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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 241, June 10, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Libraries)



{533}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 241.]
SATURDAY, JUNE 10. 1854
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Stone Pillar Worship                                         535

  Somersetshire Folk Lore                                      536

  Irish Records, by James F. Ferguson                          536

  Derivation of Curious Botanic Names, and Ancient Italian
    Kalydor, by Dr. Hughes Fraser Halle                        537

  MINOR NOTES:--Forensic Jocularities--Ridley's University--
    Marvellous, if true--Progress of the War--Hatherleigh
    Moor, Devonshire--Cromwellian Gloves--Restall              538

  QUERIES:--

  Sepulchral Monuments                                         539

  "Es Tu Scolaris"                                             540

  On a Digest of Critical Readings in Shakespeare,
    by J. O. Halliwell                                         540

  MINOR QUERIES:--"Original Poems"--A Bristol Compliment--
    French or Flemish Arms--Precedence--"[Greek: Sphidê]"--
    Print of the Dublin Volunteers--John Ogden--Columbarium
    in a Church Tower--George Herbert--Apparition which
    preceded the Fire of London--Holy Thursday
    Rain-water--Freemasonry                                    541

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Lewis's "Memoirs of the Duke
    of Gloucester"--Apocryphal Works--Mirabeau, Talleyrand,
    and Fouché--"The Turks in Europe," and "Austria as It
    Is"--"Forgive, blest Shade"--"Off with his head,"
    &c.--"Peter Wilkins"--The Barmecides' Feast--Captain       542

  REPLIES:--

  Coleridge's unpublished Manuscripts, by Joseph Henry Green   543

  King James's Irish Army List, 1689                           544

  Barrell's Regiment                                           545

  Clay Tobacco-pipes, by W. J. Bernhard Smith                  546

  Madame de Staël                                              546

  Cranmer's Martyrdom                                          547

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Difficulties in making
    soluble Cotton--Light in Cameras--Cameras--Progress of
    Photography--A Collodion Difficulty--Ferricyanide
    of Potassium                                               548

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Postage System of the
    Romans--Epigram on the Feuds between Handel and
    Bononcini--Power of prophesying before Death--King
    John--Demoniacal Descent of the Plantagenets--Burial
    Service Tradition--Paintings of our Saviour--Widdrington
    Family--Mathew, a Cornish Family--"[Greek: Pistis],"
    unde deriv.--Author of "The Whole Duty of Man"--
    Table-turning--Pedigree to the Time of Alfred--Quotation
    wanted--"Hic locus odit, amat"--Writings of the Martyr
    Bradford--Latin Inscription on Lindsey Court-house--Blanco
    White's Sonnet--"Wise men labour," &c.--Copernicus--Meals,
    Meols--Byron and Rochefoucauld--Robert Eden--Dates of
    Maps--Miss Elstob--Corporation Enactments, &c.             549

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          554

  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 554

  Notices to Correspondents                                    555

       *       *       *       *       *


Multæ terricolis linguæ, coelestibus una.

SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS'

[Illustration]

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THE ASTLEY COOPER PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1853.

This Day, 8vo., with 64 Illustrations, 15s.

ON THE STRUCTURE AND USE OF THE SPLEEN. By HENRY GREY, F.R.S., Demonstrator
of Anatomy at St. George's Hospital.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


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THE BOOK OF PSALMS IN ENGLISH VERSE, and in Measures suited for Sacred
Music. By EDWARD CHURTON, M.A., Archdeacon of Cleveland.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in fcap. 8vo., price 6s. cloth.

THE WESTERN WORLD REVISITED. By the REV. HENRY CASWALL, M.A., Vicar of
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Scottish Church," &c.

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RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
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       *       *       *       *       *


LONGFELLOW, THE POET.--There is a sweet song by this admired writer just
now much inquired after. It is called "EXCELSIOR." This really sublime
effusion of the poet is charmingly wedded to music by MISS M. LINDSAY. It
is particularly a song for the refined evening circle, and is adorned with
a capital illustration. It is among the recent publications of the MESSRS.
ROBERT COCKS & CO., Her Majesty's Music Publishers, of New Burlington
Street.--See _The Observer_, May 28, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


{534}

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE and HISTORICAL REVIEW for JUNE, contains the
following articles:--1. Leaves from a Russian Parterre. 2. History of Latin
Christianity. 3. Our Lady of Montserrat. 4. Memorials of Amelia Opie. 5.
Mansion of the Dennis Family at Pucklechurch, with an Illustration. 6. The
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: A Plea
for the threatened City Churches--The British Museum Library--The late
Master of Sherburn Hospital--Original Letter and Anecdotes of Admiral
Vernon, &c. With Notes of the Month, Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews,
Reports of Antiquarian and Literary Societies, Historical Chronicle, and
OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the Duke of Parma, the Marquis of Anglesey,
the Earl of Lichfield, Lord Colborne, Lord Cockburn, John Davies Gilbert,
Esq., T. P. Halsey, Esq., Alderman Thompson, Alderman Hooper, Dr. Wardlaw,
Dr. Collyer, Professors Jameson and Wilson, Montgomery the Poet, &c. &c.
Price 2s. 6d.

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       *       *       *       *       *


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CONSECRATION _versus_ DESECRATION.--An APPEAL to the LORD BISHOP of LONDON
against the BILL for the DESTRUCTION of CITY CHURCHES and the SALE of
BURIAL GROUNDS.

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This Day, fcp. 8vo., 5s.

SYNONYMS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: being the Substance of a Course of Lectures
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Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Oxford.

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  London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON,
  West Strand.

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NOTES ON AQUATIC MICROSCOPIC SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, selected from the
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A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing
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       *       *       *       *       *


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including many volumes of the greatest rarity and interest, obtained from
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       *       *       *       *       *


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removed from his late Residence, Bottisham Hall, near Newmarket. The
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assemblage of the very early editions of the Scriptures in English,
including a remarkably fine copy of the first edition, usually termed
Coverdale's Bible, complete with the exception of two leaves, which are
admirably supplied in fac-simile by Harris, and may be considered as
unique, it having the original Map of the Holy Land complete. Among other
versions of the Scripture may be mentioned the first edition of the New
Testament, by Tyndale. The Library is also rich in early English theology,
history, and particularly so in the poetry of the Elizabethan period,
including many of the rarest volumes that have occurred for sale in the
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editions of the Works of Shakspeare, the copy of the first edition being
from the library of John Wilks, Esq., the finest copy ever sold by public
auction. Among other important and valuable Works in the collection, may be
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Catalogues are now ready, and may be had on application; if in the Country,
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       *       *       *       *       *


{535}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 10, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

Notes.

STONE PILLAR WORSHIP.

In Vol. v., p. 121. of "N. & Q.," there is an interesting note on this
subject by SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT, which he concludes by observing that "it
would be an object of curious inquiry, if your correspondents could
ascertain whether this (the superstitious veneration of the Irish people
for such stones) be the last remnant of pillar worship now remaining in
Europe." I am able to assure him that it is not. The province of Brittany,
in France, is thickly studded with stone pillars, and the history and
manners of its people teem with interesting and very curious traces of the
worship of them. In fact, Brittany and Breton antiquities must form the
principal field of study for any one who would investigate or treat the
subject exhaustively.

A list of the principal of these pillars still remaining may be found in
the note at p. 77. of the first vol. of Manet's _Histoire de la Petite
Bretagne_: St. Malo, 1834. But abundant notices of them will be met with in
any of the numerous works on the antiquities and topography of the
province. They are there known as "Menhirs," from the Celtic _maen_, stone,
and _hirr_, long; or "Peulvans," from _peul_, pillar, and _maen_ (changed
in composition into _vaen_), stone. See _Essai sur les Antiquités du
Département du Morbihan_, par J. Mahé, Vannes, 1825, where much curious
information on the subject may be found. This writer, as well as the
Chevalier de Freminville, in his _Monuments du Morbihan_, Brest, 1834, p.
16., thinks that these menhirs, so abundant throughout Brittany, may be
distinguished into three classes: 1. Those intended as sepulchral
monuments; 2. Those erected as memorials of some great battle, or other
such national event; and 3. Those intended to represent the Deity, and
which were objects of worship. I have little doubt that these gentlemen are
correct in the conclusions at which they have arrived in this respect. But
it is curious to find both of them--men unquestionably of learning, and of
widely extended and varied reading--considering the poems of Ossian as
indisputably authentic, and quoting from them largely as from unquestioned
documents of historic value.

The largest "menhir" known to be in existence--if, indeed, it can still be
said to be so--is that of Locmariaker, a commune of the department of
Morbihan, a little to the south of Vannes. This vast stone, before it was
thrown down and broken into four pieces--its present condition--was
fifty-eight French feet in length. Its form, when entire, was that of a
double cone, so that its largest diameter was at about the middle of its
length. It has been calculated to weigh more than four hundred thousand
French pounds. In its immediate neighbourhood is a very large specimen of
the "Dolmens" or druidical altars on which victims were sacrificed.

As to the question when the worship of these stones ceased, my own
observations of the manners and habits of the people there, some fifteen
years since, would lead me to say that it had not then ceased. No doubt
such an assertion would be indignantly repelled by the clergy, and perhaps
by many of the peasantry themselves. The question, however, if gone into,
would become a subtle one, turning on another, as to what is to be deemed
_worship_. And we all know that the tendency of unspiritual minds to
idolatry has led the priesthood of Rome to institute verbal distinctions on
this point, which open the door to very much that a plain unbiassed man
must deem rank polytheism. My knowledge of the people in Italy enables me
to affirm, with the most perfect certainty, that not only the peasantry
very generally, but many persons much above that rank, do, to all intents
and purposes, and in the fullest sense of the word, _worship_ the Madonna,
and believe that there are several separate and wholly distinct persons of
that name. And that this worship is often as wholly Pagan in its nature as
in its object, is curiously proved by the fact, which brings us back again
to Brittany, that in many instances in that province we find chapels
dedicated to "Notre Dame de la Joye," and "Notre Dame de Liesse," which are
all built on spots where, as M. de Freminville says in his _Antiquités du
Finisterre_, p. 106., "the Celts worshipped a divinity which united the
attributes of Cybele and Venus." And Souvestre, in his _Derniers Bretons_,
vol. i. p. 264., tells us that there still exists near the town of
Tréguier, a chapel dedicated to Notre Dame de la Haine; that it would be a
mistake to suppose that the people have ceased to believe in a deity of
hate, and that persons may still be seen skulking thither to pray for the
gratification of their hatred.

SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT quotes a passage from Borlase, in which he says,
speaking of this stone-worship among the Cornish, a people of near kin to
the Armorican Bretons, that it might be traced by the prohibitions of
councils through the fifth and sixth, and even into the seventh century. I
find a council, held at Nantes in 658, ordering that the stones worshipped
by the people shall be removed and put away in places where their
worshippers cannot find them again; a precaution which the history of some
of these stones in Brittany shows to have been by no means superfluous. But
the usage may be traced by edicts seeking to restrain it to a later period
than this. For in the _Capitulaires_ of Charlemagne (Lib. x. tit. 64.), he
commands that the abuse of worshipping stones shall be abolished.

There can be no doubt, however, that this worship remained even avowedly to
a very much more recent period in Brittany. "It is well known," {536} says
De Freminville, in his _Antiquités des Côtes-du-Nord_, p. 31., "that
idolatry was still exercised in the Isle of Ushant, and in many parishes of
the diocese of Vannes, in the seventeenth century. And even at the present
day," he adds, "how many traces of it do we find in the superstitious
beliefs of our peasants!"

Many of these notions still so prevalent in the remoter districts of that
remote province, seem to point to nearly obliterated indications of a
connexion between these "peulvans" or pillar-stones, and the zodiacal forms
of worship, which the Druids are known to have, more or less exoterically,
practised. Thus it is believed in many localities that a "menhir" in the
neighbourhood _turns on its axis at midnight_. (Mahé, _Essai sur les Antiq.
du Morbihan_, p. 229.) In other cases the peasantry make a practice of
specially visiting them on the eve of St. John, _i. e._ at the summer
solstice.

Various other remnants of the ideas or practices inculcated by the ancient
faith may be traced in usages and superstitions still prevalent, and,
without such a key to their explanation, meaningless. With such difficulty
did the new supplant the old religion. Many curious illustrations may be
found in Brittany of the means adopted by the priests of the new faith to
steal, as it were, for their own emblems the adoration which all their
efforts were ineffectual to turn from its ancient objects, in the manner
mentioned by the writer in the _Archæologia_, cited by SIR J. E. TENNENT in
his Note. Thus we find "menhirs" with crosses erected on their summits, and
sculptured on their sides. See _Notions Historiques, etc. sur le Littoral
du Département des. Côtes-du-Nord_, par M. Habasque: St. Brieuc, 1834, vol.
iii. p. 22.

In conclusion, I may observe that this worship prevailed also in Spain--,
doubtless, throughout Europe--inasmuch as we find the Eleventh and Twelfth
Councils of Toledo warning those who offered worship to stones, that they
were sacrificing, to devils.

T. A. T.

Florence, March, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOMERSETSHIRE FOLK LORE.

1. All texts heard in a church to be remembered by the congregation, for
they must be repeated at the day of judgment.

2. If the clock strikes while the text is being given, a death may be
expected in the parish.

3. A death in the parish during the Christmas tyde, is a token of many
deaths in the year. I remember such a circumstance being spoken of in a
village of Somerset. Thirteen died in that year, a very unusual number.
Very many attributed this great loss of life to the fact above stated.

4. When a corpse is laid out, a plate of salt is laid on the chest. Why, I
know not.

5. None can die comfortably under the cross-beam of a house. I knew a man
of whom it was said at his death, that after many hours hard dying, being
removed from the position under the cross-beam, he departed peaceably. I
cannot account for the origin of this saying.

