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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 166, January 1, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 166, January 1, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are indicated by footnotes to the relevant item.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 166.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Our Seventh Volume                                             1


  Proclamations of the Society of Antiquaries, and their
    Value as Historical Evidences, by John Bruce                 3

  Curiosities of Advertising Literature, by Cuthbert Bede        4

  On a Passage in "King Henry VIII.," Act III. Sc. 2., by
    S. W. Singer                                                 5

  Notes on Bacon's Essays, by P. J. F. Gantillon, B.A.           6

  Latin Poems in connexion with Waterloo, by Lord Braybrooke     6

  Sir Henry Wotton and Milton, by Bolton Corney                  7

  FOLK LORE:--Unlucky to sell Eggs after Sunset--
    Old Song--Nursery Tale--Legend of Change                     7

  Passage in Hamlet                                              8

  Volcanic Influence on the Weather, by Rev. Wm. S. Hesledon     9

  MINOR NOTES:--Value of MSS.--Robert Hill--English
    Orthography--Bookselling in Glasgow in 1735--Epitaph
    on a Sexton                                                  9


  Eustache de Saint Pierre, by Philip S. King                   10

  Devizes, Origin of: a Question for the Heralds, by J. Waylen  11

  MINOR QUERIES:--Gold Signet Ring--Ecclesia
    Anglicana--Tangiers: English Army in 1684--Smith--
    Termination "-itis"--Loak Hen--Etymological Traces of the
    Social Position of our Ancestors--Locke's Writings--
    Passage in Göthe's "Faust"--Schomberg's Epitaph by
    Swift--The Burial Service said by Heart--Shaw's
    Staffordshire MSS.--"Ne'er to these chambers," &c.--
    County History Societies--Hugh Oldham, Bishop of
    Exeter--The English Domestic Novel--Dr. Young--Bishop
    Hall's Meditations--Chatterton--Passage in Job--Turner's
    View of Lambeth Palace--Clarke's Essay on the Usefulness
    of Mathematical Learning--"The General Pardon"              12

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Edward the Confessor's
    Ring--The Bourbons                                          15


  Emblems                                                       15

  Marriages en Chemise--Mantelkinder--Legitimation, by
    E. Smirke, &c.                                              17

  Editions of the Prayer-Book prior to 1662, by Archdeacon
    Cotton                                                      18

  Etymology of Pearl, by Sir J. Emerson Tennant, &c.            18

  "Martin Drunk," by Dr. E. F. Rimbault                         19

  Göthe's Reply to Nicolai                                      19

    Paper--Exhibition of Photography at the Society of Arts     20

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Quotation in Locke--Pic-nic--
    Discovery at Nuneham Regis--Door-head Inscriptions--Cross
    and Pile--Rhymes upon Places--[Greek: Arnion]--Who was
    the greatest General?--Beech-trees struck by Lightning--
    Passage in Tennyson--Inscriptions in Churches--
    Dutensiana--Early Phonography--Kentish Local Names;
    Dray--Monument at Modstena--Book-plates--"World without
    end," &c.                                                   23


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  28

  Notices to Correspondents                                     28

  Advertisements                                                28

       *       *       *       *       *


We might, without any offence against truth or modesty, begin our Seventh
Volume by congratulating ourselves and our Readers on the continued success
and increasing circulation of our work. As to Truth, our Readers can only
judge in part, and must take our word for the rest; but they may see enough
in our pages to lead them to do so. Let them but look at the signatures
which from time to time appear in our columns, and they will see enough to
prove that we have the sanction of a list of names, high in literary
reputation, such as it might seem ostentatious to parade in our columns on
an occasion like the present. We abstain the more readily, because we have
felt it our duty to do the thing so frequently and fully in our
prospectuses. And as to Modesty, can there be any want of it in saying that
with such--or perhaps we should say by such--contributors we have produced
a work which the public has found acceptable? With such contributors, and
others whom we should be proud to name with them, if they had given names
which we cannot but know, but do not feel authorised to decypher--with such
help, what sort of animal must an editor be who could fail to make a work
worth reading? In fact, if not our highest praise, it is the plainest proof
of the value of our publication, that we have done little or nothing except
to give the reader the greatest possible quantity of matter in a legible
form, wholly unassisted by graphic ornament or artistic decoration of any
kind--without even the attraction of politics, scandal, or polemics.

Our pride is that we are useful; and that fact is proved by another to
which it has given rise, namely, that we are favoured with many more
contributions than we can possibly find room for; and therefore, instead of
employing the occasion which offers for a few words with our Readers, by
way of introduction to a new Volume, in any protracted remarks on what we
have done, we would rather confer with them on the ways and means of doing

In the first place, let us say explicitly that we do not mean by the most
obvious method of increasing the bulk of our publication. It is quite clear
that we {2} could print twice as much on twice as many pages; but this is
not what we mean. Those who refer to our earliest Numbers will see "how we
are grown," and we are perfectly convinced that we are now quite grown
up--that our quantity (to change the figure) is quite as much as our
company wish to see set on the table at once, and our price quite as
agreeable as if it were larger; for to enlarge the work without enlarging
the price would be quite out of the question.

But, in the course of what we may now call considerable experience, during
which we have seen the work grow up into the form which it now wears, we
have been led to think, that if our friends will allow us to offer a few
suggestions (on which some of them may perhaps improve), we may be able,
with the same space and cost, to oblige more Correspondents; and not only
by that means, but by rendering our information more select and valuable,
increase the gratification of our Readers.

Our name suggests the idea of a work consisting of two parts; and, with
regard to the first, we can only offer such obvious remarks as, that the
more a writer condenses what he has to say, the less room his communication
will occupy in print--and the less room he occupies, the more he will leave
for others, &c. These are weighty and important truths, but such as we need
not insist on.

But when we look at the other part, passing under the single name of
"QUERIES," it becomes obvious that our work, instead of having, as its
title would import, what Sir Thomas Browne calls a "bicapitous
conformation," does in fact consist of three parts, which must be ranged
under three different heads, and dealt with in three different ways. A
little, modest, demure-looking QUERY slips into print, and by the time it
has been in print a fortnight, we find that it has a large family of
REPLIES, who all come about it, and claim a settlement on the ground of
their parentage.

Now, it is on this matter that we think some improvement may be made. We
would not on any account diminish our number of QUERIES, and would wish
even our NOTES to be notes of interrogation as well as information. But
between QUERIES and REPLIES, notwithstanding their family connexion, there
is an essential difference. In every case the QUERY, in order to its
answering the end for which it is proposed, must be public; but in a great
many cases the REPLY need not be so. The QUERY may be a very proper and
curious one, and interesting in a high degree to the proposer and several
other persons, but the REPLY to it may involve details not generally
interesting.[1] We shall not be thought to discourage such inquiries (while
we consider the opportunity which we afford for making them one of the most
valuable features of our work) if we illustrate this by suggesting that A.
wishes for genealogical or family history; B. wants to know what the author
of such or such a book which he is editing means by such or such a
reference; C., who is editing another, wants a collation of this or that
edition; D., who is writing a third book, in order to correct and enrich
it, wants as many things (and heartily glad should we be to help him to get
them) as would occupy half-a-dozen of our Numbers; and so we might go on,
were it not quite unnecessary to pursue in detail the illustration of what
is so plain. Now it has occurred to us, that if Correspondents who wish to
make inquiries, the answers to which would obviously be of no general
interest, would, with their Query, enclose a stamped envelope, directed in
any way which they may think proper, it would often be in our power not
only to transmit to them answers to their inquiries, but to put them in
direct communication with those who could give them further information;
and who would in many cases communicate with individuals of whose
respectability and capacity they were satisfied, more freely than they
would through a public channel. We shall be glad to know how far such a
plan would be approved of. We must add, that it would enable us to make use
of many REPLIES which it is impossible, under present circumstances, to
insert; and we believe that many Answerers would not only be as well
pleased to learn that their REPLIES had been transmitted to the Querist,
but that, with a knowledge that they would be so transmitted, they would
write with more freedom and fulness than if they expected the REPLY to be
published. One thing only we should bargain for--and, having cut ourselves
off from all hope of gain by desiring to have the envelopes directed, we
think we have a right to ask it--it is, that if in this correspondence, of
which we are the medium, they come to any curious and generally interesting
results, they will send them to us, _pro bono publico_.

[Footnote 1: A valued Correspondent, who has strongly urged the adoption of
the course which we are now recommending to our Readers, thus illustrates
his position:--

"It seems to be a very good thing to have a medium of genealogical inquiry;
but why should all the world be troubled with the answers to a man who

    'Sir,--I shall be obliged to anybody who can give me a full account of
    my family.

      JOHN SMITH.'

"Again, supposing X. Y. wants to borrow some not very common book which one
happens to have, I am not going to write (and if I did so write you would
not print it), 'If X. Y., as soon as he sees this, will call on the Pump at
Aldgate, he will find my copy of the book tied to the spout, if the charity
boys have not cribbed it; and he can return it or not, according to his
conscience, if he has any."]


       *       *       *       *       *



The work that is now going on at the Society of Antiquaries in reference to
the collection of royal proclamations in their library, is one in which not
merely the Fellows of that Society, but all historical students, are deeply
interested. The Society possesses one of the three known largest
collections of these public documents. They were formerly bound up in
volumes of several different sizes, intermixed with a variety of fugitive
publications, such as ballads and broadsides, which formed altogether a
very incongruous collection. A short time since it was found that the
binding of many of the volumes was very much worn, and that some of the
documents themselves had been considerably torn and damaged. Under these
circumstances, Mr. Lemon, of the State Paper Office, offered his services
to the Council to superintend an entire new arrangement, mounting, binding,
and calendaring, of the whole series of proclamations. His offer was of
course gratefully accepted, and the work is now in active progress.

The collection is certainly the most important that is known, and is
especially so in the reign of Elizabeth; in reference to which there is no
collection at all approaching to it, either in completeness or value. Still
there are many proclamations wanting: several of the Fellows of the Society
have come forward most liberally to fill up gaps. MR. PAYNE COLLIER led the
way in a contribution of great value; MR. SALT followed MR. COLLIER with a
munificent donation of a whole collection relating to Charles II. and James
II.; and upon Mr. Lemon's suggestion, and with the joint concurrence of Mr.
Secretary Walpole and the Keeper of the State Paper Office, an interchange
of duplicates has been effected between that office and the Society of
Antiquaries, which has added forty proclamations to the Society's

My principal reason for addressing you upon this subject is to ask you to
suggest to your readers that a similar interchange of duplicates might be
effected between the Society and any persons who chance to have duplicate
proclamations in their possession.

It is of the very highest literary and historical importance that we should
get together, in some accessible place, a collection of proclamations,
which if not actually complete (a consummation hardly to be expected),
shall yet approach to completeness. The collection at Somerset House offers
the best opportunity for forming such a collection. It is by far the most
nearly complete in existence, and is strong in that particular part of the
series in which other collections are most defective, and in which missing
proclamations are the most difficult to be supplied. At the Society of
Antiquaries the collection will be accessible to all literary inquirers,
and no doubt the Society will publish a proper catalogue, which is already
in preparation by Mr. Lemon.

It is obvious that any person who chooses to contribute such stray
proclamations, or copies of proclamations, as he may chance to have in his
possession, will be helping forward a really good work, and the possessor
of duplicates may not only do the same, but may benefit his own collection
by an interchange.

The value of proclamations as historical authorities, and especially as
authorities for the history of manners, and of our national progress, is
indisputable. As I write, I have before me the _Booke of Proclamations_ of
James I. from 1603 to 1609; and the page lying open affords a striking
illustration of what I assert. It gives us A CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF OUR

Immediately on the accession of James I., the high north road from London
to Edinburgh was thronged with multitudes of pilgrims hastening to the
worship of the newly risen sun. Robert Carey became, in the words of
Cowper's enigma, "the parent of numbers that cannot be told." Scotland has
never poured into the south more active or more anxious suppliants than
then traversed the northward road through Berwick. All ordinary
accommodation soon fell short of the demand. Messengers riding post from
the council to the king were stayed on the road for want of the ordinary
supply of post-horses, all which were taken up by lords and gentry--rushing
northward in the fury of their new-born loyalty. As a remedy for these
inconveniences, the lords of the council issued a proclamation, calling
upon all magistrates to aid the postmasters "in this time so full of
business," by seeing that they are supplied with "fresh and able horses as
necessitie shall require." Of course the supply was merely of horses.
Travellers could not in those days obtain carriages of any kind. The horses
were directed to be "able and sufficient horses, and well furnished of
saddles, bridles, girts and stirropes, with good guides to looke to them;
who for their said horses shall demand and receive of such as shall ride on
them, the prices accustomed."

The new state of things became permanent. London, after James's removal
from Edinburgh, being really the seat of government for the whole island,
the intercourse both ways was continuous, and further general orders for
its management were published by proclamation. There were at that time, on
all the high roads through the country, two sorts of posts:--1. Special
messengers or couriers who rode "thorough post," that is, themselves rode
through the whole distance, "with horn and guide." Such persons carried
with them an authentication of their employment in the {4} public service.
In 1603, they were charged "two-pence halfe-peny the mile" (raised in 1609
to threepence) for the hire of each horse, "besides the guide's groats."
The hire was to be paid beforehand. They were not to ride the horses more
than one stage, except with the consent of "the post of the stage" at which
they did not change. Nor were they to charge the horse "with any male or
burden (besides his rider) that exceedeth the weight of thirtye pounds."
Nor to ride more than seven miles an hour in summer or six in winter. 2.
The other sort of post was what was termed the "post for the packet." For
this service every postmaster was bound to keep horses ready; and on
receipt of a "packet" or parcel containing letters, he was to send it on
towards the next stage within a quarter of an hour after its arrival,
entering the transaction in "a large and faire ledger paper book." Two
horses were to be kept constantly ready for this service, "with furniture
convenient," and messengers "at hand in areadinesse." The postmaster was
also to have ready "two bags of leather, at the least, well lined with
bayes or cotton, to carry the packet in." He was also to have ready "hornes
to sound and blow, as oft as the post meets company, or foure times in
every mile."

The "post for the packet" was at first used only for the carriage of
despatches for the government or for ambassadors, but a similar mode of
conveyance soon began to be taken advantage of by merchants and private
persons. Difficulty in obtaining posts and horses for the conveyance of
private packets, led to the interference of "certain persons called
hackney-men, tapsters, hostlers, and others, in hiring out their horses, to
the hinderance of publique service, danger to our state, and wrong to our
standing and settled postes in their several stages." The government of
James I. thought, in its blindness, that it could put a stop to the
dangerous practice of transmitting unofficial letters, by rendering it
penal for private persons to carry them; that of Charles I., wiser, in this
respect, in its generation, settled a scheme for their general conveyance
through the medium of "a letter office." But the "post for the packet,"
with his leathern bag and his twanging horn (the origin, of course, of our
mail-coach horn), continued down to a late period, and probably still
lingers in some parts of the kingdom. Cowper, it will be remembered,
describes him admirably.


       *       *       *       *       *


We are all well acquainted with the ingenious artifices by which modern
advertisers thrust their wares upon the attention of newspaper readers. We
may, perhaps, have been betrayed into the expression of come rude Saxon
expletive, when, in the columns devoted to news and general information, we
have in our innocence been tempted with a paragraph that commenced with "a
clever saying of the illustrious Voltaire's," and dovetailed into a
panegyric of Messrs. Aaron and Son's Reversible Paletots; or we may have
applauded the clever logician who so clearly demonstrates, that as
Napoleon's bilious affection frequently clouded his judgment in times of
greatest need, the events of the present century, and the fate of nations,
would have been reversed, had that great man only been persuaded to take
two boxes of Snooks's Aperient Pill, price 1s. 1½d., with the Government
stamp on a red ground (see Advt.). All these things we know very well; but,
of the fugitive literature that does not find a place in the advertising
columns of _The Times_, but flashes into Fame only in the pages of some
local oracle, or in some obscurer broad-sheet, how often must it remain
unappreciated, and doomed to "waste its sweetness on the desert air." That
this may not be said of the following burst of advertising eloquence, I
trust it may be found worthy a niche in the temple of "N. & Q." In its
composition the author was probably inspired by the grand scenery of the
Cheviots, in a village near to which his shop was situate. It was one of
those "generally-useful" shops where the grocer and draper held equal
reign, and anything could be got, from silks and satins to butter and Bath
bricks. The composition was printed and distributed among the neighbouring
families; but shortly after, when the author heard that it had not produced
the exact effect he had wished, he, with the irritability that often
accompanies genius, resolved to get back and destroy every copy of his
production, and deny to the world that which it could not appreciate.
Fortunately for the world's welfare, I preserved a copy of his hand-bill,
of which this, in its turn, is a faithful transcript:

    "_To the Inhabitants of G. and its neighbourhood._

    "The present age is teeming with advantages which no preceding Era in
    the history of mankind has afforded to the human family. New schemes
    are projecting to enlighten and extend civilisation, Railways have been
    projected and carried out by an enterprising and spirited nation, while
    Science in its gigantic power (simple yet sublime) affords to the
    humane mind so many facilities to explore its rich resources, the
    Seasons roll on in their usual course producing light and heat, the
    vivifying rays of the Sun, and the fructifying influences of nature
    producing food and happiness to the Sons of Toil; while to the people
    of G. and its neighbourhood a rich and extensive variety of Fashionable
    Goods is to be found in my Warehouse, which have just been selected
    with the greatest care. The earliest visit is requested to convey to
    the mind an adequate idea of the great extent of his purchases,
    comprising as it does all that is elegant and useful, cheap and
    substantial, to the light-hearted votaries of Matrimony, the Matrons of
    Reflection, the Man of Industry, and the disconsolate Victims of

    J-- M--."


