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Title: I. Beowulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment.
Author: Sharp, Robert, 1851- [Editor], Harrison, James A. (James Albert), 1848-1911 [Editor]
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "I. Beowulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

This text is a revised and corrected version of the fourth edition of
Harrison and Sharp in its entirety. It comes in two basic versions. The
base version (available in plain-text and HTML) presents the original text
as printed. It preserves the source-text's idiosyncratic use of accented
vowels with the exception of y-circumflex (ŷ), which is replaced by y-acute
(ý) to fit within the Latin-1 character set. Manifestly unintentional
errors in the text have been corrected. In general, this has only been done
when the text is internally inconsistent (e.g., a quotation in the glossary
does not match the main text). Forms that represent deliberate editorial
choice have not been altered, even where they appear wrong. (For example,
some of the markings of vowel length do not reflect current scholarly
consensus.) In a few instances, quotations in the glossary use the correct
vowel length where the main text does not. These have not been altered.
Where an uncorrected problem may confuse the reader, I have inserted a note
explaining the difficulty, signed KTH. A complete list of the changes made
is appended at the end of the file. In order to make the text more useful
to modern readers, I have also produced a revised edition (HTML only). The
file you are reading is this revised version. Notes from the source text
that indicate changes adopted in later editions have been incorporated
directly into the text and apparatus. Further, long vowels are indicated
with macrons, as is the common practice of most modern editions. Finally,
the quantity of some words has been altered to the values currently
accepted as correct. Quantities have not been changed when the difference
is a matter of editorial interpretation (e.g., gæst vs. gǣst in l. 102,
etc.) A list of these altered quantities appears at the end of the list of
corrections. Your browser must support the Unicode character set to use
this file. To tell if your browser supports the necessary characters, check
the table of vowel equivalents below. If you see any empty boxes or
question marks in the "revised" columns, you should use the basic version.

Explanation of the Vowel Accenting

In general, Harrison and Sharp use circumflex accents over vowels to mark
long vowels. For ash, however, the actual character 'æ' represents the long
vowel. Short ash is rendered with a-umlaut (ä). The long diphthongs (ēo,
ēa, etc.) are indicated with an acute accent over the second vowel (eó, eá,

Vowel Equivalents in Different Versions:

Orig. Revised    Orig.    Revised
 ä       æ         Ô         Ō
 Ä       Æ         û         ū
 æ       ǣ         Û         Ū
 Æ       Ǣ         ý         ȳ
 â       ā         Ý         Ȳ
 Â       Ā         eá        ēa
 ê       ē         Eá        Ēa
 Ê       Ē         eó        ēo
 î       ī         Eó        Ēo
 Î       Ī         ié        īe
 ô       ō         ió        īo

** End of PG Preface **














Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.







The favor with which the successive editions of "Bēowulf" have been
received during the past thirteen years emboldens the editors to continue
the work of revision in a fourth issue, the most noticeable feature of
which is a considerable body of explanatory Notes, now for the first time
added. These Notes mainly concern themselves with new textual readings,
with here and there grammatical, geographical, and archæological points
that seemed worthy of explanation. Parallelisms and parallel passages are
constantly compared, with the view of making the poem illustrate and
explain itself. A few emendations and textual changes are suggested by the
editors with all possible diffidence; numerous corrections have been made
in the Glossary and List of Names; and the valuable parts of former
Appendices have been embodied in the Notes.

For the Notes, the editors are much indebted to the various German
periodicals mentioned on page 116, to the recent publications of Professors
Earle and J. L. Hall, to Mr. S. A. Brooke, and to the Heyne-Socin edition
of "Bēowulf." No change has been made in the system of accentuation, though
a few errors in quantity have been corrected. The editors are looking
forward to an eventual fifth edition, in which an entirely new text will be

October, 1893.


This third edition of the American issue of Bēowulf will, the editors hope,
be found more accurate and useful than either of the preceding editions.
Further corrections in text and glossary have been made, and some
additional new readings and suggestions will be found in two brief
appendices at the back of the book. Students of the metrical system of
Bēowulf will find ample material for their studies in Sievers' exhaustive
essay on that subject (Beiträge, X. 209-314).

Socin's edition of Heyne's Bēowulf (called the fifth edition) has been
utilized to some extent in this edition, though it unfortunately came too
late to be freely used. While it repeats many of the omissions and
inaccuracies of Heyne's fourth edition, it contains much that is valuable
to the student, particularly in the notes and commentary. Students of the
poem, which has been subjected to much searching criticism during the last
decade, will also derive especial help from the contributions of Sievers
and Kluge on difficult questions appertaining to it. Wülker's new edition
(in the Grein Bibliothek) is of the highest value, however one may dissent
from particular textual views laid down in the 'Berichtigter Text.' Paul
and Braune's Beiträge contain a varied miscellany of hints, corrections,
and suggestions principally embodying the views of Kluge, Cosijn, Sievers,
and Bugge, some of the more important of which are found in the appendices
to the present and the preceding edition. Holder and Zupitza, Sarrazin and
Hermann Möller (Kiel, 1883), Heinzel (Anzeiger f.d. Alterthum, X.), Gering
(Zacher's Zeitschrift, XII.), Brenner (Eng. Studien, IX.), and the
contributors to Anglia, have assisted materially in the textual and
metrical interpretation of the poem.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon quantity has been discussed in several able
essays by Sievers, Sweet, Ten Brink (Anzeiger, f.d. Alterthum, V.), Kluge
(Beiträge, XI.), and others; but so much is uncertain in this field that
the editors have left undisturbed the marking of vowels found in the text
of their original edition, while indicating in the appendices the now
accepted views of scholars on the quantity of the personal pronouns (mē,
wē, þū, þē, gē, hē); the adverb nū, etc. Perhaps it would be best to banish
absolutely all attempts at marking quantities except in cases where the Ms.
has them marked.

An approximately complete Bibliography of Bēowulf literature will be found
in Wülker's Grundriss and in Garnett's translation of the poem.





The editors feel so encouraged at the kind reception accorded their edition
of Bēowulf (1883), that, in spite of its many shortcomings, they have
determined to prepare a second revised edition of the book, and thus
endeavor to extend its sphere of usefulness. About twenty errors had,
notwithstanding a vigilant proof-reading, crept into the text,-errors in
single letters, accents, and punctuation. These have been corrected, and it
is hoped that the text has been rendered generally accurate and
trustworthy. In the List of Names one or two corrections have been made,
and in the Glossary numerous mistakes in gender, classification, and
translation, apparently unavoidable in a first edition, have been
rectified. Wherever these mistakes concern single letters, or occupy very
small space, they have been corrected in the plates; where they are longer,
and the expense of correcting them in the plates would have been very
great, the editors have thought it best to include them in an Appendix of
Corrections and Additions, which will be found at the back of the book.
Students are accordingly referred to this Appendix for important longer
corrections and additions. It is believed that the value of the book has
been much enhanced by an Appendix of Recent Readings, based on late
criticisms and essays from the pens of Sievers, Kluge, Cosijn, Holder,
Wülker, and Sweet. A perplexed student, in turning to these suggested
readings, will often find great help in unravelling obscure or corrupt

The objectionable ä and æ, for the short and the long diphthong, have been
retained in the revised edition, owing to the impossibility of removing
them without entirely recasting the plates.

In conclusion, the editors would acknowledge their great indebtedness to
the friends and critics whose remarks and criticisms have materially aided
in the correction of the text,-particularly to Profs. C.P.G. Scott,
Baskervill, Price, and J.M. Hart; to Prof. J.W. Bright; and to the
authorities of Cornell University, for the loan of periodicals necessary to
the completeness of the revision. While the second revised edition still
contains much that might be improved, the editors cannot but hope that it
is an advance on its predecessor, and that it will continue its work of
extending the study of Old English throughout the land.

JUNE, 1885.


The present work, carefully edited from Heyne's fourth edition, (Paderborn,
1879), is designed primarily for college classes in Anglo-Saxon, rather
than for independent investigators or for seekers after a restored or ideal
text. The need of an American edition of "Bēowulf" has long been felt, as,
hitherto, students have had either to send to Germany for a text, or
secure, with great trouble, one of the scarce and expensive English
editions. Heyne's first edition came out in 1863, and was followed in 1867
and 1873 by a second and a third edition, all three having essentially the
same text.

So many important contributions to the "Bēowulf" literature were, however,
made between 1873 and 1879 that Heyne found it necessary to put forth a new
edition (1879). In this new, last edition, the text was subjected to a
careful revision, and was fortified by the views, contributions, and
criticisms of other zealous scholars. In it the collation of the unique
"Bēowulf" Ms. (Vitellius A. 15: Cottonian Mss. of the British Museum), as
made by E. Kölbing in Herrig's Archiv (Bd. 56; 1876), was followed wherever
the present condition of the Ms. had to be discussed; and the researches of
Bugge, Bieger, and others, on single passages, were made use of. The
discussion of the metrical structure of the poem, as occurring in the
second and third editions, was omitted in the fourth, owing to the many
controversies in which the subject is still involved. The present editor
has thought it best to do the same, though, happily, the subject of Old
English Metrik is undergoing a steady illumination through the labors of
Schipper and others.

Some errors and misplaced accents in Heyne's text have been corrected in
the present edition, in which, as in the general revision of the text, the
editor has been most kindly aided by Prof. J.M. Garnett, late Principal of
St. John's College, Maryland.

In the preparation of the present school edition it has been thought best
to omit Heyne's notes, as they concern themselves principally with
conjectural emendations, substitutions of one reading for another, and
discussions of the condition of the Ms. Until Wülker's text and the
photographic fac-simile of the original Ms. are in the hands of all
scholars, it will be better not to introduce such matters in the school
room, where they would puzzle without instructing.

For convenience of reference, the editor has added a head-line to each
"fit" of the poem, with a view to facilitate a knowledge of its episodes.



The editors now have the pleasure of presenting to the public a complete
text and a tolerably complete glossary of "Bēowulf." The edition is the
first published in America, and the first of its special kind presented to
the English public, and it is the initial volume of a "Library of
Anglo-Saxon Poetry," to be edited under the same auspices and with the
coöperation of distinguished scholars in this country. Among these scholars
may be mentioned Professors F.A. March of Lafayette College, T.K. Price of
Columbia College, and W.M. Baskervill of Vanderbilt University.

In the preparation of the Glossary the editors found it necessary to
abandon a literal and exact translation of Heyne for several reasons, and
among others from the fact that Heyne seems to be wrong in the translation
of some of his illustrative quotations, and even translates the same
passage in two or three different ways under different headings. The
orthography of his glossary differs considerably from the orthography of
his text. He fails to discriminate with due nicety the meanings of many of
the words in his vocabulary, while criticism more recent than his latest
edition (1879) has illustrated or overthrown several of his renderings. The
references were found to be incorrect in innumerable instances, and had to
be verified in every individual case so far as this was possible, a few
only, which resisted all efforts at verification, having to be indicated by
an interrogation point (?). The references are exceedingly numerous, and
the labor of verifying them was naturally great. To many passages in the
Glossary, where Heyne's translation could not be trusted with entire
certainty, the editors have added other translations of phrases and
sentences or of special words; and in this they have been aided by a
careful study of the text and a comparison and utilization of the views of
Kemble and Professor J.M. Garnett (who takes Grein for his foundation).
Many new references have been added; and the various passages in which
Heyne fails to indicate whether a given verb is weak or strong, or fails to
point out the number, etc., of the illustrative form, have been corrected
and made to harmonize with the general plan of the work. Numerous misprints
in the glossary have also been corrected, and a brief glossary to the
Finnsburh-fragment, prepared by Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, and supplemented and
adapted by the editor-in-chief, has been added.

The editors think that they may without immodesty put forth for themselves
something more than the claim of being re-translators of a translation: the
present edition is, so far as they were able to make it so, an adaptation,
correction, and extension of the work of the great German scholar to whose
loving appreciation of the Anglo-Saxon epic all students of Old English owe
a debt of gratitude. While following his usually sure and cautious
guidance, and in the main appropriating his results, they have thought it
best to deviate from him in the manner above indicated, whenever it seemed
that he was wrong. The careful reader will notice at once the marks of
interrogation which point out these deviations, or which introduce a point
of view illustrative of, or supplementary to, the one given by the German
editor. No doubt the editors are wrong themselves in many places,-"Bēowulf"
is a most difficult poem,-but their view may at least be defended by a
reference to the original text, which they have faithfully and constantly

A good many cognate Modern English words have been introduced here and
there in the Glossary with a view to illustration, and other addenda will
be found between brackets and parenthetical marks.

It is hoped that the present edition of the most famous of Old English
poems will do something to promote a valuable and interesting study.

JAMES A. HARRISON, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.

ROBERT SHARP, University of Louisiana, New Orleans.

April, 1883.

The responsibility of the editors is as follows: H. is responsible for the
Text, and for the Glossary from hrīnan on; S. for the List of Names, and
for the Glossary as far as hrīnan.


The only national [Anglo-Saxon] epic which has been preserved entire is
Bēowulf. Its argument is briefly as follows:-The poem opens with a few
verses in praise of the Danish Kings, especially Scild, the son of Sceaf.
His death is related, and his descendants briefly traced down to Hroðgar.
Hroðgar, elated with his prosperity and success in war, builds a
magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot. In this hall Hroðgar and his
retainers live in joy and festivity, until a malignant fiend, called
Grendel, jealous of their happiness, carries off by night thirty of
Hroðgar's men, and devours them in his moorland retreat. These ravages go
on for twelve years. Bēowulf, a thane of Hygelac, King of the Goths,
hearing of Hroðgar's calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen
warriors-to help him. They reach the Danish coast in safety; and, after an
animated parley with Hroðgar's coastguard, who at first takes them for
pirates, they are allowed to proceed to the royal hall, where they are well
received by Hroðgar. A banquet ensues, during which Bēowulf is taunted by
the envious Hunferhð about his swimming-match with Breca, King of the
Brondings. Bēowulf gives the true account of the contest, and silences
Hunferhð. At night-fall the King departs, leaving Bēowulf in charge of the
hall. Grendel soon breaks in, seizes and devours one of Bēowulf's
companions; is attacked by Bēowulf, and, after losing an arm, which is torn
off by Bēowulf, escapes to the fens. The joy of Hroðgar and the Danes, and
their festivities, are described, various episodes are introduced, and
Bēowulf and his companions receive splendid gifts. The next night Grendel's
mother revenges her son by carrying off AEschere, the friend and councillor
of Hroðgar, during the absence of Bēowulf. Hroðgar appeals to Bēowulf for
vengeance, and describes the haunts of Grendel and his mother. They all
proceed thither; the scenery of the lake, and the monsters that dwell in
it, are described. Bēowulf plunges into the water, and attacks Grendel's
mother in her dwelling at the bottom of the lake. He at length overcomes
her, and cuts off her head, together with that of Grendel, and brings the
heads to Hroðgar. He then takes leave of Hroðgar, sails back to Sweden, and
relates his adventures to Hygelac. Here the first half of the poem ends.
The second begins with the accession of Bēowulf to the throne, after the
fall of Hygelac and his son Heardred. He rules prosperously for fifty
years, till a dragon, brooding over a hidden treasure, begins to ravage the
country, and destroys Bēowulf's palace with fire. Bēowulf sets out in quest
of its hiding-place, with twelve men. Having a presentiment of his
approaching end, he pauses and recalls to mind his past life and exploits.
He then takes leave of his followers, one by one, and advances alone to
attack the dragon. Unable, from the heat, to enter the cavern, he shouts
aloud, and the dragon comes forth. The dragon's scaly hide is proof against
Bēowulf's sword, and he is reduced to great straits. Then Wiglaf, one of
his followers, advances to help him. Wiglaf's shield is consumed by the
dragon's fiery breath, and he is compelled to seek shelter under Bēowulf's
shield of iron. Bēowulf's sword snaps asunder, and he is seized by the
dragon. Wiglaf stabs the dragon from underneath, and Bēowulf cuts it in two
with his dagger. Feeling that his end is near, he bids Wiglaf bring out the
treasures from the cavern, that he may see them before he dies. Wiglaf
enters the dragon's den, which is described, returns to Bēowulf, and
receives his last commands. Bēowulf dies, and Wiglaf bitterly reproaches
his companions for their cowardice. The disastrous consequences of
Bēowulf's death are then foretold, and the poem ends with his funeral.-H.
Sweet, in Warton's History of English Poetry, Vol. II. (ed. 1871). Cf. also
Ten Brink's History of English Literature.



     Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena      in geār-dagum
     þēod-cyninga      þrym gefrūnon,
     hū þā æðelingas      ellen fremedon.
     Oft Scyld Scēfing      sceaðena þrēatum,
5    monegum mǣgðum      meodo-setla oftēah.
     Egsode eorl,      syððan ǣrest wearð
     fēa-sceaft funden:      hē þæs frōfre gebād,
     wēox under wolcnum,      weorð-myndum ðāh,
     oð þæt him ǣghwylc      þāra ymb-sittendra
10   ofer hron-rāde      hȳran scolde,
     gomban gyldan:      þæt wæs gōd cyning!
     þǣm eafera wæs      æfter cenned
     geong in geardum,      þone god sende
     folce tō frōfre;      fyren-þearfe ongeat,
15   þæt hīe ǣr drugon      aldor-lēase
     lange hwīle.      Him þæs līf-frēa,
     wuldres wealdend,      worold-āre forgeaf;
     Bēowulf wæs brēme      (blǣd wīde sprang),
     Scyldes eafera      Scede-landum in.
20   Swā sceal geong guma,      gōde gewyrcean,
     fromum feoh-giftum      on fæder wine,
     þæt hine on ylde      eft gewunigen
     wil-gesīðas,      þonne wīg cume,
     lēode gelǣsten:      lof-dǣdum sceal
25   in mǣgða gehwǣre      man geþēon.
     Him þā Scyld gewāt      tō gescæp-hwīle
     fela-hrōr fēran      on frēan wǣre;
     hī hyne þā ætbǣron      tō brimes faroðe.
     swǣse gesīðas,      swā hē selfa bæd,
30   þenden wordum wēold      wine Scyldinga,
     lēof land-fruma      lange āhte.
     Þǣr æt hȳðe stōd      hringed-stefna,
     īsig and ūtfūs,      æðelinges fær;
     ā-lēdon þā      lēofne þēoden,
35   bēaga bryttan      on bearm scipes,
     mǣrne be mæste.      Þǣr wæs mādma fela,
     of feor-wegum      frætwa gelǣded:
     ne hȳrde ic cȳmlīcor      cēol gegyrwan
     hilde-wǣpnum      and heaðo-wǣdum,
40   billum and byrnum;      him on bearme læg
     mādma mænigo,      þā him mid scoldon
     on flōdes ǣht      feor gewītan.
     Nalas hī hine lǣssan      lācum tēodan,
     þēod-gestrēonum,      þonne þā dydon,
45   þē hine æt frumsceafte      forð onsendon
     ǣnne ofer ȳðe      umbor wesende:
     þā gȳt hīe him āsetton      segen gyldenne
     hēah ofer hēafod,      lēton holm beran,
     gēafon on gār-secg:      him wæs geōmor sefa,
50   murnende mōd.      Men ne cunnon
     secgan tō soðe      sele-rǣdende,
     hæleð under heofenum,      hwā þǣm hlæste onfēng.


     Þā wæs on burgum      Bēowulf Scyldinga,
     lēof lēod-cyning,      longe þrāge
55   folcum gefrǣge      (fæder ellor hwearf,
     aldor of earde),      oð þæt him eft onwōc
     hēah Healfdene;      hēold þenden lifde,
     gamol and gūð-rēow,      glæde Scyldingas.
     Þǣm fēower bearn      forð-gerīmed
60   in worold wōcun,      weoroda rǣswan,
     Heorogār and Hrōðgār      and Hālga til;
     hȳrde ic, þat Elan cwēn      Ongenþēowes wæs
     Heaðoscilfinges      heals-gebedde.
     Þā wæs Hrōðgāre      here-spēd gyfen,
65   wīges weorð-mynd,      þæt him his wine-māgas
     georne hȳrdon,      oð þæt sēo geogoð gewēox,
     mago-driht micel.      Him on mōd bearn,
     þæt heal-reced      hātan wolde,
     medo-ærn micel      men gewyrcean,
70   þone yldo bearn      ǣfre gefrūnon,
     and þǣr on innan      eall gedǣlan
     geongum and ealdum,      swylc him god sealde,
     būton folc-scare      and feorum gumena.
     Þā ic wīde gefrægn      weorc gebannan
75   manigre mǣgðe      geond þisne middan-geard,
     folc-stede frætwan.      Him on fyrste gelomp
     ǣdre mid yldum,      þæt hit wearð eal gearo,
     heal-ærna mǣst;      scōp him Heort naman,
     sē þe his wordes geweald      wīde hæfde.
80   Hē bēot ne ālēh,      bēagas dǣlde,
     sinc æt symle.      Sele hlīfade
     hēah and horn-gēap:      heaðo-wylma bād,
     lāðan līges;      ne wæs hit lenge þā gēn
     þæt se ecg-hete      āðum-swerian
85   æfter wæl-nīðe      wæcnan scolde.
     Þā se ellen-gǣst      earfoðlīce
     þrāge geþolode,      sē þe in þȳstrum bād,
     þæt hē dōgora gehwām      drēam gehȳrde
     hlūdne in healle;      þǣr wæs hearpan swēg,
90   swutol sang scopes.      Sægde sē þe cūðe
     frum-sceaft fīra      feorran reccan,
     cwæð þæt se ælmihtiga      eorðan worhte,
     wlite-beorhtne wang,      swā wæter bebūgeð,
     gesette sige-hrēðig      sunnan and mōnan
95   lēoman tō lēohte      land-būendum,
     and gefrætwade      foldan scēatas
     leomum and lēafum;      līf ēac gesceōp
     cynna gehwylcum,      þāra þe cwice hwyrfað.
     Swā þā driht-guman      drēamum lifdon
100  ēadiglīce,      oð þæt ān ongan
     fyrene fremman,      fēond on helle:
     wæs se grimma gæst      Grendel hāten,
     mǣre mearc-stapa,      sē þe mōras hēold,
     fen and fæsten;      fīfel-cynnes eard
105  won-sǣlig wer      weardode hwīle,
     siððan him scyppend      forscrifen hæfde.
     In Caines cynne      þone cwealm gewræc,
     ēce drihten,      þæs þe hē Ābel slōg;
     ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe,      ac hē hine feor forwræc,
110  metod for þȳ māne      man-cynne fram.
     Þanon untȳdras      ealle onwōcon,
     eotenas and ylfe      and orcnēas,
     swylce gīgantas,      þā wið gode wunnon
     lange þrāge;      hē him þæs lēan forgeald.


115  Gewāt þā nēosian,      syððan niht becōm,
     hēan hūses,      hū hit Hring-Dene
     æfter bēor-þege      gebūn hæfdon.
     Fand þā þǣr inne      æðelinga gedriht
     swefan æfter symble;      sorge ne cūðon,
120  won-sceaft wera.      Wiht unhǣlo
     grim and grǣdig      gearo sōna wæs,
     rēoc and rēðe,      and on ræste genam
     þrītig þegna:      þanon eft gewāt
     hūðe hrēmig      tō hām faran,
125  mid þǣre wæl-fylle      wīca nēosan.
     Þā wæs on ūhtan      mid ǣr-dæge
     Grendles gūð-cræft      gumum undyrne:
     þā wæs æfter wiste      wōp up āhafen,
     micel morgen-swēg.      Mǣre þēoden,
130  æðeling ǣr-gōd,      unblīðe sæt,
     þolode þrȳð-swȳð,      þegn-sorge drēah,
     syððan hīe þæs lāðan      lāst scēawedon,
     wergan gāstes;      wæs þæt gewin tō strang,
     lāð and longsum.      Næs hit lengra fyrst,
135  ac ymb āne niht      eft gefremede
     morð-beala māre      and nō mearn fore
     fǣhðe and fyrene;      wæs tō fæst on þām.
     Þā wæs ēað-fynde,      þē him elles hwǣr
     gerūmlīcor      ræste sōhte,
140  bed æfter būrum,      þā him gebēacnod wæs,
     gesægd sōðlīce      sweotolan tācne
     heal-þegnes hete;      hēold hine syððan
     fyr and fæstor,      sē þǣm fēonde ætwand.
     Swā rīxode      and wið rihte wan
145  āna wið eallum,      oð þæt īdel stōd
     hūsa sēlest.      Wæs sēo hwīl micel:
     twelf wintra tīd      torn geþolode
     wine Scyldinga,      wēana gehwelcne,
     sīdra sorga;      forþām syððan wearð
150  ylda bearnum      undyrne cūð,
     gyddum geōmore,      þætte Grendel wan,
     hwīle wið Hrōðgār;--      hete-nīðas wæg,
     fyrene and fǣhðe      fela missēra,
     singāle sæce,      sibbe ne wolde
155  wið manna hwone      mægenes Deniga
     feorh-bealo feorran,      fēo þingian,
     nē þǣr nǣnig witena      wēnan þorfte
     beorhtre bōte      tō banan folmum;
     atol ǣglǣca      ēhtende wæs,
160  deorc dēað-scūa      duguðe and geogoðe
     seomade and syrede.      Sin-nihte hēold
     mistige mōras;      men ne cunnon,
     hwyder hel-rūnan      hwyrftum scrīðað.
     Swā fela fyrena      fēond man-cynnes,
165  atol ān-gengea,      oft gefremede
     heardra hȳnða;      Heorot eardode,
     sinc-fāge sel      sweartum nihtum
     (nō hē þone gif-stōl      grētan mōste,
     māððum for metode,      nē his myne wisse);
170  þæt wæs wrǣc micel      wine Scyldinga,
     mōdes brecða.      Monig-oft gesæt
     rīce tō rūne;      rǣd eahtedon,
     hwæt swīð-ferhðum      sēlest wǣre
     wið fǣr-gryrum      tō gefremmanne.
175  Hwīlum hīe gehēton      æt hærg-trafum
     wīg-weorðunga,      wordum bǣdon,
     þæt him gāst-bona      gēoce gefremede
     wið þēod-þrēaum.      Swylc wæs þēaw hyra,
     hǣðenra hyht;      helle gemundon
180  in mōd-sefan,      metod hīe ne cūðon,
     dǣda dēmend,      ne wiston hīe drihten god,
     nē hīe hūru heofena helm      herian ne cūðon,
     wuldres waldend.      Wā bið þǣm þe sceal
     þurh slīðne nīð      sāwle bescūfan
185  in fȳres fæðm,      frōfre ne wēnan,
     wihte gewendan;      wēl bið þǣm þe mōt
     æfter dēað-dæge      drihten sēcean
     and tō fæder fæðmum      freoðo wilnian.


     Swā þā mǣl-ceare      maga Healfdenes
190  singāla sēað;      ne mihte snotor hæleð
     wēan onwendan:      wæs þæt gewin tō swȳð,
     lāð and longsum,      þē on þā lēode becōm,
     nȳd-wracu nīð-grim,      niht-bealwa mǣst.
     Þæt fram hām gefrægn      Higelāces þegn,
195  gōd mid Gēatum,      Grendles dǣda:
     sē wæs mon-cynnes      mægenes strengest
     on þǣm dæge      þysses līfes,
     æðele and ēacen.      Hēt him ȳð-lidan
     gōdne gegyrwan;      cwæð hē gūð-cyning
200  ofer swan-rāde      sēcean wolde,
     mǣrne þēoden,      þā him wæs manna þearf.
     Þone sīð-fæt him      snotere ceorlas
     lȳt-hwōn lōgon,      þēah hē him lēof wǣre;
     hwetton higerōfne,      hǣl scēawedon.
205  Hæfde se gōda      Gēata lēoda
     cempan gecorone,      þāra þe hē cēnoste
     findan mihte;      fīftȳna sum
     sund-wudu sōhte;      secg wīsade,
     lagu-cræftig mon,      land-gemyrcu.
210  Fyrst forð gewāt:      flota wæs on ȳðum,
     bāt under beorge.      Beornas gearwe
     on stefn stigon;      strēamas wundon
     sund wið sande;      secgas bǣron
     on bearm nacan      beorhte frætwe,
215  gūð-searo geatolīc;      guman ūt scufon,
     weras on wil-sīð      wudu bundenne.
     Gewāt þā ofer wǣg-holm      winde gefȳsed
     flota fāmig-heals      fugle gelīcost,
     oð þæt ymb ān-tīd      ōðres dōgores
220  wunden-stefna      gewaden hæfde,
     þæt þā līðende      land gesāwon,
     brim-clifu blīcan,      beorgas stēape,
     sīde sǣ-næssas:      þā wæs sund liden,
     eoletes æt ende.      Þanon up hraðe
225  Wedera lēode      on wang stigon,
     sǣ-wudu sǣldon      (syrcan hrysedon,
     gūð-gewǣdo);      gode þancedon,
     þæs þe him ȳð-lāde      ēaðe wurdon.
     Þā of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga,
230  sē þe holm-clifu      healdan scolde,
     beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas,
     fyrd-searu fūslīcu;      hine fyrwyt bræc
     mōd-gehygdum,      hwæt þā men wǣron.
     Gewāt him þā tō waroðe      wicge rīdan
235  þegn Hrōðgāres,      þrymmum cwehte
     mægen-wudu mundum,      meðel-wordum frægn:
     "Hwæt syndon gē      searo-hæbbendra
     "byrnum werede,      þē þus brontne cēol
     "ofer lagu-strǣte      lǣdan cwōmon,
240  "hider ofer holmas      helmas bǣron?
     "Ic wæs ende-sǣta,      ǣg-wearde hēold,
     "þæt on land Dena      lāðra nǣnig
     "mid scip-herge      sceððan ne meahte.
     "Nō hēr cūðlīcor      cuman ongunnon
245  "lind-hæbbende;      nē gē lēafnes-word
     "gūð-fremmendra      gearwe ne wisson,
     "māga gemēdu.      Nǣfre ic māran geseah
     "eorla ofer eorðan,      þonne is ēower sum,
     "secg on searwum;      nis þæt seld-guma
250  "wǣpnum geweorðad,      næfne him his wlite lēoge,
     "ǣnlīc an-sȳn.      Nū ic ēower sceal
     "frum-cyn witan,      ǣr gē fyr heonan
     "lēase scēaweras      on land Dena
     "furður fēran.      Nū gē feor-būend,
255  "mere-līðende,      mīnne gehȳrað
     "ān-fealdne geþōht:      ofost is sēlest
     "tō gecȳðanne,      hwanan ēowre cyme syndon."


     Him se yldesta      andswarode,
     werodes wīsa,      word-hord onlēac:
260  "Wē synt gum-cynnes      Gēata lēode
     "and Higelāces      heorð-genēatas.
     "Wæs mīn fæder      folcum gecȳðed,
     "æðele ord-fruma      Ecgþēow hāten;
     "gebād wintra worn,      ǣr hē on weg hwurfe,
265  "gamol of geardum;      hine gearwe geman
     "witena wēl-hwylc      wīde geond eorðan.-
     "Wē þurh holdne hige      hlāford þinne,
     "sunu Healfdenes,      sēcean cwōmon,
     "lēod-gebyrgean:      wes þū ūs lārena gōd!
270  "Habbað wē tō þǣm mǣran      micel ǣrende
     "Deniga frēan;      ne sceal þǣr dyrne sum
     "wesan, þæs ic wēne.      Þū wāst, gif hit is,
     "swā wē sōðlice      secgan hȳrdon,
     "þæt mid Scyldingum      sceaða ic nāt hwylc,
275  "dēogol dǣd-hata,      deorcum nihtum
     "ēaweð þurh egsan      uncūðne nīð,
     "hȳnðu and hrā-fyl.      Ic þæs Hrōðgār mæg
     "þurh rūmne sefan      rǣd gelǣran,
     "hū hē frōd and gōd      fēond oferswȳðeð,
280  "gyf him ed-wendan      ǣfre scolde
     "bealuwa bisigu,      bōt eft cuman
     "and þā cear-wylmas      cōlran wurðað;
     "oððe ā syððan      earfoð-þrāge,
     "þrēa-nȳd þolað,      þenden þǣr wunað
285  "on hēah-stede      hūsa sēlest."
     Weard maðelode,      þǣr on wicge sæt
     ombeht unforht:      "Ǣghwæðres sceal
     "scearp scyld-wiga      gescād witan,
     "worda and worca,      sē þe wēl þenceð.
290  "Ic þæt gehȳre,      þæt þis is hold weorod
     "frēan Scyldinga.      Gewītað forð beran
     "wǣpen and gewǣdu,      ic ēow wīsige:
     "swylce ic magu-þegnas      mīne hāte
     "wið fēonda gehwone      flotan ēowerne,
295  "nīw-tyrwedne      nacan on sande
     "ārum healdan,      oð þæt eft byreð
     "ofer lagu-strēamas      lēofne mannan
     "wudu wunden-hals      tō Weder-mearce.
     "Gūð-fremmendra      swylcum gifeðe bið,
300  "þæt þone hilde-rǣs      hāl gedīgeð."
     Gewiton him þā fēran      (flota stille bād,
     seomode on sāle      sīd-fæðmed scyp,
     on ancre fæst);      eofor-līc scionon
     ofer hlēor-beran      gehroden golde
305  fāh and fȳr-heard,      ferh wearde hēold.
     Gūðmōde grummon,      guman ōnetton,
     sigon ætsomne,      oð þæt hȳ sæl timbred
     geatolīc and gold-fāh      ongytan mihton;
     þæt wæs fore-mǣrost      fold-būendum
310  receda under roderum,      on þǣm se rīca bād;
     līxte se lēoma      ofer landa fela.
     Him þā hilde-dēor      hof mōdigra
     torht getǣhte,      þæt hīe him tō mihton
     gegnum gangan;      gūð-beorna sum
315  wicg gewende,      word æfter cwæð:
     "Mǣl is mē tō fēran;      fæder alwalda
     "mid ār-stafum      ēowic gehealde
     "sīða gesunde!      ic tō sǣ wille,
     "wið wrāð werod      wearde healdan."


320  Strǣt wæs stān-fāh,      stīg wīsode
     gumum ætgædere.      Gūð-byrne scān
     heard hond-locen,      hring-īren scīr
     song in searwum,      þā hīe tō sele furðum
     in hyra gryre-geatwum      gangan cwōmon.
325  Setton sǣ-mēðe      sīde scyldas,
     rondas regn-hearde      wið þæs recedes weal,
     bugon þā tō bence;      byrnan hringdon,
     gūð-searo gumena;      gāras stōdon,
     sǣ-manna searo,      samod ætgædere,
330  æsc-holt ufan grǣg:      wæs se īren-þrēat
     wǣpnum gewurðad.      Þā þǣr wlonc hæleð
     ōret-mecgas      æfter æðelum frægn:
     "Hwanon ferigeað gē      fǣtte scyldas,
     "grǣge syrcan      and grīm-helmas,
335  "here-sceafta hēap?--      Ic eom Hrōðgāres
     "ār and ombiht.      Ne seah ic el-þēodige
     "þus manige men      mōdiglīcran.
     "Wēn' ic þæt gē for wlenco,      nalles for wræc-sīðum,
     "ac for hige-þrymmum      Hrōðgār sōhton."
340  Him þā ellen-rōf      andswarode,
     wlanc Wedera lēod      word æfter spræc,
     heard under helme:      "Wē synt Higelāces
     "bēod-genēatas;      Bēowulf is mīn nama.
     "Wille ic āsecgan      suna Healfdenes,
345  "mǣrum þēodne      mīn ǣrende,
     "aldre þīnum,      gif hē ūs geunnan wile,
     "þæt wē hine swā gōdne      grētan mōton."
     Wulfgār maðelode      (þæt wæs Wendla lēod,
     wæs his mōd-sefa      manegum gecȳðed,
350  wīg and wīs-dōm):      "ic þæs wine Deniga,
     "frēan Scildinga      frīnan wille,
     "bēaga bryttan,      swā þū bēna eart,
     "þēoden mǣrne      ymb þīnne sīð ;
     "and þē þā andsware      ǣdre gecȳðan,
355  "þē mē se gōda      āgifan þenceð."
     Hwearf þā hrædlīce,      þǣr Hrōðgār sæt,
     eald and unhār      mid his eorla gedriht;
     ēode ellen-rōf,      þæt hē for eaxlum gestōd
     Deniga frēan,      cūðe hē duguðe þēaw.
360  Wulfgār maðelode      tō his wine-drihtne:
     "Hēr syndon geferede      feorran cumene
     "ofer geofenes begang      Gēata lēode:
     "þone yldestan      ōret-mecgas
     "Bēowulf nemnað.      Hȳ bēnan synt,
365  "þæt hīe, þēoden mīn,      wið þē mōton
     "wordum wrixlan;      nō þū him wearne getēoh,
     "þīnra gegn-cwida      glædnian, Hrōðgār!
     "Hȳ on wīg-geatwum      wyrðe þinceað
     "eorla geæhtlan;      hūru se aldor dēah,
370  "sē þǣm heaðo-rincum      hider wīsade."


     Hrōðgār maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
     "Ic hine cūðe      cniht-wesende.
     "Wæs his eald-fæder      Ecgþēo hāten,
     "þǣm tō hām forgeaf      Hrēðel Gēata
375  "āngan dōhtor;      is his eafora nū
     "heard hēr cumen,      sōhte holdne wine.
     "þonne sægdon þæt      sǣ-līðende,
     "þā þe gif-sceattas      Gēata fyredon
     "þyder tō þance,      þæt hē þrīttiges
380  "manna mægen-cræft      on his mund-grīpe
     "heaðo-rōf hæbbe.      Hine hālig god
     "for ār-stafum      us onsende,
     "tō West-Denum,      þæs ic wēn hæbbe,
     "wið Grendles gryre:      ic þǣm gōdan sceal
385  "for his mōd-þræce      mādmas bēodan.
     "Bēo þū on ofeste,      hāt hig in gān,
     "sēon sibbe-gedriht      samod ætgædere;
     "gesaga him ēac wordum,      þæt hīe sint wil-cuman
     "Deniga lēodum."      Þā wið duru healle
390  Wulfgār ēode,      word inne ābēad:
     "Ēow hēt secgan      sige-drihten mīn,
     "aldor Ēast-Dena,      þæt hē ēower æðelu can
     "and gē him syndon      ofer sǣ-wylmas,
     "heard-hicgende,      hider wil-cuman.
395  "Nū gē mōton gangan      in ēowrum guð-geatawum,
     "under here-grīman,      Hrōðgār gesēon;
     "lǣtað hilde-bord      hēr onbidian,
     "wudu wæl-sceaftas,      worda geþinges."
     Ārās þā se rīca,      ymb hine rinc manig,
400  þrȳðlīc þegna hēap;      sume þǣr bidon,
     heaðo-rēaf hēoldon,      swā him se hearda bebēad.
     Snyredon ætsomne,      þā secg wīsode
     under Heorotes hrōf;      hyge-rōf ēode,
     heard under helme,      þæt hē on heoðe gestōd.
405  Bēowulf maðelode      (on him byrne scān,
     searo-net sēowed      smiðes or-þancum):
     "Wes þū Hrōðgār hāl!      ic eom Higelāces
     "mǣg and mago-þegn;      hæbbe ic mǣrða fela
     "ongunnen on geogoðe.      Mē wearð Grendles þing
410  "on mīnre ēðel-tyrf      undyrne cūð:
     "secgað sǣ-līðend,      þæt þes sele stande,
     "reced sēlesta,      rinca gehwylcum
     "īdel and unnyt,      siððan ǣfen-lēoht
     "under heofenes hādor      beholen weorðeð.
415  "Þā mē þæt gelǣrdon      lēode mīne,
     "þā sēlestan,      snotere ceorlas,
     "þēoden Hrōðgār,      þæt ic þē sōhte;
     "forþan hīe mægenes cræft      mīnne cūðon:
     "selfe ofersāwon,      þā ic of searwum cwōm,
420  "fāh from fēondum,      þǣr ic fīfe geband,
     "ȳðde eotena cyn,      and on ȳðum slōg
     "niceras nihtes,      nearo-þearfe drēah,
     "wræc Wedera nīð      (wēan āhsodon)
     "forgrand gramum;      and nū wið Grendel sceal,
425  "wið þām āglǣcan,      āna gehegan
     "þing wið þyrse.      Ic þē nū þā,
     "brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,
     "eodor Scyldinga,      ānre bēne;
     "þæt þū mē ne forwyrne,      wīgendra hlēo,
430  "frēo-wine folca,      nū ic þus feorran cōm,
     "þæt ic mōte āna      and mīnra eorla gedryht,
     "þes hearda hēap,      Heorot fǣlsian.
     "Hæbbe ic ēac geāhsod,      þæt se ǣglǣca
     "for his won-hȳdum      wǣpna ne rēceð;
435  "ic þæt þonne forhicge,      swā mē Higelāc sīe,
     "mīn mon-drihten,      mōdes blīðe,
     "þæt ic sweord bere      oððe sīdne scyld
     "geolo-rand tō gūðe;      ac ic mid grāpe sceal
     "fōn wið fēonde      and ymb feorh sacan,
440  "lāð wið lāðum;      þǣr gelȳfan sceal
     "dryhtnes dōme      sē þe hine dēað nimeð.
     "Wēn' ic þæt hē wille,      gif hē wealdan mōt,
     "in þǣm gūð-sele      Gēatena lēode
     "etan unforhte,      swā hē oft dyde
445  "mægen Hrēðmanna.      Nā þū mīnne þearft
     "hafalan hȳdan,      ac hē mē habban wile
     "drēore fāhne,      gif mec dēað nimeð;
     "byreð blōdig wæl,      byrgean þenceð,
     "eteð ān-genga      unmurnlīce,
450  "mearcað mōr-hopu:      nō þū ymb mīnes ne þearft
     "līces feorme      leng sorgian.
     "Onsend Higelāce,      gif mec hild nime,
     "beadu-scrūda betst,      þæt mīne brēost wereð,
     "hrægla sēlest;      þæt is Hrēðlan lāf,
455  "Wēlandes geweorc.      Gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo scel!"


     Hrōðgār maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
     "for were-fyhtum þū,      wine mīn Bēowulf,
     "and for ār-stafum      ūsic sōhtest.
     "Geslōh þin fæder      fǣhðe mǣste,
460  "wearð hē Heaðolāfe      tō hand-bonan
     "mid Wilfingum;      þā hine Wedera cyn
     "for here-brōgan      habban ne mihte.
     "Þanon hē gesōhte      Sūð-Dena folc
     "ofer ȳða gewealc,      Ār-Scyldinga;
465  "þā ic furðum wēold      folce Deninga,
     "and on geogoðe hēold      gimme-rīce
     "hord-burh hæleða:      þā wæs Heregār dēad,
     "mīn yldra mǣg      unlifigende,
     "bearn Healfdenes.      Sē wæs betera þonne ic!
470  "Siððan þā fǣhðe      fēo þingode;
     "sende ic Wylfingum      ofer wæteres hrycg
     "ealde mādmas:      hē mē āðas swōr.
     "Sorh is mē tō secganne      on sefan mīnum
     "gumena ǣngum,      hwæt mē Grendel hafað
475  "hȳnðo on Heorote      mid his hete-þancum,
     "fǣr-nīða gefremed.      Is mīn flet-werod,
     "wīg-hēap gewanod;      hīe Wyrd forswēop
     "on Grendles gryre.      God ēaðe mæg
     "þone dol-scaðan      dǣda getwǣfan!
480  "Ful oft gebēotedon      bēore druncne
     "ofer ealo-wǣge      ōret-mecgas,
     "þæt hīe in bēor-sele      bīdan woldon
     "Grendles gūðe      mid gryrum ecga.
     "Þonne wæs þēos medo-heal      on morgen-tīd,
485  "driht-sele drēor-fāh,      þonne dæg līxte,
     "eal benc-þelu      blōde bestȳmed,
     "heall heoru-drēore:      āhte ic holdra þȳ lǣs,
     "dēorre duguðe,      þē þā dēað fornam.
     "Site nū tō symle      and onsǣl meoto,
490  "sige-hrēð secgum,      swā þīn sefa hwette!"
     Þā wæs Gēat-mæcgum      geador ætsomne
     on bēor-sele      benc gerȳmed;
     þǣr swīð-ferhðe      sittan ēodon
     þrȳðum dealle.      Þegn nytte behēold,
495  sē þe on handa bær      hroden ealo-wǣge,
     scencte scīr wered.      Scop hwīlum sang
     hādor on Heorote;      þǣr wæs hæleða drēam,
     duguð unlȳtel      Dena and Wedera.


     Unferð maðelode,      Ecglāfes bearn,
500  þē æt fōtum sæt      frēan Scyldinga;
     onband beadu-rūne      (wæs him Bēowulfes sīð,
     mōdges mere-faran,      micel æf-þunca,
     forþon þe hē ne ūðe,      þæt ǣnig ōðer man
     ǣfre mǣrða þon mā      middan-geardes
505  gehēdde under heofenum      þonne hē sylfa):
     "Eart þū sē Bēowulf,      sē þe wið Brecan wunne,
     "on sīdne sǣ      ymb sund flite,
     "þǣr git for wlence      wada cunnedon
     "and for dol-gilpe      on dēop wæter
510  "aldrum nēðdon?      Nē inc ǣnig mon,
     "nē lēof nē lāð,      belēan mihte
     "sorh-fullne sīð;      þā git on sund rēon,
     "þǣr git ēagor-strēam      earmum þehton,
     "mǣton mere-strǣta,      mundum brugdon,
515  "glidon ofer gār-secg;      geofon ȳðum wēol,
     "wintres wylme.      Git on wæteres ǣht
     "seofon niht swuncon;      hē þē æt sunde oferflāt,
     "hæfde māre mægen.      Þā hine on morgen-tīd
     "on Heaðo-rǣmas      holm up ætbær,
520  "þonon hē gesōhte      swǣsne ēðel
     "lēof his lēodum      lond Brondinga,
     "freoðo-burh fægere,      þǣr hē folc āhte,
     "burg and bēagas.      Bēot eal wið þē
     "sunu Bēanstānes      sōðe gelǣste.
525  "Þonne wēne ic tō þē      wyrsan geþinges,
     "þēah þū heaðo-rǣsa      gehwǣr dohte,
     "grimre gūðe,      gif þū Grendles dearst
     "niht-longne fyrst      nēan bīdan!"
     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
530  "Hwæt! þū worn fela,      wine mīn Unferð,
     "bēore druncen      ymb Brecan sprǣce,
     "sægdest from his sīðe!      Sōð ic talige,
     "þæt ic mere-strengo      māran āhte,
     "earfeðo on ȳðum,      þonne ǣnig ōðer man.
535  "Wit þæt gecwǣdon      cniht-wesende
     "and gebēotedon      (wǣron bēgen þā gīt
     "on geogoð-feore)      þæt wit on gār-secg ūt
     "aldrum nēðdon;      and þæt geæfndon swā.
     "Hæfdon swurd nacod,      þā wit on sund rēon,
540  "heard on handa,      wit unc wið hron-fixas
     "werian þōhton.      Nō hē wiht fram mē
     "flōd-ȳðum feor      flēotan meahte,
     "hraðor on holme,      nō ic fram him wolde.
     "Þā wit ætsomne      on sǣ wǣron
545  "fīf nihta fyrst,      oð þæt unc flōd tōdrāf,
     "wado weallende,      wedera cealdost,
     "nīpende niht      and norðan wind
     "heaðo-grim andhwearf;      hrēo wǣron ȳða,
     "Wæs mere-fixa      mōd onhrēred:
550  "þǣr mē wið lāðum      līc-syrce mīn,
     "heard hond-locen,      helpe gefremede;
     "beado-hrægl brōden      on brēostum læg,
     "golde gegyrwed.      Mē tō grunde tēah
     "fāh fēond-scaða,      fæste hæfde
555  "grim on grāpe:      hwæðre mē gyfeðe wearð,
     "þæt ic āglǣcan      orde gerǣhte,
     "hilde-bille;      heaðo-rǣs fornam
     "mihtig mere-dēor      þurh mīne hand.


     "Swā mec gelōme      lāð-getēonan
560  "þrēatedon þearle.      Ic him þēnode
     "dēoran sweorde,      swā hit gedēfe wæs;
     "næs hīe þǣre fylle      gefēan hæfdon,
     "mān-fordǣdlan,      þæt hīe mē þēgon,
     "symbel ymb-sǣton      sǣ-grunde nēah,
565  "ac on mergenne      mēcum wunde
     "be ȳð-lāfe      uppe lǣgon,
     "sweordum āswefede,      þæt syððan nā
     "ymb brontne ford      brim-līðende
     "lāde ne letton.      Lēoht ēastan cōm,
570  "beorht bēacen godes;      brimu swaðredon,
     "þæt ic sǣ-næssas      gesēon mihte,
     "windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nereð
     "unfǣgne eorl,      ðonne his ellen dēah!
     "Hwæðere mē gesǣlde,      þæt ic mid sweorde ofslōh
575  "niceras nigene.      Nō ic on niht gefrægn
     "under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan,
     "nē on ēg-strēamum      earmran mannan;
     "hwæðere ic fāra feng      fēore gedīgde,
     "siðes wērig.      Þā mec sǣ oðbær,
580  "flōd æfter faroðe,      on Finna land,
     "wadu weallendu.      Nō ic wiht fram þē
     "swylcra searo-nīða      secgan hȳrde,
     "billa brōgan:      Breca nǣfre gīt
     "æt heaðo-lāce,      nē gehwæðer incer
585  "swā dēorlīce      dǣd gefremede
     "fāgum sweordum      . . . . . . .
     ". . . . . . .      nō ic þæs gylpe;
     "þēah þū þīnum brōðrum      tō banan wurde,
     "hēafod-mǣgum;      þæs þū in helle scealt
590  "werhðo drēogan,      þēah þīn wit duge,
     "Secge ic þē tō sōðe,      sunu Ecglāfes,
     "þæt nǣfre Grendel swā fela      gryra gefremede,
     "atol ǣglǣca      ealdre þīnum,
     "hȳnðo on Heorote,      gif þīn hige wǣre,
595  "sefa swā searo-grim,      swā þū self talast.
     "Ac hē hafað onfunden,      þæt hē þā fǣhðe ne þearf,
     "atole ecg-þræce      ēower lēode
     "swīðe onsittan,      Sige-Scyldinga;
     "nymeð nȳd-bāde,      nǣnegum ārað
600  "lēode Deniga,      ac hē on lust wīgeð,
     "swefeð ond sendeð,      secce ne wēneð
     "tō Gār-Denum.      Ac him Gēata sceal
     "eafoð and ellen      ungeāra nū
     "gūðe gebēodan.      Gǣð eft sē þe mōt
605  "tō medo mōdig,      siððan morgen-lēoht
     "ofer ylda bearn      ōðres dōgores,
     "sunne swegl-wered      sūðan scīneð!"
     Þā wæs on sālum      sinces brytta
     gamol-feax and gūð-rōf,      gēoce gelȳfde
610  brego Beorht-Dena;      gehȳrde on Bēowulfe
     folces hyrde      fæst-rǣdne geþōht.
     Þǣr wæs hæleða hleahtor;      hlyn swynsode,
     word wǣron wynsume.      Ēode Wealhþēow forð,
     cwēn Hrōðgāres,      cynna gemyndig,
615  grētte gold-hroden      guman on healle,
     and þā frēolīc wīf      ful gesealde
     ǣrest Ēast-Dena      ēðel-wearde,
     bæd hine blīðne      æt þǣre bēor-þege,
     lēodum lēofne;      hē on lust geþeah
620  symbel and sele-ful,      sige-rōf kyning.
     Ymb-ēode þā      ides Helminga
     duguðe and geogoðe      dǣl ǣghwylcne;
     sinc-fato sealde,      oð þæt sǣl ālamp,
     þæt hīo Bēowulfe,      bēag-hroden cwēn,
625  mōde geþungen,      medo-ful ætbær;
     grētte Gēata lēod,      gode þancode
     wīs-fæst wordum,      þæs þe hire se willa gelamp,
     þæt hēo on ǣnigne      eorl gelȳfde
     fyrena frōfre.      Hē þæt ful geþeah,
630  wæl-rēow wiga      æt Wealhþēon,
     and þā gyddode      gūðe gefȳsed,
     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
     "Ic þæt hogode,      þā ic on holm gestāh,
     "sǣ-bāt gesæt      mid mīnra secga gedriht,
635  "þæt ic ānunga      ēowra lēoda
     "willan geworhte,      oððe on wæl crunge,
     "fēond-grāpum fæst.      Ic gefremman sceal
     "eorlīc ellen,      oððe ende-dæg
     "on þisse meodu-healle      mīnne gebīdan."
640  Þām wīfe þā word      wēl līcodon,
     gilp-cwide Gēates;      ēode gold-hroden
     frēolīcu folc-cwēn      tō hire frēan sittan.
     Þā wæs eft swā ǣr      inne on healle
     þrȳð-word sprecen,      þēod on sǣlum,
645  sige-folca swēg,      oð þæt semninga
     sunu Healfdenes      sēcean wolde
     ǣfen-ræste;      wiste æt þǣm āhlǣcan
     tō þǣm hēah-sele      hilde geþinged,
     siððan hīe sunnan lēoht      gesēon ne meahton,
650  oððe nīpende      niht ofer ealle,
     scadu-helma gesceapu      scrīðan cwōman,
     wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall ārās.
     Grētte þā giddum      guma ōðerne,
     Hrōðgār Bēowulf,      and him hǣl ābēad,
655  wīn-ærnes geweald      and þæt word ācwæð:
     "Nǣfre ic ǣnegum men      ǣr ālȳfde,
     "siððan ic hond and rond      hebban mihte,
     "þrȳð-ærn Dena      būton þē nū þā.
     "Hafa nū and geheald      hūsa sēlest;
660  "gemyne mǣrðo,      mægen-ellen cȳð,
     "waca wið wrāðum!      Ne bið þē wilna gād,
     "gif þū þæt ellen-weorc      aldre gedīgest."


     Þā him Hrōðgār gewāt      mid his hæleða gedryht,
     eodur Scyldinga      ūt of healle;
665  wolde wīg-fruma      Wealhþēo sēcan,
     cwēn tō gebeddan      Hæfde kyninga wuldor
     Grendle tō-gēanes,      swā guman gefrungon,
     sele-weard āseted,      sundor-nytte behēold
     ymb aldor Dena,      eoton weard ābēad;
670  hūru Gēata lēod      georne truwode
     mōdgan mægnes,      metodes hyldo.
     Þā hē him of dyde      īsern-byrnan,
     helm of hafelan,      sealde his hyrsted sweord,
     īrena cyst      ombiht-þegne,
675  and gehealdan hēt      hilde-geatwe.
     Gespræc þā se gōda      gylp-worda sum
     Bēowulf Gēata,      ǣr hē on bed stige:
     "Nō ic mē an here-wǣsmum      hnāgran talige
     "gūð-geweorca,      þonne Grendel hine;
680  "forþan ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,
     "aldre benēotan,      þēah ic eal mǣge.
     "Nāt hē þāra gōda,      þæt hē mē on-gēan slēa,
     "rand gehēawe,      þēah þe hē rōf sīe
     "nīð-geweorca;      ac wit on niht sculon
685  "secge ofersittan,      gif hē gesēcean dear
     "wīg ofer wǣpen,      and siððan wītig god
     "on swā hwæðere hond      hālig dryhten
     "mǣrðo dēme,      swā him gemet þince."
     Hylde hine þā heaðo-dēor,      hlēor-bolster onfēng
690  eorles andwlitan;      and hine ymb monig
     snellīc sǣ-rinc      sele-reste gebēah.
     Nǣnig heora þōhte      þæt hē þanon scolde
     eft eard-lufan      ǣfre gesēcean,
     folc oððe frēo-burh,      þǣr hē āfēded wæs,
695  ac hīe hæfdon gefrūnen,      þæt hīe ǣr tō fela micles
     in þǣm wīn-sele      wæl-dēað fornam,
     Denigea lēode.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf
     wīg-spēda gewiofu,      Wedera lēodum
     frōfor and fultum,      þæt hīe fēond heora
700  þurh ānes cræft      ealle ofercōmon,
     selfes mihtum:      sōð is gecȳðed,
     þæt mihtig god      manna cynnes
     wēold wīde-ferhð.      Cōm on wanre niht
     scrīðan sceadu-genga.      Scēotend swǣfon,
705  þā þæt horn-reced      healdan scoldon,
     ealle būton ānum.      Þæt wæs yldum cūð,
     þæt hīe ne mōste,      þā metod nolde,
     se syn-scaða      under sceadu bregdan;
     ac hē wæccende      wrāðum on andan
710  bād bolgen-mōd      beadwa geþinges.


     Þā cōm of mōre      under mist-hleoðum
     Grendel gongan,      godes yrre bær.
     Mynte se mān-scaða      manna cynnes
     sumne besyrwan      in sele þām hēan;
715  wōd under wolcnum,      tō þæs þe hē wīn-reced,
     gold-sele gumena,      gearwost wisse
     fǣttum fāhne.      Ne wæs þæt forma sīð,
     þæt hē Hrōðgāres      hām gesōhte:
     nǣfre hē on aldor-dagum      ǣr nē siððan
720  heardran hæle,      heal-þegnas fand!
     Cōm þā tō recede      rinc sīðian
     drēamum bedǣled.      Duru sōna onarn
     fȳr-bendum fæst,      syððan hē hire folmum hrān;
     onbræd þā bealo-hȳdig,      þā hē ābolgen wæs,
725  recedes mūðan.      Raðe æfter þon
     on fāgne flōr      fēond treddode,
     ēode yrre-mōd;      him of ēagum stōd
     līge gelīcost      lēoht unfǣger.
     Geseah hē in recede      rinca manige,
730  swefan sibbe-gedriht      samod ætgædere,
     mago-rinca hēap:      þā his mōd āhlōg,
     mynte þæt hē gedǣlde,      ǣr þon dæg cwōme,
     atol āglǣca,      ānra gehwylces
     līf wið līce,      þā him ālumpen wæs
735  wist-fylle wēn.      Ne wæs þæt wyrd þā gēn,
     þæt hē mā mōste      manna cynnes
     þicgean ofer þā niht.      Þrȳð-swȳð behēold
     mǣg Higelāces,      hū se mān-scaða
     under fǣr-gripum      gefaran wolde.
740  Nē þæt se āglǣca      yldan þōhte,
     ac hē gefēng hraðe      forman siðe
     slǣpendne rinc,      slāt unwearnum,
     bāt bān-locan,      blōd ēdrum dranc,
     syn-snǣdum swealh:      sōna hæfde
745  unlyfigendes      eal gefeormod
     fēt and folma.      Forð nēar ætstōp,
     nam þā mid handa      hige-þīhtigne
     rinc on ræste;      rǣhte ongēan
     fēond mid folme,      hē onfēng hraðe
750  inwit-þancum      and wið earm gesæt.
     Sōna þæt onfunde      fyrena hyrde,
     þæt hē ne mētte      middan-geardes
     eorðan scēata      on elran men
     mund-gripe māran:      hē on mōde wearð
755  forht on ferhðe,      nō þȳ ǣr fram meahte;
     hyge wæs him hin-fūs,      wolde on heolster flēon,
     sēcan dēofla gedræg:      ne wæs his drohtoð þǣr,
     swylce hē on ealder-dagum      ǣr gemētte.
     Gemunde þā se gōda      mǣg Higelāces
760  ǣfen-sprǣce,      up-lang āstōd
     and him fæste wiðfēng.      Fingras burston;
     eoten wæs ūt-weard,      eorl furður stōp.
     Mynte se mǣra,      þǣr hē meahte swā,
     wīdre gewindan      and on weg þanon
765  flēon on fen-hopu;      wiste his fingra geweald
     on grames grāpum.      Þæt wæs gēocor sīð,
     þæt se hearm-scaða      tō Heorute ātēah:
     dryht-sele dynede,      Denum eallum wearð,
     ceaster-būendum,      cēnra gehwylcum,
770  eorlum ealu-scerwen.      Yrre wǣron bēgen,
     rēðe rēn-weardas.      Reced hlynsode;
     þā wæs wundor micel,      þæt se wīn-sele
     wiðhæfde heaðo-dēorum,      þæt hē on hrūsan ne fēol,
     fǣger fold-bold;      ac hē þæs fæste wæs
775  innan and ūtan      īren-bendum
     searo-þoncum besmiðod.      Þǣr fram sylle ābēag
     medu-benc monig      mīne gefrǣge,
     golde geregnad,      þǣr þā graman wunnon;
     þæs ne wēndon ǣr      witan Scyldinga,
780  þæt hit ā mid gemete      manna ǣnig
     betlīc and bān-fāg      tōbrecan meahte,
     listum tōlūcan,      nymðe līges fæðm
     swulge on swaðule.      Swēg up āstāg
     nīwe geneahhe;      Norð-Denum stōd
785  atelīc egesa      ānra gehwylcum
     þāra þe of wealle      wōp gehȳrdon,
     gryre-lēoð galan      godes andsacan,
     sige-lēasne sang,      sār wānigean
     helle hæftan.      Hēold hine tō fæste
790  sē þe manna wæs      mægene strengest
     on þǣm dæge      þysses līfes.


     Nolde eorla hlēo      ǣnige þinga
     þone cwealm-cuman      cwicne forlǣtan,
     nē his līf-dagas      lēoda ǣnigum
795  nytte tealde.      Þǣr genehost brægd
     eorl Bēowulfes      ealde lāfe,
     wolde frēa-drihtnes      feorh ealgian
     mǣres þēodnes,      þǣr hīe meahton swā;
     hīe þæt ne wiston,      þā hīe gewin drugon,
800  heard-hicgende      hilde-mecgas,
     and on healfa gehwone      hēawan þōhton,
     sāwle sēcan,      þæt þone syn-scaðan
     ǣnig ofer eorðan      īrenna cyst,
     gūð-billa nān      grētan nolde;
805  ac hē sige-wǣpnum      forsworen hæfde,
     ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldor-gedāl
     on þǣm dæge      þysses līfes
     earmlīc wurðan      and se ellor-gāst
     on fēonda geweald      feor sīðian.
810  Þā þæt onfunde      sē þe fela ǣror
     mōdes myrðe      manna cynne
     fyrene gefremede      (hē wæs fāg wið god)
     þæt him se līc-homa      lǣstan nolde,
     ac hine se mōdega      mǣg Hygelāces
815  hæfde be honda;      wæs gehwæðer ōðrum
     lifigende lāð.      Līc-sār gebād
     atol ǣglǣca,      him on eaxle wearð
     syn-dolh sweotol,      seonowe onsprungon
     burston bān-locan.      Bēowulfe wearð
820  gūð-hrēð gyfeðe;      scolde Grendel þonan
     feorh-sēoc flēon      under fen-hleoðu,
     sēcean wyn-lēas wīc;      wiste þē geornor,
     þæt his aldres wæs      ende gegongen,
     dōgera dæg-rīm.      Denum eallum wearð
825  æfter þām wæl-rǣse      willa gelumpen.
     Hæfde þā gefǣlsod,      sē þe ǣr feorran cōm,
     snotor and swȳð-ferhð      sele Hrōðgāres,
     genered wið nīðe.      Niht-weorce gefeh,
     ellen-mǣrðum;      hæfde Ēast-Denum
830  Gēat-mecga lēod      gilp gelǣsted,
     swylce oncȳððe      ealle gebētte,
     inwid-sorge,      þē hīe ǣr drugon
     and for þrēa-nȳdum      þolian scoldon,
     torn unlȳtel.      Þæt wæs tācen sweotol,
835  syððan hilde-dēor      hond ālegde,
     earm and eaxle      (þǣr wæs eal geador
     Grendles grāpe)      under gēapne hrōf.


     Þā wæs on morgen      mīne gefrǣge
     ymb þā gif-healle      gūð-rinc monig:
840  fērdon folc-togan      feorran and nēan
     geond wīd-wegas      wundor scēawian,
     lāðes lāstas.      Nō his līf-gedāl
     sārlīc þūhte      secga ǣnegum,
     þāra þe tīr-lēases      trode scēawode,
845  hū hē wērig-mōd      on weg þanon,
     nīða ofercumen,      on nicera mere
     fǣge and geflȳmed      feorh-lāstas bær.
     Þǣr wæs on blōde      brim weallende,
     atol ȳða geswing      eal gemenged
850  hātan heolfre,      heoro-drēore wēol;
     dēað-fǣge dēog,      siððan drēama lēas
     in fen-freoðo      feorh ālegde
     hǣðene sāwle,      þǣr him hel onfēng.
     Þanon eft gewiton      eald-gesīðas,
855  swylce geong manig      of gomen-wāðe,
     fram mere mōdge,      mēarum rīdan,
     beornas on blancum.      Þǣr wæs Bēowulfes
     mǣrðo mǣned;      monig oft gecwæð,
     þætte sūð nē norð      be sǣm tweonum
860  ofer eormen-grund      ōðer nǣnig
     under swegles begong      sēlra nǣre
     rond-hæbbendra,      rīces wyrðra.
     Nē hīe hūru wine-drihten      wiht ne lōgon,
     glædne Hrōðgār,      ac þæt wæs gōd cyning.
865  Hwīlum heaðo-rōfe      hlēapan lēton,
     on geflīt faran      fealwe mēaras,
     þǣr him fold-wegas      fægere þūhton,
     cystum cūðe;      hwīlum cyninges þegn,
     guma gilp-hlæden      gidda gemyndig,
870  sē þe eal-fela      eald-gesegena
     worn gemunde,      word ōðer fand
     sōðe gebunden:      secg eft ongan
     sīð Bēowulfes      snyttrum styrian
     and on spēd wrecan      spel gerāde,
875  wordum wrixlan,      wēl-hwylc gecwæð,
     þæt hē fram Sigemunde      secgan hȳrde,
     ellen-dǣdum,      uncūðes fela,
     Wælsinges gewin,      wīde sīðas,
     þāra þe gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston,
880  fǣhðe and fyrene,      būton Fitela mid hine,
     þonne hē swylces hwæt      secgan wolde
     ēam his nefan,      swā hīe ā wǣron
     æt nīða gehwām      nȳd-gesteallan:
     hæfdon eal-fela      eotena cynnes
885  sweordum gesǣged.      Sigemunde gesprong
     æfter dēað-dæge      dōm unlȳtel,
     syððan wīges heard      wyrm ācwealde,
     hordes hyrde;      hē under hārne stān,
     æðelinges bearn,      āna genēðde
890  frēcne dǣde;      ne wæs him Fitela mid.
     Hwæðre him gesǣlde,      þæt þæt swurd þurhwōd
     wrǣtlīcne wyrm,      þæt hit on wealle ætstōd,
     dryhtlīc īren;      draca morðre swealt.
     Hæfde āglǣca      elne gegongen,
895  þæt hē bēah-hordes      brūcan mōste
     selfes dōme:      sǣ-bāt gehlōd,
     bær on bearm scipes      beorhte frætwa,
     Wælses eafera;      wyrm hāt gemealt.
     Sē wæs wreccena      wīde mǣrost
900  ofer wer-þēode,      wīgendra hlēo
     ellen-dǣdum:      hē þæs āron þāh.
     Siððan Heremōdes      hild sweðrode
     eafoð and ellen.      Hē mid eotenum wearð
     on fēonda geweald      forð forlācen,
905  snūde forsended.      Hine sorh-wylmas
     lemede tō lange,      hē his lēodum wearð,
     eallum æðelingum      tō aldor-ceare;
     swylce oft bemearn      ǣrran mǣlum
     swīð-ferhðes sīð      snotor ceorl monig,
910  sē þe him bealwa tō      bōte gelȳfde,
     þæt þæt þēodnes bearn      geþēon scolde,
     fæder-æðelum onfōn,      folc gehealdan,
     hord and hlēo-burh,      hæleða rīce,
     ēðel Scyldinga.      Hē þǣr eallum wearð,
915  mǣg Higelāces      manna cynne,
     frēondum gefægra;      hine fyren onwōd.

     Hwīlum flītende      fealwe strǣte
     mēarum mǣton.      Þā wæs morgen-lēoht
     scofen and scynded.      Ēode scealc monig
920  swīð-hicgende      tō sele þām hēan,
     searo-wundor sēon,      swylce self cyning,
     of brȳd-būre      bēah-horda weard,
     tryddode tīr-fæst      getrume micle,
     cystum gecȳðed,      and his cwēn mid him
925  medo-stīg gemæt      mægða hōse.


     Hrōðgār maðelode      (hē tō healle gēong,
     stōd on stapole,      geseah stēapne hrōf
     golde fāhne      and Grendles hond):
     "þisse ansȳne      al-wealdan þanc
930  "lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic lāðes gebād,
     "grynna æt Grendle:      ā mæg god wyrcan
     "wunder æfter wundre,      wuldres hyrde!
     "Þæt wæs ungeāra,      þæt ic ǣnigra mē
     "wēana ne wēnde      tō wīdan feore
935  "bōte gebīdan      þonne blōde fāh
     "hūsa sēlest      heoro-drēorig stōd;
     "wēa wīd-scofen      witena gehwylcne
     "þāra þe ne wēndon,      þæt hīe wīde-ferhð
     "lēoda land-geweorc      lāðum beweredon
940  "scuccum and scinnum.      Nū scealc hafað
     "þurh drihtnes miht      dǣd gefremede,
     "þē wē ealle      ǣr ne meahton
     "snyttrum besyrwan.      Hwæt! þæt secgan mæg
     "efne swā hwylc mægða,      swā þone magan cende
945  "æfter gum-cynnum,      gyf hēo gȳt lyfað,
     "þæt hyre eald-metod      ēste wǣre
     "bearn-gebyrdo.      Nū ic Bēowulf
     "þec, secg betsta,      mē for sunu wylle
     "frēogan on ferhðe;      heald forð tela
950  "nīwe sibbe.      Ne bið þē nǣnigra gād
     "worolde wilna,      þē ic geweald hæbbe.
     "Ful-oft ic for lǣssan      lēan teohhode
     "hord-weorðunge      hnāhran rince,
     "sǣmran æt sæcce.      Þū þē self hafast
955  "dǣdum gefremed,      þæt þīn dōm lyfað
     "āwa tō aldre.      Alwalda þec
     "gōde forgylde,      swā hē nū gȳt dyde!"
     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
     "Wē þæt ellen-weorc      ēstum miclum,
960  "feohtan fremedon,      frēcne genēðdon
     "eafoð uncūðes;      ūðe ic swīðor,
     "þæt þū hinc selfne      gesēon mōste,
     "fēond on frætewum      fyl-wērigne!
     "Ic hine hrædlīce      heardan clammum
965  "on wæl-bedde      wrīðan þōhte,
     "þæt hē for mund-gripe      mīnum scolde
     "licgean līf-bysig,      būtan his līc swice;
     "ic hine ne mihte,      þā metod nolde,
     "ganges getwǣman,      nō ic him þæs georne ætfealh,
970  "feorh-genīðlan;      wæs tō fore-mihtig
     "fēond on fēðe.      Hwæðere hē his folme forlēt
     "tō līf-wraðe      lāst weardian,
     "earm and eaxle;      nō þǣr ǣnige swā þēah
     "fēa-sceaft guma      frōfre gebohte:
975  "nō þȳ leng leofað      lāð-getēona
     "synnum geswenced,      ac hyne sār hafað
     "in nȳd-gripe      nearwe befongen,
     "balwon bendum:      þǣr ābīdan sceal
     "maga māne fāh      miclan dōmes,
980  "hū him scīr metod      scrīfan wille."
     Þā wæs swīgra secg,      sunu Ecglāfes,
     on gylp-sprǣce      gūð-geweorca,
     siððan æðelingas      eorles cræfte
     ofer hēahne hrōf      hand scēawedon,
985  fēondes fingras,      foran ǣghwylc;
     wæs stēde nægla gehwylc,      stȳle gelīcost,
     hǣðenes hand-sporu      hilde-rinces
     egle unhēoru;      ǣg-hwylc gecwæð,
     þæt him heardra nān      hrīnan wolde
990  īren ǣr-gōd,      þæt þæs āhlǣcan
     blōdge beadu-folme      onberan wolde.


     Þā wæs hāten hreðe      Heort innan-weard
     folmum gefrætwod:      fela þǣra wæs
     wera and wīfa,      þē þæt wīn-reced,
995  gest-sele gyredon.      Gold-fāg scinon
     web æfter wāgum,      wundor-sīona fela
     secga gehwylcum      þāra þe on swylc starað
     Wæs þæt beorhte bold      tōbrocen swīðe
     eal inne-weard      īren-bendum fæst,
1000 heorras tōhlidene;      hrōf āna genæs
     ealles ansund,      þā se āglǣca
     fyren-dǣdum fāg      on flēam gewand,
     aldres or-wēna.      Nō þæt ȳðe byð
     tō beflēonne      (fremme sē þe wille!)
1005 ac gesacan sceal      sāwl-berendra
     nȳde genȳdde      niðða bearna
     grund-būendra      gearwe stōwe,
     þǣr his līc-homa      leger-bedde fæst
     swefeð æfter symle.      Þā wæs sǣl and mǣl,
1010 þæt tō healle gang      Healfdenes sunu;
     wolde self cyning      symbel þicgan.
     Ne gefrægen ic þā mǣgðe      māran weorode
     ymb hyra sinc-gyfan      sēl gebǣran.
     Bugon þā tō bence      blǣd-āgende,
1015 fylle gefǣgon.      Fægere geþǣgon
     medo-ful manig      māgas þāra
     swīð-hicgende      on sele þām hēan,
     Hrōðgār and Hrōðulf.      Heorot innan wæs
     frēondum āfylled;      nalles fācen-stafas
1020 Þēod-Scyldingas      þenden fremedon.
     Forgeaf þā Bēowulfe      bearn Healfdenes
     segen gyldenne      sigores tō lēane,
     hroden hilte-cumbor,      helm and byrnan;
     mǣre māððum-sweord      manige gesāwon
1025 beforan beorn beran.      Bēowulf geþah
     ful on flette;      nō hē þǣre feoh-gyfte
     for scēotendum      scamigan þorfte,
     ne gefrægn ic frēondlīcor      fēower mādmas
     golde gegyrede      gum-manna fela
1030 in ealo-bence      ōðrum gesellan.
     Ymb þæs helmes hrōf      hēafod-beorge
     wīrum bewunden      walan ūtan hēold,
     þæt him fēla lāfe      frēcne ne meahton
     scūr-heard sceððan,      þonne scyld-freca
1035 ongēan gramum      gangan scolde.
     Heht þā eorla hlēo      eahta mēaras,
     fǣted-hlēore,      on flet tēon
     in under eoderas;      þāra ānum stōd
     sadol searwum fāh      since gewurðad,
1040 þæt wæs hilde-setl      hēah-cyninges,
     þonne sweorda gelāc      sunu Healfdenes
     efnan wolde;      nǣfre on ōre læg
     wīd-cūðes wīg,      þonne walu fēollon.
     And þā Bēowulfe      bēga gehwæðres
1045 eodor Ingwina      onweald getēah,
     wicga and wǣpna;      hēt hine wēl brūcan.
     Swā manlīce      mǣre þēoden,
     hord-weard hæleða      heaðo-rǣsas geald
     mēarum and mādmum,      swā hȳ nǣfre man lyhð,
1050 sē þe secgan wile      sōð æfter rihte.


     Þā gȳt ǣghwylcum      eorla drihten
     þāra þe mid Bēowulfe      brim-lāde tēah,
     on þǣre medu-bence      māððum gesealde,
     yrfe-lāfe,      and þone ǣnne heht
1055 golde forgyldan,      þone þe Grendel ǣr
     māne ācwealde,      swā hē hyra mā wolde,
     nefne him wītig god      wyrd forstōde
     and þæs mannes mōd:      metod eallum wēold
     gumena cynnes,      swā hē nū gīt dēð;
1060 forþan bið andgit      ǣghwǣr sēlest,
     ferhðes fore-þanc!      fela sceal gebīdan
     lēofes and lāðes,      sē þe longe hēr
     on þyssum win-dagum      worolde brūceð.
     Þǣr wæs sang and swēg      samod ætgædere
1065 fore Healfdenes      hilde-wīsan,
     gomen-wudu grēted,      gid oft wrecen,
     þonne heal-gamen      Hrōðgāres scop
     æfter medo-bence      mǣnan scolde
     Finnes eaferum,      þā hīe se fǣr begeat:
1070 "Hæleð Healfdenes,      Hnæf Scyldinga,
     "in Fr..es wæle      feallan scolde.
     "Nē hūru Hildeburh      herian þorfte
     "Eotena trēowe:      unsynnum wearð
     "beloren lēofum      æt þām lind-plegan
1075 "bearnum and brōðrum;      hīe on gebyrd hruron
     "gāre wunde;      þæt wæs geōmuru ides.
     "Nalles hōlinga      Hōces dōhtor
     "meotod-sceaft bemearn,      syððan morgen cōm,
     "þā hēo under swegle      gesēon meahte
1080 "morðor-bealo māga,      þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste hēold
     "worolde wynne:      wīg ealle fornam
     "Finnes þegnas,      nemne fēaum ānum,
     "þæt hē ne mehte      on þǣm meðel-stede
     "wīg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan,
1085 "nē þā wēa-lāfe      wīge forþringan
     "þōodnes þegne;       ac hig him geþingo budon,
     "þæt hīe him ōðer flet      eal gerȳmdon,
     "healle and hēah-setl,      þæt hīe healfre geweald
     "wið Eotena bearn      āgan mōston,
1090 "and æt feoh-gyftum      Folcwaldan sunu
     "dōgra gehwylce      Dene weorðode,
     "Hengestes hēap      hringum wenede,
     "efne swā swīðe      sinc-gestrēonum
     "fǣttan goldes,      swā hē Frēsena cyn
1095 "on bēor-sele      byldan wolde.
     "Þā hīe getruwedon      on twā healfa
     "fæste frioðu-wǣre;      Fin Hengeste
     "elne unflitme      āðum benemde,
     "þæt hē þā wēa-lāfe      weotena dōme
1100 "ārum heolde,      þæt þǣr ǣnig mon
     "wordum nē worcum      wǣre ne brǣce,
     "nē þurh inwit-searo      ǣfre gemǣnden,
     "þēah hīe hira bēag-gyfan      banan folgedon
     "þēoden-lēase,      þā him swā geþearfod wæs:
1105 "gyf þonne Frȳsna hwylc      frēcnan sprǣce
     "þæs morðor-hetes      myndgiend wǣre,
     "þonne hit sweordes ecg      syððan scolde.
     "Āð wæs geæfned      and icge gold
     "āhæfen of horde.      Here-Scyldinga
1110 "betst beado-rinca      wæs on bǣl gearu;
     "æt þǣm āde wæs      ēð-gesȳne
     "swāt-fāh syrce,      swȳn eal-gylden,
     "eofer īren-heard,      æðeling manig
     "wundum āwyrded;      sume on wæle crungon.
1115 "Hēt þā Hildeburh      æt Hnæfes āde
     "hire selfre sunu      sweoloðe befæstan,
     "bān-fatu bærnan      and on bǣl dōn.
     "Earme on eaxle      ides gnornode,
     "geōmrode giddum;      gūð-rinc āstāh.
1120 "Wand tō wolcnum      wæl-fȳra mǣst,
     "hlynode for hlāwe;      hafelan multon,
     "ben-geato burston,      þonne blōd ætspranc
     "lāð-bite līces.      Līg ealle forswealg,
     "gǣsta gīfrost,      þāra þe þǣr gūð fornam
1125 "bēga folces;      wæs hira blǣd scacen.


     "Gewiton him þā wīgend      wīca nēosian,
     "frēondum befeallen      Frȳsland gesēon,
     "hāmas and hēa-burh.      Hengest þā gȳt
     "wæl-fāgne winter      wunode mid Finne
1130 "ealles unhlitme;      eard gemunde,
     "þēah þe hē ne meahte      on mere drīfan
     "hringed-stefnan;      holm storme wēol,
     "won wið winde;      winter ȳðe belēac
     "īs-gebinde      oð þæt ōðer cōm
1135 "geār in geardas,      swā nū gȳt dēð,
     "þā þe syngales      sēle bewitiað,
     "wuldor-torhtan weder.      Þā wæs winter scacen,
     "fæger foldan bearm;      fundode wrecca,
     "gist of geardum;      hē tō gyrn-wræce
1140 "swīðor þōhte,      þonne tō sǣ-lāde,
     "gif hē torn-gemōt      þurhtēon mihte,
     "þæt hē Eotena bearn      inne gemunde.
     "Swā hē ne forwyrnde      worold-rǣdenne,
     "þonne him Hūnlāfing      hilde-lēoman,
1145 "billa sēlest,      on bearm dyde:
     "þæs wǣron mid Eotenum      ecge cūðe.
     "Swylce ferhð-frecan      Fin eft begeat
     "sweord-bealo slīðen      æt his selfes hām,
     "siððan grimne gripe      Gūðlaf ond Ōslāf
1150 "æfter sǣ-siðe      sorge mǣndon,
     "ætwiton wēana dǣl;      ne meahte wǣfre mōd
     "forhabban in hreðre.      Þā wæs heal hroden
     "fēonda fēorum,      swilce Fin slægen,
     "cyning on corðre,      and sēo cwēn numen.
1155 "Scēotend Scyldinga      tō scypum feredon
     "eal in-gesteald      eorð-cyninges,
     "swylce hīe æt Finnes hām      findan meahton
     "sigla searo-gimma.      Hīe on sǣ-lāde
     "drihtlīce wīf      tō Denum feredon,
1160 "lǣddon tō lēodum."      Lēoð wæs āsungen,
     glēo-mannes gyd.      Gamen eft āstāh,
     beorhtode benc-swēg,      byrelas sealdon
     wīn of wunder-fatum.      Þā cwōm Wealhþēo forð
     gān under gyldnum bēage,      þǣr þā gōdan twēgen
1165 sǣton suhter-gefæderan;      þā gȳt wæs hiera sib ætgædere
     ǣghwylc ōðrum trȳwe.      Swylce þǣr Unferð þyle
     æt fōtum sæt frēan Scyldinga:      gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trēowde,
     þæt hē hæfde mōd micel,      þēah þe hē his māgum nǣre
     ārfæst æt ecga gelācum.      Spræc þā ides Scyldinga:
1170 "Onfōh þissum fulle,      frēo-drihten mīn,
     "sinces brytta;      þū on sǣlum wes,
     "gold-wine gumena,      and tō Gēatum sprec
     "mildum wordum!      Swā sceal man dōn.
     "Bēo wið Gēatas glæd,      geofena gemyndig;
1175 "nēan and feorran      þū nū friðu hafast.
     "Mē man sægde,      þæt þū þē for sunu wolde
     "here-rinc habban.      Heorot is gefǣlsod,
     "bēah-sele beorhta;      brūc þenden þū mōte
     "manigra mēda      and þīnum māgum lǣf
1180 "folc and rīce,      þonne þū forð scyle
     "metod-sceaft sēon.      Ic mīnne can
     "glædne Hrōðulf,      þæt hē þā geogoðe wile
     "ārum healdan,      gyf þū ǣr þonne hē,
     "wine Scildinga,      worold oflǣtest;
1185 "wēne ic, þæt hē mid gōde      gyldan wille
     "uncran eaferan,      gif hē þæt eal gemon,
     "hwæt wit tō willan      and tō worð-myndum
     "umbor wesendum ǣr      ārna gefremedon."
     Hwearf þā bī bence,      þǣr hyre byre wǣron,
1190 Hrēðrīc and Hrōðmund,      and hæleða bearn,
     giogoð ætgædere;      þǣr se gōda sæt
     Bēowulf Gēata      be þǣm gebrōðrum twǣm.


     Him wæs ful boren      and frēond-laðu
     wordum bewægned      and wunden gold
1195 ēstum geēawed,      earm-hrēade twā,
     hrægl and hringas,      heals-bēaga mǣst
     þāra þe ic on foldan      gefrægen hæbbe.
     Nǣnigne ic under swegle      sēlran hȳrde
     hord-māððum hæleða,      syððan Hāma ætwæg
1200 tō þǣre byrhtan byrig      Brōsinga mene,
     sigle and sinc-fæt,      searo-nīðas fealh
     Eormenrīces,      gecēas ēcne rǣd.
     Þone hring hæfde      Higelāc Gēata,
     nefa Swertinges,      nȳhstan sīðe,
1205 siððan hē under segne      sinc ealgode,
     wæl-rēaf werede;      hyne Wyrd fornam,
     syððan hē for wlenco      wēan āhsode,
     fǣhðe tō Frȳsum;      hē þā frætwe wæg,
     eorclan-stānas      ofer ȳða ful,
1210 rīce þēoden,      hē under rande gecranc;
     gehwearf þā in Francna fæðm      feorh cyninges,
     brēost-gewǣdu      and se bēah somod:
     wyrsan wīg-frecan      wæl rēafedon
     æfter gūð-sceare,      Gēata lēode
1215 hreā-wīc hēoldon.      Heal swēge onfēng.
     Wealhþēo maðelode,      hēo fore þǣm werede spræc:
     "Brūc þisses bēages,      Bēowulf, lēofa
     "hyse, mid hǣle,      and þisses hrægles nēot
     "þēod-gestrēona,      and geþēoh tela,
1220 "cen þec mid cræfte      and þyssum cnyhtum wes
     "lāra līðe!      ic þē þæs lēan geman.
     "Hafast þū gefēred,      þæt þē feor and nēah
     "ealne wīde-ferhð      weras ehtigað,
     "efne swā sīde      swā sǣ bebūgeð
1225 "windige weallas.      Wes, þenden þū lifige,
     "æðeling ēadig!      ic þē an tela
     "sinc-gestrēona.      Bēo þū suna mīnum
     "dǣdum gedēfe      drēam healdende!
     "Hēr is ǣghwylc eorl      ōðrum getrȳwe,
1230 "mōdes milde,      man-drihtne hold,
     "þegnas syndon geþwǣre,      þēod eal gearo:
     "druncne dryht-guman,      dōð swā ic bidde!"
     Ēode þā tō setle.      Þǣr wæs symbla cyst,
     druncon wīn weras:      wyrd ne cūðon,
1235 geō-sceaft grimme,      swā hit āgangen wearð
     eorla manegum,      syððan ǣfen cwōm
     and him Hrōðgār gewāt      tō hofe sīnum,
     rīce tō ræste.      Reced weardode
     unrīm eorla,      swā hīe oft ǣr dydon:
1240 benc-þelu beredon,      hit geond-brǣded wearð
     beddum and bolstrum.      Bēor-scealca sum
     fūs and fǣge      flet-ræste gebēag.
     Setton him tō hēafdum      hilde-randas,
     bord-wudu beorhtan;      þǣr on bence wæs
1245 ofer æðelinge      ȳð-gesēne
     heaðo-stēapa helm,      hringed byrne,
     þrec-wudu þrymlīc.      Wæs þēaw hyra,
     þæt hīe oft wǣron      an wīg gearwe,
     gē æt hām gē on herge,      gē gehwæðer þāra
1250 efne swylce mǣla,      swylce hira man-dryhtne
     þearf gesǣlde;      wæs sēo þēod tilu.


     Sigon þā tō slǣpe.      Sum sāre angeald
     ǣfen-ræste,      swā him ful-oft gelamp,
     siððan gold-sele      Grendel warode,
1255 unriht æfnde,      oð þæt ende becwōm,
     swylt æfter synnum.      Þæt gesȳne wearð,
     wīd-cūð werum,      þætte wrecend þā gȳt
     lifde æfter lāðum,      lange þrāge
     æfter gūð-ceare;      Grendles mōdor,
1260 ides āglǣc-wīf      yrmðe gemunde,
     sē þe wæter-egesan      wunian scolde,
     cealde strēamas,      siððan Cain wearð
     tō ecg-banan      āngan brēðer,
     fæderen-mǣge;      hē þā fāg gewāt,
1265 morðre gemearcod      man-drēam flēon,
     wēsten warode.      Þanon wōc fela
     geōsceaft-gāsta;      wæs þǣra Grendel sum,
     heoro-wearh hetelīc,      sē æt Heorote fand
     wæccendne wer      wīges bīdan,
1270 þǣr him āglǣca      æt-grǣpe wearð;
     hwæðre hē gemunde      mægenes strenge,
     gim-fæste gife,      þē him god sealde,
     and him tō anwaldan      āre gelȳfde,
     frōfre and fultum:      þȳ hē þone fēond ofercwōm,
1275 gehnǣgde helle gāst:      þā hē hēan gewāt,
     drēame bedǣled      dēað-wīc sēon,
     man-cynnes fēond.      And his mōdor þā gȳt
     gīfre and galg-mōd      gegān wolde
     sorh-fulne sīð,      suna dēað wrecan.
1280 Cōm þā tō Heorote,      þǣr Hring-Dene
     geond þæt sæld swǣfun.      Þā þǣr sōna wearð
     ed-hwyrft eorlum,      siððan inne fealh
     Grendles mōdor;      wæs se gryre lǣssa
     efne swā micle,      swā bið mægða cræft,
1285 wīg-gryre wīfes      be wǣpned-men,
     þonne heoru bunden,      hamere geþuren,
     sweord swāte fāh      swīn ofer helme,
     ecgum dyhtig      andweard scireð.
     Þā wæs on healle      heard-ecg togen,
1290 sweord ofer setlum,      sīd-rand manig
     hafen handa fæst;      helm ne gemunde,
     byrnan sīde,      þe hine se brōga angeat.
     Hēo wæs on ofste,      wolde ūt þanon
     fēore beorgan,      þā hēo onfunden wæs;
1295 hraðe hēo æðelinga      ānne hæfde
     fæste befangen,      þā hēo tō fenne gang;
     sē wæs Hrōðgāre      hæleða lēofost
     on gesīðes hād      be sǣm tweonum,
     rīce rand-wiga,      þone þe hēo on ræste ābrēat,
1300 blǣd-fæstne beorn.      Næs Bēowulf þǣr,
     ac wæs ōðer in      ǣr geteohhod
     æfter māððum-gife      mǣrum Gēate.
     Hrēam wearð on Heorote.      Hēo under heolfre genam
     cūðe folme;      cearu wæs genīwod
1305 geworden in wīcum:      ne wæs þæt gewrixle til,
     þæt hīe on bā healfa      bicgan scoldon
     frēonda fēorum.      Þā wæs frōd cyning,
     hār hilde-rinc,      on hrēon mōde,
     syððan hē aldor-þegn      unlyfigendne,
1310 þone dēorestan      dēadne wisse.
     Hraðe wæs tō būre      Bēowulf fetod,
     sigor-ēadig secg.      Samod ǣr-dæge
     ēode eorla sum,      æðele cempa
     self mid gesīðum,      þǣr se snottra bād,
1315 hwæðre him al-walda      ǣfre wille
     æfter wēa-spelle      wyrpe gefremman.
     Gang þā æfter flōre      fyrd-wyrðe man
     mid his hand-scale      (heal-wudu dynede)
     þæt hē þone wīsan      wordum hnǣgde
1320 frēan Ingwina;      frægn gif him wǣre
     æfter nēod-laðu      niht getǣse.


     Hrōðgār maðelode,      helm Scildinga:
     "Ne frīn þū æfter sǣlum!      Sorh is genīwod
     "Denigea lēodum.      Dēad is Æsc-here,
1325 "Yrmenlāfes      yldra brōðor,
     "mīn rūn-wita      and mīn rǣd-bora,
     "eaxl-gestealla,      þonne wē on orlege
     "hafelan weredon,      þonne hniton fēðan,
     "eoferas cnysedan;      swylc scolde eorl wesan
1330 "æðeling ǣr-gōd,      swylc Æsc-here wæs.
     "Wearð him on Heorote      tō hand-banan
     "wæl-gǣst wǣfre;      ic ne wāt hwæder
     "atol ǣse wlanc      eft-sīðas tēah,
     "fylle gefrǣgnod.      Hēo þā fǣhðe wræc,
1335 "þē þū gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest
     "þurh hǣstne hād      heardum clammum,
     "forþan hē tō lange      lēode mīne
     "wanode and wyrde.      Hē æt wīge gecrang
     "ealdres scyldig,      and nū ōðer cwōm
1340 "mihtig mān-scaða,      wolde hyre mǣg wrecan,
     "gē feor hafað      fǣhðe gestǣled,
     "þæs þe þincean mæg      þegne monegum,
     "sē þe æfter sinc-gyfan      on sefan grēoteð,
     "hreðer-bealo hearde;      nū sēo hand ligeð,
1345 "sē þe ēow wēl-hwylcra      wilna dohte.
     "Ic þæt lond-būend      lēode mīne
     "sele-rǣdende      secgan hȳrde,
     "þæt hīe gesāwon      swylce twēgen
     "micle mearc-stapan      mōras healdan,
1350 "ellor-gǣstas:      þǣra ōðer wæs,
     "þæs þe hīe gewislīcost      gewitan meahton,
     "idese onlīcnes,      ōðer earm-sceapen
     "on weres wæstmum      wræc-lāstas træd,
     "næfne hē wæs māra      þonne ǣnig man ōðer,
1355 "þone on geār-dagum      Grendel nemdon
     "fold-būende:      nō hīe fæder cunnon,
     "hwæðer him ǣnig wæs      ǣr ācenned
     "dyrnra gāsta.      Hīe dȳgel lond
     "warigeað, wulf-hleoðu,      windige næssas,
1360 "frēcne fen-gelād,      þǣr fyrgen-strēam
     "under næssa genipu      niðer gewīteð,
     "flōd under foldan;      nis þæt feor heonon
     "mīl-gemearces,      þæt se mere standeð,
     "ofer þǣm hongiað      hrīmge bearwas,
1365 "wudu wyrtum fæst,      wæter oferhelmað.
     "Þǣr mæg nihta gehwǣm      nīð-wundor sēon,
     "fȳr on flōde;      nō þæs frōd leofað
     "gumena bearna,      þæt þone grund wite;
     "þēah þe hǣð-stapa      hundum geswenced,
1370 "heorot hornum trum      holt-wudu sēce,
     "feorran geflȳmed,      ǣr hē feorh seleð,
     "aldor on ōfre,      ǣr hē in wille,
     "hafelan hȳdan.      Nis þæt hēoru stōw:
     "þonon ȳð-geblond      up āstīgeð
1375 "won tō wolcnum,      þonne wind styreð
     "lāð gewidru,      oð þæt lyft drysmað,
     "roderas rēotað.      Nū is rǣd gelang
     "eft æt þē ānum!      Eard gīt ne const,
     "frēcne stōwe,      þǣr þū findan miht
1380 "sinnigne secg:      sēc gif þū dyrre!
     "Ic þē þā fǣhðe      fēo lēanige,
     "eald-gestrēonum,      swā ic ǣr dyde,
     "wundnum golde,      gyf þū on weg cymest."


     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
1385 "Ne sorga, snotor guma!      sēlre bið ǣghwǣm,
     "þæt hē his frēond wrece,      þonne hē fela murne;
     "ūre ǣghwylc sceal      ende gebīdan
     "worolde līfes;      wyrce sē þe mōte
     "dōmes ǣr dēaðe!      þæt bið driht-guman
1390 "unlifgendum      æfter sēlest.
     "Ārīs, rīces weard;      uton hraðe fēran,
     "Grendles māgan      gang scēawigan!
     "Ic hit þē gehāte:      nō hē on helm losað,
     "nē on foldan fæðm,      nē on fyrgen-holt,
1395 "nē on gyfenes grund,      gā þǣr hē wille.
     "Þȳs dōgor þū      geþyld hafa
     "wēana gehwylces,      swā ic þē wēne tō!"
     Āhlēop þā se gomela,      gode þancode,
     mihtigan drihtne,      þæs se man gespræc.
1400 Þā wæs Hrōðgāre      hors gebǣted,
     wicg wunden-feax.      Wīsa fengel
     geatolīc gengde;      gum-fēða stōp
     lind-hæbbendra.      Lāstas wǣron
     æfter wald-swaðum      wīde gesȳne,
1405 gang ofer grundas;      gegnum fōr þā
     ofer myrcan mōr,      mago-þegna bær
     þone sēlestan      sāwol-lēasne,
     þāra þe mid Hrōðgāre      hām eahtode.
     Ofer-ēode þā      æðelinga bearn
1410 stēap stān-hliðo,      stīge nearwe,
     enge ān-paðas,      un-cūð gelād,
     neowle næssas,      nicor-hūsa fela;
     hē fēara sum      beforan gengde
     wīsra monna,      wong scēawian,
1415 oð þæt hē fǣringa      fyrgen-bēamas
     ofer hārne stān      hleonian funde,
     wyn-lēasne wudu;      wæter under stōd
     drēorig and gedrēfed.      Denum eallum wæs,
     winum Scyldinga,      weorce on mōde,
1420 tō geþolianne      þegne monegum,
     oncȳð eorla gehwǣm,      syððan Æsc-heres
     on þām holm-clife      hafelan mētton.
     Flōd blōde wēol      (folc tō sǣgon)
     hātan heolfre.      Horn stundum song
1425 fūslīc fyrd-lēoð.      Fēða eal gesæt;
     gesāwon þā æfter wætere      wyrm-cynnes fela,
     sellīce sǣ-dracan      sund cunnian,
     swylce on næs-hleoðum      nicras licgean,
     þā on undern-mǣl      oft bewitigað
1430 sorh-fulne sīð      on segl-rāde,
     wyrmas and wil-dēor;      hīe on weg hruron
     bitere and gebolgne,      bearhtm ongeāton,
     gūð-horn galan.      Sumne Gēata lēod
     of flān-bogan      fēores getwǣfde,
1435 ȳð-gewinnes,      þæt him on aldre stōd
     here-strǣl hearda;      hē on holme wæs
     sundes þē sǣnra,      þē hyne swylt fornam.
     Hræðe wearð on ȳðum      mid eofer-sprēotum
     heoro-hōcyhtum      hearde genearwod,
1440 nīða genǣged      and on næs togen
     wundorlīc wǣg-bora;      weras scēawedon
     gryrelīcne gist.      Gyrede hine Bēowulf
     eorl-gewǣdum,      nalles for ealdre mearn:
     scolde here-byrne      hondum gebrōden,
1445 sīd and searo-fāh,      sund cunnian,
     sēo þe bān-cofan      beorgan cūðe,
     þæt him hilde-grāp      hreðre ne mihte,
     eorres inwit-feng,      aldre gesceððan;
     ac se hwīta helm      hafelan werede,
1450 sē þe mere-grundas      mengan scolde,
     sēcan sund-gebland      since geweorðad,
     befongen frēa-wrāsnum,      swā hine fyrn-dagum
     worhte wǣpna smið,      wundrum tēode,
     besette swīn-līcum,      þæt hine syððan nō
1455 brond nē beado-mēcas      bītan ne meahton.
     Næs þæt þonne mǣtost      mægen-fultuma,
     þæt him on þearfe lāh      þyle Hrōðgāres;
     wæs þǣm hæft-mēce      Hrunting nama,
     þæt wæs ān foran      eald-gestrēona;
1460 ecg wæs īren      āter-tēarum fāh,
     āhyrded heaðo-swāte;      nǣfre hit æt hilde ne swāc
     manna ǣngum      þāra þe hit mid mundum bewand,
     sē þe gryre-sīðas      gegān dorste,
     folc-stede fāra;      næs þæt forma sīð,
1465 þæt hit ellen-weorc      æfnan scolde.
     Hūru ne gemunde      mago Ecglāfes
     eafoðes cræftig,      þæt hē ǣr gespræc
     wīne druncen,      þā hē þæs wǣpnes onlāh
     sēlran sweord-frecan:      selfa ne dorste
1470 under ȳða gewin      aldre genēðan,
     driht-scype drēogan;      þǣr hē dōme forlēas,
     ellen-mǣrðum.      Ne wæs þǣm ōðrum swā,
     syððan hē hine tō gūðe      gegyred hæfde.


     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
1475 "geþenc nū, se mǣra      maga Healfdenes,
     "snottra fengel,      nū ic eom sīðes fūs,
     "gold-wine gumena,      hwæt wit geō sprǣcon,
     "gif ic æt þearfe      þīnre scolde
     "aldre linnan,      þæt þū mē ā wǣre
1480 "forð-gewitenum      on fæder stǣle;
     "wes þū mund-bora mīnum      mago-þegnum,
     "hond-gesellum,      gif mec hild nime:
     "swylce þū þā mādmas,      þē þū mē sealdest,
     "Hrōðgār lēofa,      Higelāce onsend.
1485 "Mæg þonne on þǣm golde ongitan      Gēata dryhten,
     "gesēon sunu Hrēðles,      þonne hē on þæt sinc starað,
     "þæt ic gum-cystum      gōdne funde
     "bēaga bryttan,      brēac þonne mōste.
     "And þū Unferð lǣt      ealde lāfe,
1490 "wrǣtlīc wǣg-sweord      wīd-cūðne man
     "heard-ecg habban;      ic mē mid Hruntinge
     "dōm gewyrce,      oððe mec dēað nimeð."
     Æfter þǣm wordum      Weder-Gēata lēod
     efste mid elne,      nalas andsware
1495 bīdan wolde;      brim-wylm onfēng
     hilde-rince.      Þā wæs hwīl dæges,
     ǣr hē þone grund-wong      ongytan mehte.
     Sōna þæt onfunde,      sē þe flōda begong
     heoro-gīfre behēold      hund missēra,
1500 grim and grǣdig,      þæt þǣr gumena sum
     æl-wihta eard      ufan cunnode.
     Grāp þā tōgēanes,      gūð-rinc gefēng
     atolan clommum;      nō þȳ ǣr in gescōd
     hālan līce:      hring ūtan ymb-bearh,
1505 þæt hēo þone fyrd-hom      þurh-fōn ne mihte,
     locene leoðo-syrcan      lāðan fingrum.
     Bær þā sēo brim-wylf,      þā hēo tō botme cōm,
     hringa þengel      tō hofe sīnum,
     swā hē ne mihte nō      (hē þæs mōdig wæs)
1510 wǣpna gewealdan,      ac hine wundra þæs fela
     swencte on sunde,      sǣ-dēor monig
     hilde-tūxum      here-syrcan bræc,
     ēhton āglǣcan.      Þā se eorl ongeat,
     þæt hē in nið-sele      nāt-hwylcum wæs,
1515 þǣr him nǣnig wæter      wihte ne sceðede,
     nē him for hrōf-sele      hrīnan ne mehte
     fǣr-gripe flōdes:      fȳr-lēoht geseah,
     blācne lēoman      beorhte scīnan.
     Ongeat þā se gōda      grund-wyrgenne,
1520 mere-wīf mihtig;      mægen-rǣs forgeaf
     hilde-bille,      hond swenge ne oftēah,
     þæt hire on hafelan      hring-mǣl āgōl
     grǣdig gūð-lēoð.      Þā se gist onfand,
     þæt se beado-lēoma      bītan nolde,
1525 aldre sceððan,      ac sēo ecg geswāc
     þēodne æt þearfe:      þolode ǣr fela
     hond-gemōta,      helm oft gescær,
     fǣges fyrd-hrægl:      þæt wæs forma sīð
     dēorum māðme,      þæt his dōm ālæg.
1530 Eft wæs ān-rǣd,      nalas elnes læt,
     mǣrða gemyndig      mǣg Hygelāces;
     wearp þā wunden-mǣl      wrǣttum gebunden
     yrre ōretta,      þæt hit on eorðan læg,
     stīð and stȳl-ecg;      strenge getruwode,
1535 mund-gripe mægenes.      Swā sceal man dōn,
     þonne hē æt gūðe      gegān þenceð
     longsumne lof,      nā ymb his līf cearað.
     Gefēng þā be eaxle      (nalas for fǣhðe mearn)
     Gūð-Gēata lēod      Grendles mōdor;
1540 brægd þā beadwe heard,      þā hē gebolgen wæs,
     feorh-genīðlan,      þæt hēo on flet gebēah.
     Hēo him eft hraðe      and-lēan forgeald
     grimman grāpum      and him tōgēanes fēng;
     oferwearp þā wērig-mōd      wigena strengest,
1545 fēðe-cempa,      þæt hē on fylle wearð.
     Ofsæt þā þone sele-gyst      and hyre seaxe getēah,
     brād and brūn-ecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan,
     āngan eaferan.      Him on eaxle læg
     brēost-net brōden;      þæt gebearh fēore,
1550 wið ord and wið ecge      ingang forstōd.
     Hæfde þā forsīðod      sunu Ecgþēowes
     under gynne grund,      Gēata cempa,
     nemne him heaðo-byrne      helpe gefremede,
     here-net hearde,      and hālig god
1555 gewēold wīg-sigor,      wītig drihten;
     rodera rǣdend      hit on ryht gescēd,
     ȳðelīce      syððan hē eft āstōd.


     Geseah þā on searwum      sige-ēadig bil,
     eald sweord eotenisc      ecgum þȳhtig,
1560 wigena weorð-mynd:      þæt wæs wǣpna cyst,
     būton hit wæs māre      þonne ǣnig mon ōðer
     tō beadu-lāce      ætberan meahte
     gōd and geatolīc      gīganta geweorc.
     Hē gefēng þā fetel-hilt,      freca Scildinga,
1565 hrēoh and heoro-grim      hring-mǣl gebrægd,
     aldres orwēna,      yrringa slōh,
     þæt hire wið halse      heard grāpode,
     bān-hringas bræc,      bil eal þurh-wōd
     fǣgne flǣsc-homan,      hēo on flet gecrong;
1570 sweord wæs swātig,      secg weorce gefeh.
     Līxte se lēoma,      lēoht inne stōd,
     efne swā of hefene      hādre scīneð
     rodores candel.      Hē æfter recede wlāt,
     hwearf þā be wealle,      wǣpen hafenade
1575 heard be hiltum      Higelāces þegn,
     yrre and ān-rǣd.      Næs sēo ecg fracod
     hilde-rince,      ac hē hraðe wolde
     Grendle forgyldan      gūð-rǣsa fela
     þāra þe hē geworhte      tō West-Denum
1580 oftor micle      þonne on ǣnne sīð,
     þonne hē Hrōðgāres      heorð-genēatas
     slōh on sweofote,      slǣpende fræt
     folces Denigea      fȳf-tȳne men
     and ōðer swylc      ūt of-ferede,
1585 lāðlīcu lāc.      Hē him þæs lēan forgeald,
     rēðe cempa,      tō þæs þe hē on ræste geseah
     gūð-wērigne      Grendel licgan,
     aldor-lēasne,      swā him ǣr gescōd
     hild æt Heorote;      hrā wīde sprong,
1590 syððan hē æfter dēaðe      drepe þrowade,
     heoro-sweng heardne,      and hine þā hēafde becearf,
     Sōna þæt gesāwon      snottre ceorlas,
     þā þe mid Hrōðgāre      on holm wliton,
     þæt wæs ȳð-geblond      eal gemenged,
1595 brim blōde fāh:      blonden-feaxe
     gomele ymb gōdne      ongeador sprǣcon,
     þæt hig þæs æðelinges      eft ne wēndon,
     þæt hē sige-hrēðig      sēcean cōme
     mǣrne þēoden;      þā þæs monige gewearð,
1600 þæt hine sēo brim-wylf      ābroten hæfde.
     Þā cōm nōn dæges.      Næs ofgēafon
     hwate Scyldingas; gewāt him hām þonon
     gold-wine gumena.      Gistas sētan,
     mōdes sēoce,      and on mere staredon,
1605 wiston and ne wēndon,      þæt hīe heora wine-drihten
     selfne gesāwon.      Þā þæt sweord ongan
     æfter heaðo-swāte      hilde-gicelum
     wīg-bil wanian;      þæt wæs wundra sum,
     þæt hit eal gemealt      īse gelīcost,
1610 þonne forstes bend      fæder onlǣteð,
     onwindeð wæl-rāpas,      sē þe geweald hafað
     sǣla and mǣla;      þæt is sōð metod.
     Ne nom hē in þǣm wīcum,      Weder-Gēata lēod,
     māðm-ǣhta mā,      þēh hē þǣr monige geseah,
1615 būton þone hafelan      and þā hilt somod,
     since fāge;      sweord ǣr gemealt,
     forbarn brōden mǣl:      wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt,
     ǣttren ellor-gǣst,      sē þǣr inne swealt.
     Sōna wæs on sunde,      sē þe ǣr æt sæcce gebād
1620 wīg-hryre wrāðra,      wæter up þurh-dēaf;
     wǣron ȳð-gebland      eal gefǣlsod,
     ēacne eardas,      þā se ellor-gāst
     oflēt līf-dagas      and þās lǣnan gesceaft.
     Cōm þā tō lande      lid-manna helm
1625 swīð-mōd swymman,      sǣ-lāce gefeah,
     mægen-byrðenne      þāra þe hē him mid hæfde.
     Ēodon him þā tōgēanes,      gode þancodon,
     þrȳðlīc þegna hēap,      þēodnes gefēgon,
     þæs þe hī hyne gesundne      gesēon mōston.
1630 Þā wæs of þǣm hrōran      helm and byrne
     lungre ālȳsed:      lagu drūsade,
     wæter under wolcnum,      wæl-drēore fāg.
     Fērdon forð þonon      fēðe-lāstum
     ferhðum fægne,      fold-weg mǣton,
1635 cūðe strǣte;      cyning-balde men
     from þǣm holm-clife      hafelan bǣron
     earfoðlīce      heora ǣghwæðrum
     fela-mōdigra:      fēower scoldon
     on ðæm wæl-stenge      weorcum geferian
1640 tō þǣm gold-sele      Grendles hēafod,
     oð þæt semninga      tō sele cōmon
     frome fyrd-hwate      fēower-tȳne
     Gēata gongan;      gum-dryhten mid
     mōdig on gemonge      meodo-wongas træd.
1645 Þā cōm in gān      ealdor þegna,
     dǣd-cēne mon      dōme gewurðad,
     hæle hilde-dēor.      Hrōðgār grētan:
     Þā wæs be feaxe      on flet boren
     Grendles hēafod,      þǣr guman druncon,
1650 egeslīc for eorlum      and þǣre idese mid:
     wlite-sēon wrǣtlīc      weras onsāwon.


     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
     "Hwæt! wē þē þās sǣ-lāc,      sunu Healfdenes,
     "lēod Scyldinga,      lustum brōhton,
1655 "tīres tō tācne,      þē þū hēr tō lōcast.
     "Ic þæt unsōfte      ealdre gedīgde:
     "wigge under wætere      weorc genēðde
     "earfoðlīce,      æt-rihte wæs
     "gūð getwǣfed,      nymðe mec god scylde.
1660 "Ne meahte ic æt hilde      mid Hruntinge
     "wiht gewyrcan,      þēah þæt wǣpen duge,
     "ac mē geūðe      ylda waldend,
     "þæt ic on wāge geseah      wlitig hangian
     "eald sweord ēacen      (oftost wīsode
1665 "winigea lēasum)      þæt ic þȳ wǣpne gebrǣ.
     "Ofslōh þā æt þǣre sæcce      (þā mē sǣl āgeald)
     "hūses hyrdas.      Þā þæt hilde-bil
     "forbarn, brogden mǣl,      swā þæt blōd gesprang,
     "hātost heaðo-swāta:      ic þæt hilt þanan
1670 "fēondum ætferede;      fyren-dǣda wræc,
     "dēað-cwealm Denigea,      swā hit gedēfe wæs.
     "Ic hit þē þonne gehāte,      þæt þū on Heorote mōst
     "sorh-lēas swefan      mid þīnra secga gedryht,
     "and þegna gehwylc      þīnra lēoda,
1675 "duguðe and iogoðe,      þæt þū him ondrǣdan ne þearft,
     "þēoden Scyldinga,      on þā healfe,
     "aldor-bealu eorlum,      swā þū ǣr dydest."
     Þā wæs gylden hilt      gamelum rince.
     hārum hild-fruman,      on hand gyfen,
1680 enta ǣr-geweorc,      hit on ǣht gehwearf
     æfter dēofla hryre      Denigea frēan,
     wundor-smiða geweorc,      and þā þās worold ofgeaf
     grom-heort guma,      godes andsaca,
     morðres scyldig,      and his mōdor ēac;
1685 on geweald gehwearf      worold-cyninga
     þǣm sēlestan      be sǣm twēonum
     þāra þe on Sceden-igge      sceattas dǣlde.
     Hrōðgār maðelode,      hylt scēawode,
     ealde lāfe,      on þǣm wæs ōr writen
1690 fyrn-gewinnes:      syððan flōd ofslōh,
     gifen gēotende,      gīganta cyn,
     frēcne gefērdon:      þæt wæs fremde þēod
     ēcean dryhtne,      him þæs ende-lēan
     þurh wæteres wylm      waldend sealde.
1695 Swā wæs on þǣm scennum      scīran goldes
     þurh rūn-stafas      rihte gemearcod,
     geseted and gesǣd,      hwām þæt sweord geworht,
     īrena cyst      ǣrest wǣre,
     wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fāh.      þā se wīsa spræc
1700 sunu Healfdenes      (swīgedon ealle):
     "Þæt lā mæg secgan,      sē þe sōð and riht
     "fremeð on folce,      (feor eal gemon
     "eald ēðel-weard),      þæt þes eorl wǣre
     "geboren betera!      Blǣd is ārǣred
1705 "geond wīd-wegas,      wine mīn Bēowulf,
     "þīn ofer þēoda gehwylce.      Eal þū hit geþyldum healdest,
     "mægen mid mōdes snyttrum.      Ic þē sceal mīne gelǣstan
     "frēode, swā wit furðum sprǣcon;      þū scealt tō frōfre weorðan
     "eal lang-twidig      lēodum þīnum,
1710 "hæleðum tō helpe.      Ne wearð Heremōd swā
     "eaforum Ecgwelan,      Ār-Scyldingum;
     "ne gewēox hē him tō willan,      ac tō wæl-fealle
     "and tō dēað-cwalum      Deniga lēodum;
     "brēat bolgen-mōd      bēod-genēatas,
1715 "eaxl-gesteallan,      oð þæt hē āna hwearf,
     "mǣre þēoden.      mon-drēamum from:
     "þēah þe hine mihtig god      mægenes wynnum,
     "eafeðum stēpte,      ofer ealle men
     "forð gefremede,      hwæðere him on ferhðe grēow
1720 "brēost-hord blōd-rēow:      nallas bēagas geaf
     "Denum æfter dōme;      drēam-lēas gebād,
     "þæt hē þæs gewinnes      weorc þrowade,
     "lēod-bealo longsum.      Þū þē lǣr be þon,
     "gum-cyste ongit!      ic þis gid be þē
1725 "āwræc wintrum frōd.      Wundor is tō secganne,
     "hū mihtig god      manna cynne
     "þurh sīdne sefan      snyttru bryttað,
     "eard and eorl-scipe,      hē āh ealra geweald.
     "Hwīlum hē on lufan      lǣteð hworfan
1730 "monnes mōd-geþonc      mǣran cynnes,
     "seleð him on ēðle      eorðan wynne,
     "tō healdanne      hlēo-burh wera,
     "gedēð him swā gewealdene      worolde dǣlas,
     "sīde rīce,      þæt hē his selfa ne mæg
1735 "for his un-snyttrum      ende geþencean;
     "wunað hē on wiste,      nō hine wiht dweleð,
     "ādl nē yldo,      nē him inwit-sorh
     "on sefan sweorceð,      nē gesacu ōhwǣr,
     "ecg-hete ēoweð,      ac him eal worold
1740 "wendeð on willan;      hē þæt wyrse ne con,
     "oð þæt him on innan      ofer-hygda dǣl
     "weaxeð and wridað,      þonne se weard swefeð,
     "sāwele hyrde:      bið se slǣp tō fæst,
     "bisgum gebunden,      bona swīðe nēah,
1745 "sē þe of flān-bogan      fyrenum scēoteð.