6. Ticks in the oak-beams of old houses, or death-watches so called, warn
the inhabitants of that dwelling of some misfortune.

7. Coffin-rings, when dug out of a grave, are worn to keep off the cramp.

8. Water from the font is good for ague and rheumatism.

9. No moon, in its change, ought to be seen through a window.

10. Turn your money on hearing the first cuckoo.

11. The cattle low and kneel on Christmas eve.

12. Should a corpse be ever carried through any path, &c., that path cannot
be done away with. For cases, see Wales, Somerset, Bampton, Devon.

13. On the highest mound of the hill above Weston-super-Mare, is a heap of
stones, to which every fisherman in his daily walk to Sand Bay, Kewstoke,
contributes one towards his day's good fishing.

14. Smothering hydrophobic patients is still spoken of in Somerset as so
practised.

15. Origin of the saying "I'll send you to Jamaica." Did it not take its
source from the unjudge-like sentence of Judge Jeffries to those who
suffered without sufficient evidence, for their friendly disposition
towards the Duke of Monmouth: "To be sent ---- ---- to the plantations of
Jamaica?" Many innocent persons were so cruelly treated in Somerset.

16. The nurse who brings the infant to be baptized bestows upon the first
person she meets on her way to the church whatever bread and cheese she can
offer, _i. e._, according to the condition of the parents.

17. In Devonshire it is thought unlucky not to catch the first butterfly.

18. Mackerel not in season till the lesson of the 23rd and 24th of Numbers
is read in church. I cannot account for this saying. A better authority
could have been laid down for the remembering of such like incidents. You
may almost form a notion yourself without any help. The common saying is,
Mackerel is in season when Balaam's ass speaks in church.

M. A. BALLIOL.

       *       *       *       *       *

IRISH RECORDS.

It not unfrequently happens that ancient deeds and such like instruments
executed in England, and relating to English families or property, are
{537} to be found on record upon the rolls of Ireland. The following
transcripts have been taken from the Memoranda Roll of the Irish Exchequer
of the first year of Edward II.:

    "Noverint universi me Johannem de Doveria Rectorem Ecclesie de
    Litlington Lyncolnensis Dyocesis recepisse in Hibernia nomine domini
    Roberti de Bardelby clerici subscriptas particulas pecunie per manus
    subscriptorum, videlicet, per manus Johannis de Idessale dimid' marc'.
    Item per manus Thome de Kancia 5 marc'. Item per manus Ade Coffyn 2
    marc'. Item per manus mercatorum Friscobaldorum 10 libri una vice et
    alia vice per manus eorundem mercatorum 100^s, fratre Andr' de
    Donscapel de ordine minorum mediante. Item per manus Johannis de Seleby
    29^s. Item de eodem Johanne alia vice 2 marc' et dimid'. Item per manus
    ejusdem Johannis tertia vice tres marc' et dimid'. Item per dominum
    Willielmum de Estden per manus Ricardi de Onyng 100^s. Et per manus
    domini Johannis de Hothom pro negociis domini Walteri de la Haye centum
    solid? De quibus particulis pecunie memorate predictum dominum Robertum
    de Bardelby et ejus executores quoscumque per presentes quieto
    imperpetuum. Ita tamen quod si alia littera acquietancie ab ista
    littera de dictis particulis pecunie inveniatur de cetero alicubi pro
    nulla cassa cancellata irrita et majus imperpetuum habeatur. In cujus
    rei testimonium sigillum meum presentibus apposui. Datum apud Dublin',
    28 die Februarij, anno regni regis Edwardi primo."--_Rot. Mem._ 1 Edw.
    II. m. 12. dorso.

    "A toutz ceaux q' ceste p'sente l're verrount ou orrount Rauf de
    Mounthermer salutz en Dieu--Sachez nous avoir ordeine estably e assigne
    n're foial et loial Mons' Waut' Bluet e dan Waut' de la More, ou lun de
    eaux, si ambedeux estre ne point, de vendre e n're p'fit fere de totes
    les gardes e mariages es parties Dirlaunde q' escheierent en n're
    temps, e de totes autres choses q'a nous aparten[=e]t de droit en celes
    p'ties, e q^cunque eaux ferount p^r n're prou, co'me est susdit,
    teignoms apaez e ferme e estable lavoms. En tesmoigne de quele chose a
    ceste n're l're patente avoms mys n're seal. Don' a Tacstede le qu^it
    jour de Octobr lan du regne le Rey Edward p^imer."--_Rot. Mem._ 1 Edw.
    II. m. 17.

    "Rogerus Calkeyn de Gothurste salutem in Domino Sempiternam. Noveritis
    me remisisse et quietum clamasse pro me et heredibus meis Johanni de
    Yaneworth heredibus suis et assignatis, totum jus et clame[=u] quod
    habui vel aliquo modo habere potui, in tenemento de Gothurste in
    dominio de Cheddeworth. Ita quod nec ego nec heredes mei nec aliquis
    nomine nostro, aliquid juris vel clamei in prædicto tenemento habere
    vendicare poterimus imperpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium huic presenti
    scripto sigillum meum apposui. Hiis testibus, Magistro Waltero de
    Istelep tunc Barone domini Regis de Scaccario Dublin', Thoma de
    Yaneworth, Rogero de Glen, Roberto de Bristoll, Roberto scriptore, et
    aliis."--_Rot. Mem._ 1 Edw. II. m. 30.

JAMES F. FERGUSON.

Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

DERIVATION OF CURIOUS BOTANIC NAMES, AND ANCIENT ITALIAN KALYDOR.

The generic name of the fern _Ceterach officinarum_ is generally said to be
derived from the Arabic _Chetherak_. I find however, among a list of
ancient British names of plants, published in 1633 at the end of Johnson's
edition of Gerard, the expression _cedor y wrach_, which means _the joined_
or _double rake_, and is exactly significant of the form of the Ceterach.
The Fernrakes are joined as it were back to back; but the single prongs of
the one alternate botanically with those of the other. Master Robert
Dauyes, of Guissaney in Flintshire, the correspondent of Johnson, gives the
name of another of the Filices (_Equisetum_) as the English equivalent of
the ancient British term. But the form of this plant does not at all
correspond to that signified by the Celtic words. It is not improbable,
therefore, that he was wrong as respects the correct English name of the
plant.

The Turkish _shetr_ or _chetr_, to cut, and _warak_, a leaf, seem to point
out the meaning of the Arabic term quoted in Hooker's _Flora_ and
elsewhere. Probably some of your Oriental readers will have the kindness to
supply the exact English for _chetherak_.

It appears to me, however, that the transition from _cedorwrach_ to
_ceterach_ is more easy, and is a more probable derivation.

Hooker and Loudon say that another generic name, _Veronica_, is of doubtful
origin. In the Arabic language I find _virunika_ as the name of a plant.
This word is evidently composed of _nikoo_, beautiful, and _viroo_,
remembrance; viroonika. therefore means beautiful remembrance, and is but
an Oriental name for a Forget-me-not, for which flower the _Veronica
chamædrys_ has often been mistaken. Possibly the name may have come to us
from the Spanish-Arabian vocabulary. The Spaniards call the same plant
_veronica_. They use this word to signify the representation of our
Saviour's face on a handkerchief. When Christ was bearing his cross, a
young woman, the legend says, wiped his face with her handkerchief, which
thenceforth retained the divine likeness.[1]

The feminine name _Veronica_ is of course the Latin form of [Greek:
Pheronikê], victory-bearer (of which Berenice is the Macedonian and Latin
construction), and is plainly, thus derived, inappropriate as the
designation of a little azure wild flower which, like loving eyes, greets
us everywhere.

In looking over Martin Mathée's notes on _Dioscorides_, published 1553, I
find that Italian women of his time used to make a cosmetic of the root of
the _Arum_, commonly called "Lords and Ladies." The mixture, he says, makes
the skin wondrously {538} white and shining, and is called _gersa_. ("_Ils
font des racines d'Aron de l'eaue et de lexive_," &c., tom. v. p. 98.)

HUGHES FRASER HALLE, LL.D.

South Lambeth.

[Footnote 1: [See "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., pp. 199. 252. 304.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Forensic Jocularities._--The epigram on "Four Lawyers," given in Vol. ix.,
p. 103. of "N. & Q.," has recalled to my recollection one intended to
characterise four worthies of the past generation, which I heard some
thirty years since, and which I send for preservation among other flies in
your amber. It is supposed to record the history of a case:

     "Mr. Leech
      Made a speech,
  Neat, concise, and strong;
      Mr. Hart,
      On the other part,
  Was wordy, dull, and wrong.
      Mr. Parker
      Made it darker;
 'Twas dark enough without.
      Mr. Cooke,
      Cited his book;
  And the Chancellor said--I doubt."

--a picture of Chancery practice in the days "when George III. was king,"
which some future Macaulay of the twenty-first or twenty-second century,
when seeking to reproduce in his vivid pages the form and _pressure_ of the
time, may cite from "N. & Q." without risk of leading his readers to any
very inaccurate conclusions.

T. A. T.

Florence.

_Ridley's University._--The author of _The Bible in many Tongues_ (a little
work on the history of the Bible and its translations, lately published by
the Religious Tract Society, and calculated to be useful), informs us that
Ridley "tells us incidentally," in his farewell letter, that he learned
nearly the whole of St. Paul's Epistles "in the course of his solitary
walks at Oxford." What Ridley tells us directly in his "Farewell" to
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, is as follows:

    "In my orchard (the walls, butts, and trees, if they could speak, would
    bear me witness) I learned without book almost all Paul's Epistles;
    yea, and I ween all the canonical epistles, save only the Apocalypse."

ABHBA.

_Marvellous, if true._--

    "This same Duc de Lauragnois had a wife to whom he was tenderly
    attached. She died of consumption. Her remains were not interred; but
    were, by some chemical process, reduced to a sort of small stone, which
    was set in a ring which the Duke always wore on his finger. After this,
    who will say that the eighteenth century was not a romantic
    age?"--_Memoirs of the Empress Josephine_, vol. ii. p. 162.: London,
    1829.

E. H. A.

_Progress of the War._--One is reminded at the present time of the
satirical verses with reference to the slow progress of business in the
National Assembly at the first French Revolution, which were as follows:

 "Une heure, deux heures, trois heures, quatre heures,
  Cinq heures, six heures, sept heures, midi;
  Allons-nous diner, mes amis!
  Allons-nous," &c.

 "Une heure, deux heures, trois heures, quatre heures,
  Cinq heures, six heures, sept heures, minuit;
  Allons-nous coucher, c'est mon avis!
  Allons-nous coucher," &c.

Which may be thus imitated in our language:

 "One o'clock, two o'clock, three o'clock, four,
  Five o'clock, six o'clock, seven o'clock, eight,
  Nine o'clock, ten o'clock, eleven o'clock, noon;
  Let's go to dinner, 'tis none too soon!
  Let's go to dinner," &c.

 "One o'clock, two o'clock, three o'clock, four,
  Five o'clock, six o'clock, seven o'clock, eight,
  Nine o'clock, ten o'clock, eleven, midnight;
  Let's go to bed, 'tis all very right!
  Let's go to bed," &c.

F. C. H.

_Hatherleigh Moor, Devonshire._--I copy the following from an old
Devonshire newspaper, and should be obliged if any of your correspondents
can authenticate the circumstances commemorated:

 "When John O'Gaunt laid the foundation stone
    Of the church he built by the river;
  Then Hatherleigh was poor as Hatherleigh Moor,
    And so it had been for ever and ever.
  When John O'Gaunt saw the people were poor,
    He taught them this chaunt by the river;
  The people are poor as Hatherleigh Moor,
    And so they have been for ever and ever.
  When John O'Gaunt he made his last will,
    Which he penn'd by the side of the river,
  Then Hatherleigh Moor he gave to the poor,
    And so it shall be for ever and ever."

The above lines are stated to have been found "written in an ancient hand."

BALLIOLENSIS.

_Cromwellian Gloves._--The _Cambridge Chronicle_ of May 6, says that there
is in the possession of Mr. Chas. Martin, of Fordham, a pair of gloves,
reputed to have been worn by Oliver Cromwell. They are made of strong
beaver, richly fringed with heavy drab silk fringe, and reach half way
between the wrist and the elbow. They were for a long time in the
possession of a family at Huntingdon. There is an inscription on the
inside, bearing the name of Cromwell; but the date is nearly obliterated.

P. J. F. GANTILLON.

{539}

_Restall._--In the curious old church book of the Abbey Parish, Shrewsbury,
the word _restall_ occurs as connected with burials in the interior of the
church. I cannot find this word in any dictionary to which I have access.
Can the readers of "N. & Q." explain its meaning and origin, and supply
instances and illustrations of its use elsewhere? I subjoin the following
notes of entries in which the word occurs:

 "1566. Received for restall and knyll.

  1577. Received for buryalls in the church, viz.

  Itm. for a restall of Jane Powell for her gra^d mother, vijs. viijd."

1593. The word is now altered to "lastiall," and so continues to be written
till April 29, 1621, when it is written "restiall," which continues to be
its orthography until 1645, when it ceases to be used altogether, and
"burials in the church" are alone spoken of.

PRIOR ROBERT OF SALOP.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS.

(_Continued from_ p. 514.)