The peroration certainly exhibits what Mrs. Malaprop calls "a nice
derangement of epitaphs:" and, us for the rest, surely "the force of"
bathos "could no further go."


       *       *       *       *       *


One of the most desperately unintelligible passages in Shakspeare occurs in
this play, in the scene between the King and the Cardinal, when the latter
professes his devoted attachment to his service. It stands thus in the
first folio:

   _Car._ "I do professe
  That for your Highnesse good, I euer labour'd
  More then mine owne: that am, haue, and will be
  (Though all the world should cracke their duty to you,
  And throw it from their Soule, though perils did
  Abound, as thicke as thought could make 'em, and
  Appeare in formes more horrid) yet my Duty,
  As doth a Rocke against the chiding Flood,
  Should the approach of this wilde Riuer breake,
  And stand vnshaken yours."

Upon this Mason observes:

    "I can find no meaning in these words (that am, have, and will be), or
    see how they are connected with the rest of the sentence; and should
    therefore strike them out."

Malone says:

    "I suppose the meaning is, '_that_ or _such a man_, I am, have _been_,
    and will _ever_ be.' Our author has many hard and forced expressions in
    his plays; but many of the hardnesses in the piece before us appear to
    me of a different colour from those of Shakspeare. Perhaps however, a
    line following has been lost; for in the old copy there is no stop at
    the end of this line; and, indeed, I have some doubt whether a comma
    ought not to be placed at it, rather than a fullpoint."

Mr. Knight, however, places a fullpoint at _will be_, and says:

    "There is certainly some corruption in this passage; for no ellipsis
    can have taken this very obscure form. Z. Jackson suggests 'that _aim
    has_ and will be.' This is very harsh. We might read 'That _aim_ I have
    and will,' _will_ being a noun."

Mr. Collier has the following note:

    "In this place we can do no more than reprint exactly the old text,
    with the old punctuation; as if Wolsey, following 'that am, have, and
    will be' by a long parenthesis, had forgotten how he commenced his
    sentence. Something may have been lost, which would have completed the
    meaning and the instances have not been infrequent where lines,
    necessary to the sense, have been recovered from the quarto
    impressions. Here we have no quarto impressions to resort to, and the
    later folios afford us no assistance, as they reprint the passage as it
    stands in the folio 1628, excepting that the two latest end the
    parenthesis at 'break.'"

I cannot think that the poet would have put a short speech into Wolsey's
mouth, making him forget how he commenced it! Nor do I believe that
anything has been lost, except the slender letter _I_ preceding _am_. The
printer or transcriber made the easy mistake of taking the word _true_ for
_haue_, which as written of old would readily occur, and having thus
confused the passage, had recourse to the unconscionable long mark of a
parenthesis. The passage undoubtedly should stand thus:

   _Car._ "I do profess
  That for your highness' good I ever labour'd
  More than mine own; that _I_ am _true_, and will be
  Though all the world should _lack_ their duty to you,
  And throw it from their soul: though perils did
  Abound, as thick as thought could make them, and
  Appear in forms more horrid; yet my duty
  (As doth a rock against the chiding flood,)
  Should the approach of this wild river break,
  And stand unshaken yours."

Here all is congruous and clear. This slight correction of a palpable
printer's error redeems a fine passage hitherto entirely unintelligible. I
do not insist upon the correction in the fourth line of _lack_ for _crack_,
yet what can be meant by _cracking a duty_? The duke, in the _Two Gentlemen
of Verona_, speaks of his daughter as "_lacking_ duty;" and seeing how very
negligently the whole passage has been given in the folio, I think there is
good ground for its reception. With regard to the correction in the second
line, I feel confident, and doubt not that it will have the approbation of
all who, like myself, feel assured that most of the difficulties in the
text of our great poet are attributable to careless printer or transcriber.

When I proposed (Vol. vi., p. 468.) to read "_rail_ at once," instead of
"_all_ at once," in _As You Like It_, Act III. Sc. 5., I thought the
conjecture my own, having then only access to the editions of Mr. Collier
and Mr. Knight; I consequently said, "It is somewhat singular that the
passage should hitherto have passed unquestioned." My surprise was
therefore great, on turning to the passage in the _Variorum Shakspeare_, to
find the following note by Warburton, which had escaped my notice:

    "If the speaker intended to accuse the person spoken to only for
    _insulting_ and exulting, then, instead of '_all_ at once,' it ought to
    have been _both_ at once. But, examining the crime of the person
    accused, we shall discover that the line is to be read thus:

     'That you insult, exult, and _rail_ at once,'

    for these three things Phoebe was guilty of. But the Oxford editor
    improves it, and, for _rail_ at once, reads _domineer_."

I have no recollection of having ever read the note before, and certainly
was not conscious of it. The coincidence, therefore, may be considered (as
Mr. Collier observed in respect to the reading of _palpable_ for _capable_)
as much in favour of this conjecture. {6}

That the most careful printers can _misread_, and consequently _misprint_,
copy, is evident from the following error in my last Note:--Vol. vi., p.
584., col. 1, for "in the edition which I gave of the _part_," read
"_poet_." This mistake, like most of those I have indicated in the first
folio Shakspeare, might easily occur if the word was indistinctly written.



       *       *       *       *       *


As I find that the editor of _Bacon's Essays_ for Bohn's _Standard Library_
has not verified the quotations, I venture to send you a few "N. & Q." on
them, which I hope to continue from time to time, if they prove acceptable.
In compliance with the recommendation of MR. SYDNEY SMIRKE and the REV. H.
T. ELLACOMBE (Vol. vi., p. 558.), I append my name and address.

N.B. The paging and notes of Bohn's edition are followed throughout.

    Preface, p. xiii. note *. "Speech on the Impeachment of Warren
    Hastings." See Burke's _Works_, vol. viii. p. 15. [ed. 1827.] Speech on
    the first day of reply.

    Ditto, p. xv. Letter to Father Fulgentio. See Montagu's _Bacon_, vol.
    xi. pref., p. vii.; vol. xii. p. 205.

    Ditto, ditto. _Spenser's Faery Queene, &c._ See preface to Moxon's
    _Spenser_ (1850), p. xxix., where this story is refuted, and Montagu,
    xvi., note _x_.

    Ditto, p. xvi. "It was like another man's fair ground," &c. See
    Montagu, xvi. p. xxvii.

    Ditto, ditto. "I shall die," &c. Ditto, xxxiv. and note _ww_.

    Ditto, p. xvii. note +. Dugald Stewart. Supplement to _Encycl. Brit._,
    vol. i. p. 54. [ed. 1824.]

    Ditto, ditto. H_a_tton, not H_u_tton, as in _Eliza Cook's Journal_, vi.

    Ditto, ditto. Love an ignoble passion. Essay x. _ad init._

    Ditto, p. xviii. "Says Macaulay." Review of B. Montagu's _Bacon
    Essays_, p. 355. [ed. 1851.]

    Ditto, ditto. A pamphlet. Montagu, vi. 299.

    Ditto, p. xix. "A place in the Canticles." Cap. ii. 1. Bacon quotes,
    from memory it would appear, from the Vulgate, which has "Ego flos
    campi." By whom is the observation? See, for the story, Montagu, xvi.
    p. xcviii.

    Ditto, ditto. "Books were announced." What?

    Ditto, p. xx. "Cæsar's compliment to Cicero." Where recorded?

    Ditto, p. xxi. "The manufacture of particular articles of trade."
    Montagu, xvi. 306.

    Ditto, p. xxii. "Says Macaulay." _Ut supra_, p. 407.

    Ditto, ditto. Ben Jonson. See Underwood's, lxix. lxxviii. [pp. 711,
    713. ed. Moxon, 1851.]

    Ditto, p. xxv. Marcus Lucius. Who is here alluded to?

    Ditto, p. xxvii. "Which strangely parodies." The opening alluded to is
    "Franciscus de Verulam sic cogitavit."

    Ditto, p. xxviii. "One solitary line." Where is this to be found?

    Ditto, ditto. "Ben Jonson after sketching." See _Discoveries_, p. 749.
    _ut sup._

    Ditto, p. xxix. "Might have censured with Hume." Where?

    Ditto, ditto. "Hobbes." Where does he praise Bacon?

    Ditto, ditto. "Bayle." In Bayle's _Dictionary_ [English edition, 1710],
    _s. v._, we find but fourteen lines on Bacon.

    Ditto, ditto. "Tacitus." _Vit. Agric._, cap. 44.

    Ditto, p. xxxiii. note. Solomon's House. See p. 296. _seqq._ of the
    vol. of the _Standard Library_.

    Ditto, p. xxxiv. note. Paterculus, i. 17. 6. [Burmann.]

(_To be continued._)


26. Hill's Road, Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *


I send you two copies of Latin verses which have not, to my knowledge,
appeared in print. They are however interesting, from the coincidence of
their both relating to _elm-trees_, and in some measure belonging to the
"Story of Waterloo," about which we never can hear too much. The lines
themselves possess considerable merit; and, as their authors were
respectively distinguished alumni of Eton and Winchester, I hope to see
both compositions placed in juxtaposition in the columns of "N. & Q."

The first of these productions was written by Marquis Wellesley, as an
inscription for a chair carved from the _Wellington Elm_ (which stood near
the centre of the British lines on the field of Waterloo), and presented to
his Majesty King George IV., to whom the lines were addressed:

  Ampla inter spolia, et magni decora alta triumphi,
    _Ulmus_ erit fastis commemoranda tuis,
  Quam super exoriens faustâ tibi gloria pennâ
    Palmam oleamque uno detulit alma die;
  Immortale decus maneat, famâque perenni
    Felicique geras sceptra paterna manu;
  Et tua victrices dum cingunt tempora lauri,
    Materies solio digna sit ista tuo.

For the other verses subjoined, we are indebted to the late Rev. William
Crowe, Fellow of New College, Oxford, and many years public orator in that
university. It seems that he had planted _an elm_ at his parsonage, on the
birth of his son, afterwards killed at Waterloo, which sad event was {7}
commemorated by his afflicted father in the following touching monody,
_affixed to the same tree_:

  _Hanc_ Ego quam felix annis melioribus _Ulmum_
  Ipse manu sevi, tibi dilectissime Fili
  Consecro in æternum, Gulielme vocabitur Arbos
  Hæc tua, servabitque tuum per secula nomen.
  Te generose Puer nil muneris hujus egentem
  Te jam perfunctum vitæ bellique labore,
  Adscripsit Deus, et coelestibus intulit oris,
  Me tamen afflictum, me consolabitur ægrum
  Hoc tibi quod pono, quanquam leve pignus amoris,
  Hic Ego de vitâ meditans, de sorte futurâ,
  Sæpe tuam recolam formam, dulcemque loquelam,
  Verbaque tam puro et sacrato fonte profecta,
  Quam festiva quidem, et facili condita lepore.
  At Te, qui nostris quicunque accesseris hospes
  Sedibus, unum oro, moesti reverere Parentis,
  Nec tu sperne preces quas hâc super Arbore fundo.
  Sit tibi non invisa, sit inviolata securi,
  Et quantum natura sinet, crescat monumentum
  Egregii Juvenis, qui sævo est Marte peremptus,
  Fortiter ob patriam pugnando, sic tibi constans
  Stet fortuna domûs, sit nulli obnoxia damno,
  Nec videas unquam dilecti funera nati.


       *       *       *       *       *


The letter which sir Henry Wotton addressed to Milton, on receiving the
_Maske presented at Ludlow-castle_, appears to admit of an interpretation
which has escaped the numerous editors of the works of Milton; and I
resolve to put this novel conjecture on its trial in the critical court of
facts and inferences held at No. 186. Fleet Street.

Sir Henry Wotton thus expresses himself on the circumstance which I
conceive to have been misinterpreted:

    "For the work itself [a dainty piece of entertainment, by Milton] I had
    viewed some good while before with singular delight, having received it
    from our common friend Mr. R. in the very close of the late R.'s
    _Poems_, printed at Oxford; whereunto [it] is added (as I now suppose)
    that the accessory might help out the principal, according to the art
    of stationers, and to leave the reader _con la bocca
    dolce_."--_Reliquiæ Wottonianæ_, 1672.

In the poems of Milton, as edited by himself in 1645, the date of this
letter is "13th April, 1638;" and as the _Poems_ of "Thomas Randolph,
master of arts, and late fellow of Trinity colledge in Cambridge," were
printed at Oxford in that year, in small quarto, it may be assumed that the
gift of _Mr. R._ was a copy of that volume, with the addition of the
_Maske_, as printed in the same size in 1637. Such was the conclusion of
Warton, and such is mine. The question at issue is, Who was _Mr. R._?
Warton says, "I believe _Mr. R._ to be John Rouse," the keeper of the
Bodleian library. Is it not more probable that _Mr. R._ means Robert
Randolph, master of arts, and student of Christchurch--a younger brother of
Thomas Randolph, and the editor of his poems?

I must first dispose of the assertion that the friendship between Rouse and
Milton "appears to have subsisted in 1637." There is no evidence of their
friendship till 1647; and that evidence is the ode to Rouse, to which this
address is prefixed: "Jan. 23. 1646. Ad Joannem Rousium, Oxoniensis
academiæ bibliothecarium. De libro poematum amisso, _quem ille sibi denuo
mitti postulabat_, ut cum aliis nostris in bibliotheca publica reponeret,
ode." It seems that Milton did not send the volume of 1645 till a copy of
it had been requested; no evidence, certainly, of old friendship! I admit
the probability that Wotton and Rouse were friends; but why should Rouse
_officiously stitch up_, as Warton expresses it, the _Mask_ of Milton with
the _Poems_ of Thomas Randolph, and present the volume to Wotton? Did he
give away that which is still wanting in the Bodleian library?

Admit my novel conjecture, and all the difficulties vanish. Thomas
Randolph, says Phillips, was "one of the most pregnant young wits of his
time;" and Robert, who was also noted as a poet, could scarcely fail to
offer the poems of his brother to so eminent a person as sir Henry Wotton.
As sir Henry _yearly went to Oxford_, he may have made acquaintance with
Robert; and Robert may have been introduced to Milton by Thomas, who was
for eight years his cotemporary at Cambridge, and in the enjoyment of much
more celebrity. The _Maske_ may have been added as an experiment in

The rev. Thomas Warton was a man of extensive reading, an excellent critic,
and a fascinating writer--but too often inattentive to accuracy of
statement. He says that Randolph _died_ the 17th March, 1634: Wood says he
was _buried_ the 17th March, 1634. He says it is so stated on his monument:
the monument has no date. He says the _Poems_ of Randolph contain 114
pages: the volume contains 368 pages! He says the _Maske_ is a slight
quarto of 30 pages only; it contains 40 pages! Is it not fit that such
carelessness should be exposed?


       *       *       *       *       *


_Unlucky to sell eggs after Sunset._--The following paragraph is extracted
from the _Stamford Mercury_ of October 29, 1852:

    "There exists a species of superstition in north Nottinghamshire
    against letting eggs go out of a house after sunset. The other day a
    person in want of some eggs called at a farm-house in East Markham, and
    inquired of the good woman of the house whether she had any eggs to
    sell, to which she replied that she had a few scores to dispose of.
    'Then I'll take them home {8} with me in the cart,' was his answer; to
    which she somewhat indignantly replied, 'That you'll not; don't you
    know the sun has gone down? You are welcome to the eggs at a proper
    hour of the day; but I would not let them go out of the house after the
    sun is set on any consideration whatever!'"


_Old Song._--

  My father gave me an acre of land,
            Sing ivy, sing ivy.
  My father gave me an acre of land,
            Sing green bush, holly, and ivy.
  I plough'd it with a ram's horn,
            Sing ivy, &c.
  I harrow'd it with a bramble,
            Sing ivy, &c.
  I sow'd it with a peppercorn,
            Sing ivy, &c.
  I reap'd it with my penknife,
            Sing ivy, &c.
  I carried it to the mill upon the cat's back,
            Sing ivy, &c.

Then follows some more which I forget, but I think it ends thus:

  I made a cake for all the king's men,
            Sing ivy, sing ivy.
  I made a cake for all the king's men,
            Sing green bush, holly, and ivy.


_Nursery Tale._-- I saddled my sow with a sieve full of buttermilk, put my
foot into the stirrup, and leaped nine miles beyond the moon into the land
of temperance, where there was nothing but hammers and hatchets and
candlesticks, and there lay bleeding Old Noles. I let him lie, and sent for
Old Hippernoles, and asked him if he could grind green steel nine times
finer than wheat flour. He said he could not. Gregory's wife was up in the
pear-tree gathering nine corns of buttered peas to pay Saint James' rent.
Saint James was in the meadow mowing oat cakes; he heard a noise, hung his
scythe at his heels, stumbled at the battledore, tumbled over the barn-door
ridge, and broke his shins against a bag of moonshine that stood behind the
stairsfoot door, and if that isn't true you know as well as I.


_Legend of Change._--In one of the Magazines for November, a legend, stated
to be of oriental origin, is given, in which an immortal, visiting at
distant intervals the same spot, finds it occupied by a city, an ocean, a
forest, and a city again: the mortals whom he found there, on each
occasion, believing that the present state had existed for ever. I have
seen in the newspapers, at different times, a poem (or I rather think two
poems) founded on this legend; and I should like to know the author or
authors, and whether it, or either of them, is to be found in any
collection of poems.