     "Þonne bið on hreðre      under helm drepen
     "biteran strǣle:      him bebeorgan ne con
     "wom wundor-bebodum      wergan gāstes;
     "þinceð him tō lȳtel,      þæt hē tō lange hēold,
1750 "gȳtsað grom-hȳdig,      nallas on gylp seleð
     "fǣtte bēagas      and hē þā forð-gesceaft
     "forgyteð and forgȳmeð,      þæs þe him ǣr god sealde
     "wuldres waldend,      weorð-mynda dǣl.
     "Hit on ende-stæf      eft gelimpeð,
1755 "þæt se līc-homa      lǣne gedrēoseð,
     "fǣge gefealleð;      fēhð ōðer tō,
     "sē þe unmurnlīce      mādmas dǣleð,
     "eorles ǣr-gestrēon,      egesan ne gȳmeð.
     "Bebeorh þē þone bealo-nīð,      Bēowulf lēofa,
1760 "secg se betsta,      and þē þæt sēlre gecēos,
     "ēce rǣdas;      oferhȳda ne gȳm,
     "mǣre cempa!      Nū is þīnes mægnes blǣd
     "āne hwīle;      eft sōna bið,
     "þæt þec ādl oððe ecg      eafoðes getwǣfeð,
1765 "oððe fȳres feng      oððe flōdes wylm,
     "oððe gripe mēces      oððe gāres fliht,
     "oððe atol yldo,      oððe ēagena bearhtm
     "forsiteð and forsworceð;      semninga bið,
     "þæt þec, dryht-guma,      dēað oferswȳðeð.
1770 "Swā ic Hring-Dena      hund missēra
     "wēold under wolcnum,      and hig wigge belēac
     "manigum mǣgða      geond þysne middan-geard,
     "æscum and ecgum,      þæt ic mē ǣnigne
     "under swegles begong      gesacan ne tealde.
1775 "Hwæt! mē þæs on ēðle      edwenden cwōm,
     "gyrn æfter gomene,      seoððan Grendel wearð,
     "eald-gewinna,      in-genga mīn:
     "ic þǣre sōcne      singāles wæg
     "mōd-ceare micle.      Þæs sig metode þanc,
1780 "ēcean drihtne,      þæs þe ic on aldre gebād,
     "þæt ic on þone hafelan      heoro-drēorigne
     "ofer eald gewin      ēagum starige!
     "Gā nū tō setle,      symbel-wynne drēoh
     "wīgge weorðad:      unc sceal worn fela
1785 "māðma gemǣnra,      siððan morgen bið."
     Gēat wæs glæd-mōd,      gēong sōna tō,
     setles nēosan,      swā se snottra heht.
     Þā wæs eft swā ǣr      ellen-rōfum,
     flet-sittendum      fægere gereorded
1790 nīowan stefne.      Niht-helm geswearc
     deorc ofer dryht-gumum.      Duguð eal ārās;
     wolde blonden-feax      beddes nēosan,
     gamela Scylding.      Gēat ungemetes wēl,
     rōfne rand-wigan      restan lyste:
1795 sōna him sele-þegn      sīðes wērgum,
     feorran-cundum      forð wīsade,
     se for andrysnum      ealle beweotede
     þegnes þearfe,      swylce þȳ dōgore
     hēaðo-līðende      habban scoldon.
1800 Reste hine þā rūm-heort;      reced hlīfade
     gēap and gold-fāh,      gæst inne swæf,
     oð þæt hrefn blaca      heofones wynne
     blīð-heort bodode.      Þā cōm beorht sunne
     scacan ofer grundas;      scaðan ōnetton,
1805 wǣron æðelingas      eft tō lēodum
     fūse tō farenne,      wolde feor þanon
     cuma collen-ferhð      cēoles nēosan.
     Heht þā se hearda      Hrunting beran,
     sunu Ecglāfes,      heht his sweord niman,
1810 lēoflīc īren;      sægde him þæs lēanes þanc,
     cwæð hē þone gūð-wine      gōdne tealde,
     wīg-cræftigne,      nales wordum lōg
     mēces ecge:      þæt wæs mōdig secg.
     And þā sīð-frome      searwum gearwe
1815 wīgend wǣron,      ēode weorð Denum
     æðeling tō yppan,      þǣr se ōðer wæs
     hæle hilde-dēor,      Hrōðgār grētte.


     Bēowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
     "Nū wē sǣ-līðend      secgan wyllað
1820 "feorran cumene,      þæt wē fundiað
     "Higelāc sēcan.      Wǣron hēr tela
     "willum bewenede;      þū ūs wēl dohtest.
     "Gif ic þonne on eorðan      ōwihte mæg
     "þīnre mōd-lufan      māran tilian,
1825 "gumena dryhten,      þonne ic gȳt dyde,
     "gūð-geweorca      ic bēo gearo sōna.
     "Gif ic þæt gefricge      ofer flōda begang,
     "þæt þec ymbe-sittend      egesan þȳwað,
     "swā þec hetende      hwīlum dydon,
1830 "ic þē þūsenda      þegna bringe,
     "hæleða tō helpe.      Ic on Higelāce wāt,
     "Gēata dryhten,      þēah þe hē geong sȳ,
     "folces hyrde,      þæt hē mec fremman wile
     "wordum and worcum,      þæt ic þē wēl herige,
1835 "and þē tō gēoce      gār-holt bere
     "mægenes fultum,      þǣr þē bið manna þearf;
     "gif him þonne Hrēðrīc      tō hofum Gēata
     "geþingeð, þēodnes bearn,      hē mæg þǣr fela
     "frēonda findan:      feor-cȳððe bēoð
1840 "sēlran gesōhte      þǣm þe him selfa dēah."
     Hrōðgār maðelode      him on andsware:
     "Þē þā word-cwydas      wittig drihten
     "on sefan sende!      ne hȳrde ic snotorlīcor
     "on swā geongum feore      guman þingian:
1845 "þū eart mægenes strang      and on mōde frōd,
     "wīs word-cwida.      Wēn ic talige,
     "gif þæt gegangeð,      þæt þe gār nymeð,
     "hild heoru-grimme      Hrēðles eaferan,
     "ādl oððe īren      ealdor þīnne,
1850 "folces hyrde,      and þū þīn feorh hafast,
     "þæt þe Sǣ-Gēatas      sēlran næbben
     "tō gecēosenne      cyning ǣnigne,
     "hord-weard hæleða,      gif þū healdan wylt
     "māga rīce.      Mē þīn mōd-sefa
1855 "līcað leng swā wēl,      lēofa Bēowulf:
     "hafast þū gefēred,      þæt þām folcum sceal,
     "Gēata lēodum      and Gār-Denum
     "sib gemǣnum      and sacu restan,
     "inwit-nīðas,      þē hīe ǣr drugon;
1860 "wesan, þenden ic wealde      wīdan rīces,
     "māðmas gemǣne,      manig ōðerne
     "gōdum gegrētan      ofer ganotes bæð;
     "sceal hring-naca      ofer hēaðu bringan
     "lāc and luf-tācen.      Ic þā lēode wāt
1865 "gē wið fēond gē wið frēond      fæste geworhte
     "ǣghwæs untǣle      ealde wīsan."
     Þā gīt him eorla hlēo      inne gesealde,
     mago Healfdenes      māðmas twelfe,
     hēt hine mid þǣm lācum      lēode swǣse
1870 sēcean on gesyntum,      snūde eft cuman.
     Gecyste þā      cyning æðelum gōd,
     þēoden Scildinga,      þegen betstan
     and be healse genam;      hruron him tēaras,
     blonden-feaxum:      him wæs bēga wēn,
1875 ealdum infrōdum,      ōðres swīðor,
     þæt hī seoððan      gesēon mōston
     mōdige on meðle.      Wæs him se man tō þon lēof,
     þæt hē þone brēost-wylm      forberan ne mehte,
     ac him on hreðre      hyge-bendum fæst
1880 æfter dēorum men      dyrne langað
     beorn wið blōde.      Him Bēowulf þanan,
     gūð-rinc gold-wlanc      græs-moldan træd,
     since hrēmig:      sǣ-genga bād
     āgend-frēan,      sē þe on ancre rād.
1885 Þā wæs on gange      gifu Hrōðgāres
     oft geæhted:      þæt wæs ān cyning
     ǣghwæs orleahtre,      oð þæt hine yldo benam
     mægenes wynnum,      sē þe oft manegum scōd.


     Cwōm þā tō flōde      fela-mōdigra
1890 hæg-stealdra hēap;      hring-net bǣron,
     locene leoðo-syrcan.      Land-weard onfand
     eft-sīð eorla,      swā hē ǣr dyde;
     nō hē mid hearme      of hlīðes nosan
     gæstas grētte,      ac him tōgēanes rād;
1895 cwæð þæt wilcuman      Wedera lēodum
     scawan scīr-hame      tō scipe fōron.
     Þā wæs on sande      sǣ-gēap naca
     hladen here-wǣdum,      hringed-stefna
     mēarum and māðmum:      mæst hlīfade
1900 ofer Hrōðgāres      hord-gestrēonum.
     Hē þǣm bāt-wearde      bunden golde
     swurd gesealde,      þæt hē syððan wæs
     on meodu-bence      māðme þȳ weorðra,
     yrfe-lāfe.      Gewāt him on ȳð-nacan,
1905 drēfan dēop wæter,      Dena land ofgeaf.
     Þā wæs be mæste      mere-hrægla sum,
     segl sāle fæst.      Sund-wudu þunede,
     nō þǣr wēg-flotan      wind ofer ȳðum
     sīðes getwǣfde;      sǣ-genga fōr,
1910 flēat fāmig-heals      forð ofer ȳðe,
     bunden-stefna      ofer brim-strēamas,
     þæt hīe Gēata clifu      ongitan meahton,
     cūðe næssas.      Cēol up geþrang,
     lyft-geswenced      on lande stōd.
1915 Hraðe wæs æt holme      hȳð-weard gearo,
     sē þe ǣr lange tīd,      lēofra manna
     fūs, æt faroðe      feor wlātode;
     sǣlde tō sande      sīd-fæðme scip
     oncer-bendum fæst,      þȳ lǣs hym ȳða þrym
1920 wudu wynsuman      forwrecan meahte.
     Hēt þā up beran      æðelinga gestrēon,
     frætwe and fǣt-gold;      næs him feor þanon
     tō gesēcanne      sinces bryttan:
     Higelāc Hrēðling      þǣr æt hām wunað,
1925 selfa mid gesīðum      sǣ-wealle nēah;
     bold wæs betlīc,      brego-rōf cyning,
     hēa on healle,      Hygd swīðe geong,
     wīs, wēl-þungen,      þēah þe wintra lȳt
     under burh-locan      gebiden hæbbe
1930 Hæreðes dōhtor:      næs hīo hnāh swā þēah,
     nē tō gnēað gifa      Gēata lēodum,
     māðm-gestrēona.      Mod Þrȳðo wæg,
     fremu folces cwēn,      firen ondrysne:
     nǣnig þæt dorste      dēor genēðan
1935 swǣsra gesīða,      nefne sin-frēa,
     þæt hire an dæges      ēagum starede;
     ac him wæl-bende      weotode tealde,
     hand-gewriðene:      hraðe seoððan wæs
     æfter mund-gripe      mēce geþinged,
1940 þæt hit sceaðen-mǣl      scȳran mōste,
     cwealm-bealu cȳðan.      Ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw
     idese tō efnanne,      þēah þe hīo ǣnlīcu sȳ,
     þætte freoðu-webbe      fēores onsæce
     æfter līge-torne      lēofne mannan.
1945 Hūru þæt onhōhsnode      Heminges mǣg;
     ealo drincende      ōðer sǣdan,
     þæt hīo lēod-bealewa      lǣs gefremede,
     inwit-nīða,      syððan ǣrest wearð
     gyfen gold-hroden      geongum cempan,
1950 æðelum dīore,      syððan hīo Offan flet
     ofer fealone flōd      be fæder lāre
     sīðe gesōhte,      þǣr hīo syððan wēl
     in gum-stōle,      gōde mǣre,
     līf-gesceafta      lifigende brēac,
1955 hīold hēah-lufan      wið hæleða brego,
     ealles mon-cynnes      mīne gefrǣge
     þone sēlestan      bī sǣm twēonum
     eormen-cynnes;      forþām Offa wæs
     geofum and gūðum      gār-cēne man,
1960 wīde geweorðod;      wīsdōme hēold
     ēðel sīnne,      þonon Ēomǣr wōc
     hæleðum tō helpe,      Heminges mǣg,
     nefa Gārmundes,      nīða cræftig.


     Gewāt him þā se hearda      mid his hond-scole
1965 sylf æfter sande      sǣ-wong tredan,
     wīde waroðas.      Woruld-candel scān,
     sigel sūðan fūs:      hī sīð drugon,
     elne geēodon,      tō þæs þe eorla hlēo,
     bonan Ongenþēowes      burgum on innan,
1970 geongne gūð-cyning      gōdne gefrūnon
     hringas dǣlan.      Higelāce wæs
     sīð Bēowulfes      snūde gecȳðed,
     þæt þǣr on worðig      wīgendra hlēo,
     lind-gestealla      lifigende cwōm,
1975 heaðo-lāces hāl      tō hofe gongan.
     Hraðe wæs gerȳmed,      swā se rīca bebēad,
     fēðe-gestum      flet innan-weard.
     Gesæt þā wið sylfne,      sē þā sæcce genæs,
     mǣg wið mǣge,      syððan man-dryhten
1980 þurh hlēoðor-cwyde      holdne gegrētte
     mēaglum wordum.      Meodu-scencum
     hwearf geond þæt reced      Hæreðes dōhtor:
     lufode þā lēode,      līð-wǣge bær
     hǣlum tō handa.      Higelāc ongan
1985 sīnne geseldan      in sele þām hēan
     fægre fricgean,      hyne fyrwet bræc,
     hwylce Sǣ-Gēata      sīðas wǣron:
     "Hū lomp ēow on lāde,      lēofa Bīowulf,
     "þā þū fǣringa      feorr gehogodest,
1990 "sæcce sēcean      ofer sealt wæter,
     "hilde tō Hiorote?      Ac þū Hrōðgāre
     "wīd-cūðne wēan      wihte gebēttest,
     "mǣrum þēodne?      Ic þæs mōd-ceare
     "sorh-wylmum sēað,      sīðe ne truwode
1995 "lēofes mannes;      ic þē lange bæd,
     "þæt þū þone wæl-gǣst      wihte ne grētte,
     "lēte Sūð-Dene      sylfe geweorðan
     "gūðe wið Grendel.      Gode ic þanc secge,
     "þæs þe ic þē gesundne      gesēon mōste."
2000 Bīowulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþīowes:
     "Þæt is undyrne,      dryhten Higelāc,
     "mǣre gemēting      monegum fīra,
     "hwylc orleg-hwīl      uncer Grendles
     "wearð on þām wange,      þǣr hē worna fela
2005 "Sige-Scildingum      sorge gefremede,
     "yrmðe tō aldre;      ic þæt eal gewræc,
     "swā ne gylpan þearf      Grendeles māga
     "ǣnig ofer eorðan      ūht-hlem þone,
     "sē þe lengest leofað      lāðan cynnes,
2010 "fenne bifongen.      Ic þǣr furðum cwōm,
     "tō þām hring-sele      Hrōðgār grētan:
     "sōna mē se mǣra      mago Healfdenes,
     "syððan hē mōd-sefan      mīnne cūðe,
     "wið his sylfes sunu      setl getǣhte.
2015 "Weorod wæs on wynne;      ne seah ic wīdan feorh
     "under heofenes hwealf      heal-sittendra
     "medu-drēam māran.      Hwīlum mǣru cwēn,
     "friðu-sibb folca      flet eall geond-hwearf,
     "bǣdde byre geonge;      oft hīo bēah-wriðan
2020 "secge sealde,      ǣr hīo tō setle gēong.
     "Hwīlum for duguðe      dōhtor Hrōðgāres
     "eorlum on ende      ealu-wǣge bær,
     "þā ic Frēaware      flet-sittende
     "nemnan hȳrde,      þǣr hīo nægled sinc
2025 "hæleðum sealde:      sīo gehāten wæs,
     "geong gold-hroden,      gladum suna Frōdan;
     "hafað þæs geworden      wine Scyldinga
     "rīces hyrde      and þæt rǣd talað,
     "þæt hē mid þȳ wīfe      wæl-fǣhða dǣl,
2030 "sæcca gesette.      Oft nō seldan hwǣr
     "æfter lēod-hryre      lȳtle hwīle
     "bon-gār būgeð,      þēah sēo brȳd duge!


     "Mæg þæs þonne ofþyncan      þēoden Heaðobeardna
     "and þegna gehwām      þāra lēoda,
2035 "þonne hē mid fǣmnan      on flett gǣð,
     "dryht-bearn Dena      duguða biwenede:
     "on him gladiað      gomelra lāfe
     "heard and hring-mǣl,      Heaðobeardna gestrēon,
     "þenden hīe þām wǣpnum      wealdan mōston,
2040 "oð þæt hīe forlǣddan      tō þām lind-plegan
     "swǣse gesīðas      ond hyra sylfra feorh.
     "Þonne cwið æt bēore,      sē þe bēah gesyhð,
     "eald æsc-wiga,      sē þe eall geman
     "gār-cwealm gumena      (him bið grim sefa),
2045 "onginneð geōmor-mōd      geongne cempan
     "þurh hreðra gehygd      higes cunnian,
     "wīg-bealu weccean      and þæt word ācwyð:
     "'Meaht þū, mīn wine,      mēce gecnāwan,
     "'þone þin fæder      tō gefeohte bær
2050 "'under here-grīman      hindeman sīðe,
     "'dȳre īren,      þǣr hyne Dene slōgon,
     "'wēoldon wæl-stōwe,      syððan wiðer-gyld læg,
     "'æfter hæleða hryre,      hwate Scyldungas?
     "'Nu hēr þāra banena      byre nāt-hwylces,
2055 "'frætwum hrēmig      on flet gǣð,
     "'morðres gylpeð      and þone māððum byreð,
     "'þone þe þū mid rihte      rǣdan sceoldest!'"
     "Manað swā and myndgað      mǣla gehwylce
     "sārum wordum,      oð þæt sǣl cymeð,
2060 "þæt se fǣmnan þegn      fore fæder dǣdum
     "æfter billes bite      blōd-fāg swefeð,
     "ealdres scyldig;      him se ōðer þonan
     "losað lifigende,      con him land geare.
     "Þonne bīoð brocene      on bā healfe
2065 "āð-sweord eorla;      syððan Ingelde
     "weallað wæl-nīðas      and him wīf-lufan
     "æfter cear-wælmum      cōlran weorðað.
     "Þȳ ic Heaðobeardna      hyldo ne telge,
     "dryht-sibbe dǣl      Denum unfǣcne,
2070 "frēond-scipe fæstne.      Ic sceal forð sprecan
     "gēn ymbe Grendel,      þæt þū geare cunne,
     "sinces brytta,      tō hwan syððan wearð
     "hond-rǣs hæleða.      Syððan heofones gim
     "glād ofer grundas,      gæst yrre cwōm,
2075 "eatol ǣfen-grom,      ūser nēosan,
     "þǣr wē gesunde      sæl weardodon;
     "þǣr wæs Hondscīo      hild onsǣge,
     "feorh-bealu fǣgum,      hē fyrmest læg,
     "gyrded cempa;      him Grendel wearð,
2080 "mǣrum magu-þegne      tō mūð-bonan,
     "lēofes mannes      līc eall forswealg.
     "Nō þȳ ǣr ūt þā gēn      īdel-hende
     "bona blōdig-tōð      bealewa gemyndig,
     "of þām gold-sele      gongan wolde,
2085 "ac hē mægnes rōf      mīn costode,
     "grāpode gearo-folm.      Glōf hangode
     "sīd and syllīc      searo-bendum fæst,
     "sīo wæs orþoncum      eall gegyrwed
     "dēofles cræftum      and dracan fellum:
2090 "hē mec þǣr on innan      unsynnigne,
     "dīor dǣd-fruma,      gedōn wolde,
     "manigra sumne:      hyt ne mihte swā,
     "syððan ic on yrre      upp-riht āstōd.
     "Tō lang ys tō reccenne,      hū ic þām lēod-sceaðan
2095 "yfla gehwylces      ond-lēan forgeald;
     "þǣr ic, þēoden mīn,      þīne lēode
     "weorðode weorcum.      Hē on weg losade,
     "lȳtle hwīle      līf-wynna brēac;
     "hwæðre him sīo swīðre      swaðe weardade
2100 "hand on Hiorte      and hē hēan þonan,
     "mōdes geōmor      mere-grund gefēoll.
     "Mē þone wæl-rǣs      wine Scildunga
     "fǣttan golde      fela lēanode,
     "manegum māðmum,      syððan mergen cōm
2105 "and wē tō symble      geseten hæfdon.
     "Þǣr wæs gidd and glēo;      gomela Scilding
     "fela fricgende      feorran rehte;
     "hwīlum hilde-dēor      hearpan wynne,
     "gomen-wudu grētte;      hwīlum gyd āwræc
2110 "sōð and sārlīc;      hwīlum syllīc spell
     "rehte æfter rihte      rūm-heort cyning.
     "Hwīlum eft ongan      eldo gebunden,
     "gomel gūð-wiga      gioguðe cwīðan
     "hilde-strengo;      hreðer inne wēoll,
2115 "þonne hē wintrum frōd      worn gemunde.
     "Swā wē þǣr inne      andlangne dæg
     "nīode nāman,      oð þæt niht becwōm
     "ōðer tō yldum.      Þā wæs eft hraðe
     "gearo gyrn-wræce      Grendeles mōdor,
2120 "sīðode sorh-full;      sunu dēað fornam,
     "wīg-hete Wedra.      Wīf unhȳre
     "hyre bearn gewræc,      beorn ācwealde
     "ellenlīce;      þǣr wæs Æsc-here,
     "frōdan fyrn-witan,      feorh ūðgenge;
2125 "nōðer hȳ hine ne mōston,      syððan mergen cwōm,
     "dēað-wērigne      Denia lēode
     "bronde forbærnan,      nē on bǣl hladan
     "lēofne mannan:      hīo þæt līc ætbær
     "fēondes fæðmum      under firgen-strēam.
2130 "Þæt wæs Hrōðgāre      hrēowa tornost
     "þāra þe lēod-fruman      lange begeāte;
     "þā se þēoden mec      þīne līfe
     "healsode hrēoh-mōd,      þæt ic on holma geþring
     "eorl-scipe efnde,      ealdre genēðde,
2135 "mǣrðo fremede:      hē mē mēde gehēt.
     "Ic þā þæs wælmes,      þē is wīde cūð,
     "grimne gryrelīcne      grund-hyrde fond.
     "Þǣr unc hwīle wæs      hand gemǣne;
     "holm heolfre wēoll      and ic hēafde becearf
2140 "in þām grund-sele      Grendeles mōdor
     "ēacnum ecgum,      unsōfte þonan
     "feorh oðferede;      næs ic fǣge þā gȳt,
     "ac mē eorla hlēo      eft gesealde
     "māðma menigeo,      maga Healfdenes.


2145 "Swā se þēod-kyning      þēawum lyfde;
     "nealles ic þām lēanum      forloren hæfde,
     "mægnes mēde,      ac hē mē māðmas geaf,
     "sunu Healfdenes,      on sīnne sylfes dōm;
     "þā ic þē, beorn-cyning,      bringan wylle,
2150 "ēstum geȳwan.      Gēn is eall æt þē
     "lissa gelong:      ic lȳt hafo
     "hēafod-māga,      nefne Hygelāc þec!"
     Hēt þā in beran      eafor, hēafod-segn,
     heaðo-stēapne helm,      hāre byrnan,
2155 gūð-sweord geatolīc,      gyd æfter wræc:
     "Mē þis hilde-sceorp      Hrōðgār sealde,
     "snotra fengel,      sume worde hēt,
     "þæt ic his ǣrest      þē eft gesægde,
     "cwæð þæt hyt hæfde      Hiorogār cyning,
2160 "lēod Scyldunga      lange hwīle:
     "nō þȳ ǣr suna sīnum      syllan wolde,
     "hwatum Heorowearde,      þēah hē him hold wǣre,
     "brēost-gewǣdu.      Brūc ealles well!"
     Hȳrde ic þæt þām frætwum      fēower mēaras
2165 lungre gelīce      lāst weardode,
     æppel-fealuwe;      hē him ēst getēah
     mēara and māðma.      Swā sceal mǣg dōn,
     nealles inwit-net      ōðrum bregdan,
     dyrnum cræfte      dēað rēnian
2170 hond-gesteallan.      Hygelāce wæs,
     nīða heardum,      nefa swȳðe hold
     and gehwæðer ōðrum      hrōðra gemyndig.
     Hȳrde ic þæt hē þone heals-bēah      Hygde gesealde,
     wrǣtlīcne wundur-māððum,      þone þe him Wealhþēo geaf,
2175 þēodnes dōhtor,      þrīo wicg somod
     swancor and sadol-beorht;      hyre syððan wæs
     æfter bēah-þege      brēost geweorðod.
     Swā bealdode      bearn Ecgþēowes,
     guma gūðum cūð,      gōdum dǣdum,
2180 drēah æfter dōme,      nealles druncne slōg
     heorð-genēatas;      næs him hrēoh sefa,
     ac hē man-cynnes      mǣste cræfte
     gin-fæstan gife,      þē him god sealde,
     hēold hilde-dēor.      Hēan wæs lange,
2185 swā hyne Gēata bearn      gōdne ne tealdon,
     nē hyne on medo-bence      micles wyrðne
     drihten wereda      gedōn wolde;
     swȳðe oft sægdon,      þæt hē slēac wǣre,
     æðeling unfrom:      edwenden cwōm
2190 tīr-ēadigum menn      torna gehwylces.
     Hēt þā eorla hlēo      in gefetian,
     heaðo-rōf cyning,      Hrēðles lāfe,
     golde gegyrede;      næs mid Gēatum þā
     sinc-māððum sēlra      on sweordes hād;
2195 þæt hē on Bīowulfes      bearm ālegde,
     and him gesealde      seofan þūsendo,
     bold and brego-stōl.      Him wæs bām samod
     on þām lēod-scipe      lond gecynde,
     eard ēðel-riht,      ōðrum swīðor
2200 sīde rīce,      þām þǣr sēlra wæs.
     Eft þæt geīode      ufaran dōgrum
     hilde-hlæmmum,      syððan Hygelāc læg
     and Heardrēde      hilde-mēceas
     under bord-hrēoðan      tō bonan wurdon,
2205 þā hyne gesōhtan      on sige-þēode
     hearde hilde-frecan,      Heaðo-Scilfingas,
     nīða genǣgdan      nefan Hererīces.
     Syððan Bēowulfe      brāde rīce
     on hand gehwearf:      hē gehēold tela
2210 fīftig wintru      (wæs þā frōd cyning,
     eald ēðel-weard),      oð þæt ān ongan
     deorcum nihtum      draca rīcsian,
     sē þe on hēare hǣðe      hord beweotode,
     stān-beorh stēapne:      stīg under læg,
2215 eldum uncūð.      Þǣr on innan gīong
     niða nāt-hwylces      nēode gefēng
     hǣðnum horde      hond . d . . geþ . . hwylc
     since fāhne,      hē þæt syððan . . . . .
     . . . þ . . . lð . þ . . l . g
2220 slǣpende be fȳre,      fyrena hyrde
     þēofes cræfte,      þæt sie . . . . ðioð . . . . .
     . idh . folc-beorn,      þæt hē gebolgen wæs.


     Nealles mid geweoldum      wyrm-horda . . . cræft
     sōhte sylfes willum,      sē þe him sāre gesceōd,
2225 ac for þrēa-nēdlan      þēow nāt-hwylces
     hæleða bearna      hete-swengeas flēah,
     for ofer-þearfe      and þǣr inne fealh
     secg syn-bysig.      Sōna in þā tīde
     þæt . . . . . þām gyste      . . . . br . g . stōd,
2230 hwæðre earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
     . . ð . . . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fǣs begeat,
     sinc-fæt geseah:      þǣr wæs swylcra fela
     in þām eorð-scræfe      ǣr-gestrēona,
     swā hȳ on geār-dagum      gumena nāt-hwylc
2235 eormen-lāfe      æðelan cynnes
     þanc-hycgende      þǣr gehȳdde,
     dēore māðmas.      Ealle hīe dēað fornam
     ǣrran mǣlum,      and se ān þā gēn
     lēoda duguðe,      sē þǣr lengest hwearf,
2240 weard wine-geōmor      wīscte þæs yldan,
     þæt hē lȳtel fæc      long-gestrēona
     brūcan mōste.      Beorh eal gearo
     wunode on wonge      wæter-ȳðum nēah,
     nīwe be næsse      nearo-cræftum fæst:
2245 þǣr on innan bær      eorl-gestrēona
     hringa hyrde      hard-fyrdne dǣl
     fǣttan goldes,      fēa worda cwæð:
     "Heald þū nū, hrūse,      nū hæleð ne mōston,
     "eorla ǣhte.      Hwæt! hit ǣr on þē
2250 "gōde begeāton;      gūð-dēað fornam,
     "feorh-bealo frēcne      fȳra gehwylcne,
     "lēoda mīnra,      þāra þe þis līf ofgeaf,
     "gesāwon sele-drēam.      Nāh hwā sweord wege
     "oððe fetige      fǣted wǣge,
2255 "drync-fæt dēore:      duguð ellor scōc.
     "Sceal se hearda helm      hyrsted golde
     "fǣtum befeallen:      feormiend swefað,
     "þā þe beado-grīman      bȳwan sceoldon,
     "gē swylce sēo here-pād,      sīo æt hilde gebād
2260 "ofer borda gebræc      bite īrena,
     "brosnað æfter beorne.      Ne mæg byrnan hring
     "æfter wīg-fruman      wīde fēran
     "hæleðum be healfe;      næs hearpan wyn,
     "gomen glēo-bēames,      nē gōd hafoc
2265 "geond sæl swingeð,      nē se swifta mearh
     "burh-stede bēateð.      Bealo-cwealm hafað
     "fela feorh-cynna      feorr onsended!"
     Swā giōmor-mōd      giohðo mǣnde,
     ān æfter eallum      unblīðe hwēop,
2270 dæges and nihtes,      oð þæt dēaðes wylm
     hrān æt heortan.      Hord-wynne fond
     eald ūht-sceaða      opene standan,
     sē þe byrnende      biorgas sēceð
     nacod nīð-draca,      nihtes flēogeð
2275 fȳre befangen;      hyne fold-būend
     wīde gesāwon.      Hē gēwunian sceall
     hlāw under hrūsan,      þǣr hē hǣðen gold
     warað wintrum frōd;      ne byð him wihte þē sēl.
     Swā se þēod-sceaða      þrēo hund wintra
2280 hēold on hrūsan      hord-ærna sum
     ēacen-cræftig,      oð þæt hyne ān ābealh
     mon on mōde:      man-dryhtne bær
     fǣted wǣge,      frioðo-wǣre bæd
     hlāford sīnne.      Þā wæs hord rāsod,
2285 onboren bēaga hord,      bēne getīðad
     fēa-sceaftum men.      Frēa scēawode
     fīra fyrn-geweorc      forman sīðe.
     Þā se wyrm onwōc,      wrōht wæs genīwad;
     stonc þā æfter stāne,      stearc-heort onfand
2290 fēondes fōt-lāst;      hē tō forð gestōp,
     dyrnan cræfte,      dracan hēafde nēah.
     Swā mæg unfǣge      ēaðe gedīgan
     wēan and wræc-sīð,      sē þe waldendes
     hyldo gehealdeð.      Hord-weard sōhte
2295 georne æfter grunde,      wolde guman findan,
     þone þe him on sweofote      sāre getēode:
     hāt and hrēoh-mōd      hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf,
     ealne ūtan-weardne;      nē þǣr ǣnig mon
     wæs on þǣre wēstenne.      Hwæðre hilde gefeh,
2300 beado-weorces:      hwīlum on beorh æthwearf,
     sinc-fæt sōhte;      hē þæt sōna onfand,
     þæt hæfde gumena sum      goldes gefandod
     hēah-gestrēona.      Hord-weard onbād
     earfoðlīce,      oð þæt ǣfen cwōm;
2305 wæs þā gebolgen      beorges hyrde,
     wolde se lāða      līge forgyldan
     drinc-fæt dȳre.      Þā wæs dæg sceacen
     wyrme on willan,      nō on wealle leng
     bīdan wolde,      ac mid bǣle fōr,
2310 fȳre gefȳsed.      Wæs se fruma egeslīc
     lēodum on lande,      swā hyt lungre wearð
     on hyra sinc-gifan      sāre geendod.


     Þā se gæst ongan      glēdum spīwan,
     beorht hofu bærnan;      bryne-lēoma stōd
2315 eldum on andan;      nō þǣr āht cwices
     lāð lyft-floga      lǣfan wolde.
     Wæs þæs wyrmes wīg      wīde gesȳne,
     nearo-fāges nīð      nēan and feorran,
     hū se gūð-sceaða      Gēata lēode
2320 hatode and hȳnde:      hord eft gescēat,
     dryht-sele dyrnne      ǣr dæges hwīle.
     Hæfde land-wara      līge befangen,
     bǣle and bronde;      beorges getruwode,
     wīges and wealles:      him sēo wēn gelēah.
2325 Þā wæs Bīowulfe      brōga gecȳðed
     snūde tō sōðe,      þæt his sylfes him
     bolda sēlest      bryne-wylmum mealt,
     gif-stōl Gēata.      Þæt þām gōdan wæs
     hrēow on hreðre,      hyge-sorga mǣst:
2330 wēnde se wīsa,      þæt hē wealdende,
     ofer ealde riht,      ēcean dryhtne
     bitre gebulge:      brēost innan wēoll
     þēostrum geþoncum,      swā him geþȳwe ne wæs.
     Hæfde līg-draca      lēoda fæsten,
2335 ēa-lond ūtan,      eorð-weard þone
     glēdum forgrunden.      Him þæs gūð-cyning,
     Wedera þīoden,      wræce leornode.
     Heht him þā gewyrcean      wīgendra hlēo
     eall-īrenne,      eorla dryhten
2340 wīg-bord wrǣtlīc;      wisse hē gearwe,
     þæt him holt-wudu      helpan ne meahte,
     lind wið līge.      Sceolde lǣn-daga
     æðeling ǣr-gōd      ende gebīdan
     worulde līfes      and se wyrm somod;
2345 þēah þe hord-welan      hēolde lange.
     Oferhogode þā      hringa fengel,
     þæt hē þone wīd-flogan      weorode gesōhte,
     sīdan herge;      nō hē him þā sæcce ondrēd,
     nē him þæs wyrmes wīg      for wiht dyde,
2350 eafoð and ellen;      forþon hē ǣr fela
     nearo nēðende      nīða gedīgde,
     hilde-hlemma,      syððan hē Hrōðgāres,
     sigor-ēadig secg,      sele fǣlsode
     and æt gūðe forgrāp      Grendeles mǣgum,
2355 lāðan cynnes.      Nō þæt lǣsest wæs
     hond-gemota,      þǣr mon Hygelāc slōh,
     syððan Gēata cyning      gūðe rǣsum,
     frēa-wine folces      Frēslondum on,
     Hrēðles eafora      hioro-dryncum swealt,
2360 bille gebēaten;      þonan Bīowulf cōm
     sylfes cræfte,      sund-nytte drēah;
     hæfde him on earme      ... XXX
     hilde-geatwa,      þā hē tō holme stāg.
     Nealles Hetware      hrēmge þorfton
2365 fēðe-wīges,      þē him foran ongēan
     linde bǣron:      lȳt eft becwōm
     fram þām hild-frecan      hāmes nīosan.
     Oferswam þā sioleða bigong      sunu Ecgþēowes,
     earm ān-haga      eft tō lēodum,
2370 þǣr him Hygd gebēad      hord and rīce,
     bēagas and brego-stōl:      bearne ne truwode,
     þæt hē wið æl-fylcum      ēðel-stōlas
     healdan cūðe,      þā wæs Hygelāc dēad.
     Nō þȳ ǣr fēa-sceafte      findan meahton
2375 æt þām æðelinge      ǣnige þinga,
     þæt hē Heardrēde      hlāford wǣre,
     oððe þone cyne-dōm      cīosan wolde;
     hwæðre hē him on folce      frēond-lārum hēold,
     ēstum mid āre,      oð þæt hē yldra wearð,
2380 Weder-Gēatum wēold.      Hyne wræc-mæcgas
     ofer sǣ sōhtan,      suna Ōhteres:
     hæfdon hȳ forhealden      helm Scylfinga,
     þone sēlestan      sǣ-cyninga,
     þāra þe in Swīo-rīce      sinc brytnade,
2385 mǣrne þēoden.      Him þæt tō mearce wearð;
     hē þǣr orfeorme      feorh-wunde hlēat
     sweordes swengum,      sunu Hygelāces;
     and him eft gewāt      Ongenþīowes bearn
     hāmes nīosan,      syððan Heardrēd læg;
2390 lēt þone brego-stōl      Bīowulf healdan,
     Gēatum wealdan:      þæt wæs gōd cyning.


     Sē þæs lēod-hryres      lēan gemunde
     uferan dōgrum,      Ēadgilse wearð
     fēa-sceaftum fēond.      Folce gestepte
2395 ofer sǣ sīde      sunu Ōhteres
     wigum and wǣpnum:      hē gewræc syððan
     cealdum cear-sīðum,      cyning ealdre binēat.
     Swā hē nīða gehwane      genesen hæfde,
     slīðra geslyhta,      sunu Ecgþīowes,
2400 ellen-weorca,      oð þone ānne dæg,
     þē hē wið þām wyrme      gewegan sceolde.
     Gewāt þā twelfa sum      torne gebolgen
     dryhten Gēata      dracan scēawian;
     hæfde þā gefrūnen,      hwanan sīo fǣhð ārās,
2405 bealo-nīð biorna;      him tō bearme cwōm
     māððum-fæt mǣre      þurh þæs meldan hond,
     Sē wæs on þām þrēate      þreotteoða secg,
     sē þæs orleges      ōr onstealde,
     hæft hyge-giōmor,      sceolde hēan þonon
2410 wong wīsian:      hē ofer willan gīong
     tō þæs þe hē eorð-sele      ānne wisse,
     hlǣw under hrūsan      holm-wylme nēh,
     ȳð-gewinne,      sē wæs innan full
     wrǣtta and wīra:      weard unhīore,
2415 gearo gūð-freca,      gold-māðmas hēold,
     eald under eorðan;      næs þæt ȳðe cēap,
     tō gegangenne      gumena ǣnigum.
     Gesæt þā on næsse      nīð-heard cyning,
     þenden hǣlo ābēad      heorð-genēatum
2420 gold-wine Gēata:      him wæs geōmor sefa,
     wǣfre and wæl-fūs,      Wyrd ungemete nēah,
     sē þone gomelan      grētan sceolde,
     sēcean sāwle hord,      sundur gedǣlan
     līf wið līce:      nō þon lange wæs
2425 feorh æðelinges      flǣsce bewunden.
     Bīowulf maðelade,      bearn Ecgþēowes:
     "Fela ic on giogoðe      guð-rǣsa genæs,
     "orleg-hwīla:      ic þæt eall gemon.
     "Ic wæs syfan-wintre,      þā mec sinca baldor,
2430 "frēa-wine folca      æt mīnum fæder genam,
     "hēold mec and hæfde      Hrēðel cyning,
     "geaf mē sinc and symbel,      sibbe gemunde;
     "næs ic him tō līfe      lāðra ōwihte
     "beorn in burgum,      þonne his bearna hwylc,
2435 "Herebeald and Hæðcyn,      oððe Hygelāc mīn.
     "Wæs þām yldestan      ungedēfelīce
     "mǣges dǣdum      morðor-bed strēd,
     "syððan hyne Hæðcyn      of horn-bogan,
     "his frēa-wine      flāne geswencte,
2440 "miste mercelses      and his mǣg ofscēt,
     "brōðor ōðerne,      blōdigan gāre:
     "þæt wæs feoh-lēas gefeoht,      fyrenum gesyngad
     "hreðre hyge-mēðe;      sceolde hwæðre swā þēah
     "æðeling unwrecen      ealdres linnan.
2445 "Swā bið geōmorlīc      gomelum ceorle
     "tō gebīdanne,      þæt his byre rīde
     "giong on galgan,      þonne hē gyd wrece,
     "sārigne sang,      þonne his sunu hangað
     "hrefne tō hrōðre      and hē him helpe ne mæg,
2450 "eald and in-frōd,      ǣnige gefremman.
     "Symble bið gemyndgad      morna gehwylce
     "eaforan ellor-sīð;      ōðres ne gȳmeð
     "tō gebīdanne      burgum on innan
     "yrfe-weardes,      þonne se ān hafað
2455 "þurh dēaðes nȳd      dǣda gefondad.
     "Gesyhð sorh-cearig      on his suna būre
     "wīn-sele wēstne,      wind-gereste,
     "rēote berofene;      rīdend swefað
     "hæleð in hoðman;      nis þǣr hearpan swēg,
2460 "gomen in geardum,      swylce þǣr iū wǣron.


     "Gewīteð þonne on sealman,      sorh-lēoð gæleð
     "ān æfter ānum:      þūhte him eall tō rūm,
     "wongas and wīc-stede.      Swā Wedra helm
     "æfter Herebealde      heortan sorge
2465 "weallende wæg,      wihte ne meahte
     "on þām feorh-bonan      fǣhðe gebētan:
     "nō þȳ ǣr hē þone heaðo-rinc      hatian ne meahte
     "lāðum dǣdum,      þēah him lēof ne wæs.
     "Hē þā mid þǣre sorge,      þē him sīo sār belamp,
2470 "gum-drēam ofgeaf,      godes lēoht gecēas;
     "eaferum lǣfde,      swā dēð ēadig mon,
     "lond and lēod-byrig,      þā hē of līfe gewāt.
     "Þā wæs synn and sacu      Swēona and Gēata,
     "ofer wīd wæter      wrōht gemǣne,
2475 "here-nīð hearda,      syððan Hrēðel swealt,
     "oððe him Ongenþēowes      eaferan wǣran
     "frome fyrd-hwate,      frēode ne woldon
     "ofer heafo healdan,      ac ymb Hrēosna-beorh
     "eatolne inwit-scear      oft gefremedon.
2480 "Þæt mǣg-wine      mīne gewrǣcan,
     "fǣhðe and fyrene,      swā hyt gefrǣge wæs,
     "þēah þe ōðer hit      ealdre gebohte,
     "heardan cēape:      Hæðcynne wearð,
     "Gēata dryhtne,      gūð onsǣge.
2485 "Þā ic on morgne gefrægn      mǣg ōðerne
     "billes ecgum      on bonan stǣlan,
     "þǣr Ongenþēow      Eofores nīosade:
     "gūð-helm tōglād,      gomela Scylfing
     "hrēas heoro-blāc;      hond gemunde
2490 "fǣhðo genōge,      feorh-sweng ne oftēah.
     "Ic him þā māðmas,      þē hē mē sealde,
     "geald æt gūðe,      swā mē gifeðe wæs,
     "lēohtan sweorde:      hē mē lond forgeaf,
     "eard ēðel-wyn.      Næs him ǣnig þearf,
2495 "þæt hē tō Gifðum      oððe tō Gār-Denum
     "oððe in Swīo-rīce      sēcean þurfe
     "wyrsan wīg-frecan,      weorðe gecȳpan;
     "symle ic him on fēðan      beforan wolde,
     "āna on orde,      and swā tō aldre sceall
2500 "sæcce fremman,      þenden þis sweord þolað,
     "þæt mec ǣr and sīð      oft gelǣste,
     "syððan ic for dugeðum      Dæghrefne wearð
     "tō hand-bonan,      Hūga cempan:
     "nalles hē þā frætwe      Frēs-cyninge,
2505 "brēost-weorðunge      bringan mōste,
     "ac in campe gecrong      cumbles hyrde,
     "æðeling on elne.      Ne wæs ecg bona,
     "ac him hilde-grāp      heortan wylmas,
     "bān-hūs gebræc.      Nū sceall billes ecg,
2510 "hond and heard sweord      ymb hord wīgan."
     Bēowulf maðelode,      bēot-wordum spræc
     nīehstan sīðe:      "Ic genēðde fela
     "gūða on geogoðe;      gȳt ic wylle,
     "frōd folces weard,      fǣhðe sēcan,
2515 "mǣrðum fremman,      gif mec se mān-sceaða
     "of eorð-sele      ūt gesēceð!"
     Gegrētte þā      gumena gehwylcne,
     hwate helm-berend      hindeman sīðe,
     swǣse gesīðas:      "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520 "wǣpen tō wyrme,      gif ic wiste hū
     "wið þām āglǣcean      elles meahte
     "gylpe wiðgrīpan,      swā ic giō wið Grendle dyde;
     "ac ic þǣr heaðu-fȳres      hātes wēne,
     "rēðes and-hāttres:      forþon ic mē on hafu
2525 "bord and byrnan.      Nelle ic beorges weard
     "oferflēon fōtes trem,      fēond unhȳre,
     "ac unc sceal weorðan æt wealle,      swā unc Wyrd getēoð,
     "metod manna gehwæs.      Ic eom on mōde from,
     "þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan      gylp ofersitte.
2530 "Gebīde gē on beorge      byrnum werede,
     "secgas on searwum,      hwæðer sēl mǣge
     "æfter wæl-rǣse      wunde gedȳgan
     "uncer twēga.      Nis þæt ēower sīð,
     "nē gemet mannes,      nefne mīn ānes,
2535 "þæt hē wið āglǣcean      eofoðo dǣle,
     "eorl-scype efne.      Ic mid elne sceall
     "gold gegangan      oððe gūð nimeð,
     "feorh-bealu frēcne,      frēan ēowerne!"
     Ārās þā bī ronde      rōf ōretta,
2540 heard under helm,      hioro-sercean bær
     under stān-cleofu,      strengo getruwode
     ānes mannes:      ne bið swylc earges sīð.
     Geseah þā be wealle,      sē þe worna fela,
     gum-cystum gōd,      gūða gedīgde,
2545 hilde-hlemma,      þonne hnitan fēðan,
     (stōd on stān-bogan)      strēam ūt þonan
     brecan of beorge;      wæs þǣre burnan wælm
     heaðo-fȳrum hāt:      ne meahte horde nēah
     unbyrnende      ǣnige hwīle
2550 dēop gedȳgan      for dracan lēge.
     Lēt þā of brēostum,      þā hē gebolgen wæs,
     Weder-Gēata lēod      word ūt faran,
     stearc-heort styrmde;      stefn in becōm
     heaðo-torht hlynnan      under hārne stān.
2555 Hete wæs onhrēred,      hord-weard oncnīow
     mannes reorde;      næs þǣr māra fyrst,
     frēode tō friclan.      From ǣrest cwōm
     oruð āglǣcean      ūt of stāne,
     hāt hilde-swāt;      hrūse dynede.
2560 Biorn under beorge      bord-rand onswāf
     wið þām gryre-gieste,      Gēata dryhten:
     þā wæs hring-bogan      heorte gefȳsed
     sæcce tō sēceanne.      Sweord ǣr gebrǣ
     gōd gūð-cyning      gomele lāfe,
2565 ecgum unglēaw,      ǣghwæðrum wæs
     bealo-hycgendra      brōga fram ōðrum.
     Stīð-mōd gestōd      wið stēapne rond
     winia bealdor,      þā se wyrm gebēah
     snūde tōsomne:      hē on searwum bād.
2570 Gewāt þā byrnende      gebogen scrīðan tō,
     gescīfe scyndan.      Scyld wēl gebearg
     līfe and līce      lǣssan hwīle
     mǣrum þēodne,      þonne his myne sōhte,
     þǣr hē þȳ fyrste      forman dōgore
2575 wealdan mōste,      swā him Wyrd ne gescrāf
     hrēð æt hilde.      Hond up ābræd
     Gēata dryhten,      gryre-fāhne slōh
     incge lāfe,      þæt sīo ecg gewāc
     brūn on bāne,      bāt unswīðor,
2580 þonne his þīod-cyning      þearfe hæfde,
     bysigum gebǣded.      Þā wæs beorges weard
     æfter heaðu-swenge      on hrēoum mōde,
     wearp wæl-fȳre,      wīde sprungon
     hilde-lēoman:      hrēð-sigora ne gealp
2585 gold-wine Gēata,      gūð-bill geswāc
     nacod æt nīðe,      swā hyt nō sceolde,
     īren ǣr-gōd.      Ne wæs þæt ēðe sīð,
     þæt se mǣra      maga Ecgþēowes
     grund-wong þone      ofgyfan wolde;
2590 sceolde wyrmes willan      wīc eardian
     elles hwergen,      swā sceal ǣghwylc mon
     ālǣtan lǣn-dagas.      Næs þā long tō þon,
     þæt þā āglǣcean      hȳ eft gemētton.
     Hyrte hyne hord-weard,      hreðer ǣðme wēoll,
2595 nīwan stefne:      nearo þrowode
     fȳre befongen      sē þe ǣr folce wēold.
     Nealles him on hēape      hand-gesteallan,
     æðelinga bearn      ymbe gestōdon
     hilde-cystum,      ac hȳ on holt bugon,
2600 ealdre burgan.      Hiora in ānum wēoll
     sefa wið sorgum:      sibb ǣfre ne mæg
     wiht onwendan,      þām þe wēl þenceð.


     Wīglāf wæs hāten      Wēoxstānes sunu,
     lēoflīc lind-wiga,      lēod Scylfinga,
2605 mǣg Ælfheres:      geseah his mon-dryhten
     under here-grīman      hāt þrowian.
     Gemunde þā þā āre,      þē hē him ǣr forgeaf
     wīc-stede weligne      Wǣgmundinga,
     folc-rihta gehwylc,      swā his fæder āhte;
2610 ne mihte þā forhabban,      hond rond gefēng,
     geolwe linde,      gomel swyrd getēah,
     þæt wæs mid eldum      Ēanmundes lāf,
     suna Ōhteres,      þām æt sæcce wearð
     wracu wine-lēasum      Wēohstānes bana
2615 mēces ecgum,      and his māgum ætbær
     brūn-fāgne helm,      hringde byrnan,
     eald sweord eotonisc,      þæt him Onela forgeaf,
     his gædelinges      gūð-gewǣdu,
     fyrd-searo fūslīc:      nō ymbe þā fǣhðe spræc,
2620 þēah þe hē his brōðor      bearn ābredwade.
     Hē frætwe gehēold      fela missēra,
     bill and byrnan,      oð þæt his byre mihte
     eorl-scipe efnan,      swā his ǣr-fæder;
     geaf him þā mid Gēatum      gūð-gewǣda
2625 ǣghwæs unrīm;      þā hē of ealdre gewāt,
     frōd on forð-weg.      Þā wæs forma sīð
     geongan cempan,      þæt hē gūðe rǣs
     mid his frēo-dryhtne      fremman sceolde;
     ne gemealt him se mōd-sefa,      nē his mǣges lāf
2630 gewāc æt wīge:      þæt se wyrm onfand,
     syððan hīe tōgædre      gegān hæfdon.
     Wīglāf maðelode      word-rihta fela,
     sægde gesīðum,      him wæs sefa geōmor:
     "Ic þæt mǣl geman,      þǣr wē medu þēgun,
2635 "þonne wē gehēton      ūssum hlāforde
     "in bīor-sele,      þē ūs þās bēagas geaf,
     "þæt wē him þā gūð-geatwa      gyldan woldon,
     "gif him þyslīcu      þearf gelumpe,
     "helmas and heard sweord:      þē hē ūsic on herge gecēas
2640 "tō þyssum sīð-fate      sylfes willum,
     "onmunde ūsic mǣrða      and mē þās māðmas geaf,
     "þē hē ūsic gār-wīgend      gōde tealde,
     "hwate helm-berend,      þēah þe hlāford ūs
     "þis ellen-weorc      āna āþōhte
2645 "tō gefremmanne,      folces hyrde,
     "forþām hē manna mǣst      mǣrða gefremede,
     "dǣda dollīcra.      Nū is sē dæg cumen,
     "þæt ūre man-dryhten      mægenes behōfað
     "gōdra gūð-rinca:      wutun gangan tō,
2650 "helpan hild-fruman,      þenden hyt sȳ,
     "glēd-egesa grim!      God wāt on mec,
     "þæt mē is micle lēofre,      þæt mīnne līc-haman
     "mid mīnne gold-gyfan      glēd fæðmie.
     "Ne þynceð mē gerysne,      þæt wē rondas beren
2655 "eft tō earde,      nemne wē ǣror mǣgen
     "fāne gefyllan,      feorh ealgian
     "Wedra þīodnes.      Ic wāt geare,
     "þæt nǣron eald-gewyrht,      þæt hē āna scyle
     "Gēata duguðe      gnorn þrowian,
2660 "gesīgan æt sæcce:      sceal ūrum þæt sweord and helm,
     "byrne and byrdu-scrūd      bām gemǣne."
     Wōd þā þurh þone wæl-rēc,      wīg-heafolan bær
     frēan on fultum,      fēa worda cwæð:
     "Lēofa Bīowulf,      lǣst eall tela,
2665 "swā þū on geoguð-fēore      geāra gecwǣde,
     "þæt þū ne ālǣte      be þē lifigendum
     "dōm gedrēosan:      scealt nū dǣdum rōf,
     "æðeling ān-hȳdig,      ealle mægene
     "feorh ealgian;      ic þē fullǣstu!"
2670 Æfter þām wordum      wyrm yrre cwōm,
     atol inwit-gæst      ōðre sīðe,
     fȳr-wylmum fāh      fīonda nīosan,
     lāðra manna;      līg-ȳðum forborn
     bord wið ronde:      byrne ne meahte
2675 geongum gār-wigan      gēoce gefremman:
     ac se maga geonga      under his mǣges scyld
     elne geēode,      þā his āgen wæs
     glēdum forgrunden.      Þā gēn gūð-cyning
     mǣrða gemunde,      mægen-strengo,
2680 slōh hilde-bille,      þæt hyt on heafolan stōd
     nīðe genȳded:      Nægling forbærst,
     geswāc æt sæcce      sweord Bīowulfes
     gomol and grǣg-mǣl.      Him þæt gifeðe ne wæs,
     þæt him īrenna      ecge mihton
2685 helpan æt hilde;      wæs sīo hond tō strong,
     sē þe mēca gehwane      mīne gefrǣge
     swenge ofersōhte,      þonne hē tō sæcce bær
     wǣpen wundrum heard,      næs him wihte þē sēl.
     Þā wæs þēod-sceaða      þriddan sīðe,
2690 frēcne fȳr-draca      fǣhða gemyndig,
     rǣsde on þone rōfan,      þā him rūm āgeald,
     hāt and heaðo-grim,      heals ealne ymbefēng
     biteran bānum;      hē geblōdegod wearð
     sāwul-drīore;      swāt ȳðum wēoll.


2695 Þā ic æt þearfe gefrægn      þēod-cyninges
     and-longne eorl      ellen cȳðan,
     cræft and cēnðu,      swā him gecynde wæs;
     ne hēdde hē þæs heafolan,      ac sīo hand gebarn
     mōdiges mannes,      þǣr hē his mǣges healp,
2700 þæt hē þone nīð-gæst      nioðor hwēne slōh,
     secg on searwum,      þæt þæt sweord gedēaf
     fāh and fǣted,      þæt þæt fȳr ongon
     sweðrian syððan.      Þā gēn sylf cyning
     gewēold his gewitte,      wæll-seaxe gebrǣ,
2705 biter and beadu-scearp,      þæt hē on byrnan wæg:
     forwrāt Wedra helm       wyrm on middan.
     Fēond gefyldan      (ferh ellen wræc),
     and hī hyne þā bēgen      ābroten hæfdon,
     sib-æðelingas:      swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710 þegn æt þearfe.      Þæt þām þēodne wæs
     sīðast sīge-hwīle      sylfes dǣdum,
     worlde geweorces.      Þā sīo wund ongon,
     þē him se eorð-draca      ǣr geworhte,
     swelan and swellan.      Hē þæt sōna onfand,
2715 þæt him on brēostum      bealo-nīð wēoll,
     attor on innan.      Þā se æðeling gīong,
     þæt hē bī wealle,      wīs-hycgende,
     gesæt on sesse;      seah on enta geweorc,
     hū þā stān-bogan      stapulum fæste
2720 ēce eorð-reced      innan hēoldon.
     Hyne þā mid handa      heoro-drēorigne
     þēoden mǣrne      þegn ungemete till,
     wine-dryhten his      wætere gelafede,
     hilde-sædne      and his helm onspēon.
2725 Bīowulf maðelode,      hē ofer benne spræc,
     wunde wæl-blēate      (wisse hē gearwe,
     þæt hē dæg-hwīla      gedrogen hæfde
     eorðan wynne;      þā wæs eall sceacen
     dōgor-gerīmes,      dēað ungemete nēah):
2730 "Nū ic suna mīnum      syllan wolde
     "gūð-gewǣdu,      þǣr mē gifeðe swā
     "ǣnig yrfe-weard      æfter wurde,
     "līce gelenge.      Ic þās lēode hēold
     "fīftig wintra:      næs se folc-cyning
2735 "ymbe-sittendra      ǣnig þāra,
     "þē mec gūð-winum      grētan dorste,
     "egesan þēon.      Ic on earde bād
     "mǣl-gesceafta,      hēold mīn tela,
     "ne sōhte searo-nīðas,      nē mē swōr fela
2740 "āða on unriht.      Ic þæs ealles mæg,
     "feorh-bennum sēoc,      gefēan habban:
     "forþām mē wītan ne þearf      waldend fīra
     "morðor-bealo māga,      þonne mīn sceaceð
     "līf of līce.      Nū þū lungre
2745 "geong, hord scēawian      under hārne stān,
     "Wīglāf lēofa,      nū se wyrm ligeð,
     "swefeð sāre wund,      since berēafod.
     "Bīo nū on ofoste,      þæt ic ǣr-welan,
     "gold-ǣht ongite,      gearo scēawige
2750 "swegle searo-gimmas,      þæt ic þȳ sēft mǣge
     "æfter māððum-welan      mīn ālǣtan
     "līf and lēod-scipe,      þone ic longe hēold."


     Þā ic snūde gefrægn      sunu Wīhstānes
     æfter word-cwydum      wundum dryhtne
2755 hȳran heaðo-sīocum,      hring-net beran,
     brogdne beadu-sercean      under beorges hrōf.
     Geseah þā sige-hrēðig,      þā hē bī sesse gēong,
     mago-þegn mōdig      māððum-sigla fela,
     gold glitinian      grunde getenge,
2760 wundur on wealle      and þæs wyrmes denn,
     ealdes ūht-flogan,      orcas stondan,
     fyrn-manna fatu      feormend-lēase,
     hyrstum behrorene:      þǣr wæs helm monig,
     eald and ōmig,      earm-bēaga fela,
2765 searwum gesǣled.      Sinc ēaðe mæg,
     gold on grunde,      gumena cynnes
     gehwone ofer-hīgian,      hȳde sē þe wylle!
     Swylce hē siomian geseah      segn eall-gylden
     hēah ofer horde,      hond-wundra mǣst,
2770 gelocen leoðo-cræftum:      of þām lēoma stōd,
     þæt hē þone grund-wong      ongitan meahte,
     wrǣte giond-wlītan.      Næs þæs wyrmes þǣr
     onsȳn ǣnig,      ac hyne ecg fornam.
     Þā ic on hlǣwe      gefrægn hord rēafian,
2775 eald enta geweorc      ānne mannan,
     him on bearm hladan      bunan and discas
     sylfes dōme,      segn ēac genom,
     bēacna beorhtost;      bill ǣr-gescōd
     (ecg wæs īren)      eald-hlāfordes
2780 þām þāra māðma      mund-bora wæs
     longe hwīle,      līg-egesan wæg
     hātne for horde,      hioro-weallende,
     middel-nihtum,      oð þæt hē morðre swealt.
     Ār wæs on ofoste      eft-sīðes georn,
2785 frætwum gefyrðred:      hyne fyrwet bræc,
     hwæðer collen-ferð      cwicne gemētte
     in þām wong-stede      Wedra þēoden,
     ellen-sīocne,      þǣr hē hine ǣr forlēt.
     Hē þā mid þām māðmum      mǣrne þīoden,
2790 dryhten sīnne      drīorigne fand
     ealdres æt ende:      hē hine eft ongon
     wæteres weorpan,      oð þæt wordes ord
     brēost-hord þurhbræc.      Bēowulf maðelode,
     gomel on giohðe      (gold scēawode):
2795 "Ic þāra frætwa      frēan ealles þanc
     "wuldur-cyninge      wordum secge,
     "ēcum dryhtne,      þē ic hēr on starie,
     "þæs þe ic mōste      mīnum lēodum
     "ǣr swylt-dæge      swylc gestrȳnan.
2800 "Nū ic on māðma hord      mīne bebohte
     "frōde feorh-lege,      fremmað gē nū
     "lēoda þearfe;      ne mæg ic hēr leng wesan.
     "Hātað heaðo-mǣre      hlǣw gewyrcean,
     "beorhtne æfter bǣle      æt brimes nosan;
2805 "se scel tō gemyndum      mīnum lēodum
     "hēah hlīfian      on Hrones næsse,
     "þæt hit sǣ-līðend      syððan hātan
     "Bīowulfes biorh,      þā þe brentingas
     "ofer flōda genipu      feorran drīfað."
2810 Dyde him of healse      hring gyldenne
     þīoden þrīst-hȳdig,      þegne gesealde,
     geongum gār-wigan,      gold-fāhne helm,
     bēah and byrnan,      hēt hyne brūcan well:
     "Þū eart ende-lāf      ūsses cynnes,
2815 "Wǣgmundinga;      ealle Wyrd forswēof,
     "mīne māgas      tō metod-sceafte,
     "eorlas on elne:      ic him æfter sceal."
     Þæt wæs þām gomelan      gingeste word
     brēost-gehygdum,      ǣr hē bǣl cure,
2820 hāte heaðo-wylmas:      him of hreðre gewāt
     sāwol sēcean      sōð-fæstra dōm.


     Þā wæs gegongen      guman unfrōdum
     earfoðlīce,      þæt hē on eorðan geseah
     þone lēofestan      līfes æt ende
2825 blēate gebǣran.      Bona swylce læg,
     egeslīc eorð-draca,      ealdre berēafod,
     bealwe gebǣded:      bēah-hordum leng
     wyrm wōh-bogen      wealdan ne mōste,
     ac him īrenna      ecga fornāmon,
2830 hearde heaðo-scearpe      homera lāfe,
     þæt se wīd-floga      wundum stille
     hrēas on hrūsan      hord-ærne nēah,
     nalles æfter lyfte      lācende hwearf
     middel-nihtum,      māðm-ǣhta wlonc
2835 ansȳn ȳwde:      ac hē eorðan gefēoll
     for þæs hild-fruman      hond-geweorce.
     Hūru þæt on lande      lȳt manna þāh
     mægen-āgendra      mīne gefrǣge,
     þēah þe hē dǣda gehwæs      dyrstig wǣre,
2840 þæt hē wið attor-sceaðan      oreðe gerǣsde,
     oððe hring-sele      hondum styrede,
     gif hē wæccende      weard onfunde
     būan on beorge.      Bīowulfe wearð
     dryht-māðma dǣl      dēaðe forgolden;
2845 hæfde ǣghwæðer      ende gefēred
     lǣnan līfes.      Næs þā lang tō þon,
     þæt þā hild-latan      holt ofgēfan,
     tȳdre trēow-logan      tȳne ætsomne,
     þā ne dorston ǣr      dareðum lācan
2850 on hyra man-dryhtnes      miclan þearfe;
     ac hȳ scamiende      scyldas bǣran,
     gūð-gewǣdu,      þǣr se gomela læg:
     wlitan on Wīglāf.      Hē gewērgad sæt,
     fēðe-cempa      frēan eaxlum nēah,
2855 wehte hyne wætre;      him wiht ne spēow;
     ne meahte hē on eorðan,      þēah hē ūðe wēl,
     on þām frum-gāre      feorh gehealdan,
     nē þæs wealdendes willan      wiht oncirran;
     wolde dōm godes      dǣdum rǣdan
2860 gumena gehwylcum,      swā hē nū gēn dēð.
     Þā wæs æt þām geongan      grim andswaru
     ēð-begēte þām þe ǣr      his elne forlēas.
     Wīglāf maðelode,      Wēohstānes sunu,
     secg sārig-ferð      seah on unlēofe:
2865 "Þæt lā mæg secgan,      sē þe wyle sōð sprecan,
     "þæt se mon-dryhten,      se ēow þā māðmas geaf,
     "ēored-geatwe,      þē gē þǣr on standað,
     "þonne hē on ealu-bence      oft gesealde
     "heal-sittendum      helm and byrnan,
2870 "þēoden his þegnum,      swylce hē þrȳðlīcost
     "ōhwǣr feor oððe nēah      findan meahte,
     "þæt hē gēnunga      gūð-gewǣdu
     "wrāðe forwurpe.      Þā hyne wīg beget,
     "nealles folc-cyning      fyrd-gesteallum
2875 "gylpan þorfte;      hwæðre him god ūðe,
     "sigora waldend,      þæt hē hyne sylfne gewræc
     "āna mid ecge,      þā him wæs elnes þearf,
     "Ic him līf-wraðe      lȳtle meahte
     "ætgifan æt gūðe      and ongan swā þēah
2880 "ofer mīn gemet      mǣges helpan:
     "symle wæs þȳ sǣmra,      þonne ic sweorde drep
     "ferhð-genīðlan,      fȳr unswīðor
     "wēoll of gewitte.      Wergendra tō lȳt
     "þrong ymbe þēoden,      þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm.
2885 "Nū sceal sinc-þego      and swyrd-gifu
     "eall ēðel-wyn      ēowrum cynne,
     "lufen ālicgean:      lond-rihtes mōt
     "þǣre mǣg-burge      monna ǣghwylc
     "īdel hweorfan,      syððan æðelingas
2890 "feorran gefricgean      flēam ēowerne,
     "dōm-lēasan dǣd.      Dēað bið sēlla
     "eorla gehwylcum      þonne edwīt-līf!"


     Heht þā þæt heaðo-weorc      tō hagan bīodan
     up ofer ēg-clif,      þǣr þæt eorl-weorod
2895 morgen-longne dæg      mōd-giōmor sæt,
     bord-hæbbende,      bēga on wēnum
     ende-dōgores      and eft-cymes
     lēofes monnes.      Lȳt swīgode
     nīwra spella,      sē þe næs gerād,
2900 ac hē sōðlīce      sægde ofer ealle;
     "Nū is wil-geofa      Wedra lēoda,
     "dryhten Gēata      dēað-bedde fæst,
     "wunað wæl-reste      wyrmes dǣdum;
     "him on efn ligeð      ealdor-gewinna,
2905 "siex-bennum sēoc:      sweorde ne meahte
     "on þām āglǣcean      ǣnige þinga
     "wunde gewyrcean.      Wīglāf siteð
     "ofer Bīowulfe,      byre Wīhstānes,
     "eorl ofer ōðrum      unlifigendum,
2910 "healdeð hige-mēðum      hēafod-wearde
     "lēofes and lāðes.      Nū ys lēodum wēn
     "orleg-hwīle,      syððan underne
     "Froncum and Frȳsum      fyll cyninges
     "wīde weorðeð.      Wæs sīo wrōht scepen
2915 "heard wið Hūgas,      syððan Higelāc cwōm
     "faran flot-herge      on Frēsna land,
     "þǣr hyne Hetware      hilde gehnǣgdon,
     "elne geēodon      mid ofer-mægene,
     "þæt se byrn-wiga      būgan sceolde,
2920 "fēoll on fēðan:      nalles frætwe geaf
     "ealdor dugoðe;      ūs wæs ā syððan
     "Merewīoinga      milts ungyfeðe.
     "Nē ic tō Swēo-þēode      sibbe oððe trēowe
     "wihte ne wēne;      ac wæs wīde cūð,
2925 "þætte Ongenþīo      ealdre besnyðede
     "Hæðcyn Hrēðling      wið Hrefna-wudu,
     "þā for on-mēdlan      ǣrest gesōhton
     "Gēata lēode      Gūð-scilfingas.
     "Sōna him se frōda      fæder Ōhtheres,
2930 "eald and eges-full      ond-slyht āgeaf,
     "ābrēot brim-wīsan,      brȳd āhēorde,
     "gomela īo-meowlan      golde berofene,
     "Onelan mōdor      and Ōhtheres,
     "and þā folgode      feorh-genīðlan
2935 "oð þæt hī oðēodon      earfoðlīce
     "in Hrefnes-holt      hlāford-lēase.
     "Besæt þā sin-herge      sweorda lāfe
     "wundum wērge,      wēan oft gehēt
     "earmre teohhe      andlonge niht:
2940 "cwæð hē on mergenne      mēces ecgum
     "gētan wolde,      sume on galg-trēowum
     "fuglum tō gamene.      Frōfor eft gelamp
     "sārig-mōdum      somod ǣr-dæge,
     "syððan hīe Hygelāces      horn and bȳman
2945 "gealdor ongeāton.      Þā se gōda cōm
     "lēoda dugoðe      on lāst faran.


     "Wæs sīo swāt-swaðu      Swēona and Gēata,
     "wæl-rǣs wera      wīde gesȳne,
     "hū þā folc mid him      fǣhðe tōwehton.
2950 "Gewāt him þā se gōda      mid his gædelingum,
     "frōd fela geōmor      fæsten sēcean,
     "eorl Ongenþīo      ufor oncirde;
     "hæfde Higelāces      hilde gefrūnen,
     "wlonces wīg-cræft,      wiðres ne truwode,
2955 "þæt hē sǣ-mannum      onsacan mihte,
     "hēaðo-līðendum      hord forstandan,
     "bearn and brȳde;      bēah eft þonan
     "eald under eorð-weall.      Þā wæs ǣht boden
     "Swēona lēodum,      segn Higelāce.
2960 "Freoðo-wong þone      forð oferēodon,
     "syððan Hrēðlingas      tō hagan þrungon.
     "Þǣr wearð Ongenþīo      ecgum sweorda,
     "blonden-fexa      on bīd wrecen,
     "þæt se þēod-cyning      þafian sceolde
2965 "Eofores ānne dōm:      hyne yrringa
     "Wulf Wonrēding      wǣpne gerǣhte,
     "þæt him for swenge      swāt ǣdrum sprong
     "forð under fexe.      Næs hē forht swā þēh,
     "gomela Scilfing,      ac forgeald hraðe
2970 "wyrsan wrixle      wæl-hlem þone,
     "syððan þēod-cyning      þyder oncirde:
     "ne meahte se snella      sunu Wonrēdes
     "ealdum ceorle      ond-slyht giofan,
     "ac hē him on hēafde      helm ǣr gescer,
2975 "þæt hē blōde fāh      būgan sceolde,
     "fēoll on foldan;      næs hē fǣge þā gīt,
     "ac hē hyne gewyrpte,      þēah þe him wund hrīne,
     "Lēt se hearda      Higelāces þegn
     "brādne mēce,      þā his brōðor læg,
2980 "eald sweord eotonisc,      entiscne helm,
     "brecan ofer bord-weal:      þā gebēah cyning,
     "folces hyrde,      wæs in feorh dropen.
     "Þā wǣron monige,      þē his mǣg wriðon,
     "ricone ārǣrdon,      þā him gerȳmed wearð,
2985 "þæt hīe wæl-stōwe      wealdan mōston.
     "Þenden rēafode      rinc ōðerne,
     "nam on Ongenþīo      īren-byrnan,
     "heard swyrd hilted      and his helm somod;
     "hāres hyrste      Higelāce bær.
2990 "Hē þām frætwum fēng      and him fægre gehēt
     "lēana fore lēodum      and gelǣste swā:
     "geald þone gūð-rǣs      Gēata dryhten,
     "Hrēðles eafora,      þā hē tō hām becōm,
     "Jofore and Wulfe      mid ofer-māðmum,
2995 "sealde hiora gehwæðrum      hund þūsenda
     "landes and locenra bēaga;      ne þorfte him þā lēan oðwītan
     "mon on middan-gearde,      syððan hīe þā mǣrða geslōgon;
     "and þā Jofore forgeaf      āngan dōhtor,
     "hām-weorðunge,      hyldo tō wedde.
3000 "Þæt ys sīo fǣhðo      and se fēond-scipe,
     "wæl-nīð wera,      þæs þe ic wēn hafo,
     "þē ūs sēceað tō      Swēona lēode,
     "syððan hīe gefricgeað      frēan ūserne
     "ealdor-lēasne,      þone þe ǣr gehēold
3005 "wið hettendum      hord and rīce,
     "æfter hæleða hryre      hwate Scylfingas,
     "folc-rǣd fremede      oððe furður gēn
     "eorl-scipe efnde.      Nū is ofost betost,
     "þæt wē þēod-cyning      þǣr scēawian
3010 "and þone gebringan,      þē ūs bēagas geaf,
     "on ād-fære.      Ne scel ānes hwæt
     "meltan mid þām mōdigan,      ac þǣr is māðma hord.
     "gold unrīme      grimme gecēapod
     "and nū æt sīðestan      sylfes fēore
3015 "bēagas gebohte;      þā sceal brond fretan,
     "ǣled þeccean,      nalles eorl wegan
     "māððum tō gemyndum,      nē mægð scȳne
     "habban on healse      hring-weorðunge,
     "ac sceall geōmor-mōd      golde berēafod
3020 "oft nalles ǣne      el-land tredan,
     "nū se here-wīsa      hleahtor ālegde,
     "gamen and glēo-drēam.      Forþon sceall gār wesan
     "monig morgen-ceald      mundum bewunden,
     "hæfen on handa,      nalles hearpan swēg
3025 "wīgend weccean,      ac se wonna hrefn
     "fūs ofer fǣgum,      fela reordian,
     "earne secgan,      hū him æt ǣte spēow,
     "þenden hē wið wulf      wæl rēafode."
     Swā se secg hwata      secgende wæs
3030 lāðra spella;      hē ne lēag fela
     wyrda nē worda.      Weorod eall ārās,
     ēodon unblīðe      under Earna næs
     wollen-tēare      wundur scēawian.
     Fundon þā on sande      sāwul-lēasne
3035 hlim-bed healdan,      þone þe him hringas geaf
     ǣrran mǣlum:      þā wæs ende-dæg
     gōdum gegongen,      þæt se gūð-cyning,
     Wedra þēoden,      wundor-dēaðe swealt.
     Ǣr hī gesēgan      syllīcran wiht,
3040 wyrm on wonge      wiðer-ræhtes þǣr
     lāðne licgean:      wæs se lēg-draca,
     grimlīc gryre-gæst,      glēdum beswǣled,
     sē wæs fīftiges      fōt-gemearces.
     lang on legere,      lyft-wynne hēold
3045 nihtes hwīlum,      nyðer eft gewāt
     dennes nīosian;      wæs þā dēaðe fæst,
     hæfde eorð-scrafa      ende genyttod.
     Him big stōdan      bunan and orcas,
     discas lāgon      and dȳre swyrd,
3050 ōmige þurh-etone,      swā hīe wið eorðan fæðm
     þūsend wintra      þǣr eardodon:
     þonne wæs þæt yrfe      ēacen-cræftig,
     iū-monna gold      galdre bewunden,
     þæt þām hring-sele      hrīnan ne mōste
3055 gumena ǣnig,      nefne god sylfa,
     sigora sōð-cyning,      sealde þām þe hē wolde
     (hē is manna gehyld)      hord openian,
     efne swā hwylcum manna,      swā him gemet þūhte.


     Þā wæs gesȳne,      þæt se sīð ne þāh
3060 þām þe unrihte      inne gehȳdde
     wrǣte under wealle.      Weard ǣr ofslōh
     fēara sumne;      þā sīo fǣhð gewearð
     gewrecen wrāðlīce.      Wundur hwār, þonne
     eorl ellen-rōf      ende gefēre
3065 līf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mæg
     mon mid his māgum      medu-seld būan.
     Swā wæs Bīowulfe,      þā hē biorges weard
     sōhte, searo-nīðas:      seolfa ne cūðe,
     þurh hwæt his worulde gedāl      weorðan sceolde;
3070 swā hit oð dōmes dæg      dīope benemdon
     þēodnas mǣre,      þā þæt þǣr dydon,
     þæt se secg wǣre      synnum scildig,
     hergum geheaðerod,      hell-bendum fæst,
     wommum gewītnad,      sē þone wong strāde.
3075 Næs hē gold-hwæt:      gearwor hæfde
     āgendes ēst      ǣr gescēawod.
     Wīglāf maðelode,      Wīhstānes sunu:
     "Oft sceall eorl monig      ānes willan
     "wrǣc ādrēogan,      swā ūs geworden is.
3080 "Ne meahton wē gelǣran      lēofne þēoden,
     "rīces hyrde      rǣd ǣnigne,
     "þæt hē ne grētte      gold-weard þone,
     "lēte hyne licgean,      þǣr hē longe wæs,
     "wīcum wunian      oð woruld-ende.
3085 "Hēoldon hēah gesceap:      hord ys gescēawod,
     "grimme gegongen;      wæs þæt gifeðe tō swīð,
     "þē þone þēoden      þyder ontyhte.
     "Ic wæs þǣr inne      and þæt eall geond-seh,
     "recedes geatwa,      þā mē gerȳmed wæs,
3090 "nealles swǣslīce      sīð ālȳfed
     "inn under eorð-weall.      Ic on ofoste gefēng
     "micle mid mundum      mægen-byrðenne
     "hord-gestrēona,      hider ūt ætbær
     "cyninge mīnum:      cwico wæs þā gēna,
3095 "wīs and gewittig;      worn eall gespræc
     "gomol on gehðo      and ēowic grētan hēt,
     "bæd þæt gē geworhton      æfter wines dǣdum
     "in bǣl-stede      beorh þone hēan
     "micelne and mǣrne,      swā hē manna wæs
3100 "wīgend weorð-fullost      wīde geond eorðan,
     "þenden hē burh-welan      brūcan mōste.
     "Uton nū efstan      ōðre sīðe
     "sēon and sēcean      searo-geþræc,
     "wundur under wealle!      ic ēow wīsige,
3105 "þæt gē genōge      nēan scēawiað
     "bēagas and brād gold.      Sīe sīo bǣr gearo
     "ǣdre geæfned,      þonne wē ūt cymen,
     "and þonne geferian      frēan ūserne,
     "lēofne mannan,      þǣr hē longe sceal
3110 "on þæs waldendes      wǣre geþolian."
     Hēt þā gebēodan      byre Wīhstānes,
     hæle hilde-dīor,      hæleða monegum
     bold-āgendra,      þæt hīe bǣl-wudu
     feorran feredon,      folc-āgende
3115 gōdum tōgēnes:      "Nū sceal glēd fretan
     "(weaxan wonna lēg)      wigena strengel,
     "þone þe oft gebād      īsern-scūre,
     "þonne strǣla storm,      strengum gebǣded,
     "scōc ofer scild-weall,      sceft nytte hēold,
3120 "feðer-gearwum fūs      flāne full-ēode."
     Hūru se snotra      sunu Wīhstānes
     ācīgde of corðre      cyninges þegnas
     syfone tōsomne      þā sēlestan,
     ēode eahta sum      under inwit-hrōf;
3125 hilde-rinc sum      on handa bær
     ǣled-lēoman,      sē þe on orde gēong.
     Næs þā on hlytme,      hwā þæt hord strude,
     syððan or-wearde      ǣnigne dǣl
     secgas gesēgon      on sele wunian,
3130 lǣne licgan:      lȳt ǣnig mearn,
     þæt hī ofostlice      ūt geferedon
     dȳre māðmas;      dracan ēc scufun,
     wyrm ofer weall-clif,      lēton wǣg niman,
     flōd fæðmian      frætwa hyrde.
3135 Þǣr wæs wunden gold      on wǣn hladen,
     ǣghwæs unrīm,      æðeling boren,
     hār hilde-rinc      tō Hrones næsse.


     Him þā gegiredan      Gēata lēode
     ād on eorðan      un-wāclīcne,
3140 helmum behongen,      hilde-bordum,
     beorhtum byrnum,      swā hē bēna wæs;
     ālegdon þā tō-middes      mǣrne þēoden
     hæleð hīofende,      hlāford lēofne.
     Ongunnon þā on beorge      bǣl-fȳra mǣst
3145 wīgend weccan:      wudu-rēc āstāh
     sweart ofer swioðole,      swōgende lēg,
     wōpe bewunden      (wind-blond gelæg)
     oð þæt hē þā bān-hūs      gebrocen hæfde,
     hāt on hreðre.      Higum unrōte
3150 mōd-ceare mǣndon      mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
     swylce giōmor-gyd      lat . con meowle
     . . . . .      wunden heorde . . .
     serg (?) cearig sǣlde      geneahhe
     þæt hīo hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155 . . . . . ede      wælfylla wonn . .
     hildes egesan      hyðo
     haf mid      heofon rēce swealh (?)
     Geworhton þā      Wedra lēode
     hlǣw on hlīðe,      sē wæs hēah and brād,
3160 wǣg-līðendum      wīde gesȳne,
     and betimbredon      on tȳn dagum
     beadu-rōfes bēcn:      bronda betost
     wealle beworhton,      swā hyt weorðlīcost
     fore-snotre men      findan mihton.
3165 Hī on beorg dydon      bēg and siglu,
     eall swylce hyrsta,      swylce on horde ǣr
     nīð-hȳdige men      genumen hæfdon;
     forlēton eorla gestrēon      eorðan healdan,
     gold on grēote,      þǣr hit nū gēn lifað
3170 eldum swā unnyt,      swā hit ǣror wæs.
     Þā ymbe hlǣw riodan      hilde-dēore,
     æðelinga bearn      ealra twelfa,
     woldon ceare cwīðan,      kyning mǣnan,
     word-gyd wrecan      and ymb wer sprecan,
3175 eahtodan eorl-scipe      and his ellen-weorc
     duguðum dēmdon,      swā hit ge-dēfe bið,
     þæt mon his wine-dryhten      wordum herge,
     ferhðum frēoge,      þonne hē forð scile
     of līc-haman      lǣne weorðan.
3180 Swā begnornodon      Gēata lēode
     hlāfordes hryre,      heorð-genēatas,
     cwǣdon þæt hē wǣre      woruld-cyning
     mannum mildust      and mon-þwǣrust,
     lēodum līðost      and lof-geornost.



     ". . . . . . . . . . . næs byrnað nǣfre."
     Hleoðrode þā      heaðo-geong cyning:
     "Ne þis ne dagað ēastan,      ne hēr draca ne flēogeð,
     "ne hēr þisse healle      hornas ne byrnað,
5    "ac fēr forð berað      fugelas singað,
     "gylleð grǣg-hama,      gūð-wudu hlynneð,
     "scyld scefte oncwyð.      Nū scȳneð þes mōna
     "waðol under wolcnum;      nū ārīsað wēa-dǣda,
     "þē þisne folces nīð      fremman willað.
10   "Ac onwacnigeað nū,      wīgend mīne,
     "hebbað ēowre handa,      hicgeað on ellen,
     "winnað on orde,      wesað on mōde!"
     Þā ārās monig gold-hladen þegn,      gyrde hine his swurde;
     þā tō dura ēodon      drihtlīce cempan,
15   Sigeferð and Eaha,      hyra sweord getugon,
     and æt ōðrum durum      Ordlāf and Gūðlāf,
     and Hengest sylf;      hwearf him on lāste.
     Þā gīt Gārulf      Gūðere styrode,
     þæt hīe swā frēolīc feorh      forman sīðe
20   tō þǣre healle durum      hyrsta ne bǣran,
     nū hyt nīða heard      ānyman wolde:
     ac hē frægn ofer eal      undearninga,
     dēor-mōd hæleð,      hwā þā duru hēolde.
     "Sigeferð is mīn nama (cwæð hē),      ic eom Secgena lēod,
25   "wrecca wīde cūð.      Fela ic wēana gebād,
     "heardra hilda;      þē is gȳt hēr witod,
     "swæðer þū sylf tō mē      sēcean wylle."
     Þā wæs on wealle      wæl-slihta gehlyn,
     sceolde cēlod bord      cēnum on handa
30   bān-helm berstan.      Buruh-þelu dynede,
     oð þæt æt þǣre gūðe      Gārulf gecrang,
     ealra ǣrest      eorð-būendra,
     Gūðlāfes sunu;      ymbe hine gōdra fela.
     Hwearf flacra hrǣw      hræfn, wandrode
35   sweart and sealo-brūn;      swurd-lēoma stōd
     swylce eal Finns-buruh      fȳrenu wǣre.
     Ne gefrægn ic nǣfre wurðlīcor      æt wera hilde
     sixtig sige-beorna      sēl gebǣran,
     ne nǣfre swānas swētne      medo sēl forgyldan,
40   þonne Hnæfe guldon      his hæg-stealdas.
     Hig fuhton fīf dagas,      swā hyra nān ne fēol
     driht-gesīða,      ac hig þā duru hēoldon.
     Þā gewāt him wund hæleð      on wæg gangan,
     sǣde þæt his byrne      ābrocen wǣre,
45   here-sceorpum hrōr,      and ēac wæs his helm þyrl.
     Þā hine sōna frægn      folces hyrde,
     hū þā wīgend      hyra wunda genǣson
     oððe hwæðer þǣra hyssa . . . . . . .



m.: masculine.
f.: feminine.
n.: neuter.
nom., gen.: nominative, genitive, etc.
w.: weak.
w. v.: weak verb.
st.: strong.
st. v.: strong verb.
I., II., III.: first, second, third person.
comp.: compound.
imper.: imperative.
w.: with.
instr.: instrumental.
G. and Goth.: Gothic.
O.N.: Old Norse.
O.S.: Old Saxon.
O.H.G.: Old High German.
M.H.G.: Middle High German.

The vowel     æ = _a_ in _glad_ }
The diphthong ǣ = _a_ in _hair_ } approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.


Ābel, Cain's brother, 108.

Ælf-here (gen. Ælf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of Wīglāf's, 2605.

Æsc-here, confidential adviser of King Hrōðgār (1326), older brother of
Yrmenlāf (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

Bān-stān, father of Breca, 524.

Bēo-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his
father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is
Healfdene, 57.

Bēo-wulf (Bīowulf, 1988, 2390; gen. Bēowulfes, 857, etc., Bīowulfes, 2195,
2808, etc.; dat. Bēowulfe, 610, etc., Bīowulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of
the Gēatas. His father is the Wǣgmunding Ecgþēow (263, etc.); his mother a
daughter of Hrēðel, king of the Gēatas (374), at whose court he is brought
up after his seventh year with Hrēðel's sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and
Hygelāc, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he
attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his
victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate
denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His
swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Gēatas
to the assistance of the Danish king, Hrōðgār, against Grendel, 198 ff. His
combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in
consequence, presented with rich gifts by Hrōðgār, 1021 ff. His combat with
Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves Hrōðgār
(1818-1888), and returns to Hygelāc, 1964 ff.--After Hygelāc's last battle
and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes
Dæghrefn, one of the Hūgas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time
Hygelāc's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the
government as guardian of the young Heardrēd, son of Hygelāc, 2378 ff.
After Heardrēd's death, the kingdom falls to Bēowulf, 2208,
2390.--Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered Heardrēd, he
kills the Scylfing, Ēadgils (2397), and probably conquers his country.
--His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Bēanstān, 524. Chief of the
Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with Bēowulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brōsinga mene, corrupted from, or according to Müllenhoff, written by
mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII.
304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107,
1262 ff.

Dæg-hrefn (dat. Dæghrefne, 2502), a warrior of the Hūgas, who, according to
2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of
King Hygelāc, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas.
Is crushed to death by Bēowulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum,
768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called
Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22),
Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called Hrēðmen, 445. On account of
their renowned warlike character, they bore the names Gār-Dene, 1, 1857,
Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great
extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of
the heavens: Ēast-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, Sūð-Dene,
463, Norð-Dene, 784.--Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on
Scedenigge," 1687, "be sǣm twēonum," 1686.

Ecg-lāf (gen. Ecglāfes, 499), Hunferð's father, 499.

Ecg-þēow (nom. Ecgþēow, 263, Ecgþēo, 373; gen. Ecgþēowes, 529, etc.,
Ecgþīowes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Gēatas, of the house of the
Wǣgmundings. Bēowulf is the son of Ecgþēow, by the only daughter of Hrēðel,
king of the Gēatas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Heaðolāf
(460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose
king, Hrōðgār, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants,
1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings,
which closes with Heremōd. See Heremōd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the
restored text, she is the wife of Ongenþēow, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-næs, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Gēatas, where occurred
Bēowulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

Ēadgils (dat. Ēadgilse, 2393), son of Ōhthere, and grandson of Ongenþēow,
the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

Ēanmund (gen. Ēanmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem
(2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be

The sons of Ōhthere, Ēanmund and Ēadgils, have rebelled against their
father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from
Swīorīce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Gēatas to
Heardrēd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated;
but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against
Heardrēd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.)
Heardrēd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the
brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been Ēanmund, to whom,
according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Wēohstān brings death."
Wēohstān takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon Ēanmund's
body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword
(2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela,
2617-18. But Wēohstān does not speak willingly of this fight, although he
has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.--After Heardrēd's and Ēanmund's
death, the descendant of Ongenþēow, Ēadgils, returns to his home, 2388. He
must give way before Bēowulf, who has, since Heardrēd's death, ascended the
throne of the Gēatas, 2390. But Bēowulf remembers it against him in after
days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. Ēadgils makes an invasion
into the land of the Gēatas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands
of Bēowulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over
the Swēonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a
satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the
Gēatas, son of Wonrēd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish
king, Ongenþēow (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King
Hygelāc, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rīc (gen. Eormenrīces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W.
Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). Hāma has wrested the Brōsinga mene
from him, 1202.

Eomǣr, son of Offa and Þrȳðo (cf. Þrȳðo), 1961.

Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the
subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, _giant_.
Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146,

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090),
king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a
daughter of Hōc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the
Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as
follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the
Hōcing, Hnæf, a relative--perhaps a brother--of Hildeburg is spending some
time as guest. Hnæf, who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has
sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one
night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their
lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then,
however, Hnæf is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hnæf's
followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the
attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their
numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother
among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer
the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it
is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation
(1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the
homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented
by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud
breaks out anew. Gūðlāf and Oslāf avenge Hnæf's fall, probably after they
have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with
the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured
and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes,

Finna land. Bēowulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.

Fitela, the son and nephew of the Wälsing, Sigemund, and his companion in
arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Signȳ. Cf.
more at length Leo on Bēowulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend
of the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygelāc fell on an
expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas, 1211, 2917.

Frēsan, Frȳsan (gen. Frēsena, 1094, Frȳsna, 1105, Frēsna, 2916: dat.
Frȳsum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians, whose
king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks and
Hūgas, in the war against whom Hygelāc falls, 1208, 2916. The country of
the former is called Frȳsland, 1127; that of the latter, Frēsna land,

Fr..es wæl (in Fr..es wæle, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Frēawaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrōðgār; given in marriage to
Ingeld, the son of the Heaðobeard king, Frōda, in order to end a war
between the Danes and the Heaðobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

Frōda (gen. Frōdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Frēaware, 2026.

Gārmund (gen. Gārmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is Ēomǣr,

Gēatas (gen. Gēata, 205, etc.; dat. Gēatum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern
Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called
Wedergēatas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; Gūðgēatas, 1539;
Sǣgēatas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: Hrēðel; Hæðcyn,
second son of Hrēðel; Hygelāc, the brother of Hæðcyn; Heardrēd, son of
Hygelāc; then Bēowulf.

Gifðas (dat. Gifðum, 2495), Gepidǣ, mentioned in connection with Danes and
Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He
breaks every night into Hrōðgār's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115
ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till Bēowulf fights with
him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one
of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837.
Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks
into the hall and carries off Æschere, 1295. Bēowulf seeks for and finds
her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills
her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589),
and brings it to Hrōðgār, 1648.

Gūð-lāf and Oslāf, Danish warriors under Hnæf, whose death they avenge on
Finn, 1149.

Hālga, with the surname, _til_, the younger brother of the Danish king,
Hrōðgār, 61. His son is Hrōðulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.

Hāma wrests the _Brōsinga mene_ from Eormenrīc, 1199.

Hæreð (gen. Hæreðes, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygelāc, 1930,

Hæðcyn (dat. Hæðcynne, 2483), second son of Hrēðel, king of the Gēatas,
2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow,
2438 ff. After Hrēðel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls
at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongenþēow, 2925. His
successor is his younger brother, Hygelāc, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealhþēow, Hrōðgār's wife,

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mǣg, 1945;
Ēomǣr, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458),
Heming is the son of the sister of Gārmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his
relations to Hnæf and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of Hrēðel, king of the
Gēatas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother,
Hæðcyn, 2440.

Here-mōd (gen. Heremōdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the
Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on
account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rīc (gen. Hererīces, 2207) Heardrēd is called Hererīces nefa, 2207.
Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the Hūgas, conquer
Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of Bēowulf, the Scylding (57);
rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorogār,
Hrōðgār, and Hālga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the
renewed text of the passage, was married to the Scylfing, Ongenþēow, 62,

Heard-rēd (dat. Heardrēde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas,
and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the
throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore Bēowulf, as nephew of Heardrēd's
father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is
slain by Ōhthere's sons, 2386. This murder Bēowulf avenges on Ēadgils,

Heaðo-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the
Lombards. Their king, Frōda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029,
2051. In order to end the feud, King Hrōðgār has given his daughter,
Frēawaru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of Frōda, a marriage that
does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of
his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070
(Wīdsīð, 45-49).

Heaðo-lāf (dat. Heaðo-lāfe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecgþēow, Bēowulf's
father, kills him, 460.

Heaðo-rǣmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with Bēowulf, 519.

Heoro-gār (nom. 61; Heregār, 467; Hiorogār, 2159), son of Healfdene, and
older brother of Hrōðgār, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son,
Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail Bēowulf has received from Hrōðgār
(2156), and presents it to Hygelāc, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorogār's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute,
767, Hiorte, 2100). Hrōðgār's throne-room and banqueting hall and
assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78.
In it occurs Bēowulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its
name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern
gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of Hōc, relative of the Danish leader, Hnæf, consort of
the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive
of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hnæf (gen. Hnæfes, 1115), a Hōcing (Wīdsīð, 29), the Danish King
Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and
burial, see under Finn.

Hond-scīo, warrior of the Gēatas: dat. 2077.

Hōc (gen. Hōces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hnæf
(Wīdsīð, 29).

Hrēðel (gen. Hrēðles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Gēatas,
374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecgþēow, and has borne
him Bēowulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and Hygelāc, 2435. The
eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of
this inexpiable deed, Hrēðel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

Hrēðla (gen. Hrēðlan, MS. Hrǣdlan, 454), the same as Hrēðel (cf. Müllenhoff
in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of Bēowulf's coat of
mail, 454.

Hrēðling, son of Hrēðel, Hygelāc: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of
Hygelāc, the Geats, 2961.

Hrēð-men (gen. Hrēð-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

Hrēð-rīc, son of Hrōðgār, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the
Swedish king, Ongenþēow, slew Hæðcyn, king of the Gēatas, in battle.

Hrēosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Gēatas, near which Ongenþēow's
sons, Ōhthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the
country after Hrēðel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in
which Hrēðel's son, King Hæcyn, fell, 2478 ff.

Hrōð-gār (gen. Hrōðgāres, 235, etc.; dat. Hrōðgāre, 64, etc.), of the
dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene,
61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorogār, he assumes the
government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorogār
was king of the Danes before Hrōðgār, or whether his death occurred while
his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealhþēow (613), of
the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, Hrēðrīc and
Hrōðmund (1190), and a daughter, Frēaware (2023), who has been given in
marriage to the king of the Heaðobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78
ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night
by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by Bēowulf (711
ff., 1493 ff). Hrōðgār's rich gifts to Bēowulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818;
he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being
brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.--Other information about
Hrōðgār's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the
murder which Ecgþēow, Bēowulf's father, committed upon Heaðolāf, 460, 470;
his war with the Heaðobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his
daughter, Frēaware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this
marriage, 2021-2070.--Treachery of his brother's son, Hrōðulf, intimated,

Hrōð-mund, Hrōðgār's son, 1190.

Hrōð-ulf, probably a son of Hālga, the younger brother of King Hrōðgār,
1018, 1182. Wealhþēow expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early
death of Hrōðgār, Hrōð-ulf would prove a good guardian to Hrōðgār's young
son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have
been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that Hrōð-ulf has
abused his trust towards Hrōðgār.

Hrones-næs (dat. -næsse, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the
country of the Gēatas, visible from afar. Here is Bēowulf's grave-mound,
2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), Hunferð's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

Hūgas (gen. Hūga, 2503), Hygelāc wars against them allied with the Franks
and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called Dæghrefn,
whom Bēowulf slays, 2503.

[H]ūn-ferð, the son of Ecglāf, þyle of King Hrōðgār. As such, he has his
place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword,
Hrunting, to Bēowulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f.
According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always
alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as
Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unferð.

Hūn-lāfing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144.
See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of Hæreð, 1930; consort of Hygelāc, king
of the Gēatas, 1927; her son, Heardrēd, 2203, etc.--Her noble, womanly
character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-lāc (gen. Hige-lāces, 194, etc., Hygelāces, 2387; dat. Higelāce, 452,
Hygelāce, 2170), king of the Gēatas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is
Swerting, 1204; his father, Hrēðel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers,
Herebeald and Hæðcyn, 2435; his sister's son, Bēowulf, 374, 375. After his
brother, Hæðcyn, is killed by Ongenþēow, he undertakes the government (2992
in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as
reward for slaying Ongenþēow, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much
later, at the time of the return of Bēowulf from his expedition to Hrōðgār,
we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of Hæreð, 1930. The
latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is Heardrēd,
2203, 2376, 2387.--Hygelāc falls during an expedition against the Franks,
Frisians, and Hūgas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of Frōda, the Heaðobeard chief, who fell
in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is
married to Frēawaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrōðgār, 2025-30. Yet his
love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his
desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by
the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (Wīdsīð, 45-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the
East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wīoingas (gen. Mere-wīoinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

Nægling, the name of Bēowulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (Wīdsīð, 35), the son of
Gārmund, 1963; married (1950) to Þrȳðo (1932), a beautiful but cruel
woman, of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, Ēomǣr, 1961.

Ōht-here (gen. Ōhtheres, 2929, 2933; Ōhteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son
of Ongenþēow, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are Ēanmund (2612) and
Ēadgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), Ōhthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-þēow (nom. -þēow, 2487, -þīo, 2952; gen. -þēowes, 2476, -þīowes,
2388; dat. -þīo, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the
Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king,
Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and Ōhthere, 2933. She is
taken prisoner by Hæðcyn, king of the Gēatas, on an expedition into Sweden,
which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his
country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongenþēow (2931), who kills Hæðcyn,
2925, and encloses the Gēatas, now deprived of their leader, in the
Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygelāc, 2944. A battle then
follows, which is unfavorable to Ongenþēow's army. Ongenþēow himself,
attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff.,
2962 ff.

Ōs-lāf, a warrior of Hnæf's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-īg (dat. Sceden-īgge, 1687), O.N., Scān-ey, the most
southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish
kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of
the whole Danish kingdom.

Scēf or Scēaf. See Note.

Scēfing, the son (?) of Scēf, or Scēaf, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a Scēfing. 4. His son is Bēowulf, 18, 53: his
grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, Hrōðgār, who had two brothers
and a sister, 59 ff.--Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is
given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone,
upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants
bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102,
2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the
Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called
Ār-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; Þēod-Scyldingas, 1020;
Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to
the Gēatas, since Wīglāf, the son of Wīhstān, who in another place, as a
kinsman of Bēowulf, is called a Wǣgmunding (2815), is also called lēod
Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:--

     Wǣgmund.         .......
        |                |
------------------  ----------
Ecgþēow.  Wēohstān.  Ongenþēow.
   |         |           |
-------- -------- ---------------
Bēowulf.  Wīglāf.  Onela. Ōhthere.
                 Ēaumund. Ēadgils.

The Scylfings are also called Heaðo-Scilfingas, 63, Gūð-Scylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of Wæls, 878, 898. His (son and
) nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygelāc's grandfather, and Hrēðel's
father, 1204.

Swēon (gen. Swēona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also Swēo-þēod, 2923. The dynasty of
the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called Swīorice,
2384, 2496.

Þrȳðo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of Ēomǣr, 1961,
notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is
mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the

Wæls (gen. Wælses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

Wǣg-mundingas (gen. Wǣgmundinga, 2608, 2815). The Wǣgmundings are on one
side, Wīhstān and his son Wīglāf; on the other side, Ecgþēow and his son
Bēowulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-gēatas. See Gēatas.

Wēland (gen. Wēlandes, 455), the maker of Bēowulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfgār. See Wulfgār. The
Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill,
the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-þēow (613, Wealh-þēo, 665, 1163), the consort of King Hrōðgār, of the
stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are Hrēðrīc and Hrōðmund, 1190; her
daughter, Frēawaru, 2023.

Wēoh-stān (gen. Wēox-stānes, 2603, Wēoh-stānes, 2863, Wih-stānes, 2753,
2908, etc.), a Wǣgmunding (2608), father of Wīglāf, 2603. In what
relationship to him Ælfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not
clear.--Wēohstān is the slayer of Ēanmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he
takes revenge for his murdered king, Heardrēd. See Ēanmund.

Wīg-lāf, Wēohstān's son, 2603, etc., a Wǣgmunding, 2815, and so also a
Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of Ælfhere, 2605. For his relationship to
Bēowulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.--He supports Bēowulf
in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before
his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rēd (gen. Wonrēdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Gēatas, Wonrēd's son. He fights in the
battle between the armies of Hygelāc and Ongenþēow with Ongenþēow himself,
and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongenþēow, by a stroke of his
sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing
Ongenþēow a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-gār, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at Hrōðgār's court, and is his
"ār and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecgþēow has slain Heoðolāf, a warrior of
this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-lāf, younger brother of Æschere, 1325.


B.: Bugge.
Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
C.: Cosijn.
E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
Gr.: Grein.
H.: Heyne.
Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
Ho.: Holder.
K.: Kemble.
Kl.: Kluge.
Müllenh.: Müllenhoff.
R.: Rieger.
S.: Sievers.
Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
Th.: Thorpe.
Z.: Zupitza.


Ang.: Anglia.
Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beiträge.
Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
Germ.: Germania.
Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.


l. 1. hwæt: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. _Andreas,
Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood_, and the
"Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.--E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed.
Morris, l. 853:

"Sin I shal beginne the game, _What_, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

wē ... gefrūnon is a variant on the usual epic formulǣ ic gefrægn (l. 74)
and mīne gefrǣge (l. 777). _Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix_, etc., open with the
same formula.

l. 1. "Gār was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into
battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."--Br.
124. Cf. _Maldon_, l. 296; _Judith_, l. 224; _Gnom. Verses_, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too
inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According
to the original form of the story, Scēaf was the foundling; he had come
ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the
story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the
foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf,
and hence his cognomen."--E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and
Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = _to

l. 15. S. suggests þā (_which_) for þæt, as object of drēogan; and for
aldor-lēase, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.--_Beit_. ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones
before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our
Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This
is our ancestral myth,--the story of the first culture-hero of the North;
'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden,
Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"--Br., p. 78. Cf. _A.-S. Chron._
an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., _Beit._ ix. 135)
eaferan; cf. _Fata Apost._: lof wīde sprang þēodnes þegna.

"The name _Bēowulf_ means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of the
bees, = bear. Cf. _beorn_, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and _bēohata_,
'warrior,' in Cǣdmon, literally 'bee-hater' or 'persecutor,' and hence
identical in meaning with _bēowulf_."--Sw.


"Arcite and Palamon, That foughten _breme_, as it were bores two."
--Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. Müller, _Science of Lang._, Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's
_Daniel_, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = _Scania_, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesīðas below. H.-So. compares
_Héliand_, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.

"_In elde_ is bothe wisdom and usage." --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1590,
ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion;
cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 31. The object of āhte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum
wēold of l. 30.--H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: _Beit._ xii.
80, ix. 188; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lǣndagas for

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it
means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the
cables were passed that tied it to the shore."--Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132,
1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for
three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l.

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, _Inglinga Saga;_
the burial of Balder, Sinfiötli, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number
of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It
is the AEtheling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned,
the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad
ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the
Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."--Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were
buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however
not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over
with earth."--E. See Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rǣdende (K., S., C.); (2) sēle-rǣdenne (H.); (3)
sele-rǣdende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the
legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the
first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin
with the monosyllable þā, four with the verb gewītan, nine with the formula
Hrōðgār (Bēowulf, Unferð) maðelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in
general (him, swā, sē, hwæt, þā, heht, wæs, mæg, cwōm, strǣt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic
forms and words, such as mec for mé, the possessive sín, gamol, dógor, swát
for eald, dǣg, blód, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose
language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenǣdre
(_war-adder_) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (_gold-giver_) for 'king,' ...
goldwine gumena (_goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men_) for
'king,'" etc.--Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (_men_), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads rǣswa (referring to Heorogār alone), and places a point
(with the Ms.) after Heorogār instead of after rǣswa. Cf. l. 469; see B.,
_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. _Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan_) is thought by
B. (_Tidskr._ viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he
reads: [On-]elan ewēn, Heaðoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For hē, omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus
omitted in subord. clauses.--Sw.

l. 70. þone, here = þonne, _than_, and micel = māre? The passage, by a
slight change, might be made to read, medo-ærn micle mā gewyrcean,--þone =
_by much larger than_,--in which þone (þonne) would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add _folk-share_ to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.

l. 74. ic wide gefrægn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = _men
said._ Cf. _Judith_, ll. 7, 246; _Phoenix_, l. 1; and the parallel (noun)
formula, mīne gefrǣge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its
long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had
stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the
ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered
bravely in the sun."--Br., p. 32.

l. 84. _Son-in-law and father-in-law;_ B., a so-called _dvanda_ compound.
Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means _uncle and nephew;_ and
Wīdsīð's suhtorfǣdran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word drēam conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and
more particularly the sound of music and singing."--E. Cf. l. 3021; and
_Judith_, l. 350; _Wanderer_, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the
lines attributed by Bede to Cǣdmon:

Nū wē sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc. --Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in _Bēowulf_] is the
sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors
lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons,
eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of
sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point
is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."--Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in
the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national
dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in _Bēowulf_ is treated like verbs of motion and modal
auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without tō; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984,
244. Cf. _gan_ (= _did_) in Mid. Eng.: _gan_ espye (Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, fēond on healle; cf. l. 142.--_Beit._ xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (_a
bolt_ or _bar_).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of
hell, and hence _a fiend._ ... Ettmüller was the first ... to connect the
name with grindan, _to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy._
Grendel is then _the tearer, the destroyer_."--Br., p. 83.

l. 102. gæst = _stranger_ (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 105 MS. and Ho. read won-sǣli.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern
English, by hǣfð and hǣfde with the past participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 433,
408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts þone ...
drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. þæs þe = _because_, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll.
228, 627, 1780, 2798); _according as_ (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (_Lord_) and Deofol
(_devil_; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry;
cf. tō sǣ (l. 318), ofer sǣ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tō ræste (l.
1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).--_Beit._ ix. 137.

l. 120. unfǣlo = _uncanny_ (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, _majestic rage;_ adopting Gr.'s view that swyð is =
Icel. sviði, _a burn_ or _burning_. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-þegnes to be corrupted from helþegnes; cf. l.
101.--_Beit._ xii. 80. See Gūðlāc, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after sēlest, puts wæs ... micel in parenthesis,
and inserts a colon after tīd.

l. 149. B. reads sārcwidum for syððan.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after
Deniga.--_Beit._ xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late
insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen.
Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment,"
and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. nē ... wisse: _nor had he desire to do so_ (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for
other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in _Wanderer_, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with tō expresses purpose, defines a noun or
adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf.
ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. tō + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the
poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, _In days
of yore_, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. gāst-bona is regarded by Ettmüller and G. Stephens (_Thunor_, p.
54) as an epithet of Thor (= _giant-killer_), a kenning for Thunor or Thor,
meaning both _man_ and _monster_.--E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both
mōd-ceare and mǣl-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. sēað: for this use of sēoðan cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed.
Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram hām = _in his home_ (S., H.-So.); but fram hām may be for fram
him (_from them_, i.e. _his people_, or _from Hrothgar's_). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See _Andreas, Elene_, and _Juliana_ for swan-rād (_= sea_). "The
swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden."
--E. Cf. ganotes bæð, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with þēah, þēah þe, þēah ... eal, vary with
subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind;
cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hǣl, an OE. word found in Wülker's Glossaries in various forms, =
_augury, omen, divination_, etc. Cf. hǣlsere, _augur_; hǣl, _omen;_
hǣlsung, _augurium_, hǣlsian, etc. Cf. Tac., _Germania_, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= _impetrare_" to the other meanings of findan given in
the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and _Andreas_, l. 993.--E. E. compares Byron's

"And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew," --_Corsair_, i. 17.

and Scott's

"Merrily, merrily bounds the bark." --_Lord of the Isles_, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.