In a previous communication, fighting under the shield of a great
authority, I attempted to prove that the effigies of the mediæval tombs
presented the semblance of death--death in grandeur, mortality as the
populace were accustomed to behold it, paraded in sad procession through
the streets, and dignified in their temples. The character of the costume
bears additional testimony to their supposed origin, and strongly warrants
this conclusion. It is highly improbable that the statuaries of that age
would clothe the expiring ecclesiastic in his sacerdotal robes, case the
dying warrior in complete steel, and deck out other languishing mortals in
their richest apparel, placing a lion or a dog, and such like crests or
emblems, beneath their feet. They were far too matter-of-fact to treat a
death-bed scene so poetically. The corpse however, when laid in state,
_was_ arrayed in the official or the worthiest dress, and these heraldic
appurtenances _did_ occupy that situation. Thus in 1852 were the veritable
remains of Prince Paul of Wurtemburg, in full regimentals and decorated
with honours, publicly exhibited in the Chapelle Ardente at Paris
(_Illustrated London News_, vol. xx. p. 316.). Unimaginative critics
exclaim loudly against the anomaly of a lifeless body, or a dying
Christian, being thus dressed in finery, or covered with cumbrous armour;
and such would have been the case in former days had not the people been so
familiarised with this solemn spectacle. In an illumination in Froissart we
have the funeral of Richard II., where the body is placed upon a simple car
attired in regal robes, a crown being on the head, and the arms crossed. We
are informed that "the body of the effigies of Oliver Cromwell lay upon a
bed of state covered with a large pall of black velvet, and that at the
feet of the effigies stood his crest, according to the custom of ancient
monuments." The chronicler might, perhaps, have said with more propriety
"in accordance with tradition;" cause and effect, original and copy, being
here reversed.

    "In a magnificent manner (he proceeds) the effigies was carried to the
    east end of Westminster Abbey, and placed in a noble structure, which
    was raised on purpose to receive it. It remained some time exposed to
    public view, the corpse having been some days before interred in Henry
    VII.'s Chapel."

In the account of the funeral obsequies of General Monk, Duke of Albemarle,
in 1670, the writer says:

    "Wren has acquitted himself so well, that the hearse, now that the
    effigy has been placed upon it, and surrounded by the banners and
    bannerols, is a striking and conspicuous object in the old abbey. It is
    supported by four great pillars, and rises in the centre in the shape
    of a dome."

It is here also worthy of note, that Horncastle Church affords a curious
example of the principle of a double representation--one in life, and the
other in death; before alluded to in the Italian monuments, and in that of
Aylmer de Valence. On a mural brass (1519), Sir Lionel Dymock kneels in the
act of prayer; and on another plate covering the grave below, the body is
delineated wrapt in a shroud--beyond all controversy dead.

Mr. Markland, in his useful work, mentions "the steel-clad sires, and
mothers mild _reposing_ on their marble tombs;" and borrows from another
archæologist an admirable description of the chapel of Edward the
Confessor, who declares that "a more august spectacle can hardly be
conceived, so many renowned sovereigns _sleeping_ round the shrine of an
older sovereign, the holiest of his line." It can only be the sleep of
death, and this the sentiment conveyed: "These all died in faith." The
subjects of this disquisition are not lounging in disrespectful
supplication, nor wrapt in sleep enjoying pious dreams, nor stretched on a
bed of mortal sickness: but the soul, having winged its way from sin and
suffering, has left its tenement with the beams of hope yet lingering on
the face, and the holy hands still refusing to relax their final effort.
Impossible as this may seem to calculating minds, it is nevertheless one of
the commonest of the authorised and customary modes designed to signify the
faith, penitence, and peace attendant on a happy end.

C. T.

{540}

       *       *       *       *       *

"ES TU SCOLARIS."

Allow me through your pages to ask some of your correspondents for
information respecting an old and very curious book, which I picked up the
other day. It is a thin _unpaged_ octavo of twelve leaves, in black-letter
type, without printer's name or date; but a pencil-note at the bottom of a
quaint woodcut, representing a teacher and scholars, gives a date 1470! And
in style of type, abbreviations, &c., it seems evidently of about the same
age with another book which I bought at the same time, and which bears date
as printed at "Padua, 1484."

The book about which I inquire bears the title _Es tu Scolaris_, and is a
Latin-German or Dutch grammar, of a most curious and primitive character,
proving very manifestly that when William Lilly gave to the world the old
_Powle's Grammar_, it was not before such a work was needed. A few extracts
from my book will give some idea of the erudition and etymological
profundity of the "learned Theban" who compiled this guide to the Temple of
Learning, which, if they do not instruct, will certainly amuse your
readers. I should premise that the contractions and abbreviations in the
printing of the book are so numerous and arbitrary, that it is extremely
difficult to read, and that this style of printing condenses the
subject-matter so much, that the twelve leaves would, in modern typography,
extend to twenty or thirty. The book commences in the interrogatory style,
in the words of its title, _Es tu Scolaris?_--"_Sum._" It then proceeds to
ring the changes on this word "_sum_," what part of speech, what kind of
verb, &c.; and setting it down as _verbum anormalium_, goes on to enumerate
the anormalous verbs in this verse,--

 "Sum, volo, fero, atque edo,
  Tot et anormala credo."

Now begins the curious lore of the volume:

    "_Q._ Unde derivatur _sum_?

    _A._ Derivatur a greca dictione, _hemi_ ([Greek: emi]); mutando _h_ in
    _s_ et _e_ in _u_, et deponendo _i_, _sic habes sum_!"

I dare say this process of derivation will be new to your classical
readers, but as we proceed, they will say, "Foregad this is more exquisite
fooling still."

    "_Q._ Unde derivatur _volo_?

    _A._ Derivatur a _beniamin_ (sic pro [Greek: boulomai]) grece; mutando
    _ben_ in _vo_ et _iamin_ in _lo_, sic habes _volo_. Versus

      Est _volo_ formatum
      A _beniamin_, bene vocatum.

    _Q._ Unde derivatur _fero_?

    _A._ Dicitur a _phoos_! grece; mutando _pho_ in _fe_ et _os_ in _ro_,
    sic habes _fero_!

    _Q._ Unde derivatur _edo_?

    _A._ A _phagin_, grece; mutando _pha_ in _e_ et _gin_ in _do_, sic
    habes _edo_!"

Here be news for etymologists, and proofs, moreover, that when some of the
zealous antagonists of Martin Luther in the next century denounced "Heathen
Greek" as a diabolical _invention_ of his, there was little in the grammar
knowledge of the day to contradict the accusation.

But we have not yet exhausted the wonders and virtues of the word _sum_;
the grammar lesson goes on to ask,--

    "_Q._ Quare _sum_ non desinit in _o_ nec in _or_?

    _A._ Ad habendum, _d[=r][=n]am_[2] [I cannot expand this contraction,
    though from the context it means a mark or token], dignitatis sue
    respectu aliorum verborum.

    _Q._ Declara hoc, et quomodo?

    _A._ Quia per _sum_ intelligitur Trinitas, cum tres habeat litteras,
    scl. _s_. _u_. et _m_. Etiam illud verbum sum, quamvis de omnibus dici
    valeat, tamen de Deo et Trinitate proprie dicitur.

    _Q._ Quare _sum_ potius terminatur in _m_ quam in _n_?

    _A._ Quia proprie _m_ rursus intelligitur Trinitas, cum illa littera
    _m_, tria habet puncta."

I shall feel much obliged for any particulars about this literary curiosity
which you or any of your correspondents can give.

A. B. R.

Belmont.

[Footnote 2: [Drnam stands for differentiam.]]

       *       *       *       *       *

ON A DIGEST OF CRITICAL READINGS IN SHAKSPEARE.

With reference to this subject, which has been so frequently discussed in
your columns, daily experience convincing me still farther in the opinion
that the complete performance of the task is impracticable, would you
kindly allow me to ask what can be done in the now acknowledged case of
frequent occurrence, where different copies of the folios and quartos vary
in passages in the very same impression? What copies are to be taken as the
groundworks of reference; and whose copy of the first folio is to be the
standard one? Mr. Knight may give one reading as that of the edition of
1623, and Mr. Singer may offer another from the same work, while the author
of the "critical digest" may give a third, and all of them correct in the
mere fact that such readings are really those of the first edition. Thus,
in respect to a passage in _Measure for Measure_,--

 "For thy own bowels, which do call thee _sire_,"--

it has been stated in your columns that one copy of the second folio has
this correct reading, whereas every copy I have met with reads _fire_; and
so likewise the first and third folios. Then, again, in reference to this
same line, Mr. Collier, in his Shakspeare, vol. ii. p. 48., says that the
folio edition of 1685 also reads _fire_ for _sire_; but in my copy of the
fourth folio it is distinctly printed _sire_, and the comma before the word
very {541} properly omitted. It would be curious to ascertain whether any
other copies of this folio read _fire_.

J. O. HALLIWELL.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

"_Original Poems._"--There is a volume of poetry by a lady, published under
the following title, _Original Poems, on several occasions_, by C. R.,
4to., 1769. Can you inform me whether these poems are likely to have been
written by Miss Clara Reeve, authoress of _The Old English Baron_, and
other novels? I have seen at least one specimen of this lady's poetry in
one of the volumes of Mr. Pratt's _Gleaner_.

SIGMA.

_A Bristol Compliment._--A present made of an article that you do not care
about keeping yourself is called "A Bristol Compliment." What is the origin
of the phrase?

HAUGHMOND ST. CLAIR.

_French or Flemish Arms._--What family (probably French or Flemish) bears
Azure, in chief three mullets argent; in point a ducal coronet or; in base
a sheep proper crowned with a ducal coronet or.

PENN.

_Precedence._--Will any of your correspondents assign the order of
precedence of officers in army or navy (having no decoration, knighthood,
or companionship of any order of knighthood), not as respects each other,
but as respects civilians? I apprehend that every commission is addressed
to the bearer, embodying a civil title, as _e.g._, "John Smith, Esquire,"
or as we see ensigns gazetted, "A. B., Gent." My impression therefore is,
that in a mixed company of civilians, &c., no officer is entitled to take
rank higher than the _civil_ title incorporated in his commission would
imply, apart from his grade in the service to which he belongs. On this
point I should be obliged by any notices which your correspondents may
supply; as also by a classification in order of precedence of the ranks
which I here set down alphabetically: barristers, doctors (in divinity,
law, medicine), esquires, queen's counsel, serjeants-at-law.

It may be objected that esquire, ecuyer, armiger, is originally a military
title, but by usage it has been appropriated to civilians.

SUUM CUIQUE.

"[Greek: Sphidê]."--The meaning of this word is wanted. It is not in
Stephens' _Thesaurus_. It occurs in Eichhoff's _Vergleichung der Sprachen
Europa und Indien_, p. 234.:

    "Sanscrit _bhid_, schneiden, brechen; Gr. [Greek: phazô]; Lat. fido,
    findo, fodio; Fr. fends; Lithuan., fouis; Deut. beisse; Eng. bite" [to
    which Kaltschmidt adds, beissen, speisen, fasten, Futter, Butter, Mund,
    bitter, mästen, feist, Weide, Wiese, Matte]; "Sans. bhidâ, bhid,
    Spaltung, Faser; Gr. [Greek: sphidê], Lat. fidis; Sans. bhittis,
    graben; Lat. fossa; Sans. bhaittar, zerschneider; Lat. fossor."

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

_Print of the Dublin Volunteers._--Can any of your correspondents inform me
when, and where, and by whom, the well-known print of "The Volunteers of
the City and County of Dublin, as they met on College Green, the 4th day of
Nov., 1779," was republished? An original copy is not easily procured.

ABHBA.

_John Ogden._--Can any reader of "N. & Q." furnish an account of the
services rendered by John Ogden, Esq., to King Charles I. of England? The
following is in the possession of the inquirer:

    "Ogden's Arms, granted to John Ogden, Esq., by King Charles II., for
    his faithful services to his unfortunate father, Charles I.

    "Shield, Girony of eight pieces, argent and gules; in dexter chief an
    oak branch, fructed ppr.

    "Crest, Oak tree ppr. Lion rampant against the tree.

    "Motto, Et si ostendo, non jacto."

OAKDEN.

_Columbarium in a Church Tower._--At Collingbourne Ducis, near Marlborough,
I have been told that the interior of the church tower was constructed
originally to serve as a columbarium. Can this really be the object of the
peculiar masonry, what is the date of the tower, and can a similar instance
be adduced? It is said that the niches are not formed merely by the
omission of stones, but that they have been carefully widened from the
opening. Are there any ledges for birds to alight on, or any peculiar
openings by which they might enter the tower?

J. W. HEWETT.

_George Herbert._--Will any one of your correspondents, skilled in solving
enigmas, kindly give me an exposition of this short poem of George
Herbert's? It is entitled--

 "HOPE.

 "I gave to Hope a watch of mine; but he
    An anchor gave to me.
  Then an old prayer-book I did present,
    And he an optic sent.
  With that, I gave a phial full of tears;
    But he a few green ears.
  Ah, loiterer! I'll no more, no more I'll bring;
    I did expect a ring."

G. D.

_Apparition which preceded the Fire of London._--An account of the
apparition which predicted the Great Fire of London two months before it
took place, or a reference to the book in which it may be found, will
oblige

IGNIPETUS.

{542}

_Holy Thursday Rain-water._--In the parish of Marston St. Lawrence,
Northamptonshire, there is a notion very prevalent, that rain-water
collected on Holy Thursday is of powerful efficacy in all diseases of the
_eye_. Ascension-day of the present year was very favourable in this
respect to these village oculists, and numbers of the cottagers might be
seen in all directions collecting the precious drops as they fell. Is it
known whether this curious custom prevails elsewhere? and what is supposed
to be the origin of it?

ANON.

_Freemasonry._--A (Hamburg) paper, _Der Freischütz_, brings in its No. 27.
the following:

    "The great English Lodge of this town will initiate in a few days two
    deaf and dumb persons; a very rare occurrence."

And says farther in No. 31.:

    "With reference to our notice in No. 27., we farther learned that on
    the 4th of March, two brethren, one of them deaf and dumb, have been
    initiated in the great English Lodge; the knowledge of the language,
    without its pronunciation, has been cultivated by them to a remarkable
    degree, so that with noting the motion of the lips they do not miss a
    single word. The ceremony of initiation was the most affecting for all
    present."

Query 1. Would deaf and dumb persons in England be eligible as members of
the order? 2. Have similar cases to the above ever occurred in this
country?