D. X.

       *       *       *       *       *


 "Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin,
  Unhousell'd, disappointed, unaneld'd."
                  _Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 5.

Boucher, in his _Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words_ (art. ANYEAL),
has a note on this passage which seems to me to give so much better an idea
of the word _disappointed_ than any I have met with, that I am induced to
send it you as a Note:--

    "The last two words have occasioned considerable difficulty to the
    critics. The old copies, it is said, concur in giving _disappointed_,
    which Dr. Johnson is willing to understand as meaning _unprepared_; a
    sense that might very well suit the context, but will not be easily
    confirmed by any other instance of the use of the word _disappointed_.
    Dissatisfied, therefore, with this interpretation, some have read
    _unanointed_, and some _unappointed_. Not approving of either of these
    words, as connected with _unanealed_, Pope, no timid corrector of
    texts, reads _unaneld_, which he supposes to signify _unknelled_, or
    the having no knell rung. To these emendations and interpretations Mr.
    Theobald, whose merit as a commentator of Shakspeare Mr. Pope, with all
    his wit and all his poetry, could not bring into dispute, urged many
    strong objections. Skinner rightly explains _anealed_ as meaning
    _unctus_; from the Teutonic preposition _an_, and _ele_, oil. As
    correction of the second word is admitted by all the commentators to be
    necessary, it is suggested that a clear and consistent meaning,
    consonant with Shakspeare's manner, will be given to the passage, if,
    instead of _disappointed_, _unassoiled_, which signifies 'without
    absolution,' be substituted.

    "The line--

     'Unhousell'd, unassoil'd, unaneal'd,'

    will then signify 'without receiving the sacrament: without confession
    and absolution: and without extreme unction.'

    "The _unassoiled_ was no less proper, will appear from due attention to
    the word _assoile_, which of course is derived from _absolvo_; and the
    transition from _absolve_ into _assoyle_ is demonstrated in the
    following passage from Piers Plowman, Vision, p. 3.:

     'There preached a pardoner, as he a priest were,
      Brought forth a bul, with many a bishop's seales,
      And saide, that himself might absoyle hem alle,
      Of falshode, of fasting, and of vowes broken.'

    As a further confirmation of the propriety of substituting a word
    signifying _absolution_, which pre-supposes confession, the following
    sentence from _Prince Arthur_ may be adduced: 'She was confessed and
    houselled, and then she died,' part ii. p. 108.

    "It must be allowed that no instance can be given of the word
    _unassoiled_: but neither does any other instance occur to me of the
    word _unhouseled_ except the line in _Hamlet_."

B. J. S.

       *       *       *       *       *



The recent observations of your correspondent MR. NOAKE (Vol. vi., p. 531.)
on the superstitions of the people of Worcestershire regarding the weather,
have called my attention to the present extraordinary wet season, on which
subject I have been asked many questions. Although I do not account myself
any more weatherwise than my neighbours, yet I may note that, for many
years past, I have remarked that whenever we have had any very serious
volcanic disturbance in the Mediterranean or its neighbourhood, or at Mount
Hecla, we have always had some corresponding atmospheric agitation in this
country, either in excessive heat or moisture, or both, and accompanied
with very perceptible vibrations, at times so strong as to answer the name
of earthquakes; and these vibrating so generally in the direction from
north-west to south-east, I have been convinced that underneath us there is
a regular steam passage from Mount Hecla in Iceland to Mount Vesuvius in
Italy. I have unfortunately mislaid my memoranda on this subject, and have
no regular roster of these occasional visitations to refer to, but I think
my attention to this effect was first impressed on me by the season which
followed the destruction at Lisbon in 1796. I recollect a friend of mine,
the late Mr. Empson, of Bouley, while attending some drainage improvements
in his carrs within the Level of Ancholme, was aroused by an extraordinary
noise, which he thought was occasioned by some "drunken fools," as he
called them, racing with their waggons upon the turnpike road above the
hill, which was two miles off from where he then was in the carrs. His
uphill shepherd, however, told him, when he got home, that there had been
no such occurrence as he supposed on the turnpike, as, had such been the
case, he must have heard and seen it. The next day, however, added fresh
information, and better observers discovered that the noise heard across
the carrs was underground; and further intelligence confirmed the suspicion
that it was occasioned by a species of earthquake that had been felt at
different places with different intensities, through Yorkshire and
Lancashire, and amongst the islands west of Scotland; and afterwards came
the same kind of intelligence across France, confirming me in my
conclusions before noted. And ever since this period of 1796 we have never
had any extraordinary alternation of extreme heat or wet, without its being
to me the result of some accompanying volcanic agitation in Mount Hecla, or
Mount Vesuvius or its neighbourhood; and the recurrence of the violent
ebullition that has this year being going on at Mount Etna may therefore be
considered as the electric cause not only of the extraordinary heat of our
late summer, but also of the floods that have subsequently poured down upon
us. It is only of late years that scientific men have paid due attention to
these physical phenomena. Sir Humphrey Davy, I think, was the first who
laid down their causes; and if we recollect the account given by Sir
Stamford Raffles of the appalling effects of the tremendous explosion of
Tombora, in Sambowa, one of the islands east of Java, in the year 1815,
described as so violent in its immediate neighbourhood as to cause men, and
horses, and trees to be taken up into the air like chaff; and of its
effects being perceptible in Sumatra, where, nearly at a thousand miles
distance from it, they heard its thundering noisy explosions,--thinking of
this, we may well accede the comparatively small vibrations that we
occasionally feel, as arising from the interchange of civilities passing
between our volcanic neighbours Hecla and Vesuvius, or Etna; and glad we
may be that we have them in no more inconvenient shape or degree than we
have hitherto experienced them. I have some friends in Lancashire who have
been a good deal alarmed by the vibrations they have lately experienced;
and I must confess that my good wife and myself were, on the morning of the
10th Dec., not a little startled in our bed by a shock that aroused us
early to inquire after the cause of it, but for which we cannot account
otherwise than that, from its sudden electric character, the Lancashire
vibration had reached us. The chief purport, however, of my present
communication is, to make inquiry amongst your readers, whether any of
them, like myself, have observed and experienced any recurrence of these
concomitant and physical obtrusions.


Barton upon Humber.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Value of MSS._--In the cause of Calvert _v._ Sebright, a question arose as
to the sale of a collection of manuscript books by the late Sir John
Sebright in the year 1807. In aid of the inquiry before the Master, as to
the difference in value of the manuscripts in 1807 and the year 1849, Mr.
Rodd made an affidavit, from which I have made the following extract,
showing the prices at which five lots were sold in 1807, and the prices at
which the same lots were sold at the late Mr. Heber's sale in 1836:

    "No. in Catalogue, 1185. Bracton de (Hen.) Consuetudinibus et Legibus
    Anglicæ. (In pergamena) literis deauratis. Sold in 1807 for 1l. 13s.:
    produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 6l. 6s.

    "Lot 1190. Gul. Malmesburiensis de Gestis Regum Anglorum. (In
    pergamena.) Sold in 1807 for 1l. 7s.: produced at Heber's sale, 1836,

    "Lot 1195. Chronica Gulielmi Thorn. (In membranis.) Sold in 1807 for
    12s.: produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 85l.

    {10} "Lot 1198. Henrici Archid. Huntindoniensis de Gestis Anglorum et
    Gyr. Cambriensis expugnatio Hiberniæ. (In pergamena.) Sold in 1807 for
    2l. 1s.: produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 78l. 15s. 6d.

    "Lot 1206. Chronica Matt. Parisensis sine Historia Minor cum vitâ
    authoris, per Doctissimum Virum Rog. Twysden Bar. (In papyro.) Sold in
    1807 for 2l. 8s.: produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 5l. 15s. 6d. Total
    produce in 1807, 8l. 1s.: in 1836, 238l. 17s."

In the catalogue of Heber's books, &c., Nos. 447. 1006. 498. 118. and 1016.
correspond with the Nos. 1185. 1190. 1195. 1198. 1206.

F. W. J.

_Robert Hill._--I possess a Latin Bible which formerly belonged to this
person, and contains many MS. notes in his handwriting. The following is by
another hand:

    "This book formerly belonged to Mr. Robert Hill, a taylor of
    Buckingham, and an acquaintance of my cousin John Herbert, surgeon of
    that town. J. L."

    "In literature we find of this profession (_i. e._ that of a taylor)
    John Speed, a native of Cheshire, whose merit as an historian and
    antiquary are indisputable--to whom may be added the name of a man who
    in literature ought to have taken the lead, we mean John Stow. Benjamin
    Robins, the compiler of _Lord Anson's Voyage_, who united the powers of
    the sword and the pen, was professionally a taylor of Bath; as was
    Robert Hill of Buckingham, who, in the midst of poverty and distress,
    while obliged to labour at his trade for the support of a large family,
    acquired a knowledge of the Hebrew, and other languages, such as has
    only been equalled by Magliabecchi, who studied in a cradle curtained
    by cobwebs and colonised by spiders."--See "Vestiges Revived," No. XX.
    _European Mag._ for Mar. 1813.

The above choice note is, I presume, an extract from the _Europ. Mag._, and
may serve to show that although ordinarily it takes "nine tailors to make a
man," it may occasionally require nine men to make such a tailor as R. Hill
seems to have been.

B. H. C.

_English Orthography._--The agricultural newspapers and magazines in the
United States have generally restored the spelling of _plow_ in place of
_plough_, which has crept in since the translation of the Bible into

Could not _cloke_, the old spelling, be also restored, in place of _cloak_,
which has nothing but _oak_ to keep it in countenance; whilst _cloke_ is in
analogy with _smoke_, _poke_, _broke_, &c.?

There are two English words, in pronouncing which not a single letter of
them is sounded; namely _ewe_ (yo!) and _aye_ (I!)



_Bookselling in Glasgow in 1735._--The following curious report of a law
case appears in Morison's _Dictionary of the Decisions of the Court of
Session_, p. 9455. It appears from it that, so late as 1735, the city of
Glasgow, now containing a population of nearly 400,000, was considered too
limited a sphere for the support of only _two_ booksellers.

    "1735, January 15. Stalker against Carmichael. Carmichael and Stalker
    entered into a co-partnery of bookselling within the City of Glasgow,
    to continue for three years; and because _the place was judged too
    narrow for two booksellers at a time_, it was stipulated that after the
    expiry of three years, either of them refusing to enter into a new
    contract upon the former terms, should be debarred from any concern in
    bookselling within the city of Glasgow. In a reduction of the contract,
    the Lords found the debarring clause in the contract is a lawful
    practice, and not contrary to the liberty of the subject."

X. Y.


_Epitaph on a Sexton._--Epitaph on a sexton, who received a great blow by
the clapper of a bell:

 "Here lyeth the body of honest John Capper,
  Who lived by the bell, and died by the clapper."

Answer to the foregoing:

 "I am not dead indeed, but have good hope,
  To live by the bell when you die by the rope."


       *       *       *       *       *



With the siege of Calais, and its surrender to Edward III. in 1347, is
associated the name of Eustache de St. Pierre, whose loyalty and
devotedness have been immortalised by the historian, and commemorated by
the artist's pencil. The subject of Queen Philippa's intercessions on
behalf of Eustache and his brave companions is, no doubt, familiar to most
of your readers: the stern demeanour of the king; the tears and
supplicating attitude of the Queen Philippa; and the humiliating position
of the burgesses of Calais, &c. But what if Eustache de St. Pierre had been
bought over by King Edward? For without going the length of pronouncing the
scenes of the worthy citizens, with halters round their necks, to have been
a "got up" affair, there is, however, some reason to doubt whether the
boasted loyalty of Eustache de St. Pierre was such as is represented, as
will appear from the following notes. And however much the statements
therein contained may detract from the cherished popular notions regarding
Eustache de St. Pierre, yet the seeker after truth is inexorable, or, to
use the words of Sir Francis Palgrave (_Hist. of Norm. and Eng._, i. 354.),
he is expected "to uncramp or shatter the pedestals supporting the idols
which have won the false worship of the multitude; so that they may nod in
their niches, or topple down."

In one of the volumes forming part of that valuable collection published by
the French {11} government,and commenced, I believe, under the auspices of
M. Guizot, namely, the _Documens inédits sur l'Histoire de France_, the
following passage attracted my notice:

    "Il (M. de Bréquigny) a prouvé par des titres authentiques et inconnus
    jusqu'à présent, qu'Eustache de St. Pierre, dont on a si fort vanté le
    dévouement pour les habitans de Calais, fut séduit par Edouard, et
    qu'il reçut de ce prince des pensions et des possessions fort peu de
    temps après la prise de cette place, aux conditions d'y maintenir le
    bon ordre, et de la conserver à l'Angleterre."--See _Lettres de Rois,
    &c._, vol. i. Preface, p. cix.

The above statement is founded on a memoir read before the Académie des
Belles-Lettres by M. de Bréquigny, respecting the researches made by him in
London (see _Mém. de l'Acad. des Belles-Lettres_, tom. xxxvii.).

Lingard throws a doubt over the matter. He says:

    "Froissart has dramatised this incident with considerable effect; but,
    I fear, with little attention to truth.... Even in Froissart there is
    nothing to prove that Edward designed to put these men to death. On the
    contrary, he takes notice that the King's refusal of mercy was
    accompanied with a wink to his attendants, which, if it meant anything,
    must have meant that he was not acting seriously."--_Lingard_, 3rd
    edit. 1825, vol. iv. p. 79., note 85.

Again, in Hume:

    "The story of the six burgesses of Calais, like all extraordinary
    stories, is somewhat to be suspected; and so much the more, as
    Avesbury, who is particular in his narrative of the surrender of
    Calais, says nothing of it, and, on the contrary, extols in general the
    King's generosity and lenity to the inhabitants."--_Hume_, 8vo. 1807,
    vol. ii., note H.

Both Hume and Lingard mention that Edward expelled the natives of Calais,
and repeopled the place with Englishmen; but they say nothing as to
Eustache de St. Pierre becoming a pensioner of the King's "aux conditions
d'y maintenir le bon ordre, et de la conserver à l'Angleterre."

Châteaubriand (_Etudes Hist._, 1831, 8vo., tome iv. p. 104.) gives
Froissart's narrative, by which he abides, at the same time complaining of
the "esprit de dénigrement" which he says prevailed towards the end of the
last century in regard to heroic actions.

Regarding Queen Philippa's share in the transaction above referred to, M.
de Bréquigny says:

    "La reine, qu'on suppose avoir été si touchée du malheur des six
    bourgeois dont elle venait de sauver la vie, ne laissa pas d'obtenir,
    peu de jours après, la confiscation des maisons que Jean d'Acre, l'un
    d'eux, avait possédées dans Calais."

Miss Strickland (_Lives of Queens_, 1st edit., vol. ii. p. 336.) likewise
gives the story as related by Froissart, but mentions the fact of Queen
Philippa taking possession of Jean d'Acre's property, and the doubt cast
upon Eustache's loyalty; but she would appear to justify him by reason of
King Philip's abandoning the brave Calaisiens to their fate. However this
may be, documents exist proving that the inhabitants of Calais were
indemnified for their losses: and whether or not the family of Eustache de
St. Pierre approved his conduct, so much is certain, that, on the death of
the latter, the property which had been granted to him by King Edward was
confiscated, because they would not acknowledge their allegiance to the

I wish to ask whether this new light thrown on the subject, through M. de
Bréquigny's labours, has been hitherto noticed, for it would appear the
story should be re-written.


       *       *       *       *       *


I will put the following case as briefly as I can.

Throughout the mediæval ages, the word _devise_ formed the generic term for
every species of emblazonment. Thus we have "_Devises Heroiques_, per
Claude Paradin, Lyons, 1557;" "_Devises et Emblems d'Amour moralisés_, par
Flamen;" "_The Paradise of Dainty Devices_, 1576;" "_Minerva Britannica, or
a Garden of Heroical Devices furnished and adorned with Emblems and
Impressa's of Sundry Natives_, newly devised, moralised, and published by
Henry Peachum, 1612;" and lastly, Henry Estienne's "discourse of
hieroglyphs, symbols, gryphs, emblems, enigmas, sentences, parables,
reverses of medals, arms, blazons, cimiers, cyphers, and rebus," which
learned discourse, be it observed, is entitled _The Art of making Devises_,
1646. As an additional proof that device included the motto, take the

    "Henry III. commanded to be written by way of device in his chamber at
    Woodstock, 'Qui non dat quod amat non accipit ille quod optat;'"

quoted by Sir Eger. Brydges. Here I must stop, though I could add many
illustrations; and go on to observe, that whereas all the explanations
which I have ever met with, of the unique appellation of "Castrum
Divisarum," or the castle of Devises, are totally un-historic, if not
ridiculous, I crave the attention of all whom it may concern to a new
solution of the difficulty.

First, then, in order to clear the way, I would observe, that if, as
commonly stated, the name had signified a frontier fort, would it not have
been called the castle of the division [singular] rather than the castle of
the divided districts? In other words, why make it a plural term?

Secondly. If, as I surmise, the Italian word _divisa_ bore at the time of
the Conquest its present meaning of "device," in greater force than the
{12} sense of divisions or partitions, is it unreasonable to suppose that
Castrum Divisarum implied and constituted, at that early period, the
deposit or fountain-head of the blazonry of the Norman leaders?

