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Title: Cooley's Practical Receipts, Volume II
Author: Cooley, Arnold, Tuson, Richard
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber’s Note: This is Volume II. Volume I is etext 39733 at
the abbreviations used in this text. Near the end of this Volume II will
be found a list of publications referenced in the footnotes.

The original publication has been replicated faithfully except as shown in
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       *       *       *       *       *

                          COOLEY’S CYCLOPÆDIA


                           PRACTICAL RECEIPTS


                         COLLATERAL INFORMATION

                                 IN THE



           Medicine, Pharmacy, Hygiene, and Domestic Economy

                      DESIGNED AS A COMPREHENSIVE



                       GENERAL BOOK OF REFERENCE

                           HEADS OF FAMILIES

                             SIXTH EDITION


                    RICHARD V. TUSON, F.I.C., F.C.S.

                           FORMERLY LECTURER

                                VOL. II



                              A CYCLOPÆDIA
                        PRACTICAL RECEIPTS, &c.

                               VOLUME II

=Ink, Lithograph′ic.= _Prep._ 1. Mastic (in tears), 8 oz.; shell-lac, 12
oz.; Venice turpentine, 1 oz.; melt together, add, of wax, 1 lb.; tallow,
6 oz.; when dissolved, further add of hard tallow soap (in shavings), 6
oz.; and when the whole is perfectly combined add of lampblack, 4 oz.;
lastly, mix well, cool a little, and then pour it into moulds, or upon a
slab, and when cold cut it into square pieces.

2. (Lasteyrie.) Dry tallow soap, mastic (in tears), and common soda (in
fine powder), of each 30 parts; shell-lac, 150 parts; lampblack, 12 parts;
mix as last. Both the above are used for writing on lithographic stones.

3. (AUTOGRAPHIC.)——_a._ Take of white wax, 8 oz., and white soap, 2 to 3
oz.; melt, and when well combined, add of lampblack, 1 oz.; mix well, heat
it strongly, and then add of shell-lac, 2 oz.; again heat it strongly,
stir well together, cool a little, and pour it out as before. With this
ink lines may be drawn of the finest to the fullest class, without danger
of its spreading, and the copy may be kept for years before being

_b._ From white soap and white wax, of each 10 oz.; mutton suet, 3 oz.;
shell-lac and mastic, of each 5 oz.; lampblack, 3-1/2 oz.; mix as above.
Both the above are used for writing on lithographic paper. When the last
is employed, the transfer must be made within a week.

_Obs._ The above inks are rubbed down with a little water in a small cup
or saucer for use, in the same way as common water-colour cakes or Indian
ink. In winter the operation should be performed near the fire, or the
saucer should be placed over a basin containing a little tepid water.
Either a steel pen or a camel-hair pencil may be employed with the ink.

=Ink, Mark′ing.= _Syn._ INDELIBLE INK, PERMANENT I. Of this there are
several varieties, of which the following are the most valuable and
commonly used:——

1. Nitrate of silver, 1/4 oz.; hot distilled water, 7 fl. dr.; dissolve,
add of mucilage, 1/4 oz.; previously rubbed with sap green or syrup of
buckthorn, q. s. to colour. The linen must be first moistened with ‘liquid
pounce,’ or ‘the preparation,’ as it is commonly called, and when it has
again become dry, written on with a clean quill pen. The ink will bear
dilution if the writing is not required very black.

The POUNCE or PREPARATION. A solution of carbonate of soda, 1-1/2 oz.; in
water, 1 pint, slightly coloured with a little sap green or syrup of
buckthorn, to enable the spots wetted with it to be afterwards known.

2. (WITHOUT PREPARATION.) Take of nitrate of silver, 1/4 oz.; water, 3/4
oz.; dissolve, add as much of the strongest liquor of ammonia as will
dissolve the precipitate formed on its first addition, then further add of
mucilage, 1-1/2 dr., and a little sap green, syrup of buckthorn, or finely
powdered indigo, to colour. Writing executed with this ink turns black on
being passed over a hot Italian iron, or held near the fire.

3. Terchloride of gold, 1-1/2 dr.; water, 7 fl. dr.; mucilage, 2 dr.; sap
green, q. s. to colour. To be written with on a ground prepared with a
weak solution of protochloride of tin, and dried. Dark purple.

4. (Rev. J. B. Reade.) Nitrate of silver, 1 oz., tartaric acid (pure), 3
dr., are triturated together in a mortar in the dry state; a little water
is then added, by which crystals of tartrate of silver are formed, and the
nitric acid set free; the latter is then saturated with liquor of ammonia,
sufficient being added to dissolve all the newly-formed tartrate of
silver, avoiding unnecessary excess; lastly, a little gum and colouring
matter is added.

5. (Rev. J. B. Reade.) To the last is added an ammoniacal solution of a
salt of gold. Mr Reade has used for this purpose the ‘purple of Cassius,’
the hyposulphate, the ammonio-iodide, the ammonio-periodide of gold, but
any other compound of gold which is soluble in ammonia will do as well.
This ink is unacted on by nearly all those reagents which remove writing
executed with solutions of the salts of silver alone, as cyanide of
potassium, the chlorides of lime and soda, &c.

