court, and it was during this period that the natural
carefulness of his disposition was shown by his investing in an annuity
a present of £5,000 given him by the duchess of Cleveland.

In June 1672, when England to her shame sent six thousand troops to aid
Louis XIV. in his attempt to subdue the Dutch, Churchill was made a
captain in the company of which the duke of York was colonel, and soon
attracted the attention of Turenne, by whose profound military genius
the whole army was directed. At the siege of Nimeguen Churchill
acquitted himself with such success that the French commander predicted
his ultimate rise to distinction. When Maestricht was besieged in June
1673 he saved the life of the duke of Monmouth, and received the thanks
of Louis XIV. for his services. In 1678 he was married to Sarah Jennings
(b. June 5, 1660), the favourite attendant on the Princess Anne, younger
daughter of the duke of York. Her father, Richard Jennings of Sandridge,
near St Albans, had twenty-two brothers and sisters; one of the latter
married a London tradesman named Francis Hill, and their daughter
Abigail Hill afterwards succeeded her cousin the duchess of Marlborough
as favourite to Queen Anne.

On the accession of James II. the Churchills received a great increase
in fortune. Colonel Churchill had been created a Scotch peer as Lord
Churchill of Eyemouth on the 21st of December 1682; and as a reward for
his services in going on a special mission from the new monarch to Louis
XIV. he was advanced on the 14th of May 1685 to the English peerage
under the title of Baron Churchill of Sandridge in Hertfordshire. When
the duke of Monmouth attempted his ill-fated enterprise in the western
counties, the second position in command of the king's army was bestowed
on Lord Churchill, and on the 3rd of July 1685 he was raised to the rank
of major-general. Through his vigilance and energy at the battle of
Sedgemoor (July 6) victory declared itself on the king's side. After the
death of Monmouth he withdrew as far as possible from the administration
of public business, but both he and his wife remained the favourite
attendants of the princess Anne. Whilst on his embassy to the French
court he had declared with emphasis that if the king of England should
change the religion of the state he should at once leave his service,
and it was not long before the design of James became apparent to the
world. Churchill was one of the first to send overtures of obedience to
the prince of Orange, to whom he had gone on a commission in 1678.
Although he continued in a high position under James and drew the
emoluments of his places, he promised William of Orange to use every
exertion to bring over the troops to his side. James had been warned
against putting any trust in the loyalty of the man on whom he had
showered so many favours, but the warnings were in vain, and on the
landing of the Dutch prince at Brixham Churchill was promoted to be
lieutenant-general (Nov. 7, 1688) and was sent against him with five
thousand men. When the royal army had advanced to the downs of Wiltshire
and a battle seemed imminent, James was dismayed at finding that in the
dead of night his general had stolen away like a thief into the opposite
camp.

Churchill was sworn as a privy councillor on the 14th of February 1688/9
and on the 9th of April became earl of Marlborough. William felt,
however, that he could not place implicit reliance in his friend's
integrity; and, with a clear sense of the manner in which Marlborough's
talents might be employed without any detriment to the stability of his
throne, he sent him in June 1689 with the army into the Netherlands, and
in the autumn of 1690 into Ireland, where owing to his generalship Cork
and Kinsale fell into his hands after short sieges. For some time there
was no open avowal of any distrust in Marlborough's loyalty, but in May
1692 he was thrown into the Tower on an accusation of treason. Though
the evidence which could be brought against him was slight, and he was
soon set at liberty, there is no doubt that Marlborough was in close
relations with the exiled king at St Germains, and that he even went so
far as to disclose, in May 1694, to his late master the intention of the
English to attack the town of Brest. The talents of the statesmen of
this reign were chiefly displayed in their attempts to convince both the
exiled and the reigning king of England of their attachment to his
fortunes. The sin of Marlborough lay in the fact that he had been
favoured above his fellows by each in turn, and that he betrayed both
alike apparently without scruple or without shame. Once again during the
Fenwick plot of 1696 he was charged with treason, but William, knowing
that if he pushed Marlborough and his friends to extremities there were
no other statesmen on whom he could rely, contented himself with
ignoring the accusation of Sir John Fenwick, and with executing that
conspirator himself. In 1698 the forgiven traitor was made governor to
the young duke of Gloucester, the only one of Anne's numerous children
who gave promise of attaining to manhood. During the last years of
William's reign Marlborough once more was placed in positions of
responsibility. His daughters were married into the most prominent
families of the land; Henrietta, the eldest, became the wife of Francis,
the eldest son of Lord Godolphin; the second, the loveliest woman at the
court, with her father's tact and temper and her mother's beauty,
married Charles, Lord Spencer, the only surviving son of the earl of
Sunderland. Higher honours came on the accession of Queen Anne in March
1702. He was at once appointed a Knight of the Garter, captain-general
of the English troops both at home and abroad, and master-general of the
ordnance. The new queen did not forget the life-long service of his
wife; three positions at the court by which she was enabled to continue
by the side of the sovereign were united in her person. The queen showed
her devotion to her friend by another signal mark of favour. The
rangership of Windsor Park was granted her for life, with the especial
object of enabling Lady Marlborough to live in the Great Lodge. These
were the opening days of many years of fame and power. A week or two
after the death of William it was agreed by the three great powers,
England, Holland and Austria, which formed the grand alliance, that war
should be declared against France on the same day, and on the 4th of May
1702 the War of the Spanish Succession was declared by the three
countries. Marlborough was made commander-in-chief of the united armies
of England and Holland, but throughout the war his plans were impeded by
the jealousy of the commanders who were nominally his inferiors, and by
the opposite aims of the various countries that were striving to break
the power of France. He himself wished to penetrate into the French
lines; the anxiety of the Dutch was for the maintenance of their
frontier and for an augmentation of their territory; the desire of the
Austrian emperor was to secure that his son the Archduke Charles should
rule over Spain. To secure concerted action by these different powers
taxed all the diplomacy of Marlborough, but he succeeded for the most
part in his desires. In the first year of the campaign it was shown that
the armies of the French were not invincible. Several fortresses which
Louis XIV. had seized upon surrendered to the allies. Kaiserswerth on
the Rhine surrendered on the 15th of June, and Venlo on the Meuse on the
23rd of September. The prosperous commercial town of Liége with its
commanding citadel capitulated on the 29th of October. The successes of
Marlborough caused much rejoicing in his own country, and for these
brilliant exploits he was raised (Dec. 14, 1702) to be duke of
Marlborough, and received a grant of £5000 per annum for the queen's
life. In the spring of the following year a crushing blow fell upon the
duke and duchess. Their eldest and only surviving son, the marquess of
Blandford, was seized whilst at King's College, Cambridge (under the
care of Francis Hare, afterwards bishop of Chichester), with the
small-pox, and died on the 20th of February 1703, in his seventeenth
year. His talents had already justified the prediction that he would
rise to the highest position in the state.

The result of the campaign of 1703 inspired the French king with fresh
hopes of ultimate victory. The dashing plans of Marlborough were
frustrated by the opposition of his Dutch colleagues. When he wished to
invade the French territory they urged him to besiege Bonn, and he was
compelled to accede to their wishes. It surrendered on the 15th of May,
whereupon he returned to his original plan of attacking Antwerp; but, in
consequence of the incapacity of the Dutch leaders, the generals
(Villeroi and Boufflers) of the French army surprised the Dutch division
on the 30th of June and inflicted on it a loss of many thousands of men.
Marlborough was forced to abandon his enterprise, and all the
compensation which he received was the capture of the insignificant
forts of Huy and Limburg. After a year of comparative failure for the
allies, Louis XIV. was emboldened to enter upon an offensive movement
against Austria; and Marlborough, smarting under the misadventures of
1703, was eager to meet him. A magnificent army was sent by the French
king, under the command of Marshal Tallard, to join the forces of the
elector of Bavaria and to march by the Danube so as to seize Vienna
itself. Marlborough divined the intention of the expedition, and while
making a feint of marching into Alsace led his troops into Bavaria. The
two armies (that under Marlborough and Prince Eugène numbering more than
fifty thousand men, whilst Tallard's forces were nearly four thousand
stronger) met in battle near the village of Blenheim on the left bank of
the Danube. The French commander made the mistake of supposing that the
enemy's attack would be directed against his position in the village,
and he concentrated an excessive number of his troops at that point. The
early part of the fight was in favour of the French. Three times were
the troops led by Prince Eugène, which were attacking the Bavarians, the
enemy's left wing, driven back in confusion; Marlborough's cavalry
failed on their first attack in breaking the line of the enemy's
centre. But in the end the victory of the allies was conclusive. Nearly
thirty thousand of the French and Bavarians were killed and wounded, and
eleven thousand of the French who had been driven down to the Danube
were forced to surrender. Bavaria fell into the hands of the allies.
Never was a victory more eagerly welcomed than this, and never was a
conquering leader more rewarded than Marlborough. Poets and prose
writers were employed to do him honour, and the lines of Addison
comparing the English commander to the angel who passed over "pale
Britannia" in the storm of 1703 have been famous for over two centuries.
The manor of Woodstock, which was transferred by act of parliament from
the crown to the duke, was a reward more after his own heart. The gift
even in that form was noble, but the queen heightened it by instructing
Sir John Vanbrugh to build a palace in the park at the royal expense,
and £240,000 of public money was spent on the buildings. He was also
created a prince of the empire and the principality of Mindelheim was
formed in his honour.

