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Title: The American Flower Garden Directory - Containing Practical Directions for the Culture of Plants, - in the Hot-House, Garden-House, Flower Garden and Rooms - or Parlours, for Every Month in the Year
Author: Buist, Robert, Hibbert, Thomas
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Flower Garden Directory - Containing Practical Directions for the Culture of Plants, - in the Hot-House, Garden-House, Flower Garden and Rooms - or Parlours, for Every Month in the Year" ***

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[Illustration: Camellia Fimbriata.]

                              THE AMERICAN

                        FLOWER GARDEN DIRECTORY,



                                 IN THE

                          ROOMS OR PARLOURS,=

                      FOR EVERY MONTH IN THE YEAR.


                              THE SOIL AND
                           TRANSPLANTING, &c.

                      INSTRUCTIONS FOR ERECTING A

        Hot-house, Green-house, and laying out a Flower Garden.


  _Table of Soils most congenial to the Plants contained in the Work_.




                       CONTENTS, A GENERAL INDEX,


                         By HIBBERT AND BUIST.

                 E. L. CAREY & A. HART--CHESNUT STREET.
                            ALLEN & TICKNOR.


This volume owes its existence principally to the repeated requests of a
number of our fair patrons, and amateur supporters, whose enquiries and
wishes for a practical manual on Floraculture, at last induced us to
prepare a work on the subject. That now offered is given unaffectedly
and simply as a plain and easy treatise on this increasingly interesting
subject. It will at once be perceived that there are no pretensions to
literary claims--the directions are given in the simplest manner--the
arrangement made as lucidly as was in our power--and the whole is
presented with the single wish of its being practically useful. How far
our object has been attained of course our readers must judge. Nothing
has been intentionally concealed; and all that is asserted is the result
of minute observation, close application, and an extended continuous
experience from childhood. We pretend not to infallibility, and are not
so sanguine as to declare our views the most perfect that can be
attained. But we can so far say, that the practice here recommended has
been found very successful.

Some very probably may be disappointed in not having the means of
propagating as clearly delineated as those of culture; but to have
entered into all the minutiæ connected therewith, would have formed
materials for two volumes larger than the present. We might have
described that branch, as it has already been done in works published
both on this continent and in Europe. In one of the former it is said,
"You may now propagate many kinds (_Exotic Plants_) by suckers,
cuttings, and layers, which should be duly attended to, particularly
such as are scarce and difficult to be obtained." And the directions
given in one of the most extensive works in Europe on the propagation of
an extensive genus, varied in character and constitution, run thus:
"Cuttings of most kinds will strike root. From the strongest growing
kinds, take off large cuttings at a joint, and plunge them in a pot of
sand under a hand-glass in the bark bed. Of the smaller kinds take
younger kinds, and put them under a bell-glass, also plunged in heat.
The sooner the plants are potted off after they are rooted the better."

Such instructions to the inexperienced, are imperfect and unavailing,
which, we flatter ourselves, is not the character that will attach to
the present work. We are well aware that there are persons, who, to show
their own superior abilities, may cavil and say that there is nothing
new. To such critics it may be answered, if arranging, simplifying,
digesting, and rendering Floraculture attainable by the humblest
capacity, with useful lists and tables on a plan quite novel, as we
believe--offer nothing new, it may at least be called an improvement.
However, we submit all to a generous public, to whom we are already
under many obligations.

                                               HIBBERT & BUIST.

     _Philadelphia, April 18th, 1832._


In presenting this work, constructed as a monthly calendar, which is the
most simple and easy method to convey the necessary operations of the
year, considerably more labour has been expended, than was at first
expected, to render it as accurate as possible. Some verbal mistakes may
have been overlooked in the botanical names. Where such occur, the list
of names at the end of the volume will enable the reader to correct
them; as well as the accentuation. For such other errors as may be
discovered, the indulgence of the reader is solicited.

Frequently, in the description of plants, there are Botanical and
English names compounded, in order the more clearly to elucidate their
several parts to those who are not fully acquainted with scientific
terms. The description of the colour of flowers and habits of plants
will be useful to such as are at a great distance from collections, in
enabling them to make selections judiciously.

Those plants described and recommended have all, with a few exceptions,
passed under our own observation, and are generally such as are most
worthy of attention, either for beauty of flower, foliage, or habit,
together with those celebrated in arts and medicine. Many may possibly
have passed unobserved, either from their being very generally known, or
difficult to obtain; but in no case has there been suppression from
selfish motives. Where the words "our collections" occur, it is meant
for those of the country generally, and especially those immediately in
the vicinity of Philadelphia. In all our observations, no regard has
been paid to what has been written by others, either in the way of
depreciation, or of particular appreciation. Perhaps some other
cultivators may differ from us respecting culture and soil; however this
may be, we rest satisfied, as our work is designedly and professedly
given as the result of our own experience, the plan laid down is our own
routine of culture, and the soils are those which we adopt. We do not
say that there is no soil in which the plants will not grow better,
fully aware that every art and profession is subject to improvement. The
table of soils has been constructed at the expense of much labour, and
condensed as much as possible; to every one that has a single plant it
will be found invaluable. Many are the publications in Europe on
Gardening and Floraculture, the directions in which, when practised in
the United States, prove almost a perfect dead letter. A work adapted to
the climate must be the guide in this country, and not one which is
foreign to us in every respect. On this account a work like the present
has been a desideratum, considering the rapidly increasing and
interesting advancement of the culture of flowers amongst the fair
daughters of our flourishing republic.

To aid them and others seeking information in this instructive and
delightful pursuit--to enable them to examine more minutely, and judge
more correctly of the qualities, properties, and beauties of
plants--have been prominent objects in this publication. Here, as
knowledge is increased, the warmer will be the devotion of the delighted
student; and as the mind correspondingly expands, the desire for further
information will keep pace--advancing constantly in the development of
nature, the mind will participate in the enjoyment, and become
meliorated and purified--as the study of nature's works inevitably lead
to the contemplation of nature's God, and the result of the whole prove
a harmonious combination of personal gratification and mental



  _JANUARY._                              Page

  Of Temperature,                                 9
    Firing and Fuel,                            ib.
    Watering                                     11
    Insects, to destroy,                         12
    Shifting Plants,                             17
    Cleaning do., &c.,                           19


  Of Temperature,                                33
    Insects,                                     34
    Shifting Plants,                             35
    Cleaning do. and House,                      37


  General Observations,                          56
  Of Shifting Plants,                            57


  Of Temperature,                               168
  Observations in general,                      169


  Of Repotting Plants,                          219
  Hot-house Plants described,                   ib.
  Of bringing out the Hot-house Plants,         255
    Succulents                                  257

  _JUNE & JULY._

  General Observations,                         272


  Of Repotting,                                 284
    Repairing the House,                        ib.


  Of Dressing the Plants,                       298
    Taking in do.,                              ib.


  Of Airing and Temperature,                    311


  Of Temperature,                               326
    Cistern and Water,                          ib.


  Of Firing,                                    337
    Shutters,                                   ib.
    Placing Bulbs in the Hot-house,             338



  Green-house,                                   20
  Of Temperature,                                21
    Watering,                                   ib.
    Camellia Japonica,                           22
    Oranges, Lemons, &c.,                        24
    Cape Bulbs, &c.,                            ib.
    Hyacinths, &c.,                              25


  Of Temperature,                                38
    Watering,                                    39
    Oranges and Lemons,                         ib.
    Bulbs,                                       40
    Camellia Japonica,                           41
    Shifting,                                   ib.
    Cleaning, &c.,                               43


  Of Temperature,                                57
    Watering,                                    58
    Oranges and Lemons,                         ib.
    Myrtles and Oleanders,                       59
    Geraniums,                                   60
    Herbaceous plants,                          ib.
    Cape Bulbs,                                 ib.
    Repotting,                                   61
    Enarching,                                  127


  Of Repotting,                                 170
    Watering,                                   ib.
    Oranges and Lemons,                         171
    Myrtles and Oleanders,                      173
    Geraniums,                                  ib.
  Of Herbaceous Plants and Bulbs,               174
    Flowering Plants,                           175
    Insects,                                    ib.
    Flowering Stocks,                           176


  Of bringing out the Green-house Plants,       258
    Repotting Plants,                           259
    Camellias,                                  264
    Cape Bulbs,                                 265

  _JUNE & JULY._

  General Observations,                         273


  Of Geraniums,                                 286
    Oranges and Lemons,                         287
    Pruning       do.,                          289
    Repotting Plants,                           ib.


  Of Repairing the House,                       300
    Watering,                                   301
    Preparing for taking in the Plants,         ib.
    Stocks and Wall-flowers,                    302
    Chrysanthemums,                             ib.
    Cape and Holland Bulbs,                     303
    Repotting,                                  306


  Of taking in and arranging the Plants,        312
    Repotting,                                  313
    Camellias,                                  315


  Of Air and Water,                             327
    Tender Bulbs,                               328


  Of Temperature,                               340
    Bulbous Roots,                              341



  Flower Garden,                                 25

  Of Framing, &c.                                26
    Pruning,                                     27


  Of Pruning,                                    44
    Planting Shrubs,                             48
    Hyacinths and other Bulbs,                   51
    Framing,                                    ib.


  Of Planting Box Edgings,                      130
    Sowing Tender Annuals,                      131
    Sowing Hardy     "                          132
    Sowing Biennials,                           133
    Planting Perennials,                        ib.
    Bulbous Roots,                              152
    Repotting Carnations, Pinks and Primroses,  153
    Auriculas,                                  154
    Ranunculus and Anemone,                     155
    Roses, planting,                            ib.
    Pruning Climbing Roses,                     159
    Planting Ornamental Shrubs,                 ib.
    Grass-plats and Walks,                      160
    Gravel-walks,                               162
    Fancy-edgings,                              ib.
    Grafting,                                   163


  Of Annuals,                                   178
    Biennials and Perennials,                   179
    Dahlias,                                    180
    China Roses,                                182
    Climbing  "                                 189
      "  Plants,                                196
    Deciduous Shrubs,                           199
    Planting Evergreens,                        ib.
    Care of choice Bulbs,                       201
    Anemone and Ranunculus,                     203
    Auriculas,                                  204
    Carnations and Pinks,                       ib.
    Polianthus tuberosa,                        205
    Jacobea Lily, &c.                           207
    Tiger-flower,                               208
    Walks,                                      209
    Evergreen Hedges,                           210
    Box-edgings,                                211
    Grass-plats & Flowering-plants,             212


  Of Annuals, hardy and tender,                 266
    Hyacinths and Tulips,                       ib.
    Anemone and Ranunculus,                     267
    Dahlia, Tuberose, and Amaryllis,            ib.
    Auricula, Polyanthus and Primrose,          ib.
    Wall-flower, double,                        268


  Holland Bulbs,                                274

  Autumn flowering-bulbs,                       ib.

  Carnations and Pinks,                         275
  Of Laying Carnations and Pinks,               277
    Pruning Roses,                              278
    Budding,                                    279
    Watering,                                   281


  Of Evergreen Hedges,                          293
    Carnations and Pinks,                       294
    Bulbous Roots,                              ib.
    Sowing Seeds of do.                         295
      "  and gathering Seeds,                   296


  Of Dahlias,                                   307
    General care of Plants in pots,             ib.
    Beds for Bulbous-roots,                     308


  Of Planting various Bulbs,                    317
      "  and transplanting,                     302
    Grass and Gravel-walks,                     322
    Planting Evergreens,                        ib.


  Of Protecting Choice Bulbs,                   329
    Tuberose, Dahlia, Tigridia, and Amaryllis   330
    Erythrinas,                                 ib.
    Primrose and Daisy,                         331
    Choice Carnations, Pinks, and Auriculas,    ib.
    Protecting Plants,                          332
      "  Seeding-bulbs,                         333
    Planting Deciduous Trees and Shrubs,        ib.


  General Observations,                         342



  Rooms,                                        28

  Of Temperature,                               ib.
    Watering,                                   29
    Camellia Japonica,                          ib.
    Insects,                                    30
    Bulbous Roots,                              31


  Of Temperature,                               54
    Hyacinths,                                  55
    Camellias,                                  ib.


  General Observations,                         165

  Of Flowering Plants,                          166


  Of plants brought from the Green-house,       214
    Flowering Plants,                           215
    Bringing Plants out of the cellar,          ib.


  Of Bringing out the Plants,                   269
    Cape bulbs,                                 270
    Repotting,                                  271


  General Observations,                         282


  General Observations,                         296

  Sowing Mignonette,                            297


  Of a Stage for Rooms,                         309

  General Observations,                         310


  Of taking in the Plants,                      323
    Bulbous roots,                              324


  Of Camellias, &c.                             335


  An outline of culture of plants,              344

  Index of Plants,                              353

  Description of Soils,                         375

  Table of Soils,                               ib.

  On the construction of a Hot-house,           345, 348

   "  "       "  Green-house,                   349

  On laying out a Flower Garden,                349, 352


_Jasmìnum_, Jasmine. A few species of this genus are celebrated either
for the Green-house or Rooms. _J. odoratíssimum_, Azorian, has very
sweet-scented yellow flowers, blooming from April to November. _J.
revolùtum_ is the earliest flowering one, and of the same colour; it is
apt to grow straggling, and should be close pruned as soon as done
blooming, which will be about June. _J. grandiflòrum_ is frequently
called Catalonian, and should be pruned early in spring to make it bloom
well, especially old plants. _J. officinàle_ is a hardy climbing plant
for arbours, walls, &c. There are several varieties of it, and it is
reported there is a double one.


     Page 104, _dele_ "_L. Silaifòlia_ has leaves bipinnatifid and
     smooth; segments wedge-shaped and cut; _L. dentáta_ and _L.
     ilicifòlia_, are the finest;" and place it to "_Lomàtia_," page

     Page 321, ninth line from top, _dele_ "_Pèdulis_."






At all times be very careful of the temperature of this department, and
more especially at this season of the year, as a few minutes' neglect
might materially injure many of the delicate plants. The thermometer
ought to range between 58° and 65°. In fine sunshine days, admit a
little air by having some of the top sashes let down, one, two, or three
inches, according to the weather, and let it always be done from eleven
to one o'clock; but by no means in such a manner as to cause a draught
in the interior of the house, which would be very prejudicial. Therefore
be always cautious during cold weather, in administering that necessary
element to vegetation, which is so conducive to health.


The Hot-house ought never to be left entirely to inexperienced persons,
because they are not aware of what might be the result of inattention
even for an hour. Attention to the following observations will obviate
every difficulty. About this season of the year, frost generally sets in
very severe in the middle states. Suppose the day may have all the
clemency of spring, the night may be directly the reverse. Every
precaution is necessary to guard against extremes. According to what was
said last month, it is understood that the shutters are put on every
night at sundown, and in severe weather, they must be put on as soon as
the sun goes off the glass. If the shutters are omitted till late in
severe frost, it will so reduce the heat of the house, that you cannot
overcome it by fire until near midnight; and when done, the fire or
fires have been made more powerful than they ought to be, proving
uncongenial to the plants that are near the flues. The air, as above
directed, having been taken off the house at one o'clock, as soon as the
mercury begins to fall in the thermometer, kindle the fire, and
supposing it is anthracite coal, in twenty minutes, with a good drawing
furnace, the heat will operate in the house. If a coal fire, kindled
about four o'clock, it will require an addition about six, and then may
be made up again about nine or ten, which will suffice until morning.
The quantity must be regulated by the weather. If the fuel is wood, it
must be attended to three or four times during the evening; and when the
mornings are intensely cold, one fire in the morning is requisite. When
there are bad drawing furnaces the fires must be made much earlier,
perhaps by two or three o'clock, which will be easily observed by the
time the fire takes effect upon the air of the house. The temperature
ought never to be under 55° of Fahrenheit.


To do this judiciously, is so necessary to vegetation, and so requisite
to understand, and yet the knowledge so difficult to convey to others
(being entirely acquired by practice,) that if the power was in man to
impart it to his fellow-men, he would possess the power of perfecting a
gardener by diction. However, the hints on this important point of
floraculture, will be as clear and expressive as can at present be
elicited. All plants in this work that are aquatic, shall be specified
as such; and those that are arid shall be duly mentioned. All others
will come in the medium.

All the plants must be looked over every day, and those watered that
appear to be getting dry on the top. It must be strictly observed not to
give water to any but such as are becoming dry, and let it be given
moderately at this season. Two or three days may perhaps elapse before
it need be repeated. There is not so much liability to err at present in
giving too little, as in administering too much. Vegetation amongst the
stove or Hot-house plants will soon begin to show, and the soil will
prove uncongenial if it is impregnated with stagnant moisture. Small
plants should always be watered with a pot, having what is termed a rose
upon it. The surface of the rose, that is, where it is perforated with
small apertures, ought to be level, or a little concave, which would
convey the water more to a centre, and make neater work, by preventing
any water from being unnecessarily spilt in the house. The size of the
pot will be regulated by the person to suit the conveniences of the
place. Water, when applied either to the roots or foliage of the plants,
should be about the medium temperature of the house. The cistern, built
on the plan herein recommended, will always give this, and sometimes
more, which can easily be reduced by adding cold water. Where there are
no cisterns, a tank or barrel might be in the house, in which the water
could stand for one night or more, as is most suitable. When water is
given without being thus aired, it chills the roots, prevents a
luxuriant growth, injures the fresh and healthful appearance of the
foliage, and too frequently gives to all the plants a sickly hue.


In this department, insects begin to increase by hundreds, and too
frequently their ravages are very obvious before their progress is
arrested. We will treat of those which are most common, under their
respective heads, with their nature and cure, as far as has come under
our observation.

_Aphis rosæ_, of the natural order of Hemiptera, or what is commonly
known by Green Fly, Green Lice, &c. infect plants in general, and are
particularly destructive in the Hot-house to _Hibíscus ròsa-sinénsis_,
_Asclèpias_, _Crássula coccínea_, _Alstr[oe]meria_, and many other
plants of a free growing nature. They attack the young and tender shoots
at the point, leaving a dark filthy appearance on the foliage. Many
remedies for their destruction have been offered to the public by
various writers, each equally secure in his own opinion. Extensive
practice alone can show the most easy and effectual cure. Fumigating
with tobacco is decidedly the most efficacious, and in the power of any
to perform. Take a small circular furnace, made of sheet iron, diameter
at top twelve inches, and at bottom eight; depth one foot, having a
grating in it to reach within three inches of the bottom, which will
leave space for the air to pass, and where the ashes will fall and be
kept in safety, having a handle like a pail to carry it with. This, or
any thing similar, being ready, put in it a few embers of ignited
charcoal; take it into the centre of the house, and put on the coals a
quantity of moist tobacco stems. If they attempt to blaze or flame,
sprinkle a little water over them; and as they consume, continue to add
tobacco until the house is entirely full of smoke, observing always to
do it in still, cloudy weather, or in the evening. If it is windy, the
smoke is carried off without having half the effect, and requires more
tobacco. The house must be closely shut up. There are several plants
whose foliage is of a soft downy nature, such as _Helitròpiums_,
_Callacárpas_, _Sálvias_, and many of the _Lantànas_, _Víncas_, with
several others, that cannot stand, without danger, strong fumigation.
These should be put low down in the house, or under the stage. These
fumigations will have to be repeated frequently, the time for which will
easily be perceived; and, when required, ought not to be delayed.
Several species and varieties of the same genus, _Aphis_, can be
destroyed in the like manner.

_Acaris tellurius_, or red spider, is caused by a dry atmosphere, and
its havoc generally is obvious before it is arrested. With its
proboscis, it wounds the fine capillary vessels; and if the leaves are
fine, they will appear as if probed with a needle, and yellowish around
the wound. If they have farther progressed in their destructive work,
the leaves will prematurely decay. On this appearance, turn up the leaf,
and you will see them running about with incredible swiftness. Their
body is of a blood colour, and their feet, eight in number, light red.
When very numerous, they work thick webs on the under side of the leaf,
and frequently all over it, forming a mass of half dead plants, decayed
leaves, and thousands of spiders. The most effectual remedy is a
thorough syringing with water, and profusely under the foliage. This
being done every evening, will subdue and eventually banish them. Had
the house been syringed two or three times per week, these intruders
would not have appeared. It is said by some writers, that watering only
reduces them to a temporary state of inaction, and will not destroy
them. Laying aside the many prescribed nostrums, we assert that the pure
element is the most effectual cure, as well as the most easy to be

_Thrips_, order _Hemiptera_, are insects so minute as scarcely to be
perceptible to the naked eye. They generally lurk close to the veins of
the leaves of plants, and frequently attack esculents. When viewed
through a glass, they are seen, when touched, to skip with great
agility. The larva is of a high brown, or reddish colour. The thrip has
four wings, and walks with its body turned upwards. It frequently
attacks the extremities of tender shoots, or young leaves, which become
shrivelled, brown, and will rub to dust easily between the thumb and
finger. When any leaves or shoots are perceived to be so, if you do not
observe the green fly, expect the thrips. They may be destroyed by a
fumigation of tobacco, in the same manner as the green fly. By the
simple and expeditious method of fumigation, these insects and several
others may be destroyed effectually at any time they appear.

_Cocus hesperidus_, or mealy bug, has appeared in the Hot-houses about
Philadelphia within these few years, and, if not instantly destroyed,
increases rapidly. It is of a white dusty colour, when broken, of a
brownish red, generally covered with down, under which it deposits its
eggs; and they, in a few months, come forth in great numbers. The cocus
generally is of a dormant nature, but, in warm weather, they may be seen
moving rapidly up the stems of the plants. Fumigating has no observable
effect on these insects; therefore, as soon as they appear, recourse
must be had to other means. The liquid made from the following receipt,
is death to any of the _Cocus_ tribe: Take two pounds of strong soap,
one pound flour of sulphur, one pound of leaf tobacco, one and a half
ounce of nux vomica, with a table spoonful of turpentine, which boil in
four gallons of river water to three; then set aside to cool. When
boiling, stir it well with a stick, continuing to do so until it is
reduced as above. In this liquor immerse the whole plant, drawing it to
and fro gently, that the liquor may penetrate every where.

This done, lay the plant on its side, until it begin to dry, then
syringe well with clean water, and put it in its respective station.
Where a collection of plants is free from any insects of the kind, every
plant that is introduced, ought to be minutely scrutinized, that the
unclean may be kept from the clean: the above insect will feed almost on
any plant, but indulges on _Crássulas_, any of the bristly _Cáctus_,
_Gardènias_, and in fact whatever is in the way.

_Cocus--------_, or brown scaly insect, is frequently found on many
plants, but we never could perceive that it does any other material
injury, than dirtying them. We have always observed, that it is found in
winter to abound most in those situations which are most excluded from
air; therefore is of less importance than the other species, which eat
and corrode the leaves of tender plants. A washing with strong soap suds
will destroy them, or the above liquid will do it more effectually. Tie
a piece of sponge on the end of a small stick, and scrub every leaf,
stem, and crevice. Fumigating destroys the larvæ of this species.

_Cocus--------_, or small white scaly insect, which generally infests
_Cycas revolùta_ and _circinàlis_, the varieties of _Nèrium oleánder_,
_Oleas_, and several species of _Acacias_, may be destroyed by washing
as above with a sponge, and a strong decoction of tobacco, using the
liquid about the warmth of 100°. Being thus heated, it irritates the
insect, when, by easing itself from its bed, the fluid passes under it,
and causes immediate death. If it is not thus irritated, it adheres so
closely to the foliage, that it will keep you at defiance. The under,
or dark side of the leaves is its residence; and we have observed a
plant in a house where there was only light on one side, with the dark
side literally covered, while the light side was clean. So much for
having houses with plenty of light. The effects of this insect are of a
corroding nature, extracting all the juices from the leaf under it, even
straining to the other side; and where they have got to the extremity,
the foliage is completely yellow, and of a decayed appearance.

_Cocus--------_, or turtle insect. We have never observed this insect
arrive to any extent, but think that the _Datura arborea_ is most
infested with it. It is the largest of any genus known amongst us, and
very like a turtle in miniature. On lifting it from the wood, to which
it generally adheres, there appear to be hundreds of eggs under it, but
fumigating completely destroys the larvæ. In our opinion this turtle
insect is no other than the old female of the brown scaly insect, which
swells to a large size before depositing its eggs. We have frequently
observed the insect dead in this enlarged state, and question if this is
the last stage of its transmigration. The male insect is winged, and
very active in its movements.


At this period of the season very little is required to grow
_Calceolàrias_ to perfection. They require a few months of the
Hot-house, and if the directions given last month were followed up, some
of these will have advanced a little in growth. The herbaceous kinds,
when grown about one inch high, ought to be divided, and put into four
inch pots, sprinkled gently, and kept in the shade until they begin to
grow; after which, keep them near the glass, to prevent them from
becoming spindly and drawn. Their farther treatment will be observed as
they require. This is a beautiful genus of plants, flowering very
profusely all summer, and some of them early in spring.

_Alstr[oe]merias_, about the beginning or middle of the month, will have
made their appearance above ground. When shot about one inch, turn them
out, and carefully shake them clear of earth; and if required, divide
the crowns, and put them in as small pots as possible, taking care not
to break any of the strong fleshy roots. (For Soil, see Table.) To
flower these plants well, they require to be frequently shifted, during
their active stage of growth, which must be duly observed. The most of
the species of this genus will more than repay the attention, by their
abundantly and beautifully spotted flowers. _A. flósmartìna_, _A.
Pelegrìna_, _A. pulchélla_, and _A. atrópurpurea_, are the most
splendid. The former flowers very freely. All natives of South America.

Where bulbous roots, such as _Hyacinths_, _Jonquils_, _Narcissus_,
_Ixias_, _Lachenàllas_, &c. are required to be early in flower, they
may, about the beginning or end of the month, be put in the front of the
Hot-house, giving very little water until they begin to grow; then water
freely, and tie up the flower stems as they advance.


This subject ought to be kept constantly in view. However correct every
thing may be executed, without that adorning beauty, cleanliness, all
will appear only half done. Therefore let all the dead leaves be picked
off every day, and with dust and other litter swept out of the house,
and when necessary, the house washed, which will be at least once a
week. That the foliage of the plants may always appear fresh, syringe
them in the evening, twice or three times per week; (when the weather is
very cold, do it in the morning.) At present this will in a great
measure keep down the insects, and will prove a bane to the red spider.

A hand engine is certainly the best. Milne's patent hand engine
surpasses any that we have used. Nevertheless a hand syringe is very
effectual. Some of these engines are powerful, throwing the water above
forty feet. Read's patent of London is excellent. At the store of D. &
C. Landreth, Phila., there is a very good kind, which answers admirably
in small houses. Tie up neatly with stakes, and threads of Russia mat,
all the straggling growing plants; let the stakes be proportionate to
the plants, and never longer, except they are climbing sorts. Do not tie
the branches in bundles, but singly and neatly, imitating nature as much
as possible. If any of the plants are affected with the _Cocus_ insect,
let them be cleaned according to the plan already mentioned, taking
particular care also in washing the stakes to which they had been
previously tied, and burning all the old tyings, which contain the
larvæ of the insect in many instances, especially of _Cocus hesperidus_.
It is premised, when any of these things are done, that they will be
well done, and not half doing, and always doing. Cleanliness, in every
respect, promotes a pure air, which is congenial to vegetation, and
will, with other attention, always ensure a healthful and vigorous
appearance in the house.



This compartment requires particular attention, in order to preserve the
plants in good health, and carry them through this precarious season of
the year. A little air must be admitted at all convenient times. An hour
or two at mid-day will be of the utmost importance in drying up damp,
and clearing off stagnated air, which is a harbour for every corruption.
The top sashes being let down, or turned a few inches, in mild days
(that is, when it is not high and cutting winds) from ten or eleven
o'clock to two or three, according to the intensity of the frost, will
renovate the interior air of the house, and harden the plants. When the
weather will permit, let the front sashes be opened about one inch or
more. An assiduous, experienced hand will never omit an opportunity.

With regard to fire heat, the temperature must be regulated to suit the
nature of the plants in a general sense; so let the mercury, or spirits
of wine, of Fahrenheit's thermometer, be from 34° to 43°; if it begins
to fall, give a little fire heat. No doubt we have seen the thermometer
much lower in the Green-house, than the above, even as low as 24°,
without any immediate injury; but it was in an extensive collection,
where the most hardy of the plants were selected into one house. Many
boast how little fire they give their Green-house, and how cold it is
kept, not observing the miserable state of their plants,--inexperience
causing them to think, that the least fire heat will make them grow, and
would rather look on naked stems than healthy plants. The above
temperature will not, in exotics, cause premature vegetation, but will
cause the plants to retain the foliage requisite to vegetative nature. A
high temperature is not necessary for the generality of Green-house
plants; on the contrary, it might very much injure them.


In this month very little is requisite, and must be given with great
caution. Few plants will require much, and some hardly any; but all must
be attended to, and have their wants supplied. Some will need it twice,
some once a week, and some in two weeks, according to their shrubby and
woody nature. Herbaceous and deciduous plants will seldom need water.
Perhaps, from the throwing of the foliage, to the commencement of
vegetation, three or four times will be sufficient. Particular attention
should be paid to the state of health and of growth, in which the plants
respectively are, in the application of water; otherwise much mischief
may be done, and many entirely ruined.

Green-house plants, being now in an absolutely inactive state, require
little more water than merely to keep the earth about their roots from
becoming perfectly dry, by occasionally applying a very small quantity
at the root; and, if done with a watering pot, as described under this
head in the Hot-house of this month, very little will be spilt in the
house to increase dampness, which, if it does appear, by any of the
leaves of the plants becoming musty, they must be instantly picked off;
and, if it increases, give a little fire and air. Succulent plants will
not need any water during this month, unless omitted in December.


This magnificent and attractive flower, with all its splendid varieties,
will, about this time, begin to open its beautiful flowers. But for this
admired genus of plants, our Green-houses, at this season, would be void
of allurement. It is, in this country, subject to mildew and red spider,
and more especially in the city, which appears to be from the nature of
the air. The effects of mildew on these plants, if not prevented, would
prove fatal; as, from appearance, many have died by it in our city. If
it has reached a great extent, the leaves are brownish, having the
appearance of being decayed, or scorched with the sun. In taking hold of
the leaf, it feels soft, and altogether seems to have lost its nutritive
substance; and, when the young foliage expands, it becomes covered with
dark brown spots, and finally very much disfigured; and, when in this
state, it is attacked by red spider, and, ultimately, death ensues.

If any of the plants are affected as above described, take a sponge, and
wash every leaf minutely with soft water, and syringe them with water
three or four times a week, which will clean them. All the young foliage
will be healthy, and that which has been affected will fall off.
However, prevention is better than cure; and if the _Camellias_ are
properly syringed every evening during summer, and once or twice a week
during winter, they will never be subject to the ravages of mildew or of
red spider.

Tie up any of the flowers that are expanded to stakes, in case of
accident; and, in syringing, observe not to let any water fall on the
flowers, as it causes premature decay, and change of colour.

The mildew first appears like small particles of very fine flour, around
the under edge of the leaves, and visible to the naked eye; so that,
syringing, sponging, &c. under the leaf is most requisite; but, as the
mildew extends, both sides of the leaves are covered with these white


As there will perhaps be more leisure in the Green-house this month than
in any other during the winter, it is presumed that there will not be a
moment lost. If any of the trees are infested with insects, these, being
now in their inactive state, may be more easily destroyed than at any
other time. It is the brown scaly insect that generally infests them.
For treatment, see _Hothouse, January_. The plant, or tree, after being
washed, before it becomes dry, will require to be syringed with water,
otherwise the dust will adhere to the glutinous particles of the soap.
Set the plant in an airy situation to dry, in case of damp. There are
several others subject to this insect, such as _Myrtles_, _Oleas_,
_Oleanders_, &c. which treat in the same manner. Be careful that these
trees are not over watered; if the soil is moist, it is sufficient.


If there are any out of the ground, it is time that the whole were
potted, such as _Lachenàlia_, _Wachendórfia_, _Eùcomis_, _Ixia_,
_Gladìolus_, with several others. Keep them in the shade until they
begin to grow; then put them on shelves near the light. Those that are
growing must be kept in front of the house, to prevent them being weak.
_Wachendórfia_ has a beautiful large red tuber root; and, as the new
root descends, give it a pot about six or seven inches.


All these roots must be carefully examined. In case slugs or snails are
preying upon the embryo of the flower, some of those that are farthest
advanced, may be put for a few weeks in the Hot-house. It will greatly
accelerate their flowering, but they must be brought out again before
the florets expand, and carefully tied up, leaving room for the increase
and extension of the flower stem. Give them plenty of water, and if
saucers can be placed under them to retain it, it will be of advantage.
Change the water every week on those that are in glasses, and keep all
the growing bulbs near the light. _Narcissus_, _Jonquils_, &c. may be
similarly treated.

Flower Garden.


If the covering of the beds of choice bulbs, herbaceous plants, or
tender shrubs, has been neglected last month, let it be done forthwith.
The season is now precarious, and delays are dangerous. For particular
directions, see _December_. Any bulbous roots that have been kept out of
the ground, should be planted immediately, according to directions in
_October_. Some writers have recommended keeping some of the bulbs until
this month, in order to have a continued succession. Experience will
prove the inefficacy of the plan, and will satisfactorily show that the
difference is almost imperceptible, while the flowers are very inferior
and much degenerated; and in place of having "a long continued
succession of bloom," there appear, along with your finest specimens,
very imperfect flowers, calculated to discourage the admirers of these
"gaudy" decoratives of our flower gardens. Whereas every art employed
should be to the advancement and perfection of nature.


The plants and roots that are in frames, should be protected with straw
mats, and the frame surrounded with litter, or leaves, or what is more
advisable, banked with earth--the former being a harbour for mice and
other vermin. For full directions, see _December_. Under this head the
plants, such as _Auriculas_, _Polyanthus_, _Daisies_, _Carnations_,
_Pinks_, _Gentianellas_, _Campanula pyramidalis_, _Double rocket_,
_Double stock_, _or Stockgillys_, _Double Wall-flower_, _Anemone_,
_Ranunculus_, &c. as previously enumerated as frame plants, will require
very little water, and be sure to give none while they are in a frozen
state. If snow should cover them, the plants will keep in a fine state
under it, so never remove snow from covering cold frames, even suppose
it should lay for months,--nature will operate here herself.

All the above plants except _Anemone_ and _Ranunculus_ are kept in
perfection in the Green-house; but where neither this nor framing can be
obtained, they will, in most winters, keep tolerably, if well covered
with litter--the roughest from the stable, straw or hay, or such like,
using means to secure it from being blown over the whole garden.


It is not advisable to carry on a general pruning in this month, in
whatever state the weather may be. The severest frosts generally are yet
to come, and too frequently in this operation, what is done now has to
be repeated on the opening of spring, causing at that time work to a
disadvantage; because, if pruning, when done just now, is accomplished
judiciously, whatever more on the same bush is requisite to be done in
spring, from the effects of frost, will be injudicious. Hence it is far
preferable to delay it until the frost is over, when all can be done to

There are, undoubtedly, some shrubs that may be pruned any time, from
the end of November to the first of March, such as _Hibíscus syrìacus_
(_Althea_), and all its varieties, except the _Double White_, which is
in some instances entirely killed by our severe winter, and certainly,
for precaution, would be the better of some simple protection.

In many seasons, the beginning of this month is open, and admits of the
operation of digging, which if it is not all done as advised last month,
ought not to be delayed. The fruits of it will appear in the mellowed
state of your soil in spring.

If there is any spare time, straight sticks or stakes may be prepared
for summer. Tie them up in neat bundles, which will be of great service
during the hurried period of the year. An opportunity of this kind
should always be laid hold of; the beneficial results will in season be



Plants that are kept in rooms generally are such as require a medium
temperature, say 40°. Sitting rooms or parlours, about this season, are,
for the most part, heated from 55° to 65°, and very seldom has the air
any admittance into these apartments, thus keeping the temperature from
15° to 25° higher than the nature of the plants requires, and excluding
that fresh air which is requisite to support a forced vegetative
principle. Therefore, as far as practicable, let the plants be kept in a
room adjoining to one where there is fire heat, and the intervening door
can be opened when desirable. They will admit sometimes of being as low
as 33°.

If they be constantly kept where there is fire, let the window be
opened some inches; two or three time a day, for a few minutes, thereby
making the air of the apartment more congenial, both for animal and
vegetable nature.


There are very few plants killed for want of water, during winter. All
that is necessary is merely to keep the soil in a moist state, that is,
do not let it get so dry that you can divide the particles of earth, nor
so wet that they could be beat to clay. The frequency of watering can be
best regulated by the person doing it, as it depends entirely upon the
size of the pot or jar in proportion to the plant, whether it is too
little or too large, and the situation it stands in, whether moist or
arid. Never allow any quantity of water to stand in the flats or
saucers. This is too frequently practised with plants in general. Such
as _Cálla Æthiòpica_, or African Lily, will do well, as water is its
element, (like _Sagittària_ in this country;) and the _Hydrángea
horténsis_, when in a growing state, will do admirably under such
treatment. Many plants may do well for some time, but it being so
contrary to their nature, causes premature decay; a f[oe]tid stagnation
takes place at the root, the foliage becomes yellow, and the plant
stunted; and in the winter season, death will ensue.


In rooms the buds of Camellias will be well swelled, and on the Double
White and Double Variegated sorts, perhaps they will be full blown.
While in that state the temperature should not be below 34°; if lower
they will not expand so well, and the expanded petals will soon become
yellow and decay. If they are where there is fire heat, they must have
plenty of air admitted to them every favourable opportunity, or the
consequence will be, that all the buds will turn dark brown, and fall
off. It is generally the case, in the treatment of these beautiful
plants in rooms, that through too much intended care they are entirely
destroyed. In the city, they do not agree with confined air, and they
cannot get too much of pure air, if they are kept from frost or cutting
winds. To sponge frequently will greatly promote the health of the
plants, and add to the beauty of their foliage, as it prevents the
attacks of mildew. In this season they do not require much water at
root, which may be observed in the slight absorption by the soil. See
this subject under the head of _Watering_.

When the flowers are expanded, and droop, tie them up neatly, so that
the flower may be shown to every advantage.


Insects of various kinds will be appearing on your plants. For method of
destruction see _Hot-house_, _January_. It will not be agreeable to
fumigate the room or rooms, or even to have the smell of tobacco near
the house from this cause.

Many ingredients have been compounded, and prescriptions recommended,
for the destruction of these nefarious pests. Many of them are
altogether ineffectual. Of receipts specified in works of this kind, not
a few of them (though eagerly sought for) by men of extensive practice,
have been rejected. We shall give the most simple, and in part effective
receipt for the destruction of the Green fly.

Take a large tub of soft water, (if the day is frosty, it had better be
done in the house,) invert the plant, holding the hand, or tying a piece
of cloth, or any thing of the kind, over the soil in the pot, put all
the branches in the water, keeping the pot in the hand, drawing it to
and fro a few times; take it out, and shake it. If any insects remain,
take a small fine brush, and brush them off, giving another dip, which
will clean them for the present. As soon as they appear again, repeat
the process--for nothing that we have found out, or heard of, can
totally extirpate them.


If you have retained any of the _Cape bulbs_ from the last planting, let
them be put in, in the early part of the month. For method, see
_September_. Those that are growing must be kept very near the light,
that is, close to the window, or they will not flourish to your
satisfaction. The fall-flowering oxalis may be kept on the stage, or any
other place, to give room to those that are to flower.

_Hyacinths_, _Jonquils_, _Narcissus_, _Tulips_, &c. will keep very well
in a room where fire heat is constantly kept, providing that they are
close to the window. A succession of these, as before observed, may
beautify the drawing room from February to April, by having a reserved
stock, in a cold situation, and taking a few of them every week into the
warmest apartment.

Wherever any of the bulbs are growing, and in the interior of the room,
remove them close to the light, observing to turn the pots or glasses
frequently to prevent them from growing to one side, and giving them
support as soon as the stems droop, or the head becomes pendant. The
saucers under the Hyacinth and Narcissus especially may stand with
water, and observe to change the water in the glasses, as already

Every one that has any taste or refinement in their floral undertakings,
will delight in seeing the plants in perfection; to have them so, they
must be divested of every leaf that has the appearance of decaying--let
this always be attended to.



In the early part of this month the weather generally is very cold and
changeable in the middle states, and strict attention, with the greatest
caution, will require to be paid to the management of the Hot-house.
Most of the tropical plants commence an active state of vegetation; and
if checked by temperature or otherwise, they will not recover until
midsummer. The thermometer may be kept two or three degrees higher with
fire heat than last month; the sun will be more powerful, and this will,
in a great degree, increase the vigour of the plants. Air may be
admitted when the thermometer rises to 75° or 80°, not allowing it to
rise higher than the latter. In giving air, let it be done by the top
sashes. It is improper to give it in any way to cause a current, for the
external air is very cold, although the sun is more powerful. An inch or
two on a few of the sashes, as has been previously observed, will be
effectual in keeping the temperature low enough, except the weather is
very mild.

With regard to firing, what was said last month may suffice for this.
Always recollect that it is preferable to keep out the cold than to put
it out. It will frequently happen in the time of intense frost, that
the weather is dull. In such cases fire in a small degree is requisite
all day.

Heavy snows ought never to be allowed to remain on the shutters while
they are on the house. If the snow lies on the sashes one day, the
internal heat will dissolve some of it; night coming on will freeze it
to the wood work, when it will become a solid mass, and too frequently
cannot be separated without much damage. If allowed to remain on for two
days, the plants are very much weakened, and the foliage discoloured.
Therefore let the snow be cleared off instantly, that no inconvenience
may take place.

It will be observed that plants absorb more water this month than last.
The quantity given will require to be increased, according to the
increase of vegetation and the advancement of the season; but never give
it until the soil begins to get dry, and then in such proportion as will
reach the bottom of the pot. After the sun has got on the house in the
morning is the best time to water, observing all the directions given in


Perhaps sufficient observations were given under this head last month;
but the importance of keeping these disagreeable visitors out of the
house, constrains us to make a few more remarks, and perhaps it may be
necessary every month. Man cannot be too frequently guarded against his
foes, more especially when they are summoning all their forces, and no
profession has more than that of the Horticulturist. Let a strict
examination be made about the end of the month for the Red spider; they
will be in operation some weeks before their depredations are observed
on the foliage. The under side of the leaf is their resort in the first
instance, and on such plants as have been already mentioned.

Observe daily the young shoots, in case the Green fly becomes numerous.
They give the foliage a very disagreeable appearance, and with most
people it is intolerable, before their career is arrested. It also takes
a stronger fumigation, which has frequently to be repeated the following
day to the same degree, much to the injury of many of the plants, and
adding to the disagreeableness of the continued vapour in the house.


The _Calceolàrias_ that were put in small pots about the beginning or
middle of last month, will, if they have done well, require, about the
end of this, to be put in pots a size larger.

If any of _Lilìum longiflòrum_, _Speciòsum_, or _Japónicum_, are wanted
to flower early, and were put in the Hot-house in December, without
dividing, those that are to flower will have pushed their flower stems,
and can be separated from those that will not flower, and put singly
into pots; the two former into five or six inch pots, while the latter
require six or seven inch pots. Of those that do not flower, three or
four can be put into one pot.

About the end of the month, some of the plants of _Eurcúma_, _Amómum_,
_Kæmpféria_, _Glóbba_, _Phrynium_, _Cánna_, _Zíngiber_, _Hedychium_, and
others that are on the dry shelf, will be offering to grow. Let them be
taken out of their pots, some of their weakest shoots or tubers taken
off, and the strong ones repotted: give gentle waterings until they grow
freely, then give an abundance.

_Dionæa mucípula_, or Venus fly trap, grows best in the Hot-house, and
will, about the end of the month, stand in need of being repotted. This
plant is very seldom grown in any degree of perfection, having been
always considered a delicate plant in collections. The operator has
never had courage to treat it according to its nature in a cultivated
state. If it is taken out of the pot, just when beginning to grow
afresh, and divested of all the soil, leaving only a few of the young
roots, (it is a bulb, and will receive no injury by so doing,) put it in
new soil; when potted, place the pot in a saucer with one inch of water
in it, giving always a fresh supply, when necessary. A shady and moist
situation is best adapted to it; this being repeated every year, it will
grow, flower, and seed in perfection.

_Gesnérias_, if in small pots, give larger as they advance in growth.
This genus requires to be well attended to make them flower well. _G.
bulbósa_ ought to have a situation in every Hot-house. It is remarkable
for its many brilliant crimson flowers, and continues in flower for a
length of time. When the bulb begins to push, shake it out of the
earth, putting it into a small pot; and, as soon as the roots reach the
side of the earth, which will be in about one month, put it in a larger
pot, and continue to do so until flowering, which will be about the
first of June, observing always to keep the ball of earth entire.

_Gloriósas_ must be repotted in the beginning of this month.
Etymologists have said that this _genus_ is named from the glorious
appearance of its flowers. _G. supérba_ is the most beautiful and
curious. The roots ought to be planted one and a half inch deep, taking
care not to break them; if there is a bark bed, place the pots in it. Do
not water much until they begin to grow. Where there is no bark bed, put
the pots into others three inches larger, filling all round with sand,
and place them in the warmest part of the house. Keep the sand moist,
which will assist to keep the soil in a moist state. The earth must not
have much water. As the plants grow, they will require a more liberal
supply; yet it is necessary, at all times, to be moderate in giving it.
If well treated, the superb flowers will appear in June or July.


With regard to cleaning the plants. Sprinkling, or syringing, is at all
times, to a greater or less degree, necessary. The plants will, in this
compartment, be in their first stage of growth, and, if dust or foulness
be permitted to lodge on their foliage, the pores will be obstructed,
the plants will become unhealthy, and the growth of insects increased.

Let all moss, litter, decayed leaves, or weeds, be cleared out of the
house, the earth in the pots stirred up with a round pointed stick, and
fresh earth given where required, that the air may operate therein

The house ought always to be sprinkled before being swept, to prevent
the dust rising.

Attend to the bulbous roots as directed last month, such as _Hyacinths_,
_Narcissus_, &c.



The directions given last month respecting the airing and temperature of
the house, may still be followed, differing only in admitting air more
freely as the season advances, and according to the power the sun has on
the glass, which now begins to be considerable.

If the weather is tolerably mild, air may be admitted in time of
sunshine, so as to keep the mercury as low as 45°, but be cautious in
cold, cloudy, frosty weather. It is a practice with many in such weather
to keep the shutters on the house night and day, for the space of a
week, and sometimes more, never entering it; and, when the weather has
induced them to look in, they find that the frost and damp have made
many lifeless subjects; whereas, had the house and plants been attended
to, in taking off the shutters, and giving a little fire when requisite,
all would have been in safety, and many that cannot be replaced still in
the collection.

When watering, strictly adhere to the directions of last month, except
with _Geraniums_, and other soft wooded plants, which require a little
more water toward the end of the month. If the days are mild and sunny
about eight or nine o'clock in the morning, all the plants would be
benefited by a gentle syringing, which retards the progress of insects,
and accelerates vegetation.

Succulents, such as _Cáctus_, _Mesembryánthemum_, _Aloes_, _Furchræas_,
_Crássulas_, _Cotylèdons_, &c. will very seldom need water, at the same
time keep them from getting as dry as powder.


Similar treatment to that recommended last month will do for this. Where
the soil in the tubs or pots requires to be enriched, take of bone dust
or shavings, and fresh sheep dung, equal quantities; put the mixture
into a large tub or barrel, until one third full; and fill it up with
water. Stir it well two or three times every day for a week, then give
each tree one good watering with the compound. Continue to mix up
afresh, and let it stand another week, and so on until all the trees
requiring it are watered. This watering will greatly enrich the soil,
and invigorate the roots.


The bulbs, of _Ferrària undulata_ and _F. antheròsa_, that were taken
out of the pots in October, will now require to be planted. Five inch
pots will be large enough for good roots. The grand criterion for
planting bulbs is when there is a protuberant appearance about the
bottom, or root part of the bulb, showing, by a principle of nature, the
true time for transplanting. When bulbous roots of any description
appear above ground, they ought to be placed in an airy situation. They
are very frequently placed under other plants, by the inexperienced,
until they show their flowers, and then brought to the light, having
weak flowers, and comparatively of momentary existence.

_Hyacinths_, _Narcissus_, _Gladìolus_, _Ixia_, &c. having flower stems,
ought to have support, to prevent accident, especially the two former;
keep them nigh the glass, and water freely. Change the water regularly
in the bulb glasses, observing that their roots are never allowed to
become matted with f[oe]tid water. Any of the above plants that are in
flower, might, if desired, be taken into the drawing room or parlour,
washing the pots clean, and putting saucers under them, keeping therein
a little water. Twice a week the decayed ones can be taken out, and
supplanted with those that are coming into bloom.


Will, in this month, show a profusion of flowers; and, where there is a
variety, they have truly a magnificent appearance. From a good
selection, endless varieties, by seed, of exquisite beauty, might be
obtained by attention to the following rule. The best to select for
bearing seed are _Single white_, _Atoniana_, _Grandiflora_, _Waratah_,
_Carnation Waratah_, _Fulgens_, and, in many instances, the pistil, or
pistillum of _Variegata_, _Pompone_, _Pæoniflora_, and _Intermedia_, are
perfect, with several others. When any of the above are newly expanded,
(_Waratah_ is most perfect about one day before expansion,) take a fine
camel hair pencil, and put it gently on the farina or pollen, which is a
yellow substance on the anthers, and, when ripe, appears in thousands of
small particles. Take the finest double kinds, then, with this on the
pencil, rub lightly the stile of those intended to carry seed. Between
the hours of ten and twelve in the forenoon, is the most proper time for
the operation; the seed will be ripe in September or October, which will
be taken notice of, and directions given. For other particulars on
cleaning and syringing, see _January_ under this head.


The best time to repot _Camellias_, is just when they are done
flowering, which will be before they begin to grow. There are, though
not frequently, some flowers after the young foliage begins to appear,
and probably it would be better to discriminate the time by the buds
offering to push, which will answer to those that have no flowers, as
well as those that have. The most general time in shifting _Camellias_
is in August and September, indiscriminately with other plants; and, if
then not very gently handled, bad roots eventually are produced.
Frequently very fine plants have been killed by probing, and breaking
the young fibrous roots, thus causing mortification.

In the process, do not, by any means, break, or bruise any of the roots:
and do not give large pots, with the idea of making them grow fast: it
acts on most plants diametrically opposite to what is intended. A pot
one or one and a half inches wider and deeper than the one they have
been in previously, is sufficient. Healthy plants under five feet will
not require shifting oftener than once in two years; from five feet
upwards in three or four years, according to the health of the plants.
This treatment, in the opinion of some, will appear not sufficient: it
will be found enough with a top-dressing every year to keep them in a
healthy, flowering condition, the soil being according to our

On turning the plant out of the pot, it may easily be observed if the
soil has, in any degree, been congenial to it; for if so, the roots will
be growing all round the ball; if otherwise, no roots will appear.

Therefore, with a blunt pointed stick, probe away all the bad earth,
until you come to the roots; then put the plant in the pot about one
inch in diameter, larger than the combined roots, previously putting a
few small pieces of broken pots, or clean gravel, to drain off the
superabundant moisture, and give light waterings, as the roots in this
case will grow but slowly.

Top dress all that requires shifting, probe out the soil down to the
roots, and by the side of the pot, taking care not to break the fibres;
then fill up with fresh earth, watering gently with a rose on the
watering pot to settle it.


If any of the plants require cleaning, either by fumigation or
otherwise, let it be done before the young foliage appears, according to
directions heretofore given. Likewise tie neatly all that require it,
clean and top dress those that will not be shifted, having every plant
and all in the Green-house, in perfect order, before the throng of
spring commences. The weather will now admit, in very fine mornings, of
the plants being syringed, which may be done between half past seven and
half past eight: and the path or pavement should be washed out once a
week, which is a great improvement to the appearance of the whole

In winter whenever any glass is broken it should be immediately mended.
Broken glass in cold nights causes a very destructive current of air. It
should always be made water tight, for if the drops fall into the pots
upon the roots, they will frequently prove fatal to the plants;
therefore care ought to be taken during rain to remove those that stand
in any manner exposed.

=Flower Garden.=


Where the borders and beds were dug in the fall, and compost or a thin
coating of well decayed manure given, the advantage will now in part be
experienced. If the weather is open about the end of the month, the
pruning should be done with the utmost despatch; that all may be
prepared for a general dressing next month, and let nothing be delayed
which can now properly be accomplished, under the idea that there is
time enough.


Generally about the end of the month the very severe frosts are over;
and when none need be apprehended that would materially injure hardy
shrubs, they may freely be pruned of all dead branches, and the points
cut off such shoots as have been damaged by the winter. Most of shrubs
require nothing more than to be pruned of straggling, irregular, and
injured branches, or of suckers that rise round the root, observing that
they do not intermingle with each other. Never trim them up in a formal
manner. Regular shearing of shrubs and topiary work have been expelled
as unworthy of a taste the least improved by reflections on the beauty,
simplicity, and grandeur of nature. In fact, the pruning of deciduous
hardy shrubs should be done in such a manner as not to be observable
when the plants are covered with verdure. It may frequently be observed
in Flower-gardens, that roses and shrubs of every description are
indiscriminately cut with the shears, the _Amórphas_ and _Althèas_
sharing the same fate.

_Robínias_, _Colùteas_, _Cyticus_, _Rhús_, _Genístas_, with several of
the _Viburnums_, and many others, bear their flowers on the wood of last
year, and when thus sheared afford no gratification in flowering. And
those shrubs that thus flower on the shoots of last year are perhaps
worse to keep in regular order, than those to which the knife can be
freely applied; but good management while young will ensure handsome
free flowering plants.

Climbing shrubs, and others that are trained against outbuildings,
walls, or such as are sheltered thereby, and not now in danger of
suffering by frost, may be pruned and dressed. These should be neatly
trimmed, and the branches moderately thinned out, tying in all the
shoots straight and regular. Avoid at all times, if possible, the
crossing of any shoots.

There is not a shrub in the garden that agrees so well with close
cutting, as the _Althèa_, and all its varieties. These can be made
either bushes or trees, and kept at any desired height. Where the wood
of last year is cut to about two or three inches from the wood of the
former year, the young shoots of this year will produce the largest and
finest flowers, and likewise more profusely. When they have attained the
desired height, let them be kept in the most natural and handsome shape
that the taste of the operator can suggest. They will bear cutting to
any degree.

Honeysuckles of every description may with all freedom be trimmed,
providing the frost is not very severe. These are very frequently
allowed to become too crowded with wood, and then superficially sheared
or cut. The flowers would be much finer, and the bush handsomer, if they
were regularly thinned out, divesting them of all naked and superfluous
shoots. Of those that remain, shorten the shoots of last year. Where any
of the honeysuckle kind has become naked at the bottom, and flowering
only at the top of the trellis, or extremities of the shoots, one half
of the bush should be cut to within four inches of the ground. It will
throw out plenty of fine young wood, which give room for, and train them
straight, and to the full extent, during summer. These shoots will
flower profusely the following season, and in like manner, when thought
proper, the other half can be cut.

Roses of the hardy kinds (termed garden roses) that were not attended to
in November, should, if the weather permit, be dressed and pruned
forthwith. In small gardens, where these are generally attached to the
walls and fences, neatness should be a very particular object. If any of
such bushes have got strong and irregular, the most proper method to
bring them to order, will be to cut down each alternate shoot of the
bush to within a few inches of the surface, thereby renovating it, and,
in part, preserving the flowers. Those that are cut down will put out
several luxuriant shoots, which must be regularly tacked in, spreading
them in a fan shape. These, in another year, will flower well, when the
others may go through the same operation. Thus, in two or three years,
the bushes will have resumed a different, and more agreeable aspect. By
the above treatment, these ornaments of the garden will always have a
neat and healthful appearance, and the roses will be much finer. Where
they are intended for the borders, they should never be allowed to get
too high. In a border from four to six feet, they ought never to exceed
four feet at the back of the border, and in front, one foot, after being
pruned; they can be kept down by the above method. It is not advisable
to cut down rose bushes all at once, unless no regard is paid to
flowering. The roses that are in grass plats would have a superior
appearance in every respect, if they were kept and trimmed like small
trees. They may be of different sizes and heights, according to the
extent of the grass plat or clump. A single stem may arise from six
inches to six feet, with a head in proportion to the height of the stem.
Where it is necessary to have them above two feet, and likewise to carry
a good head, inoculation must be resorted to, which, in the months of
June and July, will be fully treated of. All under two feet (except the
weak growing kinds) will do on their own stems, taking care not to allow
shoots to arise from the bottom during the summer. For directions for
pruning climbing roses, see March and April.


As soon as the frost is out of the ground, these should be planted if
the soil is not too wet. Where soil is binding, upon no consideration
plant in it while wet, rather defer it until the end of March.

Shrubs, if they are well arranged, are the chief ornament, give the most
pleasure, and afford the greatest delight that we enjoy in our gardens.
Although they give no sort of nourishment, nor produce any edible
fruits, yet they are particularly grateful and conducive to our
enjoyments. Our walks in summer would be oppressive, but for their
agreeable shade; in the fall and winter, we would be left exposed to the
chilling winds, but for the shelter they afford.

Likewise they produce a great variety of flowers; a varied foliage, and
are standing ornaments that give no great trouble. In the character of
screens they are particularly useful, whether to hide disagreeable
objects, or as a guard against the weather; and for either of these
purposes, they can be planted nearer to the house than large trees. Or,
if they are planted in masses at a distance, they soon become agreeable
objects, frequently very much improve the scenery of the place, become
objects of utility as well as ornament, and, in such case, afford the
highest satisfaction. When formed so as to exclude offices from the view
of the house, or for sheltering the latter, or for connecting the house
with the garden, orchard, or any similar purpose, shrubs are both useful
and interesting.

Where many shrubs are to be planted, the disposing of them properly is a
matter of considerable importance to the future welfare of the whole;
and, whether deciduous or evergreens be mixed or grouped, that is,
indiscriminately planted together, or the evergreens planted by
themselves, as is frequently done, a regular and natural arrangement is
indispensable for establishing ornament.

Arranging, no doubt, depends very much on fancy; still, there ought
always to be plenty of evergreens planted, that the whole may be more
cheerful in winter.

If shrubberies were made to a great extent, the scenery would be much
more varied and characteristic by grouping judiciously than by
indiscriminately planting.

However, in small flower gardens and shrubberies, the latter has to be
adopted. In such places, tall growing kinds should never be introduced,
unless merely as a screen from some disagreeable object, for they crowd
and confuse the whole. The dwarf and more bushy sorts should be placed
next to the walks, or edges, in order that they may conceal the naked
stems of the others. Generally when shrubs are planted, they are small;
therefore, to have a good effect from the beginning, they should be
planted much thicker than they are intended to stand. When they have
grown a few years, and interfere with each other, they can be lifted,
and such as have died, or become sickly, replaced, and the remainder can
be planted in some other direction. Keep them always distinct, one from
another, in order that they may be the better shown off. But, if it is
not desired that they should be thicker planted than it is intended to
let them remain, the small growing kinds may be four or five feet apart;
the larger, or taller sorts, six or eight feet, according to the
condition of the soil.

Thick masses of shrubbery, called thickets, are sometimes wanted. In
these there should be plenty of evergreens. A mass of deciduous shrubs
has no imposing effect during winter; and, as this is not the proper
season for planting evergreens, (April and October being best,) small
stakes can be placed in the destined spot. Planting in rows, or in any
plan of a formal character, should at all times be avoided.

In planting at this season, observe that the roots are not much exposed
to the air, especially if the wind be high and sharp; but it is always
better, if possible, to defer the business until good, mild weather.
According to directions in November, the ground will be well prepared,
and only requires a hole dug for the reception of the roots, which must
be considerably larger, that the roots may not be in the least confined.
Break the earth well at bottom, put in as much as will receive the plant
from one to two inches (according to its size) lower than it has
previously been in the Nursery. If any of the roots are bruised or
broken, cut them off; then place the plant in the centre of the hole,
breaking fine all the soil that is put in, at the same time shaking the
stem a little, that the earth may mix with the roots when full up; press
all the soil down with the foot, that it may, in some degree,
consolidate about the roots, and support the plant. If it is tall, or
top heavy, put in a good stake for a support, and place a small, bandage
between the stake and stem of the plant, shrub, or tree, where the tie
is to be made, to prevent the bark from suffering by friction. Observe
always before planting, if the soil is not suitable, to supply that
which is congenial to the nature of the intended plant.

When shrubs or trees are to be carried to any distance, the roots should
be carefully kept from air, by tying damp moss, straw, or Russia mats
about them, as circumstances will admit; their success greatly depends
on due attention being paid to this.


It sometimes occurs that _Hyacinths_ and other bulbous roots that were
planted in the fall, are thrown above ground by the frost. This will
take place if the soil is inclined to moisture, and they not being deep
enough planted. If such is the case, cover them with wood earth, old
decayed tan, or soil, whichever is most convenient; if not done, the sun
and air overpower the bulbs, and, although the fibres have hold of the
ground, the flowers will be miserably weak. _Hyacinth_ bulbs, and many
others of Holland, are very hardy. Even exposure to our severest frosts
would not kill them, but they would be much weakened.


Where a frame or hotbed is wanted to grow some of the finest and more
tender annuals, it is time, about the 20th of the month, to collect and
prepare manure for the desired hotbed. And, as that operation, in many
instances, is very imperfectly performed, a few observations on the
subject may be useful.

Take three parts of fresh hot stable manure, with one part of fresh oak
leaves. Have a sufficient quantity to make the intended bed or beds from
three to four feet high. Shake and mix up both together in a compact
conical heap, in order to encourage fermentation. If the weather is cold
and windy, cover it with straw or leaves and boards, which is necessary
to produce the desired effect. If fermentation soon takes place, it will
need to be thoroughly turned over in eight or ten days. If any of it has
become dry and musty from excessive heat, as you proceed, water the
affected parts, pile all up neatly, and leave it protected in part as
before. In five or six days more, it will have to be turned again,
repeating it until the first extreme heat has been over. In neglect of
this, the heat, after making up the bed, will be vehement for a week or
two, frequently destroying the vegetative purity of the soil, and
proving destructive to the seeds.