6. (Redwood.) Nitrate of silver and pure bitartrate of potassa, of each 1
oz. (or 4 parts), are rubbed together in a glass or Wedgwood-ware mortar,
and after a short time liquor of ammonia, 4 oz. (16 parts, or q. s.), is
added; when the solution is complete, archil, 4 dr. (or 2 parts); white
sugar, 6 dr. (or 3 parts); and powdered gum, 10 dr. (or 5 parts), are
dissolved in the liquor, after which sufficient water is added to make the
whole measure exactly 6 fl. oz., when it is ready to be bottled for use.
The last three are used in the same manner as No. 2.

7. (Dr Smellie.) From sulphate of iron, 1 dr.; vermilion, 4 dr.; boiled
linseed oil, 1 oz.; triturated together until perfectly smooth. Used with

8. (Soubeiran.) Nitrate of copper, 3 parts; carbonate of soda, 4 parts;
nitrate of silver, 8 parts; mix, and dissolve in liquor of ammonia, 100
parts. Used like No. 2.

9. (Ure.) A strong solution of chloride of platinum, with a little
potassa, and sugar and gum, to thicken.

10. The fluid contained between the kernel and shell of the cashew nut. On
linen and cotton it turns gradually black, and is very durable. This has

11. Sulphate of manganese, 2 parts; lampblack, 1 part; sugar, 4 parts; all
in fine powder, and triturated to a paste with a little water. Used with
types or stencil-plates; the part, when dry, being well rinsed in water.

12. Black oxide of manganese and hydrate of potassa are mixed, heated to
redness in a crucible, and then triturated with an equal weight of pure
white clay, and water, q. s. to give it due consistence. Used like the
last. (Brown.)

13. (Aniline Black Marking Ink.) This ink is prepared by means of two
solutions, one of copper, the other of aniline, prepared as follows:——

(1.) COPPER SOLUTION. 8·52 grams of crystallised chloride of copper, 10·65
grams of chlorate of soda, and 5·35 grams of chloride of ammonium are
dissolved in 60 grams of water.

(2.) ANILINE SOLUTION. 20 grams of hydrochlorate of aniline are dissolved
in 30 grams of distilled water, and to this are added 20 grams of solution
of gum Arabic (1 part of gum to 2 of water) and 10 grams of glycerin.

By mixing in the cold 4 parts of the aniline solution, with 1 part of the
copper solution, a greenish liquid is obtained which can be employed
directly for the marking; but as this liquid can only be preserved for a
few days without decomposition, it is advisable to keep the solution
separately, until the ink is required for use.

The ink may be used either with a pen, or a stencil plate and brush; if it
do not flow freely from the pen it may be diluted with a little water
without fear of weakening the intensity of the colour. At first the
writing appears of a pale green colour, but after exposure to the air it
becomes black, or it may be changed to a black colour immediately, by
passing a hot iron over the back of the fabric, or heating it over the
flame of a spirit lamp. As, however, a dry heat is apt to make the fibre
saturated with the ink, brittle, it is preferable to hold the marked
fabric over a vessel, containing water in full ebullition; the heat of the
vapour is sufficient to determine almost immediately, the reaction by
which aniline black is formed. After the steaming, the writing should be
washed in hot soapsuds, which gives the ink a fine blue shade. The ink is
not acted upon by acids or alkalies, and if care be taken that the fibres
are well saturated with it, there is no danger of its being removed by
washing. (‘Dingler’s Journal.’)

14. In addition to the above formulæ, the following of M. Henry may be
worthy of attention in large establishments where economy is an
object:——Take 1 oz. of iron filings and 3 oz. of vinegar, or diluted
acetic acid. Mix the filings with half the vinegar, and agitate them
continually till the mixture becomes thick, then add the rest of the
vinegar and 1 oz. of water. Apply heat to assist the action, and when the
iron is dissolved, add 3 oz. of sulphate of iron, and 1 oz. of gum
previously dissolved in 4 oz. of water; and mix the whole with a gentle
heat. To be used with brush and stencil plates.

15. (Crimson Marking Ink.) Dissolve 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, and 1-1/2
oz. of carbonate of soda in crystals, separately in distilled water, mix
the solutions, collect and wash the precipitate on a filter, introduce the
washed precipitate still moist into a Wedgwood mortar, and add to it
tartaric acid 2 dr. and 40 gr., rubbing together till effervescence has
ceased; dissolve carmine 6 grains, in liquor ammoniæ (·882) 6 oz., and add
to it the tartrate of silver, then mix in white sugar, 6 dr., and powdered
gum Arabic, 10 dr., and add as much distilled water as will make 6 oz.
(‘Pharm. Journal.’)

_Obs._ The products of the first two of the above formulæ constitute the
marking ink of the shops. They have, however, no claim to the title of
‘INDELIBLE INK,’ “which no art can extract without injuring the
fabric”——as is generally represented. On the contrary, they may be
discharged with almost as much facility as common iron-moulds. This may be
easily and cheaply effected by means of ammonia, cyanide of potassium, the
chlorides of lime and soda, and some of the hyposulphites, without in the
least injuring the texture of the fabric to which they may be applied. The
only precaution required is that of rinsing the part in clean water
immediately after the operation. The ‘marking ink without preparation’ is
more easily extracted than that ‘with preparation.’ The former has also
the disadvantage of not keeping so well as the latter, and of depositing a
portion of fulminating silver, under some circumstances, which renders its
use dangerous. The thinner inks, when intended to be used with type or
plates, are thickened by adding a little more gum, or some sugar.

=Ink, Mark′ing.= _Syn._ PACKER’S INK. Ink bottoms. Used by packers for
marking bales, boxes, &c.

=Ink, Perpet′ual.= _Prep._ 1. Pitch, 3 lbs.; melt over the fire, and add
of lampblack, 3/4 lb.; mix well.