"The fomy stedes on the golden brydel Gnawinge." --Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l 218. MS. and Ho. read fāmi-heals.

l. 219. Does ān-tīd mean _hour_ (Th.), or _corresponding hour_ = ānd-tīd
(H.-So.), or _in due time_ (E.), or _after a time_, when ōþres, etc., would
be adv. gen.? See C., _Beit._ viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) _voyage_; (2) _toil, labor_; (3) _hurried
journey;_ but _sea_ or _fjord_ appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the
Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second
among the Geats in South Sweden."--Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in _Bēowulf_ the earliest
sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is Sǣ.... To this they
added Wǣter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim,
Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad,
Ganotes-bǣð."--Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion
where we should use the present participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163
1803, 268, etc. Cf. German _spazieren fahren reiten_, etc., and similar
constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bǣron. B. inserts (?) after
holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on
the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not
produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to
several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels,
and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = _man-at-arms in another's house_ (Wood); = _low-ranking
fellow_ (Ha.); stubenhocker, _stay-at-home_ (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight,"
_Marmion_, i. 5.

l. 250. næfne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = _unless_; cf. ll.
1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = _except_, see l. 1354. Cf. būtan, gif, þēah.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in _Bēowulf_, see S.
A. Brooke, _Hist. of Early Eng. Lit._ For general "Old Teutonic Life in
Bēowulf," see J. A. Harrison, _Overland Monthly_.

l. 252. ǣr as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819,
732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. lēas = _loose_, _roving_. Ettmüller corrected to lēase.

l. 256. This proverb (ofest, etc.) occurs in _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = _eminent_, may
be used of Beowulf. Cf. _Laws of AElfred_, C. 17: Nā þæt ǣlc eald sȳ, ac
þæt hē eald sȳ on wīsdōme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.;
cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with _sehen,
horen_, etc., French construction with _voir, entendre_, etc., and the
classical constructions.

l. 275. dǣd-hata = _instigator_. Kl. reads dǣd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten
Br. = _Tidskr._ viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms ǽghwæðer
(ǽgðer), éghwæðer, etc. This prefixed ǽ, óe corresponds to the Goth, _aiw_,
OHG. _eo_, _io_, and is umlauted from á, ó by the i of the gi which
originally followed."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called

l. 299. MS. reads gōd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet,
and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins
or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged
sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short,
heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used
for close quarters."--Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454;
Grimm, _Myth._ 195; Tacitus, _Germania_, 45. "It was the symbol of their
[the Baltic AEstii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a
preservative from hard knocks."--E. See the print in the illus. ed. of
Green's _Short History_, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, _Saxons in England_, chapter on heathendom, and
Grimm's _Teutonic Mythology_, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these
and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which
Freyr rode, and his worship."--Br., p. 128. Cf. _Elene_, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hlēor-bergan = _cheek-protectors_; cf. _Beit._ xii.
26. "A bronze disk found at Öland in Sweden represents two warriors in
helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the
hlēor-bergan."--E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S.
heals, _neck_ + beorgan, _to cover_ or _protect_; and harbor, < A.-S. here,
_army_ + beorgan, id.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's
_Exod._ l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and gūðmōde grummon, B. and ten Br. read
ferh-wearde (l. 305) and gūðmōdgum men (l. 306), = _the boar-images ...
guarded the lives of the warlike men_.

l. 311. lēoma: cf. Chaucer, _Nonne Preestes Tale_, l. 110, ed. Morris:

"To dremen in here dremes Of armes, and of fyr with rede _lemes_."

l. 318. On the double gender of sǣ, cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and
note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of
_between_ at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So _Cǣdmon_, l. 163 (Thorpe),
_Exod._ l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and _Andreas_, l. 987, where almost the same words
occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient
causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of
civilization." --E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scīr, and makes hring-īren (= _ring-mail_)
parallel with gūð-byrne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house
was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a
church porch is called våkenhus,... i.e. _weapon-house_, because the
worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."--E.,
after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal _damask'd_ o'er with gold."--E.

l. 336. "ǣl-, el-, kindred with Goth. _aljis_, other, e.g. in ǣlþéodig,
elþéodig, foreign."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-þegn.

l. 338. Ho. marks wræc- and its group long.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same bēod-genēatas,--"the predecessor title to
that of the Knights of the Table Round."--E. Cf. _Andreas_ (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with
some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of
willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056;
and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. sīð here, and at l. 501, probably means _arrival_. E. translates
the former by _visit_, the latter by _adventure_.

l. 357. unhār = _hairless, bald_ (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. ēode is only one of four or five preterits of gān (gongan, gangan,
gengan), viz. gēong (gīong: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.),
gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that ēode is
"probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, _Gen._ ll. 626, 834; _Exod._
(Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. glædman Hrōðgār, abandoning
Thorkelin's glædnian. There is a glass. hilaris glædman.--_Beit._ xii. 84;
same as glæd.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like
sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590,
1822, 526. Cf. _do_ in "that will _do_"; _doughty_, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._,
ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other
places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical
sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out
and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified
warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed
out in the full sense of _knight_."--E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-fæder, "hyphens are risky toys to
play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-fæder could
only = _grandfather_. eald here can only mean _honored_, and the hyphen is
unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. _alt-vater_.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Gēatum, as presents from the Danish to the
Geatish king.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 380. hæbbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish
and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = _as

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go
into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is
subject-acc. to sēon. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's _Exod._ l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar
enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred.
It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach
it."--Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in
1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large
number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an
inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of
one kind, but of different lengths.'"--Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... hāl: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into
wassail. Cf. Skeat's _Luke_, i. 28; _Andreas_ (K.), 1827; Layamon, l.
14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weorðan [in passive relations]
is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weorðan
generally an action."--Sw. Cf. Mod. German _werden_ and _sein_ in similar

l. 414. Gr. translates hādor by _receptaculum_; cf. Gering, _Zachers
Zeitschr._ xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: þǣr ic (_on_) fīfelgeban (= _ocean_) ȳðde eotena
cyn. Ten Br. reads: þǣr ic fīfelgeban ȳðde, eotena hām. Ha. suggests
fīfelgeband = _monster-band_, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads þǣra = _of them_, for þǣr.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 399;
_Beit._ xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially,
and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."--Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's
determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. þe hine = _whom_, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable þe is often
thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes
separated from them by a considerable interval.--Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider
the Gēatas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland.
Alfred translates Juti by Gēatas, but _Jutland_ by _Gotland_. In the laws
they are called Guti.--_Beit._ xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = _fearlessly_, modifying
etan. Kl. reads anforhte = _timid_.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: _thou wilt not need my head to hide_
(i.e. _bury_). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant.
Wood, _thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head!_ H.-So. supposes
hēafod-weard, _a guard of honor_, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers
had, to be meant by hafalan hȳdan; hence, _you need not give me any
guard_, etc. Cf. Schmid, _Gesetze der A._, 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nimeð.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (_Beit._ xii. 87) agree essentially in
translating feorme, _food_. R. translates _consumption of my corpse.
Maintenance, support_, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. Rönning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.--_Beovulfs Kvadet_, l. 59.
Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens,
who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l.
18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented
with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type,
husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."-- Br., p. 120. Cf.
A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was
knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.--_Walks in
London_, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the ǣlces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd
bið swīðost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it
in _Bēowulf_.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the
Christian tone of l. 685 _seq._

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wǣre-ryhtum ( = _from the obligations of

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The duguð, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the
nation, are the support of the throne."--E. The M. E. form of the word,
_douth_, occurs often. Associated with geogoð, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrēð-secgum, =
_disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes_. Others, as Körner, convert
meoto into an imperative and divide on sǣl = _think upon happiness_. But
cf. onband beadu-rūne, l. 501. B. supposes onsǣl meoto =_speak courteous
words_. _Tidskr._ viii. 292; _Haupts Zeitschr._ xi. 411; _Eng. Stud._ ii.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's _Andreas_, l. 1097, for deal, =_proud, elated,
exulting_; _Phoenix_ (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunferð, but the alliteration requires Unferð, as at ll.
499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See _List of Names_.

l. 501. sīð = _arrival_ (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. þon mā = _the more_ (?), may be added to the references under þon.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = _idle boasting_. The second definition in the Gloss. is

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the
awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant
dwelt, and through which he acted."--Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English
term _eagre_ still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore
on rivers. Dryden uses it in his _Threnod. Angust._ 'But like an _eagre_
rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's
_Boethius_, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's _Cǣdmon_, 69, etc.

l. 524. Krüger and B. read Bānstānes.--_Beit._ ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. _guten Muthes_) geþinges;
but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... þingea = wyrsena þinga, _can
stand_; cf. gen. pl. banan, _Christ_, l. 66, etc.

l. 545 _seq._ "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming,
but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then
storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a
tribe mentioned in _Wīdsíth_. The story seems legendary, not
mythical."--Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests swā þǣr for hwæðere, = _so there it befell me_.
But the word at l. 574 seems = _however_, and at l. 578 = _yet_; cf. l.
891; see S.; _Beit._ ix. 138; _Tidskr._ viii. 48; _Zacher_, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read fāgum sweordum (no ic þæs fela gylpe!),
supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl.
supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates nȳd-bāde by _blackmail_; adding "nēd bād, _toll_;
nēd bādere, _tolltaker_."--Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = _and_ in three places only (601, 1149, 2041);
elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = _and_.

l. 612. _seq._ Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers
the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after
it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."--E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was
tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.--E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealhþēow at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ l. 237 (ed. Morris):

"Of _yeddynges_ he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. _giddy_.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after geþinged, especially as B. (_Tidskr._
viii. 57) has shown that oþþe is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. oþþe here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = _and_.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the _night-ganger_ of _Leechdoms_, ii.
344) is applied to the demon.--E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage

l. 681. B. considers þēah ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. _although_.

l. 682. gōdra = _advantages in battle_ (Gr.), _battle-skill_ (Ha.), _skill
in war_ (H.-So.). Might not nāt be changed to nah = ne + āh (cf. l. 2253),
thus justifying the translation _ability_ (?) --_he has not the ability
to_, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.--_Beit._ ix. 189. B. omits hīe as occurring in the
previous hemistich.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."--E., who compares the Greek
Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l.
1943. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l. 88; _Wīdsīð_, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates þā by _when_ and connects with the preceding
sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects
to the use of cōm as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (_Beit_, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is
written with Grendel in the writer's mind,--þyrs sceal on fenne gewunian
āna inuan lande, _the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land_
(Sweet's Read., p. 187)."--Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in _Haupt._ xi. 419, quotes from AElfric, _Hom._ ii. 498:
hē beworhte þā bigelsas mid gyldenum lǣfrum, _he covered the arches with
gold-leaf_,--a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. _oriel_ =
_aureolum_, a gilded room.--E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247,
2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest _hell-thane_ (Grendel) for heal-þegnas, and
make hæle refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hrān.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, _Ecl._ ii.

"Cum placidum ventis _staret_ mare."

l. 757. gedræg. _Tumult_ is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar.
= _occupation, lair_.

l. 759. R. reads mōdega for gōda, "because the attribute cannot be
separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1537, for a similar use of ūt = _off_.--E.

l. 769. The foreign words in _Bēowulf_ (as ceaster-here) are not numerous;
others are (aside from proper names like _Cain, Abel_, etc.) dēofol
(diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrīfan (for- ge-), segn (l.
47), gīgant (l. 113), mīl- (l. 1363), strǣt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim
(l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a
fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -rǣden, etc. (cf.
meodu-scerpen in _Andreas_, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, _a great scare
under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout_; one might compare
bescerwan, _to deprive_, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen
would = _a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer_.--H.-So., p. 93.
See B., _Tidskr._ viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rēðe, rēnhearde, = _raging, exceeding bold_.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like ǣnige þinga, nǣnige þinga (_not
at all_), hūru þinga (_especially_) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers'
Gram., p. 178; March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 182.

l. 811. myrðe. E. translates _in wanton mood_. Toller-Bosw. does not
recognize _sorrow_ as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads dēop for dēog and erases semicolon after wēol, =
_the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore_; cf. l. 1424. B. reads
dēað-fǣges dēop, etc., = _the deep welled with the doomed one's
gore_.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mēaras below,
l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his _blancke" = steed_, l. 23900; Kent's
_Elene_, l. 1185.

l. 859. Körner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sǣm
twēonum as a mere formula = _on earth_; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. twēone is part
of the separable prep. _between_; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's _Andreas_, l.

l. 865. Cf. _Voyage of Ōhthere and Wulfstān_ for an account of funeral
horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 _seq._ R. considers this a technical description of improvised
alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = _rehearse_, for secg, which suits the
verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we
possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = Wælsinges
gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in
the hands of Wagner the art of music."--Br., p. 63. Cf. _Nibelung. Lied_,
l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as gān, weorðan, sometimes take habban, "to
indicate independent action."--Sw. Cf. hafað ... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "brūcan (_enjoy_) always has the genitive."--Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc.,
gen., instr., dat., according to March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes hāte, = _from heat_, instr. of hāt, _heat_; cf. l.

l. 901. hē þæs āron þāh = _he throve in honor_ (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma
after þāh, making siððan introduce a depend. clause.--_Beit._ viii. 568.
Cf. weorð-myndum þāh, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.--H.-So.

l. 902. Heremōdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = _the
valiant_; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the
eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the
contradiction between the good "Heremōd" here and the bad one, l. 1710
_seq._--B. however holds fast to Heremōd.--_Beit._ xii. 41. on fēonda
geweald, l. 904,--_into the hands of devils_, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721,
2267; _Christ_, l. 1416; _Andreas_, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwōd, cf.
_Gen._ l. 2579; Hunt's _Dan._ 17: hīe wlenco anwōd.

l. 902 _seq._ "Heremōd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund,
and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a
chieftain."--Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's _Exod._, l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hōs, G. hansa, _company_, "the word from which the mercantile
association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."--E.

l. 927. on staþole = _on the floor_ (B., Rask, ten Br.).--_Beit._ xii. 90.

l. 927. May not stēapne here = _bright_, from its being immediately
followed by golde fāhne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen _stepe_," _Prol._ l. 201
(ed. Morris); Cockayne's _Ste. Marherete_, pp. 9, 108; _St. Kath._, l.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= _sorrows_), gen. plu. of gyrn, as
suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (_Beit._ xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wīd-scofen (hæfde).
Gr. makes wēa nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. _old-shock_; perhaps
the pop. interjection _O shucks!_ (!)

l. 959. H. explains wē as a "plur. of majesty," which Bēowulf throws off at
l. 964.

l. 963. fēond þone frætgan (B. _Beit._ xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range
of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance,
means simply _injury, mischief, hatred_, and the prose meaning _sin_ is
only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only _hater_, but _persecutor,
enemy_, just as nīð is both _hatred_ and _violence, strength_; heard is
_sharp_ as well as _hard_."--Sw.

l. 986. S. places wæs at end of l. 985 and reads stīðra nægla, omitting
gehwylc and the commas after that and after scēawedon. _Beit._ ix. 138;
stēdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (_Anglia_, xii. 3) corrects to ǣghwylene, in apposition to

l. 987. hand-sporu. See _Anglia_, vii. 176, for a discussion of the
intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unhēoru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests hēatimbred for hāten, and gefrætwon for -od; Kl.,
hroden (_Beit._ ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web =

l. 997. After þāra þe = _of those that_, the depend, vb. often takes sg.
for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.--Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl,"
etc.--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, _Bootle,
Battle_field, etc.--Skeat, _Principles_, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ (ed. Morris) l. 550:

"Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of _harre_."

ll. 1005-1007. See _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 391, and _Beit._ xii. 368, for
R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sǣl and mǣl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind
your _seals and meals_," = _times and occasions_, i.e. have your wits about

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ...
þāra). Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting,
ll. 1458, 1660; Hūnlāfing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the
Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. scūr-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see
Professor Pearce's article in _Mod. Lang. Notes_, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the
word here = _enclosure, palings of the court_. Cf. _Cǣdmon_, ll. 2439,
2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wīg to wicg, = _charger_; and E. quotes Tacitus,
_Germania_, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see _List of Names_.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, _concerning, about_ (Ebert's
_Jahrb._, 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = _concerning_
(?). Cf. _Fight at Finnsburg_, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-"
"west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = _Finn's people, the Frisians_; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146,
etc., and _Beit._ xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wið gefeohtan (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii.
394). Kl., wið H. wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. wēa-lāf occurs in Wulfstan, _Hom._ 133, ed. Napier.--E.
Cf. daroða lāf, _Brunanb._, l. 54; ādes lāfe, _Phoenix_, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = _so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht
streitig war_.--B., _Beit._ iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn
are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wǣre here, is comparatively
rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations
from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. Körner suggests ecge, = _sword_, in reference to a supposed old
German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear
(_Eng. Stud._ i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = _bright gold_; B., andīege =
Goth, _andaugjo, evidently_. Cf. incge lāfe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (=
_young men_) gold āhōfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's _Exod._ l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hēt þā ...) bānfatu bærnan ond on bǣl dōn,
earme on eaxe = _to place the arms in the ashes_, reading gūðrēc =
_battle-reek_, for -rinc (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 395). B., Sarrazin
(_Beit._ xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 330), C., etc.,
propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and _Beit._ viii. 568. For
gùðrinc āstāh, cf. Old Norse, _stiga á bál_, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweoloðe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides
to let new grass grow, is called _zwayling_."--E. Cf. _sultry_, G.
_schwül_, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rēc āstāh, l. 3145; and _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 450: wǣlmist

l. 1122. ætspranc = _burst forth, arose_ (omitted from the Gloss.), < æt +

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = _loyally and without contest_, as
at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = _gone_; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., _Beit._ xii. 31, who conjectures a
gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: Hūn Lāfing, = _Hūn placed the sword Lāfing_,
etc.--_Beit._ xii. 32; cf. R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 396. Heinzel and
Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's _Archiv_, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Möller read: worod rǣdenne, þonne him Hūn Lāfing,
= _military brotherhood, when Hūn laid upon his breast_ (the sword)
_Lāfing_. There is a sword _Laufi, Lövi_ in the Norse sagas; but swords,
armor, etc., are often called the _leaving_ (lāf) of files, hammers, etc.,
especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796,
etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = _reddened_ (B., _Tidskr._ viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Möller,
_Alteng. Volksepos_, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, _Anz. f. dtsch. Altert._, 10,
226; B., _Beit._ xii. 29-37. Cf. _Wīdsīð_, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. lēoð (lied = _song, lay_) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the
contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life
of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved
and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one
another."--Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. _wonderwork_. So _wonder-death, wonder-bidding,
wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight_, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996,
etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = _wondrous_, in
_wunder-schön_, etc.

l. 1165. þā gȳt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to
other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gefæderan = Hrōðgār and Hrōðulf,
l. 1018. Cf. āðum-swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, æt fōtum, etc., where Unferð is first

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged
men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches

l. 1192. ymbutan, _round about_, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hīe ūtan;
cf. _Voyage of Ōhthere_, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; _Bēowulf_, ll.
859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bewægned, a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον, tr. _offered_ by Th. Probably a p. p.
wægen, made into a vb. by -ian, like _own, drown_, etc. Cf. hafenian ( <
hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or
broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (_Piers Plow._, etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173,

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem
may be approximately dated,--if Hygelāc is the _Chochi-laicus_ of Gregory
of Tours, _Hist. Francorum_, iii. 3,--about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. _Brisinga men_) is the necklace of the
goddess Freya; cf. _Elder Edda, Hamarshemt._ Hāma stole the necklace from
the Gothic King Eormenrīc; cf. _Traveller's Song_, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The
comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygelāc's
history,--a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For Brōsinga mene, cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 72. C. suggests flēah, =
_fled_, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making hē subject of
flēah and gecēas.

l. 1202. B. conjectures gecēas ēcne rǣd to mean _he became a pious man and
at death went to heaven_. Heime (Hāma) in the _Thidrekssaga_ goes into a
cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf.
Hrōðgār's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = _property_, for feorh, which would be a
parallel for brēost-gewǣdu ... bēah below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the _Laws of Cnut_, i. 26, the devil is called
se wōdfreca werewulf, _the ravening werwolf_.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bēge onfēng. _Beit._ viii. 570. For hreā- Kl.
suggests hrǣ-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettmüller, the one that
reigns after Hrōðgār.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests sī, = _be_, for _is_.

l. 1232. S. gives _wine-elated_ as the meaning of druncne.--_Beit._ ix.
139; Kl. _ibid._ 189, 194. But cf. _Judith_, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the
numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,--Gothic, Icelandic, OHG.,
Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, i. 126. Cf.
Murray's _Dict._ s. v.

l. 1248. ānwīg-gearwe = _ready for single combat_ (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43;
_Beit._ ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this _fitt_ the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of
the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = _wasted;_ Kolbing reads furode; but
cf. wēsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant
parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is
quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on gesȳne and
wīdcūð, etc.

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay
from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are
described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted
by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."--Br.,
p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and
monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has sē þe, m.; changed by some to seo þe. At ll. 1393,
1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505,
1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female
in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and
savageness.--H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137,

l. 1270. āglǣca = _Grendel_, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether
it should be read ānwealda, = _only ruler_.--Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu þeod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu
þēod-wrecan, þēod- = _monstrous_; but why not regard þēod as opposition to
sunu, = _her son, the prince?_ See Sweet's Reader, and Körner's discussion,
_Eng. Stud._ i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sōna) sāra = _return of sorrows._

l. 1286. "geþuren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for geþrúen, _forged_,
and is an isolated p. p."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw.
for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. þe hine = _whom;_ cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; _Hēliand_, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sǣm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's _Exod._ l. 442; and Mod. Eng.
"to _us_-ward, etc.--Earle's _Philol._, p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes ōðer him ærn = _another apartment was assigned him_.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrōf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be
unnecessary, under also meaning _in_, as _in_ (or _under_) these

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nǣgde or nēgde, _accosted_, < nēgan = Mid. Ger.
_nēhwian_, pr. p. _nēhwiandans, approach_. For hnǣgan, _press down,
vanquish_, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests nēad-lāðum for nēod-laðu, _after crushing hostility_;
but cf. frēond-laðu, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gefægnod = _rejoicing in her fill_, a
parallel to ǣse wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of
far-reaching consequence."--_Beit._ xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads gēo for ēow (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant
form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)."

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rǣdende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,--a repetition
(dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislīcost."--Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like fīras, _men_, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm
to have been applied, like Gr. νύμφη, to superhuman or semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 _seq._ E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the
poetical accounts of _AEneid_, vii. 563; _Lucretius_, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstrēam occurs also in the _Phoenix_ (Bright, p. 168) l. 100;
_Andreas_, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); _Gnomic Verses_, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in
miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrīnende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th.
read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, _encircling_ (Sarrazin, _Beit._ xi. 163);
hrīmge = _frosty_ (Sw.); _with frost-whiting covered_ (Ha.). See Morris,
_Blickling Hom._, Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrīmige edoras behrofene, _rimy, roofless halls_.

l. 1366. nīðwundor may = nið- (as in nið-sele, _q. v._) wundor, _wonder of
the deep_.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even
independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's _Exod._, l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent
with adj.

l. 1371. "seleð is not dependent on ǣr, for in that case it would be in the
subjunctive, but ǣr is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction
ǣr in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,'

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.--Sw. It occurs thirteen or
fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, swāt (l. 2694), etc.,
for eald, blōd.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wītan, _go_, = _let us go;_ cf. French
_allons_, Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolīc probably = _in his equipments_, as B. suggests (_Beit._
xii. 83), comparing searolīc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of gān (Goth,
_gaggida_). Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (_Beit._ ix. 140) supplies [þǣr hēo] gegnum fōr; B. (_ibid._
xii. 14) suggests hwǣr hēo.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ān-paðas = paths wide enough for only one,
like Norwegian _einstig_; cf. stīge nearwe, just above. _Trail_ is the
meaning. Cf. enge ānpaðas, uncūð gelād, _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. oncȳð, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete
with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals
(l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "_Falanx_ foeða."

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks,
"it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ...
Icel. _nykr_, water-goblin, Dan. _nök, nisse_, Swed. _näcken_, G. _nix,
nixe_, etc." See Skeat, _Nick._

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnǣged, _prostrated_, and regards nīða as gen. pl.
"used instrumentally," = _by force._

l. 1441. -bora = _bearer, stirrer;_ occurs in other compds., as mund-,
rǣd-, wǣg-bora.

l. 1447. him = _for him_, a remoter dative of reference.--Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = _flaming_.

l. 1457. lēon is the inf. of lāh; cf. onlāh (< onlēon) at l. 1468. līhan
was formerly given as the inf.; cf. lǣne = lǣhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle
with the giant in the cave. hæft-mēce may be = Icel. _heptisax_ (_Anglia_,
iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ...
But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old
treasures.'".--Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. āter-tēarum = _poison-drops_ (C., _Beit._ viii. 571; S., _ibid._
xi. 359).

l. 1467. þæt, comp. relative, = _that which_; "we testify _that_ we do

l. 1480. forð-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = _mihi defuncto_.--M.
Callaway, _Am. Journ. of Philol._, October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif
or būton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf.
ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For būton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner
of the weak preterits."--Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads wæl-sweord, = _battle-sword_.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural
phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and
which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local
color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the
lowest level of the tide."--Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (_Beit._ xii. 362) explains niðsele, hrōfsele as _roof-covered
hall in the deep_; cf. Grettir Saga (_Anglia_, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = _seized by the

l. 1543. and-lēan (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-lēan.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.--_Beit._ ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ȳðelīce; Sw. and S.
place comma after gescēd.

l. 1584. ōðer swylc = _another fifteen_ (Sw.); = _fully as many_ (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 _seq._ Cf. _Anglia_, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = _grizzly-haired_ (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf.
_Brunanb._, l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewearð, impers. vb., = _agree, decide = many agreed upon this,
that_, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., _Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wīscton = _wished_.--_Beit._ viii. 571.

l. 1607. brōden mǣl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = _inlaid or
damascened sword_.--W., Ho.

l. 1611. wæl-rāpas = _water-ropes = bands of frost_ (l. 1610) (?). Possibly
the Prov. Eng. weele, _whirlpool_. Cf. wǣl, _gurges_, Wright, Voc., _Gnom.
Verses_, l. 39.--E.

l. 1611. wǣgrāpas (Sw.) = _wave-bands_ (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, _haunts of the giants_
(Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., _Beit._ xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettmüller understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. _Anglia_, iii. 74, _Beit._ xi. 167, for coincidences with the
Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... èste for ēacen ... oftost, omitting
brackets (_Zackers Zeitschr._ iv. 206). G. translates _mighty ... often_.

l. 1675. ondrǣdan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is
frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase,
and the prefix then appears as a: abútan, amang, aweg, aright,
adr'ǣdan."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455,
1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... orðanc enta geweorc, _Gnomic Verses_, l. 2;
Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the
process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times
.... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for
names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."--E. Cf. Mohammedan

ll. 1703, 1704. þæt þē eorl nǣre geboren betera (B., _Tidskr._ 8, 52).

l. 1715. āna hwearf = _he died solitary and alone_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38); =
_lonely_ (Ha.); = _alone_ (G.).

l. 1723. lēod-bealo longsum = _eternal hell-torment_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38,
who compares _Ps. Cott._ 57, līf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, _towards possession_; Ha., _to

l. 1730. mōdgeþonc, like lig, sǣ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender
(m., n. in the case of mōdgeþ.).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on ὓβρις, or overweening
pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector against the
things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and Shepherd of our
souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki,
who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The
language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wō(u)m; cf. wōh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p.
295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below
(l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wōh, _wrong_
= gen. wōs or wōges, dat. wō(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wōra, dat. wō(u)m, etc.;
and cf. declension of hēah, hrēoh, rūh, etc.

l. 1748. wergan gāstes; cf. _Blickl. Hom._ vii.; _Andreas_, l. 1171. "_Auld
Wearie_ is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the
devil."--E. Bede's _Eccles. Hist._ contains (naturally) many examples of
the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = _in reward_ (B. _Beit._ xii. 95); Ha. translates
_boastfully_; G., _for boasting_; Gr., _to incite to boastfulness_. Cf.
_Christ_, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the
evil eye (_mal occhio, mauvais ǣil_). Cf. Vergil, _Ecl._ iii. 103. He
remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their
enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweorðad (MS. wigge weorðad) is C.'s conjecture; cf.
_Elene_, l. 150. So G., _honored in war_.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of bēon is plainly
seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person
affected; others (as þyncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688,
1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.--March,
A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as
opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the
regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028;
_Maldon_, 106; _Judith_, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after
darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before
"the warriors." For ōnettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. Müllenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct
sunu (MS.) to suna Ecglāfes (i.e. Unferth); [_he_] (Beo.) _thanked him_
(Un.) _for the loan_. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hroðgar, to be
what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higelāce.

l. 1835 gār-holt more properly means _spear-shaft_; cf. æsc-holt.

l. 1855. sēl = _better_ (Grundt.; B., _Beit._ xii. 96), instead of MS. wēl.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the
experience and doctrine of the eighth century."--E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemǣne, agreeing with sib.--_Beit._ ix. 140,

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a
considerable height, such as forty feet."--E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = _seas_.

l. 1865. B. proposes geþōhte, = _with firm thought_, for geworhte; cf. l.

l. 1876. gesēon = _see again_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190). S. and B. insert nā
to modify gesēon and explain Hrōðgār's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's
text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born,
barn, = _burned?_--S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον. E. compares Tennyson's "blameless"
king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gōd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. scaðan = _warriors_ (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf.
l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of
Hrōðgār's men; at l. 1901 the bāt-weard is specially honored by Beowulf
with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears
to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb
ān-tīd ōþres dōgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both
passages (fāmig-heals, clifu, næssas, sǣlde, brim, etc.).--The nautical
terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gewāt him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on
alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on
nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of cēol, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed.
Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts þæt hē before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes lēofra manna depend on wlātode, = _looked for the dear
men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S.
conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).

l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted
and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle,
and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the
exception, l. 1932 _seq._

l. 1933. C. suggests frēcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be
called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd
seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l.
902 _seq._, Sigemund and Heremōd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf.
Gr., _Jahrb. für rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; Müllenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._
xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Körner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492;
H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical
Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and Þrȳðo
(Gr.'s _Drida_ of the _Vita Offǣ Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale
is told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andǣges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes āndǣges, =
_the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to
govqern hire, = _on her_, and dæges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a
genitive of time, = _by day_.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsēce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod._ l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongenþēow, i.e. Eofor,
to whom Hygelāc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.);
_draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [hēa-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hǣ nū (for hǣðnū), which he regards as
= Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hǣð). Cf. H.-So., p. 107;
_Beit._ xii. 9.

l. 1985. sīnne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third
person, sīn (declined like mīn). It is used not only as a true reflexive,
but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of sēað; cf. to "glow" with emotion,
"boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used;
cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes fācne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l.
350; _Beit._ xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the
poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_
(as here: ealu-wǣg), _mead, beer, wine, līð_ (cider? Goth. _leiþus_, Prov.
Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for wæs.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weorðan, = _agree, be pleased
with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wǣre æfter
lēod-hryre: lȳtle hwīle bongār būgeð, þēah sēo brȳd duge = _oft has a
treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the
murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix.
190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G.,
p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.

l. 2042. For bēah B. reads bā, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wīgende, = _fighting_, for

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this
line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is
not so designated in the MS., though þā (at l. 2822) is written with
capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:

                       Þǣr on innan gīong
    niðða nāthwylc,      nēode tō gefēng
    hǣðnum horde;      hond ætgenam
    seleful since fāh;      nē hē þæt syððan āgeaf,
    þēah þe hē slǣpende      besyrede hyrde
    þēofes cræfte:       þæt se þīoden onfand,
    bȳ-folc beorna,       þæt hē gebolgen wæs.
       --_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.

l. 2129. B. proposes fǣrunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the
text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has þine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON.
_leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gēn, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my
gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafað, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd.
eafor-hēafodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially
when postponed: "Beowulf lēofa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.:
wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. ǣrest is possibly the verbal subs. from ārīsan, _to arise, =
arising, origin_. R. suggested ǣrist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles.
Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual)
_resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p.
302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wēn]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals
his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is
"laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lāfing on Hengest's breast, l.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an
unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son
in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and
was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix.
191, thinks with Ettm. that þūsendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges.
der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like
hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat"

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's
"jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sē þe on hearge hǣðen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a
Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the
dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire.
Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. nēode. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads
nēode, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of nēod.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part
Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gæst sylfes
willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.

l. 2225. For þēow read þegn.--K. and Z.

l. 2227. For ofer-þearfe read ǣrnes þearfa.--Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

    secg synbysig      sōna onwlātode,
    þēah þām gyste      gryrebrōga stōd,
    hwæðre earmsceapen      innganges þearfa
    . . . . . . . . . .
    fēasceapen,      þā hyne se fǣr begeat.
      --_Beit._ xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seīr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolīc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eorð-hūse (for -scræfe).

l. 2241. B. proposes lǣn-gestrēona, = _transitory_, etc.; Th., R. propose
leng (= _longer_) gestrēona; S. accepts the text but translates "the long
accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = _hard to find_; (2) hord-wynne
dǣl,--_a deal of treasure-joy_ (cf. l. 2271).--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211;
_Beit._ xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = _banning words_ (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = _furbish_, for fetige: _I own not one
who may_, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes," =
clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf. ll. 116,

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for næs.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in _Eng. Stud._ xiii. 3) for
numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan wyn),
saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting, and
the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements most
frequent in _Bēowulf_.

l. 2264. Cf. _Maldon_, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests swȳðe ondrǣdað; Ho. puts gesēcean for Gr.'s gewunian.

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hrūsan. "Three hundred winters," at l.
2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund missēra, l.
1499; hund þūsenda, l. 2995; þrītig (of Beowulf's strength), l. 379; þrītig
(of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan þūsendo, l. 2196, etc.

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p.
77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = _inminutus_; cf. B., _Beit._ xii.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = _carry off_, with on- = E.
_un--(un-bind, -loose, -tie_, etc.), G. _ent-_. The negro still pronounces
_on-do_, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B.
proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict,"
etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose hām, = _home_, for him.--_Beit._ xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates ēalond utan by _the sea-board front, the
water-washed land on the (its) outside_. See B., _Beit._ xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon
single-handed. E. compares _Guy of Warwick_, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laðan cynne as apposition to mǣgum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 _seq._

l. 2362. Gr. inserts āna, = _lone-going_, before xxx.: approved by B.; and
Krüger, _Beit._ ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale.
Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of
mail."--Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygelāc in his
Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 _seq._, 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes _quiet sea_ as trans, of sioleða bigong, and compares
Goth. _anasilan_, to be still; Swed. dial, _sil_, still water between
waterfalls.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne--Heardrēd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to Swīo-rīce as identical with the modern
_Sverige_ = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = _at the banquet_; cf. Möller, _Alteng.
Volksepos_, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and Mūllenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that
Ēadgils, Ōhthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by
Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself
O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS.
has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to fēond. G. translates
_friend_.--_Beit._ xii. 13; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii. 177.

l. 2395. Ēadgils is Ōhthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is Ōhthere's brother;
cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As _Bēowulf_ is
essentially _the_ Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as
distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this
passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In
each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes stȳred, = _ordered, decreed_, for strēd.--_Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to frēo-wine = _noble friend_, asking, "How can
Herebeald be called Hæðcyn's frēa-wine [MS.], _lord?_"

l. 2442. feohlēas gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by
money--in this case an unintentional fratricide."--Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (_Tidskr._ viii. 56). W.
conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before þonne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.--K., Th., S. (_Zeitschr. f. D. Phil._ xxi.
3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) Müllenh. (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 232) proposes:

                    þonne se ān hafað
    þurh dǣda nȳd     dēaðes gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

    þurh dǣda nīð      dēaðes gefondad.
       --_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. scēotend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rīdend. Cf. _Judith_, l.
305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the Mälar lake, the
boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On oþþe = _and_, cf. B., _Tidskr._ viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hrēa-blāc for Gr.'s heoro-.--_Tikskr._ viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests ēðel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeðum, _of my prowess_; so Ettmüller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the
monster's boastfulness."--Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-hāttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads oreðes and attres, _blast
and venom_. Cf. oruð, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where attor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes flēon fōtes trym from _Maldon_, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan stān-bogan (for stōd on
stān-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose dēor, _brave one_, i.e. Beowulf, for dēop.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unslāw, =
_sharp_.--_Beit._ xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescīfe (MS. to gscipe) = German _schief_,
"crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, _bent,
coiled?_ cf. l. 2568, þā se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled
serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy
comma after tō and read gescæpe, = _his fate_; cf. l. 26: him þā Scyld
gewāt tō gescæp-hwīle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = _the field_, not _the earth_ (so B.); H.-So., _cave_,
as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.--_Beit._ ix. 141.

l. 2604. Müllenh. explains lēod Scylfinga in _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii.

l. 2607. āre = _possessions, holding_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.
ēðel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wrǣccan winelēasum Wēohstān bana, = _whom, a
friendless exile, W. had slain_.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, _Germania_, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem
principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his _comitatus_.

l. 2643. B. proposes ūser.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wītan, _to
go_, used like Mod. Eng. _let us_ + inf., Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_,
Fr. _allons_; M. E. (_Layamon_) _uten_. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, _A.-S.
Gram._, pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests hāt for hyt,.--_Beit._ xii. 105.

l. 2656. fāne = fāh-ne; cf. fāra = fāh-ra, l. 578; so hēanne (MS.) =
hēah-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scrūd, as at l. 453, = _battle-shirt?_
B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scrūd and bām
gemǣne. B. reads bȳwdu, = _handsome_, etc. Gr. suggests unc nū, = _to us
two now_, for ūrum; and K. and Grundt. read bēon gemǣne for bām, etc. This
makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. Nægling; cf. Hrunting, Lāfing, and other famous wundor-smiða
geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes þonne into þone (rel. pro.) = _which_.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (_Beit._ xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the
dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he
struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also
occurs; and hȳdan.

l. 2700. hwēne; cf. Lowl. Sc. _wheen_, a number; Chaucer's _woon_, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes þā (for þæt) þæt fȳr, etc., = _when the fire began_,

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of
the skeleton."--E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wræc, = _drove out all the life_; cf.
_Gen._ l. 1385.--_Beit._ ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,--_he felled the
foe_, etc.--_Ibid._ Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. dæg-hwīl = _time allotted, lifetime_.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places
it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhīgean or oferhīgan, = Goth,
_ufarhauhjan_, p. p. _ufarhauhids_ (Gr. τυφωθείς) = _exceed in
value_.--_Tidskr._ viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferhȳdian, = _to make
arrogant, infatuate_; cf. oferhȳd.--_Beit._ ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoðocræftum = (1) _spell-bound_ (Th., Arnold, E.); (2)
_wrought with hand-craft_ (G.); (3) _meshed, linked together_ (H., Ho.);
cf. _Elene_, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhlāfordes as Beowulf's short sword, with
which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (_Tidskr._ viii. 299). R. proposes
ealdhlāforde. Müllenh. understands ealdhlāford to mean the former possessor
of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ǣrgescōd as a compd. = ǣre
calceatus, _sheathed in brass_. Ha. translates ǣrgescōd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes æt ende; landes æt ende, _Exod._ (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads wæteres weorpan, which R. would change to wætere

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and
called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-nǣs)."--Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. Wīglāf was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the
recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the
word lāf (Wīg-_lāf_, ende-_lāf_).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. _novissima verba_, and Ger. _jüngst_, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, _in the world_, comparing _on līfe, on

l. 2840. gerǣsde = pret. of gerǣsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as
rǣsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes dēað ārǣdan, = _determine death_.--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf.
Lichtenheld, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ōwēr.--_Beit._ ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wrāðe forwurpe, þā, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding
one with beget.

l. 2879. ætgifan = _to render, to afford_; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which
describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the
Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their
lord."--Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of _gens_ or clan, just as in many
Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, _Germania_, 7;
and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, _Saxons_, i. 235.

l. 2901. The ἄγγελος begins his ἀγγελία here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemēðe, _sad of soul;_ cf. ll. 2853 and 2864
(_Beit._ ix. 142). B. considers higemēðum a dat. or instr. pl. of an
abstract in -u (_Beit._ xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = _for the dead_.
For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to
his followers."--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 _seq._ B. conjectures:

    cwæð hīe on mergenne      mēces ecgum
    gētan wolde,      sumon galgtreowu
    āhēawan on holte      ond hīe āhōan on þā
    fuglum tō gamene.
      --_Beit._ xii. 107, 372.

Cf. S., _Beit._ ix. 143. gētan = _cause blood to be shed._

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gōda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to
apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."--Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not
necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc.
B., K., and Th. read segn Higelāces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue
the Swede-men.--_Beit._ xii. 108. S. suggests sǣce, = _pursuit_.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in _Exod._ (Hunt), l.
130: wyrpton hīe wērige.

l. 2989. bær is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is
the heir of the slaughtered foe."--H.-So. Cf. _Hildebrands Lied_, ll. 61,

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll.
2196, 3051. Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's _bis senas gentes_
and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the
foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand,
answers to the Jutish king Hygelāc, who rewards his liegeman, for the
slaying of Ongenthēow, with jewels, enormous estates, and _his_ only
daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397,
Beowulf kills the Scylfing Ēadgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus
ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the
Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. Müllenh., however, regards l.
3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.--_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and _Exod._ (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

    "Thai token an harp _gle and game_
    And maked a lai and yaf it name."
       --_Weber_, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word _glee_, which peculiarly denoted their art (the
minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used
in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of
a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three
Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."--Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's _Dan._ l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

    [banan ēac fundon      bennum sēocne
    (nē) ǣr hī þǣm      gesēgan syllīcran wiht]
    wyrm on wonge...
      --_Beit._ xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [þǣr] before gesēgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon.
B. proposes gry[re-fāh].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, _in the pride of the air_, E.; _to rejoice in the
air_, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld
= the secret place of enchanters; cf. hēlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading,
after A.-S. hǣlsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests gehȳðde, = _plundered_ (i.e. by the thief), for

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [dēaðe] hwār þonne eorl ellenrof ende
gefēre = _let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture_,
etc.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect
question introduced by hwār and dependent upon wundur, = _a mystery is it
when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among
his people_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. (3) Müllenh. suggests: _is it to be wondered
at that a man should die when he can no longer live?_--_Zachers Zeitschr._
xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

                        Wundrað hwæt þonne,
    eorl ellen-rōf,      ende gefēre
    līf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mæg (etc.),

in which hwæt would = þurh hwæt at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of
the conjectural vb. wundrað: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what
he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live. ... So Bēowulf
knew not (wondered how) through what _his_ end should come," etc. W. and
Ho. join þonne to the next line. Or, for hwār read wǣre: Wundur wǣre þonne
(= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is
virtually Müllenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, _spell-bound_, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen
leoðo-cræftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and
placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned.
ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with swā.

l. 3073. herh, hearh, _temple_, is conjectured by E. to survive in _Harrow.
Temple, barrow_, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. Bīowulfes
biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = _ravage_, and compares l. 3127. MS. has
strade. S. suggests stride, = _tread_.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits strādan, = _tread, stride over_, from the Gloss.,
referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to strūdan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: næs hē goldhwætes gearwor hæfde, etc., = _Beowulf had
not before seen the greedy possessor's favor_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. B. reads,
goldhwæte gearwor hæfde, etc., making goldhwæte modify ēst, = _golden
favor_; but see _Beit._ xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king
thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."--_Beit._ xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose æfter wine dēadum, = _in memory of the dead
friend_.--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3106. The brād gold here possibly includes the iū-monna gold of l. 3053
and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates brād by _bullion_.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-āgende to be dat. sg. to gōdum, referring to

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. _vescor_, to devour, as a parallel to
fretan, and discards parentheses.--_Beit._ viii. 573.

l. 3120. fūs = _furnished with_; a meaning which must be added to those in
the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

    ēode eahta sum      under inwit-hrōf
    hilderinca:      sum on handa bær, etc.
      --_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to æðeling_c_, the MS. having _e_.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke
rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."--
_Ynglinga Saga_, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

                   ... swōgende lēc
    wōpe bewunden      windblonda lēg

(lēc from lācan, see Gloss.).--_Beit._ xii. 110. Why not windblonda lāc?

l. 3147. Müllenhoff rejected wind-blond gelæg because a great fire raises
rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the
flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 _seq._ B. restores conjecturally:

    swylce giōmor-gyd      sio geō-meowle
    [æfter Bēowulfe]      bunden-heorde
    [song] sorg-cearig,      sǣde geneahhe,
    þæt hīo hyre [hearm-]dagas      hearde on [dr]ēde,
    wælfylla worn,      [w]īgendes egesan,
    hȳ[n]ðo ond hæftnȳd,      hēof on rīce wealg.
      --_Beit._ xii. 100.

Here geō-meowle = _old woman_ or _widow;_ bunden-heorde = _with bound
locks;_ hēof = _lamentation;_ cf. l. 3143. on rīce wealg is less preferable
than the MS. reading, heofon rēce swealg = _heaven swallowed the
smoke_.--H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geōmeowle) was probably Hygd;
cf. ll. 2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be lāfe, for betost, and omits
colon after bēcn. So B., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the
"chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions,
chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

      woldon gēn cwīðan      [ond] kyning
    wordgyd wrecan      ond ymb wēl sprecan.
      --_Beit._ xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an
Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."--Br., p. 18.


The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made
and printed by Hickes in his _Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium_, i.
192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of
homilies in the Lambeth Library. Möller, _Alteng. Epos_, p. 65, places the
fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (_Beit._
xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hnæf fell, _i.e._ as
described in _Bēowulf_ as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel
(_Anzeiger f. d. Altert._), however, calls attention to the fact that
Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in _Bēowulf_, l. 1086, he
is called þegn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The _Fight at Finnsburg_ and the lays from which our _Bēowulf_ was
composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the
north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the
Jutes or Goths."--Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory
conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon
flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which
the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration,
"rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight."
--_Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch_, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor
hor]nas byrnað nǣfre. So. G.--_Beit._ xii. 22; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ x.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean _arrows_, and supplies:

    ac hēr forð berað      [fyrdsearu rincas,
    flacre flānbogan],      fugelas singað.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, _cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant_,
as explanatory of l. 6.--_Beit._ xii. 22. But see Brooke, _Early Eng.
Literature_, who supposes fugelas = _raven_ and _eagle_, while grǣg-hama is
= _wulf_ (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgeað, etc.: cf. _Maldon_, l. 5; _Exod._ l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (_Beit._ xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Möller and Bugge, Gārulf is
one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his
character as Gūðlāf's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and _Bēowulf_, l. 1149) is a
Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (_Beit._ xii. 25)

    þā gȳt Gūðdene      Gārulf styrode,
    þæt hē swā frēolīc feorh      forman sīðe
    tō þǣre healle durum      hyrsta ne bǣre,
    nū hīe nīða heard      ānyman wolde;

in which Gūðdene is the same as Sigeferð, l. 24; hē (l. 22) refers to
Gārulf; and hīe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. swæðer = _either_ (bad or good, life or death).--H.-So.

l. 29. cēlod: meaning doubtful; cf. _Maldon_, l. 283. G. renders "curved
board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests bār-helm, = _boar-helm._ Cf. Saxo, p. 96.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hrǣw hræfen, wandrode; (2) hwearf
flacra hrǣw hræfen fram ōðrum = _flew from one corpse to another_.--_Beit._
xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund hæleð to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hnæf, in
opposition to Holtzmann (_Germania_, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded
man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrōr = _equipments
useless_.--_Beit._ xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in
battle."--B., _Beit._ xii. 28.



ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) _but_ (like N.H.G. sondern), 109,
135, 339, etc.--2) _but_ (N.H.G. aber), _nevertheless_, 602, 697, etc.--3)
in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

āglǣca, āhlǣca, ǣglǣca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, _trouble_, O.N. agi,
_terror_, + lāc, _gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble_;
hence): 1) _evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being_; of Grendel, 159, 433,
593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.--2) _great hero, mighty warrior_;
of Sigemund, 894; of Bēowulf: gen. sg. āglǣcan(?), 1513; of Bēowulf and the
drake: nom. pl. þā āglǣcean, 2593.

āglǣc-wīf, st. n., _demon, devil, in the form of a woman_; of Grendel's
mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., _servant, man-servant_:
nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgār, 336.

ambiht-þegn (from ambiht n. officium and þegn, which see), _servant,
man-servant_: dat. sg. ombiht-þegne, of Bēowulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., _on, in, with respect to_, 678; _with, among, at,
upon_ (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248.
Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., _anchor_: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), _anchor-cable_: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39,
40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., _excitement, vexation, horror_: dat. wrāðum on andan, 709,

and-git, st. n., _insight, understanding_: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-hātor, st. m. n., _heat coming against one_: gen. sg. rēðes
and-hāttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., _very long._ hence 1) _at whole length, raised up
high_: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers
Ztschr., 4, 217).--2) _continual, entire_; andlangne dæg, 2116, _the whole
day_; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-lēan, st. n., _reward, payment in full_: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-,
hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rīsan, surgere, decere), _that which is to be
observed, that which is proper, etiquette_: dat. pl. for andrysnum,
_according to etiquette_, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., _adversary_: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., _blow in return_: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times

and-swaru, st. f., _act of accosting_: 1) to persons coming up, _an
address_, 2861.--2) in reply to something said, _an answer_, 354, 1494,

and-weard, adj., _present, existing_: acc. sg. n. swīn ofer helme and-weard
(_the image of the boar, which stands on his helm_), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., _countenance_: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., _entirely unharmed_: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sȳn, f., _the state of being seen_: hence 1) _the exterior, the form_,
251: ansȳn ȳwde, _showed his form_, i.e. appeared, 2835.--2) _aspect,
appearance_, 929; on-sȳn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., _He who rules over all, God_, 1273. See Note.

atelīc, adj., _terrible, dreadful_: atelīc egesa, 785.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), _hostile, frightful, cruel_: of
Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl.
atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597,
2479.--cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

attor, st. n., _poison_, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom.,

attor-sceaða, w. m., _poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon_: gen. sg.
-sceaðan, 2840.

āwa, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of ā, which
see), _ever_: āwa tō aldre, _fōr ever and ever_, 956.


ā, adv. (Goth, áiv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), _ever, always_, 455, 882, 931,
1479: ā syððan, _ever afterwards, ever, ever after_, 283, 2921.--_ever_,
780.--Comp. nā.

ād st. m. _funeral pile_: acc. sg. ād, 3139; dat. sg. āde, 1111, 1115.

ād-faru, st. f., _way to the funeral pile_, dat. sg. on ād-fære, 3011.

ādl, st. f. _sickness_, 1737, 1764, 1849.

āð, st. m., _oath in general_, 2740; _oath of allegiance_, 472 (?); _oath
of reconciliation of two warring peoples_, 1098, 1108.

āð-sweord, st. n., _the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath_:
nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

āðum-swerian, m. pl., _son-in-law and father-in-law_: dat. pl., 84.

āgan, verb, pret. and pres., _to have, to possess_, w. acc.: III. prs. sg.
āh, 1728; inf. āgan, 1089; prt. āhte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald,
to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nāh hwā
sweord wege (_I have no one to wield the sword_), 2253.

āgen, adj., _own, peculiar_, 2677.

āgend (prs. part. of āgan), _possessor, owner, lord_: gen. sg. āgendes, _of
God_, 3076.--Compounds: blǣd-, bold-, folc-, mægen-āgend.

āgend-frēa, w. m., _owner, lord_: gen. sg. āgend-frēan, 1884.

āhsian, ge-āhsian, w. v.: 1) _to examine, to find out by inquiring_: pret.
part. ge-āhsod, 433.--2) _to experience, to endure_: pret. āhsode, 1207;
pl. āhsodon, 423.

āht, st. n. (contracted from ā-wiht, which see), _something, anything_: āht
cwices, 2315.

ān, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative
character: 1) _this, that_, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned
before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.--2)
_one_, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb
āne niht (_the next night_), 135; þurh ānes cræft, 700; þāra ānum, 1038; ān
æfter ānum, _one for the other_ (Hrēðel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ān
æfter eallum, 2269; ānes hwæt, _some single thing, a part_, 3011; se ān
lēoda duguðe, _the one of the heroes of the people_, 2238; ānes willan,
_for the sake of a single one_, 3078, etc.--Hence, again, 3) _alone,
distinguished_, 1459, 1886.--4) _a_, in the sense of an indefinite article:
ān ... fēond, 100; gen. sg. ānre bēne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ān ... draca,
2211--5) gen. pl. ānra, in connection with a pronoun, _single_; ānra
gehwylces, _every single one_, 733; ānra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the
dat. pl. in this sense: nemne fēaum ānum, _except a few single ones_,
1082.--6) solus, _alone_: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form,
145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., āna Gēata duguðe, _alone of the
warriors of the Gēatas_, 2658.--7) solitarius, _alone, lonely_, see
ǣn.--Comp. nān.

ān-feald, adj., _simple, plain, without reserve_: acc. sg. ānfealdne
geþōht, _simple opinion_, 256.

ān-genga, -gengea, w. m., _he who goes alone_, of Grendel, 165, 449.

ān-haga, w. m., _he who stands alone_, solitarius, 2369.

ān-hȳdig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-rād-r, _of one resolve_, i.e. of firm
resolve), _of one opinion_, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

ānga, adj. (only in the weak form), _single, only_: acc. sg. āngan dōhtor,
375, 2998; āngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. āngan brēðer, 1263.

ān-pæð, st. m., _lonely way, path_: acc. pl. ānpaðas, 1411.

ān-rǣd, adj. (cf. under ān-hȳdig), _of firm resolution, resolved_, 1530,

ān-tīd, st. f., _one time_, i.e. the same time, ymb ān-tīd ōðres dōgores,
_about the same time the second day_ (they sailed twenty-four hours),
219.--ān stands as in ān-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, _harmonious, of the same

ānunga, adv., _throughout, entirely, wholly_, 635.

ār, st. m., _ambassador, messenger_, 336, 2784.

ār, st. f., 1) _honor, dignity_: ārum healdan, _to hold in honor_, 296;
similarly, 1100, 1183.--2) _favor, grace, support_: acc. sg. āre, 1273,
2607; dat. sg. āre, 2379; gen. pl. hwæt ... ārna, 1188.--Comp. worold-ār;
also written ǣr.

ār-fæst, adj., _honorable, upright_, 1169; of Hunferð (with reference to
588). See fæst.

ārian, w. v., (_to be gracious_), _to spare_: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nǣnegum
ārað; of Grendel, 599.

ār-stæf, st. m.,(elementum honoris), _grace, favor_: dat. pl. mid ārstafum,
317.--_Help, support_: dat. pl. for ār-stafum, _to the assistance_, 382,
458. See stæf.

āter-tēar, m., _poisonous drop_: dat. pl. īren āter-tēarum fāh (steel which
is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.


æðele, adj., _noble_: nom. sg., of Bēowulf, 198, 1313; of Bēowulf's father,
263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical
sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. æðelan cynnes, 2235.

æðeling, st. m., _nobleman, man of noble descent_, especially the
appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of
Scyld, 33; of Hrōðgār, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Bēowulf, 1226, 1245, 1597,
1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of Dæghrefn,
2507;--then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men:
Æschere, 1295; Hrōðgār's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremōd's courtiers, 907;
Hengest's warriors, 1113; Bēowulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born
in general, 2889. --Comp. sib-æðeling.

æðelu, st. n., only in the pl., _noble descent, nobility_, in the sense of
noble lineage: acc. pl. æðelu, 392; dat. pl. cyning æðelum gōd, _the king,
of noble birth_, 1871; æðelum dīore, _worthy on account of noble lineage_,
1950; æðelum (hǣleþum, MS.), 332.--Comp. fæder-æðelu.

æfnan, w. v. w. acc., _to perform, to carry out, to accomplish_: inf.
ellen-weorc æfnan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1465; pret. unriht æfnde,
_perpetrated wrong_, 1255.

ge-æfnan, 1) _to carry out, to do, to accomplish_: pret. pl. þæt geæfndon
swā, _so carried that out_, 538; pret. part. āð wæs geæfned, _the oath was
sworn_, 1108.--2) _get ready, prepare_: pret. part. geæfned, 3107. See

æfter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea
of _forth, away, from, back_), a) adv., _thereupon, afterwards_, 12, 341,
1390, 2155.--ic him æfter sceal, _I shall go after them_, 2817; in word
æfter cwæð, 315, the sense seems to be, _spoke back, having turned_; b)
prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) _after_, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; æfter
beorne, _after the_ (death of) _the hero_, 2261, so 2262; æfter
māððum-welan, _after_ (obtaining) _the treasure_, 2751.--2) (causal) as
proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, _in
consequence of, conformably to_: æfter rihte, _in accordance with right_,
1050, 2111; æfter faroðe, _with the current_, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944,
2180, etc., æfter heaðo-swāte, _in consequence of the blood of battle_,
1607; æfter wælnīðe, _in consequence of mortal enmity_, 85; _in accordance
with, on account of, after, about_: æfter æðelum (hǣleþum, MS.)frægn,
_asked about the descent_, 332; ne frīn þū æfter sǣlum, _ask not after my
welfare_, 1323; æfter sincgyfan grēoteð, _weeps for the giver of treasure_,
1343; him æfter dēorum men dyrne langað, _longs in secret for the dear
man_, 1880; ān æfter ānum, _one for the other_, 2462, etc.--3) (local),
_along_: æfter gumcynnum, _throughout the races of men, among men_, 945;
sōhte bed æfter būrum, _sought a bed among the rooms of the castle_ (the
castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; æfter recede wlāt, _looked
along the hall_, 1573; stone æfter stāne, _smelt along the rocks_, 2289;
æfter lyfte, _along the air through the air_, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068,
1317, etc.

æf-þunca, w. m., _anger, chagrin, vexatious affair_: nom., 502.

ge-æhtan, w. v., _to prize, to speak in praise of_: pret. part. geæhted,

ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., _a speaking of with praise, high
esteem_: gen. sg. hȳ ... wyrðe þinceað eorla geæhtlan, _seem worthy of the
high esteem of the noble-born_, 369.

æglǣcea. See āglǣcea.

æl-fylce (from æl-, Goth. ali-s, ἄλλος, and fylce, O.N. fylki, collective
form from folc), st. n., _other folk, hostile army_: dat. pl. wið ælfylcum,

æl-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., _almighty_: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se
æl-mihtiga, 92.

æl-wiht, st. m., _being of another species, monster_: gen. pl. æl-wihta
eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

æppel-fealu, adj., _dappled sorrel_, or _apple-yellow_: nom. pl.
æppel-fealuwe mēaras, _apple-yellow steeds_, 2166.

ærn, st. n., _house_, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, þrȳð-,

æsc, st. m., _ash_ (does not occur in Bēowulf in this sense), _lance,
spear_, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (quā instr.) æscum
and ecgum, _with spears and swords_, 1773.

æsc-holt, st. n., _ash wood, ashen shaft_: nom. pl. æsc-holt ufan grǣg,
_the ashen shafts gray above_ (spears with iron points), 330.

æsc-wiga, w. m., _spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear_: nom. sg.,

æt, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something,
hence 1) local, a) _with, near, at, on, in_ (rest): æt hȳðe, in _harbor_,
32; æt symle, _at the meal_, 81, æt āde, _on the funeral-pile_, 1111, 1115;
æt þē ānum, _with thee alone_, 1378; æt wīge, _in the fight_, 1338; æt
hilde, 1660, 2682; æt ǣte, _in eating_, 3027, etc. b) _to, towards, at, on_
(motion to): dēaðes wylm hrān æt heortan, _seized upon the heart_, 2271;
gehēton æt hærgtrafum, _vowed at_ (or _to_) _the temples of the gods_, 175.
c) with verbs of taking away, _away from_ (as starting from near an
object): geþeah þæt ful æt Wealhþēon, _took the cup from W_., 630; fela ic
gebād grynna æt Grendle, _from Grendel_, 931; æt mīnum fæder genam, _took
me from my father to himself_, 2430.--2) temporal, _at, in, at the time
of_: æt frumsceafte, _in the beginning_, 45; æt ende, _at an end_, 224;
fand sīnne dryhten ealdres æt ende, _at the end of life, dying_, 2791;
similarly, 2823; æt feohgyftum, _in giving gifts_, 1090; æt sīðestan,
_finally_, 3014.

æt-grǣpe, adj., _laying hold of_, prehendens, 1270.

æt-rihte, adv., _almost_, 1658.


ǣdre, ēdre, st. f., _aqueduct, canal_ (not in Bēow.), _vein_ (not in
Bēow.), _stream, violent pouring forth_: dat. pl. swāt ǣdrum sprong, _the
blood sprang in streams_, 2967; blōd ēdrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743.

ǣdre, adv., _hastily, directly, immediately_, 77, 354, 3107.

ǣðm, st. m., _breath, gasp, snort_: instr. sg. hreðer ǣðme wēoll, _the
breast_ (of the drake) _heaved with snorting_, 2594.

ǣfen, st. m., _evening_, 1236.

ǣfen-gram, adj., _hostile at evening, night-enemy_: nom. sg. m. ǣfen-grom,
of Grendel, 2075.

ǣfen-lēoht, st. n., _evening-light_: nom. sg., 413.

ǣfen-ræst, st. f., _evening-rest_: acc. sg. -ræste, 647, 1253.

ǣfen-sprǣc, st. f., _evening-talk_: acc. sg. gemunde ...ǣfen-sprǣce,
_thought about what he had spoken in the evening_, 760.

ǣfre, adv., _ever, at any time_, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative
sentences, ǣfre ne, _never_, 2601.--Comp. nǣfre.

ǣg-hwā (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hwër), pron., _every, each_: dat. sg. ǣghwǣm, 1385.
The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, _in all, throughout, thoroughly_: ǣghwæs
untǣle, _thoroughly blameless_, 1866; ǣghwæs unrīm, _entirely innumerable
quantity_, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

ǣg-hwæðer (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hwëdar): 1) _each_ (of two): nom. sg. hæfde
ǣghwæðer ende gefēred, _each of the two_ (Bēowulf and the drake) _had
reached the end_, 2845; dat. sg. ǣghwæðrum wæs brōga fram ōðrum, _to each
of the two_ (Bēowulf and the drake) _was fear of the other_, 2565; gen. sg.
ǣghwæðres ... worda and worca, 287.--2) _each_ (of several): dat. sg. heora
ǣghwæðrum, 1637.

ǣg-hwǣr, adv., _everywhere_, 1060.

ǣg-hwilc (O.H.G. ēo-gi-hwëlih), pron., unusquisque, _every_ (one): 1) used
as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.--2) as substantive, a) with the
partitive genitive: nom. sg. ǣg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. ǣghwylcum, 1051.
b) without gen.: nom. sg. ǣghwylc, 985, 988; (wæs) ǣghwylc ōðrum trȳwe,
_each one_ (of two) _true to the other_, 1166.

ǣg-weard, st. f., _watch on the sea shore_: acc. sg. ǣg-wearde, 241.

ǣht (abstract form from āgan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1)
_possession, power_: acc. sg. on flōdes ǣht, 42; on wæteres ǣht, _into the
power of the water_, 516; on ǣht gehwearf Denigea frēan, _passed over into
the possession of a Danish master_, 1680.--2) _property, possessions,
goods_: acc. pl. ǣhte, 2249.--Comp. māðm-, gold-ǣht.

ǣht (O.H.G. āhta), st. f., _pursuit_: nom. þā wæs ǣht boden Swēona lēodum,
segn Higelāce, _then was pursuit offered to the people of the Swēonas,
(their) banner to Hygelāc_ (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during
their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelāc), 2958.

ǣled (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., _fire_, 3016.

ǣled-lēoma, w. m., _(fire-light), torch_: acc. sg. lēoman, 3126. See lēoma.

ǣn (oblique form of ān), num., _one_: acc. sg. m. þone ǣnne þone..., _the
one whom_..., 1054; oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð, _much oftener than one
time_, 1580; forð onsendon ǣnne, _sent him forth alone_, 46.

ǣne, adv., _once_: oft nalles ǣne, 3020.

ǣnig, pron., _one, any one_, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ...
0nige þinga, _would in no way, not at all_, 792; lȳt ǣnig mearn, _little
did any one sorrow_ (i.e. no one), 3130.--With the article: næs se
folccyning ... ǣnig, _no people's king_, 2735.--Comp. nǣnig.

ǣn-līc, adj., _alone, excellent, distinguished_: ǣnlīc ansȳn,
_distinguished appearance_, 251; þēah þe hīo ǣnlīcu sȳ, _though she be
beautiful_, 1942.

ǣr (comparative form, from ā): 1) adv., _sooner, before, beforehand_, 15,
656, 695, 758, etc., _for a long time_, 2596; eft swā ǣr, _again as
formerly_, 643; ǣr nē siððan, _neither sooner nor later_, 719; ǣr and sīð,
_sooner and later_ (all times), 2501; nō þȳ ǣr (_not so much the sooner_),
_yet not_, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.--2) conjunct., _before, ere_: a)
with the ind.: ǣr hīo tō setle gēong, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: ǣr gē fyr
fēran, _before you travel farther_, 252; ǣr hē on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819;
ǣr þon dæg cwōme, _ere the day break_, 732; ǣr correlative to ǣr adv.: ǣr
hē feorh seleð, aldor an ōfre, ǣr hē wille ..., _he will sooner_ (rather)
_leave his life upon the shore, before_ (than) _he will_ ..., 1372.--3)
prepos. with dat., _before_ ǣr dēaðe, _before death_, 1389; ǣr dæges hwīle,
_before daybreak_, 2321; ǣr swylt-dæge, _before the day of death_, 2799.

ǣror, comp. adv., _sooner, before-hand_, 810; _formerly_, 2655.

ǣrra, comp. adj., _earlier_; instr. pl., ǣrran mǣlum, _in former times_,
908, 2238, 3036.

ǣrest, superl.: 1) adv., _first of all, foremost_, 6, 617, 1698, etc.--2)
as subst. n., _relation to, the beginning_: acc. þæt ic his ǣrest þē eft
gesægde (_to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of
mail that has been presented_), 2158. See Note.

ǣr-dæg, st. m. (_before-day_), _morning-twilight, gray of morning_: dat.
sg. mid ǣrdæge, 126; samod ǣrdæge, 1312, 2943.

ǣrende, st. n., _errand, trust_: acc. sg., 270, 345.

ǣr-fæder, st. m., _late father, deceased father_: nom sg. swā his ǣrfæder,

ǣr-gestrēon, st. n., _old treasure, possessions dating from old times_: acc
sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ǣrgestrēona, _much of such old treasure_,
2233. See gestrēon.

ǣr-geweorc, st. n., _work dating from old times_: nom. sg. enta ǣr-geweorc,
_the old work of the giants_ (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's
water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

ǣr-gōd, adj., _good since old times, long invested with dignity_ or
_advantages_: æðeling ǣrgōd, 130; (eorl) ǣrgōd, 1330; īren ǣrgōd
(_excellent sword_), 990, 2587.

ǣr-wela, w. m., _old possessions, riches dating from old times_: acc. sg.
ǣrwelan, 2748. See wela.

ǣs, st. n., _carcass, carrion_: dat. (instr.) sg. ǣse, of Æschere's corpse,

ǣt, st. m., _food, meat_: dat, sg., hū him æt ǣte spēow, _how he fared well
at meat_, 3027.

ǣttren (see attor), adj., _poisonous_: wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt, ǣttren
ellorgāst, se ǣr inne swealt, _so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the
demon_ (Grendel's mother) _who died therein_, 1618


bana, bona, w. m., _murderer_, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan
Ongenþēowes, of Hygelāc, although in reality his men slew Ongenþēow (2965
ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne wæs ecg bona, 2507; wearð
wracu Wēohstānes bana, 2614.--Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gāst-, hand-, mūð-bana.

bon-gār, st. m. _murdering spear_, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, _to command,
to bid_: inf., 74.

bād, st. f., _pledge_, only in comp.: nȳd-bād.

bān, st. n., _bone_: dat. sg. on bāne (on the bony skin of the drake),
2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum (here of the teeth of the
drake), 2693.

bān-cofa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cofan,

bān-fāg, adj., _variegated with bones_, either with ornaments made of
bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrōðgār's hall,
781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bān-fæt, st. n., _bone-vessel_, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bān-fatu, 1117.

bān-hring, st. m., _the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint_: acc. pl. hire
wið halse ... bānhringas bræc (_broke her neck-joint_), 1568.

bān-hūs, st. n., _bone-house_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bānhūs gebræc, 2509;
similarly, 3148.

bān-loca, w. m., _the enclosure of the bones_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bāt
bānlocan, _bit the body_, 743; nom. pl. burston bānlocan, _the body burst_
(of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bāt, st. m., _boat, craft, ship_, 211.--Comp. sǣ-bāt.

bāt-weard, st. m., _boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft._ dat.
sg. -wearde, 1901.

bæð, st. n., _bath_: acc. sg. ofer ganotes bæð, _over the diver's bath_
(i.e. the sea), 1862.

bærnan, w. v., _to cause to burn, to burn_: inf. hēt ... bānfatu bærnan,
_bade that the bodies be burned_, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu bærnan,
_began to consume the splendid country-seats_ (the dragon), 2314.

for-bærnan, w. v., _consume with fire_: inf. hȳ hine ne mōston ...
brondefor-bærnan, _they_ (the Danes) _could not burn him_ (the dead
Æschere) _upon the funeral-pile_, 2127.

bǣdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beðia), _to incite, to encourage_: pret. bǣdde
byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bǣdan, w. v., _to press hard_: pret. part. bysigum gebǣded, _distressed
by trouble, difficulty, danger_ (of battle), 2581; _to drive, to send
forth_: strǣla storm strengum gebǣded, _the storm of arrows sent with
strength_, 3118; _overcome_: draca ... bealwe gebǣded, _the dragon ...
overcome by the ills of battle_, 2827.

bǣl (O.N. bāl), st. n., _fire, flames_: (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, _passed
(through the air) with fire_, 2309; hæfde landwara līge befangan, bǣle and
bronde, _with fire and burning_, 2323.--Especially, _the fire of the
funeral-pile, the funeral-pile_, 1110, 1117, 2127; ǣr hē bǣl cure, _ere he
sought the burning_ (i.e. died), 2819; hātað ... hlǣw gewyrcean ... æfter
bǣle, _after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up_ (Bēowulf's
words), 2804.

bǣl-fȳr, st. n., _bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile_: gen. pl. bǣlfȳra
mǣst, 3144.

bǣl-stede, st. m., _place for the funeral-pile_: dat. sg. in bǣl=stede,

bǣl-wudu, st. m., _wood for the funeral-pile_, 3113.

bǣr, st. f., _bier_, 3106.

ge-bǣran, w. v., _to conduct one's self, behave_: inf. w. adv., ne gefrægen
ic þā mǣgðe ... sēl gebǣran, _I did not hear that a troop bore itself
better, maintained a nobler deportment_, 1013; hē on eorðan geseah þone
lēofestan līfes æt ende blēate gebǣran, _saw the best-beloved upon the
earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably_ (i.e. in a helpless
situation), 2825.

ge-bǣtan (denominative from bǣte, _the bit_), w. v., _to place the bit in
the mouth of an animal, to bridle_: pret. part. þā wæs Hrōðgāre hors
gebǣted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning _near_, "but not of one
direction, as æt, but more general"): 1) local, _near by, near, at, on_
(rest): be ȳdlāfe uppe lǣgon, _lay above, upon the deposit of the waves_
(upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; hæfde be honda, _held by the
hand_ (Bēowulf held Grendel), 815; be sǣm tweonum, _in the circuit of both
the seas_, 859, 1686; be mæste, _on the mast_, 1906; by fȳre, _by the
fire_, 2220; be næsse, _at the promontory_, 2244; sæt be þǣm gebrōðrum
twǣm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192; wæs se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle
swā bið mægða cræft be wǣpnedmen, _the terror was just so much less, as is
the strength of woman to the warrior_ (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.--2)
also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object,
_on, upon, by_: gefēng be eaxle, _seized by the shoulder_, 1538; ālēdon
lēofne þēoden be mæste, _laid the dear lord near the mast_, 36; be healse
genam, _took him by the neck, fell upon his neck_, 1873; wǣpen hafenade be
hiltum, _grasped the weapon by the hilt_, 1757, etc.--3) with this is
connected the causal force, _on account of, for, according to_: ic þis gid
be þē āwræc, _I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake_, 1724; þū
þē lǣr be þon, _learn according to this, from this_, 1723; be fæder lāre,
_according to her father's direction_, 1951.--4) temporal, _while, during_:
be þē lifigendum, _while thou livest, during thy life_, 2666. See bī.

bed, st. n., _bed, couch_: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792;
dat. pl. beddum, 1241.--Comp: deað-, hlin-, læger-, morðor-, wæl-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., _bed-fellow_: dat. sg. wolde sēcan ewēn tō gebeddan,
_wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her_,
666.--Comp. heals-gebedde.

bēgen, fem. bā, _both_: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on bā healfa,
_on two sides_ (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bām, 2197; and
in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ūrum
bām, 2661; gen. n. bēga, 1874, 2896; bēga gehwæðres, _each one of the two_,
1044; bēga folces, of _both peoples_, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, _to cause to swell, to swell_), _to irritate_:
w. dat. (pret. subj.) þæt hē ēcean dryhtne bitre gebulge, _that he had
bitterly angered the eternal Lord_, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540;
(gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original
meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

ā-belgan, _to anger_: pret. sg. w. acc. oð þæt hyne ān ābealh mon on mōde,
_till a man angered him in his heart_, 2281; pret. part. ābolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., _wound_: acc. sg. benne, 2725.--Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., _bench_: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189,
1244.--Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swēg, st. m., (_bench-rejoicing_), _rejoicing which resounds from the
benches_, 1162.

benc-þel, st. n., _bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches
stand_: nom. pl. benc-þelu, 486; acc. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the
bench-boards_ (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches),

bend, st. m. f., _bond, fetter_: acc. sg. forstes bend, _frost's bond_,
1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.--Comp.: fȳr-, hell-, hyge-, īren-, oncer-,
searo-, wæl-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (_wound-gate_), _wound-opening_: nom. pl. ben-geato,

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., _bearer_: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., _to carry_; III. sg. pres. byreð, 296, 448; þone
māððum byreð, _carries the treasure_ (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj.
bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; heht þā se
hearda Hrunting beran, _to bring Hrunting_, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran,
2153; pret. bær, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne bær fǣted wǣge, _brought
the lord the costly vessel_, 2282; pl. bǣron, 213, 1636, etc.; bǣran, 2851;
pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.--The following expressions are poetic
paraphrases of the forms _go, come_: þæt wē rondas beren eft tō earde,
2654; gewītað forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; ic gefrægn sunu Wīhstānes
hringnet beran, 2755; wīgheafolan bær, 2662; helmas bǣron, 240
(conjecture); scyldas bǣran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of
the man with his weapons.

æt-beran, _to carry to_: inf. tō beadulāce (_battle_) ætberan, 1562; pret.
þā hine on morgentīd on Heaðorǣmas holm up ætbær, _the sea bore him up to
the Heaðorǣmas_, 519; hīo Bēowulfe medoful ætbær _brought Bēowulf the
mead-cup_, 625; mægenbyrðenne ... hider ūt ætbær cyninge mīnum, _bore the
great burden hither to my king_, 3093; pl. hī hyne ætbǣron tō brimes
faroðe, 28.--2) _bear away_: æt līc ætbær, 2128.

for-beran, _to hold, to suppress_: inf. þæt hē þone brēostwylm forberan ne
mehte, _that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast_, 1878.

ge-beran, _to bring forth, to bear_: pret. part. þæt lā mæg secgan sē þe
sōð and riht fremeð on folce ... þæt þes eorl wǣre geboren betera (_that
may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born_),

oð-beran, _to bring hither_: pret. þā mec sǣ oðbær on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bëran, intpëran, but in the sense of carere), auferre,
_to carry off, to take away_: inf. īren ǣrgōd þæt þæs āhlǣcan blōdge
beadufolme onberan wolde, _excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody
hand of the demon_, 991; pret. part. (wæs) onboren bēaga hord, _the
treasure of the rings had been carried off_, 2285.--Compounds with the
pres. part.: helm-, sāwl-berend.

berian (denominative from bær, _naked_), w. v., _to make bare, to clear_:
pret. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the bench-place_ (by removing the
benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., _to break, to burst_: pret. pl. burston bānlocan, 819;
bengeato burston, 1122.--_to crack, to make the noise of breaking_: fingras
burston, _the fingers cracked_ (from Bēowulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, _break, to fly asunder_: pret. Nægling forbærst, _Nægling_
(Bēowulf's sword) _broke in two_, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), _better_: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-līc, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. n., of Hrōðgār's hall, 781;
of Hygelāc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), _best, the best_: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca,
1110; neut. nū is ofost betost, þæt wē ..., _now is haste the best, that
we..._, 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrūda betst, 453;
acc. sg. m. þegn betstan, 1872.

bēcn, st. n., _(beacon), token, mark, sign_: acc. sg. betimbredon
beadu-rōfes bēcn (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bēg. See bēag.

bēn, st. f., _entreaty_: gen. sg. bēne, 428, 2285.

bēna, w. m., _suppliant_, supplex: nom. sg. swā þū bēna eart (_as thou
entreatest_), 352; swā hē bēna wæs (_as he had asked_), 3141; nom. pl. hȳ
bēnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) _to make good, to remove_: pret. ac þū Hrōðgāre wīdcūðne wēan
wihte gebēttest, _hast thou in any way relieved Hrōðgār of the evil known
afar_, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncȳððe ealle gebētte, _removed
all trouble_, 831. --2) _to avenge_: inf. wihte ne meahte on þām feorhbonan
fǣhðe gebētan, _could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer_, 2466.

beadu, st. f., _battle, strife, combat_: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, _in
combat_, 1540; gen. pl. bād beadwa ge-þinges, _waited for the combats_
(with Grendel) _that were in store for him_, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., _battle-hand_: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grīma, w. m., _(battle-mask), helmet_: acc. pl. -grīman, 2258.

beado-hrægl, st. n., _(battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail_, 552.

beadu-lāc, st. n., (_exercise in arms, tilting_), _combat, battle_: dat.
sg. tō beadu-lāce, 1562.

beado-lēoma, w. m., (_battle-light_), _sword_: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mēce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. beado-mēcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: gen. pl. betst beadorinca,

beadu-rōf, adj., _strong in battle_: gen. sg. -rōfes, of Bēowulf, 3162.

beadu-rūn, st. f., _mystery of battle_: acc. sg. onband beadu-rūne, _solved
the mystery of the combat_, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., _battle-sharp, sharp for the battle_, 2705.

beadu-scrūd, st. n., (_battle-dress_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: gen. pl.
beaduscrūda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (_battle-garment_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: acc. sg.
brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings),

beado-weorc, st. n., (_battle-work_), _battle_: gen. sg. gefeh
beado-weorces, _rejoiced at the battle_, 2300.

beald, adj., _bold, brave_: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., _to show one's self brave_: pret. bealdode gōdum dǣdum
(_through brave deeds_), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., _lord, prince_: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia
bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., _evil, ruin, destruction_: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl.
bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.--Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-,
hreðer-, lēod-, morðor-, niht-, sweord-, wīg-bealu.

bealu, adj., _deadly, dangerous, bad_: instr. sg. hyne sār hafað befongen
balwon bendum, _pain has entwined him in deadly bands_, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, death by the sword_(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_:
gen. pl. ǣghwæðrum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hȳdig, adj., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: of
Grendel, 724.

bealo-nīð, st. m., (_zeal for destruction_), _deadly enmity_: nom. sg.,
2405; _destructive struggle_: acc. sg. bebeorh þē þone bealonīð, _beware of
destructive striving_, 1759; _death-bringing rage_: nom. sg. him on
brēostum bealo-nīð wēoll, _in his breast raged deadly fury_ (of the
dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., _splendor, brightness, clearness_: nom.
sg. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.--2) _sound, tone_: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeāton,
gūðhorn galan, _they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound_, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, _lap, bosom_: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc.
sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan
bunan and discas, 2776.--2) figuratively, _possession, property_, because
things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on
bearm licgan, ālecgan); dat. sg. him tō bearme cwōm māððumfæt mǣre, _came
into his possession_, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) _child, son_: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.;
Ecglāfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat.
pl. bearnum, 1075.--2) in a broader sense, _scion, offspring, descendant_:
nom. sg. Ongenþēow's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn,
70; gumena bearn, _children of men_, 879; hæleða bearn, 1190; æðelinga
bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150;
gen. pl. niðða bearna, 1006.--Comp.: brōðor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., _birth, birth of a son_: gen. sg. þæt hyre ealdmetod
ēste wǣre bearn-gebyrdo, _has been gracious through the birth of such a
son_ (i.e. as Bēowulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (_the bearer_, hence properly only the fruit-tree,
especially the oak and the beech), _tree_, collectively _forest_: nom. pl.
hrīmge bearwas, _rime-covered_ or _ice-clad_, 1364.

bēacen, st. n., _sign, banner_, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht bēacen godes, _of
the sun_, 570; gen. pl. bēacna beorhtost, 2778. See bēcn.

ge-bēacnian, w. v., _to mark, to indicate_: pret. part. ge-bēacnod, 140.

bēag, st. m., _ring, ornament_: nom. sg. bēah (_neck-ring_), 1212; acc. sg.
bēah (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaðobeardnas), 2042; bēg
(collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān under
gyldnum bēage, _she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden
diadem_, 1164; gen. sg. bēages (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. bēagas (rings
in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. bēaga, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.--
Comp.: earm-, heals-bēag.

bēag-gyfa, w. m., _ring-giver_, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan,

bēag-hroden, adj., _adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps_: nom. sg.
bēaghroden, cwēn, of Hrōðgār's consort, perhaps with reference to her
diadem (cf. 1164, 624.

bēah-hord, st. m. n., _ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings_: gen. sg.
bēah-hordes, 895; dat. pl. bēah-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. bēah-horda weard, of
King Hrōðgār, 922.

bēah-sele, st. m., _ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed_:
nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

bēah-þegu, st. f., _the receiving of the ring_: dat. sg. æfter bēah-þege,

bēah-wriða, w. m. _ring-band_, ring with prominence given to its having the
form of a band: acc. sg. bēah-wriðan, 2019.

bēam, st. m., _tree_, only in the compounds fyrgen-, glēo-bēam.

bēatan, st. v., _thrust, strike_: pres. sg. mearh burhstede bēateð, _the
steed beats the castle-ground_ (place where the castle is built), i.e. with
his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-bēaten, _died, struck by the
battle-axe_, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) _mountain, rock_: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges,
2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.--2) _grave-mound, tomb-hill_: acc. sg.
biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat
(cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.--Comp.

beorh, st. f., _veil, covering, cap_; only in the comp. hēafod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), _to save, to
shield_: inf. wolde fēore beorgan, _place her life in safety_, 1294;
here-byrne ... sēo þe bāncofan beorgan cūðe, _which could protect his
body_, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), _to take care,
to defend one's self from_: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, _cannot keep
himself from stain_ (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh þē þone bealontð, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), _to save, to protect_:
pret. sg. þæt gebearh fēore, _protected the life_, 1549; scyld wēl gebearg
līfe and līce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, _to surround protectingly_: pret. sg. bring ūtan ymb-bearh,

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering_: nom. sg.
beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; þæt beorhte bold,
998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Bēowulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tō þǣre
byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte frætwe, 214, 897;
beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314.
Superl.: bēacna beorhtost, 2778. --2) _excellent, remarkable_: gen. sg.
beorhtre bōte, 158. --Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., _brilliantly, brightly, radiantly_, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., _to sound clearly_: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swēg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., _hero, warrior, noble man_: nom. sg. (Hrōðgār), 1881,
(Bēowulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Bēow.), 1025, (Æschere), 1300; dat. sg.
beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Bēowulf and his companions), 211,
(Hrōðgār's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Bēowulf's liege-men),
2405.--Comp.: folc-, gūð-beorn.

beornan, st. v., _to burn_: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake),
2273.--Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, _to be consumed, to burn_: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668;
for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, _to be burned_: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., _king of warriors, king of heroes_: nom. sg. (as
voc.), 2149.

bēodan, st. v.: 1) _to announce, to inform, to make known_: inf. bīodan,
2893.--2) _to offer, to proffer_ (as the notifying of a transaction in
direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him geþingo
budon, _offered them an agreement_, 1086; pret. part. þā wæs ǣht boden
Swēona lēodum, _then was pursuit offered the Swedish people_, 2958; inf. ic
þǣm gōdan sceal māðmas bēodan, _I shall offer the excellent man treasures_,

ā-bēodan, _to present, to announce_: pret. word inne ābēad, _made known the
words within_, 390; _to offer, to tender, to wish_: pret. him hǣl ābēad,
_wished him health_ (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hǣlo ābēad, 2419; eoton
weard ābēad, _offered the giant a watcher_, 669.

be-bēodan, _to command, to order_: pret. swā him se hearda bebēad, _as the
strong man commanded them_, 401. Similarly, swā se rīca bebēad, 1976.

ge-bēodan: 1) _to command, to order_: inf. hēt þā gebēodan byre Wīhstānes
hæleða monegum, þæt hīe..., _the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given
to many of the men..._, 3111.--2) _to offer_: him Hygd gebēad hord and
rīce, _offered him the treasure and the chief power_, 2370; inf. gūðe
gebēodan, _to offer battle_, 604.

bēod-genēat, st. m., _table-companion_: nom. and acc. pl. genēatas, 343,

bēon, verb, _to be_, generally in the future sense, _will be_: pres. sg. I.
gūðgeweorca ic bēo gearo sōna, _I shall immediately be ready for warlike
deeds_, 1826; sg. III. wā bið þǣm þe sceal..., _woe to him who_...! 183;
so, 186; gifeðe bið is given, 299; ne bið þē wilna gād (_no wish will be
denied thee_), 661; þǣr þē bið manna þearf, _if thou shalt need the
warriors_, 1836; ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw, _is not becoming, honorable to
a woman_, 1941; eft sōna bið _will happen directly_, 1763; similarly, 1768,
etc.; pl. þonne bīoð brocene, _then are broken_, 2064; feor cȳððe bēoð
sēlran gesōhte þām þe..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei
qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. bēo (bīo) þū on ofeste, _hasten!_ 386, 2748;
bēo wið Gēatas glæd, _be gracious to the Gēatas_, 1174.

bēor, st. n., _beer_: dat. sg. æt bēore, _at beer-drinking_, 2042; instr.
sg. bēore druncen, 531; bēore druncne, 480.

bēor-scealc, st. m., _keeper of the beer, cup-bearer_: gen. pl.
bēor-scealca sum (one of Hrōðgār's followers, because they served the
Gēatas at meals), 1241.

bēor-sele, st. m., _beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk_: dat. sg. in
(on) bēorsele, 482, 492, 1095; bīorsele, 2636.

bēor-þegu, st. f., _beer-drinking, beer-banquet_: dat. sg. æfter bēorþege,
117; æt þǣre bēorþege, 618.

bēot, st. n., _promise, binding agreement to something that is to be
undertaken_: acc. sg. hē bēot ne ālēh, _did not break his pledge_, 80; bēot
eal ... gelǣste, _performed all that he had pledged himself to_, 523.

ge-bēotian, w. v., _to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's
self_: pret. gebēotedon, 480, 536.

bēot-word, st. n., same as bēot: dat. pl. bēot-wordum spræc, 2511.

biddan, st. v., _to beg, to ask, to pray_: pres. sg. I. dōð swā ic bidde!
1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic þē
biddan wille ānre bēne, _beg thee for one_, 427; pret. swā hē selfa bæd,
_as he himself had requested_, 29; bæd hine blīðne (supply wesan) æt þǣre
bēorþege, _begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet_, 618; ic þē lange
bæd þæt þū..., _begged you a long time that you_, 1995; frioðowǣre bæd
hlāford sīnne, _begged his lord for protection_ (acc. of pers. and gen. of
thing), 2283; bæd þæt gē geworhton, _asked that you_..., 3097; pl. wordum
bǣdon þæt..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., _to await_: inf. lǣtað hilde-bord hēr onbidian ... worda
geþinges, _let the shields await here the result of the conference_ (lay
the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. _sword_: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558;
instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40;
gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.--Comp.: gūð-, hilde-, wīg-bil.

bindan, st. v., _to bind, to tie_: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, _the
bound wood_, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, _a sword bound
with gold_, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold
chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg.
heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, _to bind_: pret. sg. þǣr ic fīfe geband, _where I had bound
five_(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges þegn word ōðer fand sōðe gebunden, _the
king's man found_ (after many had already praised Bēowulf's deed) _other
words_ (also referring to Bēowulf, but in connection with Sigemund)
_rightly bound together_, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming
to a gid, 872; wundenmǣl wrǣttum gebunden, _sword bound with ornaments_,
i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, _bound together by sorrow_, 1744; gomel
gūðwīga eldo gebunden, _hoary hero bound by old age_ (fettered, oppressed),

on-bindan, _to unbind, to untie, to loose_: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., _that which binds, fetters_: in comp. īs-gebind.

bite, st. m., _bite_, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite
īrena, _the swords' bite_, 2260; dat. sg. æfter billes bite, 2061.--Comp.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) _sharp, cutting, cutting
in_: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strǣle,
1747; instr. pl. biteran bānum, _with sharp teeth_, 2693.--2) _irritated,
furious_: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., _bitterly_ (in a moral sense), 2332.

bī, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) _near,
at, on, about, by_ (as under be, No. 1): bī sǣm twēonum, _in the circuit of
both seas_, 1957; ārās bī ronde, _raised himself up by the shield_, 2539;
bī wealle gesæt, _sat by the wall_, 2718. With a freer position: him big
stōdan bunan and orcas, _round about him_, 3048.--2) _to, towards_
(motion): hwearf þā bī bence, _turned then towards the bench_, 1189; gēong
bī sesse, _went to the seat_, 2757.

bīd (see bīdan), st. n., _tarrying hesitation_: þǣr wearð Ongenþīo on bīd
wrecen, _forced to tarry_, 2963.

bīdan, st. v.: 1) _to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait_: inf. nō on
wealle leng bīdan wolde, _would not stay longer within the wall_ (the
drake), 2309; pret. in þȳstrum bād, _remained in darkness_, 87; flota
stille bād, _the craft lay still_, 301; receda ... on þǣm se rīca bād,
_where the mighty one dwelt_, 310; þǣr se snottra bād, _where the wise man_
(Hrōðgār) _waited_, 1314; hē on searwum bād, _he_ (Bēowulf) _stood there
armed_, 2569; ic on earde bād mǣlgesceafta, _lived upon the paternal ground
the time appointed me by fate_, 2737; pret. pl. sume þǣr bidon, _some
remained, waited there_, 400.--2) _to await, to wait for_, with the gen. of
that which is awaited: inf. bīdan woldon Grendles gūðe, _wished to await
the combat with Grendel, to undertake it_, 482; similarly, 528; wīges
bīdan, _await the combat_, 1269; nalas andsware bīdan wolde, _would await
no answer_, 1495; pret. bād beadwa geþinges, _awaited the event of the
battle_, 710; sǣgenga bād āgend-frēan, _the sea-goer_ (boat) _awaited its
owner_, 1883; sele ... heaðowylma bād, lāðan līges (the poet probably means
to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a
fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but
which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

ā-bīdan, _to await_, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bīdan: 1) _to tarry, to wait_: imp. gebīde gē on beorge, _wait ye on the
mountain_, 2530; pret. part. þēah þe wintra lȳt under burhlocan gebiden
hæbbe Hæreðes dōhtor _although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in
the castle_, 1929.--2) _to live through, to experience, to expect_ (w.
acc.): inf. sceal endedæg mīnne gebīdan, _shall live my last day_, 639; ne
wēnde ... bōte gebīdan, _did not hope ... to live to see reparation_, 935;
fela sceal gebīdan lēofes and lāðes, _experience much good and much
affliction_, 1061; ende gebīdan, 1387, 2343; pret. hē þæs frōfre gebād,
_received consolation_ (compensation) _therefore_, 7; gebād wintra worn,
_lived a great number of years_, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930,
1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tō gebīdanne ōðres yrfeweardes, _to await
another heir_, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tō gebīdanne þæt his byre
rīde on galgan, _to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows_,
2446; pret. drēam-lēas gebād þæt hē..., _joyless he experienced it, that
he_..., 1721; þæs þe ic on aldre gebād þæt ic..., _for this, that I, in my
old age, lived to see that_..., 1780.

on-bīdan, _to wait, to await_: pret. hordweard onbād earfoðlīce oð þæt ǣfen
cwōm, _scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening_, 2303.

bītan, st. v., _to bite_, of the cutting of swords: inf. bītan, 1455, 1524;
pret. bāt bānlocan, _bit into his body_ (Grendel), 743; bāt unswīðor, _cut
with less force_ (Bēowulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly _that which shines_ here of the horse, not so much
of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., _mixture, heaving mass, a turning_.--Comp.:
sund-, ȳð-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., _mixed_, i.e. having gray hair,
_gray-headed_, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792;
blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe,

blæc, adj., _dark, black_: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blāc, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining_: acc. sg. blācne lēoman, _a brilliant
gleam_, 1518.--2) of the white death-color, _pale_; in comp. heoroblāc.

blǣd, st. m.: 1) _strength, force, vigor_: nom. sg. wæs hira blǣd scacen
(of both tribes), _strength was gone_, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay
slain, 1125; nū is þīnes mægnes blǣd āne hwīle, _now the fulness of thy
strength lasts for a time_, 1762.--2) _reputation, renown, knowledge_ (with
stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blǣd, 18;
(þīn) blǣd is ārǣred, _thy renown is spread abroad_, 1704.

blǣd-āgend, pt., _having renown, renowned_: nom. pl. blǣd-āgende, 1014.

blǣd-fæst, adj., _firm in renown, renowned, known afar_: acc. sg.
blǣdfæstne beorn (of Æschere, with reference to 1329, 1300.

blēat, adj., _miserable, helpless_; only in comp. wæl-blēat.

blēate, adv., _miserably, helplessly_, 2825.

blīcan, st. v., _shine, gleam_: inf., 222

blīðe, adj.: 1) _blithe, joyous, happy_ acc. sg. blīðne, 618.--2)
_gracious, pleasing_: nom. sg. blīðe, 436.--Comp. un-blīðe.

blīð-heort, adj., _joyous in heart, happy_: nom. sg., 1803.

blōd, st. n., _blood_: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blōde, 848;
æfter dēorum men him langað beorn wið blōde, _the hero_ (Hrōðgār) _longs
for the beloved man contrary to blood_, i.e. he loves him although he is
not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blōde, 486, 935, 1595,

blōd-fāg, adj., _spotted with blood, bloody_, 2061.

blōdig, adj., _bloody_: acc. sg. f. blōdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blōdig, 448;
instr. sg. blōdigan gāre, 2441.

ge-blōdian, w. v., _to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood_: pret. part.
ge-blōdegod, 2693.

blōdig-tōð, adj., _with bloody teeth_: nom. sg. bona blōdig-tōð (of
Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blōd-rēow, adj., _bloodthirsty, bloody-minded_: nom. sg. him on ferhðe
grēow brēost-hord blōd-rēow, _in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty
feeling_, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., _command, order_; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., _(to be a messenger), to announce, to make known_: pret.
hrefn blaca heofones wynne blīð-heort bodode, _the black raven announced
joyfully heaven's delight_ (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., _bow_, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp.
hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. flān-, horn-boga;
bow of the arch, in comp. stān-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), _gangway_; here probably the planks
which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan,

bold, st. n., _building, house, edifice_: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998;
(Hygelāc's residence), 1926; (Bēowulfs residence), 2197, 2327.--Comp.

bold-āgend, pt., _house-owner, property-holder_: gen. pl. monegum
boldāgendra, 3113.

bolgen-mōd, adj., _angry at heart, angry_, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., _bolster, cushion, pillow_: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brǣded
wearð beddum and bolstrum, _was covered with beds and bolsters_,
1241.--Comp. hlēor-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., _carrier, bringer, leader_: in the comp. mund-, rǣd-,

bord, st. n., _shield_: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda
gebræc, _over the crashing of the shields_, 2260.--Comp.: hilde-, wīg-bord.

bord-hæbbend, pt., _one having a shield, shield-bearer_: nom. pl. hæbbende,

bord-hrēoða, w. m., _shield-cover, shield_ with particular reference to its
cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hrēoðan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., _shield-wall, wall of shields_: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., _shield-wood, shield_: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu,

botm, st. m., _bottom_: dat. sg. tō botme (here of the bottom of the
fen-lake), 1507.

bōt (emendation, cf. bētan), st. f.: 1) _relief, remedy_: nom. sg., 281;
acc. sg. bōte, 935; acc. sg. bōte, 910.--2) _a performance in expiation, a
giving satisfaction, tribute_: gen. sg. bōte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) _burning, fire_: nom. sg. þā sceal brond fretan
(_the burning of the body_), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mōston ... bronde
forbærnan (_could not bestow upon him the solemn burning_), 2127; hæfde
landwara līge befangen, bǣle and bronde, _with glow, fire, and flame_,
2323.--2) in the passage, þæt hine nō brond nē beadomēcas bītan ne meahton,
1455, brond has been translated _sword, brand_ (after the O.N. brand-r).
The meaning _fire_ may be justified as well, if we consider that the old
helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were
mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the
helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.--3) in
the passage, forgeaf þā Bēowulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our
text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be
intended as a designation of Hrōðgār (perhaps _son_), has not up to this
time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., _raging, foaming, going-high_, of ships and of waves:
acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brād, adj.: 1) _extended, wide_: nom. pl. brāde rīce, 2208.--2) _broad_:
nom. sg. hēah and brād (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brādne
mēce, 2979; (seax) brād [and] brūnecg, _the broad, short sword with bright
edge_, 1547.--3) _massive, in abundance_. acc, sg. brād gold, 3106.

ge-bræc, st. n., _noise, crash_: acc. sg. borda gebræc, 2260.

geond-brǣdan, w. v., _to spread over, to cover entirely_: pret. part.
geond-brǣded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) _to break, to break to pieces_: pret. bānhringas bræc,
(the sword) _broke the joints_, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. þæt þǣr
ǣnig mon wǣre ne brǣce, _that no one should break the agreement_, 1101;
pret. part. þonne bīoð brocene ... āð-sweord eorla, _then are the oaths of
the men broken_, 2064.--2) probably also simply _to break in upon
something, to press upon_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sǣdēor monig hildetūxum
heresyrcan bræc, _many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the
shirt of mail_ (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it
was still unharmed). 1512.--3) _to break out, to spring out_: inf. geseah
... strēam ūt brecan of beorge, _saw a stream break out from the rocks_,
2547; lēt se hearda Higelāces þegn brādne mēce ... brecan ofer bordweal,
_caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields_, 2981.--4)
figuratively, _to vex, not to let rest_: pret. hine fyrwyt bræc, _curiosity
tormented_ (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, _to break to pieces_: pret. bānhūs gebræc, _broke in pieces his
body_ (Bēowulf in combat with Dæghrefn), 2509.

tō-brecan, _to break in pieces_: inf., 781; pret. part. tō-brocen, 998.

þurh-brecan, _to break through_, pret. wordes ord brēosthord þurh-bræc,
_the word's point broke through his closed breast_, i.e. a word burst out
from his breast, 2793.

brecð, st. f., _condition of being broken, breach_: nom. pl. mōdes brecða
(_sorrow of heart_), 171.

ā-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., _to fell to the ground, to kill_ (?): pret.
ābredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly _to swing round_, hence: 1) _to swing_: inf.
under sceadu bregdan, _swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of
shadows_, 708; pret. brægd ealde lāfe, _swung the old weapon_, 796; brægd
feorh-genīðlan, _swung his mortal enemy_ (Grendel's mother), threw her
down, 1540; pl. git ēagorstrēam ... mundum brugdon, _stirred the sea with
your hands_ (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part.
brōden (brogden) mǣl, _the drawn sword_, 1617, 1668.--2) _to knit, to knot,
to plait_: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ōðrum bregdan, _to weave a
waylaying net for another_ (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for
another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohrægl brōden, _a
woven shirt of mail_ (because it consisted of metal rings joined together),
552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

ā-bregdan, _to swing_: pret. hond up ā-bræd, _swung, raised his hand_,

ge-bregdan: 1) _swing_: pret. hring-mǣl gebrægd, _swung the ringed sword_,
1565; eald sweord ēacen ... þæt ic þȳ wǣpne gebrægd, _an old heavy sword
that I swung as my weapon_, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc.
wællseaxe gebrǣ, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, _to draw out of the
sheath_: sweord ǣr gebrǣ, _had drawn the sword before_, 2563.--2) _to knit,
to knot, to plait_: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebrōden, 1444.

on-bregdan, _to tear open, to throw open_: pret. onbræd þā recedes mūðan,
_had then thrown open the entrance of the hall_ (onbregdan is used because
the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., _prince, ruler_: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rōf, adj., _powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength _: nom. sg.
m., 1926.

brego-stōl, st. m., _throne_, figuratively for _rule_: acc. sg. him
gesealde seofon þūsendo, bold and brego-stōl, _seven thousand_ see under
sceat), _a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince_, 2197; þǣr him Hygd
gebēad ... brego-stōl, _where H. offered him the chief power_, 2371; lēt
þone bregostōl Bēowulf healdan, _gave over to Bēowulf the chief power_ (did
not prevent Bēowulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

brēme, adj., _known afar, renowned_. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., _ship craft_: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

ā-brēatan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. ābrēot
brimwīsan, _killed the sea-king_ (King Hæðcyn), 2931. See brēotan.

brēost, st. n.: 1) _breast_: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc.
þæt mīne brēost wereð, _which protects my breast_, 453; dat. pl. beadohrægl
brōden on brēostum læg. 552.--2) _the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart,
the bosom_: nom. sg. brēost innan wēoll þēostrum geþoncum, _his breast
heaved with troubled thoughts_, 2332; dat. pl. lēt þā of brēostum word ūt
faran, _caused the words to come out from his bosom_, 2551.

brēost-gehygd, st. n. f., _breast-thought, secret thought_: instr. pl.
-gehygdum, 2819.

brēost-gewǣdu, st. n. pl., _breast-clothing, garment covering the breast_,
of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

brēost-hord, st. m., _breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast,
heart, mind, thought, soul_: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

brēost-net, st. n., _breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail_: nom.
sg. brēost-net brōden, 1549.

brēost-weorðung, st. f., _ornament that is worn upon the breast_: acc. sg.
brēost-weorðunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which Bēowulf receives
from Wealhþēow (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173,
presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her
husband Hygelāc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (frætwe),
which hang down upon the breast, hence the name brēost-weorðung.

brēost-wylm, st. m., _heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom_: acc.
sg, 1878.

brēotan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. brēat
bēodgenēatas, _killed his table-companions_ (courtiers), 1714.

ā-brēotan, same as above: pret. þone þe hēo on ræste ābrēat, _whom she
killed upon his couch_, 1299; pret. part. þā þæt monige gewearð, þæt hine
sēo brimwylf ābroten hæfde, _many believed that the sea-wolf_ (Grendel's
mother) _had killed him_, 1600; hī hyne ... ābroten hæfdon, _had killed
him_ (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., _flood, the sea_: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tō brimes
faroðe, _to the sea_, 28; æt brimes nosan, _at the sea's promontory_, 2804;
nom. pl. brimu swaðredon, _the waves subsided_, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea_: acc. pl. -clifu,

brim-lād, st. f., _flood-way, sea-way_: acc. sg. þāra þe mid Bēowulfe
brimlāde tēah, _who had travelled the sea-way with B._, 1052.

brim-līðend, pt, _sea-farer, sailor_ acc. p. -līðende, 568.

brim-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream, the flood of the sea_: acc. pl. ofer
brim-strēamas, 1911.

brim-wīsa, w. m., _sea-king_: acc. sg. brimwīsan, of Hæðcyn, king of the
Gēatas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., _sea-wolf_ (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg.
sēo brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., _sea-wave_: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., _to bring, to bear_: prs. sg. I. ic þē þūsenda þegna
bringe tō helpe, _bring to your assistance thousands of warriors_, 1830;
inf. sceal hringnaca ofer hēaðu bringan lāc and luftācen, _shall bring
gifts and love-tokens over the high sea_, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505;
pret. pl. wē þās sǣlāc ... brōhton, _brought this sea-offering_ (Grendel's
head), 1654.

ge-bringan, _to bring_: pres. subj. pl. þat wē þone gebringan ... on
ādfære, _that we bring him upon the funeral-pile_, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., _to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces_: prs.
sg. III. herepād ... brosnað æfter beorne, _the coat of mail falls to
pieces after_ (the death of) _the hero_, 2261.

brōðor, st. m., _brother_: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brēðer, 1263; gen.
sg. his brōðor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brōðrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brōðru, pl., _brethren, brothers_: dat. pl. sæt be þǣm gebrōðrum twǣm,
_sat by the two brothers_, 1192.

brōga, w. m., _terror, horror_: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa
brōgan, 583.--Comp.: gryre-, here-brōga.

brūcan, st. v. w. gen., _to use, to make use of_: prs. sg. III. sē þe longe
hēr worolde brūceð, _who here long makes use of the world_, i.e. lives
long, 1063; imp. brūc manigra mēda, _make use of many rewards, give good
rewards_, 1179; _to enjoy_: inf. þæt hē bēahhordes brūcan mōste, _could
enjoy the ring-hoard_, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. brēac
līfgesceafta, _enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time_, 1954.
With the genitive to be supplied: brēac þonne mōste, 1488; imp. brūc þisses
bēages, _enjoy this ring, take this ring_, 1217. Upon this meaning depends
the form of the wish, wēl brūcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf.
hēt hine wēl brūcan, 1046; hēt hine brūcan well, 2813; imp. brūc ealles
well, 2163.

brūn, adj., _having a brown lustre, shining_: nom. sg. sīo ecg brūn, 2579.

brūn-ecg, adj., _having a gleaming blade_: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brād
[and] brūnecg, _her broad sword with gleaming blade_, 1547.

brūn-fāg, adj., _gleaming like metal_: acc. sg. brūnfāgne helm, 2616.

bryne-lēoma, w. m., _light of a conflagration, gleam of fire _: nom. sg.,

bryne-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire_: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly _to break in small pieces_, cf. brēotan), w. v., _to
bestow, to distribute_: pret. sinc brytnade, _distributed presents_, i.e.
ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., _giver, distributer_, always designating the king: nom. sg.
sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. bēaga bryttan, 35, 352, 1488;
sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (_to be a dispenser_), w. v., _to distribute, to confer_: prs. sg.
III. god manna cynne snyttru bryttað, _bestows wisdom upon the human race_,

brȳd, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_: acc. sg. brȳd, 2931; brȳde, 2957, both
times of the consort of Ongenþēow (?).--2) _betrothed, bride_: nom. sg., of
Hrōðgār's daughter, Frēaware, 2032.

brȳd-būr, st. n., _woman's apartment_: dat. sg. ēode ... cyning of
brȳdbūre, _the king came out of the apartment of his wife_ (into which,
according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., _(that which has a bound prow), the framed ship_:
nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., _can_ or _cup, drinking-vessel_: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc.
pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., _castle, city, fortified house_: acc. sg. burh, 523;
dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.--Comp.: frēo,
freoðo-, hēa-, hlēo-, hord-, lēod-, mǣg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., _castle-bars_: dat. sg. under burh-locan, _under the
castle-bars_, i.e. in the castle (Hygelāc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., _castle-place, place where the castle_ or _city
stands_: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., _riches, treasure of a castle_ or _city_: gen. sg. þenden
hē burh-welan brūcan mōste, 3101.

burne, w. f., _spring, fountain_: gen. þǣre burnan wælm, _the bubbling of
the spring_, 2547.

būan, st. v.: 1) _to stay, to remain, to dwell_: inf. gif hē weard onfunde
būan on beorge, _if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain_,
2843.--2) _to inhabit_, w. acc.: meduseld būan, _to inhabit the
mead-house_, 3066.

ge-būan, w. acc., _to occupy a house, to take possession_: pret. part. hēan
hūses, hū hit Hring Dene æfter bēorþege gebūn hæfdon, _how the Danes, after
their beer-carouse, had occupied it_ (had made their beds in it),
117.--With the pres. part. būend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-,

būgan, st. v., _to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee_: prs. sg. III.
bon-gār būgeð, _the fatal spear sinks_, i.e. its deadly point is turned
down, it rests, 2032; inf. þæt se byrnwīga būgan sceolde, _that the armed
hero had to sink down_ (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly,
2975; pret. sg. bēah eft under eorðweall, _turned, fled again behind the
earth-wall_, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tō bence, _turned to the bench_, 327,
1014; hȳ on holt bugon, _fled to the wood_, 2599.