Allowing the manure to come to a lively heat, having no unpleasant,
rancid smell, proceed to mark off your intended bed, running it east and
west as nearly as possible, measure your frame, and allow the site of
the bed eight inches each way larger than the frame: at the corners
place a stick or rod perpendicularly. The ground ought to be higher than
that around it, to prevent water from getting into the bed, which, if
low, must be filled up; or, if supposed that water may lodge there, a
little Brushwood might be put under the manure, which would keep it from
being inundated. The manure must be built up square and level, shaking,
mixing, and beating it regularly with the back of the fork. When you
have it to the desired height, (three feet will be sufficient for
annuals,) leave the centre of the bed a little higher than the sides,
thus allowing it more to subside. When finished, put on the frame and
sash or sashes, keep them close until the heat arises, covering them at
night with mats and shutters. As soon as you feel the heat increased,
give air by tilting the sashes a few inches to let off the steam and
stagnated air, observing to close in the afternoon, and cover at night.
If the heat is violent, about an inch of air might be left during the
night. In about three days, if all has been properly attended to, the
bed will be what is termed sweet. Then put in about six inches of fine
garden soil; if heavy, mix a little sand with it. Spread it level, and,
when the soil is heated through, sow in small drills from one eighth to
an inch deep, according to the size of the seeds. Some very small kinds
do best when sown upon the surface. When sown, give gentle sprinklings
of water until they come up, when it will be necessary to give air to
prevent them from being weak, or damping off, which many of them will do
if they have not air regularly admitted. When they begin to crowd, thin
them out, to allow those that remain to grow strong. It is better at all
times to have one strong, healthy plant, than two weak and sickly



At this season, the plants call for the most assiduous attention. If the
stage has been made according to our description, in very cold nights it
should be drawn to the centre of the room, or at least withdrawn from
the window, observing every night to close the window tight by shutters,
or some substitute equally as good. And, if the temperature begins to
fall below 34°, means should be adopted to prevent it, either by putting
a fire in the room, or opening any adjoining apartment where fire is
constantly kept. This latter method is the best where it is practicable,
and ought to be studied to be made so.

Some, very injudiciously, in extreme frosts put into the room, where
there is no chimney, amongst the plants, a furnace of charcoal, in order
to heat the room. The effect is, that the foliage becomes dark brown,
and hardened like, and many of the plants die, the rest not recovering
until summer.

Watering may be attended to according to the directions of January, only
observing that those that begin to grow will absorb a little more than
those that are dormant.

Roses, especially the Daily, if kept in the house, will begin to show
flower buds. Use means to kill the Green-fly that may attack them.

Hyacinths and other bulbs must have regular attendance in tying up, &c.
Take care not to tie them too tight, leaving sufficiency of space for
the stem to expand. Give those in the glasses their necessary supplies,
and keep them all near the light. Never keep bulbous roots while growing
under the shade of any other plant.

_Camellias_, with all their varied beauties, will, in this month, make a
splendid show. Adhere to the directions given in the previous month, and
so that new varieties may be obtained, (see _Green-house_, _February_,
under the head of _Camellia_,) which directions are equally applicable
here. When the flowers are full blown, and kept in a temperature between
34° and 44°, they will be perfect for the space of four, five, and
frequently six weeks, and a good selection of healthy plants will
continue to flower from December to April.

Be sure that there is air admitted at all favourable opportunities. Give
a little every day that there is sunshine, if it is only for a few



If this department has been regularly attended to, the plants will be in
a fresh healthy state. Where there is any sickly appearance, heat has
been deficient, or insects of a destructive character are preying upon
them. Too much water at the root frequently causes the foliage to become
yellow. It will add greatly to their general improvement, to syringe the
whole twice or three times a week, observing to do it in the morning
about sunrise; and it is highly necessary that the water that is used
should be of the same temperature as the house; and at all times,
whatever water is given to the roots, the same must be observed. For
airing, see last month, observing, as the season advances, to increase
the quantity.

Continue to fumigate when any of the Green-fly appears, (see _January_
for directions,) and where there are any of the plants infected with the
white scaly insect, clean them as there directed. If overlooked for a
few months, they will be increased tenfold. Very frequently, where there
are only a few, they are neglected until the plant is overrun with them,
and then it may be said, it is impossible to dislodge them entirely.
Clear off all decayed leaves from the plants. These will have made fresh
shoots, and the decayed leaves very much disfigure the whole collection.
We would not have repeated this observation, if it was not an essential
point, and one which is so frequently neglected.


Those _Alstr[oe]merias_ that are growing freely, and in small pots, should
be put into pots of a larger size. This genus of plants will not flower
except they are encouraged with frequent shifting: they are all



The plants in this compartment will begin to assume a different aspect,
and air must be admitted every day if practicable, giving large portions
in sunshine by the sashes regularly over all the house, opening those of
the front a little, and likewise the doors in fine mild days. To perform
this judiciously, give a little about eight or nine o'clock, more at
ten, and the whole from eleven till twelve o'clock, shutting again by

Fire heat will now be dispensed with, but in frosty nights have the
shutters on about sundown. The sun is now powerful, and the house can be
early shut up in the afternoon, and will gain as much natural heat as
will keep up the required temperature, viz. 36° to 40°. Perhaps there
may be uncommonly cold weather; at such times be attentive to ward off
danger by applying artificial heat.


Look over the pots and tubs at least every alternate day, to see where
water is wanted. In watering, too much caution cannot be used,
especially during winter and the commencement of spring. It was observed
last month what would be the effect of too much water. It may be
remarked, that if the exterior of the pot is very damp, the soil inside
is too wet, and in that state is uncongenial to vegetation, which now
begins to start, and ought by all possible means to be encouraged.
People may be frequently observed watering all plants indiscriminately,
not taking the trouble to look into or feel the state of the soil in the
pots or tubs, and by going over them three or four times in this manner
will be sufficient to put the plants in such a state, that they will not
be recruited for some months. Hence the reason of so many sickly plants.

_Caméllias_, where there are collections, will continue to flower. Treat
them according to the directions given last month.


Be sure they are not too wet, as too much humidity as well as aridity
causes their foliage to have a yellow appearance, with this difference,
that in the former case the foliage is the same to the touch as when
green; but in the latter, it is soft and dry. We have observed trees in
tubs and half barrels, with holes all round their sides. This is a
ludicrous idea, having the appearance of keeping the water from reaching
the bottom of the tub or barrel. For the best kind of tub for large
trees, see _August_ under this head. If any of the trees have stunted,
straggling, or irregular heads, about the end of this month, or
beginning of next, head or cut them down to the shape desired. The old
wood will push fresh shoots. You may cut close, or shorten less or more,
according as you desire young shoots to arise; at the same time observe
that you do not cut below the graft or inoculation. Trees thus headed
down should be kept until May, and then planted in the garden, (see
_May_,) or if that cannot be done, turn it out, and reduce the ball of
earth by probing with a pointed stick all round the sides and bottom of
the ball, cutting off any very matted roots. If any of the roots are
decayed, cut them into the sound wood. By being thus reduced, it will go
into the same pot or tub if not a less one. Having a good supply of
fresh earth ready, put a few inches in the bottom of the pot or tub,
place the tree therein, and fill all round, at the same time pressing it
down with the hand or a stick. Give very little water until there are
signs of vegetation.


These, with similar exotics, may be treated as above. If any of them
have been infected with the scaly insect, after heading down, &c. scrub
the remaining stems with a strong decoction of tobacco, heated to about
100°. Afterwards clean with soap and water.


These will be growing freely. Keep them in airy situations, so that they
may not grow too weak, and flower imperfect. To flower these plants
strong, and of good colour, they must not be too crowded together,
neither far from the light, and have plenty of air admitted to them,
when the weather is favourable. Keep them free from the Green-fly by
fumigating frequently.


Plants of this character will, by the first of the month, begin to grow.
The best time to divide and fresh pot them is when the young shoots are
about one inch above ground. See under the head _Shifting_ in this


_Cape Bulbs_, such as _Lachenàlias_, _Oxalis_, _Ixias_, _Gladìolus_,
_Watsònias_, _Babiànas_, &c. will in many of the species be showing
flower. Keep all of them near the glass, to prevent them from being weak
and unsightly.

_Hyacinths_, _Tulips_, _Narcissus_, &c. Those that have been kept in the
Green-house during winter will be in great perfection. Have all the
flower stems tied up neatly to small stakes, (which, if painted green,
will look much better,) and keep them from the direct rays of the sun.
In the front of the house perhaps will be the best situation. They must
be freely watered while in flower. Where there is convenience, it will
be essential to keep the pots in saucers containing water; it will
strengthen both stems and flowers, and likewise preserve them longer in
perfection. Those that are blooming should be put aside, and watered
sparingly, until the foliage begins to decay, when the pots may be laid
on their side to ripen the bulbs.


If you have any of the following plants that you are desirous of
encouraging, they should be repotted this or next month at the latest.
Large plants will not require it, if they were done in August. Pots one
size larger than those that they are in, are sufficient. _Acacias and
Mimòsas_ being now united into one genus, there are above two hundred
species. About one hundred and thirty belong to the Green-house. Amongst
such a beautiful family, both for elegance of flower and beauty of
foliage, it will be difficult to specify the most handsome and desirable
for this department. _A. móllis_, _A. glaucéscens_, _A. verticilàta_,
_A. florabúnda_, _A. diffùsa_, _A. armàta_, _A. verniciflùa_, _A.
decúrrens_, _A. armàta_--weeping variety, _A. púbescens_, _A.
leucolòbia_, _A. decípiens_, _A. fragràns_, _A. pulchélla_, _A.
lophántha_, _A. myrtifòlia_, &c. These will afford a great variety of
foliage, and are very desirable, flowering principally in winter, or
early in spring. The flowers of those belonging to the Green-house are
of a yellow or straw colour; the most of those that are red or purple,
with the celebrated medicinal species, belong to the Hot-house, for
which see _May_. There are some of the species very subject to the white
scaly insect, which must be attended to, that they may not get to any

_Agapánthus_, three species. They are all blue flowers. _A. umbellàtus_
is very celebrated, and well known in the collections of the country.
There is a variegated variety of it highly desirable, the foliage being
white striped, and frequently the flower stem and the flower are as good
as the species. They have very strong roots, and require plenty of
freedom. Plants are always large before they flower, and when the pots,
by frequent shifting, become inconvenient, the plant should be divested
of all the earth, and, if too large, divide it, cutting off the
strongest of the fibres; then they will admit of being put into smaller
pots. If the above operation is performed in August or September, it
will not retard their flowering, which, when well grown, is very
handsome, the flower stem arising about three feet, and crowned with
twenty or thirty brilliant blue blossoms, continuing to bloom

_Alonsòas_, five species, all soft wooded, small, shrubby plants, with
scarlet flowers. _A. incisifòlia_ is known amongst us under the name of
_Hemímeris urticifólia_, and _A. lineàris_ as _H. lineàris_. If well
treated, they form very handsome plants, and flower freely. They will
not bear strong fumigation; and, when the house is under that
operation, they must be put on the floor of the Green-house, where they
will not be so much affected. They flower from May to August.

_Aùcuba japónica_ is the only species. The flowers are small and almost
insignificant, colour purple; but the foliage is a desirable object,
being yellow spotted, or blotched. It is tolerably hardy, and withstands
our winters. It prefers shade, and, if the situation was such when
planted out, it would grow more freely. The hot rays of the sun are very
prejudicial to its growth. It is an evergreen shrub, and very desirable.

_Anagyris_, three species, evergreen, pea flowered shrubs, flowers
yellow, nothing very attractive in either of the species. A. _f[oe]tida_
is found in many collections, and we have no doubt but it may prove, in
this country, a hardy shrub.

_Azàleas_, seven of the China species, which are those we shall
enumerate here. The one that has been longest known in the collections
of this country is _A. índica_, a most splendid shrub, with scarlet cup
flowers and dark spots. _A. índica àlba_, flowers of the purest white,
and rather larger than the former. _A. índica purpùrea pleno_, double
purple. This variety is not so fine as any of the others. Properly it is
not purple, or, if it may be termed so, the colour is very light; the
flower irregular. _A. índica ph[oe]nícea_ is magnificent. The colour is
darker, and the flower larger than _A. índica_, and a free grower. _A.
sinénse_, flowers large, yellow. The wood is much stronger than any of
those previously mentioned. It bears a very high character in Europe. It
has not yet flowered in our collection, but appears as if it would in
the ensuing season (1832). All the above ought to have a situation in
every Green-house. They flower from March until May. There are two other
varieties which have not come under our observation. Do not shift or
repot them, if they are in flower, until the flowering is over. The pots
must be well drained; and the plants require a shaded situation. If they
are properly treated, they will be completely covered with their showy
flowers every year.

_Aòtus_, two species, both fine leguminose plants. _A. villòsa_, is a
native of Van Dieman's Land; and _A. virgàta_, is from New Holland. The
former is preferable. Both have yellow flowers, and are small evergreen

_Andersónia sprengelioídes_, is the only species, and closely allied to
_Epácris_, flowers small, and of a pale yellow colour. Drain the pots
well; flowers from March to August.

_Arbutus_, eight exotic species, and six varieties. They are generally
hardy in England; but we question if they stand out in the middle
states. _A. unìdo rùbra_ has the finest crimson flowers; _A.
serratifólia_, the largest panicles; and _A. Andráchne_, the finest
foliage. They flower in nodding panicles; the flowers are principally
white, tinged with green, and wax-like. They bear a pretty fruit similar
to a strawberry; hence it is called strawberry tree, and the fruit will
remain on the bush a long time. They are very fine evergreens, and if
any of them become acclimated, they will be a great acquisition to our

_Bánksias_. There are about thirty-two species, all curious in flower,
and handsome and various in foliage; flowers in large heads and
cone-shaped anthers, mostly green, and continue a considerable time in
flower; produces a cone in shape of a pine, but not imbricate. The
substance is as hard as bone, and contains many seeds. A cone of _B.
grándis_ in our possession weighs one pound twelve ounces, and contains
about 107 seeds. Those most admired for the foliage are _B. dentata_,
_B. æmula_, _B. serràta_, _B. latifòlia_, _B. grándis_, which is the
largest. _B. speciòsa_ has the longest foliage. _B. Cunninghámii_, _B.
spinulòsa_, _B. palludòsa_, and _B. rèpens_, these will afford a good
variety. _B. verticillàta_ is entirely different in appearance from the

They should be well drained, and placed in an airy part of the
Green-house. Great care should be taken that they do not get too dry,
for they seldom recover if allowed to flag for want of water. This genus
is named in honour of Sir Joseph Banks, a distinguished promoter of the
study of natural history.

_Bignònias._ Those of this genus belonging to the Green-house have been
divided to _Tecòma_, and there are only three for this department. _T.
austràlis_ known as _B. Pandòræ_; _T. grandiflòra_, known as _B.
grandiflòra_, and has large and magnificent clusters of orange-coloured
flowers, flowering from May to October.

_Tecòma capénsis_ is a very pretty climbing shrub, a free grower, and
flowers abundantly; flowers in dense panicles, colour orange and red,
continues for several weeks in succession from April to August, greatly
esteemed in Europe where it is known; being now in a few of our
collections, will soon be generally admired.

_Blètia hyacinthìna_ is the only species belonging to the Green-house,
once known as _Cymbídium hyacinthìnum_. It is herbaceous, and when it
begins to grow divide the root, putting the best into five inch pots.
The spike of flowers are hyacinth-like, and of a beautiful purple,
flowering from April to July.

_Borònia_ is a beautiful genus of New Holland plants, contains about
nine species; most of them have been universally admired; the flowers
are star-like, and rose-coloured, and some of them sweet-scented. _B.
pinnàta_ grows and flowers freely. _B. serrulàta_, foliage serrated and
very crowded, bearing the flowers on the extremity of the shoot. _B.
alàta_ has a fine appearance, and grows handsomely. The foliage is
winged and pinnate, of a hardy nature, and easy culture, flowers freely.
They are in flower about April and May, and continue a considerable
time; are subject to mildew if not frequently syringed; drain the pots

_Bouvárdias_, two species. _B. triphylla_ is well known amongst us, has
brilliant scarlet flowers, and when well grown, will flower beautifully
from May till September. To keep the plants, they should be frequently
renewed; otherwise they are liable to grow straggling, and become
subject to the small white scaly insect. _B. Jacquìnæ_ we suspect has
got confounded with the former, being very little different, except the
foliage, which is more pointed. They flower from the young wood, and
often throw their foliage in winter.

_Brachysèmas_, two species, both evergreen climbers. _B. latifòlium_ has
the best foliage, and large purple leguminose flowers. _B. undulàtum_,
flowers yellow, and more plentiful than the former, continuing in long
successions. The pots require to be well drained; very few plants of
either in the country.

_Burchéllias_, two species. _B. capénsis_ is a beautiful dwarf evergreen
shrub, with tubular scarlet flowers in large terminate clusters; when
well treated, grows and flowers freely, and highly deserving of
attention. _B. parviflòra_ differs from the above in the flowers being
smaller and paler, and the foliage more pointed.

_Beaufórtias_, only two species. _B. decussàta_ is splendid; the flowers
come out of the wood with stamens in fine parcels, colour bright
scarlet, foliage decussate, oval, and many-nerved, bloom persistent, and
much esteemed. _B. spársa_, in flower similar to the other, colour light
pink, foliage scattered, both easy of culture, and flower abundantly.

_Brùnias_, about ten species, have heath-like foliage, very fine,
generally, on close observation, found to be three cornered. The flowers
are white and globular, the plants when young are very handsome; the
finest are _B. nodiflòra_, _B. lanuginósa_, _B. comòsa_, _B.
abrotanoídes_, and _B. formòsa_. They require an airy situation, and in
summer to be protected from the powerful rays of the sun. Drain the pots

_Bósea yervamóra_, Golden rod tree, leaves large, alternate, ovate,
acute, with purple veins and nerves, flowers brown, in axillary dense
panicles, grows strong and freely.

_Bæckias_, above twelve species, of heath-like appearance, and except
for variety, are not otherwise desirable. _B. camphoràta_ is
camphor-scented; _B. pulchélla_ is very neat; and _B. virgàta_ flowers
freely. Pots should be well drained. The flowers of all the genus are

_Billardiéras_, about five species, are desirable as climbers, being of
rapid growth, and abundant in flower. _B. longiflòra_, fruits freely,
and has fine blue berries which look handsome. _B. mutábilis_ is
changeable from purple to scarlet. The fruit of _B. scàndens_ is covered
with down, flowers straw coloured. _B. fusifórmis_ differs in colour
from the others, the flowers being blue. They require to be well

_Calceolàrias_, about fourteen species, besides many hybrid varieties.
_C. angustifòlia_, and _C. integrifòlia_ are the best of the shrubby
species. _C. plantagínea_, _C. corymbósa_, _C. purpùrea_, and _C.
hopiána_, and of the hybrid varieties, _C. micàns_ and _C. hybrìda_ are
very fine; but we understand they are numerous, and some of them very

To grow any of these properly, they should be divided a few weeks after
they begin to grow; put them in small pots at first, and enlarge them
gradually. Where there is a hot-house, after dividing them, it will
greatly promote their growth to keep them in it a few weeks near the
glass, until the weather gets mild, when they may be removed to the
Green-house. The flowers are principally yellow. _C. Fothergíllii_,
_purpùrea_, and _archnoidea_ are purple; the hybrids are spotted with
red and brown, and some of them streaked many colours. They continue a
long time in flower.

_Calothámnus_, four species. This genus is named in allusion to the
splendid appearance of the branches, covered with scarlet flowers of
curious construction, which come out of the old wood. All the species
are of easy culture, and very like dwarf pines. _C. quadríffida_ has the
largest flowers; _C. claváta_ the most abundant. They are all
evergreens, and flower from April to November.

_Caméllias._ There are about nine species, celebrated over the known
world as furnishing the domestic drug called tea, in universal use,
besides many flowering trees and shrubs as universally admired. Oil may
be expressed from the seeds of all the species, and used as that of hemp
and poppy in cookery. _C. víridis_ and _C. bohèa_ are said to be the
species which supply the tea. Some have asserted that there is only one
shrub used, but by examination it may be easily perceived that there are
leaves of various shape and texture, some of them similar to _C.
sasanqua_. Dr. Abel gives an explicit detail of the growing and
manufacturing process of tea, from which, in compliment to our fair
patrons, we give a few extracts:

"The tea districts of China extend from the twenty-seventh to the
thirty-first degree of north latitude. It seems to succeed best on the
sides of mountains. The soils from which I collected the best specimens
consisted chiefly of sand-stone, schistus, or granite. The plants are
raised from seeds sown where they are to remain. Three or more are
dropped into a hole four or five inches deep; these come up without
further trouble, and require little culture, except that of removing
weeds, till the plants are three years old. The more careful stir the
soil, and some manure it, but the latter practice is seldom adopted. The
third year the leaves are gathered, at three successive gatherings, in
February, April and June, and so on until the bushes become stunted or
slow in their growth, which generally happens in from six to ten years.
They are then cut in to encourage the production of fresh roots.

"The gathering of the leaves is performed with care and selection. The
leaves are plucked off one by one: at the first gathering only the
unexpanded and tender are taken; at the second those that are full
grown; and at the third the coarsest. The first forms what is called in
Europe imperial tea; but as to the other names by which tea is known,
the Chinese know nothing; and the compounds and names are supposed to be
made and given by the merchants at Canton, who, from the great number of
varieties brought to them, have an ample opportunity of doing so.
Formerly it was thought that green tea was gathered exclusively from _C.
víridis_; but that is now doubtful, though it is certain that there is
what is called the green tea district and black tea district; and the
varieties grown in the one district differ from those of the other. I
was told by competent persons that either of the two plants will afford
the black or green tea of the shops, but that the broad thin-leaved
plant (_C. víridis_) is preferred for making the green tea.

"The tea leaves being gathered, are cured in houses which contain from
five to twenty small furnaces, about three feet high each, having at top
a large flat iron pan. There is also a long low table covered with
mats, on which the leaves are laid, and rolled by workmen, who sit round
it: the iron pan being heated to a certain degree by a little fire made
in the furnace underneath, a few pounds of the fresh-gathered leaves are
put upon the pan; the fresh and juicy leaves crack when they touch the
pan, and it is the business of the operator to shift them as quickly as
possible, with his bare hands, till they cannot be easily endured. At
this instant he takes off the leaves with a kind of shovel resembling a
fan, and pours them on the mats before the rollers, who, taking small
quantities at a time, roll them in the palm of their hands in one
direction, while others are fanning them, that they may cool the more
speedily, and retain their curl the longer. This process is repeated two
or three times, or oftener, before the tea is put into the stores, in
order that all the moisture of the leaves may be thoroughly dissipated,
and their curl more completely preserved. On every repetition the pan is
less heated, and the operation performed more closely and cautiously.
The tea is then separated into the different kinds, and deposited in the
store for domestic use or exportation.

"The different sorts of black and green arise, not merely from soil,
situation, or the age of the leaf; but after winnowing the tea, the
leaves are taken up in succession as they fall; those nearest the
machine being the heaviest, are the gunpowder tea; the light dust the
worst, being chiefly used by the lower classes. That which is brought
down to Canton, then undergoes a second roasting, winnowing, packing,
&c. and many hundred women are employed for these purposes." Kæmpfer
asserts that a species of _Caméllia_ as well as _Olea fràgrans_ is used
to give it a high flavour.

_C. oleíferia_ is cultivated principally in China for the oil which is
expressed from its seeds, which is much used in the domestic cookery of
the country; flower single white.

_C. Sesánqua_, Lady Banks's. The foliage of this species is very small,
and paler, and the green not so fine, as any of the others. It seeds
freely, and is often used as the female parent in producing new
varieties; flowers small white and single, with many anthers. There are
a Semi-double, and Double variety of it of the same colour.

_C. maliflòra_ is figured in the Botanical Register, under the name of
_C. Sesánqua rósea_. The foliage is about the same shape as _C.
Sesánqua_, but the appearance and habit of the plant are completely
different, growing very freely and quite erect; flowers very abundant. A
large plant of it will continue in bloom for the space of three months.
The flowers are of about six weeks' duration, colour and shape of _Rose
de meaux_; has been highly esteemed. One plant of it has been sold for
one hundred and eighty dollars.

_C. Kíssii_. We believe it is single white, has not come under our
observation, the only species that is a native of Nepaul.

_C. reticuláta_ was brought from China by Capt. Rawes. The foliage is
very characteristic, being rougher than any of the other flowers, about
five inches in diameter, brilliant scarlet, and semi-double. It was
introduced into Europe in 1822, and is still very scarce. Twenty-five
dollars are paid for a small twig of it. From present appearance, it
will never be so plenty as many of the others, being tardy of
propagation; only a few eyes on the extremity of each shoot make young
wood, and if these are cut off, the plant does not seem to push afresh.

C. _japónica_, the original of many splendid varieties, probably to the
amount of one hundred. The true one is in very few collections; it is
single striped.

C. _japónica rùbra_ is the single red of our collections, and used as
stocks to enarch, graft, or inoculate the other varieties upon, being
easily struck by cuttings. It seeds very freely, when the stile is
impregnated, and the seedlings make the strongest and best stocks.

C. _japónica álba_, single white. It is mentioned in some of our
catalogues, as being very sweet-scented, though not very perceptible to
us. The foliage and wood are very strong, being a free seeding variety,
consequently particularly desirable, as a stock to grow new varieties
from. Its flowers are large and abundant.

C. _semidúplex._ This is a flower with two rows of petals. Some good
varieties might be got from it, if properly impregnated.

C. _rùbro-plèno_ is a strong growing and free-flowering variety. The
flowers are large, double red, petals irregular, with the anthers in
bunches amongst them; flowers are of long duration and showy.

C. _cárnea_, frequently known as Middlemist's blush. Colour pink, one
of the original varieties, and frequently produces seeds; grows freely.

C. _myrtifólia_, known in some collections as _involúta_. There are two
varieties of it, major and minor; the former is certainly the best, and
has a very handsome, large, and regular red flower; the centre
frequently is pink and purple; it is much the shape of _Double white_,
only the petals are more cupped. The flower is of considerable duration.
It is not properly named. The foliage, though the smallest of the
variety, is much larger than that of any of our common myrtles, which
might make many mistake its character; and another prominent feature is,
the leaves are much recurved and shining.

C. _hexanguláris_. The flower is six angled, very compact, and dark red.
It is an esteemed variety, and there has unfortunately been another
inferior, substituted for it, in some of our collections. The foliage is
similar in shape to _anemoniflòra_, with the nerves more sunk; the
flowers are of an ordinary size.

C. _atro-rùbens_, Loddiges' red, is a very fine variety; colour dark red
outside, petals large inside, small and irregular, forming a very
distinct character; foliage stiff; grows freely and flowers well; and of
long duration. We have seen a flower stand fresh on the plant two
months; however, that cannot be a rule, as it depends on the situation.

C. _anemoniflòra_, or _Waratah_ (from the central petals, having the
appearance of the Waratah plant, _Telopìa speciosissima_.) This variety
is very characteristic, both in flower and foliage. The flower is dark
crimson, with five or six regular large outside petals; those of the
centre are very small, and neatly plaited, with the stile (female organ)
prominent; the foliage is large and oblong, nerves very smooth, and the
wood strong, bark light. Had this kind not been found, we would have
been deprived of many most splendid varieties, which have originated
from it, and we have no doubt they may become as diversified as the
roses of the garden. This variety in a collection for that alone is
invaluable. It seeds freely, and the pollen of any of the others applied
to the style of this, will produce a new variety, which seldom fails of
being double, provided the pollen is from a double variety. It must be
applied the first day that the flower is expanded, for the flower is
only of a few days' duration. Those that are not acquainted with the
buds of this _Caméllia_, will take them to be dead, because, before
expansion, they are very dark brown.

_C. dianthiflòra_, or Knight's _carnation Waratah_, is, when well grown,
a very beautiful flower; shape and size same as _anemoniflòra_ (and a
seedling from it by Mr. Knight, King's Road, Chelsea, London,) seemingly
the stamens are crowned with small petals, red and white striped,
appearing like a fine large carnation. The style appears fertile, and
there is no doubt but some splendid varieties may be obtained from it.

_C. blánda_, or blush Waratah, flower in shape similar to
_anemoniflòra_, rather larger, and of considerable duration.

_C. pompónia_, or Kew blush, flowers very large, white, with a tinge of
blush at the bottom of the petals, which has a good effect in setting
off the flower. They frequently bloom all blush, which appears rather
curious on the same plant; shape one or two rows of guard or outside
petals; those of the inside are short, stubby, and generally irregular,
continues long in flower, yellow anthers among the short petals, and
seeds when the female organ is perfect; foliage narrower than any of the
others, a very fast grower, and flowers freely.

_C. pæòniflora_. The foliage, shape, and size of the flower of this, is
similar to the last mentioned, colour a rich pink; we have never seen
any of them vary from this; and have seen it seed very double.

_C. Walbánkii_, has a very large white irregular flower, by some called
poppy-flowered. It is not so pure as the common double white; the
anthers show amongst the petals, and the buds before expansion are very
round, inclining to flatness; the foliage long and shining. The flowers
are of considerable duration. We question with lutea-alba.

_C. alba-plèna_, common double white, is admired by the most casual
observer, and is generally considered a very superior flower, from the
purity of its whiteness, and the abundance of its large flowers, which
are thickly and regularly set with round petals. The foliage is large,
and the plant grows freely; we have seen one shoot grow two feet in one
summer. It was imported into Europe from China, amongst the first of the
varieties, about eighty years ago.

_C. flavéscens_, Lady Hume's blush, and by some called _buff_. It is a
very double flower, and frequently hexangular; the bottom of the petals
are most delicately tinged with blush; on looking into it, it shows
more like a blush vapour than nature, and is a great favourite, and
deservedly so, with the ladies: flowers and grows freely, foliage
rhomboid, elongate, nerves very visible, surface smooth and pale green,
distantly serrate.

_C. fimbriàta._ The size, shape, and set of the flower same as
_alba-plena_, and the white as pure, with the edges of the petals deeply
serrated, or rather fringed; is equally as free in flowering and
growing. It is universally admired, and in great demand. Its character
is unique, foliage very like _alba-plèno_. [See Frontispiece.]

_C. imbricàta_, said to be a very double red, with imbricated petals,
and very handsome. We have not seen it in flower.

_C. variagàta_, is one of the old standard varieties, and very much
esteemed. It is striped with red and white; sometimes the ground is red,
with white streaks or blotches, and _vice versa_. The flower when well
grown is large, and very abundant; foliage very fine dark green, similar
to single white. We have had seed from it. The petals are regular, with
the anthers showing amongst them; the flower double, though not so much
so as many of the others.

_C. crassinérvis._ We have not the smallest doubt but this is the same
as _hexangularis_, and in confirmation of our opinion, we have lately
had the best authority in Europe to that effect.

_C. conchiflòra_, shell flowered, double, a very handsome shape, petals
round, stiff set, and in the centre quite erect, red with occasional
splashes of white.

_C. rubricáulis_, Lady Campbell's, very double, colour very rich dark
red, with stripes of pure white, beautifully contrasted. The richness of
this flower is very striking, and much esteemed; flowers freely.

_C. longifòlia_ is a single red, the foliage is large, and longer than
the generality of them.

_C. chandlrerii_, or versicolor, colour vivid scarlet with occasional
splashes of pure white; the flowers vary, and are of long duration, from
six to eight weeks; foliage large and dark glossy green.

_C. aitònia_. This variety is a beautiful specimen of a single flower
affording a developement of the organ of fructification; the petals are
delicately penciled, and the anthers very bold, colour pink, and the
flower very large; grows freely, and, in our opinion, is surpassed by
none of the single sorts, for raising fine new varieties, if impregnated
with the pollen from double flowers.

_C. althæiflòra_, hollyhock-flowered, is a great beauty, with large
double dark red flowers, the veins are very prominent, petals frequently
irregular; foliage large, and approaches to the foliage of single red;
and is much esteemed.

_C. corallìna_, coral-flowered, a very deep scarlet double flower, and
bears a high character.

_C. insígnis_, a most splendid double flower, large dull red colour; a
very free grower, and highly estimated.

_C. anemoneflòra álba_. Those that have seen the common _anemoneflòra_
will be disappointed in the appearance of this, not being pure white,
neither properly anemone-flowered, though a very good flower, and very
distinct from any other; the petals are irregular, anthers abundant,
shape resembling _pompone_; flower not so large.

_C. heterophylla_. The foliage of this varies very much, a character
that none of the others possess; flower double red; and merits a place
in collections.

_C. Woódsii_, flower fine double, rose colour; and much has been said in
its favour.

_C. bícolor_, a single flower, with a rose ground and white streaks,
very pretty, but not so large as many of the single ones.

_C. speciosa_ is a most splendid variety, has been called _China striped
Waratah_. The guard petals are large, round, and bold; colour red with
stripes of white; the centre is full of small petals, (like
_anemoneflòra_,) and spotted; the foliage large and more heart-shaped
than any of the others; grows freely, flower persistent, highly
esteemed, and considered one of the finest of the coloured _Caméllias_.

_C. fúlgens_, flower large, and very bright double red, approaching to
_C. atro-rubens_, but more brilliant; foliage a lucid green, very
smooth, young wood and wood buds have a red appearance. We have no doubt
but it will seed; if so, it will be a first rate breeder.

_C. grandiflóra_, a very large single rich red flower, foliage very
large; a most splendid single variety, and grows freely. It is
recommended to all who wish to improve their collections by raising new

_C. rósa sinénsis_, a very large double flower, colour bright pink,
petals long and full, a very distinct variety, with a beautiful dark
green shining foliage, grows and flowers freely, and is highly esteemed.

C. _intermédia_, a very large flower, shape of _C. pompònia_, outside
petals streaked to the extremity with a rich blush, ground colour pure
white, and is in high estimation; grows and flowers freely. It is in
very few collections in Europe, and only in three in the United States.

C. _rose Waratáh_. The description of this flower is the same as
_anemoneflòra_, but differs in colour, and being of longer duration, the
foliage is uncommonly large.

C. _Pressíi's invincible_. It has been asserted that it is the same as
that known by _C. punctata_ and _C. Pressíi_. We have not seen it
flower, but have seen a drawing of it, the flower equally as large as
_double white_, and same shape, with the petals as regular; the ground
colour brilliant red, and spotted with pure white. It is one of the
newest varieties, and much valued for its unique beauty; hence called
_Invincible_; foliage large.

C. _Rose Mundií_, is like the garden rose of that name; a large flower,
ground colour pink streaked with white.

C. _compàcta_ is a new double white, petals and flower not so large as
the common, but more compact, and is considered a very fine variety.

C. _gloriòsa_, is said to be a fine dark double red.

C. _Róssii_, is said to be a fine rich double scarlet.

_Callicòma serratifòlia_, the only species and remarkable for tufted
yellow heads of flowers, which come out at the axils, and continue from
May to July. The foliage is ovate lanceolate, deeply serrated, and

_Carmichælia austràlis_, the only species, has very curious foliage,
which the lilac leguminose flowers come out off, and continue from April
to June.

_Cunònia capénsis_, the only species, and a handsome shrub, with large
pinnated shining leaves, beautifully contrasted by numerous dense
elongated branches of small white flowers, and twigs of a red colour,
having the habit of a tropical more than a Cape of Good Hope plant.

_Cléthra arbórea_, and _C. arbórea variagàta_, are both fine shrubs; the
latter is preferable; leaves are oblong, accuminate, and serrated with a
gold edge; flowers white, downy, in large branching racemose spikes, and
sweet-scented; grows freely.

_Cotoneásters_. Two of this genus are deserving a situation in the
Green-house, _C. denticulàta_, and _C. microphylla_; the last is a
native of the mountainous districts of Nepaul, and may prove hardy; the
flowers are white, small, and solitary, but in the fall it is covered
with pretty red berries, and then looks beautiful; culture very easy;
will grow in any situation.

_Cròwea solígna_, is amongst one of the finest and easiest cultivated
plants of New South Wales. It flowers at the axils of the leaves, colour
pink, with five petals, connected by entangled hairs; in flower from
April to December, and frequently through the winter; foliage
lanceolate, and a fine green. The plant grows neat, and requires an airy
situation; drain the pots well.

_Chorizèmas_, about six species, foliage very like some varieties of the
_Holly_; flowers small and papilionaceous; colour red and yellow;
though small, they are very neat. C. _nàna_ and C. _ilicifòlia_ are
amongst the best; if grown from seed, they will flower freely the second
year; drain the pots well.

_Cineràrias_, Cape aster, about twelve belong to the Green-house. They
are herbaceous, or half shrubby, soft wooded plants. C. _speciòsa_, C.
_amelloídes_, (now called _Agathæa cæléstus_,) C. _purpùrea_, and C.
_lanàta_, are among the finest; flowers blue or yellow; the latter is
considered the handsomest of the genus. The exterior petals are bright
purple, and the interior ones white, and with _A. cæléstus_, flowers
most of the year; flowers syngenesious and star-like. The herbaceous
species must be treated as previously mentioned for that kind of plants.

_Cístus_, or Rock rose. There are above thirty species, principally
natives of Europe, consequently hardy there, and form a great ornament
to their gardens, being very abundant and various in flower; but with us
they will not stand the rigour of winter. We have no doubt, however,
but, through time, some kinds may be grown that will withstand the
greatest cold of the middle states; they are low shrubby plants of easy
cultivation. C. _ladaníferus_, C. _monspeliénsis_, C. _sálignus_, C.
_popolifòlius_, and C. _undulàtus_, are perhaps the best; the flowers
are of short duration, frequently only for one day; but the quantity
makes up this deficiency, being constantly in flower in May and June,
and sometimes flower again in autumn. C. _crèticus_ is most productive
of the Gum laudanum, which is secreted about its leaves and branches.
The flowers are generally five-petaled, and some of them large; centre
full of stamens; the foundation of the natural order _Cistinea_.

_Clématis_, Virgin's Bower. There are only six of these belonging to
this, all climbing plants. C. _aristàta_ and C. _brachiàta_ are the
best; flowers in racemose clusters, pure white; foliage small; and
natives of the Cape of Good Hope. The foliage of C. _aristàta_ is
cordate and blotched.

_Cobæa scándens_, the only species. It is a climber of very rapid
growth, has been known to grow above two hundred feet in one summer;
large bell-shaped flowers; when they are newly expanded, they are of a
pale green colour, and change to dark purple; will grow in the garden
during summer, bearing a continual profusion of flowers, but will not
stand frost. When this plant becomes too large in the house, do not cut
it close to the root, except there is a young shoot arising to carry off
the superabundant sap, for the old wood will not push, which will soon
cause a mortification.

The best method to adopt in such case is to turn back a shoot, and lay
it in the ground to root, when it will become a young plant; which
should always be done as soon as it appears unsightly. It does best to
be planted in the ground, but will not give any satisfaction as to
flowering in a pot. It will flower as an annual if sown in pots this
month, and placed in a warm room or hot-bed, and planted into the garden
about the end of May.

_Coroníllas_, a very few are fine species in the Green-house. C.
_glaúca_ is a celebrated plant amongst us, as a free and early
flowering shrub. C. _valentíana_ and C. _viminális_ are equally so,
flower from April to June, colour yellow; papilionaceous flowers in
clusters; agree best with shade. In summer they ought to be kept behind
a fence, or under a tree, as the sun would destroy them in a few weeks.
Drain the pots well.

_Corréas_, five species, all very pretty dwarf shrubs, and flower
profusely; foliage ovate, cordate, and either rusty or downy beneath. C.
_álba_ and C. _rúfa_ have both white flowers a little tubular. C.
_pulchélla_ is a very handsome erect growing plant, flowers large and
tubular, of a deep pink colour, and grows freely: it is thought the
finest of the genus. C. _speciòsa_ has been long admired as a splendid
free flowering plant; flowers same shape as C. _pulchélla_, but not so
large; colour red and yellowish green. C. _virèns_ is a very free
grower, flowers same shape as the two last, colour entirely green. These
three last mentioned are abundant flowerers, having a continued
succession from November to June, possessing the valuable requisite of
flowering through the winter, and ought to be in every collection. They
require an airy situation, and the pots to be well drained. The plants
in summer must not be fully exposed to the sun.

_Cratàgus._ There are none of these belonging to the Green-house; but
there is a plant in the collections, known as C. _glabra_, which is
_Photínia serrulàta_, a native of China, and is a very handsome plant,
has long foliage, deeply serrated, very shining. _P. arbutifòlia_, a
native of California, and is the finest of the genus; flowers in large
dense panicles, foliage larger than the former, and not so deeply
serrated; they are both comparatively hardy, and we soon expect to see
them acclimated.

_Cupréssus_ may be desired in collections, as erect and handsome growing
evergreen shrubs. C. _lusitánica_, the famed cedar of Goa; C. _péndula_
and C. _juniperoídes_ are the most desirable; flowers are insignificant,
and yellowish; we have no doubt they may prove hardy. C. _lusitánica_ is
the handsomest tree of the genus. Its abundant, very long dichotomous
branchlets, distinguish it from all the evergreens of the conoferious

_Calámpelis scábra_, once _Eccremocárpus scáber_, is a very fine
climber, where there is a convenience to plant it in the ground. It will
flower profusely from March to November; foliage pinnate, with tendrils;
flowers from the axils on young shoots in a kind of racemose, and of a
golden colour; grows freely.

_Celástris_, staff-tree, about twenty-five species; of no particular
beauty. Some of them have numerous small white flowers, in cymes and
panicles; foliage generally ovate, acute, and serrated. C. _pyracántha_,
C. _cymósa_, C. _multiflòrus_, and C. _lúcidus_, are the most
conspicuous, and all the genera are of easy culture.

_Coòkia púnctata_, Wampee-tree of China, named in honour of the
celebrated Capt. Cook. The fruit is much esteemed in China, where it
grows to about the size of a walnut, in bunches; leaves pinnate, ovate,
lanceolate, accuminate; when rubbed, have a strong odour; flower small
white in racemose spikes, of slow growth.

C. _allistàchys_. There are two of them very handsome large growing
shrubs. C. _lanceolàta_ and C. _ovàta_, foliage silky-like, and light
coloured; flowers yellow, papilionaceous, and very abundant.

_Davièsias_, above ten species, principally natives of New South Wales,
all yellow papilionaceous flowers. _D. ulicìna_, _D. latifòlia_, _D.
aciculàris_, and _D. inricssàta_, are very fine species, flower and grow
freely, and require to be well drained; bloom from April to August.

_Diósmas_. This genus is now very much divided, and only contains about
thirteen species: the generas that they have been given to, are
_Adenándra_, _Barosma_, _Acmadènia_, and _Agathósma_. We will enumerate
a few of the finest species of each. _D. capitála_, _D. oppositifólia_,
_D. longifòlia_, _D. rùbra_, and _D. teretifòlia_, are the most
conspicuous, all small white flowers except _D. rùbra_; foliage small,
and all handsome growing evergreens.

_Adenándras_, eight species. This genus is the most select of those that
have been subdivided. _A. speciòsa_, _A. umbellàta_, _A. álba_, _A.
fragràns_, and _A. uniflòra_, are all splendid flowers: and all white
except _A. fragràns_, which is red. Pots must be well drained.

_Barósmas_, above ten species. _B. serratifòlia_, _B. pulchèlla_,
purple, _B. f[oe]tidíssima_, blush, _B. odoràta_, white, and _B.
dioíca_, pink, are the finest.

_Acmadènias_, five species. _A. lavigàta_, _A. púngens_, and _A.
tetragònia_, blush, are good species.

_Agathósmas_, above twenty-five species, many of them very celebrated
free flowering shrubby plants. _A. accuminàta_, _A. hybrida_, _A.
Thunbergiàna_, _A. imbricàta_, _A. prolífera_, _A. pátula_, and _A.
pulchélla_, which is the finest of the genus, the dried leaves of which
the Hottentots use as powder to mix with the grease with which they
anoint their bodies. Some travellers assert that it gives them so rank
an odour, that they sometimes could not bear the smell of those who were
their guides. In fact the foliage of all the five last mentioned
generas, if rubbed by the hand while on the plant, has a very strong
smell, some of them very agreeable, others disagreeable. They are all
heath-like and evergreen small neat growing shrubs. They require while
growing luxuriantly to have their young shoots topped to make them
bushy; drain all the pots well, and keep them in airy situations, and
not crowded with other plants, or they will become slender and

_Dryándras._ This genus is closely allied in character and habits to
_Bánksia_, and contains above sixteen species. D. _nívea_, has a most
beautiful foliage, very long and deeply indented. D._formòsa_, has a
scent like the fruit of an Apricot. D. _nervòsa_, D. _floribúnda_, D.
_armàta_, D. _plumòsa_, D. _Baxtèri_, D. _nervòsa_, and D. _falcàta_,
are the most conspicuous, and all highly desirable plants in
collections. They are very delicate of importation; flowers are straw
and orange coloured and thistlelike. Seeds in small cones. Treat them
the same as directed for _Bánksias_.

_Dillwynias_, above twelve species, and plants very little known. D.
_floribúnda_, D. _teretifòlia_, and D. _phylicoides_, are desirable
plants; flowers small, papilionaceous, and colour yellow. They are very
liable to suffer from too much wet; while dormant, therefore, the pots
must be effectually drained.

_Dampièras_, four species. The genus is named in honour of Captain W.
Dampier, a famous voyager, has Lobelia-like flowers, either blue or
purple. C. _purpùrea_, C. _undulàta_, and C. _strícta_, are the finest;
the two former are shrubby; the latter is herbaceous; they all flower

_Edwárdsias_, about four species, very beautiful foliaged plants and
have very curious yellow flowers, but do not flower until the plant
becomes large. _E. grandiflòra_, _E. chrysòphylla_, and _E.
meirophylla_, are the best, and are tolerably hardy, though doubtful of
ever being acclimated. The flowers are leguminose, foliage ovate,
pinnate, from eight to forty on one footstalk, and appears to be covered
with gold dust. The hardier they are grown, the more visible it will

_Elichrysums_. This genus is now extinct, and two splendid species of it
given to others. _E. proliferum_ is now _Phænàcoma prolífera_, and has
beautiful purple everlasting rayed flowers, and highly esteemed: the
foliage round, ovate, smooth, and closely imbricated. _E. spectábile_ is
now _Aphélexis hùmilis_, has pine-like foliage, and large light purple
flowers and everlasting; care must be taken that they are not over
watered; drain the pots well.

_Enkiánthus_, only two species, both very fine. _E. quinqueflòrus_ has
large ovate accuminate foliage, flowers pink, and pendulous; very
handsome. _E. reticulátus_, the foliage is netted, and the flowers
blush; they are liable when dormant to suffer from wet. Be sure to drain
the pots well, and sparing in water while in that state.

_Epácris_, above twelve species, and all very ornamental. _E.
grandiflòra_ has been celebrated ever since it was known; the foliage is
small, flat, and accuminate; flowers tubular and pendulous, bright
crimson, with a tinge of white, and very abundant, in flower from
January to June. _E. pulchélla_ is likewise a most beautiful plant;
foliage very small and closely set, flowers pure white, and in long
spikes, sweet-scented. _E. impréssa_, foliage impressed, and flowers
rose-coloured. _E. paludòsa_, flowers white, and grows very handsomely.
_E. purpuráscens rùbra_ is a good variety, with bright red flowers. They
are mostly erect growing plants; flower from March till June, and a
rough, turfy, sandy soil is found most congenial. They are natives of
the mountainous districts of New South Wales. The pots must be well
drained; the roots will run with avidity amongst the potshreds.

_Erìcas_, heath. There are in cultivation in Europe above five hundred
and fifty species and varieties of this magnificent genus. About sixty,
years ago it consisted only of a few humble British plants, with the
heath of Spain, _E. Mediterrànea_, which is at present most common in
our collections, though in a few years we may expect to see it
supplanted by others more splendid.

In their native countries, they are adapted to a great many useful
purposes. In the north of Britain, the poorer inhabitants cover their
cabins or huts with heath, and build the walls with alternate layers of
it and a kind of cement made with straw and clay. They likewise brew
ale, and distil a hot spirit from the tender shoots; and it has been
known to be used in dyeing, tanning, and many other useful domestic
purposes. Encomium on their beauty is not requisite; they are almost as
diversified in colour as colour itself. Many are graceful, and most
elegant; hundreds are pretty; a few noble and splendid; others
grotesque, curious, and odoriferous. To cultivate and propagate them is
one of the most delicate branches of horticulture. Nevertheless, it has
been said by a scientific writer, that "those who complain of the
difficulty of growing the heath are ignorant people who have never had a
heath to grow." The most splendid collection in Europe is under the care
of Mr. M'Nab, of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, where there are
two large houses devoted to their culture; and through the whole year a
continued profusion of bloom is kept up. Some of the plants are six feet
in diameter, and twelve feet high. The soil used is a coarse sandy peat.
Pots drained with potshreds, and pieces of freestone, are put down the
sides of the large pots and tubs: where these can be had they are
essential to the culture of mountainous plants, preventing them from
being saturated with moisture, or from becoming dry, they being
retentive of moisture, thus keeping the roots in a medium state; for if
once the roots are allowed to get thoroughly dried, no art of the
gardener can recover them. This may be the true reason why they are said
to be difficult of cultivation.

In the summer season the pots must be kept out of the sun, for in a few
hours the pot would become heated, dry the roots, and cause death, or a
brownness of foliage which would never again become natural. Too much
fire heat will hurt them. They only require to be kept free from frost,
need a great deal of air and plenty of light; consequently, should be
placed near the glass, that they may have the benefit of all the air
that is admitted. Their flowers are as varied in shape as variety or
colour, but they all partake of a wax-like nature, and are very
persistent. For the finest and most select varieties, see the catalogue
at the end of this work.

_Eròdiums_, Heron's bill. There are about thirty species, all of a
Geranium character, and there are among them some very pretty flowering,
soft wooded, shrubby, herbaceous, and annual plants. Only a few of them
belong to the Green-house, of which _E. incarnàtum_, _E. crassifòlium_,
and _E. laciniàtum_, are the finest; culture similar to _Gerànium_. The
flowers of these are scarlet, pentapetalous, and veiny.

_Eucalyptus_, above fifty species of them, and the tallest growing trees
of New Holland; foliage very diversified, generally of a hard glaucous
texture. From their rapid growth, they soon grow higher than the
loftiest house. The most conspicuous are _E. cordàta_, _E. rostràta_,
_E. radiàta_, _E. pulvigéra_, _E. glòbifera_, _E. pulverulénta_, and _E.
resínefera_. In Van Dieman's Land, a manufactory has been established,
where a tannin is extracted from many of the species. The last mentioned
produces gum, like that which the druggists call _Kino_. They ought not
to be too much fostered, as it would in some degree retard their growth.
They are of a very hardy nature. When large, the plants will flower
freely, and are similar in flower to _Myrtle_; many stamina proceeding
from a hard nut-like capsule.

_Eupatòrium._ There is only one species deserving of cultivation in the
Green-house; flowers syngenesious, white, and in large flattened
panicles; very sweet-scented. The plant, when growing freely, in the
beginning of summer, should be topped, which would make it more bushy;
if not, it is apt to grow straggling. Known as _E. elegáns_, in our

_Eutáxia's_, two species. _E. myrtifòlia_ is a most beautiful
free-flowering evergreen shrub; foliage small, but very neat; flowers
leguminose, small, and very many; colour yellow and red; grows freely.
The young plants should be frequently topped, or they will grow naked
and unsightly. _E. pùngens_, similar to the other except in foliage.
They flower from March to June, and ought to have a place in every
Green-house. Culture very easy.

_Euchìlus obcordàtus_ is the only species: Flowers similar to _Eutàxia_;
foliage almost unique, being inverse, cordate; time of flowering from
March to June.

_Fúchsias_, Ladies' ear drop. About twelve species. Several of them
elegant and handsome shrubs. _F. virgáta_ and _F. cònica_ are the most
splendid of deciduous Green-house shrubs; the nerves of the leaves and
young wood of the former are tinged with purplish red; the large pendant
flowers which are produced from the axils of the leaves of the young
wood continue during the growing season. _F. cònica_ grows strong,
foliage green, flowers pendant, corolla more spreading than the other,
and when in flower is a complete mass of scarlet blossoms. It flowers
all summer. _F. coccínea_ is a common and celebrated plant, and
deservedly so. _F. microphylla_ is a neat glowing, small flowering
species. _F. arbórea_, has very large foliage, and rose coloured
flowers; a scarce species, but very desirable. _F. gràcilis_ and _F.
thymifòlia_, are both fine; most of the flowers are a bright scarlet,
the stamens are encircled with a petal of bright purple, and are of very
curious construction; they bear a dark purple berry, and are of the
easiest cultivation, but during summer they must be carefully kept in
the shade.

_Gelsèmium nìtidum_, Carolina jessamine, a most beautiful climbing
evergreen, flowering shrub. In the months of April and May, it produces
many large yellow trumpet-like blossoms of delicious fragrance. If much
fostered in growth, it will not flower so freely.

_Gnaphàlium_, everlasting. This genus has got all the beautiful Cape
species taken out of it, and given to _Astélma_ and _Helichrysum_. Of
_Astélma_ there are above ten species, most of them very splendid,
everlasting flowers. _A. exímia_ has brilliant red flowers. _A.
spiràlis_, _A. speciosíssima_, _A. frùticans_, and _A. imbricàtum_, are
all very fine; pots must be well drained.

_Helychrysums_, above forty species, chiefly belonging to the
Green-house, all everlasting flowers. _H. grandiflòrum_, _H. arbòreum_,
_H. orientàle_, _H. fràgrans_, _H. adoratìssimum_, _H. frùticans_, and
_H. fúlgidum_, are all very esteemed species, mostly soft white foliage.
The pots should be well drained, and the plants kept in an airy
situation, as they suffer from the least damp. If the flowers are cut
off before they fade, they will retain for many years all the splendour
of their beauty; but if allowed to decay on the plant, they will soon
become musty, and all their colour fade.

_Gompholòbiums_, a genus of very pretty delicate plants, all
papilionaceous; flowers generally yellow with a little red; foliage very
variable. G. _barbígerum_, G. _polimórfum_, G. _latifòlium_, G.
_grandiflòrum_, and G. _venústum_, are fine, the pots must be well
drained, and care taken that they are not over watered; they grow

_Genístas_: a few of these are very pretty free flowering shrubs. G.
_canariénsis_, G. _tricuspidáta_, G. _cuspidòsa_, and G. _umbellàta_,
are the finest Green-house species. All of them have yellow leguminose
flowers in great abundance; leaves small, lanceolate.

_Gnídias_, about ten species of pretty Green-house shrubs. G. _símplex_,
G. _serícea_, G. _imbérbis_, and G. _pinifòlia_, flower the most freely;
flowers straw colour, tubular, and corymbose. G. _símplex_ is
sweet-scented, leaves small; the pots must be well drained, and care
taken that they do not get either too wet or too dry, for the roots are
very delicate. The plants must be kept near the glass, or they will be
drawn weak.

_Goodènia_, a genus of about twelve species, with cordate, serate,
alternate foliage. G. _stellígera_, and G. _suáveolens_ are
sweet-scented; G. _ovàta_ and G. _grandiflòra_ are the best. They are
principally small shrubs, with terminale or axillary flowers, and flower
during summer.

_Gortèria personàta_ is the only species that belongs to this genus, and
is an annual. There are several plants in our collections known as
_Gortèrias_, but which properly are _Gazània_, of which there are five
species. G. _rìngens_, when the flowers are fully expanded, (which will
only be while exposed to the sun, closing at night, and opening again
with the influence of the sun's rays,) is a great beauty. The rays of
the flowers are bright orange, and the centre dark purple. _G. pavónia_
has handsome foliage; flower similar to _G. rìngens_, except the centre
of the flower being spotted, and is thought to be the finest, but does
not flower so freely. _G. heterophylla_ is of the same character, except
the foliage, which is variable, the colour orange and vermilion. They
are half shrubby dwarf growing plants, and during the months of July,
August, and September, are liable to damp off at the surface of the
earth, from the action of heat, and too much water. Pots must be well
drained, and the plants kept partially in the shade. Their flowers are
syngenesious, and about two inches in diameter.

_Grevílleas_, about thirty species. A few of them very handsome in
flower and foliage, among which are _G. punícea_; _G. acanthifòlia_,
(beautiful foliage); _G. concínna_, very pretty straw and rose-coloured
flowers; _G. juniperìna_, green and straw-coloured; _G. lineàris_, white
flowers. The flowers of the whole are curious, though not very
attractive. Some carry their flowers in racemose spikes, others on
flowering branches, which are recurved; the petals are very small and
rugged; the stile longer than the appendage. They grow freely, flower
and ripen seeds; all evergreen dwarf shrubs.

_Hàkeas_, about forty species, not generally so interesting or
attractive as the last genus; flowers all white; construction similar to
_Grevíllea_, but the foliage more varied. _H. gibbòsa_, _H. nítida_, _H.
salígna_, _H. suavèolens_, sweet-scented, _H. conculàta_, and _H.
lambérti_, are the best, and afford a curious variety of foliage; flower
in June. Drain the pots well.

_Hemerocállis_, Day Lily. Only _H. speciòsa_ of this genus belongs to
the Green-house; the flower is spacious, and of copper colour. A native
of Jamaica. It has not found its way into our collections. It is
herbaceous, and while growing requires much water. The plant known with
us as _H. japónica_ is now _Fúnkia álba_, (and justly, for the most
superficial observer could have distinguished it as not belonging to
_Hemerocállis_.) It requires to be much fostered to flower well, and
plenty of water. If properly treated, it is a magnificent flower, and
continues flowering from July to September. We doubt not it may prove a
hardy herbaceous plant, (the same as _F. cærùlea_,) if protected during
the first winter.

_Hermánnias_, a genus of about forty species, all natives of the Cape of
Good Hope, and not worth cultivating. They have yellow cup-like flowers,
and are of the easiest cultivation. Several species are in our

_Hibbértias_, about ten species. Three of them are very fine climbing
evergreen shrubs, viz. _H. glossulariæfòlia_; _H. dentàta_; _H.
volùbilis_, if closely approached has a disagreeable smell; _H.
fasciculàta_, _H. salígna_, and H. _pedunculàta_, are evergreen shrubs;
they have pure yellow flowers of five petals, blooming from May to

_Habránthus_, about ten species of small South American bulbs, nearly
allied to _Amaryllis_. H. _Andersónii_, H. _versícolor_, and H.
_robústa_ are the finest; they are in colour yellow, blue, and lilac. We
have very little doubt but these bulbs will do to plant out in the
garden in April, and be lifted in October. Keep them from frost. Thus
treated, they are very desirable bulbs.

_Hòveas_, about eight species, pretty plants of New South Wales, blue
pea-flowering evergreen shrubs; the finest are H. _lineàris_, H.
_rosmarinifòlia_, H. _longifòlia_, and H. _Célsii_, which is the most
superb, and flowers in abundance. They grow and flower freely; the pots
should be drained.

_Hydrángea horténsis_ is a well known plant, and much esteemed for its
great profusion of very elegant, though monstrous, flowers. They are
naturally of a rose colour, but under certain circumstances of culture
they become blue. If grown in brown loam with a little sand, they will
preserve their original colour; but if grown in swamp earth with a
little mould of decayed leaves, they will become blue. The swamp earth
and vegetable mould being more combined with aluminous salt than brown
loam, is the cause of the change; and, when first found out, (which was
merely by chance,) was thought a great wonder. It must have a very
plentiful supply of water when in flower, which is produced on the
shoots of the previous year. They will neither grow nor flower well if
they are not kept constantly in the shade. When kept in the sun, the
foliage is very brown; and by being neglected in watering, we have seen
the flowers completely scourged. Being tolerably hardy, when the winters
are mild, by a little protection in the open air, they will flower
profusely; the flowers will be very large, and in bloom from June to
October. They are deciduous, soft wooded shrubs.

_Hypéricums_, St. John's wort, about twenty species. A few of them are
very showy, and with few exceptions have yellow flowers. _H. monógynum_,
H. _balearicum_, H. _floribúndum_, H. _canariénse_, H. _ægyptìacum_, and
H. _cochinchinense_, which has scarlet flowers, are amongst the best,
and all of them flower freely; five petals, filaments many in three or
five parcels. They are all of very easy cultivation, and bloom generally
from April to September.

_Ilex_, Holly, of _I. aquifòlium_. There are above one hundred species
of them in cultivation in Europe, differing in variegation, margin,
shape, and size of the leaves; some are only prickly on the margin of
the foliage, others prickly over all the surface. In Europe they are all
hardy, but with us few or none of the varieties are so. If they become
acclimated, they will be a great ornament to our gardens, being all low
evergreen shrubs. The most common and conspicuous varieties are the
_hedgehog_, _striped hedgehog_, _white edged_, _gold edged_, and
_painted_; the flowers are white and small, berries yellow or red; they
do not agree with exposure to the sun. _J. Cassíne_ and _J. vomitòria_
have very bitter leaves, and, though natives of Carolina, we have to
give them the protection of a Green-house. It is said that at certain
seasons of the year the Indians make a strong decoction of the leaves,
which makes them vomit freely, and after drinking and vomiting for a few
days, they consider themselves sufficiently purified.

_Illíciums_, Aniseed-tree, three species. _I. floridànum_, has very
sweet-scented, double purple flowers, and the plant grows freely and
systematically if properly treated, and deserves the attention of the
admirers of flowers. _I. parviflòrum_ has small yellow flowers; _I.
anisàtum_ is so very like _I. parviflòrum_ in every respect, as to make
us conclude they are the same, were _I. anisátum_ not a native of China,
and the other two natives of Florida. When the leaves and capsules of
either of them are rubbed, they have a very strong smell of anise;--they
grow very freely.

_Indigófera_; Indigo-tree, about twenty species, belong to the
Green-house, and are chiefly pretty free flowering shrubs. _I.
denudàta_, _I. amæna_, _I. austràlis_, _I. angulàta_, _I. càndicans_,
and _I. filifòlia_, are very fine; flowers papilionaceous, in long
panicles; colour various, red, blue, yellow, and pink.

_Isopògons_, about ten species of _Pròtea_-like plants, all natives of
New Holland. They are very stiff shrubs, with leaves very much divided,
and cone-like flowers at the extremity of the shoots. _I. formòsus_, _I.
anemonifòlius_, _I. attenuàtis_, and _I. polycéphalis_, are the finest;
flowers are straw, lilac, white, and yellow coloured; the pots must be
well drained, and the plants not over-crowded.