2. Trinidad asphaltum and oil of turpentine, equal parts. Used in a melted
state to fill in the letters on tombstones, marbles, &c. Without actual
violence, it will endure as long as the stone itself.

=Ink, Print′er’s.= See PRINTING INK.

=Ink, Pur′ple.= 1. A strong decoction of logwood, to which a little alum
or chloride of tin has been added.

2. (Normandy.) To 12 lbs. of Campeachy wood add as many gallons of boiling
water, pour the solution through a funnel with a strainer made of coarse
flannel, or 1 lb. of hydrate, or acetate of deutoxide of copper finely
powdered (having at the bottom of the funnel a piece of sponge); then add
immediately 14 lbs. of alum, and for every 340 galls. of liquid add 80
lbs. of gum Arabic or gum Senegal. Let these remain for three or four days
and a beautiful purple colour will be produced.

=Ink, Red.= _Prep._ 1. Brazil wood (ground), 4 oz.; white-wine vinegar
(hot), 1-1/4 pint; digest in glass or a well-tinned copper or enamel
saucepan, until the next day, then gently simmer for half an hour, adding
towards the end gum Arabic and alum, of each 1/2 oz.

2. Ground Brazil wood, 10 oz.; white vinegar, 10 pints; macerate for 4 or
5 days; then boil as before to one half, and add of roach alum, 4-1/2 oz.;
gum, 5 oz.; and when dissolved, bottle for use.

3. As the last, but using water or beer instead of vinegar.

4. Cochineal (in powder), 1 oz.; hot water, 1/2 pint; digest, and when
quite cold, add of spirit of hartshorn, 1/4 pint (or liquor of ammonia, 1
oz., diluted with 3 or 4 oz. of water); macerate for a few days longer,
and then decant the clear. Very fine.

5. (Buchner.) Pure carmine, 20 gr.; liquor of ammonia, 3 fl. oz.;
dissolve, then add of powdered gum, 18 gr. Half a drachm of powdered drop
lake may be substituted for the carmine where expense is an object. Colour

6. (Henzeler.) Brazil wood, 2 oz.; alum and cream of tartar, of each 1/2
oz.; rain water, 16 fl. oz.; boil to one half, strain, add of gum
(dissolved), 1/2 oz.; and when cold, further add a tincture made by
digesting powdered cochineal, 1-1/2 dr., in rectified spirit, 1-1/2 fl.

7. (Redwood.) Garancine and liquor of ammonia, of each 1 oz.; distilled
water (cold), 1 pint; triturate together in a mortar, filter, and dissolve
in the solution, gum Arabic 1/2 oz.

=Ink, Se′pia.= See SEPIA.

=Ink, Sil′ver.= From silver leaf or powdered silver, as GOLD INK.

=Ink, Sympathet′ic.= _Syn._ DIPLOMATIC INK, INVISIBLE I. Fluids which,
when used for writing, remain invisible until the paper is heated, or
acted on by some other chemical agent. Sympathetic inks have been
frequently employed as the instruments of secret correspondence, and have
often escaped detection; but by heating the paper before the fire until it
begins to grow discoloured by the heat, the whole of them may be rendered

The following are the most common and amusing sympathetic inks:——1.
Sulphate of copper and sal ammoniac, equal parts, dissolved in water;
writes colourless, but turns YELLOW when heated.——2. Onion juice; like the
last.——3. A weak infusion of galls; turns BLACK when moistened with weak
copperas water:——4. A weak solution of sulphate of iron; turns BLUE when
moistened with a weak solution of prussiate of potassa, and BLACK when
moistened with infusion of galls.——5. The diluted solutions of nitrate of
silver and of terchloride of gold; become respectively DARK BROWN and
PURPLE when exposed to the sunlight.——6. Aqua fortis, spirits of salts,
oil of vitriol, common salt, or saltpetre, dissolved in a large quantity
of water; turns YELLOW or BROWN when heated.——7. Solution of chloride or
nitromuriate of cobalt; turns GREEN when heated, and disappears again on
cooling. If the salt is pure, the marks turn BLUE.——8. Solution of acetate
of cobalt, to which a little nitre has been added; becomes ROSE COLOURED
when heated, and disappears on cooling.——9. A weak solution of the mixed
chlorides of cobalt and nickel; turns GREEN. The last three are about the
best of our sympathetic inks.——10. Solution of acetate of lead; turns
BROWNISH-BLACK when exposed to the fumes of sulphuretted hydrogen.——11. A
weak solution of nitrate of mercury; turned BLACK by heat and sulphuretted
fumes.——12. Rice water or decoction of starch; turned BLUE by a solution
of iodine in weak spirit, and by the fumes of iodine, if the paper is
first slightly moistened by exposure to steam or damp air.

=Ink, Vi′olet.= The same as PURPLE INK, but weaker.

=Ink, Yel′low.= 1. From gamboge (in coarse powder), 1 oz.; hot water, 5
oz.; dissolve, and when cold, add of spirit, 3/4 oz.

2. Boil French berries, 1/2 lb., and alum, 1 oz., in rain water, 1 quart,
for half an hour, or longer, then strain and dissolve in the hot liquor
gum Arabic, 1 oz.

=Ink, Zinc Labels, to write on.= _Syn._ HORTICULTURAL INK. 1. Dissolve 100
gr. of tetrachloride of platinum in a pint of water. A little mucilage and
lamp black may be added.