J. W. S. D. 874.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Lewis's "Memoirs of the Duke of Gloucester."_--Can you inform me who was
the editor of

    "Memoirs of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, from his birth,
    July the 24th, 1689, to October 1697: from an original Tract written by
    Jenkin Lewis. Printed for the Editor, and sold by Messrs. Payne, &c.,
    London: and Messrs. Prince & Cooke, and J. Fletcher, Oxford, 1789."

In a rare copy of this volume now before me, it is attributed by a
pencil-note to the editorship of Dr. Philip Hayes, who was organist of
Magdalen College Chapel, Oxford, from 1777 to 1797. I should be glad to
learn on what authority this could be stated. I am anxious also to know the
names of any authors who have published books respecting the life, reign,
or times of King William III.?

J. R. B.

Oxford.

    [Some of our readers will probably be able to authenticate the
    editorship of Jenkin Lewis' _Memoirs of the Duke of Gloucester_. The
    following works on the reign of William III. may be consulted among
    others: Walter Harris's _History of the Reign of William III._, fol.,
    1749; _The History of the Prince of Orange and the Ancient History of
    Nassau_, 8vo., 1688; _An Historical Account of the Memorable Actions of
    the Prince of Orange_, 12mo., 1689; _History of William III._, 3 vols.
    8vo., 1702; _Life of William III._, 18mo., 1702; another, 8vo., 1703;
    _The History of the Life and Reign of William III._, Dublin, 4 vols.
    12mo., 1747; Vernon's _Letters of the Reign of William III._, edited by
    G. P. R. James, 3 vols. 8vo., 1841; Paul Grimbolt's _Letters of William
    III. and Louis XIV._ Consult also Watt and Lowndes' _Bibliographical
    Dictionaries_, art. WILLIAM III.; and _Catalogue of the London
    Institution_, vol. i. p. 292.]

_Apocryphal Works._--Can you inform me where I can procure an English
version of the _Book of Enoch_, so often quoted by Mackay in his admirable
work _The Progress of the Human Intellect_? Also the _Epistle of Barnabas_,
and the _Spurious Gospels_?

W. S.

Cleveland Bridge, Bath.

    [_The Book of Enoch_, edited by Archbishop Laurence, and printed at
    Oxford, has passed through several editions.--_The Catholic Epistle of
    St. Barnabas_ is included among Archbishop Wake's _Genuine Epistles of
    the Apostolical Fathers_.--"The Spurious Gospels" will probably be
    found in _The Apocryphal New Testament_; being all the Gospels,
    Epistles, and other Pieces now extant, attributed in the first four
    Centuries to Jesus Christ, his Apostles, and their Companions, and not
    included in the New Testament by its compilers: London, 8vo., 1820; 2nd
    edition, 1821. Anonymous, but edited by William Hone.]

_Mirabeau, Talleyrand, and Fouché._--Can any of your correspondents tell me
which are the best Lives of three of the most remarkable men who figured in
the age of the French Revolution, viz. Mirabeau, Talleyrand, and Fouché? If
there are English translations of these works? and also if there is any
collection of the fierce philippics of Mirabeau?

KENNEDY MCNAB.

    [Mirabeau left a natural son, Lucas Montigny, who published _Memoirs of
    Mirabeau, Biographical, Literary, and Political_, by Himself, his
    Uncle, and his adopted Child, 4 vols. 8vo., Lond., 1835.--_Memoirs of
    C. M. Talleyrand_, 2 vols. 12mo., Lond., 1805. Also his _Life_, 4 vols.
    8vo., Lond., 1834.--_Memoirs of Joseph Fouché_, translated from the
    French, 2 vols. 8vo., Lond., 1825.]

_"The Turks in Europe," and "Austria as It Is."_--I possess an 8vo. volume
consisting of two anonymous publications, which appeared in London in 1828,
one entitled _The Establishment of the Turks in Europe, an Historical
Discourse_, and the other _Austria as It Is, or Sketches of Continental
Courts_, by an Eye-witness. Can you give me the names of the authors?

ABHBA.

    [_The Turks in Europe_ is by Lord John Russell: but the author of
    _Austria as It Is_, we cannot discover; he was a native of the Austrian
    Empire.]

"_Forgive, blest Shade._"--Where were the lines, commencing "Forgive, blest
shade," first {543} published? I believe it was upon a mural tablet on the
chancel wall of a small village church in Dorsetshire (Wyke Regis); but I
have seen it quoted as from a monument in some church in the Isle of Wight.

The tablet at Wyke, in Dorset, was erected anonymously, in the night-time,
upon the east end of the chancel outer wall; but whether they were
_original_, or copied from some prior monumental inscription, I do not
know, and should feel much obliged could any of your readers inform me.

S. S. M.

    [Snow, in his _Sepulchral Gleanings_, p. 44., notices these lines on
    the tomb of Robert Scott, who died in March, 1806, in Bethnal Green
    Churchyard. Prefixed to them is the following line: "The grief of a
    fond mother, and the disappointed hope of an indulgent father." Our
    correspondent should have given the date of the Wyke tablet.]

_"Off with his head," &c._--Who was the author of the often-quoted line--

 "Off with his head! so much for Buckingham!"

which is not in Shakspeare's _Richard III._?

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

    [Colley Cibber is the author of this line. It occurs in _The Tragical
    History of Richard III._, altered from Shakspeare, Act IV., near the
    end.]

"_Peter Wilkins._"--Who wrote this book? and when was it published?

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

    [This work first appeared in 1750, and in its brief title is comprised
    all that is known--all that the curiosity of an inquisitive age can
    discover--of the history of the work, and name and lineage of the
    author. It is entitled _The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a
    Cornish Man_. Taken from his own Mouth, in his Passage to England, from
    off Cape Horn in America, in the ship Hector. By R. S., a passenger in
    the Hector; Lond. 1750, 2 vols. The dedication is signed R. P. "To
    suppose the unknown author," remarks a writer in the _Retrospective
    Review_, vol. vii. p. 121., "to have been insensible to, or careless
    about, the fair fame to which a work, original in its conception, and
    almost unique in purity, did justly entitle him, is to suppose him to
    have been exempt from the influence of that universal feeling, which is
    ever deepest in the noblest bosoms; the ardent desire of being long
    remembered after death--of shining bright in the eyes of their
    cotemporaries, and, when their sun is set, of leaving behind a train of
    glory in the heavens, for posterity to contemplate with love and
    veneration."]

_The Barmecides' Feast._--Can you tell me where the story of the Barmecides
and their famed banquets is to be found?

J. D.

    [In _The Thousand and One Nights_, commonly called _The Arabian Nights'
    Entertainments_, Lane's edition, chap. v. vol. i. p. 410. Consult also
    _The Barmecides_, 1778, by John Francis de la Harpe; and Moreri,
    _Dictionnaire Historique_, art. Barmécides.]

_Captain._--I shall feel greatly obliged by your informing me the proper
and customary manner of rendering in a Latin epitaph the words "Captain of
the 29th Regiment." Ainsworth does not give any word which appears to
answer to "Captain." _Ordinum ductor_ is cumbrous and inelegant.

CLERICUS.

    [The words, "Captain of the 29th Regiment," may be thus rendered into
    Latin: "Centurio sive Capitanus vicesimæ nonæ cohortis." The word
    _capitanus_, though not Ciceronian, was in general use for a military
    captain during the Middle Ages, as appears from Du Cange's _Glossary_:
    "Item vos armati et congregati quendam de vobis in _capitaneum_
    elegistis."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

COLERIDGE'S UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS.

(Vol. ix., p. 496.)

In an article contained in the Number of "N. & Q." for May the 27th last,
and signed C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, an inconsiderate, not to say a coarse
attack has been made upon me, which might have been spared had the writer
sought a private explanation of the matters upon which he has founded his
charge.

He asks, "How has Mr. Green discharged the duties of his solemn trust? Has
he made any attempt to give publicity to the _Logic_, the 'great work' on
_Philosophy_, the work on the Old and New Testaments, to be called _The
Assertion of Religion_, or the _History of Philosophy_, all of which are in
his custody, and of which the first is, on the testimony of Coleridge
himself, a finished work?... For the four works enumerated above, Mr. Green
is responsible."

Now, though, by the terms of Coleridge's will, I do not hold myself
"responsible" in the sense which the writer attaches to the term, and
though I have acted throughout with the cognizance, and I believe with the
approbation of Coleridge's family, yet I am willing, and shall now proceed
to give such explanations as an admirer of Coleridge's writings may desire,
or think he has a right to expect.

Of the four works in question, the _Logic_--as will be seen by turning to
the passage in the Letters, vol. ii. p. 150., to which the writer refers as
"the testimony of Coleridge himself"--is described as _nearly_ ready for
the press, though as yet _unfinished_; and I apprehend it may be proved by
reference to Mr. Stutfield's notes, the gentleman to whom it is there said
they were dictated, and who possesses the original copy, that the work
never was finished. Of the three parts mentioned as the components of {544}
the work, the _Criterion_ and _Organon_ do not to my knowledge exist; and
with regard to the other parts of the manuscript, including the _Canon_, I
believe that I have exercised a sound discretion in not publishing them in
their present form and _unfinished_ state.

Of the alleged work on the Old and New Testaments, to be called _The
Assertion of Religion_, I have no knowledge. There exist, doubtless, in
Coleridge's handwriting, many notes, detached fragments and marginalia,
which contain criticisms on the Scriptures. Many of these have been
published, some have lost their interest by the recent advances in biblical
criticism, and some may hereafter appear; though, as many of them were
evidently not intended for publication, they await a final judgment with
respect to the time, form, and occasion of their appearance. But no work
with the title above stated, no work with any similar object--except the
_Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit_--is, as far as I know, in existence.

The work to which I suppose the writer alludes as the _History of
Philosophy_, is in my possession. It was presented to me by the late J.
Hookham Frere, and consists of notes, taken for him by an eminent shorthand
writer, of the course of lectures delivered by Coleridge on that subject.
Unfortunately, however, these notes are wholly unfit for publication, as
indeed may be inferred from the fact, communicated to me by Coleridge, that
the person employed confessed after the first lecture that he was unable to
follow the lecturer in consequence of becoming perplexed and delayed by the
novelty of thought and language, for which he was wholly unprepared by the
ordinary exercise of his art. If this _History of Philosophy_ is to be
published in an intelligible form, it will require to be re-written; and I
would willingly undertake the task, had I not, in connexion with
Coleridge's views, other and more pressing objects to accomplish.

I come now to the fourth work, the "great work" on _Philosophy_. Touching
this the writer quotes from one of Coleridge's letters:

    "Of this work something more than a volume has been dictated by me, so
    as to exist fit for the press."

I need not here ask whether the conclusion is correct, that because
"something more than a volume" is fit for the press, I am therefore
responsible for the whole work, of which the "something more than a volume"
is a part? But--shaping my answer with reference to the real point at
issue--I have to state, for the information of Coleridge's readers, that,
although in the materials for the volume there are introductions and
intercalations on subjects of speculative interest, such as to entitle them
to appear in print, the main portion of the work is a philosophical
_Cosmogony_, which I fear is scarcely adapted for scientific readers, or
corresponds to the requirements of modern science. At all events, I do not
hesitate to say that the completion of the whole would be requisite for the
intelligibility of the part which exists in manuscript.

I leave it then to any candid person to decide whether I should have acted
wisely in risking its committal to the press in its present shape. Whatever
may be, however, the opinion of others, I have decided, according to my own
conscientious conviction of the issue, against the experiment.

But should some farther explanation be expected of me on this interesting
topic, I will freely own that, having enjoyed the high privilege of
communion with one of the most enlightened philosophers of the age--and in
accordance with his wishes the responsibility rests with me, as far as my
ability extends, of completing his labours,--in pursuance of this trust I
have devoted more than the leisure of a life to a work in which I hope to
present the philosophic views of my "great master" in a systematic form of
unity--in a form which may best concentrate to a focus and principle of
unity the light diffused in his writings, and which may again reflect it on
all departments of human knowledge, so that truths may become intelligible
in the one light of Divine truth.

Meanwhile I can assure the friends and admirers of Coleridge that nothing
now exists in manuscript which would add materially to the elucidation of
his philosophical doctrines; and that in any farther publication of his
literary remains I shall be guided, as I have been, by the duty which I owe
to the memory and fame of my revered teacher.

JOSEPH HENRY GREEN.

Hadley.

       *       *       *       *       *

KING JAMES'S IRISH ARMY LIST, 1689.

(Vol. ix., pp. 30, 31. 401.)

I was much pleased at MR. D'ALTON'S announcement of his work; and I should
have responded to it sooner, if I could have had any idea that he did not
possess King's _State of the Protestants in Ireland_; but his inquiry about
Colonel Sheldon, in Vol. ix., p. 401., shows that he has not consulted that
work, where (p. 341.) he will find that Dominick Sheldon was
"Lieutenant-General of the Horse." But after the enumeration of the General
Staff, there follows a list of the field officers of eight regiments of
horse, seven of dragoons, and fifty of infantry. In Tyrconnel's regiment of
horse, Dominick Sheldon appears as lieutenant-colonel. This must have been,
I suppose, a Sheldon junior, son or nephew of the lieutenant-general of
horse. This reference to King's work has suggested to me an idea which I
venture to suggest to MR. D'ALTON as a preliminary to the larger work on
Irish family genealogies which he is about, and for which we shall {545}
have I fear to wait too long. I mean an immediate reprint (in a separate
shape) of the several lists of gentlemen of both parties which are given in
King's work. This might be done with very little trouble, and, I think,
without any pecuniary loss, if not with actual profit. It would be little
more than pamphlet size. The first and most important list would be of the
names and designations of all the persons included in the acts of attainder
passed in King James's Irish Parliament of May, 1689. They are, I think,
about two thousand names, with their residences and personal designations;
and it is interesting to find that a great many of the same families are
still seated in the same places. These names I think I should place
alphabetically in one list, with their designations and residences; and any
short notes that MR. D'ALTON might think necessary to correct clerical
error, or explain doubtful names: longer notes would perhaps lead too far
into family history for the limited object I propose.