_Justícias._ Only a few of these belong to the Green-house, and are
very simple looking flowers. The most beautiful of them belong to the
Hot-house. _J. nìgricans_, small striped flower; _J. orchioídes_ and _J.
Adhátoda_, Malanut, are the only ones that are worth observation, and
are very easily cultivated. _J. Adhátoda_ has good looking foliage, but
does not flower until the plant becomes large; colour white and light

_Jacksònias._ A genus consisting of five species. The foliage is varied,
and all natives of New South Wales. _J. scopària_ is similar to a plant
in our collections, called _Vimenària denudata_. _J. hórrida_, and _J.
reticulàta_, are the finest; the small flowers come out of the young
shoots, are yellow and papilionaceous; the pots should be well drained.

_Kennèdias_, about nine species, all evergreen climbers, of the easiest
culture, and flower abundantly. _K. monophylla_, blue flowered, and _K.
rubicúnda_, crimson flowered, are common in our collections. _K.
prostràta_, (once _Glycine coccínea_) one-flowered scarlet, and _K.
coccínea_, many flowered scarlet, are very pretty. _K. Comptoniàna_ has
splendid purple flowers, and _K. inophylla_ is thought the most superb.
It is very rare, and we have not seen it flower. They are large purple.
The pots should be well drained; and if the plants are much fostered,
they will not flower so well; flowers are either in racemose spikes, or
solitary, which is rather too much distinction for the same genus.

_Lambértias_, four species of very fine plants, natives of New Holland.
L. _formòsa_ is the finest of the genus that we have seen; flowers large
and of a splendid rose colour. L. _echinàta_ is said to be finer, but
has not flowered in cultivation. L. _uniflòra_ has single red flowers,
and L. _inérmis_ orange coloured. They are rare plants in the
collections on this side of the Atlantic. Drain the pots well; the
foliage is narrow, and of a hard dry nature.

_Lasiopètalums_, only two species. There were a few more, but they are
now _Thomàsias_, plants of no merit whatever, in regard to flower;
foliage three lobed, small, rough, and rusty-like. _Thomàsia solanàcea_
and _T. quereifòlia_, are the best species; foliage of the former is
large, cordate, and deep indented; they are all of the easiest culture.

_Lavándulas_, Lavender, about seven species belong to the Green-house,
and a few of them very pretty soft-wooded, half shrubby plants, and if
touched, are highly scented. L. _dentàta_ has narrow serrated foliage,
very neat. _L. formòsa_ and _L. pinnàta_ are desirable; blue flowers on
a long spike; should be kept near the glass; they are of the easiest

_Laúrus._ A few species are Green-house plants. This genus has been
divided to _Cinnamòmum_; still there are a few celebrated plants in the
original. L. _nòbilis_, sweet bay, though hardy, is kept under
protection. It will bear the winter with a little straw covering,
notwithstanding there should be a plant kept in the house in case of
accident by frost or otherwise; there is a variegated variety of it. _L.
índica_, royal bay, _L. f[oe]tens_, _L. aggregàta_, and _L. glúaca_, are
favourites. There is a species known in our collections as _L. scábra_.
The Camphire tree, known as _L. camphòra_, is _Cinnamòmum camphòra_; the
wood, leaves, and roots of this tree have a very strong odour of
camphire. It is obtained by distillation from the roots and small
branches, which are cut into chips, and put into a net suspended within
an iron pot, the bottom of which is covered with water, having an
earthen head fitted in it; heat is then applied, and the steam of the
boiling water acting upon the contents of the net, elevates the camphire
into the capital, where it concretes on the straws, with which this part
of the apparatus is lined. They are all fine evergreens, (which the name
denotes,) and easily cultivated,

_Lìnums_, Flax, two or three species are very fine, and flower freely.
_L. trigynum_ has large yellow flowers in clusters, and _L.
ascyrifôlium_, whose flowers are large, blue, and white, and in long
spikes. The shape of them is very like the flower vulgarly called

_Lobèlias._ Several of them when well treated, form most magnificent
flowering plants; they are principally herbaceous. L. _Tùpa_ has the
largest foliage, and fine scarlet flowers. L. _speciôsa_, flowers light
purple; L. _fúlgens_, crimson flowers; L. _spléndens_, scarlet flowers.
The three last are of the same habit; the colours brilliant; and to grow
them well, they should be divided, (if there are several shoots
arising,) when they begin to grow, putting them first into four inch
pots, and shifting them frequently, having them to flower in those of
nine or ten inches, which will be about the end of June, or first of
July, and they will continue until October. The pots must be always kept
in pans or saucers filled with water; likewise give plenty to the
surface of the earth, which is to be done during their time of growth
and flowering. If this is attended to, they will produce flower stalks
from four to six feet in height, and covered with branches and spikes of
flowers from bottom to top. The corolla is pentapetalous, three down
and two up; they require a little shade. The genus consists of about
eighty species; seventy of them are exotics; many of them natives of the
Cape of Good Hope, with little flowers of brilliant colours. L.
_cærùlea_, L. _Thunbérgii_, L. _corymbôsa_, L. _pyramidàlis_, and L.
_ilicifòlia_, are very fine species, of weak growth, but flower freely.

_Lomàtias_, about six species; flowers are white or straw colour, and
similar to _Grevíllea_, but the foliage more handsome.

_Lophospérmum scándens._ This is a magnificent new climbing soft wooded
shrub, with purple, campanulate flowers, which are produced from the
axils on the young wood; they bloom from May to September; leaves large,
cordate, and tomentose; grows rapidly, and flowers abundantly.

_Lachnæas_, about five species, remarkable for their downy heads of
white flowers; leaves small, ovate, lanceolate. L. _glaùca_, L.
_conglomeràta_, and L. _eriocéphala_, are the best species. The pots
must be well drained, and in summer the plants protected from the sun.

_Leonòtis_, Lion's-ear, four species. They have very fine scarlet
tubular flowers, orifice-toothed. They come out in large whorls, and
look elegant; but neither plant nor foliage has an agreeable appearance.
They are of the easiest culture. L. _intermédia_, and L. _Leonùrus_, are
the best flowering species.

_Leucospérmums_, about eighteen species, of Proteacious plants, chiefly
low growing, and are mostly downy or hairy; flowers yellow, in terminale
heads. L. _formósum_, L. _grandiflòrum_, L. _tomentósum_, and L.
_candicans_, rose-scented. These are fine species. For treatment, see

_Lipàrias_, about five species, much esteemed for their beauty of
foliage; leaves ovate, lanceolate, downy or woolly; flowers yellow,
leguminose, and capitate. L. _sphærica_, L. _tomentósa_, L. _villósa_,
and L. _serícea_, are the finest. L. _vistìta_ and L. _villósa_ are the
same, although put in many catalogues as different species. None of them
ought to be much watered over the foliage, as it adheres to the down,
and causes the young shoots to damp off. Drain the pots well, and keep
the plants in an airy situation.

_Lysinèmas_, four species, closely allied to _Epácris_. In every respect
treatment the same. L. _pentapítalum_, L. _conspicum_, and L. _ròseum_,
are the best; the flowers of the two former are white. L. _silaifòlia_
has leaves bipinnatifid and smooth, segments wedge-shaped and cut. L.
_dentàta_ and L. _ilicifòlia_ are the finest; the pots should be

_Lonícera japónica._ There is a plant in our collections known by that
name, which is now _Nintooa longiflàra_; flowers of a straw colour, but
come out white. It has been known to withstand the winter, but does not
flower, and is frequently killed entirely.

_Lychnis coroàta_, is an esteemed Chinese plant; flowers-in abundance,
pentapetalous, large, and a little indented at the edges; colour a
red-like orange; flowers terminale and axillary. The roots must be
divided every spring, or they will dwindle away to nothing. Perhaps a
good method of treatment would be to divide the roots, and plant them in
the garden; they would flower well, and could be lifted in the fall,
and put under protection. We have no doubt that it may become
acclimated. If not done so, plant them in four inch pots, and repot them
into those of six inch in May. Do not expose them while in flower to the
mid-day sun, for it will deteriorate the fine colour.

_Leptospérmums_, about thirty species, all pretty New Holland evergreen
dwarf shrubs, with small white flowers. L. _baccàtum_, L. _péndulum_, L.
_juníperinum_, L. _ovátum_, L. _stellàtum_, L. _grandiflórum_, and L.
_scopàrium_, are the best of the species. The latter was used as tea by
Capt. Cook's ship's crew. It is an agreeable bitter, with a pleasant
flavour, when fresh. When young plants are growing, they ought to be
frequently topped to make them bushy, and kept in an airy situation, or
they will be drawn and unsightly. They are of very easy culture.

_Leucadéndrons_, Silver tree, above forty species, all natives of Cape
of Good Hope. They are evergreens with handsome, silvery-like foliage.
L. _argentéum_ (once _Pròtea argentéa_) is a great beauty; foliage
white, lanceolate, and silky. It is a plant that has been long in
cultivation, greatly admired, and much sought for, and is the finest of
the genus. L. _squarròsum_, L. _stellàtum_, (once _Pròtea stellaris_) L.
_tórtum_, L. _servíceum_, L. _margìnàtum_, and L. _plumôsum_ (once _P.
parviflòra_) are all fine species. The pots must be well drained, and
the plants never over-watered. They are very desirable in collections
for their beauty of foliage; flowers similar to _Pròtea_.

_Magnòlias._ There are four species that require the protection of our
Green-houses; all the others are hardy. M. _fuscàta_, and M.
_annonæfòlia_, are very similar in foliage and flower: the young
branches and leaves of M. _fuscàta_ is covered with a brown, rusty-like
down; the other by some is considered merely a variety; flowers small,
brown, and very sweet-scented. M. _pùmila_ is very dwarf growing; leaves
large and netted; flowers semi-double, white, pendant, and fragrant.
They are natives of China. We have several others from the east, but
being deciduous are perfectly hardy. M. _odoratíssima_, now _Talàuma
Candólii_, a native of the Island of Java, and said to be very
odoriferous, but is very rare even in Europe; said to have a straw
coloured flower. M. _conspícua_ is desirable to have in the Green-house,
if enarched on a stock of M. _purpùrea_, which will always keep it
dwarf, and it will flower magnificently in February and March.

_Melalèucas_, above thirty species, and a beautiful genus of New Holland
plants, of easy culture; flowers come out of the wood like fringes. M.
_elíptica_, M. _fúlgens_, scarlet, M. _decussàta_, M. _hypericifòlia_,
M. _squarròsa_, M. _linarifòlia_, M. _incana_, M. _tetragònia_, M.
_thymifòlia_, are all very fine species, and flower freely if they have
been grown from cuttings; the singularity of flower and diversity of
foliage make them generally thought of.

_Maurándias_, three species, of very pretty climbing Green-house plants,
flowering from March to October. M. _Barclàyana_ has splendid flowers,
large, light blue, campanulate, and very abundant. M. _semperflòrens_
has rose coloured flowers, of the same character. They will flower best
if planted in the ground.

_Myrsínes_, Cape Myrtle, dwarf cape evergreen shrubs covered with small
flowers from March to May. M. _retùsa_ has green and purple flowers; M.
_rotundifòlia_, flowers white and purple. They will grow in any
situation, and are of easy culture.

_Méspilus japónica._ The plant, known under that name, is now
_Eriabòtrya japónica_, Loquat, is a fine plant with large lanceolate,
distantly serrated leaves, white underneath; small white flowers on a
racemose spike, and produces a fruit about the size of a walnut, of a
fine yellow blush colour, and of delicious flavour. If it flowers in the
fall, it will require the heat of a Hot-house to ripen the fruit. It is
of very easy culture, and its noble aspect is never passed unobserved.

_Metrosidèros_, about five species. Many have been added to
_Callistèmon_. M. _flòrida_, M. _umbellata_, and M. _angustifòlia_, are
the best species. C. _salígnum_, C. _lanceolàtum_, variety
_semperiflòrens_, C. _glaùcum_, once M. _speciòsa_, has splendid scarlet
flowers and C. _formòsum_; these are all beautiful plants, with scarlet
flowers. Other two beautiful species with white flowers have been given
to _Angóphora_. A. _cordifòlia_, once M. _híspida_, and A. _lanceolàta_,
once M. _costàta_; these genera are very easily distinguished from any
other Australasian shrubs, by the peculiar character of having both
sides of the leaves alike. The flowers consist of stamens, stiles, and
anthers, coming in hundreds out of the young wood for the length of
three or four inches, forming a dense cone crowned with a small twig;
leaving capsules in the wood, which will keep their seeds perfect for a
great number of years. They grow freely, and the pots should be well

_Myrtus_, Myrtle, is a well known and popular shrub, especially the
common varieties; and was a great favourite, (even to adoration,) among
the ancients. It was the mark of authority for Athenian rulers, and is
amongst the moderns an emblem of pre-eminence. They are elegant
evergreen shrubs, with an agreeable odour. M. _commùnis multipléx_,
double flowering, is a very neat shrub, and flowers abundantly. M.
_commùnis leucocárpa_, White-fruited Myrtle, is quite unique, when the
berries are on it. M. _itálica variagáta_, striped leaved; M. _itálica
maculàta_, blotch leaved, are very fine shrubs; and M. _tomentòsa_,
Chinese Myrtle, is a magnificent erect growing shrub, with a white down
over the foliage; the flowers are the largest of the genus. When they
first expand, they are white, and afterwards change to purple, so that
there are beautiful flowers of several shades of colour on the plant. We
have not the smallest doubt but this species will become in many
instances as plentiful as the common myrtle. It is more easily grown,
but cannot stand much exposure to the sun in summer. M. _tenuifòlia_ is
a very fine plant, and a native of New South Wales. Myrtles in general
should be sprinkled with water in the evenings, to keep off mildew and
red spider.

_Nandìna doméstica_, the only species, and a popular shrub in the
gardens of Japan, where it is called _Nandin_. It has supra-decompound
leaves, with entire lanceolate leaflets, a kind of foliage that is very
rare; the flowers are small, whitish green, in panicles, succeeded by
berries of the size of a pea; drain the pots well.

_Nèrium_, (Oleander,) is a genus of beautiful erect growing evergreen
shrubs, of the easiest culture, and abundant in flower. _N. oleánder_ is
the common rose coloured single flowering species, from which six
varieties have originated. At present the most popular is _N. oleánder
splèndens_, which has a double rose coloured flower. There is one that
has got in our collections as double white which is only semi-double. We
have seen a white, variety as double as _N. o. splèndens_, and have no
doubt but in a few years it will be plentiful. _N. oleánder
elegantìssimum_, a most beautiful plant, with deep silver-edged foliage;
and the young wood is striped white and green. We are not positive in
respect to the beauty of its flowers, but it has a high character. We
have heard of a double-yellow variety, but the reports are not properly
authenticated; and we doubt it very much. There are likewise single
yellow, single white, and single blotched varieties of _N. oleánder_.
They are subject to the small white scaly insect, and should be
frequently washed, as has been directed, to keep it off.

_Oleas_, Olive, about twelve species and varieties. _O. Europæa
longifòlia_, is the species that is cultivated to such an extent in the
south of France, and Italy. _O. Europæa latifòlia_ is chiefly cultivated
in Spain. The fruit is larger than that of Italy, but the oil is not so
pleasant, which is obtained by crushing the fruit to a paste, and
pressing it through a woollen bag, adding hot water as long as any oil
is yielded. The oil is then skimmed off the water, and put into barrels,
bottles, &c. for use. The tree seldom exceeds thirty feet, and is a
branchy glaucous evergreen, and said to be of great longevity. Some
plantations at Turin in Italy are supposed to have existed from the time
of Pliny. It frequently flowers in our collections, but seldom carries
fruit; flowers white, in small racemose axillary spikes. _O. cupénsis_
has a thick large oblong foliage; flowers white, in large terminale
panicles. _O. verrucòsa_, foliage flat, lanceolate, and white beneath,
branches curiously warted. _O. fragráns_, foliage and blossoms are both
highly odoriferous; the plant is much esteemed in China, and is said to
be used to adulterate and flavour teas. Leaves are elliptic, lanceolate,
and a little serrated; flowers white in lateral bunches. It is subject
to the small, white scaly insect, and ought to be carefully kept from
them by washing. _O. paniculata_ is a fine species. They are all very
easily cultivated.

_Oxylòbiums_, seven species, plants very similar to _Callistachys_, with
ovate, cordate, light coloured, pubescent foliage, with papilionaceous
flowers. _O. obtusifòlium_ has scarlet flowers; _O. retùsum_, orange
flowers; and _O. ellípticum_, yellow flowers. They grow freely, and
should be well drained; flower from May to August.

_Pelargòniums_, Stork's Bill. This genus, so universally known amongst
us as _Gerànium_, from which it was separated many years ago, is a
family of great extent and variety, for which we are principally
indebted to the Cape of Good Hope. By cultivation from seed many hundred
beautiful species and well marked varieties have been obtained. There
are about five hundred species, with upwards of two hundred varieties.
They are of every character, colour and shade, of the most vivid
description. The easy cultivation of the _Pelargònium_ tribe, or
_Geràniums_, as they are commonly called, has rendered them very
popular; also the agreeableness of scent and fragrance of which many of
them are possessed, makes them favourites. If their flowering season was
of longer duration, the varieties and species would be quite
indispensable in collections; but there is every appearance that in a
few years the aspect of them will be changed. The present prevailing
colour of the flower, (which has five petals, three hanging and two
erect, the erect petals being always of the darkest shade,) is a white
or pink ground, with lilac, purple, or pink stripes, flakes, or spots,
and blooms from April to June; though they bloom profusely in large
bunches, the time is limited. The species and varieties that have a red
ground, with black or dark crimson stripes or spots, generally bloom
during the whole summer. These, though scarce in the collections of the
country, will in a few years root out those whose flowers are of such
short duration, and by their blooms charm us half of the year.

The tuberous and fleshy stemmed species are far more interesting to the
discriminating inquirer than the common kinds. Their habit and
constitution are so peculiar, that we have frequently wondered that they
have not been separated into distinct genera. The cultivation of them is
more difficult, water being very prejudicial to them when they are
inactive. When they are well managed, they flower beautifully, and the
colours are very superior and peculiar, having frequently bright green
and purple in the same flower. If some of the colours of these could be
compounded with the large flowering kinds, those hybridised would be

The best method to adopt in impregnating these, is to choose the female,
one that has large flowers, of easy cultivation, and as nearly allied in
character and other habits as possible. When a flower of the intended
female is newly expanded, take a pair of very fine pointed scissors, and
cut off the anthers before the pollen expands; then as soon as the
summit of the stile divides, apply the pollen taken from the anthers of
the intended male plant on a very fine camel hair pencil, or cut out the
stigma entirely, and place the anther on the summit of the stile, which,
if correctly done, will have the desired effect. As soon as the seed is
ripe, sow it in light sandy soil; and when it has come up, take care not
to over-water the soil, which would cause them to damp off. When they
are about one inch high, put them into small pots, and treat as the
other varieties. Have them all distinctly marked until they flower,
which will be in the second year from the time of sowing.

_Phórmium tènax_, New Zealand flax lily, the only species; foliage
resembling an _Iris_, and very thready. In New Zealand and Norfolk
Island, the natives manufacture from this plant a kind of stuff like
coarse linen, cordage, &c.; the plant is very hardy, and we would be no
way surprised to see it stand the severity of our winters. It bears
exposure to the open air in Europe in the 56th degree of north latitude.
The flowers are said to be yellow and lily-like; of the easiest

_Phylicas_, above twenty-five species. Several of them are very pretty
growing evergreen shrubs, and of easy culture. P. _horizontàlis_, P.
_squarròsa_, P. _imbricàta_, P. _myrtifòlia_, P. _callòsa_, P.
_bícolor_, and P. _ericoídes_, are all neat growing; flowers small,
white, in heads; drain the pots well, and keep them in an airy
situation. The foliage of several of the species is downy.

_Pimèleas_, about fourteen species. Most of them are highly esteemed,
and are not often seen in our collections. P. _decussàta_ is the finest
of the genus, both in foliage and flowers, which are red, and in large
terminale clusters; P. _rôsea_, P. _linifòlia_, white, P. _spicàta_, and
P. _drupàcea_, are all fine species. The latter has the largest foliage,
which is ovate and accuminate; berry-bearing. They should be well
drained. They are very small evergreen shrubs, with white or red

_Pittósporums_, about nine species, with handsome foliage, and small
white flowers in clusters, which are fragrant. P. _Tobìra_ is a native
of China, and nearly hardy; leaves lucid, obovate, obtuse, and smooth.
P. _undulàtum_, P. _coriàceum_, P. _revolùtum_, P. _fúlvum_, and P.
_ferrugíneum_, are very ornamental evergreens, and will grow with the
most simple treatment.

_Platylòbiums_, Flat Pea, four species of fine free flowering plants;
flowers leguminose; colour yellow. P. _formòsum_, P. _oràtum_, and P.
_triangulàre_, are the best; the foliage of the two former is cordate,
ovate; the latter hastate, with spiny angles.

_Pistàcias_, seven species of trees, principally of the south of Europe.
There is nothing particular in their appearance, except their
productions in their native country. P. _terebínthus_ is deciduous, and
produces the Cyprus turpentine. P. _lentíscus_ is the true mastich tree,
which is obtained by cutting transverse incisions in the bark. P. _vèra_
and P. _reticulàta_ are good species; leaves pinnated; leaflets ovate,
lanceolate; easily cultivated.

_Plumbàgos_, Lead-wort. There are only two species of any consequence
belonging to the Green-house, P. _trístis_ and P. _capénsis_. The former
is a shy flowerer, but the latter flowers freely; colour beautiful light
blue, and flowers in spikes; foliage oblong, entire, and a little
glaucous; of very easy culture, and continues in bloom a considerable

_Psoràleas_, above forty species. A few of them are worthy of
cultivation, P. _odoratíssima_, P. _spicàta_, P. _aculeàta_, P.
_argéntea_, and P. _tomentòsa_. They have all blue flowers, and
leguminose. They are chiefly low shrubs; and will flower and grow
freely; the pots require draining.

_Podalyrias_, about fourteen species of pretty Cape shrubs; foliage
oblong, obovate, and silky-like; the flowers leguminose; colour blue or
pink. P. _serícea_, P. _styracifòlia_, P. _corúscans_, P. _argéntea_, P.
_liparioídes_, and P. _subbiflòra_, are the finest and most distinct
species, and flower abundantly.

_Petsoónias_, about sixteen species of dwarf evergreen shrubs; leaves
oblong, or lanceolate, hairy, or downy; flowers axillary and solitary;
the pots should be well drained, and the plants in summer protected from
the sun. P. _hirsùta_, P. _móllis_, P. _teretifòlia_, and P. _lùcida_,
are the most distinct, and grow freely.

_Pròteas_, about forty-four species. The foliage of this genus is very
diversified; flowers very large, terminale; stamens protected by an
involucrum; many-leaved and imbricated; which is very persistent. P.
_cynaroídes_ has the largest flower, which is purple, green, and red. P.
_speciòsa_, P. _umbonàlis_, once P. _longifòlia_, P. _melaleùca_, P.
_grandiflòra_, P. _coccínea_, P. _cenocárpa_, P. _pállens_, P.
_formòsa_, P. _magnífica_, P. _speciòsa rúbra_, and P. _mellífera_, will
afford a very good variety. It is almost impossible to describe their
true colour, it being so various; red, white, straw, brown, green, and
purple, are most predominant, and frequently to be seen in the same
flower; the plants must be well drained; and during warm weather be
careful that they are not neglected in water, for if they are suffered
to droop, they seldom recover. For this reason the pots ought not to
stand in the strong sun; the plants can bear it, but to the roots it is

_Pultenæas_, about forty species, pretty little dwarf growing shrubs of
New South Wales; flowers small, leguminose, all yellow, with a little
red outside of the petals. P. _villòsa_, P. _obcordàta_, P. _argéntea_,
P. _plumòsa_, P. _fléxilis_, shining leaved, fragrant; P. _cándida_, and
P. _strìcta_, are all fine species, and esteemed in collections. The
leaves are all small; they require an airy exposure, and the pots

_Rhododéndrons_ (Rose tree), a magnificent genus, and contains some of
the most superb and gigantic plants that adorn the Green-house. All the
_Azàleas_ (except A. _procúmbens_) both Chinese and American, have been
arranged under this genus. At present the most admired is _R. arbòreum_,
with varieties. _R. arbòreum_ has deep scarlet flowers, with dark spots
and flakes campanulated, and in large clusters; leaves lanceolate,
acute, rough, and silvery beneath. _R. arbòreum albúm_ is very rare. _R.
arbòreum supérbum_, flowers same shape as _arbòreum_, colour bright
scarlet; foliage one third larger, but not silvery beneath; grows
freely, and generally thought the finest variety. _R. arbòrea
álte-Clàrance_ is also very superb. There are several other varieties of
minor note. A Green-house without some of the scarlet varieties of that
plant, is deficient of a flower whose beauty and grandeur are beyond the
highest imagination. It is a native of Nepaul in India, and when found
by Dr. Wallach awakened the ambition of every cultivator and connoisseur
in Europe. There are several other species brought from that country
lately, but none of them has yet flowered. They are highly valued from
the productions of the above; the species are _R. campanulàtum_, _R.
anthopògon_, and _R. cinnamòmeum_. This is named from the colour of the
leaves, which are very peculiar and very handsome; the flowers are said
to be rose-coloured. These three last cannot be purchased under an
immense price; the others have been rarely seen in our collections, but
another year or two will make them more plentiful. Their beauty of
flower is beyond description. The pots should be well drained, and if
they are large, put several pieces of sandy stones or potshreds around
the side, for the fine fibres delight to twine about such, being
mountainous plants.

_Roéllas_, pretty leafy shrubs, with blue terminale funnel-shaped
flowers, lip-spreading; _R. cilliàta_, _R. spicàta_, and _R.
pedunculàta_, are the finest of the genus. The pots must be well
drained, and care taken that they are not over-watered.

_Sálvia_ (Sage), is an extensive genus of soft-wooded, shrubby, or
herbaceous plants; very few of them do well in the Green-house, and many
of them are very trifling, having no other attraction than the flower,
and those of the tender species, when compared with _S. élegans_, _S.
spléndens_, _S. cærúlea_, and _S. coccìnea_, (which in artificial
climates constitute the standard of the genus,) are not worth
cultivation. These last mentioned, if kept in the Green-house, will
merely keep in life, but a situation in the Hot-house would cause them
to flower frequently. The best method to adopt with the summer flowering
kinds, is to plant them in the garden in May; they will grow strong and
flower abundantly, and in the fall they can be lifted, and preserved
during winter in pots. They neither grow nor flower so well as when
planted out, and even a slip planted in the ground in moist weather will
root in a few days, grow, and flower in a few weeks. _S. spléndens_ is
the best to select for the purpose. _S. aùrea_, _S. paniculàta_, and _S.
índica_, are fine species. The latter is white and blue, with large
leaves; flowers monopetalous, and irregular; colour generally red or
blue in spiked whorls. All will grow easily with encouragement.

_Senècios._ Some species of this genus are pestiferous weeds all over
the world. They are found near the limits of perpetual snow, where
neither tree nor shrub is able to rear its head. Yet there are three
species that are neat little plants, and are worthy of a situation, viz.
_S. grandiflòrus_, _S. venústus_, and _S. cineráscens_, with the double
white and red variety of _S. élegans_. The two last varieties are free
flowering, but if allowed to grow several years, they become unsightly.
Being very easily propagated, a few cuttings of them should be put in,
in September, and in two weeks they will strike root, when they may be
put in pots to keep through the winter, and then planted in the garden,
continuing to renew them. The other mentioned species should be
frequently done the same way. Do not keep them damp during winter, or
they will rot off. Keep them in an airy exposure.

_Schótias_, a beautiful genus of six species, which will require the
warmest part of the Green-house to keep them. The foliage is handsome;
leaves compound: leaflets oval-lanceolate, and in pairs from six to ten;
_S. speciòsa_, crimson, flowers nearly papilionaceous, and in bunches,
the most superb of the genus. _S. alàta_, _S. latifòlia_, once
_Omphalòbium Schótia_, and _S. tamarindifólia_, are the finest; the
flowers of the others are red. The pots require to be drained, and the
plants protected from the hot sun.

_Swainsònas_, four species of free flowering, soft wooded shrubs,
natives of New South Wales. _S. galigifòlia_, _S. coronillæfòlia_, and
_S. astragalifòlia_, are red, purple, and white; leguminose flowers in
spikes from the axils, are of easy culture, and deserving of a
situation; the foliage is pinnate; leaflets ovate, acute.

_Scòttias_, three species of valuable plants; _S. dentàta_, with
scarlet leguminose blossoms; leaves opposite, ovate, accuminate,
serrate; _S. angustifòlia_ has brown flowers; _S. trapezifòrmus_, leaves
ovate, acute, serrulate. We do not know the colour of its flowers; the
pots must be well drained, and the plants kept in the warmest part of
the Green-house, and near the light.

_Sparrmánnias_, are strong growing Green-house shrubs. _S. africàna_, is
a plant very common in our collections, with large three lobed cordate
leaves, hairs on both sides; flowers from March to July. _S. rugósa._
The leaves are rugged; flowers of both are white, in a kind of corymb,
supported by a long footstalk; buds drooping, flowers erect. There is a
plant known in our collections, as the free-flowering _Sparrmánnia_,
(which is _Entèlia arboréscens_,) and is easily distinguished from
_Sparrmánnia_ by the leaves being cordate, accuminate, and otherwise, by
all its filaments being fertile, and the flowers more branching, and
blooming from November to June, profusely; very easily cultivated, and

_Sphærolòbiums_, only two species of leafless plants, with yellow and
red leguminose flowers, which proceed from the young shoots. _S.
vimíneum_ and _S. médium_. They flower freely, and are easily
cultivated. The old wood should be frequently cut out where it is
practicable. Drain the pots.

_Sprengélia incarnàta_,, the only species, a very pretty plant, allied
to _Epàcris_; small foliage, long, accuminate; flowers small, pink,
bearded, and in close spikes; grows freely, delighting in shade. The
pots must be well drained, and the plants, when dormant, watered
sparingly, for if they get sodden about the roots, they very seldom

_Stylidíums_, six species of pretty litte plants, with small linear
leaves, and remarkable for the singular elasticity of the style or
column, which, when the flower is newly expanded, lays to one side, and
on being touched with a pin starts with violence to the opposite side.
S. _graminifòlium_, S. _fruticòsum_, S. _laricifòlium_, and S.
_adnàtum_, are all free flowering; flowers in spikes, very small; colour
light and dark pink; blooms from April to July. S. _adnàtum_ is half
herbaceous, and should, when growing, be kept nigh the glass, or it will
be drawn, and the flowers become of a pale colour. They are all of easy

_Styphèlias_, seven species of very showy flowers, with mucronate
leaves; corolla in a long tubular form, having several bundles of hairs
in it; segments reflex and bearded. _S. tubiflòra_, crimson, _S.
triflòra_, crimson and green; _S. adscéndens_, and _S. longifòlia_, are
beautiful species. They grow freely, and should be well drained, as too
much water is very hurtful to them. In summer they ought not to be much
exposed to the hot sun, or the foliage will become brown.

_Salpiglóssis_, four species of fine herbaceous Green-house plants,
natives of Chili. The flowers are tubular and campanulate. _S. pícta_,
flowers white and blue painted; _S. atropurpùrea_, flowers dark purple,
and _S. isnuàta_, flowers crimson, are superb, and if planted in the
garden during summer will flower profusely. They must be lifted in
October, and taken under protection.

_Tagètes lùcida_ is found in many of our collections. The leaves are
simple, oblong, and finely serrated. When rubbed by the hand, they have
an agreeable fragrance; the flowers are syngenesious, small, and in
terminale bunches. It is herbaceous; and when about an inch grown should
be divided and potted into five inch pots. Repot it again about the
first of June. It keeps in flower from July to November.

_Testudinària_, Elephant's foot, or Hottentot's bread, two species
remarkable for their appearance. The root or bulb, if it may be so
called, is of a conical shape, and divided into transverse sections.
Those of one foot diameter are computed to be 150 years of age. It is a
climbing herbaceous plant, with entire reniforme leaves of no beauty;
flowers small; colour green. The pots must be well drained, for when the
plant is inactive it is in danger of suffering from moisture, and ought
not to get any water. _T. Elephántiphes_ and _T. montàna_ are the
species, natives of the Cape of Good Hope, and require the warmest part
of the house.

_Táxus nucífera_, is the only species that requires protection, and
bears a small acorn; flowers are trifling; an evergreen, with ovate,
lanceolate foliage, thickly set on the wood; will grow in any situation.
There is a plant in our collections known as _T. chinénsis_ or _T.
elongáta_, which is _Podocárpus elongàtus_. It has lanceolate leaves,
erect growing, and very hardy; flowers m[oe]onacious, and of no
estimation except to the curious.

_Telopèa speciosíssimus_, is the only species, and was once called
_Embóthrium speciosíssimus_. It is now called _Telopèa_ in allusion to
the brilliant crimson flowers, which from their great size are seen at a
large distance, and which render it one of the most conspicuous
productions of New South Wales. The leaves are oblong, deeply toothed,
veiny, and smooth; wood strong; flower ovate, connate, and terminale,
and of considerable duration. There ought to be a specimen of it in
every collection. The pots must be well drained, and the plant in the
extreme heat of summer not too much exposed to the sun.

_Templetònia_, a very pretty genus, containing only two species. _T.
retùsa_ is an erect growing shrub, with wedge-shaped green leaves. _T.
gláuca_, leaves glacuous, blunt, and a little apiculate; flowers of both
scarlet. They are leguminose plants of free growth, and should be well
drained; blooming from April to June.

_Tristànias_, seven species of evergreen shrubs. Several of them require
to be very large before they flower. _T. neriifòlia_ is a very neat
little plant, and flowers abundantly; colour yellow; shape star-like,
and in clusters; leaves lanceolate and opposite. _T. conférta_, white
flowers in spikes, leaves alternate. _T. suavèolens_, sweet-scented;
flowers yellow. They are all of very easy culture.

_Verbénas._ A few of these are showy, herbaceous, Green-house plants.
_V. chamædryfòlia_, lately known as _V. Melíndres_, is a beautiful plant
of a procumbent habit; flowers brilliant scarlet, in glomerated heads
from the axils of the young shoots; blooming from April to October. A
large plant will appear as a solid mass of scarlet. _V. lambértii_ and
_V. pulchélla_ are also very pretty; colour, rose and lilac. A very good
method of treating these plants, is, to plant them in the garden in
April; and give them copious waterings in dry weather, and they will
flower profusely, lifting some of the plants before frost, to preserve
them during winter. They ought to be allowed to run according to their
nature; for if tied up, they will not do so well, being in that way too
much exposed. There is a plant known in our collections as _Verbéna
triphylla_, which is _Aloysia citriodòra_. The flowers are in long
spikes, very small, and pale purple. The celebrity of the plant is in
the foliage, which is linear, lanceolate, ternate, and it has the most
agreeable fragrance in the vegetable world. It is of very easy culture,
and has been known to survive the winter, in open air, in Philadelphia.
It is deciduous, and would do to plant in the garden during summer,
lifting it again before frost, and putting it under protection through
winter. When large before it begins to grow, in spring cut it into a
neat shape or form.

_Vibúrnums._ A few of these are very ornamental evergreen shrubs, and
almost hardy. _V. tìnus_ is the well known Laurestine, (or what is
commonly called Laurestinus,) is of the easiest culture; flowers small
white, and in large flattened panicles; blooming from February to May,
and universally esteemed. It will stand the winter by a little
protection, but the flower buds being formed in the fall, the intense
frost destroys them; consequently, it will not flower except by the
buds, which sometimes form early in summer. _V. lùcidum_ is a good
species, and superior in flower and foliage to the former, but does not
flower so freely, when the plants are small. When they grow large, they
flower profusely. There is a desirable variegated variety. _V.
odoratíssimum_ has smooth evergreen, oblong, elliptic, distantly
toothed, leaves, and frequently a stripe in them, is sweet-scented, and
a free flowerer. _V. hirsútum_ has flowers similar to the above; foliage
ovate, with rough brown hairs on both sides, and very characteristic.
_V. stríctum variagàtum_ is a very fine variety, and upright growing.
These plants are all very desirable, blooming early in spring, and
continuing for several months; all easily cultivated.

_Viminària denudàta_, the only species. This plant is remarkable for its
twiggy appearance, but it has no foliage, except when growing from seed.
It has at the extremity of the twigs or shoots, an ovate, lanceolate,
leaf, disappearing when the plant grows old; the flowers are small,
yellow, coming out of the young shoots, to the astonishment of the
beholder. It grows freely.

_Virgília capènsis_ is a beautiful cape shrub, with a compound leaf of
twenty-five leaflets, ovate, lanceolate, edges hairy; flowers in spikes
at the axils; colour blue and leguminose. The pots require to be well
drained, and the plants protected from the sun.

_Volkamèria japónica._ There is a plant known in our collections under
that name, which is _Clerodéndron fràgrans múltiplex_. It keeps in a
good Green-house, and flowers well, frequently blooming during winter,
and if planted in the garden during summer, will flower superbly. The
flowers have a delicious fragrance; but if the foliage is rubbed with
the hand, the smell is not so pleasant. The leaves are large, round,
ovate, and tomentose; flowers corymbose, compact, and terminale. There
are several fine plants in _Clerodéndron_ belonging to the Hot-house.
This plant will not bear much fumigation.

_Witsènias_, four species. _W. corymbòsa_ is a plant that has stood in
high estimation ever since it was known, but unfortunately there is a
very inferior plant, _Aristèa cyànea_, got into our collections under
that name. The panicles of _W. corymbòsa_ is quite smooth; those of
_Aristèa_ are hairy, which is itself sufficient to detect them; but
otherwise the appearance of _W. corymbòsa_ is much stronger, and more
erect growing, not inclining to push at the roots so much as _Aristèa_.
The foliage is lanceolate and amplexicaule, the leaves having much the
nature and appearance of _Iris_. The plant is of easy culture, and
blooms from November to April; colour fine blue. The true one has come
into the country lately. _W. ramòsa_ is a very fine species, similar to
the above; flowers yellow and blue; plant branching.

_Westríngias_, a genus of four species, very like the common _Rosemary_.
_W. rosmarinifórmis_, leaves lanceolate, and silvery beneath; _W.
longifòlia_ is similar; both have small white silvery flowers, and are
easily cultivated.

_Zàmias_, about twenty species, eight of which belong to this
compartment. The foliage is greatly admired, and is in large fronds,
with oblique, lanceolate leaflets. Several of them glaucous. It bears
heads of flowers of a brown colour in the centre of the plant, very like
large pine cones. _Z. hórrida_, the finest, _Z. púngens_, _Z. spíralis_,
and _Z. latifòlia_, are the most conspicuous. They must be kept in the
warmest part of the Green-house; and give them large well drained pots.
They are imported from the Cape of Good Hope. All the plants herein
named requiring to be drained. In preparing the pots, place first a
piece of broken pot, or any similar substitute, with the convex side on
the hole of the pot, and then put in a few, or a handful, (according to
the size of the pot,) of shivers of broken pots, or round gravel, about
the size of garden pease. Those that we have mentioned in this
_Repotting_, as to be done in this, or beginning of next month, is not
intended to apply to plants in general, large and small, but to those
that are young, and require encouragement, or to those that were not
shifted last autumn. The roots must not be disturbed, but the ball
turned out entire; and put as much earth as will raise the ball within
about an inch of the rim of the pot. Press the earth down around it with
a thin-narrow piece of wood, frequently shaking it that no vacancy may
be left. If the roots are rotten, or otherwise injured, take all such
off. If this be the case, the plant will be sickly. Give it a new pot of
a smaller size, administering water moderately until there are visible
signs of fresh growth. The plants must not be disturbed while flowering;
let the repotting be done afterwards. Plants are, at certain stages of
growth, if in good health, in such a state that no one can err in
shifting them when desirous to hasten their growth. Those plants that
make two or more growths during the summer may be repotted in the
interim of any of these growths, and all others just before they begin
to push in the spring; that is, when the wood buds are perceptibly
swelled. Never saturate with water fresh potted plants. There are many
kinds that, without injury, could be repotted when growing; but it
requires an experienced operator to decide. It would be of no material
service to enumerate them here. When done potting, tie all up neatly
with stakes rather higher than the plant, that the new shoots may be
tied thereto during their stage of growth, to prevent them from being
destroyed by the wind. There may be many that do not require repotting,
but would be benefited by a top-dressing. This should be done by probing
off all the surface earth down to the roots, replacing it with fresh
compost, suitable to the nature of the plant.

When the above is done, arrange all the plants in proper order, and
syringe them clean; but if there are any of the Green-fly, they must be
fumigated previous to syringing. Take an opportunity, on the first fine
day, to wash out all the pavement of the house, which should be made dry
before the evening if the nights are cold. Thus every part of the house
will be in order before the hurry of the garden commences.


In this method of grafting, the scion is not separated from the parent
plant until it is firmly united with the stock; consequently, they must
stand contiguously. We intend the following method to apply directly to
_Caméllias_, as they are the principal plants in the Green-house that
are thus worked. The criterion for the operation is, just as the plants
begin to grow, either in spring or mid-summer. Place the stock
contiguous to the plant where the graft or enarch is to be taken from.
If the branches, where the intended union is to take place, do not grow
at equal heights, a slight stage may be erected to elevate the pot that
holds the lower. Take the branch that is to be enarched, (the wood of
last or previous year is the most proper,) and bring it in contact with
the stock; mark the parts where they are to unite, so as to form a
pointed arch. In that part of the branch which is to rest against the
stock, pare off the bark and part of the wood to about two or three
inches in length, and in the side of the stock which is to receive the
graft, do the same, that the inside rind of each may be exactly
opposite, which is the first part where a union will take place. Bind
them firmly and neatly together with strands of Russia matting, and
protect the joint from the air by a coat of close composition; clay of
the consistency of thick paint, turpentine, or wax, will equally answer.
Finish by fastening the grafted branch to the head of the stock or a
rod. Many practitioners make a slit or tongue into the enarch and stock,
but we find it unnecessary, more tedious, and likewise more danger in
breaking. _Caméllias_ are also grafted, and budded, but these two
operations require great experience and continued attention, and seldom
prove so successful as enarching. When they have perfectly taken, which
will be after the first growth is over, begin to separate them by
cutting the scion a little at three different periods, about a week
apart, separating it at the third time. If the head is intended to be
taken off the stock, do it in like manner after the second growth is
over. By the above method, many kinds can be grown on the same stock.
The same plan applies to all evergreens.

=Flower Garden.=


It is expected that all the pruning is finished. If not, get all
expeditiously done, according to directions given in the preceding
months, likewise all digging, and that which was dug in the autumn,
point over, or half dig, that all may have a neat appearance. This must
not be done when the ground is too much imbibed with moisture, as that
would harden the soil. Break it well with the spade, leaving it one or
two days before the surface is raked smooth, that all may be ready to
receive the seeds or plants that are intended to be sown or planted. As
soon as the frost is entirely gone, uncover all plants or shrubs that
have been protected; preserving carefully such articles as will answer
the same purpose next year. The frost disappears generally from the
middle to the end of this month. Cut off all decayed shoots, or such as
have been hurt by the frost. The _Lagerstræmias_ will flower in greater
perfection if they are cut closely; that is, where the wood of last year
is cut to within a few eyes of the wood of the previous year, at the
same time having regard to the shape that the plant is required to take.
Cut off the injured part of any of the evergreens that have had their
foliage much injured by the severity of winter, leaving the part that is
green, which is essential to the support of these kinds of plants.

Such work as can be done in this month, should not be delayed, such as
hoeing, digging, raking, and clearing away all decayed leaves, and
litter of every description that have been brought or blown in the
garden, during autumn or winter.


May be planted any time this month, or beginning of next, which in most
seasons will be preferable. We will give a few simple directions how to
accomplish the work. In the first place, dig over the ground deeply
where the edging is intended to be planted, breaking the soil fine, and
keeping it to a proper height, viz. about one inch higher than the side
of the walk; but the taste of the operator will best decide according to
the situation. Rake the surface even, and tread it down with the feet,
or beat it with the spade. Where it gives most, continue to add, keeping
the surface at the desired height. If the edging is to be in a direct
line, either on a level or inclined plane, you may be correctly and
simply regulated by making the desired level at each end of the line.
Take three rods about four feet long each, having a piece of one foot
to cross at one end, two of these pieces painted black, the other white.
Have a black one at each end of the line on the level, take the white
one for the centre, going along the line, and about every twenty feet,
level a spot to the exact height, which will be seen by looking over the
top of the rods from one end. Having found the level, drive in a peg to
it, so that no mistake may occur; beat and level between them, leaving a
smooth surface. This being done, strain the line, and with the spade
proceed to cut out the trench perpendicularly on the side next the walk,
six, eight, ten, or twelve inches deep, according to the length of the
plants. Afterwards take the plants, and cut the tops even, with the
knife or shears, at the same time shortening the roots. Then with the
left hand next the line, plant forward, keeping the tops of the plants
level, and from one to two inches above ground, keeping the plants close
according to the required thickness. Put in the earth as you proceed,
and tread it firm, then rake the surface even, and with the spade beat
it smooth. If the weather sets in very dry, the box will be the better
of a few waterings. Sometimes boxwood is planted without roots, but it
seldom gives satisfaction; not growing equally.


When it is wished to have any of these flower early, if they were not
sown as directed last month, on a hotbed, let it be done early in this.
Those that were sown and now growing freely, must have plenty of air.
In fine days the sashes may be taken off a few hours about mid-day; and
where the plants are too thick, thin them out a few inches apart, that
the air may circulate amongst them. Have another bed ready to transplant
them into about the end of this or beginning of next month. When
transplanted, sprinkle them with water, and shade them with mats from
the sun, one or two days. By this treatment they will be much stronger
for planting into the borders, about the first of May. For the different
kinds, see list.


May be sown in the borders about the end of the month, when the ground
is prepared, and the weather fine, but avoid it at all times if the
earth will not pulverise properly. The neatest and most expeditious
method is to take a rod about one foot long, and one inch in diameter,
rounding at the end, with which end draw a circle of nine inches
diameter, from one inch to one eighth of an inch deep, according to the
size of the seeds. Many very small seeds will grow best if sown on the
surface of fine mould. When sown, cover in with the back of the rake,
placing a small twig, or a tally with the name, in the centre of the
circle, to prevent mistakes, either in sowing, planting, or hoeing. When
they come above ground, the first moist day should be taken to pull up
such as are too crowded. Annuals are generally too delicate to bear
transplanting, therefore they ought always to be sown where they are
intended to remain. A few kinds do best with removing, such as Balsam,
Mary-gold, China Aster, Stockgilly, and several others of a free
growing, strong-wooded nature. Annuals are such plants as grow from
seed, flower, and perfect their productions, and then die, within one
year. For hardy sorts, see list. Sow in rows or fancy spots the
varieties of sweet pea.


Are such as are of two years' duration. Being sown this year they
flower, seed, or fruit next year, and soon after decay. The seeds should
be sown about the end of this or beginning of next month, either in the
spot where they are intended to remain, or in a compartment by
themselves, regularly marked, and transplanted when convenient. When
they appear above ground, thin them out distinctly, that when they are
to be removed, a little earth may adhere to them; and if put where they
are to stand, leave only three plants.


In every Flower-garden there ought to be a good selection of these
plants. They are lasting ornaments, and when judiciously selected, will
give yearly gratification. In making a choice, a view should be had to
have those that flower abundantly, are of free growth, beauty, and
continuation of flower. It would go beyond our limits, to give an
extensive description of any, but a few remarks on some of the finest,
with their names, are indispensable.

_Adònis vernális_, is a fine border flower, and will grow in any common
soil; flowers large, yellow rayed, having in the rays about twelve
petals; leaves much divided, bloom in April and May.

_Anemóne_, Wind-flower. Several fine species, with flowers from one to
three inches in diameter. _A. Hallèri_, blue; _A. pulsatìlla_, blue
pasque flower; _A. alpìna_, large white. These are fine plants, and are
now given to a genus called _Pulsatìlla_. _A. palmàta flòre-plèno_,
yellow; _A. stellàta versícolor_, various coloured; _A. pavonìna
flòre-plèno_, scarlet; _A. narcissiflòra_, white. Any of these are very

_Antirrhìnums_, Snap-dragon. All the varieties of _A. màjus_ are
esteemed in the flower borders; the pure white and bright red are very
showy. A few of the species, _A. mólle_ and _A. sículum_, where there is
variety required, deserve a situation. The flowers are all large, and
similar to the snout of an animal.

_Asclèpias._ The finest of this genus are native plants, and are highly
esteemed in Europe, but frequently rejected with us, because "they are
wild plants." _A. tuberòsa_ has beautiful orange flowers, and delight in
dry situations. _A. rùbra_, _A. nívea_, _A. purpuráscens_; and _A.
incarnàta_, are the finest of the family. It is best to plant _A.
tuberòsa_ in October.

_Aconítums_, Wolfs'-bane, one hundred and twenty-eight distinct species,
with several varieties. Many of them are of consequence and beauty; the
flower stems rise from one and a half to six feet upright, and strong,
furnished with many palmate and digitate leaves, terminated by spikes of
blue, yellow, or white flowers, similar to a hood; hence the name of
Monk's Hood is often applied to them. They are scarce in collections,
but in a few years we have no doubt but many of them will be plentiful.
The finest species are _A. speciòsum_, _A. anthòra_, _A. neúrbergensis_,
_A. amænum_, _A. napéllus_, _A. venústum_, _A. zoóctonum_, _A.
pyramidàle_, _A. lycóctonum_, _A. albùm_, and _A. versícolor_. They
flower from May to September, and will grow in any common garden soil.
The roots of _A. napéllus_ are like small turnips, and are said to be

_Cáltha palústris flòre-plèno_ is a good border plant, delights in moist
situations, has large cordate, crenated leaves; flowers double yellow;
blooming from April till June; and is a desirable plant.

_Béllis perénnis horténsis_, Daisy. We might almost say with another,
"every one knows the Daisy." It is named from being pretty, and is
perfectly hardy, though generally kept under cover. They delight to have
a shaded situation during summer, to protect them from the sun, which,
as it were, scorches the roots. There are many double varieties in the
gardens, which flower early. The one called _Crown_, or _Carnation_
Daisy, is twice the size of the common varieties, and has white and red
petals alternately, and very double. Loamy soil, inclined to moisture,
is best adapted to their growth.

_Campánulas._ This genus affords many very ornamental plants for the
Flower-garden and Shrubbery, and they flower superbly during the summer,
agreeing better with our climate than with that of Europe. Several have
two successions of flowers, _C. persicifòlia álba plèna_; _C.
persicifòlia cærùlea plèno_; _C. urticifòlia_, white. Of this last there
is also a double variety. _C. speciòsa_; _C. glomerata_; _C.
versícolor_; with several others, are worthy of a situation in every
garden. Their roots are strong, fleshy, and fibrous. They are easy of
culture, and will retain their situation in the severest of our winters.
_C. grandiflòra_ is now _Wahlenbérgia grandiflòra_. It has fine blue
large flowers; the flower stems are slender, and should be supported as
soon as they grow.

_Cheiránthus Chéiri vulgàris_ is the common garden Wall-flower. There
are about ten varieties of it, all admired for their various colours and
agreeable odour. The common variety survives the mildest of our winters.
The most esteemed variety is _Hæmánthus_, Double bloody. They should all
be protected by a frame. _C. mutábilis_ is a beautiful species; it has
many shades of colour from lilac to dark purple. The flowers are on
extending racemose spikes; blooming from April to June; it requires a
light rich soil; is a half shrubby evergreen plant.

_Chelònes._ This genus belongs entirely to this continent, and possesses
many fine species. It is a matter of astonishment that they are not more
cultivated and sought for in our collections. _C. glábra_; _C. oblíqua_;
_C. barbàta_; _C. atropurpùrea_; _C. pulchélla_; _C. venústa_; and _C.
speciòsa_; are all handsome, and flower from May to September; corolla
large, ringent; ventricose flowers in spikes or panicles.

_Chrysánthemums._ There are few of this genus of any consequence as
herbaceous plants, except the varieties of _C. sinénse_, of which there
are about fifty, all desirable; but in small gardens, where there is a
deficiency in room, the following are select in colour and quality:
_Tubulòsum álbum_, quilled white; _supérbum_, superb white; _díscolor_,
large lilac; _fúlvum_, Spanish brown; _atropurpùreum_, early crimson;
_involùtum_, curled lilac; _fasciculàtum_, superb cluster yellow;
_serotìnum_, late pale purple; _papyràceum_, paper white; _Waratáh_,
yellow Waratah; _versícolor_, two-coloured red; _stellàtum_, starry
purple; _verecúndum_, early blush; and _mutábile_, changeable pale buff.
To grow these in perfection, they require rich light soil; and about the
end of this month the roots should be lifted, divided, and planted into
fresh soil, either by giving them a new situation, or changing the earth
they were in. Two or three stems together are quite sufficient. The
flowers, by the above treatment, will be much larger, more double, and
finer in colour; where they are wanted to grow low and bushy, top them
in June, but not later than the first of July. Where the soil is rich,
and the plant having only one stem, by topping it, makes a beautiful
bush. They are in flower from the first of October until severe frost;
thus beautifying our gardens at a season when they would be destitute of
one single attraction. If the season is dry, to water them with liquid
manure will add to their vigour. They are all natives of China, and
greatly esteemed by the Chinese, who only allow a few blooms to come out
on the top of each stem, thereby having the flowers much finer.

_Clématis_, Virgin's-bower. A few species are good herbaceous plants, of
upright growth, and blue flowers, _C. integrifòlia_; _C. angustifòlia_;
and _C. erécta_; they grow best in light soil.

_Coreópsis_, chiefly native plants, and free-flowering; colour
principally yellow; flowers rayed. _C. tenuifòlia_, _C. verticilláta_,
_C. díscolor_, and _C. trípteris_, are the finest of the genus, and will
grow in any common garden soil.

_Delphínums._ There are some showy border flowers of these, of strong
growth. The leaves are much divided; the flowers in terminale spikes;
colour blue, purple, red, white and yellow, with various shades. _D.
grandiflòrum_, with its varieties, are the best of the genus. _D.
intermèdium_, and its varieties, _D. elátum_, Bee Larkspur, from the
ringent part of the flower being very like a bee, and _D. montánum_, are
good varieties, and easily cultivated. When the plants become large,
they ought to be divided, and planted in fresh soil. They are in bloom
from May to September.

_Diánthus._ Some of the species of this genus are the most prominent of
the Flower-garden, not only for their beauty, but also their fragrance,
which is peculiarly grateful, especially in the well known and
celebrated pink and carnation, with the Sweet-william, which was
esteemed, in the days of old, "for its beauty to deck up the bosoms of
the beautiful, and garlands and crowns for pleasure." The finest
species are _D. barbàtus_, and _D. barbàtus plèno_, Sweet-william; _D.
discolor_; _D. chinènsis_; _D. alpínus_, _D. supérbus_; _D.
caryophyllus_, from which have originated the Picotee and the Carnation;
_D. plumàrius_, from which originated the Double Pink; _D. fràgrans_ and
_D. supérbus_. Several of these, although they will stand the severest
cold, have to be protected in frames during winter, to have them in the
perfection of beauty. For the character of a Pink and Carnation, see

_Dictámnus._ Two species of this genus, _D. fraxinélla_ and _D. álbus_,
have been cultivated and esteemed upwards of two hundred and forty
years. A plant of the first of these species, when gently rubbed, emits
an odour like that of lemon-peel; and when bruised emits a balsamic
scent, which is strongest in the pedicles of the flowers. They have
glands of a rusty colour, that exude a viscid juice, or resin, which
exhales in vapour, and in a dark place may be seen to take fire. Its
flowers are red, those of the other white, in loose terminale spikes;
the flower has five petals, clawed and unequal, with glandular dots; in
bloom from May to July; delights in sandy loam.

_Dodecàtheon._ This is a native genus, and commonly called American
cowslip. The generic term, a name of the Romans, signifying twelve gods
or divinities, is applied with great absurdity to a plant, a native of a
world the Romans never saw nor had any idea of, neither resembling, in
any particular, the poetical fancy of their writers. The most admired
species is _D. mèdia_; the flowers are in umbels, on a pedicle, from six
to twelve inches high; the corolla is rotata reflexa, colour light
purple, bottom of petals lake and yellow; blooming in May. The white
variety is very much esteemed, and surpasses the preceding. The ground
is pure white, the bottom of the petals the same as the other. There is
also a spotted variety found on the banks of the Missouri. They delight
in brown loam, a half shady situation, inclining to moisture. The
foliage soon decays after flowering.

_Digitàlis_, Fox-glove, about forty species of annuals and herbaceous
plants. A few are cultivated in the flower borders, and are very showy.
These are D. _leucophæa_, D. _ferrugínea_, D. _ochroleùca_, large
yellow; and D. _purpuráscens_; and are good species. D. _purpúrea_ and
D. _álba_, are very conspicuous biennials; the flowers are solitary, and
in long spikes; the corolla of D. _purpúrea_ is campanulate, ventricose,
and ringent; the interior is spotted, and is considered the finest of
the genus. Delights in poor soil, with a little shade.

_Eupatóriums._ These generally are native plants, not worthy of notice
here, except for two species. _E. c[oe]lestínum_ has syngenesious
flowers in flattened panicles, colour fine light blue, blooming from
September to November, desirable for its beauty at that season. _E.
aromàticum_ may be cultivated for its spicy odour; flowers white, in
loose terminale panicles; blooming from August to October. Either of
them will grow in common soil.

_Gentiánas_, a genus of very showy plants, and flower in great
abundance. The flowers are tubular and inflated; colour generally blue.
A few species are yellow, and some white; flowers in whorls, terminale,
or solitary. They grow best in a light rich soil. _G. lútea_, _G.
purpúrea_, _G. septémfida_. _G. acaúlis_ is a pretty dwarf growing
species, and often used as edgings in flower compartments; the flower
dark and light blue; interior of the corolla spotted; has a succession
of flower from April to June. We have no doubt of it succeeding in our
gardens, but not being plentiful, it has not been perfectly tried. A few
years will exhibit it in abundance. _G. imbricàta_ and _G. conférta_.
They are all fine exotics, but many of them may give place to our native
species, such as _G. Catesbæí_; _G. ochroleúca_; _G. incarnàta_; with
several others, and _G. crinàta_, which is a biennial, and finely
fringed; colour light blue.

_Gèum._ There are only two species that are worth cultivation, viz. _G.
quéllyon_, once _G. coccíneum_; and _G. hybridum_. _G. urbànum_ is
sometimes cultivated for its roots, which, when chewed, sweeten the
breath. They are all of easy culture. _G. quéllyon_ flowers from May to
October, and is a very desirable small plant for the borders, and much
esteemed in Europe.

_Hemerocállis_, Day Lily; two species, _H. fúlva_ and _H. gramínea_,
flower well, and are remarkable among the border flowers for their large
yellow or copper coloured corollas, some of them about six inches
diameter; bloom from May to July, and will grow in almost any soil.
There is a plant known in our gardens as _H. cærùlea_, which is _Fúnkia
cærùlea_, and has a campanulate corolla, with a cylindrical tube;
flowers in spikes; leaves ovate, accuminate.

_Hibíscus._ There are several herbaceous species very showy and
handsome, _H. palústris_; _H. ròseus_; _H. militàris_; _H. speciòsus_;
_H. grandiflòrus_; and _H. púngens_. They grow best in moist situations,
and where these are not to be had, give them plenty of water, and plant
in sandy soil enriched with decayed leaves. The flowers are about six
inches in diameter, flowering up the stem, either solitary or in small
bunches. _H. speciòsus_ is the most splendid, and deserves a situation
in every garden. The roots in winter ought to be covered by litter, tan,
or saw dust; but a better method is to lift them, and put them in the
cellar, covered with dry earth, and kept from the frost. All the above
mentioned species are improved by being protected during winter.

_Iris_, Flower-de-luce, has many fine species of various shades and
colours, _I. subiflòra_, _I. nepalénsis_, _I. Pallàsii_, _I. pállida_,
_I. cristàta_, _I. arenària_, _I. furcàta_, _I. germánica_, _I.
florentìna_, _I. vérna_, and _I. susiàna_. The last is the finest of the
herbaceous species; the flowers are striped, blue, brown, and spotted;
but we are not certain if it will stand the severity of our winters. The
roots of _I. florentìna_ is the orrice root of the druggists. They are
all of easy culture in any loamy soil inclining to moisture. The bulbous
species will be treated of in _September_ or _October_. Corolla
six-petaled, three erect, and three reclined alternately; proceeding
from spathes or sheaths with flowers in succession.

_Lìatris_ is a genus of native plants, containing several fine species,
_L. squarròsa_, large purple heads of beautiful flowers; _L. élegans_;
_L. paniculàta_. _L. macróstachya_, now _L. spicàta_, is a fine large
growing species. They have syngenesious purple flowers in long close
spikes, differing from other spiked flowering genera by blooming first
at the extremity. They grow best in strong heavy soil.

_Lychnis._ Three species are very desirable in the flower borders. _L.
chalcedónica_ has bright scarlet crowned flowers; the double scarlet
variety is splendid. There is also a double white variety, _L. fúlgens_
and _L. flós-jòvis_. They ought to be frequently lifted, and planted
afresh, or they will dwindle to nothing. The best time is when they
begin to grow. There is a plant known in our collections as _Lychnis
flós-cucùla_, which is now _Agrostéma flós-cucùla_; it is a fine and
showy border plant with double red flowers. They delight in a light
sandy rich soil.

_Lythrums._ A few species flower well, and have small pink blossoms in
great profusion, _L. alàtum_, _L. virgàtum_, _L. diffùsum_, and _L.
lanceolàtum_. They will grow in any common garden soil if not too much
shaded; and flower from June to September.

_Mimùlus_, Monkey-flower. A few species may be cultivated. They will
grow in any soil or situation. _M. lùteus_ and _M. rivulàris_ are the
best. _M. moschàtus_ has a very strong musk scent, to many agreeable. We
think it will prove hardy. The two former have large gaping flowers, of
a gold yellow, and beautifully spotted with purple in the interior.

_Monárdas_, a fine native genus and showy. The foliage of several of the
species is aromatic, and resembles mint. _M. dídyma_ has long scarlet
ringent flowers, in headed whorls; _M. kalmiana_, flowers very long,
and a beautiful crimson, with fragrant leaves. _M. Russelliana_ has red
and white flowers; curious and handsome. _M. punctata_ has yellow and
red flowers; they grow in any common soil.