2. Sal ammoniac 1 dr.; verdigris, 1 dr.; lampblack, 1/2 dr.; water, 10
dr.; mix.

=INK POW′DERS.= _Prep._ 1. Aleppo galls, 4 oz.; sulphate of iron, 1-1/2
oz.; gum Arabic, 1 oz.; lump sugar, 3/4 oz.; (all quite dry and in
powder); mix, and divide into 3 packets. A pint of boiling water poured
over one of them produces, in a few hours, a pint of excellent ink.

2. Aleppo galls, 3 lbs.; copperas, 1 lb.; gum Arabic, 1/2 lb.; white
sugar, 1/4 lb.; all in powder; mix, and divide into two-ounce packets, to
be used as the last. Ink powders are very useful in travelling.

=INK STAINS, to remove.= See SPOTS.

=INOCULA′TION.= _Syn._ INOCULATIO, L. In _medicine_ and _surgery_, the
application of poisonous or infectious matter to any part of the body for
the purpose of propagating a milder form of disease, and thus preventing
or lessening the virulence of future attacks. In this country the term is
generally restricted to the artificial propagation of smallpox. See

=INOSIN′IC ACID.= An acid said by Liebig to exist in the juice of the
flesh of animals, after it has deposited its kreatine.

=IN′OSITE.= A species of unfermentable sugar, discovered by Scherer in the
juice of flesh. It forms beautiful crystals.

=IN′SECTS.= _Syn._ INSECTA, L. A class of invertebrate animals belonging
to the subkingdom Annuloso. The true insect is defined as an articulated
animal, having six legs, 2 antennæ, 2 compound eyes; a small brain at the
anterior extremity of a double medullary cord; its circulation is effected
by a pulsating dorsal vessel, provided with numerous valves; its
respiration by tracheæ, which form 2 lateral trunks, and ramify through
the body. The generation of insects is oviparous. There are two distinct
sexes. The adult state is attained through a series of metamorphoses. In
general, every insect possesses 2 pairs of wings; the trunk in the adult
animal is usually composed of 3 chief parts——the head, thorax, and
abdomen. The trunk of an insect may also be described as consisting of 13
segments, of which 1 constitutes the head, 3 constitute the thorax, and 9
the abdomen. Insects are arranged in the following orders:——1.
Hymenoptera, including bees, wasps, ichneumon-flies, &c.——2. Coleoptera,
including all those kinds commonly called beetles.——3. Neuroptera,
dragon-flies, ephemeræ, white ants, &c.——4. Strepsiptera, the stylops,
&c.——5. Lepidoptera, the butterflies and moths.——6. Diptera, the house-fly
and other 2-winged insects.——7. Orthoptera, crickets, grasshoppers,
locusts, earwigs, &c.——8. Hemiptera, bugs, frog-hoppers, aphides, &c.——9.
Aptera, fleas, &c. There are several animals belonging to the classes
MYRIOPODA and ARACHNIDA which are commonly but erroneously called
‘insects.’ Of these the centipedes, spiders, and acarides, or mites, are
well-known examples. Several useful products, as SILK, WAX, HONEY,
COCHINEAL, LAC, CANTHARIDES, &c., are supplied by insects. The class
includes numerous creatures which are extremely destructive, and others
which are regarded as domestic pests. In the articles devoted to these
offensive insects various methods of exterminating them are noticed. A
powder for destroying insects has recently been introduced into this
country, and has been found peculiarly efficacious. This powder, which is
known under various names (INSECTS-DESTROYING POWDER, DUMONT’S
INSECTICIDE, &c.), is produced by the _Pyrethrum roseum Caucasicum_, a
composite flower growing wild in the Caucasus. The central or tubular
florets of the disc are alone employed, and when ground, furnish the
powder of commerce. This powder, though so destructive to insect life, has
no injurious effect upon man or domestic animals. See ACARI, ANT, BEE,


=INTEM′PERANCE.= Under this head we refer to habitual indulgence in the
use of spirituous or fermented liquors, whether accompanied or not by fits
of intoxication or drunkenness.

The pernicious influence of intoxicating liquors upon individuals and upon
society has been so often and ably exposed by the clergy, judges, and
magistrates, and by philanthropists of every kind, that it would be folly
to do more than refer to it here. Fully one half of the dark or
disreputable deeds of those who fill our gaols, and fully an equal
proportion of the poverty and wretchedness which pauperises our population
and crowds our workhouses, are traceable to this damning vice of the
Anglo-Saxon race——intemperance.

To cure HABITUAL DRUNKENNESS various means have been proposed, most of
which are more ingenious than useful. The following, however, deserves
respectful notice:——

Dr Kain, an eminent American physician, recommends tartar emetic, given in
alterative and slightly nauseating doses, for the cure of habitual
drunkenness. “Possessing,” he observes, “no positive taste itself, it
communicates a disgusting quality to those fluids in which it is
dissolved. These liquors, with the addition of a very small quantity of
emetic tartar, instead of relieving, increase the sensation of loathing of
food, and quickly produce in the patient an indomitable repugnance to the
vehicle of its administration. My method of prescribing it has varied
according to the habits, age, and constitution of the patient. A
convenient preparation of the medicine is 8 gr., dissolved in 4 oz. of
boiling water; 1/2 an oz. (say a table-spoonful) of the solution to be put
into half a pint, pint, or quart of the patient’s favorite liquor, and to
be taken daily in divided portions. If vomiting and purging ensue” (which
is seldom the case), “I should direct laudanum to allay the irritation,
and diminish the dose. In some cases the change suddenly produced in the
patient’s habits has brought on considerable lassitude and debility,
which, however, were of short duration. In a majority of cases no other
effect has been perceptible than slight nausea, some diarrhœa, and a
gradual but very uniform distaste to the menstruum.”