In a second list, I would give the names of King James's parliament, privy
council, army, civil and judicial departments, as we find them in King,
adding to them an alphabetical index of names. The whole would then exhibit
a synopsis of the names, residences, and politics of a considerable portion
of the gentry of Ireland at that important period.

C.

       *       *       *       *       *

BARRELL'S REGIMENT.

(Vol. ix., pp. 63. 159.)

Your correspondent H. B. C. is undoubtedly correct in his statement that
"Ten times a day whip the Barrels," is a regimental parody on the song "He
that has the best Wife," sung in Charles Coffey's musical farce of _The
Devil to Pay_, published in 1731. Popular songs have been made the subject
of political or personal parodies from time immemorial; and no more
fruitful locality for parodies can be found than a barrack, where the
individual traits of character are so fully developed, and afford so full a
scope to the talents of a satirist. Indeed, I knew an officer, who has
recently retired from the service, who seized on every popular ballad, and
parodied it, in connexion with regimental affairs, to the delight of his
brother officers; and in many instances his parodies were far more witty
than the original comic songs whence they were taken.

As regards the regiment known as Barrell's, at the period assigned as the
date of the song relative to that corps, _i. e._ circa 1747, there can be
no doubt as to what corps is alluded to. Barrell's regiment, now the 4th,
or King's Own, regiment of infantry, is the only corps that was ever known
in the British army as Barrell's; for although Colonel William Barrell was
colonel of the present 28th regiment from Sept. 27, 1715, to August 25,
1730, and of the present 22nd regiment from the latter date to August 8,
1734, yet neither of these regiments appears to have seen any war-service
during the periods that they were commanded by him, or to have been known
in military history as Barrell's regiments. He was appointed to the 4th
regiment of infantry August 8, 1734, and retained the command of that
distinguished corps exactly fifteen years, for he died August 9, 1749.
While he commanded the regiment it embarked for Flanders, and served the
campaign of 1744, under Field-Marshal Wade. It remained in Flanders until
the rebellion broke out in Scotland, when it returned to England, and
marched from Newcastle-on-Tyne to Scotland in January, 1746, arriving on
the 10th of that month at Edinburgh. The regiment was engaged at the battle
of Falkirk, Jan. 17, 1746, where its conduct is thus noticed in the
_General Advertiser_: "The regiments which distinguished themselves were
Barrell's (King's Own), and Ligonier's foot." Ligonier's regiment is now
the glorious 48th regiment, of Albuera fame.

At the battle of Culloden Barrell's regiment gained the greatest reputation
imaginable; the battle was so desperate that the soldiers' bayonets were
stained with blood to the muzzles of their muskets; there was scarce an
officer or soldier of the regiment, and of that part of Munro's (now 37th
regiment) which engaged the rebels, that did not kill one or two men each
with their bayonets. (_Particulars of the Battle_, published 1746.) Now it
will be remembered that your correspondent E. H., Vol. ix., p. 159.,
represents a drummer of the regiment interceding with the colonel for the
prisoner, by stating that "he behaved well at Culloden." And this leads me
to the question, Who was the colonel against whom this caricature was
directed? It is proved ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 242.) that regiments were
known by the names of their _colonels_, whether commanded personally by the
colonel or not, until July 1, 1751, and indeed for several subsequent
years.

Now the reference to Culloden renders it probable that the colonel appealed
to was present at that battle, and perhaps an eye-witness of the personal
bravery on that occasion of the soldier who was subsequently flogged. But
although Colonel Barrell _retained_ the colonelcy of the 4th Infantry until
August, 1749, yet he was promoted to major-general in 1735, after which
time he would have commanded a _division_, not a _regiment_. In 1739 he was
farther promoted to lieut.-general, and appointed the same year Governor of
Pendennis Castle, which office would necessarily remove him from the
personal command of his regiment. He was not present at the battle of
Culloden, April 16, 1746, where his regiment was commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Robert {546} Rich, who was wounded on that occasion. As to
the epithet of "Colonel," used by the drummer, that term is always used in
conversation when addressing a lieutenant-colonel, or even a brevet
lieutenant-colonel, and its use only proves, therefore, that the officer in
command of the parade held a higher rank than major. After Culloden, the
4th regiment moved to the Highlands, and in 1747 returned to Stirling. In
1749 General Barrell died, and the colonelcy of the regiment was given to
Lieut.-Colonel Rich, whom I suspect to be the officer alluded to in the
caricature. I have searched the military records of the 4th regiment, but
can find no mention of the places at which it was stationed from 1747 to
1754, in the spring of which year it embarked from Great Britain for the
Mediterranean, just as it is now doing in the spring of 1854. I am inclined
to fix the date of the print as 1749 (not 1747), when "Old Scourge"
_returned_ to his regiment as colonel, at the decease of General Barrell.
Colonel Rich was not promoted to major-general until Jan. 17, 1758, and his
commission as colonel is dated Aug. 22, 1749, the day on which he became
colonel of the 4th regiment. He died in 1785, but retired from the service
between the years 1771 and 1776: he succeeded his father as a baronet in
1768.

G. L. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

CLAY TOBACCO-PIPES.

(Vol. ix., p. 372.)

I was much pleased at reading MR. H. T. RILEY'S Note on this neglected
subject, in which I take no small interest, and feel happy in communicating
the little amount of information I possess regarding it. I have long
thought that the habit of smoking, I do not say tobacco, but some other
herb, is of much greater antiquity than is generally supposed. Tobacco
appears to have been introduced amongst us about 1586 by Captain R.
Greenfield and Sir Francis Drake (vide Brand's _Popular Antiquities_); but
I have seen pipe-bowls of English manufacture, which had been found
_beneath_ the encaustic pavement of Buildwas Abbey in Shropshire, which
gives a much earlier date to the practice of smoking _something_. I
remember an old man, a perfect Dominie Sampson in his way, who had been in
turn gaoler, pedagogue, and postmaster, at St. Briavel's, near Tintern
Abbey, habitually smoking the leaves of coltsfoot, which he cultivated on
purpose; he told me that he could seldom afford to use tobacco. The pipes
found in such abundance in the bed of the Thames, and everywhere in and
about London, I believe to be of Dutch manufacture; they are identical with
those which Teniers and Ostade put into the mouths of their boors, and have
for the most part a small pointed heel, a well-defined milled ring around
the lip, and bear no mark or name of the maker. Such were the pipes used by
the soldiers of the Parliament, to be found wherever they encamped. I will
only instance Barton, near Abingdon, on the property of G. Bowyer, Esq.,
M.P., where I have seen scores while shooting in the fields around the
ruins of the old fortified mansion. The English pipes, on the contrary,
have a very broad and flat heel, on which they may rest in an upright
position, so that the ashes might not fall out prematurely; and on this
heel the potter's name or device is usually stamped, generally in raised
characters, though sometimes they are incised. Occasionally the mark is to
be found on the side of the bowl. A short time ago I exhibited a series of
some five-and-twenty different types at the Archæological Institution, and
my collection has been enlarged considerably since. These were principally
found in Shropshire and Staffordshire, and appear for the most part to have
been made at Broseley. They are of a very hard and compact clay, which
retains the impress of the milled ring and the stamp in all its original
freshness. I shall feel much obliged by receiving any additional
information upon this subject.

W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

Temple.

       *       *       *       *       *

MADAME DE STAËL.

(Vol. ix., p. 451.)

I cannot direct R. A. to the passage in Madame de Staël's works. The German
book for which he inquires is not by Schlegel _assisted_ by Fichte, but--

    "Friedrich Nicolai's Leben und sonderbare Meinungen. Ein Beitrag zur
    Literatur-Geschichte des vergangenen und zur Pädagogik des angehenden
    Jahrhunderts, von Johan Gottlieb Fichte. Herausgegeben von A. W.
    Schlegel: Tubingen, 1801, 8^o, pp. 130."

There certainly is no ground for the charge that Fichte attacked Nicolai
when he was too old to reply. Nicolai was born in 1733, and died in 1811;
so that he was sixty-eight when this pamphlet was published. His _Leben
Sempronius Gundiberts_ was published in 1798; and your correspondent H. C.
R. (Vol. vii., p. 20.) partook of his hospitality in Berlin in 1803.

As to the provocation, Fichte (at p. 82.) gives an account of attacks on
his personal honour; the worst of which seems to be the imputation of
seeking favourable notices in the _Literary Gazette_ of Jena. In
_Gundibert_ Fichte's writings were severely handled, but no personal
imputation was made. I do not know what was said of him in the _Neue
Deutsche Bibliothek_, but I can hardly imagine any justification for so
furious an attack {547} as this on Nicolai. I also concur with Madame de
Staël in thinking the book dull: "Non est jocus esse malignum." It begins
with an attempt at grave burlesque, but speedily degenerates into mere
scolding. Take one example:

    "Es war sehr wahr, dass aus seinen (Nicolais) Händen alles beschmutzt
    und verdreht herausging; aber es war nicht wahr, das er beschmutzen und
    verdrehen wollte. Es ward ihm nur so durch die Eigenschaft seiner
    Natur. Wer möchte ein Stinkthier beschuldigen, dass es bohafter Weise
    alles was es zu sich nehme, in Gestank,--oder die Natter, das sie es in
    Gift verwandle. Diese Thiere sind daran sehr unschuldig; sie folgen nur
    ihrer Natur. Eben so unser Held, der nun einmal zum literarischen
    Stinkthier und der Natter des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts bestimmt war,
    verbreitete stank um sich, und spritze Gift, nicht aus Bosheit, sondern
    lediglich durch seine Bestimmung getrieben."--P. 78.

The charge of defiling all he touched will be appreciated by those who have
read _Sebaldus Nothanker_ and _Sempronius Gundibert_, two of the purest as
well as of the cleverest novels of the last century.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *

CRANMER'S MARTYRDOM.

(Vol. ix., p. 392.)

The long-received account of a very striking act in the martyrdom of
Cranmer is declared to involve an "impossibility." The question is an
important one in various ways, for it involves moral and religious, as well
as literary and physiological, considerations of deep interest; but as I
think the pages of "N. & Q." not the most appropriate vehicle for
discussion on the former heads, I shall pass them over at present with a
mere expression of regret that such a subject should have been so mooted
there. With reference, then, to the literary evidence in favour of the
fact, that the noble martyr voluntarily put forth his hand into the hottest
part of the fire which was raging about him, and burnt it first, the
historians quoted are entirely agreed, differing as they do only in such
details as might seem rather to imply independent testimony than discrepant
authority. But the action is declared to be "utterly impossible, because,"
&c. Why beg the question in this way? "Because," says H. B. C., "the laws
of physiology and combustion show that he could not have gone beyond _the
attempt_;" adding, "If the hand were chained over the fire, the shock would
produce death." Leaving the _hypothetical_ reasoning in both cases to go
for what it is worth, it would surely be easy to produce facts of almost
every week from the evidence given in coroners' inquests, in which persons
have had their limbs burnt off--to say nothing of farther injury--without
the shock "producing death." The only question then which I think can
fairly arise, is, whether a person in Cranmer's position could
_voluntarily_ endure that amount of mutilation by fire which many others
have _accidentally_ suffered? This may be matter of opinion, but I have no
doubt, and I suppose no truly Christian philosopher will have any, that the
man who has faith to "give his body to be burned," and to endure heroically
such a form of martyrdom, would be quite able to do what is attributed to
Cranmer, and to Hooper too, "high medical authority" to the contrary
notwithstanding. I might, indeed, adduce what might be called "high medical
authority" for my view, _i. e._ the historical evidence of the fact, but I
think the bandying of opinions on such a subject undesirable. It would be
more to the point, especially if there really existed any ground for
"historic doubt" on the subject, or if there was any good reason for
creating one, to cite cotemporaneous evidence against that usually
received. With respect to the heart of the martyr being "entire and
unconsumed among the ashes," I must be permitted to say that, neither on
physiological nor other grounds, does even this alleged fact, taken in its
plain and obvious meaning, strike me as forming one of the "impossibilities
of history."

J. H.

Rotherfield.

Your correspondent H. B. C. doubts the possibility of the story about
Cranmer's hand, and says that "if a furnace were so constructed that a man
might hold his hand in the flame without burning his body, the shock to the
nervous system would deprive him of all command over muscular action before
the skin could be entirely consumed. If the hand were chained over the
fire, the shock would produce death." Now, this last assertion I doubt. The
following is an extract from the account of Ravaillac's execution, given
with wonderfully minute details by an eye-witness, and published in
Cimber's _Archives Curieux de l'Histoire de France_, vol. xv. p. 103.:

    "On le couche sur l'eschaffaut, on attache les chevaux aux mains et aux
    pieds. Sa main droite percée d'un cousteau fut bruslée à feu de
    souphre. Ce misérable, pour veoir comme ceste exécrable main rotissoit,
    eut le courage de hausser la teste et de la secouer pour abattre une
    étincelle de feu qui se prenoit à sa barbe."

So far was this from killing him that he was torn with red-hot pincers, had
melted lead, &c. poured into his wounds, and he was then "longuement tiré,
retiré, et promené de tous costez" by four horses:

    "S'il y eut quelque pause, ce ne fut que pour donner temps au bourreau
    de respirer, au patient de se sentir mourir, aux théologiens de
    l'exhorter à dire la vérité."

And still:

    "Sa vie estoit forte et vigoureuse; telle que retirant {548} une fois
    une des jambes, il arresta le cheval qui le tiroit."