It was certainly not unsuited for such a species of heralds' college; being
central, inland, a royal treasury, and the frequent scene of a court. When
in the ensuing age re-edified by Bishop Roger, the monkish historians,
without a dissentient voice, proclaimed it the most splendid castle in the
realm; and though it may be objected that this observation belongs to a
date not to our purpose, yet the pre-existence of the fortress is proved by
its having been the temporary prison of Duke Robert. I am aware that such a
notion as Devizes having formed the nucleus of the tree heraldic in England
is not countenanced, nor even suspected, by any of the popular writers on
the art. I may add, that one gentleman, holding an important position
therein, has signified his disapproval of so early an origin being assigned
to the institution. But over-against this, I beg to parade a passage from a
letter written by Thomas Blore in 1806 to Sir Egerton Brydges:

    "The heralds," says he, "seem originally not to have been instituted
    for the manufacturing of armorial ensigns, but for the recording those
    ensigns which had been borne."--_Censura Literaria_, vol. iii. p. 254.

My case is now stated. I shall be well content that some of your
archæological friends should scatter it to the winds, provided they will
explain how it is that Devizes, in common with some of the ancient cities
of Egypt and Greece, has so long rejoiced in a plural name. To aid this
last endeavour, I close with one more statement. The castle stood nearly
midway between two other adjoining towns or villæ, also bearing plural
names: Potternæ=arum [Posternæ?] and Kaningæ=arum.


P.S.--I think I may plead the privilege of a postscript for the purpose of
recording (what may be taken as) an indication, though perhaps not a proof,
that the idea of devices or contrivances was implied in the name so
recently as the period of the civil war. The _Mercurius Civicus_, a
parliamentary paper, 1644, states that Devizes was being garrisoned for the
king, in the following terms:

    "Hopton is fortifying amain at the Devises in Wiltshire, but I fear
    greater fortifyings for the Devices in Oxford."

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Gold Signet Ring._--I possess an ancient gold signet ring, which was dug
up a few years since not far from an old entrenchment in the borough of
Leominster, in the county of Hereford, the device thereon being a _cock_;
it is of very pure metal, and weighs 155 grains. It is in fine
preservation: and device is rudely cut, but I beg to inclose an impression
from which you may judge. Can any of your antiquarian readers throw any
light on the subject to whom this device originally belonged?

In levelling the fortified entrenchment above referred to some half century
ago, various utensils of pottery, burnt bones, spear and arrow heads,
tesselated tiles, fragments of sculptured stones, and other relics of
antiquity, were found.


_Ecclesia Anglicana._--I observe, in an interesting letter published in the
December Number of the _Ecclesiologist_, in an enumeration of Service Books
belonging to the English Church before the Reformation, and now existing in
the Pepysian Library, Cambridge, the following title:

    "No. 1198. Servicium de omni Officio Episcopali consernenta (_sic_)
    chorum ... secundum usum Ecclesie Anglicane."

Now I am anxious to know from any of your readers, who are better informed
on these subjects than I am, or who have access to old libraries, whether
_Ecclesia Anglicana_ is a _usual_ designation of the Catholic Church in
England before the Reformation.

Service Books according to the use of some particular cathedral church are
of course well known, as in this same list to which I have referred we find
"secundum usum insignis ecclesie Eboracensis," "ad insignis ecclesiæ
Sarisburiensis usum," &c.: but I should be glad to learn, in these days of
_ultramontane_ pretensions, whether, even prior to the Reformation, the
distinct nationality of the Anglican church was _commonly_ asserted by the
use of such a title in her Service Books. I need scarcely observe how many
interesting cognate questions might be asked on this subject.

G. R. M.

_Tangiers.--English Army in 1684._--A merchant in 1709 deposed that he knew
not how long complainant had been a _soldier_, or beyond the seas before
May, 1697, but that he has heretofore seen and knew him at Tomger, before
and at the time of the demolishing thereof, being then a _soldier_; and no
doubt could prove that he was in England a considerable time next before
May, 1697.

Could the place be other than Tangiers, destroyed in 1684?

Was complainant (a younger son of a well-connected family of gentry, but
himself probably in poverty), who in deeds, and on his mon. tablet, is
described as gent., likely to have been in 1684 (aged twenty-seven) a
private, a non-commissioned, or commissioned officer?

If the latter, would he not have been so described?

A. C.


_Smith._--Of what family was ---- Smith, confessor of Katherine of
Braganza, buried in York Minster? and what are the arms on his tomb? Where
can information be obtained as to a Judge Smith, supposed to have been of
the same family?

A. F. B.


_Termination "-itis."_--What is the derivation of the termination "-itis,"
used principally in medical words, and these signifying inflammation, as
Pleuritis, _vulgo_ pleurisy, inflammation of the pleura, &c.?


_Loak Hen._--In two or more parishes in Norfolk was a custom, or modus, of
paying a _loak hen_ in lieu of tythes of fowls and eggs. I shall feel
obliged to any of your correspondents who can inform me what constituted a
_loak hen_?

G. J.

_Etymological Traces of the Social Position of our Ancestors._--I remember
reading an account of the traces of the social position of our Saxon
ancestors yet remaining in our English customs, which interested me much at
the time, and which I would gladly again refer to, as, Captain Cuttle's
invaluable maxim not being then extant, I neglected "making a note of it."

It described the Norman derivation of the names of all kinds of _meat_, as
beef, mutton, veal, venison, &c.; while the corresponding _animals_ still
retained their original Saxon appellations, ox, sheep, calf, &c.: and it
accounted for this by the fact, that while the animals were under the care
of the Saxon thralls and herdsmen, they retained of course their Saxon
names; but when served up at the tables of their Norman lords, it became
necessary to name them afresh.

I think the word _heronsewes_ (cf. Vol. iii., pp. 450. 207.; Vol. iv., p.
76.) is another example, which are called _harnseys_ at this day in
Norfolk; as it is difficult, on any other supposition, to account for an
East-Anglian giving a French appellation to so common a bird as the heron.


_Locke's Writings._--In an unpublished manuscript of Paley's _Lectures on
Locke's Essay_, it is stated that so great was the antipathy against the
writings of this eminent philosopher, at the time they were first issued,
that they were "burnt at Oxford by the hands of the common hangman." Is
this fact recorded in any Life of Locke; or how may it be ascertained?
There is no notice of it, I believe, in either Law's _Life_, or in that of
Lord King.


East Winch.

_Passage in Göthe's "Faust."_--Has the following passage from the second
part of _Faust_ ever been noticed in connexion with the fact that the clock
in Göthe's chamber stopped at the moment that he himself expired? If it has
not, I shall congratulate myself on having been the first to point out this
very curious coincidence

  "_Mephistopheles._ Die Zeit wird Herr, der Gries hier liegt im Sand,
  _Die Uhr steht still_----
   _Chorus._ Steht still! Sie schweigt wie Mitternacht
  _Der Zeiger fällt._
   _Mephistopheles._ Er fällt, es ist vollbracht."
                  _Faust_, der Tragödie Zweiter Theil, Fünfter Act.


_Schomberg's Epitaph by Swift._--A correspondent asks whether the epitaph
alluded to in the following extract from the _Daily Courant_ of July 17,
1731, is given in any edition of Swift's _Works_.

    "The Latin Inscription, composed by the Rev. Dr. Swift, Dean of St.
    Patrick's, and ordered by the Dean and Chapter to be fixed up in the
    Cathedral of the said Church, over the place where the body of the
    great Duke of Schomberg lies, has been with all possible care and
    elegance engraved on a beautiful table of black Kilkenny marble, about
    eight feet long and four or five broad; the letters are gilded, and the
    whole is now finished with the utmost neatness. People of all ranks are
    continually crowding to see it, and the Inscription is universally

The _Daily Gazetteer_ of Saturday, July 12, 1740, gives a detailed account
of the rejoicings in Dublin on the Tuesday preceding, being the anniversary
of the battle of the Boyne, and a particular account of the bonfire made by
Dean Swift in St. Kevin's Street, near the watch-house.


_The Burial Service said by Heart._--Bishop Sprat (in his _Discourse to his
Clergy_, 1695, for which see _Clergyman's Instructor_, 1827, p. 245.)
relates that, immediately after the Restoration, a noted ringleader of
schism in the former times was interred in one of the principal churches of
London, and that the minister of the parish, being a wise and regular
conformist, and afterwards an eminent bishop, delivered the whole Office of
Burial by heart on that occasion. The friends of the deceased were greatly
edified at first, but afterwards much surprised and confounded when they
found that their fervent admiration had been bestowed on a portion of the
Common Prayer. Southey (_Common-Place Book_, iii. 492.) conjectures that
the minister was Bull. This cannot be, for Bull, I believe, never held a
London cure. Was it Hackett? And who was the noted ringleader of schism?

J. K.

_Shaw's Staffordshire MSS._--Can any of your Staffordshire correspondents
furnish information as to the present depository of the Rev. Stebbing
Shaw's Staffordshire MSS., and the MS. notes of Dr. Thomas Harwood used in
his two editions {14} of Erdeswick's _Staffordshire_? And can they refer to
a pedigree of Thomas Wood, Esq., Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas,
1501; who is said to have built Hall O'Wood, in Batterley, near Botley,

N. C. L.

_"Ne'er to these chambers," &c._--

 "Ne'er to these chambers where the mighty rest
  Since their foundation, came a nobler guest,
  Nor to th' immortal entrance e'er convey'd
  A loftier spirit, or more welcome shade."

Where do these lines come from?



_County History Societies._--I would suggest the idea whether County
History Societies might not be formed with advantage, as there are so many
counties which have never had their histories written. They are very
expensive and laborious for individuals to undertake, and constantly
require additions on account of the many changes which are taking place, to
make them complete as works of reference for the present time: I think that
by the means suggested they might be made very useful, particularly if
complete statistical tables were annexed to the general and descriptive
account. With comparatively little expense, the history and statistics of
every county could be brought down to the latest date, making a valuable
work of reference to which all could refer with confidence for the
information which is constantly being sought for.

G. H.

_Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter._--Is any pedigree extant of the family of
Hugh Oldham? Baines speaks of him (_Hist. of Lanc._, vol. ii. p. 579.) as
"descended from an ancient family," born, "according to Wood and Godwin, at
Manchester; but, according to Dodsworth, at Oldham."

What arms did he adopt?

J. B.

_The English Domestic Novel._--My first intention was to ask whether Defoe
was the founder of this pleasing class of literature, but have just
recollected, that Mrs. Aphara Behn wrote something of the kind in the time
of Charles II. My first question will be, therefore, who was the earliest
writer of this description? And, secondly, is not the matter of sufficient
interest to ask your readers' assistance in the formation of a list, giving
full titles, authors' names, and dates extending to 1730 or 1750?


_Dr. Young._--In the most authentic biographical accounts we leave of Dr.
Young the poet, it is stated that he left in the hands of his housekeeper a
collection of manuscript sermons, with an injunction that after his death
they should be destroyed; it is also added, that this request was only
complied with _in part_. Can any of your correspondents confirm the hope
that these sermons may still be in existence; and if so, in what quarter
information may be obtained concerning them? The housekeeper is said to
have been the widow of a clergyman, and therefore was not regarded by the
Doctor in the light of a servant.

J. H.


_Bishop Hall's Meditations._--I have an old copy before me, the title-page
of which runs as follows:

    "Occasionall Meditations by Jos. Exon. Set forth by R. H. The Third
    Edition: with the Addition of Forty-nine Meditations not heretofore
    published: London, printed by M. F. for Nathaniel Butter, 1633."

It is edited by Bishop Hall's son (Robert). I should be glad to learn
whether this is a scarce edition.


Edgmond, Salop.

_Chatterton._--Dr. Gregory, in his _Life of Chatterton_, p. 100. (reprinted
by Southey in the first volume of his edition of Chatterton's _Works_, p.
lxx.), says: "Chatterton, as appears by the coroner's inquest, swallowed
arsenick in water, on the 24th of August, 1770, and died in consequence
thereof the next day."

Mr. Barrett, the historian of Bristol, one of Chatterton's best friends and
patrons, who, from his profession as a surgeon, was likely to have made,
and seems to have made, inquiries as to the circumstances of his death,
says, in his _History of Bristol_, not published before 1789, and therefore
not misled by any false first report, that Chatterton's principles impelled
him to become his own executioner. He took a large dose of opium, some of
which was picked out from his teeth after his death, and he was found the
next morning a most horrid spectacle: with limbs and features distorted as
after convulsions, a frightful and ghastly corpse" (p. 647.). I do not know
whether this contradiction has ever been noticed, and shall be obliged to
any correspondent who can give me information. I believe that Sir Herbert
Croft's _Love and Madness_ was the authority followed by Dr. Gregory, but I
have not the book.

N. B.

_Passage in Job._--The wonderful and sublime book of Job, authenticated by
subsequent Divine records, and about 3400 years old, is very probably the
most ancient writing in the world: and though life and immortality were
especially reserved as the glorious gift and revelation of our Blessed
Redeemer, the eternal Author and Finisher of our salvation, yet Job was
permitted to declare his deep conviction, that he should rise from the dead
and see God. This memorable declaration (chap. xix. ver. 25.) can be
forgotten by none of your readers; but some of them may not know that the
Septuagint adds these words of life to chap. xlii. ver. 17.:"[Greek:
gegraptai de, auton palin anastêsesthai meth' hôn ho Kurios
anistêsin][2]."--(But it is written that {15} he shall rise again with
those whom the Lord raiseth up.)

Our authorised and truly admirable translation of the Holy Scriptures omits
this deeply important conclusion of Job's life, so properly noticed by the
learned and excellent Parkhurst.

Pray, can you or any of your readers explain the cause of this omission? As
your pages have not been silent on the grand consummation which cannot be
too constantly before us, I do not apologise for this very short addition
to your Notes.


Southsea, Hants.

[Footnote 2: This passage was originally printed "[Greek: gegraptai,
seauton] ...". It was corrected by an erratum in next issue--Transcriber.]

_Turner's View of Lambeth Palace._--In a newspaper memoir of the late Mr.
Turner, R.A., published shortly after his death, it was stated that the
first work exhibited by him at Somerset House was a "View of Lambeth
Palace," I believe in water colours. I should be glad to ascertain, through
your columns, if this picture be still in existence, and in what

L. E. X.

_Clarke's Essay on the Usefulness of Mathematical Learning._--Can any of
the readers of "N. & Q." assist me in obtaining a copy of this work? In the
same author's _Rationale of Circulating Numbers_ (Murray, London, 1778) it
is stated that the demonstrations of all the theorems and problems at the
end of the Rev. John Lawson's _Dissertation on the Geometrical Analysis of
the Ancients_ "will be given at the latter end of _An Essay on the
Usefulness of Mathematical Learning_, which will soon be published." In a
subsequent portion of the work, a sketch of the contents of the _Essay_ is
given, which include "a Treatise on Magic Squares, translated from the
French of Frenicle, as published in _Les Ouvrages de Mathématique par
Messieurs de l'Académie Royale des Sciences_, with several Additions and
Remarks." And in a list of "Tracts and Translations _written and published_
by H. Clarke, LL.D.," which occurs at the end of my copy of the first
volume of Leybourn's _Mathematical Repository_ (London, 1805), the _Essay_
appears as No. 10, and is stated to have been published in 8vo. at six
shillings. None of my friends are acquainted with the work; but if the
preceding description will enable any reader to help me to a copy, I shall
esteem it a great favour.


Burnley, Lancashire.

"_The General Pardon._"--An imperfect copy of a small tract (measuring five
and a half inches by three and a half inches) has recently come into my
hands, of which I much desire to obtain the wanting parts. It is entitled:

    "The general Pardon, geuen longe agone, and sythe newly confyrmed, by
    our Almightie Father, with many large Priuileges, Grauntes, and Bulles
    graunted for euer, as is to be seen hereafter: Drawne out of Frenche
    into English. By Wyllyam Hayward. Imprinted at London, by Wyllyam How,
    for Wyllyam Pickeringe."

There is no date, but it is believed to have been printed in or about 1571.
It is in black letter, and is an imitation of the Roman Catholic pardons.
It consists of twelve leaves. In my copy the last seven of these are torn
through their middle vertically.

I have not been able to meet with this tract in the catalogues of any of
the great libraries which I have consulted; _e.g._ The British Museum,
Bodleian, Cambridge University, Lambeth, and several of the college
libraries at Cambridge.

I want any information concerning it, or its original in French, which the
readers of "N. & Q." can give: also access to a copy from which to
transcribe the parts wanting in mine.


St. John's Coll. Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Edward the Confessor's Rings._--There is an old legend of a ring given to
one of our early kings, I think Edward the Confessor, by some saintly or
angelic messenger. If any of your readers could give me any of the details
of this story, it would very much oblige your constant reader

M. J. T.

    [The following extract from Taylor's _Glory of Regality_, pp. 74. _et
    seq._, will give our Correspondent the legend referred to.

    "The ring with which our kings are invested, called by some writers
    'the wedding ring of England,' is illustrated, like the Ampulla, by a
    miraculous history, of which the following are the leading particulars:
    from the 'Golden Legende' (_Julyan Notary_, 1503), p. 187.:--'Edward
    the Confessor being one day askt for alms by a certain 'fayre olde
    man,' the king found nothing to give him except his ring, with which
    the poor man thankfully departed. Some time after, two English pilgrims
    in the Holy Land having lost their road, as they travelled at the close
    of the day, 'there came to them a fayre auncyent man wyth whyte heer
    for age.' Then the old man axed them what they were and of what regyon.
    And they answerde that they were Pylgryms of Englond, and hadde lost
    their felyshyp and way also. Then this old man comforted theym goodly,
    and brought theym into a fayre cytee; and whan they had well refresshyd
    them, and rested theym alle nyght; on the morne, this fayre olde man
    wente with theym and brought theym in the ryght waye agayne. And he was
    gladde to hear theym talke of the welfare and holynesse of theyr Kynge
    Saynt Edward. And whan he shold departe fro theym thenne he told theym
    what he was, and sayd I am Johan Theuangelyst, and saye ye unto Edward
    your king, that I grete hym well by the token that he gaaf to me thys
    rynge with his one hondes, whych rynge ye shalle {16} delyuer to hym
    agayne: and whan he had delyuerde to theym the ringe, he departed from
    theym sodenly.'