_Mathíola_, is the generic of the Stock-gilly. None of them will survive
severe winters; yet many of them are indispensable in the Flower-garden.
_M. simplicicáulis_, Brompton-stock, and its varieties; with _M.
incàna_, Queen-stock, and its varieties, require the protection of a
good frame in winter, and about the end of this month, or beginning of
next, plant them in good light rich soil to flower, which they will do
all summer, if attended to with frequent supplies of water. _M. ánnua_
has about sixteen varieties, valuable for flowering the first year from
seed, and are all annuals. They ought to be sown on a gentle hot-bed
about the first of this month, and carefully pricked out so as they may
be ready to transplant about the end of April or the first of May. Plant
them in light rich soil, and they will flower profusely through the
season; if it is very dry, they must be watered to keep them growing.
The scarlet, white, and purple varieties are the finest; but there are
many intermediate sorts all handsome. _M. glàbra_ is the Wall-flower
leaved stock, and requires the same treatment as the two former. There
are about eight varieties of this, all various in colour. In planting
any of these into the open ground, choose cloudy weather, except they
have been in pots; in such case, plant at any time in beds, keeping each
kind separate.

_[OE]nothèras._ The most of them are indigenous, and in Europe they
afford a continual ornament to the Flower-garden from April to
November, but in our gardens they are entirely neglected. By rejecting
these and many others, our Flower-gardens are deprived both of much
beauty and interest they might easily possess. These plants delight in
light rich soil. _[OE]. odoràta_, sweet scented; _[OE]. macrocárpa_;
_[OE]. mèdia_; _[OE]. latiflòra_; _[OE]. Frazèri_; _[OE]. speciòsa_; and
_[OE]. pállida_; are all fine native herbaceous plants, mostly with
large yellow four-petaled corollas; in bloom from April to September.
There are several of them beautiful annual and biennial plants. For the
finest, see list.

_Phlóx_, another American genus, and one of the most handsome in
cultivation. It consists of elegant border flowers, valuable for
flowering early, and more so for blossoming late in autumn. While the
majority of plants blooming late in the season are generally
syngenesious, with yellow flowers, these delight us with their lively
colours of purple, red, and white. A collection of them properly
attended to, would of themselves constitute a beautiful flower garden.
It will be difficult to state which are the finest, but the following
are select varieties: P. _paniculàta_; P. _acuminàta_; P. _intermèdia_;
P. _odoràta_; P. _pyramidàlis_; with _pyramidàlis álba_, which is
splendid; P. _suavèolens_; P. _refléxa_; P. _stolonífera_; P. _pilòsa_;
P. _divaricàta_; P. _nivàlis_; and P. _subulàta_. In the spring of 1831,
an eminent British collector[A] exclaimed, on seeing a patch of P.
_subulàta_ in one of the pine barrens of New Jersey, "The beauty of that
alone is worth coming to America to see, it is so splendid." Most of the
species delight in a rich light sandy loam. When the plants become
large, they ought to be divided, and planted in fresh ground.

[A] Mr. Drummond.

_Prímulas_, Primrose. To this genus belong the celebrated _Cowslip_,
_Oxlip_, _Primrose_, and the esteemed _Aurícula_. The double varieties
of Primrose have originated from _P. vulgàris_. These are such as carry
their flowers on separate pedicles, rising from the root on a small
stem. The double varieties are desirable for their beauty, but require
the protection of a frame during winter. They are in colour red, white,
yellow, lilac, purple, and crimson. P. _elàtior_ is the Oxlip, from
which all the _Polyánthuses_ have been grown. They are in variety
innumerable, and are those whose flowers are in umbels, on a scape or
flower-stalk, rising from three to nine inches. The rules for judging of
their merits are wholly artificial, agreed on from time to time by
Florists. The one that is the leading beauty this year would in a few
years be far in the rear. The principal character is that the corolla is
not notched or fringed; the colours pure and distinct, not running into
one another; the tube small; the eye round, and a little prominent.
Being surrounded with white, and the ground purple, is a fine character.
P. _aurícula_. From this the highly esteemed varieties have originated.
The cultivated _aurícula_ has many admirers, both for its exquisite
beauty and fragrance. For the criterion of a fine flower see _May_.
There are several other species worthy of a situation, such as P.
_cortusoídes_, P. _dentiflòra_, P. _suavèolens_, P. _decòra_, with P.
_scótica_ and P. _farinòsa_, both small neat species. A shady situation
agrees best with them; and they require loamy soil, free from any kind
of manure, except it be fully decomposed. The leaves of P. _vèris_ are
recommended for feeding silk worms.

_Potentíllas._ We mention this genus here as affording several free
flowering dwarf plants; not as being certain that any of the most
desired species will withstand our winters, being natives of Nepaul;
but, from the character of the plant, we think that they are adapted to
bear severe cold. They are similar to the strawberry in habit and
appearance. P. _nepalénsis_, or _formòsa_, has rose-coloured flowers; P.
_atropurpùrea_; P. _Russelliàna_, scarlet; P. _Hopwoodiàna_, rose and
scarlet; and P. _spléndens_, yellow, with superb leaves. These are the
finest of the genus, and flower from May to September. It will be well
to protect them in a frame with the Carnations; they delight in light

_Saponària officinàlis_, and _S. O. plèna_, are fine free-flowering
dwarf plants; the colour is pink in both double and single varieties.
The roots run under ground, and care should be taken to keep them within
bounds: they flower from June till October. _S. cæspitòsa_ is a neat
growing species of a rose colour. They will grow in any soil.

_Silène._ Several of this genus are popular annuals, but the herbaceous
species are very indifferent. _S. viscósa_ and S. _viscósa flòre plèna_,
are frequently cultivated for their beauty; they will grow well if not
too much shaded.

_Saxífraga_, above one hundred species. Many of them are beautiful
plants for rock-work. They are regardless of cold, but will not
generally withstand much moisture. A few of them are highly deserving a
situation in any garden. _S. hirsùtum_, and _S. crassifòlia_, are used
in some countries for tanning. _S. granulàta multipléx_ has fine
double-white flowers, and is desirable. _S. umbròsa_, London-pride,
makes a beautiful edging for a flower border; the flowers are small, but
on close examination its colours are unrivalled. It is vulgarly called,
"none so pretty." _S. sarmentòsa_ is kept in the Green-house, but is
perfectly hardy, and makes a fine plant in a shaded situation. We have
no doubt but it would make a good fancy edging. _S. pulchélla_, straw
coloured, and _S. pyramidàlis_; these are all easily cultivated; and
flower in spikes from May to July.

_Spiræas._ A few species are showy plants, and continue flowering from
May to September. _S. ulmària múltiplex_, Meadow-sweet, has sweet
scented white flowers, in long dense spikes. _S. Filipéndula múltiplex_,
Drop-wort, double white. _S. lobàta_ is a native, and has fine rose
coloured flowers, in June and July; these are the finest of the
herbaceous species, and will grow in any common garden soil.

_Státice_, Thrift. A genus containing many fine herbaceous plants, only
a few of them are common in collections. The finest of them are scarce,
and said to be "bad to cultivate." _S. vulgàris_, once _Armèria
vulgàris_, is the most valuable plant for an edging, next to box, that
the Flower-garden is possessed of, and does extremely well in our
climate, flowering in great profusion from May to July. When done
flowering, the stems should be cut off. The foliage is an agreeable
evergreen; the plant increases rapidly, and in a few years may be
planted to a great extent. _S. speciòsa_ has red flowers, crowded in
spreading panicles. _S. tatàrica_ has also very showy flowers, and is
now given to the genus _Taxànthema_. _S. latifòlia_ and _S. maritìma_
are the finest. _T. latifòlia_ and _T. conspícua_ deserve attention.
They should be lifted every alternate year, and sunk deeper into the
soil, because they incline to grow out, and are sometimes during summer
killed by the drought. Hence they are said to be "bad to cultivate."

_Tróllius europæus_, and _T. asiàticus_, are fine border plants, with
large yellow semi-double flowers; the petals are much cupped, which
causes the flowers to have a globular appearance. They are easily grown
in any loamy soil, and flower from May to July. Few flowers have the
curious globular character which these have.

_Verónica_, Speed-well. This genus consists of about one hundred and
twenty species of herbaceous plants, besides several varieties. The
flowers are in long close spikes, either white, flesh coloured, or blue;
they are generally of the latter colour. Above sixty species are equally
fine, and being generally of the same character, the Catalogue at the
end of this work will contain the best selection that we can make. Very
few of them are in the collections of the country, although they are
very showy, and flower from June to August. They will grow in any soil,
but will not flourish where they are much shaded. _V. officinàlis_ has
been used in Germany and Sweden as a substitute for tea. Some prefer _V.
chamædrys_ for the same purpose.

_Valerìanas._ Several species are showy border plants, with small
flowers in large close flattened panicles. _V. dioíca_ is remarkable for
having the stamens and pistils in separate flowers, situated on
different plants; the flowers are of a blush colour, and the roots when
planted must be protected from the cats, for they are delighted with
them, and scrape them up. _V. phù_, a large growing species with white
flowers; and _V. rùbra_, with its varieties, are the finest of the
genus. They are now given to _Centrànthus_. They are all of easy culture
in common garden earth, but preferring moist shady situations. In flower
from May to September.

_Vìola_, a genus consisting of upwards of eighty species, of low pretty
plants, of great diversity of colour and foliage. Many of them are
natives, and well worth a situation in our gardens. They mostly delight
in sandy loam, and a little shade. A few of the species grow in moist
situations. The most esteemed varieties for fragrance are, _V. odoràta
purpúrea plèna_, double purple, with _V. odoràta àlba plèna_, double
white. They flower very early, and make good edgings where they are kept
in order; flowering profusely from April to June, and flowering again in

_Yúcca_, Adam's-needle. This is a very showy and ornamental genus; their
character forming a picturesque contrast in the Flower-garden; foliage
long, narrow, lanceolate, and stiff; with white companulate flowers,
about two inches in diameter, in conical spikes from two to four feet
long, arising from the centre of the plant, containing frequently from
two to four hundred florets. They are principally native plants. _Y.
strícta_ is the freest flowerer. _Y. supérba_; _Y. aloifòlia_; _Y._
_angustifòlia_, _Y. acuminàta_, _Y. serrulàta_, and _Y. filamentòsa_,
are all fine species, and will grow in any common soil. When in flower,
if protected from the sun by an awning, they will be of considerable
duration. There are variegated varieties of _Strícta_, _Aloifòlia_, and
_Serrulàta_, which look very handsome in foliage, but are at present
very rare, and it will be a number of years before they are plentiful.
There ought at least to be one specimen of some of the free-flowering
species in every garden.

Having given the names and characters of a few herbaceous plants, all or
most of them easily obtained, many of them extremely handsome, and such
as agree best with transplanting at this season of the year; for several
others, such as _Pæònias_, or any other strong fibrous or bulbous
sorts, see _September_ and _October_. Where they are in pots, they can
be planted at any time, the weather permitting, provided the ball of
earth is not broken. But where they are only to be removed, the best
time is just as vegetation commences. That herbaceous plants may look to
the best advantage, and flower well, they must not be allowed to get
into large stools; but as soon as they are above one foot in diameter,
they should be divided.

Very frequently those who perform this operation, take the spade, and
cut a piece off all round, which to a degree improves the look of the
plant; but this is only half justice. It should be lifted entirely,
fresh soil given, or removed a few feet, and planted a little deeper
than it was before, as the plant tends apparently to grow out of the
soil when allowed to stand long. If the weather becomes dry shortly
after transplanting, give them a few waterings, until they have taken
fresh roots, which will be within two weeks. Colour should be
diversified through the garden as much as practicable, and the highest
growing sorts planted farthest from the walk, so as all may appear in
view. At all times avoid crowding the plants together.


About the middle of this month, let the covering of tan, saw-dust, or
decayed leaves, be cleared from the beds of such as were directed to be
covered in November; afterwards carefully stirring the surface among
them with a kind of wooden spatula, or wedge, breaking the surface fine;
then dress all the alleys smooth and neat with the hoe and rake,
clearing away every particle of litter. When the leaves of Tulips are
expanding, they frequently become entangled so much, that the force of
growth breaks the foliage: if there are any appearance of this at any
time, they should be set right with the hand. In early seasons these
roots will be far advanced, and perhaps one night of frost unexpectedly
might materially injure them. When there is any suspicion of cold
weather, hoops should be spanned across the beds, so that the necessary
mats or canvass could in a few minutes be placed over them, to ward off
danger. Protect the finest sorts from heavy drenching rains, and give
them small neat rods for support, as they grow up. If the rods and
tyings are painted green, the effect will be improved. These directions
equally apply to _Narcissus_, _Jonquils_, _Iris_, and all Holland bulbs.


Which have been protected by frames through the winter, must have at all
favourable opportunities plenty of air admitted to them by lifting the
sashes, and in fine mild days and nights, the sashes may be taken
entirely off. Divest them of all decayed leaves, and stir up the earth
on the surface of the pots; those that are intended to be planted in the
garden may be set to one side, while those that are to be kept in pots
must be more strictly attended to. Of these the Pinks and Carnations
should be repotted about the first of the month. Those that have been
kept in four inch pots, should be put into pots of seven inches, and
those that are in five inch pots may be put into eight inch. Give a
gentle watering after repotting. Pinks do not require the pots so large,
but the same treatment in every other respect. Where the extremity of
the leaves are decayed, cut them off, with any other decayed leaves: the
pots must be well drained with shivers or fine gravel. Give them plenty
of air, otherwise they will be weak in growth.

_Primroses_ require only a little fresh earth on the top of the pots.
_Daisies_ may be planted out in shady situations; the sun destroys them
during summer if exposed.


These beautiful and highly interesting plants are, to a great degree,
neglected in our collections. It cannot be from want of beauty or
fragrance that they have not attracted our attention, for they are
exquisite in both. We are rather inclined to think that those who have
them do not give them the treatment they require yearly to perfect their
bloom. They should now have the surface earth taken off about half an
inch down, and fresh soil added, which will cause them to put out fresh
fibres about the upper part of the roots, and greatly increase their
growth. The frame in which they are placed should now face the east, as
the sun will be too strong for them; and about the end of the month turn
it to the north. The glass of the frame may be white-washed, which will
partially shade them from the sun, that being their delight. Give them
water sparingly until they begin to grow, and never water them over the
foliage previous to flowering, as water injures that fine mealy-like
substance found on many of the sorts, and which so greatly improves
their beauty. Defend them, therefore, from rain and high winds. To have
them flower strongly, only one flower stem should be allowed to grow.
The first one that shows is generally the best. At all events leave the
strongest, and cut off all the others, or only nip off the flower pips,
which answers the same end. Never keep the sash off during night, lest
it should rain before morning.


The frames must have plenty of air, and give frequent sprinklings of
water. The sashes or boards should be taken entirely off every mild day,
and in fine nights leave them exposed to the dew; stir up the earth
amongst them, breaking it fine, making all neat. They require liberal
supplies of water after they begin to grow.


This is the most favourable month for planting all kinds of garden
roses, which must be done as soon as the weather opens, and the ground
in a proper state. The earlier in the month they flower the more perfect
they will be. Never delay planting when there is an opportunity; for if
delayed until the leaves are expanding, the bloom will be much weakened,
and the probability is there will be no flowers, and the plants meet
with a premature death. It has been said, "there is a particular
advantage in planting some every ten days, even to the middle of May;
for the flowering of them may be retarded in this way, and the bloom of
these delightful shrubs continue for a much longer period." One moment's
reflection will convince us, that nature, while in her own element, will
not be retarded, suppose there was no danger of instantaneous death to
the plants. The artificial means that might be judiciously adopted, with
which we are acquainted, to keep back the blooming of hardy plants, is
to lift them as soon in spring as is practicable, put them in boxes of
earth, and then place them in the driest part of an icehouse until the
desired time of planting, which may be delayed as long as the required
time of flowering. This will be found a true method of retarding the
flowering of roses especially, and not going counter to the rules and
principles of nature. There are many beautiful varieties of the garden
rose in cultivation, the names of the finest of which we will give in
the Catalogue, but perhaps it may be proper to mention here a few of the
most particular sorts. The finest unquestionably when in bloom, is the
_Moss_ and its varieties, but the flowering is of so limited duration,
that it is in a great degree surpassed by others. There is said to be a
striped variety of the _Moss Rose_, but we do not credit it. The _Blush
Moss_, _Clinton White Moss_, and _Mottled Moss_, at present certainly
are the most superb of that kind. _Lee's Crimson Perpetual_ is a
magnificent rose, and flowers in profusion from June to October. This is
considered, and justly too, the finest of all the garden roses; its
fragrance is exquisite, and the plant highly valued. There is a striped
_Unique Rose_, and a _Rosa tricolor_, which are much thought of. We have
mentioned these as the finest we have seen, but amongst two thousand
cultivated varieties of the garden rose, there must be many of equal
beauty. Of _Rósa spinosíssima_ there are above three hundred varieties;
_R. gàllica_; two hundred; _R. centifòlia_, one hundred and fifty; _R.
damascène_, above one hundred; _R. álba_, fifty; _R. rubiginósa_,
thirty; and of various sorts above eleven hundred. In several individual
collections of Europe, there are cultivated above fifteen hundred
species, sub-species, and varieties.

When planted, they are too frequently crowded indiscriminately amongst
other shrubs, which prevents them having the effect they would have if
planted singly or grouped. They vary in size in different sorts from one
to ten feet. When planted in the latter method, they should be
assimilated in size of leaves and manner of growth, with the greatest
variation of flower; or if planted in many small patches, giving each a
distinct colour, which has a picturesque effect. An other desirable and
fanciful method, is to plant them in figures, giving them edgings of
wire, willow, or any other substitute, in imitation of basket work,
which is called "baskets of roses;" the ground enclosed in the basket
margin to be made convex, which will present a greater surface to the
eye; the strong shoots to be layered, or kept down by pegs into the
ground, having the points of the shoots only to appear above the soil,
which should be covered with moss. With this treatment, in a few years
the whole surface of the basket will be covered with rose buds and
leaves, of one or various sorts. If two or three of the larger growing
sorts are taken, such as _Moss_ or _Provins_, they may be trained so as
to cover a surface of several square yards. One of these covered with
_Lee's Crimson Perpetual Rose_, would be one of the greatest ornaments
of the Flower-garden.

A modern invention in the cultivation of the rose is, to grow them in
shape of trees, by budding on strong growing kinds at different heights
from the ground, according to taste, and the purposes intended. They
will form in a few years handsome round heads, which will flower more
freely than by layers, or trained on their own stalk. They are
particularly desirable amongst low shrubs. When planted, they should be
well supported by strong rods, to prevent the wind from destroying them.
If any of the roots have been bruised in lifting, cut off the bruised
part with the knife, and likewise shorten the young shoots; breaking the
earth well about their roots when planting. This has been an esteemed
shrub among all civilized nations. The flowers are double, semi-double,
and single; the colours are pink, red, purple, white, yellow, and
striped, with almost every shade and mixture; the odour universally
grateful. This plant is cultivated in every garden, from the humblest
cottager to the loftiest prince, and by commercial gardeners in Europe
extensively, for distilling rose water, and making the essential oil of
roses. They delight in a rich loamy soil, and require plenty of moisture
while in a growing state. Those sorts which throw up numerous suckers
should be lifted every three or four years, reduced, and then
transplanted. When thus removing them, avoid as much as possible
exposing their roots; and when newly planted, mulching is of
considerable advantage; that is, putting half rotten stable-manure on
the surface of the ground round their roots, which prevents evaporation,
and keeps up a constant moisture. If this was done in general to our
roses in dry seasons, it would greatly improve their flowering. For
China roses see next month.


This is the best time to prune ever-blooming climbing roses, such as
_Champney_, _Scarlet Cluster_, _Duchesse de Dino_, _Notsette_,
_Burgenville_, &c. Many of these, when allowed to grow year after year
without pruning, become unsightly; they never bear flowers on the old
wood, that is, wood of three or four years. Having a tendency to throw
out young shoots from the bottom of the stem, the old wood should be cut
out, thus encouraging the young wood, which the second year bears the
most and finest flowers. In severe winters, the extremities of the
shoots are frequently killed, and we have often seen all the wood black
or brown, and apparently dead. When that is the case it is best to leave
it until they begin to grow, which will show what is dead or alive, when
they can be pruned to better advantage.


The earlier the planting of these shrubs is attended to in this month,
the more will their growth and flowering be promoted, having all
finished before the buds begin to expand. (For kinds recommended see
List, end of the volume.) They should never be planted too thick, but
leave space for them to grow as they respectively require, and according
as they are designed for open or close shrubberies, clumps, or thickets.
Have all in readiness, that it may be done with as much expedition as
possible, to prevent their roots from being dried by the sun and wind
in time of planting. Make the holes intended for their reception round,
capacious, and deep enough to hold their roots, without confining them
in the least, and loosen the bottom well, putting new and fresh soil
under their roots, breaking and pulverizing it during the operation, and
frequently shaking the plant as you progress in filling up. When done,
make all firm with the foot, leaving a circular cavity to hold the water
they will require during dry weather. Give rods, and tie with bands all
that need that support before they are left, lest they should be
neglected. Cut off any of the bruised roots or irregular growths of the


Rake and sweep off from these all litter and worm cast earth, and give
an occasional rolling to settle the ground, and render the surface
smooth, where the scythe is to be used. The grass will likewise grow
better by rolling it where the frost has partially thrown it out, and
add greatly to the beauty of the whole. Cut the edgings with an edging
iron or spade, so that the whole will have a finished appearance. If any
new turf is required to be laid down, this is a very good time to do it,
before vegetation is strong; as the turf that is now laid will have
taken root before the dry season commences. Where a great extent is to
be done, sowing might be adopted; but it will not have the effect of
turf under three years, and during that time must be carefully cut,
after the first season, every three weeks, while growing, nor must it
be walked upon. White clover and true perennial rye-grass are the seeds
most proper for sowing. The ground must in the first place be all
equally made up, and levelled with the spade and rake; not "cart loads
of soil laid down and leveled," which would finally become very uneven,
and would need to be lifted and relaid next year. The best turf is that
of a close growing pasture or common, free from all kinds of weeds or
strong roots, and the grass short. To cut it expeditiously, be provided
with a turfing-iron; but if that cannot be conveniently had, a spade may
do very well. Strain a line tight, cutting the turf lengthways, at equal
distances, from twelve to eighteen inches. Next draw the line across,
cutting from one and a half to two feet; then cut them up with the
spade, about one and a half inch thick. In laying, join them close and
alternately; when done, beat them firm with a level wooden beater, and
roll with a heavy roller.

Grass walks, in the last century, were very popular; but time having put
them to the test, they are found unfit for walking upon or using in any
manner, almost for one half of the year; therefore not answering the
purposes intended. They require great attention to keep them in order;
and if not always neat and clean, they are a disagreeable object in a
garden; but when they are well dressed, their effect is very enlivening.
Where they are desired, prepare the ground as above directed; making the
walk a little higher than the adjoining borders, to prevent the earth
from being washed on it by the rain. Allowing the walks to be six feet
wide, make the centre five inches higher than the sides, or about
seven-eighths of an inch to the foot whatever the breadth may be, which
will form a gentle declivity to throw off the rain. When laid, beat and
roll it well; cutting the edge neat and even. Water frequently if the
weather sets in dry. To keep grass walks or plats in order, they should
be mown once every three or four weeks from May to September, and the
grass each time swept clean off. When the grass is allowed to get long
before being cut, the roots become tender; and die when exposed to the
sun; at last the grass is all in spots, and in another year requires to
be relaid.


A practice once existed of turning these into heaps or ridges during
winter to destroy weeds, &c. But this has almost been given up as
unnecessary, unsightly, inconvenient, and not doing any material

Where the surface of these has become foul, irregular, or mossy, they
had better be turned over four or five inches deep where the gravel will
admit of it; but if not, hoe and rake them perfectly clean, give a new
coat of gravel, and pick up any stones that you think too large; then
give them a good rolling, applying it frequently after showers of rain.
When they are well attended to just now, they will look well all the
season; but if neglected, they take more labour, and are never in such
good condition.

Fancy edgings of _Thyme_, _Thrift_, _Gentiana_, _Lavender_, and
_Violets_--(_Daisies_ may be used if the situation is shaded.) The
whole of these may be planted by the line with the dibber except
_Thyme_, which lay as directed for _Box_. See this month, under that
head. Any time in this or beginning of next month will answer to make
edgings of these; and if dry weather occurs before they begin to grow
after planting, they must have frequent waterings until they have taken
fresh root. Thyme requires to be dressed twice during the season to keep
it in order.


There are four methods of grafting. The one we will describe is _whip_
or _tongue grafting_, which is the preferable and most expeditious plan
with all deciduous shrubs or trees. The stock upon which it is performed
must be slender, from two-thirds of an inch to any diameter suitable to
the thickness of the graft. Having headed the stock at a clear smooth
part, slope it on one side with a sharp knife at a very acute angle,
make a slit on the lower side of the slope about an inch downwards, to
receive the tongue or wedge of the graft or scion. Secondly, having the
prepared scions cut into lengths of 3, 4, or 5 eyes, take one which
matches the stock in size, and slope the bottom of it so as to fit the
stock, that the rinds of both may correspond exactly, especially on one
side and at bottom; make also a slit upward in the graft, like that in
the slope of the stock, so as the one may be inserted in the other as
evenly and completely as possible. Let the graft be carefully held in
its due position, while a bandage is applied. Take strands of Russian
mat, and bind them in a neat manner several times round the stock and
graft. Lastly, cover the joint with well worked clay, coat from half an
inch below the bottom of the graft to an inch above the top of the
stock, and to the thickness of half an inch all round, finish it in an
oblong globular form, taking care to work it close, that no air may
penetrate. If the clay is covered with moss, it will partially prevent
it from cracking.

The grafts will have taken when they begin to grow freely; then the clay
may be taken off, and the bandage loosened, and put on again, but not so
tight; give the grafts a stake for support, tying them thereto to
prevent accidents from the wind. Allow no shoots to arise from the

Any of the rare deciduous trees may, by the above method, be grafted on
one of its own family, that is more common, and in that respect is the
finest species of propagation that is resorted to.



If the plants in these situations have been properly attended to by
admitting air at all favourable times, and when the apartment was below
36° a little fire heat applied to counteract the cold, keeping the heat
above that degree; your attention will be rewarded by the healthy
appearance of your plants. The weather by this time has generally become
milder, so that air may be more freely admitted, especially from ten to
three o'clock. Where the leaves are grown to one side, turn the plant
with the dark side to the light. They will require a more liberal supply
of water, but always avoid keeping them wet. Pick off all decayed
leaves, and tie up any straggling shoots; stir up the earth on the top
of the pots, breaking it fine where it is hardened by the frequent
waterings. This will allow the fresh air to act upon the roots, which is
one of the principal assistants in vegetation. For those that require
shifting or repotting, see _Green-house_, _March_; the plants enumerated
there equally apply here, if they are in the collection, with this
difference, that well kept rooms are about two weeks earlier than the
Green-house. After the end of this month, where there is a convenience,
plants will do better in windows that look to the east, in which the
direct rays of a hot sun are prevented from falling upon them, and the
morning sun is more congenial for plants in this country than the
afternoon sun. Where there is any dust on the leaves of any of them,
take a sponge and water, and make the whole clean, likewise divest them
of all insects. The green-fly is perhaps on the roses; if there are no
conveniences for fumigating, wash them off as previously directed. Where
there are only a few plants, these pests could be very easily kept off
by examining the plants every day. For the scaly insect, see _January_.
If they have not been cleared off, get it done directly; for by the heat
of the weather they will increase tenfold.


_Hyacinths_, _Tulips_, _Narcissus_, _Jonquils_, and _Crocus_, will be
generally in flower. The former requires plenty of water, and the
saucers under the pots should be constantly full until they are done
blooming. The others need only be liberally supplied at the surface of
the pot. Give them neat green-painted rods to support their flower
stems, and keep them all near the light. The spring flowering _Oxalis_
will not open except it is exposed to the full rays of the sun. The
_Lachenàlia_ is greatly improved in colour with exposure to the sun,
though when in flower its beauties are preserved by keeping it a little
in the shade.

_Prímulas_, or Primrose, both Chinese and European, delight in an airy
exposure; but the sun destroys the beauty of their flowers by making the
colours fade.

_Caméllias._ Many of them will be in perfection. See Green-house this
month for a description of the finest varieties. Do not let the sun
shine upon the blooms. Those that are done flowering, will, in small
pots, require to be repotted. The _Cálla_ or Æthopian water-lily, when
in flower, ought to stand in saucers with water.

The Hyacinths that are in glasses must be regularly supplied with water.
The roots will be very much reduced by this method; therefore, when the
bloom is over, if possible plant them in the garden, or bury them in
pots of earth, to ripen and strengthen the bulbs. They will take two
years with good encouragement, before they can satisfactorily be again
flowered in glasses, and properly they ought not be allowed to bloom
next year. Those that are done flowering in pots, can be set aside, and
the usual waterings gradually withdrawn. Treat all other Dutch bulbs in
a similar manner.



Where the Hot-house has been properly conducted, the plants generally
will have a vigorous and healthful aspect. An error frequently arises in
the conducting of these departments, by inexperienced operators being
ambitious of outstripping their competitors. They keep the house in a
very high temperature, and admit little or no air. Where such mode has
been pursued, the plants will have got over their first growth, and the
foliage look yellow and decaying, thus throwing the plants into a state
of inactivity, when nature herself commences her most active movements.
The temperature should not be under 60° nor much above 75°, without
admitting a little air by the top lights. It will not do yet to give air
by the front sashes, the wind being cool, and a current in the house
would be hurtful. The sun is not so powerful but the heat can be kept
down by the air given from above. In very cold cutting winds, though the
effects of sun heat be great, admitting of much air may be injurious.
Whatever error may arise, let it be on the side of caution. However,
when high winds prevail, there is little danger of the house becoming
overheated by the effect of the sun. Hot-house or tropical plants will
not be hurt with 110°, if they are not touching the glass. And if the
plants are near the glass generally, the glass should have a coat of
very thin white-wash (not lime), where the glass is thin and light in
colour; but if it is thick and green, there need be no white-washing.

The plants will need a liberal supply of water every day. We have so
constantly cautioned the operator on administering this element, that a
repetition here is unnecessary. Sprinkle them well with the syringe or
engine in the evenings about sundown, four or five times a week, and
strictly observe that none of them are omitted; for where there are
such, it is probable they are attacked by the red spider. If any of
these are detected, syringe them powerfully morning and evening. Water
is most effectual in their destruction, and most congenial to the
plants. Give regular fumigations to destroy the green-fly. Wherever
there is dust or foulness contracted on the foliage, wash all clean with
sponge and water; for on these insects are harboured in such quantities
that they, in a short time, would overrun all the plants in the house.
Keeping the house constantly clean, the plants clear of decayed leaves
and every thing of a corroding nature, and duly syringing them, is the
surest method of not being much troubled with insects.

For repotting plants, see next month; except those that you are
fostering to a great extent, such as _Alstr[oe]merias_, _Calceolàrias_,
or any herbaceous plants that require great encouragement to make them
flower well. These should always be repotted, as soon as the roots come
to be round the outside of the ball.



Regarding the shifting or repotting of plants, the directions given last
month may be followed. If the plants are not shifted that require it,
get them done as soon as possible, for they will soon get into a
luxuriant state of growth, and then it would not be advisable to shift
them. Those that were repotted last month will have taken fresh root in
the new soil, and the advantage will soon be perceptible. In order to
strengthen the plants, and keep them from becoming drawn and spindly,
admit large portions of air every mild day. Indeed there will be very
few days in this month, that a little air may not be given, always
observing to divide the quantity regularly over the house, in cool
nights closing in time. About the end of the month an abundance of air
is indispensable, leaving the sashes and doors open every mild night,
that the plants may be inured to the open exposure they will have in a
few weeks.


As the season advances and vegetation increases, the waterings will
require to be more copious and more frequent. Look over all plants
minutely every day, and with judicious care supply their wants. Those
that are of a soft shrubby nature, and in a free-growing state, will
require a larger portion at one time than those of a hard texture, which
may only want it every two or three days. The weather and situation in
some instances may require a modification of these directions. Plants in
general will not suffer so soon from being a little dry as from being
over-watered. The health and beauty of the foliage of the plants may be
much improved by syringing them freely three evenings in the week,
except in moist weather, when it ought not to be done. The ravages of
many insects also will be retarded, especially mildew and red spider,
which will be entirely destroyed. If the red spider is on any of the
plants, particularly take them aside evening and morning, and give them
a good dashing with water through the syringe. Where there is mildew,
after syringing the plant, dust it on the affected parts with flowers of
sulphur, and set them for a few days where they will be sheltered from
the wind, after which wash off the sulphur. If the cure is not complete,
renew the dose. Always sweep out and dry up the water in the house when
any is spilt. The succulent plants will be in want of a little water
about once a week, but do not overwater them, as there is not heat
enough to absorb much moisture. If the soil is damp, it is quite


Will in many instances about the end of this month be showing flowers or
flower buds. They must under these circumstances have plenty of air to
prevent them from falling off when entirely exposed. The reason that we
see so much fine blossom falling to the ground where the trees are
brought out of the house in May, is from the confinement they have had.
Where there is a convenience of giving air from the back of the
Green-house, it should always be given in mild days, especially in those
houses that have a recess back from the top of the sashes, for even if
the sashes are let down every day, still the house will not be properly
ventilated. Any plants that are sickly and intended to be planted in the
garden next month to renovate their growth, may be cut back, (if not
already done,) as far as is required to give the tree a handsome form,
taking care not to cut below the graft or inoculation. Let the operation
be done with a fine saw and sharp knife, smoothing the amputations that
are made by the saw; and if they are large, put a little well made clay
over the wound, to prevent the air from mortifying the shoot. Turpentine
is preferable to clay, not being subject to crack or fall off by the

If there are any _Lagerstr[oe]mias_, _Pomegranate_, or _Hydràngeas_ in
the cellar, they should be brought out about the first of the month, and
planted in their respective situations. Give the _Hydràngea_ a very
shady spot. It does not require one ray of the sun, providing it has
plenty of air, and do not plant it into soil that has been lately
manured. A large plant must have great supplies of water in dry weather.
If the plant is very thick, the oldest branches may be thinned out, but
do not cut out any of the young shoots, as they contain the embryo of
the flower. _Lagerstr[oe]mias_ will flower abundantly without pruning,
but to have fine large spikes of flowers, cut in the wood of last year
to about three eyes from the wood of the preceding year; by this they
will be much finer. _Pomegranates_ will only require a little of the
superfluous wood cut out. Perhaps some of them may be desired to flower
in pots or tubs during summer: the balls will admit of being much
reduced, and by this a pot or tub very little larger will do for them.
Do not give much water until they begin to grow.


If any of these have grown irregularly, and are not headed down or
otherwise pruned, as directed last month, they should now be done.
Oleanders are very subject to the white scaly insect, and before the
heat of summer begins, they should be completely cleansed. This insect
is likewise found on _Myrtles_, which are worse to clean, and ought to
be minutely examined twice every year. We have observed mildew on these
shrubs, which makes the foliage brown and unsightly. If it is detected
in time, syringing is an effectual remedy.


Some of the earliest blooming kinds of these will now begin to flower,
and the sun will greatly deteriorate their rich colours where they are
near the glass with a south aspect. The glass should be white-washed,
which will cast a thin shade over them, and prolong the duration of the
bloom, but if they are above five feet from the glass, white-washing is
not requisite. The strong kinds will be growing very luxuriantly, and
require liberal supplies of water. When syringing, do not sprinkle the
flowers, as it would make the colours intermingle with each other, and
cause them to decay prematurely. If they have been properly attended to
in that respect, it may be dispensed with after they have generally come
in flower, which will not be until about the first of May.


If any of the herbaceous plants were neglected to be divided last month,
do not omit it now. They will not flower so well if potted entire, and
their growth by this time will be much hurt, if not carefully shaded
from the sun. After dividing, sprinkle gently with water three times a
day, until they have taken fresh root, when they can be put amongst the
other plants.

_Cape Bulbs._ Those that flowered late in autumn, as soon as the foliage
begins to decay, may be set aside, and the water withheld by degrees.
When the foliage is entirely gone, and the roots dry, clear them from
the earth, and after laying exposed in the shade for a few days to dry,
pack them up in dry moss, with their respective names attached, until
August, when they may be again potted. Treat those that are in flower
the same as directed in last month.

_Dutch Roots._ All the species and varieties of these that have been
kept in the Green-house during winter, will now be done flowering; the
water should be withdrawn gradually from them; and then the pots turned
on their sides to ripen the bulbs. Or, a superior method is, where there
is the convenience of a garden, to select a bed not much exposed. Turn
the balls out of the pots and plant them; the roots will ripen better
this way than any other. Have them correctly marked, that no error may
take place. They can be lifted with the other garden bulbs.


The best situation for most plants while in flower, is where they are
shaded from the sun, and fully exposed to the air. _Primroses_, both
European and Chinese, flower best, and the colours are finest when the
plants are in the front of the house, and entirely shaded from the sun.
The Chinese _Azàleas_ and _Rhododéndrons_ require, while in flower, a
similar situation. Have all the shoots tied naturally to neat rods, and
keep them clear from others by elevating them on empty pots, or any
other substitute. See that there are no insect upon them; for they make
a miserable contrast with flowers. The _Cálla æthiopica_ should stand in
water when in flower, and even before flowering they will be much
strengthened by it.


Insects will on some plants be very perplexing. The weather may admit of
those that are infected to be taken out of doors, and put into a frame
in any way that is most convenient. Fumigating them about half an hour,
if the day is calm, will be sufficient; but if windy, they will take an
hour. When done, syringe them well, and put them in their respective
situations. By the above method, the house will not be made disagreeable
with the fumes of tobacco.

Tie up neatly all the climbing plants. Keep those that are running up
the rafters of the house close to the longitudinal wires. As previously
observed, running plants should not be taken across the house, except in
some instances where it can be done over the pathway, otherwise it
shades the house too much. Clear off all decayed leaves, and all
contracted foulness, that the house and plants may in this month have an
enlivening aspect, as it is undoubtedly one of the most interesting
seasons of the year in the Green-house.


Those that have been kept in the Green-house, or in frames, should be
planted into beds or the borders, where they will seed better than if
kept in the pots. The method generally adopted is to select the plants
that are intended for seed; plant the different kinds distinctly and
separately; then take a few double flowering plants of each kind, which
plant round their respective single varieties that are to be kept for
seed. Whenever any of the colours sport, that is, become spotted or
striped with other colours, pull these up, and destroy them, for they
will soon degenerate the whole, and ought never to be seen in
collections that have any pretensions to purity. Many have been the
plans recommended as the best for saving, and growing from seed the
double varieties of German stock. In every method we have tried we have
been successful and unsuccessful; although we generally practise
planting the double kinds beside the single, where they are intended for
seed. We have no scientific reason for it; not seeing what influence
these monsters of flowers can have over a flower where the male and
female organs are perfect; which in these are wanting. Some say that the
semi-double sorts are best: we have likewise found them both abortive
and fruitful in the desired results.

=Flower Garden.=


The ambition of every attentive gardener, during this month, is to be at
the head of every department, and over every spot. The operator's
activity in this month regulates the whole season. Every weed ought to
be cut down as soon as it appears, and the proverbial saying will be
realized, "a garden that is well kept is easily kept." A wet day need
cause no loss of time. Prepare rods, bands, and tallies, to be in
readiness when required. Damp weather should always be taken to prick
out or transplant annuals, or stocks, but by no means go on the borders
while they are wet. If it cannot be done by keeping on the walks, defer
it until they are in a proper state. One day of laborious attention just
now will save two in the heat of summer. Many in the height of bustle
never finish properly as they proceed, which is the worst of practices.
Every operation ought to be completely and properly finished before
another is taken in hand, which will ultimately prove the quickest and
best method to work upon.

Let digging, pruning, hoeing, raking, &c. be done as expeditiously as
strength will allow; that the time may be devoted for a few weeks to the
beautifying of the garden by sowing and planting.


Those that are tender and were sown last month, according to directions,
will be ready to prick out into another light hot-bed, about two feet
high, prepared as directed in February. Keep them a few inches apart to
let the air circulate. Give them frequent sprinklings with water, and
shade them with a mat for a few days until they have taken fresh root;
then give them plenty of air, and by the first of next month expose them
night and day to harden the plants for the open ground. A few of the
annual seeds of every description, and of every country and climate, may
be sown any time after the middle of the month. If the season prove
favourable they will do well; but reserving a part to sow about the 15th
of May, will guard against every extreme.

Those that have come above ground should be thinned out, the
dwarf-growing kinds to two or three inches, and the large sorts to four
or five inches apart; or they may be only separated about an inch, going
over them again in a few weeks; when a few might be taken of those that
will bear removing, and plant them in vacant spaces that require filling
up. All the varieties of French and African Marygold answer best when
transplanted, likewise the species of _Coreòpsis_ that were sown in
autumn. The varieties of _Ten-week Stock_, _Balsams_, _Coxcombs_, and
other strong growing sorts, generally flower stronger when replanted.


Any biennials that are intended to be removed, and not done last month,
must not be delayed longer. The roots of many of them will be very
strong, and if possible a cloudy day should be chosen for the operation.
Give copious waterings in the evenings until they begin to grow. When
the sun is strong, they must be shaded by a piece of board, shingle, or
any similar substitute, for some days. When the seeds of these are sown,
they should be distinctly marked. The initial B. is the most

_Perennials._ For a limited description of several genera and species,
see last month. Those that have not been divided and replanted, where
large, they should be done directly, if the weather is dry. They must be
carefully watered, and shaded as above directed for _Biennials_.


_Dáhlia supérflua_, or what is now called _Georgìana variábilis_, is one
of the most fashionable and popular hardy herbaceous plants of the
present day. The varieties of the present species are almost endless.
The double kinds only are cultivated, the single varieties having been
thrown aside. Several collections in Europe contain upwards of three
hundred double varieties, of every colour and taste, occupying more than
two acres of ground. It will be difficult to specify the finest; but in
this country the dwarf-growing sorts are preferred. To make them flower
freely, they should be planted in poor heavy soil. From the end of this
month to the middle of May, take the roots from their winter quarters to
the garden, and with a spade make a hole sufficiently wide and deep to
receive the crowns of the roots one inch deeper than the surface of the
ground, cutting off with a sharp knife the old stumps close to the eyes.
They have the finest effect in rows; plant them four feet apart in the
row, and the rows six feet asunder. Individual plants of a dwarf nature
look extremely well. The best one for this is the _Dwarf Globe Crimson_,
and is perhaps the finest that is known, being prolific, compact,
beautiful, and very dwarf, never exceeding three feet: if properly
grown, _Púlla elècta_, _Famæa_, and _Zenò_, are also fine dwarf sorts;
as tall growing kinds _Etna_; _Imperiòsa_; _Ciceró_; _Cocàde_;
_Cambridge Surprise_; _Dutchess of Wellington_; _Countess of Liverpool_;
_Barret's William Fourth_; _True Mountain of Snow_; _Diàna_; _Crimson
Bonnet_; and _Exímia_, are all superb, and at present the highest in
estimation. For the names of more of the finest varieties, with their
colour, see Catalogue at the end of the work.

When the roots become very large, they ought to be divided, and in dry
seasons they require to be liberally supplied with water to keep them
growing. If their growth is obstructed, the flowering will be imperfect.
Where they are grown to any extent, it would be advisable to put up a
large hot-bed about the end of March, and plant them close together
therein, about the beginning of April, which would immediately cause
them to grow. Give plenty of air, and about the middle of May plant them
in the borders, beds, or rows, which will in cool seasons cause them to
flower earlier.

The flowers are from three to eight inches in diameter. There ought to
be a few of the most distinct and superb varieties, in every garden.
Some individuals consider the _Anemoné-flowered_ varieties the finest;
but those who never saw a _Dáhlia_ flower of any character, would, in
our opinion, chose the large petaled flowers. The _Anemoné-flowered_
sorts likewise are not so large in flower as the other varieties.

The foliage has no particular attraction about it; the stems look
strong, but are soft in substance. If seeds are sown on a hot-bed in
March, most of them will flower the same year, by transplanting in the
garden about the end of May; but the fine double kinds seldom produce


From the first to the middle of this month is the best time to plant the
varieties of Chinese roses. If they are to be removed out of the ground,
the earlier in the month the better; but where they are in pots, the
precise time is not so material. There are about seventy varieties,
including the species of these in cultivation; all of them do extremely
well in this country, growing freely, and flowering abundantly in the
open air. A few of them require protection during winter. The List at
the end of the work will contain all the finest varieties; but as they
are not generally known, and the greater part of them highly deserving a
situation in every garden, a few limited specific observations is
obviously desirable to those who are not acquainted with their beauty
and fragrance.

No. 1. _Ròsa índica_, common China or daily. From the last name an error
has taken place, that it blooms every day. In one sense of the word it
does. Plants that are young, and in good ground, will grow and flower
constantly from the end of April until the buds are killed with frost;
but they will never flower when not growing; the bloom being produced on
the young wood. The flower is about three inches in diameter, of a dark
blush or rose colour, petals large, and loose, between a semi-double and
double, and perfectly hardy.

No. 2. *[B]_Rose Animated_, daily, is a very fine rose, and its merits
are appreciated by those who have it in their collections. It is more
double, and better formed than No. 1, and partakes of the fragrance of
No. 8, is perfectly hardy, colour a fine blush, grows freely, and
flowers abundantly; and is coming into great repute.

[B] Those marked thus * we have grown from seed.

No. 3. _Rosa Indìca mínor_, is the smallest of the China roses that we
are familiar with; about the end of April or beginning of May it is
completely covered with pretty little flowers, and much admired for its
diminutiveness: colour same as No. 1.

No. 4. _Rosa Bengal elongáta_, named from the foliage being more
elongate than the other common roses. It grows and flowers freely,
petals large, colour light red, very distinguishable from any of the
other sorts.

No. 5. _Rosa belle Chinese_, is a beautiful French rose, and blooms in
great abundance; flowers large and double, colour when first expanded
pink, and changes to crimson, making a striking appearance, and greatly

No. 6. _Rosa la tendere japonica_, an erect growing rose, of a handsome
purple colour, with large petals; much like the garden velvet rose.

No. 7. _Rosa belle vibert_, does not produce so large flowers as the
three last mentioned; but they are very double, blooming abundantly in
the latter part of summer; colour very dark, and by some called the
Black China Rose.

No. 8. _Rosa odoràta_, or Tea-rose, celebrated in this country for its
fragrance being similar to fine Hyson tea. It justly deserves the
preference of all the China roses, for the delicacy of its flavour. The
flowers are a cream coloured blush, the petals round and full, forming
a very large rose; when full blown, it is pendulous. It will withstand
the winter of the middle states with a little protection, such as straw,
box, or barrel; requires very rich light soil.

No. 9. _Rosa Florence_, or Scarlet-tea. This rose partakes of the
fragrance of No. 8, is perfectly hardy, grows freely, and flowers
profusely. The flower is well formed, very double, and a distinct
variety from any that we know. The flower is lightest when first

No. 10. _Rose, Purple-tea._ We have not found how this name has
originated: but when the plant known in our collections under that name
is compared, there is no difference between it and No. 9.

No. 11. _Rosa odoràta álba_, or White-tea, is not so odorous as No. 8,
but blooms more profusely, and grows more freely. The beautiful and neat
appearance of the buds, when half expanded, is not surpassed; and when
full blown, they are a fine delicate white. The bush in that state is
showy, much admired, and scarce; we are not positive of its being hardy.

No. 12. _Rosa Bengal_, or Yellow-tea, is a very free flowerer, the shape
of the flower is more like No. 8. than any of the others; the petals are
large and gracefully set, having a peculiar scent or flavour, and is of
a sulphur colour. We cannot say as to its being hardy, but suppose it as
much so as No. 8.

No. 13. _Rosa Venella_, or Venella Scented-tea, is undoubtedly a
handsome rose, and has many admirers; colour a bloody velvet; flowers
large and very double, rising in the centre more than any of the others;
blooming freely, and of pleasant flavour; rendering it altogether a
desirable rose.

No. 14. _Rosa belle de monza._ The flower of this rose is flatter than
any of the other sorts; the petals are regularly laid over each other,
making it very compact; it is about four inches in diameter when well
grown; the plant is of quick growth, free in flowering, darker in colour
than No. 1, equally as hardy, and ought to have a situation in every
garden where roses are grown.

No. 15. _Rosa amaránthe_, is a showy brilliant scarlet rose, flower
compact, and of a moderate size.

No. 16. *_Rosa Clintónia_, is a good rose, and in a favourable situation
will produce abundantly large, round, and compact flowers, differing in
shape from any of the others; colour similar to the provins rose.

No. 17. _Rosa semperflòrens plèno_, or sanguinea, is a celebrated rose,
the foliage small, and of a reddish appearance. The flower is well
shaped, and of a blood colour; wood of a slender growth, requires some
protection in winter, or it will die to the surface of the ground;
delights in sandy soil. This rose is frequently called anemone-flowered,
though in no respects similar to the character of an anemone-flower. The
_Otaheite_ rose is of the same colour, but very inferior.

No. 18. *_Rosa purple sanguinea_, is of a purple colour, same in shape
as No. 17, but in size larger; is a good flowerer, making a fine
variety. We do not know any similar to it.

No. 19. _Rosa grandvàl_, is a magnificent rose; flower full and large,
petals closely set, colour dark crimson. The wood and leaves are like
the _Hamilton_ rose, but it grows and flowers more freely. It is scarce.

No. 20. _Rosa Indica álba plèno_, or white China, is a rose of free
growth, abundant in flower, and pure white, which renders it very
desirable; is larger than No. 1, is greatly admired, and rare; requires
rich light soil.

No. 21. _Rosa Magnifier_, _magnificent_, or _magnìfica_. It is known
under all these names. The general appearance of the plant resembles No.
19, but the flowers in shape and colour are similar to the garden
Provins rose, and nearly as large.

No. 22. *_Rosa florabùnda multiplèx_. This rose is very correctly named,
although the plant is of a moderate stature. The whole is covered with
immense clusters of various coloured flowers, changing from pink to dark
crimson; the flowers very double, and greatly admired.

No. 23. *_Rosa flamæa_, has a very striking appearance, is of a flame
colour, and distinct from any other of the China roses; blooms freely,
and is a little fragrant, which makes it desirable.

No. 24. *_Rosa Hibbèrtia_, is a superb rose of a light red colour;
flower of a common size, double and compact, very fragrant, and abundant
in bloom. The buds are of a particular shape, being flat at the
extremity where others are pointed. It is highly deserving of a
situation, and universally admired.

No. 25. *_Rosa Jacksónia_, is deep red, large, and very double, of
luxuriant growth; is more spiny and elastic than any of the China roses
that have come under our observation. The plant altogether is unique in
its character, and flowers profusely.

No. 26. _R. Adamsônia_, is dwarf growing; has flowers of a beautiful
purple velvet colour, inclining to black; and is much admired. When well
grown, it will bloom freely.

No. 27. *_Rosa Webestèria._[C] None of the China roses approaches this,
except _Hortensia_, and it is much inferior. The rose is very double,
and particularly well formed; colour similar to No. 8, with a beautiful
rich blush in the centre, flowing to the extremity of the petals. It
blooms profusely, and grows freely in light rich soil.

[C] Named in honour of D. Webster, Esq. whose productions deserve a
place in every library; and this plant a spot in every garden.

No. 28. _Rosa gigántea._ Without exception, this is the handsomest
shaped China rose that has come under our observation, the colour dark
crimson, with a few shades through it. The centre is full set; petals
regular and large, the flower very double, plant strong, growing and
free blooming--it is scarce.

No. 29. _Rosa Washington_,[D] is a very good and distinct variety; the
foliage is pale green with red nerves; flower full and compact, the
extremity of the petals dark red, the bottom white; showing, when the
flower is full expanded, a white centre, and is frequently a little
striped; grows well, and blooms freely, in light sandy soil.

[D] Originated on the substantial establishment of D. & C. Landreth, and
called by them "Scarlet and White."

No. 30. *_Rosa calyxifòlia_. The calyx of this rose has large leaflets
attached to it. It blooms very early, and is of a deep crimson colour,
with recurved petals, which give it a singular and beautiful appearance.
The young shoots and leaves are of a purple hue. It grows and flowers
freely, and is quite characteristic, and surpasses any we know for
flowering early in the Green-house or Rooms.

No. 31. _Rosa Montezùma_ (Mexican-rose.) This is an esteemed variety,
with large double flowers of a red colour, and when the flowers begin to
fade they become darker; it is of a strong growing and hardy nature,
much admired, and scarce.

No. 32. _Rosa horténsia._ The buds of this rose are very beautiful
before expansion, and when fully expanded, are of a fine colour,
assimilated to No. 8; flowers large in proportion to the growth of the

       *       *       *       *       *

These roses are all of a shrubby nature, and the finest flowering
varieties that have come under our observation and culture. The China
roses generally are not completely double, though going under the name
of double flowers, and having the appearance of such. Those that are
mentioned above as _double_ and _very double_ are those that are more
double than No. 1, which is a rose that is generally known. The whole of
them are much admired, and being now of great variety in colour, shade
and aspect, constitute a valuable addition to the Flower-garden. A bed
of varieties planted therein in good light rich soil, and well dressed
by hoeing deep, raking, &c. during the early stage of their growth every
season, will form an ornament varied in colour, unrivalled, and as yet
not found in our Flower-gardens. Their nature agrees so well with our
summer seasons, that it will not surprise us to see, in a few years,
selections of them planted in rows or hedges, dividing the compartments
in our gardens.

They are all hardy, but of those that are not perfectly so, we have
mentioned the required protection. Any of them that have not been proved
hardy in your collections, it would be extremely injudicious to leave
them exposed the first winter after planting out. Caution is necessary
on every unknown point; therefore, we would recommend to give them
slight protection, by a covering of straw, mats, boxes, &c. and if they
appear to withstand the winter in perfect safety, they will not need
again to be covered.

The best season of the year for pruning them is about the first of this
month. In doing so it is not advisable to shorten any of the young
shoots, except in cutting off the injured parts, that being the wood
most productive of bloom; but where there is old stinted wood, it should
be cut out as close to the surface of the ground as the other parts of
the bush will permit, with any other of the oldest wood that is too
crowded. If the plants have been long established, dig in amongst their
roots a little well decomposed manure, and stir and hoe them frequently
during the summer.


No. 1. _Rosa Champneyàna._ This celebrated rose has a situation in
almost every garden in our city, and forms a great ornament, flowering
very profusely in immense clusters from May to November. Many of these
having more than thirty buds upon them of a light pink colour, it is
sometimes called "Pink Cluster." It is of rapid growth, and does well
for covering arbours, fences, or any unsightly object. The foliage is of
a lucid green, and the wood very strong in growth. This rose is at
present one of the most abundant in flower, the easiest of cultivation,
(growing in any exposure,) and in every respect is highly deserving of

No. 2. _Rosa blush Noisettià_ is very similar to No. 1. in habit; the
flowers are lighter in colour, and a little larger; but the plant does
not flower so profusely during the heat of the season. There is a
variety of _Noisettia_ in our gardens, known from this by the bud being
more rounded, and another under the name of _Charles 10th_, which has
fine large flowers of a dark blush colour.

No. 3. _Rosa red Noisettià_, or what we consider more properly _Scarlet
cluster_. It is very distinct from any other of the Noisettias in habit.
It is an excellent variety, and blooms abundantly; of a scarlet colour;
forming a fine contrast with the two last, which are light in colour,
and though not generally known is very desirable.

No. 4. _Rosa moschàta_, musk-scented, or white cluster, is an esteemed
rose both for profusion of flower and agreeableness in fragrance. It is
not of so rapid growth as the three previous, and may be kept as a bush;
though it will grow to a considerable height if protected by a wall or
close fence, being tacked thereto. Where kept as a bush, in very severe
winters, it is the better of a slight covering, and is the latest
flowering rose in the garden. The flowers are frequently on the same
bush single, semi-double, and double, but mostly semi-double.

No. 5. _Rosa moschàta supérba_, or superb white cluster. This in habit
and appearance is the same as No. 4, only the roses are double, and
never vary; which makes it a very superior rose. It is highly esteemed
and scarce.

No. 6. _Rosa Aralie Noisettià._ This has been called by some _Purple
Noisettià_, (which is a very different rose, and not generally known.)
In growth it is similar to No. 4, and could be kept in the same manner.
The flowers are of a dark pink colour, very prolific, but not so large
as No. 2.

These are all what are termed with us ever-blooming roses, being in
flower from May until the buds are destroyed by frost. They should be
pruned about the first of this month. The young wood is most productive
of bloom; where the branches are too crowded, cut out the oldest wood as
close to the ground as is practicable, and any of the dead branches. The
shoots when tied to the trellis, arbour, wall, or fence, should be about
six inches clear. The branches when made fast to their support ought to
be in direct lines, which must at all times be strictly observed. It is
very unsightly to see shoots trained crooked, or over each other, and,
unsightly or unscientifical as it may be, it is too prevalent in every

No. 7. _R. Bourbòn_ is a double rose of brilliant red colour, petals
large, stiff, and neatly set; the flower about the size of a common
Provins rose, and finely scented; grows freely. The wood is strong, and
undoubtedly it is the finest climbing rose that has come under our
observation, and is highly admired.

No. 8. R. _Boursault_. This rose is much thought of in Europe. It is of
a purple colour (and once called _Purpurea_), has a little fragrance,
flower nearly the size of No. 7; wood more slender, and of very rapid
growth, and capable of covering a large space. When in flower it is very
showy. The old wood is of a purple colour. There is a white variety of

No. 9. R. _Lisle_, is of a light pink colour, about the shape and size
of No. 8, grows freely, and flowers abundantly. This and No. 8. are the
hardiest climbing roses that we know.

No. 10. R. _microphylla_. This rose is unique in every character,
resembling No. 21. more than any other. The foliage is very small and
neat, and the calyx thick and bristly. The flowers are produced at the
extremity of the young shoots in twos or threes, according to the
strength of the plant; they are large and double; the exterior petals
large and full; those of the interior are very short and thick set; the
colour in the centre is dark, shading lighter towards the exterior; the
spines are in pairs on each side of the compound leaves. It is perfectly
hardy, and greatly esteemed, and not so subject to be attacked by
insects as other roses.

No. 11. R. _Franklinia_, or Cluster-tea, generally flowers well in May
and June, but during the remainder of the season the heat appears to be
too strong for it, the buds dropping off before expansion. The flower
bud is larger than that of the Tea-rose; the petals large but loose,
colour light blush.

No. 12. R. _Bánksiæ_, or Lady Banks' rose, is a free growing kind, and
has a lucid green foliage; flowers small white clusters with pink
centre, very double, and sweet scented; in bloom during May. From what
we have seen of it, the spring months appear too changeable for
perfecting all its bloom, many falling off from the chilliness of the
nights. The plant naturally is an evergreen, but in our city is
deciduous; grows best in sandy soil, and should be protected by mats
during winter.

No. 13. R. _Bánksiæ lùtea pléno_. The habit and foliage of this are the
same as No. 12, and whether hardy or not we have not proved. In Europe
it is considered more hardy than the preceding variety. The flowers are
larger, of a fine gold yellow, very double, and neatly set. It is
considered very pretty.

No. 14. R. _multiflòra_, was amongst the first climbing roses that was
planted in this city, and was so highly admired, that twenty dollars
were given for one plant. It bears its flowers in close clusters on the
wood of last year; the colour is a deep blush; petals thickly set,
making it a close and compact small rose; blooming in June. It is losing
its celebrity, and giving place to _Champnèy_, _Noisèttia_, _Grevìllii_,

No. 15. R. _white multiflòra_. In all respects same as No. 14, except in
flower, which is much lighter, but not a pure white.

No. 16. R. _scarlet multiflòra_, is darker in colour than No. 14, but is
not properly a scarlet flower.

No. 17. R. _purple multiflòra_. We suspect that there is some confusion
in this plant being confounded either with _Scarlet multiflòra_ or with
_Grevìllii_. Plants imported as such have proved to be the latter.

No. 18. R. _Grevìllii_, is a very curious rose, flowered the first time
with us in June 1830. It is of the variety of No. 14, and of China
origin; growth free and luxuriant; leaves large and deeply nerved;
flowers in large clusters, almost every eye of the wood of last year
producing one cluster, having on it from eight to twenty roses,
according to the state of the plant, each rose expanding differently in
colour or shade. Many suppose that they expand all of the same colour,
and change afterwards. This is not the case. We have seen them white,
pink, red, purple, and various other shades when the bloom expanded; and
on two clusters we have observed twenty-two distinct shades of colour.
In fact, it is a complete nondescript, having roses, single,
semi-double, and double, large and small, and every colour between white
and purple, forming, in every garden where it is planted, a wonder of
the vegetable world. It is very hardy; an eastern aspect will answer it
best, preserving the flowers from the direct rays of the sun, which will
keep the colours purer. We readily recommend it to every lover of

No. 19. R. _arvénsis scándens multiplèx_, or double Ayrshire. We
imported this rose last year, as being a very double blush,
sweet-scented variety. It is highly valued, and said to be more rapid
in growth than any other variety, and likewise a profuse flowerer. As
far as we know it remains to be proved how it will agree with our
climate, and have its high characters substantiated; although we have no
reason to doubt the authority we received it from.

No. 20. R. _sempervírens plenò_. This is a most handsome double white
rose. The strong shoots of last year will produce a large cluster of
flowers from almost every eye, and as a profuse flowering double white
climbing rose we have seen none to surpass it. It grows freely, the
foliage and wood pure green, leaves much nerved.

No. 21. R. _bracteàta plenò_, double Macartney, is a very fine large
double white variety, with strongly marked red edged petals; blooming
from May to July. It is very scarce, and grows best in sandy soil.

The best time for pruning those roses which only bloom once in the
season, and are of a climbing habit, is immediately after flowering,
cutting out all the old wood that has produced flowers, thereby
invigorating the young wood that is to bear the flowers the ensuing
year; and the stronger the wood of this year can be made to grow, the
finer and more profuse will be the flowers. The plants of Nos. 12, 14,
18, and the intermediate varieties, have been pruned on a wrong system.
In place of giving them a general dressing in spring, they ought to have
it immediately after flowering; the old wood cut out, leaving only the
young and such as is of a healthy nature. Avoid crowding them together,
and tie them all straight and regular. Never top the shoots except
where there is a supply of wood wanted. In spring the only dressing
requisite is to cut off the injured shoots or branches, making good the
tyings that have given way.

Trellises for these roses are generally made too wide; the shoots cannot
be neatly kept to them. They ought never to exceed nine inches between
each spar or rod.