Dr W. Marcet has described the more or less disordered state of the brain,
nerves, muscles, and stomach, brought on by the continual use of alcohol,
even without intoxication being produced. The symptoms of this state,
which he terms CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM, are quite distinct from those of
DELIRIUM TREMENS, which is an acute and violent disturbance of the
nervous system. From experiments on a large number of patients, Dr Marcet
has arrived at the important conclusion, that oxide of zinc is the true
antidote in cases of slow alcoholic poisoning. It seems to act as a strong
tonic on the nerves, being at the same time a powerful sedative and

[Footnote 1: ‘On Chronic Alcoholic Intoxication.’ By W. Marcet, M.D.,

The symptoms of actual intoxication, or the disordered condition of the
intellectual functions and volition, produced by taking excessive
quantities of alcoholic liquors, need not be described.

Among the remedies employed to remove the ‘fit of drunkenness,’ the
preparations of ammonia, and the vegetable acids, are the most common and
important. About 2 or 3 fl. dr. of aromatic spirits of ammonia (spirits of
sal volatile), or a like quantity of solution of acetate of ammonia
(mindererus spirit), mixed with a wine-glassful of water, will in general
neutralise or greatly lessen the action of intoxicating liquors. In some
cases these fluids produced vomiting, which is, however, a good symptom,
as nothing tends to restore an inebriated person so soon as the removal of
the liquor from the stomach. Hence tickling the fauces with the finger or
a feather, until sickness comes on, is a method very commonly adopted by
drunkards to restore themselves to a sober state. The use of aromatic
water of ammonia was first suggested by Mr Bromly. With a like intention,
some persons have recourse to soda water, which acts by the free carbonic
acid it contains, and also as a diluent and, from its coldness, as a tonic
on the coats of the stomach. The carbonates and bicarbonates of soda and
potassa are also favourite remedies with habitual drunkards. Among the
vegetable acids, acetic acid is the one that appears to possess the
greatest power of removing intoxication; and after this follow the citric,
tartaric, malic, and carbonic acids. These substances are commonly taken
by soldiers before going to parade. The usual dose of vinegar is a small
teacupful. In the West Indies lime juice and lemon juice are had recourse
to. Both these juices act from the citric acid they contain. The use of
bitter almonds, as a means of lessening or retarding the effects of
fermented liquors was known to antiquity, and is still common among heavy
drinkers at the present day. Even small doses of medicinal prussic acid
have been foolishly taken with a like intention. See ABSTINENCE, ALCOHOL,

=INTERMIT′TENT FEVER.= _Syn._ AGUE. A disease consisting of paroxysms or
periods of fever with perfect intermissions or periods without fever.
Marsh miasmata, or the effluvia arising from stagnant water or marshy
ground, when acted upon by heat, are the most frequent causes of this
malady. For the prevention of ague in situations where it prevails
endemically, small doses of quinine should be taken two or three times a
day, and flannel clothing should be constantly worn.

_Symp._ Each febrile paroxysm is of three periods or stages——the cold, the
hot, and the sweating stage, and these occur in regular succession. The
cold stage commences with great languor and aversion to motion; a sense of
coldness down the back soon follows; then the extremities become cold, the
fingers shrunken, and the nails blue; the skin assumes that peculiar
condition which is commonly known as ‘goose-skin,’ the patient shivers,
his teeth chatter, and he is glad to draw close to the fire or envelop
himself in blankets. After this state of things has continued for a
greater or less time, the heat of the surface begins to return, the
patient has flushings and becomes warmer and warmer, and ultimately the
whole surface is of a dry burning heat; intense thirst, restlessness,
severe headache, and sometimes delirium, characterise this second or hot
stage. After this stage has continued for some time, another change comes
over the patient; moisture appears on the face and forehead, the harsh and
hot skin becomes soft, and at last a copious sweat breaks out over the
whole surface. This is the third or sweating stage, and after it has
passed, the several functions of the system return to their ordinary
condition. The paroxysm may return daily (QUOTIDIAN AGUE); or every other
day (TERTIAN A.); or every fourth day, including that of the first attack

_Treatm._ During the cold stage everything should be done to bring on the
hot; the patient should be placed in a warm bed, with warm pans or bottles
of water; he may be allowed the free use of warm diluent drinks. In the
hot stage the opposite course should be adopted; the coverings must be
diminished and lemonade and other cooling drink administered. In the
sweating stage there is no occasion for any treatment beyond care to avoid
checking the perspiration by premature exposure. During the intermission
the disease must be fought with the tonics, Peruvian bark, or its chief
alkaloid, quinine. The most effective form of this remedy is the sulphate,
which may be given in doses of from 2 to 4 gr. every three hours, the dose
being greater for a quartan than for a quotidian. See AGUE-CAKE, FEVER,


=IN′ULIN.= _Syn._ INULINE, ALANTINE, DAHLINE. A peculiar starch-like
substance, first obtained by Rose from the root of _Inula Helenium_ or
_elecampane_. It has been found in several other vegetables.

_Prep._ From the rasped root, by the same method that is adopted for
arrow-root or potato farina; or by boiling the sliced root in 7 or 8 times
its weight of water, and after filtration, whilst hot, allowing the
decoction to repose for a short time.