ā-būgan, _to bend off, to curve away from_: pret. fram sylle ābēag medubenc
monig, _from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench_, 776.

be-būgan, w. acc., _to surround, to encircle_: prs. swā (_which_) wæter
bebūgeð, 93; efne swā sīde swā sǣ bebūgeð windige weallas, _as far as the
sea encircles windy shores_, 1224.

ge-būgan, _to bend, to bow, to sink_: a) intrans.: hēo on flet gebēah,
_sank on the floor_, 1541; þā gebēah cyning, _then sank the king_, 2981; þā
se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne (_when the drake at once coiled itself up_),
2568; gewāt þā gebogen scrīðan tō, _advanced with curved body_ (the drake),
2570.--b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste
gebēah, _sank upon the couch in the hall_, 691; similarly gebēag, 1242.

būr, st. n., _apartment, room_: dat. sg. būre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. būrum,
140.--Comp. brȳd-būr.

būtan, būton (from be and ūtan, hence in its meaning referring to what is
without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, _lest_: būtan his
līc swice, _lest his body escape_, 967. With ind. following, _but_: būton
hit wæs māre þonne ǣnig mon ōðer tō beadulāce ætberan meahte, _but it_ (the
sword) _was greater than any other man could have carried to battle_, 1561.
After a preceding negative verb, _except_: þāra þe gumena bearn gearwe ne
wiston būton Fitela mid hine, _which the children of men did not know at
all, except Fitela, who was with him_, 880; ne nom hē māðm-ǣhta mā būton
þone hafelan, etc., _he took no more of the rich treasure than the head
alone_, 1615.--2) prep, with dat., _except_: būton folcscare, 73; būton þē,
658; ealle būton ānum, 706.

bycgan, w. v., _to buy, to pay_: inf. ne wæs þæt gewrixle til þæt hīe on bā
healfa bicgan scoldon frēonda fēorum, _that was no good transaction, that
they, on both sides_ (as well to Grendel as to his mother), _had to pay
with the lives of their friends_, 1306.

be-bycgan, _to sell_: pret. nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte frōde
feorhlege (_now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life_), 2800.

ge-bycgan, _to buy, to acquire; to pay_: pret. w. acc. nō þǣr ǣnige ...
frōfre gebohte, _obtained no sort of help, consolation_, 974; hit (his,
MS.) ealdre gebohte, _paid it with his life_, 2482; pret. part. sylfes
fēore bēagas [geboh]te, _bought rings with his own life_, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (_to make_ beald, which see), _to excite, to encourage, to
brave deeds_: inf. w. acc. swā hē Frēsena cyn on bēorsele byldan wolde (by
distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hīe on gebyrd
hruron gāre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., _birth_; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrūd, st. n., _shield-ornament, design upon a shield_(?): nom. sg.,

byre, st. m., (_born_) _son_: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl.
byre, 1189. In a broader sense, _young man, youth_: acc. pl. bǣdde byre
geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

byrðen, st. f., _burden_; in comp. mægen-byrðen.

byrele, st. m., _steward, waiter, cupbearer_: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., _to feast, to eat_: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., _protector_; in comp. lēod-gebyrgea.

byrht. See _beorht_.

byrne, w. f., _shirt of mail, mail_: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.;
hringed byrne, _ring-shirt_, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg.
byrnan, 1023, etc.; sīde byrnan, _large coat of mail_, 1292; hringde
byrnan, 2616; hāre byrnan, _gray coat of mail_ (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on
byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, _the ring of the shirt of mail_ (i.e.
the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum,
_with gleaming mail_, 3141.--Comp.: gūð-, here-, heaðo-, īren-,

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wiga, w. m., _warrior dressed in a coat of mail_: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., _trouble, difficulty, opposition_: nom. sg. bisigu,
281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., _opposed, in need_, in the compounds līf-bysig, syn-bysig.

bȳme, w. f., _a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone_: gen. sg. bȳman
gealdor, _the sound of the trumpet_, 2944.

bȳwan, w. v., _to ornament, to prepare_: inf. þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan
sceoldon, _who should prepare the helmets_, 2258.


camp, st. m., _combat, fight between two_: dat. sg. in campe (Bēowulf's
with Dæghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., _light, candle_: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun,
1573.--Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., _fighter, warrior, hero_: nom. sg. æðele cempa, 1313; Gēata
cempa, 1552; rēðe cempa, 1586; mǣre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa,
2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hūga cempan,
2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.--Comp. fēðe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) _to bear_, w. acc.: efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan
cende, _who bore the son_, 944; pret. part. þǣm eafera wæs æfter cenned,
_to him was a son born_, 12.--2) reflexive, _to show one's self, to reveal
one's self_: imp. cen þec mid cræfte, _prove yourself by your strength_,

ā-cennan, _to bear_: pret. part. nō hīe fæder cunnon, hwæðer him ǣnig wæs
ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, _they_ (the people of the country) _do not know
his_ (Grendel's) _father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born
to him_ (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cēnðu, st. f., _boldness_: acc. sg. cēnðu, 2697.

cēne, adj., _keen, warlike, bold_: gen. p.. cēnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl.,
acc. pl. cēnoste, 206.--Comp.: dǣd-, gār-cēne.

ceald, adj., _cold_: acc. pl. cealde strēamas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum
cearsīðum, _with cold, sad journeys_, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera
cealdost, 546;--Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., _to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self_: prs.
sg. III. nā ymb his līf cearað, _takes no care for his life_, 1537.

cearig, adj., _troubled, sad_: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sīð, st. m., _sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow_, i.e.
a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsīðum (of Bēowulf's expeditions against
Ēadgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., _care, sorrow, lamentation_: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg.
[ceare], 3173.--Comp.: ealdor-, gūð-, mǣl-, mōd-cearu.

cear-wælm, st. m., _care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast_: dat.
pl. æfter cear-wælmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. þā cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-būend, pt, _inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a
castle_: dat. pl. ceaster-būendum, of those established in Hrōðgār's
castle, 769.

cēap, st. m., _purchase, transaction_: figuratively, nom. sg. næs þæt ȳðe
cēap, _no easy transaction_, 2416; instr. sg. þēah þe ōðer hit ealdre
gebohte, heardan cēape, _although the one paid it with his life, a dear
purchase_, 2483.

ge-cēapian, w. v., _to purchase_: pret. part. gold unrīme grimme gecēapod,
_gold without measure, bitterly purchased_ (with Bēowulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., _to separate, to cut off_ (with acc. of the pers. and
instr. of the thing): pret. hine þā hēafde becearf, _cut off his head_,
1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., _man_: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, _many a wise man_, 909;
dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, _the old man_ (of King Hrēðel), 2445; so, ealdum
ceorle, of King Ongenþēow, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, _wise men_, 202,
416, 1592.

cēol, st. m., _keel_, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg.
cēol, 38, 238; gen. sg. cēoles, 1807.

cēosan, st. v., _to choose_, hence, _to assume_: inf. þone cynedōm cīosan
wolde, _would assume the royal dignity_, 2377; _to seek_: pret. subj. ǣr hē
bǣl cure, _before he sought his funeral-pile_ (before he died), 2819.

ge-cēosan, _to choose, to elect_: gerund, tō gecēosenne cyning ǣnigne
(sēlran), _to choose a better king_, 1852; imp. þē þæt sēlre ge-cēos,
_choose thee the better_ (of two: bealonīð and ēce rǣdas), 1759; pret. hē
ūsic on herge gecēas tō þyssum siðfate, _selected us among the soldiers for
this undertaking_, 2639; gecēas ēcne rǣd, _chose the everlasting gain_,
i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes lēoht gecēas, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl.
hæfde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., _to turn, to change_: inf. ne meahte ... þæs wealdendes
[willan] wiht on-cirran, _could not change the will of the Almighty_, 2858;
pret. ufor oncirde, _turned higher_, 2952; þyder oncirde, _turned thither_,

ā-cīgan, w. v., _to call hither_: pret. ācīgde of corðre cyninges þegnas
syfone, _called from the retinue of the king seven men_, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? _fetter_, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat.
pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible
claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., _cliff, promontory_: acc. pl. Gēata clifu,
1912.--Comp.: brim-, ēg-, holm-, stān-clif.

ge-cnāwan, st. v., _to know, to recognize_: inf. meaht þū, mīn wine, mēce
gecnāwan, _mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword_, 2048.

on-cnāwan, _to recognize, to distinguish_: hordweard oncnīow mannes reorde,
_distinguished the speech of a man_, 2555.

cniht, st. m., _boy, youth_: dat. pl. þyssum cnyhtum, _to these boys_
(Hrōðgār's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., _being a boy_ or _a youth_: acc. sg. ic hine
cūðe cniht-wesende, _knew him while still a boy_, 372; nom. pl. wit þæt
gecwǣdon cniht-wesende, _we both as young men said that_, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., _to strike, to dash against each other_: pret. pl. þonne
... eoferas cnysedan, _when the bold warriors dashed against each other,
stormed_ (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., (properly, _of swollen mind_), _of uncommon
thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others,
high-minded_: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferhð, of Bēowulf, 1807; collen-ferð, of
Wīglāf, 2786.

corðer, st. n., _troop, division of an army, retinue_: dat. sg. þā wæs ...
Fin slægen, cyning on corðre, _then was Fin slain, the king in the troop_
(of warriors), 1154; of corðre cyninges, _out of the retinue of the king_,

costian, w. v., _to try_; pret. (w. gen.) hē mīn costode, _tried me_, 2085.

cofa, w. m., _apartment, sleeping-room, couch_: in comp. bān-cofa.

cōl, adj., _cool_: compar. cearwylmas cōlran wurðað, _the waves of sorrow
become cooler_, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wīflufan ... cōlran
weorðað, _his love for his wife cools_, 2067.

cræft, st. m., _the condition of being able_, hence: 1) _physical
strength_: nom. sg. mægða cræft, 1284; acc. sg. mægenes cræft, 418; þurh
ānes cræft, 700; cræft and cēnðu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cræfte, 983,
1220, 2182, 2361.--2) _art, craft, skill_: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum
cræfte, _with secret_ (magic) _art_, 2169; dyrnan cræfte, 2291; þēofes
cræfte, _with thief's craft_, 2221; dat. pl. dēofles cræftum, _by devil's
art_ (sorcery), 2089.--3) _great quantity_ (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cræft,
2223.--Comp.: leoðo-, mægen-, nearo-, wīg-cræft.

cræftig, adj.: 1) _strong, stout_: nom. sg. eafoðes cræftig, 1467; nīða
cræftig, 1963. Comp. wīg-cræftig.--2) _adroit, skilful_: in comp.
lagu-cræftig.--3) _rich_ (of treasures); in comp. ēacen-cræftig.

cringan, st. v., _to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of
those mortally wounded_: pret. subj. on wæl crunge, _would sink into death,
would fall_, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on wæle crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. hē under rande gecranc, _fell under his
shield_, 1210; æt wīge gecrang, _fell in battle_, 1338; hēo on flet
gecrong, _fell to the ground_, 1569; in campe gecrong, _fell in single
combat_, 2506.

cuma (_he who comes_), w. m., _newcomer, guest_: nom. sg. 1807.--Comp.:
cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., _to come_: pres. sg. II. gyf þū on weg cymest, _if thou
comest from there_, 1383; III. cymeð, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23;
pl. þonne wē ūt cymen, _when we come out_, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281,
1870; pret. sg. cōm, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwōm, 419,
2915; pret. subj. sg. cwōme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361.
Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, cōm gongan, 711; cōm sīðian,
721; cōm in gān, 1645; cwōm gān, 1163; cōm scacan, 1803; cwōmon lǣdan, 239;
cwōmon sēcean, 268; cwōman scrīðan, 651, etc.

be-cuman, _to come, to approach, to arrive_: pret. syððan niht becōm,
_after the night had come_, 115; þē on þā lēode becōm, _that had come over
the people_, 192; þā hē tō hām becōm, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn
in becōm ... hlynnan under hārne stān, 2553; lȳt eft becwōm ... hāmes
nīosan, 2366; oð þæt ende becwōm, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of
pers.: þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm, _when this time of battle came over him_,

ofer-cuman, _to overcome, to compel_: pret. þȳ hē þone fēond ofercwōm,
_thereby he overcame the foe_, 1274: pl. hīe fēond heora ... ofercōmon,
700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nīða ofercumen, _compelled by combats_, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., _banner_: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.--Comp.

cund, adj., _originating in, descended from_: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) _to know, to be acquainted with_ (w. acc. or
depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mīnne can glædne Hrōðulf þæt hē ... wile,
_I know my gracious H., that he will_..., 1181; II. eard gīt ne const,
_thou knowest not yet the land_, 1378; III. hē þæt wyrse ne con, _knows no
worse_, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, _knows the land well_,
2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrūnan scrīðað, _men do not know
whither_..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cūðe, _knew him_, 372; cūðe hē duguð
þēaw, _knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers_, 359; so with the
acc., 2013; seolfa ne cūðe þurh hwæt..., _he himself did not know through
what_..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cūðon, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234.
With both (acc. and depend. clause): nō hīe fæder cunnon (scil. nō hīe
cunnon) hwæðer him ǣnig wæs ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, 1356.--2) with inf.
following, _can, to be able_: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, _cannot defend
himself_, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, _cannot say_, 50; pret. sg.
cūðe reccan, 90; beorgan cūðe, 1446; pret. pl. herian ne cūðon, _could not
praise_, 182; pret. subj. healdan cūðe, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., _to inquire into, to try_, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund
cunnian (figurative for _roam over the sea_), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan
higes cunnian, _to try the young warrior's mind_, 2046; pret. eard cunnode,
_tried the home_, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, _tried the
flood_, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

cūð, adj.: 1) _known, well known; manifest, certain_: nom. sg. undyrne cūð,
150, 410; wīde cūð, 2924; acc. sg. fern. cūðe folme, 1304; cūðe strǣte,
1635; nom. pl. ecge cūðe, 1146; acc. pl. cūðe næssas, 1913.--2) _renowned_:
nom. sg. gūðum cūð, 2179; nom. pl. cystum cūðe, 868.--3) also, _friendly,
dear, good_ (see un-cūð).--Comp.: un-, wīd-cūð.

cūð-līce, adv., _openly, publicly_: comp. nō hēr cūðlīcor cuman ongunnon
lind-hæbbende, _no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither_
(the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., _murder, fall_: in comp. dēað-cwalu.

cweccan (_to make alive_, see cwic), w. v., _to move, to swing_: pret.
cwehte mægen-wudu, _swung the wood of strength_ (= spear), 235.

cweðan, st. v., _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwið æt
bēore, _speaks at beer-drinking_, 2042.--b) w. acc.: pret. word æfter cwæð,
315; fēa worda cwæð, 2247, 2663.--c) with þæt following: pret. sg. cwæð,
92, 2159; pl. cwǣdon, 3182.--d) with þæt omitted: pret. cwæð hē gūð-cyning
sēcean wolde, _said he would seek out the war-king_, 199; similarly, 1811,

ā-cweðan, _to say, to speak_, w. acc.: prs. þæt word ācwyð, _speaks the
word_, 2047; pret. þæt word ācwæð, 655.

ge-cweðan, _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. swā þū gecwǣde,
2665.--b)w. acc.: pret. wēl-hwylc gecwæð, _spoke everything_, 875; pl. wit
þæt gecwǣdon, 535.--c) w. þæt following: pret. gecwæð, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (_to make die_), _to kill, to murder_: pret. sg. II. þū
Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

ā-cwellan, _to kill_: pret. sg. (hē) wyrm ācwealde, 887; þone þe Grendel ǣr
māne ācwealde, _whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered_, 1056; beorn
ācwealde, 2122.

cwēn, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_ (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwēn, 62;
(Hrōðgār's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.--2) particularly denoting the queen:
nom. sg. bēaghroden cwēn (Wealhþēow), 624; mǣru cwēn, 2017; fremu folces
cwēn (Þrȳðo), 1933; acc. sg. cwēn (Wealhþēow), 666.-Comp. folc-cwēn.

cwēn-līc, adj., _feminine, womanly_: nom. sg. ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw
(_such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman_), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder, destruction_: acc. sg. þone cwealm
gewræc, _avenged the death_ (of Abel by Cain), 107; mǣndon mondryhtnes
cwealm, _lamented the ruler's fall_, 3150.--Comp.: bealo-, dēað-,

cwealm-bealu, st. n., _the evil of murder_: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., _one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates
murder_: acc. sg. þone cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., _quick, having life, alive_: acc. sg. cwicne, 793,
2786; gen. sg. āht cwices, _something living_, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98;
cwico wæs þā gēna, _was still alive_, 3094.

cwide, st. m., _word, speech, saying_: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hlēo-,

cwīðan, st. v., _to complain, to lament_: inf. w. acc. ongan ... gioguðe
cwīðan hilde-strengo, _began to lament the_ (departed) _battle-strength of
his youth_, 2113 [ceare] cwīðan, _lament their cares_, 3173.

cyme, st. m., _coming, arrival_: nom. pl. hwanan ēowre cyme syndon, _whence
your coming is_, i. e. whence ye are, 257.--Comp. eft-cyme.

cȳmlīce, adv., (convenienter), _splendidly, grandly_: comp. cȳmlīcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., _race_, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage:
nom. sg. Frēsena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena
cyn, 421; gīganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811,
915, 1726; ēowrum (of those who desert Bēowulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen.
sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mǣran cynnes, 1730; lāðan cynnes,
2009, 2355; ūsses cynnes Wǣgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum,
98.--Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., _that which is suitable or proper_: gen. pl. cynna (of
etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., _innate, peculiar, natural_: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dōm, st. m., _kingdom, royal dignity_: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., _king_: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning,
620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl.
kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.--Comp. beorn-, eorð-, folc-, guð-, hēah-,
lēod-, sǣ-, sōð-, þēod-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "_nobly bold_" (Thorpe), _excellently brave_ (?): nom.
pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., _to kiss_: pret. gecyste þā cyning ... þegen betstan,
_kissed the best thane_ (Bēowulf), 1871.

cyst (_choosing_, see cēosan), st. f., _the select, the best of a thing,
good quality, excellence_: nom. sg. īrenna cyst, _of the swords_, 803,
1698; wǣpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, _choice banquet_, 1233; acc. sg. īrena
cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cūðe, _known through excellent
qualities_, 868; (cyning) cystum gecȳðed, 924.--Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

cȳð. See on-cȳð.

cȳðan (see cūð), w. v., _to make known, to manifest, to show_: imp. sg.
mægen-ellen cȳð, _show thy heroic strength_, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cȳðan,
1941; ellen cȳðan, 2696.

ge-cȳðan (_to make known_, hence): 1) _to give information, to announce_:
inf. andsware gecȳðan, _to give answer_, 354; gerund, tō gecȳðanne hwanan
ēowre cyme syndon (_to show whence ye come_), 257; pret. part. sōð is
gecȳðed þæt ... (_the truth has become known_, it has shown itself to be
true), 701; Higelāce wæs sīð Bēowulfes snūde gecȳðed, _the arrival of B.
was quickly announced_, 1972; similarly, 2325.--2) _to make celebrated_, in
pret. part.: wæs mīn fæder folcum gecȳðed (_my father was known to
warriors_), 262; wæs his mōdsefa manegum gecȳðed, 349; cystum gecȳðed,

cȳð (properly, _condition of being known_, hence _relationship_), st. f.,
_home, country, land_: in comp. feor-cȳð.

ge-cȳpan, w. v., _to purchase_: inf. næs him ǣnig þearf þæt hē ... þurfe
wyrsan wīgfrecan weorðe gecȳpan, _had need to buy with treasures no
inferior warrior_, 2497.


daroð, st. m., _spear_: dat. pl. dareðum lācan (_to fight_), 2849.

ge-dāl, st. n., _parting, separation_: nom. sg. his worulde gedāl, _his
separation from the world_ (his death), 3069.--Comp. ealdor-, līf-gedāl.

dæg, st. m., _day_: nom. sg. dæg, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. dæg, 2400;
andlangne dæg, _the whole day_, 2116; morgenlongne dæg (_the whole
morning_), 2895; oð dōmes dæg, _till judgment-day_, 3070; dat. sg. on þǣm
dæge þysses līfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. dæges, 1601,
2321; hwīl dæges, _a day's time, a whole day_, 1496; dæges and nihtes, _day
and night_, 2270; dæges, _by day_, 1936; dat. pl. on tȳn dagum, _in ten
days_, 3161.--Comp. ǣr-, dēað-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, geār-, lǣn-, līf-,
swylt-, win-dæg, an-dæges.

dæg-hwīl, st. f., _day-time_: acc. pl. þæt hē dæghwīla gedrogen hæfde
eorðan wynne, _that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days_
(appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.--(After Grein.)

dæg-rīm, st. n., _series of days, fixed number of days_: nom. sg. dōgera
dægrīm (_number of the days of his life_), 824.

dǣd, st. f., _deed, action_: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585; dōmlēasan dǣd,
2891; frēcne dǣde, 890; dǣd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dǣda, 195; gen. pl.
dǣda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dǣdum, 1228, 2437, etc.--Comp. ellen-,
fyren-, lof-dǣd.

dǣd-cēne, adj., _bold in deed_: nom. sg. dǣd-cēne mon, 1646.

dǣd-fruma, w. m., _doer of deeds, doer_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dǣd-bata, w. m., _he who pursues with his deeds_: nom. sg., of Grendel,

dǣdla, w. m., _doer_: in comp. mān-for-dǣdla.

dǣl, st. m., _part, portion_: acc. sg. dǣl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl.
dǣlas, 1733.--Often dǣl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality
which belongs in general to an individual, as, oð þæt him on innan
oferhygda dǣl weaxeð, _till in his bosom his portion of arrogance
increases_: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Bīowulfe
wearð dryhtmāðma dǣl dēaðe, forgolden, _to Bēowulf his part of the splendid
treasures was paid with death_, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were
allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the
dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dǣlan, w. v., _to divide, to bestow, to share with_, w. acc.: pres. sg.
III. mādmas dǣleð, 1757; pres. subj. þæt hē wið āglǣcean eofoðo dǣle, _that
he bestow his strength upon_ (strive with) _the bringer of misery_ the
drake), 2535; inf. hringas dǣlan, 1971; pret. bēagas dǣlde, 80; sceattas
dǣlde, 1687.

be-dǣlan, w. instr., _(to divide), to tear away from, to strip of_: pret.
part. drēamum (drēame) bedǣled, _deprived of the heavenly joys_ (of
Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dǣlan: 1) _to distribute_: inf. (w. acc. _of the thing distributed_);
bǣr on innan eall gedǣlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde,
_distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him_, 71.--2)
_to divide, to separate_, with acc.: inf. sundur gedǣlan līf wið līce,
_separate life from the body_, 2423; so pret. subj. þæt hē gedǣlde ... ānra
gehwylces līf wið līce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., _den, cave_: acc. sg. þæs wyrmes
denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewāt dennes nīosian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) _proper, appropriate_: nom. sg. swā hit
gedēfe wæs (bið), _as was appropriate, proper_, 561, 1671, 3176.--2) _good,
kind, friendly_; nom sg. bēo þū suna mīnum dǣdum gedēfe, _be friendly to my
son by deeds_ (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained
to the government), 1228.--Comp. un-ge-dēfelīce.

dēman (see dōm), w. v.: 1) _to judge, to award justly_: pres. subj. mǣrðo
dēme, 688.--2) _to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify_: pret. pl. his
ellenweorc duguðum dēmdon, _praised his heroic deed with all their might_,

dēmend, _judge_: dǣda dēmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. þrȳðum dealle,

dēad, adj., _dead_: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. dēadne, 1310.

dēað, st. m., _death, dying_: nom. sg, dēað, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. dēað,
2169; dat. sg. dēaðe, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. dēaðes
wylm, 2270; dēaðes nȳd, 2455.--Comp. gūð-, wæl-, wundor-dēað.

dēað-bed, st. n., _death-bed_: dat. sg. dēað-bedde fæst, 2902.

dēað-cwalu, st. f., _violent death_, _ruin and death_: dat. pl. tō
dēað-cwalum, 1713.

dēað-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder_: nom. sg. 1671.

dēað-dæg, st. m., _death-day, dying day_: dat. sg. æfter dēað-dæge (_after
his death_), 187, 886.

dēað-fǣge, adj., _given over to death_: nom. sg. (Grendel) dēað-fǣge dēog,
_had hidden himself, being given over to death_ (mortally wounded), 851.

dēað-scūa, w. m., _death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death_: nom. sg.
deorc dēað-scūa (of Grendel), 160.

dēað-wērig, adj., _weakened by death_, i.e. dead: acc. sg. dēað-wērigne,
2126. See wērig.

dēað-wīc, st. n. _death's house, home of death_: acc. sg. gewāt dēaðwīc
sēon (_had died_), 1276.

dēagan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, _hidden_), _to conceal one's self, to
hide_: pret. (for pluperf.) dēog, 851.--Leo.

deorc, adj., _dark_: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat.
pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc
dēað-scūa, 160.

dēofol, st. m. n., _devil_: gen. sg. dēofles, 2089; gen. pl. dēofla, of
Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

dēogol, dȳgol, adj., _concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information,
unknown_: nom. sg. dēogol dǣdhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dȳgel lond,
_inaccessible land_, 1358.

dēop, st. n., _deep, abyss_: acc. sg., 2550.

dēop, adv. _deeply_: acc. sg. dēop wæter, 509, 1905.

dīope, adj., _deep_: hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon þēodnas mǣre, _the
illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a
solemn spell upon it_, 3070.

dēor, st. n., _animal, wild animal_: in comp. mere-, sǣ-dēor.

dēor, adj.: 1) _wild, terrible_: nom. sg. dīor dǣd-fruma (of Grendel),
2091.--2) _bold, brave_: nom. nǣnig ... dēor, 1934.--Comp.: heaðu-,

dēore, dȳre, adj.: 1) _dear, costly_ (high in price): acc. sg. dȳre īren,
2051; drincfæt dȳre (dēore), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. dēoran sweorde, 561;
dat. sg. dēorum māðme, 1529; nom. pl. dȳre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. dēore
(dȳre) māðmas, 2237, 3132.--2) _dear, beloved, worthy_: nom. sg. f.,
æðelum dīore, _worthy by reason of origin_, 1950; dat. sg. æfter dēorum
men, 1880; gen. sg. dēorre duguðe, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldorþegn þone
dēorestan, 1310.

dēor-līc, adj., _bold, brave_: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585. See dēor.

disc, st. m., _disc, plate, flat dish_: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dīgan. See ge-dȳgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., _mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless
audacity_: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-līc, adj., _audacious_: gen. pl. mǣst ... dǣda dollīcra, 2647.

dol-sceaða, w. m., _bold enemy_: acc. sg. þone dol-scaðan (Grendel), 479.

dōgor, st. m. n., _day_; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb āntīd
ōðres dōgores, _at the same time of the next day_, 219; morgen-lēoht ōðres
dōgores, _the morning-light of the second day_, 606.--2) day in the usual
sense: acc. sg. n. þȳs dōgor, _during this day_, 1396; instr. þȳ dōgore,
1798; forman dōgore, 2574; gen. pl. dōgora gehwām, 88; dōgra gehwylce,
1091; dōgera dægrim, _the number of his days_ (the days of his life),
824.--3) _day_ in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, _in
later days, times_, 2201, 2393.--Comp. ende-dōgor.

dōgor-gerīm, st. n., _series of days_: gen. sg. wæs eall sceacen
dōgor-gerīmes, _the whole number of his days_ (his life) _was past_, 2729.

dōhtor, st. f., _daughter_: nom. acc. sg. dōhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982,

dōm, st. m.: I., _condition, state in general_; in comp. cyne-,
wis-dōm.--II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) _judgment, judicial
opinion_: instr. sg. weotena dōme, _according to the judgment of the
Witan_, 1099. 2) _custom_: æfter dōme, _according to custom_, 1721. 3)
_court, tribunal_: gen. sg. miclan dōmes, 979; oð dōmes dæg, 3070, both
times of the last judgment.--III., _condition of freedom_ or _superiority_,
hence: 4) _choice, free will_: acc. sg. on sīnne sylfes dōm, _according to
his own choice_, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dōme, 896, 2777. 5) _might,
power_: nom. sg. dōm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ānne dōm, 2965; dat. sg.
drihtnes dōme, 441. 6) _glory, honor, renown_: nom. sg. [dōm], 955; dōm
unlȳtel, _not a little glory_, 886; þæt wæs forma sīð dēorum māðme þæt his
dōm ālæg, _it was the first time to the dear treasure_ (the sword Hrunting)
_that its fame was not made good_, 1529; acc. sg. ic mē dōm gewyrce, _make
renown for myself_, 1492; þæt þū ne ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, _that thou let not
honor fall_, 2667; dat. instr. sg. þǣr hē dōme forlēas, _here he lost his
reputation_, 1471; dōme gewurðad, _adorned with glory_, 1646; gen. sg.
wyrce sē þe mōte dōmes, _let him make himself reputation, whoever is able_,
1389. 7) _splendor_ (in heaven): acc. sōð-fæstra dōm, _the glory of the
saints_, 2821.

dōm-lēas, adj., _without reputation, inglorious_: acc. sg. f. dōmlēasan
dǣd, 2891.

dōn, red. v., _to do, to make, to treat_: 1) absolutely: imp. dōð swā ic
bidde, _do as I beg_, 1232.--2) w. acc.: inf. hēt hire selfre sunu on bǣl
dōn, 1117; pret. þā hē him of dyde īsernbyrnan, _took off the iron
corselet_, 672; (þonne) him Hūnlāfing, ... billa sēlest, on bearm dyde,
_when he made a present to him of Hūnlāfing, the best of swords_, 1145;
dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, _took off the gold ring from his neck_,
2810; nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, eafoð and ellen, _nor did he
reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength_, 2349; pl. hī
on beorg dydon bēg and siglu, _placed in the (grave-) mound rings and
ornaments_, 3165.--3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tō Gēatum sprec
mildum wordum! swā sceal man dōn, _as one should do_, 1173; similarly,
1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum wēold, swā hē nū gīt dēð, _the creator ruled
over all, as he still does_, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.)
1135; pret. II. swā þū ǣr dydest, 1677; III. swā hē nū gȳt dyde, 957;
similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. swā hīe oft ǣr dydon, 1239; similarly,
3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wēn' ic þæt hē
wille ... Gēatena lēode etan unforhte, swā hē oft dyde mægen Hrēðmanna, _I
believe he will wish to devour the Gēat people, the fearless, as he often
did_ (devoured) _the bloom of the Hrēðmen_, 444; gif ic þæt gefricge ...
þæt þec ymbesittend egesan þȳwað, swā þec hetende hwīlum dydon, _that the
neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee_ (i.e. distressed),
1829; gif ic ōwihte mæg þīnre mōd-lufan māran tilian þonne ic gȳt dyde,
_if I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done_,
1825; similarly, pl. þonne þā dydon, 44.

ge-dōn, _to do, to make_, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god)
gedēð him swā gewealdene worolde dǣlas, _makes the parts of the world_
(i.e. the whole world) _so subject that ..._, 1733; inf. nē hyne on
medo-bence micles wyrðne drihten wereda gedōn wolde, _nor would the leader
of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet_, 2187. With adv.: hē mec
þǣr on innan ... gedōn wolde, _wished to place me in there_, 2091.

draca, w. m., _drake, dragon_: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403,
3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.--Comp.: eorð-, fȳr-, lēg-, līg-,

on-drǣdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., _to fear, to
be afraid of_: inf. þæt þū him on-drǣdan ne þearft ... aldorbealu, _needest
not fear death for them_, 1675; pret. nō hē him þā sæcce ondrēd, _was not
afraid of the combat_, 2348.

ge-dræg (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., _demeanor, actions_:
acc. sg. sēcan dēofla gedræg, 757.

drepan, st. v., _to hit, to strike_: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferhð-genīðlan,
2881; pret. part. bið on hreðre ... drepen biteran strǣle, _struck in the
breast with piercing arrow_, 1746; wæs in feorh dropen (_fatally hit_),

drepe, st. m., _blow, stroke_: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drēfan, ge-drēfan, w. v., _to move, to agitate, to stir up_: inf. gewāt ...
drēfan dēop wæter (_to navigate_), 1905; pret. part. wæter under stōd
drēorig and gedrēfed, 1418.

drēam, st. m., _rejoicing, joyous actions, joy_: nom. sg. hæleða drēam,
497; acc. sg. drēam hlūdne, 88; þū ... drēam healdende, _thou who livest in
rejoicing_ (at the drinking-carouse), _who art joyous_, 1228: dat. instr.
sg. drēame bedǣled, 1276; gen. pl. drēama lēas, 851; dat. pl. drēamum (here
adverbial) lifdon, _lived in rejoicing, joyously_, 99; drēamum bedǣled,
722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.--Comp. glēo-, gum-, man-,

drēam-lēas, adj., _without rejoicing, joyless_: nom. sg. of King Heremōd,

drēogan, st. v.: 1) _to lead a life, to be in a certain condition_: pret.
drēah æfter dōme, _lived in honor, honorably_, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-þearfe
ongeat, þæt hīe ǣr drugon aldorlēase lange hwile, _(God) had seen the great
distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler_ (?), 15.--2)
_to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy_: imp. drēoh
symbelwynne, _pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal_,
1783; inf. driht-scype drēogan (_do a heroic deed_), 1471; pret. sundnytte
drēah (_had the occupation of swimming_, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361;
pret. pl. hīe gewin drugon (_fought_), 799; hī sīð drugon, _made the way,
went_, 1967.--3) _to experience, to bear, to suffer_: scealt werhðo
drēogan, _shall suffer damnation_, 590; pret. þegn-sorge drēah, _bore
sorrow for his heroes_, 131; nearoþearfe drēah, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge
þē hīe ǣr drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

ā-drēogan, _to suffer, to endure_: inf. wrǣc ādrēogan, 3079.

ge-drēogan, _to live through, to enjoy_, pret. part. þæt hē ... gedrogen
hæfde eorðan wynne, _that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth_ (i.e.
that he was at his death), 2727.

drēor, st. m., _blood dropping or flowing from wounds_: instr. sg. drēore,
447.--Comp. heoru-, sāwul-, wæl-drēor.

drēor-fāh, adj., _colored with blood, spotted with blood_: nom. sg. 485.

drēorig, adj., _bloody, bleeding_: nom. sg. wæter stōd drēorig, 1418; acc.
sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.--Comp. heoru-drēorig.

ge-drēosan, st. v., _to fall down, to sink_: pres. sg. III. līc-homa lǣne
gedrēoseð, _the body, belonging to death, sinks down_, 1755; inf. þæt þū ne
ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, _honor fall, sink_, 2667.

drincan, st. v., _to drink_ (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom.
pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blōd ēdrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wīn weras, _the men drank wine_, 1234;
þǣr guman druncon, _where the men drank_, 1649. The pret. part., when it
stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, _ye
warriors who have drunk, are drinking_, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slōg
heorð-genēatas, _slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him_,
i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means _drunken_: nom. sg.
bēore (wīne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. bēore druncne, 480.

drīfan, st. v., _to drive_: pres. pl. þā þe brentingas ofer flōda genipu
feorran drīfað, _who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness
of the sea_, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) þēah þe hē [ne] meahte on mere drīfan
hringedstefnan, _although he could not drive the ship on the sea_, 1131.

to-drīfan, _to drive apart, to disperse_: pret. oð þæt unc flōd tōdrāf,

drohtoð, st. m., _mode of living_ or _acting, calling, employment_: nom.
sg. ne wæs his drohtoð þǣr swylce hē ǣr gemētte, _there was no employment
for him_ (Grendel) _there such as he had found formerly_, 757.

drūsian, w. v. (cf. drēosan, properly, _to be ready to fall_; here of
water), _to stagnate, to be putrid_. pret. lagu drūsade (through the blood
of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., _company, troop, band of warriors; noble band_: in
comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., _troop, band of noble warriors_: nom. sg. mīnra
eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. æðelinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (hæleða)
gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.--Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., _youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man_:
nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., _commander, lord_: a) _temporal lord_: nom. sg.
dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.;
dryhten, 1832.--b) _God_: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat.
sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441;
drihtnes, 941.--Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., _one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior_: dat. sg.
drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer
dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrōðgār's warriors).

dryht-līc, adj., _(that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble,
excellent_: dryhtlīc īren, _excellent sword_, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an
acc. sg. n.) drihtlīce wīf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-māðum, st. m., _excellent jewel, splendid treasure_: gen. pl.
dryhtmāðma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., _(lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed_:
acc. sg. drihtscype drēogan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., _excellent, splendid hall_: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485;
dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., _peace_ or _friendship between troops of noble
warriors_: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., _drink_: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-fæt, st. n., _vessel for drink, to receive the drink_: acc. sg.,
2255; drinc-fæt, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., _to become obscure, gloomy_ (through the falling rain):
pres. sg. III. lyft drysmað, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., _to avail, to be capable, to be good_: pres. sg. III. hūru se
aldor dēah, _especially is the prince capable_, 369; ðonne his ellen dēah,
_if his strength avails, is good_, 573; þē him selfa dēah, _who is capable
of himself, who can rely on himself_, 1840; pres. subj. þēah þīn wit duge,
_though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail_, 590; similarly, 1661,
2032; pret. sg. þū ūs wēl dohtest, _you did us good, conducted yourself
well towards us_, 1822; similarly, nū sēo hand ligeð sē þe ēow welhwylcra
wilna dohte, _which was helpful to each one of your desires_, 1345; pret.
subj. þēah þū heaðorǣsa gehwǣr dohte, _though thou wast everywhere strong
in battle_, 526.

duguð (_state of being fit, capable_), st. f.: 1) _capability, strength_:
dat. pl. for dugeðum, _in ability_(?), 2502; duguðum dēmdon, _praised with
all their might_(?), 3176.--2) _men capable of bearing arms, band of
warriors_, esp., _noble warriors_: nom. sg. duguð unlȳtel, 498; duguð,
1791, 2255; dat. sg. for duguðe, _before the heroes_, 2021; nalles frætwe
geaf ealdor duguðe, _gave the band of heroes no treasure_ (more), 2921;
lēoda duguðe on lāst, _upon the track of the heroes of the people_, i.e.
after them, 2946; gen. sg. cūðe hē duguðe þēaw, _the custom of the noble
warriors_, 359; dēorre duguðe, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. duguða,
2036.--3) contrasted with geogoð, duguð designates the noted warriors of
noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so
gen. sg. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; gehwylc ... duguðe and iogoðe, 1675;
duguðe and geogoðe dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. _to dare_; prs. sg. II. þū dearst bīdan, _darest
to await_, 527; III. hē gesēcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sēc gyf þū dyrre,
_seek_ (Grendel's mother), _if thou dare_, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469,
etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., _door, gate, wicket_: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dūfan, st. v., _to dip in, to sink into_: pret. þæt sweord gedēaf (_the
sword sank into the drake_, of a blow), 2701.

þurh-dūfan, _to dive through; to swim through, diving_: pret. wæter up
þurh-dēaf, _swam through the water upwards_ (because he was before at the
bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., _to mislead, to hinder_: prs. III. nō hine wiht dweleð, ādl
nē yldo, _him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age_, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., _useful, good for_: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig,

dynnan, w. v., _to sound, to groan, to roar_: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu,
hrūse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) _concealed, secret, retired_: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg.
dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.--2) _secret, malicious,
hidden by sorcery_: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cræfte, _with secret magic art_,
2291; dyrnum cræfte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gāsta, _of malicious spirits_
(of Grendel's kin), 1358.--Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., _in secret, secretly_: him ...æfter dēorum men dyrne langað,
_longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., _bold, daring_: þēah þe hē dǣda gehwæs dyrstig wǣre,
_although he had been courageous for every deed_, 2839.

ge-dȳgan, ge-dīgan, w. v., _to endure, to overcome_, with the acc. of the
thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif þū þæt ellenweorc aldre gedīgest, _if thou
survivest the heroic work with thy life_, 662; III. þæt þone hilderǣs hāl
gedīgeð, _that he survives the battle in safety_, 300; similarly, inf.
unfǣge gedīgan wēan and wræcsīð, 2293; hwæðer sēl mǣge wunde gedȳgan,
_which of the two can stand the wounds better_ (come off with life), 2532;
ne meahte unbyrnende dēop gedȳgan, _could not endure the deep without
burning_ (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III.
ge-dīgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dȳgol. See dēogol.

dȳre. See dēore.


ecg, st. f., _edge of the sword, point_: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg,
1525, etc.; acc. sg. wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd, _defended the
entrance against point and edge_ (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550;
mēces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.--_Sword, battle-axe, any cutting
weapon_: nom. sg. ne wæs ecg bona (_not the sword killed him_), 2507; sīo
ecg brūn (Bēowulf's sword Nægling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, _the sword
snatched him away_, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. æscum and
ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) ēacnum ecgum, 2141;
gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;--_blade_: ecg wæs īren, 1460.--Comp.: brūn-,
heard-, stȳl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., _murderer by the sword_: dat. sg. Cain wearð tō ecg-banan
āngan brēðer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., _sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out_: nom.
sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-þracu, st. f., _sword-storm_ (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-þræce,

ed-hwyrft, st. m., _return_ (of a former condition): þā þǣr sōna wearð
edhwyrft eorlum, siððan inne fealh Grendles mōdor (i.e. after Grendel's
mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the
time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., _to turn back, to yield, to leave off_: inf. gyf him
edwendan ǣfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, _if for him the affliction of evil
should ever cease_, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., _turning, change_: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden
torna gehwylces (_reparation for former neglect_), 2189.

edwīt-līf, st. n., _life in disgrace_: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., _even, like_, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., _upon
the same level, near_: him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna, _lies near him_,

efnan (see æfnan) w. v., _to carry out, to perform, to accomplish_: pres.
subj. eorlscype efne (_accomplish knightly deeds_), 2536; inf. eorlscipe
efnan, 2623; sweorda gelāc efnan (_to battle_), 1042; gerund. tō efnanne,
1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., _even, exactly, precisely, just_, united with swā or swylc:
efne swā swīðe swā, _just so much as_, 1093; efne swā sīde swā, 1224; wæs
se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle swā, _by so much the less as ..._, 1284;
lēoht inne stōd efne swā ... scīneð, _a gleam stood therein_ (in the sword)
_just as when ... shines_, 1572; efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende
(_a woman who has borne such a son_), 944; efne swā hwylcum manna swā him
gemet þūhte, _to just such a man as seemed good to him_, 3058; efne swylce
mǣla swylce ... þearf gesǣlde, _just at the times at which necessity
commanded it_, 1250.

efstan, w. v., _to be in haste, to hasten_: inf. uton nū efstan, _let us
hurry now_, 3102; pret. efste mid elne, _hastened with heroic strength_,

eft, adv.: l) _thereupon, afterwards_: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sōna
bið, _then it happens immediately_, 1763; bōt eft cuman, _help come again_,
281.--2) _again, on the other side_: þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen
wilgesīðas, _that in old age again_ (also on their side) _willing
companions should be attached to him_, 22;--_anew, again_: 135, 604, 693,
1557, etc.; eft swā ǣr, _again as formerly_, 643.--3) retro, rursus,
_back_: 123, 296, 854, etc.; þæt hig æðelinges eft ne wēndon (_did not
believe that he would come back_), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., _return_: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sīð, st. m., _journey back, return_: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sīðes
georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsīðas tēah, _went the road back_, i.e. returned,

egesa, egsa (_state of terror_, active or passive): l) _frightfulness_:
acc. sg. þurh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gȳmeð, _cares for nothing
terrible, is not troubled about future terrors_(?), 1758.--2) _terror,
horror, fear_: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.--Comp.:
glēd-, līg-, wæter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., _horrible (full of fear, fearful)_, 2930.

eges-līc, adj., _terrible, bringing terror_: of Grendel's head, 1650; of
the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., _causing aversion, hideous_: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably,
perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., _to have terror, distress_: pret.
(as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., _to esteem, to make prominent with praise_: III. pl. pres.
þæt þē ... weras ehtigað, _that thee men shall esteem, praise_, 1223.

elde (_those who generate_, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the
pl., _men_: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, _among men_, 2612.--See ylde.

eldo, st. f., _age_: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., _foreign land, exile_: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan,
(_shall be banished_), 3020.

ellen, st. n., _strength, heroic strength, bravery_: nom. sg. ellen, 573;
eafoð and ellen, 903; Gēata ... eafoð and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafoð and
ellen, 2350; ellen cȳðan, _show bravery_, 2696; ellen fremedon, _exercised
heroic strength, did heroic deeds_, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlīc
ellen, 638; ferh ellen wræc, _life drove out the strength_, i.e. with the
departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on
elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. þā wæs æt þām geongum grim andswaru ēðbegēte
þām þe ǣr his elne forlēas, _then it was easy for_ (every one of) _those
who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young
man_ (Wīglāf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense,
_strongly, zealously_, and with the nearly related meaning, _hurriedly,
transiently_, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes læt, 1530; þā him
wæs elnes þearf, 2877.--Comp. mægen-ellen.

ellen-dǣd, st. f., _heroic deed_: dat. pl. -dǣdum, 877, 901.

ellen-gǣst, st. m., _strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength_: nom. sg.
of Grendel, 86.

ellen-līce, adv., _strongly, with heroic strength_, 2123.

ellen-mǣrðu, st. f., _renown of heroic strength_, dat. pl. -mǣrðum, 829,

ellen-rōf, adj., _renowned for strength_: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl.
-rōfum, 1788.

ellen-sēoc, adj., _infirm in strength_: acc. sg. þēoden ellensīocne (_the
mortally wounded king, Bēowulf_), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (_strength-work_), _heroic deed, achievement in
battle_: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., _else, otherwise_: a (modal), _in another manner_, 2521.--b
(local), elles hwǣr, _somewhere else_, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., _to some other place_, 55, 2255.

ellor-gāst, -gǣst, st. m., _spirit living elsewhere_ (standing outside of
the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgāst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's
mother), 1622; ellorgǣst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgǣstas,

ellor-sīð, st. m., _departure, death_: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius),
_another_: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-þēodig, adj., _of another people: foreign_: acc. pl. el-þēodige men,

ende, st. m., _the extreme_: hence, 1) _end_: nom. sg. aldres (līfes) ende,
823, 2845; oð þæt ende becwōm (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende
līfgesceafta (līfes, lǣn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; hæfde eorðscrafa ende
genyttod, _had used the end of the earth-caves_ (had made use of the caves
for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (līfes) æt ende, 2791, 2824;
eoletes æt ende, 224.--2) _boundary_: acc. sg. sīde rīce þæt hē his selfa
ne mæg ... ende geþencean, _the wide realm, so that he himself cannot
comprehend its boundaries_, 1735.--3) _summit, head_: dat. sg. eorlum on
ende, _to the nobles at the end_ (the highest courtiers), 2022.--Comp.

ende-dæg, st. m., _last day, day of death_: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dōgor, st. m., _last day, day of death_: gen. sg. bēga on wēnum
endedōgores and eftcymes lēotes monnes (_hesitating between the belief in
the death and in the return of the dear man_), 2897.

ende-lāf, st. f., _last remnant_: nom. sg. þū eart ende-lāf ūsses cynnes,
_art the last of our race_, 2814.

ende-lēan, st. n., _final reparation_: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sǣta, w. m., _he who sits on the border, boundary-guard_: nom. sg.
(here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-stæf, st. m. (elementum finis), _end_: acc. sg. hit on endestæf eft
gelimpeð, _then it draws near to the end_, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., _to end_: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. enge ānpaðas, _narrow paths_, 1411.

ent, st. m., _giant_: gen. pl. enta ǣr-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the
dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718;
eald-enta ǣr-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., _coming from giants_: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., _to eat, to consume_: pres. sg. III. blōdig wæl ... eteð
ān-genga, _he that goes alone_ (Grendel) _will devour the bloody corpse_,
448; inf. Gēatena lēode ... etan, 444.

þurh-etan, _to eat through_: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... þurhetone,
_swords eaten through_ (by rust), 3050.


ēc. See ēac.

ēce, adj., _everlasting_; nom. ēce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. ēce
eorðreced, _the everlasting earth-hall_ (the dragon's cave), 2720; gecēas
ēcne rǣd, _chose the everlasting gain_ (died), 1202; dat. sg. ēcean
dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. gecēos ēce rǣdas, 1761.

ēdre. See ǣdre.

ēð-begēte, adj., _easy to obtain, ready_: nom. sg. þā wæs æt þām geongum
grim andswaru ēð-begēte, _then from the young man_ (Wīglāf) _it was an easy
thing to get a gruff answer_, 2862.

ēðe. See ēaðe.

ēðel, st. m., _hereditary possessions, hereditary estate_: acc. sg. swǣsne
ēðel, 520; dat. sg. on ēðle, 1731.--In royal families the hereditary
possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. ēðel Scyldinga, _of the
kingdom of the Scyldings_, 914; (Offa) wīsdōme hēold ēðel sīnne, _ruled
with wisdom his inherited kingdom_, 1961.

ēðel-riht, st. n., _hereditary privileges_ (rights that belong to a
hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard ēðel-riht, _estate and inherited
privileges_, 2199.

ēðel-stōl, st. m., _hereditary seat, inherited throne_: acc. pl.
ēðel-stōlas, 2372.

ēðel-turf, st. f., _inherited ground, hereditary estate_: dat. sg. on mīnre
ēðeltyrf, 410.

ēðel-weard, st. m., _lord of the hereditary estate_ (realm): nom. sg.
ēðelweard (_king_), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Ēast-Dena ēðel wearde (King
Hrōðgār), 617.

ēðel-wyn, st. f., _joy in_, or _enjoyment of, hereditary possessions_: nom.
sg. nū sceal ... eall ēðelwyn ēowrum cynne, lufen ālicgean, _now shall your
race want all home-joy, and subsistence_(?) (your race shall be banished
from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. hē mē lond forgeaf, eard
ēðelwyn, _presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home_, 2494.

ēð-gesȳne, ȳð-gesēne, adj., _easy to see, visible to all_: nom. sg. 1111,

ēg-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer ēg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

ēg-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream, sea-flood_: dat. pl. on ēg-strēamum, _in
the sea-floods_, 577. See ēagor-strēam.

ēhtan (M.H.G. ǣchten; cf. ǣht and ge-æhtla), w. v. w. gen., _to be a
pursuer, to pursue_: pres. part. ǣglǣca ēhtende wæs duguðe and geogoðe,
159; pret. pl. ēhton āglǣcan, _they pursued the bringer of sorrow_
(Bēowulf)(?), 1513.

ēst, st. m. f., _favor, grace, kindness_: acc. sg. hē him ēst getēah mēara
and māðma (_honored him with horses and jewels_), 2166; gearwor hæfde
āgendes ēst ǣr gescēawod, _would rather have seen the grace of the Lord_
(of God) _sooner_, 3076.--dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce
hēold, ēstum mid āre, 2379; ēstum geȳwan (_to present_), 2150; him wæs ...
wunden gold ēstum geēawed (_presented_), 1195; wē þæt ellenweorc ēstum
miclum fremedon, 959.

ēste, adj., _gracious_: w. gen. ēste bearn-gebyrdo, _gracious through the
birth_ (of such a son as Bēowulf), 946.


eafoð, st. n., _power, strength_: nom, sg. eafoð and ellen, 603, 903; acc.
sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; wē frēcne genēðdon eafoð uncūðes, _we have
boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy_ (Grendel) _have
withstood him_, 961; gen. sg. eafoðes cræftig, 1467; þæt þec ādl oððe ecg
eafoðes getwǣfed, _shall rob of strength_, 1764; dat. pl. hine mihtig god
... eafeðum stēpte, _made him great through strength_, 1718.

eafor, st. m., _boar_; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg.
eafor, 2153.

eafora (_offspring_), w. m.: 1) _son_: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora,
375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan,
2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.--2) in broader
sense, _successor_: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., _eight_: acc. pl. eahta mēaras, 1036; ēode eahta sum, _went as
one of eight, with seven others_, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) _to consider; to deliberate_: pret. pl. w. acc. rǣd
eahtedon, _consulted about help_, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) þone
sēlestan þāra þe mid Hrōðgāre hām eahtode, _the best one of those who with
Hrōðgār deliberated about their home_ (ruled), 1408.--2) _to speak with
reflection of_ (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan
eorlscipe, _spoke of his noble character_, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., _all, whole_: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal bencþelu,
486; sg. eall ēðelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; þæt hit wearð eal
gearo, healærna mǣst, 77; þæt hit (wīgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a
following genitive: þǣr wæs eal geador Grendles grāpe, _there was all
together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel_, 836; eall ... lissa,
_all favor_, 2150; wæs eall sceacen dōgorgerīmes, 2728. With apposition:
þūhte him eall tō rūm, wongas and wīcstede, 2462; acc. sg. bēot eal, 523;
similarly, 2018, 2081; oncȳððe ealle, _all distress_, 831; heals ealne,
2692; hlǣw ... ealne ūtan-weardne, 2298; gif hē þæt eal gemon, 1186, 2428;
þæt eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wīde-ferhð, _through the
whole wide life, through all time_, 1223; instr. sg. ealle mægene, _with
all strength_, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles
moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic þæs ealles mæg ... gefēan habban, 2740; brūc
ealles well, 2163; frēan ealles þanc secge, _give thanks to the Lord of
all_, 2795; nom. pl. untȳdras ealle, 111; scēotend ... ealle, 706; wē
ealle, 942; acc. pl. fēond ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst.
ofer ealle, 650; ealle hīe dēað fornam, 2237; līg ealle forswealg þāra þe
þǣr gūð fornam, _all of those whom the war had snatched away_, 1123; dat.
pl. eallum ceaster-būendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. āna wið
eallum, _one against all_, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen.
pl. æðelinga bearn ealra twelfa, _the kinsmen of all twelve nobles_ (twelve
nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. hē āh ealra
geweald, _has power over all_, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal þurhwōd flǣschoman, _the battle-axe cleft the body
through and through_, 1568; hæfde ... eal gefeormod fēt and folma, _had
devoured entirely feet and hands_, 745; sē þe eall geman gār-cwealm gumena,
_who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear_, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: þēah ic eal mǣge, _although I am entirely able_, 681; hī on
beorg dydon bēg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, _they placed in the
grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments_, 3165.--The gen. sg.
ealles, adverbial in the sense of _entirely_, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., _old_: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357,
1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes ūhtflogan
(_dragon_), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.--b) of
things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and ōmig, 2764; acc.
sg. ealde lāfe (_sword_), 796, 1489; ealde wīsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559,
1664, etc.; eald gewin, _old_ (lasting years), _distress_, 1782; eald enta
geweorc (_the precious things in the drake's cave_), 2775; acc. pl. ealde
māðmas, 472; ofer ealde riht, _against the old laws_ (namely, the Ten
Commandments; Bēowulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a
punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the
commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. _older_: mīn yldra mǣg, 468; yldra brōðor, 1325; oð þæt hē
(Heardrēd) yldra wearð, 2379.

yldesta, superl. _oldest_, in the usual sense; dat. sg. þām yldestan, 2436;
in a moral sense, _the most respected_: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg.
þone yldestan, 363, both times of Bēowulf.

eald-fæder, st. m., _old-father, grandfather, ancestor_: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., _traditions from old times_: gen. pl. eal-fela
eald-gesegena, _very many of the old traditions_, 870.

eald-gesīð, st. m., _companion ever since old times, courtier for many
years_: nom. pl. eald-gesīðas, 854.

eald-gestrēon, st. n., _treasure out of the old times_: dat. pl.
eald-gestrēonum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., _old-enemy, enemy for many years_: nom. sg. of
Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., _merit on account of services rendered during many
years_: nom. pl. þæt nǣron eald-gewyrht, þæt hē āna scyle gnorn þrowian,
_that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the
distress alone_, 2658.

eald-hlāford, st. m., _lord through many years_: gen. sg. bill
eald-hlāfordes (of the old Bēowulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., _God ruling ever since ancient times_: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., _lord, chief_ (king or powerful noble): nom. sg.
ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat.
sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448,
1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stōd herestrǣl hearda (in vitalibus),
1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not troubled about his life_, 1443; of
ealdre gewāt, _went out of life, died_, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681,
etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444;
aldres orwēna, _despairing of life_, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, _having
forfeited life_, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nēðdon, 510, 538.--Phrases: on
aldre (_in life_), _ever_, 1780; tō aldre (_for life_), _always_, 2006,
2499; āwa tō aldre, _for ever and ever_, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., _life's evil_: acc. sg. þū ... ondrǣdan ne þearft ...
aldorbealu eorlum, _thou needest not fear death for the courtiers_, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., _trouble that endangers life, great trouble_: dat.
sg. hē his lēodum wearð ... tō aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., _days of one's life_: dat. pl. nǣfre on
aldor-dagum (_never in his life_), 719; on ealder-dagum ǣr (_in former
days_), 758.

ealdor-gedāl, st. n., _severing of life, death, end_: nom. sg. aldor-gedāl,

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., _life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's
life_ (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg.
ealdorgewinna (_the dragon_), 2904.

ealdor-lēas, adj., _without a ruler_(?): nom. pl. aldor-lēase, 15.

ealdor-lēas, adj., _lifeless, dead_: acc. sg. aldor-lēasne, 1588;
ealdor-lēasne, 3004.

ealdor-þegn, st. m., _nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier_: acc.
sg. aldor-þegn (Hrōðgār's confidential adviser, Æschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., _very much_: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena,
_very many old traditions_, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., _to shield, to defend, to protect_: inf. w. acc. feorh
ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. siððan hē (Hygelāc) under segne sinc
eal-gode, wælrēaf werede, _while under his banner he protected the
treasures, defended the spoil of battle_ (i.e. while he was upon the Viking
expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., _all golden, entirely of gold_: nom. sg. swȳn ealgylden,
1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-īrenne, adj., _entirely of iron_: acc. sg. eall-īrenne wīgbord, _a
wholly iron battle-shield_, 2339.

ealu, st. n., _ale, beer_: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., _ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale_: dat. sg. in
ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., _terror_, under the figure of a mishap at an
ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum
eallum wearð ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wǣge, st. n., _ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured
into the cups_: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowǣge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowǣge
(_at the ale-carouse_), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., _all ruling_ (God): nom. sg. fæder alwalda, 316;
alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., _cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate_; in a broader
sense, _ground in general, abode, place of sojourn_: nom. sg. him wæs bām
... lond gecynde, eard ēðel-riht, _the land was bequeathed to them both,
the land and the privileges attached to it._ 2199; acc. sg. fīfel-cynnes
eard, _the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn_, 104; similarly,
ælwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, _thought of his native ground, his home_,
1130; eard gīt ne const, _thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn._ 1378;
eard and eorlscipe, _prǣdium et nobilitatem_, 1728; eard ēðelwyn, _land and
the enjoyment of home_, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, _went
elsewhere from his place of abode_, i.e. died, 56; þæt wē rondas beren eft
tō earde, _that we go again to our homes_, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl.
ēacne eardas, _the broad expanses_ (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home
was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) _to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest_: pret. pl.
dȳre swyrd swā hīe wið eorðan fæðm þǣr eardodon, _costly swords, as they
had rested in the earth's bosom_, 3051.--2) also transitively, _to
inhabit_: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wīc eardian elles hwergen,
_inhabit a place elsewhere_ (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., _the living upon one's land, home-life_: acc. sg.
eard-lufan, 693.

earfoð, st. n., _trouble, difficulty, struggle_: acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.

earfoð-līce, adv., _with trouble, with difficulty_, 1637, 1658; _with
vexation, angrily_, 86; _sorrowfully_, 2823; _with difficulty, scarcely_,
2304, 2935.

earfoð-þrāg, st. f., _time full of troubles, sorrowful time_: acc. sg.
-þrāge, 283.

earh, adj., _cowardly_: gen. sg. ne bið swylc earges sīð (_no coward
undertaken that_), 2542.

earm, st. m., _arm_: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wið earm gesæt, _supported
himself with his arm_, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., _poor, miserable, unhappy_: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides,
_the unhappy woman_, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, _the unhappy band_,
2939.--Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, _a more wretched, more forsaken man_,

earm-bēag, st. m., _arm-ring, bracelet_: gen. pl. earm-bēaga fela searwum
gesǣled, _many arm-rings interlaced_, 2764.

earm-hrēad, st. f., _arm-ornament_. nom. pl. earm-hrēade twā, 1195 (Grein's
conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-līc, adj., _wretched, miserable_: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedāl
earmlīc wurðan, _his end should be wretched_, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (_properly, wretched by the decree of
fate_), _wretched_: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., _eagle_: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., _shoulder_: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817,
1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, _the woman sobbed on the
shoulder_ (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl.
sæt frēan eaxlum nēah, _sat near the shoulders of his lord_ (Bēowulf lies
lifeless upon the earth, and Wīglāf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so
as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; hē for eaxlum gestōd
Deniga frēan, _he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes_
(i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette
demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., _he who has his position at the shoulder_ (sc. of
his lord), _trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince_: nom. sg. 1327; acc.
pl. -gesteallan, 1715.


ēac, conj., _also_: 97, 388, 433, etc.; ēc, 3132.

ēacen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., _wide-spread_,
_large_: nom. pl. ēacne eardas, _broad plains_, 1622.--_great, heavy_: eald
sweord ēacen, 1664; dat. pl. ēacnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great
sword in Grendel's habitation.--_great, mighty, powerful_: æðele and ēacen,
of Bēowulf, 198.

ēacen-cræftig, adj., _immense_ (of riches), _enormously great_: acc. sg.
hord-ærna sum ēacen-cræftig, _that enormous treasure-house_, 2281; nom. sg.
þæt yrfe ēacen-cræftig, iūmonna gold, 3052.

ēadig, adj., _blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property_:
nom. sg. wes, þenden þū lifige, æðeling ēadig, _be, as long as thou livest,
a prince blessed with riches_, 1226; ēadig mon, 2471.--Comp. sige-, sigor-,

ēadig-līce, adv., _in abundance, in joyous plenty_: drēamum lifdon
ēadiglīce, _lived in rejoicing and plenty_, 100.

ēaðe, ēðe, ȳðe, adj., _easy, pleasant_: nom. pl. gode þancedon þæs þe him
ȳð-lāde ēaðe wurdon, _thanked God that the sea-ways_ (the navigation) _had
become easy to them_, 228; ne wæs þæt ēðe sīð, _no pleasant way_, 2587; næs
þæt ȳðe cēap, _no easy purchase_, 2416; nō þæt ȳðe byð tō beflēonne, _not
easy_ (as milder expression for _in no way, not at all_), 1003.

ēaðe, ȳðe, adv., _easily_. ēaðe, 478, 2292, 2765.

ēað-fynde, adj., _easy to find_: nom. sg. 138.

ēage, w. n., _eye_: dat. pl. him of ēagum stōd lēoht unfǣger, _out of his
eyes came a terrible gleam_, 727; þæt ic ... ēagum starige, _see with eyes,
behold_, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.

ēagor-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream sea_: acc. sg. 513.

ēa-land, st. n., _land surrounded by water_ (of the land of the Gēatas):
acc. sg. ēa-lond, 2335; _island_.

ēam, st. m., _uncle, mothers brother_: nom. sg. 882.

ēastan, adv., _from the east_, 569.

ēawan, w. v., _to disclose, to show, to prove_: pres. sg. III. ēaweð ...
uncūðne nīð, _shows evil enmity_, 276. See ēowan, ȳwan.

ge-ēawan, _to show, to offer_: pret. part. him wæs ... wunden gold ēstum
ge-ēawed, _was graciously presented_, 1195.


ēode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., _fence, hedge, railing_. Among the old Germans, an estate
was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence
the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself.
Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of _house_: acc. pl. heht eahta
mēaras on flet tēon, in under eoderas, _gave orders to lead eight steeds
into the hall, into the house_, 1038.--2) figuratively, _lord, prince_, as
protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofoð, st. n., _strength_: acc. pl. eofoðo, 2535. See eafoð.

eofer, st. m.: 1) _boar_, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet:
nom. sg. eofer īrenheard, 1113.--2) figuratively, _bold hero, brave
fighter_ (O.N. iöfur): nom. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the
heroes rushed upon each other_, 1329, where eoferas and fēðan stand in the
same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-līc, st. n. _boar-image_ (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-līc scionon,

eofor-sprēot, st. m., _boar-spear_: dat. pl. mid eofer-sprēotum
hēoro-hōcyhtum, _with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks_,

eoguð, ioguð. See geogoð.

eolet, st. m. n., _sea_(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stān, st. m., _precious stone_: acc. pl. -stānas, 1209.

eorð-cyning, st. m., _king of the land_: gen. sg. eorð-cyninges (Finn),

eorð-draca, w. m., _earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth_: nom. sg.
2713, 2826.

eorðe, w. f.: 1) _earth_ (in contrast with heaven), _world_: acc. sg.
ælmihtiga eorðan worhte, 92; wīde geond eorðan, _far over the earth,
through the wide world_, 266; dat. sg. ofer eorðan, 248, 803; on eorðan,
1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eorðan, 753.--2) _earth, ground_: acc. sg. hē
eorðan gefēoll, _fell to the ground_, 2835; forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan
healdan, _let the earth hold the nobles' treasure_, 3168; dat. sg. þæt hit
on eorðan læg, 1533; under eorðan, 2416; gen. sg. wið eorðan fæðm (_in the
bosom of the earth_), 3050.

eorð-reced, st. n., _hall in the earth, rock-hall_: acc. sg. 2720.

eorð-scræf, st. n., _earth-cavern, cave_: dat. sg. eorð-[scræfe], 2233;
gen. pl. eorð-scræfe, 3047.

eorð-sele, st. m., _hall in the earth, cave_: acc. sg. eorð-sele, 2411; dat
sg. of eorðsele, 2516.

eorð-weall, st. m., _earth-wall_: acc. sg. (Ongenþēow) bēah eft under
eorðweall, _fled again under the earth-wall_ (into his fortified camp),
2958; þā mē wæs ... sīð ālȳfed inn under eorðweall, _then the way in,
under the earth-wall was opened to me_ (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eorð-weard, st. m., _land-property, estate_: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., _noble born man, a man of the high nobility_: nom. sg. 762,
796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983,
1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.;
gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.--Since the king himself is from the
stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestrēon, st. n., _wealth of the nobles_: gen. pl. eorl-gestrēona ...
hardfyrdne dǣl, 2245.

eorl-gewǣde, st. n., _knightly dress, armor_: dat. pl. -gewǣdum, 1443.

eorlīc (i.e. eorl-līc), adj., _what it becomes a noble born man to do,
chivalrous_: acc. sg. eorlīc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., _condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature,
nobility_: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, _to do
chivalrous deeds_, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., _followers of nobles_: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., _very extensive race, mankind_: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes,

eormen-grund, st. m., _immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth_: acc.
sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lāf, st. f., _enormous legacy_: acc. sg. eormen-lāfe æðelan cynnes
(_the treasures of the dragon's cave_) 2235.

eorre, adj., _angry, enraged_: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) _giant_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg.
uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.--2) Eotens,
subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See
List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., _gigantic, coming from giants_: acc. sg. eald sweord
eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.


ēored-geatwe, st. f. pl., _warlike adornments_: acc. pl., 2867.

ēowan, w. v., _to show, to be seen_: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ōhwǣr,
ecghete ēoweð, _nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate_, 1739. See ēawan,

ēower: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: ēower sum, _that one of you_
(namely, Bēowulf), 248; fǣhðe ēower lēode, _the enmity of the people of
you_ (of your people), 597; nis þæt ēower sīð ... nefne mīn ānes, 2533.--2)
poss. pron., _your_, 251, 257, 294, etc.


ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., _to try, to search for, to find out, to
experience_: w. gen. pret. part. þæt hæfde gumena sum goldes gefandod,
_that a man had discovered the gold_, 2302; þonne se ān hafað þurh deāðes
nȳd dǣda gefondad, _now the one_ (Herebeald) _has with death's pang
experienced the deeds_ (the unhappy bow-shot of Hæðcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., _farer, traveller_: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., _to move from one place to another, to go, to wander_: inf.
tō hām faran, _to go home_, 124; lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, _let
the fallow horses go in emulation_, 865; cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna
land, _had come to Friesland with a fleet_, 2916; cōm lēoda dugoðe on lāst
faran, _came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people_, i.e. to
follow them, 2946; gerund wǣron æðelingas eft tō lēodum fūse tō farenne,
_the nobles were ready to go again to their people_, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum
fōr [þā] ofer myrcan mōr, _there had_ (Grendel's mother) _gone away over
the dark fen_, 1405; sǣgenga fōr, _the seafarer_ (the ship) _drove along_,
1909; (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, (the dragon) _fled away with fire_, 2309; pret.
pl. þæt ... scawan scīrhame tō scipe fōron, _that the visitors in
glittering attire betook themselves to the ship_, 1896.

gefaran, _to proceed, to act_: inf. hū se mānsceaða under fǣrgripum gefaran
wolde, _how he would act in his sudden attacks_, 739.

ūt faran, _to go out_: w. acc. lēt of brēostum ... word ūt faran, _let
words go out of his breast, uttered words_, 2552.

faroð, st. m., _stream, flood of the sea, shore, strand, edge_: dat. sg. tō
brimes faroðe, 28; æfter faroðe, _with the stream_, 580; æt faroðe, 1917.

faru, st. f., _way, passage, expedition_: in comp. ād-faru.

fācen-stæf (elementum nequitiae), st. m., _wickedness, treachery, deceit_.
acc. pl. fācen-stafas, 1019.

fāh, fāg, adj., _many-colored, variegated, of varying color_ (especially
said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of
light are refracted): nom. sg. fāh (_covered with blood_), 420; blōde fāh,
935; ātertānum fāh (sc. īren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to
ātertēarum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fāh (_saddle artistically
ornamented with gold_), 1039; sweord swāte fāh, 1287; brim blōde fāh, 1595;
wældrēore fāg, 1632; (draca) fȳrwylmum fāh (_because he spewed flame_),
2672; sweord fāh and fǣted, 2702; blōde fāh, 2975; acc. sg. drēore fāhne,
447; goldsele fǣttum fāhne, 717; on fāgne flōr treddode, _trod the shining
floor_ (of Heorot), 726; hrōf golde fāhne, _the roof shining with gold_,
928; nom. pl. eoforlīc ... fāh and fȳr-beard, 305; acc. pl. þā hilt since
fāge, 1616; dat. pl. fāgum sweordum, 586.--Comp. bān-, blōd-, brūn-,
drēor-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stān-, swāt-, wæl-, wyrm-fāh.

fāh, fāg, fā, adj.: 1) _hostile_: nom. sg. fāh fēond-scaða, 554; hē wæs fāg
wið god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fāne (_the dragon_), 2656; gen. pl. fāra,
578, 1464.--2) _liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed_: nom. sg. fāg,
1264; māne fāh, _outlawed through crime_, 979; fyren-dǣdum fāg,
1002.--Comp. nearo-fāh.

fāmig-heals, adj., _with foaming neck_: nom. sg. flota fāmig-heals, 218;
(sǣgenga) fāmig-heals, 1910.

fæc, st. n., _period of time_: acc. sg. lȳtel fæc, _during a short time_,

fæder, st. m., _father_: nom. sg. fæder, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610;
fæder alwalda, 316; acc. sg. fæder, 1356; dat. sg. fæder, 2430; gen. sg.
fæder, 21, 1480; of God, 188--Comp.: ǣr, eald-fæder.

fædera, w. m., _father's brother_ in comp. suhter-gefæderan.

fæder-æðelo, st. n. pl., _paternus principatus_ (?): dat. pl. fæder-æðelum,

fæderen-mǣg, st. m., _kinsman descended from the same father,
co-descendant_: dat. sg. fæderen-mǣge, 1264.

fæðm, st. m.: 1) _the outspread, encircling arms_: instr. pl. fēondes
fæð[mum], 2129.--2) _embrace, encircling_: nom. sg. līges fæðm, 782; acc.
sg. in fȳres fæðm, 185.--3) _bosom, lap_: acc. sg. on foldan fæðm, 1394;
wið eorðan fæðm, 3050; dat. pl. tō fæder (God's) fæðmum, 188.--4) _power,
property_: acc. in Francna fæðm, 1211.--Cf. sīd-fæðmed, sīð-fæðme.

fæðmian, w. v., _to embrace, to take up into itself_: pres. subj. þæt minne
līchaman ... glēd fæðmie, 2653; inf. lēton flōd fæðmian frætwa hyrde, 3134.

ge-fæg, adj., _agreeable, desirable_ (Old Eng., fawe, _willingly_): comp.
ge-fægra, 916.

fægen, adj., _glad, joyous_: nom. pl. ferhðum fægne, _the glad at heart_,

fæger, fǣger, adj., _beautiful, lovely_: nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, 774;
fæger foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freoðoburh fægere, 522; nom. pl. þǣr him
fold-wegas fægere þūhton, 867.--Comp. un-fǣger.

fægere, fægre, adv., _beautifully, well, becomingly, according to
etiquette_: fægere geþǣgon medoful manig, 1015; þā wæs flet-sittendum
fægere gereorded, _becomingly the repast was served_, 1789; Higelāc ongan
... fægre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

fær, st. n., _craft, ship_: nom. sg., 33.

fæst, adj., _bound, fast_: nom. sg. bið se slǣp tō fæst, 1743; acc. sg.
frēondscipe fæstne, 2070; fæste frioðuwǣre, 1097.--The prep. on stands to
denote the where or wherein: wæs tō fæst on þām (sc. on fǣhðe and fyrene),
137; on ancre fæst, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: fēond-grāpum fæst,
_(held) fast in his antagonist's clutch_, 637; fȳrbendum fæst, _fast in
the forged hinges_, 723; handa fæst, 1291, etc.; hygebendum fæst (beorn him
langað), _fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for_ (i.e.
in secret), 1879.--Comp: ār-, blǣd-, gin-, sōð-, tīr-, wīs-fæst.

fæste, adv., _fæst_ 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.--Comp. fæstor, 143.

be-fæstan, w. v., _to give over_: inf. hēt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu
sweoloðe befæstan, _to give over to the flames her own son_, 1116.

fæsten, st. n., _fortified place, or place difficult of access_: acc. sg.
lēoda fæsten, _the fastness of the Gēatas_ (with ref. to 2327, 2334; fæsten
(Ongenþēow's castle or fort), 2951; fæsten (Grendel's house in the
fen-sea), 104.

fæst-rǣd, adj., _firmly resolved_: acc. sg. fæst-rǣdne geþōht, _firm
determination_, 611.

fæt, st. m., _way, journey_: in comp. sīð-fæt.

fæt, st. n., _vessel; vase, cup_: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, _the
(drinking-) vessels of men of old times_, 2762.--Comp.: bān-, drync-,
māððum-, sinc-, wundor-fæt.

fǣge, adj.: 1) _forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate_: nom. sg.
fǣge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fǣge and ge-flȳmed, 847; fūs and fǣge, 1242; acc.
sg. fǣgne flǣsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fǣgum, 2078; gen. sg. fǣges,
1528.--2) _dead_: dat. pl. ofer fǣgum (_over the warriors fallen in the
battle_), 3026.--Comp.: dēað-, un-fǣge.

fǣhð (_state of hostility_, see fāh), st. f., _hostile act, feud, battle_:
nom. sg. fǣhð, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fǣhðe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.;
also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrēðling, Hæðcyn, by which he killed his
brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fǣhðe mearn
(_did not recoil from the combat_), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe,
109; gen. pl. fǣhða gemyndig, 2690.--Comp. wæl-fǣhð.

fǣhðo, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. sīo fǣhðo, 3000; acc. fǣhðo, 2490.

fǣlsian, w. v., _to bring into a good condition, to cleanse_: inf. þæt ic
mōte ... Heorot fǣlsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrōðgāres
... sele fǣlsode, 2353.

ge-fǣlsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. hæfde gefǣlsod ... sele
Hrōðgāres, 826; Heorot is gefǣlsod, 1177; wǣron ȳð-gebland eal gefǣlsod,

fǣmne, w. f., _virgin, recens nupta_: dat. sg. fǣmnan, 2035; gen. sg.
fǣmnan, 2060, both times of Hrōðgār's daughter Frēaware.

fǣr, st. m., _sudden, unexpected attack_: nom. sg. (attack upon Hnæf's band
by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fǣr-gripe, st. m., _sudden, treacherous gripe, attack_: nom. sg. fǣr-gripe
flōdes, 1517; dat. pl. under fǣrgripum, 739.

fǣr-gryre, st. m., _fright caused by a sudden attack_: dat. pl. wið
fǣr-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fǣringa, adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_, 1415, 1989.

fǣr-nīð, st. m., _hostility with sudden attacks_: gen. pl. hwæt mē Grendel
hafað ... fǣrnīða gefremed, 476.

fǣt, st. n. (?), _plate, sheet of metal_, especially _gold plate_ (Dietrich
Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fǣttum fāhne, _shining with
gold plates_ (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered
with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde fǣtum befeallen (sc.
wesan), _the gold ornaments shall fall away from it_, 2257.

fǣted, fǣtt, part., _ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form_: gen. sg.
fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fǣttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere,
_covered, ornamented with gold plate_: nom. sg. sweord ... fǣted, 2702;
acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. fǣtte scyldas, 333; fǣtte bēagas,

fǣted-hlēor, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mēaras
fǣted-hlēore (_eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold_),

fǣt-gold, st. n., _gold in sheets_ or _plates_: acc. sg., 1922.

feðer-gearwe, st. f. pl. _(feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of
the arrow_: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feðer-gearwum fūs, 3120.

fel, st. n., _skin, hide_: dat. pl. glōf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, _made
of the skins of dragons_, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., _much, many_: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende,
2107. With worn placed before: hwæt þū worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce,
_how very much you spoke about Breca_, 530.--With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela
fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tō fela micles
... Denigea lēode, _too much of the race of the Danes_, 695; uncūðes fela,
877; fela lāðes, 930; fela lēofes and lāðes, 1061.--With gen. pl.: nom. sg.
fela mādma, 36; fela þǣra wera and wīfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missēra,
153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; māððum-sigla fela (falo, MS.),
2758; nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht, _swore no false oaths_, 2739, etc.;
worn fela māðma, 1784; worna fela gūða, 2543.--Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, _very_, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrōr, adj., valde agitatus, _very active against the enemy, very
warlike_, 27.

fela-mōdig, adj., _very courageous_: gen. pl. -mōdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., _very criminal, very guilty_: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne
secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne),

fēolan, st. v., _to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self_:
pret. siððan inne fealh Grendles mōdor (in Heorot), 1282; þǣr inne fealh
secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.--_to fall into, undergo,
endure_: searonīðas fealh, 1201.

æt-fēolan, w. dat., insistere, adhǣrere: pret. nō ic him þæs georne ætfealh
_(held him not fast enough_, 969.

fen, st. n., _fen, moor_: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tō fenne, 1296;
fenne, 2010.

fen-freoðo, st. f., _refuge in the fen_: dat. sg. in fen-freoðo, 852.

feng, st. m., _gripe, embrace_: nom. sg. fȳres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fāra
feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.--Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably _he who takes possession_, cf. tō fōn, 1756, and fōn tō
rīce, _to enter upon the government_), st. m., _lord, prince, king_: nom.
sg. wīsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-lād, st. n., _fen-paths, fen with paths_: acc. pl. frēcne fengelād
(_fens difficult of access_), 1360.

fen-hlið, st. n., _marshy precipice_: acc. pl. under fen-hleoðu, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., _refuge in the fen_: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., _life_; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., _hog, boar_, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg.,

ferhð, st. m., _heart, soul_: dat. sg. on ferhðe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc
hiora his ferhðe trēowde, þæt ..., _each of them trusted to his_
(Hunferð's) _heart, that_ ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhðes fore-þanc, 1061; dat.
pl. (adverbial) ferhðum fægne, _happy at heart_, 1634; þæt mon ... ferhðum
frēoge, _that one ... heartily love_, 3178.--Comp.: collen-, sarig-,
swift-, wide-ferhð.

ferhð-frec, adj., _having good courage, bold, brave_: acc. sg. ferhð-frecan
Fin, 1147.

ferhð-genīðla, w. m., _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. ferhð-genīðlan, of the
drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., _to bear, to bring, to conduct_: pres. II. pl.
hwanon ferigeað fǣtte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tō scypum feredon eal
ingesteald eorðcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

æt-ferian, _to carry away, to bear off_: pret. ic þæt hilt þanan fēondum
ætferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, _bear, to bring, to lead_: pres. subj. I. pl. þonne (wē)
geferian frēan ūserne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles hēafod, 1639; pret.
þæt hī ūt geferedon dȳre māðmas, 3131; pret. part. hēr syndon geferede
feorran cumene ... Gēata lēode, _men of the Gēatas, come from afar, have
been brought hither_ (by ship), 361.

oð-ferian, _to tear away, to take away_: pret. sg. I. unsōfte þonan feorh
oð-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, _to carry off, to take away, to tear away_: pret. ōðer swylc ūt
offerede, _took away another such_ (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc.
(sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., _to bring near, bring_: pres. subj. nāh hwā ... fe[tige]
fǣted wǣge, _bring the gold-chased tankard_, 2254; pret. part. hraðe wæs tō
būre Bēowulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, _to bring_: inf. hēt þā eorla hlēo in gefetian Hrēðles lāfe,
_caused Hrēðel's sword to be brought_, 2191.

ā-fēdan, w. v., _to nourish, to bring up_: pret. part. þǣr hē āfēded wæs,

fēða (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) _foot-soldiers_: nom. pl. fēðan, 1328,
2545.--2) collective in sing., _band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors_:
nom. fēða eal gesæt, 1425; dat. on fēðan, 2498, 2920.--Comp. gum-fēða.

fēðe, st. n., _gait, going, pace_: dat. sg. wæs tō foremihtig fēond on
fēðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fēðe-cempa, w. m., _foot-soldier_: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fēðe-gæst, st. m., _guest coming on foot_: dat. pl. fēðe-gestum, 1977.

fēðe-lāst, st. m., _signs of going, footprint_: dat. pl. fērdon forð þonon
fēðe-lāstum, _went forth from there upon their trail_, i.e. by the same way
that they had gone, 1633.

fēðe-wīg, st. m., _battle on foot_: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton
(sc. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2365.

fēl (= fēol), st. f. _file_: gen. pl. fēla lāfe, _what the files have left
behind_ (that is, the swords), 1033.

fēran, w. v., iter (A.S. fōr) facere, _to come, to go, to travel_: pres.
subj. II. pl. ǣr gē ... on land Dena furður fēran, _ere you go farther into
the land of the Danes_, 254; inf. fēran on frēan wǣre (_to die_), 27;
gewiton him þā fēran (_set out upon their way_), 301; mǣl is mē tō fēran,
316; fēran ... gang scēawigan, _go, so as to see the footprints_, 1391;
wīde fēran, 2262; pret. fērdon folctogan ... wundor scēawian, _the princes
came to see the wonder_, 840; fērdon forð, 1633.

ge-fēran: 1) adire, _to arrive at_: pres. subj. þonne eorl ende gefēre
līfgesceafta, _reach the end of life_, 3064; pret. part. hæfde ǣghwæðer
ende gefēred lǣnan līfes, _frail life's end had both reached_, 2845.--2)
_to reach, to accomplish, to bring about_: pret. hafast þū gefēred þæt ...,
1222, 1856.--3) _to behave one's self, to conduct one's self_: pret. frēcne
gefērdon, _had shown themselves daring_, 1692.

feal, st. m., _fall_: in comp. wæl-feal.

feallan, st. v., _to fall, to fall headlong_: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg.
þæt hē on hrūsan ne fēol, _that it_ (the hall) _did not fall to the
ground_, 773; similarly, fēoll on foldan, 2976; fēoll on fēðan (dat. sg.),
_fell in the band_ (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. þonne walu fēollon,

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., _deprived of, robbed_: frēondum
befeallen, _robbed of friends_, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum
befeallen (sc. wesan), _be robbed of its gold mountings_ (the gold mounting
will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, _to fall, to sink down_: pres. sg. III. þæt se līc-homa ...
fǣge gefealleð, _that the body doomed to die sinks down_, 1756.--Also, with
the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefēoll, 2101; hē eorðan
gefēoll, 2835.

fealu, adj., _fallow, dun-colored, tawny_: acc. sg. ofer fealone flōd
(_over the sea_), 1951; fealwe strǣte (with reference to 320, 917; acc. pl.
lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, 866.--Comp. æppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., _hair, hair of the head_: dat. sg. wæs be feaxe on flet boren
Grendles hēafod, _was carried by the hair into the hall_, 1648; him ...
swāt ... sprong forð under fexe, _the blood sprang out under the hair of
his head_, 2968.--Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fēa, w. m., _joy_: acc. sg. þǣre fylle gefēan, _joy at the abundant
repast_, 562; ic þæs ealles mæg ... gefēan habban (_can rejoice at all
this_), 2741.

fēa, adj., _few_ dat. pl. nemne fēaum ānum, _except some few_, 1082; gen.
pl. fēara sum, _as one of a few, with a few_, 1413; fēara sumne, _one of a
few (some few)_, 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fēa worda cwæð, _spoke
few words_, 2663, 2247.

fēa-sceaft, adj., _miserable, unhappy, helpless_: nom. sg. syððan ǣrest
wearð fēasceaft funden, 7; fēasceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg.
fēasceaftum men, 2286; Ēadgilse ... fēasceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fēasceafte
(the Gēatas robbed of their king, Hygelāc), 2374.

feoh, fēo, st. n., (_properly cattle, herd_) here, _possessions, property,
treasure_: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo fēo þingian, _would not
allay life's evil for treasure_ (tribute), 156; similarly, þā fǣhðe fēo
þingode, 470; ic þē þā fǣhðe fēo lēanige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-fēon, st. v. w. gen. and instr., _to enjoy one's self, to
rejoice at something_: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe, 109;
hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefǣgon, _enjoyed themselves at
the bounteous repast_, 1015; þēodnes gefēgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of)
_the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mǣrðum, 828;
secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sǣlāce gefeah, mægen-byrðenne þāra þe hē him mid
hæfde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_
(Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg.
þǣre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. æt feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum,
_with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-lēas, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. þæt
wæs feoh-lēas gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the
killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his
brother by Hæðcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mēce þone þīn fader tō gefeohte bær,
_the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wīg Hengeste wiht
gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis þæt feor heonon, 1362; næs him feor
þanon tō gesēcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is
far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor
and (oððe) nēah, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time:
gē feor hafað fǣhðe gestǣled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_),

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and fæstor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr,
1989; feor, 542.

feor-būend, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. gē feor-būend, 254.

feor-cȳð, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl.
feor-cȳððe bēoð sēlran gesōhte þǣm þe him selfa dēah, _foreign lands are
better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of
life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nō þon lange wæs feorh æðelinges flǣsce
bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the
body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wræc, _life expelled the
strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also),
2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve
his life_, 2857; feorh ālegde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, ǣr hē
feorh seleð, 1371; feorh oðferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; oð þæt hīe
forlǣddan tō þām lindplegan swǣse gesīðas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in
an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their
lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif þū þīn feorh hafast, 1850;
ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; wæs in feorh dropen, _was
wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wīdan feorh, as temporal acc.,
_through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. fēore, 1294, 1549; tō
wīdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on swā geongum
feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg.
fēores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. būton ... feorum gumena, 73; frēonda fēorum,
1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: þā wæs heal hroden fēonda fēorum (_the hall
was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf þā in Francna
fæðm feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygelāc) _fell into the
power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogoð-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg.
feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat.
(instr.) pl. feorh-bennum sēoc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078,
2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela
feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genīðla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind),
_mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genīðlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genīðlan, 970; acc. sg.
brǣgd feorh-genīðlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genīðlan, (Ongenþēow)
_pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_:
acc. sg. on māðma hord mine (mīnne, MS.) bebohte frōde feorh-lege, _for the
treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-lāst, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl.
feorh-lāstas bær, 847.

feorh-sēoc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg.,

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde
hlēat, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nō þū ymb mīnes ne
þearft līces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the
sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme,
MS.), 2386.

feormend-lēas, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ...
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-lēase, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl.
feormiend swefað (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sōna hæfde unlyfigendes
eal gefeormod fēt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone
mægenes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, fēo þingian, (Grendel) _would not from
friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay
it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.;
siððan æðelingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, _when noble men afar
learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands),
2890; fērdon folctogan feorran and nēan, _from far and from near_, 840;
similarly, nēan and feorran þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175; wæs þæs wyrmes wīg
wīde gesȳne ... nēan and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_,
2318.--b) temporal: sē þe cūðe frumsceaft fīra feorran reccan (_since
remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. mādma fela of feorwegum, _many
precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-fēon. See feohan.

fēond, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; fēond on helle (Grendel),
101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. fēonde, 143, 439; gen. sg.
fēondes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. fēond, 699; dat. pl. fēondum, 420, 1670;
gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

fēond-grāp, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. fēond-grāpum fæst,

fēond-sceaða, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. fāh
fēond-scaða (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

fēond-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

fēower, num., _four_: nom. fēower bearn, 59; fēower mēaras, 2164; fēower,
as substantive, 1638; acc. fēower māðmas, 1028.

fēower-tȳne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. fēowertȳne
Gēata, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in
acc.: inf. þāra þe hē cēnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hīe at Finnes-hām
findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; mæg þǣr fela
frēonda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; swā hyt weorðlīcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could
devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. healþegnas fand, 720; word ōðer fand, _found
other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelīcne
grund-hyrde fond, 2137; þæt ic gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, 1487; pret. part.
syððan ǣrest wearð fēasceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and
pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and
inf.: pret. fand þā þǣr inne æðelinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand wæccendne
wer wīges bīdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; oð þæt hē
fyrgen-bēamas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon þā sāwullēasne
hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nō þȳ ǣr
fēasceafte findan meahton æt þām æðelinge þæt hē Heardrēde hlāford wǣre
(_could by no means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret.
sg. landweard onfand eftsīð eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of
the earls_, 1892; pret. part. þā hēo onfunden wæs (_was discovered_),
1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. þā se gist onfand þæt se beado-lēoma
bītan nolde, _the stranger_ (Bēowulf) _perceived that the sword would not
cut_, 1523; sōna þæt onfunde, þæt ..., _immediately perceived that_...,
751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985;
dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

fīras, fȳras (O.H.G. firahī, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only
in pl., _men_: gen. pl. fīra, 91, 2742; monegum fīra, 2002; fȳra gehwylcne
lēoda mīnra, 2251; fīra fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice,
outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fǣhðe, 153; fǣhðe and
fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fǣhðe and fyrene,
137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel),
751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of
_maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to Hæðcyn's killing
Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dǣd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dǣda, 1670; instr. pl.
fyren-dǣdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to
their nocturnal inroads.

firen-þearf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg.
fyren-þearfe, 14.

firgen-bēam, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-bēamas,

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on
fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-strēam, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-strēam, 1360;
acc. sg. under fyrgen-strēam (marks the place where the mountain-stream,
according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fīf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fīf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fīfe (?),

fīfel-cyn (O.N. fīfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg.
fīfelcynnes eard, 104.

fīf-tȳne, num., _fifteen_: acc. fȳftȳne, 1583; gen. fīftȳna sum, 207.

fīf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fīftig
wintra, 2734; gen. sē wæs fīftiges fōt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as
adjective: acc. fīftig wintru, 2210.

flān, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. flāne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

flān-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the flān, bow_: dat. sg. of flān-bogan,
1434, 1745.

flǣsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nō þon lange
wæs feorh æðelinges flǣsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the
prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flǣsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg.
flǣsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. hēo on flet gebēah,
_fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg.
1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; þæt hīe him
ōðer flet eal gerȳmdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another
hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-ræst, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-ræste gebēag,
_reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023;
dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

flēam, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on flēam gewand, _had turned to flight_,
1002; flēam ēowerne, 2890.

flēogan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. flēogeð, 2274.

flēon, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster flēon, 756; flēon on fenhopu,
765; flēon under fen-hleoðu, 821; pret. hete-swengeas flēah, 2226.

be-flēon, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nō þæt ȳðe byð tō
beflēonne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-flēon, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges
weard oferflēon fōtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_
(the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

flēotan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nō hē wiht fram
mē flōd-ȳðum feor flēotan meahte. hraðor on helme, _no whit, could he swim
from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves
marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sǣgenga flēat
fāmigheals forð ofer ȳðe, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flītan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part.
flītende fealwe strǣte mēarum mǣton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II.
eart þū se Bēowulf, sē þe wið Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the
Bēowulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flītan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret.
w. acc. hē þē æt sunde oferflāt (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flīt, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras,
_let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: gūð-, lyft-, ūht-, wid-floga.

flota (see flēotan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301;
acc. sg. flotan ēowerne, 294.--Comp. wǣg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna land,

flōd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.;
acc. sg. flōd, 3134; ofer fealone flōd, 1951; dat. sg. tō flōde, 1889; gen.
pl. flōda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flōda
genipu, 2809.

flōd-ȳð, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flōd-ȳðum, 542.

flōr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on fāgne flōr (the floor was
probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang þā
æfter flōre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. gāres fliht, _flight of the
spear_, 1766.

ge-flȳman, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. geflȳmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole
body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sūðdene
folc, 464; folc and rīce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga,
465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sǣ sīde, _went with a band of warriors
over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The
king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; frēawine folces, 2358;
or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwēn, 1933.--The pl., in the sense
of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum,
55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. frēo- (frēa-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430;
friðu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-āgend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl.
folc-āgende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg.
folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwēn, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealhþēow, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rǣd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl.
him ǣr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, swā his fæder āhte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg.
folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of
warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76;
folcstede fāra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful
liege-men of Hrōðgār are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a
dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-būend, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-būend, 2275;
fold-būende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-būendum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; fēoll on
foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan
scēatas, 96; foldan fæðm, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan,

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg,
1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl.
þēah hīe hira bēaggyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the
murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode
feorh-genīðlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743;
acc. pl. fēt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tō banan folmum,
158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: þæt
hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358; for hlāwe, 1121.--b) _before_,
coram, in conspectu: no hē þǣre feohgyfte for scēotendum scamigan þorfte,
_had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for þǣm
werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for duguðe, _before the noble band of
warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of,
through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338,
1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhȳdum, 434; for onmēdlan, 2927, etc.--b)
objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for
metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for þrēanȳdum,
833; for þrēanēdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with
the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself),
509; him for hrōfsele hrīnan ne mehte fǣr-gripe flōdes, _on account of the
roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516;
līg-egesan wæg for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_,
2782; for mundgripe mīnum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_,
966; for þæs hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the
stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... dēop gedȳgan for dracan lēge, _could not hold
out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be
added such passages as ic þǣm gōdan sceal for his mōdþræce māðmas bēodan,
_will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his
high courage_, 385; ful-oft for lǣssan lēan teohhode, _gave often reward
for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about
his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ārstafum, _to
the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: hē hine
feor forwræc for þȳ mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for
sunu frēogan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; nē him þæs
wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: siððan ... scēawedon
fēondes fingras, foran ǣghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; þæt wæs ān
foran ealdgestrēona, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_,
i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; þē him foran ongēan linde bǣron, _bore
their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: hē ... beforan gengde, _went before_,
1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in
conspectu: mǣre māððum-sweord manige gesāwon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

forð: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: forð near ætstōp, _approached
nearer_, 746; þā cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān, 1163; similarly, 613; him seleþegn
forð wīsade, _led him_ (Bēowulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been
prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; þæt him swāt sprong forð under fexe,
_forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewītað forð
beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; hē tō forð gestōp, 2290; freoðo-wong þone forð
oferēodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst forð gewāt, _the time_ (of
the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; mē
... forð-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fērdon forð, _went forth_
(from Grendel's sea), 1633; þonne hē forð scile, _when he must (go) forth_,
i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, _carried
him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald
forð tela nīwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymbe Grendel, _shall
from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furðum and furðor.

forð-gerīmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

forð-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future
destiny_: acc. sg. hē þā forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1751.

forð-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: hē of ealdre gewāt frōd
on forð-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: hēo fore þǣm
werede spræc, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nō mearn fore fǣhðe
and fyrene, 136; fore fæder dǣdum, _because of the father's deeds_,
2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: þǣr wæs sang and
swēg samod ætgædere fore Healfdenes hildewīsan, _song and music about
Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hnæf), 1065.

fore-mǣre, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, prǣclarus: superl. þæt wæs
fore-mǣrost foldbūendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, prǣpotens: nom. sg. wæs tō
foremihtig fēond on fēðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee
too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl.
foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-þanc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg.,

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; hē on mōde wearð
forht on ferhðe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sīð (_the first time_), 717,
1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sīðe, 741, 2287; forman dōgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: hē fyrmest læg,

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-þām, for-þan, for-þon, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account,
then_: forþām, 149; forþan, 418, 680, 1060; forþon þe, _because_, 503.

fōn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III.
fēhð ōðer tō, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid
grāpe sceal fōn wið fēonde, 439; pret. sg. him tōgēanes fēng, _caught at
him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. hē þām frætwum fēng, _received the rich
adornments_ (Ongenþēow's equipment), 2990.

be-fōn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part.
hyne sār hafað ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; hēo æðelinga ānne
hæfde fæste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen
frēawrāsnum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne
bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) fȳre befongen, _encircled
by fire_, 2275, 2596; hæfde landwara līge befangen, _encompassed by fire_,

ge-fōn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. hē gefēng slǣpendne rinc, 741;
gūðrinc gefēng atolan clommum, 1502; gefēng þā be eaxle ... Gūðgēata lēod
Grendles mōdor, 1538; gefēng þā fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefēng, geolwe
linde, 2610; ic on ofoste gefēng micle mid mundum mægen-byrðenne, _hastily
I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fōn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfōh
þissum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. þæt þæt þēodnes bearn ...
scolde fæder-æðelum onfōn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hwā
þǣm hlæste onfēng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hlēor-bolster
onfēng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689;
similarly, 853, 1495; heal swēge onfēng, _the hall received the loud
noise_, 1215; hē onfēng hraðe inwit-þancum, _he_ (Bēowulf) _at once
clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

þurh-fōn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by
grasping_: inf. þæt hēo þone fyrd-hom þurh-fōn ne mihte, 1505.

wið-fōn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him
fæste wið-fēng, 761.

ymbe-fōn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum,
_encircled his_ (Bēowulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fōt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fōtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot
broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fēt, 746; dat. pl. æt fōtum, _at the feet_, 500,

fōt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen.
sg. sē wæs fīftiges fōtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fōt-lāst, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand fēondes fōt-lāst,

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. næs sēo ecg fracod
hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: þǣr fram sylle
ābēag medubenc monig, 776, 1716; þanon eft gewiton ealdgesīðas ... fram
mere, 856; cyning-balde men from þǣm holmclife hafelan bǣron, 1636;
similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: hē hine feor forwræc
... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: þā
ic cwōm ... from fēondum, 420; ǣghwæðrum wæs ... brōga fram ōðrum,
2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_:
sægdest from his sīðe, 532; nō ic wiht fram þē swylcra searo-nīða secgan
hȳrde, 581; þæt hē fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away,
thence_: nō þȳ ǣr fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from ǣrest cwōm oruð
āglǣcean ūt of stāne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the
rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp.
sīð-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike
qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mōde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from;
see freme, forma.

ge-frægen. See frignan.

frætwe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved
objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any
costly and artistic work: acc. pl. frætwe, 2920; beorhte frætwe, 214;
beorhte frætwa, 897; frætwe.. eorclan-stānas, 1208; frætwe,...
brēost-weorðunge, 2504, both times of Hygelāc's collar; frætwe and
fæt-gold, 1922; frætwe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl.
þām frætwum, 2164; on frætewum, 963; frætwum (Heaðobeard sword) hrēmig,
2055; frætwum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; frætwum (Ongenþēow's armor),
2990; gen. pl. fela ... frætwa, 37; þāra frætwa (drake's treasure), 2795;
frætwa hyrde (drake), 3134.

frætwan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede
frætwan, 76.

ge-frætwian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefrætwade foldan scēatas leomum
and lēafum, 96; pret. part. þā wæs hāten Heort innanweard folmum gefrætwod,

ge-frǣge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. lēod-cyning ...
folcum gefrǣge, 55; swā hyt gefrǣge wæs, 2481.

ge-frǣge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefrǣge
(_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frǣgnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle
gefrǣgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying
off of Æschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a
designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Bēowulf, 1564.--Comp.:
gūð-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wīg-freca; ferð-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom
sg. þæt wæs fremde þēod ēcean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwēn, of
Þrȳðo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to
perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object,
fremme sē þe wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp.
pl. fremmað gē nū lēoda þearfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; sæcce
fremman, 2500; fǣhðe ... mǣrðum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrǣd
fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. hū
þā æðelingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fācenstafas
... þenden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. þæt ic ... mǣrðo fremede, 2135. --2)
_to help on, to support_: inf. þæt hē mec fremman wile wordum and worcum
(to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlīc
ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; æfter wēaspelle wyrpe
gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow),
1316; gerund, tō gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165,
551, 585, etc.; þēah þe hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede,
_placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl.
gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed,
476; fem, nū scealc hafað ... dǣd gefremede, 941; absolutely, þū þē self
hafast dǣdum gefremed, þæt ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_,

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. þā (the precious things)
sceal brond fretan, 3015; nū sceal glēd fretan wigena strengel, 3115; pret.
sg. (Grendel) slǣpende fræt folces Denigea fȳftȳne men, 1582.

frēcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frēcne fȳr-draca, 2690;
feorh-bealo frēcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frēcne dǣde, 890; frēcne fengelād,
1360; frēcne stōwe, 1379; instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (_through provoking
words_), 1105.

frēcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

frēa, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. frēa, 2286; acc.
sg. frēan, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. frēan, 359, 500, 1167,
1681; dat. sg. frēan, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. ēode ... tō
hire frēan sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. frēan ealles, _the Lord of all_,
2795; gen. sg. frēan, 27.-- Comp.: āgend-, līf-, sin-frēa.

frēa-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. frēa-drihtnes, 797.

frēa-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. frēa-wine
folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his frēa-wine, 2439.

frēa-wrāsn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm
... befongen frēawrāsnum, 1452; see wrāsn.

freoðu, friðu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wēl bið þǣm þe mōt
... tō fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's
arms_, 188; nēan and feorran þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoðo.

freoðo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg.
freoðoburh fægere, 522.

freoðo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960;
seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoðo-wǣr, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. þā hīe
getruwedon on twā healfa fæste frioðu-wǣre, 1097; gen. sg. frioðowǣre bæd
hlāford sīnne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full
pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoðo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort
(often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two
nations): nom. sg., 1943.

frēo-burh, st. f., = frēa-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to
Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. frēoburh, 694.

frēod, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. frēode ne woldon ofer heafo healdan,
2477; gen. sg. næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, _was no longer time to
seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic þē
sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to
1381 ff.), 1708.

frēo-dryhten (= frēa-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein,
dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. frēo-drihten min! 1170; dat.
sg. mid his frēo-dryhtne, 2628.

frēogan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. þæt mon his
wine-dryhten ... ferhðum frēoge, 3178; inf. nū ic þec ... mē for sunu wylle
frēogan on ferhðe, 949.

frēo-līc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with
the bond concubine): nom. sg. frēolīc wīf, 616; frēolīcu folc-cwēn, 642.

frēond, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. frēond, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. frēondum,
916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. frēonda, 1307, 1839.

frēond-laðu, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him wæs ful boren and
frēond-laðu (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bewægned, 1193.

frēond-lār, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. frēond-lārum,

frēond-līce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. frēond-līcor,

frēond-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. frēond-scipe fæstne, 2070.

frēo-wine, st. m. (see frēawine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_;
according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc.
frēo-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sīnne geseldan fægre
fricgean hwylce Sǣ-Gēata sīðas wǣron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding
fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_
(having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation
was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syððan hīe
ge-fricgeað frēan ūserne ealdorlēasne, _when they learn that our lord is
dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic þæt gefricge, þæt..., 1827; pl. syððan
æðelingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_:
inf. næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, 2557.

friðo-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the
queen (see freoðo--webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friðu-sibb folca,

frignan, fringan, frīnan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frīn þū
æfter sǣlum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic þæs wine Deniga
frīnan wille ... ymb þīnne sīð, 351; pret. sg. frægn, 236, 332; frægn gif
..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frīnan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by
narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) þæt fram hām gefrægn Higelāces þegn
Grendles dǣda, 194; nō ic gefrægn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.)
þā ic wīde gefrægn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne
gefrægen ic þā mǣgðe māran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sēl gebǣran, _I never
heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about
its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) wē þēodcyninga þrym
gefrūnon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gūðcyning gōdne gefrūnon hringas
dǣlan, 1970; (parenthetical) swā guman gefrungon, 667, (after þonne)
medo-ærn micel (_greater_) ... þone yldo bearn ǣfre gefrūnon, 70; pret.
part. hæfde Higelāces hilde gefrūnen, 2953; hæfdon gefrūnen þæt..., _had
learned that_ ..., 695; hæfde gefrūnen hwanan sīo fǣhð ārās, 2404;
healsbēaga mǣst þāra þe ic on foldan gefrægen hæbbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frōd, adj.: 1) ǣtate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frōd, 2626, 2951;
frōd cyning, 1307, 2210; frōd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frōd, 1725, 2115,
2278; se frōda, 2929; ac. sg. frōde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old
life_), 2801; dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong
under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced,
wise_: nom. sg. frōd, 1367; frōd and gōd, 279; on mōde frōd, 1845.--Comp.:
in-, un-frōd.

frōfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frōfor, 2942;
acc. sg. frōfre, 7, 974; fyrena frōfre, 629; frōfre and fultum, 1274;
frōfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tō frōfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frōfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg.
wæs se fruma egeslīc lēodum on lande, swā hyt lungre wearð on hyra
sincgifan sāre geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible,
its end distressing through the death of Bēowulf_), 2310.--2) _he who
stands first, prince_; in comp. dǣd-, hild-, land-, lēod-, ord-, wīg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nū ic
ēower sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gār, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumgāre (of
Bēowulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. sē þe cūðe
frumsceaft fīra feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind
in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his
birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelīcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tō
gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. sē wæs innan full wrǣtta
and wīra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weorð-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026;
ofer ȳða ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled
with waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfōh þissum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-,

fullǣstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic þē fullǣstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frōfor (frōfre) and
fultum, 699, 1274; mægenes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. wē fundiað Higelāc
sēcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furðum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: þā ic furðum wēold folce
Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed
the government), 465; þā hīe tō sele furðum ... gangan cwōmon, 323; ic þǣr
furðum cwōm tō þām hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic þē sceal mīne
gelǣstan frēode, swā wit furðum sprǣcon, 1708.

furður, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

fūs, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nū ic eom sīðes fūs,
1476; lēofra manna fūs, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them,
1917; sigel sūðan fūs, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun),
1967; se wonna hrefn fūs ofer fǣgum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft
... feðer-gearwum fūs, 3120; nom. pl. wǣron ... eft to lēodum fūse tō
farenne, 1806.--Sometimes fūs means _ready for death_, moribundus: fūs and
fǣge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ūt-fūs.

fūs-līc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēoð, 1425;
fyrd-searo fūs-līc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūs-līcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the
dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. þæt hē on fylle wearð, _that he came to a
fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hrā-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in
comp. æl-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. fāne
gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. fēond gefyldan, _they had
slain the enemy_, 2707.

ā-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan wæs frēondum
āfylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrǣgnod,
1334; gen. sg. næs hīe þǣre fylle gefēan hæfdon, 562; fylle gefǣgon,
1015.--Comp.: wæl-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wērig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc.
sg. fyl-wērigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. þā
þe gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance, 378.

fȳras. See fīras.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_:
dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. þone fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hrægl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hrægl, 1528.

fyrd-hwæt, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477.

fyrd-lēoð, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song
fūslīc f[yrd]leoð, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu
fūslīc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūslīcu, 232.

fyrd-wyrðe, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg.
fyrd-wyrðe man (Bēowulf), 1317.

ge-fyrðran (see forð), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part.
ār wæs on ofoste, eftsīðes georn, frætwum gefyrðred, _he was hurried
forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he
hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded
Bēowulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old
times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fīra
fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283, 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. ōr fyrn-gewinnes
(_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many
years_: dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan, of Æschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. næs hit
lengra fyrst, ac ymb āne niht ..., 134; fyrst forð gewāt, _the time_ (of
going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan,
2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fīf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. þȳ
fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_,

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt,
232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fȳsan (fūs), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gefȳsed
flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fȳre
gefȳsed, _provided with fire_, 2310; þā wæs hringbogan (of the drake)
heorte gefȳsed sæcce tō sēceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the
question, for what? gūðe gefȳsed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_,

fȳr, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fȳre, 2220; as
instr. fȳre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fȳres fæðm, 185; fȳres feng, 1765.--
Comp.: ād-, bǣl-, heaðu-, wæl-fȳr.

fȳr-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... fȳr-bendum
fæst, 723.

fȳr-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

fȳr-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl.
(eoforlīc) fāh and fȳr-heard, 305.

fȳr-lēoht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

fȳr-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... fȳrwylmum
fāh, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-lēoð gæleð, 2461; inf.
gryre-lēoð galan, 787; bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _heard the clang,
the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

ā-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. þæt hire on hafelan hringmǣl āgōl
grǣdig gūðlēoð, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon
her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg.
gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen,
1161; gomen, 2460; gomen glēobēames, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc.
sg. gamen and glēodrēam, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp.

gamen-wāð, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous
society_: dat. sg. of gomen-wāðe, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. þǣr wæs
... gomenwudu grēted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grētte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years,
gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398;
gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. þone gomelan,
2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; þām gomelan,
2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former
time_: gen. pl. gomelra lāfe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old
times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lāfe, 2564; gomel
swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne
mihte ... ganges ge-twǣman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2)
_step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel),
1405; acc. sg. uton hraðe fēran Grendles māgan gang scēawigan, 1392.--Comp.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg.
ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flōda begang,
1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flōda begong, 1498; sioleða bigong,

gangan. See under gān.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes bæð (i.e. the
sea), 1862.

gād, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bið þē wilna gād (_thou shalt have no lack
of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

gān, _expanded_ = gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gǣð ā Wyrd swā
hīo scel, 455; gǣð eft ... tō medo, 605; þonne hē ... on flett gǣð, 2035;
similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. gā þǣr hē wille, _let him go whither
he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. gā nū tō setle, 1783; nū þū lungre geong, hord
scēawian, under hārne stān, 2744; inf. in gān, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'forð
gān, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; þat hīe him tō mihton gegnum
gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tō sele ... gangan cwōmon, 324; in
a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nū gē mōton gangan ... Hrōðgār
gesēon, 395; þā cōm of mōre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going)
from the fen_, 712; ongēan gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go
to the war_, 1035; cwōm ... tō hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tō, _let us
go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) gēong or gīong: hē tō healle
gēong, 926; similarly, 2019; sē þe on orde gēong, _who went at the head,
went in front, _3126; on innan gīong, _went in_, 2215; hē ... gīong tō þæs
þe hē eorðsele ānne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall,
_2410; þā se æðeling, gīong, þæt hē bī wealle gesæt, _then went the prince_
(Bēowulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tō healle
gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang þā æfter flōre, _went
along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): hē ...
beforan gengde ..., wong scēawian, _went in front to inspect the fields_,
1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, ēode (Goth.
iddja): ēode ellenrōf, þæt hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358;
similarly, 403; [wið duru healle Wulfgār ēode], _went towards the door of
the hall_, 390; ēode Wealhþēow forð, _went forth_, 613; ēode tō hire frēan
sittan, 641; ēode yrremōd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; ēode ... tō
sele, 919; similarly, 1233; ēode ... þǣr se snottra bād, 1313; ēode weorð
Denum æðeling tō yppan, _the prince_ (Bēowulf), _honored by the Danes, went
to the high seat_, 1815; ēode ... under inwit-hrōf, 3124; pl. þǣr
swīðferhðe sittan ēodon, 493; ēodon him þā tōgēanes, _went to meet him_,
1627; ēodon under Earna næs, 3032.

ā-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. swā bit āgangen
wearð eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. þonne ... sceft nytte
hēold, feðer-gearwum fūs flāne full-ēode, _when the shaft had employment,
furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-gān, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his mōdor ...
gegān wolde sorhfulne sīð, 1278; sē þe gryre-sīðas gegān dorste, _who dared
to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga
geonga under his mǣges scyld elne geēode, _went quickly under his kinsman's
shield_, 2677; pl. elne geēodon tō þæs þe ..., _went quickly thither where_
..., 1968; pret. part. syððan hīe tō-gædre gegān hæfdon, _when they_
(Wīglāf and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; þæt his aldres wæs ende
gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; þā wæs endedæg gōdum
gegongen, þæt se gūðcyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_:
inf. (w. acc.) þonne hē æt gūðe gegān þenceð longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid
elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, næs þæt ȳðe cēap tō gegangenne
gumena ǣnigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geēodon ... þæt se byrnwīga būgan
sceolde, 2918; pret. part. hæfde ... gegongen þæt, _had attained it, that_
..., 894; hord ys gescēawod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to
happen_: pres. sg. III. gif þæt gegangeð þæt ..., _if that happen, that_
..., 1847; pret. sg. þæt geīode ufaran dōgrum hilde-hlæmmum, _it happened
in later times to the warriors_ (the Gēatas), 2201; pret. part. þā wæs
gegongen guman unfrōdum earfoðlīce þæt, _then it had happened to the young
man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

oð-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. oð þæt hī oðēodon ... in Hrefnesholt,

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. oferēode þā æðelinga bearn
stēap stān-hliðo, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl.
freoðo-wong þone forð oferēodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-ēode þā ides Helminga duguðe
and geogoðe dǣl ǣghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior
and the inferior warriors_, 621.

gār, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg.
gāre, 1076; blōdigan gāre, 2441; gen. sg. gāres fliht, 1766; nom. pl.
gāras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-gār.

gār-cēne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

gār-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. gār-cwealm
gumena, 2044.

gār-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gār-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on
gār-secg, 49, 537; ofer gār-secg, 515.

gār-wiga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum
gār-wigan, of Wīglāf, 2675, 2812.

gār-wīgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl.
gār-wīgend, 2642.

gāst, gǣst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle gāst (Grendel), 1275;
gen. sg. wergan gāstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl.
dyrnra gāsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gǣsta gīfrost (_flames consuming
corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geō-sceaft-gāst; ellen-, wæl-gǣst.

gāst-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg.
gāst-bona, 177.

gædeling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_:
gen. sg. gædelinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his gædelingum, 2950.