I fear your correspondent underrates the power of the human body in
enduring torture. I have seen a similar account of the execution of
Damiens, with which I will not shock your readers. The subject is a
revolting one, but the truth ought to be known, as it is (most humanely, I
fully believe) questioned.

G. W. R.

Oxford and Cambridge Club.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Difficulties in making soluble Cotton._--In making soluble cotton
according to the formula given by Mr. Hadow in the _Photographic Journal_,
and again by MR. SHADBOLT in "N. & Q.," I have been subject to the most
provoking failures, and should feel obliged if MR. SHADBOLT or any other of
your correspondents could explain the causes of my failures, which I will
endeavour to describe.

1st. In using nitrate of potash and sulphuric acid, with a certain quantity
of water as given, I have _invariably_ found that on adding the cotton to
the mixture it became _completely dissolved_, and the mass began to
effervesce violently, throwing off dense volumes of deep red fumes, and the
whole appearing of a similar colour. I at first thought it might be the
fault of the sulphuric acid; but on trying some fresh, procured at another
place, the same effects were produced.

Again, in using the mixed acids (which I tried, not being successful with
the other method) I found, on following Mr. Hadow's plan, that the cotton
was also entirely dissolved.

How is the proper temperature at which the cotton is to be immersed to be
arrived at? Are there any thermometers constructed for the purpose? as, if
one of the ordinary ones, mounted on wood or metal, was used, the acids
would attack it, and, I should imagine, prove injurious to the liquids.

At the same time I would ask the reason why all the negative calotypes I
have taken lately, both on Turner's and Sandford's papers, iodized
according to DR. DIAMOND'S plan, are never intense, especially the skies,
by transmitted light, although by reflected light they look of a beautiful
black and white. I never used formerly to meet with such a failure; but at
that time I used always to wet the plate glass and attach the paper to it,
making it adhere by pressing with blotting-paper, and then exciting with a
buckles brush and dilute gallo-nitrate. But the inconvenience attending
that plan was, that I was compelled to take out as many double slides as I
wished to take pictures, which made me abandon it and take to DR. DIAMOND'S
plan of exciting them and placing them in a portfolio for use. I imagine
the cause of their not being so intense is the not exposing them while wet.

A bag made of yellow calico, single thickness, has been recommended for
changing the papers in the open air. I am satisfied it will not do,
especially if the sun is shining; it may do in some shady places, but I
have never yet seen any yellow calico so fine in texture as not to allow of
the rays of light passing through it, unless two or three times doubled. I
have proved to my own satisfaction that the papers will not bear exposure
in a bag of single thickness, without browning over immediately the
developing fluid is applied.

With regard to the using of thin collodion, as recommended by Mr. Hardwick
in the last Number of the _Photographic Journal_, I am satisfied it is the
only plan of producing thoroughly good positives; and I have been in the
habit of thinning down collodion in the same manner for a long time,
finding that I produced much better pictures with about half the time of
exposure necessary for a thick collodion.

H. U.

_Light in Cameras._--I cannot sufficiently express my acknowledgments to
"N. & Q." for the photographic benefits I have derived from its perusal,
more especially from the communication in No. 240. of LUX IN CAMERA. Since
I took up the art some months ago, I have had (with two or three
exceptions) nothing but a succession of failures, principally from the
browning of the negatives, and on examining my camera, as recommended by
LUX IN CAMERA, I find it lets in a blaze of light from the cause he
mentions[3], and thence doubtless my disappointments. But why inflict this
history upon you? I inclose for your acceptance the best photograph I have
yet produced from DR. DIAMOND'S "Simplicity of the Calotype." Printed from
Delamotte's directions:--

First preparation, 5 oz. of aq. dist.; ¼ oz. of muriate of ammonia.

Second process, floating on solution 60 grains of nitrate of silver, 1
ounce of distilled water.

Is there any better plan than the above?

CHARLES K. PROBERT.

P.S.--The view inclosed is the porch and transept of Newport Church, Essex,
from the Parsonage garden. Is it printed too dark? I wish I could get the
grey and white tints I saw in the Photographic Exhibition.[4] Had your
readers behaved with ordinary gratitude, your photographic portfolio ought
to have overflowed by this time.

[Footnote 3: It was an expensive one, bought of one of the principal houses
for the supply of photographic apparatus, &c.]

[Footnote 4: [Some of the best specimens of these tints were forwarded to
us by MR. PUMPHREY, accompanying the description of his process, printed in
our eighth volume, p. 349.--ED. "N. & Q."]]

_Cameras._--The note of LUX IN CAMERA has brought in more than one letter
of thanks; and a valued correspondent has written to us, suggesting "That
the attention of the Photographic Society, who have as yet done far less
than they might have done to advance the Art, should be _at once_ turned,
and that seriously and earnestly, to the production of a light, portable,
and effective camera for field purposes; one which, at the same time that
it has the advantages of lightness and portability, should be capable of
resisting our variable climate." Our correspondent throws out a hint which
possibly may be adopted with advantage, {549} that papier maché has many of
the requisites desired, being very firm, light, and impervious to wet.

_Progress of Photography._--As a farther contribution to the History of
Photography, we have been favoured with the following copy of a letter from
a well-known amateur, which details in a graphic manner his early
photographic experiences.

"As there is a sort of reflux of the tide to Mr. Fox Talbot's plan, and
different people have succeeded best in different ways, it may amuse you to
hear how I _used_ to work, with better luck than I have had since.

"Mr. Talbot's sensitive wash was very strong, so he floated his paper upon
distilled water immediately after its application.

"Mr. G. S. Cundell, of Finsbury Circus, diluted the sensitive wash with
water, instead of floating the paper. Amateurs date their success from the
time Mr. Cundell published this simple modification of the original
process.

"Mr. William Hunt, of Yarmouth, was my first friend and instructor in the
art; and _if_ there be any merit in the pictures I did before I knew you,
the credit is due to _him entirely_.

"The first paper we tried was Whatman's ivory post, very thick and hard,
and yet it gave good negatives. We afterwards got a thinner paper, but
always stuck to Whatman. Neither were we troubled with that _porosity_ in
the skies of which you complain in the more recently-made papers of that
manufacturer.

"We first washed the paper with a solution of nitrate of silver, fifteen
grains to the ounce, going over the surface in all directions with a
camel-hair brush. As soon as the fluid ceased to run, the paper was
_rapidly dried before the fire_, and then immersed in a solution of iodide
of potassium, 500 grains to the pint of water. We used to draw it through
the solution frequently by the corners, and then let it lie till the yellow
tint was visible at the back. It was then immediately taken to the pump and
pumped upon vigorously for two or three minutes, holding it at such an
angle that the water flushed softly over the surface. We then gave it a few
minutes in a rain-water bath, inclining the dish at different angles to
give motion to the water. By this time the iodide of silver looked like
pure solid brimstone in the wet paper. Then we knew that it was good, and
hung it up to dry.

"To make this paper sensitive, we took 5 drops of gallic acid (saturated
solution), 5 drops of glacial acetic acid, 10 drops of a 50-grain solution
of nitrate of silver, and 100 drops of water. The sensitive wash was poured
upon a glass plate, and the paper placed thereon. We used to lift the paper
frequently by one or other corner till it was perfectly limp. We then
blotted off and placed in the camera, where it would keep a good many
hours.

"Whether such pictures would have come out spontaneously under the
developing solution, I know not, for we had not patience enough to try. We
forced them out in double quick time with red-hot pokers; and great was the
alarm of my wife to see me rush madly about the house armed with these
weapons. Yet the plan had its advantages; by presenting the point of the
poker at a refractory spot, its reluctance to appear was speedily overcome,
and we persuaded out the shadows.

* * *

"P.S.--I now have the first picture I ever did, little, if at all, altered.
It was done in July, 1845, with a common meniscus lens. I have just got a
_capital negative_ by DR. DIAMOND'S plan, but which is spoiled by the
metallic abominations in Turner's paper."

_A Collodion Difficulty._--With reference to MR. J. COOK'S collodion, I
would suggest that his ether was indeed "still very strong" of _acid_; by
which the iodine was set free, and gave him "nearly a port-wine colour."
This is a common occurrence when the ether or the collodion is acid. The
remedy is at hand, however. Powder a few grains of _cyanide of potassium_,
and introduce about a grain at a time, according to the quantity: shake up
till dissolved, and so on, until you get the clear golden tint. Thus will
"the mystery be cleared up." I need not say that the essential properties
of the solution will not be impaired.

ANDREW STEINMETZ.

P.S.--In a day or two I shall send you a _recipe_ for easily turning to
immediate use the "used-up dipping baths" of _nitrate_, without the
troublesome process recommended to one of your correspondents.

_Ferricyanide of Potassium._--I have used with success the ferricyanide of
potassium (the _red_ prussiate of potash, as it is called) for removing the
stains contracted in photographing. This it does very readily when the
stains are recent, and it has no injurious effect upon cuts and sore places
should any exist on the hands. An old stain may with a little pumice be
very readily removed. I have mentioned this to several friends, and, if not
a novelty, it is certainly not generally known.

S. PELHAM DALE.

Sion College.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Postage System of the Romans_ (Vol. ix., p. 350.).--Your correspondent
ARDELIO probably alludes to the system of posts for the conveyance of
persons, established by the Romans on their great lines of road. An account
of this may be seen in the work of Bergier, _Histoire des Grands Chemins de
l'Empire Romain_, lib. iv.; and compare Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, chap.
xvii. Communications were made from Rome to the governors of provinces, and
information was received from them, by means of these posts: see Suet.
_Oct._ c. xlix. But the Romans had no public institution for the conveyance
of private letters. A letter post is a comparatively modern institution; in
England it only dates from the reign of James I. An account of the ancient
Persian posts is given by Xenoph. _Cyrop._ VIII. vi. § 17, 18.; Herod.
viii. 98.: compare Schleusner, _Lex. N. T._ in [Greek: angareuô].

L.

As a proof that there is at least one eminent exception to the assertion of
ARDELIO, that "_we_ know that the Romans must have had a postal system," I
send the following extract from Dr. William {550} Smith's _Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Antiquities_, sub voc. Tabellarius:

    "As the Romans had no public post, they were obliged to employ special
    messengers, who were called Tabellarii, to convey their letters, when
    they had not an opportunity of sending them otherwise."

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

_Epigram on the Feuds between Handel and Bononcini_ (Vol. ix., p.
445.).--This epigram, which has frequently been printed as Swift's, was
written by Dr. Byrom of Manchester. In his very interesting _Diary_, which
is shortly about to appear under the able editorship of my friend Dr.
Parkinson in the series of Chetham publications, Byrom mentions it.

    "Nourse asked me if I had seen the verses upon Handel and Bononcini,
    not knowing that they were mine; but Sculler said I was charged with
    them, and so I said they were mine; they both said they had been
    mightily liked."--Byrom's _Remains_ (Cheetham Series), vol. i. part i.
    p. 173.

The verses are thus more correctly given in Byrom's _Works_, vol. i. p.
342., edit. 1773:

 "_Epigram on the Feuds between Handel and Bononcini._

  Some say, compar'd to Bononcini,
  That Mynheer Handel's but a ninny;
  Others aver that he to Handel
  Is scarcely fit to hold a candle:
  Strange all this difference should be,
 'Twixt Tweedledum and Tweedledee!"

JAS. CROSSLEY.

_Power of prophesying before Death_ (Vol. ii., p. 116.).--In St. Gregory's
_Dialogues_, b. IV. ch. xxv., the disciple asks,--

    "Velim scire quonam modo agitur quod plerumque morientes multa
    prædicunt."

The answer begins (ch. xxvi.),--

    "Ipsa aliquando animarum vis subtilitate sua aliquid prævidet.
    Aliquando autem exituræ de corpore animæ per revelationem ventura
    cognoscunt. Aliquando vero dum jam juxta sit ut corpus deserant,
    divinitus afflatæ in secreta coelestia incorporeum mentis oculum
    mittunt."

J. C. R.

_King John_ (Vol. ix., p. 453.).--I cannot reply to the Queries of
PRESTONIENSIS, but I have a note of a grant made by John (as _Com.
Moritoniæ_) of the tithes of the parishes between Rible and Merse, which
appears to have received the Bishop of Coventry's confirmation, _ap.
Cestriam, an. 2 Pont. Papæ Coelestini_. John's grant was to the Priory of
Lancaster. My reference is to Madox, _Formulare Anglicanum_, Lond. 1702, p.
52, MXCVI. The deed is witnessed by Adam de Blakeburn and Robert de
Preston, as well as by Phil. Sanson (De Worcester?) and others.

ANON.

_Demoniacal Descent of the Plantagenets_ (Vol. ix., p. 494.).--H. B. C.
will find another passage, illustrative of this presumption, in Henry
Knyghton's _Chronica_:

    "De isto quoque Henrico, quondam infantulo et in curia regis Francorum
    nutrito, beatus Bernardus Abbas de eo sic prophetavit, præsente rege,
    _De Diabolo venit, et ad Diabolum ibit_: Notans per hoc tam tyrannidem
    patris sui Galfridi, qui Sagiensem episcopum eunuchaverat, quam etiam
    istius Henrici futuram atrocitatem qua in beatum Thomam
    desæviret."--Twysden, _Hist. Angl. Scriptores_, pp. 2393. 32., and
    2399. 10.

C. H.

_Burial Service Tradition_ (Vol. ix., p. 451.).--The only cases in which a
clergyman is legally justified in refusing to read the entire service over
the body of a parishioner or other person admitted to burial in the
parochial cemetery, are the three which are mentioned in the preliminary
rubric, which, as expounded by the highest authorities, are as follows: 1.
In case the person died without admission to the universal church by
Christian baptism. 2. Or "denounced 'excommunicate majori excommunicatione'
for some grievous and notorious crime, and no man able to testify of his
repentance." (Canon 68.) 3. Or _felo de se_; for in a case of suicide the
acquittal of the deceased by a coroner's jury entitles him to Christian
burial. The extraordinary notion of the clergyman, mentioned by the REV. S.
ADAMS, is certainly erroneous in law. I can only suppose it originated from
some case in which the severance of the deceased's right hand was regarded
by the jury as a proof that he did not kill himself. Except in certain
special cases, none but parishioners are entitled to burial in a parochial
burying-place at all.