_Prop., &c._ Only very slightly soluble in cold water; very soluble in
boiling water, but is nearly all deposited as the solution cools; it is
precipitated by alcohol.

Inulin is distinguished from starch by giving a yellow or yellowish-brown
instead of a blue colour with iodine; in the decoction not being
precipitated by either acetate of lead or infusion of galls; and by the
precipitate formed in the cold decoction by an infusion of gall-nuts not
disappearing until the liquid is heated to above 212°, whilst the
precipitate from starch redissolves at 122° Fahr. It appears to be a
substance intermediate between starch and gum.

=I′ODATE′.= _Syn._ IODAS, L. A salt of iodic acid. The iodates closely
resemble the chlorates of the corresponding metals. They are recognised by
the development of free iodine when their solutions are treated with
reducing agents; thus, sulphuretted hydrogen passed into a solution of
iodate of potassium reduces this salt to an iodide, iodine being liberated
and sulphuric acid and water formed. They deflagrate like the chlorates
when heated with combustibles. They are all of sparing solubility, and
many are quite insoluble in water. They may be made by adding iodine to
soluble hydrates or carbonates, and crystallising the sparingly soluble
iodate from the very soluble iodide. See IODIC ACID, IODINE, and



_Prep._ 1. Iodate of sodium is dissolved in sulphuric acid in considerable
excess, the solution boiled for 15 minutes, and then set aside to

2. Decompose iodate of barium by dilute sulphuric acid.

3. (Boursen.) Iodine, 1 part; nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·5), 40 parts; mix,
keep them at nearly the boiling temperature for several hours, or until
the iodine is dissolved, then evaporate to dryness, and leave the residuum
in the open air at a temperature of about 59° Fahr.; when, by attracting
moisture, it has acquired the consistence of a syrup, put it into a place
where the temperature is higher and the air drier, when in a few days very
fine white crystals of a rhomboidal shape will form.

_Prop., &c._ Iodic acid is a crystalline solid, white or yellowish-white;
it is decomposed into oxygen and iodine by a heat of about 450° to 500°
Fahr.——a property of which we avail ourselves for the conversion of the
salts of this acid (iodates) into iodides. It is very soluble in water,
and is rapidly decomposed when heated with inflammable bodies. Iodic acid
is used as a test for morphia and sulphurous acid. It has been employed as
a tonic, stimulant, and alterative, in catarrhal hoarseness, strumous
cases, incipient phthisis, &c.——_Dose_, 3 to 6 gr.

_Test._ When iodic acid is mixed with an equal quantity of an alkaloid
(preferably quinine), on a capsule or watch-glass, and a drop or two of
water added, several distinct explosions occur, accompanied by the copious
evolution of gas. No other substance exhibits a similar reaction. See

A compound of iodine with a metal or other basic radical. The iodides
belong to the same class of bodies as the bromides and chlorides, and may
be, for the most part, made in the same manner. All the principal iodides
are noticed under the names of their respective bases. See IODINE, &c.

=I′ODINE.= I. _Syn._ IODUM, B. P.; IODINIUM (Ph. L. & D.), IODINEUM (Ph.
E.), L.; IODE, Fr.; IOD, Ger. An elementary substance accidentally
discovered in 1812, by De Courtois, a saltpetre manufacturer at Paris. It
was first examined and described by M. Clement, in 1813, and its precise
nature was soon afterwards determined by Sir H. Davy and M. Gay-Lussac. In
1819, some six years after its discovery, iodine was first employed in
pharmacy. The merit of the introduction of this powerful curative agent
into medicine is due to Dr Coindet, a physician of Geneva, who in that
year commenced a series of experiments upon it as a remedy for bronchocele
or goitre. It is found in each of the three kingdoms of nature, but exists
in greatest abundance in the vegetable family _Algæ_ (Seaweeds).

_Prep._ Iodine is principally manufactured in the neighbourhood of
Glasgow, from the mother-waters of kelp known as iodine lye.

1. Kelp, the half vitrified ashes of seaweed, is exhausted with water, and
the solution filtered; the liquid is then concentrated by evaporation
until it is reduced to a very small volume, the chloride of sodium,
carbonate of sodium, chloride of potassium, and other salts, being removed
as they successively assume the crystalline form; oil of vitriol is now
added, in excess, to the residual dark-brown mother-liquor (iodine-lye),
and the evolved gases are either kindled or allowed to escape by a flue;
the liquid, after standing some time, is decanted or filtered, heated to
about 140° Fahr., and mixed with as much binoxide of manganese as there
was oil of vitriol employed; the whole is then introduced into a
cylindrical leaden still, furnished with a very short head and connected
with 2 or 3 large globular glass receivers, and heat is applied, when
fumes of iodine are evolved and condensed in the receivers. During the
distillation very great care is taken to watch the process, and prevent
the neck of the still becoming choked with condensed iodine. For this
purpose the head of the still is usually furnished with a movable stopper,
by which the process may be watched, and additions of manganese or
sulphuric acid made, if required. To render the product pure, it should be
pressed between blotting paper, and then resublimed in glass or stoneware.

2. A solution of sulphate of copper, 4 parts, and protosulphate of iron, 9
parts, are added to the mother-liquid of the soda-works, as long as a
white precipitate is thrown down; this precipitate (iodide of copper) is
collected, dried, and mixed with its own weight of finely powdered black
oxide of manganese, and distilled by a strong heat in a retort, when dry
iodine passes over. By the addition of sulphuric acid with the manganese,
a less heat is required, but the product is wet with water, like that of
the last formula.