The following year was not marked by any stirring incident. Marlborough
was hampered by tedious formalities at the Hague and by jealousies at
the German courts. The armies of the French were again brought up to
their full standard, but the generals of Louis were instructed to
entrench themselves behind earthworks and to act on the defensive. In
the darkness of a July night these lines were broken through near
Tirlemont, and the French were forced to take shelter under the walls of
Louvain. Marlborough in vain urged an attack upon them in their new
position, and when 1705 had passed away the forces of the French king
had suffered no diminution. This immunity from disaster tempted Villeroi
in the next spring into meeting the allied forces in an open fight, but
his assurance proved his ruin. Through the superior tactics of
Marlborough the battle of Ramillies (May 23, 1706) ended in the total
rout of the French, and caused the transference of nearly the whole of
Brabant and Flanders to the allies. Five days afterwards the victor
entered Brussels in state, and the inhabitants acknowledged the rule of
the archduke. Antwerp and Ostend surrendered themselves with slight
loss. Menin held out until three thousand of the soldiers of the allies
were laid low around its walls, but Dendermonde, which Louis had forty
years previously besieged in vain, quickly gave itself up to the
resistless Marlborough. Again a year of activity and triumph was
succeeded by a period of languor and depression. During the whole of
1707 fortune inclined to the other side, with the result that in July
1708 Ghent and Bruges returned to the allegiance of the French, and
Marlborough, fearing that their example might be followed by the other
cities, advanced with his whole army towards Oudenarde. Had the counsels
of Vendôme, one of the ablest of the French generals, prevailed, the
fight might have had a different issue, but his suggestions were
disregarded by the duke of Burgundy, the grandson of Louis, and the
battle, which raged on the high ground above Oudenarde, ended in their
defeat (July 11, 1708). After this victory Marlborough, ever anxious for
decisive measures, wished to advance on Paris, but he was overruled. The
allied army invested the town of Lille, on the fortifications of which
Vauban had expended an immensity of thought; and after a struggle of
nearly four months, and the loss to the combatants of thirty thousand
men, the citadel was surrendered by Marshal Boufflers on the 9th of
December. By the end of the year Brabant was again subject to the rule
of the allies. The suffering in France at this time weighed so heavily
upon the people that its proud king humbled himself to sue for peace.
Each of the allies in turn did he supplicate, and Torcy his minister
endeavoured by promises of large sums of money to obtain the support of
Marlborough to his proposals. These attempts were in vain, and when the
winter passed away a French army of one hundred and ten thousand, under
the command of Villars, took the field. On the 3rd of September 1709
Tournay capitulated, and the two leaders, Marlborough and Eugène, led
their forces to Mons, in spite of the attempt of Villars to prevent
them. For the last time during the protracted war the two armies met in
fair fight at Malplaquet, on the south of Mons (Sept. 11, 1709), where
the French leader had strengthened his position by extensive earthworks.
The fight was long and doubtful, and although the French ultimately
retreated under the direction of Boufflers, for Villars had been wounded
on the knee, it was in good order, and their losses were less than those
of their opponents. The campaign lasted for a year or two after this
indecisive contest, but it was not signalized by any such "glorious
victory" as Blenheim. All that the English could plume themselves on was
the acquisition of a few such fortresses as Douai and Bethune, and all
that the French had to fear was the gradual tightening of the enemy's
chain until it reached the walls of Paris. The energies of the French
were concentrated in the construction of fresh lines of defence, until
their commander boasted that his position was impregnable. In this way
the war dragged on until the conclusion of the Peace of Utrecht in June
1712.

These victorious campaigns had not prevented the position of Marlborough
from being undermined by party intrigues at home. In the early part of
Queen Anne's reign his political friends were to be found among the
Tories, and the ministry under Sidney Godolphin was chiefly composed of
members of that party. After a year or two, however, the more ardent
Tories withdrew, and two younger adherents of the same cause, Harley and
St John, were introduced in May 1704 into the ministry. The duchess,
partly through the influence of her son-in-law, the earl of Sunderland,
who came into office against the queen's wish on the 3rd of December
1706, and partly through the opposition of the Tories to the French war,
had gone over to the Whig cause, and she pressed her views on the
sovereign with more vehemence than discretion. She had obtained for her
indigent cousin, Abigail Hill, a small position at court, and the poor
relation very soon began to injure the benefactor who had befriended
her. With Hill's assistance Harley and St John widened the breach with
the queen which was commenced by the imperious manner of the duchess.
The love of the two friends changed into hate, and no opportunity for
humiliating the family of Marlborough was allowed to pass neglected.
Sunderland and Godolphin were the first to fall (July-Aug. 1710); a few
months later the duchess was dismissed from her offices; and, although
Marlborough himself was permitted to continue in his position a short
time longer, his fall was only delayed until the last day of 1711. Life
in England had become so unpleasant that he went to the Continent in
November 1712 and remained abroad until the death of Anne (Aug. 1,
1714).

Then he once more returned to England and resumed his old military
posts, but he took little part in public affairs. Even if he had wished
to regain his commanding position in the country, ill health would have
prevented him from obtaining his desires. Johnson indeed says, in the
_Vanity of Human Wishes_, that "the streams of dotage" flowed from his
eyes; but this is a poetical exaggeration. It is certain that at the
time of his death he was able to understand the remarks of others and to
express his own wishes. At four o'clock on the morning of the 16th of
June 1722 he died at Cranbourn Lodge, near Windsor. His remains were at
first deposited in Westminster Abbey, in the vault at the east end of
King Henry VII.'s chapel, but they now rest in a mausoleum in the chapel
at Blenheim.

His widow, to whom must be assigned a considerable share both in his
rise and in his fall, survived till the 18th of October 1744. Those
years were spent in bitter animosity with many within and without her
own family. Left by her husband with the command of boundless wealth,
she used it for the vindication of his memory and for the justification
of her own resentment. Two of the leading opponents of the Whig
ministry, Chesterfield and Pitt, were especially honoured by her
attentions. To Pitt she left ten thousand pounds, to the other statesman
twice that sum and a reversionary interest in her landed property at
Wimbledon. Whilst a widow she received numerous offers of marriage from
titled suitors. She refused them all: from her marriage to her death her
heart had no other inmate than the man as whose wife she had become
almost a rival to royalty.

The rapid rise of Marlborough to the highest position in the State was
due to his singular tact and his diplomatic skill in the management of
men. In an age remarkable for grace of manner and for adroitness of
compliment, his courteous demeanour and the art with which he refused or
granted a favour extorted the admiration of every one with whom he came
in contact. Through his consideration for the welfare of his soldiers he
held together for years an army drawn from every nation in Christendom.
His talents may not have been profound (he possessed "an excellent plain
understanding and sound judgment" is the opinion of Lord Chesterfield),
but they were such as Englishmen love. Alike in planning and in
executing, he took infinite pains in all points of detail. Nothing
escaped his observation, and in the hottest moment of the fight the
coolness of his intellect shone conspicuous. His enemies indeed affected
to attribute his uniform success in the field to fortune, and they
magnified his love of money by drawing up balance sheets which included
every penny which he had received, but omitted the pounds which he had
spent in the cause he had sincerely at heart. All that can be alleged in
excuse of his attempts to serve two masters, the king whom he had
deserted and the king who had received him into favour, is that not one
of his associates was without sin in this respect.

  The books on Marlborough are very numerous. Under his name in the
  catalogue of the British Museum there are 165 entries, and 44 under
  that of his wife. The chief works are Lediard's, Archdeacon William
  Coxe's (1818-1819), Sir Archibald Alison's (1855), and Viscount
  Wolseley's (1894) _Lives_, but Wolseley stops with the accession of
  Queen Anne; a French memoir in three volumes, 1808; Marlborough's
  _Letters and Despatches_, edited by Sir George Murray (5 vols., 1845);
  and the interesting summaries of Mrs Creighton (1879) and George
  Saintsbury (1885). The descriptions in John Hill Burton's _Reign of
  Queen Anne_ of the battle scenes of Marlborough are from personal
  observation. A good account of his birthplace and country will be
  found in G. P. R. Pulman's _Book of the Axe District_ (4th ed., 1875);
  and for the home of the duchess the reader can refer to the _History
  of Hertfordshire_, by J. E. Cussans. A memoir of her, by one of her
  descendants, Mrs Arthur Colville, appeared in 1904. The pamphlets
  written on her conduct at court relate to matters of little interest
  at the present time.     (W. P. C.)



MARLBOROUGH, a market town and municipal borough in the Devizes
parliamentary division of Wiltshire, England, 75¾ m. W. of London, on
the Great Western and the Midland and South Western Junction railways.
Pop. (1901), 3887. It is an old-fashioned place on the skirts of
Savernake Forest, lying in a valley of the chalk uplands known as
Marlborough Downs, and traversed by the river Kennet. It consists mainly
of one broad street, in which a majority of the houses are Jacobean;
those on the north side, which have projecting upper storeys, forming
the colonnade commended in the Diary of Samuel Pepys for 1668. St
Peter's church, a Perpendicular building, is said to have been the scene
of the ordination of Cardinal Wolsey in 1498. The church of Preshute,
largely rebuilt, but preserving its Norman pillars, has a curious
piscina, and a black basalt font of great size dating from 1100-1150, in
which according to a very old tradition King John was baptized. Other
noteworthy buildings are the town-hall, 16th century grammar school and
Marlborough College. This important public school was opened in 1843,
originally for the sons of clergymen, by whom alone certain scholarships
are tenable. The number of boys is about 600. Marlborough possesses
little trade other than agricultural; but there are breweries, tanneries
and roperies. The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 598 acres.

The antiquity of Marlborough is shown by the Castle Mound, a British
earthwork, which local legend makes the grave of Merlin; and the name of
Marlborough has been regarded as a corrupt form of Merlin's Berg or
Rock.