æt-gædere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ætgædere, 329,
387, 730, 1064.

tō-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

gæst, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. gæst, 1801; se gæst
(the drake), 2313; se grimma gæst (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc.
sg. gryre-līcne gist (the nixy slain by Bēowulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste,
2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. gæs[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fēðe-,
gryre-, inwit-, nīð-, sele-gæst (-gyst).

gæst-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_:
acc. sg., 995.

gē, conj., _and_, 1341; gē ... gē ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; gē ...
gē ..., gē ..., 1249; gē swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

gē, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of þū, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. þīnra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tō, ofer, giving the
direction: þæt hīe him tō mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go
thither_), 314; gegnum fōr [þā] ofer myrcan mōr, _away over the dark moor_,

gehðu, geohðu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. giohðo mǣnde, 2268; dat.
sg. on gehðo, 3096; on giohðe, 2794.

gēn (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne wæs hit lenge þā gēn, þæt ..., _it
was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymb Grendel,
_shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nō þȳ ǣr ūt þā gēn ...
gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gēn is eall æt þē
lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; þā gēn, _then
again_, 2678, 2703; swā hē nū gēn dēð, _as he still does_, 2860; furður
gēn, _further still, besides_, 3007; nū gēn, _now again_, 3169; ne gēn, _no
more, no farther_: ne wæs þæt wyrd þā gēn, _that was no more fate_ (fate no
longer willed that), 735.

gēna, _still_: cwico wæs þā gēna, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sǣ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gān(3).

genge. See ūð-genge.

gēnunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_:
pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret.
sg. gyrede hine Bēowulf eorl-gewǣdum (_dressed himself in the armor_),

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him þā gegiredan Gēata lēode
ād ... unwāclīcne, 3138; pret. part. glōf ... eall gegyrwed dēofles cræftum
and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. cēol
gegyrwan hilde-wǣpnum and heaðowǣdum, 38; hēt him ȳðlidan gōdne gegyrwan,
_had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike
equipment_: pret. part. syððan hē hine tō gūðe gegyred hæfde, 1473.--3) _to
endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hrægl ... golde
gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lāfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mādmas ...
golde gegyrede, 1029.

gētan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gēte, adj., _attainable_; in comp. ēð-begēte.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ætsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. bȳman gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic
song, incantation, spell_: instr. sg. þonne wæs þæt yrfe ... galdre
bewunden (_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. þæt his byre rīde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mōd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, 1278.

gealg-trēow, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-trēowu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in Bēowulf corresponding to the house-complex
of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in
Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; ǣr hē
on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his
dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished,
equipped_: nom. sg. þæt hit wearð eal gearo, heal-ærna mǣst, 77; wiht
unhǣlo ... gearo sōna wæs, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did
not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca wæs on bǣl gearu,
_was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; þēod (is)
eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231;
hraðe wæs æt holme hȳð-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gūð-freca,
2415; sīe sīo bǣr gearo ǣdre geæfned, _let the bier be made ready at once_,
3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwræce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119,
acc. sg. gearwe stōwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: nē gē ... gearwe ne
wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe
geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse hē gearwe þæt
..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; þæt ic ... gearo scēawige
swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as
they are_), 2749; ic wāt geare þæt ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more
readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feðer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-līc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor,
215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wīsa fengel geatolīc gengde, _passed
on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the
ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: ēored-,
gryre-, gūð-, hilde-, wīg-geatwe.

gēan (from gegn), adv. in

on-gēan, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: þæt hē mē ongēan slēa, 682;
rǣhte ongēan fēond mid folme, 748; foran ongēan, _forward towards_, 2365.
With dat.: ongēan gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tō-gēanes, tō-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tōgēanes, _towards
Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; grāp þā tōgēanes, _she grasped at_
(Bēowulf), 1502; similarly, him tōgēanes fēng, 1543; ēodon him þā tōgēanes,
_went towards him_, 1627; hēt þā gebēodan ... þæt hīe bǣl-wudu feorran
feredon gōdum tōgēnes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from
far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the
dead Bēowulf lay), 3115.

gēap, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... gēap, _the roomy
hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under gēapne hrōf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sǣ-gēap.

geār, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. geāra, in adverbial sense,
olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-geāra.

geār-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) geār-dagum, 1,

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_:
nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen gēotende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg.
geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogoð, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoðe, 409, 466,
2513; on giogoðe, 2427; gen. gioguðe, 2113.--2) contrasted with duguð, _the
younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires
with the knights): nom. sg. geogoð, 66; giogoð, 1191; acc. sg. geogoðe,
1182; gen. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; duguðe and iogoðe (geogoðe), 1675, 622.

geoguð-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs
in the ranks of the geogoð: on geogoð- (geoguð-) fēore, 537, 2665.

geohðo. See gehðo.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden
bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced
yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond þisne
middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eorðan,
266, 3100; fērdon folctogan ... geond wīd-wegas, _went along the ways
coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond þæt sæld, _through the hall,
through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447;
w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gūðcyning, 1970; dat. sg.
geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on swā geongum feore, _at a so youthful
age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum
and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word,

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sīðes
georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: þæt him wine-māgas georne hȳrdon, 66;
georne truwode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sōhte georne æfter grunde,
_eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nō
ic him þæs georne ætfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely,
exactly_: comp. wiste þē geornor, 822.

geō, iū, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; giō, 2522; iū, 2460.

gēoc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. gēoce gefremman, 2675; þæt him
gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wið þēod-þrēaum, 177; gēoce gelȳfde, _believed
in the help_ (of Bēowulf), 609; dat. sg. tō gēoce, 1835.

gēocor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geō-man, iū-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. iū-manna, 3053.

geō-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. īo-meowlan, 2932.

geōmor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him wæs
geōmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mōdes geōmor, 2101; fem. þæt wæs geōmuru
ides, 1076.

geōmore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geōmor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giōmor-gyd, 3151.

geōmor-līc, adj., _sad, painful_: swā bið geōmorlīc gomelum ceorle tō
gebīdanne þæt..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._,

geōmor-mōd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giōmor-mōd, 2268.

geōmrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geōmrode giddum, 1119.

geō-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geōsceaft
grimme, 1235.

geōsceaft-gāst, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela
geōsceaft-gāsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

gēotan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen
gēotende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. þǣr wæs ...
gid oft wrecen, 1066; lēoð wæs āsungen, glēomannes gyd, _the song was sung,
the gleeman's lay_, 1161; þǣr wæs gidd and glēo, 2106; acc. sg. ic þis gid
āwræc, 1724; gyd āwræc, 2109; gyd æfter wræc, 2155; þonne hē gyd wrece,
2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.:
geōmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With
subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind.,
272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas bēagas geaf
Denum, 1720; hē mē [māðmas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624,
etc.; pret. pl. gēafon (hyne) on gārsecg, 49; pret. part. þā wæs Hrōðgāre
here-spēd gyfen, 64; þā wæs gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen,
1679; syððan ǣrest wearð gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_),

ā-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... āgifan, _to give an
answer_, 355; pret. sg. sōna him se frōda fæder Ōhtheres ... ondslyht āgeaf
(_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him þæs līf-frēa ... worold-āre
forgeaf, 17; þǣm tō hām forgeaf Hrēðel Gēata āngan dōhtor (_gave in
marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; hē mē lond forgeaf, _granted me land_,
2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; mægen-rǣs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he
gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force,

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. þæt se mǣra maga Ecgþēowes
grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589;
pret. sg. þās worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdrēam
ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. næs ofgēafon hwate
Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; þæt þā hildlatan holt ofgēfan,
_that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg.
pret. for pl. þāra þe þis [līf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifeðe, adj., _given, granted_: Gūðfremmendra swylcum gifeðe bið þæt...,
_to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; swā mē
gifeðe wæs, 2492; þǣr mē gifeðe swā ǣnig yrfeweard æfter wurde, _if an
heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: wæs
þæt gifeðe tō swīð, þē þone [þēoden] þyder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh
that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfeðe, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifeðe.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc.
sg. ymb þā gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stōl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg.,
2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc.
sg. gimfæste gife þē him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted
him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginfæstan gife þē him god sealde,
2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena,
1174.--Comp.: māððum-, sinc-gifu.

gīgant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gīgantas, 113; gen. pl. gīganta, 1563,

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wiðer-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to
pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; hē mid gōde gyldan wille
uncran eaferan, 1185; wē him þā gūðgeatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg.
heaðorǣsas geald mēarum and māðmum, _repaid the battles with horses and
treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald þone gūðrǣs ... Jofore and Wulfe
mid ofermāðmum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great
treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum sāre angeald ǣfenræste, _one_
(Æschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

ā-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. þā mē sǣl āgeald, _when the
favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, þā him rūm āgeald,

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj.
sg. III. alwalda þec gōde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with
good_, 957; inf. þone ǣnne heht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_
(killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; hē ...
wolde Grendle for-gyldan gūðrǣsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many
attacks_, 1578; wolde se lāða līge forgyldan drinc-fæt dȳre, _the enemy
wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it),
2306; pret. sg. hē him þæs lēan forgeald, _he gave them the reward
therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hraðe wyrsan wrixle
wælhlem þone, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself
in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. hæfde ...
Gēat-mecga lēod gilp gelǣsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for
himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas, _gives
no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; þæt ic wið þone
gūðflogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_,
2529; dat. sg. gylpe wiðgrīpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_),
2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech,
to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nō ic þæs gilpe (after a break
in the text), 587; sg. III. morðres gylpeð, _boasts of the murder_, 2056;
inf. swā ne gylpan þearf Grendles maga ǣnig ... ūhthlem þone, 2007; nealles
folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan þorfte, _had no need to boast of his
fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrēðsigora ne gealp goldwine Gēata, _did
not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the
drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a
coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hlæden, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has
made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many
combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hlæden, 869.

gilp-sprǣc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat.
sg. on gylp-sprǣce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_:
gen. pl. gespræc ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's
jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rīce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rīce hord-burh hæleða,

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide,
extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-fæst, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-fæste gife (gim-, on
account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-fæstan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. oð þæt ān ongan fyrene fremman
fēond on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sīð Bēowulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; þā
þæt sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higelāc
ongan sīnne geseldan ... fægre fricgean, _began with propriety to question
his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nō hēr cūðlīcor cuman
ongunnon lindhæbbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to
come hither_, 244; pret. part. hæbbe ic mǣrða fela ongunnen on geogoðe,
_have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See gæst.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of þū, 508, 512, 513, etc.

gīt, gȳt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957;
nǣfre gīt, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513;
_moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147,
2231; þā hine wīg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873;
similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit ǣr on þē gōde be-geāton, _good men
received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. þæt wæs Hrōðgāre
hrēowa tornost þāra þe lēodfruman lange begeāte, _the bitterest of the
troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. hē þā forðgesceaft forgyteð
and forgȳmeð, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg.
gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724;
pret. sg. þē hine se brōga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to
grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to
behold_: pres. subj. I. þæt ic ǣrwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the
ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. sæl timbred
... ongytan, 308, 1497; Gēata clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-þearfe
ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ...
grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl.
bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the
battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syððan hīe Hygelāces horn and bȳman gealdor
ongeāton, 2945.

gīfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, of Grendel's
mother, 1278.--Superl.: līg..., gǣsta gīfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gīfre.

gītsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. gȳtsað, 1750.

gio-, giō-. see geo-, geō-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladiað
gomelra lāfe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_
(armor), 2037.

glæd, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom.
sg. bēo wið Gēatas glæd, 1174; acc. sg. glædne Hrōðgār, 864; glædne
Hrōðulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna Frōdan, 2026.

glæde, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

glædnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

glæd-mōd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glēd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl.
glēdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glēd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg.
glēd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

glēaw (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct;
in comp. un-glēaw.

glēo, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and
jest): nom. sg. þǣr wæs gidd and glēo, 2106.

glēo-bēam, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen.
sg. glēo-bēames, 2264.

glēo-drēam, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth,
social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and glēo-drēam, 3022.

glēo-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially
with music), harper_: gen. sg. glēomannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinōn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf.
geseah þā ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glīdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syððan heofones gim glād ofer
grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had
set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer gārsecg, _you glided over the ocean_
(swimming), 515.

tō-glīdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret.
gūð-helm tō-glād (Ongenþēow's helmet was split asunder by the blow of
Eofor), 2488.

glōf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glōf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_,

gnēað, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. næs hīo ... tō gnēað gifa Gēata
lēodum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Gēatas_,

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn þrowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides
gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ...
hlāfordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; hālig god, 381, 1554;
wītig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hīe drihten
god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.;
gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold,
_wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759,
2794, 3169; hǣðen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277;
brād gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019;
fǣttan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden
golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede),
_provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad,
_adorned with gold_, 778; golde fāhne (hrōf), _the roof shining with gold_,
928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted
golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen.
sg. goldes, 2302; fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; scīran goldes, _of pure gold_,
1695. --Comp. fæt-gold.

gold-ǣht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-fāh, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced
... gold-fāh, 1801; acc. sg. gold-fāhne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-fāg
scinon web æfter wāgum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along
the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid
mīnne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom.
sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hwæt, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: næs hē goldhwæt,
_he_ (Bēowulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the
drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-māðm, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-māðmas (the treasures of
the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was
distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640,

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the
drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom.
sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Gēata,
2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. gūðrinc goldwlanc (Bēowulf
rewarded with gold by Hrōðgār on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gōd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864,
2264, 2391, etc.; frōd and gōd, 279; w. dat. cyning æðelum gōd, _the king
noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gōd, 2544; w. gen. wes þū ūs lārena gōd,
_be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction),
269; in weak form, se gōda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gōdne, 199,
347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gōdne, 1487; neut. gōd, 1563; dat. sg.
gōdum, 3037, 3115; þǣm gōdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gōde, 2250; þā gōdan,
1164; acc. pl. gōde, 2642; dat. pl. gōdum dǣdum, 2179; gen. pl. gōdra
gūðrinca, 2649.--Comp. ǣr-gōd.

gōd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gōde, 20,
957, 1185; gōde mǣre, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (Þrȳðo), 1953;
instr. pl. gōdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. nāt hē
þāra gōda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames grāpum, _in the gripe of the
enemy_ (Bēowulf), 766; nom. pl. þā graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma,

gram-hȳdig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg.
gromhȳdig, 1750.

grāp, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid grāpe,
438; on grāpe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles grāpe, _all of Grendel's
claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames grāpum, 766; (as instr.)
grimman grāpum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: fēond-, hilde-grāp.

grāpian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. þæt hire
wið halse heard grāpode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_,
1567; hē ... grāpode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

græs-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. græsmoldan træd, _went over the
grass-plot_, 1882.

grǣdig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grǣdig, 121,
1500; acc. sg. grǣdig gūðlēoð, 1523.

grǣg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. æsc-holt ufan grǣg, _the ashen wood, gray
above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. grǣge syrcan, _gray_
(i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

grǣg-mǣl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord
Bēowulfes gomol and grǣgmǣl, 2683.

grǣpe. See æt-grǣpe.

grētan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine swā gōdne
grētan, 347; Hrōðgār grētan, 1647, 2011; ēowic grētan hēt (_bade me bring
you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grētte Gēata lēod, 626; grētte þā
guma ōðerne, 653; Hrōðgār grētte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to
seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstōl grētan, _take possession
of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; næs se folccyning ǣnig ... þē mec
gūðwinum grētan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... sē þone
gomelan grētan sceolde, 2422; þæt þone sin-scaðan gūðbilla nān grētan
nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804;
pret. sg. grētte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen)
_greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nō hē mid hearme ... gæstas grētte,
_did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grētte,
_touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. þæt
þū þone wælgǣst wihte ne grētte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out
the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. þæt hē ne grētte
goldweard þone, 3082; pret. part. þǣr wæs ... gomenwudu grēted, 1066.

ge-grētan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne
gegrētte mēaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981;
gegrētte þā gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman siðe, _spoke then the last time
to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_:
inf. sceal ... manig ōðerne gōdum gegrētan ofer ganotes bæð, _many a one
will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

grēot, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on grēote, 3169.

grēotan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. sē þe æfter
sincgyfan on sefan grēoteð, _who laments in his heart for the
treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.;
weak form, se grimma gæst, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem,
grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre gūðe, 527; instr. pl. grimman grāpum,
1543.--Comp.: beado-, heaðo-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-līc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlīc gry[re-gæst], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_:
pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum,
_destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. hæfde
līgdraca lēoda fæsten ... glēdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the
people's feasts_, 2336; þā his āgen (scyld) wæs glēdum forgrunden, _since
his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mēces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne
gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fǣr-, mund-, nīð-gripe.

grīma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grīma.

grīm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grīm-helmas,

grīpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. grāp þā tōgēanes,
_then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grīpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the
grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. æt gūðe forgrāp Grendeles mǣgum, 2354.
wið-grīpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. hū
wið þām āglǣcean elles meahte gylpe wið-grīpan, _how else I might maintain
my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grōwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhðe grēow
brēosthord blōdrēow, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands;
_earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sōhte ... æfter grunde, _sought
along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom,
the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes
grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tō
grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so,
on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sǣ-grund.

grund-būend, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl.
grund-būendra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of
Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in þām
[grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. þone
grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772,

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg.
grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429),
st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283;
acc. sg. wið Grendles gryre, 384; hīe Wyrd forswēop on Grendles gryre,
_snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_,
478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. swā fela gryra, 592.--Comp.:
fǣr-, wīg-gryre.

gryre-brōga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg.
[gryre-]br[ō]g[a], 2229.

gryre-fāh, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-fāhne (_the
fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] fȳrwylmum fāh, 2672, 2577.

gryre-gæst, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg.
grimlīc gry[regæst], 3042; dat. sg. wið þām gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in
hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-lēoð, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. gehȳrdon
gryrelēoð galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-līc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-līcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sīð, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike
expedition: acc. pl. sē þe gryre-sīðas gegān dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman,
1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306,
667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena,
73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. wē synt gumcynnes
Gēata lēode, _people from the nation of the Gēatas_, 260; dat. pl. æfter
gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.)
gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum
gōdne bēaga bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gōd ... hilde-hlemma (Bēowulf), 2544.

gum-drēam, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-drēam ofgeaf
(died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fēða, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stōl, st. m., _man's seat, κατ' ἐζωχήν, ruler's seat, throne_: dat. sg.
in gumstōle, 1953.

gūð, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg.
gūðe, 604; instr. sg. gūðe, 1998; dat. sg. tō (æt) gūðe, 438, 1473. 1536,
2354, etc.; gen. sg. gūðe, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. gūðum, 1959, 2179;
gen. pl. gūða, 2513, 2544.

gūð-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. gūð-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on
the Danish coast_), 314.

gūð-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. gūðbill, 2585; gen. pl. gūð-billa
nān, 804.

gūð-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

gūð-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. æfter
gūð-ceare, 1259.

gūð-cræft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles
gūð-cræft, 127.

gūð-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg.,
199, 1970, 2336, etc.

gūð-dēað, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

gūð-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wið þone gūðflogan (the
drake), 2529.

gūð-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo
gūð-freca, of the drake, 2415.

gūð-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl.
gūð-fremmendra, 246; gūð- (gōd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_
(meaning Bēowulf), 299.

gūð-gewǣde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. gūð-gewǣdo, 227; acc.
pl. -gewǣdu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewǣda, 2624.

gūð-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679,
982, 1826.

gūð-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. þā gūð-geatwa
(-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in ēowrum gūð-geatawum, 395.

gūð-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

gūð-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

gūð-hrēð, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

gūð-lēoð, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

gūð-mōd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom.
pl. gūð-mōde, 306.

gūð-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl.
gūð-rǣsa, 1578, 2427.

gūð-rēow, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

gūð-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119,
1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. gūð-rinca, 2649.

gūð-rōf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

gūð-sceaða, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake,

gūð-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. æfter gūð-sceare,

gūð-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat
sg. in þǣm gūðsele (in Heorot), 443.

gūð-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

gūð-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

gūð-wērig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. gūð-wērigne Grendel,

gūð-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the
sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. þē mec gūð-winum grētan dorste, _who
dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

gūð-wiga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen
gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum bēage,
1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-)
girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tō gyrn-wræce, 1139; gen.
sg. þā wæs eft hraðe gearo gyrn-wræce Grendeles mōdor, _then was Grendel's
mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

gȳman, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III.
gȳmeð, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhȳda ne gȳm! _do not study arrogance_
(despise it), 1761.

for-gȳman, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. hē þā
forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1752.

gȳtsian. See gītsian.

gȳt. See gīt.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. þæs ic wēn hæbbe (_as I
hope_), 383; þē ic geweald hæbbe, 951; ic mē on hafu bord and byrnan, _have
on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. þū nū [friðu]
hafast, 1175; pl. I. habbað wē ... micel ǣrende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III.
þæt hē þrīttiges manna mægencræft on his mundgripe hæbbe, 381. Blended with
the negative: pl. III. þæt be Sǣ-Gēatas sēlran næbben tō gecēosenne cyning
ǣnigne, _that the Sea-Gēatas will have no better king than you to choose_,
1851; imp. hafa nū and geheald hūsa sēlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462,
3018; pret. sg. hæfde, 79, 518, 554; pl. hæfdon, 539.--2) used as an
auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. hæbbe ic ... ongunnen, 408;
hæbbe ic ... geāhsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafað, 474, 596;
pret. sg. hæfde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. hæfdon, 117,
695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nū scealc hafað dǣd gefremede,
940; hæfde se gōda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are
formed the compounds: bord-, rond-hæbbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte wǣfre mōd
forhabban in hreðre, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the
breast_, 1152; ne mihte þā for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wið-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. þæt se wīnsele
wið-hæfde heaðo-dēorum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_,

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636,
1781; nā þū mīnne þearft hafalan hȳdan, 446; þonne wē on orlege hafelan
weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwīta helm
hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg.
heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wīg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wǣpen hafenade heard be
hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tō
hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ān-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flǣsc-, fyrd-, līc-hama, scīr-ham

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera lāfe
(swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; sīo swīðre ... hand, _the right
hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657,
687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be
honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_:
dat. sg. tō hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemōt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) þolode
ǣr fela hand-gemōta, 1527; nō þæt lǣsest wæs hond-gemōta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl.
hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade,
companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl.
hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in
battle: dat. sg. for þæs hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewriðen, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl.
wælbende ... hand-gewriðene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (gūð-byrne,
līc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced
rings), 322, 551.

hand-rǣs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg.
hond-rǣs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale
(hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a
spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen.
pl. hond-wundra mǣst, 2769.

hangan. See hōn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. þonne his sunu hangað hrefne to
hrōðre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer þǣm
(mere) hongiað hrīmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf.
hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. hē þone
heaðo-rinc hatian ne meahte lāðum dǣdum (_could not do him any harm_),
2467; pret. sg. hū se gūð-sceaða Gēata lēode hatode and hȳnde, 2320.

hād, st. m., _form, condition, position, manner_: acc. sg. þurh hǣstne hād,
_in a powerful manner_, 1336; on gesīðes hād, _in the position of follower,
as follower_, 1298; on sweordes hād, _in the form of a sword_, 2194. See
under on.

hādor, st. m., _clearness, brightness_: acc. sg. under heofenes hādor, 414.

hādor, adj., _clear, fresh, loud_: nom. sg. scop hwīlum sang hādor on
Heorote, 497.

hādre, adv., _clearly, brightly_, 1572.

hāl, adj., _hale, whole, sound, unhurt_: nom. sg. hāl, 300. With gen.
heaðo-lāces hāl, _safe from battle_, 1975. As form of salutation, wes ...
hāl, 407; dat. sg. hālan līce, 1504.

hālig, adj., _holy_: nom. sg. hālig god, 381, 1554; hālig dryhten, 687.

hām, st. m., _home, residence, estate, land_: acc. sg. hām, 1408; Hrōðgāres
hām, 718. Usually in adverbial sense: gewāt him hām, _betook himself home_,
1602; tō hām, 124, 374, 2993; fram hām, _at home_, 194; æt hām, _at home_,
1249, 1924, 1157; gen. sg. hāmes, 2367; acc. pl. hāmas, 1128.--Comp.
Finnes-hām, 1157.

hām-weorðung, st. f., _honor_ or _ornament of home_: acc. sg. hām-weorðunge
(designation of the daughter of Hygelāc, given in marriage to Eofor), 2999.

hār, adj., _gray_: nom. sg. hār hilde-rinc, 1308, 3137; acc. sg. under
(ofer) hārne stān, 888, 1416, 2554; hāre byrnan (i.e. iron shirt of mail),
2154; dat. sg. hārum hildfruman, 1679; f. on hēare hǣðe (on heaw ... h ...
ðe, MS.), 2213; gen. sg. hāres, _of the old man_, 2989.--Comp. un-hār.

hāt, adj., _hot, glowing, flaming_ nom sg., 1617, 2297, 2548, 2559, etc.;
wyrm hāt gemealt, _the drake hot_ (of his own heat) _melted_, 898; acc.
sg., 2282(?); inst. sg. hātan heolfre, 850, 1424; g. sg. heaðu-fȳres
hātes, 2523; acc. pl. hāte heaðo-wylmas, 2820.--Sup.: hātost heaðo-swāta,

hāt, st. n., _heat, fire_: acc. sg. geseah his mondryhten ... hāt þrowian,
_saw his lord endure the_ (drake's) _heat_, 2606.

hata, w. m., _persecutor_; in comp. dǣd-hata.

hātan, st. v.: 1) _to bid, to order, to direct_, with acc. and inf., and
acc. of the person: pres. sg. I. ic maguþegnas mīne hāte ... flotan ēowerne
ārum healdan, _I bid my thanes take good care of your craft_, 293; imp. sg.
II. hāt in gān ... sibbegedriht, 386; pl. II. hātað heaðo-mǣre hlǣw
gewyrcean, 2803; inf. þæt healreced hātan wolde ... men gewyrcean, _that he
wished to command men to build a hall-edifice_, 68. Pret. sg. heht: heht
... eahta mēaras ... on flet tēon, _gave command to bring eight horses into
the hall_, 1036; þonne ǣnne heht golde forgyldan, _commanded to make good
that one with gold_, 1054; heht þā þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan,
_ordered the combat to be announced at the hedge_(?), 2893; swā se snottra
heht, _as the wise_ (Hrōðgār) _directed_, 1787; so, 1808, 1809. hēt: hēt
him ȳðlidan gōdne gegyrwan, _ordered a good vessel to be prepared for
him_, 198; so, hēt, 391, 1115, 3111. As the form of a wish: hēt hine wēl
brūcan, 1064; so, 2813; pret. part. þā wæs hāten hraðe Heort innan-weard
folmum gefrætwod, _forthwith was ordered Heorot, adorned by hand on the
inside_ (i.e. that the edifice should be adorned by hand on the inside),
992.--2) _to name, to call_: pres. subj. III. pl. þæt hit sǣlīðend ...
hātan Bīowulfes biorh, _that mariners may call it Bēowulf's grave-mound_,
2807; pret. part. wæs se grimma gæst Grendel hāten, 102; so, 263, 373,

ge-hātan, _to promise, to give one's word, to vow, to threaten_: pres. sg.
I. ic hit þē gehāte, 1393; so, 1672; pret. sg. hē mē mēde gehēt, _promised
me reward_, 2135; him fægre gehēt lēana (gen. pl.), _promised them proper
reward_, 2990; wēan oft gehēt earmre teohhe, _with woe often threatened the
unhappy band_, 2938; pret. pl. gehēton æt hærgtrafum wīg-weorðunga, _vowed
offerings at the shrines of the gods_, 175; þonne wē gehēton ūssum hlāforde
þæt ..., _when we promised our lord that_..., 2635; pret. part. sīo gehāten
[wæs] ... gladum suna Frōdan, _betrothed to the glad son of Froda_, 2025.

hātor, st. m. n., _heat_: in comp. and-hātor.

hæft, adj., _held, bound, fettered_: nom. sg., 2409; acc. sg. helle hæftan,
_him fettered by hell_ (Grendel), 789.

hæft-mēce, st. m., _sword with fetters_ or _chains_ (cf. fetel-hilt): dat.
sg. þǣm hæft-mēce, 1458. See Note.

hæg-steald, st. m., _man, liegeman, youth_: gen. pl. hæg-stealdra, 1890.

hæle, st. m., _man_: nom. sg., 1647, 1817, 3112; acc. sg. hæle, 720; dat.
pl. hǣlum (hǣnum, MS.), 1984.

hæleð, st. m., _hero, fighter, warrior, man_: nom. sg., 190, 331, 1070;
nom. pl. hæleð, 52, 2248, 2459, 3143; dat. pl. hæleðum 1710, 1962, etc.;
gen. pl. hæleða, 467, 497, 612, 663, etc.

hærg. See hearg.

hǣð, st. f., _heath_: dat. sg. hǣðe, 2213.

hǣðen, adj., _heathenish_; acc. sg. hǣðene sāwle, 853; dat. sg. hǣðnum
horde, 2217; gen. sg. hǣðenes, _of the heathen_ (Grendel), 987; gen. pl.
hǣðenra, 179.

hǣð-stapa, w. m., _that which goes about on the heath_ (stag): nom. sg.,

hǣl, st. f.: 1) _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. him hǣl ābēad, 654; mid
hǣle, 1218.--2) _favorable sign, favorable omen_: hǣl scēawedon, _observed
favorable signs_ (for Bēowulf's undertaking), 204.

hǣlo, st. f., _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. hǣlo ābēad heorð-genēatum,
2419.--Comp. un-hǣlo.

hǣst (O.H.G. haisterā hantī, manu violenta; heist, ira; heistigo,
iracunde), adj., _violent, vehement_: acc. sg. þurh hǣstne hād, 1336.

hē, fem. hēo, neut. hit, pers. pron., _he, she, it_; in the oblique cases
also reflexive, _himself, herself, itself_: acc. sg. hine, hī, hit; dat.
sg. him, hire, him; gen. sg. his, hire, his; plur. acc. nom. hī, hig, hīe;
dat. him; gen. hira, heora, hiera, hiora.--he omitted before the verb, 68,
300, 2309, 2345.

hebban, st. v., _to raise, to lift_, w. acc.: inf. siððan ic hond and rond
hebban mihte, 657; pret. part. hafen, 1291; hæfen, 3024.

ā-hebban, _raise, to lift from, to take away_: wæs ... icge gold āhafen of
horde, _taken up from the hoard_, 1109; þā wæs ... wōp up āhafen, _a cry of
distress raised_, 128

ge-hegan [ge-hēgan], w. v., _to enclose, to fence_: þing gehegan, _to mark
off the court, hold court_. Here figurative: inf. sceal ... āna gehegan
þing wið þyrse (_shall alone decide the matter with Grendel_), 425.

hel, st. f., _hell_: nom. sg., 853; acc. sg. helle, 179; dat. sg. helle,
101, 589; (as instr.), 789; gen. sg. helle, 1275.

hel-bend, st. m. f. _bond of hell_: instr. pl. hell-bendum fæst, 3073.

hel-rūna, w. m., _sorcerer_: nom. pl. helrūnan, 163.

be-helan, st. v., _to conceal, to hide_: pret. part. be-holen, 414.

helm, st. m.: 1) _protection in general, defence, covering that protects_:
acc. sg. on helm, 1393; under helm, 1746.--2) _helmet_: nom. sg., 1630;
acc. sg. helm, 673, 1023, 1527, 2988; (helo, MS.), 2724; brūn-fāgne,
gold-fāhne helm, 2616, 2812; dat. sg. under helme, 342, 404; gen. sg.
helmes, 1031; acc. pl. helmas, 240, 2639.--3) _defence, protector_,
designation of the king: nom. sg. helm Scyldinga (Hrōðgār), 371, 456, 1322;
acc. sg. heofena helm _(the defender of the heavens_ = God), 182; helm
Scylfinga, 2382.--Comp.: grīm-, gūð-, heaðo-, niht-helm.

ofer-helmian, w. v. w. acc., _to cover over, to overhang_: pres. sg. III.
ofer-helmað, 1365.

helm-berend, pres. part., _helm-wearing_ (warrior): acc. pl. helmberend,
2518, 2643.

helpan, st. v., _to help_: inf. þæt him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte, lind
wið līge, _that a wooden shield could not help him, a linden shield against
flame_, 2341; þæt him īrenna ecge mihton helpan æt hilde, 2685; wutun
gangan to, helpan hildfruman, _let us go thitherto help the battle-chief_,
2650; w. gen. ongan ... mǣges helpan, _began to help my kinsman_, 2880; so,
pret. sg. þǣr hē his mǣges (MS. mægenes) healp, 2699.

help, m. and f., _help, support, maintenance_: acc. sg. helpe, 551, 1553;
dat. sg. tō helpe, 1831; acc. sg. helpe, 2449.

hende, _-handed_: in comp. īdel-hende.

hēr, adv., _here_, 397, 1062, 1229, 1655, 1821, 2054, 2797, etc.; _hither_,
244, 361, 376.

here (Goth, harji-s), st. m., _army, troops_: dat. sg. on herge, _in the
army, on a warlike expedition, 1249; in the army, among the fighting men_,
2639; as instr. herge, 2348.--Comp.: flot-, scip-, sin-here.

here-brōga, w. m., _terror of the army, fear of war_: dat. sg. for
here-brōgan, 462.

here-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg., 1444.

here-grīma, w. m., _battle-mask_, i.e. helmet (with visor): dat. sg.
-grīman, 396, 2050, 2606.

here-net, st. n., _battle-net_, i.e. coat of mail (of interlaced rings):
nom. sg., 1554.

here-nīð, st. m., _battle-enmity, battle of armies_: nom. sg., 2475.

here-pād, st. f., _army-dress_, i.e. coat of mail, armor: nom. sg., 2259.

here-rinc, st. m., _army-hero, hero in battle, warrior_: acc. sg. here-rinc
(MS. here ric), 1177.

here-sceaft, st. m., _battle-shaft_, i.e. spear: gen. pl. here-sceafta
hēap, 335.

here-spēd, st. f., _(war-speed), luck in war_: nom. sg., 64.

here-strǣl, st. m., _war-arrow, missile_: nom. sg., 1436.

here-syrce, w. f., _battle-shirt, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. here-syrcan,

here-wǣd, st. f., _army-dress, coat of mail, armor_: dat. pl. (as instr.)
here-wǣdum, 1898.

here-wǣsma, w. m., _war-might, fierce strength in battle_: dat. pl. an
here-wǣsmum, 678.--Leo.

here-wīsa, w. m., _leader of the army_, i.e. ruler, king: nom. sg., 3021.

herg, hearg, st. m., _image of a god, grove where a god was worshipped_,
hence to the Christian a wicked place(?): dat. pl. hergum geheaðerod,
_confined in wicked places_ (parallel with hell-bendum fæst), 3073.

herigean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to provide with an army, to support with
an army_: pres. sg. I. ic þē wēl herige, 1834.--Leo.

hete, st. m., _hate, enmity_: nom. sg. 142, 2555.--Comp.: ecg-, morðor-,

hete-līc, adj., _hated_: nom. sg., 1268.

hetend, hettend, (pres. part. of hetan, see hatian), _enemy_, hostis: nom.
pl. hetende, 1829; dat. pl. wið hettendum, 3005.

hete-nīð, st. m., _enmity full of hate_: acc. pl. hete-nīðas, 152.

hete-sweng, st. m., _a blow from hate_: acc. pl. hete-swengeas, 2226.

hete-þanc, st. m., _hate-thought, a hostile design_: dat. pl. mid his
hete-þancum, 475.

hēdan, ge-hēdan, w. v. w. gen.: 1) _to protect_: pret. sg. ne hēdde hē þæs
heafolan, _did not protect his head_, 2698.--2) _to obtain_: subj. pret.
sg. III. gehēdde, 505.

herian, w. v. w. acc., _to praise, to commend_: with reference to God, _to
adore_: inf. heofena helm herian ne cūðon, _could not worship the defence
of the heavens_ (God), 182; nē hūru Hildeburh herian þorfte Eotena trēowe,
_had no need to praise the fidelity of the Eotens_, 1072; pres. subj. þæt
mon his wine-dryhten wordum herge, 3177.

ge-heaðerian, w. v., _to force, to press in_: pret. part. ge-heaðerod,

heaðo-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, shirt of mail_: nom. sg., 1553.

heaðo-dēor, adj., _bold in battle, brave_: nom. sg., 689; dat. pl.
heaðo-dēorum, 773.

heaðo-fyr, st. n., _battle-fire, hostile fire_: gen. sg. heaðu-fȳres,
2523; instr. pl. heaðo-fȳrum, 2548, of the drake's fire-spewing.

heaðo-grim, adj., _grim in battle_, 548.

heaðo-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet, war-helmet_: nom. sg., 3157(?).

heaðo-lāc, st. n., _battle-play, battle_: dat. sg. æt heaðo-lāce, 584; gen.
sg. heaðo-lāces hāl, 1975.

heaðo-mǣre, adj., _renowned in battle_: acc. pl. -mǣre, 2803.

heaðo-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack in battle, entrance by force_:
nom. sg., 557; acc. pl. -rǣsas, 1048; gen. pl. -rǣsa, 526.

heaðo-rēaf, st. n., _battle-dress, equipment for battle_: acc. sg.
heaðo-rēaf hēoldon (_kept the equipments_), 401.

heaðo-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: acc. sg. þone heaðo-rinc
(Hrēðel's son, Hæðcyn), 2467; dat. pl. þǣm heaðo-rincum, 370.

heaðo-rōf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 381; nom. pl. heaðo-rōfe,

heaðo-scearp, adj., _sharp in battle, bold_: n. m. pl. (-scearde, MS.),

heaðo-sēoc, adj., _battle-sick_: dat. sg. -sīocum, 2755.

heaðo-stēap, adj., _high in battle, excelling in battle_: nom. sg. in weak
form, heaðo-stēapa, 1246; acc. sg. heaðo-stēapne, 2154, both times of the

heaðo-swāt, st. m., _blood of battle_: dat. sg. heaðo-swāte, 1607; as
instr., 1461; gen. pl. hātost heaðo-swāta, 1669.

heaðo-sweng, st. m., _battle-stroke_ (blow of the sword): dat. sg. æfter
heaðu-swenge, 2582.

heaðo-torht, adj., _loud, clear in battle_: nom. sg. stefn ... heaðo-torht,
_the voice clear in battle_, 2554.

heaðo-wǣd, st. f., _battle-dress, coat of mail, armor_: instr. pl.
heaðo-wǣdum, 39.

heaðo-weorc, st. n., _battle-work, battle_: acc. sg., 2893.

heaðo-wylm, st. m., _hostile (flame-) wave_: acc. pl. hāte heaðo-wylmas,
2820; gen. pl. heaðo-wylma, 82.

heaf, st. n., _sea_: acc. pl. ofer heafo, 2478. See Note.

heafola. See hafela.

heal, st. f., _hall, main apartment, large building_ (consisting of an
assembly-hall and a banqueting-hall): nom. sg. heal, 1152, 1215; heall,
487; acc. sg. healle, 1088; dat. sg. healle, 89, 615, 643, 664, 926, 1010,
1927, etc.; gen. sg. [healle], 389.--Comp.: gif-, meodo-heal.

heal-ærn, st. n., _hall-building, hall-house_: gen. sg. heal-ærna, 78.

heal-gamen, st. n., _social enjoyment in the hall, hall-joy_: nom. sg.,

heal-reced, st. n., _hall-building_: acc. sg., 68.

heal-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_ (at the banquet): dat. pl.
heal-sittendum, 2869; gen. pl. heal-sittendra, 2016.

heal-þegn, st. m., _hall-thane_, i.e. a warrior who holds the hall: gen.
sg. heal-þegnes, of Grendel, 142; acc. pl. heal-þegnas, of Bēowulfs band,

heal-wudu, _hall-wood_, i.e. hall built of wood: nom. sg., 1318.

healdan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to hold, to hold fast; to support_: pret. pl.
hū þā stānbogan ... ēce eorðreced innan hēoldon (MS. healde), _how the
arches of rock within held the everlasting earth-house_, 2720. Pret. sg.,
with a person as object: hēold hine to fæste, _held him too fast_, 789; w.
the dat. hē him frēondlārum hēold, _supported him with friendly advice_,
2378.--2) _to hold, to watch, to preserve, to keep_; reflexive, _to
maintain one's self, to keep one's self_: pres. sg. II. eal þū hit geþyldum
healdest, mægen mid mōdes snyttrum, _all that preservest thou continuously,
strength and wisdom of mind_, 1706; III. healdeð hige-mēðum hēafod-wearde,
_holds for the dead the head-watch_, 2910; imp. sg. II. heald forð tela
nīwe sibbe, _keep well, from now on, the new relationship_, 949; heald
(heold, MS.) þū nū hrūse ... eorla ǣhte, _preserve thou now, Earth, the
noble men's possessions_, 2248; inf. sē þe holmclifu healdan scolde, _watch
the sea-cliffs_, 230; so, 705; nacan ... ārum healdan, _to keep well your
vessel_, 296; wearde healdan, 319; forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan healdan,
3168; pres. part. drēam healdende, _holding rejoicing_ (i.e. thou who art
rejoicing), 1228; pret. sg. hēold hine syððan fyr and fæstor, _kept himself
afterwards afar and more secure_, 142; ǣgwearde hēold, _I have (hitherto)
kept watch on the sea_, 241; so, 305; hīold hēah-lufan wið hæleða brego,
_preserved high love_, 1955; ginfæstan gife ... hēold, 2184; gold-māðmas
hēold, _took care of the treasures of gold_, 2415; hēold mīn tela,
_protected well mine own_, 2738; þonne ... sceft ... nytte hēold, _had
employment, was employed_, 3119; hēold mec, _protected_, i.e. brought me
up, 2431; pret. pl. heaðo-rēaf hēoldon, _watched over the armor_, 401; sg.
for pl. hēafodbeorge ... walan ūtan hēold, _outwards, bosses kept guard
over the head_, 1032.--Related to the preceding meaning are the two
following: 3) _to rule and protect the fatherland_: inf. gif þū healdan
wylt maga rice, 1853; pret. hēold, 57, 2738.--4) _to hold, to have, to
possess, to inhabit_: inf. lēt þone brego-stōl Bēowulf healdan, 2390;
gerund. tō healdanne hlēoburh wera, 1732; pret. sg. hēold, 103, 161, 466,
1749, 2752; lyftwynne hēold nihtes hwīlum, _at night-time had the enjoyment
of the air_, 3044; pret. pl. Gēata lēode hreāwic hēoldon, _the Gēatas held
the place of corpses_ (lay dead upon it), 1215; pret. sg. þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste
hēold worolde wynne, _in which she formerly possessed the highest earthly
joy_, 1080.--5) _to win, to receive_: pret. pl. I. heoldon hēah gesceap,
_we received a heavy fate, heavy fate befell us_, 3085.

be-healdan, w. acc.: 1) _to take care of, to attend to_: pret. sg. þegn
nytte behēold, _a thane discharged the office_, 494; so, 668.--2) _to
hold_: pret. sg. sē þe flōda begong ... behēold, 1499.--3) _to look at, to
behold_: þrȳðswȳð behēold mǣg Higelāces hū ..., _great woe saw H.'s
kinsman, how ..._, 737.

for-healdan, w. acc., _(to hold badly), to fall away from, to rebel_: pret.
part. hæfdon hȳ forhealden helm Scylfinga, _had rebelled against the
defender of the Scylfings_, 2382.

ge-healdan: 1) _to hold, to receive, to hold fast_: pres. sg. III. sē þe
waldendes hyldo gehealdeð, _who receives the Lord's grace_, 2294; pres.
subj. fæder alwalda ... ēowic gehealde sīða gesunde, _keep you sound on
your journey_, 317; inf. ne meahte hē ... on þām frum-gāre feorh gehealdan,
_could not hold back the life in his lord_, 2857.--2) _to take care, to
preserve, to watch over; to stop_: imp. sg. hafa nū and geheald hūsa
sēlest, 659; inf. gehealdan hēt hilde-geatwe, 675; pret. sg. hē frætwe
gehēold fela missēra, 2621; þone þe ǣr gehēold wið hettendum hord and rīce,
_him who before preserved treasure and realm_, 3004.--3) _to rule_: inf.
folc gehealdan, 912; pret. sg. gehēold tela (brāde rīce), 2209.

healf, st. f., _half, side, part_: acc. sg. on þā healfe, _towards this
side_, 1676; dat. sg. hæleðum be healfe, _at the heroes' side_, 2263; acc.
pl. on twā healfa, _upon two sides, mutually_, 1096; on bā healfa (healfe),
_on both sides_ (to Grendel and his mother), 1306; _on two sides, on both
sides_, 2064; gen. pl. on healfa gehwone, _in half, through the middle_,

healf, adj., _half_: gen. sg. healfre, 1088.

heals, st. m., _neck_: acc. sg. heals, 2692; dat. sg. wið halse, 1567; be
healse, 1873.--Comp.: the adjectives fāmig-, wunden-heals.

heals-bēah, st. m., _neck-ring, collar_: acc. sg. þone heals-bēah, 2173;
gen. pl. heals-bēaga, 1196.

heals-gebedde, w. f., _beloved bedfellow, wife_: nom. sg. healsgebedde (MS.
healsgebedda), 63.

healsian, w. v. w. acc., _to entreat earnestly, to implore_: pret. sg. þā
se þēoden mec ... healsode hrēoh-mōd þæt..., _entreated me sorrowful,
that_..., 2133.

heard, adj.: 1) of persons, _able, efficient in war, strong, brave_: nom.
sg. heard, 342, 376, 404, 1575, 2540, etc.; in weak form, se hearda, 401,
1964; se hearda þegn, 2978; þes hearda hēap, 432; nom. pl. hearde
hilde-frecan, 2206; gen. pl. heardra, 989. Comparative: acc. sg. heardran
hæle, 720. With accompanying gen.: wīges heard, _strong in battle_, 887;
dat. sg. nīða heardum, 2171.--2) of the implements of war, _good, firm,
sharp, hard_: nom. sg. (gūð-byrne, līc-syrce) heard, 322, 551. In weak
form: masc. here-strǣl hearda, 1436; se hearda helm, 2256; neutr. here-net
hearde, 1554; acc. sg. (swurd, wǣpen), heard, 540, 2688, 2988; nom. pl.
hearde ... homera lāfe, 2830; heard and hring-mǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon,
2038; acc. pl. heard sweord, 2639. Of other things, _hard, rough, harsh,
hard to bear_: acc. sg. hreðer-bealo hearde, 1344; nom. sg. wrōht ...
heard, 2915; here-nīð hearda, 2475; acc. sg. heoro-sweng heardne, 1591;
instr. sg. heardan cēape, 2483; instr. pl. heardan, heardum clammum, 964,
1336; gen. pl. heardra hȳnða, 166. Compar.: acc. sg. heardran feohtan,
576.--Comp.: fȳr-, īren-, nīð-, regn-, scūr-heard.

hearde, adv., _hard, very_, 1439.

heard-ecg, adj., _sharp-edged, hard, good in battle_: nom. sg., 1289.

heard-fyrde, adj., _hard to take away, heavy_: acc. sg. hard-fyrdne,

heard-hycgend, pres. part. _of a warlike disposition, brave_: nom. pl.
-hicgende, 394, 800.

hearg-træf, st. n., _tent of the gods, temple_: dat. pl. æt hærg-trafum
(MS. hrǣrg trafum), 175.

hearm, st. m., _harm, injury, insult_: dat. sg. mid hearme, 1893.

hearm-sceaða, w. m., _enemy causing injury_ or _grief_: nom. sg.
hearm-scaða, 767.

hearpe, w. f., _harp_: gen. sg. hearpan swēg, 89, 3024; hearpan wynne
(wyn), 2108, 2263.

hēaðu, st. f., _sea, waves_: acc. sg. hēaðu, 1863?

hēaðu-līðend, pres. part., _sea-farer, sailor_: nom. pl. -līðende, 1799;
dat. pl. -līðendum (designation of the Gēatas), 2956.

hēafod, st. n., _head_: acc. sg., 48, 1640; dat. sg. hēafde, 1591, 2291,
2974; dat. pl. hēafdum, 1243.

hēafod-beorh, st. f., _head-defence, protection for the head_: acc. sg.
hēafod-beorge, 1031.

hēafod-mǣg, st. m., _head-kinsman, near blood-relative_: dat. pl.
hēafod-mǣgum (_brothers_), 589; gen. pl. hēafod-māga, 2152.

hēafod-segn, st. n., _head-sign, banner_: acc. sg., 2153.

hēafod-weard, st. f., _head-watch_ acc. sg. healdeð ... hēafod-wearde
lēofes and lāðes, _for the friend and the foe_ (Bēowulf and the drake, who
lie dead near each other), 2910.

hēah, hēa, adj., _high, noble_ (in composition, also primus): nom. sg. hēah
Healfdene, 57; hēa (Higelāc), 1927; hēah (sele), 82; hēah hlǣw, 2806, 3159;
acc. sg. hēah (segn), 48, 2769; hēahne (MS. hēanne) hrōf, 984; dat. sg. in
(tō) sele þām hēan, 714, 920; gen. sg. hēan hūses, 116.--_high, heavy_:
acc. hēah gesceap (_an unusual, heavy fate_), 3085.

hēa-burh, st. f., _high city, first city of a country_: acc. sg., 1128.

hēah-cyning, st. m., _high king, mightiest of the kings_: gen. sg.
-cyninges (of Hrōðgār), 1040.

hēah-gestrēon, st. n., _splendid treasure_: gen. pl. -gestrēona, 2303.

hēah-lufe, w. f., _high love_: acc. sg. hēah-lufan, 1955.

hēah-sele, st. m., _high hall, first hall in the land, hall of the ruler_:
dat. sg. hēah-sele, 648.

hēah-setl, st. n., _high seat, throne_: acc. sg., 1088.

hēah-stede, st. m., _high place, ruler's place_: dat. sg. on hēah-stede,

hēan, adj., _depressed, low, despised, miserable_: nom. sg., 1275, 2100,
2184, 2409.

hēap, st. m., _heap, crowd, troop_: nom. sg. þegna hēap, 400; þes hearda
hēap, _this brave band_, 432; acc. sg. here-sceafta hēap, _the crowd of
spears_, 335; mago-rinca hēap, 731; dat. sg. on hēape, _in a compact body_,
as many as there were of them, 2597.--Comp. wīg-hēap.

hēawan, st. v., _to hew, to cleave_: inf., 801.

ge-hēawan, _cleave_: pres. subj. ge-hēawe, 683.

heoðu, st. f., _the interior of a building_: dat. sg. þæt hē on heoðe
gestōd, _in the interior_ (of the hall, Heorot), 404.

heofon, st. m., _heaven_: nom. sg., 3157; dat. sg. hefene, 1572; gen. sg.
heofenes, 414, 576, 1802, etc.; gen. pl. heofena, 182; dat. pl. under
heofenum, 52, 505.

heolfor, st. n., _gore, fresh_ or _crude blood_: dat. instr. sg. hātan
heolfre, 850, 1424; heolfre, 2139; under heolfre, 1303.

heolster, st. n., _haunt, hiding-place_: acc. sg. on heolster, 756.

heonan, adv., _hence, from here_: heonan, 252; heonon, 1362.

heor, st. m., _door-hinge_: nom. pl. heorras, 1000.

heorde, adj. See wunden-heorde.

heorð-genēat, st. m., _hearth-companion_, i.e. a vassal of the king, in
whose castle he receives his livelihood: nom. pl. heorð-genēatas, 261,
3181; acc. pl. heorð-genēatas, 1581, 2181; dat. pl. heorð-genēatum, 2419.

heorot, st. m., _stag_: nom. sg., 1370.

heorte, w. f., _heart_: nom. sg., 2562; dat. sg. æt heortan, 2271; gen. sg.
heortan, 2464, 2508.--Comp.: the adjectives blīð-, grom-, rūm-,

heoru, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg. heoru bunden (cf. under bīndan), 1286. In
some of the following compounds heoro- seems to be confounded with here-
(see here).

heoro-blāc, adj., _pale through the sword, fatally wounded_: nom. sg.
[heoro-]blāc, 2489.

heoru-drēor, st. m., _sword-blood_: instr. sg. heoru-drēore, 487;
heoro-drēore, 850.

heoro-drēorig, adj., _bloody through the sword_: nom. sg., 936; acc. sg.
heoro-drēorigne, 1781, 2721.

heoro-drync, st. m., _sword-drink_, i.e. blood shed by the sword: instr.
pl. hioro-dryncum swealt, _died through sword-drink_, i.e. struck by the
sword, 2359.

heoro-gīfre, adj., _eager for hostile inroads_: nom. sg., 1499.

heoro-grim, adj., _sword-grim, fierce in battle_: nom. sg. m., 1565; fem.
-grimme, 1848.

heoro-hōcihte, adj., _provided with barbs, sharp like swords _: instr. pl.
mid eofer-sprēotum heoro-hōcyhtum, 1439.

heoro-serce, w. f., _shirt of mail_: acc. sg. hioro-sercean, 2540.

heoro-sweng, st. m., _sword-stroke_: acc. sg. 1591.

heoro-weallende, pres. part., _rolling around fighting_, of the drake,
2782. See weallian.

heoro-wearh, st. m. _he who is sword-cursed, who is destined to die by the
sword_: nom. sg., 1268.

hēofan, w. v., _to lament, to moan_: part. nom. pl. hīofende, 3143.

ā-hēoran, _to free_ (?): w. acc. pret. sg. brȳd āhēorde, 2931.

hēore, adj., _pleasant, not haunted, secure_: nom. sg. fem, nis þæt hēoru
stōw, _that is no secure place_, 1373.--Comp. un-hēore (-hȳre).

hider, adv., _hither_, 240, 370, 394, 3093, etc.

ofer-hīgian, w. v. (according to the connection, probably), _to exceed_,
2767. (O.H.G. ubar-hugjan, _to be arrogant_.)

hild, st. f., _battle, combat_: nom. sg., 452, 902, 1482, 2077; hild
heoru-grimme, 1848; acc. sg. hilde, 648; instr. sg. hilde, _through
combat_, 2917; dat. sg. æt hilde, 1461.

hilde-bil, st. n., _battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1667; instr. dat. sg.
hilde-bille, 557, 1521.

hilde-bord, st. n., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. hilde-bord, 397; instr. pl.
-bordum, 3140.

hilde-cyst, st. f., _excellence in battle, bravery in battle_: instr. pl.
-cystum, 2599.

hilde-dēor, adj., _bold in battle, brave in battle_: nom. sg., 312, 835,
1647, 1817; hilde-dīor, 3112; nom. pl. hilde-dēore, 3171.

hilde-freca, w. m., _hero in battle_: nom. pl. hilde-frecan, 2206; dat. sg.
hild-frecan, 2367.

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for battle, adornment for combat_:
acc. hilde-geatwe, 675; gen. -geatwa, 2363.

hilde-gicel, st. m., _battle-icicle_, i.e. the blood which hangs upon the
sword-blades like icicles: instr. pl. hilde-gicelum, 1607.

hilde-grāp, st. f., _battle-gripe_: nom. sg., 1447, 2508.

hilde-hlemma, w. m., _one raging in battle, warrior, fighter_: nom. sg.,
2352, 2545; dat. pl. eft þæt ge-īode ... hilde-hlæmmum, _it happened to the
warriors_ (the Gēatas), 2202.

hilde-lēoma, w. m., _battle-light, gleam of battle_, hence: 1) the
fire-spewing of the drake in the fight: nom. pl. -lēoman, 2584.--2) _the
gleaming sword_: acc. sg. -lēoman, 1144.

hilde-mecg, st. m., _man of battle, warrior_: nom. pl. hilde-mecgas, 800.

hilde-mēce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. -mēceas, 2203.

hilde-rand, st. m., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. -randas, 1243.

hllde-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle_: acc. sg., 300.

hilde-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 1308, 3125,
3137; dat. sg. hilde-rince, 1496; gen. sg. hilde-rinces, 987.

hilde-sæd, adj., _satiated with battle, not wishing to fight any more_:
acc. sg. hilde-sædne, 2724.

hilde-sceorp, st. n., _battle-dress, armor, coat of mail_: acc. sg., 2156.

hilde-setl, st. n., _battle-seat_ (saddle): nom. sg., 1040.

hilde-strengo, st. f., _battle-strength, bravery in battle_: acc., 2114.

hilde-swāt, st. m., _battle-sweat_: nom. sg. hāt hilde-swāt (the hot, damp
breath of the drake as he rushes on), 2559.

hilde-tūx, st. m., _battle-tooth_: instr. pl. hilde-tūxum, 1512.

hilde-wǣpen, st. m., _battle-weapon_: instr. pl. -wǣpnum, 39.

hilde-wīsa, w. m., _leader in battle, general_: dat. sg. fore Healfdenes
hildewīsan, _Healfdene's general_ (Hnæf), 1065.

hild-freca. See hilde-freca

hild-fruma, st. m., _battle-chief_: dat. sg. -fruma, 1679, 2650; gen. sg.
þæs hild-fruman, 2836.

hlld-lata, w. m., _he who is late in battle, coward_: nom. pl. þā
hild-latan, 2847.

hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_: nom. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. þæt hilt,
1669; hylt, 1668. Also used in the plural; acc. þā hilt, 1615; dat. pl, be
hiltum, 1575.--Comp.: fetel-, wreoðen-hilt.

hilte-cumbor, st. n., _banner with a staff_: acc. sg., 1023.

hilted, pret. part., _provided with a hilt_ or _handle_: acc. sg. heard
swyrd hiked, _sword with a_ (rich) _hilt_, 2988.

hin-fūs, adj., _ready to die_: nom. sg. hyge wæs him hinfūs (i.e. he felt
that he should not survive), 756.

hindema, adj. superl., _hindmost, last_: instr. sg. hindeman sīðe, _the
last time, for the last time_, 2050, 2518.

hirde, hyrde, st. m., (_herd_) _keeper, guardian, possessor_: nom. sg.
folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2982; rīces hyrde, 2028; fyrena hyrde, _the
guardian of mischief, wicked one_, 751, 2220; wuldres hyrde, _the king of
glory, God_, 932; hringa hyrde, _the keeper of the rings_, 2246; cumbles
hyrde, _the possessor of the banner, the bearer of the banner_, 2506;
folces hyrde, 1850; frætwa hyrde, 3134; rīces hyrde, 3081; acc. pl. hūses
hyrdas, 1667.--Comp.: grund-hyrde.

hit (O.N. hita), st. f. (?), _heat_: nom. sg. þenden hyt sȳ, 2650.

hladan, st. v.: 1) _to load, to lay_: inf. on bǣl hladan lēofne mannan,
_lay the dear man on the funeral-pile_, 2127; him on bearm hladan bunan and
discas, _laid cups and plates upon his bosom, loaded himself with them_,
2776; pret. part. þǣr wæs wunden gold on wǣn hladen, _laid upon the wain_,
3135.--2) _to load, to burden_: pret. part. þā wæs ... sǣgēap naca hladen
herewǣdum, _loaded with armor_, 1898.--Comp. gilp-hlæden.

ge-hladan, w. acc., _to load, to burden_: pret. sg. sǣbāt gehlōd (MS
gehleod), 896.

hlāford, st. m., _lord, ruler_: nom. sg., 2376; acc. sg., 267; dat. sg.
hlāforde, 2635; gen. sg. hlāfordes, 3181.--Comp. eald-hlāford.

hlāford-lēas; adj., _without a lord_: nom. pl. hlāford-lēase, 2936.

hlāw, hlǣw, st. m., _grave-hill_: acc. sg. hlǣw, 2803, 3159, 3171; dat. sg.
for hlāwe, 1121. Also, _grave-chamber_ (the interior of the grave-hill),
_cave_: acc. sg. hlāw [under] hrūsan, 2277; hlǣw under hrūsan, 2412; dat.
sg. on hlǣwe, 2774. The drake dwells in the rocky cavern which the former
owner of his treasure had chosen as his burial-place, 2242-2271.

hlæst, st. n., _burden, load_: dat. sg. hlæste, 52.

hlem, st. m., _noise, din of battle, noisy attack_: in the compounds, ūht-,

hlemma, w. m., _one raging, one who calls_; see hilde-hlemma.

ā-hlehhan, st. v., _to laugh aloud, to shout, to exult_: pret. sg. his mōd
āhlōg, _his mood exulted_, 731.

hleahtor, st. m., _laughter_: nom. sg., 612; acc. sg., 3021.

hlēapan, st. v., _to run, to trot, to spring_: inf. hlēapan lēton ...
fealwe mēaras, 865.

ā-hleapan, _to spring up_: pret. āhlēop, 1398.

hleoðu. See hlið.

hleonian, w. v., _to incline, to hang over_: inf. oð þæt hē ...
fyrgen-bēamas ofer hārne stān hleonian funde, _till he found mountain-trees
hanging over the gray rocks_, 1416.

hlēo, st. m., _shady, protected place; defence, shelter_; figurative
designation of the king, or of powerful nobles: wīgendra hlēo, of Hrōðgār,
429; of Sigemund, 900; of Bēowulf, 1973, 2338; eorla hlēo, of Hrōðgār,
1036, 1867; of Bēowulf, 792; of Hygelāc, 2191.

hlēo-burh, st. f., _ruler's castle_ or _city_: acc. sg., 913, 1732.

hlēoðor-cwyde, st. m., _speech of solemn sound, ceremonious words_, 1980.

hlēor, st. n., _cheek, jaw_: in comp. fǣted-hlēor (adj.).

hlēor-bera, w. m., _cheek-bearer_, the part of the helmet that reaches down
over the cheek and protects it: acc. pl. ofer hlēor-beran (_visor_?), 304.

hlēor-bolster, st. m., _cheek-bolster, pillow_: nom. sg., 689.

hlēotan, st. v. w. acc., _to obtain by lot, to attain, to get_: pret. sg.
feorh-wunde hlēat, 2386.

hlīfian, w. v., _to rise, to be prominent_: inf. hlīfian, 2806; pret.
hlīfade, 81, 1800, 1899.

hlið, st. n., _cliff, precipice of a mountain_: dat. sg. on hlīðe, 3159;
gen. sg. hlīðes, 1893; pl. hliðo in composition, stān-hliðo; hleoðu in the
compounds fen-, mist-, næs-, wulf-hleoðu.

hlin-bed (Frisian hlen-bed, Richthofen 206^28, for which another text has
cronk-bed), st. n., κλινίδιον, _bed for reclining, sick-bed_: acc. sg.
hlim-bed, 3035.

tō-hlīdan, st. v., _to spring apart, to burst_: pret. part. nom. pl.
tō-hlidene, 1000.

hlūd, adj., _loud_: acc. sg. drēam ... hlūdne, 89.

hlyn, st. m., _din, noise, clatter_: nom. sg., 612.

hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., _to sound, to resound_: inf. hlynnan (of the
voice), 2554; of fire, _to crackle_: pret. sg. hlynode, 1121.

hlynsian, w. v., _to resound, to crash_: pret. sg. reced hlynsode, 771.

hlytm, st. m., _lot_: dat. sg. næs þā on hlytme, hwā þæt hord strude, _it
did not depend upon lot who should plunder the hoard_, i.e. its possession
was decided, 3127.

hnāh, adj.: 1) _low, inferior_: comp. acc. sg. hnāgran, 678; dat. sg.
hnāhran rince, _an inferior hero, one less brave_, 953.--2) _familiarly
intimate_: nom. sg. næs hīo hnāh swā þēah, _was nevertheless not familiarly
intimate_ (with the Gēatas, i.e. preserved her royal dignity towards them),
(_niggardly_?), 1930.

hnǣgan, w. v. w. acc., (for nǣgan), _to speak to, to greet_: pret. sg. þæt
hē þone wīsan wordum hnǣgde frēan Ingwina, 1319.

ge-hnǣgan, w. acc., _to bend, to humiliate, to strike down, to fell_: pret.
sg. ge-hnǣgde helle gāst, 1275; þǣr hyne Hetware hilde gehnǣgdon, 2917.

hnitan, st. v., _to dash against, to encounter_, here of the collision of
hostile bands: pret. pl. þonne hniton (hnitan) fēðan, 1328, 2545.

hoðma, w. m., _place of concealment, cave_, hence, _the grave_: dat. sg. in
hoðman, 2459.

hof, st. n., _enclosed space, court-yard, estate, manor-house_: acc. sg.
hof (Hrōðgār's residence), 312; dat. sg. tō hofe sīnum (Grendel's home in
the sea), 1508; tō hofe (Hygelāc's residence), 1975; acc. pl. beorht hofu,
2314; dat. pl. tō hofum Gēata, 1837.

hogode. See hycgan.

hold, adj., _inclined to, attached to, gracious, dear, true_: nom. sg. w.
dat. of the person, hold weorod frēan Scyldinga, _a band well disposed to
the lord of the Scyldings_, 290; mandrihtne hold, 1230; Hygelāce wæs ...
nefa swȳðe hold, _to H. was his nephew_ (Bēowulf) _very much attached_,
2171; acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, _from a kindly feeling, with honorable
mind_, 267; holdne wine, 376; holdne, 1980; gen. pl. holdra, 487.

hold. See healdan.

holm, st. m., _deep sea_: nom. sg., 519, 1132, 2139; acc. sg., 48, 633;
dat. sg. holme, 543, 1436, 1915; acc. pl. holmas, 240.--Comp. wǣg-holm.

holm-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: dat. sg. on þām holm-clife, 1422; from þǣm
holmclife, 1636; acc. pl. holm-clifu, 230.

holm-wylm, st. m., _the waves of the sea_: dat. sg. holm-wylme, 2412.

holt, st. n., _wood, thicket, forest._ acc. sg. on holt, 2599; holt,
2847.--Comp.: æsc-, fyrgen-, gār-, Hrefnes-holt.

holt-wudu, st. m., _forest-wood_: 1) of the material: nom. sg., 2341.--2) =
_forest_: acc. sg., 1370.

hop, st. n., _protected place, place of refuge, place of concealment_, in
the compounds fen-, mōr-hop.

hord, st. m. and n., _hoard, treasure_: nom. sg., 2284, 3085; bēaga hord,
2285; māðma hord, 3012; acc. sg. hord, 913, 2213, 2320, 2510, 2745, 2774,
2956, 3057; sāwle hord, 2423; þæt hord, 3127; dat. sg. of horde, 1109; for
horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the hoard_, 2782; hǣðnum horde,
2217; gen. sg. hordes, 888.--Comp.: bēah-, brēost-, word-, wyrm-hord.

hord-ærn, st. n., _place in which a treasure is kept, treasure-room_: dat.
hord-ærne, 2832; gen. pl. hord-ærna, 2280.

hord-burh, st. f., _city in which is the treasure_ (of the king's),
_ruler's castle_: acc. sg., 467.

hord-gestrēon, st. n., _hoard-treasure, precious treasure_: dat. pl.
hord-gestrēonum, 1900; gen. pl. mægen-byrðenne hord-gestrēona, _the great
burden of rich treasures_, 3093.

hord-māððum, st. m., _treasure-jewel, precious jewel_: acc. sg. (-madmum,
MS.), 1199.

hord-wela, w. m., _treasure-riches, abundance of treasures_: acc. sg.
hord-welan, 2345.

hord-weard, st. m., _warder of the treasure, hoard-warden_: 1) of the king:
nom. sg., 1048; acc. sg., 1853.--2) of the drake: nom. sg., 2294, 2303,
2555, 2594.

hord-weorðung, st. f., _ornament out of the treasure, rich ornament_: acc.
sg.--weorðunge, 953.

hord-wyn, st. f., _treasure-joy, joy-giving treasure_: acc. sg. hord-wynne,

horn, st. m., _horn_: 1) upon an animal: instr. pl. heorot hornum trum,
1370.--2) wind-instrument: nom. sg., 1424; acc. sg., 2944.--Comp. gūð-horn.

horn-boga, w. m., _bow made of horn_: dat. sg. of horn-bogan, 2438.

horn-gēap, adj., of great extent between the (stag-)horns adorning the
gables(?): nom. sg. sele ... hēah and horn-gēap, 82.

horn-reced, st. n., building whose two gables are crowned by the halves of
a stag's antler(?): acc. sg., 705. Cf. Heyne's Treatise on the Hall,
Heorot, p. 44.

hors, st. n., _horse_: nom. sg., 1400.

hōciht, adj., _provided with hooks, hooked_: in comp. heoro-hōciht.

be-hōfian, w. v. w. gen., _to need, to want_: pres. sg. III. nū is se dæg
cumen þat ūre man-dryhten mægenes behōfað gōdra gūðrinca, _now is the day
come when our lord needs the might of strong warriors_, 2648.

on-hōhsnian, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. sg. þæt onhōhsnode Heminges mǣg (on
hohsnod, MS.), 1945.

hōlinga, adv., _in vain, without reason_, 1077.

be-hōn, st. v., _to hang with_: pret. part. helmum behongen, 3140.

hōs (Goth, hansa), st. f., _accompanying troop, escort_: instr. sg. mægða
hōse, _with an accompanying train of servingwomen_, 925.

hræðe, adv., _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 224, 741, 749, 1391, etc.;
hraðe, 1438; hreðe, 992; compar. hraðor, 543.

hran-fix, st. m., _whale_: acc. pl. hron-fixas, 540.

hran-rād, st. f., _whale-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. ofer hron-rāde, 10.

hrā, st. n., _corpse_: nom. sg., 1589.

hrā-fyl, st. m., _fall of corpses, killing, slaughter_: acc. sg., 277.

hrædlīce, adv., _hastily, immediately_, 356, 964.

hræfn, hrefn, st. m., _raven_: nom. sg. hrefn blaca, _black raven_, 1802;
se wonna hrefn, _the dark raven_, 3025; dat. sg. hrefne, 2449.

hrægl, st. n., _dress, garment, armor_: nom. sg., 1196; gen. sg., hrægles,
1218; gen. pl. hrægla, 454--Comp.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-hrægl.

hreðe. See hraðe.

hreðer, st. m., _breast, bosom_ nom. sg. hreðer inne wēoll _(it surged in
his breast_), 2114; hreðer ǣðme wēoll, 2594; dat. sg. in hreðre, 1152; of
hreðre, 2820.--_Breast_ as the seat of feeling, _heart_: dat. sg. þæt wæs
... hreðre hygemēðe, _that was depressing to the heart_ (of the slayer,
Hæðcyn), 2443; on hreðre, 1879, 2329; gen. pl. þurh hreðra gehygd,
2046.--_Breast_ as seat of life: instr. sg. hreðre, parallel with aldre,

hreðer-bealo, st. n., _evil that takes hold on the heart, evil severely
felt_: acc. sg., 1344.

hrefn. See hræfn.

hrēð, st. f., _glory_; in composition, gūð-hrēð; _renown, assurance of
victory_, in sige-hrēð.

hrēðe, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg. hrēð (on account of the
following æt, final _e_ is elided, as wēnic for wēne ic, 442; frōfor and
fultum for frōfre and fultum, 699; firen ondrysne for firene ondr., 1933,

hrēð-sigor, st. m., _glorious victory_: dat. sg. hrēð-sigora, 2584.

hrēmig, adj., _boasting, exulting_: with instr. and gen. hūðe hrēmig, 124;
since hrēmig, 1883; frætwum hrēmig, 2055; nom. pl. nealles Hetware hrēmge
þorfton (sc. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2365.

on-hrēran, w. v., _to excite, to stir up_: pret. part. on-hrēred, 549,

hreā-wīc, st. n., _place of corpses_: acc. sg. Gēata lēode hreā-wīc
hēoldon, _held the place of corpses_, 1215.

hrēad, st. f., _ornament_(?), in comp. earm-hrēad. See hrēoðan.

hrēam, st. m., _noise, alarm_:: nom. sg., 1303.

hrēoða, w. m., _cover_, in the compound bord-hrēoða.

hrēoðan, ge-hrēoðan, st. v., _to cover, to clothe_; only in the pret. part.
hroden, gehroden, _dressed, adorned_: hroden, 495, 1023; þā wæs heal hroden
fēonda fēorum, _then was the hall covered with the corpses of the enemy_,
1152; ge-hroden golde, _adorned with gold_, 304.--Comp.: bēag-,

hrēoh, hrēow, hrēo, adj., _excited, stormy, wild, angry, raging; sad,
troubled_: nom. sg. (Bēowulf) hrēoh and heoro-grim, 1565; þæt þām gōdan wæs
hrēow on hreðre, (_that came with violence upon him, pained his heart_),
2329; hrēo wǣron ȳða, _the waves were angry, the sea stormy_, 548; næs him
hrēoh sefa, _his mind was not cruel_, 2181; dat. sg. on hrēon mōde, _of sad
heart_, 1308; on hrēoum mōde, _angry at heart_, 2582.

hrēoh-mōd, adj., _of sad heart_, 2133; _angry at heart_, 2297.

hrēosan, st. v., _to fall, to sink, to rush_: pret. hrēas, 2489, 2832;
pret. pl. hruron, 1075; hīe on weg hruron, _they rushed away_, 1431; hruron
him tēaras, _tears burst from him_, 1873.

be-hrēosan, _to fall from, to be divested of_: pret. part. acc. pl.
fyrn-manna fatu ... hyrstum behrorene, _divested of ornaments_ (from which
the ornaments had fallen away), 2760.

hrēow, st. f., _distress, sorrow_: gen. pl. þæt wæs Hrōðgāre hrēowa
tornost, _that was to Hrōðgār the bitterest of his sorrows_, 2130.

hring, st. m.: 1) _ring_: acc. sg. þone hring, 1203; hring gyldenne, 2810;
acc. pl. hringas, 1196, 1971, 3035; gen. pl. hringa, 1508, 2246.--2) _shirt
of mail_ (of interlaced rings): nom. sg. hring, 1504; byrnan hring,
2261.--Comp. bān-hring.

hringan, w. v., _to give forth a sound, to ring, to rattle_: pret. pl.
byrnan hringdon, 327.

hring-boga, w. m., _one who bends himself into a ring_: gen. sg.
hring-bogan (of the drake, bending himself into a circle), 2562.

hringed, pret. part., _made of rings_: nom. sg. hringed byrne, 1246; acc.
sg. hringde byrnan, 2616.

hringed-stefna, w. m., _ship whose stem is provided with iron rings_
(cramp-irons), especially of sea-going ships (cf. Frið-þiofs saga, I:
þorsteinn ātti skip þat er Ellidi hēt, ... borðit war spengt iarni): nom.
sg., 32, 1898; acc. sg. hringed-stefnan, 1132.

hring-īren, st. n., _ring-iron, ring-mail_: nom. sg., 322.

hring-mǣl, adj., _marked with rings_, i.e. ornamented with rings, or marked
with characters of ring-form: nom. acc. sg., of the sword, 1522, 1562(?);
nom. pl. heard and hring-mǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon (_rich armor_), 2038.

hring-naca, w. m., _ship with iron rings, sea-going ship_: nom. sg., 1863.

hring-net, st. n., _ring-net_, i.e. a shirt of interlaced rings: acc. sg.,
2755; acc. pl. hring-net, 1890.

hring-sele, st. m., _ring-hall_, i.e. hall in which are rings, or in which
rings are bestowed: acc. sg., 2841; dat. sg., 2011, 3054.

hring-weorðung, st. f., _ring-ornament_: acc. sg. -weorðunge, 3018.

hrīnan, st. v. w. dat.: 1) _to touch, lay hold of_: inf. þæt him heardra
nān hrīnan wolde īren ǣrgōd (_that no good sword of valiant men would make
an impression on him_), 989; him for hrōf-sele hrīnan ne mehte fǣrgripe
flōdes (_the sudden grip of the flood might not touch him owing to the
hall-roof_), 1516; þæt þām hring-sele hrīnan ne mōste gumena ǣnig _(so that
none might touch the ringed-hall), _3054; pret. sg. siððan hē hire folmum
[hr]ān (_as soon as he touched it with his hands_), 723; oð þæt dēaðes wylm
hrān æt heortan (_seized his heart_), 2271. Pret. subj. þēah þe him wund
hrīne (_although he was wounded_), 2977.--2) (O.N. hrīna, _sonare,
clamare), to resound, rustle_: pres. part. nom. pl. hrīnde bearwas (for
hrīnende) 1364; but see Note.

hroden. See hrēoðan.

hron-fix. See hran-fix.

hrōðor, st. m., _joy, beneficium_: dat sg. hrefne tō hrōðre, 2449; gen. pl.
hrōðra, 2172.

hrōf, st. m., _roof, ceiling of a house_: nom. sg., 1000; acc. sg. under
Heorotes hrōf, 403; under gēapne hrōf, 838; geseah stēapne hrōf (here
_inner roof, ceiling_), 927; so, ofer hēahne hrōf, 984; ymb þæs helmes
hrōf, 1031; under beorges hrōf, 2756.--Comp. inwit-hrōf.

hrōf-sele, st. m., _covered hall_: dat. sg. hrōf-sele, 1516.

hrōr, adj., _stirring, wide-awake, valorous_: dat. sg. of þǣm hrōran,
1630.--Comp. fela-hrōr.

hruron. See hrēosan.

hrūse, w. f., _earth, soil_: nom. sg., 2248, 2559; acc. sg. on hrūsan, 773,
2832; dat. sg. under hrūsan, 2412.

hrycg, st. m., _back_: acc. sg. ofer wæteres hrycg (_over the water's back,
surface_), 471.

hryre, st. m., _fall, destruction, ruin_: acc. sg., 3181; dat. sg., 1681,
3006.--Comp.: lēod-, wīg-hryre.

hrysian, w. v., _to shake, be shaken, clatter_: pret. pl. syrcan hrysedon
(_corselets rattled_, of men in motion), 226.

hund, st. m., _dog_: instr. pl. hundum, 1369.

hund, num., _hundred_: þrēo hund, 2279; w. gen. pl. hund missēra, 1499;
hund þūsenda landes and locenra bēaga, 2995.

hū, adv., _how, quomodo_, 3, 116, 279, 738, 845, 2319, 2520, 2719, etc.

huð, st. f., _booty, plunder_: dat. (instr.) sg. hūðe, 124.

hūru, adv., _above all, certainly_, 369; _indeed, truly_, 182, 670, 1072,
1466, 1945, 2837; _yet, nevertheless_, 863; _now_, 3121.

hūs, st. n., _house_: gen. sg. hūses, 116; gen. pl. hūsa sēlest (Heorot),
146, 285, 659, 936.

hwan, adv., _whither_: tō hwan syððan wearð hondrǣs hæleða (_what issue the
hand-to-hand fight of the heroes had_), 2072.

hwanan, hwanon, adv., _whence_: hwanan, 257, 2404; hwanon, 333.

hwā, interrog. and indef. pron., _who_: nom. sg. m. hwā, 52, 2253, 3127;
neut. hwæt, 173; ānes hwæt (_a part only_), 3011; hwæt þā men wǣron (_who
the men were_), 233, etc.; hwæt syndon gē searo-hæbbendra (_what armed men
are ye?_), 237; acc. sg. m. wið manna hwone (_from (?) any man_), 155;
neut. þurh hwæt, 3069; hwæt wit geō sprǣcon, 1477; hwæt ... hȳnðo (gen.),
fǣr-nīða (_what shame and sudden woes_), 474; so, hwæt þū worn fela (_how
very much thou_), 530; swylces hwæt, 881; hwæt ... ārna, 1187; dat. m.
hwām, 1697.--Comp. ǣg-hwā.

hwæt, interj., _what! lo! indeed!_ 1, 943, 2249.

ge-hwā, w. part, gen., _each, each one_: acc. sg. m. wið fēonda gehwone,
294; nīða gehwane, 2398; mēca gehwane, 2686; gum-cynnes gehwone, 2766; fem,
on healfa gehwone, 801; dat. sg. m. dōgora gehwām, 88; æt nīða gehwām, 883;
þegna gehwām, 2034; eorla gehwǣm, 1421; fem. in mǣgða ge-hwǣre, 25; nihta
gehwǣm, 1366; gen. sing. m. manna gehwæs, 2528; fem. dǣda gehwæs, 2839.

hwār. See hwǣr.

hwæder. See hwider.

hwæðer, pron., _which of two_: nom. sg. hwæðer ... uncer twēga, 2531; swā
hwæðer, _utercunque_: acc. sg. on swā hwæðere hond swā him gemet þince,
687.--Comp. ǣg-hwæðer.

ge-hwæðer, _each of two, either-other_: nom. sg. m. wæs gehwæðer ōðrum
lifigende lāð, 815; wæs ... gehwæðer ōðrum hrōðra gemyndig, 2172; nē
gehwæðer incer (_nor either of you two_), 584; nom. sg. neut. gehwæðer þāra
(_either of them_, i.e. ready for war or peace), 1249; dat. sg. hiora
gehwæðrum, 2995; gen. sg. bēga gehwæðres, 1044.

hwæðer, hwæðere, hwæðre, 1) adv., _yet, nevertheless_: hwæðre, 555, 891,
1271, 2099, 2299, 2378, etc.; hwæðre swā þēah, _however, notwithstanding_,
2443; hwæðere, 574, 578, 971, 1719--2) conj., = _utrum, whether_: hwæðre,
1315; hwæðer, 1357, 2786.

hwæt, adj., _sharp, bold, valiant_: nom. sg. se secg hwata, 3029; dat. sg.
hwatum, 2162; nom. pl. hwate, 1602, 2053; acc. pl. hwate, 2643,
3006.--Comp.: fyrd-, gold-hwæt.

hwæt. See hwā.

hwǣr, adv., _where_: elles hwǣr, _elsewhere_, 138; hwǣr, _somewhere_, 2030.
In elliptical question: wundur hwār þonne..., _is it a wonder when...?_
3063.--Comp. ō-hwǣr.

ge-hwǣr, _everywhere_: þēah þū heaðo-rǣsa gehwǣr dohte (_everywhere good in
battle_), 526.

hwele. See hwyle.

hwergen, adv., _anywhere_: elles hwergen, _elsewhere_, 2591.

hwettan, w. v., _to encourage, urge_: pres. subj. swā þin sefa hwette (_as
thy mind urges, as thou likest_), 490; pret. pl. hwetton higerōfne (_they
whetted the brave one_), 204.

hwēne, adv., _a little, paululum_, 2700.

hwealf, st. f., _vault_: acc. sg. under heofones hwealf, 576, 2016.

hweorfan, st. v., _to stride deliberately, turn, depart, move, die_: pres.
pl. þāra þe cwice hwyrfað, 98; inf. hwīlum hē on lufan lǣteð hworfan monnes
mōd-geþonc (_sometimes on love_ (?) _possessions_ (?) _permits the thoughts
of man to turn_), 1729; londrihtes mōt ... monna ǣghwylc īdel hweorfan (_of
rights of land each one of men must be deprived_), 2889; pret. sg. fæder
ellor hwearf ... of earde (_died_), 55; hwearf þā hrædlīce þǣr Hrōðgār sæt,
356; hwearf þā bī bence (_turned then to the bench_), 1189; so, hwearf þā
be wealle, 1574; hwearf geond þæt reced, 1982; hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf (_went
oft round the cave_), 2297; nalles æfter lyfte lācende hwearf (_not at all
through the air did he go springing_), 2833; subj. pret. sg, ǣr hē on weg
hwurfe ... of geardum (_died_), 264.

and-hweorfan, _to move against_: pret. sg. oð þæt ... norðan wind
heaðo-grim and-hwearf (_till the fierce north wind blew in our faces_),

æt-hweorfan, _to go to_: pret. sg. hwīlum hē on beorh æt-hwearf (_at times
returned to the mountain_), 2300.

ge-hweorfan, _to go, come_: pret. sg. gehwearf þā in Francna fæðm feorh
cyninges, 1211; hit on ǣht gehwearf ... Denigea frēan, 1680; so, 1685,

geond-hweorfan, _to go through from end to end_: pres. sg. flet eall
geond-hwearf, 2018.

hwider, adv., _whither_: hwyder, 163; hwæder (hwæðer, MS.), 1332.

hwīl, st. f., _time, space of time_: nom. sg. wæs sēo hwīl micel (_it was a
long time_), 146; þā wæs hwīl dæges (_the space of a day_), 1496; acc. sg.
hwīle, _for a time_, 2138; _a while_, 105, 152; lange (longe) hwīle, _a
long while_, 16, 2781; āne hwīle, _a while_, 1763; lȳtle hwīle, _brief
space_, 2031, 2098; ǣnige hwīle, _any while_, 2549; lǣssan hwīle, _a lesser
while_, 2572; dat. sg. ǣr dæges hwīle, _before daybreak_, 2321; dat. pl.
nihtes hwīlum, _sometimes at night_, 3045. Adv., _sometimes, often_:
hwīlum, 175, 496, 917, 1729, 1829, 2017, 2112, etc.; hwīlum ... hwīlum,
2108-9-10.--Comp.: dæg-, gescæp-, orleg-, sige-hwīl.

hwīt, adj., _brilliant, flashing_: nom. sg. se hwīta helm, 1449.

hworfan. See hweorfan.

hwōpan, st. v., _to cry, cry out mourn_: pret. sg. hwēop, 2269.

hwyder. See hwider.

hwylc, pron., _which, what, any_: 1) adj.: nom. sg. m. sceaða ic nāt hwylc,
274; fem, hwylc orleghwīl, 2003; nom. pl. hwylce Sǣgēata sīðas wǣron,
1987.--2) subst., w. gen. pl. nom. m.: Frisna hwylc, 1105; fem, efne swā
hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende (_whatever woman brought forth this son_),
944; neut. þonne his bearna hwylc (_than any one of his sons_), 2434; dat.
sg. efne swā hwylcum manna swā him gemet þūhte, 3058.--Comp.: ǣg-, nāt-,

ge-hwylc, ge-hwilc, ge-hwelc, w. gen. pl., _each_: nom. sg. m. gehwylc,
986, 1167, 1674; acc. sg. m. gehwylcne, 937, 2251, 2517; gehwelcne, 148;
fem, gehwylce, 1706; neut. gehwylc, 2609; instr. sg. dōgra gehwylce, 1091;
so, 2058, 2451; dat. sg. m. gehwylcum, 412, 769, 785, etc.; fem, ecga
gehwylcre, 806; neut. cynna gehwylcum, 98; gen. sg. m. and neut. gehwylces,
733, 1397, 2095.

hwyrft, st. m., _circling movement, turn_: dat. pl. adv. hwyrftum scrīðað
(_wander to and fro_), 163.--Comp. ed-hwyrft.

hycgan, w. v., _to think, resolve upon_: pret. sg. ic þæt hogode þæt ...
(_my intention was that ..._), 633.--Comp. w. pres. part.: bealo-, heard-,
swīð-, þanc-, wīs-hycgend.

for-hycgan, _to despise, scorn, reject with contempt_: pres. sg. I. ic þæt
þonne for-hicge þæt ..., _reject with scorn the proposition that ..._, 435.

ge-hycgan, _to think, determine upon_: pret. sg. þā þū ... feorr gehogodest
sæcce sēcean, 1989.

ofer-hycgan, _to scorn_: pret. sg. ofer-hogode þā hringa fengel þæt hē þone
wīdflogan weorode gesōhte (_scorned to seek the wide-flier with a host_),

hȳdig (for hygdig), adj., _thinking, of a certain mind_: comp. ān-,
bealo-, grom-, nīð-, þrīst-hȳdig.

ge-hygd, st. n., _thought, sentiment_: acc. sg. þurh hreðra gehygd,
2046.--Comp.: brēost-, mōd-gehygd, won-hyd.

hyge, hige, st. m., _mind, heart, thought_: nom. sg. hyge, 756; hige, 594;
acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, 267; gen. sg. higes, 2046; dat. pl. higum, 3149.

hyge-bend, st. m. f., _mind-fetter, heart-band_: instr. pl. hyge-bendum
fæst, _fast in his mind's fetters, secretly_, 1879.

hyge-geōmor, adj., _sad in mind_: nom. sg. hyge-giōmor, 2409.

hyge-mēðe, adj.: 1) _sorrowful, soul-crushing_: nom. sg., 2443.--2)
_life-weary, dead_: dat. pl. hyge-mēðum (-mǣðum, MS.), 2910.

hyge-rōf, adj., _brave, valiant, vigorous-minded_: nom. sg. [hygerōf], 403;
acc. sg. hige-rōfne, 204.

hyge-sorh, st. f., _heart-sorrow_: gen. pl. -sorga, 2329.

hyge-þȳhtig, adj., _doughty, courageous_: acc. sg. hige-þihtigne (of
Bēowulf), 747. See þȳhtig.

hyge-þrym, st. m., _animi majestas, high-mindedness_: dat. pl. for
hige-þrymmum, 339.

hyht, st. m., _thought, pleasant thought, hope_ (Dietrich): nom. sg., 179.

ge-hyld (see healdan), st. n., _support, protection_: nom. sg., 3057.--Leo.

hyldan, w. v., _to incline one's self, lie down to sleep_: pret. sg. hylde
hine, _inclined himself, lay down_, 689.

hyldo, st. f., _inclination, friendliness, grace_: acc. sg. hyldo, 2068,
2294; gen. sg. hyldo, 671, 2999.

ā-hyrdan, w. v., _harden_: pret. part. ā-hyrded, 1461.

hyrde. See hirde.

hyrst, st. f., _accoutrements, ornament, armor_: acc. sg. hyrste
(Ongenþēow's _equipments and arms_), 2989; acc. pl. hyrsta, 3166; instr.
pl. hyrstum, 2763.

hyrstan, w. v., _to deck, adorn_: pret. part. hyrsted sweord, 673; helm
[hyr]sted golde, 2256.

hyrtan, w. v., _to take heart, be emboldened_: pret. sg. hyrte hyne
hord-weard (_the drake took heart_; see 2566, 2568, 2570), 2594.

hyse, st. m., _youth, young man_: nom. sg. as voc., 1218.

hyt. See hit.

hȳdan, w. v., _to hide, conceal, protect, preserve_: pres. subj. hȳde
[hine, _himself_] sē þe wylle, 2767; inf. w. acc. nō þū mīnne þearft
hafalan hȳdan, 446; ǣr hē in wille hafelan [hȳdan] (_ere in it he_ [the
stag] _will hide his head_), 1373.

ge-hȳdan, w. acc., _to conceal, preserve_: pret. sg. gehȳdde, 2236, 3060.

hȳð, st. f., _haven_: dat. sg. æt hȳðe, 32.

hȳð-weard, st. m., _haven-warden_: nom. sg., 1915.

hȳnan (see hēan), w. v. w. acc., _to crush, afflict, injure_: pret. sg.
hȳnde, 2320.

hȳnðu, st. f., _oppression, affliction, injury_: acc. sg. hȳnðu, 277;
gen. sg. hwæt ... hȳnðo, 475; fela ... hȳnðo, 594; gen. pl. heardra
hȳnða, 166.

hȳran, w. v.: 1) _to hear, perceive, learn_: a) w. inf. or acc. with inf.:
I. pret. sg. hȳrde ic, 38, 582, 1347, 1843, 2024; III. sg. þæt hē fram
Sigemunde secgan hȳrde, 876; I. pl. swā wē sōðlīce secgan hȳrdon, 273. b)
w. acc.: nǣnigne ic ... sēlran hȳrde hordmāððum (_I heard of no better
hoard-jewel_), 1198. c) w. dependent clause: I. sg. pret. hȳrde ic þæt
..., 62, 2164, 2173.--2) w. dat. of person, _to obey_: inf. oð þæt him
ǣghwylc þāra ymbsittendra hȳran scolde, 10; hȳran heaðo-sīocum, 2755;
Pret. pl. þæt him winemāgas georne hȳrdon, 66.

ge-hȳran, _to hear, learn_: a) w. acc.: II. pers. sg. pres. mīnne gehȳrað
ānfealdne geþōht, 255; III. sg. pret. gehȳrde on Bēowulfe fæstrǣdne
geþōht, 610. b) w. acc. and inf.: III. pl. pret. gehȳrdon, 786. c) w.
depend. clause: I. pres. sg. ic þæt gehȳre þæt ..., 290.


ic, pers. pron. _I_: acc. mec, dat. mē, gen. mīn; dual nom. wit, acc.
uncit, unc, dat. unc, gen. uncer; pl. nom. wē, acc. ūsic, ūs, dat. ūs, gen.
ūser. ic omitted before the verb, 470.

icge, _gold_ (perhaps related to Sanskrit īç, = dominare, imperare, O.H.G.
ēht, _wealth_, opes), _treasure?, sword_ (edge)?, 1108.--Körner.

ides, st. f., _woman, lady, queen_: nom. sg., 621, 1076, 1118, 1169; dat.
sg. idese, 1650, 1942. Also of Grendel's mother: nom. sg., 1260; gen. sg.
idese, 1352.

in. See inn.

in: I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat. (local, indicating rest), _in_:
in geardum, 13, 2460; in þǣm gūðsele, 443; in bēorsele, 2636; so, 89, 482,
589, 696, 729, 2140, 2233, etc.; in mǣgða gehwǣre, 25; in þȳstrum, 87; in
Caines cynne, 107; in hyra gryregeatwum (_in their accoutrements of terror,
war-weeds_), 324; so, 395; in campe (_in battle_), 2506; hiora in ānum (_in
one of them_), 2600. Prep. postpositive: Scedelandum in, 19. Also, _on,
upon_, like on: in ealo-bence, 1030; in gumstōle, 1953; in þām wongstede
(_on the grassy plain, the battle-field_), 2787; in bǣlstede, 3098.
Temporal: in geār-dagum, 1.--2) w. acc. (local, indicating motion), _in,
into_: in woruld, 60; in fȳres fæðm, 185; so, 1211; in Hrefnesholt, 2936.
Temporal, _in, at, about, toward_: in þā tīde (in watide, MS.), 2228.

II. adv., _in_ (here or there), 386, 1038, 1372, 1503, 1645, 2153, 2191,
2228; inn, 3091.

incge, adj. (perhaps related to icge), instr. sg. incge lāfe (_with the
costly sword_ ? or _with mighty sword_?), 2578.--[_Edge_: incge lāfe, _edge
of the sword_.--K. Körner?]

in-frōd, adj., _very aged_: nom. sg., 2450; dat. sg. in-frōdum, 1875.

in-gang, st. m., _entrance, access to_: acc. sg., 1550.

in-genga, w. m., _in-goer, visitor_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 1777.

in-gesteald, st. m., _house-property, possessions in the house_: acc. sg.,

inn, st. n., _apartment, house_: nom. sg. in, 1301.

innan, adv., _within, inside_, 775, 1018, 2413, 2720; on innan (_in the
interior_), _within_, 1741, 2716; þǣr on innan (_in there_), 71; burgum on
innan (_within his city_), 1969. Also, _therein_: þǣr on innan, 2090, 2215,

innan-weard, adv., _inwards, inside, within_, 992, 1977; inne-weard, 999.

inne, adv.: 1) _inside, within_, 643, 1282, 1571, 2114, 3060; word inne
ābēad (_called, sent word, in_, i.e. standing in the hall door), 390; _in
it_ (i.e. the battle), 1142; þǣr inne (_therein_), 118, 1618, 2116, 2227,
3088.--2) = _insuper, still further, besides_, 1867.

inwit, st. n., _evil, mischief, spite, cunning hostility_, as in

inwit-feng, st. m., _malicious grasp, grasp of a cunning foe_: nom. sg.,

inwit-gæst, st. m., _evil guest, hostile stranger_: nom. sg., 2671.

inwit-hrōf, st. m., _hostile roof, hiding-place of a cunning foe_: acc. sg.
under inwit-hrōf, 3124.

inwit-net, st. n., _mischief-net, cunning snare_: acc. sg., 2168.

inwit-nīð, st. n., _cunning hostility, hostile contest_: nom. pl.
inwit-nīðas (_hostility through secret attack_), 1859; gen. pl. inwit-nīða,

inwit-scear, st. m., _massacre through cunning, murderous attack_: acc. sg.
eatolne inwit-scear, 2479.

inwit-searo, st. n., _cunning, artful intrigue_: acc. sg. þurh inwit-searo,
1102. See searo.

inwit-sorh, st. f., _grief, remorse, mourning springing from hostile
cunning_: nom. sg., 1737; acc. sg. inwid-sorge, 832.

inwit-þanc, adj., _ill-disposed, malicious_: dat. sg. hē onfēng hraðe
inwit-þancum (_he quickly grasped the cunning-in-mind_ [Grendel]), 749.

irnan (for rinnan), st. v., _to run_: so be-irnan, _to run up to, occur_:
pret. sg him on mōd be-arn (_came into his mind_), 67.

on-irnan, _to open_: pret. sg. duru sōna onarn, 722.

irre-mōd, adj. See yrre-mōd.


īdel, adj., _empty, bare; deprived of_: nom. sg., 145, 413; w. gen.
lond-rihtes þǣre mǣgburge īdel (_deprived of his land-possessions among the
people_ [of the Gēatas]), 2889.

īdel-hende, adj., _empty-handed_, 2082.

īren, st. n., _iron, sword_: nom. sg. dryhtlīc īren (_the doughty, lordly
sword_), 893; īren ǣr-gōd, 990; acc. sg. lēoflīc īren, 1810; gen. pl. īrena
cyst (_choicest of swords_), 674; īrenna cyst, 803; īrenna ecge (_edges of
swords_), 2684.

īren, adj., _of iron_: nom. sg. ecg wæs īren, 1460.

īren-bend, st. f., _iron band, bond, rivet_: instr. pl. īren-bendum fæst
(bold), 775, 999.

īren-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. īren-byrnan, 2987. See

īren-heard, adj., _hard as iron_: nom. sg., 1113.

īrenne, adj., _of iron_: in comp. eall-īrenne.

īren-þrēat, st. m., _iron troop, armored band_: nom. sg., 330.

īs, st. n., _ice_: dat. sg. īse, 1609.

īsern-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. īsern-byrnan, 672. See

īsern-scūr, st. f., _iron shower, shower of arrows_: gen. sg. þone þe oft
gebād īsern-scūre, 3117.

īs-gebind, st. n., _fetters of ice_: instr. sg. īs-gebinde, 1134.

īsig, adj., _shining, brilliant_ (like brass): nom. sg. īsig (said of a
vessel covered with plates(?) of metal), 33.--Leo.


iū. See geō.

iū-man. See geō-man.

īo-mēowle. See geō-mēowle.


laðu, st. f., _invitation_.--Comp.: frēond-, nēod-laðu.

ge-lafian, w. v. w. acc. pers. and instr. of the thing, _to refresh, lave_:
pret. sg. wine-dryhten his wætere gelafede, 2723.

lagu, st. m., _lake, sea_: nom. sg., 1631.

lagu-cræftig, adj., _acquainted with the sea_: nom. sg. lagu-cræftig mon
(_pilot_), 209.

lagu-strǣt, st. f., _path over the sea_: acc. sg. ofer lagu-strǣte, 239.

lagu-strēam, st. m., _sea-current, flood_: acc. pl. ofer lagu-strēamas,

land, st. n., _land_: nom. sg. lond, 2198; acc. sg. land, 221, 2063; lond,
2472, 2493; land Dena, 242, 253; lond Brondinga, 521; Finna land, 580; dat.
sg. on lande (_in the land_), 2311, 2837; _at near, land, shore_, 1914; tō
lande (_to the land, ashore_), 1624; gen. sg. landes, 2996; gen. pl. ofer
landa fela (_over much country, space; afar_), 311.--Comp.: el-, ēa-land.

land-būend, part, pres., terricola, _inhabitant of the land_: nom. pl.
lond-būend, 1346; dat. pl. land-būendum, 95.

land-fruma, w. m., _ruler, prince of the country_: nom. sg., 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. n. pl., _frontier, land-mark_: acc. pl., 209.

land-geweorc, st. n., _land-work, fortified place_: acc. sg. lēoda
land-geweorc, 939. See weorc, geweorc.

land-riht, st. n., _prerogatives based upon land-possessions, right to
possess land_, hence _real estate_ itself: gen. sg. lond-rihtes īdel, 2887.

land-waru, st. f., _inhabitants, population_: acc. pl. land-wara, 2322.

land-weard, st. m., _guard, guardian of the frontier_: nom. sg., 1891.

lang, long, adj., _long_: 1) temporal: nom. sg. tō lang, 2094; næs þā long
(lang) tō þon (_not long after_), 2592, 2846; acc. sg. lange hwīle (_for a
long time_), 16, 2160, 2781; longe (lange) þrāge, 54, 114, 1258; lange tīd,
1916. Compar. nom. sg. lengra fyrst, 134.--2) local, nom. sg. sē wæs
fīftiges fōtgemearces lang, 3044.--Comp.: and-, morgen-, niht-, up-lang.

lange, longe, adv., _long_: lange, 31, 1995, 2131, 2345, 2424; longe, 1062,
2752, 3109; tō lange (_too long, excessively long_), 906, 1337, 1749.
Compar. leng, 451, 1855, 2802, 3065; nō þȳ leng (_none the longer_), 975.
Superl. lengest (_longest_), 2009, 2239.

ge-lang, adj., _extending, reaching to something_ or _somebody_, hence
_ready, prepared_: nū is rǣd gelang eft æt þē ānum (_now is help [counsel]
at hand in thee alone_), 1377; gēn is eall æt þē lissa gelong (_all of
favor is still on thee dependent, is thine_), 2151. See ge-lenge.

lang-ge-strēon, st. n., _long-lasting treasure_: gen. pl. long-gestrēona,

langian, w. v., reflex, w. dat, _to long, yearn_: pres. sg. III. him
...æfter dēorum men dyrne langað beorn (_the hero longeth secretly after
the dear man_), 1880.

lang-sum, adj., _long-lasting, continuing_: nom. sg. longsum, 134, 192,
1723; acc. sg. long-sumne, 1537.

lang-twidig, adj., _long-granted, assured_: nom. sg., 1709.

lata, w. m., _a lazy, cowardly one_; in comp. hild-lata.

lā, interj., _yes! indeed!_ 1701, 2865.

lāc, st. n.: 1) _measured movement, play_: in comp. beadu-, heaðo-lāc.--2)
_gift, offering_: acc. pl. lāc, 1864; lāðlīcu lāc (_loathly offering,
prey_), 1585; dat. pl. lācum, 43, 1869.--Comp. sǣ-lāc.

ge-lāc, st. n., _sport, play_: acc. pl. sweorda gelāc (_battle_), 1041;
dat. pl. æt ecga gelācum, 1169.

lācan, st. v., _to move in measured time, dancing, playing, fighting,
flying_, etc.: inf. dareðum lācan (_fight_), 2849; part. pres. æfter lyfte
lācende (_flying through the air_), 2833.

for-lācan, _to deceive, betray_: part, pret. hē wearð on fēonda geweald
forð forlācen (_deceitfully betrayed into the enemy's hands_), 904.

lād, st. f., _street, way, journey_: dat. sg. on lāde, 1988; gen. sg. lāde,
569.--Comp.: brim-, sǣ-lād.

ge-lād, st. n., _way, path, road_: acc. sg. uncūð gelād, 1411.

lāð, adj., _loathly, evil, hateful, hostile_: nom. sg. lāð, 816; lāð
lyft-floga, 2316; lāð (_enemy_), 440; nē lēof nē lāð, 511; neut. lāð, 134,
192; in weak form, se lāða (of the dragon), 2306; acc. sg. lāðne (wyrm),
3041; dat. sg. lāðum, 440, 1258; gen. sg. lāðes (of the enemy), 842; fela
lāðes (_much evil_), 930; so, 1062; lāðan līges, 83; lāðan cynnes, 2009,
2355; þæs lāðan (of the enemy), 132; acc. pl. neut. lāð gewidru (_hateful
storms_), 1376; dat. instr. pl. wið lāðum, 550; lāðum scuccum and scinnum,
939; lāðum dǣdum (_with evil deeds_), 2468; lāðan fingrum, 1506; gen. pl.
lāðra manna, spella, 2673, 3030; lāðra (_the enemy_), 242. Compar. nom. sg.
lāðra ... beorn, 2433.

lāð-bite, st. m., _hostile bite_: dat. sg. lāð-bite līces (_the body's
hostile bite_ = the wound), 1123.

lāð-getēona, w. m., _evil-doer, injurer_: nom. sg., 975; nom. pl.
lāð-getēonan, 559.

lāð-līc, adj., _loathly, hostile_: acc. pl. lāð-līcu, 1585.

lāf, st. f.: 1) _what is left, relic; inheritance, heritage, legacy_: nom.
sg. Hrēðlan lāf (Bēowulf's corselet), 454; nom. pl. fēla lāfe (_the
leavings of files_ = swords, Grein), 1033; so, homera lāfe, 2830; on him
gladiað gomelra lāfe, heard and hringmǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon (_on him
gleams the forefather's bequest, hard and ring-decked, the Heaðobeardas'
treasure_, i.e. the equipments taken from the slain king of the
Heaðobeardas), 2037; acc. sg. sweorda lāfe (_leavings of the sword_, i.e.
those spared by the sword), 2937.--2) _the sword as a specially precious
heir-loom_: nom. sg., 2629; acc. sg. lāfe, 796, 1489, 1689, 2192, 2564;
instr. sg. incge lāfe, 2578.--Comp.: ende-, eormen-, wēa-, yrfe-, ȳð-lāf.

lār, st. f., _lore, instruction, prescription_: dat. sg. be fæder lāre,
1951; gen. pl. lāra, 1221; lārena, 269.--Comp. frēond-lār.

lāst, st. m., _footstep, track_: acc. sg. lāst, 132, 972, 2165; on lāst
(_on the traces of, behind_), 2946; nom. pl. lāstas, 1403; acc. pl. lāstas,
842.--Comp.: fēðe-, feorh-, fōt-, wræc-lāst.

læger. See leger.

lāger-bed, st. n., _bed to lie on_ : instr. sg. leger-bedde, 1008.

lǣs, adj., _less_, 1947; þȳ lǣs (_the less_), 487; conjunct, _that not,
lest_, 1919.

lǣssa, adj., _less, fewer_: nom. sg. lǣssa, 1283; acc. sg. m. lǣssan, 43;
fem, lǣssan hwīle, 2572; dat. sg. for lǣssan (_for less, smaller_), 952.
Superl. nom. sg. nō þæt lǣsest wæs hond-gemōt[a], 2355.

læt, adj., _negligent, neglectful_; w. gen.: nom. sg. elnes læt, 1530.

lǣdan, w. v. w. acc.: _to lead, guide, bring_: inf. lǣdan, 239; pret. pl.
lǣddon, 1160.

for-1ǣdan, _to mislead_: pret. pl. for-lǣddan, 2440 (?).

ge-lǣdan, _lead, bring_: part. pret. ge-lǣded, 37.

lǣfan, w. v.: 1), _to bequeathe, leave_: imper. sg. þīnum magum lǣf folc
and rīce, 1179; pret. sg. eaferum lǣfde ... lond and lēodbyrig, 2471.--2)
_spare, leave behind_: āht cwices lǣfan (_to spare aught living_), 2316.

lǣn-dagas, st. m. pl., _loan-days, transitory days_ (of earthly existence
as contrasted with the heavenly, unending): acc. pl. lǣn-dagas, 2592; gen.
pl. lǣn-daga, 2342.

lǣne, adj., _inconstant, perishable, evanescent, given over to death or
destruction_: nom. sg., 1755, 3179; acc. sg. of rust-eaten treasures, 3130;
þās lǣnan gesceaft (_this fleeting life_), 1623; gen. sg. lǣnan līfes,

lǣran, w. v., _to teach, instruct_: imper. sg. þū þē lǣr be þon (_learn
this, take this to heart_), 1723.

ge-lǣran, _to teach, instruct, give instruction_: inf. ic þæs Hrōðgār mæg
... rǣd gelǣran (_I can give H. good advice about this_), 278; so, 3080;
pret. pl. þā mē þæt ge-lǣrdon lēode mīne (_gave me the advice_), 415.

lǣstan, w. v.: 1) _to follow, to sustain, serve_: inf. þæt him se līc-homa
lǣstan nolde (_that his body would not sustain him_), 813.--2) _perform_:
imper. lǣst eall tela (_do all well_), 2664.

ge-lǣstan: 1) _to follow, serve_: pret. sg. (sweord) þæt mec ǣr and oft
gelǣste, 2501.--2) _to fulfil, grant_: subj. pres. pl. þæt ... wilgesīðas,
þonne wīg cume, lēode gelǣstan (_render war service_), 24; inf. ic þē sceal
mīne gelǣstan frēode (_shall grant thee my friendship, be grateful_), 1707;
pret. sg. bēot ... gelǣste (_fulfilled his boast_), 524; gelǣste swā (_kept
his word_), 2991; pres. part. hæfde Ēast-Denum ... gilp gelǣsted (_had
fulfilled for the East Danes his boast_), 830.

lǣtan, st. v., _to let, allow_, w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. III. lǣteð,
1729; imper. pl. II. lǣtað, 397; sg. II. lǣt, 1489; pret. sg. lēt, 2390,
2551, 2978, 3151(?); pret. pl. lēton, 48, 865, 3133; subj. pret. sg. II.
lēte, 1997; sg. III. lēte, 3083.

ā-lǣtan: 1) _to let, allow_: subj. pres. sg. II. þæt þū ne ālǣte ... dōm
ge-drēosan, 2666.--2) _to leave, lay aside_: inf. ālǣtan lǣn-dagas (_die_)
2592; so, ālǣtan līf and lēodscipe, 2751.

for-lǣtan: 1) _to let, permit_, w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. for-lēt, 971;
pret. pl. for-lēton, 3168. Also with inf. omitted: inf. nolde eorla hlēo
... þone cwealmcuman cwicne (i.e. wesan) forlǣtan (_would not let the
murderous spirit go alive_), 793.--2) _to leave behind, leave_: pret. sg.
in þām wong-stede ... þǣr hē hine ǣr forlēt (_where he had previously left
him_), 2788.

of-lǣtan, _to leave, lay aside_: pres. sg. II. gyf þū ǣr þonne hē worold
oflǣtest (_leavest the world, diest_), 1184; so pret. sg. oflēt līf-dagas
and þās lǣnan gesceaft, 1623.

on-lǣtan, _to release, liberate_: pres. sg. III. þonne forstes bend fæder
on-lǣteð (_as soon as the Father looseth the frost's fetters_), 1610.

ā-lecgan, w. v.: 1) _to lay, lay down_: pret. sg. syððan hilde-dēor hond
ā-legde ... under gēapne hrōf, 835; þæt hē on Bēowulfes bearm ā-legde
(_this_ [the sword] _he laid in B.'s bosom, presented to him_), 2195; pret.
pl. ā-ledon þā lēofne þēoden ... on bearm scipes, 34; ā-legdon þā tō middes
mǣrne þēoden _(laid the mighty prince in the midst_ [of the pyre]),
3142.--2) _to lay aside, give up_: siððan ... in fen-freoðo feorh ā-legde
(_laid down his life, died_), 852; nū se here-wīsa hleahtor ā-legde, gamen
and glēo-drēam _(now the war-chief has left laughter_, etc.), 3021.

leger, st. n., _couch, bed, lair_: dat. sg. on legere, 3044.

lemian, w. v., _to lame, hinder, oppress_: pret. sg. (for pl.) hine
sorh-wylmas lemede tō lange, 906. MS.

leng. See lang.

lenge, adj., _extending along_ or _to, near_ (of time): nom. sg. neut. ne
wæs hit lenge þā gēn (_nor was it yet long_), 83.

ge-lenge, adj., _extending, reaching to, belonging_: nom. sg. yrfe-weard
... līce gelenge (_an heir belonging to one's body_), 2733.

let, st. m., _place of rest, sojourn?_ in comp. eo-let (_voyage?_).

lettan, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. pl. (acc. pers. and gen. thing), þæt
syððan nā ... brim-līðende lāde ne letton (_might no longer hinder
seafarers from journeying_), 569.

ā-lēdon. See ā-lecgan.

lēg, st. m., _flame, fire_: nom. sg. wonna lēg (_the lurid flame_), 3116;
swōgende lēg, 3146; dat. sg. for dracan lēge, 2550. See līg.

lēg-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, flaming dragon_: nom. sg., 3041.

leahtre. See or-leahtre.

lēaf, st. n., _leaf, foliage_: instr. pl. lēafum, 97.

lēafnes-word, st. n., _permission, leave_: acc. pl., 245.

lēan, st. v. w. acc. _to scold, blame_: pres. sg. III. lyhð, 1049; pret.
sg. lōg, 1812; pret. pl. lōgon, 203, 863.

be-lēan, _to dissuade, prevent_: inf. nē inc ǣnig mon ... belēan mihte
sorhfullne sīð (_no one might dissuade you twain from your difficult
journey_), 511.

lēan, st. n., _reward, compensation_: acc. sg., 114, 952, 1221, 1585, 2392;
dat. sg. lēane, 1022. Often in the pl.: acc. þā lēan, 2996; dat. þām
lēanum, 2146; gen. lēana, 2991.--Comp.: and-, ende-lēan.

leān (for lǣn, O.H.G. lēhan), st. n, _loan_, 1810.

lēanian, w. v., _to reward, compensate_: pres. sg. I. ic þē þā fǣhðe fēo
lēanige (_repay thee for the contest with old-time treasures_), 1381; pret.
sg. mē þone wæl-rǣs wine Scyldinga fǣttan golde fela lēanode (_the friend
of the Scyldings rewarded me richly for the combat with plated gold_),

lēas, adj., _false_: nom. pl. lēase, 253.

lēas, adj., _deprived of, free from_, w. gen.: nom. sg. drēama lēas, 851;
dat. sg. winigea lēasum, 1665.--Comp.: dōm-, drēam-, ealdor-, feoh-,
feormend-, hlāford-, sāwol-, sige-, sorh-, tīr-, þēoden-, wine-, wyn-lēas.

lēasig, adj., _concealing one's self_; in comp. sin-lēasig(?).

leoðo-cræft, st. m., _the art of weaving_ or _working in meshes, wire_,
etc.: instr. pl. segn eall-gylden ... gelocen leoðo-cræftum (_a banner all
hand-wrought of interlaced gold_), 2770.

leoðo-syrce, w. f., _shirt of mail (limb-sark)_: acc. sg. locene
leoðo-syrcan (_locked linked sark_), 1506; acc. pl. locene leoðo-syrcan,

leomum. See lim.

leornian, w. v., _to learn, devise, plan_: pret. him þæs gūð-cyning ...
wræce leornode (_the war-king planned vengeance therefor_), 2337.

lēod, st. m., _prince_: nom. sg., 341, 348, 670, 830, 1433, 1493, 1613,
1654, etc.; acc. lēod, 626.

lēod, st. f., _people_: gen. sg. lēode, 597, 600, 697. In pl. indicates
_individuals, people, kinsmen_: nom. pl. lēode, 362, 415, 1214, 2126, etc.;
gum-cynnes Gēata lēode (_people of the race of the Gēatas_), 260; acc. pl.
lēode, 192, 443, 1337, 1346, etc.; dat. pl. lēodum, 389, 521, 619, 698,
906, 1160, etc.; gen. pl. lēoda, 205, 635, 794, 1674, 2034, etc.

lēod-bealo, st. n., (_mischief, misfortune affecting an entire people_),
_great, unheard-of calamity_: acc. sg., 1723; gen. pl. lēod-bealewa, 1947.

lēod-burh, st. f., _princely castle, stronghold of a ruler, chief city_:
acc. pl. -byrig, 2472.

lēod-cyning, st. m., _king of the people_: nom. sg., 54.

lēod-fruma, w. m., _prince of the people, ruler_: acc. sg. lēod-fruman,

lēod-gebyrgea, w. m., _protector of the people, prince_: acc. sg.
-gebyrgean, 269.

lēod-hryre, st. m., _fall, overthrow, of the prince, ruler_: dat. sg. æfter
lēod-hryre (_after the fall of the king of the Heaðobeardas_, Frōda, cf.
2051, 2031; gen. sg. þæs lēod-hryres (of the fall of Heardred, cf. 2389,

lēod-sceaða, w. m., _injurer of the people_: dat. sg. þām lēod-sceaðan,

lēod-scipe, st. m., _the whole nation, people_: acc. sg., 2752; dat. sg. on
þām lēod-scipe, 2198.

lēoð, st. n., _song, lay_: nom. sg., 1160.--Comp.: fyrd-, gryre-, gūð-,

lēof, adj., _lief, dear_: nom. sg., 31, 54, 203, 511, 521, 1877, 2468; weak
form m., lēofa, 1217, 1484, 1855, 2664; acc. sg. m. lēofne, 34, 297, 619,
1944, 2128, 3109, 3143; gen. sg. lēofes (m.), 1995, 2081, 2898; (neut.),
1062, 2911; dat. pl. lēofum, 1074; gen. pl. lēofra, 1916. Compar. nom. sg.
neut. lēofre, 2652. Superl. nom. sg. m. lēofost, 1297; acc. sg. þone
lēofestan, 2824.

lēoflīc, _dear, precious, valued_: nom. sg. m. lēoflīc lind-wiga, 2604;
acc. sg. neut. lēoflīc īren, 1810.

lēogan, st. v., _to lie, belie, deceive_. subj. pres. næfne him his wlite
lēoge (_unless his looks belie him_), 250; pret. sg. hē ne lēag fela wyrda
nē worda, 3030.

ā-lēogan, _to deceive, leave unfulfilled_: pret. sg. hē bēot ne ā-lēh (_he
left not his promise unfulfilled_), 80.

ge-lēogan, _to deceive, betray_: pret. sg. him sēo wēn gelēah (_hope
deceived him_), 2324.

lēoht, st. n., _light, brilliance_: nom. sg., 569, 728, 1751 (?); acc. sg.
sunnan lēoht, 649; godes lēoht gecēas (_chose God's light, died_), 2470;
dat. sg. tō lēohte, 95.--Comp.: ǣfen-, fȳr-, morgen-lēoht.

lēoht, adj., _luminous, bright_: instr. sg. lēohtan sweorde, 2493.

lēoma, w. m.: 1) _light, splendor_: nom. sg., 311, 2770; acc. sg. lēoman,
1518; sunnan and mōnan lēoman (_light of sun and moon_), 95.--2) (as beadu-
and hilde-lēoma), _the glittering sword_: nom. sg. līxte se lēoma (_the
blade-gleam flashed_), 1571.

lēosan, st. v., = amitti, in

be-lēosan, _to deprive, be deprived of_: pres. part. (hēo) wearð beloren
lēofum bearnum and brōðrum (_was deprived of her dear children and
brethren_), 1074.

for-lēosan, with dat. instr., _to lose something_: pret. sg. þǣr hē dōme
for-lēas, ellen-mǣrðum (_there lost he the glory, the repute, of his heroic
deeds_), 1471; pret. sg. for pl. þām þe ǣr his elne for-lēas (_to him who,
before, had lost his valor_), 2862; part. pret. nealles ic þām lēanum
for-loren hæfde (_not at all had I lost the rewards_), 2146.

libban, w. v., _to live, be, exist_: pres. sing. III. lifað, 3169; lyfað,
945; leofað, 975, 1367, 2009; subj. pres. sg. II. lifige, 1225; pres. part.
lifigende, 816, 1954, 1974, 2063; dat. sg. be þē lifigendum (_in thy
lifetime_), 2666; pret. sg. lifde, 57, 1258; lyfde, 2145; pret. pl. lifdon,
99. See unlifigende.

licgan, st. v.: 1) _to lie, lie down_ or _low_: pres. sg. nū sēo hand ligeð
(_now the hand lies low_), 1344; nū se wyrm ligeð, 2746, so 2904; inf.
licgan, 3130; licgean, 967, 3083; pret. sg. læg, 40, 552, 2078; syððan
Heardrēd læg (_after Heardrēd had fallen_), 2389; pret. pl. lāgon, 3049;
lǣgon, 566.--2) _to lie prostrate, rest, fail_: pret. sg. nǣfre on ōre læg
wīd-cūðes wīg (_never failed the far-famed one's valor at the front_),
1042; syððan wiðer-gyld læg (_after vengeance failed_, or, _when Withergyld
lay dead_, if _W._ is a proper name), 2052.

ā-licgan, _to succumb, fail, yield_: inf. 2887; pret. sg. þæt his dōm ā-læg
(_that its power failed it_), 1529.

ge-licgan, _to rest, lie still_: pret. sg. wind-blond gelæg, 3147.

lida, w. m., _boat, ship_ (as in motion); in comp.: sund-, ȳð-lida.

lid-man, st. m., _seafarer, sailor_: gen. pl. lid-manna, 1624.

lim, st. n., _limb, branch_: instr. pl. leomum, 97.

limpan, st. v., _to happen, befall_ (well or ill); impers. w. dat. pret.
sg. hū lomp ēow on lāde (_how went it with you on the journey?_), 1988.

ā-limpan, _to come about, offer itself_: pret. sg. oð þæt sǣl ā-lamp (_till
the opportunity presented itself_), 623; pret. part, þā him ā-lumpen wæs
wistfylle wēn (_since a hope of a full meal had befallen him_), 734.

be-limpan, _to happen to, befall_: pret. sg. him sīo sār belamp, 2469.

ge-limpan, _to happen, occur, turn out_: pres. sg. III. hit eft gelimpeð
þæt..., 1754; subj. pres. þisse ansȳne alwealdan þanc lungre gelimpe
(_thanks to the Almighty forthwith for this sight!_), 930; pret. sg. him on
fyrste gelamp þæt..., 76; swā him ful-oft gelamp (_as often happened to
them_), 1253; þæs þe hire se willa gelamp þæt ... (_because her wish had
been fulfilled_), 627; frōfor eft gelamp sārig-mōdum, 2942; subj. pret. gif
him þyslīcu þearf gelumpe, 2638; pret. part. Denum eallum wearð ... willa
gelumpen, 825.

lind, st. f. (properly _linden_; here, a a wooden shield covered with
linden-bark or pith): nom. sg., 2342; acc. sg. geolwe linde, 2611; acc. pl.
linde, 2366.

lind-gestealla, w. m., _shield-comrade, war-comrade_: nom. sg., 1974.

lind-hæbbend, pres. part., _provided with a shield_, i.e. warrior: nom. pl.
-hæbbende, 245; gen. pl. hæbbendra, 1403.

lind-plega, w. m., _shield-play_, i.e. battle: dat. sg. lind-plegan, 1074,

lind-wiga, w. m., _shield-fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 2604.

linnan, st. v., _to depart, be deprived of_: inf. aldre linnan (_depart
from life_), 1479; ealdres linnan, 2444.

lis, st. f., _favor, affection_: gen. pl. eall ... lissa, 2151.

list, st. m., _art, skill, cleverness, cunning_: dat. pl. adverbial, listum
(_cunningly_), 782.

līxan, w. v., _to shine, flash_: pret. sg. līxte, 311, 485, 1571.

līc, st. n.: 1) _body, corpse_: nom. sg., 967; acc. sg. līc, 2081; þæt līc
(_the body, corpse_), 2128; dat. sg. līce, 734, 1504, 2424, 2572, 2733,
2744; gen. sg. līces, 451, 1123.-- 2) _form, figure_: in comp. eofor-,

ge-līc, adj., _like, similar_: nom. pl. m. ge-līce, 2165. Superl.
ge-līcost, 218, 728, 986, 1609.

līc-hama, -homa, w. m. _(body-home, garment), body_: nom. sg. līc-homa,
813, 1008, 1755; acc. sg. līc-haman, 2652; dat. sg. līc-haman, 3179.

līcian, w. v., _to please, like_ (impers.): pres. sg. III. mē þīn mōd-sefa
līcað leng swā wēl, 1855; pret. pl. þām wīfe þā word wēl līcodon, 640.

līcnes. See on-līcnes.

līc-sār, st. n., _bodily pain_: acc. sg. līc-sār, 816.

līc-syrce, w. f., _body-sark, shirt of mail covering the body_: nom. sg.,

1īðan, st. v., _to move, go_: pres. part. nom. pl. þā līðende (_navigantes,
sailors_), 221; þā wæs sund liden (_the water was then traversed_),
223.--Comp.: hēaðu-, mere-, wǣg-līðend.

līðe (O.H.G. lindi), adj., _gentle, mild, friendly_: nom. sg. w. instr.
gen. lāra līðe, 1221. Superl. nom. sg. līðost, 3184.

lið-wǣge, st. n., _can in which līð_ (a wine-like, foaming drink) _is
contained_: acc. sg., 1983.

līf, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. līf, 97, 734, 1537, 2424, 2744, 2752; dat.
sg. līfe, 2572; tō līfe (_in one's life, ever_) 2433; gen. sg. līfes, 197,
791, 807, 2824, 2846; worolde līfes (_of the earthly life_), 1388,
2344.--Comp. edwīt-līf.

līf-bysig, adj. _(striving for life or death), weary of life, in torment of
death_: nom. sg., 967.

līf-dagas, st. m. pl., _lifetime_: acc.-dagas, 794, 1623.

līf-frēa, w. m., _lord of life, God_: nom. sg., 16.

līf-gedāl, st. n., _separation from life_: nom. sg., 842.

līf-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, destiny_: gen. pl.-gesceafta, 1954, 3065.

līf-wraðu, st. f., _protection for one's life, safety_: acc. sg. līf-wraðe,
2878; dat. sg. tō līf-wraðe, 972.

līf-wyn, st. f., _pleasure, enjoyment, joy_ (of life): gen. pl. līf-wynna,

līg, st. m. n., _flame, fire_: nom. sg., 1123; dat. instr. sg. līge, 728,
2306, 2322, 2342; gen. sg. līges, 83, 782. See lēg.

līg-draca, w. m., _ fire-drake, flaming dragon_; nom. pl., 2334. See

līg-egesa, w. m., _horror arising through fire, flaming terror_: acc. sg.,

līge-torn, st. m., _false, pretended insult_ or _injury, fierce anger_(?):
dat. sg. æfter līge-torne (_on account of a pretended insult?_ or _fierce
anger?_ cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 208), 1944.

līg-ȳð, st. m., _wave of fire_: instr. pl. līg-ȳðum, 2673.

lēon, st. v., _to lend_: pret. sg. þæt him on þearfe lāh þyle Hrōðgāres
(_which H.'s spokesman lent him in need_), 1457.

on-lēoon, _to lend, grant as a loan_, with gen. of thing and dat. pers.:
pret. sg. þā hē þæs wǣpnes on-lāh sēlran sweord-frecan, 1468.

loca, w. m., _bolt, lock_: in comp. bān-, burh-loca.

locen. See lūcan.

lond, long. See land, lang.

lof, st. m. n., _praise, repute_: acc. sg. lof, 1537.

lof-dǣd, st. f., _deed of praise_: instr. pl. lof-dǣdum, 24.

lof-georn, adj., _eager for praise, ambitious_: superl. nom. sg.
lof-geornost, 3184.

loga, w. m., _liar_; in comp. trēow-loga.

losian, w. v., _to escape, flee_: pres. sg. III. losað, 1393, 2063; pret.
sg. hē on weg losade (_fled away_), 2097.

lōcian, w. v., _to see, look at_: pres. sg. II. sǣ-lāc ... þē þū hēr tō
lōcast (_booty of the sea that thou lookest on_), 1655.

ge-lōme, adv., _often, frequently_, 559.

lufe, w. f., _love_: in comp. hēah-, mōd-, wīf-lufe.

lufa (cf. and-leofa, big-leofa, _nourishment_), w. m., _food, subsistence;
property, real estate_: acc. sg. on lufan (_on possessions_), 1729.--Comp.

lufen, st. f. (cf. lufa), _subsistence, food; real estate, (enjoyment?)_:
nom. sg. lufen (parallel with ēðel-wyn), 2887.

luf-tācen, st. n., _love-token_: acc. pl. luf-tācen, 1864.

lufian, w. v., _to love, serve affectionately_: pret. sg. III. lufode þā
lēode (_was on affectionate terms with the people_), 1983.

lungre, adv.: 1) _hastily, quickly, forthwith_, 930, 1631, 2311, 2744.--2)
_quite, very, fully_: fēower mēaras lungre gelīce (_four horses quite
alike_), 2165.

lust, st. m., _pleasure, joy_: dat. pl. adv. lustum (_joyfully_), 1654; so,
on lust, 619, cf. 600.

lūcan, st. v., _to twist, wind, lock, interweave_: pret. part. acc. sg. and
pl. locene leoðo-syrcan (_shirt of mail wrought of meshes or rings
interlocked_), 1506, 1891; gen. pl. locenra bēaga (_rings wrought of gold
wire_), 2996.

be-lūcan: 1) _to shut, close in or around_: pret. sg. winter ȳðe be-lēac
īs-gebinde (_winter locked the waves with icy bond_), 1133.-- 2) _to shut
in, off, preserve, protect_: pret. sg. I. hig wīge belēac manegum mǣgða (_I
shut them in, protected them, from war arising from many a tribe_), 1771.
Cf. mē wīge belūc wrāðum fēondum (_protect me against mine enemies_), Ps.
34, 3.

ge-lūcan, _to unite, link together, make_: pret. part. gelocen, 2770.

on-lūcan, _to unlock, open_: pret. sg. word-hord on-lēac (_opened the
word-hoard, treasure of speech_), 259.

tō-lucan, _(to twist, wrench, in two) to destroy_: inf., 782.

lyft, st. f. (m. n.?), _air_: nom. sg., 1376; dat. sg. æfter lyfte (_along,
through, the air_), 2833.

lyft-floga, w. m., _air-flier_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2316.

lyft-geswenced, pret. part., _urged, hastened on, by the wind_, 1914.

lyft-wyn, st. f., _enjoyment of the air_: acc. sg. lyft-wynne, 3044.

lyhð. See leahan.

lystan, w. v., _to lust after, long for_: pret. sg. Gēat ungemetes wēl ...
restan lyste(_the Gēat_ [Bēowulf] _longed sorely to rest_), 1794.

lȳt, adj. neut. (= parum), _little, very little, few_: lȳt eft becwōm ...
hāmes nīosan (_few escaped homeward_), 2366; lȳt ǣnig (_none at all_),
3130; usually with gen.: wintra lȳt, 1928; lȳt ... hēafod-māga, 2151;
wergendra tō lȳt (_too few defenders_), 2883; lȳt swīgode nīwra spella
(_he kept to himself little, none at all, of the new tidings_), 2898; dat.
sg. lȳt manna (_too few of men_), 2837.

lȳtel, adj., _small, little_: nom. sg. neut. tō lȳtel, 1749; acc. sg. f.
lȳtle hwīle (_a little while_), 2031, 2098; lif-wraðe lȳtle (_little
protection for his life_), 2878.--Comp. un-lȳtel.

lȳt-hwōn, adv., _little = not at all_: lȳt-hwōn lōgon, 204.

lȳfe, st. n., _leave, permission, (life?)_: instr. sg. þīne lȳfe (life,
MS.), 2132.--Leo. Cf. O.N. leyfi, n., _leave, permission_, in Möbius'
Glossary, p. 266.

lȳfan, w. v., (fundamental meaning _to believe, trust_) in

ā-lȳfan, _to allow, grant, entrust_: pret. sg. nǣfre ic ǣnegum men ǣr
ālȳfde ... þrȳð-ærn Dena (_never before to any man have I entrusted the
palace of the Danes_), 656; pret. part. (þā mē wæs) sīð ... ālȳfed inn
under eorð-weall (_the way in under the wall of earth was allowed me_),

ge-lȳfan, w. v., _to believe, trust_: 1) w. dat.: inf. þǣr gelȳfan sceal
dryhtnes dōme sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_whomever death carrieth away, shall
believe it to be the judgment of God_, i.e. in the contest between Bēowulf
and Grendel), 440.--2) w. acc.: pret. sg. gēoce gelȳfde brego Beorht-Dena
(_believed in, expected, help_, etc.), 609; þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl gelȳfde
fyrena frōfre (_that she at last should expect from any earl comfort, help,
out of these troubles_), 628; sē þe him bealwa tō bōte gelȳfde (_who
trusted in him as a help out of evils_), 910; him tō anwaldan āre gelȳfde
(_relied for himself on the help of God_), 1273.