    "This command, as may be supposed, was punctually obeyed by the
    messengers, who were furnisht with ample powers for authenticating
    their mission. The ring was received by the Royal Confessor, and in
    after times was preserved with due care at his shrine in the Abbey of

_The Bourbons._--What was the origin of the Bourbon family? How did Henry
IV. come to be the next heir to the throne on the extinction of the line of

E. H. A.

    [Henri IV., King of Navarre, succeeded to the throne on the extinction
    of the house of Valois, as the head of the house of Bourbon, which
    descends from Robert of France, Count de Clermont, the fifth son of St.
    Louis, and Seigneur de Bourbon. On the death of Louis I. in 1341,
    leaving two sons, this house was divided into the Bourbon, or elder
    branch (which became extinct on the death of the Constable of Bourbon,
    in 1527), and the younger branch, or that of the Counts de la Marche,
    afterwards Counts and Dukes of Vendome. Henri was the son of Antoine de
    Bourbon, Duc de Vendome.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vi., p. 460.)

The Query confirms Professor De Morgan's excellent article in _The
Companion to the Almanack for 1853_, "On the Difficulty of correct
Description of Books." The manuscript note cited by H. J., though curiously
inaccurate, guided me to the book for which he inquires. I copy the
title-page: "_Die Betrübte Pegnesis, den Leben, Kunst, und Tugend-Wandel
des Seelig-Edeln Floridans, H. Sigm. von Birken, Com. Pal. Cæs. durch 24
Sinnbilder in Kupfern, zur schuldigen nach-Ehre fürstellend, und mit
Gesprach und Reim-Gedichten erklärend, durch ihre Blumen-Hirten._ Nürnberg,
1684, 12mo." I presume the annotator, not understanding German, and seeing
"Floridans" the most conspicuous word on the title-page, cited him as the
author; but it is the pastoral academic name of the late Herr Sigmond von
Birken, in whose honour the work is composed. The emblem, with the motto
"Bis fracta relinquor," at p. 249. (not 240.), is a tree from which two
boughs are broken. It illustrates the death of Floridan's second wife, and
his determination not to take a third. The chess-board, plate xiv. p. 202.,
has the motto, "Per tot discrimina rerum," and commemorates Floridan's safe
return to Nuremberg after the multitudinous perils ("die Schaaren der
Gefahren") of a journey through Lower Saxony. They must have been great, if
typified by the state of the board, on which only a black king and a white
bishop are left--a chess problem!

I bought my copy at a book-sale many years ago, and, after reading a few
pages, laid it aside as insufferably dull, although it was marked by its
former possessor, the Rev. Henry White, of Lichfield, "Very rare, probably
unique." On taking it up to answer H. J.'s Query, I found some matter
relating to the German academies of the seventeenth century, which I think
may be interesting.

Mr. Hallam (_Literature of Europe_, IV. v. 9.) says:

    "The Arcadians determined to assume every one a pastoral name and a
    Greek birthplace; to hold their meetings in some verdant meadow, and to
    mingle with all their own compositions, as far as possible, images from
    pastoral life; images always agreeable, because they recall the times
    of primitive innocence. The poetical tribe adopted as their device the
    pipe of seven reeds bound with laurel, and their president, or
    director, was denominated General Shepherd or Keeper--_Custode

He slightly mentions the German academics of the sixteenth century (III.
ix. 30.), and says:

    "It is probable that religious animosities stood in the way of such
    institutions, _or they may have flourished without obtaining much

The academy of Pegnitz-shepherds ("Pegnitzshäfer-orden") took its name from
the little river Pegnitz which runs through Nuremberg. Herr Sigmond von
Birken was elected a member in 1645. He chose _Floridan_ as his pastoral
name, and the amaranth as his flower. In 1658 he was admitted to the Palm
Academy ("Palmen-orden"), choosing the name _Der Erwacsene_ (the adult?),
and the snowdrop. In 1659, a vacancy having occurred in the
Pegnitz-Herdsmen ("Pegnitz-Hirten") he was thought worthy to fill it, and
in 1679 he received the diploma of the Venetian order of the Recuperati. He
died in 1681. This, and what can be hung upon it, is _Die Betrübte
Pegnitz_, a dialogue of 406 pages. It opens with a meeting of shepherds and
shepherdesses, who go in and out of their cottages on the banks of the
Pegnitz, and tell one another, what all seem equally well acquainted with,
the entire life of their deceased friend. It would not be easy to find a
work more clumsy in conception and tasteless in execution. Herr von Birken
seems to have been a prosperous man, and to have enjoyed a high pastoral
reputation. His works are enumerated, but the catalogue looks ephemeral.
There is, however, one with a promising title: _Die Trockene Trunkenheit,
oder die Gebrauch und Missbrauch des Tabacks_. His portrait, as "Der
Erwachsene," is prefixed. It has not a shepherd-like look. He seems about
fifty, with a fat face, laced cravat, and large flowing wig. There are
twenty-four emblematical plates, rather below the average of their time.

As so secondary a town as Nuremberg had at least three academies, we may
infer that such {17} institutions were abundant in Germany, in the
seventeenth century: that of the Pegnitz shepherds lasted at least till the
beginning of the eighteenth. In _Der Thörichte Pritschmeister_, a comedy
printed at Coblenz, 1704, one of the characters is "Phantasirende, ein
Pegnitz Schäffer," who talks fustian and is made ridiculous throughout. The
comedy is "von Menantes." I have another work by the same author: _Galante,
Verliebte, und Satyrische Gedichte_, Hamburg, 1704. I shall be very glad to
be told who he was, as his versification is often very good, and his jokes,
though not graceful, and not very laughable, are real.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 485. 561.)

The popular error on the legal effect of marriage _en chemise_ is, I think,
noticed among other vulgar errors in law in a little book published some
twenty years ago under the name of _Westminster Hall_, to which a deceased
lawyer of eminence, then young at the bar, was a contributor. I believe the
opinion to be still extensively prevalent, and to be probably founded, not
exactly in total ignorance, but in a misconception, of the law. The text
writers inform us that "the husband is liable for the wife's debts,
_because_ he acquires an absolute interest in the personal estate of the
wife," &c. (Bacon's _Abridgment_, tit. "Baron and Feme.") Now an unlearned
person, who hears this doctrine, might reasonably conclude, that if his
bride has no estate at all, he will incur no liability; and the future
husband, more prudent than refined, might think it as well to notify to his
neighbours, by an unequivocal symbol, that he took no pecuniary benefit
with his wife, and therefore expected to be free from her pecuniary
burdens. In this, as in most other popular errors, there is found a
_substratum_ of reason.

With regard to the other vulgar error, noticed at the foot of MR. BROOKS'
communication (p. 561.), that "all children under the girdle at the time of
marriage are legitimate," the origin of it is more obvious. Every one knows
of the "legitimatio per subsequens matrimonium" of the canonists, and how
the barons assembled in parliament at Merton refused to engraft this law of
the Church on the jurisprudence of England. But it is not perhaps so well
known that, upon such a marriage the premature offspring of the bride and
bridegroom sometimes used to perform a part in the ceremony, and received
the nuptial benediction under the veil or mantle of the bride or the
pallium of the altar. Hence the children so legitimated are said to have
been called by the Germans _Mantelkinder_. The learning on this head is to
be found in Hommel's _Jurisprudentia Numismatibus Illustrata_ (Lipsiæ,
1763), pp. 214-218., where the reader will also find a pictorial
illustration of the ceremony from a codex of the _Novellæ_ in the library
of Christian Schwarz. The practice seems to have been borrowed from the
form of adopting children, noticed in the same work and in Ducange, verb.
"Pallium, _Pallio cooperire_;" and in Grimm's _Deut. Rechts Alterth._, p.

Let me add a word on the famous negative given to the demand of the clergy
at Merton. No reason was assigned, or, at least, has been recorded, but a
general unwillingness to change the laws of England. As the same barons did
in fact consent to change them in other particulars, this can hardly have
been the reason. Sir W. Blackstone speaks of the consequent uncertainty of
heirship and discouragement of matrimony as among the causes of
rejection,--arguments of very questionable weight. Others (as Bishop Hurd,
in his _Dialogues_) have attributed the rejection to the constitutional
repugnance of the barons to the general principles of the canon and
imperial law, which the proposed change might have tended to introduce,--a
degree of forethought and a range of political vision for which I can
hardly give them credit, especially as the great legal authority of that
day, Bracton, has borrowed the best part of his celebrated Treatise from
the Corpus Juris. The most plausible motive which I have yet heard assigned
for this famous parliamentary negative on the bishops' bill at Merton, is
suggested (quod minimè reris!) in an Assistant Poor-Law Commissioner's
Report (vol. vi. of the 8vo. printed series), viz. that bastardy multiplied
the escheats which accrued to medieval lords of manors.


A venerable person whose mind is richly stored with "shreds and patches" of
folk-lore and local antiquities, on seeing the "curious marriage entry" (p.
485.), has furnished me with the following explanation.

It is the popular belief at Kirton in Lindsey that if a woman, who has
contracted debts previous to her marriage, leave her residence in a state
of nudity, and go to that of her future husband, he the husband will not be
liable for any such debts.

A case of this kind actually occurred in that highly civilised town within
my informant's memory; the woman leaving her house from a bedroom window,
and putting on some clothes as she stood on the top of the ladder by which
she accomplished her descent.

K. P. D. E.

In that amusing work, Burn's _History of the Fleet Marriages_, p. 77.,
occurs the following entry:--"The woman ran across Ludgate Hill in her
shift;" to which the editor has added this note:--"The _Daily Journal_ of
8th November, 1725, mentions a similar exhibition at Ulcomb in {18} Kent.
It was a vulgar error that a man was not liable to the bride's debts, if he
took her in no other apparel than her shift."

J. Y.

Saffron Walden.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 435. 564.)

As MR. SPARROW SIMPSON invites additions to his list from all quarters, I
send him my contribution: and as I see that he has included _translations_
of our Liturgy into other languages, I do the same:

  1552. Worcester. Jo. Oswen. Folio.
  1560. London. Jugge and Cawood. 4to.
  1565. London. Jugge and Cawood. 8vo.
  1607. London. Folio.
  1629. London. Folio.
  1629. Cambridge. Folio.
  1632. London. 4to.
  1633. London. 4to.
  1634. London. Folio.
  1635. London. 4to.
  1638. Cambridge. 4to.
  1639. London. Folio.
  1641. London. 4to.
  1660. Cambridge. Folio.
  1644. The Scotch, by Laud and the Scotch bishops. Printed by John Jones.
  1551. Latine versa, per Alex. Absium. Lipsiæ. 4to.
  1594.     "             "             London. 8vo.
  S. A.     "        by Reginald Wolfe. London. 4to.
  1638. In Greek. London. 8vo.
  1616. In French. London. 4to.
  1608. In Irish. Dublin. Folio.
  1612. In Spanish. London. 4to.
  1621. In Welsh. London. 4to.

All the foregoing editions are in the Bodleian Library. I may add to them
the following three:

  1.--1551. Dublin, by Humfrey Powell. Folio
  2.--1617(?). Dublin. Company of Stationers. 4to
  3.--1637. Dublin.

The _first_ of these, which is the first book printed in Ireland, is
extremely rare. I believe only two copies are certainly known to exist; one
of which is in the library of Trinity College, Dublin; and the other in
that of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Both are in very fine condition.

The _second_ is in my possession. The book is quite perfect; but some
wiseacre has carefully erased the date. The _Almanac for xxvi Yeares_ tells
nothing, being for the years 1603 to 1628. But the book contains a prayer
for "Frederick, the Prince Elector Palatine, and the Lady Elizabeth, his
wife, with their hopeful issue." He married the princess in 1613; and in
1619 he was elected King of Bohemia, and thenceforward would be prayed for
under his higher title. If the Sunday letter in the calendar is to be
trusted, the book was printed (according to De Morgan's _Book of Almanacs_)
in 1617. The Dublin Society of Stationers was established in that year; and
it is not unlikely that they commenced their issues with a Prayer-Book. I
have never seen nor heard of another copy, with which I might compare mine,
and thus ascertain its date.

The _third_, of 1637, is reported; but I have never met with it.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 578.)

The inquiry of your correspondent IFIGFOWL respecting the etymology of the
word _pearl_ does not admit of a simple answer. The word occurs in all the
modern languages, both Romance and Teutonic: _perla_, Ital. and Span.;
_perle_, French and German, whence the English _pearl_. Adelung in v.
believes the word to be of Teutonic origin, and considers it as the
diminutive of _beere_, a berry. Others derive it from _perna_, the Latin
name of a shell-fish (see Ducange in _perlæ_; Diez, _Grammatik der
Romanischen Sprachen_, vol. i. p. 235.). Neither of these derivations is
probable: it is not shown that _beere_ had a diminutive form, and _perna_
was a local and obscure name: see Pliny, _N. H._ xxxii. ad fin. Salmasius
(_Exercit. Plin._, p. 40. ed. 1689) thinks that _perla_ is formed from
_perula_, for _sperula_, the diminutive of _sphæra_. A more probable origin
is that the word is formed from the Latin _pirum_, as suggested by Diez, in
allusion to the pear-shaped form of the pearl. Ducange in v. says that the
extremity of the nose was called _pirula nasi_, from its resemblance to the
form of a pear. But _pirus_ was used to denote a boundary-stone, made in a
pyramidal shape (Ducange in v.); and this seems to have been the origin of
the singular expression _pirula nasi_, as being something at the extremity.
Another supposition is, that the word _perla_ is derived from the Latin
_perula_, the diminutive of _pera_, a wallet. A wallet was a small bag hung
round the neck; and the word _perula_, in the sense of a small bag, occurs
in Seneca and Apuleius. The analogy of shape and mode of wearing is
sufficiently close to suggest the transfer of the name. _Perula_ and
_perulus_ are used in Low Latin in the sense of _pearl_. Ducange cites a
passage from a hagiographer, where _perula_ means the white of the eye,
evidently alluding to the colour of the pearl.

The choice seems to lie between _perula_ as the diminutive of _pera_ or of
_pirum_. Neither derivation is improbable. It is to be observed that the
modern Italian form of _pirum_, the fruit of the pear, is _pera_; the
modern feminine noun being, as in numerous other cases, formed from the
plural of the Latin neuter noun (see Diez, ib. vol. ii. p. 19.). The
analogy of _unio_ (to which I shall {19} advert presently) supports the
derivation from the fruit; the derivation from _pera_, a wallet, is, on
merely linguistical grounds, preferable.

The Greek name of _pearl_ is [Greek: margaritês], originally applied to a
precious stone, and apparently moulded out of some oriental name, into a
form suited to the Greek pronunciation. Scott and Liddell in v. derive it
from the Persian _murwari_. Pliny, _H. N._ ix. 56., speaking of the pearl,
says: "Apud Græcos non est, ne apud barbaros quidem inventores ejus, aliud
quam margaritæ." The Greek name _Margarita_ was used by the Romans, but the
proper Latin name for the pearl was _unio_. Pliny (ibid.) explains this
word by saying that each pearl is _unique_, and unlike every other pearl.
Ammianus Marcellinus (lib. xxiii. ad fin.) thinks that pearls were called
_uniones_, because the best were found single in the shell; Solinus (c.
53.) because they were always found single. The more homely explanation of
Salmasius seems, however, to be the true one; namely, that the common word
for an onion, growing in a single bulb, was transferred to the pearl
(_Exercit. Plin._, pp. 822-4.; Columella _de R. R._ xii. 10.). The ancient
meaning of _unio_ is still preserved in the French _ognon_.


Your correspondent asks the "etymon of our English word _pearl_." It would
not be uninteresting to learn, at the same time, at what period _pearl_
came into general use as an English word? Burton, who wrote his _Anatomy_
in the reign of James I., uses the word _union_ (from the Latin _unio_)
instead of _pearl_ (_Anat. Melanc._, vol. ii. part 2. sec. 3. mem. 3., and
ib., p. 2. sec. 4. mem. 1. subs. 4.). In the latter passage he says "Those
smaller unions which are found in shells, amongst the Persians and Indians,
are very cordial, and most part avail to the exhilaration of the heart."

The Latin term _unio_ differs from "margarita," in so far as it seems to
have been applied by Pliny to distinguish the small and ill-shaped pearls,
from the large round and perfect, which he calls "margaritæ." And in his
ninth book, c. 59., he defines the difference philologically, as well as
philosophically. Philemon Holland, who published his translation of Pliny
in 1634, about thirteen years after Burton published the first edition of
his _Anatomy_, uses the word _pearl_ indifferently as the equivalent both
of _margarita_ and _unio_.

Query: Was the word _union_ generally received in England instead of
_pearl_ in Burton's time, and when did it give place to it?


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 587.)

Has not the following song something to do with the expression "Martin
drunk"? It is certainly cotemporary with Thomas Nash the Elizabethan
satirist, and was long a favourite "three man's" song. It is copied from
_Deuteromelia, or the Second Part of Musick's Melodie_, 4to., 1609:


 "Martin said to his man,
                      Fie! man, fie!
  O Martin said to his man,
                      Who's the foole now?
  Martin said to his man,
  Fill thou the cup, and I the can;
  Thou hast well drunken, man,
                      Who's the foole now?