3. The residual liquor of the manufacture of soap from kelp (or other
iodine lye), of the sp. gr. of 1·374, is heated to 230° Fahr., with
sulphuric acid diluted with half its weight of water, after which the
liquor is allowed to cool, and is either decanted or filtered; to every 12
fl. oz. of the filtrate 1000 gr. of black oxide of manganese, in powder,
are added; the mixture is put into a glass globe or matrass with a wide
neck, over which is inverted another glass globe, and heat is applied by
means of a charcoal chauffer, when iodine sublimes very copiously, and
condenses in the upper vessel; as soon as the latter is warm, it is
replaced by another, and the two globes are thus applied in succession, as
long as violet fumes are evolved. The iodine is washed out of the globes
with a little cold water. A thin disc of wood, having a hole in its
centre, is placed over the shoulder of the matrass, to prevent the heat
from acting on the globular receiver. On the large scale, a leaden still,
as before described, may be employed, and receivers of either stoneware or
glass; and the addition of the sulphuric acid is made in a basin or trough
of stoneware or wood. _Prod._ 12 oz. yield 80 to 100 gr.

4. Another method of preparing iodine has been patented by a Mr Stanford,
which consists of compressing the wet weed, drying in an oven, and
distilling at a high temperature. The inventor claims that double the
usual amount of iodine is obtained besides other useful products.

5. Considerable quantities of iodine are now obtained from the
mother-liquor of Chilian saltpetre or nitre (nitrate of soda). In 1873, a
nitre refinery in Peru which separates the iodine in combination with
copper, as cuprous iodide, by means of bisulphide of soda and sulphate of
copper, produced 15,000 kilos of cuprous iodide, corresponding to 9000
kilos of iodine.

Other methods of obtaining it from Chilian nitre consist in treating the
mother-liquors left after the salt has been crystallised out with
sulphurous acid, until the separated iodine begins to redissolve. Nitrous
acid has also been substituted for sulphurous. The iodine so procured is
purified by sublimation, whilst that which remains in the residual saline
matter is removed by treatment with chlorine.

_Prop._ Iodine is usually met with under the form of semi-crystalline
lumps having a semi-metallic lustre, or in micaceous, friable scales,
somewhat resembling plumbago or gunpowder. By carefully conducted
sublimation, or by the slow evaporation of its solution in hydriodic acid,
it may be obtained in rhombic plates an inch long. It has a greyish-black
colour, a hot acrid taste, and a disagreeable odour not much unlike that
of chlorine. It fuses at 225° into a deep-brown liquid, volatilises slowly
at ordinary temperatures, boils at 347°, forming a magnificent
violet-coloured vapour, when mixed with water it rapidly rises with the
steam at 212° Fahr. It dissolves in about 7000 parts of water, and freely
in alcohol, ether, solutions of the iodides, liquid hydriodic acid,
chloroform, petroleum, bisulphide of carbon, &c. Most of these solutions
have the brown colour of liquid iodine, but some (particularly those
formed by the last three solvents named above) have the beautiful violet
colour of the vapour. It bleaches like chlorine, only more feebly. Iodine
has an extensive range of affinity; with the metals it forms compounds
termed iodides, of which several are used in medicine. Its principal
compounds with oxygen are the iodic and periodic anhydrides. Sp. gr. 4·946
to 4·948. According to Debaugne, the addition of syrup of orange peel or
tannin to water greatly increases its power of dissolving iodine. 2 gr. of
the latter will enable 6 fl. oz. of water to take 10 gr. of iodine. A
knowledge of these facts may prove useful to the pharmaceutist.

_Pur._ It is entirely soluble in rectified spirit, and in a solution of
iodide of potassium. On applying heat to it, it first liquefies, and then
(wholly) sublimes in violet-coloured vapour. The iodine of commerce is
usually that of the first sublimation, and generally contains from 12% to
20% of water. Some of the foreign iodine, prepared by precipitation with
chlorine, without subsequent sublimation, even contains 1-4th part of
water, and has a dead leaden-grey colour, and evolves a sensible odour of
chlorine. Coal, plumbago, oxide of manganese, crude antimony, and
charcoal, are also frequently mixed with iodine to increase its weight.
Water may be detected by the loss of weight it suffers when exposed to
strong pressure between bibulous paper; or more accurately by drying it in
the manner directed below,——chlorine may be detected by the odour, and the
other substances mentioned above, by their insolubility in rectified
spirit and in a solution of iodide of potassium. Before use as a medicine
it should be dried by being placed in a shallow basin, of earthenware, in
a small confined space of air, with 10 or 12 times its weight of
fresh-burnt lime, till it scarcely adheres to the side of a dry bottle, or
else prepared from the commercial iodine as follows:——Place it in a deep
circular porcelain capsule, and having covered it accurately with a glass
matrass filled with cold water, apply a water heat to the capsule for 20
minutes, and then allow the whole to cool; should the sublimate attached
to the bottom of the matrass include acicular prism of a white colour, and
a pungent odour, it must be scraped off with a glass rod, and rejected;
the apparatus is then to be again exposed to a gentle and steady heat
until the whole of the iodine has sublimed; the sublimate is, lastly, to
be collected from the bottom of the matrass, and at once enclosed in a
stoppered bottle.