Near the site of the modern Marlborough (_Merleberge_, _Marleberge_) was
originally a Roman _castrum_ called Cunetio, and later there was a
Norman fortress in which William I. established a mint. In Domesday it
was royal demesne and during the following centuries figures in numerous
grants generally as the dowry of queens. The castle, built under Henry
I., by Roger, bishop of Salisbury, was held for Matilda against Stephen,
and became a favourite residence of Henry II., Savernake being a royal
deer-park. In 1267 Henry III. held his last parliament here, at which
the Statute of Marlborough was passed. The castle ceased to be an
important stronghold after the Wars of the Roses, but was garrisoned for
Charles I. by its owners, the Seymour family. Marlborough itself,
however, is mentioned by Clarendon as "the most notoriously disaffected
[town] in Wiltshire," and was captured by the royal forces in 1642, and
partly burnt. At the Restoration Charles II. was received and
magnificently entertained by Lord Seymour, whose mansion forms the
oldest part of Marlborough College. The town was constituted a suffragan
see by Henry II. Sacheverell, the politician and divine, was born here
in 1674, and educated at the grammar school. In 1653 the town was nearly
destroyed by fire, and it again suffered in 1679 and 1690; after which
an act was passed forbidding the use of thatch. Marlborough, from its
position on the Great Bath Road, was a famous coaching centre.

The first charter was granted by John in 1204, and conferred a gild
merchant, together with freedom from all pleas except pleas of the Crown
and from all secular exactions by sea and land. This was confirmed by
subsequent sovereigns from Henry III. to Henry VIII. Later charters were
obtained from Henry IV. in 1407 and from Elizabeth in 1576. The former
granted some additional exemptions whilst the latter incorporated the
town under the title of mayor and burgesses of Marlborough. The
corporation was finally reconstructed in 1835 under the title of a
mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Marlborough returned two members
to parliament until 1867 when the number was reduced to one, and in 1885
the representation was merged in that of the county. A yearly fair was
granted by John in 1204, for eight days from August 14, and two more by
Henry III. for three days from November 11 and June 29 respectively. In
1204 John also granted a weekly market on Wednesday and Saturday. In
Tudor times the corn trade prospered here.

  See "Victoria County History": _Wilts_; James Waglen, _History of
  Marlboro_ (London, 1854).



MARLBOROUGH, a city of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about 28
m. W. of Boston. Pop. (1900), 13,609 (3311 were foreign-born); (1910),
14,579; it is served by the Boston & Maine and the New York New Haven &
Hartford railways, and by interurban electric lines. The city, with a
total area of 21.08 sq. m., lies in a fertile hilly country, and
contains several ponds, including the beautiful Williams Pond, which
covers ¼ sq. m. A public library was established here in 1792; it was
housed in a new building in 1904. Other public buildings are the city
hall, the Federal building and a state armoury. There is a boarding
school for girls, St Ann's Academy (1887), under the direction of the
Sisters of St Ann. The city's importance is industrial; in 1905 its
factory product was valued at $7,468,849 (an increase of 66% since
1900), of which 88.6% was the value of boots and shoes. Whether the city
is named from Marlborough in Wiltshire, or, as seems more probable,
because of early spellings "Marlberg" and "Marlbridge," from the
presence of marl in the neighbourhood, is uncertain. Settlers from
Sudbury in 1665 took possession of a hill called by the Indians
Whipsuffenicke and gradually hemmed in the Christian Indian village of
Ockoocangansett (or Ognoikonguamescitt), on an adjoining hill still
bearing this name. The town was incorporated in 1660. It was destroyed
by Indians in March 1676, during King Philip's war, and was abandoned
for a year. Westborough was separated from it in 1717, Southborough in
1727, and a part of Berlin in 1784; parts of it were annexed to
Northborough in 1807, to Bolton in 1829 and to Hudson in 1866; and it
annexed parts of Framingham in 1791, and of Southborough in 1843. In
1890 it was incorporated as a city.

  See S. A. Drake, _History of Middlesex County_, ii. 137 sqq.,
  "Marlborough" by Rev. R. S. Griffin and E. L. Bigelow (Boston, 1880).



MARLITT, E., the pseudonym of EUGENIE JOHN (1825-1887), German novelist,
who was born at Arnstadt in Thuringia, the daughter of a merchant, on
the 5th of December 1825. By her musical talent she attracted the notice
of the reigning princess of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, who provided for
her training as a singer at the Vienna Conservatoire. After three years'
study she made a successful stage début, but was compelled in
consequence of deafness to abandon this career. She then became reader
and travelling companion to her patroness, and her life at the court and
on her many travels furnished her with material for her novels. In 1863
she resigned her post, and then lived with her brother at Arnstadt until
her death on the 22nd of June 1887.

  Her first novel, _Die zwölf Apostel_, was published in the
  _Gartenlaube_ in 1865 and this was followed in 1866 by _Goldelse_
  (23rd ed., 1890), with which she established her literary reputation.
  Among others of her novels may be mentioned _Blaubart_ (1866); _Das
  Geheimnis der alten Mamsell_ (1867; 13th ed., 1888); _Reichsgräfin
  Gisela_ (1869; 9th ed., 1900), _Das Heideprinzesschen_ (1871; 8th ed.,
  1888) and _Im Hause des Kommerzienrats_ (1877; 5th ed., 1891). All
  these works are directed against social prejudices, but, although
  attractively written, are deficient in higher literary qualities and
  appeal mostly to juvenile readers.

  E. Marlitt's _Gesammelte Romane und Novellen_ were published in 10
  volumes (1888-1890; 2nd ed., 1891-1894), to which is appended a
  biographical memoir.



MARLOW (GREAT MARLOW), a market town in the Wycombe parliamentary
division of Buckinghamshire, England, 31½ m. W. of London on a branch of
the Great Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901), 4526. It is
beautifully situated on the north (left) bank of the Thames, which is
here confined closely between low wooded hills. A weir and lock, near
which rise the high tower and spire of the modern church of All Saints,
separate two fine reaches of the river, and the town is a favourite
resort for boating and fishing. The village of Little Marlow, where the
foundations of a Benedictine nunnery of the time of Henry III. have been
revealed by excavation, lies near the river two miles below. The town
is, as a whole, modern in appearance, but a few old houses remain, such
as the grammar school, founded as a bluecoat school in 1624, adjoining
which is a house occupied by the poet Shelley in 1817. The town has
manufactures of chairs, lace and embroidery, paper mills and breweries.

Great Marlow (_Merlaue_, _Merlawe_, _Marlowe_, _Marlow_) appears as a
manor in Domesday Book, but its "borough and liberties" are not
mentioned before 1261. It was then held by the earls of Gloucester, and
its importance was probably due to the bridge across the Thames, first
built, according to tradition, by the Templars at Bisham. No charter of
incorporation was ever granted to the town, but there are faint traces
of its constitution in the 14th century. In 1342 the mayor and burgesses
presented to a chantry and continued to be the patrons till 1394. Later
writs addressed to the town only mention two bailiffs as officers of the
borough, nor were the pontage rights and dues held by it until the 15th
century. Two burgesses sat in parliament from 1300 to 1309, but the
representation of the borough lapsed until 1621, when the right to
return members was re-established. After the Reform Bill of 1832 the
boundaries of the parliamentary borough were enlarged, but in 1867 its
representation was reduced to one member, and in 1885 was merged in that
of the county. No grant of a market in the borough has been found, but a
market was held by the Despensers who had succeeded the De Clares as
lords of the manor in the 14th century. In the 16th century the market
seems to have been given up, but it was revived and held in the 18th
century, only to disappear again before 1862. Fairs were mentioned in
1306 on the death of Gilbert de Clare, when they were held on St Luke's
Day and on the Wednesday in Whit-week by the earl of Gloucester, and
Hugh le Despenser was granted a fair in his manor of Marlow in 1324. In
1792 there were two fairs, one of which, for horses and cattle, is still
held on the 29th of October. Lace and satin-stitch work used to be made
to a considerable extent.



MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER (1564-1593), English dramatist, the father of
English tragedy, and instaurator of dramatic blank verse, the eldest son
of a shoemaker at Canterbury, was born in that city on the 6th of
February 1564. He was christened at St George's Church, Canterbury, on
the 26th of February, 1563/4, some two months before Shakespeare's
baptism at Stratford-on-Avon. His father, John Marlowe, is said to have
been the grandson of John Morley or Marlowe, a substantial tanner of
Canterbury. The father, who survived by a dozen years or so his
illustrious son, married on the 22nd of May 1561 Catherine, daughter of
Christopher Arthur, at one time rector of St Peter's, Canterbury, who
had been ejected by Queen Mary as a married minister. The dramatist
received the rudiments of his education at the King's School,
Canterbury, which he entered at Michaelmas 1578, and where he had as his
fellow-pupils Richard Boyle, afterwards known as the great earl of Cork,
and Will Lyly, the brother of the dramatist. Stephen Gosson entered the
same school a little before, and William Harvey, the famous physician, a
little after Marlowe. He went to Cambridge as one of Archbishop Parker's
scholars from the King's School, and matriculated at Benet (Corpus
Christi) College, on the 17th of March 1571, taking his B.A. degree in
1584, and that of M.A. three or four years later.