 "I see a sheepe shering corne,
                      Fie! man, fie!
  I see a sheepe shering corne,
                      Who's the foole now?
  I see a sheepe shering corne,
  And a cuckold blow his horne;
  Thou hast well drunken, man,
                      Who's the foole now?

 "I see a man in the moone,
                      Fie! man, fie!
  I see a man in the moone;
                      Who's the foole now?
  I see a man in the moone,
  Clowting of St. Peter's shoone;
  Thou hast well drunken, man,
                      Who's the foole now?

 "I see a hare chase a hound,
                      Fie! man, fie!
  I see a hare chase a hound,
                      Who's the foole now?
  I see a hare chase a hound,
  Twenty mile above the ground;
  Thou hast well drunken, man,
                      Who's the foole now?

 "I see a goose ring a hog,
                      Fie! man, fie!
  I see a goose ring a hog,
                      Who's the foole now?
  I see a goose ring a hog,
  And a snayle that did bite a dog;
  Thou hast well drunken, man,
                      Who's the foole now?

 "I see a mouse catch the cat,
                      Fie! man, fie!
  I see a mouse catch the cat,
                      Who's the foole now?
  I see a mouse catch the cat,
  And the cheese to eate the rat;
  Thou hast well drunken, man,
                      Who's the foole now?"


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 434.).

Had M. M. E. gone to the fountain-head, and consulted Göthe's own statement
in his autobiography, he would have seen in the _Werke_, vol. xxvi. {20} p.
229., that Mr. Hayward's note was not written with that writer's usual
care. Göthe does not say that his reply to Nicolai's _Joys of Werter_,
though circulated only in MS., destroyed N.'s literary reputation: on the
contrary, he says that his squib (for it was no more) consisted of an
epigram, not fit for communication, and a dialogue between Charlotte and
Werter, which was never copied, and long lost; but that this dialogue,
exposing N.'s impertinence, was written with a foreboding of his sad habit,
afterwards developed, of treating of subjects out of his depth, which
habit, notwithstanding his indisputable merits of another kind, utterly
destroyed his reputation. This was most true: and yet all such assertions
must be taken in a qualified sense. Nearly thirty years after this was
written I partook of the hospitality of N. at Berlin. It was in 1803, when
he was at the head, not of the Berlin literati, but of the book-manufactory
of Prussia. He was then what, afterwards and elsewhere, the Longmans,
Murrays, Constables, Cottas, and Brockhauses were,--the great publisher of
his age and country. The _entrepreneur_ of the _Neue Deutsche Bibliothek_
may be compared with the publishers of our and the French great
Cyclopædias, and our Quarterly Reviews.

It was unfortunate for the posthumous reputation of the great bibliopolist
that he, patronising a school that was dying out, made war on the athletes
of the rising school. He assailed nearly every great man, philosopher or
poet, from Kant and Göthe downwards, especially of the schools of Saxony,
Swabia, and the free imperial cities. No wonder that he became afterwards
what Macfleckno and Colly Cibber had been to Dryden and Pope. In some dozen
of the _Xenien_ of Göthe and Schiller, in 1797, he was treated as the

M. M. E. characterises him as the "friend" and "fellow-labourer" of
Lessing. Now Lessing was incomparably the most eminent _littérateur_ of the
earlier part of that age,--the man who was the forerunner of the
philosophers, and whose criticisms supplied the place of poetry. The
satirists of the _Xenien_ affect to compassionate Lessing, in having to
endure a companion so forced on him as Nicolai was, whom they speak of as a
"thorn in the crown of the martyr." The few who care for the literary
controversies of the age of Göthe in Germany will be greatly assisted by an
edition of the _Xenien_, with notes, published at Dantzig, 1833.

H. C. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Processes upon Paper._--The favourable manner in which the account I have
given of the Collodion process has been received, not only by your readers
in general, as has been evinced by many private letters, but also by the
numerous correspondents it has drawn forth, induces me, after some little
delay, to request space for a description of the following processes upon
paper. In giving these I wish it to be understood that I may offer but
little that is original, my object being to describe, as plainly as I
possibly can, these easy methods, and to make no observation but what I
have found to be successful in my own hands. I have had the good fortune to
obtain the friendship of some of the most successful photographers of the
day; and taking three very eminent ones, I find they have each some
peculiarities in his mode of manipulation, varying with each other in the
strength of the solutions employed, and producing results the most
agreeable to their respective tastes. Reviewing these different processes
in my own mind, and trying with patience the various results, I conclude
that the following quantities are calculated to produce an adequate degree
of sensibility in the paper, and yet to allow it to be prepared for the
action of light for many hours previous to its use, and yet with more
certainty than any other I am acquainted with. I think I may always depend
upon it for twenty-four to thirty-six hours after excitement, and I have
seen good pictures produced upon the third day. I believe it is a rule
which admits of no contradiction, that the more you dilute your solution,
the longer the excited paper will keep; but in proportion to its diminished
sensibility, the time of exposure must be prolonged, and therefore I am,
from this waste of time and other reasons, disposed to place much less
value upon the wax-paper process than many do.

The process I am about to describe is so simple, and I hope to make it so
intelligible to your non-photographic readers, that a perfect novice, using
ordinary care, must meet with success; but should I fail doing so upon all
points, any information sought through the medium of "N. & Q." shall meet
with explanation from myself, if not from other of your experienced
correspondents, whose indulgence I must beg should the communication be
deemed too elementary, it being my earnest desire to point out to
archæologists who are desirous of acquiring this knowledge, how easily they
themselves may practise this beautiful art, and possess those objects they
would desire to preserve, in a far more truthful state than could be
otherwise accomplished.

I have not myself met that uniform success with any other paper that I have
with Turner's photographic of Chafford Mills: a sheet of this divided into
two portions forms at the same time a useful and also a very easily-managed
size, one adapted for most cameras, forming a picture of nine inches by
seven, which is adequate for nearly every purpose. Each sheet being marked
in its opposite corners with a plain pencil-mark on its smooth side (vide
_antè_, p. 372.), the surface for {21} all future operations is in all
lights easily discerned. In my instructions for printing from collodion
negatives, a form of iodized paper was given, which, although very good, is
not, I think, equal to the following, which is more easily and quickly
prepared, exhibits a saving of the iodide of potassium, and is upon the
whole a neater mode.

Take sixty grains of nitrate of silver and sixty grains of iodide of
potassium; dissolve each separately in an ounce of distilled water; mix
together and stir with a glass rod. The precipitate settling, the fluid is
to be poured away; then add distilled water to the precipitate up to four
ounces, and add to it 650 grains of iodide of potassium, which _should_
re-dissolve the precipitated iodide of silver, and form a perfectly clear
solution; but if not, a little more must be carefully added, for this salt
varies much, and I have found it to require 720 grains to accomplish the
desired object.

The fluid being put into a porcelain or glass dish, the paper should be
laid down upon its surface and immediately removed, and being laid upon a
piece of blotting-paper with the wet surface uppermost, a glass rod then
passed over it to and fro ensures the _total expulsion_ of all particles of
air, which will frequently remain when the mere dipping is resorted to.
When dry, this paper should be soaked in common water for three hours,
changing the water twice or thrice, so as to remove all the soluble salts.
It should then be pinned up to dry, and, when so, kept in a folio for use.
I have in this manner prepared from sixty to eighty sheets in an evening
with the greatest ease. It keeps good for an indefinite time, and, as all
experienced photographers are aware, unless you possess good iodized paper,
which should be of a _primrose_ colour, you cannot meet with success in
your after-operations. Iodized paper becomes sometimes of a bright
brimstone colour when first made; it is then very apt to brown in its use,
but tones down and improves by a little keeping.

To excite this paper, dissolve thirty grains of nitrate of silver in one
ounce of distilled water, and add a drachm and a half of glacial acetic
acid; of this solution take one drachm, and one drachm of saturated
solution of gallic acid[3], and add to it two ounces and a half of
distilled water. The iodized surface of the paper may then be either
floated on the surface of the aceto-nitrate of silver or exciting fluid,
and afterwards a rod passed over, as was formerly done in the iodizing, or
the aceto-nitrate may be applied evenly with a brush; but in either
instance the surface should be immediately blotted off; and the same
blotting-paper never used a second time for this, although it may be kept
to develop on and for other purposes. It will be scarcely needful to
observe that this process of exciting must be performed by the light of a
candle or feeble yellow light, as must the subsequent development. The
excited paper may be now placed for use between sheets of blotting-paper;
it seems to act equally well either when damp or when kept for many hours,
and I have found it good for more than a week.

The time for exposure must entirely depend upon the degree of light. In two
minutes and a half a good picture may be produced; but if left exposed for
twenty minutes or more, little harm will arise; the paper does not
solarize, but upon the degree of image visible upon the paper depends the
means of developing. When long exposed, a saturated solution of gallic acid
only applied to the exposed surfaces will be sufficient; but if there is
little appearance of an image, then a free undiluted solution of
aceto-nitrate may be used, in conjunction with the gallic acid, the former
never being in proportion more than one-third. If that quantity is
exceeded, either a brownish or an unpleasant reddish tint is often
obtained. These negatives should be fixed by immersing them in a solution
of hyposulphite of soda, which may be of the strength of one ounce of salt
to eight ounces of water--the sufficiency of immersion being known by the
disappearance of the yellow colour, and when they have been once immersed
they may be taken to the daylight to ascertain this. The hyposulphite must
now be perfectly removed by soaking in water, which may extend to several
hours; but this may be always ascertained by the tongue, for, if tasteless,
it has been accomplished. If it is deemed advisable--which I think is only
required in very dark over-done pictures--to wax the negative, it is easily
managed by holding a piece of white wax or candle in front of a clean iron
rather hot, and passing it frequently over the surface. The superabundant
wax being again removed by passing it between some clean pieces of
blotting-paper. Although the minuter details can never be acquired by this
mode which are obtained by the collodion process, it has the advantage of
extreme simplicity, and by the operator providing himself with a bag or
square of yellow calico, which he can loosely peg down to the ground when
no other shade is near, to contain spare prepared papers, he can at any
future time obtain a sufficient number of views, which afterwards he can
develop at his leisure.

It requires no liquids to be carried about with you, nor is that nice
manipulation required which attends the collodion process.

The wax-paper process has been extolled by many, and very successful
results have been obtained: the paper has the undoubted advantage of
keeping after being excited much longer than any other; but, from my own
experience, just so much the weaker it is made, and so as to safely rely
upon its long remaining useful, so it is proportionally slower in its
action. And I have rarely seen from {22} wax negatives positives so
satisfactory in depth of tone, as from those which have been waxed after
being taken on ordinary paper. It is all very well for gentlemen to
advocate a sort of photographic tour, upon which you are to go on taking
views day after day, and when you return home at leisure to develop your
past proceedings: I never yet knew one so lukewarm in this pursuit as not
to desire to know, at his _earliest possible_ opportunity, the result of
his labours; indeed, were not this the case, I fear disappointment would
more often result than at present, for I scarcely think any one can exactly
decide upon the power of the light of any given day, without having made
some little trial to guide him. I have myself, especially with collodion,
found the action very rapid upon some _apparently_ dull day; whilst, from
an unexplained cause, a comparatively brighter day has been less active in
its photographic results. As in the previous process, I would strongly
advise Turner's paper to be used, and not the thin French papers generally
adopted, because I find all the high lights so much better preserved in the
English paper. It may be purchased ready waxed nearly as cheap as it may be
done by one's self; but as many operators like to possess that which is
entirely their own production, the following mode will be found a ready way
of waxing:--Procure a piece of thick smooth slate, a trifle larger than the
paper to be used; waste pieces of this description are always occurring at
the slate works, and are of a trifling value. This should be made very hot
by laying it close before a fire; then, covered with one layer of thick
blotting-paper, it will form a most admirable surface upon which to use the
iron. Taking a piece of wax in the left hand, an iron well heated being
pressed against it, it may rapidly be made to flow over the whole surface
with much evenness, the surplus wax being afterwards removed by ironing
between blotting-paper. When good, it should be colourless, free from
gloss, and having the beautiful semi-transparent appearance of the Chinese
rice-paper. To iodize the paper completely, immerse it in the following

  Iodide of potash           200 grains.
  Mannite                      6 drachms.
  Cyanide of potash            5 grains.
  Distilled water             20 ounces.

Allow it to remain three hours, taking care that air-particles are
perfectly excluded, and once during the time turning over each sheet of
paper, as many being inserted as the fluid will conveniently cover, as it
is not injured by after keeping. It should be then removed from the iodide
bath, pinned up, and dried, ready for use. When required to be excited, the
paper should, by the light of a candle, be immersed in the following
solution, where it should remain for five minutes:

  Nitrate of silver            4 drachms.
  Glacial acetic acid          4 drachms.
  Distilled water              8 ounces.

Being removed from the aceto-nitrate bath, immerse it into a pan of
distilled water, where let it remain about a quarter of an hour. In order
to make this paper keep a week or two, it must be immersed in a second
water, which in point of fact is a mere reduction of the strength of the
solutions already used; but for ordinary purposes, and when the paper is to
be used within three or four days, one immersion is quite sufficient,
especially as it does not reduce its sensitiveness in a needless way. It
may now be preserved between blotting-paper, free from light, for future
use. The time of exposure requisite for this paper will exceed that of the
ordinary unwaxed, given in the previous directions. The picture may be
developed by a complete immersion also in a saturated solution of gallic
acid; but should it not have been exposed a sufficient time in the camera,
a few drops of the aceto-nitrate solution added to the gallic acid greatly
accelerates it. An excess of aceto-nitrate often produces an unpleasant red
tint, which is to be avoided. Instead of complete immersion, the paper may
be laid upon some waste blotting-paper, and the surface only wetted by
means of the glass rod or brush. The picture may now be fixed by the use of
the hyposulphite of soda, as in the preceding process.

It is not actually necessary that this should be a wax-paper process,
because ordinary paper treated in this way acts very beautifully, although
it does not allow of so long keeping for use after excitement; yet it has
then the advantage, that a negative may either be waxed or not, as shall be
deemed advisable by its apparent depth of action.


[Footnote 3: the gallic acid was omitted in Issue 166, but inserted by an
erratum in Issue 168. Also "a saturated solution of gallic acid" was
printed as "a solvent solution ...", "hyposulphate" appeared for
"hyposulphite" throughout, and "solari_s_e" for "solari_z_e"--Transcriber.]

_Exhibition of recent Specimens of Photography at the Society of
Arts._--This exhibition, to which all interested in the art have been
invited to contribute, was inaugurated by a conversazione at the Society's
rooms, on the evening of Wednesday, the 22nd of December: the public have
since been admitted at a charge of sixpence each, and it will continue open
until the 8th of January.

We strongly recommend all our friends to pay a visit to this most
delightful collection. By our visit at the crowded conversazione, and
another hasty view since, we do not feel justified to enter into a review
and criticism of the specimens so fully as the subject requires; but in the
mean time we can assure our archæological readers that they will find there
such interesting records of architectural detail, together with views of
antiquities from Egypt and Nubia, as will perfectly convince them of the
value of this art with reference to their own immediate pursuits. Those who
feel less delight in mere antiquity will be gratified {23} to see, for the
first time, that there are here shown photographs which aim at more than
the bare copying of any particular spot; for many of the pictures here
exhibited may rank as fine works of art. We feel much delicacy and
hesitation in mentioning any particular artist, where so many are entitled
to praise, especially in some particular departments. We could point out
pictures having all the minute truthfulness of nature, combined with the
beautiful effects of some of the greatest painters. We must, however,
direct especial attention to the landscapes of Mr. Turner, the views in the
Pyrenees by Mr. Stewart, and one splendid one of the same locality by Le
Gray. Mr. Buckle's views in paper also exhibit a sharpness and detail
almost equal to collodion; as do the various productions of Mr. Fenton in
wax paper. The effects obtained also by Mr. Owen of Bristol appear to be
very satisfactory: why they are, with so much excellence, called
_experimental_, we cannot tell. In collodion Mr. Berger has exhibited some
effective portraits; and we think the success of Mr. De la Motte has been
so great, that in some of his productions little remains to be desired. We
cannot conclude this brief notice without directing attention to the
minuteness and pleasing effect of the views in Rome by M. Eugène Constant,
which are also from collodion; as also the specimens from albumen negatives
of M. Ferrier; and, lastly, to the pleasant fact that lady amateurs are now
practising this art,--very nice specimens being here exhibited by the
Ladies Nevill, whose example we shall hope to see followed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Quotation in Locke_ (Vol. vi., p. 386.).--The words "Si non vis intelligi
non debes legi" were, I believe, the exclamation of St. Jerome, as he threw
his copy of Persius into the fire in a fit of testiness at being unable to
construe some tough lines of that tough author. I set down this reply from
memory, and am unable to give the authority for it.


_Pic-nic_ (Vol. vi., pp. 152. 518.).--The Query of A. F. S. (p. 152.) as to
the etymology of _pic-nic_ still remains unanswered. The Note of W. W. (p.
518.) merely refers to the time (1802) when pic-nic suppers first became
fashionable in England. Under a French form, the word appears in a speech
of Robespierre's, quoted in the _British and Foreign Review_ for July,
1844, p. 620.: "C'est ici qu'il doit m'accuser, et non dans les
_piques-niques_, dans les sociétés particulières." An earlier instance
occurs in one of Lord Chesterfield's letters (No. 167.), dated October


_Discovery at Nuneham Regis_ (Vol. vi., pp. 386. 488. 558.).--Nuneham Regis
was granted to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in the seventh year of
King Edward VI.; but as it was forfeited on his attainder, in the first
year of Queen Mary, and immediately granted by her to Sir Rowland Hill,
knight, and citizen of London, from whom Sir Thomas Leigh, knight, and
alderman of London, almost immediately acquired it; and as he exercised the
right of presentation to the vicarage in the first year of the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, there is no probability of the body of John, Duke of
Northumberland, being removed from the Tower of London to Newnham.