There are several species and varieties of climbing roses of high
standing in character, but not being perfectly known to us in regard to
hardiness, &c. we forbear making any remarks upon them, knowing that
much exaggeration exists.


As shade is much required in this country, and plants suitable for
covering arbours, &c. eagerly sought for, we will make a few remarks on
those which are preferred for their beauty, growth, hardiness, &c.

_Atragène alpìna_, is a free growing deciduous shrub, with large
blush-coloured flowers, which continue blooming from May to July; has
small pinnated foliage.

_Clématis viticélla pulchélla_, or double purple virgin's bower, is an
esteemed climbing plant; of rapid growth, with large flowers in great
profusion from June to September. There are several varieties of the
above, two of them single, and it is said that there is likewise a
double red.

_C. flámmula_, sweet scented virgin's bower, is of very rapid growth.
Established plants will grow from twenty to forty feet in one season,
producing at the axils of the young shoots large panicles of small white
flowers of exquisite fragrance; the leaves are compound pinnate; in
bloom from June to November, but in June, July, September, and October,
the flowers are in great profusion, perfuming the whole garden. This is
one of the best climbing hardy plants that we know, and it ought to have
a situation in every garden.

_C. Virgiàna_, is of rapid growth, and well adapted for arbours; flowers
small white in axillary panicles, di[oe]cious, leaves ternate, segments
cordate, acute, coarsely toothed and lobed, in bloom from June to
August. A native, and a little fragrant.

_C. flòrida plenò_, is a fine free flowering plant, though generally
considered a shrub, is more herbaceous than shrubby; the flowers are
large double white; in growth will not exceed ten feet in one season.

_Glycine frutéscens_, a beautiful native climbing shrub, known in our
gardens under that name, but is properly _Wistèria frutéscens_. It has
large pendulous branches of blue (leguminose) flowers, blooming from May
to August; pinnated leaves with nine ovate downy leaflets; grows freely.

_Glycine chinénsis_, is given to Wistèria, and is the finest climbing
shrub of the phaseolious tribe. The flowers are light blue, in long
nodding many-flowered racemose spikes, blooming from May to August
profusely; leaves pinnated, with eleven ovate lanceolate silky leaflets,
and is of a very rapid growth. We are not certain if it will withstand
our winters without protection.

_Bignònia crucígera_, is an evergreen which is very desirable in many
situations, being likewise of luxuriant growth. It will cover in a few
years an area of fifty feet; flowers of an orange scarlet colour,
blooming from May to August.

_B. grandiflòra_, now given to _Tecôma_, has large orange coloured
flowers, blooming from June to August, and grows very fast. We are not
positive that it will stand our winters without protection.

_B. rádicans_, is likewise given to _Tecòma_, and is a native plant.
When in flower it is highly ornamental, but it requires great attention
to keep it in regular order, being of a strong rough nature; in bloom
from June to August.

_Periplàca græca_, is a climber of extraordinary growth. Well
established plants grow thirty or forty feet in one season; flowers in
clusters from May to July, of a brownish yellow colour, and hairy
inside; leaves smooth, ovate, lanceolate, wood slender, twining, and

_Hedéra Hélix_, Irish Ivy, is a valuable evergreen for covering naked
walls, or any other unsightly object. The foliage is of a lively green,
leaves from three to five angled. There are several varieties of it, all
valuable for growing in confined shady situations where no other plant
will thrive.

_Ampelópsis hederàcea._ This plant is commonly employed for covering
walls, for which the rapidity of its growth, and the largeness of the
leaves, render it extremely appropriate. There are several species of
the genus, all resembling the _Vine_ in habit and in flower.

It is called by some _Císsus hederàcea_, which is certainly improper,
this belonging to _Tetandria_, and the former to _Pentandria_.

There are several other plants of a climbing habit, both curious and
ornamental; but our limits will not admit of a detail.


Finish planting all deciduous shrubs in the early part of the month.
These plants are generally delayed too long, the leaves in many
instances are beginning to expand, thereby giving a check to the
ascending sap, which we may safely assert causes the death of one third
of the plants, when perhaps the operator or some individual more
distantly concerned is blamed.

These shrubs, if properly removed and planted at the exact starting of
vegetation, pressing the earth close to their roots when planting,
(previously taking care that the small fibres have not become dry by
exposure,) will not, by these simple attentions, one out of fifty fail.
Those that are late planted should have frequent waterings, and if
large, firmly supported, that the wind may have no effect in disturbing
the young and tender fibrous roots.


Now is the season to plant all kinds of evergreen trees and shrubs. In
most seasons the middle of the month is the most proper time, the
weather then being mild and moist; or if a late season, defer it to the
end of the month. When planted earlier, they will remain dormant until
this time, and their tender fibrous roots in that case frequently perish
from their liability to injury from frost or frosty winds, being more
susceptible of such injury than fibres of deciduous plants. They now
begin to vegetate, which is the _grand criterion_ for transplanting any
plant. The buds begin to swell, the roots to push, and if they can be
quickly lifted and replanted, they will hardly receive a check. At all
events care must be taken that they are not long out of the ground and
exposed to the air, which greatly assists the success in planting. It
may be observed that evergreens in general succeed the better the
smaller they are, although we have seen plants, trees, and evergreens,
successfully lifted upwards of thirteen feet high and fifteen in
diameter, and carried several miles. By the second year there was no
appearance that such operation had taken place. In preparing a hole for
the reception of these plants, make it larger than the roots, breaking
the bottom thereof fine, and putting in some fresh soil. Place the plant
upright in the centre, putting in the earth and breaking it fine, and
give the plant a few gentle shakes. When the roots are more than half
covered, put in a pot or pail full of water, allowing it to subside,
then cover all the roots, give a second or third pail full, and when
subsided the earth will be close to all the roots. Cover with more
earth, pressing all firm with the foot. Put more soil loosely on, which
will give it a finished appearance, and prevent it from becoming dry,
and not requiring mulching, which has an unsightly appearance. All that
the wind will have any hurtful effect upon, must be firmly supported,
especially large plants. If the weather sets in dry and hot, they should
be watered as often as necessity shall direct.

Those that are established, it will be necessary to go over them (if not
already done) to cut off all wood killed in winter, and also to thin
them if too thick and crowded.

When the above is done, let every part of the shrubbery be dressed off
as directed in _March_. Shrubs of all kinds will now begin to look gay
and lively, which may be very much heightened or depreciated, according
to the state in which the ground and contiguous walks are kept. Always
keep in view that weeds are no objects of beauty.


_Hyacinths_ of the earliest sorts will begin to expand and show their
colours, of which we can boast of a few as fine sorts in the vicinity of
Philadelphia, as in any garden of Europe; but even these very superior
sorts, when in bloom, are too frequently neglected, being allowed to
stand without rods, stakes, or any means of support, likewise equally
exposed to drenching rains and scorching suns; and the finest
collections may be seen after heavy rains prostrate on the ground,
whereas a few hours' trouble would give them the requisite support,
thereby preserving their beauty much longer, and giving more
gratification. As soon as the stems advance to any height, they should
be supported by wires, rods, &c. and tied slightly thereto with threads
of matting, or any other substitute, repeat the tying as they advance,
avoid tying amongst the florets, because they grow by extension, and are
liable to be broken off by so doing. The sun deteriorates the colours
very much, especially the red, blue, and yellow sorts; whereas if they
were simply protected from the sun by an awning of thin canvass, the
colours would be preserved and the beauty protracted. If there are
stakes drove into the ground on each side of the beds, about three feet
high, with others in the centre about eight feet, having laths or hoops
from the side to the centre, formed similar to the roof of a house, so
that people may walk or sit under it, the canvass or awning being thin
to admit of the light freely, the effect in the time of sunshine from
the brilliancy of the colours is peculiarly gratifying. Where an awning
is thus erected, it requires to be kept on only from nine to three
o'clock in sunshine days, and during nights or time of rain, allowing
the awning on the most northern side to come close to the ground when
necessary, to shelter them from cold cutting winds.

_Tulips_ in every respect should have the same care and protection,
never neglecting to have the beds with a smooth clean surface, and the
stems neatly tied up, although they are not in so much danger as

The properties of a good Hyacinth are, viz--the stem strong and erect,
the florets or bells occupying one half of the stem, each floret
suspended by a short strong footstalk, longest at the bottom, the
uppermost floret quite erect, so that the whole may form a pyramid. Each
floret well filled with petals rising towards the centre, that it may
appear to the eye a little convex. Regarding colour, fancy does not
agree, and the scrupulous cultivators differ materially. However the
more pure and bright the finer, or a white with a pink centre, or the
centre of the petals with a paler or deeper colour appearing striped,
which is considered to have a good effect.

Those of a good _Tulip_ are--the stem strong, elastic, and erect, about
two feet high, the flower large and composed of six petals, proceeding a
little horizontally at first, and then turning upwards, forming a
flat-bottomed cup, rather widest at the top; the three exterior petals
should be larger than the three interior ones, and broader at their
base; the edges of the petals entire, free from notch or ruggedness; the
top of each well rounded; the colour of the flower at the bottom of the
cup ought to be pure, white, or yellow, and the rich coloured stripes
which are the principal ornament should be pure, bold, regular, and
distinct on the margin, and terminate in fine points elegantly
pencilled. The centre of each petal should have one bold stripe, or
blotch of rich colouring. The ground colours that are most esteemed are
white, the purer the finer; or, on the other hand, the dark grounds, and
of course the darker the better; but these vary in estimation, according
to the prevailing taste of amateurs.


Moist weather and frequent showers are highly essential to the
perfecting of these flowers, and if these should fail at this season of
the year, artificial means must be used to supply the deficiency. Take
a watering-pot without the rose, and run the water (river or rain water
is best) gently between the rows, taking care not to make holes in the
ground. When they have got a good watering at root, take the syringe and
give them a gentle sprinkling in fine evenings, observing not to use
force for fear of breaking the flower stems. In dry weather the result
of a deficiency of water would be that the stems and flowers of the
strongest roots will be weak, and make no progress, and many of them
will not bloom; the foliage of a sickly, yellow appearance, from which
they would not recover; and the roots when taken up of little use for
farther transplanting.

A good plan in dry seasons is to cover the ground between the rows with
cow manure, which will prevent the moisture from evaporating, and the
rain or water passing through it greatly enriches the soil, and
strengthens the roots.


Having under this head last month given ample directions for the
treatment of these plants previous to flowering, we refer to that head
to avoid repetition.


If any of these were omitted to be shifted last month, or planted out
according to directions therein given, let it be done forthwith. Where
they are still protected with frames, give them plenty of air, keeping
the sashes entirely off during the day, keep the pots perfectly free
from weeds, and give the foliage frequent sprinklings with water.

_Polyanthus_ and _primroses_ will be exhibiting their beautiful flowers.
They require the same treatment, and delight in moisture and a shaded
situation. Do not sprinkle them while in flower, and keep them clear of
weeds or decayed leaves, never exposing them to the sun. They are very
hardy, and where required may be planted in very shady situations, for
they will suffer more from the influence of the sun's rays than from
frost. Those plants in pots in general that have been protected in
frames, and are destined for the borders, should now as soon as possible
be planted in their destined situations, having nothing to fear from
chilling winds or frosts after the middle of this month, except in
uncommon seasons. Those that are to be kept in pots, if not repotted, do
it immediately, and give regular supplies of water.


This very popular bulb, generally known as _Tuberose_, has been
cultivated in England upwards of two centuries, whence we no doubt have
received it, and now can return those of our production to supply their
demand. The flowers are many and highly odoriferous, and of the purest
white, and on a flower stem from three to five feet high. To have them
in the greatest perfection, they should be planted in a lively hot-bed,
about the first of this month in six inch pots filled with light rich
earth, giving very little water until they begin to grow, when they
ought to be liberally supplied with plenty of air, and about the end of
next month they may be planted in the borders, providing a spot for them
that is or has been well worked, and enriched with well decomposed
manure. Secure their flower stems to proper rods. Previous to planting
the roots, all the off-sets should be taken off and planted separately;
keep the crown of the bulb level with the surface of the pot, and when
they are replanted in the open ground, put them two inches deeper.

But when the convenience of a hot-bed cannot be obtained, they will
succeed very well if planted about the end of this month or first of
next in the garden, in a bed of earth prepared for their reception. Let
it be dug deep, and make the soil light and rich, by giving it a good
supply of manure two years old, well broken and incorporated with the
earth, adding a little sand where the soil is heavy. The black earth
from the woods produced from decayed leaves is equally as good without
sand. Having the ground in proper order, draw drills about two and a
half inches deep, and eighteen inches apart; plant the bulbs (after
divesting them of their off-sets) nine inches apart in the row, covering
the crown of the bulb about an inch and a half. When done, carefully
rake and finish off the beds. When they shoot up their flower stems,
give them neat rods for their support. Plant the off-sets in closer rows
to produce flowering roots for next year, because they seldom flower the
second time.


About the end of this or beginning of next month, is the most proper
time for planting out these bulbs. This flower is of the most beautiful
and rich crimson velvet colour. The bulb generally produces two stems,
the one after the other, about the end of May or first of June. The stem
is from nine inches to one foot high, surmounted by a single flower,
composed of six petals, three hanging down, three erect and recurved;
the stamens droop on the centre of the under petals. The flower thus
appears nodding on one side of the stem, and has a most graceful and
charming appearance. If planted in a bed, prepare the ground as before
directed for _Tuberoses_. Keep the rows one foot asunder, and the bulbs
six inches apart in the rows, covering them two inches over their
crowns. This plant is now called _Spreikèlia formosíssima_, and we think
properly too, for its habit differs from _Amaryllis_.

We have not the smallest doubt that in a few years, not only this superb
South American bulb will adorn our flower gardens, but many of the rich
bulbs of Brazil and South America generally will yearly exhibit to us
the beauty of their colours and the beautiful construction of their
flowers and foliage, of which we are now generally deprived, perhaps
because we have not the conveniency of a proper hot-house for their
protection during winter. But it will be found, in many instances, that
these bulbs will do perfectly well to be kept dry in a warm room from
October to May, when the heat of our summer is sufficient for the
perfection of their flowers, and many species will ripen their seeds.
The bulb that is known as _Amaryllis Belladónna_, now called _Belladónna
purpuráscens_, is hardy.


_Tigrídia_, a genus of Mexican bulbs belonging to _Monadelphia
Triándria_, and produce the most beautiful flowers of the natural order
of _Irideæ_. _T. pavònia_ is of the brightest scarlet, tinged and
spotted with pure yellow. _T. conchiiflòra_, colour rich yellow, tinged
and spotted with bright crimson. The colours are very rich, and purely
contrasted. The corolla is about four inches in diameter, composed of
six petals; the outer are reflexed, the flower of the largest, though
splendid in beauty, exists only one day; but to compensate for that, a
plant will produce flowers for several weeks; and where a bed of them
can be collected, they will bloom in profusion from July to September.
They like a light rich free soil. Lift the bulbs in October, and
preserve them as directed in that month for _Tuberoses_. Be sure that
they be kept dry, and secure from frost. A bed of these should be in
every garden. A writer says, "it is the most beautiful flower that is
cultivated." Plant them about the end of this or first of next month; if
in beds keep them one foot apart each way.


The walks in general should be put in the neatest order during this
month. Little requires to be added to the observations of last month,
but if these have not been executed, fail not to have it done the first
opportunity, choosing dry weather for the operation of _turning_ the old
or adding new gravel to them, levelling, raking, and rolling neatly as
you proceed. Always after rain give the whole of the gravel walks a good
rolling. This being frequently done during the early part of the season,
will be a saving of much labour and time through the summer. The walks
having a firm surface, the growth of weeds will be retarded, and the
heavy rains will not be so apt to injure them. Where there are any
pretensions to keeping these in order, they ought to be picked of weeds
and litter once a week, and gone over with the roller at least once
every two weeks during the season.

Sweep and divest the grass walks of all worm casts, litter, &c. cutting
the edgings neatly. Mow the grass every two weeks from this time to
October, sweeping off the grass clean each time, and give frequent
rollings to keep the surface smooth. If any require to be laid with
turf, delay it no longer. For directions see last month. The above
observations on walks in general, will apply through the season;
therefore we will not repeat this subject until October.


We have previously observed, under the head of Evergreens, that this is
the best season for their replanting. We cannot pass over the
observations of this month, without having reference to evergreen
hedges, so much neglected amongst us, and yet so important to the
diversity of aspect, and especially to soften a little the gloomy
appearance of our winters. There are three indigenous shrubs, and at
least one exotic, that are well adapted for the purpose, viz, _Pìnus
canadénsis_, Hemlock-spruce; _Thùja occidentàlis_, American arbor-vitæ;
and _Juníperis virginiána_, Red cedar. These are natives, and the two
former are admirably adapted for the purpose. Where there is to be a
hedge of any of these planted, select plants about two feet high; lift
them carefully, preserving the roots as much as possible. Dig a trench
from one and a half to two feet wide, and from one to one foot and a
half deep. This will admit the soil about the roots to be well broken,
which must be done in planting. Keep the plants in the centre of the
trench, mixing the shortest and the tallest, that it may be of one
height, putting the earth close about their roots as you proceed, and
make it firm with the foot; fill up, and water as directed for
evergreens in this month. If the season is very dry, give it frequent
copious waterings.

None of them should be topped for a few seasons, except such as are much
above the others in height, keeping the sides regular and even by
clipping or shearing once a year, either in this month or at the end of
August. It is better to keep the top (when they have got to the desired
height) pointed, than broad. The latter method retains a heavy weight of
snow, which frequently breaks down, or otherwise deforms, that which has
cost much labour to put into shape.


Where these have not been laid, this month is the proper time. Do not
delay the planting of such any later. For ample directions see _March_
under this head. Clipping of those should be done about the middle of
this month. There will then be no danger of frosts to brown the cut
leaves, and the young foliage will not be expanded. To keep these
edgings in order, they must be cut once a year, and never be allowed to
get above four inches high, and two inches wide. What we consider the
neatest edging is three inches high, two inches wide at the bottom,
tapering to a thin edge at the top. It is very unsightly to see large
bushy edgings, especially to narrow walks.

The use of edgings is to keep the soil from the gravel, and the larger
they are allowed to grow the more ineffectual they become; growing more
open below as they advance in height. The operation may be done very
expeditiously by clipping the tops level, going longitudinally along
with shears for the purpose, called "box shears." Strain a line along
the centre of the edgings, cutting perpendicularly from the line to the
bottom on each side, leaving only the breadth of the line at top.
Edgings, cut in this manner, every spring will always look well, and the
trouble, comparatively, is a mere trifle.


If these have not been laid down where wanted, delay it no longer, for
which see directions in _March_; and where these are desired to be kept
in order, they should be mown every two or three weeks at farthest; from
this month to October when cut, the grass should be clean swept off, and
the edgings, if out of order, adjusted. To mention this subject again
will be only a repetition, therefore we will let this suffice.


Every part of the flower ground should be put into neat order, giving
such plants about the borders as are shooting up their flower stems, and
are tender, and in danger of being hurt or broken by the wind, proper
sticks or rods for their support. In doing this, endeavour to conceal
the rods, &c. as much as possible, by dressing the stems and leaves in a
natural looking manner over them. Let the stakes be in proportion to the
heighth and growth of the plants. It looks very unsightly to see strong
stakes to short and weak growing plants. The tyings likewise should be

Examine all the beds and patches of seedling flowers now coming up, and
let them be refreshed with water as it may be necessary, and pick out
the weeds as they appear.

We cannot leave this department at this season of the year, without
enforcing the benefit and beauty that will result from keeping the weeds
down during this and next month. Therefore strictly observe that there
are none running to seed in any part of the garden; in fact, they ought
not to be allowed to rear their heads above one day in sight.



We remarked last month, that about this season, where it is convenient,
an eastern window is more congenial to plants than a southern. The sun
becomes too powerful, and the morning sun is preferable to that of the
afternoon. West is also preferable to south. Some keep their plants in
excellent order at a north window. But the weather is so mild after
this, that there is no difficulty in protecting and growing plants in
rooms. They generally suffer most from want of air and water; the window
must be up a few inches, or altogether, according to the mildness of the
day. And as plants are more liable to get covered with dust in rooms
than in any other department, and not so convenient to be syringed or
otherwise cleaned, take the first opportunity of a mild day to carry
them to a shady situation, and syringe such as are not in flower well
with water; or for want of a syringe take a watering-pot with a rose
upon it: allowing them to stand until they drip, when they may be put
into their respective situations.


Any plants that are brought from the Green-house during the spring
months ought to be as little exposed to the direct rays of the sun as
possible. Keep them in airy situations, with plenty of light, giving
frequent and liberal supplies of water. Plants may be often observed
through our city during this month fully exposed in the outside of a
south window, with the blaze of a mid-day sun upon them, and these too
just come from the temperate and damp atmosphere of a well regulated
Green-house. Being thus placed in an arid situation, scorched between
the glass and the sun whose heat is too powerful for them to withstand,
the transition being so sudden, that, however great their beauties may
have appeared, they in a few days become brown, the flowers tarnished or
decayed, and the failure generally attributed to individuals not at all
concerned. From this and similar causes many have drawn the unjust
conclusion, viz. that "plants from Green-houses are of too delicate a
nature to be exposed in rooms or windows at this early season." But
every year gives more and more proof to the contrary. There are ladies
in Philadelphia, and those not a few, whose rooms and windows at this
period vie with the finest of our Green-houses, with respect to the
health, beauty and order of their plants, and we might almost say in
variety. Some of them have got above eight kinds of Camellias in their
collections, which afford a continual beauty through the winter, with
many other desirable and equally valuable plants. Exposure to the sun,
and want of water, are the general cause of failures at this period. We
have spoken so minutely and so frequently on these two subjects, that we
think more repetition unnecessary. The plants generally are growing
pretty freely by this time, and are not so liable to suffer from liberal
supplies of water, observing never to give it until the soil in the pot
is inclining to become dry, and administering it always in the evenings.


Our directions last month under this head will equally apply now. The
China _roses_ that are now coming plentifully in flower should be kept
near the light, and in airy exposures, to brighten their colours,
otherwise they will be very pale and sickly. _Geraniums_ too ought to
have the like treatment.


All or most of the plants that have been in the cellar during winter,
such as _Pomegranates_, _Lagerstræmias_, _Hydrángeas_, _Oleanders_,
_Sweet-bay_, _&c._ may be brought out to the open air any time about the
middle of the month. If any of them stand in need of larger pots or
tubs, have them turned out, the balls reduced, and put them in others a
little larger; or where convenient they may be planted in the ground,
except _Oleanders_, which do best to be a little confined. Be sure to
keep the _Hydrángeas_ in shady situations. It will not be advisable to
expose entirely the Orange and Lemon trees, until the end of this or
first of next month. Where there are any scale or foulness of any kind
collected on the foliage or wood, have them cleaned directly before the
heat increases the one, and to get clear of the disagreeable appearance
of the other.



Very few directions for this department remain to be given; except for
shifting plants, and a few observations on those that are most desirable
for the Hot-house; which we will do in this month, considering May and
June the best months of the year for that operation.

The days and nights will be very mild by this time, and the sashes in
every favourable day should be opened both in front and top, so that the
plants may be enured to the open air, which they will be exposed to by
the end of the month, Leave in the beginning of the month the top sashes
a little open every mild night, and gradually as the heat increases
leave the front sashes and doors open. Continue to syringe them at least
every alternate night, and if possible every night; and give them all,
according to their respective wants, liberal supplies of water every
day. Absorption amongst Hot-house plants is as great during this month
as in any period of the year.


It is our candid opinion that this and next month are the best periods
for shifting or repotting all or most of Hot-house plants. The end of
August being the time always adopted around Philadelphia for that
operation (and then they are done indiscriminately,) we will assign a
few reasons for our practice.

_First_, that it is not congenial to the nature of these plants to have
their roots surrounded with fresh soil, when they are becoming inactive;
_secondly_, that there is not a sufficiency of heat naturally to quicken
them to an active state when they are encouraged; and _thirdly_, being
thus in new soil while dormant, they have a yellow and sickly aspect
until they begin to grow; and the foliage thus deprived of its natural
vigour will not appear so healthful again. Whereas, if they are shifted
or repotted in this or next month, at which season they are between two
stages of growth, they immediately, on receiving fresh assistance, and
by the increasing heat of the summer, make new growths, are perfectly
ripened before the approach of winter, and never lose that verdureal
appearance they have attained. These are our reasons acquired from a
close practice and observation, and are not influenced by the doings of
others which are so much aside. No practical operator especially, nor in
fact any individual, ought to be governed by custom in regard to the
treatment of plants, without having an idea as to why and wherefore,
founded on the principles of nature, and governed by her unerring

As many are desirous of having a knowledge of plants, before they order
them, and likewise which are the finest flowerers and their general
character, especially those who are at a great distance, and seldom have
the privilege of seeing what is most desirable, our descriptions will
be limited, and simply such as are given for the Green-house in March.

_Acàcias._ Several of these are desirable in the Hot-house, for the
grandeur of their foliage, beauty of flower, and a few of them as
specimens of valuable medicinal plants. _A. Houstóni_, now _Anneslèia
Houstóni_, is one of the most magnificent of the _Mimòsa_ tribe,
blooming from August to November in large terminale spikes, of a crimson
colour, stamens very long, and beautiful; leaves bipinnated in pairs.
_A. grandiflòra_, likewise given to _Anneslèia_, and similar to the
former in colour; has very large compound bipinnate leaves, with from
twenty to forty pairs. _A. Catèchu_, flowers yellow, wood spiny, leaves
bipinnated, about ten pairs. The inner wood of this tree is of a brown
colour, from which the _Catèchu_ used in medicine is prepared. It is
disputed whether _A. Véra_, or _A. Arábica_ produces the gum Arabic. We
are inclined to think it is the latter, which grows principally on the
Atlas mountains. The gum exudes spontaneously from the bark of the tree
in a soft half fluid state. There are many others of this genus
belonging to the Hot-house, but being shy in flowering, are not
generally esteemed. Most of the flowers have the appearance of yellow
balls of down, and are hermaphrodite. The pots should all be well

_Aloe._ These grotesque looking succulent plants are principally natives
of the Cape of Good Hope, and consequently will do well in the warmest
part of the Green-house, although when convenient, they frequently get a
situation in the Hot-house. It is not requisite, except for _A.
vulgàris_, known as _A. barbadénsis_; which has orange yellow flowers;
_A. oblíqua_, now called _Gastèria oblíqua_; _A. dichótoma_; and _A.
lineàta_, which is perhaps the finest of the genus. The leaves are
beautifully striped, with red spines, flowers scarlet and green. These
are the only ones that actually need heat during winter. They ought to
have very little water, once a month is sufficient. They would grow
without it, and several of them would also grow by being suspended in
the house, without earth or any substitute about their roots, by being
frequently sprinkled with water.

Few of them are admired for the beauty of their flowers, but the whole
are considered curious. They flower from May to September.

_Ardísias_, about eighteen species. Plants highly esteemed for the
beauty of their foliage, flowers, and berries. The most popular in our
collections is _A. crenulàta_. It has rose coloured star-like flowers,
in terminale panicles, and produces beautiful small red berries, which
continue until other berries are produced the following year, and
frequently there may be seen on one plant, the berries of three
successive years, thus being a very ornamental plant and very desirable.
It is vulgarly called the Dwarf ever-bearing cherry. It will keep in a
good Green-house, but not grow freely. _A. solanàcea_ has large oblong
leaves, narrowed at each end, and bears purple berries; _A. élegans_ has
entire, oblong, shining leaves; _A. umbellàta_, once _A. littoràlis_, is
the finest of the genus for abundance of flower and beauty of foliage.
The flowers are pink, in large decompound panicles, the leaves the
largest of all the species, oblong, wedge shaped, nearly sessile,
entire, smooth, and reflexed. They are all evergreens, and the pots
should be well drained. They are natives of the East Indies, and delight
in a high temperature.

_Aristolochias_, Birth-wort. There are several of these belonging to the
Hot-house, but none of them deserving particular observation, except _A.
labiosa_. The leaves are reniform, roundish, cordate, and amplexicaule;
the flower or corolla is of a curious construction, being incurved, and
at the base swelled or saccate with a large lip, and all beautifully
spotted; colour greenish brown. It is a climbing plant, and requires a
strong heat.

_Astrap[oe]as_, three species. _A. Wallichii_ is a celebrated plant in
Europe, and a few specimens of it are in this country. It has scarlet
unbellated flowers, with an involucre, has twenty-five stamens united
into a tube, bearing the corolla with five petals; leaves roundish,
cordate, accuminate, very large with persistent, ovate wavy stipules.
The plant is of easy culture, and grows freely, wood very strong.

_Areca_, Cabbage-tree, ten species. They are a kind of palms, with large
pinnated leaves, or properly fronds. In their indigenous state they are
from six to forty feet high, but in the Hot-house they seldom exceed
twenty feet. _A. catechu_ is used in medicine. _A. olerácea_ is
cultivated extensively in the West Indies, and the tender part of the
top is eaten by the natives. _A. montana_ is most frequent in
collections. There is no particular beauty in the flowers. They are all
easily grown, if plenty of heat be given.

_Brunsvigias_ are all large bulbs from the Cape of Good Hope, and will
keep in the Green-house during winter, but are better where they can
obtain a situation in the Hot-house. It is a splendid genus, containing
about ten species. Some of the bulbs grow to an enormous size, and all
of them while growing require a liberal supply of water; but when
dormant it must be wholly withheld, and they should have large pots to
make them grow and flower in perfection. _B. multiflora_, flowers
scarlet and green; the leaves lay on the surface of the pot. _B.
latìcoma_, flowers pale purple. _B. Josephinæ_ has splendid rose
coloured flowers, and is the most admired species of the genus: the
foliage spreading, half erect, and glacous; flowers numerous, and in
large umbels, on a stem two feet high, blooming successively; there is a
variety that has striped flowers.

Several other species have been given to different genera. _B. falcata_
is now _Ammocharis falcata_; _B. marginata_, now _Imhofia_; and _B.
cilliaris_, is now _Buphone cilliaris_. They all flower in umbels, on
stems from six inches to two feet; flowers lily-like with six petals.

_Bambusa_, Bamboo-cane, two species. Plants of very strong growth, and
are used in the East Indies, where they are indigenous, for every
purpose in the construction of huts, for furniture both domestic and
rural, for fences, boats, boxes, paper, &c. It is frequently used as
pipes to convey water. The species thus useful, is _B. arundinacea_,
which grows to a great height. We do not mention it as interesting in
beauty, but as a valuable plant, for the many useful purposes to which
it is applied. It requires to be kept wet.

_Banistèrias_, a genus of about fourteen climbing evergreen plants.
Three of them are esteemed. _B. fúlgens_, yellow flowers in racemose
spikes, leaves subovate, and downy beneath. _B. Chrisophylla_ has
beautiful foliage, as if covered with a shining gold coloured dust;
leaves large, oblong, acute. _B. splèndens_, flowers in spikes of a
yellow colour; foliage large and silvery like; the pots should be well

_Barringtònias_, two species. _B. speciòsa_ has produced a great
excitement amongst cultivators, and is one of the handsomest plants
produced within the tropics. The leaves are large, oblong, acute,
shining, with fleshy nerves, tinged with red; the flowers are large,
full of stamens with four petals, opens in the evening and fades at
sunrise; colour purple and white; grows freely in strong heat.

_Brôwneas_, five species of splendid plants, but scarce in collections.
_B. coccínea_ has scarlet flowers in pendulous bunches, corolla
semi-double, foliage bipinnate, in three pairs. _B. ròsa_, mountain rose
of Trinidad. _B. grandicéps_ is the finest of the genus, leaves
bipinnated; leaflets cordate, accuminate, downy and pendulous, flowers
rose colour, in large close heads. Drain the pots well.

_Calathèa zebrìna_, frequently known as _Maránta zebrìna_, and now
_Phrynum zebrìnum_, is a plant unique in its appearance. The large
elongated ovate leaves are beautifully striped with green and dark
purple, and called _Zebra plant_. It has light blue flowers in ovate
spikes, about the size of large pine cones. It is a herbaceous plant;
but in the warmest part of the Hot-house retains its splendid foliage;
requires a very liberal supply of water, and ought to be in every

_Cánnas_, about thirty species, several of them deserving cultivation
both for flower and foliage; they are principally natives of the West
Indies, and might all be easily obtained. The finest are _C. gigántea_,
has large leaves and orange flowers; _C. limbàta_, flowers scarlet and
yellow; _C. díscolor_, has large cordate, accuminate leaves of a crimson
colour, the flowers are scarlet; _C. iridiflòra_, has large crimson
nodding flowers, very different from any of the others, and the finest
of the genus. They all, while in a growing state, require a liberal
supply of water; and being herbaceous plants watering ought to be given
up about the first of November, and renewed about the first of January,
thus giving them a cessation which they require to flower freely; but
when water is constantly given, which is the general plan in our
collections, they continue to push weak shoots and few flowers.

_Cáctus._ This extensive genus is curious, grotesque, interesting, and
varied in character and habit; is now divided into six distinct genera
according to their natural appearance and habit. We will describe a few
of each genus, none of which going under the name of _Cáctus_, we will
give them the six following.

_Mamillàrias_, above twenty species, and are those which are covered
with roundish bearded tubercles, and with small red and white flowers.
_M. coccínea_; _M. simplex_; _M. pusílla_, and _M. cònica_, are good
species, and will do well with water five or six times during summer.

_Melocáctus_, seven species, and are those that are roundish with deep
and many angles, with spines in clusters on the top of the angle. _M.
commùnis_, is the Turk's cap, named from having an ovate conate crown
upon the top, from which proceed the small red flowers.

_M. macránthus_, has large spines; _M. pyramidàlis_, is a conical
growing species. These require the same treatment as the last.

_Echinocáctus_, about twenty species; are those that have many deep
angles, and have a remarkable swelling, with each parcel of spines; _E.
gibbòsus_; _E. crispàtus_; _E. recúrvus_; are curious in appearance,
with small white and purple flowers. These three genera in most
collections are not well known specifically, but it is easy to
discriminate which genus they are connected with.

_Cèreus._ This is the most magnificent genus with regard to the
magnitude and beauty of the flowers, but not so closely allied. It takes
in all those of a trailing or erect growing habit, having spines in
clusters, solitary, or spineless. _C. peruviànus_ and _C. heptagònus_,
grow very erect, and to the height of thirty or forty feet in Peru and
Mexico, where they plant them close together as fences, and they are in
a few years impenetrable. _C. flagellifórmus_ is a well known creeping
free flowering species, has ten angles; will keep in a good Green-house,
and produce in May and June a great number of blooms. The petals are of
a fine pink and red colour; the tube of the flower is long, and will
stand a few days in perfection, when others come out successively for
the space of two months, and during their continuance make a brilliant
appearance. _C. grandiflòrus_ is the celebrated "Night-blooming Cereus."
The flowers are very large, beautiful, and sweet-scented. They begin to
open about sun-down, and are fully expanded about eleven o'clock. The
corolla, or rather calyx, is from seven to ten inches in diameter, the
outside of which is a brown, and the inside a fine straw yellow colour;
the petals are of the purest white, with the stamens surrounding the
stile in the centre of the flower, which add to its lustre, and make it
appear like a bright star. Its scent is agreeable, and perfumes the air
to a considerable distance; but these beauties are of momentary
duration. By sunrise they fade, and hang down quite decayed, and never
open again.[E] One of these ought to be in every collection, and if
trained up a naked wall will not occupy much room, and grow and flower
profusely. They need very little water. C. _speciosíssimus_ has most
beautiful large flowers, about six inches diameter; the outside petals
are a bright scarlet, those of the inside a fine light purple. One
flower lasts a few days, and a large plant will produce every year from
ten to twenty flowers, blooming from May to August. It has flowered in
some of our collections, and is highly esteemed. _C. triangulàris_ has
the largest flower of the _Cacteæ_ family; the bloom is of a cream
colour, and about one foot in diameter. In its indigenous state, it
produces a fine fruit called "Strawberry Pear," and is much esteemed in
the West Indies as being slightly acid, and at the same time sweet,
pleasant, and cooling. It seldom flowers. C. _phyllanthoídes_, once
_Cáctus speciósus_, is one of the most profuse in flowering; the
branches are ensate, compressed, and obovate, without spines; flowers of
a pink colour, about four inches in diameter; the stamens as long as the
corolla, with white anthers. It will keep well in a Green-house or Room.
If in either of the two latter, give water only a few times during
winter. This is becoming a very popular plant. C. _Jenkinsòni_ is a
magnificent hybrid from C. _speciosíssimus_. The flowers are equally as
large, and of a brilliant scarlet colour, with a profusion of pure white
anthers; is greatly admired, and is only in a few collections. C.
_Ackermánni_ is very similar to C. _phyllanthoídes_, flowering equally
as profusely, the colour a bright scarlet, and the scarcest species of
the genus that is worthy of notice. C. _truncàtus_, branches truncated,
flowers deep scarlet and tubular, from two to three inches in diameter;
the stamens protrude from the corolla; the plant is of a dwarf growth
and branched; when in flower it is quite a picture. It is said that
there are free and shy flowering varieties of this species, but we doubt
it; perhaps it is owing to the cultivation and soil.

[E] They may be preserved if cut off when in perfection, and put in
spirits of wine, in a chrystal vase, made air tight. A plant flowered in
our collection in May 1830, at 12 o'clock at noon--the only instance of
the kind we ever heard of.

_Opúntias_, about forty species, and are those whose branches are in
joints flatly oblong, or ovate, spines solitary, or in clusters. The
plants are not so desirable for beauty of flower as the species of the
former genus, but many of them are remarkable for their strong grotesque
and spiny appearance; besides several of the species are extensively
cultivated for the Cochineal insect. The one most valued for that
purpose, is _O. cochiníllifera_, which has only small clusters of
bristles upon the oblong ovate joints, and produces small red flowers;
C. _ficus índica_, is also used, but is very spiny.

_Peréskias._ About four species, and those that are of a shrubby nature
producing leaves; _P. aculeàta_ bears a fruit called
"Barbadoes-gooseberry." The flowers are very small and simple, spines
about half an inch long, leaves fleshy and elliptical.

The whole of the plants in the family of _Cacteæ_ require very little
water, and delight in a dry warm situation. They do not agree with
frequent repotting; once in two or three years to young plants, and in
five or six to those that are established, with the exception of the
large, free flowering species, which should be repotted once in two

_Coffèa Arábica._ It produces the celebrated coffee, and is a plant
universally known in our collections, and of easy culture. The leaves
are opposite, oblong, wavy and shining, the flowers white, of a grateful
odour, but of short duration. There is a plant known as C.
_occidentalis_, which is now _Tetramèrium odoratíssimum_. It requires a
great heat to grow well, therefore should be kept in the warmest part of
the Hot-house. The flowers are white, in panicles, and larger than the
common jasmine, and is very sweet-scented; leaves oblong, lanceolate,

_Callicárpas._ About twelve species, and are generally admitted into
collections, though of no particular interest or beauty, except in the
bright purple berries they produce, which is rarely. The foliage is of a
rugose, hoary appearance.

_Carolíneas._ About six species of tender plants, with large digitate
leaves, and of handsome growth. The flowers have numerous filaments, and
are large and singular. C. _insígnis_ has the largest and compactest
blossoms; C. _àlba_ is the only one of the genus that has white flowers,
all the others being red; C. _prínceps_ and C. _robústa_ are noble
looking species, and are much esteemed. They require a good heat, with
which they will grow freely.

_Caryòtas._ A genus of palms. C. _ùrens_ is an admired species, produces
flowers in long pendulous spikes, which are succeeded by strings of
succulent globular berries. In its native state it produces a sweet
liquor in large quantities, and no stronger than water.

_Coccolòbas_, Sea-side grape. This genus is admired for its beautiful
large foliage, which is oblong ovate, and cordate ovate; C. _pubéscens_
and C. _latifòlia_ are the finest species. They bear berries in clusters
like the grape, but never come to perfection in artificial cultivation.

_Cùphea Melvílla_, is the only species of the genus that is particularly
deserving of a situation, has lanceolate scabrous leaves, narrowed at
each end, flowers tubular in a terminale whorl, colour scarlet and
green. The plant must be well drained. It will flower from May to

_Cròtons._ About twenty-eight species, few of them deserving
cultivation; but the genus is celebrated for its beautiful C. _pìctus_,
leaves oblong-lanceolate, variegated with yellow, and stained with red,
flowers small green, on axillary spikes. C. _variagàtus_, variety
_latifòlia_, is finer than the original _variagàtus_, the nerves in the
leaves are yellow, and the leaves lanceolate, entire and smooth. To make
them grow freely, give the warmest part of the Hot-house, and drain the
pots well.

_Cérberas._ About twelve species of strong growing trees, full of
poisonous juice. C. _thevètia_ is an elegant plant, with accumulate
leaves, and large, nodding, yellow, solitary, fragrant flowers,
proceeding from the axil; C. _ahoùai_ produces a nut which is deadly
poison. C. _odàllam_, once C. _mànghas_, has large star-like flowers,
white, shaded with red. They are principally East India plants, and
require great heat.

_Cycas_, four species, generally called _Sago palm_, as an English name.
The plant that _Sago_ is extracted from, belongs to another genus, (see
_Sàgus_.) C. _revolùta_ is a well known palm, and will keep perfectly
well in the Green-house. We have seen a beautiful specimen of it which
is kept every winter in the cellar, but those that are kept so cool in
winter only grow every alternate year, while those that are kept in the
Hot-house grow every year, which shows that heat is their element. C.
_circinàlis_ is a large growing species; the fronds are much longer, but
not so close and thick. C. _glaùca_ is a fine species; the foliage is
slightly glaucous. They require plenty of pot room, are much infested
with the small white scaly insect, and ought to be frequently examined
and carefully washed as prescribed in January.

_Combrètums._ Nine species of beautiful flowering climbing plants,
standing in very high estimation. The leaves of the principal part of
them are ovate, acute, flowers small but on large branches, the flowers
all coming out on one side of the branch. They have a magnificent
effect. _C. èlegans_, red; _C. formòsum_, red and yellow; _C.
pulchéllum_, scarlet; _C. comòsum_ has crimson flowers in tufts; _C.
purpùreum_ is the most splendid of the genus. It was first cultivated in
1818, and so much admired, that the whole of the species as soon as
introduced, was extravagantly bought up, and none of them has retained
their character, except _C. purpùreum_, which is now called _Poívrea
coccínea_. The flowers are bright scarlet, in large branches, blooming
profusely from April to September, and flower best in a pot. When
planted in the ground it grows too much to wood, carrying few flowers.
This plant ought to be in every Hot-house.

_Cràssula._ This genus has no plants in it attractive in beauty. Several
beautiful plants in our collections belong to _Ròchea_ and
_Kalosánthus_. There is a strong growing succulent plant, known in our
collections as _C. falcàta_, which is _R. falcàta_. It seldom flowers;
the minor variety blooms profusely every year from May to August, and
has showy scarlet flowers in terminale panicles. The plants known as _C.
coccínea_ and _C. versícolor_ are now given to the genus _Kalosánthus_.
The flowers of the former are like scarlet wax, terminale and sessile;
_K. odoratíssima_ has yellow terminale sweet-scented flowers. They
require very little water, only a few times in winter, and about twice a
week in summer; they are all desirable plants.

_Córyphas_, (Large fan Palm,) five species of the most noble and
magnificent of palms. _C. ambraculífera_, the fronds or leaves are
palmate; in Ceylon, where the tree is indigenous, they are frequently
found fifteen feet wide and twenty feet long. Knox says they will cover
from fifteen to twenty men, and when dried will fold up in the shape of
a rod, and can be easily carried about, and serve to protect them from
the scorching sun. _C. talièra_, now _Talièra bengalénsis_, being
stronger, is of great utility for covering houses. They do not grow to
such immense extent in artificial cultivation, but require large houses
to grow them.

_Crìnums_, about one hundred species, chiefly stove bulbs, many of them
beautiful. Those that are of great celebrity are _C. cruéntum_, colour
red; _C. scàbrum_, crimson and white; _C. amàbile_, purple and white;
the neck of the bulb of the latter is long and easily distinguished from
its purplish colour, and is considered the finest of the genus. Several
specimens of it are in our collections. Their flowers are in umbels, on
a stalk from one to three feet high; corolla funnel shaped; petals
recurved. They require large pots to make them flower well, and when
growing to be liberally supplied with water.

_Cyrtànthus_, a genus of Cape bulbs, containing nine species, and will
do very well in the Green-house, but we find the assistance of the
Hot-house a great advantage. They are closely allied to _Crìnum_. The
tubes of the flowers are long and round, with various shades of orange,
yellow, red, and green. _C. odòrus_, _C. striátus_, _C. oblíquus_, and
_C. vittàtus_, are the finest. When the bulbs are dormant, which will be
from October to January, they should not get any water; before they
begin to grow, turn the bulb out of the old earth, repotting it
immediately. At this time they should be potted with the balls of earth
entire, which will cause them to flower stronger.

_Caryophyllus aromáticus_, is the only species, and the tree that
produces cloves. The whole plant is aromatic, and closely allied to
_Myrtus_; the flowers are in loose panicles, the leaves oblong,
accuminate, entire. It is a fine evergreen. Pots must be well drained.

_Dillènias_, three species of fine plants, with beautiful foliage. _D.
speciòsa_ has produced considerable excitement in our collections. The
leaves are elliptic, oblong, simply serrated, nerves deep; the flower is
white, with five bold petals, centre filled with barren anthers; it has
not been known to flower in America. _D. scándens_ has ovate, simply
serrated leaves, but is not known as to flower; it is a fine climber.

_Dracænas_, Dragon-tree, about twelve species of Asiatic plants, varied
in character. _D. férrea_ is plentiful in our collections, and will keep
in the Green-house; but the foliage is not so well retained as when kept
in the Hot-house; the leaves are lanceolate, acute, of a dark purple
colour. _D. fràgrans_, when in bloom, will scent the air for a
considerable distance, leaves green and lanceolate. _D. marginàta_ is
rare, yet it is to be seen in a few of our collections. _D. strícta_ is
now _Charlwòodia_[F] _strícta_, flowers blush and in loose panicles. _D.
Dráco_ is admired, and the most conspicuous of the genus.

[F] In honour of Mr. Charlwood, an extensive seedsman of London, who has
made several botanical excursions on this continent.

_Eránthemums_, about ten species. _E. pulchéllum_ and _E. bícolor_ are
the finest of the genus; the former is in our collections, but miserably
treated. The soil in which it is grown is too stiff and loamy, and it
seldom gets enough of heat. The latter is indispensable to make it
flower in perfection; therefore it should have the warmest part of the
house, and it will produce flowers of a fine blue colour from January to
September. The flowers of the latter are white and dark purple, with a
few brown spots in the white; blooms from April to August. Drain the
pots well, and give the plants little sun during summer.

_Eugènias_, about thirty species, esteemed for their handsome evergreen
foliage. This genus once contained a few celebrated species, which have
been divided. (See _Jambòsa_.) The Allspice tree, known as _Myrtus
Piménta_, is now _E. Piménta_; the leaves are ovate, lanceolate, and
when broken have an agreeable scent. There are several varieties all of
the same spicy fragrance. The plant is in very few of our collections.
_E. fràgrans_ is sweet scented; the flowers are on axillary peduncles;
leaves ovate, obtuse.

_Euphórbia_ (spurg), a genus of plants disseminated over every quarter
of the globe; a few are beautiful, many grotesque, and several the most
worthless weeds on the earth. There are about two hundred species, and
from all of them, when probed, a thick milky fluid exudes. Those of the
tropics are the most curious, and very similar in appearance to
_Cáctus_, but easily detected by the above perforation. There is a
magnificent species in our collections, which was lately introduced from
Mexico.[G] It goes under the name of _E. heterophylla_. The flowers of
the whole genus are apetalous, and the beauty is in the bracteæ; of the
species alluded to the bracteæ is bright crimson, very persistent, and
above six inches in diameter, when well grown. The plant requires a
strong heat, or the foliage will become yellow and fall off. We question
whether this species is nondescript or as above. It is a brilliant
ornament to the Hot-house three fourths of the year, and always during
winter, and should have a situation in every tropical collection.

[G] By Poinsett the American Consul for Mexico in 1828.

_Erythrìnas_ (Coral tree), a genus containing about thirty species of
leguminose, scarlet-flowering plants. Several species are greatly
esteemed for their beauty and profusion of flowers, which in well
established plants are produced in long spikes at the end of the stems
and branches. _E. Corallodéndrum_ blooms magnificently in the West
Indies, but in our collections has never flowered. Perhaps if it was
kept dry during its dormant season, which is from November to January,
and when growing greatly encouraged, it might produce flowers. _E.
speciòsa_ is a splendid flowerer, leaves large, ternated, and prickly
beneath; stem prickly. _E. pubéscens_ is valued for its large peculiar
brown pubescent leaves.

In regard to _E. herbàcea_, which is a native of the Carolinas, and
frequently treated as a Hot-house plant, it is our opinion that it would
be more perfectly grown if planted about the first of this month in the
garden; and when growing, if well supplied with water, it would flower
from July to September. About the first of November lift the roots and
preserve them in half dry earth, in the same place with the _Dáhlias_.
_E. laurifòlia_ and _E. crísta-gálli_ are likewise often treated as
Hot-house plants, and in such situations they cast prematurely their
first flowers, by the confined state of the air. They will keep in
perfect preservation during winter in a dry cellar, half covered with
earth, or entirely covered with half dry earth; consequently, the best
and easiest method of treatment, is to plant them in the garden about
the first of May, and when growing, if the ground becomes dry, give them
frequent waterings. They will flower profusely three or four times in
the course of summer.

We freely recommend the last species to all our patrons, confident that
it will give ample satisfaction, both in profusion of flower and beauty
of colour. The soil they are to be planted into should be according to
that prescribed in the list; or if they are kept in pots, they must be
enlarged three or four times, when they are in a growing state, to make
them flower perfectly; otherwise they will be diminutive.

_Fìcus_, Fig-tree, a genus containing above fifty Hot-house species,
besides several that belong to the Green-house; greatly admired for the
beauty of their foliage. A few of them are deciduous, and all of the
easiest culture. We have seen plants of _F. elástica_ hung in the back
of the Hot-house, without the smallest particle of earth, their only
support being sprinklings of water every day. _F. Brássii_ is the finest
looking species that has come under our observation; the leaves are very
large, shining, cordate, accuminate; nerves strong and white. As the
beauty of these plants is entirely in the foliage and habit, we will
select the best of them in the list to which we refer.

_Gærtnèra racemòsa_, is a large climbing woody shrub, with pinnated
leaves, leaflets ovate, lanceolate, flowers white, five petaled,
beautifully fringed; blooms in dense panicles. When the plants are
allowed to climb, they do not flower freely; but if closely cut in, they
will flower every year in great profusion, after the plants are well
established. It is now called _Hiptàge Madablòta_.

_Geissomèria longiflòra._ This is a new genus, and closely allied to
_Ruéllia_. The species alluded to, is a free flowerer, blooming from May
to August, in close spikes of a scarlet colour; leaves opposite, ovate,
elongate, and shining; the plants must be well drained, and in summer
kept from the direct influence of the sun.

_Gardènias_, a genus containing about seventeen species, several of them
very popular in our collections, going under the name of _Cape Jasmine_,
which do well in the Green-house, (see _May_.) The species requiring
this department, and deserving attention, are _G. campanulàta_, of a
soft woody nature, with ovate, accuminate leaves; flowers of a straw
colour, and solitary; _G. am[oe]na_, the flowers are white, tinged with
crimson, terminale and solitary; _G. costàta_, admired for its beautiful
ribbed foliage, _G. lùcida_ has a handsome, ovate, accuminate, shining
foliage; flowers white and solitary. They require to have the pots well

_Heritièra littóralis_, Looking-glass plant. This plant is unisexual,
has beautiful large, ovate, veiny leaves; the flowers are small, red,
with male and female on the same plant, but different flowers. It
requires a strong heat, and plenty of pot room. How the English name
becomes applicable to it, we are not acquainted.

_Hibíscus._ This genus affords many fine species and varieties of
plants for the Hot-house, besides others for every department of the
garden. The most popular in our collections for the Hot-house, is _H.
Ròsa sinénsis_, with its varieties, which are magnificent, and flower
profusely, from April to September. The single or original species is
seldom seen in cultivation; the varieties are _H. Ròsa sinénsis rùbro
plénus_, double red; _H. R. S. cárnea plènus_, double salmon; _H. R. S.
variegàtus_, double striped; _H. R. S. flávo-plènus_, double buff; _H.
R. S. lùtea plènus_, double yellow, or rather sulphur. The plants grow
freely, and produce their flowers three or four inches of diameter, from
the young wood; the leaves are ovate, accuminate, smooth, entire at the
base and coarsely toothed at the end. All the varieties are of the same
character, and highly deserving of a situation in every collection.
There is said to be a double white variety, which we doubt; it is not in
artificial cultivation. _H. mutàbilis flòre plèno_ is a splendid plant
of strong growth, and will, when well established, flower abundantly, if
the wood of last year is cut to within a few eyes of the wood of the
previous year; the flowers are produced on the young wood, and come out
a pale colour, and change to bright red, and about the size of a garden
Provins rose; leaves downy, cordate, angular, five-lobed, accuminate,
and slightly toothed. _H. lilliiflòrus_, is a new highly esteemed
species; the flowers are various in colour, being pink, blush, red,
purple, and striped. We have not seen it in flower, but had its
character verbally, from a respectable cultivator. The leaves vary in
character, but are generally cordate, crenate, accuminate; the petioles
are brown, and the whole slightly hirsute; is deciduous, and requires to
be kept in the warmest part of the house.

_Hóyas_, Wax-plant, seven species. All of them are climbing succulents,
requiring plenty of heat and little water. _H. carnòsa_ is the finest
flowering species of the genus, and known in our collections as the wax
plant; the leaves are green and fleshy; the flowers are mellifluous,
five parted, and in pendulous bunches, slightly bearded, and have every
appearance of a composition of the finest wax; of a blush colour. _H.
crassifòlia_ has the best looking foliage, and the flowers are white.
The former will keep in the Green-house, but will not flower so

_Hernándias_, Jack-in-a-box. The species are rare, except _H. sonòra_,
which is an elegant looking plant, when well grown; the leaves are
peltate, cordate, accuminate, smooth; flowers white, and in panicles;
the fruit a nut. The English name is said to have been given, in
allusion to the small flowers and large leaves of the plant. A great
heat is required to grow it well.

_Ipomæas_, a genus of tropical climbing plants, nearly allied to
_Convolvúlus_, but of greater beauty. _I. paniculàta_ has large purple
flowers in panicles, with large palmated smooth leaves. _I. Jálapa_ is
the true jalap of the druggists, but not worthy of any other remark. _I.
grandiflòra_, large white flowers, with acute petals; leaves large,
cordate, ovate. _I. pulchélla_ has flowers of a handsome violet colour.
They are all easily cultivated. It is said that _I. tuberòsa_ is much
used in the West Indies to cover arbours, and will grow three hundred
feet in one season; the flowers are purple striped with yellow, leaves
palmated. We are not certain but the roots of this kind may be kept like
the sweet potato, and become a useful ornament to our gardens.

_Ixòras_, a genus of fine flowering plants, and does extremely well in
our collections in comparison to the state they are grown in England.
The genus specifically is much confused amongst us, either from error
originating with those who packed them for this country, or after they
have arrived. _I. purpùrea_, leaves oblong, ovate, blunt; flowers
crimson; it is now called _I. obavàta_. _I. crocàta_, leaves oval,
lanceolate, narrowing towards the stem, smooth, underside of the leaf
the nerves are very perceptible; flowers saffron coloured. _I. ròsea_,
leaves large, regular, oblong, a little acute, very distant on the wood,
centre nerve strong; flowers rose coloured in large corymbs, branching:
_I. Bandhùca_, leaves very close to the stem, ovate, accuminate; nerves
straight, middle nerve stronger than any other of the genus; flowers
scarlet, corymbs crowded. _I. Blánda_, leaves small, lanceolate, ovate;
flowers blush, cymes branching in three. _I. dichotìma_, leaves largest
of the genus, ovate, accuminate, undulate, footstalk 3/8 of an inch
long; whereas none of the leaves of the other species has footstalks of
any length. It is now called _I. undulàta_, flowers are white. _I.
grandiflòra_, leaves ovate, elongate, sessile; flowers in crowded
corymbs, and scarlet; is called, _I. coccínea_ in the Botanical
Magazine, by which it is known in our collections, and is the same as
_I. strícta_. _I. flámmea_ and _I. speciòsa_, leaves oblong, subsessile;
flowers scarlet, in round spreading dense corymbs. _I. fúlgens_, same as
_I. longifòlia_ and _I. lanceolàta_; foliage glossy; flowers scarlet.
_I. Pavétta_, the flowers are white, and said to be sweet-scented, the
leaves of all the species are opposite; there are a few other species
that we are not thoroughly acquainted with, but have been thus explicit
to prevent error as far as possible in this beautiful genus. They are
all evergreen, low growing shrubs; the plants grow best in Jersey black
sandy earth, but flower most abundantly with half loam.

_Jacarándas_, a genus of beautiful shrubs, containing five species, with
_Bignônia_-like blue or purple flowers. _I. mimòsifolia_ and _I.
filicifòlia_ are the finest. The former has blue, and the latter purple
flowers; in loose branching panicles. They are evergreen, and easy of

_Jambòsas_, about twelve species, which have been principally taken from
_Eugènia_, and contain its finest plants, and is a splendid genus of
evergreen shrubs. _E. Jámbos_ is now _Jambòsa vulgàris_, which flowers
and fruits freely in our Hot-houses. The fruit is about an inch in
diameter, eatable, and smelling like a rose, hence called "Rose Apple."
The petals of all the species are simple, and may rather be considered
the calyx; the beauty of the flowers is in the many erect spreading
stamens, either straw, white, rose, or green colour. _J. malaccénsis_,
Malay Apple, is greatly esteemed for the delightful fragrance of its
fruit. We frequently see _J. purpuráscens_, which is a native of the
West Indies, going under _J. m._ which is an Asiatic species, with white
flowers and entire oblong leaves; whereas the leaves of _J. p._ are
small, ovate, accuminate, young shoots and leaves purple. _J.
macrophylla_, white, and _J. amplexicaùlis_, green, have very large
oblong, lanceolate leaves, and is of a strong woody habit. They are all
easy of culture.

_Jasmìnum_, Jasmine, is a favourite genus of shrubs, for the exquisite
fragrance of its flowers, of which none are more delightful than _J.
Sàmbac_ or Arabian Jasmine. There are two other varieties of it, _J. S.
múltiplex_, semi-double; and _J. S. trifòliatum_, Double Tuscan Jasmine.
The latter requires a great heat to make it grow and flower freely. We
suspect there is another variety in cultivation. _J. hirsùtum_ has
cordate downy leaves; flowers many, in terminale, sessile umbels. _J.
paniculàtum_, white, flowering in terminale panicles from March to
November; leaves smooth, oval, obtusely accuminate; _plant scarce_. _J.
simplicifòlium_ is in our collections under the name of _J. lucidum_;
plant spreading; leaves oblong and shining. There are several other
species, all with white flowers, and generally easy of culture.

_Játropha_, Physic-nut, is a genus of six strong growing shrubs, natives
of the West Indies. _J. multifida_ and _I. panduræfòlia_ have the
handsomest foliage, and both have scarlet flowers; the appearance of the
foliage of this genus is the only object; the flowers are small, in
coarse disfigured panicles, and several of the species have not been
known to flower in artificial cultivation. The seeds of _J. cúrcas_ are
often received from the West Indies; the leaves are cordate, angular,
and smooth. _J. manihot_, now _Manihot cannabìna_, is the Cassada root,
the juice of which, when expressed, is a strong poison. They are all
easy of culture: want of strong heat in winter will make them cast their
leaves, but do them no other injury.

_Justícia._ A few species of this genus are fine showy hot-house plants.
_J. coccínea_ has large terminale spikes of scarlet flowers, blooming
from December to March, and a very desirable plant, of easy culture, and
should be in every collection; it is apt to grow spindly, if not kept
near the glass. _I. picta_, with its varieties; _I. lúcida_ and _I.
formósa_, are fine shrubby species. _I. speciòsa_ is a beautiful purple
flowering herbaceous plant.

_Kæmpfèria_, an Asiatic genus of tuberose rooted plants; none of them in
our collections, except _K. rotúnda_; the flowers come up a few inches
above the pot, without the leaves, in April and May and frequently
sooner; they are purple and light blue, partially streaked and spotted;
leaves large, oblong, purplish coloured beneath. The roots when dormant
ought to be kept in the pot without watering, otherwise they will not
flower freely. No bulbs or strong tuberose rooted plants, will flower in
perfection if kept moist when they are not growing.

_Lantàna_, a genus of twenty species, all free flowering shrubs; the
flowers are small, in round heads blooming from the axils, in yellow,
orange, pink, white, and changeable colours; the plants are of such a
rough straggling growth, that they are not esteemed. There are four or
five species in our collections. They will not bear a strong fumigation;
therefore, when the Hot-house is under that operation, they must be set
down in the pathway, or other low part in the house.

_Latànias._ This genus contains three species of handsome palms. _L.
borbònica_ is one of the finest of the _Palmæ_, not growing to great
magnitude; the leaves or fronds are plaited flabelliform, leaflets
smooth at the edge, footstalk spiny, and the plant spreading. _L.
rùbra_, fronds same as the former, but leaflets more divided and
serrulate; footstalk unarmed; foliage reddish. _L. glaucophylla_, same
as _L. rùbra_, only the foliage glaucous. They are all valuable plants,
and are obtained by seed from the East Indies. They require plenty of
pot room.

_Laúrus._ This genus, though of no beauty in flower, is generally
admired in collections for its fine evergreen foliage, and aromatic or
spicy flavour, and several trees are important in medicine. The most
esteemed are given to a genus named _Cinnamòmum_, as has been observed
in the Green-house, (see _March_.) _L. Chloróxylon_ is the Cogwood of
Jamaica. _L. Pérsea_ is now _Pérsea gratíssima_, Alligator-pear, a fruit
about the size of a large pear, and greatly esteemed in the West Indies.
The plant is generally known in our collections. _C. vérum_ is the true
Cinnamon of commerce.