Francis Kett, the mystic, burnt in 1589 for heresy, was a fellow and
tutor of his college, and may have had some share in developing
Marlowe's opinions in religious matters. Marlowe's classical
acquirements were of a kind which was then extremely common, being based
for the most part upon a minute acquaintance with Roman mythology, as
revealed in Ovid's _Metamorphoses_. His spirited translation of Ovid's
_Amores_ (printed 1596), which was at any rate commenced at Cambridge,
does not seem to point to any very intimate acquaintance with the
grammar and syntax of the Latin tongue. Before 1587 he seems to have
quitted Cambridge for London, where he attached himself to the Lord
Admiral's Company of Players, under the leadership of the famed actor
Edward Alleyn, and almost at once began writing for the stage. Of
Marlowe's career in London, apart from his four great theatrical
successes, we know hardly anything; but he evidently knew Thomas Kyd,
who shared his unorthodox opinions. Nash criticized his verse, Greene
affected to shudder at his atheism; Gabriel Harvey maligned his memory.
On the other hand Marlowe was intimate with the Walsinghams of Scadbury,
Chiselhurst, kinsmen of Sir Francis Walsingham: he was also the personal
friend of Sir Walter Raleigh, and perhaps of the poetical earl of
Oxford, with both of whom, and with such men as Walter Warner and Robert
Hughes the mathematicians, Thomas Harriott the notable astronomer, and
Matthew Royden, the dramatist is said to have met in free converse.
Either this free converse or the licentious character of some of the
young dramatist's tirades seems to have sown a suspicion among the
strait-laced that his morals left everything to be desired. It is
probable enough that this attitude of reprobation drove a man of so
exalted a disposition as Marlowe into a more insurgent attitude than he
would have otherwise adopted. He seems at any rate to have been
associated with what was denounced as Sir Walter Raleigh's school of
atheism, and to have dallied with opinions which were then regarded as
putting a man outside the pale of civilized humanity. As the result of
some depositions made by Thomas Kyd under the influence of torture, the
Privy Council were upon the eve of investigating some serious charges
against Marlowe when his career was abruptly and somewhat scandalously
terminated. The order had already been issued for his arrest, when he
was slain in a quarrel by a man variously named (Archer and Ingram) at
Deptford, at the end of May 1593, and he was buried on the 1st of June
in the churchyard of St Nicholas at Deptford. The following September
Gabriel Harvey referred to him as "dead of the plague." The disgraceful
particulars attached to the tragedy of Marlowe in the popular mind would
not seem to have appeared until four years later (1597) when Thomas
Beard, the Puritan author of _The Theatre of God's Judgements_, used the
death of this playmaker and atheist as one of his warning examples of
the vengeance of God. Upon the embellishments of this story, such as
that of Francis Meres the critic, in 1598, that Marlowe came to be
"stabbed to death by a bawdy servingman, a rival of his in his lewde
love," or that of William Vaughan in the _Golden Grove_ of 1600, in
which the unfortunate poet's dagger is thrust into his own eye in
prevention of his felonious assault upon an innocent man, his guest, it
is impossible now to pronounce. We really do not know the circumstances
of Marlowe's death. The probability is he was killed in a brawl, and his
atheism must be interpreted not according to the _ex parte_ accusation
of one Richard Baines, a professional informer (among the Privy Council
records), but as a species of rationalistic antinomianism, dialectic in
character, and closely related to the deflection from conventional
orthodoxy for which Kett was burnt at Norwich in 1589. A few months
before the end of his life there is reason to believe that he
transferred his services from the Lord Admiral's to Lord Strange's
Company, and may have thus been brought into communication with
Shakespeare, who in such plays as _Richard II._ and _Richard III._ owed
not a little to the influence of his romantic predecessor.

Marlowe's career as a dramatist lies between the years 1587 and 1593,
and the four great plays to which reference has been made were
_Tamburlaine the Great_, an heroic epic in dramatic form divided into
two parts of five acts each (1587, printed in 1590); _Dr Faustus_ (1588,
entered at Stationers' Hall 1601); _The Famous Tragedy of the Rich Jew
of Malta_ (dating perhaps from 1589, acted in 1592, printed in 1633);
and _Edward the Second_ (printed 1594). The very first words of
_Tamburlaine_ sound the trumpet note of attack in the older order of
things dramatic:--

  "From jigging veins of riming mother wits
   And such conceits as clownage keeps in pay
   We'll lead you to the stately tent of war,
   Where you shall hear the Scythian Tamburlaine
   Threatening the world with high astounding terms
   And scourging kingdoms with his conquering sword."

It leapt with a bound to a place beside Kyd's _Spanish Tragedy_, and few
plays have been more imitated by rivals (Greene's _Alphonsus of Aragon_,
Peek's _Battle of Alcazar, Selimus, Scanderbeg_) or more keenly
satirized by the jealousy and prejudice of out-distanced competitors.
     (T. Se.)

The majestic and exquisite excellence of various lines and passages in
Marlowe's first play must be admitted to relieve, if it cannot be
allowed to redeem, the stormy monotony of Titanic truculence which
blusters like a simoom through the noisy course of its ten fierce acts.
With many and heavy faults, there is something of genuine greatness in
_Tamburlaine the Great_; and for two grave reasons it must always be
remembered with distinction and mentioned with honour. It is the first
poem ever written in English blank verse, as distinguished from mere
rhymeless decasyllabics; and it contains one of the noblest passages,
perhaps indeed the noblest, in the literature of the world, ever written
by one of the greatest masters of poetry in loving praise of the
glorious delights and sublime submission to the everlasting limits of
his art. In its highest and most distinctive qualities, in unfaltering
and infallible command of the right note of music and the proper tone of
colour for the finest touches of poetic execution, no poet of the most
elaborate modern school, working at ease upon every consummate resource
of luxurious learning and leisurely refinement, has ever excelled the
best and most representative work of a man who had literally no models
before him and probably or evidently was often if not always compelled
to write against time for his living.

The just and generous judgment passed by Goethe on the _Faustus_ of his
English predecessor in tragic treatment of the same subject is somewhat
more than sufficient to counterbalance the slighting or the sneering
references to that magnificent poem which might have been expected from
the ignorance of Byron or the incompetence of Hallam. And the particular
note of merit observed, the special point of the praise conferred, by
the great German poet should be no less sufficient to dispose of the
vulgar misconception yet lingering among sciolists and pretenders to
criticism, which regards a writer than whom no man was ever born with a
finer or a stronger instinct for perfection of excellence in execution
as a mere noble savage of letters, a rough self-taught sketcher or
scribbler of crude and rude genius, whose unhewn blocks of verse had in
them some veins of rare enough metal to be quarried and polished by
Shakespeare. What most impressed the author of _Faust_ in the work of
Marlowe was a quality the want of which in the author of _Manfred_ is
proof enough to consign his best work to the second or third class at
most. "How greatly it is all planned!" the first requisite of all great
work, and one of which the highest genius possible to a greatly gifted
barbarian could by no possibility understand the nature or conceive the
existence. That Goethe "had thought of translating it" is perhaps hardly
less precious a tribute to its greatness than the fact that it has been
actually and admirably translated by the matchless translator of
Shakespeare--the son of Victor Hugo; whose labour of love may thus be
said to have made another point in common, and forged as it were another
link of union, between Shakespeare and the young master of Shakespeare's
youth. Of all great poems in dramatic form it is perhaps the most
remarkable for absolute singleness of aim and simplicity of
construction; yet is it wholly free from all possible imputation of
monotony or aridity. _Tamburlaine_ is monotonous in the general roll and
flow of its stately and sonorous verse through a noisy wilderness of
perpetual bluster and slaughter; but the unity of tone and purpose in
_Doctor Faustus_ is not unrelieved by change of manner and variety of
incident. The comic scenes, written evidently with as little of labour
as of relish, are for the most part scarcely more than transcripts,
thrown into the form of dialogue, from a popular prose _History of Dr
Faustus_, and therefore should be set down as little to the discredit as
to the credit of the poet. Few masterpieces of any age in any language
can stand beside this tragic poem--it has hardly the structure of a
play--for the qualities of terror and splendour, for intensity of
purpose and sublimity of note. In the vision of Helen, for example, the
intense perception of loveliness gives actual sublimity to the sweetness
and radiance of mere beauty in the passionate and spontaneous selection
of words the most choice and perfect; and in like manner the sublimity
of simplicity in Marlowe's conception and expression of the agonies
endured by Faustus under the immediate imminence of his doom gives the
highest note of beauty, the quality of absolute fitness and propriety,
to the sheer straightforwardness of speech in which his agonizing horror
finds vent ever more and more terrible from the first to the last
equally beautiful and fearful verse of that tremendous monologue which
has no parallel in all the range of tragedy.

It is now a commonplace of criticism to observe and regret the decline
of power and interest after the opening acts of _The Jew of Malta_. This
decline is undeniable, though even the latter part of the play (the text
of which is very corrupt) is not wanting in rough energy; but the first
two acts would be sufficient foundation for the durable fame of a
dramatic poet. In the blank verse of Milton alone--who perhaps was
hardly less indebted than Shakespeare was before him to Marlowe as the
first English master of word-music in its grander forms--has the glory
or the melody of passages in the opening soliloquy of Barabbas been
possibly surpassed. The figure of the hero before it degenerates into
caricature is as finely touched as the poetic execution is excellent;
and the rude and rapid sketches of the minor characters show at least
some vigour and vivacity of touch.

In _Edward the Second_ the interest rises and the execution improves as
visibly and as greatly with the course of the advancing story as they
decline in _The Jew of Malta_. The scene of the king's deposition at
Kenilworth is almost as much finer in tragic effect and poetic quality
as it is shorter and less elaborate than the corresponding scene in
Shakespeare's _King Richard II_. The terror of the death-scene
undoubtedly rises into horror; but this horror is with skilful
simplicity of treatment preserved from passing into disgust. In pure
poetry, in sublime and splendid imagination, this tragedy is excelled by
_Doctor Faustus_; in dramatic power and positive impression of natural
effect it is certainly the masterpiece of Marlowe. It was almost
inevitable, in the hands of any poet but Shakespeare, that none of the
characters represented should be capable of securing or even exciting
any finer sympathy or more serious interest than attends on the mere
evolution of successive events or the mere display of emotions (except
always in the great scene of the deposition) rather animal than
spiritual in their expression of rage or tenderness or suffering. The
exact balance of mutual effect, the final note of scenic harmony,
between ideal conception and realistic execution is not yet struck with
perfect accuracy of touch and security of hand; but on this point also
Marlowe has here come nearer by many degrees to Shakespeare than any of
his other predecessors have ever come near to Marlowe.

Of _The Massacre at Paris_ (acted in 1593, printed 1600?) it is
impossible to judge fairly from the garbled fragment of its genuine text
which is all that has come down to us. To Mr Collier, among numberless
other obligations, we owe the discovery of a noble passage excised in
the piratical edition which gives us the only version extant of this
unlucky play, and which, it must be allowed, contains nothing of quite
equal value. This is obviously an occasional and polemical work, and
being as it is overcharged with the anti-Catholic passion of the time
has a typical quality which gives it some empirical significance and
interest. That antipapal ardour is indeed the only note of unity in a
rough and ragged chronicle which shambles and stumbles onward from the
death of Queen Jeanne of Navarre to the murder of the last Valois. It is
possible to conjecture, what it would be fruitless to affirm, that it
gave a hint in the next century to Nathaniel Lee for his far superior
and really admirable tragedy on the same subject, issued ninety-seven
years after the death of Marlowe.