ā-lȳsan, w. v., _to loose, liberate_: pret. part. þā wæs of þǣm hrōran
helm and byrne lungre ā-lȳsed (_helm and corselet were straightway loosed
from him_), 1631.


maðelian, w. v. (sermocinari), _to speak, talk_: pret. sg. maðelode, 286,
348, 360, 371, 405, 456, 499, etc.; maðelade, 2426.

maga, w. m., _son, male descendant, young man_: nom. sg. maga Healfdenes
(Hrōðgār), 189, 1475, 2144; maga Ecgþēowes (Bēowulf), 2588: maga (Grendel),
979; se maga geonga (Wīglāf), 2676; Grendeles maga (_a relative of
Grendel_), 2007; acc. sg. þone magan, 944.

magan, v. with pret.-pres. form, _to be able_: pres. sg. I. III. mæg, 277,
478, 931, 943, 1485, 1734, etc.; II. meaht þū, 2048; subj. pres. mǣge,
2531, 2750; þēah ic eal mǣge (_even though I could_), 681; subj. pl. wē
mǣgen, 2655; pret. sg. meahte, 542, 755, 1131, 1660, 2465, etc.; mihte,
190, 207, 462, 511, 571, 657, 1509, 2092, 2610; mehte, 1083, 1497, 1516,
1878; pl. meahton, 649, 942, 1455, 1912, 2374, 3080; mihton, 308, 313,
2684, 3164; subj. pret. sg. meahte, 243, 763, 2521; pres. sg. mæg,
sometimes = licet, _may, can, will_ (fut.), 1366, 1701, 1838, 2865.

mago (Goth. magu-s), st. m., _male, son_: nom. sg. mago Ecglāfes (Hunferð),
1466; mago Healfdenes (Hrōðgār), 1868, 2012.

mago-dryht, st. f., _troop of young men, band of men_: nom. sg. mago-driht,

mago-rinc, st. m., _hero, man_ (preeminently): gen. pl. mago-rinca, hēap,

magu-þegn, mago-þegn, st. m., _vassal, war-thane_: nom. sg. 408, 2758; dat.
sg. magu-þegne, 2080; acc. pl. magu-þegnas, 293; dat. pl. mago-þegnum,
1481; gen. pl. mago-þegna ... þone sēlestan (_the best of vassals_), 1406.

man, mon, st. m.: 1) _man, human being_: nom. sg. man, 25, 503, 534, 1049,
1354, 1399, 1535, 1877, etc.; mon, 209, 510, 1561, 1646, 2282, etc.; acc.
sg. w. mannan, 297, 577, 1944, 2128, 2775; wīd-cūðne man, 1490; dat. sg.
men, 656, 753, 1880; menn, 2190; gen. sg. mannes, 1195 (?), 2081, 2534,
2542; monnes, 1730; nom. pl. men, 50, 162, 233, 1635, 3167; acc. pl. men,
69, 337, 1583, 1718; dat. pl. mannum, 3183; gen. pl. manna, 155, 201, 380,
702, 713, 736, etc.; monna, 1414, 2888.--2) indef. pron. = _one, they,
people_ (Germ. _man_): man, 1173, 1176; mon, 2356, 3177.--Comp.: fyrn-,
glēo-, gum-, iū-, lid-, sǣ-, wǣpned-man.

man. See munan.

man-cyn, st. n., _mankind_: dat. sg. man-cynne, 110; gen. sg. man-cynnes,
164, 2182; mon-cynnes, 196, 1956.

man-drēam, st. m., _human joy, mundi voluptas_: acc. sg. man-drēam, 1265;
dat. pl. mon-drēamum, 1716.

man-dryhten, st. m. (_lord of men_), _ruler of the people, prince, king_:
nom. sg. man-dryhten, 1979, 2648; mon-drihten, 436; mon-dryhten, 2866; acc.
sg. mon-dryhten, 2605; dat. sg. man-drihtne, 1230; man-dryhtne, 1250, 2282;
gen. sg. man-dryhtnes, 2850; mon-dryhtnes, 3150.

ge-mang, st. m., _troop, company_: dat. sg. on gemonge (_in the troop_ [of
the fourteen Gēatas that returned from the sea]), 1644.

manian, w. v., _to warn, admonish_: pres. sg. III. manað swā and myndgað
... sārum wordum (_so warneth and remindeth he with bitter words_), 2058.

manig, monig, adj., _many, many a, much_: 1) adjectively: nom. sg. rinc
manig, 399; geong manig (_many a young man_), 855; monig snellīc sǣ-rinc,
690; medu-benc monig, 777; so 839, 909, 919, 1511, 2763, 3023, etc.; acc.
sg. medo-ful manig, 1016; dat. sg. m. þegne monegum, 1342, 1420; dat. sg.
f. manigre mǣgðe, 75; acc. pl. manige men, 337; dat. pl. manegum māðmum,
2104; monegum mǣgðum, 5; gen. pl. manigra mēda, 1179.--2) substantively:
nom. sg. manig, 1861; monig, 858; dat. sg. manegum, 349, 1888; nom. pl.
manige, 1024; monige, 2983; acc. pl. monige, 1599; gen. pl. manigra,
2092.--3) with depend. gen. pl.: dat. manegum mǣgða, 1772; monegum fīra,
2002; hæleða monegum bold-āgendra, 3112; acc. pl. rinca manige, 729;
(māðm)-ǣhta monige, 1614.

manig-oft, adv., _very often, frequently_, 171 [if manig and oft are to be

man-līce, adv., _man-like, manly_, 1047.

man-þwǣre, adj., _kind, gentle toward men, philanthropic_: nom. sg. superl.
mon-þwǣrust, 3183.

mā, contracted compar., _more_: with partitive gen., 504, 736, 1056.

māðum, māððum, st. m., _gift, jewel, object of value_: acc. sg. māððum,
169, 1053, 2056, 3017; dat. instr. sg. māðme, 1529, 1903; nom. pl. māðmas,
1861; acc. pl. mādmas, 385, 472, 1028, 1483, 1757, 1868, etc.; dat. instr.
pl. māðmum, mādmum, 1049, 1899, 2104, 2789; gen. pl. māðma, 1785, 2144,
2167, etc.; mādma, 36, 41.--Comp.: dryht-, gold-, hord-, ofer-, sinc-,

māðm-ǣht, st. f., _treasure in jewels, costly objects_: gen. pl. māðm-ǣhta,
1614, 2834.

māððum-fæt, st. n., _treasure-casket_ or _cup, costly vessel_: nom. sg.,

māðm-gestrēon, st. n., _precious jewel_: gen. pl. māðm-gestrēona, 1932.

māðum-gifu, st. f., _gift of valuable objects, largess of treasure_: dat.
sg. æfter māððum-gife, 1302.

māðum-sigl, st. n., _costly, sun-shaped ornament, valuable decoration_:
gen. pl. māððum-sigla, 2758.

māðum-sweord, st. n., _costly sword_ (inlaid with gold and jewels): acc.
sg., 1024.

māðum-wela, w. m., _wealth of jewels, valuables_:: dat. sg.
æfter-māððum-welan (_after the sight of the wealth of jewels_), 2751.

māgas. See mǣg.

māge, w. f., _female relative_: gen. sg. Grendles māgan (_mother_), 1392.

mān, st. n., _crime, misdeed_: instr. sg. māne, 110, 979; adv.,
_criminally_, 1056.

mān-for-dǣdla, w. m., _evil-doer, criminal_: nom. pl. mān-for-dǣdlan, 563.

mān-scaða, w. m., _mischievous, hurtful foe, hostis nefastus_: nom. sg.
713, 738, 1340; mān-sceaða, 2515.

māra (comp. of micel), adj., _greater, stronger, mightier_: nom. sg. m.
māra, 1354, 2556; neut. māre, 1561; acc. sg. m. māran, 2017; mund-gripe
māran (_a mightier hand-grip_), 754; with following gen. pl. māran ...
eorla (_a more powerful earl_), 247; fem. māran, 533, 1012; neut. māre,
518; with gen. pl. morð-beala māre _(more, greater, deeds of murder_), 136;
gen. sg. f. māran, 1824.

mǣst (superl. of micel, māra), _greatest, strongest_: nom. sg. neut. (with
partitive gen.), mǣst, 78, 193; fem. mǣst, 2329; acc. sg. fem. fǣhðe mǣste,
459; mǣste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly pleasure_), 1080; neut.
n. (with partitive gen.) mǣst mǣrða, 2646; hond-wundra mǣst, 2769;
bǣl-fȳra mǣst, 3144; instr. sg. m. mǣste cræfte, 2182.

mæcg. See mecg.

mægð, st. f., _wife, maid, woman_: nom. sg., 3017; gen. pl. mægða hōse
(_accompanied by her maids of honor_), 925; mægða, 944, 1284.

mægen, st. n.: 1) _might, bodily strength, heroic power_: acc. sg. mægen,
518, 1707; instr. sg. mægene, 780(?), 2668; gen. sg. mægenes, 418, 1271,
1535, 1717, etc.; mægnes, 671, 1762; mægenes strang, strengest (_great in
strength_), 1845, 196; mægenes rōf (id.), 2085.--2) _prime, flower_ (of a
nation), _forces available in war_: acc. sg. swā hē oft (i.e. etan) dyde
mægen Hrēðmanna (_the best of the Hreðmen_), 445; gen. sg. wið manna hwone
mægenes Deniga (_from(?) any of the men of the Danes_), 155.--Comp.

mægen-āgend, pres. part., _having great strength, valiant_: gen. pl.
-āgendra, 2838.

mægen-byrðen, st. f., _huge burthen_: acc. sg. mægen-byrðenne, 3092; dat.
(instr.) sg., 1626.

mægen-cræft, st. m., _great, hero-like, strength_: acc. sg., 380.

mægen-ellen, st. n. (the same), acc. sg., 660.

mægen-fultum, st. m., _material aid_: gen. pl. næs þæt þonne mǣtost
mægen-fultuma (_that was not the least of strong helps_, i.e. the sword
Hrunting), 1456.

mægen-rǣs, st. m., _mighty attack, onslaught_: acc. sg., 1520.

mægen-strengo, st. f., _main strength, heroic power_: acc. sg., 2679.

mægen-wudu, st. m., _might-wood_, i.e. the spear, lance: acc. sg., 236.

mæst, st. m., _mast_: nom. sg., 1899; dat. sg. be mæste (_beside the
mast_), 36; _to the mast_, 1906.

mǣðum. See māðum, hyge-mǣðum.

mǣg, st. m., _kinsman by blood_: nom. sg. mǣg, 408, 738, 759, 814, 915,
1531, 1945, etc; (_brother_), 468, 2605? acc. sg. mǣg (_son_), 1340;
(_brother_), 2440, 2485, 2983; dat. sg. mǣge, 1979; gen. sg. mǣges, 2629,
2676, 2699, 2880; nom. pl. māgas, 1016; acc. pl. māgas, 2816; dat. pl.
māgum, 1179, 2615, 3066; (_to brothers_), 1168; mǣgum, 2354; gen. pl. māga,
247, 1080, 1854, 2007, 2743.--Comp.: fæderen-, hēafod-, wine-mǣg.

mǣg-burh, st. f., _borough of blood-kinsmen, entire population united by
ties of blood_; (in wider sense) _race, people, nation_: gen. sg.
lond-rihtes ... þǣre mǣg-burge (_of land possessions among the people_,
i.e. of the Gēatas), 2888.

mǣgð, st. f., _race, people_: acc. sg. mǣgðe, 1012; dat. sg. mǣgðe, 75;
dat. pl. mǣgðum, 5; gen. pl. mǣgða, 25, 1772.

mǣg-wine, st. m., _blood kinsman, friend_, 2480 (nom. pl.).

mǣl, st. n.: l) _time, point of time_: nom. sg. 316; þā wæs sǣl and mǣl
(_there was_ [appropriate] _chance and time_), 1009; acc. sg. mǣl, 2634;
instr. pl. ǣrran mǣlum, 908, 2238, 3036; gen. pl. mǣla, 1250; sǣla and
mǣla, 1612; mǣla gehwylce (_each time, without intermission_), 2058.--2)
_sword, weapon_: nom. sg. brōden (brogden) mǣl (_the drawn sword_), 1617,
1668 (cf. Grimm, Andreas and Elene, p. 156).--3) _mole, spot,
mark_.--Comp.: grǣg-, hring-, sceaðen-, wunden-mǣl.

mǣl-cearu, st. f., _long-continued sorrow, grief_: acc. sg. mǣl-ceare, 189.

mǣl-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, appointed time_: acc. pl. ie on earde bād
mǣl-gesceafta (_awaited the time allotted for me by fate_), 2738.

mǣnan, w. v., with acc. in the sense of (1) _to remember, mention,
proclaim_: inf. mǣnan, 1068; pret. part. þǣr wæs Bēowulfes mǣrðo mǣned,
858.--2) _to mention sorrowfully, mourn_: inf. 3173; pret. sg. giohðo mǣnde
(_mourned sorrowfully_), 2268; pret. pl. mǣndon, 1150, 3150.

ge-mǣnan (see mān), w. v. with acc., _to injure maliciously, break_: subj.
pret. pl. ge-mǣnden, 1102.

ge-mǣne, adj., _common, in common_: nom. sg. gemǣne, 2474; þǣr unc hwīle
wæs hand gemǣne (i.e. in battle), 2138; sceal ūrum þæt sweord and helm bām
gemǣne (i.e. wesan), 2661; nom. pl. gemǣne, 1861; dat. pl. þæt þām folcum
sceal ... sib gemǣnum (attraction for gemǣne, i.e. wesan), 1858; gen. pl.
unc sceal (i.e. wesan) fela māðma gemǣnra (_we two shall share many
treasures together_), 1785.

mǣrðu, st. f.: 1) _glory, a heroes fame_: nom. sg. 858; acc. sg. mǣrðo,
660, 688; acc. pl. mǣrða, 2997; instr. pl. mǣrðum (_gloriously_), 2515:
gen. pl. mǣrða, 504, 1531.--2) _deed of glory, heroism_: acc. sg. mǣrðo,
2135; gen. pl. mǣrða, 408, 2646.--Comp. ellen-mǣrðu.

mǣre, adj., _memorable; celebrated, noble; well known, notorious_: nom. sg.
m. mǣre, 103, 129, 1716, 1762; se mǣra, 763, 2012, 2588; also as vocative
m. se mǣra, 1475; nom. fem. mǣru, 2017; mǣre, 1953; neut. mǣre, 2406; acc.
sg. m. mǣrne, 36, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2789, 3099; neut. mǣre, 1024;
dat. sg. mǣrum, 345, 1302, 1993, 2080, 2573; tō þǣm mǣran, 270; gen. sg.
mǣres, 798; mǣran, 1730; nom. pl. mǣre, 3071; superl. mǣrost, 899,--Comp.:
fore-, heaðo-mǣre.

mǣst. See māra.

mǣte, adj., _moderate, small_: superl. nom. sg. mǣtost, 1456.

mecg, mæcg, st. m., _son, youth, man_. in comp. hilde-, ōret-mecg,

medla. See on-medla.

medu, st. m., _mead_: acc. sg. medu, 2634; dat. sg. tō medo, 605.

medo-ærn, st. n., _mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-ærn (Heorot), 69.

medu-benc, st. f., _mead-bench, bench in the mead-hall_: nom. sg.
medu-benc, 777; dat. sg. medu-bence, 1053; medo-bence, 1068, 2186;
meodu-bence, 1903.

medu-drēam, st. m., _mead-joy, joyous carousing during mead-drinking_: acc.
sg. 2017.

medo-ful, st. n., _mead-cup_: acc. sg. 625, 1016.

medo-heal, st. f., _mead-hall_: nom. sg., 484; dat. sg. meodu-healle, 639.

medu-scenc, st. m., _mead-can, vessel_: instr. pl. meodu-scencum, 1981.

medu-seld, st. n., _mead-seat, mead-house_: acc. sg., 3066.

medo-setl, st. n., _mead-seat upon which one sits mead-drinking_: gen. pl.
meodo-setla, 5.

medo-stīg, st. f., _mead-road, road to the mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-stīg,

medo-wang, st. m., _mead-field_ (where the mead-hall stood): acc. pl.
medo-wongas, 1644.

meðel, st. n., _assembly, council_: dat. sg. on meðle, 1877.

meðel-stede, st. m., (properly _place of speech, judgment-seat_), here
_meeting-place, battle-field_ (so, also 425, the battle is conceived under
the figure of a parliament or convention): dat. sg. on þǣm meðel-stede,

meðel-word, st. n., _words called forth at a discussion; address_: instr.
pl. meðel-wordum, 236.

melda, w. m., _finder, informer, betrayer_: gen. sg. þæs meldan, 2406.

meltan, st. v. intrans., _to consume by fire, melt or waste away_: inf.,
3012; pret. sg. mealt, 2327; pl. multon, 1121.

ge-meltan, the same: pret. sg. gemealt, 898, 1609, 1616; ne gemealt him se
mōd-sefa (_his courage did not desert him_), 2629.

men. See man.

mene, st. m., _neck ornament, necklace, collar_: acc. sg., 1200.

mengan, w. v., _to mingle, unite, with_, w. acc. of thing: inf. sē þe
mere-grundas mengan scolde, 1450.

ge-mengan, _to mix with, commingle_: pret. part. 849, 1594.

menigu, st. f., _multitude, many_: nom. and acc. sg. māðma menigeo
(_multitude of treasures, presents_), 2144; so, mænigo, 41.

mercels, st. m., _mark, aim_: gen. sg. mercelses, 2440.

mere, st. m., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg. se mere, 1363; acc. sg. on mere, 1131,
1604; on nicera mere, 846; dat. sg. fram mere, 856.

mere-dēor, st. n., _sea-beast_: acc. sg., 558.

mere-fara, w. m., _seafarer_: gen. sg. mere-faran, 502.

mere-fix, st. m., _sea-fish_: gen. pl. mere-fixa (_the whale_, cf. 540,

mere-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom_: acc. sg., 2101; acc. pl. mere-grundas,

mere-hrægl, st. n., _-sea-garment_, i.e., sail: gen. pl. mere-hrægla sum,

mere-līðend, pres. part., _moving on the sea, sailor_: nom. pl.
mere-līðende, 255.

mere-strǣt, st. f., _sea-street, way over the sea_: acc. pl. mere-strǣta

mere-strengo, st. f., _sea-power, strength in the sea_: acc. sg., 533.

mere-wīf, st. n., _sea-woman, mer-woman_: acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother),

mergen. See morgen.

met, st. n., _thought, intention_ (cf. metian = meditari): acc. pl. onsǣl
meoto, 489 (meaning doubtful; see Bugge, Journal 8, 292; Dietrich, Haupt's
Zeits. 11, 411; Körner, Eng. Stud. 2, 251).

ge-met, st. n., _an apportioned share; might, power, ability _: nom. sg.
nis þæt ... gemet mannes nefne mīn ānes (_nobody, myself excepted, can do
that_), 2534; acc. sg. ofer mīn gemet (_beyond my power_), 2880; dat. sg.
mid gemete, 780.

ge-met, adj., _well-measured, meet, good_: nom. sg. swā him gemet þince
(þūhte), (_as seemed meet to him_), 688, 3058. See un-gemete, adv.

metan, st. v., _to measure, pass over_ or _along_: pret. pl. fealwe strǣte
mēarum mǣton (_measured the yellow road with their horses_), 918; so, 514,

ge-metan, the same: pret. sg. medu-stīg gemæt.(_measured, walked over, the
road to the mead-hall_), 925.

metod, st. m. (the measuring, arranging) _Creator, God_: nom. sg., 110,
707, 968, 1058, 2528; scīr metod, 980; sōð metod, 1612; acc. sg. metod,
180; dat. sg. metode, 169, 1779; gen. sg. metodes, 671.--Comp. eald-metod.

metod-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _the Creator's determination, divine purpose,
fate_: acc. sg. -sceaft, 1078.--2) _the Creators glory_: acc. sg.
metod-sceaft sēon (i.e. die), 1181; dat. sg. tō metod-sceafte, 2816.

mēce, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg., 1939; acc. sg. mēce, 2048; brādne mēce,
2979; gen. sg. mēces, 1766, 1813, 2615, 2940; dat. pl. instr. mēcum, 565;
gen. pl. mēca, 2686.--Comp.: beado-, hæft-, hilde-mēce.

mēd, st. f., _meed, reward_: acc. sg. mēde, 2135; dat. sg. mēde, 2147; gen.
pl. mēda, 1179.

ge-mēde, st. n., _approval, permission_ (Grein): acc. pl. ge-mēdu, 247.

mēðe, adj., _tired, exhausted, dejected_: in comp. hyge-, sǣ-mēðe.

mētan, w. v., _to meet, find, fall in with_: with acc., pret. pl. syððan
Æscheres ... hafelan mētton, 1422; subj. pret. sg. þæt hē ne mētte ... on
elran man mundgripe māran (_that he never met, in any other man, with a
mightier hand-grip_), 752.

ge-mētan, with acc., the same: pret. sg. gemētte, 758, 2786; pl. næs þā
long tō þon, þæt þā āglǣcean hȳ eft gemētton (_it was not long after that
the warriors again met each other_), 2593.

ge-mēting, st. f., _meeting, hostile coming together_: nom. sg., 2002.

mēagol, adj., _mighty, immense; formal, solemn_: instr. pl. mēaglum wordum,

mearc, st. f., _frontier, limit, end_: dat. sg. tō mearce (_the end of
life_), 2385.--Comp. Weder-mearc, 298.

ge-mearc, st. n., _measure, distance_: comp. fōt-, mīl-ge-mearc.

mearcian, w. v., _to mark, stain_: pres. ind. sg. mearcað mōrhopu (_will
stain, mark, the moor with the blood of the corpse_), 450.

ge-mearcian, the same: pret. part. (Cain) morðre gemearcod (_murder-marked_
[cf. 1 Book Mos. IV. 15]), 1265; swā wæs on þǣm scennum ... gemearcod ...
hwām þæt sweord geworht wǣre (_engraved for whom the sword had been
wrought_), 1696.

mearc-stapa, w. m., _march-strider, frontier-haunter_ (applied to Grendel
and his mother): nom. sg., 103; acc. pl. mearc-stapan, 1349.

mearh, st. m., _horse, steed_: nom. pl. mēaras, 2164; acc. pl. mēaras, 866,
1036; dat. pl. inst. mēarum, 856, 918; mēarum and māðmum, 1049, 1899; gen.
pl. mēara and māðma, 2167.

mearn. See murnan.

meodu. See medu.

meoto. See met.

meotud. See metod.

meowle, w. f., _maiden_: comp. geō-meowle.

micel, adj., _great, huge, long_ (of time): nom. sg. m., 129, 502; fem.,
67, 146, 170; neut., 772; acc. sg. m. micelne, 3099; fem, micle, 1779,
3092; neut. micel, 270, 1168. The comp. māre must be supplied before þone
in: medo-ærn micel ... (māre) þone yldo beam ǣfre ge-frūnon, 69; instr. sg.
ge-trume micle, 923; micle (_by much, much_); micle lēofre (_far dearer_),
2652; efne swā micle (lǣssa), (_[less] even by so much_), 1284; oftor micle
(_much oftener_), 1580; dat. sg, weak form miclan, 2850; gen. sg. miclan,
979. The gen. sg. micles is an adv. = _much, very_: micles wyrðne gedōn
(_deem worthy of much_, i.e. honor very highly), 2186; tō fela micles (_far
too much, many_), 695; acc. pl. micle, 1349. Compar., see māra.

mid, I. prep. w. dat., instr., and acc., signifying preëminently _union,
community, with_, hence: 1) w. dat.: a) _with, in company, community,
with_; mid Finne, 1129; mid Hrōðgāre, 1593; mid scip-herge, 243; mid
gesīðum (_with his comrades_), 1314; so, 1318, 1964, 2950, etc.; mid his
frēo-drihtne, 2628; mid þǣm lācum (_with the gifts_), 1869; so, 2789, 125;
mid hǣle (_with good luck!_), 1218; mid bǣle fōr (_sped off amid fire_),
2309. The prep. postponed: him mid (_with him, in his company_), 41; _with
him_, 1626; ne wæs him Fitela mid (_was not with him_), 890. b) _with,
among_: mid Gēatum (_among the Gēatas_), 195, 2193, 2624; mid Scyldingum,
274; mid Eotenum, 903; mid yldum (eldum), 77, 2612; mid him (_with, among,
one another_), 2949. In temporal sense: mid ǣr-dæge (_at dawn_), 126.--2)
_with, with the help of, through_, w. dat.: mid ār-stafum (_through his
grace_), 317; so, 2379; mid grāpe (_with the fist_), 438; so, 1462, 2721;
mid his hete-þoncum (_through his hatred_), 475; mid sweorde, 574; so,
1660, 2877; mid gemete (_through, by, his power_), 780; so, 1220, 2536,
2918; mid gōde (_with benefits_), 1185; mid hearme (_with harm, insult_),
1893; mid þǣre sorge (_with [through?] this sorrow_), 2469; mid rihte (_by
rights_), 2057. With instr.: mid þȳ wīfe (_through [marriage with] the
woman_), 2029.--3) w. acc., _with, in community, company, with_: mid his
eorla gedriht, 357; so, 634, 663, 1673; mid hine, 880; mid mīnne
gold-gyfan, 2653.

II. adv., mid, _thereamong, in the company_, 1643; _at the same time,
likewise_, 1650.

middan-geard, st. m., _globe, earth_: acc. sg., 75, 1772; dat. sg. on
middan-gearde, 2997; gen. sg. middan-geardes, 504, 752.

midde, w. f., _middle = medius_: dat. sg. on middan (_through the middle,
in two_), 2706; gen. sg. (adv.) tō-middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

middel-niht, st. f., _midnight_: dat. pl. middel-nihtum, 2783, 2834.

miht, st. f., _might, power, authority_: acc. sg. þurh drihtnes miht
(_through the Lord's help, power_), 941; instr. pl. selfes mihtum, 701.

mihtig, adj.: 1) _physically strong, powerful_: acc. sg. mihtig mere-dēor,
558; mere-wīf mihtig, 1520.--2) _possessing authority, mighty_: nom. sg.
mihtig god, 702, 1717, 1726; dat. sg. mihtigan drihtne, 1399.--Comp.: æl-,

milde, adj., _kind, gracious, generous_: nom. sg. mōdes milde
(_kind-hearted_), 1230; instr. pl. mildum wordum (_graciously_), 1173.
Superl. nom. sg. worold-cyning mannum mildust (_a king most liberal to
men_), 3183.

milts, st. f., _kindness, benevolence_: nom. sg., 2922.

missan, w. v. with gen., _to miss, err in_: pret. sg. miste mercelses
(_missed the mark_), 2440.

missēre, st. n., _space of a semester, half a year_: gen. pl. hund missēra
(_fifty winters_), 2734, 2210; generally, _a long period of time, season_,
1499, 1770; fela missēra, 153, 2621.

mist-hlið, st. n., _misty cliff, cloud-capped slope_: dat. pl. under
mist-hleoðum, 711.

mistig, adj., _misty_: acc. pl. mistige mōras, 162.

mīl-gemearc, st. n., _measure by miles_: gen. sg. mīl-gemearces, 1363.

mīn: 1) poss. pron., _my, mine_, 255, 345, etc.; Hygelāc mīn (_my lord_, or
_king, H._), 2435.--2) gen. sg. of pers. pron. ic, _of me_, 2085, 2534,

molde, w. f., _dust; earth, field_: in comp. græs-molde.

mon. See man.

ge-mong. See ge-mang.

morð-bealu, st. n., _murder, deadly hale_ or _deed of murder_: gen. pl.
morð-beala, 136.

morðor, st. n., _deed of violence, murder_: dat. instr. sg. morðre, 893,
1265, 2783; gen. sg. morðres, 2056; morðres scyldig (_guilty of murder_),

morðor-bed, st. n., _bed of death, murder-bed_: acc. sg. wæs þām yldestan
... morðor-bed strēd (_a bed of death was spread for the eldest_, i.e.
through murder his death-bed was prepared), 2437.

morðor-bealu, st. n., _death-bale, destruction by murder_: acc. sg.
morðor-bealo, 1080, 2743.

morðor-hete, st. m., _murderous hate_: gen. sg. þæs morðor-hetes, 1106.

morgen, morn, mergen, st. m., _morning, forenoon_; also _morrow_: nom. sg.
morgen, 1785, 2125; (_morrow_), 2104; acc. sg. on morgen (_in the
morning_), 838; dat. sg. on morgne, 2485; on mergenne, 565, 2940; gen. pl.
morna gehwylce (_every morning_), 2451.

morgen-ceald, adj., _morning-cold, dawn-cold_: nom. sg. gār morgen-ceald
(_spear chilled by the early air of morn_), 3023.

morgen-lang, adj., _lasting through the morning_: acc. sg. morgen-longne
dæg (_the whole forenoon_), 2895.

morgen-lēoht, st. n., _morning-light_: nom. sg., 605, 918.

morgen-swēg, st. m., _morning-cry, cry at morn_: nom. sg., 129.

morgen-tīd, st. f., _morning-tide_: acc. sg. on morgen-tīde, 484, 818(?)

morn. See morgen.

mōd, st. n.: 1) _heart, soul, spirit, mood, mind, manner of thinking_: nom.
sg., 50, 731; wǣfre mōd (_the flicker ing spirit, the fading breath_),
1151; acc. sg. on mōd (_into his mind_), 67; dat. instr. sg. mōde geþungen
(_of mature, lofty spirit_), 625; on mōde (_in heart, mind_), 754, 1845,
2282? 2528; on hrēoum mōde (_fierce of spirit_), 2582; gen. sg. modes, 171,
811, 1707; modes blīðe (_gracious-minded, kindly disposed_), 436; so, mōdes
milde, 1230; mōdes sēoce (_depressed in mind_), 1604.--2) _boldness,
courage_: nom. and acc. sg., 1058, 1168. 3) _passion, fierceness_: nom.
sg., 549.--Comp. form adj.: galg-, geōmor-, glæd-, gūð-, hrēoh-, sārig-,
stīð-, swīð-, wērig-, yrre-mōd.

mōd-cearu, st. f., _grief of heart_: acc. sg. mōd-ceare, 1993, 3150.

mōd-gehygd, st. f ., _thought of the heart; mind_: instr. pl. mōd-gehygdum,

mōd-ge-þanc, st. n., _mood-thought, meditation_: acc. sg. mōd-ge-þonc,

mōd-giōmor, adj., _grieved at heart, dejected_: nom. sg., 2895.

mōdig, adj., _courageous_: nom. sg., 605, 1644, 1813, 2758; hē þæs (þǣm,
MS.) mōdig wæs (_had the courage for it_), 1509; se mōdega, 814; dat. sg.
mid þām mōdigan, 3012; gen. sg. mōdges, 502; mōdiges, 2699; Gēata lēod
georne truwode mōdgan mægnes (_trusted firmly in his bold strength_), 671;
nom. pl. mōdge, 856; mōdige, 1877; gen. pl. mōdigra, 312, 1889.--Comp,

mōdig-līc, adj., _of bold appearance_: compar. acc. pl. mōdiglīcran, 337.

mōd-lufe, w. f., _hearts affection, love_: gen. sg. þīnre mōd-lufan, 1824.

mōd-sefa, w. m., _thought of the heart; brave, bold temper; courage_: nom.
sg., 349, 1854, 2629; acc. sg. mōd-sefan, 2013; dat. sg. mōd-sefan, 180.

mōd-þracu, st. f., _boldness, courage, strength of mind_: dat. sg. for his
mōd-þræce, 385.

mōdor, f., _mother_: nom. sg., 1259, 1277, 1283, 1684, 2119; acc. sg.
mōdor, 1539, 2140, 2933.

mōna, w. m., _moon_: gen. sg. mōnan, 94.

mōr, st. m., _moor, morass, swamp_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mōr, 1406; dat.
sg. of mōre, 711; acc. pl. mōras, 103, 162, 1349.

mōr-hop, st. n., _place of refuge in the moor, hiding-place in the swamp_:
acc. pl. mōr-hopu, 450.

ge-mōt, st. n., _meeting_: in comp. hand-, torn-ge-mōt.

mōtan, pret.-pres. v.: 1) _power_ or _permission to have something, to be
permitted; may, can_: pres. sg. I., III. mōt, 186, 442, 604; II. mōst,
1672; pl. mōton, 347, 365, 395; pres. subj. ic mōte, 431; III. sē þe mōte,
1388; pret sg. mōste, 168, 707, 736, 895, 1488, 1999, 2242, 2505, etc.; pl.
mōston, 1629, 1876, 2039, 2125, 2248; pres. subj. sg. II. þæt þū hine
selfne gesēon mōste (_mightest see_), 962.--2) _shall, must, be obliged_:
pres. sg. mōt, 2887; pret. sg. mōste, 1940; þǣr hē þȳ fyrste forman dōgore
wealdan mōste, swā him Wyrd ne gescrāf, hrēð æt hilde (_if he must for the
first time that day be victorious, as Fate had denied him victory_, cf.
2681, 2683 seqq.), 2575.

ge-munan, pret.-pres. v., _to have in mind, be mindful; remember, think
of_, w. acc.: pres. sg. hine gearwe geman witena wēl-hwylc (_each of the
knowing ones still remembers him well_), 265; ic þē þæs lēan geman (_I
shall not forget thy reward for this_), 1221; ic þæt eall gemon (_I
remember all that_), 2428; so, 1702, 2043; gif hē þæt eall gemon hwæt ...
(_if he is mindful of all that which_ ...), 1186; ic þæt mǣl gemon hwǣr...
(_I remember the time when_...), 2634; pret. sg. w. gemunde... ǣfen-sprǣce
(_recalled his evening speech_), 759; so, 871, 1130, 1260, 1271, 1291,
2115, 2432, 2607, 2679; sē þæs lēod-hryres lēan ge-munde (_was mindful of
reward for the fall of the ruler_), 2392; þæt hē Eotena bearn inne gemunde
(_that he in this should remember, take vengeance on, the children of the
Eotens_), 1142; so, hond gemunde fǣhðo genōge (_his hand remembered strife
enough_), 2490; ne ge-munde mago Ecglāfes þæt ... (_remembered not that
which_ ...), 1466; pret. pl. helle gemundon in mōd-sefan (_their thoughts_
[as heathens] _fixed themselves on, remembered, hell_), 179.

on-munan, w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to admonish, exhort_: pret. sg.
onmunde ūsic mǣrða (_exhorted us to deeds of glory_), 2641.

mund, st. f., _hand_: instr. pl. mundum, mid mundum, 236, 514, 1462, 3023,

mund-bora, w. m., _protector, guardian, preserver_: nom. sg., 1481, 2780.

mund-gripe, st. m., _hand-grip, seizure_: acc. sg. mund-gripe, 754; dat.
sg. mund-gripe, 380, 1535; æfter mund-gripe (_after having seized the
criminal_), 1939.

murnan, st. v., _to shrink from, be afraid of, avoid_: pret. sg. nō mearn
fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 136; so, 1538; nalles for ealdre mearn (_was not
apprehensive for his life_), 1443.--2) _to mourn, grieve_: pres. part. him
wæs ... murnende mōd, 50; pres. subj., þonne hē fela murne (_than that he
should mourn much_), 1386.

be-murnan, be-meornan, with acc., _to mourn over_: pret. be-mearn, 908,

murn-līce. See un-murn-līce.

mūð-bana, w. m., _mouth-destroyer_: dat. sg. tō mūð-bonan (of Grendel
because he bit his victim to death), 2080.

mūða, w. m., _mouth, entrance_: acc. sg. recedes mūðan (_mouth of the
house, door_), 725.

ge-mynd, st. f., _memory, memorial, remembrance_: dat. pl. tō gemyndum,
2805, 3017. See weorð-mynd.

myhdgian, w. v., _to call to mind, remember_: pres. sg. myndgað, 2058;
pres. part. w. gen. gif þonne Frēsna hwylc ... þæs morðor-hetes myndgiend
wǣre (_were to call to mind the bloody feud_), 1106.

ge-myndgian, w. v. w. acc., _to remember_: bið gemyndgad ... eaforan
ellor-sīð (_is reminded of his son's decease_), 2451.

ge-myndig, adj., _mindful_: nom. sg. w. gen., 614, 869, 1174, 1531, 2083,

myne, st. m.: 1) _mind, wish_: nom. sg., 2573.--2) _love_(?): nē his myne
wisse (_whose_ [God's] _love he knew not_), 169.

ge-mynian, w. v. w. acc., _to be mindful of_: imper. sg. gemyne mǣrðo! 660.

myntan, w. v., _to intend, think of, resolve_: pret. sg. mynte ... manna
cynnes sumne besyrwan (_meant to entrap all_(?) [see sum], _some one of
(?), the men_), 713; mynte þæt hē gedǣlde ... (_thought to sever_), 732;
mynte se mǣra, þǣr hē meahte swā, wīdre gewindan (_intended to flee_), 763.

myrce, adj., _murky, dark_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mōr, 1406.

myrð, st. f., _joy, mirth_: dat. (instr.) sg. mōdes myrðe, 8n.


naca, w. m., _vessel, ship_: acc. sg. nacan, 295; gen. sg. nacan,
214.--Comp.: hring-, ȳð-naca.

nacod, adj., _naked_: nom. and acc. sg. swurd, gūð-bill nacod, 539, 2586;
nacod nīð-draca, 2274.

nalas, nales, nallas. See nealles.

nama, w. m., _name_: nom. sg. Bēowulf is mīn nama, 343; wæs þǣm hæft-mēce
Hrunting nama, 1458; acc. sg. scōp him Heort naman (_gave it the name
Hart_), 78.

nā (from ne-ā), strength, negative, _never, not all_, 445, 567, 1537.

nāh, from ne-āh. See āgan.

nān (from ne-ān), indef. pron., _none, no_: with gen. pl. gūð-billa nān,
804; adjectively, nān ... īren ǣrgōd, 990.

nāt, from ne-wāt: _I know not=nescio_. See witan.

nāt-hwylc (nescio quis, ne-wāt-hwylc, _know not who, which_, etc.), indef.
pron., _any, a certain one, some or other_: 1) w. partitive gen.: nom. sg.
gumena nāt-hwylc, 2234;. gen. sg. nāt-hwylces (þāra banena), 2054; niða
nāt-hwylces(?), 2216; nāt-hwylces hæleða bearna, 2225.--2) adjectively:
dat. sg. in nið-sele nāt-hwylcum, 1514.

næbben, from ne-hæbben (subj. pres.). See habban.

næfne. See nefne.

nægel, st. m., _nail_: gen. pl. nægla (of the finger-nails), 986.

nægled, part., _nailed?, nail-like?, buckled?_: acc. sg. neut. nægled (MS.
gled) sinc, 2024.

næs, st. m., _naze, rock projecting into the sea, cliff, promontory_: acc.
sg. næs, 1440, 1601, 2899; dat. sg. næsse, 2244, 2418; acc. pl. windige
næssas, 1412; gen. pl. næssa, 1361.

næs, from ne-wæs (_was not_). See wesan.

næs, neg. adv., _not, not at all_, 562, 2263.

næs-hlið, st. n., _declivity, slope of a promontory that sinks downward to
the sea_: dat. pl. on næs-hleoðum, 1428.

nǣfre, adv., _never_, 247, 583, 592, 656, 719, 1042, 1049, etc.; also
strengthened by ne: nǣfre ne, 1461.

ge-nǣgan, w. v. w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to attack, press_; pret.
pl. nīða genǣgdan nefan Hererīces (_in combats pressed hard upon H.'s
nephew_), 2207; pret. part. wearð ... nīða genǣged, 1440.

nǣnig (from ne-ǣnig), pron., _not any, none, no_: 1) substantively w. gen.
pl.: nom. sg., 157, 242, 692; dat. sg. nǣnegum, 599; gen. pl. nǣnigra,
950.--2) adjectively: nom. sg. ōðer nǣnig, 860; nǣnig wæter, 1515; nǣnig
... dēor, 1934; acc. sg. nǣnigne ... hord-māððum, 1199.

nǣre, from ne-wǣre (_were not, would not be_). See wesan.

ne, simple neg., _not_, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, etc.; before imper. ne sorga!
1385; ne gȳm! 1761, etc. Doubled =_certainly not, not even that_: nē gē
... gearwe ne wisson (_ye certainly have not known_, etc.), 245; so, 863;
ne ic ... wihte ne wēne (_nor do I at all in the least expect_), 2923; so,
182. Strengthened by other neg.: nōðer ... ne, 2125; swā hē ne mihte nō ...
(_so that he absolutely could not_), 1509.

nē ... nē, _not ... and not, nor; neither ... nor_, 154-157, 511,
1083-1085, etc. Another neg. may supply the place of the first ne: so, nō
... ne, 575-577, 1026-1028, 1393-1395, etc.; nǣfre ... ne, 583-584; nalles
... nē, 3016-3017. The neg. may be omitted the first time: ǣr nē siððan
(_neither before nor after, before nor since_), 719; sūð nē norð (_south
nor north_), 859; ādl nē yldo (_neither illness nor old age_), 1737; wordum
nē worcum (_neither by word nor deed_), 1101; wiston and ne wēndon (_knew
not and weened not_), 1605.

nefa, w. m., _nephew, grandson_: nom. sg. nefa (_grandson_), 1204; so,
1963; (_nephew_), 2171; acc. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 2207; dat. sg. nefan
(_nephew_), 882.

nefne, næfne, nemne (orig. from ne-gif-ne): 1) subj.: a) with depend.
clause = _unless_: nefne him wītig god wyrd forstōde (_if fate, the wise
God, had not prevented him_), 1057; nefne god sylfa ... sealde (_unless God
himself_, etc.), 3055; næfne him his wlite lēoge (MS. nǣfre) (_unless his
face belie him_), 250; næfne hē wæs māra (_except that he was huger_),
1354; nemne him heaðo-byrne helpe ge-fremede, 1553; so, 2655.--b) w.
follow. substantive = _except, save, only_: nefne sin-frēa (_except the
husband_), 1935; ic lȳt hafo hēafod-māga nefne Hygelāc þec (_have no near
kin but thee_), 2152; nis þæt ēower (gen. pl.) sīð ... nefne mīn ānes,
2534.--2) Prep. with dat., _except_: nemne fēaum ānum, 1082.

ge-nehost. See ge-neahhe.

nelle, from ne-wille (_I will not_). See willan.

nemnan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to name, call_: pres. pl. þone yldestan
ōret-mecgas Bēowulf nemnað (_the warriors call the most distinguished one
Bēowulf_), 364; so inf. nemnan, 2024; pret. pl. nemdon, 1355.--2) _to
address_, as in

be-nemnan, _to pronounce solemnly, put under a spell_: pret. sg. Fin
Hengeste ... āðum be-nemde þæt (_asserted, promised under oath that_ ...),
1098; pret. pl. swā hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon þēodnas mǣre (_put
under a curse_), 3070.

nemne. See nefne.

nerian, ge-nerian, w. v., _to save, rescue, liberate_: pres. sg. Wyrd oft
nereð unfǣgne eorl, 573; pret. part. hæfde ... sele Hrōðgāres ge-nered wið
nīðe (_saved from hostility_), 828.

ge-nesan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to remain over, be preserved_: pret. sg.
hrōf āna genæs ealles ansund (_the roof alone was quite sound_), 1000.--2)
w. acc., _to endure successfully, survive, escape from_: pret. sg. sē þā
sæcce ge-næs, 1978; fela ic ... gūð-rǣsa ge-næs, 2427; pret. part. swā hē
nīða gehwane genesen hæfde, 2398.

net, st. n., _net_: in comp. brēost-, here-, hring-, inwit-, searo-net.

nēdla, w. m., _dire necessity, distress_: in comp. þrēa-nēdla.

nēðan (G. nanþjan), w. v., _to venture, undertake boldly_: pres. part.
nearo nēðende (_encountering peril_), 2351; pret. pl. þǣr git ... on dēop
water aldrum nēðdon (_where ye two risked your lives in the deep water_),
510; so, 538.

ge-nēðan, the same: inf. ne dorste under ȳða gewin aldre ge-nēðan, 1470.
With depend. clause: nǣnig þæt dorste genēðan þæt (_none durst undertake
to_ ...), 1934; pret. sg. hē under hārne stān āna genēðde frēcne dǣde (_he
risked alone the bold deed, venturing under the grey rock_), 889; (ic)
wigge under wætere weorc genēðde earfoð-līce (_I with difficulty stood the
work under the water in battle_, i.e. could hardly win the victory), 1657;
ic genēðde fela gūða (_ventured on, risked, many contests_), 2512; pres.
pl. (of majesty) wē ... frēcne genēðdon eafoð uncūðes (_we have boldly
risked, dared, the monster's power_), 961.

nēh. See nēah.

ge-neahhe, adv., _enough, sufficiently_, 784, 3153; superl. genehost brægd
eorl Bēowulfes ealde lāfe (_many an earl of B.'s_), 795.

nealles (from ne-ealles), adv., _omnino non, not at all, by no means_:
nealles, 2146, 2168, 2180, 2223, 2597, etc.; nallas, 1720, 1750; nalles,
338, 1019, 1077, 1443, 2504, etc.; nalas, 43, 1494, 1530, 1538; nales,

nearo, st. n., _strait, danger, distress_: acc. sg. nearo, 2351, 2595.

nearo, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. f. nearwe, 1410.

nearwe, adv., _narrowly_, 977.

nearo-cræft, st. m., _art of rendering difficult of access?,
inaccessibility_ (see 2214 seqq.): instr. pl. nearo-cræftum, 2244.

nearo-fāh, m., _foe that causes distress, war-foe_: gen. sg. nearo-fāges,

nearo-þearf, st. f., _dire need, distress_: acc. sg. nearo-þearfe, 422.

ge-nearwian, w. v., _to drive into a corner, press upon_: pret. part.
genearwod, 1439.

nēah, nēh: 1) adj., _near, nigh_: nom. sg. nēah, 1744, 2729. In superl.
also = _last_: instr. sg. nȳhstan sīðe (_for the last time_), 1204;
nīehstan sīðe, 2512.

2) adv., _near_: feor and (oððe) nēah, 1222, 2871; 3) prep, sǣ-grunde nēah,
   564; so, 1925, 2243; holm-wylme nēh, 2412. Compar. nēar, 746.

nēan, adv., _near by, (from) close at hand_, 528; (neon, MS.), 3105;
feorran and nēan, 840; nēan and feorran, 1175, 2318.

ge-nēat, st. m., _comrade, companion_: in comp. bēod-, heorð-genēat.

nioðor. See niðer.

neowol, adj., _steep, precipitous_: acc. pl. neowle, 1412.

nēod, st. f., _polite intercourse regulated by etiquette?, hall-joy?_: acc.
sg. nīode, 2117; inst. (= _joy_), 2216.

nēod-laðu, st. f., _polite invitation; wish_: dat. sg. æfter nēod-laðu
(_according to his wishes_), 1321.

nēosan, nēosian, w. v. w. gen., _to seek out, look for; to attack_: inf.
nēosan, 125, 1787, 1792, 1807, 2075; nīosan, 2389, 2672; nēosian, 115,
1126; nīosian, 3046; pret. sg. nīosade, 2487.

nēotan, st. v., _to take, accept_, w. gen.; _to use, enjoy_: imper. sg.
nēot, 1218.

be-nēotan, w. dat., _to rob, deprive of_: inf. hine aldre be-nēotan, 681;
pret. sg. cyning ealdre bi-nēat (_deprived the king of life_), 2397.

nicor, st. m., _sea-horse, walrus, sea-monster_ (cf. Bugge in Zacher's
Journal, 4, 197): acc. pl. niceras, 422, 575; nicras, 1428; gen. pl.
nicera, 846.

nicor-hūs, st. n., _house_ or _den of sea-monsters_: gen. pl. nicor-hūsa,

nið st. m., _man, human being_: gen. pl. niðða, 1006; niða? (passage
corrupt), 2216.

niðer, nyðer, neoðor, adv., _down, downward_: niðer, 1361; nioðor, 2700;
nyðer, 3045.

nið-sele, st. m., _hall, room, in the deep_ (Grein): dat. sg. [in] nið-sele
nāt-hwylcum, 1514.

nigen, num., _nine_: acc. nigene, 575.

niht, st. f. _night_: nom. sg., 115, 547. 650, 1321, 2117; acc. sg. niht,
135, 737, 2939; gystran niht (_yester-night_), 1335; dat. sg. on niht, 575,
684; on wanre niht, 703; gen. sg. nihtes hwīlum (_sometimes at night, in
the hours of the night_), 3045; as adv. = _of a night, by night_, G.
nachts, 422, 2274; dæges and nihtes, 2270; acc. pl. seofon niht
(_se'nnight, seven days_, cf. Tac. Germ, 11), 517; dat. pl. sweartum
nihtum, 167; deorcum nihtum, 275, 221; gen. pl. nihta, 545, 1366.--Comp.:
middel-, sin-niht.

niht-bealu, st. n., _night-bale, destruction by night_: gen. pl.
niht-bealwa, 193.

niht-helm, st. m., _veil_ or _canopy of night_: nom. sg., 1790.

niht-long, adj., _lasting through the night_: acc. sg. m. niht-longne fyrst
(_space of a night_), 528.

niht-weorc, st. n., _night-work, deed done at night_: instr. sg.
niht-weorce, 828.

niman, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to take, hold, seize, undertake_: pret. sg. nam
þā mid handa hige-þīhtigne rinc, 747; pret. pl. wē . . . nīode nāman,
2117.--2) _to take, take away, deprive of_: pres. sg. sē þe hine dēað nimeð
(_he whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 447; nymeð, 1847; nymeð nȳd-bāde,
599; subj. pres. gif mec hild nime, 452, 1482; pret. sg. ind. nam on
Ongenþīo īren-byrnan, 2987; ne nom hē ... māðm-ǣhta mā (_he took no more of
the rich treasures_), 1613; pret. part. þā wæs ... sēo cwēn numen (_the
queen carried off_), 1154.

be-niman, _to deprive of_: pret. sg. oð þæt hine yldo benam mægenes wynnum
(_till age bereft him of joy in his strength_), 1887.

for-niman, _to carry off_: pres. sg. þē þā dēað for-nam (_whom death
carried off_), 488; so, 557, 696, 1081, 1124, 1206, 1437, etc. Also, dat.
for acc.: pret. pl. him īrenna ecge fornāmon, 2829.

ge-niman: 1) _to take, seize_: pret. sg. (hine) be healse ge-nam (_clasped
him around the neck, embraced him_), 1873.--2) _to take, take away_: pret.
on reste genam þrītig þegna, 122; hēo under heolfre genam cūðe folme, 1303;
segn ēac genom, 2777; þā mec sinca baldor ... æt mīnum fæder genam (_took
me at my father's hands, adopted me_), 2430; pret. part. genumen, 3167.

ge-nip, st. n., _darkness, mist, cloud_: acc. pl. under næssa genipu, 1361;
ofer flōda genipu, 2809.

nis, from ne-is (_is not_): see wesan.

nīwe, nīowe, adj., _new, novel; unheard-of_: nom. sg. swēg up ā-stāg nīwe
geneahhe (_a monstrous hubbub arose_), 784; beorh ... nīwe (_a
newly-raised(?) grave-mound_), 2244; acc. sg. nīwe sibbe (_the new
kinship_), 950; instr. sg. nīwan stefne (properly, novā voce; here = de
novo, iterum, _again_), 2595; nīowan stefne (_again_), 1790; gen. pl. nīwra
spella (_new tidings_), 2899.

ge-nīwian, w. v., _to renew_: pret. part. ge-nīwod, 1304, 1323; genīwad,

nīw-tyrwed, pret. part., _newly-tarred_: acc. sg. nīw-tyrwedne (-tyrwydne,
MS.) nacan, 295.

nīð, st. m., properly only _zeal, endeavor_; then _hostile endeavor,
hostility, battle, war_: nom. sg., 2318; acc. sg. nīð, 184, 276; Wedera nīð
(_enmity against the W., the sorrows of the Weders_), 423; dat. sg. wið
(æt) nīðe, 828, 2586; instr. nīðe, 2681; gen. pl. nīða, 883, 2351, 2398,
etc.; also instr. = _by, in, battle_, 846, 1440, 1963, 2171, 2207.--Comp.:
bealo-, fǣr-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, wæl-nīð.

nīð-draca, w. m., _battle-dragon_: nom. sg., 2274.

nīð-gast, st. m., _hostile alien, fell demon_: acc. sg. þone nīð-gæst (_the
dragon_), 2700.

nīð-geweorc, st. n., _work of enmity, deed of evil_: gen. pl. -geweorca,

nīð-grim, adj., _furious in battle, savage_: nom. sg., 193.

nīð-heard, adj., _valiant in war_: nom. sg., 2418.

nīð-hȳdig, adj., _eager for battle, valorous_: nom. pl. nīð-hȳdige men,

ge-nīðla, w. m., _foe, persecutor, waylayer_: in comp. ferhð-,

nīð-wundor, st. n., _hostile wonder, strange marvel of evil_: acc. sg.,

nīpan, st. v., _to veil, cover over, obscure_; pres. part. nīpende niht,
547, 650.

nolde, from ne-wolde (_would not_); see willan.

norð, adv., _northward_, 859.

norðan, adv., _from the north_, 547.

nose, w. f., _projection, cliff, cape_: dat. sg. of hlīðes nosan, 1893; æt
brimes nosan, 2804.

nō (strengthened neg.), _not, not at all, by no means_, 136, 244, 587, 755,
842, 969, 1736, etc.; strengthened by following ne, 459(?), 1509; nō ... nō
(_neither ... nor_), 541-543; so, nō ... ne, 168. See ne.

nōðer (from nā-hwæðer), neg., _and not, nor_, 2125.

ge-nōh, adj., _sufficient, enough_: acc. sg. fǣhðo genōge, 2490; acc. pl.
genōge ... bēagas, 3105.

nōn, st. f., [Eng. _noon_], _ninth hour of the day, three o'clock in the
afternoon of our reckoning_ (the day was reckoned from six o'clock in the
morning; cf. Bouterwek Scrēadunga, 24 _2_: wē hātað ǣnne dæg fram sunnan
upgange oð ǣfen): nom. sg. nōn, 1601.

nū, adv.: l) _now, at present_, 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 426, 489, etc.: nū
gȳt (_up to now, hitherto_), 957; nū gēn (_now still, yet_), 2860; (_now
yet, still_), 3169.--2) conj., _since, inasmuch as_: nū þū lungre geong ...
nū se wyrm ligeð (_go now quickly, since the dragon lieth dead_), 2746; so,
2248; þæt þū mē ne forwyrne ... nū ic þus feorran cōm (_that do not thou
refuse me, since I am come so far_), 430; so, 1476; nū ic on māðma hord
mīne bebohte frōde feorh-lege, fremmað gē nū (_as I now..., so do ye_),
2800; so, 3021.

nymðe, conj. w. subj., _if not, unless_, 782; nymðe mec god scylde (_if God
had not shielded me_), 1659.

nyt, st. f., _duty, service, office, employment_: acc. sg. þegn nytte
behēold (_did his duty_), 494; so, 3119.--Comp.: sund-, sundor-nyt.

nyt, adj., _useful_: acc. pl. m. nytte, 795; comp. un-nyt.

ge-nyttian, w. v., _to make use of, enjoy_: pret. part. hæfde eorð-scrafa
ende ge-nyttod (_had enjoyed, made use of_), 3047.

nȳd, st. f., _force, necessity, need, pain_: acc. sg. þurh dēaðes nȳd,
2455; instr. sg. nȳde, 1006. In comp. (like nȳd-maga, consanguineus, in
AEthelred's Laws, VI. 12, Schmid, p. 228; nēd-maga, in Cnut's Laws, I. 7,
ibid., p. 258); also, _tie of blood._--Comp. þrēa-nȳd.

ge-nȳdan, w. v.: 1) _to force, compel_: pret. part. nīðe ge-nȳded
(_forced by hostile power_), 2681.--2) _to force upon_: pret. part. acc.
sg. f. nȳde genȳdde ... gearwe stōwe (_the inevitable place prepared for
each_, i.e. the bed of death), 1006.

nȳd-bād, st. f., _forced pledge, pledge demanded by force_: acc. pl.
nȳd-bāde, 599.

nȳd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade in need_ or _united by ties of blood_: nom.
pl. nȳd-gesteallan, 883.

nȳd-gripe, st. m., _compelling grip_: dat. sg. in nȳd-gripe (mid-gripe,
MS.), 977.

nȳd-wracu, st. f., _distressful persecution, great distress_: nom. sg.,

nȳhst. See nēah.


oððe, conj.: 1) _or; otherwise_, 283, 437, 636, 638, 694, 1492, 1765,
etc.--2) _and_(?), _till_(?), 650, 2476, 3007.

of, prep. w. dat., _from, off from_: 1) _from some point of view_: ge-seah
of wealle (_from the wall_), 229; so, 786; of hefene scīneð (_shineth from
heaven_), 1572; of hlīðes nosan gæstas grētte (_from the cliff's
projection_), 1893; of þām lēoma stōd (_from which light streamed_), 2770;
þǣr wæs māðma fela of feorwegum ... gelǣded (_from distant lands_), 37; þā
cōm of mōre (_from the moor_), 711, 922.--2) _forth from, out of_: hwearf
of earde (_wandered from his home, died_), 56; so, 265, 855, 2472; þā ic of
searwum cōm (_when I had escaped from the persecutions of the foe_), 419;
þā him Hrōðgār gewāt ... ūt of healle (_out of the hall_), 664; so, 2558,
2516; 1139, 2084, 2744; wudu-rēc ā-stāh sweart of (ofer) swioðole (_black
wood-reek ascended from the smoking fire_), 3145; (icge gold) ā-hæfen of
horde (_lifted from the hoard_), 1109; lēt þā of brēostum ... word ūt faran
(_from his breast_), 2551; dyde ... helm of hafelan (_doffed his helmet_),
673; so, 1130; sealdon wīn of wunder-fatum (_presented wine from wondrous
vessels_), 1163; siððan hyne Hæðcyn of horn-bogan ... flāne geswencte
(_with an arrow shot from the horned bow_), 2438; so, 1434. Prep.
postponed: þā hē him of dyde īsern-byrnan (_doffed his iron corselet_),

ofer, prep. w. dat. and acc., _over, above_: 1) w. dat, _over_ (rest,
locality): Wīglāf siteð ofer Bīowulfe, 2908; ofer æðelinge, 1245; ofer
eorðan, 248, 803, 2008; ofer wer-þēode (_over the earth, among mankind_),
900; ofer ȳðum, 1908; ofer hron-rāde (_over the sea_), 10; so, 304, 1287,
1290, etc.; ofer ealowǣge (_over the beer-cup, drinking_), 481.--2) w. acc.
of motion: a) _over_ (local): ofer ȳðe (_over the waves_), 46, 1910; ofer
swan-rāde (_over the swan-road, the sea_), 200; ofer wǣgholm, 217; ofer
geofenes be-gang, 362; so, 239, 240, 297, 393, 464, 471, etc.; ofer bolcan
(_over the gangway_), 231; ofer landa fela (_over many lands_), 311; so,
1405, 1406; ofer hēahne hrōf (_along upon (under?) the high roof_), 984;
ofer eormen-grund (_over the whole earth_), 860; ofer ealle (_over all, on
all sides_), 2900, 650; so, 1718;--606, 900, 1706; ofer borda gebræc
(_over, above, the crashing of shields_), 2260; ofer bord-(scild) weall,
2981, 3119. Temporal: ofer þā niht (_through the night, by night_), 737. b)
w. verbs of saying, speaking, _about, of, concerning_: hē ofer benne spræc,
2725. c) _beyond, over_: ofer mīn ge-met (_beyond my power_), 2880;--hence,
_against, contrary to_: hē ofer willan gīong (_went against his will_),
2410; ofer ealde riht (_against the ancient laws_, i.e. the ten
commandments), 2331;--also, _without_: wīg ofer wǣpen (_war sans,
dispensing with, weapons_), 686;--temporal = _after_: ofer eald-gewin
(_after long, ancient, suffering_), 1782.

ofer-hygd, st. n., _arrogance, pride, conceit_: gen. pl. ofer-hygda, 1741;
ofer-hȳda, 1761.

ofer-māðum, st. m., _very rich treasure_: dat. pl. ofer-māðmum, 2994.

ofer-mægen, st. n., _over-might, superior numbers_: dat. sg. mid
ofer-mægene, 2918.

ofer-þearf, st. f., _dire distress, need_: dat. sg. [for ofer] þea[rfe],

oft, adv., _often_, 4, 165, 444, 572, 858, 908, 1066, 1239, etc.; oft [nō]
seldan, 2030; oft nalles ǣne, 3020; so, 1248, 1888. Compar. oftor, 1580.
Superl. oftost, 1664.

om-, on-. see am-, an-.

ombiht. See ambiht.

oncer. See ancer.

ond. See and.

onsȳn. See ansȳn.

on, prep. w. dat. and acc., signifying primarily _touching on, contact
with_: I. local, w. dat.: a) _on, upon, in at_ (of exterior surface): on
hēah-stede (_in the high place_), 285; on mīnre ēðel-tyrf (_in my native
place_), 410; on þǣm meðel-stede, 1083; so, 2004; on þām holmclife, 1422;
so, 1428; on foldan (_on earth_), 1197; so, 1533, 2997; on þǣre medu-bence
(_on the mead-bench_), 1053; beornas on blancum (_the heroes on the
dapple-greys_), 857, etc.; on ræste (_in bed_), 1299; on stapole (_at,
near, the pillar_), 927; on wealle, 892; on wāge (_on the wall_), 1663; on
þǣm wæl-stenge (_on the battle-lance_), 1639; on eaxle (_on his shoulder_),
817, 1548; on bearme, 40; on brēostum, 552; on hafelan, 1522; on handa (_in
his hand_), 495, 540; so, 555, 766; on him byrne scān (_on him shone the
corselet_), 405; on ōre (_at the front_), 1042; on corðre (_at the head of,
among, his troop_), 1154; scip on ancre (_the ship at anchor_), 303; þæt hē
on heoðe ge-stōd (_until he stood in the hall_), 404; on fæder stǣle (_in a
father's place_), 1480; on ȳðum (_on the waves, in the water_), 210, 421,
534, 1438; on holme, 543; on ēg-strēamum, 577; on segl-rāde, 1438, etc.; on
flōde, 1367. The prep. postponed: Frēslondum on, 2358.--b) _in, inside of_
(of inside surface): secg on searwum (_a champion in armor_), 249; so, 963;
on wīg-geatwum, 368; (reced) on þǣm se rīca bād (_in which the mighty one
abode_), 310; on Heorote (_in Heorot_), 475, 497, 594, 1303; on bēor-sele,
492, 1095; on healle, 615, 643; so, 639, 1017, 1026, etc.; on burgum (_in
the cities, boroughs_), 53; on helle, 101; on sefan mīnum (_in my mind_),
473; on mōde, 754; so, 755, 949, 1343, 1719, etc.; on aldre (_in his
vitals_), 1435; on middan (in medio), 2706.--c) _among, amid_: on searwum
(_among the arms_), 1558; on gemonge (_among the troop_), 1644; on þām
lēod-scipe (_among the people_), 2198; nymðe līges fæðm swulge on swaðule
(_unless the embracing flame should swallow it in smoke_), 783;--_in, with,
touched by, possessing something_: þā wæs on sālum sinces brytta (_then was
the dispenser of treasure in joy_), 608; so, 644, 2015; wæs on hrēon mōde,
1308; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582, 2296; hēo wæs on ofste (_she was in
haste_), 1293; so, 1736, 1870; þā wæs on blōde brim weallende (_there was
the flood billowing in, with, blood_), 848; (hē) wæs on sunde (_was
a-swimming_), 1619; wæs tō fore-mihtig fēond on fēðe (_too powerful in
speed_), 971; þǣr wæs swīgra secg ... on gylpsprǣce (_there was the
champion more silent in his boasting speech_), 982;--_in; full of,
representing, something_: on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353.--d)
_attaching to_, hence _proceeding from; from something_: ge-hȳrde on
Bēowulfe fæst-rǣdne ge-þōht (_heard in, from, B. the fixed resolve_), 610;
þæt hē ne mētte ... on elran men mund-gripe māran, 753;--hence, with verbs
of taking: on ræste genam (_took from his bed_), 122; so, 748, 2987; hit ǣr
on þē gōde be-geāton (_took it before from thee_), 2249.--e) _with_: swā
hit lungre wearð on hyra sinc-gifan sāre ge-endod (_as it, too, soon
painfully came to an end with the dispenser of treasure_), 2312.--f) _by_:
mæg þonne on þǣm golde ongitan Gēata dryhten (_the lord of the Geatas may
perceive by the gold_), 1485.--g) _to_, after weorðan: þæt hē on fylle
wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.

With acc.: a) w. verbs of moving, doing, giving, seeing, etc., _up to, on,
upon, in_: ā-lēdon þā lēofne þēoden ... on bearm scipes, 35; on stefn (on
wang) stigon, 212, 225; þā him mid scoldon on flōdes ǣht feor ge-wītan, 42;
sē þe wið Brecan wunne on sīdne sǣ (_who strovest in a swimming-match with
B. on the broad sea_), 507, cf. 516; þæt ic on holma ge-þring eorlscipe
efnde (_that I should venture on the sea to do valiant deeds_), 2133; on
fēonda geweald sīðian, 809; þāra þe on swylc starað, 997; so, 1781; on
lufan lǣteð hworfan (_lets him turn his thoughts to love?, to
possessions?_), 1729; him on mōd bearn (_came into his mind, occurred to
him_), 67; rǣsde on þone rōfan (_rushed on the powerful one_), 2691; (cwōm)
on worðig (_came into the palace_), 1973; so, 27, 242, 253, 512, 539, 580,
677, 726, etc.; on weg (_away_), 764, 845, 1383, 1431, 2097.--b) _towards,
on_: gōde gewyrcean ... on fæder wine (pl.), 21.--c) aim or object, _to,
for the object, for, as, in, on_: on þearfe (_in his need, in his strait_),
1457; so, on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan þearfe, 2850; wrāðum on andan (_as a
terror to the foe_), 709; Hrōðgār maðelode him on andsware (_said to him in
reply_), 1841; betst beado-rinca wæs on bǣl gearu (_on the pyre ready_),
1110; wīg-heafolan bær frēan on fultum (_for help_), 2663; wearð on bīd
wrecen (_forced to wait_), 2963.--d) ground, reason, _according to, in
conformity with_: rodera rǣdend hit on ryht gescēd (_decided it in
accordance with right_), 1556; nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht (_swore no
oaths unjustly, falsely_), 2740; on spēd (_skilfully_), 874; nallas on gylp
seleð fǣtte bēagas (_giveth no gold-wrought rings as he promised_), 1750;
on sīnne selfes dōm (_boastingly, at his own will_), 2148; him eal worold
wendeð on willan (_according to his will_), 1740.--e) w. verbs of buying,
_for, in exchange for_: mē ic on māðma hord mīne be-bohte frōde feorh-lege
(_for the hoard of jewels_), 2800.--f) _of, as to_: ic on Higelāce wāt,
Gēata dryhten (_I know with respect to, as to, of, H._), 1831; so, 2651;
þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl ge-lȳfde fyrena frōfre (_that she should rely on
any earl for help out of trouble_), 628; þā hīe ge-truwedon on twā healfa
(_on both sides, mutually_), 1096; so, 2064; þæt þū him ondrǣdan ne þearft
... on þā healfe (_from, on this side_), 1676.--g) after superlatives or
virtual superlatives = _among_: næs ... sinc-māððum sēlra (= þæt wæs
sinc-māðma sēlest) on sweordes hād (_there was no better jewel in sword's
shape_, i.e. among all swords there was none better), 2194; sē wæs Hrōðgāre
hæleða lēofost on ge-sīðes hād (_dearest of men as, in the character of,
follower_, etc.), 1298.

II. Of time: a) w. dat., _in, inside of, during, at_: on fyrste (_in time,
within the time appointed_), 76; on ūhtan (_at dawn_), 126; on mergenne
(_at morn, on the morrow_), 565, 2940; on niht, 575; on wanre niht, 703; on
tȳn dagum, 3161; so, 197, 719, 791, 1063, etc.; on geogoðe (_in youth_),
409, 466; on geogoð-fēore, 537; so, 1844; on orlege (_in, during, battle_),
1327; hū lomp ēow on lāde (_on the way_), 1988; on gange (_in going, en
route_), 1885; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582.--b) w. acc., _towards,
about_: on undern-mǣl (_in the morning, about midday_), 1429; on
morgen-tīd, 484, 518; on morgen, 838; on ende-stæf (_toward the end, at
last_), 1754; oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð (_far oftener than once_),

III. With particles: him on efn (_beside, alongside of, him_), 2904; on
innan (_inside, within_), 71, 1741, 1969, 2453, 2716; þǣr on innan (_in
there_), 2090, 2215, 2245. With the relative þē often separated from its
case: þē ic hēr on starie (_that I here look on, at_), 2797; þē gē þǣr on
standað (_that ye there stand in_), 2867.

on-cȳð (cf. Dietrich in Haupt's Zeits. XI., 412), st. f., _pain,
suffering_: nom. sg., 1421; acc. sg. or pl. on-cȳððe, 831.

on-drysne, adj., _frightful, terrible_: acc. sg. firen on-drysne, 1933.

ōnettan (for anettan, from root an-, Goth. inf. anan, _to breathe, pant_),
w. v., _to hasten_: pret. pl. ōnetton, 306, 1804.

on-līcnes, st. f., _likeness, form, figure_: nom. sg., 1352.

on-mēdla, w. m., _pride, arrogance_: dat. sg. for on-mēdlan, 2927. Cf.
Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 218 seqq.

on-sǣge, adj., _tending to fall, fatal_: nom. sg. þā wæs Hondscīo (dat.)
hild on-sǣge, 2077; Hæðcynne wearð ... gūð on-sǣge, 2484.

on-weald, st. m., _power, authority_: acc. sg. (him) bēga ge-hwæðres ...
onweald ge-tēah (_gave him power over, possession of, both_), 1044.

open, adj., _open_: acc. sg. hord-wynne fond ... opene standan, 2272.

openian, w. v., _to open_, w. acc.: inf. openian, 3057.

orc (O.S. orc, Goth. aúrkei-s), st. m., _crock, vessel, can _: nom. pl.
orcas, 3048; acc. pl. orcas, 2761.

orcnē, st. m., _sea-monster_: nom. pl. orcnēas, 112.

ord, st. n. _point_: nom. sg. oð þæt wordes ord brēost-hord þurh-bræc
(_till the word-point broke through his breast-hoard, came to utterance_),
2792; acc. sg. ord (_sword-point_), 1550; dat. instr. orde (id.), 556; on
orde (_at the head of, in front_ [of a troop]), 2499, 3126.

ord-fruma, w. m., _head lord, high prince_: nom. sg., 263.

ōret-mecg, st. m., _champion, warrior, military retainer_: nom. pl.
ōret-mecgas, 363, 481; acc. pl. ōret-mecgas, 332.

ōretta, w. m., _champion, fighter, hero_: nom. sg., 1533, 2539.

or-leg, st. n., _war, battle_: dat. sg. on orlege, 1327; gen. sg. or-leges,

or-leg-hwīl, st. f., _time of battle, war-time_: nom. sg. [or-leg]-hwīl,
2003; gen. sg. orleg-hwīle, 2912; gen. pl orleg-hwīla, 2428.

or-leahtre, adj., _blameless_: nom. sg 1887.

or-þanc (cf. Gloss. Aldhelm. mid or-þance = argumento in Haupt XI., 436;
orþancum = machinamentis, _ibid._ 477; or-þanc-scipe = mechanica, 479, st.
m., _mechanical art, skill_: instr. pl. or-þoncum, 2088; smiðes or-þancum,

or-wēna, adj. (weak form), _hopeless, despairing_, w. gen.: aldres or-wēna
(_hopeless of life_), 1003, 1566.

or-wearde, adj., _unguarded, without watch_ or _guard_: adv., 3128.

oruð, st. n., _breath, snorting_: nom. sg., 2558; dat. oreðe, 2840.


oð (Goth. und, O.H.G. unt, unz): 1) prep. w. acc., _to, till, up to_, only
temporal: oð þone ānne dæg, 2400; oð dōmes dæg, 3070; ō woruld-ende,
3084.--2) oð þæt, conj. w. depend, indicative clause, _till, until_, 9, 56,
66, 100, 145. 219, 296, 307, etc.

ōðer (Goth. anþar), num.: 1) _one or other of two, a second_, = alter: nom.
sg. subs.: se ōðer, 2062; ōðer(_one_ i.e. of my blood-relations, Hæðcyn and
Hygelāc), 2482; ōðer ... ōðer (_the one ... the other_), 1350-1352. Adj.:
ōðer ... mihtig mān-sceaða (_the second mighty, fell foe_, referring to
1350, 1339; se ōðer ... hæle, 1816; fem. niht ōðer, 2118; neut. ōðer geār
(_the next, second, year_), 1134; acc. sg. m. ōðerne, 653, 1861, 2441,
2485; þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne(_whilst one warrior robbed the other_,
i.e. Eofor robbed Ongenþēow), 2986; neut. ōðer swylc(_another such, an
equal number_), 1584; instr. sg. ōðre sīðe (_for the second time, again_),
2671, 3102; dat. sg. ōðrum, 815, 1030, 1166, 1229, 1472, 2168, 2172, etc.;
gen. sg. m. ōðres dōgores, 219, 606; neut. ōðres, 1875.--2) _another, a
different one_, = alius: nom. sg., subs. ōðer, 1756; ōðer nǣnig (_no
other_), 860. Adj.: ǣnig ōðer man, 503, 534; so, 1561; ōðer in (_a
different house_ or _room_), 1301; acc. sg. ōðer flet, 1087; gen. sg. ōðres
... yrfe-weardes, 2452; acc. pl. ealo drincende ōðer sǣdan (_ale drinkers
said other things_), 1946; acc. pl. neut. word ōðer, 871.

ōfer, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. on ōfre, 1372.

ofost, st. f., _haste_: nom. sg. ofost is sēlest tō gecȳðanne (_haste is
best to make known, best to say at once_), 256; so, 3008; dat. sg. bēo þū
on ofeste (ofoste) (_be in haste, hasten_), 386, 2748; on ofste, 1293; on
ofoste, 2784, 3091.

ofost-līce, adv., _in haste, speedily_, 3131.

ō-hwǣr, adv., _anywhere_, 1738, 2871.

ōmig, adj., _rusty_: nom. sg., 2764; nom. pl. ōmige, 3050.

ōr, st. n., _beginning, origin; front_: nom. sg., 1689; acc. sg., 2408;
dat. sg. on ōre, 1042.

ō-wiht, _anything, aught_: instr. sg. ō-wihte (_in any way_), 1823, 2433.


pād, st. f., _dress_; in comp. here-pād.

pæð, st. m., _path, road, way_; in comp. ān-pæð.

plega, w. m., _play, emulous contest_; lind-plega, 1074.


raðe, adv., _quickly, immediately_, 725, Cf. hrāðe.

rand, rond, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg, rand, 683; rond, 657, 2567, 2610;
dat. ronde (rond, MS.), 2674; under rande, 1210; bī ronde, 2539; acc. pl.
randas, 231; rondas, 326, 2654.--Comp.: bord-, hilde-, sīd-rand.

rand-hæbbend, pres. part., _shield-bearer_, i.e. _man at arms, warrior_:
gen. pl. rond-hæbbendra, 862.

rand-wiga, w. m., _shield-warrior, shield-bearing warrior_: nom. sg., 1299;
acc. sg. rand-wigan, 1794.

rād, st. f., _road, street_; in comp. hran-, segl-, swan-rād.

ge-rād, adj., _clever, skilful, ready_: acc. pl. neut. ge-rāde, 874.

rāp, st. m., _rope, bond, fetter_: in comp. wæl-rāp.

rāsian, w. v., _to find, discover_: pret. part. þā wæs hord rāsod, 2284.

ræst. See rest.

rǣcan, w. v., _to reach, reach after_: pret. sg. rǣhte ongēan fēond mid
folme (_reached out his hand toward the foe_), 748.

ge-rǣcan, _to attain, strike, attack_: pret. sg. hyne ... wǣpne ge-rǣhte
(_struck him with his sword_), 2966; so, 556.

rǣd, st. m.: 1) _advice, counsel, resolution; good counsel, help_: nom. sg.
nū is rǣd gelong eft æt þē ānum (_now is help to be found with thee
alone_), 1377; acc. sg. rǣd, 172, 278, 3081.--2) _advantage, gain, use_:
acc. sg. þæt rǣd talað (_counts that a gain_), 2028; ēcne rǣd (_the eternal
gain, everlasting life_), 1202; acc. pl. ēce rǣdas, 1761.--Comp.: folc-rǣd,
and adj., ān-, fæst-rǣd.

rǣdan, st. v., _to rule; reign; to possess_: pres. part. rodera rǣdend
(_the ruler of the heavens_), 1556; inf. þone þe þū mid rihte rǣdan
sceoldest (_that thou shouldst possess by rights_), 2057; wolde dōm godes
dǣdum rǣdan gumena gehwylcum (_God's doom would rule over, dispose of,
every man in deeds_), 2859. See sele-rǣdend.

rǣd-bora, w. m. _counsellor, adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

rǣden, st. f., _order, arrangement, law_: see Note on 1143; comp.

ā-rǣran, w. v.: 1) _to raise, lift up_: pret. pl. þā wǣron monige þē his
mǣg ... ricone ā-rǣrdon (_there were many that lifted up his brother
quickly_), 2984.--2) figuratively, _to spread, disseminate_: pret. part.
blǣd is ā-rǣred (_thy renown is far-spread_), 1704.

rǣs, st. m., _on-rush, attack, storm_: acc. sg. gūðe rǣs (_the storm of
battle, attack_), 2627; instr. pl. gūðe rǣsum, 2357.--Comp.: gūð-, hand-,
heaðo-, mægen-, wæl-rǣs.

(ge-)rǣsan, w. v., _to rush (upon)_: pret. sg. rǣsde on þone rōfan, 2691,

rǣswa, w. m., _prince, ruler_: dat. sg. weoroda rǣswan, 60.

reccan, w. v., _to explicate, recount, narrate_: inf. frum-sceaft fīra
feorran reccan (_recount the origin of man from ancient times_), 91;
gerund, tō lang is tō reccenne, hū ic ... (_too long to tell how I_...),
2094; pret. sg. syllīc spell rehte (_told a wondrous tale_), 2111; so
intrans. feorran rehte (_told of olden times_), 2107.

reced, st. n., _building, house; hall_ (complete in itself): nom. sg., 412,
771, 1800; acc. sg., 1238; dat. sg. recede, 721, 729, 1573; gen. sg.
recedes, 326, 725, 3089; gen. pl. receda, 310.--Comp.: eorð-, heal-, horn-,

regn-heard, adj., _immensely strong, firm_: acc. pl. rondas regn-hearde,

regnian, rēnian, w. v., _to prepare, bring on_ or _about_: inf. dēað
rēn[ian] hond-gesteallan (_prepare death for his comrade_), 2169.

ge-regnian, _to prepare, deck out, adorn_: pret. part. medu-benc monig ...
golde ge-regnad, 778.

regn-, rēn-weard, st. m., _mighty guardian_: nom. pl. rēn-weardas (of
Bēowulf and Grendel contending for the possession of the hall), 771.

rest, ræst, st. f.: 1) _bed, resting-place_: acc. sg. ræste, 139; dat. sg.
on ræste (genam) (_from his resting-place_), 1299, 1586; tō ræste (_to
bed_), 1238. Comp.: flet-ræst, sele-rest, wæl-rest.--2) _repose, rest_; in
comp. ǣfen-ræst.

ge-reste (M.H.G. reste), f., _resting-place_: in comp. wind-gereste.

restan, w. v.: 1) _to rest_: inf. restan, 1794; pret. sg. reflex. reste
hine þā rūm-heort, 1800.--2) _to rest, cease_: inf., 1858.

rēc (O.H.G. rouh), st. m., _reek, smoke_: instr. sg. rēce, 3157.--Comp.:
wæl-, wudu-rēc.

rēcan (O.H.G. ruohjan), w. v. w. gen., _to reck, care about something, be
anxious_: pres. sg. III. wǣpna ne rēceð (_recketh not for weapons, weapons
cannot hurt him_), 434.

rēðe, adj., _wroth, furious_: nom. sg., 122, 1586; nom. pl. rēðe, 771.
Also, of things, _wild, rough, fierce_: gen. sg. rēðes and-hāttres
(_fierce, penetrating heat_), 2524.

rēaf, st. n., _booty, plunder in war; clothing, garments_ (as taken by the
victor from the vanquished): in comp. heaðo-, wæl-rēaf.

rēafian, w. v., _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.: inf. hord rēafian, 2774; pret.
sg. þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne, 2986; wæl rēafode, 3028; pret. pl. wæl
rēafedon, 1213.

be-rēafian, w. instr., _to bereave, rob of_: pret. part. since be-rēafod,
2747; golde be-rēafod, 3019.

reord, st. f., _speech, language; tone of voice_: acc. sg. on-cnīow mannes
reorde (_knew, heard, a human voice_), 2556.

reordian, w. v., _to speak, talk_: inf. fela reordian _(speak much_), 3026.

ge-reordian, _to entertain, to prepare for_: pret. part. þā wæs eft swā ǣr
... flet-sittendum fægere ge-reorded (_again, as before, the guests were
hospitably entertained_), 1789

rēot, st. m.?, f.?, _noise, tumult_? (_grave_?): instr. sg. rēote, 2458.
Bugge, in Zachers Zeits. 4, 215, takes rēote as dat. from rēot (_rest,

rēoc, adj., _savage, furious_: nom. sg., 122.

be-rēofan, st. v., _to rob of, bereave_: pret. part. w. instr. acc. sg.
fem. golde berofene, 2932; instr. sg. rēote berofene, 2458.

rēon. See rōwan.

rēotan, st. v., _to weep_: pres. pl. oð þæt ... roderas rēotað, 1377.

rēow, adj., _excited, fierce, wild_: in comp. blōd-, gūð-, wæl-rēow. See

ricone, _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 2984.

riht, st. n., _right_ or _privilege; the_ (abstract) _right_: acc. sg. on
ryht (_according to right_), 1556; sōð and riht (_truth and right_), 1701;
dat. sg. wið rihte, 144; æfter rihte (_in accordance with right_), 1050;
syllīc spell rehte æfter rihte _(told a wondrous tale truthfully_), 2111;
mid rihte, 2057; acc. pl. ealde riht (_the ten commandments_), 2331;
--Comp. in ēðel-, folc-, land-, un-, word-riht.

riht, adj., _straight, right_: in comp. up-riht.

rihte, adv., _rightly, correctly_, 1696. See æt-rihte.

rinc, st. m., _man, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 399, 2986; also of Grendel,
721; acc. sg. rinc, 742, 748; dat. sg. rince, 953; of Hrōðgār, 1678; gen.
pl. rinca, 412, 729.--Comp. in beado-, gūð-, here-, heaðo-, hilde-, mago-,

ge-risne, ge-rysne, adj., _appropriate, proper_: nom. sg. n. ge-rysne,

rīce, st. n.: 1) _realm, land ruled over_: nom. sg., 2200, 2208; acc. sg.
rīce, 913, 1734, 1854, 3005; gen. sg. rīces, 862, 1391, 1860, 2028, 3081.
Comp. Swīo-rīce.--2) _council of chiefs, the king with his chosen
advisers_(?): nom. sg. oft gesæt rīce tō rūne, 172.

rīce, adj., _mighty, powerful_: nom. sg. (of Hrōðgār), 1238; (of Hygelāc),
1210; (of Æsc-here), 1299; weak form, se rīca (Hrōðgār), 310; (Bēowulf),
399; (Hygelāc), 1976.--Comp. gimme-rīce.

rīcsian, rīxian, w. v. intrans., _to rule, reign_: inf. rīcsian, 2212;
pret. sg. rīxode, 144.

rīdan, st. v., _to ride_: subj. pres. þæt his byre rīde giong on galgan,
2446; pres. part. nom. pl. rīdend, 2458; inf. wicge rīdan, 234; mēarum
rīdan, 856; pret. sg. sǣ-genga ... sē þe on ancre rād, 1884; him tō-gēanes
rād (_rode to meet them_), 1894; pret. pl. ymbe hlǣw riodan (_rode round
the grave-mound_), 3171.

ge-rīdan, w. acc., _to ride over_: pret. sg. sē þe næs ge-rād (_who rode
over the promontory_), 2899.

rīm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dæg-, un-rīm.

ge-rīm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dōgor-ge-rim.

ge-rīman, w. v., _to count together, enumerate in all_: pret. part. in
comp. forð-gerīmed.

ā-rīsan, st. v., _to arise, rise_: imper. sg. ā-rīs, 1391; pret. sg. ā-rās
þā se rīca, 399; so, 652, 1791, 3031; ā-rās þā bī ronde (_arose by his
shield_), 2539; hwanan sīo fǣhð ā-rās (_whence the feud arose_), 2404.

rodor, st. m., _ether, firmament, sky_ (from _radius_?, Bugge): gen. sg.
rodores candel, 1573; nom. pl. roderas, 1377; dat. pl. under roderum, 310;
gen. pl. rodera, 1556.

rōf, adj., _fierce, of fierce, heroic, strength, strong_: nom. sg., 2539;
also with gen. mægenes rōf (_strong in might_), 2085; so, þēah þe hē rōf
sīe nīð-geweorca, 683; acc. sg. rōfne, 1794; on þone rōfan, 2691.--Comp.:
beadu-, brego-, ellen-, heaðo-, hyge-, sige-rōf.

rōt, adj., _glad, joyous_: in comp. un-rōt.

rōwan, st. v., _to row_ (with the arms), _swim_: pret. pl. rēon (for
rēowon), 512, 539.

rūm, st. m., _space, room_: nom. sg., 2691.

rūm, adj.: 1) _roomy, spacious_: nom. sg. þūhte him eall tō rūm, wongas and
wīc-stede (_fields and dwelling seemed to him all too broad_, i.e. could
not hide his shame at the unavenged death of his murdered son), 2462.--2)
in moral sense, _great, magnanimous, noble-hearted_: acc. sg. þurh rūmne
sefan, 278.

rūm-heort, adj., _big-hearted, noble-spirited_: nom. sg., 1800, 2111.

ge-rūm-līc, adj., _commodious, comfortable_: compar. ge-rūm-līcor, 139.

rūn, st. f., _secrecy, secret discussion, deliberation_ or _council_: dat.
sg. ge-sæt rīce tō rūne, 172.--Comp. beado-rūn.

rūn-stæf, st. m., _rune-stave, runic letter_: acc. pl. þurh rūn-stafas,

rūn-wita, w. m., _rune-wit, privy councillor, trusted adviser_: nom. sg.,

ge-rysne. See ge-risne.

ge-rȳman, w. v.: 1) _to make room for, prepare, provide room_: pret. pl.
þæt hīe him ōðer flet eal ge-rȳmdon, 1087; pret. part. þā wæs Gēat-mæcgum
... benc gerȳmed, 492; so, 1976.--2) _to allow, grant, admit_: pret. part.
þā mē ge-rȳmed wæs (sīð) (_as access was permitted me_), 3089; þā him
gerȳmed wearð, þæt hīe wæl-stōwe wealdan mōston, 2984.


ge-saca, w. m., _opponent, antagonist, foe_: acc. sg. ge-sacan, 1774.

sacan, st. v., _to strive, contend_: inf. ymb feorh sacan, 439.

ge-sacan, _to attain, gain by contending_ (Grein): inf. gesacan sceal
sāwl-berendra ... gearwe stōwe _(gain the place prepared_, i.e. the
death-bed), 1005.

on-sacan: 1) (originally in a lawsuit), _to withdraw, take away, deprive
of_: pres. subj. þætte freoðuwebbe fēores on-sæce ... lēofne mannan,
1943.--2) _to contest, dispute, withstand_: inf. þæt hē sǣmannum on-sacan
mihte (i.e. hord, bearn, and brȳde), 2955.

sacu, st. f., _strife, hostility, feud_: nom. sg., 1858, 2473; acc. sg.
sæce, 154; sæcce, 1978, 1990, 2348, 2500, 2563; dat. sg. æt (tō) sæcce,
954, 1619, 1666, 2613, 2660, 2682, 2687; gen. sg. secce, 601; gen. pl.
sæcca, 2030.

ge-sacu, st. f., _strife, enmity_: nom. sg., 1738.

sadol, st. m., _saddle_: nom. sg., 1039.

sadol-beorht, adj., _with bright saddles_ (?): acc. pl. sadol-beorht, 2176.

ge-saga. See secgan.

samne, somne, adv., _together, united_; in æt-somne, _together, united_,
307, 402, 491, 544, 2848.

tō-somne (_together_), 3123; þā se wyrm ge-bēah snūde tō-somne (_when the
dragon quickly coiled together_), 2569.

samod, somod: I. adv., _simultaneously, at the same time_: somod, 1212,
1615, 2175, 2988; samod, 2197; samod æt-gædere, 387, 730, 1064.--II. prep.
w. dat., _with, at the same time with_: samod ǣr-dæge (_with the break of
day_), 1312; somod ǣr-dæge, 2943.

sand, st. n., _sand, sandy shore_: dat. sg. on sande, 295, 1897, 3043(?);
æfter sande (_along the shore_), 1965; wið sande, 213.

sang, st. m., _song, cry, noise_: nom. sg. sang, 1064; swutol sang scopes,
90; acc. sg. sige-lēasne sang (Grendel's cry of woe), 788; sārigne sang
(Hrēðel's dirge for Herebeald), 2448.

sāl, st. m., _rope_: dat. sg. sāle, 1907; on sāle (sole, MS.), 302.

sāl. See sǣl.

sār, st. n., _wound, pain_ (physical or spiritual): nom. sg. sār, 976; sīo
sār, 2469; acc. sg. sār, 788; sāre, 2296; dat. (instr.) sg. sāre, 1252,
2312, 2747.--Comp. līc-sār.

sār, adj., _sore, painful_: instr. pl. sārum wordum, 2059.

sāre, adv., _sorely, heavily, ill_, graviter: sē þe him [sā]re gesceōd
(_who injured him sorely_), 2224.

sārig, adj., _painful, woeful_: acc. sg. sārigne sang, 2448.

sārig-ferð, adj., _sore-hearted, grieved_: nom. sg. sārig-ferð (Wīglāf),

sārig-mōd, adj., _sorrowful-minded, saddened_: dat. pl. sārig-mōdum, 2943.

sār-līc, adj., _painful_: nom. sg., 843; acc. sg. neut., 2110.

sāwol, sāwl, st. f., _soul_ (the immortal principle as contrasted with līf,
the physical life): nom. sg. sāwol, 2821; acc. sg. sāwle, 184, 802; hǣðene
sāwle, 853; gen. sg. sāwele, 1743; sāwle, 2423.

sāwl-berend, pres. part., _endowed with a soul, human being_: gen. pl.
sāwl-berendra, 1005.

sāwul-drēor, st. n., (blood gushing from the seat of the soul), _soul-gore,
heart's blood, life's blood_: instr. sg. sāwul-drīore, 2694.

sāwul-lēas, adj., _soulless, lifeless_: acc. sg. sāwol-lēasne, 1407;
sāwul-lēasne, 3034.

sæce, sæcce. See sacu.

sæd, adj., _satiated, wearied_: in comp. hilde-sæd.

sæl, st. n., _habitable space, house_, _hall_: dat. sg. sel, 167; sæl, 307,
2076, 2265.

sæld, st. n., _hall, king's hall_ or _palace_: acc. sg. geond þæt sæld
(Heorot), 1281.

sǣ, st. m. and f., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg., 579, 1224; acc. sg. on sīdne sǣ,
507; ofer sǣ, 2381; ofer sǣ sīde, 2395; dat. sg. tō sǣ, 318; on sǣ, 544;
dat. pl. be sǣm tweonum, 859, 1298, 1686, 1957.

sǣ-bāt, st. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg., 634, 896.

sǣ-cyning, st. m., _sea-king, king ruling the sea_: gen. pl. sǣ-cyninga,

sǣ-dēor, st. n., _sea-beast, sea-monster_: nom. sg., 1511.

sǣ-draca, w. m., _sea-dragon_: acc. pl. sǣ-dracan, 1427.

ge-sǣgan, w. v., _to fell, slay_: pret. part. hæfdon eal-fela eotena cynnes
sweordum ge-sǣged (_felled with the sword_), 885.

sǣge. See on-sǣge.

sǣ-genga, w. m., _sea-goer_, i.e. sea-going ship: nom. sg., 1883, 1909.

sǣ-gēap, adj., _spacious_ (broad enough for the sea): nom. sg. sǣ-gēap
naca, 1897.

sǣ-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom, ocean-bottom_: dat. sg. sǣ-grunde, 564.

sǣl, sāl, sēl, st. f.: 1) _favorable opportunity, good_ or _fit time_: nom.
sg. sǣl, 623, 1666, 2059; sǣl and mǣl, 1009; acc. sg. sēle, 1136; gen. pl.
sǣla and mǣla, 1612.--2) _Fate_(?): see Note on l. 51.--3) _happiness,
joy_: dat. pl. on sālum, 608; sǣlum, 644, 1171, 1323. See sēl, adj.

ge-sǣlan, w. v., _to turn out favorably, succeed_: pret. sg. him ge-sǣlde
þæt ...(_he was fortunate enough to_, etc.), 891; so, 574; efne swylce
mǣla, swylce hira man-dryhtne þearf ge-sǣlde (_at such times as need
disposed it for their lord_), 1251.

sǣlan (see sāl), w. v., _to tie, bind_: pret. sg. sǣlde ... sīð-fæðme scip,
1918; pl. sǣ-wudu sǣldon, 226.

ge-sǣlan, _to bind together, weave, interweave_: pret. part. earm-bēaga
fela searwum ge-sǣled (_many curiously interwoven armlets_, i.e. made of
metal wire: see Guide to Scandinavian Antiquities, p. 48), 2765.

on-sǣlan, with acc., _to unbind, unloose, open_: on-sǣl meoto, sige-hrēð
secgum (_disclose thy views to the men, thy victor's courage_; or, _thy
presage of victory_?), 489.

sǣ-lāc, st. n., _sea-gift, sea-booty_: instr. sg. sǣ-lāce, 1625; acc. pl.
þās sǣ-lāc, 1653.

sǣ-lād, st. f., _sea-way, sea-journey_: dat. sg. sǣ-lāde, 1140, 1158.

sǣ-līðend, pres. part., _seafarer_: nom. pl. sǣ-līðend, 411, 1819, 2807;
sǣ-līðende, 377.

sǣ-man, m., _sea-man, sea-warrior_: dat. pl. sǣ-mannum, 2955; gen. pl.
sǣ-manna, 329 (both times said of the Gēatas).

sǣmra, weak adj. compar., _the worse, the weaker_: nom. sg. sǣmra, 2881;
dat. sg. sǣmran, 954.

sǣ-mēðe, adj., _sea-weary, exhausted by sea-travel_: nom. pl. sǣ-mēðe, 325.

sǣ-næs, st. m., _sea-promontory, cape, naze_: acc. pl. sǣ-næssas, 223, 571.

sǣne, adj., _careless, slow_: compar. sg. nom. hē on holme wæs sundes þē
sǣnra, þē hyne swylt fornam (_was the slower in swimming in the sea, whom
death took away_), 1437.

sǣ-rinc, st. m., _sea-warrior_ or _hero_: nom. sg., 691.

sǣ-sīð, st. m., _sea-way, path, journey_: dat. sg. æfter sǣ-sīðe, 1150.

sǣ-wang, st. m., _sea-shore_ or _beach_: acc. sg. sǣ-wong, 1965.

sǣ-weal, st. m., _(sea-wall), seashore_: dat. sg. sǣ-wealle, 1925.

sǣ-wudu, st. m., _(sea-wood), vessel, ship_: acc. sg. sǣ-wudu, 226.

sǣ-wylm, st. m., _sea-surf, billow_: acc. pl. ofer sǣ-wylmas, 393.

scacan, sceacan, st. v., properly, _to shake one's self_; hence, _to go,
glide, pass along_ or _away_: pres. sg. þonne mīn sceaceð līf of līce,
2743; inf. þā cōm beorht [sunne] scacan [ofer grundas], (_the bright sun
came gliding over the fields_), 1804; pret. sg. duguð ellor scōc _(the
chiefs are gone elsewhither_, i.e. have died), 2255; þonne strǣla storm ...
scōc ofer scild-weall (_when the storm of arrows leapt over the wall of
shields_), 3119; pret. part. wæs hira blǣd scacen (_their bravest men had
passed away_), 1125; þā wæs winter scacen (_the winter was past_), 1137;
so, sceacen, 2307, 2728.

scadu, sceadu, st. f., _shadow, concealing veil of night_: acc. sg. under
sceadu bregdan (i.e. kill), 708.

scadu-genga, w. m., _shadow-goer, twilight-stalker_ (of Grendel): nom. sg.
sceadu-genga, 704.

scadu-helm, st. m., _shadow-helm, veil of darkness_: gen. pl. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu (_shapes of the shadow, evil spirits wandering by night_), 651.

scalu, st. f., _retinue, band_ (part of an armed force); in comp.
hand-scalu: mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

scamian, w. v., _to be ashamed_: pres. part. nom. pl. scamiende, 2851; nō
hē þǣre feoh-gyfte ... scamigan þorfte (_needed not be ashamed of his
treasure-giving_), 1027.

scawa (see scēawlan), w. m., _observer, visitor_: nom. pl. scawan, 1896.

ge-scād, st. n., _difference, distinction_: acc. sg. ǣg-hwæðres gescād,
worda and worca (_difference between, of, both words and deeds_), 288.

ge-scādan, st. v., _to decide, adjudge_: pret. sg. rodera rǣdend hit on
ryht gescēd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556.

scānan? See scīnan, pret. pl. scionon, 303; the imaginary scānan having
been abandoned.

ge-scæp-hwīle, st. f., _fated hour, hour of death (appointed rest?)_: dat.
sg. tō gescæp-hwīle (_at the fated hour_), 26.

sceððan, w. v., _to scathe, injure_: inf. w. dat. pers., 1034; aldre
sceððan (_hurt her life_), 1525; þæt on land Dena lāðra nǣnig mid scipherge
sceððan ne meahte (_injure through robber incursions_), 243; pret. sg. þǣr
him nǣnig wæter wihte ne sceðede, 1515.

ge-sceððan, the same: inf. þæt him ... ne mihte eorres inwit-feng aldre
gesceððan, 1448.

scenc, st. m., _vessel, can_: in comp. medu-scenc.

scencan, w. v., _to hand drink, pour out_: pret. sg. scencte scīr wered,
496 (cf. skinker = cup-bearer).

scenne, w. f.?, _sword-guard?_: dat. pl. on þǣm scennum scīran goldes,

sceran, st. v., _to shear off, cleave, hew to pieces_: pres. sg. þonne
heoru bunden ... swīn ofer helme andweard scireð (_hews off the boar-head
on the helm_), 1288.

ge-sceran, _to divide, hew in two_: pret. sg. helm oft ge-scær (_often
clove the helm in two_), 1527; so, gescer, 2974.

scerwen, st. f.?, in comp. ealu-scerwen (_ale-scare_ or _panic_?), 770.

scēt. See scēotan.

sceadu. See scadu.

sceaða, w. m.: 1) _scather, foe_: gen. pl. sceaðena, 4.--2) _fighter,
warrior_: nom. pl. scaðan, 1804.--Comp.: attor-, dol-, fēond-, gūð-,
hearm-, lēod-, mān-, sin-, þēod-, ūht-sceaða.

sceaðan, st. v. w. dat., _to scathe, injure, crush_: pret. sg. sē þe oft
manegum scōd (_which has oft oppressed many_), 1888.

ge-sceaðan, w. dat., the same: pret. sg. swā him ǣr gescōd hild æt Heorote,
1588; sē þe him sāre ge-sceōd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224; nō þȳ ǣr
in gescōd hālan līce, 1503; bill ǣr gescōd eald-hlāfordes þām þāra māðma
mund-bora wæs (_the weapon of the ancient chieftain had before laid low the
dragon, the guardian of the treasure_), 2778 (or, _sheathed in brass_?, if
ǣr and gescōd form compound).

sceaðen-mǣl, st. n., _deadly weapon, hostile sword_: nom. sg., 1940.

sceaft, st. m., _shaft, spear, missile_: nom. sg. sceft, 3119.--Comp.:
here-, wæl-sceaft.

ge-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _creation, earth, earthly existence_: acc. sg. þās
lǣnan ge-sceaft, 1623.--2) _fate, destiny_: in comp. forð-, līf-,

scealc, st. m., _servant, military retainer_: nom. sg., 919; (of Bēowulf),
940.--Comp bēor-scealc.

ge-sceap, st. n.: 1) _shape, creature_: nom. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu,
651.--2) _fate, providence_: acc. sg. hēah ge-sceap (_heavy fate_), 3085.

sceapan, sceppan, scyppan, st. v., _to shape, create, order, arrange,
establish_: pres. part. scyppend (_the Creator_), 106; pret. sg. scōp him
Heort naman (_shaped, gave, it the name Heorot_), 78; pres. part. wæs sīo
wrōht scepen heard wið Hūgas, syððan Hygelāc cwōm (_the contest with the
Hūgas became sharp after H. had come_), 2915.

ge-sceapan, _to shape, create_: pret. sg. līf ge-sceōp cynna gehwylcum, 97.

scear, st. m., _massacre_: in comp. gūð-, inwit-scear, 2429, etc.

scearp, adj., _sharp, able, brave_: nom. sg. scearp scyld-wiga,
288.--Comp.: beadu-, heaðo-scearp.

scearu, st. f., _division, body, troop_: in comp. folc-scearu; _that is
decided_ or _determined_, in gūð-scearu (_overthrow_?), 1214.

sceat, st. m., _money_; also _unit of value in appraising_ (cf. Rieger in
Zacher's Zeits. 3, 415): acc. pl. sceattas, 1687. When numbers are given,
sceat appears to be left out, cf. 2196, 2995 (see þūsend).--Comp.

scēat, st. m., _region, field_: acc. pl. gefrætwade foldan scēatas leomum
and lēafum, 96;--_top, surface, part_: gen. pl. eorðan scēata, 753.

scēawere, st. m., _observer, spy_: nom. pl. scēaweras, 253.

scēawian, w. v. w. acc., _to see, look at, observe_: inf. scēawian, 841,
1414, 2403, 2745, 3009, 3033; scēawigan, 1392; pres. sg. II. þæt gē genōge
nēan scēawiað bēagas and brād gold, 3105; subj. pres. þæt ic ... scēawige
swegle searo-gimmas, 2749; pret. sg. scēawode, 1688, 2286, 2794; sg. for
pl., 844; pret. pl. scēawedon, 132, 204, 984, 1441.

ge-scēawian, _to see, behold, observe_: pret. part. ge-scēawod, 3076, 3085.

sceorp, st. n., _garment_: in comp. hilde-sceorp.

scēotan, st. v., _to shoot, hurl missiles_: pres. sg. sē þe of flān-bogan
fyrenum scēoteð, 1745; pres. part. nom. pl. scēotend (_the warriors,
bowmen_), 704, 1155; dat. pl. for scēotendum (MS. scotenum), 1027.

ge-scēotan, w. acc., _to shoot off, hurry_: pret. sg. hord eft gescēat
(_the dragon darted again back to the treasure_), 2320.

of-scēotan, _to kill by shooting_: pret. sg. his mǣg of-scēt ... blōdigan
gāre _(killed his brother with bloody dart_), 2440.

scild, scyld, st. m., _shield_: nom. sg. scyld, 2571; acc. sg. scyld, 437,
2076; acc. pl. scyldas, 325, 333, 2851.

scildan, scyldan, w. v., _to shield, protect_: pret. subj. nymðe mec god
scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

scild-freca, w. m., _shield-warrior_ (warrior armed with a shield): nom.
sg. scyld-freca, 1034.

scild-weall, st. m., _wall of shields_: acc. sg. scild-weall, 3119.

scild-wiga, w. m., _shield-warrior_: nom. sg. scyld-wiga, 288.

scinna, w. m., _apparition, evil spirit_: dat. pl. scynnum, 940.

scip, st. n., _vessel, ship_: nom. sg., 302; acc. sg., 1918; dat. sg. tō
scipe, 1896; gen. sg. scipes, 35, 897; dat pl. tō scypum (scypon, MS.),

scip-here, st. m., (exercitus navalis) _armada, fleet_: dat. sg. mid
scip-herge, 243.

ge-scīfe (for ge-scȳfe), adj., _advancing_ (of the dragon's movement),
2571; = G. _schief_?

scīnan, st. v., _to shine, flash_: pres. sg. sunne ... sūðan scīneð, 607;
so, 1572; inf. geseah blācne lēoman beorhte scīnan, 1518; pret. sg.
(gūð-byrne, woruld--candel) scān, 321, 1966; on him byrne scān, 405; pret.
pl. gold-fāg scinon web æfter wāgum, 995; scionon, 303.

scīr, adj., _sheer, pure, shining_: nom. sg. hring-īren scīr, 322; scīr
metod, 980; acc. sg. n. scīr wered, 496; gen. sg. scīran goldes, 1695.

scīr-ham, adj., _bright-armored, clad in bright mail_: nom. pl. scīr-hame,

scoten. See scēoten.

ge-scōd, pret. part., _shod_ (calceatus), _covered_: in comp.
ǣr-ge-scōd(?). See ge-sceaðan, and Note.

scop, st. m., _singer, shaper, poet_: nom. sg., 496, 1067; gen. sg. scopes,

scræf, st. n., _hole in the earth, cavern_: in comp. eorð-scræf.

scrīðan, st. v., _to stride, go_: pres. pl. scrīðað, 163; inf. scrīðan,
651, 704; scrīðan tō, 2570.

scrīfan, st. v., _to prescribe, impose_ (punishment): inf. hū him (Grendel)
scīr metod scrīfan wille, 980.

for-scrīfan, w. dat. pers., _to proscribe, condemn_: pret. part. siððan him
scyppend for-scrifen hæfde, 106.

ge-scrīfan, _to permit, prescribe_: pret. sg. swā him Wyrd ne ge-scrāf (_as
Weird did not permit him_), 2575.

scrūd, st. m., _clothing, covering; ornament_: in comp. beadu-,

scucca, w. m., _shadowy sprite, demon_: dat. pl. scuccum, 940.

sculan, aux. v. w. inf.: 1) _shall, must_ (obligation): pres. sg. I., III.
sceal, 20, 24, 183, 251, 271, 287, 440, 978, 1005, 1173, 1387, 1535, etc.;
scel, 455, 2805, 3011; II. scealt, 589, 2667; subj. pres. scyle, 2658;
scile, 3178; pret. ind. sg. I., III. scolde, 10, 806, 820, 966, 1071, 1444,
1450, etc.; sceolde, 2342, 2409, 2443, 2590, 2964; II. sceoldest, 2057; pl.
scoldon, 41, 833, 1306, 1638; subj. pret. scolde, 1329, 1478; sceolde,
2709.--2) w. inf. following it expresses futurity, = _shall, will_: pres.
sg. I., III. sceal bēodan (_shall offer_), 384; so, 424, 438, 602, 637,
1061, 1707, 1856, 1863, 2070; sceall, 2499, 2509, etc.; II. scealt, 1708;
pl. wit sculon, 684; subj. pret. scolde, 280, 692, 911; sceolde, 3069.--3)
sculan sometimes forms a periphrastic phrase or circumlocution for a simple
tense, usually with a slight feeling of obligation or necessity: pres. sg.
hē ge-wunian sceall (_he inhabits; is said to inhabit?_), 2276; pret. sg.
sē þe wæter-egesan wunian scolde, 1261; wæcnan scolde (_was to awake_), 85;
sē þone gomelan grētan sceolde (_was to, should, approach_), 2422; þæt se
byrn-wiga būgan sceolde (_the corseleted warrior had to bow, fell_), 2919;
pl. þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan sceoldon (_they that had to polish or deck
the battle-masks_), 2258; so, 230, 705, 1068.--4) w. omitted inf., such as
wesan, gangan: unc sceal worn fela māðma ge-mǣnra (i.e. wesan). 1784; so,
2660; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum befeallen (i.e. wesan), 2256; ic him
æfter sceal (i.e. gangan), 2817; subj. þonne þū forð scyle (i.e. gangan),
1180. A verb or inf. expressed in an antecedent clause is not again
expressed with a subsequent sceal: gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo scel (_Weird goeth
ever as it shall_ [go]), 455; gūð-bill ge-swāc swā hit nō sceolde (i.e.
ge-swīcan), 2586.

scūa, w. m., _shadowy demon_: in comp. dēað-scūa.

scūfan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to move forward, hasten_: pret. part. þā wæs
morgen-lēoht scofen and scynded, 919.--2) w. acc., _to shove, push_: pret.
pl. guman ūt scufon ... wudu bundenne (_pushed the vessel from the land_),
215; dracan scufun ... ofer weall-clif (_pushed the dragon over the
wall-like cliff_), 3132. See wīd-scofen(?)

be-scūfan, w. acc., _to push, thrust down, in_: inf. wā bið þǣm þe sceal
... sāwle be-scūfan in fȳres fæðm (_woe to him that shall thrust his soul
into fire's embrace_), 184.

scūr, st. m., _shower, battle-shower_: in comp. īsern-scūr.

scūr-heard, adj., _fight-hardened? (file-hardened?_): nom. pl. scūr-heard,

scyld, scyldan. See scild, scildan.

scyldig, adj., _under obligations_ or _bound for; guilty of_, w. gen. and
instr.: ealdres (morðres) scyldig, 1339, 1684, 2062; synnum scyldig
(_guilty of evil deeds_), 3072.

scyndan, w. v., _to hasten_: inf. scyndan, 2571; pret. part, scynded, 919

scynna. See scinna.

scyppend. See sceapan.

scȳran, w. v., _to arrange, decide_: inf. þæt hit sceaðen-mǣl scȳran
mōste (_that the sword must decide it_), 1940. O.N. skora, _to score,

scȳne, adj., _sheen, well-formed, beautiful_: nom. sg. mægð scȳne, 3017.

sē, se, pron. dem. and article, _the_: m. nom., 79, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92,
102, etc.; fem, sēo, 66, 146, etc.; neut. þæt;--relative: sē (_who_), 1611,
2866; sē þe (_he who_), 2293; sēo þe (_she who_), 1446; sē þe (for sēo þe),
1345, 1888, 2686; cf. 1261, 1498; (Grendel's mother, as a wild, demonic
creature, is conceived now as man, now as woman: woman, as having borne a
son; man, as the incarnation of savage cunning and power); se for sēo,
2422; dat. sg. þām (for þām þe), 2780.

secce. See sacu.

secg, st. m., _man, warrior, hero, spokesman_ (secgan?): nom. sg., 208,
872, 2228, 2407, etc.; (Bēowulf), 249, 948, 1312, 1570, 1760, etc.;
(Wulfgār), 402; (Hunferð), 981; (Wīglāf), 2864; acc. sg. sinnigne secg
(Grendel's mother, cf. se), 1380; dat. sg. secge, 2020; nom. pl. secgas,
213, 2531, 3129; dat. pl. secgum, 490; gen. pl. secga, 634, 843, 997, 1673.

secg, st. f., _sword_ (sedge?): acc. sg. secge, 685.

secgan, w. v., _to say, speak_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. gode ic þanc secge,
1998; so, 2796; pres. part. swā se secg hwata secgende wæs lāðra spella
(partitive gen.), 3029; inf. secgan, 582, 876, 881, 1050; pret. sg. sægde
him þæs lēanes þanc, 1810; pret. sg. II. hwæt þū worn fela ... sægdest from
his sīðe, 532.--2) without acc inf. swā wē sōðlīce secgan hȳrdon, 273;
pret. sg. sægde, 2633, 2900--3) w. depend. clause: pres. sg. ic secge, 591;
pl. III. secgað, 411; inf. secgan, 51, 391, 943, 1347, 1701, 1819, 2865,
3027; gerund. tō secganne, 473, 1725; pret. sg. sægde, 90, 1176; pl.
sægdon, 377, 2188; sǣdan, 1946.