The part taken is the inside of the bark when the tree is from five to
eighteen years old. The leaves are three-nerved, ovate, oblong; nerves
vanishing towards the point, bright green above, pale beneath, with
whitish veins. This plant ought to be kept in the warmest part of the
Hot-house. C. _cássia_, is frequently given under the former name, but
when compared may be easily detected by the leaves being more
lanceolate, and a little pubescent. They both make handsome plants, but
require great heat. Drain the pots well of the delicate sorts.

_Magnífera_, Mango tree. There are two species. _M. índica_ is in our
collections, and bears a fruit which is so highly esteemed in the East
Indies, as to be considered preferable to any other except very fine
pine apples. The leaves are lanceolate, and from six to eight inches
long, and two or more broad. The flowers are produced in loose bunches
at the end of the branches, but of no beauty, and have to be
artificially impregnated, or it will scarcely produce fruit. The shell
is kidney-shaped, and of a leathery, crustaceous substance. They contain
one seed, and in their indigenous state are more juicy than an apple.
Drain the pots well, as the roots are apt to get sodden from moisture.
The other species goes under the name of _oppositifòlia_, but we
question if it is not only a variety, for it has every character of the
one just described.

_Melàstoma_, was once an extensive genus, on which the natural order
_Melastomaceæ_ is founded; but is now much divided into other genera
contained in the natural tribe _Micomeæ_. There are about thirteen
species remaining in the genus. They now display great unity of
character, and many of them may be considered very ornamental. The
finest are _M. malabáthrica_, rose-coloured; _M. sanguínea_, lilac; _M.
decémfida_, purple; _M. pulverulénta_, red; and _M. áspera_, rose. There
is a plant in several of our collections known as _M. purpùrea_ and _M.
tetragòna_, which is _Ossæa purpuráscens_; leaves ovate, lanceolate,
accuminate, five-nerved, pilose; the footstalk and nerves underside of
the leaf covered with brown hairs; stem four-sided; flowers purple. All
the species are easy of culture. _M. nepalénsis_ is a Green-house plant.

_Malpíghia_, (Barbadoes-cherry,) about eighteen species, all beautiful
evergreen trees or shrubs. They are easily distinguished by having
bristles on the under side of the leaves. These bristles are fixed by
the centre, so that either end of it will sting. We are not aware of any
other plant being defended in the manner. _M. ùrens_ has oblong ovate
leaves with decumbent stiff bristles; flowers pink. _M. aquifòlia_ has
lanceolate, stiff, spiny leaves, and we think the most beautiful foliage
of the genus. _M. fucàta_ has elliptical shining leaves, with lilac
flowers. _M. glábra_, leaves ovate, entire, smooth; flowers purple. They
all have five rounded clawed petals. The last species is cultivated in
the West Indies for its fruit. The pots must be well drained.

_Márica_, a genus of Hot-house plants, closely allied to Iris, between
which there is no distinction in the leaves. The flowers of _M. cærùlea_
are beautifully spotted with light and dark blue, the scape many
flowered. M. _Sabìni_ has flowers similar, but not so dark in colour.
M. _Northiàna_ has splendid white and brown spotted flowers, spathe two
flowered. These plants when growing require a liberal supply of water,
and to be greatly encouraged by frequent potting to flower well.

_Mùsa_ (Plantain-tree), contains eight species, and is greatly esteemed
in the East and West Indies for the luscious sweet flavour of its fruit,
which can be converted into every delicacy in the domestic cookery of
the country. M. _paradisìæa_ is the true plantain tree, has a soft
herbaceous stalk, 15 or 20 feet high, with leaves from 5 to 7 feet long,
and about 2 feet wide. M. _sapiéntum_ is the true Banana-tree; habit and
character same as the former, except it has a spotted stem, and the male
flowers are deciduous. The pulp of the fruit is softer, and the taste
more luscious. M. _rosàcea_, M. _coccínea_, and M. _chinènsis_, are most
esteemed in artificial cultivation for their flowers, and being smaller
in growth. They all require a very liberal supply of water when growing.
They do best to be planted in the soil, where there can be a small
corner of the Hot-house set apart for the purpose. They will be
ornamental, but if kept in pots they will never attain any degree of

_Nepénthes_ (Pitcher plant). There are two species of this plant. _N.
distillatòria_ is an esteemed and valuable plant in European
collections. The leaves are lanceolate and sessile; from their extremity
there is a spiral, attached to which are lublar inflated appendages that
are generally filled with water, which appears to be confined within
them by a lid, with which the appendages are surmounted; hence the name
of pitcher plant. We have never observed these lids close again when
once open. Writers have called it a herbaceous plant, but it is properly
a shrub, never dying to the ground, having a continuation of extension.
The pot in which it grows should be covered with moss, and the roots
liberally supplied with water every day. It delights to be in a marshy
state. The flowers are small and in long spikes.

_Pancràtium_ is a genus of Hot-house bulbs, and now only contains five
species. They are all free-flowering. Several of them are handsome and
fragrant. P. _Marítimum_ and P. _verecúndum_ are the finest; the flowers
are white, in large umbels; petals long, recurved, and undulate. P.
_littoràlis_, P. _speciòsum_, and P. _caribæum_, are now given to the
genus _Hymenocállis_, and are fine flowering species. Care must be taken
not to give them much water while dormant. The soil ought at that time
to be in a half dry state. They are in flower from May to August.

_Polyspòra axillàris_, once called _Caméllia axillàris_, though in
appearance it has no characteristic of a _Caméllia_, and has been
frequently killed in the Green-house by being too cold for its nature;
leaves oblong, obovate, towards the extremity serrulate. The leaves on
the young wood are entire. Flowers white; petals a little notched. It is
worthy of a situation in every collection.

_Passiflòra_, "Passion-Flower, so named on account of its being supposed
to represent in the appendages of its flower the Passion of Jesus
Christ." There are about fifty species, all climbing plants, that
belong to the Hot-house. Many are of no ordinary beauty; a few species
are odoriferous; others bear edible fruits, though not rich in flavour.
P. _alàta_ is in our collections, and greatly admired; the flowers are
red, blue, and white, beautifully contrasted, and flower profusely in
pots. P. _racemòsa_, has red flowers, and one of the most profuse in
flowering. P. _cærùleo-racemòsa_, purple and red, and by many thought to
be the finest of the genus. P. _quadrangulàris_ has beautiful red and
white flowers. The plant is in several collections, but has seldom
flowered; it requires to be planted in the ground to make it flower
freely, and it will also produce fruit. P. _filamentòsa_ is white and
blue, and a good flowerer. P. _picturàta_ is a scarce and beautiful
variously coloured species. There are many other fine species, but these
are the most esteemed sorts; and when well established will flower
profusely from May to August. They are desirable in every collection,
and will take only a small space to hold them, by training the vines up
the rafters of the Hot-house.

_Pandànus_, Screw Pine. There are above twenty species in this genus,
several of them very interesting, but none so greatly admired as P.
_odoratíssimus_. The leaves in established plants are from four to six
feet long, on the back and edges spiny; are spreading, imbricated, and
embracing the stem, and placed in three spiral rows upon it. The top
soon becomes heavy when the plant throws out prongs one, two, or three
feet up the stem in an oblique descending direction, which take root in
the ground, and thus become perfectly supported. It is cultivated in
Japan for its delightful fragrance, and it is said, "of all the
perfumes, it is by far the richest and most powerful." P. _ùtilis_, red
spined. We question this species, and are inclined to believe that it is
the former, only when the plants are newly raised from seed, the spines
and leaves are red, changing to green as they become advanced in age.
The plants are easy of culture, and will grow almost in any soil.

_Pterospérmum_, five species of plants that have very curiously
constructed flowers, of a white colour, and fragrant; the foliage is of
a brown rusty nature, and before expansion silvery-like. P.
_suberifòlium_ is in several of our collections, and esteemed. P.
_semisagittàtum_ has fringed bractæa; leaves oblong, accuminate, entire,
sagittate on one side.

_Plumèrias_, above twenty species. Plants of a slow growth, robust
nature, and are deciduous. The foliage is greatly admired. The plants
are shy to flower, but are brilliant in colour. P. _acuminàta_, has
lanceolate, acute leaves; flowers corymbose and terminale. P. _trícolor_
has oblong, acute, veiny leaves; corolla red, yellow, and white. This
and P. _rùbra_ are the finest of the genus. They ought not to get any
water while not in a growing state.

_Ph[oe]nix_, Date-palm, about eight species, principally Asiatic plants.
The foliage is not so attractive as many others of the palm family, but
it is rendered interesting by producing a well known fruit called Date.
P. _dactylífera_ will do very well in a common Green-house. In Arabia,
Upper Egypt, and Barbary, it is much used in domestic economy. P.
_paludósa_ has the most beautiful foliage, and the best habit. The
flowers are di[oe]cious.

_Roscòea._ A genus of about five species, all pretty, but not much
known. _R. purpùrea_ has been introduced into our collections, and is
the finest of the genus. The flowers are light purple, large, and in
terminale sheaths at the top of the stem. _R. spicàta_ and _R. capitàta_
are both fine species, with blue flowers. They are all herbaceous, with
strong half tuberous roots, requiring little water while dormant, and a
liberal supply when growing.

_Ruéllia._ There are a few species, very pretty free flowering plants,
of easy culture. _R. formòsa_, flowers long, of a fine scarlet colour;
plant half shrubby. _R. fulgída_ has bright scarlet flowers on axillary
long stalked fascicles. _R. persicifòlia_, with unequal leaves, and
light blue flowers, is now called _R. anisophylla_; and the true one has
oblong, wavy, leaves, deeply nerved, petioles long; flowers yellow,
sessile, in axillary and terminale heads, stem erect. One healthy plant
will be frequently in flower from January to June. This species ought to
be in every collection, both for its beauty of flower and foliage.

_Rhápis_, a genus of palms, that will grow very freely with heat, and
room at the roots. _R. flabellifórmis_ is an erect growing palm, with a
spreading head. It is a native of China.

_Thunbérgia_, a genus containing six climbing plants, of a half shrubby
nature. Some of them have a fragrant odour. _T. coccínea_, red; _T.
grandiflòra_, blue; _T. fràgrans_, sweet-scented; _T. alàta_, has
pretty buff and purple flowers, which are in great profusion. We are not
certain but the latter will make a beautiful annual in the
Flower-garden. It seeds freely, and from the time of sowing until
flowering is about two months, if the heat is brisk. If sown in May,
they will bloom from July until killed by frost.

_Sàgus_, Sago-palm. We are of opinion that the true palm from which the
sago of the shops is produced, has not been introduced into our
collections. It is very rare in the most extensive collections of
Europe, but is not so fine as the one we have under the Sago, which is
placed in the natural order of _Cycadeæ_; and Sagus is in that of
_Palmæ_. The finest of this genus is _S. vinífera_ and _S. Rúmphii_.
They grow to a great height; even in artificial cultivation they may be
seen from ten to twenty-five feet. We have not introduced them here for
their beauty, but to prevent error.

_Solándra_, a genus of four species, remarkable for the extraordinary
size of their flowers, and are considered beautiful. _S. grandiflòra_
and _S. viridiflòra_ are the two best. The plants will bloom best if
they are restricted in pot room, and are only introduced as being worthy
of cultivation. If they are repotted once in two or three years, it is
sufficient, except where the plants are small and want encouragement.

_Strophánthus_, a small genus of beautiful tropical shrubs. The segments
of the corolla are curiously twisted before expansion. _S. divérgens_ is
a neat spreading shrub, with yellow flowers, a little tinged with red;
the petals are about four inches long, undulate, lanceolate. _S.
dichótomus_ is rose coloured, corolla funnel shaped. The plants will
flower freely in a strong moist heat. Drain the pots well.

_Swietènia_ (mahogany-tree), the wood of which is celebrated in
cabinet-work. _S. Mahógoni_, common. This tree varies much in general
appearance according to soil and situation. The leaves are pinnated in
four pairs; leaflets ovate, lanceolate; flowers small, white, in
axillary panicles. _S. fubrifùga_, leaves pinnated, in four pairs;
leaflets elliptical; flowers white, in terminale panicles. The wood of
the last is the most durable of any in the East Indies. They are fine
plants, and require heat and pot room to produce flowers.

_Tecòma_, a genus of plants closely allied to _Bignònia_, and are
free-flowering; several of them much esteemed. _T. móllis_, _T.
digitàta_, and _T. splèndida_, are the most beautiful of those that
belong to the Hot-house. They have large orange coloured, tubular,
inflated, ringent flowers, in loose panicles. There is a plant known in
our collections as _Bignònia stáns_, which is now _T. stàns_; has
pinnated leaves, with oblong, lanceolate, serrated, leaflets; flowers in
simple terminale, raceme, and of a yellow colour, and sometimes known by
Ash-leaved _Bignònia_. It will always have a sickly aspect, if not well
encouraged in light rich soil. Drain the pots well, as much moisture
disfigures the foliage.

_Tabernæmontána_, a genus of little beauty, except for one or two
species. A plant known in some collections as _Nèrium coronàrium_, is
now, and properly, _T. coronària_. The variety, _flòre plèno_, is the
one most deserving of culture, and will flower profusely from May to
August; the flowers are double white, fragrant, and divaricating. The
plant will lose its foliage if not kept in a strong heat; therefore
place it in the warmest part of the Hot-house. _T. densiflòra_ is a fine
species, but very rare. Drain all the plants well, and keep them in the
shade during summer.

_Thrinax parviflòra_, is a fine dwarf palm of the West Indies, with
palmated fronds, plaited with stiff, lanceolate segments. The plant is
of easy cultivation, and will grow in any soil.

_Zàmia_, a genus of plants in the natural order of _Cycadeæ_. Several
species of them are admired. _Z. média_, _Z. furfuràcea_, _Z. ténuis_,
_Z. integrifòlia_, are the most showy that belong to the Hot-house. The
whole genus is frequently kept in this department. They are all plants
of a slow growth, and the beauty is entirely in the pinnated fronds,
with from ten to forty pairs of leaflets. The pots must be well drained.

Those genera of plants which we have enumerated under the head of
repotting in this or next month, are composed of the finest Hot-house
plants that have come under our observation. There are perhaps a few of
them that are not to be found in the United States, or even on our
continent; but the great object, in a choice collection of plants, is to
have the finest from all parts of the known world. There are many plants
whose nature does not require much support from soil, which is
frequently observed in those that are mentioned. And there are many
hundreds of plants desirable for beauty, ornament, and curiosity, which
are not specified, our limits not permitting such an extended detail.
Those whose nature agrees better with repotting at other periods, shall
be noticed, especially those that are in the collections of the country.
We have previously observed, that plants ought not to be flooded with
water when newly potted, as it saturates the soil before the roots have
taken hold of it; and that the best draining for pots is small gravel or
potshreds broken fine. We wish it to be understood that when plants are
repotted, any irregular branch or shoot should be lopped off, that
cannot be tied in to advantage. And repotting may take place either
before or after the plants are exposed to the open air, according to


Where the Hot-house is very crowded with plants, the best method to have
them exposed without danger is, to take out those of the hardiest nature
first, that have no tender shoots upon them, thereby thinning the house
gradually. This may be done from the 16th to the 20th of the month,
which will admit of a free circulation of air amongst those that remain.
All may be exposed from the 24th to the 28th of the month. This is a
general rule, though in some seasons there maybe exceptions. Having
previously given all the air possible to the house, that no sudden
transition take place, which would make the foliage brown, and otherwise
materially injure the plants, choose calm days for the removing of them.

There are few plants while in pots that agree with the full sun upon
them; or if the plants receive the sun, the pots and roots ought not.
The best situation for them is on the north side of a fence, wall,
house, or other building, where they are excluded from the mid-day sun,
and they should stand on boards or gravel, with the tallest at the back,
firmly, tied to a rail or some other security, to prevent them from
being overturned by high winds. A stage erected, where it is
practicable, for the reception of the smaller plants, and they set
thinly and regularly thereon, is preferable to crowding them with the
taller sorts. And it may be desired to have some of the plants plunged
in the garden through the flower borders. Of those that are so treated,
the pots must be plunged to the brim, and regularly turned round every
two weeks, to prevent the roots from running into the earth. If the
roots were allowed to do so, it might for the present strengthen the
plant, but ultimately would prove injurious.

Where a sufficiency of shade cannot be obtained, it would be advisable
to go to the expense of a very thin awning, that would not exclude the
light, but merely the powerful rays of the sun, attending to roll it up
every evening. Plants will keep in beautiful order by the above method,
which amply repays for the trouble or expense. Avoid putting plants
under trees; comparatively few thrive in such situations.

When they are thus all exposed to the open air, it will be very little
trouble to give them a gentle syringing every evening when there is no
rain, and continue your usual examinations for insects: when they appear
resort to the prescribed remedies. _Green-fly_ will not affect them,
but perhaps the thrips. Give regular supplies of water to their roots
every evening, and some will require it in the morning, especially small


These plants are habituated to exposed dry, hot, situations in their
indigenous state; and an aspect, where they would have the full
influence of the sun, is the best, giving them water two or three times
a week.



About the first of the month, all the small half hardy plants may be
taken out of the green house, and those that are left will be more
benefited by a freer circulation of air, which will enure them to
exposure. The _Geraniums_ ought to stand perfectly clear of other
plants, while in flower and growing, or they will be much drawn and


We have advanced so much on this subject, another observation is not
necessary; except as to succulents, which are frequently overwatered
about this period. Before they begin to grow, once a week is sufficient.


Those trees or plants of _Orange_, _Lemon_, _Myrtle_, _Nerium_, &c. that
were headed down with the intention of planting them into the garden, to
renovate their growth, should be brought out and planted in the
situations intended for them. A good light rich soil will do for either,
and the balls of earth might be a little reduced, that when they are
lifted they might go into the same pot or tub, or perhaps a less one.
This being done, the plants, generally in a calm day from the 12th to
the 18th of the month, should be taken out, carrying them directly to a
situation shaded from the sun, and protected from the wind. In regard to
a situation best adapted for them during summer, see _Hot-house_ this
month, which will equally apply to Green-house plants, except _Dáphne
odòra_, _Dáphne hybrida_, and the Green-house species of _Coronílla_,
which must be shaded from every ray of the sun, and even from dry
parching winds. All Primroses and Polyanthus delight in shade. The
reason of so many plants of the _D. odòra_[H] dying is from the effects
of the sun and water.

[H] On examining these plants, when the first appearance of decay
affected them, the decayed part was without exception at the surface of
the soil, which was completely mortified, while the top and roots were
apparently fresh. This led us to conclude that the cause was the effect
of sun and water on the stem. We have since kept the earth in a conical
form round the stem, thereby throwing the water to the sides of the pot,
and kept them in the shade. Previous to doing this, we had quantities
died every year, and now no plants thus treated die with us.

The large trees may be fancifully set either in a spot for the purpose,
or through the garden. Put bricks or pieces of wood under the tubs to
prevent them from rotting, and strew a little litter of any description
over the surface of the soil to prevent evaporation, or about one inch
of well decayed manure, which will from the waterings help to enrich the
soil. A liberal supply of water twice or three times a week is
sufficient. A large tree will take at one time from two to four gallons.
We make this observation, for many trees evidently have too limited a
supply. Continue to syringe the plants through the dry season every
evening, or at least three times per week. All the tall plants must be
tied to some firm support, because the squalls of wind frequently
overturn them, and do much harm by breaking, &c. Keep those that are in
flower as much in the shade as will preserve them from the direct
influence of the sun.


After the following mentioned plants, or any assimilated to them, are
brought out of the house, and before they are put in their respective
stations, repot them where they are required to grow well. _Aloes._
These plants so varied in character, have been divided into several
genera. These are _Gastèria_, _Pachidéndron_, _Riphidodéndron_,
_Howárthia_, and _Apicra_. Of these there are above two hundred species
and varieties. To enter into any specific detail, would be beyond our
limits; but the catalogue at the end of the work will contain the finest

_Amaryllis._ This is a genus of splendid flowering bulbs containing
about eighty species, and one hundred and forty varieties. They are
natives of South America, but more than one half of them are hybrids
grown from seed by cultivators. They are generally kept in the
Hot-house, but in our climate will do perfectly well in the Green-house;
and we have no doubt that in a few years many of them will be so
acclimated, as to keep as garden bulbs, planting about the end of April,
and lifting them in October. As the beauty of these plants is in the
flowers, it will be proper to give a small description of a few of them.
_A. striatifòlia_, has a stripe of pure white in the centre of each
leaf, the flowers are purple and white, an esteemed species. _A.
Johnsòni_, the flowers are a deep scarlet, with a white streak in the
centre of each petal, four bloom on a stem of about two feet, each
flower about six inches diameter; a bulb well established has two stems.
_A. regìna_, Mexican Lily, has large scarlet pendant flowers, tube of
the flower fringed-like, with three or four on the stem. _A. vittàta_ is
an admired species with scarlet flowers, striped with a greenish white.
There are two or three varieties of it; corolla campanulate, three or
four on the stem, about five inches diameter; petals a little undulate.
_A. fùlgida_, flower scarlet, large tube striped, petals acute, two
flowers on the stem. _A. áulica_ is one of the most magnificent, has
four flowers about seven inches diameter, erect on a stem about two and
a half feet high; six petals, strongly united to the capsule, bottom of
the petals green, connected with spots of dark crimson, which spread
into fine transparent red, covered with rich tints, nerves very
perceptible, anthers bold. It is called crowned _Amaryllis_. _A.
psittácina_, Parrot Amaryllis, is scarlet striped with green, two
flowers on the stem, each about five inches diameter. There are several
varieties of it; the best that we have seen are _cowbèrgia_ and
_pulverulènta_. A bulb known in our collections as _A. purpùrea_ is
_Ballóta purpùrea_, has beautiful erect scarlet flowers, three or four
on the stem, each about five inches in diameter. There are three
varieties of it, differing only in habit. _A. longifòlia_ is now _Crìnum
capénse_, and is perfectly hardy; flowers pink, inclining to white, in
large umbels, leaves long, glaucous, and is a desirable garden bulb.

There are many other superb Amaryllis, especially the hybrid sorts; from
_Johnsòni_ there are above twenty cultivated varieties; from _formòsa_
above twelve; and from _Griffìni_ about ten, all of them esteemed. Where
they have been kept in the earth in which they were grown last year, the
ball ought at this repotting to be reduced; when the bulbs are done
flowering, they ought to have little water, so that they may be
perfectly ripened, which will cause them to produce their flowers more

_Araucària._ This noble genus contains four species, which are without
exception the handsomest plants we are acquainted with, for the beauty
of their foliage, and symmetry of their growth, that belong to the
Green-house. _A. excélsa_, Norfolk Island Pine, has leaves closely
imbricated as if with a coat of mail, and are imperishable. _A.
imbricàta_, Chile Pine, is one of the grandest of trees, and is the
hardiest of the genus; the leaves are also closely imbricated. The other
two species are rarely seen even in European collections. The foliage of
either of the species will adhere to the wood many years after the plant
is dead. They are all highly valued, the pots must be well drained; for
if the plants get much water while dormant, the foliage becomes yellow,
and never attains its beautiful green colour again; otherwise they are
easily grown.

_Chamærops._ There are about seven species of these palms: four of them
belong to this department, and are the finest of those that will keep in
the Green-house. They all have large palmated fronds, and require large
pots or tubs to make them grow freely, and are tenacious of life if kept
from frost.

_Gardènia._ This is an esteemed genus of plants, especially for the
double flowering varieties, which are highly odoriferous, and have an
evergreen shining foliage. _G. flòrida flòre-plèno_, Cape Jasmine, is a
plant universally known in our collections, and trees of it are
frequently seen above seven feet high and five feet in diameter,
blooming from June to October. _G. rádicans_, dwarf Cape Jasmine, _G.
longifòlia_, and _G. latifòlia_, are also in several collections, but
not so generally known; the flowers are double, and all equally
fragrant. We are inclined to think they are only varieties of _G.
flòrida_. Any of the above will keep in the coldest part of the
Green-house, and even under the stage is a good situation for them,
where the house is otherwise crowded during winter. They must be
sparingly watered from November to March. Much water while they are
dormant, gives the foliage a sickly tinge, a state in which they are too
frequently seen. _G. Rothmànnia_ and _G. Thunbérgia_ are fine plants,
but flower sparingly; the flowers of the former are spotted, and are
most fragrant during night.

_Mesembryànthemum._ A very extensive genus, containing upwards of four
hundred and fifty species, and varieties, with few exceptions natives of
the Cape of Good Hope. They are all singular, many of them beautiful,
and some splendid; yet they have never been popular plants in our
collections. The leaves are almost of every shape and form; their habits
vary in appearance. Some of them are straggling, others insignificant,
and a few grotesque. When they are well grown, they flower in great
profusion; the colours are brilliant, and through the genus are found of
every shade; yellow and white are most prevalent. Each species continues
a considerable time in flower. The flowers are either solitary,
axillary, extra axillary, but most frequently terminale; leaves mostly
opposite, thick, or succulent, and of various forms. They are sometimes
kept in the Hot-house, but undoubtedly the Green-house is the best
situation for them. They must not get water above once a month during
winter, but while they are in flower and through the summer, they
require a more liberal supply, and they seldom need to be repotted; once
in two years is sufficient.

_Strelítzia_, a most superb genus of evergreen perennial plants. They
are greatly esteemed and highly valued in our collections. The finest
flowering species are _S. regìnæ_ and _S. ováta_; the former is the
strongest of the two, but in respect to the beauty of their flowers
there is no difference. The scape arises about three feet, headed with a
sheath which lies horizontal before the flowers burst forth. The sheath
contains three, four, or five flowers, according to the strength of the
plants. These arise erect, and pass in a few days to the bottom of the
sheath, the one before the other. _S. hùmilis_ is another fine species,
but the most rare are _S. agústa_, which has a leaf nearly like the
plantain; _S. jùncea_, _S. parvifòlia_, and _S. farinòso_. The flowers
of all these are yellow and blue, except those of _S. agústa_, which are
white, and it flowers sparingly. A few species of these plants ought to
be in every Green-house: they are vulgarly called Queen plant. While in
flower they should be liberally supplied with water, but while dormant
very sparingly. They will suffer sooner from the effects of too much,
than too little water. The roots are strong tubers, and require plenty
of pot room, and will thrive exceedingly where they can be planted in
the soil.


These plants, when they are brought from the Green-house, ought to be
set in a situation by themselves, that they may be the more strictly
attended to in watering and syringing. An airy situation where the sun
has no effect upon them is the best. They should be syringed every
evening when there has been no rain through the day. After heavy rains
examine the pots, and where water is found, turn the plant on its side
for a few hours to let the water pass off, and then examine the draining
in the bottom of the pots, which must be defective.


As soon as these are done flowering, and the foliage begins to decay,
cease watering, and turn the pots on their sides, until the soil is
perfectly dry; then take out the bulbs and preserve them dry until the
time of planting, which will be about the end of August or first of

=Flower Garden.=


It is highly desirable to have all the scientific operations as much
advanced in the beginning of this month as is practicable, that at all
times immediate attention may be given to the destroying of weeds
wherever they appear.


By the first of the month finish sowing all hardy Annuals and Biennials;
and about the middle of the month all those that are tropical. The
weather being now warm, they will vegetate in a few days or weeks.
Attend to thinning of those that are too thick, giving gentle waterings
to such as are weak in dry weather. Those that have been protected in
frames should be fully exposed therein night and day; take the first
opportunity of damp cloudy days to have them transplanted into the
borders or beds, after the 10th, lifting them out of the frame with as
much earth as will adhere to their roots.


For the treatment of these while in bloom, see last month. The best time
to take them out of the ground is about five weeks after they are done
flowering, or when the stem appears, what may be termed half decayed.
The best method to dry them is to place the roots in rows, with bulb to
bulb, the stems laying north and south, or east or west. Give the bulbs
a very thin covering of earth, merely to exclude the sun, so that they
may not dry too rapidly, being thereby liable to become soft. When they
have thoroughly dried in this situation, which will be in eight or ten
days in dry weather, (and if it rains cover them with boards,) take them
to an airy dry loft or shade, clearing off the fibres or stems, and in
a few weeks put them in close drawers, or cover them with sand perfectly
dry, until the time of planting, for which see October.

It is not advisable to allow any of the bulbs of either Hyacinths or
Tulips to seed, as it retards their ripening, and weakens the root,
except where there are a few desired for new varieties. The small
offsets must be carefully kept in dry sand, or immediately planted.


These while in bloom should be carefully shaded from the sun by hoops
and thin canvass, or an erect temporary awning; and as soon as they are
done flowering, they must be fully exposed, and the waterings given up.


That are not planted, should now be done. For full directions see last
month. In many seasons, any time before the twelfth is quite soon
enough; but nothing ought to be delayed when the season will permit it
to be done. It is necessary to have them properly labeled.


They will now be done flowering, but still must be carefully kept in a
cool, shady situation, and all decayed leaves cut off as soon as they
appear. Examine them carefully and frequently, in case slugs of any
description be preying upon them. A dusting of hot lime will kill them,
or they may be otherwise destroyed. Some have recommended to repot and
slip those plants when done flowering, "or they will contract a
destructive disease;" which disease is a loss of verdure, and is induced
by too much heat and drought, and a few other causes from inattention;
but if attended to as above until September, when they should be fresh
potted, they will have time to be sufficiently established before
winter, which is the most judicious time to take off slips, for two
reasons, viz.--they do not need so much nursing through the most
precarious season of the year (summer) for these plants, and they begin
to grow, and will root afresh sooner.


As these are very seldom grown from seed, and are semi-biennials, art
has to be used to preserve or renew them. About the end of this month
take shoots of this year about three inches long, cutting them carefully
off, and smoothing the cut end with a sharp knife; from this cut the
lower leaves off about one inch and a half, and then put it in the
ground; choose a very shady spot, mixing the soil with a little sand and
earth of decayed leaves. Sprinkle them three times a day until they have
taken root, which will be in a few weeks. Keep the cuttings about four
inches apart.


We do not consider that it is essential every month to repeat the
necessity of tying up plants, saving seeds when ripe, cutting down
weeds, raking, &c. with many other similar observations. We have already
been full on these subjects, and expect these to be remembered through
the season. Particular care, however, is required to _carnations_,
_pinks_, or any plants that have heavy heads and slender stems. If
carnations are desired to flower strongly, cut off all the buds except
three, leaving the uppermost and any other two of the largest. All
climbing plants should have timely support, and tied securely every week
while they are growing.



All the plants will be able to withstand exposure, in the general state
of the seasons, about the 10th of the month. Begin about the first to
take out the hardiest, such as _Laurestínus_, _Hydrángeas_, _Roses_,
_Primroses_, _Polyanthus_, &c. and thus allow the others to stand more
free, and become hardened to exposure. The reason that plants are so
often seen brown, stunted, and almost half dead, is from the exposed
situation they are placed in, with the direct sun upon them, and too
frequently from being so sparingly watered. There are no shrubby plants
cultivated in pots that are benefited by the hot sun from this period to
October. A north aspect is the best for every plant, except _Càctus_,
_Aloe_, _Mesembryànthemum_, and such as go under the name of succulents.
Where there are only a few, they should be conveniently placed, to allow
water from a pot with a rose mouth to be poured frequently over them,
which is the best substitute for the syringe. _Dáphne_, _Coronílla_,
_Fúchsia_, _Caméllia_, _Primrose_, and _Polyánthus_, do not agree with a
single ray of the sun, through the summer. There has been a general
question what is the cause of the death of so many of the _Dáphne
odòra_. It may be observed, that the first place that shows symptoms of
decay, is at the surface of the soil, and this takes place a few weeks
before there are evident effects of it. The cause is from the effect of
heat or sun and water acting on the stem at least. If the soil is drawn
in the form of a cone round the stem, to throw off the water to the
edges of the pot, that the stem may be dry above the roots,
mortification does not take place, neither do they die prematurely, when
thus treated. For further remarks, see Green-house, this month.


Any of these that are done flowering, such as _Ixia_, _Oxalis_,
_Lachenàlia_, &c. as soon as the foliage begins to decay, turn the pots
on their sides, which will ripen the roots, and when perfectly dry,
clear them off the soil, wrap them up in paper, with their names
attached, and put them carefully aside until the time of planting.


Where it is required, repot _Cáctus_, _Aloe_, _Mesembryánthemums_, and
all other succulents, with any of the _Amaryllis_ that are required to
be kept in pots, also Cape Jasmines. For description of the above, see
Hot-house and Green-house of this month, under the same head.



As the plants of the Hot-house are all exposed to the open air, the
directions will include both months. If the repotting is over, as
recommended last month, all the attention they will require until the
end of August, is the administering of water at the roots, and by the
syringe over head. It will be impossible to say how great are their
wants, that depending entirely upon the nature of the plant, the
situation, and the season; but never neglect to look over them every
evening, and after very dry nights they will need a fresh supply in the
morning, observing to give to none except they are becoming a little
dry. Make weekly examinations for insects of any description, and when
they appear, have them instantly destroyed.

Always after heavy rains look over the pots, in case water should be
standing in them, which would injure the roots. Where any is found, turn
the pot on its side, and in a few hours examine the draining which is
defective; small pots in continued rains should be turned likewise.

Tie up all plants and shoots to prevent them from being destroyed by the
wind, and be attentive to pick all weeds from the pots. Turn round all
the plants occasionally, to prevent them from being drawn to one side by
the sun or light.



The plants being out of the house, there need be little added under this
head. Their treatment is in the general, and the required attention is
in giving water according to their different constitutions and habits.
Where there are not rain or river water, it should stand at least one
day in butts or cisterns, to take the chilly air from it, and become
softened by the surrounding atmosphere. This is more essential to the
health of the plants than is generally supposed. The small plants in dry
weather will need water evening and morning. Continue regular syringings
as directed last month. There are frequently rains continuing for
several days, which will materially injure many plants, if they are not
turned on their sides until the rain is over, especially small plants.
The syringings should never be done till after the waterings at the
roots, and they should never be seldomer than every alternate evening.
Turn all the plants frequently to prevent them from being drawn to one
side by the sun or light. Carefully look over them at these turnings, to
detect any insects. And observe that the tuberose rooted geraniums, such
as _Ardéns_, _Bicòlor_, _Trístum_, &c. are not getting too much water,
they being now dormant.

=Flower Garden.=



The lifting of these will be general in June. For directions see _May_.
It is not advisable to take up _Jonquils_, _Fritillària_, _Crocus_, and
_Iris_, oftener than every alternate year; _Jonquils_ may stand three
years. _Anemones_ and _Ranunculus_ should be carefully lifted after
their leaves begin to fade. Do not expose them to the sun, but cover
slightly with earth or sand until they are perfectly dry, when they may
be sifted out of the earth, and put into drawers carefully labeled. Some
recommend to soak these roots in soap-suds, to destroy a worm that they
are frequently attacked with. We know not how far this may be carried,
nor the good or bad effects, never having practised it.


These are _Amaryllis lùtea_, now called _Sternbérgia lùtea_; _A.
Belladónna_, now _Belladónna purpuráscens_; and _Nerìne sarniénsis_.
This is a beautiful flowering bulb, and requires the protection of a
frame during winter. The old bulb seldom flowers oftener than two
succeeding years, and then decays, but the off-sets will flower the
second year; therefore when the old bulbs are lifted, they ought to be
immediately planted, and receive every encouragement to strengthen them
for flowering. _Crôcus satìvus_, _C Pallàsii_, _C. serotìnus_, and _C.
nudiflòrus_, and all the species of _Cólchicum_, with species of several
other genera not introduced into the country. They should all be lifted
as soon as the foliage is decayed, and kept only a few weeks out of the
ground, and then again replanted in fresh soil. The economy of the genus
_Cólchicum_ in regard to its bulbs, flowers, and seeds, is altogether
singular, and may be termed an anomaly of nature. In producing the new
bulbs or off-sets in a very curious manner, the old one perishes. The
flowers which arise with long slender tubes from the root die off in
October, without leaving any external appearance of seeds. These lie
buried all the winter within the bulb, in spring they grow upon a fruit
stalk, and are ripe about the first of June. How beautiful and admirable
is this provision! The plant blooming so late in the year, would not
have time to mature its seeds before winter; and is, therefore, so
contrived that it may be performed out of the reach of the usual effects
of frost, and they are brought above the surface when perfected, and at
a proper season for sowing.


In order to make the former flower well, if the weather is dry, give
them frequent waterings at the root, and tie them up neatly to their
rods. The criterion of a fine carnation is--the stem strong and
straight, from thirty to forty inches high, the corolla three inches
diameter, consisting of large round well formed petals, but not so many
as to crowd it, nor so few as to make it appear thin or empty; the
outside petals should rise above the calyx about half an inch, and then
turn off in a horizontal direction, to support the interior petals, they
forming nearly a hemispherical corolla. The interior petals should
decrease in size toward the centre, all regularly disposed on every
side; they should have a small degree of concavity at the lamina or
broad end, the edges perfectly entire. The calyx above one inch in
length, with strong broad points in a close and circular body. The
colours must be perfectly distinct, disposed in regular long stripes,
broadest at the edge of the lamina, and gradually becoming narrower as
they approach the unguis or base of the petal, there terminating in a
fine point. Those that contain two colours upon a white ground are
esteemed the finest.

Of a double pink--the stem about twelve inches, the calyx smaller but
similar to a carnation; the flowers two inches and a half in diameter;
petals rose edges; colour white, and pure purple, or rich crimson; the
nearer it approaches to black it is the more esteemed; proportions equal
as in carnation. Those that are very tasteful with these flowers are
attentive to the manner of their opening. Where the calyx is deficient
in regular expansion to display the petals; that is, where there is a
tendency to burst open on one side more than on the other, the opposite
side in two or three different indentions should be slit a little at
several times with the point of a small sharp knife, taking care not to
cut the petals, and about the centre of the calyx tie a thread three or
four times round to prevent any farther irregularity. Some florists and
connoisseurs place cards on them. This is done when the calyx is small.
Take a piece of thin pasteboard, about the size of a dollar; cut a small
aperture in its centre to admit the bud to pass through. When on tie it
tight to the rod, to prevent the wind from blowing it about; and when
the flower is expanded, draw up the card to about the middle of the
calyx, and spread the petals one over the other regularly upon it. When
these plants are in flower, their beauty may be prolonged by giving them
a little shade from the mid-day sun by an awning of any simple
description. Where they are in pots, they can be removed to a cool shady
situation, (but not directly under trees.)


This is a necessary and yearly operation to keep a supply of plants, and
likewise to have them always in perfection. As the process of laying,
though simple, may not be known to all who are desirous of cultivating
these plants, we will give an outline of the mode of operation. Provide
first a quantity of small hooked twigs (pieces of _Asparagus_ stems are
very suitable) about three inches long, for pegging the layers down in
the earth. Select the outward strongest and lowest shoots that are round
the plant, trim off a few of the under leaves, and shorten with the
knife the top ones even, and then applying it at a joint about the
middle of the under-side of the shoot, cut about half through in a
slanting direction, making an upward slit towards the next joint, near
an inch in extent; and loosening the earth, make a small oblong cavity
one or two inches deep, putting a little fresh light earth therein. Lay
the stem part where the slit is made into the earth, keeping the cut
part open, and the head of the layer upright one or two inches out of
the earth; and in that position peg down the layer with one of the
hooked twigs, and cover the inserted part to the depth of one inch with
some of the fresh earth, pressing it gently down. In this manner proceed
to lay all the proper shoots of each plant. Keep the earth a little full
round the plant, to retain longer the water that may be applied. Give
immediately a moderate watering, with a rose watering pot, and in dry
weather give light waterings every evening. Choose a cloudy day for the
above operation. In about two months they will be well rooted.


The best time to prune what are termed "Garden roses" is immediately
after flowering, which is generally about the middle of June. Cut out
all old exhausted wood, and where it is too thick and crowded,
shortening those shoots which have flowered to a good fresh strong eye,
or bud, accompanied with a healthy leaf, but leaving untouched such
shoots as are still in a growing state, except where they are becoming
irregular. Such should be cut to the desired shape. There is not a
better period of the year for puting these bushes in handsome order,
which ought to be studied. All wood that grows after this pruning will
ripen perfectly and produce fine flowers next year.

Our reasons for doing so at this period are these: The points of the
shoots of the more delicate sorts of roses are very apt to die when
pruned in winter or spring; hence the consequences of this evil are
avoided. The stronger the wood of roses is made to grow, the flowers
will be the larger and more profuse, and this effect is but produced by
cutting out the old and superfluous wood; at least it prevents any loss
of vegetative power, which ought always to be considered.


According to what we have previously hinted in regard to having roses as
standards, where such are desired, the month of July is a proper time
for the operation of budding. The kinds to be taken for stocks should be
of a strong free growth. Such as _Ornamental parade_; _Dutch tree_; _R.
vilòsa_; _R. canína_; and frequently the French _Eglantine_, are taken.
Be provided with a proper budding-knife, which has a sharp thin blade
adapted to prepare the bud, with a tapering ivory haft made thin at the
end for raising the bark of the stock. For tieings use bass strings from
Russia mats, which should be soaked in water to make them more pliable.
The height of the stock or stem at which the bud is to be inserted, is
to be determined by the intended destination of the tree, (as it may be
properly called.) Choose a smooth part of the stem, from one to three
years old. Having marked the place, prune away all the lateral shoots
about and underneath it. With the knife directed horizontally, make an
incision about half an inch long in the bark of the stock, cutting into
the wood, but not deeper; then applying the point of the knife to the
middle of this line, make a perpendicular incision under the first,
extending from it between one and two inches. Having a healthy shoot of
the growth of this year provided of the kind that is desired, begin at
the lower end of this shoot, cut away all the leaves, leaving the
footstalk of each. Being fixed on a promising bud, insert the knife
about half an inch above the eye, slanting it downwards, and about half
through the shoot. Draw it out about an inch below the eye, so as to
bring away the bud unimpaired with the bark, and part of the wood
adhering to it; the wood now must be carefully detached from the bark.
To do this insert the point of the knife between the bark and wood at
one end, and holding the bark tenderly, strip off the woody part, which
will readily part from the bark if the shoot from which the piece is
taken has been properly imbued with sap.[I] Look at the inner rind of
the separated bark, to see if that be entire; if there be a hole in it,
the eye of the bud has been pulled away with the wood, rendering the bud
useless, which throw away; if there be no hole, return to the stock, and
with the haft of the knife gently raise the bark on each side of the
perpendicular incision, opening the lips wide enough to admit the
prepared slip with the eye. If the slip is longer than the upright
incision in the stock, reduce the largest end. Stock and bud being
ready, keep the latter in its natural position, introduce it between the
bark and wood of the stock, pushing it gently downwards until it reaches
the bottom of the perpendicular incision. Let the eye of the bud project
through the centre of the lips; lay the slip with the bud as smooth as
possible, and press down the raised bark of the stock. The bud being
deposited, bind that part of the stock moderately tight with bass,
beginning a little below the incision, proceeding upward so as to keep
the eye uncovered, finishing above the incision. In a month after the
operation, examine whether the bud has united with the stock. If it has
succeeded, the bud will be full and fresh; if not, it will be brown and
contracted. When it has taken, untie the bandage, that the bud may
swell, and in a few days afterwards cut the head of the stock off about
six inches above the inoculation, and prevent all shoots from growing by
pinching them off. This will forward the bud, which will push and ripen
wood this season; but it must be carefully tied as it grows to the
remaining head of the stock. Some do not head down the stock until the
following spring, thereby not encouraging the bud to grow, which if
winter sets in early is the safest method.

[I] We once budded three eyes of the white moss rose, after they had by
mistake been carried in the pocket of a coat three days. The shoot was
soaked six hours in water, and two of the buds grew. From this we infer
that shoots, if properly wrapped up, may be carried very great
distances, and grow successfully.


If the season is dry, look over the late planted shrubs, and give them
frequent copious waterings; and a few of the finest annuals that are
wanted to flower perfectly should be attended to. _Dahlias_ suffer very
much in dry seasons, therefore it is advisable to water the most
beautiful (or all) of them two or three times per week, and be careful
to tie up their shoots to any support that is given to them, in case of
high winds breaking or otherwise destroying the flower stems.



The only attention requisite to _these_ plants, is in giving water,
keeping them from being much exposed to either sun or high winds, and
preventing the attack of insects. Water must be regularly given every
evening, when there has not been rain during the day. Where they are in
a growing state, they are not liable at this season of the year to
suffer from too much water, except in a few instances, such as the
Lemon-scented Geranium, and those kinds that are tuberose rooted, as
_Ardèns_, _Bicòlor_, _Tristúm_, &c. which should have moderate supplies.

All the plants ought to be turned round every few weeks to prevent them
from growing to one side, by the one being more dark than the other, and
keep those of a straggling growth tied neatly to rods. Wherever insects
of any description appear, wash them off directly. Give regular
syringings or sprinklings from the rose of a watering pot. Be
particularly attentive in this respect to the _Caméllias_, which will
keep the foliage in a healthy state, and prevent the effects of mildew.

If the foliage of _Lílium longiflòrum_, or _japónicum_, has died down,
do not water them while dormant, as they are easily injured by such



The plants of the Hot-house that were repotted in May and June,
according to the directions therein given, will at present be in an
excellent state of health, provided they have got at all times the
requisite supplies of watering. And as we already have been very
explicit on that subject, more remarks now would be merely repetition.


If any of the repottings were neglected, during May or June, let it be
done about the first of this month. Let young plants that are growing
freely, where the roots have filled the pots, and the plants required to
grow, have pots one size larger. In turning out the ball of earth, keep
it entire, not disturbing any of the roots.


The necessary repairs of the Hot-house are too often put off to the last
day or week; and then with hurry are superficially attended to. Previous
to the first of September, have all the wood-work painted; which ought
to have one coat every year, and the glass all repaired. Have the flues
and furnace examined, and all rents plastered over, or any deficiency
made good. Give the flue a thick coat of lime white-wash, and properly
white-wash the whole interior stages and shelves to destroy any larvæ of
insects; or, what is preferable for the latter, use oil paint. If there
is a tan bed, have that renewed; take out what is most decayed, and add
new tan. Wash out the floor perfectly clean, so that all may be in
readiness for the plants next month.



Any of the _Myrtles_, _Oranges_, _Lemons_, _Oleanders_, &c. that were
headed down in April or May, will be pushing many young shoots. The
plant must be carefully examined, to observe which of the shoots ought
to be left to form the tree. Having determined on this, cut out all the
others close to the stem with a small sharp knife; and if the remaining
shoots are above one foot long, pinch off the tops to make them branch

The trees that were entirely headed down, should not have above six
shoots left, which will, by being topped, make a sufficient quantity to
form the bush or tree.


These plants, about the first of the month, require a complete dressing.
In the first place collect them all together, and with a sharp knife cut
off the wood of this year to within a few eyes of the wood of last year.
_Citriodórum_ and its varieties do not need pruning. The plants grown
from cuttings during the season, that have flowered, cut them to about
four inches from the pot. This being done, have the earth all prepared
with potshreds or fine gravel for draining the delicate kinds. And in a
shaded situation turn the plants progressively out of the pots they are
in, reducing the balls of earth so that the same pots may contain them
again, and allow from half an inch to two inches, according to the size
of the pot, of fresh soil around the ball, which press down by a thin
piece of wood cut for the purpose. Finish by leveling all neatly with
the hand. Give very gentle waterings from a pot with a rose mouth, for a
few weeks, until they have begun to grow, protecting them entirely from
the sun, till that period, then take the opportunity of a cloudy day to
expose them. After this repotting, the following kinds are liable to
suffer from too much water: _Pavonínum_, _Davey[)a]num_, _fúlgens_,
_ardens_, _citriodórum_, _rubéscens_, _florabùndum_, _ardèscens_; with
those of a similar habit, and these species do not require so much
encouragement at the root as the strong growing sorts. The tuberous
rooted and deciduous species must be very moderately supplied. Be
careful when watering that the new soil does not become saturated with
water, as, though allowed to dry again, it will not be so pure. When
they shoot afresh, turn them regularly every two weeks, to prevent them
growing to one side.


As it is frequently very inconvenient to shift these trees into larger
tubs in the months of March and April, this month is a period that is
suitable both from the growth of the trees, and their being in the open
air. It would be improper to state the day or the week, that depending
entirely on the season. The criterion is easily observed, which is when
the first growth is over, these trees making another growth in autumn.
When they are large, they require great exertion, and are frequently
attended with inconvenience to get them shifted. Where there is a
quantity of them, the best plan that we have tried or seen adopted is as
follows: Have a strong double and a single block trimmed with a
sufficiency of rope; make it fast to the limb of a large tree, or any
thing that projects, and will bear the weight, and as high as will admit
of the plant being raised a few feet under it. Take a soft bandage and
put around the stem, to prevent the bark from being bruised; make a rope
fast to it, in which hook the single block. Raise the plant the height
of the tub, put a spar across the tub, and strike on the spar with a
mallet, which will separate the tub from the ball. Then with a strong
pointed stick probe a little of the earth from amongst the roots,
observing to cut away any that are affected by dry-rot, damp, or
mildew, with any very matted roots. Having all dressed, place a few
potshreds over the hole or holes in the bottom of the tub; measure
exactly the depth of the ball that remains around the plant, and fill up
with earth, pressing it a little with the hand, until it will hold the
ball one inch under the edge of the tub. If there is from four to six
inches of earth under it, it is quite enough. Fill all around the ball,
and press it down with a stick, finishing neatly off with the hand.
Observe that the stem of the tree is exactly in the centre. This being
done, carry the tree to where it is intended to stand, and give it water
with a rose on the pot. The earth will subside about two inches, thus
leaving three inches, which will at any time hold enough of water for
the tree. Trees thus treated will not require to be shifted again within
four or five years, having in the interim got a few rich top-dressings.

Frequently in attempting to take out of the tubs those that are in a
sickly state, all the soil falls from their roots, having no fibres
attached. When there are any such, after replanting, put them in the
Green-house, and shut it almost close up, there give shade to the tree,
and frequent sprinklings of water, until it begins to grow, when admit
more air gradually until it becomes hardened. These trees should be put
in very small tubs, and a little sand added to the soil. Give very
moderate supplies of water, merely keeping the soil moist. Tubs
generally give way at the bottom when they begin to decay, and in the
usual method of coopering after this failure they are useless, the
ledging being rotten, and will not admit of another bottom. The staves
should be made without any groove, and have four brackets nailed on the
inside, having the bottom in a piece by itself that it can be placed on
these brackets, and there is no necessity of it being water tight. Then
when it fails, it can be replaced again at a trifling expense. A tub
made this way will last out three or four bottoms, and is in every
respect the cheapest, and should be more wide than deep. _Large Myrtles_
and _Oleanders_ may be treated in the same manner as directed for the


These trees will grow very irregularly, especially the _Lemon_, if not
frequently dressed or pruned. Any time this month look over them all
minutely, and cut away any of the small naked wood where it is too
crowded, and cut all young strong straggling shoots to the bounds of the
tree, giving it a round regular head. It is sometimes necessary to cut
out a small limb, but large amputations should be avoided. Cover all
wounds with turpentine or bees-wax, to prevent the bad effects of the


Any of the plants enumerated in March under this head, may be now done
according to directions therein given, and which apply to all sizes.
This is the proper period for repotting the following:--

_Cálla_, a genus of four species. None of them in our collections, and
in fact are not worth cultivation, except _C. æthiòpica_, Ethiopian
Lily, which is admired for the purity and singularity of its large white
flowers, or rather spatha, which is cucullate, leaves sagittate. It is
now called _Richárdia æthiópica_. The roots which are tubers should be
entirely divested of the soil they have been grown in, breaking off any
small offsets, and potting them wholly in fresh earth. When growing they
cannot get too much water. The plant will grow in a pond of water, and
withstand our severest winters, provided the roots are kept at the
bottom of the water.

_Cyclamen._ There are eight species and six varieties of this genus,
which consists of humble plants with very beautiful flowers. The bulbs
are round, flattened, and solid, and are peculiarly adapted for pots and
the decorating of rooms. _C. côum_, leaves almost round; flowers light
red; in bloom from January to April. _C. pérsicum_, with its four
varieties, flower from February to April; colour white, and some white
and purple. _C. hederæfòlium_, Ivy-leaved; colour lilac; there is a
white variety; flowers from July to September. _C. Europæum_, colour
lilac, in bloom from August to October. _C. neapolitànum_, flowers red,
in bloom from July to September. These are all desirable plants. When
the foliage begins to decay, withhold the accustomed supplies of water,
keeping them in a half dry state; and when growing they must not be over
watered, as they are apt to rot from moisture. Keep them during the
summer months in the shade. The best time for potting either of the
sorts is when the crown of the bulb begins to protrude. If the pots are
becoming large, every alternate year they may be cleared from the old
soil, and put in smaller pots with the crown barely covered. When the
flowers fade, the pedicles twist up like a screw, inclosing the germen
in the centre, lying close to the ground until the seeds ripen, from
which plants can be grown, and will flower the third year.

_Lachenàlia_, a genus of about forty species of bulbs, all natives of
the Cape of Good Hope, and grow remarkably well in our collections. The
most common is _L. trícolor_. _L. quadrícolor_, and its varieties, are
all fine; the colours yellow, scarlet, orange, and green, very pure and
distinct; _L. rùbida_. _L. punctàta_, _L. orchoídes_, and _L. nervòsa_,
are all fine species. The flowers are on a stem from a half to one foot
high, and much in the character of a hyacinth. The end of the month is
about the time of planting. Five inch pots are large enough, and they
must get very little water till they begin to grow.

_Oxalis_, above one hundred species of Cape bulbs, and like all other
bulbs of that country, they do exceedingly well in our collections, in
which there are only comparatively a few species, not exceeding twelve.
_O. rubèlla_, branching, of a vermilion colour; _O. marginàta_, white;
_O. elongàta_, striped; and _O. amæna_, are those that require potting
this month. The first of September is the most proper period for the

This genus of plants is so varied in the construction of its roots, that
the same treatment will not do for all. The root is commonly bulbous,
and these will keep a few weeks or months out of the soil, according to
their size. Several are only thick and fleshy: these ought not to be
taken out of the pots, but kept in them, while dormant; and about the
end of this month give them gentle waterings. When they begin to grow,
take the earth from the roots, and pot them in fresh soil. In a few
years the bulbs are curiously produced, the original bulb near the
surface striking a radical fibre downright from its base, at the
extremity of which is produced a new bulb for the next year's plant, the
old one perishing.

_Ornithógalum_, Star of Bethlehem, about sixty species of bulbs,
principally from the Cape of Good Hope. Many of them have little
attraction. The most beautiful that we have seen are _O. lactéum_, which
has a spike about one foot long of fine white flowers; and _O. aùreum_,
flowers of a golden colour, in contracted racemose corymbs. These two
are magnificent. _O. marítimum_ is the officinale squill. The bulb is
frequently as large as a human head, pear-shaped, and tunicated like the
onion. From the centre of the root arise several shining glaucous leaves
a foot long, two inches broad at base, and narrowing to a point. They
are green during winter, and decay in the spring; then the flower-stalk
comes out, rising two feet, naked half way, and terminated by a
pyramidal thyrse of white flowers. The bulb ought to be kept dry from
the end of June till now, or it will not flower freely.


Watering, and other practical care of the plants, to be done as
heretofore described. Frequently the weather at the end of this month
becomes cool and heavy. Dew falling through the night will in part
supply the syringing operation, but it must not be suspended altogether.
Three times a week will suffice. Any of the plants that are plunged
should be turned every week. In wet weather observe that none are
suffering from moisture.




These always make two growths in the season, and the best time to
perform the clipping or dressing of them is before the plants begin
their second growth. Choose if possible dull and cloudy days for the
operation. The general practice in forming these, is to have the sides
even, and the top level, forming a right angle on each side. However
neat in appearance this may be considered, it certainly is stiff and
formal. We never approve of shearing where it can be avoided, and when
adopted, nature ought to be imitated. We consider that all hedges and
edgings ought to be narrowed at the top.


If layed about the end of June, and been properly attended, they will by
the end of this month be well rotted and fit for transplanting. Clear
away the earth lightly, and cut them clean off from the parent plant,
nearer the stool than the original slit. Raise them neatly out of the
earth, with as many of the root-fibres as possible; cut off the naked
part of the stem close to the fibrous roots, and trim away the
straggling leaves. Plant the finest sorts in four inch pots, and those
more common three plants in five inch pots, in the form of a triangle,
which can be separated in spring to plant in the garden. Any of the
principal stools should be (if in the ground) lifted and put into seven
inch pots to be preserved: the others may be allowed to stand through
the winter, covering them with a few dry leaves. Keep them in the shade
a few weeks, when they may be fully exposed. Give gentle and frequent
sprinklings of water until they have taken fresh root; or if in want of
pots, mark out a bed that can be covered with a frame, preparing the
soil therein properly. Plant them from four to six inches apart. Shade
them from the sun until they begin to grow, giving sprinklings of water
over the foliage every evening.


Look over the bulbs that are out of the ground, and examine those that
require planting. _Fritillària_, about twenty species, but few of them
generally cultivated, except _F. imperiàlis_, Crown Imperial; and _F.
pérsica_. These will require planting, and ought not to be lifted
oftener than every third year. There are four or five varieties of the
above, showy flowers, and singular in appearance. They require a deep
rich loamy soil, and if in beds, plant them from three to four inches
deep, and one foot apart. They will grow under shade of trees, or any
situation where the soil is adapted for them. No imbricated or scaly
bulb ought to be retained long out of the ground. When any of these are
lifted, and the young bulbs taken off, they should be planted at once.
See particularly on bulbous roots in general next month.


Where any seeds of these are saved, with the intention of sowing, let it
be done this month. Procure boxes about seven inches deep, and in size
proportioned to the quantity to be sown. Put five inches of light sandy
soil in the box, level it smoothly, and sow the seeds separately and
thickly; cover with half an inch of light sandy loam, with a portion of
earth from the woods. Keep the box or boxes in a sheltered situation,
giving frequent sprinklings of water to keep the earth damp, which must
be protected with a frame, or covered with leaves during winter. The
plants will appear in spring, and must be watered and kept in the shade:
when the leaves decay in June, put one inch more soil upon them, and the
second year they can be planted with the small offsets in the garden,
and treated as other bulbs. They must be carefully marked every year.
Tulips require many years of trial before their qualities are known; and
a poor soil is best to produce their characters after the first bloom.


About the end of this month or first of next, is an advisable period to
sow seed of _Delphínum Ajácis flòreplèno_, or Double Rocket Larkspur.
This plant does not flower in perfection except it is sown in autumn,
and grown a little above ground before winter, when a few leaves can be
lightly thrown amongst them, but not to cover them entirely, as that
would cause damp, and they would rot off. _Coreópsis tinctòria_, which
is now _Calliópsis tinctòria_, and a beautiful plant, should likewise be
sown. Be attentive in saving all kinds of seeds, many of which will keep
best in the capsule. Name them all correctly, and with the year in which
they were grown.



For the kinds of plants that require potting, we refer to the
Green-house for this month. All that are therein specified are
peculiarly adapted for rooms, and we would call attention to the genus
_Cyclamen_, which has not been generally introduced into the collections
of our ladies; as, from the character and beauty of the flowers, they
are very attracting and highly deserving of culture. Attend to the
Geraniums as there directed, and be particular in having them cut down,
and repotted, as there fully described. The _Oranges_, _Lemons_,
_Oleanders_, and _Myrtles_, that are kept in cellars or rooms, should
have the same attention in this month as directed in the Green-house,
which to repeat here would be occupying space unnecessarily.

_Réseda odoráta_, or Mignonette, is one of the most fragrant annuals. To
have it in perfection, the seed should be sown about the end of this
month, or beginning of next, into pots of fine light earth, and
sprinkled with water frequently. When it comes up the plants must be
thinned out or transplanted; the former method is preferable. Keep them
from frost during winter, and always near the light.

This will equally apply to the Green-house.




Having last month put the house in complete order, all that remains
necessary to be attended to, is the state of the plants and pots, which
should be regularly examined, and of those where the roots fill the
soil, a little may be taken off the top, supplying its place with fresh
earth, thereby giving what is called a top dressing. Give each a
sufficient rod that requires it, tieing the plant neatly thereto;
minutely scrutinise each for insects, and where they are detected, have
them eradicated.

Finally, wash all contracted foulness from off the pots, at the same
time pick off any decayed leaves; thus all will be in perfect order to
take into the house. If any plants have been kept in the Hot-house
during summer, they must likewise go through the same operations.


From the 16th to the 24th, according to the season, is the proper time
to take in the Hot-house plants. It is preferable to have them what
might be deemed a few days too early, than have them in the slightest
affected by cold.

Commence by housing the largest first, and those that stand farthest in
the house, observing to place the most tender sorts nearest the heat or
warmest part of the house. For observations on them, see _May_: in
regard to arrangement, that must be according to the taste of the
operator. We may observe that in a small collection it is better to have
them in a regular than in a picturesque form. A dry shelf is
indispensable in this department for placing on it all herbaceous
plants, such as _Cánna_, _Hedychium_, _Zíngiber_, _Kæmpféria_, &c. the
watering of which from this time should be gradually suspended, that
they may have their required cessation to make them flower well. This
shelf may be in any situation; one in darkness, where other plants will
not grow, will answer perfectly well. If there is a bark bed, do not,
until the end of December, plunge any of the pots therein.


The plants being now all under protection, they must have as much air as
possible admitted to them every day, by opening the doors, front and top
sashes, closing only at night. The syringings must be continued, and
care taken that plants of a deciduous or herbaceous nature are not over
watered. _Alstr[oe]merias_ are apt to rot while dormant when they are
supplied with water. The tuberous species might be kept almost dry. Some
practical men of sound science repot these plants in this month into
fresh soil, and allow them to stand till January almost without water.
We have never adopted this method with any description of plants, but do
not doubt of its success with that genus.

See that the ropes and pullies of the sashes are in good order, and fit
to stand all winter.



During this month every part of the Green-house should have a thorough
cleansing, which is too frequently neglected, and many hundreds of
insects left unmolested. To preserve the wood work in good order, give
it one coat of paint every year. Repair all broken glass, white-wash the
whole interior, giving the flues two or three coats, and cover the
stages with hot-lime, white-wash, or oil-paint; examine ropes, pullies,
and weights, finishing by washing the pavement perfectly clean. If there
have been any plants in the house during summer, be sure after this
cleansing that they are clean also, before they are returned to their
respective situations.


The intensity of the heat being over for the season, the heavy dews
during night will prevent so much absorption amongst the plants. They
will, in general, especially by the end of the month, require limited
supplies of water comparatively to their wants in the summer months. Be
careful amongst the _Geraniums_ that were repotted in August, not to
water them until the new soil about their roots is becoming dry.
Syringing in this month may be suspended in time of heavy dews, but in
dry nights resort to it again.