In the tragedy of _Dido Queen of Carthage_ (completed by Thomas Nash,
produced and printed 1594), a servile fidelity to the text of Virgil's
narrative has naturally resulted in the failure which might have been
expected from an attempt at once to transcribe what is essentially
inimitable and to reproduce it under the hopelessly alien conditions of
dramatic adaptation. The one really noble passage in a generally feeble
and incomposite piece of work is, however, uninspired by the
unattainable model to which the dramatists have been only too obsequious
in their subservience. It is as nearly certain as anything can be which
depends chiefly upon cumulative and collateral evidence that the better
part of what is best in the serious scenes of _King Henry VI._ is mainly
the work of Marlowe. That he is at any rate the principal author of the
second and third plays passing under that name among the works of
Shakespeare, but first and imperfectly printed as _The Contention
between the two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster_, can hardly be now
a matter of debate among competent judges. The crucial difficulty of
criticism in this matter is to determine, if indeed we should not rather
say to conjecture, the authorship of the humorous scenes in prose,
showing as they generally do a power of comparatively high and pure
comic realism to which nothing in the acknowledged works of any
pre-Shakespearian dramatist is even remotely comparable. Yet, especially
in the original text of these scenes as they stand unpurified by the
ultimate revision of Shakespeare or his editors, there are tones and
touches which recall rather the clownish horseplay and homely ribaldry
of his predecessors than anything in the lighter interludes of his very
earliest plays. We find the same sort of thing which we find in their
writings, only better done than they usually do it, rather than such
work as Shakespeare's a little worse done than usual. And even in the
final text of the tragic or metrical scenes the highest note struck is
always, with one magnificent and unquestionable exception, rather in the
key of Marlowe at his best than of Shakespeare while yet in great
measure his disciple.

_A Taming of a Shrew_, the play on which Shakespeare's comedy was
founded, has been attributed, without good reason, to Marlowe. The
passages in the play borrowed from Marlowe's works provide an argument
against, rather than for his authorship; while the humorous character of
the play is not in keeping with his other work. He may have had a share
in _The Troublesome Raigne of King John_ (1591), and Fleay conjectured
that the plays _Edward III._ and _Richard III._ usually included in
editions of Shakespeare are at least based on plays by Marlowe. _Lust's
Dominion_, printed in 1657, was incorrectly ascribed to him, and a play
no longer extant, _The True History of George Scanderbage_, was assumed
by Fleay on the authority of an obscure passage of Gabriel Harvey to be
his work. _The Maiden's Holiday_, assigned to Day and Marlowe, was
destroyed by Warburton's cook. Day was considerably Marlowe's junior,
and collaboration between the two is not probable.

Had every copy of Marlowe's boyish version or perversion of Ovid's
_Elegies_ (P. Ovidii Nasonis _Amorum_ compressed into three books)
deservedly perished in the flames to which it was judicially condemned
by the sentence of a brace of prelates, it is possible that an
occasional bookworm, it is certain that no poetical student, would have
deplored its destruction, if its demerits could in that case have been
imagined. His translation of the first book of Lucan alternately rises
above the original and falls short of it,--often inferior to the Latin
in point and weight of expressive rhetoric, now and then brightened by a
clearer note of poetry and lifted into a higher mood of verse. Its
terseness, vigour and purity of style would in any case have been
praiseworthy, but are nothing less than admirable, if not wonderful,
when we consider how close the translator has on the whole (in spite of
occasional slips into inaccuracy) kept himself to the most rigid limit
of literal representation, phrase by phrase and often line by line. The
really startling force and felicity of occasional verses are worthier of
remark than the inevitable stiffness and heaviness of others, when the
technical difficulty of such a task is duly taken into account.

One of the most faultless lyrics and one of the loveliest fragments in
the whole range of descriptive and fanciful poetry would have secured a
place for Marlowe among the memorable men of his epoch, even if his
plays had perished with himself. His _Passionate Shepherd_ remains ever
since unrivalled in its way--a way of pure fancy and radiant melody
without break or lapse. The untitled fragment, on the other hand, has
been very closely rivalled, perhaps very happily imitated, but only by
the greatest lyric poet of England--by Shelley alone. Marlowe's poem of
_Hero and Leander_ (entered at Stationers' Hall in September 1593;
completed and brought out by George Chapman, who divided Marlowe's work
into two sestiads and added four of his own, 1598), closing with the
sunrise which closes the night of the lovers' union, stands alone in its
age, and far ahead of the work of any possible competitor between the
death of Spenser and the dawn of Milton. In clear mastery of narrative
and presentation, in melodious ease and simplicity of strength, it is
not less pre-eminent than in the adorable beauty and impeccable
perfection of separate lines or passages. It is doubtful whether the
heroic couplet has ever been more finely handled.

The place and the value of Christopher Marlowe as a leader among English
poets it would be almost impossible for historical criticism to
over-estimate. To none of them all, perhaps, have so many of the
greatest among them been so deeply and so directly indebted. Nor was
ever any great writer's influence upon his fellows more utterly and
unmixedly an influence for good. He first, and he alone, guided
Shakespeare into the right way of work; his music, in which there is no
echo of any man's before him, found its own echo in the more prolonged
but hardly more exalted harmony of Milton's. He is the greatest
discoverer, the most daring and inspired pioneer, in all our poetic
literature. Before him there was neither genuine blank verse nor a
genuine tragedy in our language. After his arrival the way was prepared,
the paths were made straight, for Shakespeare.     (A. C. S.)

  Marlowe's fame, so finely appreciated by Shakespeare and Drayton, was
  in obscuration from the fall of the theatres until the generation of
  Lamb and Hazlitt. A collected edition was brought out by Pickering in
  1826. This was greatly improved upon by A. Dyce (1858, 1865, 1876). A
  one-volume edition was prepared by Colonel Francis Cunningham in 1871.
  The standard edition of Mr A. H. Bullen in 3 vols. appeared in
  1884-1885 and is now under revision. The "Best Plays" were edited for
  the Mermaid series by Havelock Ellis with an Introduction by J. A.
  Symonds (1887-1889). The best modern text is that edited by C. F.
  Tucker Brooke (Oxf. Univ. Press, 1910). A sketch in outline of
  Marlowe's Life was essayed by J. G. Lewis (Canterbury, 1891). A not
  very conclusive monograph on _Christopher Marlowe and his Associates_
  by J. H. Ingram, followed in 1904. For further information the reader
  should consult the histories of the stage by Collier, Ward, Fleay,
  Schelling, and the studies of Shakespeare's Predecessors by Symonds,
  Mezières, Boas, Manley, Churton Collins, Feuillerat and J. M.
  Robertson. See also Verity's _Essay on Marlowe's Influence_ (1886);
  _Mod. Lang. Rev._ iv. 167 (M. at Cambridge); Swinburne, _Study of
  Shakespeare_ (1880); Elze, _Notes_, and Hazlitt _Dramatic Lit. of the
  Age of Elizabeth_; _Fortnightly Review_, xiii., lxxi., and Sept.-Oct.,
  1905; Jusserand, _Hist. of English Lit._; the _Cambridge Hist. of
  English Lit._; Seccombe and Allen, _Age of Shakespeare_ (vol. ii. 3rd
  ed., 1909), and the separate editions of _Dr Faustus_, _Edward II._,
  &c. The main sources of Marlowe were as follows: for _Tamburlaine_,
  Pedro Mexia's _Life of Timur_ in his _Silva_ (Madrid, 1543),
  anglicized by Fortescue in his _Foreste_ (1571) and Petrus Perondinus
  _Vita Magni Tamerlanis_ (1551); for _Faustus_: a contemporary English
  version of the Faust-buch or _Historia von D. Johann Fausten_
  (Frankfort, 1587), and for _Edward II._, the _Chronicles_ of Fabyan
  (1516), Holinshed (1577) and Stow (1580).     (T. Se.)



MARLOWE, JULIA [SARAH FRANCES FROST] (1870-   ), American actress, was
born near Keswick, England, on the 17th of August 1870, and went with
her family to America in 1875. Her first formal appearance on the stage
was in New York in 1887, although she had before that travelled with a
juvenile opera company in _H.M.S. Pinafore_, and afterwards was given
such parts as Maria in _Twelfth Night_ in Miss Josephine Riley's
travelling company. Her first great success was as Parthenia in
_Ingomar_, and her subsequent presentations of Rosalind, Viola, and
Julia in _The Hunchback_ confirmed her position as a "star." In 1894 she
married Robert Taber, an actor, with whom she played until their divorce
in 1900. Subsequently she had great success as Barbara Frietchie in
Clyde Fitch's play of that name, and other dramas; and from 1904 to 1907
she acted with E. H. Sothern in a notable series of Shakespeare plays,
as well as in modern drama.



MARLY-LE-ROI, a village of northern France in the department of
Seine-et-Oise, 5 m. N. by W. of Versailles by road. Pop. (1906), 1409.
Notwithstanding some fine country houses, Marly is dull and
unattractive, and owes all its celebrity to the sumptuous château built
towards the end of the 17th century by Louis XIV., and now destroyed. It
was originally designed as a simple hermitage to which the king could
occasionally retire with a few of his more intimate friends from the
pomp of Versailles, but gradually it grew until it became one of the
most ruinous extravagances of the Grand Monarque. The central pavilion
(inhabited by the king himself) and its twelve subsidiary pavilions were
intended to suggest the sun surrounded by the signs of the zodiac.
Seldom visited by Louis XV., and wholly abandoned by Louis XVI., it was
demolished after the Revolution, its art treasures having previously
been dispersed, and the remains now consist of a large basin, the
Abreuvoir, a few mouldering ivy-grown walls, some traces of parterres
with magnificent trees, the park, and the forest of 8½ sq. m., one of
the most pleasant promenades of the neighbourhood of Paris, containing
the shooting preserves of the President of the Republic.