The letters T. B. on the clothes on the body at Nuneham are distinctly
worked in Roman capitals, like those on a common sampler. I have seen them.

J. S.S.

_Door-head Inscriptions_ (Vol. vi., p. 543.).--

 "Sit mihi nec glis servus nec hospes hirudo."

 "From servant lazy as dormouse,
  Or leeching guest, God keep my house."

MR. WOODWARD tells us that he quotes this inscription "from memory:" it is
so very pertinent that it seems a pity even to hint a correction, but, as I
read it, it seemed partly familiar to me, and I find something so like the
latter part of it in two ancient authors, that I am tempted to inquire
whether he may not have omitted _one letter_, which alters the sense as
given above, and yet gives a sense as good.

Among the Symbols of Pythagoras, I read the following:

 "[Greek: Omôrophious chelidônas mê echein]."

 "Domesticas hiru_n_dines ne habeto."

To the same effect (but, strange to say, without any reference to
Pythagoras' dictum), we find it in the _proverbia_ of Polydore Virgil (A.D.

 "Hiru_n_do suscipienda non est."

and the exposition is the same in both:

    "Hirundo garrula semper, _i.e._ garruli et tumigeri homines recipiendi
    non sunt."

I find no original for the former part of the inscription. Probably MR.
WOODWARD will agree with me, that it is difficult to decide whether a
greedy or a gossipping guest would be the worst household infliction; but
as a careful householder might well deprecate either, as matter of
curiosity perhaps he would refer to the original inscription again, and
decide whether he has or has not omitted an "n."

A. B. R.


Stratford Parsonage, Wilts:

 "Parva sed apta Domino.

Montacute House, Somerset:

 "Through this wide opening gate
  None come too soon, none go too late.
              And yours."


Sudbury House, Derbyshire:

 "Omne Bonum Dei Donum."

At Verona:

 "Patet Janua, Cor magis."

The next I have seen somewhere:

 "Detur digniori."


Clyst St. George.

_Cross and Pile_ (Vol. vi., pp. 386. 513.).--The _pile_ is invariably on
the obverse or _head_ side of a coin; and _pile_ or _poll_ both mean the
head, from whence the "poll tax" and "poll groat"--a tax paid by the head,
or a personal tax, of which we have an historical example of its collector
in the case of Wat Tyler.

Ruding, in _Annals of the Coinage_, vol. ii. p. 119., 8vo., edit. 1819,
states that Ed. I. A.D. 1304, in the delivering out the stamps for the
coinage, orders that three _piles_ and six _crosses_ shall be given. It is
well known to all numismatists that all, or most early coins, both Saxon
and English, had a head on the obverse and a cross on the reverse--the
latter being placed on the coins as symbolical of Christianity.

_Pile_ also means the hair, or any filament: as the "pile of velvet, the
nap of woollen cloth," &c. And Jamieson, in his _Scotch Dictionary_, says:

    "PILE. The soft hair which first appears on the chins of young men."

Coles, Ashe, Webster, and others give the same meaning.

The superstitious effect of the cross as a charm or amulet is well known;
from whence the saying:

    "I have never a cross in my purse to keep the Devil away."


    "Priests were coin-proof against the Devil, they never being without
    money; of course, always had a cross in their pocket."--Gilpin's
    _Beehive of the Romish Church_, 1636, p. 251.

And Nash, in the Supplication of Pierce Penniless to the Devil, makes
Pierce to say:

    "Whereas your impious excellence hath had the poore tenement of my
    purse anytime this half year for your dancing schole, and he,
    notwithstanding, hath received no penye nor crosse for farme," &c.

And the poet Skelton says:

 ". . . . . . . . and in his pouche,
  The Devil might dance therein for any crouche."
                                  P. 71.

Trusting the above will be satisfactory to D. W. S., I beg to conclude,
thinking, you will say I have already made "much ado about nothing."


_Rhymes upon Places_ (Vol. vi. p. 281.).--Perhaps you will think the
following rhymes upon places worth insertion:

 "I stood upon Eyemouth Fort,
  And guess ye what I saw?
  Fairmiside and Furmintong,
  Neuhouses and Cocklaw,
  The fairy fouk o' Fosterland,
  The witches o' Edincran,
  The bly-rigs o' Reston;
  But Dunse dings a'."

Near the seaside village of Eyemouth, in Berwickshire, is a promontory
marked with a succession of grassy mounds, the remains of a fort built
there in the regency of Mary of Lorraine. A number of places are
represented as visible from the fort: but here fact is not strictly adhered

Fosterland once existed in the parish of Bunkle as a small village; but
even its vestiges are not now visible on the brown moor where it once
stood. Edincran, properly Auchinchran, is an estate in the vicinity of
Fosterland, as is Reston also. There is a variation as follows:

 "The fairy fouk o' Fosterland,
  The witches o' Edincran,
  And the rye-kail o' Reston
  Gar'd a' the dogs die."

The rye-kail alluded to must have been a broth chiefly made from rye, which
grain, it is well known, is sometimes so much tainted as to be poisonous.



[Greek: Arnion] (Vol. vi., p. 509.).--Probably your correspondent is aware
of the explanation given by Dr. Wordsworth in his book on the Apocalypse,
but does not think it satisfactory. Still, as he does not allude to it, I
venture to transcribe it:

    "The Apocalypse abounds in contrasts. For example, the LAMB, who is
    always called [Greek: Amnos], never [Greek: Arnion], in St. John's
    _Gospel_, is called [Greek: Arnion], never [Greek: Amnos], in St.
    John's _Apocalypse_, in which [Greek: Arnion] occurs twenty-nine times.
    And why does [Greek: ho Amnos] here become [Greek: to Arnion]? To
    _contrast_ Him more strongly with [Greek: to Thêrion], that is, to mark
    the _opposition_ between the LAMB and the Beast."

To this a note is appended:

    "This contrast is even more striking in the original, where it is aided
    by an exact correspondence of syllables and accents. On one side are--

     '[Greek: Hê pornê kai to Thêrion]:'

    On the other--

     '[Greek: Hê Numphê kai to Arnion].'

    See Rev. xxi. 2. 9., xxii. 17."--_Is the Church of Rome Babylon?_ p.
    58.: London, 1851.

A. A. D.

[Greek: Arnion] and [Greek: amnos] both denote a lamb. In John i. 29. 36.,
the latter is applied to Jesus by John the {25} Baptist. In Acts viii. 32.,
and 1 Pet. i. 19., the term is manifestly derived from Isa. liii. 7., the
Septuagint translation. But, in the Revelation, the word selected by the
apostle is simply to be viewed as characteristic of his style. Taken in
connexion with John i. 29. 36., the difference presents one of those points
which so strikingly attest the authenticity of the Scripture. If the writer
had drawn upon his imagination, in all likelihood he would have used the
word [Greek: arnion] in the Gospel; but he employed another, because the
Baptist actually made use of a different one, _i. e._ one different from
that which he was in the habit of employing.


_Who was the greatest General_ (Vol. vi., p. 509.).--In reply to the
following Query, "Who was the greatest general, and why and wherefore did
the Duke of Wellington give the palm to Hannibal?" I think the following
note appended to the eloquent sermon of Dr. Croly, preached on the death of
the Duke, Sept. 19th, not only shows the humility of the Duke in giving
preference to Hannibal over himself, but it contains so just a comparison
between the two generals, that it deserves recording in the valuable and
useful pages of the "N. & Q." as well as being a perfect and true answer to
C. T.:

    "It has been usual," the note says, "to compare Wellington with
    Hannibal. But those who make the comparison seem to forget the facts:--

    "Hannibal, descending from the Alps with a disciplined force of 26,000
    men, met the brave Roman Militia, commanded by brave blockheads, and
    beat them accordingly. But, as soon as he was met by a man of common
    sense, Fabius, he could do nothing with him; when he met a manoeuvring
    officer, the Consul Nero, he was outmanoeuvred, and lost his brother
    Asdrubal's army, which was equivalent to his losing Italy; and when he
    met an active officer, Scipio, he was beaten on his own ground.
    Finally, forced to take refuge with a foreign power, he was there a
    prisoner, and there he died."

    "His administrative qualities seem to have been of the humblest, or of
    the most indolent, order. For fourteen years he was in possession of,
    or in influence with, all the powers of southern Italy, then the
    richest portion of the peninsula. Yet this possession was wrested from
    him without an effort; and where he might have been a monarch, he was
    only a pensioner. His _punic_ faith, his flight, his refuge, and his
    death in captivity, might find a more complete resemblance in the
    history of Napoleon."

The following, concluding sentence of Dr. Croly's note conveys a truer and
far more just comparison with another great general:

    "The life of the first Cæsar forms a much fairer comparison with that
    of Wellington. Both nobly born; both forcing their way up through the
    gradations of service, outstripping all their age; forming their
    characters by warfare in foreign countries; always commanding small
    armies, yet always invincible (Cæsar won the World at Pharsalia with
    only 25,000 men): both alike courageous and clement, unfailing in
    resources, and indefatigable in their objects; receiving the highest
    rewards, and arising to the highest rank of their times; never beaten:
    both of first-rate ability in council. The difference being in their
    objects; one to serve himself, the other to serve his country; one
    impelled by ambition, the other by duty; one destroying the
    constitution of his country, the other sustaining it. Wellington, too,
    has given the soldier and statesman his 'Commentaries,' one of the
    noblest transcripts of a great administrative mind."

J. M. G.


_Beech-trees struck by Lightning_ (Vol. vi., p. 129.).--On Thinnigrove
Common, near Nettlebed, Oxon, a beech-tree, one of three or four growing
round a pit, was shattered by lightning about thirteen or fourteen years
ago. A gentleman who has lived sixty years in the neighbourhood of the
beech woods near Henly, tells me that he remembers three or four similar
cases. Single beech-trees, which are very ornamental, generally grow very
low and wide-spreading, which may be the reason why they often escape. On
the other hand, in the woods where they run up close and very high, they
present so many points of attraction to the electric fluid, that probably
for that cause it is not often the case that one tree in particular is



_Passage in Tennyson_ (Vol. vi., p. 272.).--It appears to me that Tennyson
has fallen into the error of a Latin construction. I call it an error,
because in that language the varied terminations of the cases and numbers
make that plain which we have no means of evidencing in English. I should
translate it "Numenii strepitus volantis"--"The call of the curlew dreary
(drearily) gleams about the moorland, _as he flies_ o'er Locksley Hall."
The summer note of the curlew is a shrill clear whistle, but in winter they
sometimes indulge in a wild melancholy scream.



_Inscriptions in Churches_ (Vol. vi., p. 510.).--I differ from your reply
to NORWOOD'S Query, in which you refer to the colloquy between Queen
Elizabeth and Dean Nowell as the origin of these inscriptions. No doubt
they were derived from the custom of our ante-Reformation ancestors, of
painting figures and legends of saints upon the walls of churches; but the
following instance will suffice to prove that they originated in the reign
of Edward VI., and not in Queen Elizabeth's.

In the interesting paper by the Rev. E. Venables in the _Transactions of
the Cambridge Camden Society_, on "The Church of St. Mary the Great,
Cambridge," he gives, under the year {26} 1550, the following extracts from
the churchwardens' accounts:

 "For makyng of the wall where Saynt
     George stood in the chyrche                                   vj^d
  It. payd for wythynge y^e chyrch                          xx^s iiij^d
  It. payd for _wryghtynge of y^e chyrch
     walls with Scriptures_                  iiij^{lib} iij^s iiij^d."

Shortly after the accession of Queen Mary in 1553, the following entry

 "Payd to Barnes for mendyng over the rode
  and over the altar in the chapell, and _for
  washing oute the Scriptures_                    4^s  4^d."

They do not appear to have been restored after this, for in the year 1840
some of the plaister between two of the windows of the south aisle peeling
off, discovered traces of "wryghtynge" beneath; and I and another member of
the Cambridge Camden Society spent some time in laying it bare, and after
much difficulty made out that it was the Lord's Prayer in English, headed,
"The Lord's Prayer, called the Paternoster," and written in the church text
of the period, the whole enclosed in a sort of arabesque border; it was not
merely whited over, but had evidently been partially effaced, or partly
"washed oute," before being "concealed under its dreary shroud of
whitewash." On examination there were traces of more of this writing
between the other windows, but we had not time to make any further
investigation, for the church was then being cleaned, and in a few days all
that we had laid bare was again concealed under a veil of whitewash.

Thus, I think, we may assign to the reign of Edward VI., not merely the
obliteration of the numerous frescoes of St. Christopher, the great dome,
&c., which are now so constantly coming to light, but also the origin of
"wryghtynge of y^e chyrch walls with scriptures" in their stead, some ten
or twelve years _earlier_ than the remarkable colloquy between Queen
Elizabeth and the worthy Dean of St. Paul's.



_Dutensiana_ (Vol. vi., p. 376.).--Lowndes gives a list of Dutens' works,
which does not include "Correspondence interceptée," of which he _was_ the
author; and I have seen a presentation copy of it proving this.


_Early Phonography_ (Vol. vi., p. 424.).--"Have the modern phonographists
ever owned their debt of gratitude to their predecessors in the phonetic

The subjoined advertisement may perhaps be considered an answer to this

    "Hart's Orthography, 1569; or, 'An Orthographie conteyning the due
    order and reason, howe to write or paint thimage of manne's voice, most
    like to the life or nature. Composed by J. H. [John Hart], Chester
    Heralt;' reprinted from a copy in the British Museum. Cloth, 2s.

    "An unanswerable defence of Phonetic Spelling, and one of the earliest
    schemes of Phonetic Orthography. A considerable portion of the book
    being printed in the author's Phonetic Alphabet (given in the present
    edition in Phonetic Longhand), we have thus exhibited the pronunciation
    of the age of Shakspeare."


_Kentish Local Names; Dray_ (Vol. vi., p. 410.).--In the low embanked land
in the west of Somersetshire, between Bristol and Taunton, the word _drove_
is used in the same acceptation; and _driftway_, I think, is also a term
for ancient British roads in some parts of the kingdom.


_Monument at Modstena_ (Vol. vi., p. 388.).--This monument was first
published in _Archæologia Æliana_. I believe it is an incised slab; but I
have written to a friend in the north to inquire whether I am correct.


_Book-plates_ (Vol. iii., p. 495.).--MR. PARSONS, it appears, limits his
inquiries to English book-plates, about which I cannot offer any
information. It is certain, however, that book-plates were used on the
Continent at a very early period. I remember to have seen one, from a
wood-block, which was cut by Albert Dürer for his friend Pirkheimer. As it
is sixteen years since I saw it at the Imperial Library at Vienna, I cannot
be expected to give a precise description; but (as far as I recollect) the
wording of it was as follows: "Bilibaldi Pirckheimeri et Amicorum."

A copy which I possess of Vesalius's great anatomical work (Basil, 1555)
has the book-plate of a former Duke of Mecklenburg pasted inside the cover.
It is a woodcut, ten inches by six and a half, representing the ducal arms,
surrounded by an ornamented border. Beneath are the date and inscription:

   15    E    75
   H. G. V. V. G.

I do not know what the first six letters stand for, nor is it worth
inquiring. The latter part of the inscription--"Ulrich Herzog zu
Mecklenburg"--identifies the former possessor of the volume.


"_World without end_" (Vol. vi., p. 434.).--Besides the places named by F.
A., this phrase occurs in the authorised version of the Bible, in Is. xlv.
17., Ep. iii. 21. There is no doubt it is idiomatic, and is even now
occasionally used in conversation. Our translators render at least three
Hebrew words "world," and as many Greek ones. One of the latter, and two of
the former, properly refer to _time_, like the Latin _ævum sæculum_; and
this also {27} appears to have been the original meaning of "world," as it
is one which it certainly has frequently in the Scriptures. "World without
end" is the idiomatic rendering, equivalent to "in sæcula sæculorum," which
is a literal following of an idiom common in both the Hebrew and Greek
Scriptures, and to be found in the Chaldee of the Book of Daniel. "World
without end" does not occur, so far as I am aware, in the modern European
languages, which generally either follow the Latin "in sæcula sæculorum;"
or the German, and say, "eternally to eternity."


_Gloucester Ballads_ (Vol. iv., p. 311.).--Since I inserted these ballads,
I have been informed, that the one entitled a "Gloucester Ditty" was from
the pen of Charles Dibdin, who, paying a visit to the "fair city," was
pressed by some friends to leave them a memento of such. Of my own
knowledge, I cannot vouch for the truth of this story; my informant's
veracity is, however, unquestionable. I have recently obtained another
copy; like the former, it is without a date, but bears the well-known
imprint, "Raikes, Southgate Street."

The "Old Harry" is intended for one "Harry Hudman, King of the Island," a
low district in Gloucester, a mock officer chosen by the lower orders.
Harry kept the throne many years, but was at length outvoted; but resolving
to retain by stratagem what he could not by free choice, invited his
competitor to a glass; and while the latter was taking his draught, Harry
jumped into his seat, was chaired through the island, and was thus king
another year. There was a ballad relating to this worthy, commencing--

 "There was a man of renown,
  In Gloucester's fam'd town."