The herbaceous plants and those of a succulent nature must be sparingly
supplied. The large trees that were put in new earth will require a
supply only once a week, but in such quantity as will go to the bottom
of the tubs.


About the end of the month all the plants should be examined and cleaned
in like manner as directed for those of the Hot-house last month, which
see. From the 1st to the 8th of October is the most proper time to take
them into the Green-house, except those of a half hardy nature, which
may stand out till the appearance of frost. All the Geraniums that were
put in the shade after shifting, may after the 10th be fully exposed,
which will in some degree prevent them from being weak. Turn them in
such a manner as will make them grow equally. Always endeavour to have
these plants short and bushy, for they are unsightly otherwise, except
where a few very large specimens are desired for show. All Myrtles and
Oleanders that were headed down, if the young shoots are too crowded,
continue to thin them out, and give regular turnings, that all the heads
may grow regularly.


That are wanted to flower in the Green-house (where they do remarkably
well) and are in the ground, have them carefully lifted before the end
of the month, and planted in six or seven inch pots, with light loamy
soil. Place them in the shade till they take fresh root, and give them
frequent sprinklings of water. As soon as the foliage becomes erect,
expose them to the full sun, and treat as Green-house plants.


These very ornamental plants blooming so late, and at a period when
there are few others in flower, one of each variety (or two of some of
the finest) should be lifted and put in 8 inch pots, in light loamy
soil, and treated as above directed for Stocks, &c. These will flower
beautifully from October to December, and when done blooming the pots
may be plunged in the garden, or covered with any kind of litter, until
spring, when they can be divided and planted out.


About the end of this month is the period for all of these that are
intended for the Green-house to be potted. We specified some of the
former last month, and will here enumerate a few others.

_Babìana_, a genus of small bulbs, with pretty blue, red, and yellow
flowers. _B. distíca_, pale blue flowers in two ranks. _B. strícta_,
flowers blue and white. _B. tubiflòra_ is beautiful, colour white and
red. _B. plicàta_ has sweet-scented pale blue flowers. There are about
twenty species of them, and they grow from six to twelve inches high.
Four inch pots are sufficient for them.

_Gladìolus_, Corn-flag, a genus of above fifty species. There are
several very showy plants amongst them, and a few very superb. _G.
floribúndus_, large pink and white flowers. _G. cardinàlis_, flowers
superb scarlet, spotted with white. _G. byzantìnus_, large purple
flowers. _G. blándus_, flowers of a blush rose colour, and handsome. _G.
cuspidàtus_, flowers white and purple. _G. psittácinus_ is the most
magnificent of the genus, both in size and beauty of flower; the flowers
are striped with green, yellow, and scarlet, about four inches diameter,
in great profusion, on a stem about two feet high, and though rare in
Europe may be seen in some collections in this country. The beauty of
this genus is all centred in the flowers; the leaves are similar to

_Ixia_, a genus containing about twenty-five species of very
free-flowering bulbs. _I. monadélpha_, flowers blush and green. _I.
leucántha_, flowers large, white. _I. capitàta_, flowers in heads of a
white and almost black colour. _I. cònica_, flowers orange and velvet.
_I. columellàris_ is beautifully variegated with purple, blush, and
vermilion colours. The flower stems are from six to twenty-four inches

_Sparáxis_, a beautiful genus of twelve species, closely allied to the
last, but more varied in colour. _S. grandiflòra striàta_ is striped
with purple ground blush. _S. versícolor_, colours crimson, dark purple,
and yellow. _S. anemonæflòra_ is of various colours, and very similar to

_Tritònia_, a genus of about twenty-five species. Few of them deserve
culture in regard to their beauty. _T. crocàta_ is in our collections,
as _I. crocàta_, which is amongst the finest, and _T. zanthospìla_ has
white flowers curiously spotted with yellow.

_Watsònia_, a genus containing several species of showy flowers, several
of which are in our collections, under the genus _Gladíolus_, but the
most of the species may easily be distinguished from it by their flat
shell formed bulbs. _W. iridifòlia_ is the largest of the genus, and has
flowers of a flesh colour. _W. ròsea_ is large growing, the flowers are
pink, and on the stem in a pyramid form. _W. humilis_ is a pretty red
flowering species. _W. fúlgida_, once _Antholyza fúlgens_, has fine
bright scarlet flowers. _W. rùbens_ is an esteemed red flowering
species, but scarce.

These six genera are in general cultivation. There are several of others
of merit that our limits will not admit of inserting. We have no doubt
there are some splendid species that have not come under our
observation, and others which may be obtained from the Cape of Good Hope
not known in any collection. Many hundreds of superb bulbs indigenous
to that country, and of the same nature and habit of the above, have not
been seen in collections. The flowers of those which we have specified
are from one to four inches in diameter, ringent, tubular, or
campanulate. Pots from four to seven inches diameter, according to the
size of the roots, will be large enough. Give them very little water
until they begin to grow; then supply moderately, and keep them near the
light. Of the Holland or Dutch bulbs, the _Hyacinth_ is the favourite to
bloom in the Green-house. A few of the _Tulip_, _Narcissus_, _Iris_, and
_Crocus_, may for variety be also planted with any other that curiosity
may dictate. When these are grown in pots, the soil should be
four-eighths loam, two-eighths leaf mould, one-eighth decomposed manure,
one-eighth sand, well compounded; plant in pots from four to seven
inches, keep the crown of the bulb above the surface of the soil, except
of the Tulip, which should be covered two inches. When these roots are
potted, plunge them in the garden about three inches under ground; mark
out a space sufficient to contain them; throw out the earth about four
inches deep, place the pots therein, covering them with earth to the
above depth, making it in the form of a bed. Leave a trench all round to
carry off the rain. By so doing, the bulbs will root strong, the soil
will be kept in a congenial state about them, and they will prove far
superior than if done in the common method. Lift them from this bed on
the approach of frost, or not later than the second week of December,
wash the pots and take them to the Green-house.


_Vibúrnum._ This is a good period to repot all the flowering plants of
this genus. For a full description of them, see _Green-house_, _March_.
The repotting is only intended for young plants that are wanted to grow
freely. When the _V. tìnus_ is much encouraged, it does not flower

_Lìlium_, Lily. There are four species of this splendid genus kept in
the Green-house. It has always been our practice to repot them when they
begin to grow, though it is said by some that, when removed at that
time, they will not flower perfectly. They will not do to be kept above
a few weeks out of the ground, and we think they ought never to be kept
out any period. We place them here, that a choice may be made by the
cultivator of either of the periods, which is not material; observing in
either case, that excess of moisture is injurious while they are
dormant. _L. longiflòrum_ grows about one foot high, with one or more
flowers. _L. longiflòrum suavèolens_, is sweet-scented, and has only one
flower. _L. japònicum_ is the most magnificent, grows about two feet
high, with three or more flowers on one stem. _L. lancifòlium_; we
incline to class this with _L. speciòsum_, there being no apparent
distinction in any character. The flowers are all of the purest white.
They require from five to seven inch pots.

=Flower Garden.=



See that all these plants are supported with proper stakes, rods, &c.,
that the wind may have no effect in breaking down or otherwise
destroying the flower stems. Strictly observe their respective heights
and colours, that they may be duly disposed and interspersed next year,
if not done so this. If the early part of the month is dry, give them
liberal supplies of water.


All the flowers that are in pots, and intended to be kept in frames
during winter, should have a top-dressing, and a general preparation for
their winter quarters, by tieing up, &c. The carnation and pink layers
that were lifted and potted last month must be brought from the shade as
soon as they begin to grow; and those that are not lifted, have them
done forthwith, that they may be rooted afresh before the frost sets in.
All Wall-flowers and Stocks should be lifted this month, and planted in
five to seven inch pots, and treated as directed for carnation layers
last month, until they begin to grow, when they must be fully exposed.


Bulbous roots of every character delight in deep free soil;
consequently, wherever they are desired to be planted, due attention
must be paid to put the soil in proper order, to have them in
perfection. Where there are a quantity intended to be planted, to have
them in beds is the general and preferable method. These ought to be dug
from eighteen inches to two feet deep, at the bottom of which place
three or four inches of decayed manure. Where the soil is poor it should
be enriched with well decomposed manure and earth from the woods,
incorporating both well with the soil, breaking it all fine. This being
done, allow it to stand until the middle of next month, which see for
farther directions.


Tie up carefully all the _Chrysánthemums_, _Tuberoses_, &c. Clear away
the stems or haulm of any decayed annuals or herbaceous plants, that
nothing unsightly may appear. Be attentive to the collecting of all
kinds of seeds.



Where there is a quantity of plants to be kept in these apartments, they
should be disposed to the best effect, and at the same time in such a
manner as will be most effectual to their preservation. A stage of some
description is certainly the best, and, of whatever shape or form, it
ought to be on castors, that it may, in severe nights of frost, be drawn
to the centre of the room. The shape may be either concave, a half
circle, or one square side. The bottom step or table should be six
inches apart, keeping each successive step one inch farther apart, to
the desired height, which may be about six feet. Allowing the first step
to be about two feet from the floor, there will be five or six steps,
which will hold about fifty pots of a common size. A stage in the form
of half a circle will hold more, look the handsomest, and be most
convenient. We have seen them circular, and when filled appeared like a
pyramid. These do very well, but they must be turned every day, or the
plants will not grow regularly. With this attention it is decidedly the
best. Green is the most suitable colour to paint them.


The directions given for the Green-house this month are equally
applicable here. The _Tasseled White Chrysanthemum_, and a few other
late blooming sorts, are particularly adapted for rooms. If there is no
convenience to plunge the pots with Dutch bulbs in the garden, as
described in the Green-house of this month, give them very little water
until they begin to grow.



Very few directions remain to be given to the department of the
Hot-house. The supplies of water for this and the two preceding months
are, according to the state and nature of tropical plants, more limited
than at any other period of the year. This is the first month of what
may be called their dormant state. Observe the herbaceous plants, that
they are, as soon as their foliage decays, set aside, in case of being
too liberally supplied with water. Airing is highly essential about this
period, that the plants may be gradually hardened; but guard against
injuring them. The temperature should not be under fifty degrees; when
the days are cool, and the wind chilling, airing is not necessary; and
when air is admitted, always close up early in the afternoon, whilst the
atmosphere is warm, to supersede the necessity of fire as long as
possible. If at any time you have recourse to it in this month, use it
with great caution.

Examine all the shutters and fastenings, and see that they are in good
substantial order, and where deficient repair them instantly, that they
may be in readiness. Remove all leaves, and give syringings twice a
week. Clear off, sweep out, and wash clean, that every part may be in
the neatest order.




As observed in the previous month, let the housing of Green-house plants
now be attended to. Have all in before the eighth of the month, except a
few of the half hardy sorts, which may stand until convenient. Begin by
taking in all the tallest first, such as _Oranges_, _Lemons_, _Myrtles_,
_Oleanders_, &c. Limes ought to be kept in the warmest part of the
house, otherwise they will throw their foliage. In arrangement, order is
necessary to have a good effect; and in small houses it ought to be neat
and regular, placing the tallest behind, and according to their size
graduating the others down to the lowest in front. Dispose the different
sorts in varied order over the house, making the contrast as striking as
possible. Having the surface of the whole as even as practicable, with a
few of the most conspicuous for shape and beauty protruding above the
mass, which will much improve the general appearance, and greatly add to
the effect. All succulents should be put together. They will do in a
dark part of the house, where other plants would not grow, studying to
have the most tender kinds in the warmest part, and giving gentle
waterings every three or four weeks. When all are arranged, give them a
proper syringing, after which wipe clean all the stages, _benches_, &c.
sweeping out all litter, and wash clean the pavement, which will give to
all a neat and becoming appearance.

Let the waterings now be done in the mornings, as often and in such
quantities as will supply their respective wants, examining the plants
every day.

During the continuance of mild weather, the circulation of air must be
as free as possible, opening the doors and front and top sashes
regularly over the house. But observe in frosty nights, and wet, cloudy
weather, to keep all close shut. Be attentive in clearing off decayed
leaves and insects.

Any plants of _Lagerstræmia_, _Stercùlia_, _Hydrángea_, _Pomegranate_,
and others equally hardy, that are deciduous, may be kept perfectly in a
dry, light, airy cellar, giving frequent admissions of air.


_Anemònes._ Where _A. nemoròsa flòre plèno_ and _A. thalictròides flòre
plèno_ are kept in pots in the Green-house, they should be turned out of
the old earth, and planted in fresh soil. They are both pretty, low
growing, double white flowering plants, and require a shaded situation.
The latter is now called _Thalíctrum anemonoídes_.

_Dáphne_, is a genus of diminutive shrubs, mostly evergreens, of great
beauty and fragrance. Very few species of them are in our collections.
_D. odòra_, frequently called _D. índica_, is an esteemed plant for the
delightful odour of its flowers, and valuable for the period of its
flowering, being from December to March, according to the situation;
leaves scattered, oblong, lanceolate, smooth; flowers small, white, in
many-flowered terminale heads. _D. hybrida_ is a species in high
estimation at present in Europe, but little known here, being only in a
few collections; flowers rose-coloured, in terminale heads, and lateral
bunches in great profusion, and very similar to the former in habit and
shape of flower; blooms from January to May, and is of a peculiar
fragrance. _D. oleoídes_ is what may be termed "ever-blooming;" flowers
of a lilac colour; leaves elliptic, lanceolate, smooth. _D. laurèola_,
Spurge laurel; _D. póntica_, _D. alpìna_, and _D. Cneòrum_, are all fine
species, and in Europe are esteemed ornaments in the shrubbery, but we
are not certain if they will prove hardy in our vicinity.

_Prímula._ There are a few fine species and varieties in this genus,
adapted either for the Green-house or Rooms. All the species and
varieties will keep perfectly well in a frame, except the China sorts.
Having previously observed a few of the other species and varieties, we
will observe the treatment of these. _P. sinénsis_, now _prænitens_,
known commonly as China Primrose; flowers pink, and in large proliferous
umbels, flowering almost through the whole year, but most profusely from
January to May. Keep them in the shade, and be careful that they are not
over-watered during summer. As the stems of the plant become naked, at
this repotting a few inches should be taken off the bottom of the ball,
and placing them in a larger pot will allow the stems to be covered up
to the leaves. _P. p. albiflòra_, colour pure white and beautiful. _P.
p. dentiflòra_. There is also a white variety of this, both similar to
the two former, only the flower indented. All these require the same
treatment. As they only live a few years, many individuals, to propagate
them, divide the stems, which in most cases will utterly destroy them.
The best, and we may say the only method to increase them, is from seed,
which they produce in abundance every year.

_Pæonia_, is a magnificent genus. There are four varieties of them, half
hardy and half shrubby. They will bear the winter if well protected, but
are better in the Green-house. These are _P. moután_, Tree Pæony; the
flower is about four inches in diameter, of a blush colour, and
semi-double; _P. M. Bànksii_ is the common Tree Pæony, and called in our
collection _P. Moutàn_; it has a very large double blush flower, and is
much admired. _P. M. papaveràcea_ is a most magnificent variety; has
large double white flowers, with pink centres; _P. M. ròsea_ is a
splendid rose-coloured double variety, and is scarce. These plants ought
not to be exposed to the sun while in flower, as the colours become
degenerated, and premature decay follows.

If the Dutch bulbs intended for flowering during winter are not potted,
have them all done as soon as possible, according to directions given
last month.


These plants ought to have a thorough examination, and those that were
omitted in repotting before they commenced growing, may be done in the
early part of this month; but it is not adviseable, except the roots are
matted round the ball of earth, which should be turned out entire.
Examine all the pots, stir up the surface of the earth, and take it out
to the roots, supplying its place with fresh soil. Destroy any worms
that may be in the pots, as they are very destructive to the fibres.
Look over the foliage and with a sponge and water clear it of all dust,
&c. Frequently the buds are too crowded on these plants, especially the
_Double white_ and _Variegated_. In such case pick off the weakest, and
where there are two together, be careful in cutting, so that the
remaining bud may not be injured.

This is the best period of the year to make selections of these, as they
now can be transported hundreds of miles without any material injury, if
they are judiciously packed in close boxes. In making a choice of these,
keep in view to have distinctly marked varieties, including a few of
those that are esteemed as stocks for producing new kinds, which are
undoubtedly indispensable; and will reward the cultivator in a few years
with new sorts. Besides, it will afford unbounded gratification to
behold any of these universally admired ornaments of the Green-house
improving by our assistance and under our immediate observation. There
is nothing to prevent any individual from producing splendid varieties
in a few years. Mr. Hogg correctly observes, "It is very probable in a
few years we shall have as great a variety of Camellias, as there are of
Tulips, Hyacinths, Carnations, Auriculas, &c."

It has been often said that these plants are difficult of cultivation.
This is unfounded, indeed they are the reverse if put in a soil
congenial to their nature. When highly manured soils are given, which
are poisonous to the plants, sickness or death will inevitably ensue;
but this cannot be attributed to the delicacy of their nature. We can
unhesitatingly say there is no Green-house plant more hardy or easier of
cultivation, and they are equally so in the parlour, if not kept
confined in a room where there is a continuance of drying fire heat,
their constitution not agreeing with an arid atmosphere.




From the middle of October to the beginning of November is the best
period for a general planting of Dutch bulbs.

_Cròcuses_ are the earliest in flower, and may be planted about six
inches off the edgings, about four inches apart and two deep, or in beds
four feet wide; the varieties selected and planted across the bed in
rows of distinct colours, they flowering so early, and in that manner
have a grand effect. There are above sixty varieties to be had.

_Hyacinths._ The ground that was prepared for these last month, should
be all divided into beds four feet wide, leaving between each alleys of
twenty inches. Skim off three inches of the surface of the former into
the latter, level the bed smoothly with the rake, and mark it off in
rows eight inches apart. Plant the roots in the row eight inches
asunder. Thus they will be squares of eight inches, and by planting the
different colours alternately the bed will be beautifully diversified.
Press each root gently down with the hand, that in covering up they may
not be displaced. Put about four inches of earth over the crowns, which
will make the beds from two to three inches higher than the alleys. The
beds before and after planting should be gently rounded from the middle
to each side to let the rain pass off. Finish all by raking evenly,
straighten the edgings with the line, and clear out the alleys or

_Tulips_ like a lighter and richer earth than Hyacinths. Prepare the
beds in the same manner, and so as the roots will stand nine inches
apart each way; cover them five inches deep, as the new bulbs are
produced above the old.

If it is intended to screen either of these while in flower, the beds
should be made wider. Where two beds are to be shaded under one awning,
make the alleys alternately two or three feet wide; the one two feet
wide to be under the awning.

_Polyanthus and Italian Narcissus_, may be planted in every respect as
_Hyacinths_, only they require a lighter and richer soil.

_Jonquils._ Plant these in the same soil as _Tulips_, six inches apart,
and cover three inches deep. They do not flower so well the first year
as in the second and third, therefore should only be lifted every third

_Anemones and Ranunculuses._ These roots like a fresh rich, well
pulverized, loamy soil. In light sandy soils they will languish in early
droughts, and sometimes do not show their flowers fully. Cow manure is
the best to use for enriching the soil. The whole should be well mixed
and incorporated to the depth of eighteen or twenty inches. The roots
may be planted in four-foot beds, or in such a manner as a low frame of
boards can be placed over them, when the winter sets in very severe. If
intended to be shaded while in flower, leave a sufficiency of space in
the alleys as directed for Tulips and Hyacinths. Do not raise the beds
above one inch higher than the alleys, and form the surface level, in
order to detain rather than throw off moisture. Then draw drills exactly
two inches deep and six inches apart across the bed. In these place the
roots, claws down, about four inches distant from each other. The roots
of the Anemones are flat, and the side on which there are small
protuberances, is that from which the stems proceed. Press each root a
little down with the hand, and cover all carefully so as not to displace
them. Smooth the surface with the rake, leaving the bed quite level.

Many other bulbous flowers might be added to the above; but as their
culture is so similar, it would be superfluous to say more of them. They
should be allowed space and depth according to the size of the bulb; a
covering of two inches for the smallest, and five for the largest, will
generally answer, and the intermediate roots in proportion. We will
enumerate a few of the different kinds, _Starch_ and _Musk Hyacinths_;
of _Narcissus_, the _Paper_, _Grand Monarque_, and _Nodding_, with the
two previously mentioned, are the most profuse in flower. Some of them
will have above twelve flowers on one stem. Of _Lilies_, all the
varieties of _Mártagon_, _Tigrìnum_ and _Chalcedónicum_, with our native
species and varieties. Of _Iris_, _Lusitánica_, two varieties, yellow
and blue; _Xiphioídes_, or _Ziphioídes_; and _Pérsica_, are the finest
of the bulbous sorts. Snow-drop with several other minor bulbs.

All of these flowering bulbs may be advantageously planted in patches
through the garden by taking out about one square foot of earth. Break
it well, and if poor enrich it. Plant four bulbs in each of the same
colour, and the clumps that are contiguous to contain different colours.


This is a very proper period to plant the beautiful and early flowering
_Pyrus japónica_, now called _Cydónia japónica_. The blossoms are of a
rich scarlet colour. It is the earliest flowering shrub of the garden,
and deciduous, though said by some to be "an evergreen." The plant is
bushy, and well adapted for single plants in grass plats, or forming
low ornamental hedges. There is likewise _C. j. álba_, a fine white
variety of the same habit, and both are of the hardiest nature--also for
the various species of _Anemònes_ and all the herbaceous _Pæonias_.

Of the latter there are above nineteen species and twenty-two varieties,
a few of which are particularly esteemed, and exceedingly handsome. _P.
èdulis whitlíji_ is a splendid large double _P èdulis_ white; _P. Hùmei_
is a beautiful large double dark blush; _P. èdulis fràgrans_ is a fine
large double scarlet, rose-scented variety. These three plants ought to
be in every garden. The flowers are full in the centre, and frequently
above six inches in diameter; _P. álba chinènsis_ is said to be the
largest and finest of the herbaceous sorts; colour pure white, with pink
at the bottom of the petals--it is a scarce variety; _P. paradóxa
fimbàtria_, fringed double red, and esteemed; _P. officinális rúbra_ is
the common double red. There are several other very fine single species
and varieties, the flowers of which are principally red or blush, but
none so magnificent as the above mentioned. This is perhaps a more
favourable period to plant _Dodecátheon_ than March; for its character
see that month of this department. _Asclèpias tuberòsa_ should now be

_Double Primroses_, _Polyanthus_, _Daisies_, &c. Any of these that were
planted in shaded situations in spring, and have been preserved through
the summer, should have for their farther protection a bed well
sheltered from the north west, in which they should be planted four
inches apart. Give them a few sprinklings of water in the morning, and
have a temporary frame of rough boards put together to place over them
during the severity of winter. The frame may be covered with the same in
place of glass, which must be kept over them while they are in a frozen

Any other plants that are in the ground, which are intended to be
protected with frames through the winter, ought to be immediately lifted
and potted; and treated as directed for all new potted plants.


The former should be trimly cut and well rolled this month, that they
may appear neat all winter. Never allow decayed leaves to lay any time
upon them, as they are apt to rot out the grass. The latter should be
divested of every weed, and receive a firm rolling. Clear them at all
times of leaves and other litter. These, if on a declivity, and have not
a firm substantial bottom, will be subject to be cut up with every heavy
rain. A break should be put in every twenty, forty, or eighty feet, to
throw off the water. A strong plank will answer perfectly well, but in
such situations we would prefer grass-walks.


This month is the best period in autumn to plant these shrubs, and where
there is a great extent to be planted it would be advisable to do a
part of it now; but we give the preference to April, which see for


When the plantings of bulbs, &c. are finished, every part of the garden
should have a thorough cleaning. All annual flowers will have passed the
season of their beauty; therefore, remove the decayed flower stems or
haulm, and trim off the borders. Dig all vacant ground, especially that
intended to be planted with shrubs in the ensuing spring, which ought to
be dug from one to two feet deep. Roses delight in a deep light soil.



Have a stage or stages, as described last month, in the situations where
they are intended to remain all winter; place the plants on them from
the first to the eighth of this month, beginning with the tallest on the
top, graduating to the bottom. It is desirable to place flats or saucers
under each, to prevent the water from falling to the floor, and the
water should be emptied from the flats of all except those of _Cálla_
and _Hydrángea_. The latter while dormant should be kept only a little

Previous to taking in the plants, they should be divested of every
decayed leaf, insects, and all contracted dust, having their shoots
neatly tied up, and every one in correct order. Every leaf of the
_Caméllias_ ought to be sponged, and the plants placed in a cool airy
exposure, shaded from the direct rays of the sun. If the flower buds are
too crowded, picking off the weakest will preserve the remainder in
greater perfection, and prevent them in part from falling off. Do not on
any occasion keep them in a room where there is much fire heat, as the
flower buds will not expand in an arid atmosphere. See Green-house this
month more largely on this subject.


Those that are intended to flower in glasses, should be placed therein
this month and kept in a cool room. After the fibres begin to push a few
shoots, the glasses may be taken to the warmest apartments to cause them
to flower early. Bring a few from the coldest to the warmest every two
weeks, and thus a succession of bloom may be kept up from January to
March. Where the roots intended for pots are still out of the ground,
the sooner they are planted the better. (See last month for directions.)

_Cape Bulbs._ All that are unplanted and offering to grow, should be put
in pots forthwith. Ample directions are given for the planting of these
in the two preceding months.

Repot _Rùbus rosæfòlius_, or Bramble-rose. They should have pots one
size larger than those they are now in. To make them flower profusely,
when done blooming in May, divide them and put only a few stems in one
pot, and repot them in this month, as above directed.


Any herbaceous plants in the collection ought to be set aside, and the
water in part withheld. When the stems and foliage are decayed, the
plants may be put in a cool cellar, where they will not be in danger of
frost, and be permitted to remain there until they begin to grow; then
bring them to the light, and treat as directed for these kinds of
plants. Deciduous plants may be treated in a similar manner.



The essential points to be attended to in the Hot-house during this
month, are _fire_, _air_, and _water_. The former must be applied
according to the weather, observing not to allow the temperature to be
under fifty degrees, and it ought not to continue long at that degree;
fifty-two degrees being preferable. The shutters should be on every
night when there is any appearance of frost, and taken off early in the
morning. Admit air in small portions every day that the sun has any
effect, and the atmosphere mild, observing that the temperature of the
house be above sixty degrees previous to admission. Shut all close early
in the afternoon or when any sudden changes occur.


In watering it is important to have the water of the same temperature in
this department as the roots of the plants. To have this there are two
kinds of cisterns, or tanks, that might be adopted; one may be sunk in
the house under ground, either closely plastered, or lined with lead,
and neatly covered up, having a small perpendicular pump therein, or
placed so that the water could be lifted by hand. The other might, where
convenience will admit, be placed over the furnace, either in the back
shed, or inside of the house, and the water could be drawn off this by a
stop-cock. These can be supplied in part with rain water by having
spouts round the house to lead into the cisterns, supplying any
deficiency from the pump. Thus water of a congenial temperature may
always be at hand, which is of great importance to the healthful
constitution of the plants. The water must now be given in moderate
portions, examining the plants every day. Be careful in watering bulbs,
as the smallest supply is sufficient for them at present. Succulents
will require a little every two weeks, except they are over the flues,
when they may have some every week.

Constantly clear off all decayed leaves, and carry them out of the
house, which sweep and wash clean, and keep all in the neatest order.




Airing the house should be strictly attended to. Every day that there is
no frost it may be admitted largely, and in time of slight frosts in
smaller portions, never keeping it altogether close when the sun has any
effect on the interior temperature of the house, which should not be
allowed to be higher than fifty degrees.

Water must be given in a very sparing manner. None of the plants are in
an active state of vegetation, consequently it will be found that
looking over them twice a week and supplying their wants will be
sufficient. Succulents will need a little once in three weeks or a
month. Give very moderate supplies to the _Amaryllis_ that are dormant,
and keep all of these bulbs in the warmest part of the house.


Where there are tropical bulbs in the collection, and there is not the
convenience of a Hot-house; they may be very well preserved by shaking
them clear of the soil. Dry them properly, and place them in a box of
very dry sand, or moss, which also must be perfectly dry, and put them
in a situation where they will be clear of frost, and free from damp.
These can be potted about the first of April. Give no water till they
begin to grow, then plant them in the garden about the middle of May,
when they will flower during the summer season, if their age will


If there are any of the half hardy plants exposed, have them taken into
the house, or under the requisite protection, in frames, pits, cellars,
&c. The autumn flowering Cape bulbs should be placed near the glass, and
free from the shade of other plants. Cleanliness through the whole house
and amongst the plants ought at all times to be attended to.



Wherever there are any Holland bulbs remaining unplanted, have them put
in as soon as possible, lest frost should set in. It is not advisable to
keep them later out of the ground than the beginning of this month.


On the appearance of the severity of winter, the finer sorts of these
should have a simple protection, not because they will not do without
such care, but to prevent the alternate thawing and freezing of the
embryo of the bulb. To give them a covering three inches deep of any of
the following substances, will do perfectly well,--saw-dust not
resinous, old tan bark, half decayed leaves, or very rotten manure. The
last is preferable, as it would in part enrich the soil.

_Anemònes_ and _Ranunculus_ ought to be protected by a frame; the
foliage being above ground, none of the above will answer. It is not
necessary that the frame should be covered with glass, close boards will
answer perfectly, which must not be over them except during frost.


These tubers and bulbs, as soon as the frost has partly injured the
foliage, should be taken up, and dried thoroughly, either in the sun or
a room where there is fire heat, taking care at all times to keep them
clear from frost. When they are dry, divest them of their foliage and
fibres. When perfectly dry, pack them in boxes with dry sand, or moss.
Store these away for the winter, either in a warm room or a dry cellar,
where they will at all times be exempt from frost, the least touch of
which would destroy them. We have kept them completely secure in the


Where there are any plants of _E. herbàcea_, _E. laurifòlia_, or _E.
crísta-gálla_, which are intended to be lifted, they should be carefully
done and preserved in half dry earth, and kept beside the _Dáhlias_. We
are not sure of the former agreeing with this treatment, but certain of
the others, which are magnificent ornaments in the Flower-garden.


That were planted in a sheltered spot, as directed last month, should
have a frame placed over them, and their covering in readiness for the
approach of winter; giving the plants a light covering of leaves, which
will preserve their foliage from the effects of frost.


That are in pots, should be placed in the frame intended for their abode
during winter. If the pots are plunged to the rims in tan, half decayed
leaves, or saw dust, it will greatly protect their roots from the severe
effects of frost. Where glass is used for these frames, they should have
besides a covering of boards, or straw mats; those that are in beds may
be covered as above directed for Primroses, &c.

They ought not to be uncovered while in a frozen state. It is not
altogether the intensity of cold that destroys these plants so much as
the alternate thawing and freezing.

All half hardy plants, such as _Wall-flower_, _German stocks_,
_Sweet-bay_, tender roses, with several others, should be protected as
above directed for Carnations. Earth or tan should be put round the
outside of these frames, which will be a partial shelter from the
changing state of the atmosphere. Oak leaves answer the purpose very
well, but they are a harbour for all kinds of vermin, especially rats
and mice, which would destroy every thing. It may be useful to say a few
words on the nature of tan or tanner's bark. Many suppose that the
smallest quantity will produce heat, If three or four cart loads of it
are put into one heap, and protected from the rain, it will ferment; and
when the first fermentation is abated, by mixing it with leaves, a
substantial hot-bed may be made. Or put it by itself into a pit, and
where there is no pit, boards may be substituted to keep it together;
either of these methods will produce a lasting heat. But in small
quantities and exposed to rain, &c. no heat will be produced, but rather
the contrary. It is excellent when dry in keeping out frost from any
plants, being a body not easily penetrated, similar to dry sand,
saw-dust, or dry leaves. Frequently the same opinion is held in regard
to stable manure, small portions of which will never produce heat.


During this or next month, according to the state of the season, protect
all the plants that are in the ground, which are not completely hardy.
To avoid repetition, these will be designated in the general list. The
coverings may be straw, Russia mats, canvass, boxes or barrels. The two
latter must be perforated in the top, to let the damp air pass off, or
the plant would become musty, or finally mortify. Those covered with
straw or mats should have small stakes placed round the plants, and
covering tied thereto, and remain so until the month of March or first
of April. Herbaceous plants that are tender, may be covered with three
or four inches of tan, saw-dust, or half decayed leaves, which will tend
greatly to preserve their roots. These coverings must be carefully
removed on the first opening of spring. The shrubs that are otherwise
covered would be greatly benefited by having their roots protected in a
similar manner as directed for herbaceous plants.


If any seeds of _Hyacinths_, _Tulips_, _Fritillària_, were sown in pots
or boxes, let them be removed to a dry sheltered situation, and plunged
level with the ground; or fill the spaces between them with dry leaves
or tanner's bark, and cover the whole with new fallen leaves, laying
over all a few boards to prevent the wind blowing them off. These form
better coverings than straw or haulm, which is liable to become musty,
and communicate the effect to the roots. The above covering is not
required until the approach of severe frost.


It is not recommendable to make a general planting of these at this
period of the year; the success entirely depending on the nature of the
season and the state of the soil. If any are planted, let them be those
of the hardiest nature, and in light and absorbent soil, not subject to
be stagnated or over-flooded during winter. When this and next month are
mild, autumn plantings are frequently as sure as those of the spring.
But the precarious state of the seasons is not to be depended upon,
therefore avoid largo plantings of any kind, and more especially of
delicate roses, the roots of which are apt to rot off except they have
been previously grown in pots. Nothing can be more injurious to a plant
at this season particularly, than to bed its roots in mortar, by which
the tender fibres either perish or are cramped ever afterwards. The soil
at time of planting should be so friable as not to adhere to the spade,
which is a good rule in planting at any season, or in any soil.


Carry out of the garden all decayed leaves and litter of every
description, cutting down any weeds that remain. Collect all the stakes
and rods that have been supporting plants; tie them up in bundles for
the use of next year, and put them under cover. Look over every part of
the garden, and see that nothing has been omitted in the way of covering
or other protection. The sashes that are to be used on the frames should
be perfectly whole, every interstice in the glass puttied, and all ready
for use when occasion may require. Attend to all plants in pots, and
give them gentle waterings as they stand in need; but never during the
time the soil is frozen about their roots.




The remarks and instructions that are given last month for these
apartments will equally answer here. Where the Dutch bulbs were omitted
to be placed in glasses, they ought not to be longer delayed. A few pots
of those that were planted in September may be placed in a warmer
situation. If they were plunged in the ground, the roots will be
strongly fibred, and will produce large flowers, providing the bulbs are
of a good sort.

_Oxàlis._ The autumn flowering species will now be in bloom, and must be
kept in the sun to make them expand freely. The neglect of this is the
principal reason that these plants do not flower perfectly in Rooms.

_Caméllias._ These plants, where there is a collection, flower from this
period to April; and the general desire to be fully acquainted with the
method of their culture has induced us to be liberal in our observations
on every point and period through the various stages of their growth and
flowering. We will here only remind the enquirer, that a pure air, a
damp atmosphere, and giving the plants frequent sprinklings, are the
present necessities, which only are conducive to their perfection.

Attend to the turning of Geraniums and other rapid growing plants, that
all sides of them may have an equal share of light.



The uncertainty of the weather in this month requires the operator to be
constantly on guard, to ward off danger, either from frost, snow, or
cutting winds. The temperature observed last month must be continued,
but not exceeded, which would cause premature vegetation, of which the
result and effects have already been frequently observed. Always kindle
the fires in time, to prevent the heat from being lower than what has
been mentioned, lest a severe frost should take, as then a considerable
lapse ensues before the fire has any effect, and if the wind blows high,
the result might be injurious, unless the house be very close.


The benefit of these in severe weather is of material service, for the
preservation of an even temperature in the house during the night, when
changes are not observed, but they ought never to remain on through the
day when the fire can be properly attended to. If the front and the
lowest sash of the roof are covered with these, it is generally
sufficient. They should be made of half inch boards, closely grooved
together, having a cross bar in the centre, and one at each end with one
at each side, which will make them substantial. If they are frequently
painted with care, they will last many years. No snow ought to be
allowed to lay on these while they are on the glass, for reasons that we
have assigned. See _January_ and _February_.

Some adopt double panes of glass to supersede the use of shutters,
which, they think are attended with considerable labour, (at the most
only ten minutes a day while in use.) The sash frame is made a little
deeper, so as to allow half an inch between the panes of glass. The one
is glazed from the out and the other from the inside. It appears to
answer the purpose tolerably well, but the glass must be both fine and
even in the surface, lest a lens should be produced, and cause a focus,
which would evidently hurt some part of the plants. We are almost
confident that we have seen this effect in some instances. There must be
a small hole about an eighth of an inch in both ends of each row of
glass to allow a current to dry up the moisture that may arise.


If any _Hyacinths_ or other Dutch roots are wanted to flower early, a
few of them may be put in the Hot-house near the front glass, which will
greatly tend to forward their time of flowering. By having some brought
in every two weeks, a continued succession of bloom will be kept up.

_Calceolàrias._ Two or three plants of the fine blooming kinds may be
placed in this department, towards the end of the month. Divide the
roots as soon as they begin to grow, leaving only one stem to each
root, which put in a four inch pot, enlarging it as soon as the roots
extend to the outside of the ball, that by the month of May they may be
in seven or eight inch pots, in which they will flower superbly. Give
_Alstr[oe]merias_ the same treatment.


If there is a tan bed in the house, and it was renewed in September, the
pots should now be plunged therein. The violent heat will partly be
over, and the plants are not so liable to suffer at root in this as last
month. It will in part prevent the plants from being affected by sudden
changes of temperature. Be attentive in keeping all insects completely
under. This is the period that these are most neglected, but by
attending to the modes of their destruction, as already given, no
species of them will either be hurtful or unsightly. Syringe the plants
about twice a week, and always remember that decayed leaves or litter of
any description do not beautify healthy plants, neither do they form a
part of a well kept Hot-house.



The weather may probably be now severe, and it is at all times advisable
to keep the temperature as steady and regular as possible. The
thermometer should be kept in the centre of the house, and free from the
effects of reflection. As noticed last month, sun heat may be as high as
50° in the house, and would not be hurtful, but it should not continue
so for any considerable time without admission of air. The fire heat
should not exceed 43°, and never be below 33°. It ought not to continue
at that point--36° is the lowest for a continuation that with safety can
be practised. So that no error may occur, the temperature ought to be
known in the coolest and warmest part of the house, and the variation
remembered. Then whatever part of the house the thermometer is placed, a
true calculation of the heat of the whole interior can be made. We would
recommend to the inexperienced to keep the thermometer in the coldest
part of the house. A Green-house compactly and closely built, and the
glass all covered with shutters, (which no house ought to be constructed
without,) will seldom require artificial heat; but by being long kept
close, the damp will increase. In such case give a little fire heat, and
admit air to purify the house. In fresh mild weather, give liberal
portions of air all over the house; and though there is a little frost,
while mild, and the sun shining, the plants will be benefited by a small
portion of air for the space of an hour, or even for half of that time.

Whatever state the weather may be through the winter, never keep the
house long shut up. Thirty-six hours, or at most sixty, should be the
longest time at once; rather give a little fire heat.

We are no advocates for keeping plants long in darkness, and never think
that our plants are receiving justice, if kept longer in darkness than
two nights and one day.

Respecting watering and other necessary operations, see next month


Those that were plunged in the garden, if not lifted and brought under
cover, should now be done without delay. Clean the pots, and stir up the
surface of the soil. Hyacinths grow neatest by being kept very close to
the top glass; the flower stems are thereby stronger and shorter. Water
moderately until they begin to grow freely.

=Flower Garden.=



Having in the preceding month, under this head, given details for the
protection of plants of a delicate nature, and the forwarding of
necessary work, only a few remarks remain to be added. If there is any
part therein described omitted, have it done forthwith; every day
increases the danger of the effects of frost. If there is a doubt of any
plants not standing without protection which are generally considered
perfectly hardy, such as _Champney_, _Grevillii_, _Noisette_, and
similar roses, tie straw or mats three or four feet up the stems of
such, which will prevent all risk.[J] For valuable plants that are on
walls, and in danger of being entirely destroyed, it is advisable to be
at the expense of having a frame made to answer them, and cover the same
with oil-cloth. The frame thus covered could be taken off in mild
weather, and replaced again when necessary, causing very little trouble;
and if properly taken care of, would last many years. Coverings of any
construction and of the same material would answer for any part of the
garden, and are the best in our opinion that could be adopted.

[J] In the winter of 1831-1832, some of these roses were cut to the
ground, where strong plants of _Lagerstr[oe]mia índica_ received not the
smallest injury.



As the trying season is now approaching for all plants that are kept in
rooms, especially those that are desired to have a flourishing aspect
through the winter, a few general instructions (although they may have
been previously advanced) will perhaps be desirable to all those who are
engaged in this interesting occupation, which forms a luxury through the
retired hours of a winter season, and with very little attention many
are the beauties of vegetative nature that will be developed to the
gratification of every reflecting mind. The following is a routine of
every day culture.

Do not at any time admit air (except for a few moments) while the
thermometer is below 32° exposed in the shade.

In time of very severe frosts the plants ought to be withdrawn from the
window to the centre of the room during night.

Never give water until the soil in the pots is inclining to become dry,
except for Hyacinths and other Dutch bulbs that are in a growing state,
which must be liberally supplied.

Destroy all insects as soon as they appear; for means of destruction see
next month.

Give a little air every favourable opportunity, (that is, when the
thermometer is above 33° exposed in the shade,) by putting up the
window one, two or three inches, according to the state of the weather.

Clean the foliage with sponge and water frequently to remove all dust,
&c. The water thus used must not exceed 96° or blood-heat, but 60° is

Turn the plants frequently to prevent them growing to one side.

_Roses_ of the daily sort may be obtained early by having them in a warm
room, that has a south window, and as soon as they begin to grow, admit
air in small portions about noon every day that the sun has any effect.
Such must be well supplied with water.

_Caméllias_, when in bud and flower, should never be allowed to become
the least dry, neither confined from fresh air. The effects would be
that the buds would become stinted, dry, and drop off. Therefore, to
have these in perfection, attend strictly to watering. Give frequent
airings, and wash the leaves once in two weeks with water. Never keep
them above one day in a room, where there is a strong coal fire, and not
above two days where wood is used as fuel. The most of _Caméllias_ will
bear 3° of frost without the smallest injury, so that they are easier
kept than _Geraniums_, except when they are in bloom. In that state
frost will destroy the flowers. The air of a close cellar is destruction
to the buds.

Bulbs in glasses must be supplied with fresh water once a week, in which
period they will inhale all the nutritive gas that they derive from that
element, if they are in a growing state.


There have been many plans devised and visionary projects offered to the
public as the best for a well regulated Hot-house. As we intend forming
one for practical purposes, we shall adopt a convenient size, have flues
for the conveyance of heat, and coal or wood for fuel.

_Site and Aspect._--The house should stand on a situation naturally dry,
and if possible sheltered from the north west, and clear from all shade
on the south, east and west, so that the sun may at all times act
effectually upon the house. The standard principle as to aspect is to
set the front directly to the south. Any deviation from that point
should incline to east.

_Dimensions._--The length may be from ten feet upwards; but if beyond
thirty feet, the number of fires and flues are multiplied. The medium
width is from twelve to sixteen feet. Our directions will apply to the
two extreme points, viz. thirty feet by sixteen, and in height at back
from twelve to eighteen feet; the height in front six feet, including
about three feet in brick basement to support the front glass, which
will be two and a half feet, allowing six inches for frame work.

_Furnace and Flues._--It is of great importance to have these erected in
such a manner as will effectually heat the house. The greatest
difficulty is to have the furnace to draw well. As workmen are not
generally conversant on the subject, nor yet understand the effect or
distribution of heat in these departments, we will give minute details
on their construction. The furnace should be outside of the house,
either at back or end; the former is preferable, circumstances not
always allowing it on the other plan. Dig out the furnace hole, or what
is termed stock hole, about five feet deep. Let the door of the furnace
be in the back wall of the house, thereby having all the heated building
inside, that no heat may be lost. The brick work round the furnace
should be from fifteen to eighteen inches thick, laying the inside with
fire-brick. The furnace will require to be two and a half feet long, ten
inches wide, and one foot high, before the spring of the arch and clear
of the bars; leave one foot for an ash pit, then lay the bars. They
should be sixteen inches long, one inch broad on the upper side, two
inches deep, and two eighths broad on the lower side, and with the door
and frame should be cast iron. Half an inch between each bar will be
sufficient. The flue should rise from the furnace by a steep declivity
of about two feet, and pass the door of the house (without a dip), when
it must be elevated above the level of the floor of the house along the
front, and at the opposite end of the house must dip to pass the door.
The dip must not be lower than the top of the furnace, and should be of
a concave form, (avoiding acute angles.) Lead it along the back to enter
the wall over the furnace. When thus taken round the house, the heat
will be expanded before it passes off, The inside of the flues should be
about six inches wide and eight inches deep; plaster the bottom of it,
but no other part, as plaster is partially a non-conductor. The above
description is for burning anthracite coal, but where wood is to be the
fuel, the furnace and flues must be one half larger. We have been
particular in the description of furnace bars, as those generally used
are miserable substitutes. Circumstances may cause the furnace to be
placed at the end or front of the house. In either case the stock hole
will not require to be so deep; or where there is only one door in the
house a stock hole three and a half feet deep will be enough, which
should be built like a cellar to keep out any under water. In all
instances pass the first flue to the front of the house, over which have
a close shelf eight inches clear, covered with two inches of sand, and
by keeping it moist will afford a very congenial heat to young valuable
plants. Likewise over the furnace have a frame in the same manner, which
will be found valuable. Any part of the furnace or flue that is under
the floor of the house, should have a vacuity on both sides to let the
heat pass upward.

_Bark Pit._--We consider such an erection in the centre of a Hot-house a
nuisance, and prefer a stage, which may be constructed according to
taste. It should be made of the best Carolina pine, leaving a passage
round the whole to cause a free circulation of air. The back and end
paths should be about two feet wide, and the front three feet. The angle
of the stage should be parallel with the glass, having the steps from
six inches to one foot apart.

Where there are some large plants, they may stand on the floor behind
the stage, or on tressels, according to their height.

_Angle of the glazed roof._--The pitch of the roof is usually varied to
agree with the design of the house, and the size of the plants to be
grown therein. Where pleasure and ornament are the principal objects,
the angle should be about 43°, but a few degrees of inclination either
way is of minor importance, the height and elevation being regulated by
the size of the plants intended to be cultivated. It is not advisable to
shingle any part of the roof on the south aspect.

_Materials for glazed frames._--Carolina pine is the best material for
the wood work, as it is not so subject to decay from moisture and heat
as the other kinds of pine wood. The frames or sashes can be of any
convenient length, not exceeding ten feet, and about three and a half or
four feet wide, divided so as they can be glazed with glass six inches

_Of glazing._ The pieces of glass should not exceed six inches by ten,
the lappings about one quarter of an inch. The frames ought to have one
coat of paint previous to glazing, and all under the glass puttied. Some
prefer the lappings to be puttied also. It is our opinion that in a
Hot-house these should not be puttied, but in the Green-house the closer
they can be made the better.

_Of Shutters._--These should be made of half inch white pine, and bound
on both ends and sides, having a cross piece in the middle of the same.
They ought to be painted once in three years.


In many respects, the construction of the Green-house will be the same
as the Hot-house, but might be made much more an ornamental object, and
could be erected contiguous to the mansion-house, with large folding
doors to open at pleasure, and be connected with the drawing-room or
parlour. The extent may vary according to the collection to be

It was formerly the practice to build these houses with glass only in
front, and even to introduce between the windows strong piers of brick
or stone: but this is now abolished, and has given way to a light and
ornamental style, by which cheerfulness and the desired utility are
better consulted. There should be conveniences in the back part of the
house, that a free current of air may be obtained whenever desired,
which is an essential point. Two or three dark windows will answer the
purpose well, if made to open and shut at pleasure.


_Soil, situation, and ground--Plan._--A soil of common good qualities,
moderately light and mellow, will grow most of the hardy herbaceous
flowers, and the evergreen and deciduous ornamental shrubs. The
situation should not be so low as to be damp and wet, or liable to be
inundated, neither so high as to be scorched or dried up by the sun. The
surface should be level or moderately sloping, and if unequal, parts of
it may be transposed, so as to make gentle inclinations. In regard to
form, it may be of any shape, and must be often adapted to local
circumstances; but if it is so circumscribed that the eye can at once
embrace the whole, it is desirable that it should be of some regular

_Of Fences._--Where domestic buildings do not serve as a boundary,
either paling or hedge-fence has to be resorted to: we would prefer the
former on the north or north-west side, which is of great advantage as a
screen from cutting winds. For hedge-fences and their kinds, see page
210. The exotic observed there is _Thùja orientàlis_, Chinese
Arbor-vitæ. The internal fences for shade or shelter to particular
compartments, or to afford a diversity of aspect, may be made of
_Sweetbriar_, _hardy China roses_, _Pyrus_, _red_ and _white_, with a
few others of a similar nature, all of which must be attended to, to
have them in neat order.

_Style of dividing the Ground._--This may vary with the extent of the
ground, and the object of the cultivator.

The principal designs may be delineated, but one to answer every view
and situation, we pretend not to give. In the first place, carry a
boundary walk all round the garden, on one or two sides of which it may
be straight, the others winding. The intersecting walks should (almost
imperceptibly) lead to a centre, but not to cross at right angles, or
to have parallel lines, as if divided or laid down by a mathematical
scale, which is too formal for the diversification of nature. All walks
through these pleasure departments should be winding and enlivening, not
continuing any length in one direction.[K] The continuous view of a
straight walk is dull and monotonous. The divisions should be highest
about the centre, that whatever is planted therein may have effect; and
to make a Flower-garden fully interesting, and render it a source of
natural information, where free scope might at all times be afforded to
employ the leisure hours in mental improvement, there should be a good
system of arrangement adopted.

[K] Since writing the above we have seen the Flower-garden of J. B.
Smith, Esq. and consider it a beautiful specimen, finely illustrating
the taste of that gentleman.

The _Linnean_ system is the most easily acquired. A small compartment
laid out in beds might contain plants of all the twenty-four _classes_,
and a few of all the hardy _orders_, which do not exceed one hundred. Or
to have their natural characters more assimilated, the _Jussieuean_
system could be carried into effect by laying down a grass plat, to any
extent above one quarter of an acre, and cut therein small figures to
contain the natural families, which of hardy plants we do not suppose
would exceed one hundred and fifty. The difficulties of this arrangement
are, that many of the characters are imperfectly known even to the most
scientific. _Mr. John Lindley_ has given additional light on the subject
by his last publication. All the large divisions should be intersected
by small allies, or paths, about one and a half or two feet wide. These
may be at right angles, or parallel, for convenience and order, in
making beds, &c. for the various Dutch roots and other flowers. Patches
or plats of grass studded with shrubs, deciduous and evergreen, are
indispensable, and perhaps one or two grass walks.

_Of Walks._--These should have five or six inches of lime and brick
rubbish, or broken stone in the bottom, covered with small pebbles, and
firmly rolled with a heavy roller, over which lay two or three inches of
fine gravel, giving the whole a complete rolling. Walks made on this
method will stand well, and be always dry and firm. With regard to
breadth, they must be made according to the extent of ground, and vary
from three to thirty feet; from four to eight feet is generally

_Plants described or mentioned in this Work._

  _Linnæan Name_.         _English Name_.

  ACÀCIA 61, 219.
    1 móllis,             downy.
    glaucéscens,          glaucescent.
    verticiláta,          whorl-leaved.
    florabùnda,           many-flowered.
    diffùsa,              spreading.
    armàta,               armed.
    var. pendùla,         weeping.
    verniciflùa,          varnished.
    decúrrens,            decurrent.
    púbescens,            hairy-stemmed.
    leucolòbia,           white-podded.
    decípiens,            paradoxical.
    fragràns,             scented.
    pulchélla,            neat.
    lophántha,            two-spiked.
    _Mimósa élegans_.
    myrtifòlia,           myrtle-leaved.
    Catéchu,              Catechu.
    véra,                 true.
    Arábica,              Arabian.

    1 Houstóni,           Houston's.
    _Acàcia Houstóni_.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    _Acácia grandiflòra_.

    6 lávigata,           smooth.
    púngens,              pungent.
    tetragýnia,           four-sided.

    6 accuminàta,         taper-pointed.
    hýbrida,              hybrid.
    Thunbergiàna,         Thunberges.
    imbricàta,            imbricated.
    prolífera,            proliferous.
    pátula,               spreading.
    pulchélla,            pretty.
    ciliáta,              profuse-flowering.

    6 speciòsa,           large-flowered.
    umbellàta,            umbel-flowered.
    álba,                 white-flowered.
    fragràns,             sweet-scented.
    uniflòra,             one-flowered.

  ANEMÓNE 134.            Wind-flower.
    15 palmàta plèno,     double-yellow.
    stellàta versícolor,  various.
    pavonìna plèno,       scarlet.
    narcissiflòra,        narcissus-flowered.
    Hallèri,              Haller's.
    alpìne,               alpine.
    nemoròsa plèno,       double-leaved.
    thalictròides "       common-double.

  AMÓMUM 36.

    alpìna,               alpine.

  ÁPICRA 260.

  AMARÝLLIS 260, 271, 274.
    11 striatfòlia,       stripe-leaved.
    Jonsòni,              Johnson's.
    regìna,               Mexican-lily.
    vittàta,              striped.
    fùlgida,              fulged.
    àulica,               crowned.
    psittácina,           parrot.
     "  Cowbèrgia,        Cowberges'.
     "  pulverulènta,     powdered.
    Griffìni,             Griffin's.
    formòsa,              large.

  ANTIRRHÌNUM 134,        Snap-dragon.
    màjus,                large.
    mólle,                soft.
    Sículum,              Sicilian.

  ASCLÈPIAS 134, 321,     Silk-flower.
    tuberòsa,             tuberous.
    rùbra,                red.
    nívea,                white.
    purpuráscens,         purple-coloured.
    incarnàta,            fleshy-coloured.

  ACONÍTUM 134,           Wolfe's-bane.
    speciòsum,            showy.
    anthòra,              wholesome.
    neúrbergensis,        Syria.
    amæ'num,              pretty.
    napéllus,             monk's-hood.
    venústum,             beautiful.
    zoóctonum,            beast-bane.
    pyramidále,           pyramidal.
    lycóctonum            great-yellow.
    albùm,                white.
    versícolor,           three-coloured.

  ÁLOE 219, 271.
    10 vulgàris,          common.
    Barbadénsis,          Barbadoes.
    oblíqua,              oblique.
    dichótoma,            smooth-stemmed.
    lineàta,              red-edged.

  ADÓNIS 134.
    vernális,             spring.

  ARISTÉA 125.
    5 cyànea,             blue.

  ALSTR[OE]MERIA 18, 57, 229, 339.
    10 flós-martína,      san-martin.
    pelegrìna,            spotted.
    pulchélla,            pretty.
    atro-purpùrea,        dark.

    flós-cucùla,          ragged-robin.
    _Lychnìs flós-cucùla_.

    12 excélsa,           Norfork-Island-pine.
    imbricàta,            Chile-pine.

    5 hùmilis,            dwarf.
    _Elichrýsum spectábile_.


    8 exímia,             beautiful.
    spiràlis,             spiral-leaved.
    speciosíssimus,       showy.
    fruticàns,            frutescent.
    imbricàtum,           imbricated.

    6 cordifòlia,         heart-leaved.
    híspida,              hispid.

  ALOÝSIA 123.
    9 citriodòra,         lemon-scented.
    _Verbéna tripfýlla_.

    hederàcea,            Virginian creeper.
    _Císsus hederàcea_.

  ARISTOLÓCHIA 221.       Birth-wort.
    9 labiòsa,            lipped.

  ASTRAP`ÆA 221.
    12 wallíchii,         Wallich's.

  ARÉCA 221.              Cabbage-tree.
    12 cátechu,           catechu.
    olerácea,             eatable.
    montàna,              mountain.

  ARDÍSIA 220.
    10 crenulàta,        crenulate.
    solanàcea,           night-shade-leaved.
    élegans,             elegant.
    umbellàta,           umbel-flowered.

    12 cæléstus,         blue.

  AGAPÁNTHUS 62.         African lily.
    umbellàtus,          umbel-flowered.
    var. variegàtus,     striped-leaved.

    incisifòlia,         nettle-leaved.
    _Hemímeris urticifòlia_.
    _Hemímeris lineàris_.

  AÙCUBA 63.
    4 japónica,          blotch-leaved.

    4 fætida,            strong smelling.

  AZÁLEA 63.
    5 índica,            Chinese.
      "  álba,           white.
      "  purpùrea,       double.
      "  ph[oe]nícea,    purple.
    sinénse,             yellow.

  AÒTUS 64.
    1 villòsa,           villous.
    virgáta,             slender.

    6 sprengelioídes,    sprengilia-like.

  ÁRBUTUS 64.            Strawberry-tree.
    7 Unèdo,             common.
      "  rùbra,          red-flowered.
    hýbrida              hybrid.
    _serratifòlia_, _andrachnoides_.
    andráchne,           oriental.

    8 dentàta,           tooth-leaved.
    æ'mula,              deeply sawed.
    serráta,             saw-leaved.
    latifòlia,           broad-leaved.
    grándis,             great-flowered.
    speciòsa,            long-leaved.
    cunninghàmii,        Cunningham's.
    spinulòsa,           spiny-leaved.
    palludòsa,           marsh.
    rèpens,              creeping
    verticillàta,        whorl-leaved.

  BLÈTIA 66.
    9 hyacinthìna,       hyacinthine.
    _Cymbídium hyacinthìnum_.

    5 pinnáta,           scented.
    serruláta,           rose-scented.
    aláta,               wing-leaved.

    6 serratifòlia,      saw-leaved.
    pulchèlla,           blunt-leaved.
    f[oe]tidíssima,      strong-scented.
    odoráta,             odoriferous.
    dioíca,              dioecious.

  BABÌANA 303.
    11 distíca           two-ranked.
    strícta,             erect.
    tubiflòra,           tube-flowered.
    plicáta,             plaited.

    11 multiflòra,       many-flowered.
    laticòma,            broad-headed.
    Josephínæ,           Josephine's
    falcáta,             falcate
    margináta,           red-margined
    cilliáris,           hairy-margined.

  BAMBUSA 222.           Bamboo-cane.
    14 arundinàcea,      reed-like.

    fúlgens,             fulgent.
    chrisophýlla,        shining.
    splèndens,           splendid.

    10 speciòsa,          showy.

  BRÒWNEA 233.
    10 coccínea,          scarlet.
    ròsa,                 Trinidad-rose.
    grandicéps,           grandest.

    7 triphýlla,          three-leaved.
    Jacquínii,            shark-leaved.
    _Ìxora americána_.

    5 latifòlium,         broad-leaved.
    undulátum,            wave-leaved.

    10 capénsis,          cape.
    parviflòra,           small-flowered.

    8 decussáta,          cross-leaved.
    spàrsa,               alternate-leaved.

  BRÙNIA 67.
    5 nodiflòra,          imbricated.
    languinósa,           woolly.
    comòsa,               tufted.
    abrotanoídes,         southern wood-like.
    formòsa,              handsome.

  BÓSEA 67.               Golden-rod-tree.
    5 yervamóra.

  B`ÆCKIA 67.
    6 camphoráta,         camphor.
    pulchélla,            neat.
    virgáta,              slender.

  BILLARDIÉRA 68.         Apple-berry.
    longiflòra,           long-flowered.
    mutàbilis,            changeable.
    scándens,             climbing.
    fusifórmis,           long-fruited.

  BÉLLIS 135.             Daisy.
    perénnís hortensis var. var.  garden.

  BALLÓTA 260.
    11 purpúrea,          purple-flowered.
    _Amarýllis purpúrea_.

    11 purpuráscens,      Belladonna Lily.
    _Amarýllis Belladónna_.

  BIGNÒNIA 197.           Trumpet-flower.
    crucígera,            cross-bearing.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    rádicans,             rooting.




  CÁLTHA 135.
    palústris plèno,      double yellow.

  CHAM´ÆROPS 262.         Dwarf-fan-palm.
    12 sp. sp.

  CÓRYPHA 232.            Large-fan-palm.
    11 ambraculifera,     large.
    talìera,              great.

  CLÉMATIS 196, 138, 83,  Virgin's-bower.
    12 integrifòlia,      entire-leaved.
    angustifòlia,         narrow-leaved.
    erécta,               erect-growing.
    viticélla pulchélla,  double-blue.
    flámmula,             sweet-scented.
    virginiàna,           Virginian.
    flòrida plèno,        double-white.
    aristàta,             awned.
    brachiàta,            armed.

  COB´ÆA 83.
    scándens,             climbing.


  CAROLINEA 229.          Cream-nut.
    17 insignis,          great-flowered.
    álba,                 white-flowered.
    prínceps,             digitated.
    robústa,              robust.

  CARYÓTA 229.
    12 ùrens,             stinging.

    zebrìna               Zebra-plant.
    _Maránta Zebrína_.

  CÁNNA 224, 35.          Indian-shot.
    3 gigántea,           tall.
    limbàta,              bordered.
    díscolor,             two-coloured.
    iridiflòra,           nodding-flowered.

  CÁCTUS 224, 271.

  CÈRUS 225.
    18 peruviànus,        Peruvian.
    heptagònus,           seven-angled.
    flagellifórmus,       creeping.
    grandiflòrus,         night-blooming.
    triangulàris,         triangular.
    phyllanthoiídes,      rosy-flowered.
    _Cáctus Speciosus_.
    Jenkinsòni,           Jenkinsons'.
    Speciosíssimus,       showy.
    Ackermánnia,          Ackerman's.
    truncàtus,            truncated.

    tenuifòlia,           slender-leaved.
    verticullàta,         whorl-leaved.
    díscolor,             two-coloured.
    trípteris,            three-leaved.

  CALCEOLÁRIA 68, 17, 35, 338., Slipper-wort.
    10 angustifòlia,      narrow-leaved.
    integrifòlia,         entire-leaved.
    plantagínea,          plantain-leaved.
    corymbósa,            corymb-flowered.
    purpùrea,             purple-flowered.
    Hopiána,              Dr. Hopes'.
    micàns,               fine.
    hybrìda,              hybrid.
    Fothergíllii,         Fothergill's.
    arachnóidea,          cob-web.