Close to the Seine, half-way between Marly-le-Roi and St Germain, is the
village of Port-Marly, and one mile farther up is the hamlet of
Marly-la-Machine. Here, in 1684, an immense hydraulic engine, driven by
the current of the river, was erected; it raised the water to a high
tower, where the aqueduct of Marly began (700 yds. in length, 75 in
height, with 36 arches, still well-preserved), carrying the waters of
the Seine to Versailles.



MARMALADE (adopted from Fr. _marmelade_, from _marmelo_, a quince,
derived through the Lat. _melimelum_, from Gr. [Greek: meli], honey, and
[Greek: mêlon], an apple, an apple grafted on a quince), a preserve
originally made of quinces, but now commonly of Seville oranges. The
"marmalade-tree" (_Lucuma mammosa_) bears a fruit whose thick pulp
resembles marmalade and is called natural marmalade. "Marmalade box" is
the name of the fruit of the _Genipa Americana_, which opens in the same
manner as a walnut, the nut being replaced by a soft pulp.



MARMANDE, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Lot-et-Garonne, 35 m. N.W. of Agen, on the Southern
railway from Bordeaux to Cette. Pop. (1906), town 6373; commune, 9748.
Marmande is situated at the confluence of the Trec with the Garonne on
the right bank of the latter river, which is here crossed by a
suspension bridge. Public institutions include the sub-prefecture, the
tribunals of first instance and commerce, the communal college and
schools of commerce and industry and of agriculture. Apart from the
administrative offices, the only building of importance is the church of
Nôtre-Dame, which dates from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The
graceful windows of the nave, the altarpiece of the 18th century, and in
particular, the Renaissance cloister adjoining the south side, are its
most interesting features. Among the industries are iron-founding, steam
sawing, the manufacture of woollens, carriage-making, cooperage and
brandy-distilling. There is a large trade in wine, plums, cattle, grain
and other agricultural produce.

Marmande was a _bastide_ founded about 1195 on the site of a more
ancient town by Richard Coeur de Lion, who granted it a liberal measure
of self-government. Its position on the banks of the Garonne made it an
important place of toll. It soon passed into the hands of the counts of
Toulouse, and was three times besieged and taken during the Albigensian
crusade, its capture by Amaury de Montfort in 1219 being followed by a
massacre of the inhabitants. It was united to the French crown under
Louis IX. A short occupation by the English in 1447, an unsuccessful
siege by Henry IV. in 1577 and its resistance of a month to a division
of Wellington's army in 1814, are the chief events in its subsequent
history.



MARMIER, XAVIER (1809-1892), French author, was born at Pontarlier, in
Doubs, on the 24th of June 1809. He had a passion for travelling, and
this he combined throughout his life with the production of literature.
After journeying in Switzerland, Belgium and Holland, he was attached in
1835 to the Arctic expedition of the "Recherche"; and after a couple of
years at Rennes as professor of foreign literature, he visited (1842)
Russia, (1845) Syria, (1846) Algeria, (1848-1849) North and South
America, and numerous volumes from his pen were the result. In 1870 he
was elected to the Academy, and he was for many years prominently
identified with the Sainte-Geneviève library. He did much to encourage
the study of Scandinavian literature in France, publishing translations
of Holberg, Oehlenschläger and others. He died in Paris on the 11th of
October 1892.



MARMONT, AUGUSTE FRÉDÉRIC LOUIS VIESSE DE, DUKE OF RAGUSA (1774-1852),
marshal of France, was born at Châtillon-sur-Seine, on the 20th of July
1774. He was the son of an ex-officer in the army who belonged to the
_petite noblesse_ and adopted the principles of the Revolution. His love
of soldiering soon showing itself, his father took him to Dijon to learn
mathematics prior to entering the artillery, and there he made the
acquaintance of Bonaparte, which he renewed after obtaining his
commission when he served in Toulon. The acquaintance ripened into
intimacy; Marmont became General Bonaparte's aide-de-camp, remained with
him during his disgrace and accompanied him to Italy and Egypt, winning
distinction and promotion to general of brigade. In 1799 he returned to
Europe with his chief; he was present at the _coup d'état_ of the 18th
Brumaire, and organized the artillery for the expedition to Italy, which
he commanded with great effect at Marengo. For this he was at once made
general of division. In 1801 he became inspector-general of artillery,
and in 1804 grand officer of the Legion of Honour, but was greatly
disappointed at being omitted from the list of officers who were made
marshals. In 1805 he received the command of a corps, with which he did
good service at Ulm. He was then directed to take possession of Dalmatia
with his army, and occupied Ragusa. For the next five years he was
military and civil governor of Dalmatia, and traces of his beneficent
régime still survive both in great public works and in the memories of
the people. In 1808 he was made duke of Ragusa, and in 1809, being
summoned by Napoleon to take part in the Austrian War, he marched to
Vienna and bore a share in the closing operations of the campaign.
Napoleon now made him a marshal and governor-general of all the Illyrian
provinces of the empire. In July 1810 Marmont was hastily summoned to
succeed Masséna in the command of the French army in the north of Spain.
The skill with which he manoeuvred his army during the year he commanded
it has been always acknowledged. His relief of Ciudad Rodrigo in the
autumn of 1811 in spite of the presence of the English army was a great
feat, and in the manoeuvring which preceded the battle of Salamanca he
had the best of it. But Wellington more than retrieved his position in
the battle (see SALAMANCA), and inflicted a severe defeat on the French,
Marmont himself being gravely wounded in the right arm and side. He
retired to France to recover, and was still hardly cured when in April
1813 Napoleon, who soon forgot his fleeting resentment for the defeat,
gave him the command of a corps. With it he served at the battles of
Lützen, Bautzen and Dresden, and throughout the great defensive campaign
of 1814 until the last battle before Paris, from which he drew back his
forces to the commanding position of Essonne. Here he had 20,000 men in
hand, and was the pivot of all thoughts. Napoleon said of this camp of
Essonne, "C'est là que viendront s'addresser toutes les intrigues,
toutes les trahisons; aussi y ai-je placé Marmont, mon enfant élevé sous
ma tente." Marmont then took upon himself a political rôle which has, no
doubt justly, been stigmatized as ungrateful and treasonable. A secret
convention was concluded, and Marmont's corps was surrounded by the
enemy. Napoleon, who still hoped to retain the crown for his infant son,
was prostrated, and said with a sadness deeper than violent words,
"Marmont me porte le dernier coup."

This act was never forgiven by Marmont's countrymen. On the restoration
of the Bourbons he was indeed made a peer of France and a major-general
of the royal guard, and in 1820 a knight of the Saint Esprit and a grand
officer of the order of St Louis; but he was never trusted. He was the
major-general of the guard on duty in July 1830, and was ordered to put
down with a strong hand any opposition to the ordinances (see FRANCE).
Himself opposed to the court policy, he yet tried to do his duty, and
only gave up the attempt to suppress the revolution when it became clear
that his troops were outmatched. This brought more obloquy upon him, and
the duc d'Angoulême even ordered him under arrest, saying, "Will you
betray us, as you betrayed him?" Marmont did not betray them; he
accompanied the king into exile and forfeited his marshalate thereby.
His desire to return to France was never gratified and he wandered in
central and eastern Europe, settling finally in Vienna, where he was
well received by the Austrian government, and strange to say made tutor
to the duke of Reichstadt, the young man who had once for a few weeks
been styled Napoleon II. He died at Venice on the 22nd of March 1852.

Much of his time in his last years was spent upon his _Mémoires_, which
are of great value for the military history of his time, though they
must be read as a personal defence of himself in various junctures
rather than as an unbiased account of his times. They show Marmont, as
he really was, an embittered man, who never thought his services
sufficiently requited, and above all, a man too much in love with
himself and his own glory to be a true friend or a faithful servant. His
strategy indeed tended to become pure virtuosity, and his tactics,
though neat, appear frigid and antiquated when contrasted with those of
the instinctive leaders, the fighting generals whom the theorists affect
to despise. But his military genius is undeniable, and he was as far
superior to the mere theorist as Lannes and Davout were to the pure
_divisionnaire_ or "fighting" general.

  His works are _Voyage en Hongrie_, &c. (4 vols., 1837); _Voyage en
  Sicile_ (1838); _Esprit des institutions militaires_ (1845); _César_;
  _Xenophon_; and _Mémoires_ (8 vols., published after his death in
  1856). See the long and careful notice by Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du
  Lundi_, vol. vi.



MARMONTEL, JEAN FRANÇOIS (1723-1799), French writer, was born of poor
parents at Bort, in Cantal, on the 11th of July 1723. After studying
with the Jesuits at Mauriac, he taught in their colleges at Clermont and
Toulouse; and in 1745, acting on the advice of Voltaire, he set out for
Paris to try for literary honours. From 1748 to 1753 he wrote a
succession of tragedies which,[1] though only moderately successful on
the stage, secured the admission of the author to literary and
fashionable circles. He wrote for the _Encyclopédie_ a series of
articles evincing considerable critical power and insight, which in
their collected form, under the title _Éléments de Littérature_, still
rank among the French classics. He also wrote several comic operas, the
two best of which probably are _Sylvain_ (1770) and _Zémire et Azore_
(1771). In the Gluck-Piccini controversy he was an eager partisan of
Piccini with whom he collaborated in _Didon_ (1783) and _Pénélope_
(1785). In 1758 he gained the patronage of Madame de Pompadour, who
obtained for him a place as a civil servant, and the management of the
official journal _Le Mercure_, in which he had already begun the famous
series of _Contes moraux_. The merit of these tales lies partly in the
delicate finish of the style, but mainly in the graphic and charming
pictures of French society under Louis XV. The author was elected to the
French Academy in 1763. In 1767 he published a romance, _Bélisaire_, now
remarkable only on account of a chapter on religious toleration which
incurred the censure of the Sorbonne and the archbishop of Paris.
Marmontel retorted in _Les Incas_ (1778) by tracing the cruelties in
Spanish America to the religious fanaticism of the invaders.