ADVOCATUS.

_Paintings of our Saviour_ (Vol. ix., p. 270.).--Your correspondent J. P.
may hear of something to his advantage by visiting the church of Santa
Prassede (Saint Praxedes?), not far from Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. In
the former he will see, as usual, a list of wonderful relics preserved
therein, and amongst them "A Portrait of the Saviour, presented by St.
Peter to Santa Prassede." A valuable gift, truly, if only authentic. The
name of the artist is not given, I believe, in the above veracious
document. They had better have made the catalogue complete by putting in
the name of St. Luke himself, whose pencil, I rather think, is stated to
have furnished other such portraits elsewhere. "Credat Judæus!"

The Santa Prassede above alluded to is stated to have been a daughter of
Pudens, mentioned in the Epistles of St. Paul.

M. H. R.

_Widdrington Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 375.).--The church of Nunnington, near
Helmsly, in the North {551} Riding of Yorkshire, contains two handsome
marble monuments of Lords Preston and Widdrington. The old hall at
Nunnington, now occupied by a farmer, was once the seat of Viscount
Preston, and afterwards of Lord Widdrington. William, Lord Widdrington, who
is said to be descended from the brave Witherington, celebrated in Chevy
Chace for having fought upon his stumps, was of the very noble and ancient
family of the Widdringtons of Widdrington Castle, in the county of
Northumberland; and great-grandson of the brave Lord Widdrington who was
slain gallantly fighting in the service of the crown at Wigan, in
Lancashire, in 1651. William, his grandson, was unfortunately engaged in
the affair of Preston in 1715, when his estate became forfeited to the
crown, and he afterwards confined himself to private life. He married a
daughter of the Lord Viscount Preston above mentioned, one of the
co-heiresses of the estate at Nunnington, and was in consequence buried in
the family vault in 1743, aged sixty-five. For other particulars of the
family of Widdrington, see Camden's _Britannia_.

THOMAS GILL.

Easingwold.

_Mathew, a Cornish Family_ (Vol. ix., pp. 22. 289.).--I fear I cannot give
the REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE much information on the point he desires of the
descent of the Devon and Cornwall branches of the Mathew family, which I
yet entertain the hope some of your readers having access to the Cambrian
genealogical lore at Dinevawr, Penline, Margam, Fonmon, and other places,
may be able to graft correctly on their Welsh tree.

I was unable to corroborate in the British Museum the marriages given in
the Heralds' Visitation of Devon, with Starkey and Gamage. Did a son of
Reynell of Malston by an heir of Mathew take that name?

MR. ELLACOMBE will find by the Heralds' Visitation that _both_ of the West
of England branches settled before 1650 in Cornwall, the one at Tresingher,
the other at Milton; but that of the former, William married Elizabeth
Wellington, and John married Rebecca Soame, both reverting to settle in
Devonshire, from whom, perhaps, his ancestress derives.

B.

Birkenhead.

"[Greek: Pistis]," _unde deriv._ (Vol. ix., p. 324.).--The perfect
impossibility of deriving this word from [Greek: Histêmi] is at once
evident, on the following grounds: 1. To obtain the letter [pi], recourse
is had to the compound form [Greek: ephistamai]; but where have we a
similar instance, in any derived word, of the [epsilon] in [Greek: epi]
being thus absorbed, and the [pi] taken to commence a fresh word? 2.
Allowing such an extraordinary process, what possible meaning of [Greek:
ephistamai] can be adduced in the slightest degree corresponding to the
established interpretation of [Greek: pistis]?

Throwing aside the termination [Greek: -is], we obtain the letters [Greek:
pist-], which a very slight knowledge of etymology enables us to trace back
to [Greek: peithô]; for the stem of this verb is [Greek: PITH] (cf. Aor. 2.
[Greek: epithon]), and the formation of the adjective [Greek: pistos] from
[Greek: pe-peist-ai] is clearly analogous to that of the word in question,
the long syllable and diphthong [Greek: ei] being altered into the short
and single letter [Greek: i], to which many similar instances may be
adduced.

[Phi].

There is no doubt as to the derivation of [Greek: pistis] from [Greek:
peithô]. Compare [Greek: knêstis] from [Greek: knaô] or [Greek: knêthô],
[Greek: pristis] or [Greek: prêstis] from [Greek: prêthô], [Greek: pustis]
from [Greek: punthanomai]. Verbs of this form introduce the [Greek: s] into
the future and other inflected tenses, as [Greek: peisô], [Greek:
peusomai].

L.

_Author of "The Whole Duty of Man"_ (Vol. vi., p. 537.).--It is asserted in
the _English Baronetage_ (vol. i. p. 398., 1741), on the authority of Sir
Herbert Perrot Pakington, Bart., in support of the claim of Lady Pakington
to the authorship, "the _manuscript, under her own hand_, now remains with
the family." Can this MS. now be found?

B. H. C.

_Table-turning_ (Vol. ix., pp. 88. 135., &c.).--In turning over Sozomen's
_Ecclesiastical History_, I observed at b. VI. ch. 34. an account of the
transaction already printed in your pages from Ammianus Marcellinus. It is
in brief as follows:--Certain philosophers who were opposed to Christianity
were anxious to learn who should succeed Valens in the empire. After trying
all other kinds of divination, they constructed a tripod (or table with
three legs: see Servius on Virgil, _Æn._ III. 360.) of laurel wood, and by
means of certain incantations and formulæ, succeeded (by combining the
letters which were indicated, one by one, by a contrivance of some kind
connected with the table) in obtaining Th. E. O. D. Now, being anxious and
hopeful for one Theodorus to succeed to the throne, they concluded that he
was meant. Valens, hearing of it, put him and them to death, and many
others whose names began with these letters.

On referring to Socrates, I find that he also names the circumstances just
alluded to. Although he does not give all the particulars, he adds one
important statement, which serves to identify the thing more closely with
modern table-moving and spirit-rapping. "The devil," he says, "induced
certain curious persons to practise _divination, by calling up the spirits
of the dead_ ([Greek: nekuomanteian poiêsasthai]), in order to find out who
should reign after Valens." They succeeded in obtaining the letters Th. E.
O. D.

I observe a reference to Nicephorus, b. XI. 45., but have not his works at
hand to consult. {552}

The use of _laurel_, in the construction of the table, seems to connect the
occurrences with the worship of Apollo. Those who would investigate the
subject fully must consult such passages in the classics as this from Lucan
[Lucretius?], lib. i. 739-40.:

 "Sanctius et multo certa ratione magis, quam
  Pythia, quæ _tripode_ ex Phoebi _lauro_que profatur."

I have a reference to Le Nourry, p. 1345., who, I see, has some remarks
upon the passage already given from Tertullian; he, however, throws little
light upon the subject.

HENRY H. BREEN (Vol. viii., p. 330.) says, "It is not unreasonable to
suppose that table-turning ... was practised in former ages:" to this I
think we may now subscribe.

B. H. C.

Poplar.

_Pedigree to the Time of Alfred_ (Vol. viii., p. 586.; Vol. ix., p.
233.).--The person S. D. met at the "King's Head," Egham, was doubtless Mr.
John Wapshott of Chertsey, Surrey (late of Almoner's Barn Farm in that
neighbourhood), an intelligent, respectable yeoman, who would feel much
pleasure in giving S. D. any information he may require.

B. S. ELCOCK.

Bath.

_Quotation wanted_ (Vol. ix., p. 421.).--"Extinctus amabitur idem," is from
_Horace_, Epist. II. i. 14. (See Vol. vii., p. 81.)

P. J. F. GANTILLON.

"_Hic locus odit, amat._"--In Vol. v. of "N. & Q.," at p. 8., "PROCURATOR"
gives the two quaintly linked lines--

 "Hic locus odit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat
  Nequitiam, leges, crimina, jura probos."

as "carved in a beam over the Town Hall of Much Wenlock, in Shropshire."
They are to be found also in the ancient hall of judicature of the "Palazzo
del Podesta," at Pistoja, in Tuscany. The ancient stone seats, with their
stone table in front of them, where the magistrates of the republic
administered justice in the days of the city's independence, are still
remaining, and these lines are cut in the stone just over the benches. This
simple and primitive tribunal was built as it now stands in 1307, and there
can be no doubt that the verses in question existed there before they found
their way to Much Wenlock. But as it is hardly likely that they travelled
direct from Tuscany into Shropshire, the probability is that they may be
found in some other, or perhaps in many other places. I have not been able
to light on any clue to the authorship or history of the lines. Perhaps
some of your correspondents, who have the means of wider researches than
this city commands, might be more fortunate.

T. A. T.

Florence, March, 1854.

_Writings of the Martyr Bradford_ (Vol. ix., p. 450.).--In reply to MR.
TOWNSEND'S inquiry respecting early editions of Bradford's writings, I can
add to the information furnished by the Editor that the copy of his _Hurt
of Hearyng Masse_, sold at Mr. Jolley's sale, was purchased subsequently of
Mr. Thorpe, and deposited in the Chetham Library. This edition is not
noticed by Watt.

In Stevens's _Memoirs of the Life and Martyrdom of John Bradford, with his
Examinations, Letters, &c._, there is no mention of the letter _ad calcem_
of--

    "An Account of a Disputation at Oxford, Anno Domini 1554. With a
    Treatise of the Blessed Sacrament; both written by Bishop Ridley,
    Martyr. To which is added a Letter written by Mr. John Bradford, never
    before printed. All taken out of an original manuscript [and published
    by Gilbert Ironside], Oxford, 1688, 4to."

BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

_Latin Inscription on Lindsey Court-house_ (Vol. ix., p. 492.).--Your
correspondent L. L. L. gives this inscription as follows:

           "Fiat Justitia,
                1619.
              Hæc domus
  Dit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,
  Equitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos."

This couplet, in its correct form, evidently stood thus:

 "Hæc custodit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,
    Æquitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos."

That is to say,

    "Custodit æquitiam, amat pacem, punit crimina, conservat jura, honorat
    bonos."

The substantive of _æquus_ is _æquitas_, not _æquitia_. If these verses
were composed in good Latinity, the first word of the pentameter probably
was _justitiam_.

L.

_Blanco White's Sonnet_ (Vol. vii., pp. 404. 486.; Vol. ix., p.
469.).--This sonnet is so beautiful, that I hope it will suffer no
disparagement in the eyes of any of your admiring readers, if I remind them
of a passage in Sir Thomas Browne's _Quincunx_, which I conceive may have
inspired the brilliant genius of Blanco White on this occasion. I regret
that I have not the precise reference to the passage:

    "_Light_" (says Browne) "_that makes things seen, makes some things
    invisible_. Were it not for darkness, and the shadow of the earth, _the
    noblest part of creation had remained unseen_, and _the stars in heaven
    as invisible_ as on the fourth day, when they were created above the
    horizon _with the sun_, or there was not an eye to behold them. The
    greatest mystery of religion is expressed by adumbration; and, in the
    noblest part of the Jewish types, we find the cherubim shadowing the
    {553} mercy-seat. _Life itself is but the shadow of death_, and souls
    departed but the shadows of the living: all things fall under this
    name. _The sun itself is but the dark simulacrum_, and _light but the
    shadow of God_!"

J. SANSOM.

Oxford.

_"Wise men labour," &c._ (Vol. ix., p. 468.).--The following version of
these lines is printed in the _Collection of Loyal Songs, written against
the Rump Parliament between the Years 1639-1661_:

 "_Complaint._

 "Wise men suffer, good men grieve,
  Knaves devise and fools believe;
  Help, O Lord! send aid unto us,
  Else knaves and fools will quite undo us."

These four lines constitute the whole of the piece, which is anonymous:
vol. i. p. 27., and also on the title-page.

B. H. C.

    [We are indebted to S-C. P. J. for a similar reply.]

_Copernicus_ (Vol. ix., p. 447.).--This inscription, as given in "N. & Q.,"
contains two false quantities, _Gr[=a]tiam_ and _V[=e]niam_. May I suggest
the transposal of the two words, and then all will be right, at least as to
_prosody_, which, in Latin poetry, seems to override all other
considerations.

C. DE LA PRYME.

N.B.--What is the nominative to poor _dederat_?

_Meals, Meols_ (Vol. vii., pp. 208. 298.; Vol. ix., p. 409.).--The word
"mielles" is of frequent occurrence in Normandy and the Channel Islands,
where it is applied to sandy downs bordering the sea-shore. It is not to be
found in French dictionaries, and, like the words _hougue_, _falaise_, and
others in use in Normandy, has probably come down from the Northmen, who
gave their name to that province.

EDGAR MACCULLOCH.

Guernsey.

_Byron and Rochefoucauld_ (Vol. ix., p. 347.).--Allow me to refer your
correspondent SIGMA to "N. & Q.," Vol. i., p. 260., where, under the
signature of MELANION, I noted Byron's two unacknowledged obligations to
_La Rochefoucauld_, and the blunder made in the note on _Don Juan_, canto
iii. st. 4. SIGMA will also find these and other passages from Byron given
among the notes in the translation of _La Rochefoucauld_, published in 1850
(June) by Messrs. Longman and Co.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

_Robert Eden_ (Vol. ix., p. 374.).--Robert Eden, Archdeacon and Prebendary
of Winchester, was the son of Robert Eden, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The
Edens of Auckland and the Edens of Newcastle were descended from two
brothers. The Archdeacon was fourth cousin of the first baronet. His
daughter, Mary, married Ebenezer Blackwell, Esq., and their daughter,
Philadelphia, married Lieut.-Col. G. R. P. Jarvis, of Doddington, in
Lincolnshire. I am descended from a first cousin of the Archdeacon, and
could furnish R. E. C., if I knew his address, with farther particulars
respecting the Edens of Newcastle.