Another verse informs us that--

         "Old coffins ne'er new,
          And old pulpits too,
  Can be bought at his shop in the island."

The "Taylor's Tale" alluded to is a ballad, written by person of that name,
on the manners and customs of the island. I have not been able to obtain
copies of either of these just noticed ballads; and should any
correspondent of "N. & Q." possess such, they would oblige me by their

H. G. D.

_Satirical Prints; Pope_ (Vol. vi., p. 434.).--I have never seen this print
that your correspondent refers to. It will no doubt be found, however, to
be a plate illustrating a _scene_ in the following tract: "_A Letter from
Mr. Cibber to Mr. Pope, &c._: London, printed and sold by W. Lewis in
Russell Street, Covent Garden, 1742," see pp. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49., where is
given rather a warm description of the whole scene. Should this tract not
be had by GRIFFIN, he may turn to D'Israeli's _Quarrels of Authors_,
article "Pope and Cibber," note p. 193., col. 2., edit. 8vo., Moxon, 1840;
where D'Israeli adds:

    "This story, by our comic writer, was accompanied by a print, that was
    seen by more persons, probably, than read the _Dunciad_."


_Raising the Wind_ (Vol. vi., p. 486.).--We say "the wind rises," and this
is common in Virgil (see _Æneid._ iii. 130. 481.; v. 777.: _Georgics_, i.
356.; ii. 333.; and iii. 134.). The transition from rising to raising is
easy; and as there is no sailing without a breeze, so there is no getting
along without money: in both cases, the _wind_ is essential to progress. As
to the mode of obtaining the "needful," I know not much, but probably
whistling will be found as effectual in one case as in the other.


_Milton in Prose_ (Vol. vi., p. 340.).--I know of one performance in the
French language, which answers the description of _Milton in Prose_: it is
a rhapsody entitled _Le Paradis Terrestre, Poëme imité de Milton_, by
Madame Dubocage: London, 1748. The French themselves had so poor an opinion
of it, that one of their wits, the Abbé Yart, has ridiculed it in the
following epigram:

 "Sur cet écrit, charmante Dubocage,
    Veux-tu savoir quel est mon sentiment?
  Je compte pour _perdus_, en lisant ton ouvrage,
    Le Paradis, mon temps, ta peine, et mon argent."


St. Lucia.

_The Arundelian Marbles_ (Vol. iv., p. 361.).--MR. W. SIDNEY GIBSON, in his
account of this celebrated collection, quotes portions of an interesting
letter, from James Theobald to Lord Willoughby de Parham, but he does not
say from whence he obtained it. I have now before me two copies, one in
_Historical Anecdotes of the Howard Family_, a new edition, 1817, p. 101.;
the other in a work entitled _Oxoniana_ (published by Richard Phillips, 4
vols. 12mo., no date), vol. iii. p. 42. Now both these copies differ from
MR. GIBSON'S, and all three are at variance respecting some of those minor
details which are of so much importance in inquiries of this description.
Where is a _genuine_ copy of Mr. Theobald's letter to be found?


_Pambotanologia_ (Vol. vi., p. 462.).--INIVRI will find a full account of
this work in Pulteney's _Historical and Biographical Sketches of the
Progress of Botany in England_, vol. i. p. 181.


East Winch.

_Can a Man baptize himself?_ (Vol. vi., pp. 36. 110.).--This question has
not yet received any {28} correct answer. The following quotation from the
_Summa_ of St. Thomas Aquinas will resolve it as far as your querist W. is

    "Similiter autem Forma mutaretur, si diceretur 'Ego baptizo me;' et
    ideo nullus potest baptizare seipsum propter quod et CHRISTUS a Joanne
    voluit baptizari."--_Summa_, 3^{tia} Pars, Quæstio lxvi. Art. v. Arg.

The REV. A. GATTY, while right in the negative answer which he gives to the
question of W., is quite wrong in the reasons on which he founds it.
"Christian fellowship" is _not_ of necessity a requisite for administering
the sacrament of holy baptism. I quote again from the _Summa_ of St.

    "Ad primum ergo dicendum, quod Baptismum a schismaticis recipere non
    licet, nisi in articulo necessitatis: quia melius est de hâc vitâ cum
    signo CHRISTI exire, a quocumque detur, etiam si sit Judæus vel
    Paganus, quam sine hoc signo, quod per Baptismum confertur."--_Summa_,
    2^{nda} Pars, Quæstio xxxix. Art. iv. Arg. 1.

As our own Church apparently only recognises sacerdotal baptism in her
formularies, in answering such a question as that of W. we must have
recourse to the schoolmen and casuists of earlier times.


       *       *       *       *       *




SHARP'S PROSE WRITERS. Vol. IV. 21 Vols. 1819. Piccadilly.



DONNE. [Greek: Biathanatos]. 4to. First Edition, 1644.

------ ------ ------ Second Edition, 1648.

---- PSEUDO-MARTYR. 4to.

---- PARADOXES, PROBLEMS, AND ESSAYS, &c. 12mo. 1653.

---- ESSAYS IN DIVINITY. 12mo. 1651.


POPE'S WORKS, by WARTON. Vol. IX. 1797. in boards.


MEMOIRS OF THE DUCHESS OF ABRANTES. (Translation.) 8 vols. 8vo. Bentley.

SMITH'S COLLECTANEA ANTIQUA. 2 vols. 8vo.; or Vol. I.

BREWSTER'S MEMOIR OF REV. HUGH MOISES, M.A., Master of Newcastle Grammar

RELIGIO MILITIS; or Christianity for the Camp. Longmans, 1826.

MILTON'S WORKS. The First Edition.

Preface by Baxter. Date about 1691.

GIBBON'S ROMAN EMPIRE. Vols. I. and II. of the twelve volume 8vo. edition.









*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We have this week been compelled to omit our usual NOTES ON BOOKS, &c._

W. W. (Malta) _is thanked for his suggestion_. _We fear, however, that the
difficulties in the way of carrying it out, which are far more than he
suspects, will still prevent our doing so, as we have often desired._

PETER THE SAXONIAN _is referred to our_ 1st Vol., p. 102., _where he will
find that both Blair and Campbell were anticipated by Norris of Bemerton,
who sang of_

 "Angels' visits, short and bright."

R. G. L. _The meaning and derivation of_ DITTO _are obvious. It means_ "the
same," _from the Italian_ ditto, _the said_.

TOUCHSTONE. _Music is sometimes engraved, sometimes printed from moveable

J. C., _who inquires whether Shelley first imagined the name of_ Mab, _has,
we fear, never read Shakspeare's Romeo and Juliet, or Mercutio's account of
"the Fairie's midwife." We almost envy him._

F. R. S. (Barkisland). _His Query shall appear, and_ we think _we may
promise him a full and satisfactory Reply._

H. C. K., _and other Correspondents respecting the inscription at Dewsbury,
are thanked_.

A. B. _The line_

 "And coming events cast their shadows before,"

_is from Campbell's_ Lochiel's Warning.

H. B. C. _The Correspondent to whom H. B. C. refers us furnished his name
and address. But perhaps our Correspondent's Reply had better appear_.

W. H. T. (Salisbury). Ophiomaches _was written by the Rev. Philip Skelton_.
_See further our_ No. 157., p. 415. _The other Queries shall have early

D'OYLEY AND MANT'S COMMENTARY. _With reference to our Note in No. 157., a
Correspondent informs us that an edition is now publishing in Parts at 6d.
each, by Strange_

PHOTOGRAPHY. _Owing to the length of DR. DIAMOND's directions for the Paper
Process in our present No., we are compelled to postpone many interesting
communications. DR. DIAMOND's former articles are contained in our Nos.
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communications on this interesting subject._

THE INDEX AND TITLE-PAGE _to our Sixth Volume will be ready very shortly_.

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English counties.--A Catalogue of Interesting and Curious Books relating to
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Dunkin's (of Dartford) Prospectus (8 pages) of his History of Kent.

Apply to WILLIAM CHANDLER, Archael Mine Office, Dartford.

       *       *       *       *       *


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_Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

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Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
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       *       *       *       *       *

correct definition at the centre and margin of the picture, and have their
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_Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports_, p. 274.

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

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Prepared solely by R. W. THOMAS, Chemist, &c., 10. Pall Mall.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
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       *       *       *       *       *

(containing the whole of the Contents of the former Edition published in 20
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       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for JANUARY 1853, which is the First Number of a
New Volume, contains the following articles:--

    1. King Charles I. in the Isle of Wight.

    2. Original Letters of Benjamin Franklin.

    3. Farinelli and Pompadour.

    4. Henry Newcome, the Manchester Puritan.

    5. A Journey to Paris in 1736.

    6. The Cloister Life of Charles V.

    7. The Hill Intrenchments on the Borders of Wales, by T. Wright, F.S.A.
    (with Engravings).

    8. Report of the Cambridge University Commission.

    9. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban:--1. Pictures of the Immaculate
    Conception. 2. The Relic of St. Mary Axe. 3. Harley Church, Salop. 4.
    Etymology of the word Many.

With Notes of the Month, Reviews of New Publications, Historical Chronicle,
and OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the Earl of Shrewsbury, Countess of
Lovelace, Sir J. J. Guest, Miss Berry, Professor Empson, Mr. Serjeant
Halcomb, &c. &c.

A Specimen Number sent on the receipt of 2s. 6d. in Postage Stamps.

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       *       *       *       *       *

Addition to 1000 Valuable Books in all Departments of Literature offered at
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or Scraps and Sketches, Literary, Bibliographical, and Miscellaneous.

Contents of No. I.--Address; Milton's Country Residence; Pious Chloe;
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Just ready,

MILLER'S LONDON LIBRARIAN from January to December, 1852, inclusive; being
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JOHN MILLER, 43. Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square.

       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *




    Containing Works of Sound Information and Innocent Amusement, printed
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This Day is Published,


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MUSIC AND DRESS. Two Essays. 1s.


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JOAN OF ARC; an Historical Essay. By LORD MAHON. 1s.





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And to be obtained at all Booksellers, and Railway Stations.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Now ready, in 8vo., price 14s. cloth, lettered, with a lithograph
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WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

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  Latin Poetry, Classical and Mediæval.
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  Reviews and Notices.

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       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, December 25, contains Articles on

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  Berwickshire Farmers' Club
  Butter, taste in
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  ---- quarter evil, &c. in
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  Strabo's Geography, by Meyer, reviewed
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Published by JAMES H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *





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    "The designs are executed with a spirit and fidelity quite
    extraordinary. They are indeed most truthful."--_Athenæum._

LOWER'S (M. A.) ESSAYS ON ENGLISH SURNAMES. 2 vols. post 8vo. Third
Edition, greatly enlarged. Cloth, 12s.

BIOGRAPHIA BRITANNICA LITERARIA; or Biography of Literary Characters of
Great Britain and Ireland, arranged in Chronological Order. By THOMAS
WRIGHT, M.A., F.S.A., Member of the Institute of France. 2 thick vols. 8vo.
Cloth. Vol. I. Anglo-Saxon Period. Vol. II. Anglo-Norman Period. 6s. each,
published at 12s. each.

Published under the superintendence of the Royal Society of Literature.

COINS. An Introduction to the Study of Ancient and Modern Coins. By J. Y.
AKERMAN. Fcp. 8vo. with numerous wood engravings, from the original coins,
6s. 6d.

COINS OF THE ROMANS RELATING TO BRITAIN, described and illustrated. By J.
Y. AKERMAN, F.S.A. Second edition, 8vo. greatly enlarged with plates and
woodcuts, 10s. 6d. cloth.

GUIDE TO ARCHÆOLOGY. An Archæological Index to Remains of Antiquity of the
Celtic, Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon periods. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN,
fellow and secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. 1 vol. 8vo. illustrated
with numerous engravings, comprising upward of 500 objects, cloth 15s.

    "One of the first wants of an incipient antiquary is the facility of
    comparison, and here it is furnished him at one glance. The plates,
    indeed, form the most valuable part of the book, both by their number
    and the judicious selection of types and examples which they contain.
    It is a book which we can, on this account, safely and warmly recommend
    to all who are interested in the antiquities of their native
    land."--_Literary Gazette._

    "A book of such utility--so concise, so clear, so well condensed from
    such varied and voluminous sources--cannot fail to be generally
    acceptable."--_Art Union._

HISTORY OF ENGLAND in the MIDDLE AGES. 2 vols. post 8vo. cloth, 16s.

WRIGHT'S (THOS.) ST. PATRICK'S PURGATORY: an Essay on the Legends of
Purgatory, Hell, and Paradise, current during the Middle Ages. Post 8vo.
cloth, 6s.

THE NURSERY RHYMES OF ENGLAND, collected chiefly from oral tradition.
Edited by J. O. HALLIWELL. Fourth edition, 12mo. with 38 Designs by W. B.
Scott. 4s. 6d. cloth.

POPULAR RHYMES AND NURSERY TALES, with Historical Elucidations; a Sequel to
"The Nursery Rhymes of England." Edited by J. O. HALLIWELL. Royal 18mo. 4s.

LOWER'S CURIOSITIES OF HERALDRY, with Illustrations from Old English
Writers. 8vo. Numerous Engravings. Cloth, 14s.

HERALDS' VISITATIONS. An Index to all the Pedigrees and Arms in the
Heraldic Visitations and other Genealogical MSS. in the British Museum. By
G. SIMS, of the Manuscript Department. 8vo. closely printed in double
columns, cloth, 15s.

*** An indispensable book to those engaged in genealogical or topographical
pursuits, affording a ready clue to the pedigrees and arms of above 30,000
of the gentry of England, their residences, &c. (distinguishing the
different families of the same name in every country), as recorded by the
Heralds in their Visitations, with Indexes to other genealogical MSS. in
the British Museum. It has been the work of immense labour. No public
library ought to be without it.

CONSUETUDINES KANCIÆ. A History of GAVELKIND, and other remarkable Customs
in the County of KENT, by CHARLES SANDYS, Esq., F.S.A. (Cantianus),
illustrated with fac-similes, a very handsome volume, 8vo. cloth, 15s.

FROM THE TYNE TO THE SOLWAY. Thick 8vo. 35 plates and 194 woodcuts, half
morocco, 1l. 1s.

closely printed in treble columns, cloth, 12s.

    "This is not a mere abridgment of the large Dictionary, but almost an
    entirely new work. In this compendious one will be found, at a very
    moderate price, all that is most practical and valuable in the former
    expensive edition, with a great accession of new words and
    matter."--_Author's Preface._

ANALECTA ANGLO-SAXONICA. Selections in Prose and Verse from Anglo-Saxon
Literature, with an Introductory Ethnological Essay, and Notes, critical
and explanatory. By LOUIS F. KLIPSTEIN, of the University of Giessen, 2
thick vols. post 8vo. cloth, 12s. (original price 18s.)

A DELECTUS IN ANGLO-SAXON, intended as a First Class-book in the Language.
By the Rev. W. BARNES, of St. John's College, Cambridge, author of the
Poems and Glossary in the Dorset Dialect. 12mo. cloth, 2s. 6d.

    "To those who wish to possess a critical knowledge of their own native
    English, some acquaintance with Anglo-Saxon is indispensable; and we
    have never seen an introduction better calculated than the present to
    supply the wants of a beginner in a short space of time. The
    declensions and conjugations are well stated, and illustrated by
    references to the Greek, Latin, French, and other languages. A
    philosophical spirit pervades every part. The Delectus consists of
    short pieces on various subjects, with extracts from Anglo-Saxon
    History and the Saxon Chronicle. There is a good Glossary at the
    end."--_Athenæum, Oct. 20, 1849._

CHATTO, Author of "Jackson's History of Wood Engraving," in one handsome
vol. 8vo. illustrated with many Engravings, both plain and coloured, cloth,
1l. 1s.

    "It is exceedingly amusing."--_Atlas._

    "Curious, entertaining, and really learned book."--_Rambler._

    "Indeed the entire production deserves our warmest
    approbation."--_Literary Gazette._

    "A perfect fund of Antiquarian research, and most interesting even to
    persons who never play at cards."--_Tait's Mag._

BIBLIOTHECA MADRIGALIANA: a Bibliographical account of the Music and
Poetical Works published in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries, under the Titles of Madrigals, Ballets, Ayres, Canzonets, &c. By
DR. RIMBAULT. 8vo. cloth, 5s.

and Ancient Customs from the reign of Edward I. By JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL,
F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. 2 vols. 8vo. containing upwards of 1,000 pages closely
printed in double columns, cloth 1l. 1s.

It contains about 50,000 Words (embodying all the known scattered
Glossaries of the English language), forming a complete key to the reading
of the works of our old Poets, Dramatists, Theologians, and other authors,
whose works abound with allusions, of which explanations are not to be
found in ordinary Dictionaries and books of reference. Most of the
principal Archaisms are illustrated by examples selected from early
inedited MSS. and rare books, and by far the greater portion will be found
to be original authorities.

A LITTLE BOOK OF SONGS AND BALLADS, gathered from Ancient Musick Books, MS.
and Printed. By E. F. RIMBAULT, LL.D., &c. Post 8vo. pp. 240, half-bound in
morocco, 6s.

  ----Antique Ballads, sung to crowds of old,
  Now cheaply bought for thrice their weight in gold.

GUIDE TO THE ANGLO-SAXON TONGUE, with Lessons in Verse and Prose, for the
Use of Learners. By E. J. VERNON, B.A., Oxon. 12mo. cloth, 5s. 6d.

*** This will be found useful as a Second Class-book, or to those well
versed in other languages.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8 New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, January 1. 1853.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 166, January 1, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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