He was appointed historiographer of France (1771), secretary to the
Academy (1783), and professor of history in the Lycée (1786). In his
character of historiographer Marmontel wrote a history of the regency
(1788) which is of little value. Reduced to poverty by the Revolution,
Marmontel in 1792 retired during the Terror to Evreux, and soon after to
a cottage at Abloville in the department of Eure. To that retreat we owe
his _Mémoires d'un père_ (4 vols., 1804) giving a picturesque review of
his whole life, a literary history of two important reigns, a great
gallery of portraits extending from the venerable Massillon, whom more
than half a century previously he had seen at Clermont, to Mirabeau. The
book was nominally written for the instruction of his children. It
contains an exquisitely drawn picture of his own childhood in the
Limousin; its value for the literary historian is very great. Marmontel
lived for some time under the roof of Mme Geoffrin, and was present at
her famous dinners given to artists; he was, indeed, an _habitué_ of
most of the houses where the encyclopaedists met. He had thus at his
command the best material for his portraits, and made good use of his
opportunities. After a short stay in Paris when elected in 1797 to the
Conseil des Anciens, he died on the 31st of December 1799 at Abloville.

  See Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, iv.; Morellet, _Éloge_ (1805).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _Denys le Tyran_ (1748); _Aristomène_ (1749); _Cléopâtre_ (1750);
    _Héraclides_ (1752); _Egyptus_ (1753).



MARMORA (anc. _Proconnesus_), an island in the sea of the same name.
Originally settled by Greeks from Miletus in the 8th century B.C.,
Proconnesus was annexed by its powerful neighbour Cyzicus in 362. The
island has at all times been noted for its quarries of white marble
which supplied the material for several famous buildings of antiquity
(e.g. the palace of Mausolus at Halicarnassus).

  See C. Texier, _Asie mineure_ (Paris, 1839-1849); M. I. Gedeon,
  [Greek: Proikonnêsos] (Constantinople, 1895); an exhaustive monograph
  by F. W. Hasluek in _Journ. Hell. Stud._, xxix., 1909.



MARMORA, SEA OF (anc. _Propontis_; Turk. _Mermer Denisi_), the small
inland sea which (in part) separates the Turkish dominions in Europe
from those in Asia, and is connected through the Bosporus with the Black
Sea (q.v.) and through the Dardanelles with the Aegean. It is 170 m.
long (E. to W.) and nearly 50 m. in extreme width, and has an area of
4500 sq. m. Its greatest depth is about 700 fathoms, the deepest parts
(over 500 fathoms) occurring in three depressions in the northern
portion--one close under the European shore to the south of Rodosto,
another near the centre of the sea, and a third at the mouth of the Gulf
of Ismid. There are several considerable islands, of which the largest,
Marmora, lies in the west, off the peninsula of Kapu Dagh, along with
Afsia, Aloni and smaller islands. In the east, off the Asiatic shore
between the Bosporus and the Gulf of Ismid, are the Princes' Islands.



MARMOSET, a name derived from Fr. _marmouset_ (meaning "of a gross
figure"), and used to designate the small tropical American monkeys
classed by naturalists in the family _Hapalidae_ (or _Chrysothricidae_).
Marmosets are not larger than squirrels, and present great variation in
colour; all have long tails, and many have the ears tufted. They differ
from the other American monkeys in having one pair less of molar teeth
in each jaw. The common marmoset, _Hapale_ (or _Chrysothrix_) _jacchus_,
is locally known as the _oustiti_, while the name piriché is applied to
another species (see PRIMATES).



MARMOT, the vernacular name of a large, thickly built, burrowing Alpine
rodent mammal, allied to the squirrels, and typifying the genus
_Arctomys_, of which there are numerous species ranging from the Alps
through Asia north of (but including the inner ranges of) the Himalaya,
and recurring in North America. All these may be included under the name
marmot. In addition to their stout build and long thickly haired tails,
marmots are characterized by the absence of cheek-pouches, and the
rudimentary first front-toe, which is furnished with a flat nail, as
well as by certain features of the skull and cheek-teeth. Europe
possesses two species, the Alpine or true marmot (_A. marmotta_), and
the more eastern bobac (_A. bobac_); and there are numerous kinds in
Central Asia, one of which, the red marmot (_A. caudata_), is a much
larger animal, with a longer tail. Marmots inhabit open country, either
among mountains, or, more to the north, in the plains; and associate in
large colonies, forming burrows, each tenanted by a single family.
During the daytime the hillock at the entrance to the burrow is
frequently occupied by one or more members of the family, which at the
approach of strangers sit up on their hind-legs in order to get a better
view. If alarmed they utter a shrill loud whistle, and rush down the
burrow, but reappear after a few minutes to see if the danger is past.
In the winter when the ground is deep in snow, marmots retire to the
depths of their burrows, where as many as ten or fifteen may occupy the
same chamber. No store of food is accumulated, and the winter sleep is
probably unbroken. From two to four is the usual number of young in a
litter. In America marmots are known as "wood-chucks" (q.v.), the
commonest species being _A. monax_. The so-called prairie-dogs, which
are smaller and more slender North American rodents with small
cheek-pouches, form a separate genus, _Cynomys_; while the term
pouched-marmots denotes the various species of souslik (q.v.),
_Spermophilus_ (or _Citillus_), which are common to both hemispheres,
and distinguished by the presence of large cheek-pouches (see RODENTIA).
     (R. L.*)

[Illustration: The Alpine Marmot (_Arctomys marmotta_).]



MARNE, a river of northern France, rising on the Plateau of Langres, 3
m. S. by E. of Langres, and uniting with the Seine at Charenton, an
eastern suburb of Paris. Leaving Langres on the left the river flows
northward, passing Chaumont, as far as a point a little above St Dizier.
Here it turns west and enters the department of Marne, where it waters
the Perthois and the wide plain of Champagne-Pouilleuse. Soon after its
entrance into this department it receives the Blaise; and turning
north-west passes Vitry-le-François where it receives the Saulx,
Châlons, below which it resumes a westerly course, and Epernay, where it
enters picturesque and undulating country. Its subsequent course lies
through the departments of Aisne, where it flows through
Chateau-Thierry; Seine-et-Marne, where it drives the picturesque mills
of Meaux; Seine-et-Oise and Seine. Its chief tributaries in those
departments are the Petit-Morin, the Ourcq and the Grand-Morin. The
length of the Marne is 328 m., the area of its basin 4894 sq. m. It is
joined a mile from its source of the Marne-Saône canal which is
continued at Rouvroy by the Haute-Marne canal as far as
Vitry-le-François. From that town, which is the starting-point of the
canal between the Marne and the Rhine, it is accompanied by the lateral
canal of the Marne to Dizy where its own channel is canalized. At Condé,
above Epernay, the river is joined by the canal connecting it with the
Aisne. From Lizy, above Meaux, it is accompanied on the right bank,
though at some distance, by the Ourcq canal.



MARNE, a department of north-eastern France, made up from
Champagne-Pouilleuse, Rémois, Haute-Champagne, Perthois, Tardenois,
Bocage and Brie-Pouilleuse, districts formerly belonging to Champagne,
and bounded W. by Seine-et-Marne and Aisne, N. by Aisne and Ardennes, E.
by Meuse, and S. by Haute-Marne and Aube. Pop. (1906), 434,157. Area
3167 sq. m.

About one-half consists of Champagne-Pouilleuse, a monotonous and barren
plain covering a bed of chalk 1300 ft. in thickness. On the west and on
the east it is commanded by two ranges of hills. The highest point in
the department (920 ft.) is in the hill district of Reims, which rises
to the south-west of the town of the same name, between the Vesle and
the Marne. The lowest level (164 ft.) where the Aisne leaves the
department, is not far distant. To the south of the Marne the hills of
Reims are continued by the heights of Brie (700 to 800 ft.). All these
belong geologically to the basin of Paris. They slope gently towards the
west, but command the plain of Champagne-Pouilleuse by a steep descent
on the east. On the farther side of the plain are the heights of Argonne
(860 ft.) formed of beds of the Lower Chalk, and covered by forests;
they unite the calcareous formations of Langres to the schists of
Ardennes, and a continuation of them stretches southward into Perthois
and the marshy Bocage. The department belongs entirely to the Seine
basin, but includes only 13 miles of that river, in the south-west; it
there receives the Aube, which flows for 10 miles within the department.
The principal river is the Marne, which runs through the department for
105 miles in a great sweep concave to the south-west. The Aisne enters
the department at a point 12 miles from its source, and traverses it for
37 miles. Two of its affluents on the left, the Suippes and the Vesle,
on which stands Reims, have a longer course from south-east to
north-west across the department.

Marne has the temperate climate of the region of the Seine; the annual
mean temperature is 50° F., the rainfall about 24 in. Oats, wheat, rye
and barley among the cereals, lucerne, sainfoin and clover, and
potatoes, mangold-wurzels and sugar-beet are the principal agricultural
crops. The raising of sheep of a mixed merino breed and of other stock
together with bee-farming are profitable. The vineyards, concentrated
chiefly round Reims and Épernay, are of high value; the manufacture of
the sparkling Champagne wines being a highly important industry, of
which Épernay, Reims and Châlons are the chief centres. Several communes
supply the more valuable vegetables, such as asparagus, onions, &c. The
principal orchard fruits are the apple, plum and cherry. Pine woods are
largely planted in Champagne-Pouilleuse. The department produces peat,
millstones and chalk.