    6 quadrífida,         four-cleft.
    claváta,              club-leaved.

  CAMÉLLIA 69, 80.,       Japan-rose.
    11 víridis,           green-tea.
    Bohèa,                black-tea.
    sesánqua,             Lady Banks'.
    oleífera,             oleiferous.
    maliflòra,            pink-flowered.
    _Sesanqua rosea_.
    kíssi,                nepaul.
    reticulàta,           Capt. Rawes'.
    japónica,             original.
    rùbra,                common.
    álba,                 single-white.
    semidúplex,           semidouble red.
    rùbro pléno,          double red.
    cárnea,               Middlemist's.
    myrtifòlia,           myrtle-leaved.
    myrtifolia,           minor.
    hexanguláris,         six-sided.
    atrorùbens,           Loddiges' red.
    anemoniflòra,         red waratah.
      "  rósea,           rose war.
    dianthiflòra,         carnation war.
    blánda,               blush war.
    pompónia,             Kew blush.
    pæoniflòra,           pæony flowered.
    Welbánkii,            Welbank's.
    álba-plèno,           double white.
    flavéscens,           ladies'-blush.
    fimbriàta,            fringed white.
    imbricàta,            imbricate petaled.
    variegàta,            double striped.
    crassinervis?         thick-nerved.
    conchiflòra,          shell-flowered.
    rubricáulis,          Lady Campbell's.
    longifòlia,           long leaved.
    chandlèrii,           Chandler's.
    Aitònia,              Aiton's.
    althæflòra,           holly-hock flowered.
    corallìna,            coral-flowered.
    insígnis,             splendid.
    anemoneflòra álba,    white anemone flowered.
    heterophýlla,         various leaved.
    Woódsii,              Mr. Wood's.
    speciósa,             striped waratah.
    fúlgens,              fulgent.
    grandiflòra,          large flowered.
    rósa-sinénsis,        bright pink.
    intermédia,           new blush.
    invíncible,           Press's.
    rose-mundií,          streaked.
    compàcta,             compact-white.
    gloriòsa,             dark-red.
    Róssii,               Ross's.

    6 serratifòlia,       saw-leaved.

    8 austrális,          New-Zealand.

  CUNÒNIA 81,             Decandria-digynia.
    2 Capénsis,           Cape.

    2 arbórea,            tree.
    " variegàta,          variegated-leaved.

    2 denticulàta,        toothed.
    microphýlla,          small-leaved.

  CRÒWEA 81.
    1 salígna,            willow-leaved.

    5 nàna,               dwarf.
    ilicifòlia,           holly-leaved.

  CINERÀRIA 82,           Cape-aster.
    12 speciósa,          large-flowered.
    amelloìdes,           blue.
    purpûrea,             purple.
    lanáta,               woolly.

  CÍSTUS 82,              Rock-rose.
    3 ladaníferus,        gum.
    Monspeliénsis,        Montpelier.
    sálignis,             willow-leaved.
    populifòlius,         poplar-leaved.
    undulàtus,            wave-leaved.

  CAMPÁNULA 135,          Bell-flower.
    persicifòlia,         peach-leaved.
    " àlba-plèno,         double-white.
    " cærùlea-plèno,        "    blue.
    urticifòlia,          nettle-leaved.
    speciòsa,             spacious.
    glomeràta,            headed-flowered.
    versícolor,           three-coloured.

    chéiri-vulgaris,      Wall-flower.
     " hæmànthus,         double-bloody.
    mutàbilis,            changeable.

  CHELONE 136.
    glábra,               glabrous.
    oblíqua,              oblique-leaved.
    barbàta,              bearded-flowered.
    atropurpùrea,         purple-flowered.
    pulchélla,            pretty.
    venústa,              showy.
    speciòsa,             spacious.

    sinénse,              variable-chinese.
    " tubulòsum álbum,    quilled-white.
    " supèrbum,           superb-white.
    " díscolor,           large-lilac.
    " fúlvum,             Spanish-brown.
    " atropurpùreum,      early-crimson.
    " involùtum,          curled-lilac
    " fasciculàtum,       superb-yellow.
    " serotìnum,          pale-purple.
    " papyràceum,         paper-white.
    " waratáh,            yellow-anemone-flow'd.
    " versícolor,         two-coloured red.
    " stellàtum,          starry-purple.
    " verecúndum,         early-blush.
    " mutábile,           changeable.

  COCOLÒBA 229,           Sea-side-grape.
    15 pubéscens,         downy.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.

  CÙPHEA 229.
    6 Melvílla,           Melvill's.

  CRÒTON 230.
    pìctus,               painted.
    variegàtus,           variegated.
      "  latifòlia,       broad-leaved.

  CÉRBERA 230.
    17 thevètia,          linear-leaved.
    ahoùai,               oval-leaved.
    odállam,              spear-leaved.
    mànghas,              blunt-leaved.

  CÝCAS 230,              Sago-palm?
    11 revolúta,          revolute.
    circinàlis            great.
    glaùca,               glaucous.

    élegans,              elegant.
    formòsum,             handsome.
    purpùreum,            scarlet.


  CRÒCUS 275,             saffron.
    satìvus,              garden.
    Pallàsii,             Pallas'.
    serotìnus,            late-flowered.
    nudiflòrus,           naked-flowered.


  CÁLLA 289.
    12 Æthiòpica,         Ethiopian-lily.

    12 glaúca,            glaucous.
    valentìna,            nine-leaved.
    viminális,            slender.

  CORRÈA 84.
    5 álba,               white-flowered.
    rúfa,                 rusty-leaved.
    pulchélla,            pretty.
    speciósa,             showy.
    virèns,               green-flowered.


  CUPRÈSSUS 85,           Cypress.
    6 lusitánica,         cedar of Goa.
    péndula,              pendulous.
    juniperoídes,         African.

    11 scábra,            climbing.
    _Eccremocárpus scáber_.

  CELÁSTRIS 85.           Staff-tree.
    4 pyracánthus,        red-fruited.
    cymósus,              cyme-flowered.
    multiflòrus,          many-flowered.
    lúcidus,              shining.

  COÒKIA 85.              Wampee-tree.
    11 punctàta,          punctate.

    6 lanceoláta,         lanceolated.
    ovàta,                oval-leaved.

    11 strícta,           erect.

  COFFÈA 227,             Coffee-tree.
    17 Arábica,           Arabian.

    15 camphòra,          camphire-tree.

    12 fràgrans múltiplex, double.

  CRINÙM 261, 232.
    11 capénse,           cape.
    _Amarýllis longifòlia_.
    cruéntum,             red.
    scábrum,              scabrous.
    amàbile,              showy.

    11 odòrus,            scented.
    striátus,             striped.
    oblíquus,             oblique-leaved.
    vittàtus,             ribanded.

    9 aromáticus,         aromatic.

    6 salígnum,           willow-leaved.
    lanceolàtum,          lance-leaved.
    semperflòrens,        ever-blooming
    glaùcum,              glaucous.
    _metrosidèros speciòsa_.

  CÝCLAMEN 290, 297.
    11 Coúm,              round-leaved.
    Pérsicum,             Persian.
    hederæfòlium,         ivy-leaved.
    Europ'æum,            round-leaved.
    Neapolitànum,         Neapolitan.

    Phù,                  garden.
    _Valeriána Phù_.
    rùbra,                red.
    _Valeriána rùbra_.

  DION'ÆA 36.
    5 mucípula,           Venus-fly-trap.

    7 speciòsa,           spacious.
    scàndens,             climbing.

  DRAC'ÆNA 233.           Dragon-tree.
    11 férrea,            purple-leaved.
    frágrans,             scented.
    margináta,            margined.
    dráco,                large

  DÁPHNE 313, 258, 270.
    15 odòra,             sweet-scented.
    hýbrida,             daphine.
    oleoídes,             olea-leaved.
    laurèola,             spurg-laurel.
    póntica,              pontic.
    alpìna,               alpine.
    cneòrum,              trailing.

  DELPHÍNUM 138.          Larkspur.
    grandiflòrum,         large-flowered.
    intermèdium,          intermediate.
    _var._ _var._
    elàtum,               Bee-larkspur.
    montànum,             tall-growing.

  DIANTHUS 138.           Pink.
    17 barbátus,          sweet-william.
      " plèno,            double.
    díscolor,             two-coloured.
    chinènsis,            china.
    alpínus,              alpine.
    supérbus,             superb-red.
    caryophýllus,         clove.
    plumárius,            common.
    frágrans,             sweet-scented.

    fraxinélla,           red.
    àlbus,                white.

  DODECÀTHEON 321.139.    American cow-slip.
    mèdia,                purple.
     " àlba,              white.

  DIGITÀLIS 140.          Fox-glove.
    leucoph`æa,           broad-lipped.
    ferrugínea,           rusty-flowered.
    ochroleùca,           large yellow.
    purpuràscens,         blush-flowered.
    purpúrea,             purple.
    " àlba,               white.

    6 ulicìna,            furze-like.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.
    aciculáris,           needle-leaved.
    incrassáta,           thick-leaved.

  DIÓSMA 86.
    6 capitàta,           crown-flowered.
    oppositifòlia,        opposite-leaved.
    longifòlia,           long-leaved.
    rùbra,                heath-leaved.
    treretifòlia,         round-leaved.

    6 nívea,              white-leaved.
    formòsa,              apricot-scented.
    floribúnda,           many-flowered.
    armáta,               acute-leaved.
    plumòsa,              feathered.
    baxtèri,              Baxter's.
    nervòsa,              nerve-leaved.
    falcáta,              falcate-leaved.

    6 floribúnda,         close-flowered.
    teretifòlia,          round-leaved.
    phylicoídes,          phylica-like.

    6 purpùrea,           purple-flowered.
    unduláta,             wave-leaved.
    strícta,              upright.

    6 grandiflòra,        large-flowered.
    chrysophýlla,         silver-leaved.
    microphýlla,          small-leaved.


    6 quinqueflòrus,      Canton.
    reticulàtus,          netted-leaved.

    5 grandiflòra,        large-flowered.
    pulchélla,            sweet-scented.
    impréssa,             unpressed.
    palludòsa,            marsh.
    purpuráscens _rúbra_. red.

  ERÍCAS 89.              Heath.
    6 mediterránea,       common.
    5 aristáta,           awned.
    bàccans,              arbutus-flowered.
    bowieána,             Bowie's.
    conférta,             crowded-flowered.
    élegans,              elegant.
    fasciculáris,         cluster-flowered.
    florabùnda,           many-flowered.
    glomeràta,            glomerate.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    inflàta,              inflated.
    mammòsa,              nipple.
    prégnans,             swelled.
    pubéscens,            downy.
    refúlgens,            refulgent.
    regérminans           cluster-flowered.
    rùbens,               red-flowered.
    speciòsa,             specious.
    spléndens,            splendid.
    tenélla,              delicate.
    triúmphans,           triumphant.
    vestìta,              tremulous.
    _var._ _var._
    ventricòsa,           beautiful.
    víscaria,             clammy-flowered.

    11 pulchéllum,        neat.
    bícolor               two-coloured.

  EUGÈNIA 234.
    11 piménta,           Allspice.
    _Mýrtus Piménta_.
    frágrans,             scented.

  EUPHÓRBIA. 234.         Spurg.
    18 heterophýlla.?

  ERYTHRÌNA 235. 330.     Coral-tree.
    13 corallodéndrum,    smooth.
    speciòsa,             splendid.
    pubéscens,            downy.
    herbácea,             herbaceous.
    laurifòlia,           laurel-leaved
    crísta-gàlli,         Cocks-comb.

  ERIABÒTRYA 107.         loquat.
    11 japónica,          Japan.

  ENTÈLIA 119.
    12 arboréscens,       tree.

    18 gibbòsus,          gouty.
    crispàtus,            curled-ribbed.
    recúrvus,             recurve-spined.

  EUPATÓRIUM 91. 140.
    10 élegans,           scented.
    c[oe]lestínum,        blue.
    aromáticum,           aromatic.

    6 myrtifòlia,         myrtle-leaved.
    pùngens,              pungent.

    6 obcordáta.

  ERÓDIUM 91,             Heron's-bill.
    incarnàtum,           fleshy.
    crassifòlium,         thick-leaved.
    laciniátum,           laciniated.

    6 cordàta,            Heart-leaved.
    rostráta,             beaked.
    radiáta,              rayed.
    glóbifera,            round-fruited.
    pulverulénta,         powdered.
    resinífera,           red-gum-tree.


  EÙCOMIS  24.

  FURCHR`ÆA. 39.

  FÚNKIA 96, 141.
    11 álba.
    _Hemerocállis japónica_.
    _Hemerocállis cærùlea_.

    11 undulàta,          curled.
    antheròsa,            variegated.

    imperiàlis,           Crown-imperial.
    Pérsica,              Persian.

  FÌCUS 236,              Fig-tree.
    12 elástica,          gum-elastic.
    brassiì,              brass.
    religiòsa,            superstitious.
    lùcida,               shining.
    Bengalénsis,          Bengal.
    nìtida,               glossy.
    índica,               banyan-tree.
    exasperàta,           very-rough.
    costàta,              rib-leaved.

  FÚCHSIA 92,             Ladies-ear-drop.
    13 virgáta,           twiggy.
    cònica,               conical-tubed.
    coccínea,             scarlet.
    microphýlla,          small-leaved.
    arbórea,              tree.
    gràcilis,             slender.
    thymifòlia,           thyme-leaved.

  GELSÈMIUM 93.           Carolina-jasmine.
    5 nìtidum,            shining-leaved.

  GNAPHÀLIUM 93.          (See _Astélma_.)

    5 barbigérum,         bearded-flowered.
    polimórphum,          variable.

    _Dáhlia supérflua_.
    dwarf-globe,          crimson.
    Electa,               scarlet.
    flamæa,               flame.
    Etna,                 scarlet.
    Duchess-of-Wellington, pink.
    Barret's-Wm.-4th, scarlet.
    mountain-of-snow, _true_.
    Diana,                lilac.
    crimson-bonnet,       glob.
    eximia,               scarlet.
    star-of-Brunswick,    pink.
    Lafayette,            orange.
    morning-star,         red.
    Romulus,              scarlet.
    Florabunda,           crimson.
    speciosissima,        purple.
    Veitches-triumphant,  purple.
    coronation,           maroon.
    Stephenia,            bloody.
    feathered,            light crimson, _glob_.
    dwarf,                crimson, _fine glob_.
    striated buff,        _anemone-flowered_.
    large-pink,                     "
      "   rose,                     "
    spectabile,                     "
    painted-lady,                   "
    early-blood,                    "

  GLÓBBA 36.

    10 bulbósa,           bulbous.

    10 supérba,           superb.


  GEÙM 141.
    quéllyon,             scarlet.
    hýbridum,             hybrid.
    urbánum,              common.

    lútea,                yellow.
    purpúrea,             purple.
    septémfida,           crested.
    acaúlis,              dwarf.

    12 racemòsa,          climbing.

    2 longiflòra,         long-flowered.

  GARDÈNIA 237, 262.
    9 campanuláta,        bell-flowered.
    am`æna,               neat.
    costàta,              ribbed.
    lúcida,               shining.
    flòrida-pléno,        Cape-jasmine.
    ràdicans,             dwarf.
    longifòlia,           long-leaved.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.
    Rothmònnia,           spotted.
    Thunbérgia,           Thunberg's.

  GLADIÒLUS 303.          Corn-flag.
    11 floribùndus,       many-flowered.
    cardinàlis,           cardinal.
    Byzantínus,           Turkish.
    blándus,              fairest.
    cuspidàtus,           sharp-pointed.
    psittàcinus,          parrot.

    latifòlium,           broad-leaved.
    grandiflòrum,         large-flowered.
    venústum,             showy.

    1 Canariénsis,        Canary.
    tricuspidáta,         three-pointed,
    cuspidòsa,            sharp-pointed.
    umbellàta,            umbelled.

  GNÍDIA 94.
    6 símplex,            flax-leaved.
    serícea,              silky.
    imbérbis,             smooth-scaled.
    pinifòlia,            pine-leaved.

    6 stellígera,         starry-haired.
    suavèolens,           sweet-scented.
    ovàta,                oval-leaved.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.

    6 personàta.

    6 rìgens,             great.
    Pavònia,              peacock.
    heterophýlla,         various-leaved.

    6 punícea,            scarlet.
    acanthifòlia,         acanthus-like.
    coccínea,             pretty.
    juniperìna,           juniper-like.
    lineàris,             linear-leaved.

  HÀKEA 95.
    6 gibbòsa             gibbous-fruited.
    nítida,               glossy.
    salígna,              willow-leaved.
    suavèolens,           sweet-scented.
    conculàta,            conculate.
    Lambérti,             Lambert's.

  HEMEROCÁLLIS, 96.       Day-lily.
    11 speciòsa,          spacious.


  HELICHRÝSUM 93.         Everlasting.
    8 grandiflòrum,       large-flowered.
    arbòreum,             árborescent.
    orientàle,            common.
    fràgrans,             sweet-scented.
    odoratìssimum,        odoriferous.
    fruticàns,            shrubby.
    fúlgidum,             splendid.

    12 grossulariæfòlia,  gooseberry-leaved.
    dentàta,              toothed.
    volùbilis,            twining.
    fasciculàta,          bushy.
    salígna,              willow-leaved.
    pedunculàta,          long-pedicled.

    2 Andersónii,         Anderson's.
    versícolor,           three-coloured.
    robústa,              robust.

  HÒVEA 97.
    6 lineàris            linear-leaved.
    rosmarinifòlia,       rosmary-leaved.
    longifòlia,           long-leaved.
    Célsii,               Cels's.

  HYDRÁNGEA, 97. 172.
    14 horténsis,         variable.
    hypéricum,            St. John's-wort.
    10 monógynum,         three-styled.
    baleàricum,           warted.
    floribúndum,          many-flowered.
    canariénse,           canaries.
    ægyptìacum,           Egyptian.
    cochinchinénse,       cochinchina.

  HIBÍSCUS 238. 141. 27. 45.
    9 Ròsa sinénsis plénus,  double red.
       "     "      cárnea,    "    salmon.
       "     "  variegàtus,    "    striped.
       "     "       lútea,    "    yellow.
    palústris,            marsh.
    ròseus,               rose-coloured.
    militàris,            smooth.
    speciòsus,            showy crimson.
    grandiflòrus,         large flowered.
    púngens,              pungent.
    Syrìacus,             Althea.
      var. var.
    mutábilis plènus,     double-changeable.
    lilliiflòrus,         various.


  HEMEROCÁLLIS 141.       Day lily.
    fúlva,                copper-coloured.
    gramínea,             grass-leaved.

  HÉDERA 198.
    Hèlix,                Irish-ivy.

  HERITÉRIA 238.          Looking-glass-plant.
    11 littoràlis,        large-leaved.


  HÓYA 239.               wax-plant.
    carnòsa,              common.
    crassifòlia,          thick-leaved.

  HERRNÁNDIA 239.         Jack-in-a-box.
    Sonòra,               peltate-leaved.

  ÌXORA 240.
    5 obovàta,            purple.
    crocàta,              saffron-coloured.
    ròsea,                rose-coloured.
    bandhùca,             stem-clasping.
    blànda,               charming.
    undulàta,             waved.
    coccínea,             scarlet.
    _grandiflòra_, _strícta_, _flámmea_, _speciòsa_.
    fúlgens,              glossy.
    _longifòlia_, _lanceolàta_.
    pavètta,              scented.

  ÍRIS, 142, 320.         Flower-de-luce.
    subiflòra,            sub-flowered.
    nepalénsis,           Nepaul.
    Pallàsii,             Pallas'.
    pállida,              pale.
    cristáta,             crested.
    arenària,             sand.
    furcàta,              forked.
    germánica,            German.
    florentìna,           florentine.
    vérna,                spring.
    susiàna,              chalcedonian.
    lusitánica,           Portuguese.
      _var._ _var._
    Hiphioídes,           great bulbous.
    Pérsica,              Persian.

  ÍXIA, 203.
    11 monadélphia,       monadelphus.
    leucántha,            white flowered.
    capitàta,             headed.
    cònica,               orange-coloured.
    colamelàris,          variegated.

  IPOMAÈA 240.
    9 paniculáta,         panicle-flowered.

  ÌLEX 98.                Holly.
    15 aquifòlium,        European.
      var. var.
    cassìne,              cassine-like.
    vomitòria,            south-sea tea.

  ILLÍCIUM 99.            Anniseed-tree.
    floridànum,           purple-flowered.
    parviflòrum,          small-flowered.
    anisàtum,             anise-scented.

  INDIGÓFERA 99.          Indigo-tree.
    denudàta,             smooth-leaved.
    am'æna,               pretty.
    austrális,            round-stemmed.
    angulàta,             angular-stemed.
    cándicans,            white-leaved.
    filifòlia,            filiform-leaved.

    9 formòsus,           handsome.
    anemonefòlious,       anemone-leaved.
    attenuàtis,           attenuated.
    polycéphalus,         many-headed.
    jálapa,               Jalap.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    pulchélla,            pretty.
    tuberòsa,             tuberous.

  JUSTÍCIA 99. 243.
    nìgricans,            spotted.
    orchioídes,           orchis-like.
    adhàtoda,             Malabar-nut.
    coccínea,             scarlet.
    pícta,                painted.
    lúcida,               shining.
    form`osa,             handsome.
    speciòsa,             showy.

    6 scopària,           broom-like.
    hórrida,              horrid.
    reticulàta,           netted.

  JUNÍPERUS 210.          Juniper.
    virginiàna,           red-cedar.

  JÁTROPHA 242.           Physic-nut.
    17 multífida,         multifid.
    panduræfòlia,         fiddle-leaved.
    cúrcas,               angular-leaved.

    9 mimosifòlia,        mimosa-leaved.
    filìcifòlia,          fern-leaved.

  JAMBÒSA 241.            Rose-apple.
    11 vúlgáris,          common.
    malacénsis,           Malay-apple.
    purpuráscens,         purple-flowered.
    macrophýlla,          large-leaved.
    amplexicaùlis,        stem-clasping.

  JASMÌNUM 242.           Jasmine.
    3 sámbac,             Arabian.
       " multiplex,       semi-double.
       " trifoliàtum,     double-Tuscan.
    hirsútum,             hairy-stemmed.
    paniculàtum,          panicled.
    simplicifòlium,       simple-leaved.
    _lucídium_?           shining.
    odoratíssimum 3,      Azorian.
    revolùtum             revolute-leaved.
    grandiflòrum,         Catalonian.
    officinàle,           common.

    18 coccínea,          scarlet.
    _Crassùla coccínea_.
    versícolor,           changeable.
    _Crassùla versícolor_.
    odoratíssima,         sweet-scented.

  KÆMPFÈRIA 243, 36.
    17 rotúnda,           round-rooted.

    5 monophýlla,         simple-leaved.
    rubicúnda,            dingy-flowered.
    prostráta,            trailing.
    _Glýcine coccínea_.
    coccínea,             many-flowered.
    comptoniána,          comptonian.
    inophýlla,            few-leaved.

  LAGERSTR`ÆMIA 129. 172.
    índica,               crape-flower.

    6 formòsa,            handsome.
    echinàta,             lobe-leaved.
    uniflòra,             one-flowered.
    inérmis,              unarmed.


  LAVÁNDULA 101.          Lavender.
    7 dentáta,            toothed.
    formòsa,              handsome.
    pinnàta,              pinnated.

  LAÚRUS 101. 244.        Laurel.
    15 f`ætens,           til.
    aggregàta,            clustered.
    glaùca,               glaucous.
    scàbra,               rough.
    vérum,                true.
    cássia,               false.
    chloróxylon,          cogwood.

  LANTÀNA 244.

  LANTÀNIA 244.           Dwarf-palm.
    12 borbònica,         borbon.
    rùbra,                red.
    glaucophýlla,         glaucous.

  LÌATRIS 142.            Gay-feather.
    squarròsa,            squarrose.
    élegans,              elegant.
    paniculáta,           paniculate.
    _macróstachya_,  large-spiked.

  LÝCHNIS, 143. 104.
    9 chalcedònica,       chalcedonian.
    fúlgens,              fulgent.
    flós-jòvis,           umbelled.
    _Agrostéma flós-jòvis_.
    coronáta,             crowned.

  LÝTHRUM 143.
    alàtum,               erect-growing.
    virgàtum,             twiggy.
    diffùsum,             diffuse.
    lanceolàtum,          lance-leaved.

  LOMÀTIA 103.            (See errata.)
    6 silaifòlia,         cut-leaved.
    dentàta,              toothed.
    ilicifòlia,           holly-leaved.

    11 trícolor,          three-coloured.
    quadrícolor,          four-coloured.
    rùbida,               dotted-flowered.
    punctàta,             spotted-flowered.
    orchoídes,            orchis-like.
    nervòsa,              nerved-leaved.

  LILÌUM 32. 35. 306.
    11 màrtagon,          red.
    tygrìnum,             spotted.
    chalcedònicum,        Chalcedonian.
    speciòsum?            showy.
    japónicum.            Japan.

  LOBÈLIA 102.
    6 tùpa,               mullein-leaved.
    speciòsa,             specious.
    spléndens,            splendid.
    fúlgens,              fulgent.
    cærùlea,              blue.
    Thunbérgii,           Thurberg's.
    corymbòsa,            corymbose.
    pyramidàlis           pyramidal.
    ilicifòlia,           holly-leaved.

    12 scándens           climbing.

  LACHN`ÆA 103.
    1 glaùca,             glaucous.
    conglomeràta,         clustered.
    eriocéphala,          wooly-headed.

  LEONÒTIS,               Lion's-ear.
    7 intermédia,         intermediate.

  LEONÙRUS,               narrow-leaved.

    9 formòsum,           handsome.
    grandiflòrum,         tomentose.
    cándicans,            hoary.

  LIPÀRIA 104.
    sphæ'rica,            crowned.
    tomentòsa,            downy.
    villósa,              hairy.
    serícea,              silky.

    5 pentapétalum,       five-petaled.
    conspícum,            conspicuous.
    róseum,               rose-coloured.

  LÝCHNIS 104.
    9 coronàta,           crowned.

  LEPTOSPÉRMUM 104.       South-Sea-Myrtle.
    6 baccàtum,           berry-fruited.
    péndulum,             pendulous.
    juníperinum,          juniper-leaved.
    ovátum,               ovate-leaved.
    stellàtum,            starry-flowered.
    grandiflórum,         large-flowered.
    scopàrium,            New-Zealand-tea.

  LEUCADÉNDRON 105.       Silver-Tree.
    9 argentéum,          silvery.
    _Pròtea argentéa_.
    squarròsum,           squarrose.
    stellàtum,            starry
    _Pròtea stellàris_.
    tórtum,               twisted.
    seríceum,             silky.
    marginàtum,           margined.
    plumòsum,             feathered.
    _Pròtea parviflòra_.

    9 fuscàta,            rusty.
    annonæfòlia,          annonæ-leaved.
    pùmila,               dwarf.
    conspícua,            youlan.
    purpùrea,             purple.

    6 elíptica,           eliptic.
    fúlgens,              fulgent.
    decussàta,            cross-leaved.
    hypericifòlia,        hypericum-leaved.
    squarròsa,            square-set.
    linarifòlia,          linear-leaved.
    incàna, hoary.
    telragònia,           four-sided.
    thymifòlia,           thyme-leaved.

    6 Barclàyana,         Barclay's.
    semperflòrens,        ever-blooming.

  MÝSINE 106,             Cape-Myrtle.
    4 retùsa,             erect.
    rotundifòlia,         round-leaved.

  MÉSPILUS 107.           Medlar.

    6 flòrida,            many-flowered.
    umbellàta,            umbel-flowered.
    angustifòlia,         narrow-leaved.
    lanceolàta,           lance-leaved.

  MÁNIHOT 243.
    17 cannabìna,         cassada root.

    18 sp. sp.

  MÝRTUS 108.             Myrtle.
    12 commùnis,          common
    múltiplex,            double.
    leucocàrpa,           white-fruited.
    itálica variegàta,    variegated.
    maculàta,             blotch-leaved.
    tomentòsa,            downy.
    tenuifòlia,           slender-leaved.

  MIMÙLUS 143.            Monkey-flower.
    lùteus,               yellow.
    rivulàris,            dark-spotted.
    moschàtus,            musk-scented.

  MONÁRDA 143.
    dídyma,               Oswego-tea.
    kalmiána,             pubescent-flowered.
    Russeliàna,           Russells'.
    punctàta,             spotted.

  MATHÍOLA 144.           Stock-gilly.
    simplicicáulis,       Brompton-stock.
    _var._ _var._
    incàna,               queen-stock.
    _var._ var._
    ánnua,                annual.
    _var._ _var._
    glàbra,               wall-leaved.

    18 coccínea,          scarlet-flowered.
    símplex,              small-red-spined.
    pusílla,              starry.
    cònica,               cone-headed.

    18 commùnis,          Turk's-cape.
    macránthus,           large-spined.
    pyramidàlis,          pyramidale.

    1 Malabáthrica,       Malabar.
    sanguìnea,            bloody.
    decémfida,            ten-cleft.
    pulverulénta,         powdered.
    áspera,               rough.
    nepalénsis,           Nepaul.

  MALPÍGHIA 246.          Barbadoes-cherry.
    17 ùrens,             stinging,
    aquifòlium,           holly-leaved.
    fucáta,               painted.
    glábra,               smooth.

  MÁRICA 246.
    12 _cærùlea_,         _blue_.
    Sabìni,               Sabin's.
    northiána,            spotted.

  MÙSA, 247,              Plantain-tree.
    15 paradisìaca,       common.
    sapiéntum,            banana-tree.
    rosàcea,              rose-coloured.
    coccínea,             scarlet-coloured.
    chinénsis,            Chinese.

  MANGÍFERA 245,          Mango-tree.
    11 índica,            common.
    oppositifòlia?        opposite-leaved.

  NANDÌNA 108,            Nandin.
    1 doméstica,          common.

    longiflòra,           long-flowered.

  NÉRIUM 108,             Oleander.
    12 oleánder,          common.
    " spléndens,          double-rose.
    " elegantìssimum,     variegated.
    " álba,               white.
    "  "  pleno?          double-white.

  [OE]NOTHÈRA 144,        Evening-primrose.
    macrocárpa,           broad-leaved.
    média,                intermediate.
    latiflòra,            broad-flowered.
    Frazèri,              Frazer's.
    speciòsa,             handsome.
    pállida,              pale.
    odoràta,              sweet-scented.

  ÒLEA 109,               Olive-tree.
    11 europæa,           common.
    " longifòlia,         long-leaved.
    " latifòlia,          broad-leaved.
    capènsis,             Cape.
    verrucòsa,            warted.
    fràgrans,             scented.
    paniculàta,           panicled.

    obtusifòlium,         blunt-leaved.
    retùsum,              retuse-leaved.
    ellípticum,           elliptic-leaved.

    11 rubèlla,           red.
    marginàta,            margined.
    elongàta,             striped-flowered.
    am'æna,               neat.

  OSS'ÆA 246.
    1 purpuráscens,       purple.

  ORNITHÓGALUM 292.       Star-of-Bethlehem.
    11 lactéum,           white.
    aùreum,               golden.
    marítimum,            squill.

  OPÚNTIA 227.
    18 cochinillìfera,    cochineal-fig.
    fìcus-índica,         Indian-fig.

  PELARGÒNIUM 110, 273, Stork's-bill.
    12 álbum.
    Lady Clifford.
    19 pavoninum.
    Princess-Augusta, _new_.

  [The above begin with the lightest,
  and end with the darkest colours]
    _The following are various fancy sorts_.

  PHÓRMIUM 112,           New-Zealand.
    7 tenàx,              flax.

  PHÝLICA 113.
    5 horizontàlis,       spreading.
    squarròsa,            squarrose.
    imbricàta,            imbricated.
    myrtifòlia,           myrtle-leaved.
    callòsa,              callous-leaved.
    bícolor,              two-coloured.
    ericoídes,            heath-like.

  PIMÈLEA 113.
    5 decussàta,          cross-leaved.
    ròsea,                rose-coloured.
    linifòlia,            flax-leaved.
    spicàta,              spike-flowered.
    drupàcea,             berry-bearing.

    13 tobìra,            Chinese.
    undulàta,             wave-leaved.
    coriàceum,            leather-leaved.
    revolùtum,            revolute.
    fúlvum,               yellow.
    ferrugíneum,          rusty.



  PÌNUS 210.
    Canadénsis,           hemlock-spruce.

  PERIPLÓCA 198.          Silk-vine.
    gr'æca,               Virginian.

    5 prolífera,          many-headed.

    10 serrulàta,         serrulate.
    arbutifòlia,          arbutus-leaved.

  PÉRSEA 244.             Alligator-pear.
    11 gratíssima,        common.

  PUNÍCA 172,             Pomegranate.

  PULSATÍLLA 134,         Pasque-flower.
    vernàlis,             spring.

  PERÍSKIA 228,           Barbadoes-gooseberry.
    18 aculeàta,          prickly.

  PÝRUS 320.
    japònica,             red.
    "  álba,              white.

  PÓÆNIA 321, 315, 151.
    èdulis-whitlìjii,     white.
    "  fràgrans,          scented.
    "  hùmea,             crimson.
    chinènsis-álba,       double-white?
    paradòxa-fimbriàta,   fringed.
    officinàlis-rúbra,    common.
    15 moután,            tree.
    "  bànksii,           common.
    "  papaverácea,       white.
    "  rosèa,             rose-coloured.

    nepalénsis,           Nepaul.
    atropurpùrea,         dark-purple.
    Russelliàna,          Russell's.
    Hopwoodiàna,          Hopwood's.
    spléndens,            splendid.

  PLATYLÒBIUM 113,        Flat-pea.
    5 formòsum,           handsome.
    ovàtum,               ovate-leaved.
    triangulàre,          triangular-stock.

    2 terebínthus,        turpentine-tree.
    lentíscus,            mastic-tree.
    vèra,                 true.
    reticulàta,           netted-leaved.

  PLUMBÀGO 114,           Lead-wort.
    trístis,              red-leaved.
    Capénsis,             Cape.

    6 odoratíssima,       sweet-scented.
    spicàta,              spike-flowered.
    aculeàta,             prickly.
    argéntea,             silvery.
    tomentòsa,            downy.

    serícea,              silky.
    styracifòlia,         storax-leaved.
    corúscans,            glittering.
    argéntea,             silvery.
    laparioídes,          liparia-like.
    subiflòra,            netted-leaved.

    6 hirsùta,            hairy-leaved.
    móllis,               soft-leaved.
    teretifòlia,          round-leaved.
    lùcida,               shining-leaved.

  PRÓTEA 115.
    9 cynaroídes,         artichoke-flowered.
    speciòsa,             splendid.
    "  rùbra,             red.
    umbonàlis,            embossed.
    melaleùca,            black-fringed.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    coccínea,             scarlet-flowered.
    formòsa,              handsome.
    magnífica,            magnificent.
    mellífera,            honey-bearing,

  PULTEN'ÆA 115.
    5 villòsa,            villous.
    obcordàta,            heart-leaved.
    argéntea,             silvery-leaved.
    plumòsa,              feathered.
    fléxilis,             fragrant.
    cándida,              white-leaved.
    strìcta,              erect-growing.

  PHLÓX 145.
    paniculàta,           panicled.
    acuminàta,            cross-leaved.
    intermèdia,           intermediate.
    odoràta,              odoriferous.
    pyramidàlis,          pyramid-flowered.
    " álba,               white.
    suavèolens,           sweet-scented.
    refléxa,              reflex-leaved.
    stolonífera,          creeping.
    pilòsa,               hairy.
    divaricáta,           early-flowering.
    nivàlis,              snowy-white.
    subulàta,             awl-leaved.

  PRÍMULA 146, 314,       Primrose.
    vulgàris,             English-primrose.
    elàtior,              ox-lip.
    _var._ _var._         polyanthus.
    aurícula,             auricula.
    _var._ _var._
    cortusoídes,          cortuso-like.
    dentiflòra,           jagged-flowered.
    suavèolens,           sweet-scented.
    decòra,               pretty.
    scótica,              Scotch.
    farinòsa,             bird's-eye.
    vèris,                cowslip.
    2 sinènsis,           China.
    " alba,               white.
    dentiflòra,           ragged.

    11 maritímum,         sea-daffodil.
    verecúndum,           narcissus-leavad.
    littoràlis,           sea-side.
    speciòsum,            showy.
    carib'æum,            Caribbean.

    axillàris,            axil-flowered.
  _Caméllia axillàris_.

  PASSIFLÒRA 248,         Passion-flower.
    13 alàta,             winged-stalked.
    racemòsa,             racemose.
    cærulea "             blue
    quadrangulàris,       square-stalked.
    filamentòsa,          thready.
    picturàta,            pictured.

  PANDÀNUS 249,           Screw-Pine.
    13 odoratíssimus,     scented.
    utilis?               red-spined.

    13 suberifòlium,      various-leaved.
    semisagittàtum,       half-sagittate.

    11 acuminàta,         acuminate.
    trícolor,             three-coloured.
    rùbra,                red-coloured.

  PH'[OE]NIX 250,         Date-Palm.
    12 dactylìfera,       common.
    paludòsa,             marsh.

  RÉSEDA 297,             Mignonette.
    11 odoràta,           scented.

  RÒCHEA 231.
    18 falcàta.           sickle-leaved.
    _Crussùla fulcáta_.

  RHÚS 45.


  ROSCÒEA 251.
    purpùrea,             purple.
    spicàta,              spike-flowered.
    capitàta,             crown-flowered.

  RUÉLLIA 251.
    10 formòsa,           handsome.
    fulgída,              shining.
    anisophýlla,          unequal-leaved.
    persicifòlia.         peach-leaved.

  RHÁPIS 251.
    11 flabellifòrmis,    creeping-rooted.

  RHODODÉNDRON 115,       Rose-tree.
    16 arbòreum,          tree.
    " álbum,              white-flowered.
    " supérbum,           superb.
    " purpùreum,          purple-flowered.
    " álte-clárance,      large.
    campanulàtum,         bell-flowered.
    anthopògon,           bearded-flowered.
    cinnamòmeum,          cinnamon-coloured.

  ROÉLLA 116.
    5 cilliáta,           cilliate.
    spícàta,              spiked-flowered.
    pedunculàta,          peduncled.


  RÙBUS 325.
    3 rosæfòlius,         Bramble-rose,

  RÒSA 172,               China-Rose,
    12 índica.
    " mínor.
    Bengal elongata.
    odorata,              tea-scented.
    " alba,               white-tea.
    Florence,             scarlet-tea.
    Bengal,               yellow-tea.
    Indica-alba,          white-China.

  ROSA 156, common Moss, Garden-rose.
    blush                    "
    crimson                  "
    white                    "
    scarlet                  "
    Clinton                  "
    Damask                   "
    mottled                  "
    sweet-briar              "
    de-Meaux                 "
    unique, or white-Provence.
    spinosíssima,         Scotch.
    gàllica,              officinale.
    centifòlia,           Provins.
    Damacène,             damask.
    álba,                 white.
    rubiginósa,           sweet-briar.
    red      "
    striped  "

  ROSA 189, Climbing.
    Champneyàna,          pink-cluster.
    red-noisettia,        scarlet-cluster.
    white-cluster or musk.
    superb   "        "
      "    purple.
    Franklin,             cluster-tea.
    Banksiæ,              white.
       "                  yellow.
       "                  white.
       "                  scarlet.
       "                  purple.
    Grevíllii,            many-coloured.
    arvensis multiplex.
    sempervírens pléno.
    bracteàta plèno,      Macartney.

  SÀGUS 252,              Sago-Palm.
    11 vinìfera,          prickly-leaved.
    Rumphii,              Rumphius'.

    7 grandiflòra,        large-flowered.
    viridiflòra,          green-flowered.

    divérgens,            spreading.
    dichótomus,           forked.

  SWIETÉNIA 253,          Mahogany-tree.
    15 mahógoni,          common.
    febrifùga,            febrifuge.

  SÁLVIA 117.
    12 spléndens,         splendid.
    cærúlea,              blue-flowered.
    coccínea,             scarlet-flowered.
    aùrea,                yellow-leaved.
    paniculàta,           panicle-flowered.
    índica,               Indian.
    élegans,              elegant.

  SENÈCIO 117.            ground-sel.
    12 grandiflòrus,      large-flowered.
    venústus,             wing-leaved.
    cineràscens,          gray.
    élegans plèno,        elegant.

  SCHÓTIA 118.
    1 speciòsa,           spacious.
    aláta,                wing-leaved.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.
    _Omphalòbium schótia_.
    tamarindifòlia,       Tamirand-leaved.

    1 galegifòlia,        red-flowered.
    coronillæfòlia,       purple-flowered.
    astragalifòlia,       white-flowered.

  SCÒTTIA 118.
    6 dentáta,            toothed.
    angustifòlia,         narrow-leaved.
    trapezifòrmus,        trapeziforum.

    12 africàna,          African.

    6 vimíneum,           yellow-flowered.
    médium,               red-flowered.

    6 incarnáta,          flesh-coloured.

    6 graminifòlium,      grass-leaved.
    fruticòsum,           shrubby.
    laricifòlium,         larch-leaved.
    adnátum,              adnate.

    6 tubiflòra,          tube-flowered.
    triflòra,             three-flowered.
    adscéndens,           ascending.
    longifòlia,           long-flowered.

    13 pícta,             painted.
    atropurpùrea,         dark-purple.
    sinuáta,              crimson.

    19 regìnæ,            Queen.
    ováta,                oval-leaved.
    hùmilis,              dwarf.
    agústa,               large-leaved.
    jùncea,               rush-leaved.
    parvifòlia,           small-leaved.
    farinòsa,             mealy-stalked.

    grandiflòra striáta,  striped.
    versícolor,           various.
    anemonæflòra,         anemone-flowered.

    11 lútea,             yellow.
    _Amarýllis lútea_.

    11 formosíssima,      Jacobea-lily.
    _Amarýllis formosíssima_.

  SAPONÀRIA 147,          Soap-wort.
    officinális plèno,    double.
    cæspitòsa,            tufted.

  SILÈNE 147,             Catch-fly.
    viscósa,              clammy.
      "  plèna,           double.

  SAXÍFRAGA 147, Saxifrage.
    hirsùta,              hairy.
    crassifòlia,          thick-leaved.
    granolata multiplex,  double.
    umbròsa,              London-pride.
    sarmentòsa,           sarmentose.
    pulchélla,            pretty.
    pyramidális,          pyramidal.

  SPIR'ÆA 148,
    ulmária multiplex,    double meadowsweet.
    filipéndula  "        drop-wort.
    lobàta                lobe-leaved.

  STÁTICE 148.            Thrift.
    vulgáris,             common.
    _Armèria vulgáris_.
    speciòsa,             showy.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.
    maritìma,             sea-side.

  TAGÈTES 120.
    11 lúcida,            sweet-scented.

  TESTUDINÀRIA 221,    Hottentot's bread.
    elephántipes,         Elephant's-foot.
    montàna,              mountain.

  TÁXUS 121.              Yew.
    14 nucífera,          nut-bearing.

  TELOPÈA 121.
    19 speciosíssimus,    showy.

    6 retùsa,             erect.
    gláuca,               glaucous.

    1 neriifòlia,         oleander-leaved.
    confertá,             crowded.
    suavèolens,           scented.

  TECÒMA 253, 65.
    10 móllis,            soft.
    digitàta,             digitated.
    splèndida,            splendid.
    capènsis,             cape.
    stáns,                ash-leaved.
    _Bignònia stáns_.

    11 coronària plèno,   double-white.
    _Nèrium coronàrium plèno_.
    densiflòra,           dense-flowered.

  THRÌNAX 254.
    11 parviflòra,        small-flowered.

    tatàrica,             Tartarean.
    _Státice tatàrica_.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.
    conspícua,            conspicuous.

    1 solanàcea,          night-shade-leaved.
    quercifòlia,          oak-leaved.

    11 crocàta,           crocus-leaved.
    _Ixìa crocàta_.
    xanthosphìla,         yellow-spotted.

    1 coccínea,           scarlet.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    fràgrans,             scented.
    alàta,                wing-leaved.

  TRÓLLIUS 149,           Globe-flower.
    Europ'æus,            European.
    Asiàticus,            Asiatic.

  THÙJA 210.              American arbor-vitæ.
    accidentalis,         western.
    orientàlis,           eastern.

  TIGRÍDIA 208.           Tiger-flower.
    11 pavònia,           peacock.
    conchiiflòra,         yellow-spotted.

    17 odoratíssimum,     scented.
    _Coffèa occidentàlis_.

  VERBÉNA 122,            Vervain.
    chamædryfòlia,        scarlet.
    Lambértii,            Lambert's.
    pulchélla,            pretty.

  VIBÚRNUM 123, 306, 45.
    17 tìnus,             laurestinus.
    lùcidum,              shining.
    odoratíssimum,        scented.
    hirsútum,             hairy.
    strìctum,             erect.
    variegàtum,           variegated.

    6 denudàta,           half-naked.

    capènsis,             cape.


  VERÓNICA 149.           Speed-well.
    officinàlis,          officinal.
    cham'ædrys,           Germander.
    mèdia,                long-spiked.
    incàna,               hoary.
    élegans,              elegant.
    spícàta,              spiked.
    grándis,              large white.
    incarnàta,            flesh-coloured.
    cárnea,               pale red.
    leucántha,            white-flowered.
    bellidioídes,         daisy-leaved.
    vérna,                vernal.
    am'[oe]na,            fine-blue.
    pulchélla,            neat.

    dioíca,               dioicious.

  VÌOLA 150.              Violet.
    odoràta,              sweet-scented.
      "  plèno álba,      double-white.
      "  " purpùrea,        "    purple.

    8 corymbòsa,          corymbose.

    1 rosmarinifórmis,    rosemary-leaved.
    longifòlia,           long-leaved.


    7 grandiflòra,        large-flowered.
    _Campánula grandiflòra_.

    11 iridifòlia,        iris-leaved.
    ròsea,                rose-coloured.
    hùmilis,              dwarf.
    fúlgida,              scarlet.
    _Antholýza fúlgens_.
    rúbens,               red-spotted.

    frutéscens,           shrubby.
    _Glýcine frutéscens_.
    chinéusis,            Chinese.
    _Glýcine chinénsis_.

  YÚCCA 150.              Adam's-needle.
    supérba,              superb.
    aloifòlia,            aloe-leaved.
    angustifòlia,         narrow-leaved.
    acuminàta,            tapering-flowered.
    serrulàta,            saw-leaved.
    filamentòsa,          thready.

  ZÀMIA 125, 254.
    11 hórrida,           horrid.
    púngens,              pungent.
    spíralis,             spiral.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.
    média,                intermediate.
    furfuràcea,           chaffy.
    ténuis,               slender.
    integrifòlia,         entire-leaved.

  =Zíngiber= 36.          Ginger.


  Airing the green-house, 20. 38. 172.
    hot-house, 33.

  Annuals, of sowing tender, 53.

  Awning for hyacinths, 202.
    for carnations, 277.
    for plants, 256.

  Box edgings, directions for planting, 139.

  Bulbs, of protecting, 25.
    preserving of Cape, 175.
    method of planting Dutch 318.
    care of tender 328.

  Bulbous roots, of uncovering, 152.
    protecting, 152.

  Cistern, of a, 12. 273.

  Cold, in the green-house, effects of, 21.

  Cleanliness, good and bad effects of, 38.

  Clipping shrubs, observations on, 44.

  Carnation, qualities of a fine, 275.
    and pink layers, care of, 307.

  Camellias, period of selecting, 316.

  Coverings, oil-cloth, 342.

  Damp, in the green-house, effects of, 20. 22.

  Dahlias, forwarding in a hot-bed, 181.

  Daisies, primroses, &c. method of protecting, 321.

  Engine for the green-house, best kind of, 19.

  Enarching, method of, 127.

  Edgings, fancy, 162.
    method of dressing box, 211.

  Fires, how to regulate the, 21. 33.

  Fumigating, method of, 13.

  Frames, of protecting, 26.

  Glass, effects of broken, 43.
    of double, 338.

  Grass-seeds, most approved, 161.
    walks, of laying down, ib.

  Grafting, whip or tongue, 163.

  Green-house, temperature of the, 340.
    how to regulate the, ib.

  Geraniums, how to prune or dress, 286.

  Hedges, how to keep evergreen, 211.

  Herbaceous plants, how to treat, 325.
    criterion for planting, 151.

  Hotbeds, of making, 52. 178.

  Hyacinth, properties of a good, 202.

  Hyacinths, of plunging new potted, 305.

  Insects, their destruction, 12. 30. 35. 56.
    effects of light on, 17.

  Inoculation, method of, 47.

  Liquid for orange and lemon trees, 39.
    to destroy the cocus insect, 15.

  Lime trees, situation in the green-house of, 312.

  Leaves, bad effects of, 332.

  Mildew on Camellias, &c., how to destroy, 22, 23. 173.

  Manure, fermentation of, 52.

  Orange and Lemon trees, when to transplant, 287.
    how to prune, 289.

  Plants, criterion for repotting, 126.
    of training climbing green-house, 176.
    in summer the best situation for, 256.

  Pots, method of draining flower, 126.

  Pruning, good or bad effects of, 27.
    various shrubs, manner of, 45.
    China roses, manner of, 189.
    climbing ever-blooming roses, method of, 191.
      roses, 195.

  Planting, bad effects in, 334,
    state of the soil when, 48.

  Pink, qualities of a fine, 276.

  Perennials, description of fine, 133.

  Parlours, treatment of plants in, 28. 54. 343.

  Repotting plants, 17. 35. 41. 57. 61. 169.

  Roses, how to retard the blooming of, 155.
    finest sorts of, 156.
    varieties of, ib.
    of fancy planting, 157.
    of mulching, 158.
    in June, reasons for pruning, 279.
    nature of the soil for, 323.
    early, how to have, 344.

  Shutters, benefit of, 10.
    how to make, 337.

  Slugs, detect, 25.
    how to destroy, 267.

  Stocks, of procuring seed from flowering, 176.

  Shrubs, of uncovering 129.
    pleasure and effect of, 48.

  Shrubs, manner of planting, 50.
    of supporting, 51.
    of packing, 51.

  Snow on the houses, bad effects of, 34.

  Syringes, best kind of, 19.

  Syringing, good effects of, 14. 19. 37. 39. 171.

  Tieing up plants, method of, 19.

  Tubs for trees, perforated, 59.
    best kind of, 288.

  Trees, of heading down, 59.
    of watering and arranging large, 259.

  Tanners' bark, nature of, 332.

  Tan-bed, plunge the plants in the, 339.

  Tobacco for destroying insects, decoction of, 60.

  Turf, of laying, 160.

  Trellises, of, 196.

  Tulip, properties of a fine, 203.

  Watering, good or bad effects of, 11. 21. 29. 34. 56. 58.

  Water on hot-house plants, effects of cold, 12.

  Watering-pot, best kind of, 11.

  Wounds on trees, composition for covering, 172.

  White-washing the glass with whiting, of, 173.

  Walks with turf, of laying, 209.

  Wall-flowers, how to propagate, 268.
      "  and stocks, time of lifting, 307.


_Those marked thus [*], require protection in winter, and those marked
thus [+], shade in summer._

  AMÓRPHA,                Bastard-indigo.
    fruticòsa,            shrubby.

  AMÝGDALUS,              Almond.
    nàna,                 dwarf.
    púmila,               double-flowering.
    aérsica,              peach-leaved.

    all the species.

  AZÀLEA,                 American honeysuckle.
    all the hardy species.

  AUCÚBA,                 Gold-tree.
    [+]japònica,          Japan.

  BÚXUS,                  Box-tree.
    two species.

  CALYCÀNTHUS,            Sweet-scented shrub.
    flòridus,             purple-flowered.
    _var._ _var._

  CASTÍNEA,               Chesnut-tree.
    púmila,               dwarf.

  CÉRCIS,                 Judas-tree.

  CHIONÁNTHUS.            Fringe-tree.
    virgìnica,            common.

    all the hardy species.

  CÓRNUS,                 Dogwood.
    flórida,              large-flowered.
    sangùinea,            bloody.

    mezerium,             red.
    _var._ _var._         red, white, and purple.

  GORDÒNIA,               Franklinia.
    pubèscens,            downy.

  HIBÌSCUS,               Althæa.
    syrìacus,             Althæa frutax.
    _var._ _var._

    all the varieties.
    [+][*]hortensis,      garden.

  ÌLEX,                   Holly.
    _var._ _var._

  JASMÌNUM,               Jasmine,
    fruticàns,            shrubby.
    officinàle,           climbing white.

  JUNIPÈRUS,              Juniper.
    suècica,              Swedish.
    virgìnicus,           Virginian.

  KÁLMIA,                 American Laurel.
    gláuca,               glaucous.
    latifòlia,            broad-leaved.

  LAÙRUS,                 Laurel.
    [*]nòbilis,           sweet-bay.
    _var._ _var._

  LAVENDÙLA,              Lavender.
    spíca,                spike-flowered.

    purpùrea,             purple.
    Róbus,                slender.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    _var._ _var._
    thomsoniàna,          hybrid.
    conspícua,            zoulan.
    soulangeàna,          hybrid.

  PHILADÈLPHUS,           mock-orange.
    grandiflòra,          large-flowered.
    màna,                 dwarf.
    variegàtus,           variegated.

  PÌNUS,                  Pine or Fir-tree.
    balsàmea,             balm of Gilead.

  PINCKNÉYA,              Georgia bark-tree.
    púbens,               downy.

  PRÚNUS,                 Cherry.
    [*]lusitánica,        Portugal-laurel.
    [*]laurocérasus,      English-laurel.

  RHODODÉNDRON,           Rose-bay.
    catawhiénse,          Catawba.
    daùricum,             daurian.
    _var._ _var._
    pónticum,             pink.
    _var._ _var._
    máximum.              common.

  RHÙS,                   Sumach.
    cotìnus,              mist-tree.

    aureum,               fragrant.
    sanguìneum,           bloody.

  ROBÌNIA,                Locust-tree.
    hìspida,              rose-acacia.

    hýbrida,              mountain-ash--a beautiful shrub.

    tomentòsa,            tomentose.
    bélla.                red flowered.
    frútex.               shawy.

  SYMPHÒRA,               Snow-berry.
    racemòsa,             white-berried.
    glomeràta.            red-berried.

  SYRÌNGA,                Lilac.
    all the species.

  TÁXUS,                  Yew.
    hibérnica,            a handsome, erect growing evergreen.

  THÚJA.                  arbor-vitæ.
    occidentàlis,         American.
    orientàlis,           Chinese.

  TÍLLIA,                 Lime or Linden-tree.
    parvifòlia,           small-leaved.
    coccínea,             scarlet.

    opùlus,               guelder-rose.
    _var._ _var_.


  AMARÁNTHUS,             Amaranth.
    tricólor,             three-coloured.
    hypochondrìacus,      Prince's-Feather.
    caudàtus,             love-lies-bleeding.
    globbòsus,            globe.
    _var._ _var._

  BALSAMÌNA,              Ladies-slipper.
    horténsis,            garden.
    _var._ _var._

    elàta,                blue.
    _var._                white.

  CÁNNA,                  Indian-shot.
    índica,               Indian.

    cristàta,             cockscomb.
    _var._ _var._

  IPOM`ÆA,                Cypress-vine.
    _var._ _var._

    sensitìva,            sensitive-plant.

    purpúrea pleno        double-blue.
    alba       "            "    white.

    pinnàtus and porrígens.

    chinènsis,            Queen Margaret's.
    _var._ _var._

  CALENDÙLA,              Mary-gold.
         "                African, French.
         "                dwarf and sweet-scented

  XERÁNTHEMUM of sorts.

  STOCKS, 10 week varieties.


  ALYSSUM, white or sweet.

  ANTÍRHÌNUM latifòlia.

  ARGERATUM mexicanum.

  ARGEMONE, of sorts.

  ASTER, Chinese, of varieties.

  AMARANTHUS, do.  do.

  BALSAM,     do.  do.

  CACCÀLIA Coccinea.

  CENTÁUREA Americàna.

  CALCEOLARIA of sorts.

  CLÁSKIA, pulchélla.

  CELOSIA of sorts.

  CALENDÙLA Mary-Gold, of sorts.

  CANDYTUFT, of var.

  CONVÓLVULUS, of var.

  COREOPSIS, of var.

  GYPSOPHÌLA elegans.

  HOLLYHOCK, Chinese, of var.

  HAWKWEED, of var.

  IPOMÈA, do.

  LARKSPUR, dwarf-rocket.

  LARKSPUR, branching.


  LUPINS, of sorts.

  MARVEL of Peru.

  MIGNONETTE, sweet.

  MARYGOLD, of sorts.

  NASTURTIUM, dwarf.

  NIGELLA, of var.

  [OE]NOTHERA, do. do.

  PINK Indian.

  PEAS, sweet, of sorts.

  PERSICÀRIA, red and white.

  POPPY, double var.



  STOCK, Prussian, in var.

  SUN-FLOWER, of var.

  SULTAN, sweet.

  SILENE, of sorts.


  XERANTHEHUM, of var.

  ZINNIA, elegans.
    of sorts.

[We have not been minute in the list of annuals, as they are generally
known, and a judicious selection adapted to this country may be found in
the catalogue of D. & C. Landreth, Philadelphia, or that of Smith &
Hogg, New York.]


  CAMPANULA spicàta.
    medium                Canterbury-bells.
      álbida, white.

  DELPHÍNIUM píctum.

  DIAITÀLIS,              Fox Glove.

  HONESTY, or Lunaria.



  HÚMEA, élegans.


  MIMULUS, of var.

  [OE]NOTHÈRA,            Evening Primrose.
    elata,                tall.
    suavèolens,           sweet-scented.
    spectábilis,          showy.
    biénnis,              common.
    var. var.
    longiflòra.           long-flower.
    corymbòsa,            corymbose.

  SILÈNE,                 Catch-fly.
    multiflòra,           many-flowered.
    viscòsa,              clammy.
    divaricàta,           avaricate.

  WALL-FLOWER,            bloody.
          "               white.
          "               yellow.


The following compound of soils are adapted to the nature of the Plants
contained in this Work.

The figures attached to the first species of each Genus refer to the
Table of Soils, where the compost is in parts; and where any figures
occur in the same Genus, the species following are of the same nature.

  NUMBER.  |  Savanna.     Loam.     Leaf.     Sand.     Manure.
        1  |     2      -   1     -    -    -    -    -    -
        2  |     -      -   3     -    2    -    -    -    -
        3  |     -      -   4     -    -    -    1    -    1
        4  |     -      -   2     -    1    -    -    -    -
        5  |    all     -   -     -    -    -    -    -    -
        6  |     3      -   1     -    -    -    -    -    -
        7  |     -      -   3     -    1    -    1    -    -
        8  |     4      -   1     -    -    -    -    -    -
        9  |     -      -   2     -    2    -    1    -    -
       10  |     1      -   1     -    1    -    -    -    -
       11  |     -      -   3     -    2    -    1    -    -
       12  |     -      -   3     -    1    -    1    -    1
       13  |     2      -   2     -    1    -    -    -    1
       14  |     -      -   4     -    -    -    1    -    -
       15  |     -      -   4     -    2    -    1    -    -
       16  |     4      -   -     -    1    -    -    -    -
       17  |     -      -   5     -    1    -    1    -    1
       18  |     -      -   1     -    1    -    1    -    -
       19  |     1      -   1     -    -    -    -    -    -


_Savanna soil_--is of a dark colour, with a large portion of white sand
incorporated with it, and is found frequently in New Jersey. A mixture
of two-thirds black earth from the woods, and one-third of pure white
sand, will be similar to it, and may be used as a substitute, but is not
exactly of the same nature.

_Loam_--is of a light brown colour, and is that from old pastures or
commons, which should lie one year, and be frequently turned before
using. It ought not to be from a clay bottom.

_Leaf mould_--is that which is to be found on the surface of the ground
in woods, and is the decomposed leaves. It may be termed nearly of first
rate importance in vegetation.

_Sand_--is a substance that is generally known, and that which is found
on the surface is decidedly the best. If it is from a pit, it must be
spread out, and frequently turned, that it may assimilate with the
atmosphere before using;--four months will be sufficient.

_Manure_--before using, must be decomposed to very fine particles. It
will require two years, during which time it must be often turned, and
the longer it lays it will be the finer and more congenial.



Respectfully inform their friends and the public generally, that in
addition to the Garden in Thirteenth-street, they have purchased the
Nursery Grounds, Green-Houses, &c., established by the late B. M'Mahon,
Esq., on the township line, near the Germantown road, about three miles
from the city, where the propagation and cultivation of Ornamental
Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Flowers, will hereafter be extensively
carried on, and improved in accordance to the increasing demand.

The Thirteenth-street Garden will be appropriated as a repository for
the sale of plants and the receiving of orders.

A splendid collection of Camellia Japonica, containing the most approved
and distinct varieties; also a very large selection of the most esteemed
and beautiful Roses. Their Dahlias were selected by R. Buist, last year,
from the finest collection in England, together with many Ornamental and
other Plants not surpassed for extent in the Union.

Orders at either of the establishments, or per post, will be duly
received and punctually attended to.

Transcriber notes:

All original typographical errors and inconsistencies other than the
ones listed below are preserved in this version.

Various spellings of Alstr[oe]meria have been made consistent.

[OE]: in this version, is used to represent the oe ligature.

[)a]: in this version, is used to represent letter a with breve.

Page vi: replaced "apppreciation' with "appreciation"

Page ix: replaced " and transplanting, 302" with " and transplanting,

Page 16-17: removed "The ance."

Page 56: replaced "frequentl ycauses" with "frequently causes"

Page 63: Italicized "A. f[oe]tida" for consistency.

Page 96: replaced comma with period in "much water,"

Page 109: replaced "sbrubs" with "shrubs"

Page 144: replaced "beatiful" with "beautiful"

Page 160: replaced "firt" with "first"

Page 163: replaced "it it" with "it is"

Page 187: Replaced second "No. 27." to "No. 29." to fix sequence

Page 224: replaced "end of the month," with "end of the month."

Page 227: replaced "phyllnthoídes" with "phyllanthoídes"

Page 280: replaced "seeif" with "see if"

Page 282: Replaced "intances" with "instances"

Page 304: Replaced "observatign" with "observation"

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Flower Garden Directory - Containing Practical Directions for the Culture of Plants, - in the Hot-House, Garden-House, Flower Garden and Rooms - or Parlours, for Every Month in the Year" ***

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