ā-secgan (edicere), _to say out, deliver_: inf. wille ic ā-secgan suna
Healfdenes ... mīn ǣrende, 344.

ge-secgan, _to say, relate_: imper. sg. II. ge-saga, 388; þæt ic his ǣrest
þē eft ge-sægde (_that I should, after, tell thee its origin_), 2158; pret.
part. gesægd, 141; gesǣd, 1697.

sefa, w. m., _heart, mind, soul, spirit_: nom. sg., 49, 490, 595, 2044,
2181, 2420, 2601, 2633; acc. sg. sefan, 278, 1727, 1843; dat. sg. sefan,
473, 1343, 1738.--Comp. mōd-sefa.

ge-segen, st. f., _legend, tale_: in comp. eald-ge-segen.

segl, st. n., _sail_: nom. sg., 1907.

segl-rād, st. f., _sail-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. on segl-rāde, 1430.

segn, st. n., _banner_, vexillum: nom. sg., 2768, 2959; acc. sg. segen, 47,
1022; segn, 2777; dat. sg. under segne, 1205.--Comp. hēafod-segn.

sel, st. n., _hall, palace_. See sæl.

seld, st. n., _dwelling, house_: in comp. medu-seld.

ge-selda, w. m., contubernalis, _companion_: acc. sg. geseldan, 1985.

seldan, adv., _seldom_: oft [nō] seldan, 2030.

seld-guma, w. m., _house-man, home-stayer(?); common man?, house-carl?_:
nom. sg., 249.

sele, st. m. and n., _building consisting of one apartment; apartment,
room_: nom. sg., 81, 411; acc. sg. sele, 827, 2353; dat. sg. tō sele, 323,
1641; in (on, tō) sele þām hēan, 714, 920, 1017, 1985; on sele (_in the den
of the dragon_), 3129.--Comp.: bēah-, bēor-, dryht-, eorð-, gest-, gold-,
grund-, gūð-, hēah-, hring-, hrōf-, nið-, win-sele.

sele-drēam, st. m., _hall-glee, joy in the hall_: acc. sg. þāra þe þis līf
ofgeaf, gesāwon sele-drēam (referring to the joy of heaven?), 2253.

sele-ful, st. n., _hall-goblet_: acc. sg., 620.

sele-gyst, st. m., _hall-guest, stranger in hall_ or _house_: acc. sg. þone
sele-gyst, 1546.

sele-rǣdend, pres. part., _hall-ruler, possessor of the hall_: nom. pl.,
51; acc. lēode mīne sele-rǣdende, 1347.

sele-rest, st. f., _bed in the hall_: acc. sg. sele-reste, 691.

sele-þegn, st. m., _retainer, hall-thane, chamberlain_: nom. sg., 1795.

sele-weard, st. m., _hall-ward, guardian of the hall_: acc. sg., 668.

self, sylf, pron., _self_: nom. sg. strong form, self, 1314, 1925 (?
selfa); þū self, 595; þū þē self, 954; self cyning (_the king himself, the
king too_), 921, 1011; sylf, 1965; in weak form, selfa, 1469; hē selfa, 29,
1734; þǣm þe him selfa dēah (_that can rely upon, trust to, himself_),
1840; seolfa, 3068; hē sylfa, 505; god sylfa, 3055; acc. sg. m. selfne,
1606; hine selfne (_himself_), 962; hyne selfne (_himself_, reflex.), 2876;
wið sylfne (_beside_), 1978; gen. sg. m. selfes, 701, 896; his selfes,
1148; on sīnne sylfes dōm (_at his own will_), 2148; sylfes, 2224, 2361,
2640, 2711, 2777, 3014; his sylfes, 2014, 2326; fem. hire selfre, 1116;
nom. pl. selfe, 419; Sūð-Dene sylfe, 1997.

ge-sella, w. m., _house-companion, comrade_: in comp. hand-gesella.

sellan, syllan, w. v.: 1) w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to give,
deliver; permit, grant, present_: pres. sg. III. seleð him on ēðle eorðan
wynne, 1731; inf. syllan, 2161, 2730; pret. sg. sealde, 72, 673, 1272,
1694, 1752, 2025, 2156, 2183, 2491, 2995; nefne god sylfa sealde þām þe hē
wolde hord openian (_unless God himself gave to whom he would to open the
hoard_), 3056; pret. sg. II. sealdest, 1483.--2) _to give, give up_ (only
w. acc. of thing): ǣr hē feorh seleð (_he prefers to give up his life_),
1371; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas (_giveth out gold-wrought rings_,
etc.), 1750; pret. sg. sinc-fato sealde, 623; pl. byrelas sealdon wīn of
wunder-fatum, 1162.

ge-sellan, w. acc. and dat. of pers., _to give, deliver; grant, present_:
inf. ge-sellan, 1030; pret. sg. ge-sealde, 616, 1053, 1867, 1902, 2143,

sel-līc, syl-līc (from seld-līc), adj., _strange, wondrous_: nom. sg. glōf
... syllīc, 2087; acc. sg. n. syllīc spell, 2110; acc. pl. sellīce
sǣ-dracan, 1427. Compar. acc. sg. syllīcran wiht (the dragon), 3039.

semninga, adv., _straightway, at once_ 645, 1641, 1768.

sendan, w. v. w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers., _to send_: pret. sg. þone
god sende folce tō frōfre (_whom God sent as a comfort to the people_), 13;
so, 471, 1843.

for-sendan, _to send away, drive off_ pret. part. hē wearð on fēonda
geweald ... snūde for-sended, 905.

on-sendan, _to send forth, away_, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.:
imper. sg. on-send, 452, 1484; pret. sg. on-sende, 382; pl. þē hine ...
forð on-sendon ǣnne ofer ȳðe (_who sent him forth alone over the sea_),
45; pret. part. bealo-cwealm hafað fela feorh-cynna feorr on-sended, 2267.

sendan (cf. Gl. Aldhelm, sanda = ferculorum, epularum, in Haupt IX. 444),
w. v., _to feast, banquet_: pres. sg. III. sendeð, 601.--Leo.

serce, syrce, w. f., _sark, shirt of mail_: nom. sg. syrce, 1112; nom. pl.
syrcan, 226; acc. pl. grǣge syrcan, 334.--Comp.: beadu-, heoro-serce;
here-, leoðo-, līc-syrce.

sess, st. m., _seat, place for sitting_: dat. sg. sesse, 2718; þā hē bī
sesse gēong (_by the seat_, i.e. before the dragon's lair), 2757.

setl, st. n., _seat, settle_: acc. sg., 2014; dat. sg. setle, 1233, 1783,
2020; gen. sg. setles, 1787; dat. pl. setlum, 1290.--Comp.: hēah-, hilde-,

settan, w. v., _to set_: pret. sg. setton sǣ-mēðe sīde scyldas ... wið þæs
recedes weall (_the sea-wearied ones set their broad shields against the
wall of the hall_), 325; so, 1243.

ā-settan, _to set, place, appoint_: pret. pl. hīe him ā-setton segen
[gyl]-denne hēah ofer hēafod, 47; pret. part. hæfde kyninga wuldor Grendle
tō-gēanes ... sele-weard ā-seted, 668.

be-settan, _to set with, surround_: pret. sg. (helm) besette swīn-līcum
(_set the helm with swine-bodies_), 1454.

ge-settan: 1) _to set, set down_: pret. part. swā wæs ...þurh rūn-stafas
rihte ge-mearcod, ge-seted and ge-sǣd (_thus was ... in rune-staves rightly
marked, set down and said_), 1697.--2) _to set, ordain, create_: pret. sg.
ge-sette ... sunnan and mōnan lēoman tō lēohte land-būendum, 94.--3) =
componere, _to lay aside, smooth over, appease_: pret. sg. þæt hē mid þȳ
wīfe wæl-fǣhða ... dǣl ... ge-sette, 2030.

sēcan, w. v., _to follow after_, hence: 1) _to seek, strive for_, w. acc.:
pret. sg. sinc-fæt sōhte _(sought the costly cup_), 2301; ne sōhte
searo-nīðas, 2739; so, 3068. Without acc.: þonne his myne sōhte (_than his
wish demanded_), 2573; hord-weard sōhte georne æfter grunde (_the
hoard-warden sought eagerly along the ground_), 2294.--2) _to look for,
come_ or _go some whither, attain something_, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. sē þe
... biorgas sēceð, 2273; subj. þēah þe hǣð-stapa holt-wudu sēce, 1370;
imper. sēc gif þū dyrre (_look for her_, i.e. Grendel's mother, _if thou
dare_), 1380; inf. sēcean, 200, 268, 646, 1598, 1870, 1990, 2514(?), 3103,
etc.; sēcan, 665, 1451; drihten sēcean (_seek, go to, the Lord_), 187;
sēcean wyn-lēas wīc (_Grendel was to seek a joyless place_, i.e. Hell),
822; so, sēcan dēofla gedræg, 757; sāwle sēcan (_seek the life, kill_),
802; so, sēcean sāwle hord, 2423; gerund. sæcce tō sēceanne, 2563; pret.
sg. I., III. sōhte, 139, 208, 376, 417, 2224; II. sōhtest, 458; pl. sōhton,
339.--3) _to seek, attack_: þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode, 3002; pret. pl.
hine wræc-mæcgas ofer sǣ sōhtan, 2381.

ge-sēcan: 1) _to seek_, w. acc.: inf. gif hē gesēcean dear wīg ofer wǣpen,
685.--2) _to look for, come_ or _go to attain_, w. acc.: inf. ge-sēcean,
693; gerund, tō ge-sēcanne, 1923; pret. sg. ge-sōhte, 463, 520, 718, 1952;
pret. part. nom. pl. feor-cȳððe bēoð sēlran ge-sōhte þām þe hine selfa
dēah, 1840.--3) _to seek with hostile intent, to attack_: pres. sg.
ge-sēceð 2516; pret. sg. ge-sōhte, 2347; pl. ge-sōhton, 2927; ge-sōhtan,

ofer-sēcan, w. acc., _to surpass, outdo_ (in an attack): pres. sg. wæs sīo
hond tō strong, sē þe mēca gehwane ... swenge ofer-sōhte, þonne hē tō sæcce
bær wǣpen wundrum heard (_too strong was the hand, that surpassed every
sword in stroke, when he_ [Bēowulf] _bore the wondrous weapon to battle_,
i.e. the hand was too strong for any sword; its strength made it useless in
battle), 2687.

sēl, st. f. See sǣl.

sēl, sǣl, adj., _good, excellent, fit_, only in compar.: nom. sg. m. sēlra,
861, 2194; þǣm þǣr sēlra wæs (_to the one that was the better_, i.e.
Hygelāc), 2200; dēað bið sēlla þonne edwīt-līf, 2891; neut. sēlre, 1385;
acc. sg. m. sēlran þē (_a better than thee_), 1851; sēlran, 1198; neut. þæt
sēlre, 1760; dat. sg. m. sēlran sweord-frecan, 1469; nom. pl. fem. sēlran,
1840. Superl., strong form: nom. sg. neut. sēlest, 173, 1060; hūsa sēlest,
146, 285, 936; ofost is sēlest, 256; bolda sēlest, 2327; acc. sg. neut.
hrægla sēlest, 454; hūsa sēlest, 659; billa sēlest, 1145;--weak form: nom.
sg. m. reced sēlesta, 412; acc. sg. m. þone sēlestan, 1407, 2383; (þæs,
MS.), 1957; dat. sg. m. þǣm sēlestan, 1686; nom. pl. sēlestan, 416; acc.
pl. þā sēlestan, 3123.

sēl, compar. adv., _better, fitter, more excellent_, 1013, 2531; ne byð him
wihte þē sēl (_he shall be nought the better for it_), 2278; so, 2688.

sealma (Frisian selma, in bed-selma), w. m., _bed-chamber, sleeping-place_:
acc. sg. on sealman, 2461.

sealt, adj., _salty_: acc. sg. neut. ofer sealt wæter (_the sea_), 1990.

searo (G. sarwa, pl.), st. n.: 1) _armor, accoutrements, war-gear_: nom.
pl. sǣ-manna searo, 329; dat. pl. secg on searwum (_a man, warrior, in
panoply_), 249, 2701; in (on) searwum, 323, 1558; 2531, 2569; instr. pl.
searwum, 1814.--2) _insidiae, ambuscade, waylaying, deception, battle_: þā
ic of searwum cwōm, fāh from fēondum, 419.--3) _cunning, art, skill_:
instr. pl. sadol searwum fāh (_saddle cunningly ornamented_), 1039;
earmbēaga fela, searwum ge-sǣled (_many cunningly-linked armlets_),
2765.--Comp. fyrd-, gūð-, inwit-searo.

searo-bend, st. f., _band, bond, of curious workmanship_: instr. pl.
searo-bendum fæst, 2087.

searo-fāh, adj., _cunningly inlaid, ornamented, with gold_: nom. sg.
here-byrne hondum ge-brōden, sīd and searo-fāh, 1445.

searo-ge-þræc, st. n., _heap of treasure-objects_: acc. sg., 3103.

searo-gim, st. m., _cunningly set gem, rich jewel_: acc. pl. searo-gimmas,
2750; gen. pl. searo-gimma, 1158.

searo-grim, adj., _cunning and fierce_: nom. sg., 595.

searo-hæbbend, pres. part. as subst., _arms-bearing, warrior with his
trappings_: gen. pl. searo-hæbbendra, 237.

searo-net, st. n., _armor-net, shirt of mail, corselet_: nom. sg., 406.

searo-nīð, st. m.: 1) _cunning hostility, plot, wiles_: acc. pl.
searo-nīðas, 1201, 2739.--2) also, only _hostility, feud, contest_: acc.
pl. searo-nīðas, 3068; gen. pl. searo-nīða, 582.

searo-þanc, st. m., _ingenuity_: instr. pl. searo-þoncum, 776.

searo-wundor, st. n., _rare wonder_: acc. sg., 921.

seax, st. n., _shortsword, hip-knife; dagger_: instr. sg. seaxe,
1546.--Comp. wæl-seax.

seax-ben, st. f., _dagger-wound_: instr. pl. siex-bennum, 2905.

seofon, num., _seven_, 517; seofan, 2196; decl. acc. syfone, 3123.

seomian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to be tied; lie at rest_: inf. siomian, 2768;
pret. sg. seomode, 302.--2) w. acc., _to put in bonds, entrap, catch_:
pret. sg. duguðe and geogoðe seomade (cf. 2086-2092, 161.

seonu, st. f., _sinew_: nom. pl. seonowe, 818.

sēoc, adj., _feeble, weak; fatally ill_: nom. sg. feorh-bennum sēoc (of
Bēowulf, _sick unto death_), 2741; siex-bennum sēoc (of the dead dragon),
2905; nom. pl. mōdes sēoce (_sick of soul_), 1604.--Comp.: ellen-, feorh-,

sēoðan, st. v. w. acc., _to seethe, boil_; figuratively, _be excited over,
brood_: pret. sg. ic þæs mōd-ceare sorh-wylmum sēað (_I pined in
heart-grief for that_), 1994; so, 190.

seoloð, st. m.?, _bight, bay_ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt XI. 416): gen. pl.
sioleða bi-gong (_the realm of bights_ = the [surface of the] sea?), 2368.

sēon, sȳn, st. f., _aspect, sight_: in comp. wlite-, wundor-sēon, an-sȳn.

sēon, st. v., _to see_: a) w. acc.: inf. searo-wunder sēon, 921; so, 387,
1181, 1276, 3103; þǣr mæg nihta ge-hwǣm nīð-wundor sēon (_there may every
night be seen a repulsive marvel_), 1366; pret. sg. ne seah ic ...
heal-sittendra medudrēam māran, 2015.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.: ne
seah ic elþēodige þus manige men mōdiglīcran, 336.--c) w. prep. or adv.:
pret. sg. seah on enta ge-weorc, 2718; seah on un-lēofe, 2864; pl. folc tō
sǣgon (_looked on_), 1423.

ge-sēon, _to see, behold_: a) w. acc.: pres. sg. III. sē þe bēah ge-syhð,
2042; inf. ge-sēon, 396, 571, 649, 962, 1079, etc.; pret. sg. geseah, 247,
927, 1558, 1614; pl. ge-sāwon, 1606, 2253.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.,
pres. sg. III. ge-syhð ... on his suna būre win-sele wēstne (_sees in his
son's house the wine-hall empty_; or, _hall of friends_?), 2456.--c) w.
inf.: pret. sg. ge-seah ... beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas (_saw shining
shields borne over the gang-plank_), 229; pret. pl. mǣre māððum-sweord
monige ge-sāwon beforan beorn beran, 1024.--d) w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg.
ge-seah, 729, 1517, 1586, 1663, 2543, 2605, etc.; pl. ge-sāwon, 221, 1348,
1426; ge-sēgan, 3039; ge-sēgon, 3129.--e) w. depend, clause: inf. mæg þonne
... gesēon sunu Hrēðles, þæt ic (_may the son of H. see that I..._), 1486;
pret. pl. ge-sāwon, 1592.

geond-sēon, _to see, look through, over_, w. acc.: pret. sg. (ic) þæt eall
geond-seh, 3088.

ofer-sēon, _to see clearly, plainly_: pret. pl. ofer-sāwon, 419.

on-sēon, _to look on, at_, w. acc.: pret. pl. on-sāwon, 1651.

sēowian, w. v., _to sew, put together, link_: pret. part. searo-net sēowed
smiðes or-þancum (_the corselet woven by the smith's craft_), 406.

sib, st. f., _peace, friendship, relationship_: nom. sg., 1165, 1858; sibb,
2601; acc. sibbe, 950, 2432, 2923; instr. sg. sibbe (_in peace_?),
154.--Comp.: dryht-, friðo-sib.

sib-æðeling, st. m., _nobilis consanguineus, kindred prince_ or _nobleman_:
nom. pl. -æðelingas, 2709.

sibbe-gedryht, st. f., _body of allied_ or _related warriors_: acc. sg.
sibbe-gedriht (the Danes), 387; (the Gēatas), 730.

siððan, syððan: 1) adv.: a) _since, after, from now on, further_, 142, 149,
283, 567, 1903, 2052, 2065, 2176, 2703, 2807, 2921; seoððan, 1876.--b)
_then, thereupon, after_, 470, 686, 1454, 1557, 1690, 2208; seoððan, 1938;
ǣr nē siððan (_neither before nor after_), 719.

2) Conj.: a) w. ind. pres., _as soon as, when_, 413, 605, 1785, 2889,
   2912.--b) w. ind. pret., _when, whilst_, 835, 851, 1205, 1207, 1421,
   1590, 2357, 2961, 2971, 3128; seoððan, 1776;--_since_, 649, 657, 983,
   1199, 1254, 1309, 2202;--_after_, either with pluperf.: siððan him
   scyppend forscrifen hæfde (_after the Creator had proscribed him_), 106;
   so, 1473; or with pret. = pluperf.: syððan niht becōm (_after night had
   come on_), 115; so, 6, 132, 723, 887, 902, 1078, 1149, 1236, 1262, 1282,
   1979, 2013, 2125; or pret. and pluperf. together, 2104-2105.

siex. See seax.

sige-dryhten, st. m., _lord of victory, victorious lord_: nom. sg.
sige-drihten, 391.

sige-ēadig, adj., _blest with victory, victorious_: acc. sg. neut.
sige-ēadig bil, 1558.

sige-folc, st. n., _victorious people, troop_: gen. pl. sige-folca, 645.

sige-hrēð, st. f., _confidence of victory_(?): acc. sg., 490. See Note.

sige-hrēðig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 94, 1598, 2757.

sige-hwīl, st. f., _hour_ or _day of victory_: gen. sg. sige-hwīle, 2711.

sige-lēas, adj., _devoid of victory, defeated_: acc. sg. sige-lēasne sang,

sige-rōf, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 620.

sige-þēod, st. f., _victorious warrior troop_: dat. sg. on sige-þēode,

sige-wǣpen, st. n., _victor-weapon, sword_: dat. pl. sige-wǣpnum, 805.

sigl, st. n.: 1) _sun_: nom. sg. sigel, 1967.--2) _sun-shaped ornament_:
acc. pl. siglu, 3165; sigle (bracteates of a necklace), 1201; gen. pl.
sigla, 1158.--Comp. māððum-sigl.

sigor, st. m., _victory_: gen. sg. sigores, 1022; gen. pl. sigora, 2876,
3056.--Comp.: hrēð-, wīg-sigor.

sigor-ēadig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg. sigor-ēadig secg (of Bēowulf),
1312, 2353.

sin. See syn.

sinc, st. n., _treasure, jewel, property_: nom. sg., 2765; acc. sg. sinc,
81, 1205, 1486, 2384, 2432; instr. sg. since, 1039, 1451, 1616, 1883, 2218,
2747; gen. sg. sinces, 608, 1171, 1923, 2072; gen. pl. sinca, 2429.

sinc-fāh, adj., _treasure-decked_: acc. sg. neut. weak form, sinc-fāge sel,

sinc-fæt, st. n., _costly vessel_: acc. sg., 2232, 2301;--_a costly
object_: acc. sg., 1201 (i.e. mene); acc. pl. sinc-fato, 623.

sinc-ge-strēon, st. n., _precious treasure, jewel of value _: instr. pl.
-gestrēonum, 1093; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1227.

sinc-gifa, w. m., _jewel-giver, treasure-giver = prince, ruler_: acc. sg.
sinc-gyfan, 1013; dat. sg. sinc-gifan (of Bēowulf), 2312; (of Æschere),

sinc-māððum, st. m., _treasure_: nom. sg., 2194.

sinc-þego, f., _acceptance, taking, of jewels_: nom. sg., 2885.

sin-dolh, st. n., _perpetual_, i.e. incurable, _wound_: nom. sg. syn-dolh,

sin-frēa, w. m., _wedded lord, husband_: nom. sg., 1935.

sin-gāl, adj., _continual, lasting_: acc. sg. fem, sin-gāle sæce, 154.

sin-gāles, adv. gen. sg., _continually, ever_, 1778; syngales, 1136.

singāla, adv. gen. pl., the same, 190.

singan, st. v., _to sound, ring, sing_: pret. sg. hring-īren scīr song in
searwum (_the ringed iron rang in the armor_), 323; horn stundum song
fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēoð (_at times the horn rang forth a ready battle-song_),
1424; scop hwīlum sang (_the singer sang at whiles_), 496.

ā-singan, _to sing out, sing to an end_: pret. part. lēoð wæs ā-sungen,

sin-here, st. m., (_army without end_?), _strong army, host_: instr. sg.
sin-herge, 2937.

sin-niht, st. f., _perpetual night, night after night_: acc. pl. sin-nihte
(_night after night_), 161.

sin-sceaða, w. m., _irreconcilable foe_: nom. sg. syn-scaða, 708; acc. sg.
syn-scaðan, 802.

sin-snǣd, st. f., (_continuous biting_) _bite after bite_: dat. pl.
syn-snǣdum swealh (_swallowed bite after bite, in great bites_), 744.

sittan, st. v.: 1) _to sit_: pres. sg. Wīglāf siteð ofer Bīowulfe, 2907;
imper. sg. site nū tō symle, 489; inf. þǣr swið-ferhðe sittan ēodon
(_whither the strong-minded went and sat_), 493; ēode ... tō hire frēan
sittan (_went to sit by her lord_), 642; pret. sg. on wicge sæt (_sat on
the horse_), 286; æt fōtum sæt (_sat at the feet_), 500, 1167; þǣr Hrōðgār
sæt (_where H. sat_), 356; so, 1191, 2895; hē gewērgad sæt ... frēan eaxlum
nēah, 2854; pret. pl. sǣton, 1165; gistas sētan (MS. sēcan) ... and on mere
staredon (_the strangers sat and stared on the sea_), 1603.--2) _to be in a
certain state_ or _condition_ (_quasi_ copula): pret. sg. mǣre þēoden ...
unblīðe sæt, 130.--Comp.: flet-, heal-sittend.

be-sittan, obsidere, _to surround, besiege_, w. acc.: besæt þā sin-herge
sweorda lāfe wundum wērge (_then besieged he with a host the leavings of
the sword, wound-weary_), 2937.

for-sittan, obstrui, _to pass away, fail_: pres. sg. ēagena bearhtm
for-siteð (_the light of the eyes passeth away_), 1768.

ge-sittan: 1) _to sit, sit together_: pret. sg. monig-oft ge-sæt rīce to
rūne (_very often sat the king deliberating with his council_ (see rīce),
171; wið earm ge-sæt (_supported himself upon his arm, sat on his arm_?),
750; fēða eal ge-sæt (_the whole troop sat down_), 1425; ge-sæt þā wið
sylfne (_sat there beside, near to, him_, i.e. Hygelāc), 1978;

ge-sæt þā on næsse, 2418; so, 2718; pret. part. (syððan) ... wē tō symble
ge-seten hæfdon, 2105.--2) w. acc., _to seat one's self upon_ or _in
something, to board_: pret. sg. þā ic ... sǣ-bāt ge-sæt, 634.

of-sittan, w. acc., _to sit over_ or _upon_: pret. sg. of-sæt þā þone
sele-gyst, 1546.

ofer-sittan, w. acc., _to dispense with, refrain from_ (cf. ofer, 2 [c]):
pres. sg. I. þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp ofer-sitte, 2529; inf. secge
ofer-sittan, 685.

on-sittan (O.H.G. int-sizzan, _to start from one's seat, to be startled_),
w. acc., _to fear_: inf. þā fǣhðe, atole ecg-þræce ēower lēode sīwðe
onsittan _to dread the hostility, the fierce contest, of your people_, 598.

ymb-sittan, _to sit around_, w. acc.: pret. pl. (þæt hīe) ... symbel
ymb-sǣton (_sat round the feast_), 564. See ymb-sittend.

sīd, adj.: 1) _wide, broad, spacious, large_: nom. sg. (here-byrne, glōf)
sīd, 1445, 2087; acc. sg. m. sīdne scyld, 437; on sīdne sǣ, 507; fem.
byrnan sīde (of a corselet extending over the legs), 1292; ofer sǣ sīde,
2395; neut. sīde rīce, 1734, 2200; instr. sg. sīdan herge, 2348; acc. pl.
sīde sǣ-næssas, 223; sīde scyldas, 325; gen. pl. sīdra sorga (_of great
sorrows_), 149.--2) in moral sense, _great, noble_: acc. sg. þurh sīdne
sefan, 1727.

side, adv., _far and wide, afar_, 1224.

sīd-fæðme, adj., _broad-bosomed_: acc. sg. sīd-fæðme scip, 1918.

sīd-fæðmed, _quasi_ pret. part., the same: nom. sg. sīd-fæðmed scip, 302.

sīd-rand, st. m., _broad shield_: nom. sg., 1290.

sīð (G. seþu-s), adj., _late_: superl. nom. sg. sīðast sige-hwīle (_the
last hour, day, of victory_), 2711; dat. sg. æt sīðestan (_in the end, at
last_), 3014.

sīð, adv. compar., _later_: ǣr and sīð (_sooner and later, early and
late_), 2501.

sīð (G. sinþ-s), st. m.: l) _road, way, journey, expedition_; esp., _road
to battle_: nom. sg., 501, 3059, 3090; næs þæt ēðe sīð (_that was no easy
road, task_), 2587; so, þæt wæs gēocor sīð, 766; acc. sg. sīð, 353, 512,
909, 1279, 1430, 1967; instr. dat. sīðe, 532, 1952, 1994; gen. sg. sīðes,
579, 1476, 1795, 1909. Also, _return_: nom. sg., 1972.--2) _undertaking,
enterprise_; esp., _battle-work_: nom. sg. nis þæt ēower sīð, 2533; ne bið
swylc earges sīð (_such is no coward's enterprise_), 2542; acc. sg. sīð,
873. In pl.= _adventures_: nom. sīðas, 1987; acc. sīðas, 878; gen. sīða,
318.--3) time (as iterative): nom. sg. næs þæt forma sīð (_that was not the
first time_), 717, 1464; so, 1528, 2626; acc. sg. oftor micle þonne on ǣnne
sīð, 1580; instr. sg. (forman, ōðre, þriddan) sīðe, 741, 1204, 2050, 2287,
2512, 2518, 2671, 2689, 3102.--Comp.: cear-, eft-, ellor-, gryre-, sǣ-,
wil-, wrǣc-sīð.

ge-sīð, st. m., _comrade, follower_: gen. sg. ge-sīðes, 1298; nom. pl.
ge-sīðas, 29; acc. pl. ge-sīðas, 2041, 2519; dat. pl. ge-sīðum, 1314, 1925,
2633; gen. pl. ge-sīða, 1935.--Comp.: eald-, wil-gesīð.

sīð-fæt, st. m., _way, journey_: acc. sg. þone sīð-fæt, 202; dat. sg.
sīð-fate, 2640.

sīð-fram, -from, adj., _ready for the journey_: nom. pl. sīð-frome, 1814.

sīðian, w. v., _to journey, march_: inf., 721, 809; pret. sg. sīðode, 2120.

for-sīðian, _iter fatale inire_ (Grein): pret. sg. hæfde þā for-sīðod sunu
Ecg-þēowes under gynne grund _(would have found his death_, etc.), 1551.

sīe, sȳ. See wesan.

sīgan, st. v., _to descend, sink, incline_: pret. pl. sigon æt-somne
(_descended together_), 307; sigon þā tō slǣpe _(they sank to sleep_),

ge-sīgan, _to sink, fall_: inf. ge-sīgan æt sæcce (_fall in battle_), 2660.

sīn, poss. pron., _his_: acc. sg. m. sīnne, 1961, 1985, 2284, 2790; dat.
sg. sīnum, 1508.

slǣp, st. m., _sleep_: nom. sg., 1743; dat. sg. tō slǣpe, 1252.

slǣpan, st. v., _to sleep_: pres. part. nom. sg. slǣpende, 2220; acc. sg.
hē gefēng ... slǣpendne rinc (_seized a sleeping warrior]_, 742; acc. pl.
slǣpende fræt folces Denigea fīftȳne men _(devoured, sleeping, fifteen of
the people of the Danes_), 1582.

slēac, adj., _slack, lazy_: nom. sg., 2188.

sleahan, slēan: 1) _to strike, strike at_: a) intrans.: pres. subj. sg. þæt
hē mē ongēan slēa (_that he should strike at me_), 682; pret. sg. yrringa
slōh (_struck angrily_), 1566; so, slōh hilde-bille, 2680. b) trans.: pret.
sg. þæt hē þone nīð-gæst nioðor hwēne slōh _(that he struck the dragon
somewhat lower_, etc.), 2700.--2) w. acc.: _to slay, kill_: pret. sg. þæs
þe hē Ābel slōg (_because he slew A._), 108; so, slōg, 421, 2180; slōh,
1582, 2356; pl. slōgon, 2051; pret. part. þā wæs Fin slægen, 1153.

ge-slēan, w. acc.: 1) _to fight a battle_: pret. sg. ge-slōh þīn fæder
fǣhðe mǣste, 459.--2) _to gain by fighting_: syððan hīe þā mǣrða ge-slōgon,

of-slēan, _to ofslay, kill_, w. acc.: pret. sg. of-slōh, 574, 1666, 3061.

slīðe (G. sleiþ-s), adj., _savage, fierce, dangerous_: acc. sg. þurh slīðne
nīð, 184; gen. pl. slīðra ge-slyhta, 2399.

slīðen, adj., _furious, savage, deadly_ nom. sg. sweord-bealo slīðen, 1148.

slītan, st. v., _to slit, tear to pieces_, w. acc.: pret. sg. slāt
(slǣpendne rinc), 742.

slyht, st. m., _blow_: in comp. and-slyht.

ge-slyht, st. n. (collective), _battle, conflict_: gen. pl. slīðra
ge-slyhta, 2399.

smið, st. m., _smith, armorer_: nom. sg. wǣpna smið, 1453; gen. sg. smiðes,
406.--Comp. wundor-smið.

be-smiðian, w. v., _to surround with iron-work, bands_, etc.: pret. part.
hē (the hall Heorot) þæs fæste wæs innan and ūtan īren-bendum searo-þoncum
besmiðod (i.e. the beams out of which the hall was built were held together
skilfully, within and without, by iron clamps), 776.

snell, adj., _fresh, vigorous, lively; of martial temper_: nom. sg. se
snella, 2972.

snellīc, adj., the same: nom. sg., 691.

snotor, snottor, adj., _clever, wise, intelligent_: nom. sg. snotor, 190,
827, 909, 1385; in weak form, (se) snottra, 1314, 1476, 1787; snotra, 2157,
3121; nom. pl. snotere, 202, 416; snottre, 1592.--Comp. fore-snotor.

snotor-līce, adv., _intelligently, wisely_: compar. snotor-līcor, 1483.

snūde, adv., _hastily, quickly, soon_, 905, 1870, 1972, 2326, 2569, 2753.

be-snyðian, w. v., _to rob, deprive of_: pret. sg. þætte Ongenþīo ealdre
be-snyðede Hæðcyn, 2925.

snyrian, w. v., _to hasten, hurry_: pret. pl. snyredon æt-somne (_hurried
forward together_), 402.

snyttru, f., _intelligence, wisdom_: acc. sg. snyttru, 1727; dat. pl. mid
mōdes snyttrum, 1707; þē wē ealle ǣr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed
which all of us together could not accomplish before with all our wisdom_),
943. Adv., _wisely_, 873.

somne. See samne.

sorgian, w. v.: 1) _to be grieved, sorrow_: imper. sg. II. ne sorga!
1385.--2) _to care for, trouble one's self about_: inf. nō þū ymb mīnes ne
þearft līces feorme leng sorgian (_thou needst not care longer about my
life's [body's] sustenance_), 451.

sorh, st. f., _grief, pain, sorrow_: nom. sg., 1323; sorh is mē tō secganne
(_pains me to say_), 473; acc. sg. sorge, 119, 2464; dat. instr. sg. mid
þǣre sorge, 2469; sorge (_in sorrow, grieved_), 1150; gen. sg. worna fela
... sorge, 2005; dat. pl. sorgum, 2601; gen. pl. sorga, 149.--Comp.: hyge-,
inwit-, þegn-sorh.

sorh-cearig, adj., _curis sollicitus, heart-broken_: nom. sg., 2456.

sorh-ful, adj., _sorrowful, troublesome, difficult_: nom. sg., 2120; acc.
sg. sorh-fullne (sorh-fulne) sīð, 512, 1279, 1430.

sorh-lēas, adj., _free from sorrow_ or _grief_: nom. sg., 1673.

sorh-leoð, st. n., _dirge, song of sorrow_: acc. sg., 2461.

sorh-wylm, st. m., _wave of sorrow_ nom. pl. sorh-wylmas, 905.

sōcn, st. f., _persecution, hostile pursuit_ or _attack_ (see sēcan): dat,
(instr.) þǣre sōcne (by reason of Grendel's persecution), 1778.

sōð, st. n., _sooth, truth_:: acc. sg. sōð, 532, 701, 1050, 1701, 2865;
dat. sg. tō sōðe (_in truth_), 51, 591, 2326.

sōð, adj., _true, genuine_: nom. sg, þæt is sōð metod, 1612; acc. sg. n.
gyd āwræc sōð and sār-līc, 2110.

sōðe, adv., _truly, correctly, accurately_, 524; sōðe gebunden (of
alliterative verse: _accurately put together_), 872.

sōð-cyning, st. m., _true king_: nom. sg. sigora sōð-cyning (_God_), 3056.

sōð-fæst, adj., _soothfast, established in truth, orthodox_ (here used of
the Christian martyrs): gen. pl. sōð-fæstra dōm (_glory, realm, of the
saints_), 2821.

sōð-līce, adv., _in truth, truly, truthfully_, 141, 273, 2900.

sōfte, adv., _gently, softly_: compar. þȳ sēft (_the more easily_),
2750.--Comp. un-sōfte.

sōna, adv., _soon, immediately_, 121, 722, 744, 751, 1281, 1498, 1592,
1619, 1763, etc.

on-spannan, st. v., _to un-span, unloose_: pret. sg. his helm on-spēon
(_loosed his helm_), 2724.

spel, st. n., _narrative, speech_: acc. sg. spell, 2110; acc. pl. spel,
874; gen. pl. spella, 2899, 3030.--Comp. wēa-spel.

spēd, st. f.: 1) _luck, success_: in comp. here-, wīg-spēd.--2) _skill,
facility_: acc. sg. on spēd (_skilfully_), 874.

spīwan, st. v., _to spit, spew_, w. instr.: inf. glēdum spīwan (_spit
fire_), 2313

spor, st. n., _spur_: in comp. hand-spor.

spōwan, st. v., _to speed well, help, avail_: pret. sg. him wiht ne spēow
(_availed him naught_), 2855; hū him æt ǣte spēow (_how he sped in the
eating_), 3027.

sprǣc, st. f., _speech, language_: instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (_through
bold, challenging, discourse_), 1105.--Comp.: ǣfen-, gylp-sprǣc.

sprecan, st. v., _to speak_: inf. ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymbe Grendel
_(I shall go on speaking about G._), 2070; w. acc. sē þe wyle sōð sprecan
(_he who will speak the truth_), 2865; imper. tō Gēatum sprec (sprǣc, MS.),
1172; pret. sg. III. spræc, 1169, 1699, 2511, 2725; word æfter spræc, 341;
nō ymbe þā fǣhðe spræc, 2619; II. hwæt þū worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce
(_how much thou hast spoken of Breca!_), 531; pl. hwæt wit geō sprǣcon
(_what we two spoke of before_), 1477; gomele ymb gōdne on-geador sprǣcon,
þæt big ... _(the graybeards spoke together about the valiant one, that
they ..._), 1596; swā wit furðum sprǣcon (_as we two spoke, engaged,
before_), 1708; pret. part. þā wæs ... þrȳð-word sprecen, 644.

ge-sprecan, w. acc., _to speak_: pret. sg. ge-spræc, 676, 1399, 1467, 3095.

sprēot, st. m., _pole; spear, pike_: in comp. eofor-sprēot.

springan, st. v., _to jump, leap; flash_: pret. sg. hrā wīde sprong _(the
body bounded far_), 1589; swāt ǣdrum sprong forð under fexe (_the blood
burst out in streams from under his hair_), 2967; pl. wīde sprungon
hilde-lēoman (_flashed afar_), 2583. Also figuratively: blǣd wīde sprang
(_his repute spread afar_), 18.

ge-springan, _to spring forth_: pret. sg. swā þæt blōd ge-sprang (_as the
blood burst forth_), 1668. Figuratively, _to arise, originate_: pret. sg.
Sigemunde gesprong æfter dēað-dæge dōm un-lȳtel, 885.

on-springan, _to burst in two, spring asunder_: pret. pl. seonowe
onsprungon, burston bānlocan 818.

standan, st. v.: 1) absolutely or with prep., _to stand_: pres. III. pl.
ēored-geatwe þē gē þǣr on standað (_the warlike accoutrements wherein ye
there stand_), 2867; inf. ge-seah ... orcas stondan (_saw vessels
standing_), 2761; pret. sg. æt hȳðe stōd hringed-stefna (_in the harbor
stood the curved-prowed?, metal-covered?, ship_), 32; stōd on stapole
(_stood near the [middle] column_), 927; so, 1914, 2546; þæt him on aldre
stōd here-strǣl hearda (_that the sharp war-arrow stood in his vitals_),
1435; so, 2680; pl. gāras stōdon ... samod æt-gædere (_the spears stood
together_), 328; him big stōdan bunan and orcas (_by him stood cans and
pots_), 3048. Also of still water: pres. sg. III. nis þæt feor heonon ...
þæt se mere standeð, 1363.--2) with predicate adj., _to stand, continue in
a certain state_: subj. pres. þæt þes sele stande ... rinca ge-hwylcum īdel
and unnyt (_that this hall stands empty and useless for every warrior_),
411; inf. hord-wynne fand eald ūht-sceaða opene standan, 2272; pret. sg. oð
þæt īdel stōd hūsa sēlest, 145; so, 936; wæter under stōd drēorig and
ge-drēfed, 1418--3) _to belong_ or _attach to; issue_: pret. sg. Norð-Denum
stōd atelīc egesa (_great terror clung to, overcame, the North Danes_),
784; þāra ānum stōd sadol searwum fāh (_on one of the steeds lay an
ingeniously-inlaid saddle_), 1038; byrne-lēoma eldum on andan (_burning
light stood forth, a horror to men_), 2314; lēoht inne stōd (_a light stood
in it_, i.e. the sword), 1571; him of ēagum stōd ... lēoht unfǣger (_an
uncanny light issued from his eyes_), 727; so, þæt [fram] þām gyste
[gryre-] brōga stōd, 2229.

ā-standan, _to stand up, arise_: pret. sg. ā-stōd, 760, 1557, 2093.

æt-standan, _to stand at, near_, or _in_: pret. sg. þæt hit (i.e. þæt
swurd) on wealle æt-stōd, 892.

for-standan, _to stand against_ or _before_, hence: 1) _to hinder,
prevent_: pret. sg. (brēost-net) wið ord and wið ecge in-gang for-stōd
(_the shirt of mail prevented point or edge from entering_), 1550; subj.
nefne him wītig god wyrd for-stōde (_if the wise God had not warded off
such a fate from them_, i.e. the men threatened by Grendel), 1057.--2)
_defend_, w. dat. of person against whom: inf. þæt hē ... mihte
hēaðo-līðendum hord for-standan, bearn and brȳde (_that he might protect
his treasure, his children, and his spouse from the sea-farers_), 2956.

ge-standan, intrans., _to stand_: pret. sg. ge-stōd, 358, 404, 2567; pl.
nealles him on hēape hand-gesteallan ... ymbe gestōdon (_not at all did his
boon-companions stand serried around him_), 2597.

stapa, w. m., _stepper, strider_: in comp. hǣð-, mearc-stapa.

stapan, st. v., _to step, stride, go forward_: pret. sg. eorl furður stōp,
762; gum-fēða stop lind-hæbbendra (_the troop of shield-warriors strode
on_), 1402.

æt-stapan, _to stride up_ or _to_: pret. sg. forð nēar æt-stōp (_strode up
nearer_), 746.

ge-stapan, _to walk, stride_: pret. sg. hē to forð gestōp dyrnan cræfte,
dracan hēafde nēah (_he_, i.e. the man that robbed the dragon of the
vessel, _had through hidden craft come too near the dragon's head_), 2290.

stapol, st. m., (= βάσις), _trunk of a tree_; hence, _support, pillar,
column_: dat. sg. stōd on stapole (_stood by_ or _near the wooden middle
column of Heorot_), 927; instr. pl. þā stān-bogan stapulum fæste (_the
arches of stone upheld by pillars_), 2719. See Note.

starian, w. v., _to stare, look intently at_: pres. sg. I. þæt ic on þone
hafelan ... ēagum starige (_that I see the head with my eyes_), 1782; þāra
frætwa ... þē ic hēr on starie (_for the treasures ... that I here look
upon_), 2797; III. þonne hē on þæt sine starað, 1486; sg. for pl. þāra þe
on swylc starað, 997; pret. sg. þæt (sin-frēa) hire an dæges ēagum starede,
1936; pl. on mere staredon, 1604.

stān, st. m., 1) _stone_: in comp. eorclan-stān.--2) _rock_: acc. sg. under
(ofer) hārne stān, 888, 1416, 2554, 2745; dat. sg. stāne, 2289, 2558.

stān-beorh, st. m., _rocky elevation, stony mountain_: acc. sg. stān-beorh
stēapne, 2214.

stān-boga, w. m., _stone arch, arch hewn out of the rock_: dat. sg.
stān-bogan, 2546; nom. pl. stān-bogan, 2719.

stān-clif, st. n., _rocky cliff_: acc. pl. stān-cleofu, 2541.

stān-fāh, adj., _stone-laid, paved with stones of different colors_: nom.
sg. strǣt wæs stān-fāh (_the street was of different colored stones_), 320.

stān-hlið, st. n., _rocky slope_: acc. pl. stān-hliðo, 1410.

stæf, st. m.: 1) _staff_: in comp. rūn-staf.--2) _elementum_: in comp. ār-,
ende-, fācen-stæf.

stǣl, st. m., _place, stead_: dat. sg. þæt þū mē ā wǣre forð-gewitenum on
fæder stǣle (_that thou, if I died, wouldst represent a father's place to
me_), 1480.

stǣlan, w. v., _to place; allure_ or _instigate_: inf. þā ic on morgne
ge-frægn mǣg ōðerne billes ecgum on bonan stǣlan _(then I learned that on
the morrow one brother instigated the other to murder with the sword's
edge_; or, _one avenged the other on the murderer_?, cf. 2962 seqq.), 2486.

ge-stǣlan, _to place, impose, institute_: pret. part. gē feor hafað fǣhðe
ge-stǣled (_Grendel's mother has further begun hostilities against us_),

stede, st. m., _place, -stead_: in comp. bǣl-, burh-, folc-, hēah-, meðel-,
wang-, wīc-stede.

stefn, st. f., _voice_: nom. sg., 2553; instr. sg. nīwan (nīowan) stefne
(properly novā voce) = denuo, _anew, again_, 2595, 1790.

stefn, st. m., _prow of a ship_: acc. sg., 213; see bunden-, hringed-,

on-stellan, w. v., _constituere, to cause, bring about_: pret. sg. sē þæs
or-leges ōr on-stealde, 2408.

steng, st. m., _pole, pike_: in comp wæl-steng.

ge-steppan, w. v., _to stride, go_: pret. sg. folce ge-stepte ofer sǣ sīde
sunu Ōhtheres (_O.'s son_, i.e. Ēadgils, _went with warriors over the broad
sea_), 2394.

stede (O.H.G. stāti, M.H.G. stǣte), adj., _firm, steady_: nom. sg. wæs
stēde nægla ge-hwylc stȳle ge-līcost (_each nail-place was firm as
steel_), 986.

stēpan, w. v. w. acc., _to exalt, honor_: pret. sg. þēah þe hine mihtig god
... eafeðum stēpte, 1718.

ge-steald, st. n., _possessions, property_: in comp. in-gesteald, 1156.

ge-stealla, w. m., (contubernalis), _companion, comrade_: in comp. eaxl-,
fyrd-, hand-, lind-, nȳd-ge-stealla.

stearc-heort, adj., (fortis animo), _stout-hearted, courageous_: nom. sg.
(of the dragon), 2289; (of Bēowulf), 2553.

stēap, adj., _steep, projecting, towering_: acc. sg. stēapne hrōf, 927;
stān-beorh stēapne, 2214; wið stēapne rond, 2567; acc. pl. m. beorgas
stēape, 222; neut. stēap stān-hliðo, 1410.--Comp. heaðo-stēap.

stille, adj., _still, quiet_: nom. sg. wīd-floga wundum stille, 2831.

stille, adv., _quietly_, 301.

stincan, st. v., _to smell; snuff_: pret. sg. stonc þā æfter stāne
(_snuffed along the stone_), 2289.

stīð, adj., _hard, stiff_: nom. sg. wunden-mǣl (swurd) ... stīð and
stȳlecg, 1534.

stīð-mōd, adj., _stout-hearted, unflinching_: nom. sg., 2567.

stīg, st. m., _way, path_: nom. sg., 320, 2214; acc. pl. stīge nearwe,
1410--Comp. medu-stīg.

stīgan, st. v., _to go, ascend_: pret. sg. þā hē tō holme [st]āg (_when he
plunged forward into the sea_), 2363; pl. beornas ... on stefn stigon, 212;
Wedera lēode on wang stigon, 225; subj. pret. ǣr hē on bed stige, 677.

ā-stīgan, _to ascend_: pres. sg. þonon ȳð-geblond up ā-stīgeð won tō
wolcnum, 1374; gūð-rinc ā-stāh (_the fierce hero ascended_, i.e. was laid
on the pyre? or, _the fierce smoke_ [rēc] _ascended?_), 1119; gamen eft
ā-stāh (_joy again went up, resounded_), 1161; wudu-rēc ā-stāh sweart of
swioðole, 3145; swēg up ā-stāg, 783.

ge-stīgan, _to ascend, go up_: pret. sg. þā ic on holm ge-stāh, 633.

storm, st. m., _storm_: nom. sg. strǣla storm (_storm of missiles_), 3118;
instr. sg. holm storme wēol (_the sea billowed stormily_), 1132.

stōl, st. m., _chair, throne, seat_: in comp. brego-, ēðel-, gif-,

stōw, st. f., _place, -stow_: nom. sg. nis þæt hēoru stōw (_a haunted
spot_), 1373; acc. sg. frēcne stōwe, 1379; grund-būendra gearwe stōwe _(the
place prepared for men_, i.e. death-bed; see gesacan and ge-nȳdan), 1007:
comp. wæl-stow.

strang, strong, adj., _strong; valiant; mighty_: nom. sg. wæs þæt ge-win tō
strang (_that sorrow was too great_), 133; þū eart mægenes strang (_strong
of body_), 1845; wæs sīo hond tō strong (_the hand was too powerful_),
2685; superl. wigena strengest (_strongest of warriors_), 1544; mægenes
strengest (_strongest in might_), 196; mægene strengest, 790.

strādan? (cf. strǣde = passus, gressus), _to tread_, (be)-_stride, stride
over_ (Grein): subj. pres. sē þone wong strāde, 3074. See Note.

strǣl, st. m., _arrow, missile_: instr. sg. biteran strǣle, 1747; gen. pl.
strǣla storm, 3118.

strǣt, st. f., _street, highway_: nom. sg., 320; acc. sg. strǣte, 1635;
fealwe strǣte, 917.--Comp.: lagu-, mere-strǣt.

strengel, st. m., (_endowed with strength_), _ruler, chief_: acc. sg.
wigena strengel, 3116.

strengo, st. f., _strength, power, violence_: acc. sg. mægenes strenge,
1271; dat. sg. strenge, 1534; strengo, 2541;--dat. pl. strengum =
_violently, powerfully_ [_loosed from the strings_?], 3118: in comp.
hilde-, mægen-, mere-strengo.

strēgan (O.S. strōwian), w. v., _to strew, spread_: pret. part, wæs þǣm
yldestan ... morðorbed strēd (_the death-bed was spread for the eldest
one_), 2437.

strēam, st. m., _stream, flood, sea_: acc. sg. strēam, 2546; nom. pl.
strēamas, 212; acc. pl. strēamas, 1262: comp. brim-, ēagor-, firgen-,

ge-strēon (cf. strēon = robur, vis), st. n., _property, possessions_;
hence, _valuables, treasure, jewels_: nom. pl. Heaðo-beardna ge-strēon
(_the costly treasure of the Heathobeardas_, i.e. the accoutrements
belonging to the slain H.), 2038; acc. pl. æðelinga, eorla ge-strēon, 1921,
3168.--Comp.: ǣr-, eald-, eorl-, hēah-, hord-, long-, māðm-, sinc-,

strūdan, st. v., _to plunder, carry off_: subj. pres. næs þā on hlytme hwā
þæt hord strude, 3127.

ge-strȳnan, w. v. w. acc., _to acquire, gain_: inf. þæs þe (_because_) ic
mōste mīnum lēodum ... swylc ge-strȳnan, 2799.

stund, st. f., _time, space of time, while_: adv. dat. pl. stundum (_at
times_), 1424.

styrian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to arrange, put in order, tell_: inf. secg eft
on-gan sīð Bēowulfes snyttrum styrian (_the poet then began to tell B.'s
feat skilfully_, i.e. put in poetic form), 873.--2) _to rouse, stir up_:
pres. sg. III. þonne wind styreð lāð ge-widru (_when the wind stirreth up
the loathly weather_), 1375.--3) _to move against, attack, disturb_: subj.
pres. þæt hē ... hring-sele hondum styrede (_that he should attack the
ring-hall with his hands_), 2841.

styrman, w. v., _to rage, cry out_: pret. sg. styrmde, 2553.

stȳle, st. n., _steel_: dat. sg. stȳle, 986.

stȳl-ecg, adj., _steel-edged_: nom. sg., 1534.

be-stȳman, w. v., _to inundate, wet, flood_: pret. part. (wǣron) eal
benc-þelu blōde be-stȳmed, 486.

suhtor-ge-fæderan (collective), w. m. pl., _uncle and nephew, father's
brother and brother's son_: nom. pl., 1165.

sum, pron.: 1) indef., _one, a, any, a certain_; neut. _something_: a)
without part. gen.: nom. sg. sum, 1252; hilde-rinc sum, 3125; neut. ne
sceal þǣr dyrne sum wesan (_naught there shall be hidden_), 271; acc. sg.
m. sumne, 1433; instr. sg. sume worde (_by a word, expressly_), 2157; nom.
pl. sume, 400, 1114; acc. pl. sume, 2941. b) with part. gen.: nom. sg.
gumena sum (_one of men, a man_), 1500, 2302; mere-hrægla sum, 1906; þæt
wæs wundra sum, 1608; acc. sg. gylp-worda sum, 676. c) with gen. of
cardinals or notions of multitude: nom. sg. fīftȳna sum (_one of fifteen,
with fourteen companions_), 207; so, eahta sum, 3124; fēara sum (_one of
few, with a few_), 1413; acc. sg. manigra sumne (_one of many, with many_),
2092; manna cynnes sumne (_one of the men_), i.e. one of the watchmen in
Heorot), 714; fēara sumne (_some few, one of few_; or, _one of the foes_?),
3062.--2) with part. gen. sum sometimes = _this, that, the
afore-mentioned_: nom. sg. ēower sum (_a certain one, that one, of you_,
i.e. Bēowulf), 248; gūð-beorna sum (_the afore-mentioned warrior_, i.e. who
had shown the way to Hrōðgār's palace), 314; eorla sum (_the said knight_,
i.e. Bēowulf), 1313; acc. sg. hord-ærna sum (_a certain hoard-hall_), 2280.

sund, st. m.: 1) _swimming_: acc. sg. ymb sund, 507; dat. sg. æt sunde (_in
swimming_), 517; on sunde (_a-swimming_), 1619; gen. sg. sundes, 1437.--2)
_sea, ocean, sound_: nom. sg., 223; acc. sg. sund, 213, 512, 539, 1427,

ge-sund, adj., _sound, healthy, unimpaired_: acc. sg. m. ge-sundne, 1629,
1999; nom. pl. ge-sunde, 2076; acc. pl. w. gen. fæder alwalda ... ēowic
ge-healde sīða ge-sunde (_the almighty Father keep you safe and sound on
your journey!_), 318.--Comp. an-sund.

sund-ge-bland, st. n., (_the commingled sea_), _sea-surge, sea-wave_: acc.
sg., 1451.

sund-nyt, st. f., _swimming-power_ or _employment, swimming_: acc. sg.
sund-nytte drēah (_swam through the sea_), 2361.

sundur, sundor, adv., _asunder, in twain_: sundur gedǣlan (_to separate,
sunder_), 2423.

sundor-nyt, st. f., _special service_ (service in a special case): acc. sg.
sundor-nytte, 668.

sund-wudu, st. m., (_sea-wood_), _ship_: nom. acc. sg. sund-wudu, 208,

sunne, w. f., _sun_: nom. sg., 607; gen. sg. sunnan, 94, 649.

sunu, st. m., _son_: nom. sg., 524, 591, 646, 981, 1090, 1486, etc.; acc.
sg. sunu, 268, 948, 1116, 1176, 1809, 2014, 2120; dat. sg. suna, 344, 1227,
2026, 2161, 2730; gen. sg. suna, 2456, 2613, (1279); nom. pl. suna, 2381.

sūð, adv., _south, southward_, 859.

sūðan, adv., _from the south_, 607; sigel sūðan fūs (_the sun inclined from
the south_), 1967.

swaðrian, w. v., _to sink to rest, grow calm_: brimu swaðredon (_the waves
became calm_), 570. See sweðrian.

swaðu, st. f., _trace, track, pathway_: acc. sg. swaðe, 2099.--Comp.:
swāt-, wald-swaðu.

swaðul, st. m.? n.?, _smoke, mist_ (Dietrich in Haupt V. 215): dat. sg. on
swaðule, 783. See sweoðol.

swancor, adj., _slender, trim_: acc. pl. þrīo wicg swancor, 2176.

swan-rād, st. f., _swan-road, sea_: acc. sg. ofer swan-rāde, 200.

and-swarian, w. v., _to answer_: pret. sg. him se yldesta and-swarode, 258;
so, 340.

swā: 1) demons, adv., _so, in such a manner, thus_: swā sceal man dōn,
1173, 1535; swā þā driht-guman drēamum lifdon, 99; þæt ge-æfndon swā (_that
we thus accomplished_), 538; þǣr hīe meahton (i.e. feorh ealgian), 798; so,
20, 144, 189, 559, 763, 1104, 1472, 1770, 2058, 2145, 2178, 2991; swā
manlīce _(so like a man_), 1047; swā fela (_so many_), 164, 592; swā
dēorlīce dǣd (_so valiant a deed_), 585; hine swā gōdne (_him so good_),
347; on swā geongum feore (_in so youthful age_), 1844; ge-dēð him swā
ge-wealdene worolde dǣlas þæt ... (_makes parts of the world so subject to
him that_...), 1733. In comparisons = _ever, the_ (adv.): mē þīn mōd-sefa
līcað leng swā wēl (_thy mind pleases me ever so well, the longer the
better_), 1855. As an asseverative = _so_: swā mē Higelāc sīe ... mōdes
blīðe (_so be Higelac gracious-minded to me!_), 435; swā þēah
(_nevertheless, however_), 973, 1930, 2879; swā þēh, 2968; hwæðre swā þēah
(_yet however_), 2443.--2): a) conj., _as, so as_: oð þæt his byre mihte
eorlscipe efnan swā his ǣrfæder (_until his son might do noble deeds, as
his old father did_), 2623; eft swā ǣr (_again as before_), 643;--with
indic.: swā hē selfa bæd (_as he himself requested_), 29; swā hē oft dyde
(_as he often did_), 444; gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo sceal, 455; swā guman
gefrungon, 667; so, 273, 352, 401, 561, 1049, 1056, 1059, 1135, 1232, 1235,
1239, 1253, 1382, etc.;--with subj.: swā þīn sefa hwette _(as pleases thy
mind_, i.e. any way thou pleasest), 490. b) _as, as then, how_, 1143; swā
hīe ā wǣron ... nȳd-gesteallan (_as they were ever comrades in need_),
882; swā hit dīope ... be-nemdon þēodnas mǣre (_as, [how?] the mighty
princes had deeply cursed it_), 3070; swā hē manna wæs wīgend weorðfullost
(_as he of men the worthiest warrior was_), 3099. c) _just as, the moment
when_: swā þæt blōd gesprang, 1668. d) _so that_: swā hē ne mihte nō (_so
that he might not..._), 1509; so, 2185, 2007.--3) = qui, quae, quod, German
so: worhte wlite-beorhtne wang swā wæter bebūgeð (_wrought the beauteous
plain which_ (acc.) _water surrounds_), 93.--4) swā ... swā = _so ... as_,
595, 687-8, 3170; efne swā ... swā (_even so ... as_), 1093-4, 1224, 1284;
efne swā hwylc mægða swā (_such a woman as, whatsoever woman_), 944; efne
swā hwylcum manna swā (_even so to each man as_), 3058.

for-swāfan, st. v., _to carry away, sweep off_: pret. sg. ealle Wyrd
for-swēof mīne māgas tō metod-sceafte, 2815.

for-swāpan, st. v., _to sweep off, force_: pret. sg. hīe Wyrd forswēop on
Grendles gryre, 477.

swāt, st. m., (_sweat_), _wound-blood_: nom. sg., 2694, 2967; instr. sg.
swāte, 1287.--Comp. heaðo-, hilde-swāt.

swāt-fāh, adj., _blood-stained_: nom. sg., 1112.

swātig, adj., _gory_: nom. sg., 1570.

swāt-swaðu, st. f., _blood-trace_: nom. sg., 2947.

be-swǣlan, w. v., _to scorch_: pret. part. wæs se lēg-draca ... glēdum
beswǣled, 3042.

swǣs, adj., _intimate, special, dear_: acc. sg. swǣsne ēðel, 520; nom. pl.
swǣse ge-sīðas, 29; acc. pl. lēode swǣse, 1869; swǣse ge-sīðas, 2041; gen.
pl. swǣsra ge-sīða, 1935.

swǣs-līce, adv., _pleasantly, in a friendly manner_, 3090.

swebban, w. v., (_to put to sleep_), _to kill_: inf. ic hine sweorde
swebban nelle, 680; pres. sg. III. (absolutely) swefeð, 601.

ā-swebban, _to kill, slay_: pret. part. nom. pl. sweordum ā-swefede, 567.

sweðrian, w. v., _to lessen, diminish_: inf. þæt þæt fyr ongan sweðrian,
2703; pret. siððan Heremōdes hild sweðrode, 902.

swefan, st. v.: 1) _to sleep_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1742; inf. swefan,
119, 730, 1673; pret. sg. swæf, 1801; pl. swǣfon, 704; swǣfun, 1281.--2)
_to sleep the death-sleep, die_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1009, 2061, 2747;
pl. swefað, 2257, 2458.

swegel, st. n., _ether, clear sky_: dat. sg. under swegle, 1079, 1198; gen.
sg. under swegles begong, 861, 1774.

swegle, adj., _bright, etherlike, clear_: acc. pl. swegle searo-gimmas,

swegel-wered, _quasi_ pret. part., _ether-clad_: nom. sg. sunne
swegl-wered, 607.

swelgan, st. v., _to swallow_: pret. sg. w. instr. syn-snǣdum swealh
(_swallowed in great bites_), 744; object omitted, subj. pres. nymðe līges
fæðm swulge on swaðule, 783.

for-swelgan, w. acc., _to swallow, consume_: pret. sg. for-swealg, 1123,

swellan, st. v., _to swell_: inf. þā sīo wund on-gan ... swelan and
swellan, 2714.

sweltan, st. v., _to die, perish_: pret. sg. swealt, 1618, 2475; draca
morðre swealt (_died a violent death_), 893, 2783; wundor-dēaðe swealt,
3038; hioro-dryncum swealt, 2359.

swencan, w. v., _to swink, oppress, strike_: pret. sg. hine wundra þæs fela
swencte (MS. swecte) on sunde, 1511.

ge-swencan, _to oppress, strike, injure_: pret. sg. syððan hine Hæðcyn ...
flāne geswencte, 2439; pret. part. synnum ge-swenced, 976; hǣðstapa hundum
ge-swenced, 1369.--Comp. lyft-ge-swenced.

sweng, st. m., _blow, stroke_: dat. sg. swenge, 1521, 2967; swenge _(with
its stroke_), 2687; instr. pl. sweordes swengum, 2387.--Comp.: feorh-,
hete-, heaðo-, heoro-sweng.

swerian, st. v., _to swear_: pret. w. acc. I. nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht
(_swore no false oaths_), 2739; hē mē āðas swōr, 472.

for-swerian, w. instr., _to forswear, renounce (protect with magic
formulǣ?)_: pret. part. hē sige-wǣpnum for-sworen hæfde, 805.

swēg, st. m., _sound, noise, uproar_: nom. sg. swēg, 783; hearpan swēg, 89,
2459, 3024; sige-folca swēg, 645; sang and swēg, 1064; dat. sg. swēge,
1215.--Comp.: benc-, morgen-swēg.

swelan, w. v., _to burn_ (here of wounds): inf. swelan, 2714. See swǣlan.

sweart, adj., _swart, black, dark_: nom. sg. wudu-rēc sweart, 3146; dat.
pl. sweartum nihtum, 167.

sweoðol (cf. O.H.G. suedan, suethan = cremare; M.H.G. swadem = vapor; and
Dietrich in Haupt V., 215), st. m.? n.?, _vapor, smoke, smoking flame_:
dat. sg. ofer swioðole (MS. swic ðole), 3146. See swaðul.

sweofot, st. m., _sleep_: dat. sg. on sweofote, 1582, 2296.

sweoloð, st. m., _heat, fire, flame_: dat. sg. sweoloðe, 1116. Cf. O.H.G.
suilizo, suilizunga = ardor, cauma.

sweorcan, st. v., _to trouble, darken_. pres. sg. III. nē him inwit-sorh on
sefan sweorceð (_darkens his soul_), 1738.

for-sweorcan, _to grow dark_ or _dim_: pres. sg. III. ēagena bearhtm
for-siteð and for-sworceð, 1768.

ge-sweorcan (intrans.), _to darken_: pret. sg. niht-helm ge-swearc, 1790.

sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. n., _sword_: nom. sg. sweord, 1287, 1290, 1570,
1606, 1616, 1697; swurd, 891; acc. sg. sweord, 437, 673, 1559, 1664, 1809,
2253, 2500, etc.; swurd, 539, 1902; swyrd, 2611, 2988; instr. sg. sweorde,
561, 574, 680, 2493, 2881; gen. sg. sweordes, 1107, 2194, 2387; acc. pl.
sweord, 2639; nom. pl., 3049; instr. pl. sweordum, 567, 586, 885; gen. pl.
sweorda, 1041, 2937, 2962.--Comp.: gūð-, māððum-, wǣg-sweord.

sweord, st. f., _oath_: in comp. āð-sweord _(sword-oath_?), 2065.

sweord-bealo, st. n., _sword-bale, death by the sword_: nom. sg., 1148.

sweord-freca, w. m., _sword-warrior_: dat. sg. sweord-frecan, 1469.

sweord-gifu, st. f., _sword-gift, giving of swords_: nom. sg. swyrd-gifu,

sweotol, swutol, adj.: 1) _clear, bright_: nom. sg. swutol sang scopes,
90.--2) _plain, manifest_: nom. sg. syndolh sweotol, 818; tācen sweotol,
834; instr. sg. sweotolan tācne, 141.

swēof, swēop. See swāfan, swāpan.

swið, st. n.? (O.N. swiði), _burning pain_: in comp. þrȳð-swið(?).

swift, adj., _swift_: nom. sg. se swifta mearh, 2265.

swimman, swymman, st. v., _to swim_: inf. swymman, 1625.

ofer-swimman, w. acc., _to swim over_ or _through_: pret. sg. ofer-swam
sioleða bigong (_swam over the sea_), 2368.

swincan, st. v., _to struggle, labor, contend_: pret. pl. git on wæteres
ǣht seofon niht swuncon, 517.

ge-swing, st. n., _surge, eddy_: nom. sg. atol ȳða geswing, 849.

swingan, st. v., _to swing one's self, fly_: pres. sg. III. nē gōd hafoc
geond sæl swingeð, 2265.

swīcan, st. v.: 1) _to deceive, leave in the lurch, abandon_: pret. sg.
nǣfre hit (_the sword_) æt hilde ne swāc manna ǣngum, 1461.--2) _to
escape_: subj. pret. būtan his līc swice, 967.

ge-swīcan, _to deceive, leave in the lurch_: pret. sg. gūð-bill ge-swāc
nacod æt nīðe, 2585, 2682; w. dat. sēo ecg ge-swāc þēodne æt þearfe (_the
sword failed the prince in need_), 1525.

swīð, swȳð (Goth, swinþ-s), adj., _strong, mighty_: nom. sg. wæs þæt
ge-win tō swȳð, 191.--Comp. nom. sg. sīo swīðre hand (_the right hand_),
2099; _harsh_, 3086.

swīðe, adv., _strongly, very, much_, 598, 998, 1093, 1744, 1927; swȳðe,
2171, 2188. Compar. swīðor, _more, rather, more strongly_, 961, 1140, 1875,
2199--Comp. un-swīðe.

ofer-swīðian, w. v., _to overcome, vanquish_, w. acc. of person: pres. sg.
III. oferswȳðeð, 279, 1769.

swīð-ferhð, adj., (_fortis animo_), _strong-minded, bold, brave_: nom. sg.
swȳð-ferhð, 827; gen. sg. swīð-ferhðes, 909; nom. pl. swīð-ferhðe, 493;
dat. pl. swīð-ferhðum, 173.

swīð-hycgend, pres. part. (_strenue cogitans_), _bold-minded, brave in
spirit_: nom. sg. swīð-hycgende, 920; nom. pl. swīð-hycgende, 1017.

swið-mōd, adj., _strong-minded_: nom. sg., 1625.

on-swīfan, st. v. w. acc., _to swing, turn, at_ or _against, elevate_:
pret. sg. biorn (Bēowulf) bord-rand on-swāf wið þām gryre-gieste, 2560.

swīgian, w. v., _to be silent, keep silent_: pret. sg. lȳt swīgode nīwra
spella (_kept little of the new tidings silent_), 2898; pl. swīgedon ealle,

swīgor, adj., _silent, taciturn_: nom, sg. weak, þā wæs swīgra secg ... on
gylp-sprǣce gūð-ge-weorca, 981.

swīn, swȳn, st. n., _swine, boar_ (image on the helm): nom. sg. swȳn,
1112; acc. sg. swīn, 1287.

swīn-līc, st. n., _swine-image_ or _body_: instr. pl. swīn-līcum, 1454.

swōgan, st. v., _to whistle, roar_: pres. part. swōgende lēg, 3146.

swutol. See sweotol.

swylc, swilc (Goth, swa-leik-s), demons, adj. = _talis, such, such a_;
relative = _qualis, as, which_: nom. sg. swylc, 178, 1941, 2542, 2709;
swylc ... swylc=talis ... qualis, 1329; acc. sg. swylc, 2799; eall ...
swylc (_all ... which, as_), 72; ōðer swylc (_such another_, i.e. hand),
1584; on swylc (_on such things_), 997; dat. sg. gūð-fremmendra swylcum
(_to such a battle-worker_, i.e. Bēowulf), 299; gen. sg. swylces hwæt
(_some such_), 881; acc. pl. swylce, 2870; call swylce ... swylce, 3166;
swylce twēgen (_two such_), 1348; ealle þearfe swylce (_all needs that_),
1798; swylce hīe ... findan meahton sigla searo-gimma (_such as they might
find of jewels and cunning gems_), 1157; efne swylce mǣla swylce (_at just
such times as_), 1250; gen. pl. swylcra searo-nīða, 582; swylcra fela ...
ǣr-gestrēona, 2232.

swylce, adv., _as, as also, likewise, similarly_, 113, 293, 758, 831, 855,
908, 921, 1147, 1166, 1428, 1483, 2460, 2825; gē swylce (_and likewise_),
2259; swilce, 1153.

swylt, st. m., _death_: nom. sg., 1256, 1437.

swylt-dæg, st. m., _death-day_: dat. sg. ǣr swylt-dæge, 2799.

swynsian, w. v., _to sound_: pret. sg. hlyn swynsode, 612.

swyrd. See sweord.

swȳðl. See swīð.

swȳn. See swīn.

syððan (seðian, Gen. 1525), w. v., _to punish, avenge_, w. acc.: inf. þonne
hit sweordes ecg syððan scolde (_then the edge of the sword should avenge
it_), 1107.

syððan. See siððan.

syfan-wintre, adj., _seven-winters-old_: nom. sg., 2429.

syhð. See sēon.

syl (O.H.G. swella), st. f., _sill, bench-support_: dat. sg. fram sylle,

sylfa. See selfa.

syllan. See sellan.

syllīc. See sellīc.

symbol, syml, st. n., _banquet, entertainment_: acc. sg. symbel, 620, 1011;
geaf mē sinc and symbel (_gave me treasure and feasting_, i.e. made me his
friend and table-companion), 2432; þæt hīe ... symbel ymbsǣton (_that they
might sit round their banquet_), 564; dat. sg. symle, 81, 489, 1009;
symble, 119, 2105; gen. pl. symbla, 1233.

symble, symle, adv., _continually, ever_: symble, 2451; symle, 2498; symle
wæs þȳ sǣmra (_he was ever the worse, the weaker_, i.e. the dragon), 2881.

symbel-wyn, st. f., _banqueting-pleasure, joy at feasting_: acc. sg.
symbel-wynne drēoh, 1783.

syn, st. f., _sin, crime_: nom. synn and sacu, 2473; dat. instr. pl.
synnum, 976, 1256, 3072.

syn. See sin.

syn-bysig, adj., (culpa laborans), _persecuted on account of guilt?_
(Rieger), _guilt-haunted?_: nom. sg. secg syn-[by]sig, 2228.

ge-syngian, w. v., _to sin, commit a crime_: pret. part. þæt wæs feohlēas
ge-feoht, fyrenum ge-syngad, 2442.

synnig, adj., _sin-laden, sinful_: acc. sg. m. sinnigne secg, 1380.--Comp.:
fela-, un-synnig.

ge-synto, f., _health_: dat. pl. on gesyntum, 1870.

syrce. See serce.

syrwan, w. v. w. acc., _to entrap, catch unawares_: pret. sg. duguðe and
geogoðe seomade and syrede, 161.

be-syrwan: 1) _to compass_ or _accomplish by finesse; effect_: inf. dǣd þē
wē ealle ǣr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed that all of us could not
accomplish before with all our wisdom_), 943.--2) _to entrap by guile and
destroy_: inf. mynte se mānscaða manna cynnes sumne be-syrwan (_the fell
foe thought to entrap some one (all?_, see sum) _of the men_), 714.

sȳn, f., _seeing, sight, scene_: comp, an-sȳn.

ge-sȳne, adj., _visible, to be seen_: nom. sg. 1256, 1404, 2948, 3059,
3160.--Comp.: ēð-ge-sȳne, ȳð-ge-sēne.


taligean, w. v.: 1) _to count, reckon, number; esteem, think_: pres. sg. I.
nō ic mē ... hnāgran gūð-geweorca þonne Grendel hine (_count myself no
worse than G. in battle-works_), 678; wēn ic talige ...þæt (_I count on the
hope ... that_), 1846; telge, 2068; sg. III. þæt rǣd talað þæt (_counts it
gain that_), 2028.--2) _to tell, relate_: sōð ic talige (_I tell facts_),
532; swā þū self talast (_as thou thyself sayst_), 595.

tācen, st. n., _token, sign, evidence_: nom. sg. tācen sweotol, 834; dat.
instr. sg. sweotolan tācne, 141; tīres tō tācne, 1655.--Comp. luf-tācen.

tān, st. m., _twig_: in comp. āter-tān. [emended to āter-tēarum in

ge-tǣcan, w. v., _to show, point out_: pret. sg. him þā hilde-dēor hof
mōdigra torht ge-tǣhte (_the warrior pointed out to them the bright
dwelling of the bold ones_, i.e. Danes), 313. Hence, _to indicate, assign_:
pret. sōna mē se mǣra mago Healfdenes ... wið his sylfes sunu setl getǣhte
(_assigned me a seat by his own son_), 2014.

tǣle, adj., _blameworthy_: in comp. un-tǣle.

ge-tǣse, adj., _quiet, still_: nom. sg. gif him wǣre ... niht ge-tǣse
(_whether he had a pleasant, quiet, night_), 1321.

tela, adv., _fittingly, well_, 949, 1219, 1226, 1821, 2209, 2738.

telge. See talian.

tellan, w. v., _to tell, consider, deem_: pret. sg. nē his līf-dagas lēoda
ǣnigum nytte tealde (_nor did he count his life useful to any man_), 795;
þæt ic mē ǣnigne under swegles begong ge-sacan ne tealde (_I believed not
that I had any foe under heaven_), 1774; cwæð hē þone gūð-wine gōdne tealde
(_said he counted the war-friend good_), 1811; hē ūsic gār-wīgend gōde
tealde (_deemed us good spear-warriors_), 2642; pl. swā (_so that_) hine
Gēata beam gōdne ne tealdon, 2185.--2) _to ascribe, count against, impose_:
pret. sg. (Þrȳðo) him wælbende weotode tealde hand-gewriðene, 1937.

ge-tenge, adj., _attached to, lying on_: w. dat. gold ... grunde ge-tenge,

tēar, st. m., _tear_: nom. pl. tēaras, 1873.

teoh, st. f., _troop, band_: dat. sg. earmre teohhe, 2939.

(ge?)-teohhian, w. v., _to fix, determine, assign_: pret. sg. ic for lǣssan
lēan teohhode ... hnāhran rince, 952; pres. part. wæs ōðer in ǣr geteohhod
(_assigned_)... mǣrum Gēate, 1301.

tēon, st. v., _to draw, lead_: inf. heht ... eahta mēaras ... on flet tēon
(_bade eight horses be led into the hall_), 1037; pret. sg. mē tō grunde
tēah fāh fēond-sceaða (_the many-hued fiend-foe drew me to the bottom_),
553; eft-sīðas tēah (_withdrew, returned_), 1333; sg. for pl. ǣg-hwylcum
...þāra þe mid Bēowulfe brim-lāde tēah (_to each of those that crossed the
sea with B._) 1052; pret. part. þā wæs ... heard ecg togen (_then was the
hard edge drawn_), 1289; wearð ... on næs togen (_was drawn to the
promontory_), 1440.

ā-tēon, _to wander, go_, intrans.: pret. sg. tō Heorute ā-tēah (_drew to
Heorot_), 767.

ge-tēon: 1) _to draw_: pret. sg. gomel swyrd ge-tēah, 2611; w. instr. and
acc. hyre seaxe ge-tēah, brad brūn-ecg, 1546.--2) _to grant, give, lend_:
imp. nō þū him wearne getēoh þīnra gegn-cwida glædnian (_refuse not to
gladden them with thy answer_), 366; pret. sg. and þā Bēowulfe bēga
gehwæðres eodor Ingwina onweald ge-tēah (_and the prince of the Ingwins
gave B. power over both_), 1045; so, hē him ēst getēah (_gave possession
of_), 2166.

of-tēon, _to deprive, withdraw_, w. gen. of thing and dat. pers.: pret. sg.
Scyld Scēfing ... monegum mǣgðum meodo-setla of-tēah, 5; w. acc. of thing,
hond ... feorh-sweng ne of-tēah, 2490; w. dat. hond (hord, MS.) swenge ne
of-tēah, 1521.

þurh-tēon, _to effect_: inf. gif hē torn-gemōt þurh-tēon mihte, 1141.

tēon (cf. tēoh, _materia_, O.H.G. ziuc), w. v. w. acc., _to make, work_:
pret. sg. tēode, 1453;--_to furnish out, deck_: pret. pl. nalas hī hine
lǣssan lācum tēodan (_provided him with no less gifts_), 43.

ge-tēon, _to provide, do, bring on_: pres. sg. unc sceal weorðan ... swā
unc Wyrd ge-tēoð, 2527; pret. sg. þē him ... sāre ge-tēode (_who had done
him this harm_), 2296.

ge-tēona, w. m., _injurer, harmer_: in comp. lāð-ge-tēona.

til, adj., _good, apt, fit_: nom. sg. m. Hālga til, 61; þegn ungemete till
(of Wīglāf), 2722; fem. wæs sēo þēod tilu, 1251; neut. ne wæs þæt ge-wrixle
til, 1305.

tilian, w. v. w. gen., _to gain, win_: inf. gif ic ... ōwihte mæg þīnre
mōd-lufan māran tilian (_if I ... gain_), 1824.

timbrian, w. v., _to build_: pret. part. acc. sg. sæl timbred (_the
well-built hall_), 307.

be-timbrian, (construere), _to finish building, complete_: pret. pl.
betimbredon on tȳn dagum beadu-rōfes bēcn, 3161.

tīd, st. f., _-tide, time_: acc. sg. twelf wintra tīd, 147; lange tīd,
1916; in þā tīde, 2228.--Comp.: ān-, morgen-tīd.

ge-tīðian (from tigðian), w. v., _to grant_: pret. part. impers. wæs ...
bēne (gen.) ge-tīðad fēasceaftum men, 2285.

tīr, st. m., _glory, repute in war_. gen. sg. tīres, 1655.

tīr-ēadig, adj., _glorious, famous_: dat. sg. tīr-ēadigum menn (of
Bēowulf), 2190.

tīr-fæst, adj., _famous, rich in glory_. nom. sg. (of Hrōðgār), 923.

tīr-lēas, adj., _without glory, infamous_: gen. sg. (of Grendel), 844.

toga, w. m., _leader_: in comp. folc-toga.

torht, adj., _bright, brilliant_: acc. sg. neut. hof ... torht,
313.--Comp.: wuldor-torht, heaðo-torht (_loud in battle_).

torn, st. n.: 1) _wrath, insult, distress_: acc. sg. torn, 147, 834; gen.
pl. torna, 2190.--2) _anger_: instr. sg. torne ge-bolgen, 2402.--Comp.

torn, adj., _bitter, cruel_: nom. sg, hrēowa tornost, 2130.

torn-ge-mōt, st. n., (_wrathful meeting_), _angry engagement, battle_: acc.
sg., 1141.

tō, I. prep. w. dat. indicating direction or tending to, hence: 1) local =
whither after verbs of motion, _to, up to, at_: cōm tō recede (_to the
hall_), 721; ēode tō sele, 920; ēode tō hire frēan sittan, 642; gǣð eft ...
tō medo (_goeth again to mead_), 605; wand tō wolcnum (_wound to the
welkin_), 1120; sigon tō slǣpe (_sank to sleep_), 1252; 28, 158, 234, 438,
553, 926, 1010, 1014, 1155, 1159, 1233, etc.; līð-wǣge bær hǣlum tō handa
(_bore the ale-cup to the hands of the men? at hand?_), 1984; oð þæt niht
becōm ōðer tō yldum, 2118; him tō bearme cwōm māððum-fæt mǣre (_came to his
hands, into his possession_), 2405; sǣlde tō sande sīd-fæðme scip
(_fastened the broad-bosomed ship to the shore_), 1918; þat se harm-scaða
tō Heorute ā-tēah (_went forth to Heorot_), 767. After verb sittan: site nū
tō symble (_sit now to the meal_), 489; siððan ... wē tō symble geseten
hæfdon, 2105; tō ham (_home, at home_), 124, 374, 2993. With verbs of
speaking: maðelode tō his wine-drihtne (_spake to his friendly lord_), 360;
tō Gēatum sprec, 1172; so, heht þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan (_bade the
battle-work be told at the hedge_), 2893.--2) with verbs of bringing and
taking (cf. under on, I., d): hraðe wæs tō būre Bēowulf fetod (_B. was
hastily brought from a room_), 1311; siððan Hāma æt-wæg tō þǣre byrhtan
byrig Brōsinga mene (_since H. carried the Brōsing-necklace off from the
bright city_), 1200; wēan āhsode. fǣhðo to Frȳsum (_suffered woe, feud as
to, from, the Frisians_), 1208.--3) =end of motion, hence: a) _to, for, as,
in_: þone god sende folce tō frōfre (_for, as, a help to the folk_), 14;
gesette ... sunnan and mōnan lēoman to lēohte (_as a light_), 95; ge-sæt
... tō rune (_sat in counsel_), 172; wearð hē Heaðo-lāfe tō hand-bonan,
460; bringe ... tō helpe (_bring to, for, help_), 1831; Jofore forgeaf
āngan dōhtor ... hyldo tō wedde (_as a pledge of his favor_), 2999; so,
508(?), 666, 907, 972, 1022, 1187, 1263, 1331, 1708, 1712, 2080, etc.;
secgan tō sōðe (_to say in sooth_), 51; so, 591, 2326. b) with verbs of
thinking, hoping, etc., _on, for, at, against_: hē tō gyrn-wræce swīðor
þōhte þonne tō sǣ-lāde (_thought more on vengeance than on the
sea-voyage_), 1139; sæcce ne wēneð tō Gār-Denum (_nor weeneth of conflict
with the Spear-Danes_), 602; þonne wēne ic tō þē wyrsan geþinges (_then I
expect for thee a worse result_), 525; nē ic to Swēoþēode sibbe oððe trēowe
wihte ne wēne (_nor expect at all of, from, the Swedes_ ...), 2923; wiste
þǣm āhlǣcan tō þǣm hēah-sele hilde ge-þinged (_battle prepared for the
monster in the high hall_), 648; wēl bið þǣm þe mot tō fæder fæðmum freoðo
wilnian (_well for him that can find peace in the Father's arms_), 188;
þāra þe hē ge-worhte tō West-Denum (_of those that he wrought against the
West-Danes_), 1579.--4) with the gerund, inf.: tō gefremmanne (_to do_),
174; tō ge-cȳðanne (_to make known_), 257; tō secganne (_to say_), 473; to
beflēonne (_to avoid, escape_), 1004; so, 1420, 1725, 1732, 1806, 1852,
1923, 1942, etc. With inf.: tō fēran, 316; tō friclan, 2557.--5) temporal:
gewāt him tō gescæp-hwīle (_went at(?) the hour of fate_; or, _to his fated
rest?_), 26; tō wīdan feore (_ever, in their lives_), 934; āwa tō aldre
(_for life, forever_), 956; so, tō aldre, 2006, 2499; tō life (_during
life, ever_), 2433.--6) with particles: wōd under wolcnum tō þæs þe ...
(_went under the welkin to the point where_ ...), 715; so, elne ge-ēodon tō
þæs þe, 1968; so, 2411; hē him þæs lēan for-geald ... tō þæs þe hē on reste
geseah Grendel licgan (_he paid him for that to the point that he saw G.
lying dead_), 1586; wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt (_the blood was hot to that
degree_), 1617; næs þā long tō þon þæt (_'twas not long till_), 2592, 2846;
wæs him se man tō þon lēof þæt (_the man was dear to him to that degree_),
1877; tō hwan siððan wearð hond-rǣs hæleða (_up to what point, how, the
hand-contest turned out_), 2072; tō middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

II. Adverbial modifier, _quasi_ preposition [better explained in many cases
as prep. postponed]: l) _to, towards, up to, at_: gēong sōna tō, 1786; so,
2649; fēhð ōðer tō, 1756; sǣ-lāc ... þē þū hēr tō lōcast (_upon which thou
here lookest_), 1655; folc tō sǣgon (_the folk looked on_), 1423; þæt hī
him tō mihton gegnum gangan (_might proceed thereto_), 313; sē þe him
bealwa tō bōte gelȳfde (_who believed in help out of evils from him_, i.e.
Bēowulf), 910; him tō anwaldan āre ge-lyfde (_trusted for himself to the
Almighty's help_), 1273; þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode (_that the Swedes
will come against us_), 3002.--2) before adj. and adv., _too_: tō strang
(_too mighty_), 133; tō fæst, 137; tō swȳð, 191; so, 789, 970, 1337, 1743,
1749, etc.; tō fela micles (_far too much_), 695; hē tō forð ge-stōp (_he
had gone too far_), 2290.

tōð (G. tunþu-s), st. m., _tooth_: in comp. blōdig-tōð (adj.).

tredan, st. v. w. acc., _to tread_: inf. sǣ-wong tredan, 1965; el-land
tredan, 3020; pret. sg. wræc-lāstas træd, 1353; medo-wongas træd, 1644;
græs-moldan træd, 1882.

treddian, tryddian (see trod), w. v., _to stride, tread, go_: pret. sg.
treddode, 726; tryddode getrume micle (_strode about with a strong troop_),

trem, st. n., _piece, part_: acc. sg. nē ... fōtes trem (_not a foot's
breadth_), 2526.

trēow, st. f., _fidelity, good faith_: acc. sg. trēowe, 1073; sibbe oððe
trēowe, 2923.

trēow, st. n., _tree_: in comp. galg-trēow.

trēowian. See truwian.

trēow-loga, w. m., _troth-breaker, pledge-breaker_: nom. pl. trēow-logan,

trodu, st. f., _track, step_: acc. sg. or pl. trode, 844.

ge-trum, st. n., _troop, band_: instr. sg. ge-trume micle, 923.

trum, adj., _strong, endowed with_: nom. sg. heorot hornum trum, 1370.

ge-truwan, w. v. w. acc., _to confirm, pledge solemnly_: pret. sg. þā hīe
getruwedon on twā healfe fæste frioðu-wǣre, 1096.

truwian, trēowan, w. v., _to trust in, rely on, believe in_: 1) w. dat.:
pret. sg. sīðe ne truwode lēofes mannes (_I trusted not in the dear man's
enterprise_), 1994; bearne ne truwode þæt hē ... (_she trusted not the
child that_ ...), 2371; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trēowde þæt hē ... (_each
trusted his heart that_ ...), 1167.--2) w. gen.: pret. sg. Gēata lēod
georne truwode mōdgan mægnes, 670; wiðres ne truwode, 2954.

ge-truwian, _to rely on, trust in_, w. dat.: pret. sg. strenge ge-truwode,
mund-gripe mægenes, 1534;--w. gen. pret. sg. beorges ge-truwode, wīges and
wealles, 2323; strenge ge-truwode ānes mannes, 2541.

tryddian. See treddian.

trȳwe, adj., _true, faithful_: nom. sg. þā gȳt wæs ... ǣghwylc ōðrum
trȳwe, 1166.

ge-trȳwe, adj., _faithful_: nom. sg. hēr is ǣghwylc eorl ōðrum ge-trȳwe,

turf, st. f., _sod, soil, seat_: in comp. ēðel-turf.

tūx, st. m., _tooth, tusk_: in comp. hilde-tūx.

ge-twǣfan, w. v. w. acc. of person and gen. thing, _to separate, divide,
deprive of, hinder_: pres. sg. III. þæt þec ādl oððe ecg eafoðes ge-twǣfeð
(_robs of strength_), 1764; inf. god ēaðe mæg þone dol-scaðan dǣda
ge-twǣfan (_God may easily restrain the fierce foe from his deeds_), 479;
pret. sg. sumne Gēata lēod ... fēores getwǣfde (_cut him off from life_),
1434; nō þǣr wǣg-flotan wind ofer ȳðum sīðes ge-twǣfde (_the wind hindered
not the wave-floater in her course over the water_), 1909; pret. part. æt
rihte wæs gūð ge-twǣfed (_almost had the struggle been ended_), 1659.

ge-twǣman, w. v. acc. pers. and gen. thing, _to hinder, render incapable
of, restrain_: inf. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges getwǣman, 969.

twēgen, m. f. n. twā, num., _twain, two_: nom. m. twēgen, 1164; acc. m.
twēgen, 1348; dat. twǣm, 1192 gen. twēga, 2533; acc. f. twā, 1096, 1195.

twelf, num., _twelve_, gen. twelfa, 3172.

tweone (Frisian twine), num. = _bini, two_: dat. pl. be sǣm tweonum, 859,
1298; 1686.

twidig, adj., in comp. lang-twidig (_long-assured_), 1709.

tȳder, st. m., _race, descendant_: in comp. un-tȳder, 111.

tȳdre (Frisian teddre), adj., _weak, unwarlike, cowardly_: nom. pl.
tȳdre, 2848.

tȳn, num., _ten_: uninflect. dat. on tȳn dagum, 3161; inflect. nom.
tȳne, 2848.

tyrwian, w. v., _to tar_: pret. part. tyrwed in comp.: nīw-tyrwed.

on-tyhtan, w. v., _to urge on, incite, entice_: pret. sg. on-tyhte, 3087.


þafian, w. v. w. acc., _to submit to, endure_: inf. þæt se þēod-cyning
þafian sceolde Eofores ānne dōm, 2964.

þanc, st. m.: 1) _thought_: in comp. fore-, hete-, or-, searo-þanc;
inwit-þanc (adj.).--2) _thanks_ (w. gen. of thing): nom. sg., 929, 1779;
acc. sg. þanc, 1998, 2795.--3) _content, favor, pleasure_: dat. sg. þā þe
gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance (_those that tribute for the
Geātas carried thither for favor_). 379.

ge-þanc, st. m., _thought_: instr. pl. þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2333.--Comp.

þanc-hycgende, pres. part., _thoughtful_, 2236.

þancian, w. v., _to thank_: pret. sg. gode þancode ... þæs þe hire se willa
ge-lamp (_thanked God that her wish was granted_), 626; so, 1398; pl.
þancedon, 627(?).

þanon, þonon, þonan, adv., _thence_: 1) local: þanon eft gewāt (_he went
thence back_), 123; þanon up ... stigon (_went up thence_), 224; so, þanon,
463, 692, 764, 845, 854, 1293; þanan, 1881; þonon, 520, 1374, 2409; þonan,
820, 2360, 2957.--2) personal: þanon untȳdras ealle on-wōcon (_from him_,
i.e. Cain, etc.), 111; so, þanan, 1266; þonon, 1961; unsōfte þonon feorh
oð-ferede (i.e. from Grendel's mother), 2141.

þā, adv.: l) _there, then_, 3, 26, 28, 34, 47, 53, etc. With þǣr: þā þǣr,
331. With nū: nū þā (_now then_), 658.--2) conjunction, _when, as, since_,
w. indic., 461, 539, 633, etc.;--_because, whilst, during, since_, 402,
465, 724, 2551, etc.

þæt, I. demons, pron. acc. neut. of se: demons, nom. þæt (_that_), 735,
766, etc.; instr. sg. þȳ, 1798, 2029; þæt ic þȳ wǣpne ge-bræd (_that I
brandished as(?) a weapon; that I brandished the weapon?_), 1665; þȳ
weorðra (_the more honored_), 1903; þȳ sēft (_the more easily_), 2750; þȳ
lǣs hym ȳðe þrym wudu wynsuman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the
waves the winsome boat might carry away_), 1919; nō þȳ ǣr (_not sooner_),
755, 1503, 2082, 2374, 2467; nō þȳ leng (_no longer, none the longer_),
975. þȳ =adv., _therefore, hence_, 1274, 2068; þē ... þē = _on this
account; for this reason ... that, because_, 2639-2642; wiste þē geornor
(_knew but too well_), 822; hē ... wæs sundes þē sǣnra þē hine swylt fornam
(_he was the slower in swimming as [whom?] death carried him off_), 1437;
næs him wihte þē sēl (_it was none the better for him_), 2688; so, 2278.
Gen. sg. þæs = adv., _for this reason, therefore_, 7, 16, 114, 350, 589,
901, 1993, 2027, 2033, etc. þæs þe, especially after verbs of thanking, =
_because_, 108, 228, 627, 1780, 2798;--also = secundum quod: þæs þe hīe
gewislīcost ge-witan meahton, 1351;--_therefore, accordingly_, 1342, 3001;
tō þæs (_to that point; to that degree_), 715, 1586, 1617, 1968, 2411; þæs
georne (_so firmly_), 969; ac hē þæs fæste wæs ... besmiðod (_it was too
firmly set_), 774; nō þæs frōd leofað gumena bearna þæt þone grund wite
(_none liveth among men so wise that he should know its bottom_), 1368; hē
þæs (þǣm, MS.) mōdig wæs (_had the courage for it_), 1509.

II. conj. (relative), _that, so that_, 15, 62, 84, 221, 347, 358, 392, 571,
etc.; oð þæt (_up to that, until_); see oð.

þætte (from þæt þe, see þē), _that_, 151, 859, 1257, 2925, etc.; þæt þe
(_that_), 1847.

þǣr: 1) demons. adv., _there (where)_, 32, 36, 89, 400, 757, etc.;
morðor-bealo māga, þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste hēold worolde wynne (_the death-bale of
kinsmen where before she had most worldly joy_), 1080. With þā: þā þǣr,
331; þǣr on innan (_therein_), 71. Almost like Eng. expletive _there_, 271,
550, 978, etc.;--_then, at that time_, 440;--_thither_: þǣr swīð-ferhðe
sittan ēodon (_thither went the bold ones to sit_, i.e. to the bench), 493,
etc.--2) relative, _where_, 356, 420, 508, 513, 522, 694, 867, etc.; ēode
... þǣr se snottra bād (_went where the wise one tarried_), 1314; so,
1816;--_if_, 763, 798, 1836, 2731, etc.;--_whither_: gā þǣr hē wille, 1395.

þē, þe, I. relative particle, indecl., partly standing alone, partly
associated with se, sēo, þæt: Hunferð maðelode, þē æt fōtum sæt (_H., who
sat at his feet, spake_), 500; so, 138, etc.; wæs þæt gewin tō swȳð þē on
þā lēode be-cōm (_the misery that had come on the people was too great_),
192, etc.; ic wille ... þē þā and-sware ǣdre ge-cȳðan þē mē se gōda
ā-gifan þenceð (_I will straightway tell thee the answer that the good one
shall give_), 355; oð þone ānne dæg þē hē ... (_till that very day that he_
...), 2401; hēo þā fǣhðe wræc þē þū ... Grendel cwealdest (_the fight in
which thou slewest G._), 1335; mid þǣre sorge þē him sīo sār belamp (_with
the sorrow wherewith the pain had visited him_), 2469; pl. þonne þā dydon
þē ... (_than they did that_ ...), 45; so, 378, 1136; þā māðmas þē hē mē
sealde (_the treasures that he gave me_), 2491; so, ginfæstan gife þē him
god sealde (_the great gifts that God had given him_), 2183. After þāra þe
(_of those that_), the depend. verb often takes sg. instead of pl.
(Dietrich, Haupt XI., 444 seqq.): wundor-sīona fela secga ge-hwylcum þāra
þe on swylc starað (_to each of those that look on such_), 997; so, 844,
1462, 2384, 2736. Strengthened by se, sēo, þæt: sægde sē þe cūðe (_said he
that knew_), 90; wæs se grimma gæst Grendel hāten, sē þe mōras hēold (_the
grim stranger hight Grendel, he that held the moors_), 103; here-byrne ...
sēo þe bān-cofan beorgan cūðe (_the corselet that could protect the body_),
1446, etc.; þǣr ge-lȳfan sceal dryhtnes dōme sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_he
shall believe in God's judgment whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 1437,
1292 (cf. Heliand I., 1308).

þæs þe. See þæt.

þēah þe. See þēah.

for þām þe. See for-þām.

þȳ, þē, _the, by that_, instr. of se: āhte ic holdra þȳ lǣs ... þē dēað
for-nam (_I had the less friends whom death snatched away_), 488; so, 1437.

þeccan, w. v., _to cover_ (thatch), _cover over_: inf. þā sceal brond
fretan, ǣled þeccean (_fire shall eat, flame shall cover, the treasures_),
3016; pret. pl. þǣr git ēagor-strēam earmum þehton (_in swimming_), 513.

þegn, st. m., _thane, liegeman, king's higher vassal; knight_: nom. sg.,
235, 494, 868, 2060, 2710; (Bēowulf), 194; (Wīglāf), 2722; acc. sg. þegen
(Bēowulf, MS. þegn), 1872; dat. sg. þegne, 1342, 1420; (Hengest), 1086;
(Wīglāf), 2811; gen. sg. þegnes, 1798; nom. pl. þegnas, 1231; acc. pl.
þegnas, 1082, 3122; dat. pl. þegnum, 2870; gen. pl. þegna, 123, 400, 1628,
1674, 1830, 2034, etc.--Comp.: ambiht-, ealdor-, heal-, magu-, sele-þegn.

þegnian, þēnian, w. v., _to serve, do liege service_: pret. sg. ic him
þēnode dēoran sweorde (_I served them with my good sword_, i.e. slew them
with it), 560.

þegn-sorh, st. f., _thane-sorrow, grief for a liegeman_: acc. sg.
þegn-sorge, 131.

þegu, st. f., _taking_: in comp.: bēah-, bēor-, sinc-þegu.

þel, st. n., _deal-board, board for benches_: in comp. benc-þel, 486, 1240.

þencan, w. v.: 1) _to think_: absolutely: pres. sg. III. sē þe wēl þenceð,
289; so, 2602. With depend. clause: pres. sg. nǣnig heora þōhte þæt hē ...
(_none of them thought that he_), 692.--2) w. inf., _to intend_: pres. sg.
III. þā and-sware ... þē mē se gōda ā-gifan þenceð (_the answer that the
good one intendeth to give me_), 355; (blōdig wæl) byrgean þenceð, 448;
þonne hē ... gegān þenceð longsumne lof (_if he will win eternal fame_),
1536; pret. sg. nē þæt āglǣca yldan þōhte (_the monster did not mean to
delay that_), 740; pret. pl. wit unc wið hronfixas werian þōhton, 541;
(hine) on healfa ge-hwone hēawan þōhton, 801.

ā-þencan, _to intend, think out_: pret. sg. (hē) þis ellen-weorc āna
ā-þōhte tō ge-fremmanne, 2644.

ge-þencan, w. acc.: 1) _to think of_: þæt hē his selfa ne mæg ... ende
ge-þencean (_so that he himself may not think of, know, its limit_),
1735.--2) _to be mindful_: imper. sg. ge-þenc nū ... hwæt wit geō sprǣcon,

þenden: 1) adv., _at this time, then, whilst_: nalles fācen-stafas
Þēod-Scyldingas þenden fremedon (_not at all at this time had the Scyldings
done foul deeds_), 1020 (referring to 1165; cf. Wīdsīð, 45 seqq.); þenden
rēafode rinc ōðerne (_whilst one warrior robbed another_, i.e. Eofor robbed
Ongenþēow), 2986.--2) conj., _so long as, whilst_, 30, 57, 284, 1860, 2039,
2500, 3028;--_whilst_, 2419. With subj., _whilst, as long as_: þenden þū
mōte, 1178; þenden þū lifige, 1255; þenden hyt sȳ (_whilst the heat
lasts_), 2650.

þengel, st. m., _prince, lord, ruler_: acc. sg. hringa þengel (Bēowulf),

þes (m.), þēos (f.), þis (n.), demons. pron., _this_: nom. sg. 411, 432,
1703; f., 484; nom. acc. neut., 2156, 2252, 2644; þȳs, 1396; acc. sg. m.
þisne, 75; f. þās, 1682; dat. sg. neut. þissum, 1170; þyssum, 2640; f.
þisse, 639; gen. m. þisses, 1217; f. þisse, 929; neut. þysses, 791, 807;
nom. pl. and acc. þās, 1623, 1653, 2636, 2641; dat. þyssum, 1063, 1220.

þē. See þæt.

þēh. See þēah.

þearf, st. f., _need_: nom. sg. þearf, 1251, 2494, 2638; þā him wæs manna
þearf (_as he was in need of men_), 201; acc. sg. þearfe, 1457, 2580, 2850;
fremmað gē nū lēoda þearfe (_do ye now what is needful for the folk_),
2802; dat. sg. æt þearfe, 1478, 1526, 2695, 2710; acc. pl. se for andrysnum
ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe (_who would supply in courtesy all the
thane's needs_), 1798 (cf. sele-þegn, 1795.--Comp.: firen-, nearo-,

þearf. See þurfan.

ge-þearfian, w. v., = _necessitatem imponere_: pret. part. þā him swā
ge-þearfod wæs (_since so they found it necessary_), 1104.

þearle, adv., _very, exceedingly_, 560.

þēah, þēh, conj., _though, even though_ or _if_: 1) with subj. þēah, 203,
526, 588, 590, 1168, 1661, 2032, 2162. Strengthened by þe: þēah þe, 683,
1369, 1832, 1928, 1942, 2345, 2620; þēah ... eal (_although_), 681.--2)
with indic.: þēah, 1103; þēh, 1614.--3) doubtful: þēah hē ūðe wēl, 2856;
swā þēah (_nevertheless_), 2879; nō ... swā þēah (_not then however_), 973;
næs þē forht swā þēh (_he was not, though, afraid_), 2968; hwæðre swā þēah
(_yet however_), 2443.

þēaw, st. m., _custom, usage_: nom. sg., 178, 1247; acc. sg. þēaw, 359;
instr. pl. þēawum (_in accordance with custom_), 2145.

þeód, st. f.: 1) _war-troop, retainers_: nom. sg., 644, 1231, 1251.--2)
_nation, folk_: nom. sg., 1692; gen. pl. þēoda, 1706.--Comp.: sige-,

þēod-cyning, st. m., (=folc-cyning), _warrior-king, king of the people_:
nom. sg. (Hrōðgār), 2145; (Ongenþēow), 2964, 2971; þīod-cyning (Bēowulf),
2580; acc. sg. þēod-cyning (Bēowulf), 3009; gen. sg. þēod-cyninges
(Bēowulf), 2695; gen. pl. þēod-cyninga, 2.

þēoden, st. m., _lord of a troop, war-chief, king; ruler_: nom. sg., 129,
365, 417, 1047, 1210, 1676, etc.; þīoden, 2337, 2811; acc. sg. þēoden, 34,
201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2884, 3080; þīoden, 2789; dat. sg. þēodne, 345,
1526, 1993, 2573, 2710, etc.; þēoden, 2033; gen. sg. þēodnes 798, 911,
1086, 1628, 1838, 2175; þīodnes, 2657; nom. pl. þēodnas, 3071.

þēoden-lēas, adj., _without chief_ or _king_: nom. pl. þēoden-lēase, 1104.

þēod-gestrēon, st. n., _people's-jewel, precious treasure_: instr. pl.
þēod-ge-strēonum, 44; gen. pl. þēod-ge-strēona, 1219.

þēodig, adj., _appertaining to a_ þēod: in comp. el-þēodig.

þēod-scaða, w. m., _foe of the people, general foe_: nom. sg. þēod-sceaða
(_the dragon_), 2279, 2689.

þēod-þrēa, st. f. m., _popular misery, general distress_: dat. pl. wið
þēod-þrēaum, 178.

þēof, st. m., _thief_: gen. sg. þēofes cræfte, 2221.

þēon, st. v.: 1) _to grow, ripen, thrive_: pret. sg. weorðmyndum þāh (_grew
in glory_), 8.--2) _to thrive in, succeed_: pret. sg. hūru þæt on lande
lȳt manna þāh (_that throve to few_), 2837. See Note, l. 901.

ge-þēon, _to grow, thrive; increase in power and influence_: imper. ge-þēoh
tela, 1219; inf. lof-dǣdum sceal ... man geþēon, 25; þæt þæt þēodnes bearn
ge-þēon scolde, 911.

on-þēon? _to begin, undertake_, w. gen.: pret. hē þæs ǣr onþāh, 901. [In
MS. Emended in text.--KTH] See Note l. 901.

þēon (for þēowan), w. v., _to oppress, restrain_: inf. næs se folc-cyning
ymb-sittendra ǣnig þāra þe mec ... dorste egesan þēon (_that durst oppress
me with terror_), 2737.

þēostor, adj., _dark, gloomy_: instr. pl. þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2333.

þēow, st. m., _slave, serf_ 2225.

þicgan, st. v. w. acc., _to seize, attain, eat, appropriate_: inf. þæt hē
(Grendel) mā mōste manna cynnes þicgean ofer þā niht, 737; symbel þicgan
(_take the meal, enjoy the feast_), 1011; pret. pl. þæt hīe mē þēgon, 563;
þǣr wē medu þēgun, 2634.

ge-þicgan, w. acc., _to grasp, take_: pret. sg. (symbel and sele-ful, ful)
ge-þeah, 619, 629; Bēowulf ge-þah ful on flette, 1025; pret. pl. (medo-ful
manig) ge-þǣgon, 1015.

þider, þyder, adv., _thither_: þyder, 3087, 379, 2971.

þīhtig, þȳhtig, adj., _doughty, vigorous, firm_: acc. sg. neut. sweord ...
ecgum þȳhtig, 1559.--Comp. hyge-þīhtig.

þincan. See þyncan.

þing, st. n.: 1) _thing_: gen. pl. ǣnige þinga (_ullo modo_), 792, 2375,
2906.--2) _affair, contest, controversy_: nom. sg. mē wearð Grendles þing
... undyrne cūð (_Grendel's doings became known to me_), 409.--3)
_judgment, issue, judicial assembly_(?): acc. sg. sceal ... āna gehegan
þing wið þyrse (_shall bring the matter alone to an issue against the
giant_: see hegan), 426.

ge-þing, st. n.: 1) _terms, covenant_: acc. pl. ge-þingo, 1086.--2) _fate,
providence, issue_: gen. sg. ge-þinges, 398, 710; (ge-þingea, MS.), 525.

ge-þingan, st. v., _to grow, mature, thrive_ (Dietrich, Haupt IX., 430):
pret. part. cwēn mōde ge-þungen (_mature-minded, high-spirited, queen_),
625. See wēl-þungen.

ge-þingan (see ge-þing), w. v.: 1) _to conclude a treaty_: w. refl. dat,
_enter into a treaty_: pres. sg. III. gif him þonne Hrēðrīc tō hofum Gēata
ge-þingeð _(if H. enters into a treaty_ (seeks aid at?) _with the court of
the Gēatas_, referring to the old German custom of princes entering the
service or suite of a foreign king), 1838. Leo.--2) _to prepare, appoint_:
pret. part. wiste [æt] þǣm āhlǣcan ... hilde ge-þinged, 648; hraðe wæs ...
mēce ge-þinged, 1939.

þingian, w. v.: 1) _to speak in an assembly, make an address_: inf. ne
hȳrde ic snotor-līcor on swā geongum feore guman þingian (_I never heard a
man so young speak so wisely_), 1844.--2) _to compound, settle, lay aside_:
inf. ne wolde feorh-bealo ... fēo þingian (_would not compound the
life-bale for money_), 156; so, pret. sg. þā fǣhðe fēo þingode, 470.

þīhan. See þēon.

þin, possess, pron., _thy, thine_, 267, 346, 353, 367, 459, etc.

ge-þōht, st. m., _thought, plan_: acc. sg. ān-fealdne ge-þōht, 256;
fæst-rǣdne ge-þōht, 611.

þolian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to endure, bear_: inf. (inwid-sorge) þolian,
833; pres. sg. III. þrēa-nȳd þolað, 284; pret. sg. þolode þrȳðswȳð,
131.--2) _to hold out, stand, survive_: pres. sg. (intrans.) þenden þis
sweord þolað (_as long as this sword holds out_), 2500; pret. sg. (sēo ecg)
þolode ǣr fela hand-gemōta, 1526.

ge-þolian: 1) _to suffer, bear, endure_: gerund. tō ge-þolianne, 1420;
pret. sg. earfoð-lice þrāge ge-þolode..., þæt hē ... drēam gehȳrde (_bore
ill that he heard the sound of joy_), 87; torn ge-þolode (_bore the
misery_), 147.--2) _to have patience, wait_: inf. þǣr hē longe sceal on þæs
waldendes wǣre ge-þolian, 3110.

þon (Goth, þan) = _tum, then, now_, 504; æfter þon (_after that_), 725; ǣr
þon dæg cwōme (_ere day came_), 732; nō þon lange (_it was not long till
then_), 2424; næs þā long tō þon (_it was not long till then_), 2592, 2846;
wæs him se man tō þon lēof þæt ... _(the man was to that degree dear to him
that ..._), 1877.

þonne: 1) adv., _there, then, now_, 377, 435, 525, 1105, 1456, 1485, 1672,
1823, 3052, 3098(?).--2) conj., _if, when, while_: a) w. indic., 573, 881,
935, 1034, 1041, 1043, 1144, 1286, 1327, 1328, 1375, etc.; þæt ic
gum-cystum gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, brēac þonne mōste (_that I found a
good ring-giver and enjoyed him whilst I could_), 1488. b) w. subj., 23,
1180, 3065; þonne ...þonne (_then ... when_), 484-85, 2447-48; gif þonne
...þonne (_if then ... then_), 1105-1107. c) _than_ after comparatives, 44,
248, 469, 505, 534, 679, 1140, 1183, etc.; a comparative must be supplied,
l. 70, before þone: þæt hē ... hātan wolde medo-ærn micel men ge-wyrcean
þone yldo bearn ǣfre ge-frūnon (_a great mead-house_ (greater) _than men
had ever known_).

þracu, st. f., _strength, boldness_: in comp. mōd-þracu; = impetus in

þrāg, st. f., _period of time, time_: nom. sg. þā hine sīo þrāg be-cwōm
(_when the_ [battle]-_hour befell him_), 2884; acc. sg. þrāge (_for a
time_), 87; longe (lange) þrāge, 54, 114.--Comp. earfoð-þrāg.

ge-þræc, st. n., _multitude, crowd_: in comp. searo-ge-þræc.

þrec-wudu, st. m., (_might-wood_), _spear_ (cf. mægen-wudu): acc. sg.,

þrēa, st. m. f., _misery, distress_: in comp. þēod-þrēa, þrēa-nēdla, -nȳd.

þrēa-nēdla, w. m., _crushing distress, misery_: dat. sg. for þrēa-nēdlan,

þrea-nȳd, st. f., _oppression, distress_: acc. sg. þrēa-nȳd, 284; dat.
pl. þrēa-nȳdum, 833.

þrēat, st. m., _troop, band_: dat. sg. on þām þrēate, 2407; dat. pl.
sceaðena þrēatum, 4.--Comp. īren-þrēat.

þrēatian, w. v. w. acc., _to press, oppress_: pret. pl. mec ...þrēatedon,

þreot-teoða, num. adj. w. m., _thirteenth_: nom. sg. þreot-teoða secg,

þrēo, num. (neut.), _three_: acc. þrīo wicg, 2175; þrēo hund wintra, 2279.

þridda, num. adj. w. m., _third_: instr. þriddan sīðe, 2689.

ge-þring, st. n., _eddy, whirlpool, crush_: acc. on holma ge-þring, 2133.