The woollen industry has brought together in the neighbourhood of Reims
establishments for spinning, carding, dyeing and weaving. The materials
wrought are flannels, merinoes, tartans, shawls, rugs and fancy
articles; the manufacture of woollen and cotton hosiery must also be
mentioned. The manufacture of wine-cases, corks, casks and other goods
for the wine trade is actively carried on. Marne contains
blast-furnaces, iron and copper foundries, and manufactories of
agricultural implements. Besides these there are tan-yards, currying and
leather-dressing establishments and glassworks, which, with sugar,
chemical, whiting and oil works, potteries, flour-mills and breweries,
complete the list of the most important industries. Biscuits and
gingerbread are a speciality of Reims. The chief imports are wool and
coal; the exports are wine, grain, live-stock, stone, whiting, pit-props
and woollen stuffs. Communication is afforded chiefly by the river Marne
with its canal connexions, and by the Eastern railway. There are five
arrondissements--those of Châlons (the capital), Épernay, Reims, Ste
Ménehould and Vitry-le-François--with 33 cantons and 662 communes. The
department belongs partly to the archbishopric of Reims and partly to
the see of Châlons. Châlons is the headquarters of the VI. army corps.
Its educational centre and court of appeal are at Paris. The principal
towns--Châlons-sur-Marne, Reims, Épernay and Vitry-le-François--are
separately treated. The towns next in population are Ay (4994) and
Sézanne (4504). Other places of interest are Ste Ménehould (3348),
formerly an important fortress and capital of the Argonne; Montmort with
a Renaissance château once the property of Sully; Trois-Fontaines with a
ruined church of the 12th century and the remains of a Cistercian abbey
founded in 1115; and Orbais with an abbey church dating from about 1200.



MARNIAN EPOCH, the name given by G. de Mortillet to the period usually
called in France the Gallic, which extends from about five centuries
before the Christian era to the conquest of Gaul by Caesar. M. de
Mortillet objects to the term "Gallic," as the civilization
characteristic of the epoch was not peculiar to the ancient Gauls, but
was common to nearly all Europe at the same date. The name is derived
from the fact that the French department of Marne has afforded the
richest "finds."



MAROCHETTI, CARLO, BARON (1805-1867), Italian sculptor, was born at
Turin. Most of his early life was spent in France, his first systematic
instruction being given him by Bosio and Gros in Paris. Here his statue
of "A Young Girl playing with a Dog" won a medal in 1829. But between
1822 and 1830 he studied chiefly in Rome. From 1832 to 1848 he lived in
France. His "Fallen Angel" was exhibited in 1831. In 1848 Marochetti
removed to London, and there he lived for the greater part of his time
till his death in 1867. Among his chief works were statues of Queen
Victoria, Lord Clyde (the obelisk in Waterloo Place), Richard
Coeur-de-Lion (Westminster), Emmanuel Philibert (1833, Turin), the tomb
of Bellini (Père-la-Chaise), and the altar in the Madeleine. His style
was vigorous and effective, but rather popular than artistic.
Marochetti, who was created a baron by the king of Sardinia, was also a
chevalier of the Legion of Honour.



MARONITES (Arab. _Mawarina_), a Christian people of the Ottoman Empire
in communion with the Papal Church, but forming a distinct denomination.
The original seat and present home of the nucleus of the Maronites is Mt
Lebanon; but they are also to be found in considerable force in
Anti-Lebanon and Hermon, and more sporadically in and near Antioch, in
Galilee, and on the Syrian coast. Colonies exist in Cyprus (with a large
convent near Cape Kormakiti), in Alexandria, and in the United States of
America. These began to be formed during the troubles of 1860. The
Lebanon community numbers about 300,000, and the total of the whole
denomination cannot be much under half a million.

The origin of Maronism has been much obscured by the efforts of learned
Maronites like Yusuf as-Simani (Assemanus), Vatican librarian under
Clement XII., Faustus Nairon, Gabriel Sionita and Abraham Ecchellensis
to clear its history from all taint of heresy. We are told of an early
Antiochene, Mar Marun or Maro, who died about A.D. 400 in the odour of
sanctity in a convent at Ribla on the Orontes, whence orthodoxy spread
over mid-Syria. But nothing sure is known of him, and not much more
about a more historical personage, Yuhanna Marun (John Sirimensis of
Suedia), said to have been patriarch of Antioch, to have converted
Lebanon from Monothelism, and to have died in A.D. 707. It is, however,
certain that the Lebanon Christians as a whole were not orthodox in the
time of Justinian II., against whose supporters, the Melkites, they
ranged themselves after having co-operated awhile with the emperor
against the Moslems. They were then called Mardaites or rebels, and were
mainly Monothelite in the 12th century, and remained largely so even a
century later. The last two facts are attested by William of Tyre and
Barhebraeus. It seems most probable that the Lebanon offered refuge to
Antiochene Monothelites flying from the ban of the Constantinopolitan
Council of A.D. 680; that these converted part of the old mountain folk,
who already held some kind of Incarnationist creed; and that their first
patriarch and his successors, for about 500 years at any rate, were
Monothelite, and perhaps also Monophysite. It is worth noting that even
as late as the close of the 16th century the Maronite patriarch found it
necessary to protest by anathema against imputations of heresy. In 1182
it is said that Amaury, patriarch of Antioch, induced some Maronite
bishops, who had fallen under crusading influences, to rally to Rome;
and a definite acceptance of the Maronite Church into the Roman
communion took place at the Council of Florence in 1445. But it is
evident that the local particularism of the Lebanon was adverse to this
union, and that even Gregory XIII., who sent the _pallium_ to the
patriarch Michael, and Clement VII. who in 1596 dispatched a mission to
a synod convoked at Kannobin, the old patriarchal residence, did not
prevail on the lower clergy or the mass of the Maronites. A century and
a half later Clement XII. was more successful. He sent to Syria,
Assemanus, a Maronite educated at the Roman college of Gregory XIII.;
and at last, at a council held at the monastery of Lowaizi on the 30th
of September 1736, the Maronite Church accepted from Rome a constitution
which is still in force, and agreed to abandon some of its more
incongruous usages such as mixed convents of monks and nuns. It
retained, however, its Syriac liturgy and a non-celibate priesthood. The
former still persists unchanged, while the Bible is read and
exhortations are given in Arabic; and priests may still be ordained
after marriage. But marriage is not permitted subsequent to ordination,
nor does it any longer usually precede it. The tendency to a celibate
clergy increases, together with other romanizing usages, promoted by the
papal legate in Beirut, the Catholic missioners, and the higher native
clergy who are usually educated in Rome or at St Sulpice. The legate
exercises growing influence on patriarchal and other elections, and on
Church government and discipline. The patriarch receives confirmation
from Rome, and the political representation of the Maronites at
Constantinople is in the hands of the vicar apostolic. Rome has
incorporated most of the Maronite saints in her calendar, while refusing
(despite their apologists) to canonize either of the reputed eponymous
founders of Maronism.

While retaining many local usages, the Maronite Church does not differ
now in anything essential from the Papal, either in dogma or practice.
It has, like the Greek Church, two kinds of clergy--parochial and
monastic. The former are supported by their parishes; the latter by the
revenues of the monasteries, which own about one-sixth of the Lebanon
lands. There are some 1400 monks in about 120 monastic establishments
(many of these being mere farms in charge of one or two monks). All are
of the order of St Anthony, but divided into three congregations, the
Ishaya, the Halebiyeh (Aleppine) and the Beladiyeh or Libnaniyeh
(local). The distinction of the last named dates only from the early
18th century. The lower clergy are educated at the theological college
of Ain Warka. There are five archbishoprics and five bishoprics under
the patriarch, who alone can consecrate. The sees are Aleppo, Baalbek,
Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, Tyre, Cyprus and Jebeil (held by the
patriarch himself _ex officio_). There are also four prelates _in
partibus_.

  The Maronites are most numerous and unmixed in the north of Lebanon
  (districts of Bsherreh and Kesrawan). Formerly they were wholly
  organized on a clan system under feudal chiefs, of whom those of the
  house of Khazin were the most powerful; and these fought among
  themselves rather than with the Druses or other denominations down to
  the 18th century, when the Arab family of Shehab for its own purposes
  began to stir up strife between Maronites and Druses (see DRUSES).
  Feudalism died hard, but since 1860 has been practically extinct; and
  so far as the Maronites own a chief of their own people it is the
  "Patriarch of Antioch and the whole East," who resides at Bkerkeh near
  Beirut in winter, and at a hill station (Bdiman or Raifun) in summer.
  The latter, however, has no recognized jurisdiction except over his
  clergy. The Maronites have four members on the provincial council, two
  of whom are the sole representatives of the two _mudirats_ of
  Kesrawan; and they have derived benefit from the fact that so far the
  governor of the privileged province has always been a Catholic (see
  LEBANON). The French protection of them, which dates from Louis XIV.,
  is no longer operative but to French official representatives is still
  accorded a courteous precedence. The Maronite population has greatly
  increased at the expense of the Druses, and is now obliged to emigrate
  in considerable numbers. Increase of wealth and the influence of
  returned emigrants tend to soften Maronite character, and the last
  remnants of the barbarous state of the community--even the obstinate
  blood-feud--are disappearing.

  See C. F. Schnurrer, _De ecclesia Maronitica_ (1810); F. J. Bliss in
  _Pal. Expl. Fund Quarterly Statement_ (1892); and authorities for
  DRUSES and LEBANON.     (D. G. H.)



MAROONS. A _nègre marron_ is defined by Littré as a fugitive slave who
betakes himself to the woods; a similar definition of _cimarron_
(apparently from _cima_, a mountain top) is given in the _Dictionary_ of
the Spanish Academy. The old English form of the word is _symaron_ (see
Hawkins's _Voyage_, § 68). The term "Maroons" is applied almost as a
proper name to the descendants of those neg