E. H. A.

_Dates of Maps_ (Vol. ix., p. 396.).--I think the answer to MR. WARDEN'S
very just complaint respecting maps not being _dated_ is easily accounted
for, much more easily, I fear, than reformed. The last published map is
considered the most exact and useful; it, therefore, is the interest of the
map-seller to sell off all of the old ones that he can; hence it is
difficult, unless some pains are taken, to ascertain which is the last. A.
publishes a new map of France, B. then publishes one; but _both_ avoid
putting the date, as the oldest date would sell fewer, and the newer map
proprietor expects a still newer one soon to appear. By A. I do not mean to
allude to Mr. Arrowsmith in particular, who is one of the best, if not the
best, map-seller we have. But why are large military map-sellers so much
dearer with us than on the Continent? I must except the Ordnance map, which
is now sold cheaply, thanks entirely to Mr. Hume's exertions in parliament.

A. (1)

_Miss Elstob_ (Vol. iii., p. 497.).--This surname is so uncommon that I
have met with but three instances of persons bearing it; one was the lady
referred to by your correspondent, the second was her brother, the Rev.
William Elstob, and the third was Dryden Elstob, who served for some time
in the 3rd Light Dragoons, and also, I believe, in the Royal Navy,--at
least I know that he used to wear a naval uniform in the streets of London.
I believe that the family was settled at one time at Newcastle-on-Tyne.[5]
What is known of the family?

JUVERNA.

[Footnote 5: [Both William Elstob and his learned sister were born at
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of which place their father, Ralph Elstob, was a
merchant.]]

_Corporation Enactments_ (Vol. ix., p. 300.).--Your correspondent ABHBA
having omitted to mention where he found the curious piece of information
which under this title he supplied to you, I beg leave to supply the
deficiency. The same paragraph, nearly _verbatim_, has been long since
published in a book which is by no means rare, the _Dublin Penny Journal_,
vol. i. p. 226. (No. 29, January 12, 1833), where it appears thus:

    "In the town books of the corporation of Youghal, among many other
    singular enactments of that body, are two which will now be regarded as
    curiosities. In the years 1680 and 1700, a cook and a barber were made
    freemen, on condition that they should severally {554} dress the
    mayor's feasts, and shave the corporation--gratis!"

Is not this the very paragraph which has been supplied to you as an
original? The attempt to disguise it by the alteration of two or three
words is below criticism. Surely, if passages from common or easily
accessible books are to occupy valuable space in the pages of "N. & Q.," it
is not too much to expect that reference be honestly given to the work
which may be cited.

ARTERUS.

Dublin.

_Misapplication of Terms_ (Vol. ix., p. 361.).--Your correspondent is quite
entitled to the references he demands, and which I had considered
superfluous. I beg to refer him to the school dictionaries in use by my
boys, viz. Mr. Young's and Dr. Carey's edition of _Ainsworth_, abridged by
Dr. Morell; also to the following, all I possess, viz. Dr. Adam
Littleton's, 4to. 4th ed., 1703; Robertson's ed. of _Gouldman_, 4to., 1674;
and Gesner's _Thesaurus_, 4 vols. fol. I may add that the observations of
Horne Tooke are quite to my mind, especially when applied to the "legendary
stories of nurses and old women." (Todd's _Johnson_.)

Working in the same direction as your correspondent who has caused this
invasion of your space, I cannot resist the opportunity of protesting
against the use of "opened up" and "opened out," as applied to the
developments of national enterprise and industry. These expressions, common
to many, and frequently to be read in the "leading journal," stand a fair
chance of becoming established vulgarisms. It is, however, something worse
than slipshod when a paper of equal pretension, and more particularly
addressed to the families of the educated classes, informs its readers
"that some of the admirers of the late Justice Talfourd contemplate the
erection of a _cenotaph over his grave_ in the cemetery at Norwood."
(_Illustrated News_, March 25, 1854.)

SQUEERS.

Dotheboys.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

On the publication of the first volume of Mr. Peter Cunningham's edition of
_The Works of Oliver Goldsmith_, we did not hesitate to pronounce it "the
best, handsomest, and cheapest edition of Goldsmith which has ever issued
from the press." The work is now completed by the publication of the fourth
volume, which contains Goldsmith's Biographies; Reviews; Animated Nature;
Cock Lane Ghost; Vida's Game of Chess (now first printed as it has been
found transcribed in Goldsmith's handwriting from the original MS. in the
possession of Mr. Bolton Corney), and his Letters. And after a careful
revision of the book, we do not hesitate to repeat our original opinion. It
is a book which every lover of Goldsmith will delight to place upon his
shelves.

We have to congratulate Mr. Darling, and also all who are interested in any
way in theological literature, on the completion of that portion of his
_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_ which gives us, under the names of the authors,
an account, not only of the best works extant in various branches of
literature, but more particularly on those important divisions, biblical
criticism, commentaries, sermons, dissertations, and other illustrations of
the Holy Scriptures; the constitution, government, and liturgies of the
Christian Church; ecclesiastical history and biography; the works of the
Fathers, and all the most eminent Divines. We sincerely trust that a work
so obviously useful, and which has been so carefully compiled, will meet
with such encouragement as will justify Mr. Darling in very speedily going
to press with the second and not less important division--that in which, by
an alphabetical arrangement of subjects, a ready reference may be made to
books, treatises, sermons, and dissertations on nearly all heads of
divinity, theological controversy, or ecclesiastical inquiry. The utility
of such an Index is too obvious to require one word of argument in its
favour.

The subject of the non-purchase of the Faussett Collection by the Trustees
of the British Museum was brought before Parliament by Mr. Ewart on
Thursday, 1st June, when copies were ordered to be laid before the House of
Commons "of all reports, memorials, or other communications to or from the
Trustees of the British Museum on the subject of the Faussett Collection of
Anglo-Saxon Antiquities."

BOOKS RECEIVED.--Miss Strickland's _Lives of the Queens of England_, Vol.
VI. This volume is entirely occupied with the biography of Mary Beatrice of
Modena, the Queen of James II., in which Miss Strickland has availed
herself of a large mass of inedited materials.--_Selections from the
Writings of the Rev. Sydney Smith_, forming Nos. 61. and 62. of Longman's
_Traveller's Library_, and containing his admirable Essays on Education,
the Ballot, American Debts, Wit and Humour, the Conduct of the
Understanding, and Taste.--_Critical and Historical Essays, &c._, by the
Right Honourable T. B. Macaulay, _People's_ Edition, Part III., includes
his Essays on Lord Mahon's War of Succession, Walpole's Letters, Lord
Chatham, Mackintosh's History of the Revolution, and Lord
Bacon.--_Annotated Edition of the English Poets_, edited by Robert Bell.
This month's issue consists of the second volume of the _Poetical Works of
William Cowper_.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

THE TRIALS OF ROBERT POWELL, EDWARD BURCH, AND MATTHEW MARTIN, FOR FORGERY,
AT THE OLD BAILEY. London. 8vo. 1771.

  Wanted by _J. N. Chadwick, Esq._, King's Lynn.

{555}

AYRE'S LIFE OF POPE. 2 Vols. 1741.

POPE AND SWIFT'S MISCELLANIES. 1727. 2 Vols. (Motte), with two Vols.
subsequently published, together 4 Vols.

FAMILIAR LETTERS TO H. CROMWELL BY MR. POPE. Curl, 1727.

POPE'S LITERARY CORRESPONDENCE. Curl, 1735-6. 6 Vols.

POPE'S WORKS. 4to. 1717.

POPE'S CORRESPONDENCE WITH WYCHERLEY. Gilliver, 1729.

NARRATIVE OF DR. ROBERT NORRIS CONCERNING FRENZY OF J. D. Lintot, 1713.

THE NEW REHEARSAL, OR BAYES THE YOUNGER. Roberts, 1714.

COMPLETE ART OF ENGLISH POETRY. 2 Vols.

GAY'S MISCELLANEOUS WORKS. 4 Vols. 12mo. 1773.

RICHARDSONIANA, OR REFLECTIONS ON MORAL NATURE OF MAN. 1776.

A COLLECTION OF VERSES, ESSAYS, &C., occasioned by Pope and Swift's
Miscellanies. 1728.

  Wanted by _Mr. Francis_, 14. Wellington Street North, Strand.

A TRUE ACCOUNT OF THE VOYAGE OF THE NOTTINGHAM-GALLEY OF LONDON, &C., by
Captain John Dean. 8vo. London, 1711.

A Falsification of the above, by Longman, Miller, and White. London, 1711.
8vo.

A LETTER FROM MOSCOW TO THE MARQUIS OF CARMARTHEN, relating to the Czar of
Muscovy's Forwardness in his great Navy since his return home, by J. Deane.
London, 1699. Fol.

HOURS OF IDLENESS, LORD BYRON. 8vo. Newark, 1807.

BACON'S ESSAYS IN LATIN.

  Wanted by _S. F. Creswell_, King's College, London.

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND MAGAZINE. Vol. XXI. 1846. In good order, and in the
cloth case.

  Wanted by the _Rev. B. H. Blacker_, 11. Pembroke Road, Dublin.

FATHER BRIDOUL'S SCHOOL OF THE EUCHARIST. Trans. by Claget. London, 1687.

FREITAGHII MYTHOLOGIA ETHICA, with 138 Plates. Antv. 1579. 4to.

  Wanted by _J. G._, care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, Grafton
  Street, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

Y. S. M. _The letter to this Correspondent has been forwarded._

W. S. _Can our correspondent find a more correct report of the lines quoted
at the meeting of the Peace Society? Those sent to us are certainly
inaccurate._

R. B. ALLEN. _The monument in the chancel of the church of Stansted
Montfichet, in Essex, is to Sir_ Thomas _(not Hugh) Middleton. See
Wright's_ Essex, vol. ii. p. 160.

_Other Correspondents shall be answered next week._

ERRATA. Vol. ix., p. 193., _throughout the "Curious Marriage Agreement,"
for Jacob_ Sprier _read Jacob_ Spicer. _He was an inhabitant of Cape May
County, New Jersey._--Page 468. col i. line 26., _for_ 1789 _read_
1759.--Page 477., _in art. "Old Rowley," for "father of the_ Jury," _read
"father of the_ Turf."--Page 469., _in quotation from Ausonius, for_
"erplevi" _read_ "explevi."

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d.,
cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up,
price 4l. 4s.--For these early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Gratis and Post Free on application.

FOREIGN THEOLOGY AND ORIENTAL BOOKS.--MR. BROWN'S Catalogue, No. 24.,
contains Bibles in most languages, Books in all Branches of Biblical
Criticism and Ecclesiastical History, Liturgies, Councils, a good
collection of the Fathers, Works relating to the Greek Church, a large
number of books relative to the Jesuits, Metaphysical Works, a capital
selection of Hebrew and Oriental Philology, &c. &c.

London: WILLIAM BROWN, 130. 131. and 132. Old Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


OLIVER CROMWELL AND KING CHARLES.--A FAC-SIMILE of an exceedingly curious
and interesting NEWSPAPER, published during the Commonwealth, announcing
the DEATH of OLIVER CROMWELL. Also, a Fac-Simile of KING CHARLES'S
NEWSPAPER, containing curious Gossip about many Eminent Persons and
Extraordinary Occurrences. Sent (Post Free) on receipt of 12 Postage
Stamps.

Address, J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and
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MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
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(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
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BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
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Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
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       *       *       *       *       *


WHITEFIELD'S PULPIT.

The Executrix of a deceased Clergyman, amongst other interesting local
Relics collected by her late husband, is possessed of the PULPIT in which
Whitefield is supposed to have preached his First Sermon; and, at the time
of the restoration of St. Mary-de-Cryps, Gloucester, passed into the
present owner's possession.

The Pulpit is Oak, with carved panels, in shape hectagonal, and has a
sounding-board. Application for farther particulars to be addressed to

MESSRS. DAVIES & SON, Booksellers, Gloucester.

       *       *       *       *       *


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{556}

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PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.

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Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

    BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and
    Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s., per
Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.

OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian
Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the
Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above,
where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The
Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *


Patronised by the Royal Family.

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the
following:

THE HAIR RESTORED AND GREYNESS PREVENTED.

BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strengthening when weak and fine,
effectually preventing falling or turning grey, and for restoring its
natural colour without the use of dye. The rich glossy appearance it
imparts is the admiration of every person. Thousands have experienced its
astonishing efficacy. Bottles, 2s. 6d.; double size, 4s. 6d.; 7s. 6d. equal
to 4 small; 11s. to 6 small; 21s. to 13 small. The most perfect beautifier
ever invented.

SUPERFLUOUS HAIR REMOVED.

BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its
effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by royalty and hundreds of the
first families. Bottles, 5s.

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effectual remover of Corns and Bunions. It
also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space
allowed, the testimony of upwards of twelve thousand individuals, during
the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

    Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY
    & EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main
    Street, Kinsale; GRATTAN, Belfast; MURDOCK, BROTHERS, Glasgow; DUNCAN &
    FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SANGER, 150. Oxford Street; PROUT, 229. Strand;
    KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard; SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street; HANNAY,
    63. Oxford Street; London. All Chemists and Perfumers will procure
    them.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.

ON THE PRODUCTION OF WAXED-PAPER NEGATIVES, by JAMES HOW.--Just published
in THE CHEMIST, a Monthly Journal of Chemical and Physical Science. Edited
by JOHN and CHARLES WATT. June. Price 1s.

London: SAMUEL HIGHLEY, 32. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
               T. Grissell, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE.--MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the
TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical
Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES _GENUINE_ from all the
most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being
specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 10.
1854.





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