þringan, st. v., _to press_: pret. sg. wergendra tō lȳt þrong ymbe þēoden
(_too few defenders pressed round the prince_), 2884; pret. pl. syððan
Hrēðlingas tō hagan þrungon (_after the Hrethlingas had pressed into the
hedge_), 2961.

for-þringan, _to press out; rescue, protect_: inf. þæt hē ne mehte ...þā
wēa-lāfe wīge for-þringan þēodnes þegne (_that he could not rescue the
wretched remnant from the king's thane by war_), 1085.

ge-þringan, _to press_: pret. sg. cēol up geþrang (_the ship shot up_),
i.e. on the shore in landing), 1913.

þrītig, num., _thirty_ (neut. subst.): acc. sg. w. partitive gen.: þrītig
þegna, 123; gen. þrīttiges (XXXtiges MS.) manna, 379.

þrīst-hȳdig, adj., _bold-minded, valorous_: nom. sg. þīoden þrīst-hȳdig
(Bēowulf), 2811.

þrowian, w. v. w. acc., _to suffer, endure_: inf. (hāt, gnorn) þrowian,
2606, 2659; pret. sg. þrowade, 1590, 1722; þrowode, 2595.

þrȳð, st. f., _abundance, multitude_, _excellence, power_: instr. pl.
þrȳðum (_excellently, extremely; excellent in strength?_), 494.

þrȳð-ærn, st. n., _excellent house, royal hall_: acc. sg. (of Heorot),

þrȳðlīc, adj., _excellent, chosen_: nom. sg. þrȳð-līc þegna hēap, 400,
1628; superl. acc. pl. þrȳð-līcost, 2870.

þrȳð-swȳð, st. n.?, _great pain_ (?): acc., 131, 737 [? adj., _very
powerful, exceeding strong_].

þrȳð-word, st. n., _bold speech, choice discourse_: nom. sg., 644. (Great
store was set by good table-talk: cf. Lachmann's Nibelunge, 1612; Rīgsmāl,
29, 7, in Möbius, p. 79b, 22.)

þrym, st. m.: 1) _power, might, force_: nom. sg. ȳða þrym, 1919; instr.
pl. = adv. þrymmum (_powerfully_), 235.--2) _glory, renown_: acc. sg. þrym,
2.--Comp. hyge-þrym.

þrym-līc, adj., _powerful, mighty_: nom. sg. þrec-wudu þrym-līc (_the
mighty spear_), 1247.

þū, pron., _thou_, 366, 407, 445, etc.; acc. sg. þec (poetic), 948, 2152,
etc.; þē, 417, 426, 517, etc.; after compar. sēlran þē (_a better one than
thee_), 1851. See gē.

þunca, w. m. See æf-þunca.

ge-þungen. See ge-þingan, st. v.

þurfan, pret.-pres. v., _to need_: pres. sg. II. nō þū ne þearft ...
sorgian (_needest not care_), 450; so, 445, 1675; III. ne þearf ...
onsittan (_need not fear_), 596; so, 2007, 2742; pres. subj. þæt hē ...
sēcean þurfe, 2496; pret. sg. þorfte, 157, 1027, 1072, 2875, 2996; pl.
nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fēðe-wīges (_needed not boast
of their foot-fight_), 2365.

ge-þuren. See þweran.

þurh, prep. w. acc. signifying motion through, hence: I. local, _through,
throughout_: wōd þā þurh þone wæl-rēc (_went then through the
battle-reek_), 2662.--II. causal: l) _on account of, for the sake of, owing
to_: þurh slīðne nīð (_through fierce hostility, heathenism_), 184; þurh
holdne hige (_from friendliness_), 267; so, þurh rūmne sefan, 278; þurh
sīdne sefan, 1727; ēoweð þurh egsan uncūðne nīð (_shows unheard-of
hostility by the terror he causes_), 276; so, 1102, 1336, 2046. 2) _by
means of, through_: heaðo-rǣs for-nam mihtig mere-dēor þurh mīne hand, 558;
þurh ānes cræft, 700; so, 941, 1694, 1696, 1980, 2406, 3069.

þus, adv., _so, thus_, 238, 337, 430.

þunian, w. v., _to din, sound forth_: pret. sg. sund-wudu þunede, 1907.

þūsend, num., _thousand_: 1) fem. acc. ic þē þūsenda þegna bringe tō helpe,
1830.--2) neut. with measure of value (sceat) omitted: acc. seofan þūsendo,
2196; gen. hund-þūsenda landes and locenra bēaga (100,000 _sceattas' worth
of land and rings_), 2995.--3) uninflected: acc. þūsend wintra, 3051.

þwǣre, adj., _affable, mild_: in comp. man-þwǣre.

ge-þwǣre, adj., _gentle, mild_: nom. pl. ge-þwǣre, 1231.

ge-þweran, st. v., _to forge, strike_: pret. part. heoru ... hamere
ge-þuren (for ge-þworen) (_hammer-forged sword_), 1286.

þȳhtig. See þīhtig.

ge-þyld (see þolian), st. f.: 1) _patience, endurance_: acc. sg. ge-þyld,
1396.--2) _steadfastness_: instr. pl. = adv.: ge-þyldum (_steadfastly,
patiently_), 1706.

þyle, st. m., _spokesman, leader of the conversation at court_: nom. sg.,
1166, 1457.

þyncan, þincean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to seem, appear_: pres. sg. III.
þinceð him tō lȳtel (_it seems to him too little_), 1749; ne þynceð mē
gerysne, þæt wē _(it seemeth to me not fit that we_ ...), 2654; pres. pl.
hȳ ... wyrðe þinceað eorla ge-æhtlan (_they seem worthy contenders with_
(?) _earls_; or, _worthy warriors_), 368; pres. subj. swā him ge-met þince,
688; inf. þincean, 1342; pret. sg. þūhte, 2462, 3058; nō his līf-gedāl
sār-līc þūhte secga ǣnigum (_his death seemed painful to none of men_),
843; pret. pl. þǣr him fold-wegas fægere þūhton, 867.

of-þincan, _to displease, offend_: inf. mæg þæs þonne of-þyncan þēoden
(dat.) Heaðo-beardna and þegna gehwām þāra lēoda, 2033.

þyrs, st. m., _giant_: dat. sg. wið þyrse (Grendel), 426.

þys-līc, adj., _such, of such a nature_: nom. sg. fem. þys-līcu þearf,

þȳ. See þæt.

þȳwan (M.H.G. diuhen, O.H.G. duhan), w. v., _to crush, oppress_: inf. gif
þec ymb-sittend egesan þȳwað (_if thy neighbors oppress thee with dread_),

þȳstru, st. f., _darkness_: dat. pl. in þȳstrum, 87.

ge-þȳwe, adj., _customary, usual_: nom. sg. swā him ge-þȳwe ne wæs (_as
was not his custom_), 2333.


ufan, _adv., from above_, 1501; _above_, 330.

ufera (prop. _higher_), adj., _later_: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, 2201, 2393.

ufor, adv., _higher_, 2952.

umbor, st. n., _child, infant_: acc. sg., 46; dat. sg., 1188.

un-blīðe, adv.(?), _unblithely, sorrowfully_, 130, 2269; (adj., nom. pl.?),

un-byrnende, pres. part., _unburning, without burning_, 2549.

unc, dat. and acc. of the dual wit, _us two, to us two_, 1784, 2138, 2527;
gen. hwæðer ... uncer twēga (_which of us two_), 2533; uncer Grendles (_of
us two, G. and me_), 2003.

uncer, poss. pron., _of us two_: nom. sg. [uncer], 2002(?); dat. pl. uncran
eaferan, 1186.

un-cūð, adj.: 1) _unknown_: nom. sg. stīg ... eldum uncūð, 2215; acc. sg.
neut. uncūð ge-lād (_unknown ways_), 1411.--2) _unheard-of, barbarous,
evil_: acc. sg. un-cūðne nīð, 276; gen. sg. un-cūðes (_of the foe_,
Grendel), 961.

under, I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat., answering question where? =
_under_ (of rest), contrasted with _over_: bāt (wæs) under beorge, 211; þā
cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān under gyldnum bēage (_W. walked forth under a golden
circlet_, i.e. decked with), 1164; siððan hē under segne sine ealgode
(_under his banner_), 1205; hē under rande ge-cranc (_sank under his
shield_), 1210; under wolcnum, 8, 1632; under heofenum, 52, 505; under
roderum, 310; under helme, 342, 404; under here-grīman, 396, 2050, 2606;
so, 711, 1198, 1303, 1929, 2204, 2416, 3061, 3104.--2) w. acc.: a)
answering question whither? = _under_ (of motion): þā secg wīsode under
Heorotes hrōf, 403; siððan ǣfen-lēoht under heofenes hādor be-holen
weorðeð, 414; under sceadu bregdan, 708; flēon under fen-hleoðu, 821; hond
ālegde ... under gēapne hrōf, 837; tēon in under eoderas, 1038; so, 1361,
1746, 2129, 2541, 2554, 2676, 2745; so, hæfde þā for-sīðod sunu Ecg-þēowes
under gynne grund, 1552 (for-sīðian requires acc.). b) after verbs of
venturing and fighting, with acc. of object had in view: hē under hārne
stān ...āna ge-nēðde frēcne dǣde, 888; ne dorste under ȳða ge-win aldre
ge-nēðan, 1470. c) indicating extent, with acc. after expressions of limit,
etc.: under swegles begong (_as far as the sky extends_), 861, 1774; under
heofenes hwealf (_as far as heaven's vault reaches_), 2016.

II. Adv., _beneath, below_: stīg under læg (_a path lay beneath_, i.e. the
rock), 2214.

undern-mǣl, st. n., _midday_: acc. sg., 1429.

un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., _without concealment, plain, clear_: nom. sg.,
127, 2001; un-derne, 2912.

un-dyrne, adv., _plainly, evidently_; un-dyrne cūð, 150, 410.

un-fǣger, adj., _unlovely, hideous_: nom. sg. lēoht un-fǣger, 728.

un-fǣcne, adj., _without malice, sincere_: nom. sg., 2069.

un-fǣge, adj., _not death-doomed_ or "_fey_": nom. sg., 2292; acc. sg.
un-fǣgne eorl, 573.

un-flitme, adv., _solemnly, incontestably_: Finn Hengeste elne unflitme
āðum benemde (_F. swore solemnly to H. with oaths_) [if an adj., elne un-f.
= _unconquerable in valor_], 1098.

un-forht, adj., _fearless, bold_: nom. sg., 287; acc. pl. unforhte (adv.?),
444. See Note.

un-from, adj., _unfit, unwarlike_: nom. sg., 2189.

un-frōd, adj., _not aged, young_: dat sg. guman un-frōdum, 2822.

un-gedēfelīce, adv., _unjustly, contrary to right and custom_, 2436.

un-gemete, adv., _immeasurably, exceedingly_, 2421, 2722, 2729.

un-gemetes, adv. gen. sg., the same, 1793.

un-geāra, adv., (_not old_), _recently, lately_, 933; _soon_, 603.

un-gifeðe, adj., _not to be granted; refused_: nom. sg., 2922.

un-glēaw, adj., _regardless, reckless_: acc. sg. sweord ... ecgum unglēaw
(of a sharp-edged sword), 2565.

un-hār, adj., _very gray_: nom. sg., 357; (_bald_?).

un-hǣlo, st. f., _mischief, destruction_: gen. sg. wiht un-hǣlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120.

un-hēore, un-hȳre, adj., _monstrous, horrible_: nom. sg. m., weard
un-hīore (the dragon), 2414; neut. wīf un-hȳre (Grendel's mother), 2121;
nom. pl. neut. hand-sporu ... unhēoru (of Grendel's claws), 988.

un-hlytme, un-hlitme, adv. (cf. A.S. hlytm = _lot_; O.N. hluti = _part
division_), _undivided, unseparated_, _united_, 1130 [unless = un-flitme,
1098]. See Note.

un-lēof, adj., _hated_: acc. pl. seah on un-lēofe, 2864.

un-lifigende, pres. part., _unliving, lifeless_: nom. sg. un-lifigende,
468; acc. sg. un-lyfigendne, 1309; dat. sg. un-lifgendum, 1390; gen. sg.
un-lyfigendes, 745.

un-lȳtel, adj., _not little, very large_: nom. sg. duguð un-lȳtel (_a
great band of warriors_? or _great joy_?), 498; dōm un-lȳtel (_no little
glory_), 886; acc. sg. torn un-lȳtel (_very great shame, misery_), 834.

un-murnlīce, adv., _unpityingly, without sorrowing_, 449, 1757.

unnan, pret.-pres. v., _to grant, give; wish, will_: pret.-pres. sg. I. ic
þē an tela sinc-gestrēona, 1226; weak pret. sg. I. ūðe ic swīðor þæt þū
hine selfne ge-sēon mōste, 961; III. hē ne ūðe þæt ...(_he granted not that
..._), 503; him god ūðe þæt ... hē hyne sylfne ge-wræc (_God granted to him
that he avenged himself_), 2875; þēah hē ūðe wēl (_though he well would_),

ge-unnan, _to grant, permit_: inf. gif hē ūs ge-unnan wile þæt wē hine ...
grētan mōton, 346; mē ge-ūðe ylda waldend, þæt ic ... ge-seah hangian (_the
Ruler of men permitted me to see hanging ..._), 1662.

un-nyt, adj., _useless_: nom. sg., 413, 3170.

un-riht, st. n., _unright, injustice, wrong_: acc. sg. unriht, 1255, 2740;
instr. sg. un-rihte (_unjustly, wrongly_), 3060.

un-rīm, st. n., _immense number_: nom. sg., 1239, 3136; acc. sg., 2625.

un-rīme, adj., _countless, measureless_: nom. sg. gold un-rīme, 3013.

un-rōt, adj., _sorrowing_: nom. pl. un-rōte, 3149.

un-snyttru, st. f., _lack of wisdom_: dat. pl. for his un-snyttrum (_for
his unwisdom_), 1735.

un-softe, adv., _unsoftly, with violence_ (_hardly_?), 2141; _scarcely_,

un-swȳðe, adv., _not strongly_ or _powerfully_: compar. (ecg) bāt unswīðor
þonne his þīod-cyning þearfe hæfde (_the sword bit less sharply than the
prince of the people needed_), 2579; fȳr unswīðor wēoll, 2882.

un-synnig, adj., _guiltless, sinless_: acc. sg. un-synnigne, 2090.

un-synnum, adv. instr. pl., _guiltlessly_, 1073.

un-tǣle, adj., _blameless_: acc. pl. un-tǣle, 1866.

un-tȳder, st. m., _evil race, monster_: nom. pl. un-tȳdras, 111. [Cf.
Ger. un-mensch.]

un-wāclīc, adj., _that cannot be shaken; firm, strong_: acc. sg. ād ...
un-wāclīcne, 3139.

un-wearnum, adv. instr. pl., _unawares, suddenly_; (_unresistingly_?), 742.

un-wrecen, pret. part., _unavenged_, 2444.

up, adv., _up, upward_, 224, 519, 1374, 1620, 1913, 1921, 2894; (of the
voice), þā wæs ... wōp up āhafen, 128; so, 783.

up-lang, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 760.

uppe (adj., ūfe, ūffe), adv., _above_, 566.

up-riht, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 2093.

uton. See wuton.


ūð-genge, adj., _transitory, evanescent, ready to depart_, (_fled_?): þǣr
wæs Æsc-here ... feorh ūð-genge, 2124.

ūhte, w. f., _twilight_ or _dawn_: dat. or acc. on ūhtan, 126.

ūht-floga, w. m., _twilight-flier, dawn-flier_ (epithet of the dragon):
gen. sg. ūht-flogan, 2761.

ūht-hlem, st. m., _twilight-cry, dawn-cry_: acc. sg., 2008.

ūht-sceaða, w. m., _twilight-_ or _dawn-foe_: nom. sg., 2272.

ūs, pers. pron. dat. and acc. of wē (see wē), _us, to us_, 1822, 2636,
2643, 2921, 3002, 3079; acc. (poetic), ūsic, 2639, 2641, 2642;--gen. ūre:
ūre ǣg-hwylc (_each of us_), 1387; ūser, 2075.

ūser, possess, pron.: nom. sg. ūre man-drihten, 2648; dat. sg. ūssum
hlāforde, 2635; gen. sg. neut. ūsses cynnes, 2814; dat. pl. ūrum ... bām
(_to us both, two_) (for unc bām), 2660.

ūt, adv., _out_, 215, 537, 664, 1293, 1584, 2082, 2558, 3131.

ūtan, adv., _from without, without_, 775, 1032, 1504, 2335.

ūt-fūs, adj., _ready to go_: nom. sg. hringed-stefna īsig and ūt-fūs, 33.

ūt-weard, adj., _outward, outside, free_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel) wæs
ūt-weard, 762.

ūtan-weard, adj., _without, outward, from without_: acc. sg. hlǣw ... ealne
ūtan-weardne, 2298.


wacian, w. v., _to watch_: imper. sg. waca wið wrāðum! 661.

wadan, st. v., (cf. wade, waddle) _to traverse; stride, go_: pret. sg. wōd
þurh þone wæl-rēc, 2662; wōd under wolcnum (_stalked beneath the clouds_),

ge-wadan, _to attain by moving, come to, reach_: pret. part. oð þæt ...
wunden-stefna ge-waden hæfde, þæt þā līðende land ge-sāwon (_till the ship
had gone so far that the sailors saw land_), 220.

on-wadan, w. acc., _to invade, befall_: pret. sg. hine fyren on-wōd(?),

þurh-wadan, _to penetrate, pierce_: pret. sg. þæt swurd þurh-wōd wrǣt-līcne
wyrm, 891; so, 1568.

wāg, st. m., _wall_: dat. sg. on wāge, 1663; dat. pl. æfter wāgum (_along
the walls_), 996.

wala, w. m., _boss_: nom. pl. walan, 1032 (cf. Bouterwek in Haupt XI., 85

walda, w. m., _wielder, ruler_: in comp. an-, eal-walda.

wald-swaðu, st. f., _forest-path_: dat. pl. æfter wald-swaðum (_along the
wood-paths_), 1404.

wam, wom, st. m., _spot, blot, sin_: acc. sg. him be-beorgan ne con wom
(_cannot protect himself from evil_ or _from the evil strange orders_,
etc.; wom = wogum? = _crooked_?), 1748; instr. pl. wommum, 3074.

wan, won, adj., _wan, lurid, dark_: nom. sg, ȳð-geblond ... won (_the dark
waves_), 1375; se wonna hrefn (_the black raven_), 3025; wonna lēg (_lurid
flame_), 3116; dat. sg. f. on wanre niht, 703; nom. pl. neut. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu ... wan, 652.

wang, st. m., _mead, field; place_: acc. sg. wang, 93, 225; wong, 1414,
2410, 3074; dat. sg. wange, 2004; wonge, 2243, 3040; acc. pl. wongas,
2463.--Comp.: freoðo-, grund-, medo-, sǣ-wang.

wang-stede, st. m., (locus campestris), _spot, place_: dat. sg. wong-stede,

wan-hȳd (for hygd), st. f., _heedlessness, recklessness_: dat. pl. for his
won-hȳdum, 434.

wanian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to decrease, wane_: inf. þā þæt sweord ongan
... wanian, 1608.--2) w. acc., _to cause to wane_ or _lessen_: pret. sg. hē
tō lange lēode mīne wanode, 1338.

ge-wanian, _to decrease, diminish_: pret. part. is mīn flet-werod ...
ge-wanod, 477.

wan-sǣlig, adj., _unhappy, wretched_: nom. sg. won-sǣlig wer (Grendel),

wan-sceaft, st. f., _misery, want_: acc. sg. won-sceaft, 120.

warian, w. v. w. acc., _to occupy, guard, possess_: pres. sg. III. þǣr hē
hǣðen gold warað (_where he guards heathen gold_), 2278; pl. III. hīe
(Grendel and his mother) dȳgel land warigeað, 1359; pret. sg. (Grendel)
goldsele warode, 1254; (Cain) wēsten warode, 1266.

waroð, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. tō waroðe, 234; acc. pl. wide waroðas,

waru, st. f., _inhabitants_, (collective) _population_: in comp. land-waru.

wā, interj., _woe!_ wā bið þǣm þe... (_woe to him that..._), 183.

wāðu, st. f., _way, journey_: in comp. gamen-wāðu.

wānian, w. v., _to weep, whine, howl_, w. acc.: inf. gehȳrdon ... sār
wānigean helle hæftan (_they heard the hell-fastened one lamenting his
pain_), 788; pret. sg. [wānode], 3152(?).

wāt. See witan.

wæcean, w. v., _to watch_: pret. part wæccende, 709, 2842; acc. sg. m.
wæccendne wer, 1269. See wacian.

wæcnan, w. v., _to be awake, come forth_: inf., 85.

wæcnan, st. v., _to awake, arise, originate_: pret. sg. þanon (from Cain)
wōc fela geō-sceaft-gāsta, 1266; so, 1961; pl. þām fēower bearn ... in
worold wōcun, 60.

on-wæcnan: 1) _to awake_ (intrans.): pret. sg. þā se wyrm on-wōc (_when the
drake awoke_), 2288.--2) _to be born_: pret. sg. him on-wōc hēah Healfdene,
56; pl. on-wōcon, 111.

wæd, st. n., (the moving) _sea, ocean_: nom. wado weallende, 546; wadu
weallendu, 581; gen. pl. wada 508.

wǣfre, adj., _wavering_ (like flame), _ghostlike, without distinct bodily
form_: nom. sg. wæl-gǣst wǣfre (of Grendel's mother), 1332;--_flickering,
expiring_: nom. sg. wǣfre mōd, 1151; him wæs geōmor sefa, wǣfre and
wæl-fūs, 2421.

be-wægnan, w. v., _to offer_: pret part, him wæs ... frēond-laðu wordum
be-wægned, 1194.

wæl, st. n., _battle, slaughter, the slain in battle_: acc. sg. wæl, 1213,
3028, blōdig wæl, 448; oððe on wæl crunge (_or in battle, among the slain,
fall_), 636; dat. sg. sume on wæle crungon (_some fell in the slaughter_),
1114; dat. sg. in Fr...es wæle (proper name in MS. destroyed), 1071; nom.
pl. walu, 1043.

wæl-bed, st. n., _slaughter-bed, deathbed_: dat. sg. on wæl-bedde, 965.

wæl-bend, st. f., _death-bond_: acc. sg. or pl. wæl-bende ...
hand-gewriðene, 1937.

wæl-blēat, adj., _deadly, mortal, cruel_: acc. sg. wunde wæl-blēate, 2726.

wæl-dēað, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 696.

wæl-drēor, st. m., _battle-gore_: instr. sg. wæl-drēore, 1632.

wæl-fāh, adj., _slaughter-stained, blood-stained_: acc. sg. wæl-fāgne
winter, 1129.

wæl-fæhð, st. f., _deadly feud_: gen. pl. wæl-fǣhða, 2029.

wæl-feall, st. m., _(fall of the slain), death, destruction_: dat. sg. tō
wæl-fealle, 1712.

wæl-fūs, adj., _ready for death, foreboding death_: nom. sg., 2421.

wæl-fyllo, st. f., _fill of slaughter_: dat. sg. mid þǣre wæl-fulle (i.e.
the thirty men nightly slaughtered at Heorot by Grendel), 125; wæl-fylla?

wæl-fȳr, st. n.: 1) _deadly fire_: instr. sg. wæl-fȳre (of the
fire-spewing dragon), 2583.--2) _corpse-consuming fire, funeral pyre_: gen.
pl. wæl-fȳra mǣst, 1120.

wæl-gǣst, st. m., _deadly sprite_ (of Grendel and his mother): nom. sg.
wæl-gǣst, 1332; acc. sg. þone wæl-gǣst, 1996.

wæl-hlem, st. m., _death-stroke_: acc. sg. wæl-hlem þone, 1996.

wælm, st. m., _flood, whelming water_: nom. sg. þǣre burnan wælm, 2547;
gen. sg. þæs wælmes (_of the surf_), 2136.--Comp. cear-wælm.

wæl-nīð, st. m., _deadly hostility_: nom. sg., 3001; dat. sg. æfter
wæl-nīðe, 85; nom. pl. wæl-nīðas, 2066.

wæl-rāp, st. m., _flood-fetter, i.e. ice_: acc. pl. wæl-rāpas, 1611; (cf.
wæll, wel, wyll = _well, flood_: leax sceal on wæle mid scēote scrīðan,
Gnom. Cott. 39).

wæl-rǣs, st. m., _deadly onslaught_: nom. sg., 2948; dat. sg. wæl-rǣse,
825, 2532.

wæl-rest, st. f., _death-bed_, acc. sg. wæl-reste, 2903.

wæl-rēc, st. m., _deadly reek_ or _smoke_: acc. sg. wōd þā þurh þone
wæl-rēc, 2662.

wæl-rēaf, st, n., _booty of the slain, battle-plunder_: acc. sg., 1206.

wæl-rēow, adj., _bold in battle_: nom. sg., 630.

wæl-sceaft, st. m., _deadly shaft, spear_: acc. pl. wæl-sceaftas, 398.

wæl-seax, st. n., _deadly knife, war-knife_: instr. sg. wæll-seaxe, 2704.

wæl-stenge, st. m., _battle-spear_: dat. sg. on þām wæl-stenge, 1639.

wæl-stōw, st. f., _battle-field_: dat. sg. wæl-stōwe, 2052, 2985.

wæstm, st. m., _growth, form, figure_: dat. sg. on weres wæstmum (_in man's
form_), 1353.

wæter, st. n., _water_: nom. sg., 93, 1417, 1515, 1632; acc. sg. wæter,
1365, 1620; dēop wæter (_the deep_), 509, 1905; ofer wīd wæter (_over the
high sea]_, 2474; dat. sg. æfter wætere _(along the Grendel-sea_), 1426;
under wætere (_at the bottom of the sea_), 1657; instr. wætere, 2723;
wætre, 2855; gen. sg. ofer wæteres hrycg (_over the surface of the sea_),
471; on wæteres ǣht, 516; þurh wæteres wylm (_through the sea-wave_), 1694;
gen. = instr. wæteres weorpan (_to sprinkle with water_), 2792.

wæter-egesa, st. m., _water-terror_, i.e. _the fearful sea_: acc. sg., 1261

wæter-ȳð, st. f., _water-wave, billow_: dat. pl. wæter-ȳðum, 2243.

wǣd, st. f., _(weeds), garment_: in comp. here-, hilde-wǣd.

ge-wǣde, st. n., _clothing_, especially _battle-equipments_: acc. pl.
gewǣdu, 292.--Comp. eorl-gewǣde.

wǣg, st. m., _wave_: acc. sg. wǣg, 3133.

wǣg-bora, w. m., _wave-bearer, swimmer_ (bearing or propelling the waves
before him): nom. sg. wundorlīc wǣg-bora (of a sea-monster), 1441.

wǣg-flota, w. m., _sea-sailer, ship_: acc. sg. wēg-flotan, 1908.

wǣg-holm, st. m., _the wave-filled sea_: acc. sg. ofer wǣg-holm, 217.

wǣge, st. n., _cup, can_: acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283.--Comp.: ealo-,

wǣg-līðend, pres. part., _sea-farer_: dat. pl. wǣg-līðendum (et līðendum,
MS.), 3160.

wǣg-sweord, st. n., _heavy sword_: acc. sg., 1490.

wǣn, st. m., _wain, wagon_: acc. sg. on wǣn, 3135.

wǣpen, st. n., _weapon; sword_: nom. sg., 1661; acc. sg. wǣpen, 686, 1574,
2520, 2688; instr. wǣpne, 1665, 2966; gen. wǣpnes, 1468; acc. pl. wǣpen,
292; dat. pl. wǣpnum, 250, 331, 2039, 2396. --Comp.: hilde-, sige-wǣpen.

wǣpned-man, st. m., _warrior, man_: dat. sg. wǣpned-men, 1285.

wǣr, st. f., _covenant, treaty_: acc. sg. wǣre, 1101;--_protection, care_:
dat. sg. on frēan (on þæs waldendes) wǣre (_into God's protection_), 27,
3110.--Comp.: frioðo-wǣr.

wǣsma, w. m., _fierce strength, war-strength_: in comp. here-wǣsma, 678.

wē, pers. pron., _we_, 942, 959, 1327, 1653, 1819, 1820, etc.

web, st. n., _woven work, tapestry_:, nom. pl. web, 996.

webbe, w. f., _webster, female weaver_: in comp. freoðu-webbe.

weccan, weccean, w. v. w. acc., _to wake, rouse; recall_: inf. wīg-bealu
weccan (_to stir up strife_), 2047; nalles hearpan swēg (sceal) wīgend
weccean (_the sound of the harp shall not wake up the warriors_), 3025;
ongunnon þā ... bǣl-fȳra mǣst wīgend weccan (_the warriors then began to
start the mightiest of funeral pyres_), 3145; pret. sg. wehte hine wætre
(_roused him with water_, i.e. Wīglāf recalled Bēowulf to consciousness),

tō-weccan, _to stir up, rouse_: pret, pl. hū þā folc mid him (_with one
another_), fǣhðe tō-wehton, 2949.

wed, st. n., (cf. wed-ding), _pledge_: dat. sg. hyldo tō wedde (_as a
pledge of his favor_), 2999.

weder, st. n., _weather_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137; gen. pl.
wedera cealdost, 546.

ge-wef, st. n., _woof, weaving_: acc. pl. wīg-spēda ge-wiofu (_the woof of
war-speed_: the battle-woof woven for weal or woe by the Walkyries; cf.
Njals-saga, 158), 698.

weg, st. m., _way_: acc. sg. on weg (_away, off_), 264, 764, 845, 1431,
2097; gyf þū on weg cymest (_if thou comest off safe_, i.e. from the battle
with Grendel's mother), 1383.--Comp.: feor-, fold-, forð-, wīd-weg.

wegan, st. v. w. acc., _to bear, wear, bring, possess_: subj. pres. nāh hwā
sweord wege (_I have none that may bear the sword_), 2253; inf. nalles
(sceal) eorl wegan māððum tō ge-myndum (_no earl shall wear a memorial
jewel_), 3016; pret. ind. hē þā frætwe wæg ... ofer ȳða ful (_bore the
jewels over the goblet of the waves_), 1208; wæl-seaxe ... þæt hē on byrnan
wæg, 2705; heortan sorge wæg (_bore heart's sorrow_); so, 152, 1778, 1932,

æt-wegan = _auferre, to carry off_: syððan Hāma æt-wæg tō þǣre byrhtan
byrig Brōsinga mene (_since H. bore from the bright city the
Brōsing-collar_), 1199.

ge-wegan (O.N. wega), _to fight_: inf. þē hē wið þām wyrme ge-wegan
sceolde, 2401.

wēl, well, adv.: 1) _well_: wēl bið þǣm þe ... (_well for him that ...!_),
186; sē þe wēl þenceð (_he that well thinketh, judgeth_), 289; so, 640,
1046, 1822, 1834, 1952, 2602; well, 2163, 2813.--2) _very, very much_: Gēat
ungemetes wēl ... restan lyste (_the Geat longed sorely to rest_),
1793.--3) _indeed, to be sure_, 2571, 2856.

wela, w. m., _wealth, goods, possessions_: in comp. ǣr-, burg-, hord-,

wēl-hwylc, indef. pron., = quivis, _any you please, any_ (each, all): gen.
pl. wēl-hwylcra wilna, 1345; w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. witena wēl-hwylc,
266;--substantively: acc. neut. wēl-hwylc, 875.

welig, adj., _wealthy, rich_: acc. sg. wīc-stede weligne Wǣgmundinga, 2608.

wēl-þungen, pres. part., _well-thriven_ (in mind), _mature, high-minded_:
nom. sg. Hygd (wæs) swīðe geong, wīs, wēl-þungen, 1928.

wenian, w. v., _to accustom, attract, honor_: subj. pret. þæt ...
Folcwaldan sunu ... Hengestes hēap hringum wenede (_sh. honor_), 1092.

be-(bi-)wenian, _entertain, care for, attend_: pret. sg. mæg þæs þonne
of-þyncan þēoden Heaðo-beardna ... þonne hē mid fǣmnan on flet gǣð,
dryht-bearn Dena duguða bi-wenede (_may well displease the prince of the
H.... when he with the woman goes into the hall, that a noble scion of the
Danes should entertain, bear wine to, the knights_, cf. 494 seqq.; or, _a
noble scion of the Danes should attend on her?_), 2036; pret. part. nom.
pl. wǣron hēr tela willum be-wenede, 1822.

wendan, w. v., _to turn_: pres. sg. III. him eal worold wendeð on willan
(_all the world turns at his will_), 1740.

ge-wendan, w. acc.: l) _to turn, turn round_: pret. sg. wicg gewende
(_turned his horse_), 315.--2) _to turn_ (intrans.), _change_: inf. wā bið
þǣm þe sceal ... frōfre ne wēnan, wihte ge-wendan (_woe to him that shall
have no hope, shall not change at all_), 186.

on-wendan, _to avert, set aside_: 1) w. acc.: inf. ne mihte snotor hæleð
wēan on-wendan, 191.--2) intrans.: sibb ǣfre ne mæg wiht on-wendan þām þe
wēl þenceð (_in, to, him that is well thinking friendship can not be set
aside_), 2602.

wer, st. m., _man, hero_: nom. sg. (Grendel), 105; acc. sg. wer (Bēowulf),
1269, 3174; gen. sg. on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353; nom. pl.
weras, 216, 1223, 1234, 1441, 1651; dat. pl. werum, 1257; gen. pl. wera,
120, 994, 1732, 3001; (MS. weora), 2948.

wered, st. n., (as adj. = _sweet_), _a sort of beer_ (probably without hops
or such ingredients): acc. sg. scīr wered, 496.

were-feohte, f., _defensive fight, fight in self-defence_: dat. pl. for
were-fyhtum (fere fyhtum, MS.), 457.

werhðo, st. f., _curse, outlawry, condemnation_: acc. sg. þū in helle
scealt werhðo drēogan, 590.

werian, _to defend, protect_: w. vb., pres. sg. III. beaduscrūda ... þæt
mīne brēost wereð, 453; inf. wit unc wið hron-fixas werian þōhton, 541;
pres. part. w. gen. pl. wergendra tō lȳt (_too few defenders_), 2883;
pret. ind. wæl-rēaf werede (_guarded the battle-spoil_), 1206; se hwīta
helm hafelan werede (_the shining helm protected his head_), 1449; pl.
hafelan weredon, 1328; pret. part. nom. pl. gē ... byrnum werede (_ye_ ...
_corselet-clad_), 238, 2530.

be-werian, _to protect, defend_: pret. pl. þæt hīe ... lēoda land-geweorc
lāðum be-weredon scuccum and scinnum (_that they the people's land-work
from foes, from monsters and demons, might defend_), 939

werig, adj., _accursed, outlawed_: gen. sg. wergan gāstes (Grendel), 133;
(of the devil), 1748.

werod, weorod, st. n., _band of men, warrior-troop_: nom. sg. werod, 652;
weorod, 290, 2015, 3031; acc. sg. werod, 319; dat. instr. sg. weorode,
1012, 2347; werede, 1216; gen. sg. werodes, 259; gen. pl. wereda, 2187;
weoroda, 60.--Comp.: eorl-, flet-werod.

wer-þēod, st. f., _people, humanity_: dat. sg. ofer wer-þēode, 900.

wesan, v., _to be_: pres. sg. I. ic eom, 335, 407; II. þū eart, 352, 506;
III. is, 256, 272, 316, 343, 375, 473, etc.; nū is þīnes mægenes blǣd āne
hwīle (_the prime [fame?] of thy powers lasteth now for a while_), 1762;
ys, 2911, 3000, 3085; pl. I. wē synt, 260, 342; II. syndon, 237, 393; III.
syndon, 257, 361, 1231; synt, 364; sint, 388; subj. pres. sīe, 435, 683,
etc.; sȳ, 1832, etc.; sig, 1779, etc.; imper. sg. II. wes, 269 (cf.
wassail, wes hǣl), 407, 1171, 1220, 1225, etc.; inf. wesan, 272, 1329,
1860, 2709, etc. The inf. wesan must sometimes be supplied: nealles Hetware
hrēmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2364; so, 2498, 2660, 618, 1858;
pres. part. wesende, 46; dat. sg. wesendum, 1188; pret. sg. I., III. wæs,
11, 12, 18, 36, 49, 53, etc.; wæs on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; so,
848, 850(?), 970, 981, 1293; progressive, wæs secgende (for sǣde), 3029;
II. wǣre, 1479, etc.; pl. wǣron, 233, 536, 544, etc.; wǣran (w. reflex,
him), 2476; pret. subj. wǣre, 173, 203, 594, 946, etc.; progressive,
myndgiend wǣre (for myndgie), 1106.--Contracted neg. forms: , nis = ne +
is, 249, 1373, etc.; næs = ne + wæs, 134, 1300, 1922, 2193, etc. (cf.
uncontracted: ne wæs, 890, 1472); nǣron = ne + wǣron, 2658; nǣre = ne +
wǣre, 861, 1168. See cniht-wesende.

wēg. See wǣg.

wēn, st. f., _expectation, hope_: nom. sg., 735, 1874, 2324; nū is lēodum
wēn orleg-hwīle (gen.) (_now the people have weening of a time of strife_),
2911; acc. sg. þæs ic wēn hæbbe (_as I hope, expect_), 383; so, þæs þe ic
[wēn] hafo, 3001; wēn ic talige, 1846; dat. pl. bēga on wēnum _(in
expectation of both_, i.e. the death and the return of Bēowulf), 2896. See

wēnan, w. v., _to ween, expect, hope_: 1) absolutely; pres. sg. I. þæs ic
wēne (_as I hope_), 272; swā ic þē wēne tō _(as I hope thou wilt_: Bēowulf
hopes Hrōðgār will now suffer no more pain), 1397.--2) w. gen. or acc.
pres. sg. I. þonne wēne ic tō þē wyrsan ge-þinges, 525; ic þǣr heaðu-fȳres
hātes wēne, 2523; III. secce ne wēneð to Gār Denum (_weeneth not of contest
with the Gar-Danes_), 601; inf. (beorhtre bōte) wēnan (_to expect, count
on, a brilliant_ [? _a lighter penalty_] _atonement_), 157; pret. pl. þæs
ne wēndon ǣr witan Scyldinga þæt ... _the wise men of the Scyldings weened
not of this before, that_...), 779; þæt hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wēndon þæt
hē ... sēcean cōme _(that they looked not for the atheling again that he_
... _would come to seek_ ...), 1598.--3) w. acc. inf.: pret. sg. wēnde,
934.--4) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I. wēne ic þæt..., 1185; wēn' ic
þæt..., 338, 442; pret. sg. wēnde, 2330; pl. wēndon, 938, 1605.

wēpan, st. v., _to weep_: pret. sg. [wēop], 3152 (?).

werig, adj., _weary, exhausted_, w. gen.: nom. sg. siðes wērig (_weary from
the journey, way-weary_), 579; dat. sg. siðes wērgum, 1795;--w. instr.:
acc. pl. wundum wērge _(wound-weary_), 2938.--Comp.: dēað-, fyl-,

ge-werigean, w. v., _to weary, exhaust_: pret. part. ge-wērgad, 2853.

wērig-mōd, adj., _weary-minded (animo defessus)_: nom. sg., 845, 1544.

wēste, adj., _waste, uninhabited_: acc. sg. win-sele wēstne, 2457.

wēsten, st. n., _waste, wilderness_: acc. sg. wēsten, 1266.

wēsten, st. f., _waste, wilderness_: dat. sg. on þǣre wēstenne, 2299.

weal, st. m.: 1 _wall, rampart_: dat. instr. sg. wealle, 786, 892, 3163;
gen. sg. wealles, 2308.--2) _elevated sea-shore_: dat. sg. of wealle, 229;
acc. pl. windige weallas, 572, 1225.--3) _wall of a building_: acc, sg. wið
þæs recedes weal, 326; dat. sg. be wealle, 1574; hence, the inner and outer
rock-walls of the dragon's lair (cf. Heyne's essay: Halle Heorot, p. 59):
dat. sg., 2308, 2527, 2717, 2760, 3061, 3104; gen. sg. wealles,
2324.--Comp.: bord-, eorð-, sǣ-, scyld-weal.

ge-wealc, st. n., _rolling_: acc. sg. ofer ȳða ge-wealc, 464.

ge-weald, st. n., _power, might_: acc. sg. on fēonda ge-weald _(into the
power of his foes_), 809, 904; so, 1685; geweald āgan, hæbban, ā-bēodan (w.
gen. of object = _to present) = to have power over_, 79, 655, 765, 951,
1088, 1611, 1728. See on-weald.

wealdan, st. v., _to wield, govern, rule over, prevail_: 1) absolutely or
with depend, clause: inf. gif hē wealdan mōt (_if he may prevail_), 442;
þǣr hē ... wealdan mōste swā him Wyrd ne ge-scrāf (_if [where?] he was to
prevail, as Weird had not destined for him_), 2575; pres. part. waldend
(_God_), 1694; dat. wealdende, 2330; gen. waldendes, 2293, 2858, 3110.--2)
with instr. or dat.: inf. þām wǣpnum wealdan (_to wield, prevail with, the
weapons_), 2039; Gēatum wealdan (_to rule the Gēatas_), 2391; þēah-hordum
wealdan (_to rule over, control, the treasure of rings_), 2828; wæl-stōwe
wealdan (_to hold the field of battle_), 2985; pret. sg. wēold, 465, 1058,
2380, 2596; þenden wordum wēold wine Scyldinga (_while the friend of the S.
ruled the G._), 30; pl. wēoldon, 2052.--3) with gen.: pres. sg. I. þenden
ic wealde wīdan rīces, 1860; pres. part. wuldres wealdend(waldend), 17,
183, 1753; weard, 2514; the _'dragon_ is called ylda waldend, 1662; waldend
fīra, 2742; sigora waldend, 2876 (designations of God); pret. sg. wēold,
703, 1771.

ge-wealdan, _to wield, have power over, arrange_: 1) w. acc.: pret. sg.
hālig god ge-wēold wīg-sigor, 1555.--2) w. dat.: pret. cyning ge-wēold his
ge-witte (_the king possessed his senses_), 2704.--3) w. gen.: inf. hē ne
mihte nō ... wǣpna ge-wealdan, 1510.

ge-wealden, pret. part., _subject, subjected_: acc. pl. gedēð him swā
gewealdene worolde dǣlas, 1733.

weallan, st. v.: 1) _to toss, be agitated_ (of the sea): pres. part. nom.
pl. wadu weallende (weallendu), 546, 581; nom. sg. brim weallende, 848;
pret. ind. wēol, 515, 850, 1132; wēoll, 2139.--2) figuratively (of
emotions), _to be agitated_: pres. pl. III. syððan Ingelde weallað
wæl-nīðas (_deadly hate thus agitates Ingeld_), 2066; pres. part.
weallende, 2465; pret. sg. hreðer inne wēoll (_his heart was moved within
him_), 2114; hreðer ǣðme wēoll (_his breast_ [the dragon's] _swelled from
breathing, snorting_), 2594; brēost innan wēoll þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2332;
so, wēoll, 2600, 2715, 2883.

weall-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer weall-clif, 3133.

weallian, w. v., _to wander, rove about_: pres. part. in comp.
heoro-weallende, 2782.

weard, st. m., _warden, guardian; owner_: nom. sg. weard Scyldinga (_the
Scyldings' warden of the march_), 229; weard, 286, 2240; se weard, sāwele
hyrde, 1742; the _king_ is called bēah-horda weard, 922; rīces weard, 1391;
folces weard, 2514; the _dragon_ is called weard, 3061; weard un-hīore,
2414; beorges weard, 2581; acc. sg, weard, 669; (dragon), 2842; beorges
weard (dragon), 2525, 3067.--Comp.: bāt-, ēðel-, gold-, hēafod-, hord-,
hȳð-, land-, rēn-, sele-, yrfe-weard.

weard, st. m., _possession_ (Dietrich in Haupt XI., 415): in comp.
eorð-weard, 2335.

weard, st. f., _watch, ward_: acc. sg. wearde healdan, 319; wearde hēold,
305.--Comp. ǣg-weard.

weard, adj., _-ward_: in comp. and-, innan-, ūt-weard, 1288, etc.

weardian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to watch, guard, keep_: inf. hē his folme
forlēt tō līf-wraðe, lāst weardian (_Grendel left his hand behind as a
life-saver, to guard his track_ [Kemble]), 972; pret. sg. him sīo swīðre
swaðe weardade hand on Hiorte (_his right hand kept guard for him in H._,
i.e. showed that he had been there), 2099; sg. for pl. hȳrde ic þæt þām
frætwum fēower mēaras lungre gelīce last weardode (_I heard that four
horses, quite alike, followed in the traces of the armor_), 2165.--2) _to
hold, possess, inhabit_: pret. sg. fīfel-cynnes eard ... weardode (_dwelt
in the abode of the sea-fiends_), 105; reced weardode un-rīm eorla (_an
immense number of earls held the hall_), 1238; pl. þǣr wē gesunde sæl
weardodon, 2076.

wearh, st. m., _the accursed one; wolf_: in comp. heoro-wearg, 1268.

wearn, st. f.: 1) _resistance, refusal_, 366.--2) _warning?, resistance?_
See un-wearnum, 742.

weaxan, st. v., _to wax, grow_: pres. sg. III. oð þæt him on innan
ofer-hygda dǣl weaxeð (_till within him pride waxeth_), 1742; inf. weaxan,
3116; pret. sg. wēox, 8.

ge-weaxan, _to grow up_: pret. sg. oft þæt sēo geogoð ge-wēox, 66.

ge-weaxan to, _to grow to_ or _for something_: pret. sg. ne ge-wēox hē him
to willan (_grew not for their benefit_), 1712.

wēa, w. m., _woe, evil, misfortune_: nom. sg., 937; acc. sg. wean, 191,
423, 1207, 1992, 2293, 2938; gen. pl. wēana, 148, 934, 1151, 1397.

wēa-lāf, st. f., _wretched remnant_: acc. pl. þā wēa-lāfe (_the wretched
remnant_, i.e. Finn's almost annihilated band), 1085, 1099.

wēa-spel, st. n., _woe-spell, evil tidings_: dat. sg. wēa-spelle, 1316.

ge-weoldum. See ge-wild.

weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, labor, deed_: acc. sg., 74; (_war-deed_), 1657;
instr. sg. weorce, 1570; dat. pl. weorcum, 2097; wordum ne (and) worcum,
1101, 1834; gen. pl. worda and worca, 289.--2) _work, trouble, suffering_:
acc. sg. þæs gewinnes weorc (_misery on account of this strife_), 1722;
dat. pl. adv. weorcum (_with labor_), 1639.--Comp.: bǣdo-, ellen-, heaðo-,

ge-weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, deed, labor_: nom. acc. sg., 455, 1563, 1682,
2718, 2775; gen. sg. ge-weorces, 2712. Comp.: ǣr-, fyrn-, gūð-, hond-,
nīð-ge-weorc.--2) _fortification, rampart_: in comp. land-geweorc, 939.

weorce, adj., _painful, bitter_: nom. sg., 1419.

weorð, st. n., _precious object, valuable_: dat. sg. weorðe, 2497.

weorð, adj., _dear, precious_: nom. sg. weorð Denum æðeling (_the atheling
dear to the Danes_, Bēowulf), 1815; compar. nom. sg. þæt hē syððan wæs ...
māðme þȳ weorðra (_more honored from the jewel_), 1903; cf. wyrðe.

weorðan, st. v.: 1) _to become_: pres. sg. III. beholen weorðeð (_is
concealed_), 414; underne weorðeð (_becomes known_), 2914; so, pl. III.
weorðað, 2067; wurðað, 282; inf. weorðan, 3179; wurðan, 808; pret. sg. I.,
III. wearð, 6, 77, 149, 409, 555, 754, 768, 819, 824, etc.; pl. wurdon,
228; subj. pret. wurde, 2732.--2) inf. to frōfre weorðan (_to become a
help_), 1708; pret. sg. wearð hē Heaðolāfe tō hand-bonan, 460; so, wearð,
906, 1262; ne wearð Heremōd swā (i.e. to frōfre) eaforum Ecgwelan, 1710;
pl. wurdon, 2204; subj. pret. sg. II. wurde, 588.--3) pret. sg. þæt hē on
fylle wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.--4) _to happen, befall_: inf.
unc sceal weorðan ... swā unc Wyrd ge-tēoð (_it shall befall us two as Fate
decrees_), 2527; þurh hwæt his worulde gedāl weorðan sceolde, 3069; pret.
sg. þā þǣr sōna wearð ed-hwyrft eorlum (_there was soon a renewal to the
earls_, i.e. of the former perils), 1281.

ge-weorðan: 1) _to become_: pret. sg. ge-wearð, 3062; pret. part. cearu wæs
genīwod ge-worden (_care was renewed_), 1305; swā us ge-worden is,
3079.--2) _to finish; complete?_: inf. þæt þū ... lēte Sūð-Dene sylfe
ge-weorðan gūðe wið Grendel (_that thou wouldst let the S. D. put an end to
their war with Grendel_), 1997.--3) impersonally with acc., _to agree,
decide_: pret. sg. þā þæs monige ge-wearð þæt ... (_since many agreed that_
...), 1599; pret. part. hafað þæs ge-worden wine Scyldinga, rīces hyrde,
and þæt rǣd talað þæt hē ... (_therefore hath it so appeared(?) advisable
to the friend of the S., the guardian of the realm, and he counts it a gain
that_ ...), 2027.

weorð-ful, adj., _glorious, full of worth_: nom. sg. weorð-fullost, 3100.

weorðian, w. v., _to honor, adorn_: pret. sg. þǣr ic ... þīne lēode
weorðode weorcum (_there honored I thy people by my deeds_), 2097; subj.
pret. (þæt hē) æt feoh-gyftum ... Dene weorðode (_that he would honor the
Danes at, by, treasure-giving_), 1091.

ge-weorðian, ge-wurðian, _to deck, ornament_: pret. part. hire syððan wæs
æfter bēah-þege brēost ge-weorðod, 2177; wǣpnum ge-weorðad, 250; since
ge-weorðad, 1451; so, ge-wurðad, 331, 1039, 1646; wide ge-weorðad (_known,
honored, afar_), 1960.

weorð-līce, adv., _worthily, nobly_: superl. weorð-līcost, 3163.

weorð-mynd, st. f. n., _dignity, honor, glory_: nom. sg., 65; acc. sg.
geseah þā eald sweord ..., wigena weorðmynd (_saw an ancient sword there,
the glory of warriors_), 1560; dat. instr. pl. weorð-myndum, 8; tō
worð-myndum, 1187; gen. pl. weorð-mynda dǣl, 1753.

weorðung, st. f., _ornament_: in comp. brēost-, hām-, heorft-, hring-,

weorod. See werod.

weorpan, st. v.: 1) _to throw, cast away_, w. acc.: pret. sg. wearp þā
wunden-mǣl wrǣttum gebunden yrre ōretta, þæt hit on eorðan læg (_the
wrathful warrior threw the ornamented sword, that it lay on the earth_),
1532.--2) _to throw around_ or _about_, w. instr.: pret. sg. beorges weard
. .. wearp wæl-fȳre (_threw death-fire around_), 2583.--3) _to throw
upon_: inf. hē hine eft ongan wæteres (instr. gen.) weorpan (_began to cast
water upon him again_), 2792.

for-weorpan, w. acc., _to cast away, squander_: subj. pret. þæt hē gēnunga
gūð-gewǣdu wrāðe for-wurpe (_that he squandered uselessly the
battle-weeds_, i.e. gave them to the unworthy), 2873.

ofer-weorpan, _to stumble_: pret. sg. ofer-wearp þā ... wigena strengest,

weotian, w. v., _to provide with, adjust_(?): pret. part. acc. pl.
wæl-bende weotode, 1937.

be-weotian, be-witian, w. v. w. acc., _to regard, observe, care for_: pres.
pl. III. be-witiað, 1136; pret. sg. þegn ... sē þe ... ealle be-weotede
þegnes þearfe (_who would attend to all the needs of a thane_), 1797; draca
sē þe ... hord be-weotode (_the drake that guarded a treasure_), 2213;--_to
carry out, undertake_: pres. pl. III. þā ... oft be-witigað sorh-fulne sīð
on segl-rāde, 1429.

wicg, st. n., _steed, riding-horse_: nom. sg., 1401; acc. sg. wicg, 315;
dat. instr. sg. wicge, 234; on wicge, 286; acc. pl. wicg, 2175; gen. pl.
wicga, 1046.

ge-widor, st. n., _storm, tempest_: acc. pl. lāð ge-widru (_loathly
weather_), 1376.

wið prep. w. dat. and acc., with fundamental meanings of division and
opposition: 1) w. dat., _against, with_ (in hostile sense), _from_: þā wið
gode wunnon, 113; āna (wan) wið eallum, 145; ymb feorh sacan, lāð wið
lāðum, 440; so, 426, 439, 550, 2372, 2521, 2522, 2561, 2840, 3005; þæt him
holt-wudu ... helpan ne meahte, lind wið līge, 2342; hwæt ... sēlest wǣre
wið fǣr-gryrum tō ge-fremmanne, 174; þæt him gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wið
þēod-þrēaum, 178; wið rihte wan (_strove against right_), 144; hæfde ...
sele Hrōðgāres ge-nered wið nīðe (_had saved H.'s hall from strife_), 828;
(him dyrne langað ...) beorn wið blōde (_the hero longeth secretly contrary
to his blood_, i.e. H. feels a secret longing for the non-related Bēowulf),
1881; sundur ge-dǣlan līf wið līce (_to sunder soul from body_), 2424;
strēamas wundon sund wið sande (_the currents rolled the sea against the
sand_), 213; līg-ȳðum forborn bord wið ronde (rond, MS.) (_with waves of
flame burnt the shield against, as far as, the rim_), 2674; holm storme
wēol, won wið winde (_the sea surged, wrestled with the wind_), 1133; so,
hiora in ānum wēoll sefa wið sorgum (_in one of them surged the soul with
sorrow_ [_against_?, Heyne]), 2601; þæt hire wið healse heard grāpode
(_that the sharp sword bit against her neck_), 1567.--2) w. acc.: a)
_against, towards_: wan wið Hrōðgār (_fought against H._), 152; wið fēonda
gehwone, 294; wið wrāð werod, 319; so, 540, 1998, 2535; hine hālig god ūs
on-sende wið Grendles gryre, 384; þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp
ofer-sitte (_that I refrain from boastful speech against the
battle-flier_), 2529; ne wolde wið manna ge-hwone ... feorh-bealo feorran
(_would not cease his life-plotting against any of the men_; or, _withdraw
life-bale from_, etc.? or, _peace would not have with any man..., mortal
bale withdraw_?, Kemble), 155; ic þā lēode wāt gē wið fēond gē wið frēond
fæste geworhte (_towards foe and friend_), 1865; hēold hēah-lufan wið
hæleða brego (_cherished high love towards the prince of heroes_), 1955;
wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd (_prevented entrance to spear-point and
sword-edge_), 1550. b) _against, on, upon, in_: setton sīde scyldas ... wið
þæs recedes weal (_against the wall of the hall_), 326; wið eorðan fæðm
(eardodon) (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050; wið earm ge-sæt (_sat on,
against, his arm_), 750; so, stīð-mōd ge-stōd wið stēapne rond, 2567; [wið
duru healle ēode] (_went to the door of the hall_), 389; wið Hrefna-wudu
(_over against, near, H._), 2926; wið his sylfes sunu setl ge-tǣhte
(_showed me to a seat with, near, beside, his own son_), 2014. c) _towards,
with_ (of contracting parties): þæt hīe healfre ge-weald wið Eotena bearn
āgan mōston (_that they power over half the hall with the Eotens' sons were
to possess_), 1089; þenden hē wið wulf wæl rēafode (_whilst with the wolf
he was robbing the slain_), 3028.--3) Alternately with dat. and acc.,
_against_: nū wið Grendel sceal, wið þām āglǣcan, āna gehegan þing wið
þyrse, 424-426;--_with, beside_: ge-sæt þā wið sylfne..., mǣg wið mǣge,

wiðer-gyld, st. n., _compensation_: nom. sg., 2052, [proper name?].

wiðer-ræhtes, adv., _opposite, in front of_, 3040.

wiðre, st. n., _resistance_: gen. sg. wiðres ne truwode, 2954.

wiht, st. f.: 1) _wight, creature, demon_: nom. sg. wiht unhǣlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120; acc. sg. syllīcran wiht (the dragon),
3039.--2) _thing, something, aught_: nom. sg. w. negative, nē hine wiht
dweleð (_nor does aught check him_), 1736; him wiht ne spēow (_it helped
him naught_), 2855; acc. sg. nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde (_nor did
he count the worm's warring for aught_), 2349; ne meahte ic ... wiht
gewyrcan _(I could not do aught_ ...), 1661;--w. partitive gen.: nō ...
wiht swylcra searo-niða, 581;--the acc. sg. = adv. like Germ. _nicht_: nē
hīe hūru wine-drihten wiht ne lōgon (_did not blame their friendly lord
aught_), 863; so, ne wiht = _naught, in no wise_, 1084, 2602, 2858; nō
wiht, 541; instr. sg. wihte (_in aught, in any way_), 1992; ne ... wihte
(_by no means_), 186, 2278, 2688; wihte ne, 1515, 1996, 2465, 2924.--Comp.:
ā-wiht (āht = _aught_), æl-wiht, ō-wiht.

wil-cuma, w. m., _one welcome_ (qui gratus advenit): nom. pl. wil-cuman
Denigea lēodum (_welcome to the people of the Danes_), 388; so, him (the
lord of the Danes) wil-cuman, 394; wil-cuman Wedera lēodum (_welcome to the
Gēatas_), 1895.

ge-wild, st. f., _free-will_? dat. pl. nealles mid ge-weoldum (_sponte,
voluntarily_, Bugge), 2223.

wil-dēor (for wild-dēor), st. n., _wild beast_: acc. pl. wil-dēor, 1431.

wil-gesīð, st. m., _chosen_ or _willing companion_: nom. pl. -ge-sīðas, 23.

wil-geofa, w. m., _ready giver_ (= voti largitor: princely designation),
_joy-giver_?: nom. sg. wil-geofa Wedra lēoda, 2901.

willa, w. m.: 1) _will, wish, desire, sake_: nom. sg. 627, 825; acc. sg.
willan, 636, 1740, 2308, 2410; instr. sg. ānes willan (_for the sake of
one_), 3078; so, 2590; dat. sg. tō willan, 1187, 1712; instr. pl. willum
(_according to wish_), 1822; sylfes willum, 2224, 2640; gen. pl. wilna,
1345.--2) _desirable thing, valuable_: gen. pl. wilna, 661, 951.

willan, aux. v., _will_: in pres. also _shall_ (when the future action is
depend. on one's free will): pres. sg. I. wille ic ā-secgan (_I will set
forth, tell out_), 344; so, 351, 427; ic tō sǣ wille (_I will to sea_),
318; wylle, 948, 2149, 2513; sg. II. þū wylt, 1853; sg. III. hē wile, 346,
446, 1050, 1182, 1833; wyle, 2865; wille, 442, 1004, 1185, 1395; ǣr hē in
wille (_ere he will in_, i.e. go or flee into the fearful sea), 1372;
wylle, 2767; pl. I. wē ... wyllað, 1819; pret. sg. I., III. wolde, 68, 154,
200, 646, 665, 739, 756, 797, 881, etc.; nō ic fram him wolde (i.e.
flēotan), 543; so, swā hē hira mā wolde (i.e. ā-cwellan), 1056; pret. pl.
woldon, 482, 2637, 3173; subj. pret., 2730.--Forms contracted w. negative:
pres. sg. I. nelle (= ne + wille, _I will not_, nolo), 680, 2525(?); pret.
sg. III. nolde (= ne + wolde), 792, 804, 813, 1524; w. omitted inf. þā
metod nolde, 707, 968; pret. subj. nolde, 2519.

wilnian, w. v., _to long for, beseech_: inf. wēl bið þǣm þe mōt ... tō
fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian (_well for him that may beseech protection in
the Father's arms_), 188.

wil-sīð, st. m., _chosen journey_: acc. sg. wil-sīð, 216.

ge-win, st. n.: 1) _strife, struggle, enmity, conflict_: acc. sg., 878; þā
hīe ge-win drugon (_endured strife_), 799; under ȳða ge-win (_under the
tumult of the waves_), 1470; gen. sg. þæs ge-winnes weorc (_misery for this
strife_), 1722.--2) _suffering, oppression_: nom. sg., 133, 191; acc. sg.
eald ge-win, 1782.--Comp.: fyrn-, ȳð-ge-win.

wīn-ærn, st. n., _hall of hospitality, hall, wine-hall_: gen. sg.
wīn-ærnes, 655.

wind, st. m., _wind, storm_: nom. sg., 547, 1375, 1908; dat. instr. sg.
winde, 217; wið winde, 1133.

windan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to wind, whirl_: pret. sg. wand tō wolcnum
wæl-fȳra mǣst, 1120.--2) w. acc., _to twist, wind, curl_: pret. pl.
strēamas wundon sund wið sande, 212; pret. part. wunden gold (_twisted,
spirally-twined, gold_), 1194, 3135; instr. pl. wundnum (wundum, MS.)
golde, 1383.

æt-windan, _to wrest one's self from, escape_: pret. sg. sē þǣm fēonde
æt-wand, 143.

be-windan, _to wind with_ or _round, clasp, surround, envelop_ (involvere):
pret. sg. þē hit (the sword) mundum be-wand, 1462; pret. part. wīrum
be-wunden (_wound with wires_) 1032; feorh ... flǣsce be-wunden
(_flesh-enclosed_), 2425; gār ... mundum be-wunden (_a spear grasped with
the hands_), 3023; iū-manna gold galdre be-wunden (_spell-encircled gold_),
3053; (āstāh ...) lēg wōpe be-wunden (_uprose the flame mingled with a
lament_), 3147.

ge-windan, _to writhe, get loose, escape_: inf. wīdre ge-windan (_to flee
further_), 764; pret. sg. on flēam ge-wand, 1002.

on-windan, _to unwind, loosen_: pres. sg. (þonne fæder) on-windeð
wæl-rāpas, 1611.

win-dæg, st. m., _day of struggle_ or _suffering_: dat. pl. on þyssum
win-dagum (_in these days of sorrow_, i.e. of earthly existence), 1063.

wind-bland (blond), st. n., _wind-roar_: nom. sg., 3147.

wind-gereste, f., _resting-place of the winds_: acc. sg., 2457.

windig, adj., _windy_: acc. pl. windige (weallas, næssas), 572, 1359;
windige weallas (wind geard weallas, MS.), 1225.

wine, st. m., _friend, protector_, especially the _beloved ruler_: nom. sg.
wine Scyldinga, lēof land-fruma (Scyld), 30; wine Scyldinga (Hrōðgār), 148,
1184. As vocative: mīn wine, 2048; wine mīn, Bēowulf (Hunferð), 457, 530,
1705; acc. sg. holdne wine (Hrōðgār), 376; wine Deniga, Scyldinga, 350,
2027; dat. sg. wine Scyldinga, 170; gen. sg. wines (Bēowulf), 3097; acc.
pl. wine, 21; dat. pl. Denum eallum, winum Scyldinga, 1419; gen. pl.
winigea lēasum, 1665; winia bealdor, 2568.--Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gold-,
gūð-, mǣg-wine.

wine-dryhten, st. m., (dominus amicus), _friendly lord, lord and friend_:
acc. sg. wine-drihten, 863, 1605; wine-dryhten, 2723, 3177; dat. sg.
wine-drihtne, 360.

wine-geōmor, adj., _friend-mourning_: nom. sg., 2240.

wine-lēas, adj., _friendless_: dat. sg. wine-lēasum, 2614.

wine-mǣg, st. m., _dear kinsman_: nom. pl. wine-māgas, 65.

ge-winna, w. m., _striver, struggler, foe_: comp. eald-, ealdor-gewinna.

winnan, st. v., _to struggle, fight_: pret. sg. III. wan āna wið eallum,
144; Grendel wan ... wið Hrōðgār, 151; holm ... won wið winde (_the sea
fought with the wind_: cf. wan wind endi water, Heliand, 2244), 1133; II.
eart þū se Bēowulf, sē þe wið Brecan wunne, 506; pl. wið gode wunnon, 113;
þǣr þā graman wunnon (_where the foes fought_), 778.

wīn-reced, st. n., _wine-hall, guest-hall, house for entertaining guests_:
acc. sg., 715, 994.

wīn-sele, st. m., the same, _wine-hall_: nom. sg., 772; dat. sg. wīn-sele,
696 (cf. Heliand Glossary, 369 [364]).

winter, st. m. n.: 1) _winter_: nom. sg., 1133, 1137; acc. sg. winter,
1129; gen. sg. wintres, 516.--2) _year_ (counted by winters): acc. pl.
fīftig wintru (neut.), 2210; instr. pl. wintrum, 1725, 2115, 2278; gen. pl.
wintra, 147, 264, 1928, 2279, 2734, 3051.

wintre, adj., _so many winters_ (old): in comp. syfan-wintre.

ge-wislīce, adv., _certainly, undoubtedly_: superl. gewislīcost, 1351.

wist, st. f., fundamental meaning = _existentia_, hence: 1) _good
condition, happiness, abundance_: dat. sg. wunað hē on wiste, 1736.--2)
_food, subsistence, booty_: dat. sg. þā wæs æfter wiste wōp up ā-hafen (_a
cry was then uplifted after the meal_, i.e. Grendel's meal of thirty men),

wist-fyllo, st. f., _fulness_ or _fill of food, rich meal_: gen. sg.
wist-fylle, 735.

wit, st. n., (wit), _understanding_: nom. sg., 590.--Comp.: fyr-, in-wit.

ge-wit, st. n.: 1) _consciousness_. dat. sg. ge-wēold his ge-witte,
2704.--2) _heart, breast_: dat. sg. fȳr unswīðor wēoll (_the fire surged
less strongly from the dragon's breast_), 2883.

wit, pers. pron. dual of wē, _we two_, 535, 537, 539, 540, 544, 1187, etc.
See unc, uncer.

wita, weota, w. m., _counsellor, royal adviser_; pl., _the king's council
of nobles_: nom. pl. witan, 779: gen. pl. witena, 157, 266, 937 weotena,
1099.--Comp.: fyrn-, rūn-wita.

witan, pret.-pres. v., _to wot, know_. 1) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I.,
III. wāt, 1332, 2657; ic on Higelāce wāt þæt hē ... (_I know as to H., that
he_ ...), 1831; so, god wāt on mec þæt ...(_God knows of me, that_ ...),
2651; sg. II. þū wāst, 272; weak pret. sg. I., III. wiste, 822; wisse,
2340, 2726; pl. wiston, 799, 1605; subj. pres. I. gif ic wiste, 2520.--2)
w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. I. ic wāt, 1864.--3) w. object, predicative
part, or adj.: pret. sg. III. tō þæs hē win-reced ... gearwost wisse,
fǣttum fāhne, 716; so, 1310; wiste þǣm āhlǣcan hilde ge-binged, 647.--4) w.
acc., _to know_: inf. witan, 252, 288; pret. sg. wisse, 169; wiste his
fingra ge-weald on grames grāpum, 765; pl. II. wisson, 246; wiston, 181.

nāt = ne + wāt, _I know not_: 1) elliptically with hwylc, indef. pronoun =
_some or other_: sceaða ic nāt hwylc.--2) w. gen. and depend. clause: nāt
hē þāra gōda, þæt hē mē on-gēan slēa, 682.

ge-witan, _to know, perceive_: inf. þæs þe hīe gewis-līcost ge-witan
meahton, 1351.

be-witian. See be-weotian.

wītig, adj., _wise, sagacious_: nom. sg. wītig god, 686, 1057; wītig
drihten (God), 1555; wittig drihten, 1842.

ge-wittig, adj., _conscious_: nom. sg. 3095.

ge-wītnian, w. v., _to chastise, punish_: wommum gewītnad (_punished with
plagues_), 3074.

wīc, st. n., _dwelling, house_: acc. sg. wīc, 822, 2590;--often in pl.
because houses of nobles were complex: dat. wīcum, 1305, 1613, 3084; gen.
wīca, 125, 1126.

ge-wīcan, st. v., _to soften, give way, yield_ (here chiefly of swords):
pret. sg. ge-wāc, 2578, 2630.

wīc-stede, st. m., _dwelling-place_: nom. sg. 2463; acc. sg. wīc-stede,

wīd, adj., _wide, extended_: 1) space: acc. sg. neut. ofer wīd wæter, 2474;
gen. sg. wīdan rīces, 1860; acc. pl. wīde sīðas, waroðas, 878, 1966.--2)
temporal: acc. sg. wīdan feorh (acc. of time), 2015; dat. sg. tō wīdan
feore, 934.

wīde, adv., _widely, afar_, 18, 74, 79, 266, 1404, 1589, 1960, etc.; wīde
cūð (_widely, universally, known_), 2136, 2924; so, underne wīde, 2914;
wīde geond eorðan (_over the whole earth, widely_), 3100;--modifier of
superl.: wreccena wīde mǣrost (_the most famous of wanderers, exiles_),
899.--Compar. wīdre, 764.

wīd-cūð, adj., _widely known, very celebrated_: nom. sg. neut., 1257; acc.
sg. m. wīd-cūðne man (Bēowulf), 1490; wīd-cūðne wēan, 1992; wīd-cūðes
(Hrōðgār), 1043.

wīde-ferhð, st. m. n., (_long life_), _great length of time_: acc. sg. as
acc. of time: wīde-ferhð (_down to distant times, always_), 703, 938; ealne
wīde-ferhð, 1223.

wīd-floga, w. m., _wide-flier_ (of the dragon): nom. sg., 2831; acc. sg.
wīd-flogan, 2347.

wīd-scofen, pret. part., _wide-spread_? _causing fear far and wide_? 937.

wīd-weg, st. m., _wide way, long journey_: acc. pl. wīd-wegas, 841, 1705.

wīf, st. n., _woman, lady, wife_: nom. sg. frēo-līc wīf (Queen Wealhþēow),
616; wīf un-hȳre (Grendel's mother), 2121; acc. sg. drihtlīce wīf (Finn's
wife), 1159; instr. sg. mid þȳ wīfe (Hrōðgār's daughter, Frēawaru), 2029;
dat. sg. þām wīfe (Wealhþēow), 640; gen. sg. wīfes (as opposed to _man_),
1285; gen. pl. wera and wīfa, 994.--Comp.: āglǣc-, mere-wīf.

wīf-lufe, w. f., _wife-love, love for a wife, woman's love_: nom. pl.
wīf-lufan, 2066.

wīg, st. m.: 1) _war, battle_: nom. sg., 23, 1081, 2317, 2873; acc. sg.,
686, 1084, 1248; dat. sg. wīge, wigge, 1338, 2630, 1657, 1771; as instr.,
1085; ; gen. sg. wīges, 65, 887, 1269.--2) _valor, warlike prowess_: nom.
sg. wæs his mōd-sefa manegum ge-cȳðed, wīg and wīsdōm, 350; wīg, 1043; wīg
... eafoð and ellen, 2349; gen. sg. wīges, 2324.--Comp. fēðe-wīg.

wiga, w. m., _warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 630; dat. pl. wigum, 2396; gen.
pl. wigena, 1544, 1560, 3116.--Comp.: æsc-, byrn-, gār-, gūð-, lind-,
rand-, scyld-wiga.

wīgan, st. v., _to fight_: pres. sg. III. wīgeð, 600; inf., 2510.

wīgend, pres. part., _fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 3100; nom. pl. wīgend,
1126, 1815, 3145; acc. pl. wīgend, 3025; gen. pl. wīgendra, 429, 900, 1973,
2338.--Comp. gārwīgend.

wīg-bealu, st. n., _war-bale, evil contest_: acc. sg., 2047.

wīg-bil, st. n., _war-bill, battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1608.

wīg-bord, st. n., _war-board_ or _shield_: acc. sg., 2340.

wīg-cræft, st. m., _war-power_: acc. sg., 2954.

wīg-cræftig, adj., _vigorous in fight, strong in war_: acc. sg.
wīg-cræftigne (of the sword Hrunting), 1812.

wīg-freca, w. m., _war-wolf, war-hero_: acc. sg. wīg-frecan, 2497; nom. pl.
wīg-frecan, 1213.

wīg-fruma, w. m., _war-chief_ or _king_: nom. sg., 665; acc. sg.
wīg-fruman, 2262.

wīg-geatwe, st. f. pl., _war-ornaments, war-gear_: dat. pl. on wīg-geatwum
(-getawum, MS.), 368.

wīg-ge-weorðad, pret. part., _war-honored, distinguished in war_, 1784? See

wīg-gryre, st. m., _war-horror_ or _terror_: nom. sg., 1285.

wīg-hete, st. m., _war-hate, hostility_: nom. sg., 2121.

wīg-heafola, w. m., _war head-piece, helmet_: acc. sg. wīg-heafolan,

wīg-hēap, st. m., _war-band_: nom sg., 447.

wīg-hryre, st. m., _war-ruin, slaughter, carnage_: acc. sg., 1620.

wīg-sigor, st. m., _war-victory_: acc. sg., 1555.

wīg-sped, st. f.?, _war-speed, success in war_: gen. pl. wīg-spēda, 698.

wīg-weorðung, st. f., _idol-worship, idolatry, sacrifice to idols_: acc.
pl. -weorðunga, 176.

wīn, st. n., _wine_: acc. sg., 1163, 1234; instr. wīne, 1468.

wīr, st. n., _wire, spiral ornament of wire_: instr. pl. wīrum, 1032; gen.
pl. wīra, 2414.

wīs, adj., _wise, experienced, discreet_: nom. sg. m. wīs (_in his mind,
conscious_), 3095; f. wīs, 1928; in w. form, se wīsa, 1401, 1699, 2330;
acc. sg. þone wīsan, 1319; gen. pl. wīsra, 1414; w. gen. nom. sg. wīs
wordcwida (_wise of speech_), 1846.

wīsa, w. m., _guide, leader_: nom. sg. werodes wīsa, 259.--Comp.: brim-,
here-, hilde-wīsa.

wīscte. See wȳscan.

wīs-dōm, st. m., _wisdom, experience_: nom. sg., 350; instr. sg. wīs-dōme,

wīse, w. f., _fashion, wise, custom_: acc. sg. (instr.) ealde wīsan (_after
ancient custom_), 1866.

wīs-fæst, adj., _wise, sagacious_ (sapientiā firmus): nom. sg. f., 627.

wīs-hycgende, pres. part. _wise-thinking, wise_, 2717.

wīsian, w. v., _to guide_ or _lead to, direct, point out_: 1) w. acc.: inf.
hēan wong wīsian, 2410; pret. sg. secg wīsade land-gemyrcu, 208.--2) w.
dat.: pres. sg. I. ic ēow wīsige (_I shall guide you_), 292, 3104; pret.
sg. sē þǣm heaðo-rincum hider wīsade, 370; sōna him sele-þegn ... forð
wīsade _(the hall-thane led him thither forthwith_, i.e. to his couch),
1796; stīg wīsode gumum æt-gædere, 320; so, 1664.--3) w. prep.?: pret. sg.
þā secg wīsode under Heorotes hrōf (_when the warrior showed them the way
under Heorot's roof_, [but under H.'s hrōf depends rather on snyredon
ætsomne]), 402.

wītan, st. v., properly _to look at; to look at with censure, to blame,
reproach, accuse_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of thing: inf. for-þām mē
wītan ne þearf waldend fīra morðor-bealo māga, 2742.

æt-wītan, _to blame, censure_ (cf. 'twit), w. acc. of thing: pret. pl.
æt-witon wēana dǣl, 1151.

ge-wītan, properly _spectare aliquo; to go_ (most general verb of motion):
1) with inf. after verbs of motion: pret. sg. þanon eft ge-wāt ... tō hām
faran, 123; so, 2570; pl. þanon eft gewiton ... mēarum rīdan, 854.
Sometimes with reflex, dat.: pres. sg. him þā Scyld ge-wāt ... fēran on
frēan wǣre, 26; gewāt him ... rīdan, 234; so, 1964; pl. ge-witon, 301.--2)
associated with general infinitives of motion and aim: imper. pl. ge-wītað
forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; pret. sg. ge-wāt þā nēosian hēan hūses,
115; hē þā fāg ge-wāt ... man-drēam flēon, 1264; nyðer eft gewāt dennes
nīosian, 3045; so, 1275, 2402, 2820. So, with reflex, dat.: him eft gewāt
... hāmes nīosan, 2388; so, 2950; pl. ge-witon, 1126.--3) without inf. and
with prep, or adv.: pres. sg. III. þǣr firgen-strēam under næssa genipu
niðer ge-wīteð, 1361; ge-wīteð on sealman, 2461; inf. on flōdes ǣht feor
ge-wītan, 42; pret. sg. ge-wāt, 217; him ge-wāt, 1237, 1904; of līfe,
ealdre ge-wāt (_died_), 2472, 2625; fyrst forð ge-wāt (_time went on_),
210; him ge-wāt ūt of healle, 663; ge-wāt him hām, 1602; pret. part. dat.
sg. mē forð-ge-witenum (_me defuncto, I dead_), 1480.

oð-wītan, _to blame, censure, reproach_: inf. ne þorfte him þā lēan
oð-wītan mon on middan-gearde, 2997.

wlanc, wlonc, adj., _proud, exulting_: nom. sg. wlanc, 341; w. instr. ǣse
wlanc (_proud of, exulting in, her prey, meal_), 1333; wlonc, 331; w. gen.
māðm-ǣhta wlonc (_proud of the treasures_), 2834; gen. sg. wlonces,
2954.--Comp. gold-wlanc.

wlātian, w. v., _to look_ or _gaze out, forth_: pret. sg. sē þe ǣr ... feor
wlātode, 1917.

wlenco, st. f., _pride, heroism_: dat. sg. wlenco, 338, 1207; wlence, 508.

wlite, st. m. _form, noble form, look, beauty_: nom. sg., 250.

wlite-beorht, adj., _beauteous, brilliant in aspect_: acc. sg.
wlite-beorhtne wang, 93.

wlite-sēon, st. n. f., _sight, spectacle_: acc. sg., 1651.

wlitig, adj., _beautiful, glorious, fair in form_: acc. sg. wlitig
(sweord), 1663.

wlītan, st. v., _to see, look, gaze_: pret. sg. hē æfter recede wlāt
(_looked along the hall_), 1573; pret. pl. on holm wliton (_looked on the
sea_), 1593; wlitan on Wīglāf, 2853.

geond-wlītan, w. acc., _to examine, look through, scan_: inf. wrǣte
giond-wlītan, 2772.

wōh-bogen, pret. part., (_bent crooked), crooked, twisted_: nom. sg. wyrm
wōh-bogen, 2828.

wolcen, st. n. m., _cloud_ (cf. welkin): dat. pl. under wolcnum (_under the
clouds, on earth_), 8, 652, 715, 1771; tō wolcnum, 1120, 1375.

wollen-tēar, adj., _tear-flowing, with flowing tears_: nom. pl.
wollen-tēare, 3033.

wom. See wam.

won. See wan.

worc. See weorc.

word, st. n.: 1) _word, speech_: nom. sg., 2818; acc. sg. þæt word, 655,
2047; word, 315, 341, 390, 871, 2552; instr. sg. worde, 2157; gen. sg.
wordes, 2792; nom. pl. þā word, 640; word, 613; acc. pl. word (of an
alliterative song), 871; instr. pl, wordum, 176, 366, 627, 875, 1101, 1173,
1194, 1319, 1812, etc.; ge-saga him wordum (_tell them in words,
expressly_), 388. The instr. wordum accompanies biddan, þancian, be-wægnan,
secgan, hērgan, to emphasize the verb, 176, 627, 1194, 2796, 3177; gen. pl.
worda, 289, 398, 2247, 2263(?), 3031.--2) _command, order_: gen. sg. his
wordes geweald habban (_to rule, reign_), 79; so, instr. pl. wordum wēold,
30.--Comp.: bēot-, gylp-, meðel-, þrȳð-word.

word-cwide, st. m., (_word-utterance_), _speech_: acc. pl. word-cwydas,
1842; dat. pl. word-cwydum, 2754; gen. pl. word-cwida, 1846.

word-gid, st. m, _speech, saying_: acc. sg. word-gyd, 3174.

word-hord, st. n., _word-hoard, treasury of speech, mouth_: acc. sg.
word-hord on-lēac (_unlocked his word-hoard_, opened his mouth, spoke),

word-riht, st. n., _right speech, suitable word_: gen. pl. Wīglāf maðelode
word-rihta fela, 2632.

worð-mynd. See weorð-mynd.

worðig (for weorðig), st. m., _palace, estate, court_: acc. sg. on worðig
(_into the palace_), 1973.

worn, st. n., _multitude, number_: acc. sg. worn eall (_very many_), 3095;
wintra worn (_many years_), 264; þonne hē wintrum frōd worn ge-munde (_when
he old in years thought of their number_), 2115. Used with fela to
strengthen the meaning: nom. acc. sg. worn fela, 1784; hwæt þū worn fela
... sprǣce (_how very much thou hast spoken!_), 530; so, eal-fela
eald-gesegena worn, 871; gen. pl. worna fela, 2004, 2543.

woruld, worold, st. f., _humanity, world, earth_: nom. sg. eal worold,
1739; acc. sg. in worold (wacan) (_to be born, come into the world_), 60;
worold oflǣtan, of-gifan (_die_), 1184, 1682; gen. sg. worolde, 951, 1081,
1388, 1733; worulde, 2344; his worulde ge-dāl (_his separation from the
world, death_), 3069; worolde brūcan (_to enjoy life, live_), 1063; worlde,

worold-ār, st. f., _worldly honor_ or _dignity_: acc. sg. worold-āre, 17.

woruld-candel, st. f., _world-candle, sun_: nom. sg., 1966.

worold-cyning, st. m., _world king, mighty king_: nom. sg., 3182; gen. pl.
worold-cyninga, 1685.

woruld-ende, st. m., _world's end_: acc. sg., 3084.

worold-rǣden, st. f., _usual course, fate of the world, customary fate_:
dat. sg. worold-rǣdenne, 1143?

wōp, st. m., (_whoop_), _cry of grief, lament_: nom. sg., 128; acc. sg.
wōp, 786; instr. sg. wōpe, 3147.

wracu, st. f., _persecution, vengeance, revenge_: nom. sg. wracu (MS,
uncertain), 2614; acc. sg. wræce, 2337.--Comp.: gyrn-, nȳd-wracu.

wraðu, st. f., _protection, safety_: in comp. līf-wraðu.

wrāð, adj., _wroth, furious, hostile_: acc. sg. neut. wrāð, 319; dat. sg.
wrāðum, 661, 709; gen. pl. wrāðra, 1620.

wrāðe, adv., _contemptibly, disgracefully_, 2873.

wrāð-līce, adv., _wrathfully, hostilely_ (in battle), 3063.

wrāsn, st. f., _circlet of gold for the head, diadem, crown_: in comp.

wræc-lāst, st. m., _exile-step, exile, banishment_: acc. sg. wræc-lāstas
træd (_trod exile-steps, wandered in exile_), 1353.

wræc-mæcg, st. m., _exile, outcast_: nom. pl. wræc-mæcgas, 2380.

wræc-sīð, st. m., _exile-journey, banishment, exile, persecution_: acc.
sg., 2293; dat. sg. -sīðum, 338.

wrǣt, st. f., _ornament, jewel_: acc. pl. wrǣte (wrǣce, MS.), 2772, 3061;
instr. pl. wrǣttum, 1532; gen. pl. wrǣtta, 2414.

wrǣt-līc, adj.: 1) _artistic, ornamental; valuable_: acc. sg. wrǣt-līcne
wundur-māððum, 2174; wrǣt-līc wǣg-sweord, 1490; wīg-bord wrǣt-līc,
2340.--2) _wondrous, strange_: acc. sg. wrǣt-līcne wyrm [from its rings or
spots?], 892; wlite-sēon wrǣt-līc, 1651.

wrǣc, st. f., _persecution_; hence, _wretchedness, misery_: nom. sg., 170;
acc. sg. wrǣc, 3079.

wrecan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to press, force_: pret. part. þǣr wæs Ongenþēo
... on bīd wrecen, 2963.--2) _to drive out, expel_: pret. sg. ferh ellen
wræc, 2707.--3) _to wreak_ or _utter_: gid, spel wrecan (_to utter words or
songs_); subj. pres. sg. III. hē gyd wrece, 2447; inf. wrecan spel ge-rāde,
874; word-gyd wrecan, 3174; pret. sg. gyd æfter wræc, 2155; pres. part. þǣr
wæs ... gid wrecen, 1066.--4) _to avenge, punish_: subj. pres. þæt hē his
frēond wrece, 1386; inf. wolde hire mǣg wrecan, 1340; so, 1279, 1547; pres.
part. wrecend (_an avenger_), 1257; pret. sg. wræc Wedera nīð, 423; so,
1334, 1670.

ā-wrecan, _to tell, recount_: pret. sg. ic þis gid be þē ā-wræc (_I have
told this tale for thee_), 1725; so, 2109.

for-wrecan, w. acc., _to drive away, expel; carry away_: inf. þȳ lǣs him
ȳða þrym wudu wyn-suman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves
might carry away the winsome ship_), 1920; pret. sg. hē hine feor for-wræc
... man-cynne fram, 109.

ge-wrecan, w. acc., _to avenge, wreak vengeance upon, punish_: pret. sg.
ge-wræc, 107, 2006; hē ge-wræc (i.e. hit, _this_) cealdum cear-sīðum, 2396;
hē hine sylfne ge-wræc (_avenged himself_), 2876; pl. ge-wrǣcan, 2480;
pret. part. ge-wrecen, 3063.

wrecca, w. m., (_wretch_), _exile, adventurer, wandering soldier, hero_:
nom. sg. wrecca (Hengest), 1138; gen. pl. wreccena wīde mǣrost (Sigemund),

wreoðen-hilt, adj., _wreathen-hilted, with twisted hilt_: nom. sg., 1699.

wridian, w. v., _to flourish, spring up_: pret. sg. III. wridað, 1742.

wriða, w. m., _band_: in comp. bēag-wriða (_bracelet_), 2019.

wrixl, st. n., _exchange, change_: instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle (_in a worse
way, with a worse exchange_), 2970.

ge-wrixle, st. n., _exchange, arrangement, bargain_: nom. sg. ne wæs þæt
ge-wrixle til (_it was not a good arrangement, trade_), 1305.

wrixlan, w. v., _to exchange_: inf. wordum wrixlan (_to exchange words,
converse_), 366; 875 (_tell_).

wrīðan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to bind, fasten, wreathe together_: inf. ic
hine (him, MS.) ... on wæl-bedde wrīðan þōhte, 965.--2) _to bind up_ (a
wounded person, a wound): pret. pl. þā wǣron monige þē his mǣg wriðon,
2983. See hand-gewriðen.

wrītan, st. v., _to incise, engrave_: pret. part. on þǣm (hilte) wæs ōr
writen fyrn-gewinnes (_on which was engraved the origin of an ancient
struggle_), 1689.

for-wrītan, _to cut to pieces_ or _in two_: pret. sg. for-wrāt Wedra helm
wyrm on middan, 2706.

wrōht, st. m. f., _blame, accusation, crime_; here _strife, contest,
hostility_: nom. sg., 2288, 2474, 2914.

wudu, st. m., _wood_: 1) _material, timber_: nom. pl. wudu, 1365; hence,
_the wooden spear_: acc. pl. wudu, 398.--2) _forest, wood_: acc. sg. wudu,
1417.--3) _wooden ship_: nom. sg. 298; acc. sg. wudu, 216, 1920.--Comp.:
bǣl-, bord-, gamen-, heal-, holt-, mægen-, sǣ-, sund-, þrec-wudu.

wudu-rēc, st. m., _wood-reek_ or _smoke_: nom. sg., 3145.

wuldor, st. n., _glory_: nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (_God_), 666; gen. sg.
wuldres wealdend, 17, 183, 1753; wuldres hyrde, 932, (designations of God).

wuldor-cyning, st. m., _king of glory, God_. dat. sg. wuldur-cyninge, 2796

wuldor-torht, adj., _glory-bright, brilliant, clear_: acc. pl.
wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137.

wulf, st. m., _wolf_: acc. sg., 3028.

wulf-hlið, st. n., _wolf-slope, wolf's retreat, slope whereunder wolves
house_: acc. pl. wulf-hleoðu, 1359.

wund, st. f., _wound_: nom. sg., 2712, 2977; acc. sg. wunde, 2532, 2907;
acc. sg. wunde, 2726; instr. pl. wundum, 1114, 2831, 2938.--Comp.

wund, adj., _wounded, sore_: nom. sg., 2747; dat. sg. wundum, 2754; nom.
pl. wunde, 565, 1076.

wunden-feax, adj., _curly-haired_ (of a horse's mane): nom. sg., 1401.

wunden-heals, adj., _with twisted_ or _curved neck_ or _prow_: nom. sg.
wudu wunden-hals (_the ship_), 298.

wunden-heorde?, _curly-haired_?: nom. sg. f., 3153.

wunden-mǣl, adj., _damascened, etched, with wavy ornaments_(?): nom. sg.
neut., 1532 (of a sword).

wunden-stefna, w. m. _curved prow, ship_: nom. sg., 220.

wundor, st. n.: 1) _wonder, wonderwork_: nom. sg., 772, 1725; wundur, 3063;
acc. sg. wundor, 841; wunder, 932; wundur, 2760, 3033, 3104; dat. sg.
wundre, 932; instr. pl. wundrum (_wondrously_), 1453, 2688; gen. pl.
wundra, 1608.--2) _portent, monster_: gen. pl. wundra, 1510.--Comp.: hand-,
nīð-, searo-wundor.

wundor-bebod, st. n., _wondrous command, strange order_: instr. pl.
-bebodum, 1748.

wundor-dēað, st. m., _wonder-death, strange death_: instr. sg. wundor
dēaðe, 3038.

wundor-fæt, st. n., _wonder-vat, strange vessel_: dat. pl. of wundor-fatum
(_from wondrous vessels_), 1163.

wundor-līc, adj., _wonder like, remarkable_: nom. sg., 1441.

wundor-māððum, st. m., _wonder-jewel, wonderful treasure_: acc. sg., 2174.

wundor-smið, st. m., _wonder-smith, skilled smith, worker of marvellous
things_: gen. pl. wundor-smiða geweorc (the ancient giant's sword), 1682.

wundor-sēon, st. f., _wondrous sight_: gen. pl. wunder-sīona, 996.

wunian, w. v.: 1) _to stand, exist, remain_: pres. sg. III. þenden þǣr
wunað on hēah-stede hūsa sēlest (_as long as the best of houses stands
there on the high place_), 284; wunað hē on wiste (_lives in plenty_),
1736; inf. on sele wunian (_to remain in the hall_), 3129; pret. sg. wunode
mid Finne (_remained with F._), 1129.--2) w. acc. or dat., _to dwell in, to
inhabit, to possess_: pres. sg. III. wunað wæl-reste (_holds his
death-bed_), 2903; inf. wæter-egesan wunian scolde..., strēamas, 1261;
wīcum wunian, 3084; w. prep.: pres. sg. Higelāc þǣr æt hām wunað, 1924.

ge-wunian, w. acc.: 1) _to inhabit_: inf. ge-[wunian], 2276.--2) _to remain
with, stand by_: subj. pres. þæt hine on ylde eft ge-wunigen wil-ge-sīðas,

wurðan. See weorðan.

wuton, v. from wītan, used as interj., _let us go! up!_ w. inf.: wutun
gangan tō (_let us go to him!_), 2649; uton hraðe fēran! 1391; uton nū
efstan, 3102.

wylf, st. f., _she-wolf_: in comp. brim-wylf.

wylm, st. m., _surge, surf, billow_: num. sg. flōdes wylm, 1765; dat.
wintres wylme (_with winter's flood_), 516; acc. sg. þurh wæteres wylm,
1694; acc. pl. heortan wylmas, 2508.--Comp.: brēost-, brim-, byrne-, cear-,
fȳr-, heaðo-, holm-, sǣ-, sorh-wylm. See wælm.

wyn, st. f., _pleasantness, pleasure, joy, enjoyment_: acc. sg. mǣste ...
worolde wynne (_the highest earthly joy_), 1081; eorðan wynne (_earth-joy,
the delightful earth_), 1731; heofenes wynne (_heaven's joy_, the rising
sun), 1802; hearpan wynne (_harp-joy, the pleasant harp_), 2108; þæt hē ...
ge-drogen hæfde eorðan wynne (_that he had had his earthly joy_), 2728;
dat. sg. weorod wæs on wynne, 2015; instr. pl. mægenes wynnum (_in joy of
strength_), 1717; so, 1888.--Comp.: ēðel-, hord-, līf-, lyft-, symbel-wyn.

wyn-lēas, adj., _joyless_: acc. sg. wyn-lēasne wudu, 1417; wyn-lēas wīc,

wyn-sum, adj., _winsome, pleasant_: acc. sg. wudu wyn-suman (_the ship_),
1920; nom. pl. word wǣron wyn-sume, 613.

wyrcan, v. irreg.: 1) _to do, effect_, w. acc.: inf. (wundor) wyrcan,
931.--2) _to make, create_, w. acc.: pret. sg. þæt se æl-mihtiga eorðan
worh[te], 92; swā hine _(the helmet_) worhte wǣpna smið, 1453.--3) _to
gain, win, acquire_, w. gen.: subj. pres. wyrce, sē þe mōte, dōmes ǣr
dēaðe, 1388.

be-wyrcan, _to gird, surround_: pret. pl. bronda betost wealle be-worhton,

ge-wyrcan: 1) intrans., _to act, behave_: inf. swā sceal geong guma gōde
gewyrcean ... on fæder wine þæt ... (_a young man shall so act with
benefits towards his father's friends that_ ...), 20.--2) w. acc., _to do,
make, effect, perform_: inf. ne meahte ic æt hilde mid Hruntinge wiht
ge-wyrcan, 1661; sweorde ne meahte on þām āglǣcan ... wunde ge-wyrcean,
2907; pret. sg. ge-worhte, 636, 1579, 2713; pret. part. acc. ic þā lēode
wāt ... fæste ge-worhte. 1865.--3) _to make, construct_: inf. (medo-ærn)
ge-wyrcean, 69; (wīg-bord) ge-wyrcean, 2338; (hlǣw) ge-wyrcean, 2803; pret.
pl. II. ge-worhton, 3097; III. ge-worhton, 3158; pret. part. ge-worht,
1697.--4) _to win, acquire_: pres. sg. ic mē mid Hruntinge dōm ge-wyrce,

Wyrd, st. f., _Weird_ (one of the Norns, guide of human destiny; mostly
weakened down = _fate, providence_): nom. sg., 455, 477, 572, 735, 1206,
2421, 2527, 2575, 2815; acc. sg. wyrd, 1057, 1234; gen. pl. wyrda, 3031.
(Cf. Weird Sisters of Macbeth.)

wyrdan, w. v., _to ruin, kill, destroy_: pret. sg. hē tō lange lēode mine
wanode and wyrde, 1338.

ā-wyrdan, w. v., _to destroy, kill_: pret. part.: æðeling monig wundum
ā-wyrded, 1114.

wyrðe, adj., _noble; worthy, honored, valued_: acc. sg. m. wyrðne (ge-dōn)
(_to esteem worthy_), 2186; nom. pl. wyrðe, 368; compar. nom. sg. rīces
wyrðra (_worthier of rule_), 862.--Comp. fyrd-wyrðe. See weorð.

wyrgen, st, f., _throttler_ [cf. sphinx], _she-wolf_; in comp.

ge-wyrht, st. n., _work; desert_; in comp. eald-gewyrht, 2658.

wyrm, st. m., _worm, dragon, drake_: nom. sg., 898, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630,
2670, 2746, 2828; acc. sg. wyrm, 887, 892, 2706, 3040, 3133; dat. sg.
wyrme, 2308, 2520; gen. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; acc. pl.
wyrmas, 1431.

wyrm-cyn, st. m., _worm-kin, race of reptiles, dragons_: gen. sg.
wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426.

wyrm-fāh, adj., _dragon-ornamented, snake-adorned_ (ornamented with figures
of dragons, snakes, etc.: cf. Dietrich in Germania X., 278): nom. sg.
sweord ... wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fāh, 1699.

wyrm-hord, st. n., _dragon-hoard_: gen. pl. wyrm-horda, 2223.

for-wyrnan, w. v., _to refuse, reject_: subj. pres. II. þæt þū mē nō
for-wyrne, þæt... (_that thou refuse me not that_...), 429; pret. sg. hē ne
for-wyrnde worold-rǣdenne, 1143.

ge-wyrpan, w. v. reflex., _to refresh one's self, recover_: pret. sg. hē
hyne ge-wyrpte, 2977.

wyrpe, st. m., _change_: acc. sg. æfter wēa-spelle wyrpe ge-fremman (_after
the woe-spell to bring about a change of things_), 1316.

wyrsa, compar. adj., _worse_: acc. sg. neut. þæt wyrse, 1740; instr. sg.
wyrsan wrixle, 2970; gen. sg. wyrsan geþinges, 525; nom. acc. pl. wyrsan
wīg-frecan, 1213, 2497.

wyrt, st. f., [_-wort_], _root_: instr. pl. wudu wyrtum fæst, 1365.

wȳscan, w. v., _to wish, desire_: pret. sg. wīscte (rihde, MS.) þæs yldan
(_wished to delay that_ or _for this reason_, 2440, 1605(?). See Note.


yfel, st n., _evil_: gen. pl. yfla, 2095.

yldan, w. v., _to delay, put off_: inf. nē þæt se āglǣca yldan þōhte, 740;
weard wine-geōmor wīscte þæs yldan, þæt hē lȳtel fæc long-gestrēona brūcan
mōste, 2240.

ylde, st. m. pl., _men_: dat. pl. yldum, 77, 706, 2118; gen. pl. ylda, 150,
606, 1662. See elde.

yldest. See eald.

yldo, st. f., _age (senectus), old age_: nom. sg., 1737, 1887; atol yldo,
1767; dat. sg. on ylde, 22.--2) _age (ǣtas), time, era_: gen. sg. yldo
bearn, 70. See eldo.

yldra. See eald.

ylf, st. f., _elf (incubus, alp_): nom. pl. ylfe, 112.

ymb, prep. w. acc.: 1) local, _around, about, at, upon_: ymb hine (_around,
with, him_), 399. With prep, postponed: hine ymb, 690; ymb brontne ford
(_around the seas, on the high sea_), 568; ymb þā gif-healle (_around the
gift-hall, throne-hall_), 839; ymb þæs helmes hrōf (_around the helm's
roof, crown_), 1031.--2) temporal, _about, after_: ymb ān-tīd ōðres dōgores
(_about the same time the next day_), 219; ymb āne niht (_after a night_),
135.--3) causal, _about, on account of, for, owing to_: (frīnan) ymb þīnne
sīð (_on account of, concerning?, thy journey_), 353; hwæt þū ... ymb
Brecan sprǣce (_hast spoken about B._), 531; so, 1596, 3174; nā ymb his līf
cearað (_careth not for his life_), 1537; so, 450; ymb feorh sacan, 439;
sundor-nytte behēold ymb aldor Dena, 669; ymb sund (_about the swimming,
the prize for swimming_), 507.

ymbe, I. prep. w. acc. = ymb: 1) local, 2884, 3171; hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf
(prep, postponed), 2297. 2) causal, 2071, 2619.--II. adv., _around_: him
... ymbe, 2598.

ymb-sittend, pres. part., _neighbor_ gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.

ymbe-sittend, the same: nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1828; gen. pl.
ymbe-sittendra, 2735.

yppe, w. f., _high seat, dais, throne_: dat. sg. ēode ... tō yppan, 1816.

yrfe, st. n., _bequest, legacy_: nom. sg., 3052.

yrfe-lāf, st. f., _sword left as a bequest_: acc. sg. yrfe-lāfe, 1054;
instr. sg. yrfe-lāfe, 1904.

yrfe-weard, st. m., _heir, son_: nom. sg., 2732; gen. sg. yrfe-weardes,
2454. (-as, MS.)

yrmðo, st. f., _misery, shame, wretchedness_: acc. sg. yrmðe, 1260, 2006.

yrre, st. n., _anger, ire, excitement_: acc. sg. godes yrre, 712; dat. sg,
on yrre, 2093.

yrre, adj., _angry, irate, furious_: nom. sg. yrre ōretta (Bēowulf), 1533;
þegn yrre (the same), 1576; gæst yrre (Grendel), 2074; nom. pl. yrre, 770.
See eorre.

yrringa, adv., _angrily, fiercely_, 1566, 2965.

yrre-mōd, adj., _wrathful-minded, wild_: nom. sg., 727.

ys, _he is_. See wesan.


ȳð (O.H.G. unda), st. f., _wave; sea_: nom. pl. ȳða, 548; acc. pl. ȳðe,
46, 1133, 1910; dat. pl. ȳðum, 210, 421, 534, 1438, 1908; ȳðum weallan
(_to surge with waves_), 515, 2694; gen. pl. ȳða, 464, 849, 1209, 1470,
1919.--Comp: flōd-, līg-, wæter-ȳð.

ȳðan, w. v., _to ravage, devastate, destroy_: pret. sg. ȳðde eotena cyn,
421 (cf. īðende = _depopulating_, Bosworth, from AElfric's Glossary; pret.
ȳðde, Wanderer, 85).

ȳðe. See ēaðe.

ȳðe-līce, adv., _easily_: ȳðe-līce hē eft ā-stōd (_he easily arose
afterwards_), 1557.

ȳð-gebland, st. n., _mingling_ or _surging waters, water-tumult_: nom. sg.
-geblond, 1374, 1594; nom. pl. -gebland, 1621.

ȳð-gewin, st. n., _strife with the sea, wave-struggle, rushing of water_:
dat. sg. ȳð-gewinne, 2413; gen. sg. -gewinnes, 1435.

ȳð-lād, st. f., _water-journey, sea-voyage_: nom. pl. ȳð-lāde, 228.

ȳð-lāf, st. f., _water-leaving, what is left by the water (undarum
reliquiae), shore_: dat. sg. be ȳð-lāfe, 566.

ȳð-lida, w. m., _wave-traverser, ship_: acc. sg. ȳð-lidan, 198.

ȳð-naca, w. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg. [ȳð-]nacan, 1904.

ȳð-gesēne. See ēð-gesȳne.

ȳwan, w. v. w. acc., _to show_: pret. sg. an-sȳn ȳwde (_showed itself,
appeared_), 2835. See ēawan, ēowan.

ge-ȳwan, w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to lay before, offer_: inf.,


ābrecan, st. v., _to shatter_: part. his byrne ābrocen wǣre (_his byrnie
was shattered_).

ānyman, st. v., _to take, take away_.

bān-helm, st. m., _bone-helmet; skull_, [_shield_, Bosw.].

buruh-þelu, st. f., _castle-floor_.

cēlod, part, (adj.?), _keeled_, i.e. boat-shaped or hollow.

dagian, w. v., _to dawn_: nē þis nē dagiað ēastan (_this is not dawning
from the east_).

dēor-mōd, adj., _brave in mood_: dēor-mōd hæleð.

driht-gesīð, st m., _companion, associate_.

ēastan, adv., _from the east_.

eorð-būend, st. m., _earth-dweller, man_.

fēr, st. m. _fear, terror_.

fȳren, adj., _flaming, afire_: nom. f. swylce eal Finns-buruh fȳrenu wǣre
(_as if all Finnsburh were afire_).

gehlyn, st. n., _noise, tumult_.

gellan, st. v., _to sing_ (i.e. ring or resound): pres. sg. gylleð
grǣg-hama (_the gray garment_ [byrnie] _rings_); (_the gray wolf

genesan, st. v., _to survive, recover from_: pret. pl. þā wīgend hyra wunda
genǣson (_the warriors were recovering from their wounds_).

gold-hladen, adj., _laden with gold_ (wearing heavy gold ornaments).

grǣg-hama, w. m., _gray garment, mail-coat_; (_wolf_?--Brooke).

gūð-wudu, st. m., _war-wood, spear_.

hæg-steald, st. m., _one who lives in his lord's house, a house-carl._

heaðo-geong, adj., _young in war._

here-sceorp, st. n., _war-dress, coat of mail_.

hleoðrian, w. v., _to speak, exclaim_: pret. sg. hleoðrode ... cyning (_the
prince exclaimed_).

hrǣw, st. n., _corpse_.

hrōr, adj., _strong_: here-sceorpum hrōr (_strong_ [though it was] _as
armor_, Bosw.).

lac (lað?)? for flacor, _fluttering?_

oncweðan, st. v., _to answer_: pres. sg. scyld scefte oncwyð (_the shield
answers the spear_).

onwacnian, w. v., _to awake, arouse one's self_: imper. pl. onwacnigeað
..., wīgend mine (_awake, my warriors!_).

sceft (sceaft), st. m., _spear, shaft_.

sealo-brūn, adj., _dusky-brown_.

sige-beorn, st. m., _victorious hero, valiant warrior_.

swæðer (swā hwæðer), pron., _which of two, which_.

swān, st. m., _swain, youth; warrior_.

sweart, adj., _swart, black_.

swēt, adj., _sweet_: acc. m. swētne medo ... forgyldan (_requite the sweet
mead_, i.e. repay, by prowess in battle, the bounty of their chief).

swurd-lēoma, w. m., _sword-flame, flashing of swords_.

þyrl, adj., _pierced, cloven_.

undearninga, adv., _without concealment, openly_.

wandrian, w. v., _to fly about, hover_: pret. sg. hræfn wandrode (_the
raven hovered_).

waðol, st. m., _the full moon_ [Grein]; [adj., _wandering_, Bosw.].

wæl-sliht (-sleaht), st. m., _combat, deadly struggle_: gen. pl. wæl-slihta
gehlyn (_the din of combats_)

weā-dǣd, st. f., _deed of woe_: nom. pl. ārisað weā-dǣda.

witian (weotian), w. v., _to appoint, determine_: part. þē is ... witod.

wurðlīce (weorðlīce), adv., _worthily, gallantly_: compar. wurð-līcor.

wæg, weg, st. m., _way_.


ARGUMENT, recals = recalls ll. 131, 737 þryð-swyð = þrȳð-sw̄ð l. 256 ōfest
= ōfost l. 303 scīonon = scionon l. 706 buton = būton l. 1115 āt = æt l.
1133 wīð = wið ll. 1304, 1560, 1616 missing caesuras supplied l. 1436
here-stræl = here-strǣl l. 1642 feōwer- = fēower l. 1747 stræle = strǣle l.
1828 þywað = þȳwað l. 1926 betlic = betlīc l. 2224 gescēod = gesceōd ll.
2288, 3036 wās = wæs l. 2453 to = tō l. 2503 Huga = Hūga (marked long,
correctly, in the list of names, but not elsewhere) l. 2586 niðe = nīðe l.
2587 sið = sīð l. 2684 irenna = īrenna l. 2915 Hugas = Hūgas l. 2956
hēaðo-liðendum = heaðo-līðendum l. 3000 Þāt = Þæt; feōnd- = fēond- l. 3056
sóð = sōð l. 3137 Hrōnes = Hrones list of names, under: Dene, Scedenīgge =
Scedenigge Ēadgils, Ohthere = Ōhthere Frēawaru, Freawaru = Frēawaru
Hrōðgār, Hrōð-gāre = Hrōðgāre Hygelac, Hǣreð = Hæreð notes, for l. 31, of
l. 31 = of l. 30 l. 1441, wōð- = wǣg- l. 1916, leōfra = lēofra glossary,
under: æðele, Beowulf's = Bēowulf's ān, gehwilces = gehwylces ǣg-hwā,
ǣgh-wæs = ǣghwæs æt-beran, beadolāce = beadulāce beadu-lāc, beado- = beadu-
(twice) bēag, beages = bēages beorh, hēaford- = hēafod bēodan, leodum =
lēodum bēon, cwēnlic = cwēnlīc biddan, bliðne = blīðne bitter, stræle =
strǣle ge-bīdan, therefor = therefore on-bīdan, earfōðlīce = earfoðlīce
brecan, lētdse = lēt se burne, of of = of būtan, swīce = swice cempa, Huga
= Hūga ge-cēosan, usic = ūsic on-cirran, wealdendas = wealdendes corðer, þæ
= þā cūð, wīð- = wīd- cunnan, þēawe = þēaw dōgor, gehwam = gehwām dōn,
ymbsittend = ymbesittend; hettend = hetend; þywað = þȳwað drīfan, feoran =
feorran dryhten, frēah- = frēa- dryht-scipe, drihtscipe = drihtscype
ge-dȳgan, wræcsið = wræcsīð eal, oncyððe = oncȳððe ealdor, herestræl =
herestrǣl ēacen-cræftig, iūmanna = iūmonna eofor-sprēot, hocyhtum =
hōcyhtum eorlīc, eorlic [ellen] = eorlīc fāh, wāldrēore = wældrēore fela,
maððum- = māððum- oð-ferian, panon = þonan fēran, wære = wǣre fēond, feonda
= fēonda flēon, fenhōpu = fenhopu floga, wīð- = wīd- folc-toga, Hrōðgar =
Hrōðgār for, wonhydum = wonhȳdum; handgeweorc = hondgeweorc fōt-gemearc,
long = lang ge-frignan, þeodcyninga = þēodcyninga ge-fyrðran, fratwum =
frætwum ge-fȳsan, to sēcanne = tō sēceanne gān, swa = swā; [or] giong =
gīong; flore = flōre; sīttan = sittan ge-gan, Wīglaf = Wīglāf gār-wiga,
Wīglaf = Wīglāf gæst, fēde- = fēðe- gegn-cwide, þinra = þīnra ge-gyrwan,
yðlidan = ȳðlidan gēoc, gást = gāst geōmore-līc, [bið] geōmorlic =
geōmorlīc for-gildan, therefor = therefore gold-wlanc, guðrinc = gūðrinc
grētan, walgǣst = wælgǣst grim, searo-grimm = searo-grim habban, gecorene =
gecorone wið-habban, winsele = wīnsele hatan, sǣliðend = sǣlīðend hatian,
guð-sceaða = gūð-sceaða hār, heāre = hēare here-strǣl, -stræl = strǣl
heard, -stræl = -strǣl; regen- = regn- heorte, starc- = stearc heoro-drēor,
heoro-dreore (citation) = heoro-drēore hlið, hliðu = hliðo (twice) hōp, hōp
= hop (twice) hreow, þāt = þæt hrōf, gesēah = geseah hwīl, seo = sēo
hȳran, ǣghwilc = ǣghwylc inne, abēad = ābēad īren, drihtlīc = dryhtlīc
lāð, gewiðru = gewidru; scynnum = scinnum be-lēan, beleān = belēan mētan,
Aescheres = Æscheres mearcian, mōrhōpu = mōrhopu ge-mearian, hwam = hwām
morðor-bed, stred = strēd mōd, stið- = stīð nǣnig, horð-māðum = hord-māððum
on, hēaðe = heoðe; willen = willan rǣd, fǣst- = fæst reccan, hu = hū rīdan,
gealgan = galgan sang, -leasne = lēasne sceapan, Hugas = Hūgas (twice)
scānan, scīonon = scionon scīnan, scīnon = scinon secg, synnigne = sinnigne
ge-sēcan, -cyððe = cȳððe ge-sīgan, ætsæcce = æt sæcce ge-slēan, ge-slōgan
= ge-slōgon standan, stræl = strǣl stapan, furðor = furður ge-steppan,
Ohtheres = Ōhteres stincan, þæ = þā styrian, ge-wiðru = ge-widru sweord,
maððum- = māððum ge-swīcan, þeodne = þēodne tēon (w. v.), nalæs = nalas;
teodan = tēodan tō, hælum = hǣlum; sitte = site; Eofore = Jofore ge-trūwan,
-wære = wǣre ge-twǣfan, ōððe = oððe þǣr, snotera = snottra þē, gimfæstan =
ginfæstan of-þincan, gehwam = gehwām ge-þolian, þāt = þæt þū, sǣlran =
selran þūsend, sēofon = seofan un-hēore, -speru = -sporu ūs, ǣg-hwilc =
ǣg-hwylc wacan, wōcon = wōcun werian, beaduscrūd = beaduscrūda be-werian,
scynnum = scinnum wēn, orlēg = orleg; ōr-wena = or-wēna weorðian, leōde =
lēode willa, wyllum = willum wilnian, fæðer = fæder nāt, hwilc = hwylc
(twice) ge-wītan, wære = wǣre

Changes to Vowel Quantities in the Revised Edition: (_Revisions that were
mentioned in the source text have been siltently incorporated and aren't
listed here. Unless otherwise noted, changes are to all related forms of
the word._) Abel = Ābel aglǣc (æglǣc) = āglǣc (ǣglǣc) āttor = attor āwā =
āwa begen = bēgen gebræd = gebrǣd breme = brēme Brosinga = Brōsinga cōfa =
cofa cymlīcor = cȳlīcor drusian = drūsian ēfstan = efstan eode (-iode)
[pret. of gān] = ēode (-īode) [and in compounds] fæger = fǣ [in cpd. un-
and l. 774 only] fīftena = fīftȳna feor(-e/-es/-um) = fēor- [except ll.
73, 934, 1844] forþam = forþām Fresan/Frysan = Frēsan/Frȳsan frinan
(gefrunon) = frīnan (gefrūnon) (of)geāfon = (of)gēafon gen = gēn genunga =
gēnunga gēo/gīo = geō/gio [and in compounts] gigant = gīgant Hǣðcyn =
Hæðcyn hēht = heht her = hēr ofer-higian = ofer-hīgian hliðe/hliðes =
hlīðe/hlīðes [dat. and gen. of hlið] hlifian = hlīfian Hreosna- = Hrēosna
(H)ūnferð = (H)unferð hydig = hȳdig hyda = hȳda læs = lǣs lixan = līxan
lyt(el) = lȳt(el) [and in compounds] Merewioingas = Merewīoingas meagol =
mēagol mearh [oblique cases], mear- = mēar- missere = missēre ne = nē [as
conjunct/disjunct] niwe = nīwe geniwian = genīwian niw-tyrwed = nīw-tyrwed
ōfost = ofost onettan = ōnettan oret/oretta = ōret/ōretta ōð = oð [and as
verbal prefix] scōp = scop [n. only] scyran = scȳran se = sē [as
substantive and relative] singal = singāl sīoloð (sēoloð) = sioloð sleac =
slēac stæl = stǣl swēlan = swelan Sweon = Swēon (ge)trūwan = (ge)truwan tux
= tūx twegen = twēgen tydre = tȳdre (un)tyder = (un)tȳder tyn = tȳn þrag
= þrā þritig = þrītig þryð = þrȳð þihtig/þyhtig = þīhtig/þȳhtig wag = wāg
wæfre = wǣfre wel = wēl [and in compounds] weōx = wēox wīga = wiga Wihstān
(Weohstān) = Wīhstān (Wēohstān) witig = wītig ge-witnian = ge-wītnian wræt
= wrǣt uhte = ūhte [and in compounds]

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