_Tests._ Free iodine may be recognised by the violet colour of its vapour,
by its imparting a violet colour to bisulphide of carbon, and by its
striking a blue colour with starch. The latter test is so delicate, that
water containing only 1/450000th part of iodine acquires a perceptible
blue tinge on the addition of starch. Free iodine may be eliminated from
solutions of iodides by chlorine, nitric acid, concentrated sulphuric acid
and peroxide of manganese, and may be made evident by adding starch-paste.
This reagent serves to detect minute traces of iodine in insoluble as well
as in soluble compounds of that element. The substance under examination
is mixed in a retort with concentrated nitric acid, and a strip of white
cotton cloth moistened with a solution of starch suspended from the
stopper; in a few hours the cloth will become coloured blue if the most
minute trace of iodine be present. By mixing the liquid containing the
iodine with the starch and acid, and lightly pouring thereon a small
quantity of aqueous chlorine, a very visible blue zone will be developed
at the line of contact, even in very dilute solutions.

Iodides give a pale yellowish precipitate with nitrate of silver, scarcely
soluble in ammonia, and insoluble in dilute nitric acid; a bright yellow
one with acetate of lead; and a scarlet one with bichloride of mercury.
This distinguishes them from the iodates which give white precipitates
with the same reagents. In solutions of alkaline iodides, chloride of
palladium produces a black precipitate.

_Estim._ The proportion of free iodine in a mixture may be estimated: by
separating it by heat, and collecting and weighing the sublimate; by
solution in rectified spirit, adding water, and collecting the resulting
precipitate, which must then be dried and weighed; by dissolving it in a
solution of iodide of potassium, and then adding a standard solution of
hyposulphite of sodium, until the whole of the free iodine is taken up,
and the mixture no longer strikes a blue colour with starch. 24·8 gr. of
the hyposulphite are necessary to absorb 12·7 gr. of free iodine;[2] by
comparing the tint of a solution prepared by chloroform with that of a
standard solution containing a known quantity of iodine, as in Crum’s
process for estimating chlorine.

[Footnote 2: For details of this and other methods of accurately
determining the per-centage of iodine, free or combined, the reader is
referred to Sutton’s “Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis.”]

_Uses, &c._ Iodine is chiefly used as a medicine, a chemical test, and in
photography. Until within the last year it was largely used in the
manufacture of the green coal-tar colours; these latter are now chiefly
made from anthracene. In small doses it appears to be both alterative and
tonic, rapidly diffusing itself through the body, and exerting a
stimulating action on the organs of secretion. It is also said to be
diuretic, and in some cases to have produced diaphoresis and salivation.
Iodine has been exhibited in the following diseases, as well as in most
others depending on an imperfect action of the absorbents, or
accompanied by induration or enlargement of individual glands or
organs:——_Internally_, in bronchocele, goitre, Derbyshire neck, scrofula,
ovarian tumours, enlargement or induration of the lymphatic, prostate, and
parotid glands, amenorrhœa, leucorrhœa, diseases of the muco-genital
tissues, phthisis, chronic nervous diseases, lepra, psoriasis, chronic
rheumatism, dropsies, hydrocele, &c.:——_Externally_, in scrofula, numerous
skin diseases, (especially the scaly), erysipelas, diseased joints,
chilblains, burns, scalds, various wounds, to check ulceration, to promote
absorption, &c.——_Dose_, 1/2 gr. dissolved in spirit, or in water by means
of an equal weight of iodide of potassium. It is seldom exhibited alone,
being usually combined with the last-named substance, which, in fact, is
now generally preferred by practitioners. It is applied externally in the
form of ointment, solution, or tincture.

=Iodine, Bro′mides of.= Bromine and iodine unite rapidly by mere mixture.
By careful distillation a red vapour is obtained, which, on cooling,
condenses into red crystals, of a form resembling fern leaves. This is
said to be the protobromide (IBr). By adding more bromine, these crystals
are converted into a fluid, said to be a pentabromide (IBr_{5}).

=Iodine, Chlo′′rides of.= When dry chlorine is passed over dry iodine, at
common temperatures, heat is evolved, and a yellow solid terchloride
(ICl_{3}) results when the iodine is fully saturated, and an orange-red
liquid protochloride (ICl) when the iodine is in excess. They both absorb
moisture in the air, are volatile, and very soluble in water.

HYDRIODICUM, L. An acid compound of iodine and hydrogen. _Prep._ 1.
(GASEOUS).——_a._ Into a glass tube, closed at one end, introduce a little
iodine, then a small quantity of roughly powdered glass moistened with
water, next a few small fragments of phosphorus, and upon this some more
glass; this order (iodine, glass, phosphorus, glass) is to be repeated
until the tube is one half or two thirds filled; a cork and delivery tube
are then to be fitted, a gentle heat applied, and the gas collected by
‘downward displacement’ or over mercury. If the gas be passed into water a
solution of hydriodic acid will be obtained.

_Obs._ Hydriodic acid gas can only be retained a short time over mercury,
owing to its action on that metal.

_b._ Pour a little water over some pentiodide of phosphorus, previously
put into a glass retort, apply a gentle heat, and collect the gas as

_c._ Heat together in a retort water, iodide of potassium, iodine, and
phosphorus, and collect the gas as in _b_.

_d._ Place pure iodide of barium in a retort, and decompose it with
sulphuric acid.

2. (SOLUTION OF HYDRIODIC ACID.)——_a._ The gas prepared by either of the
above methods passed into cold distilled water.

_b._ Iodine, in fine powder, is suspended in water, and a stream of
sulphuretted hydrogen passed through the mixture as long as sulphur is
deposited, or until it becomes colourless. The liquid is then gently
heated, to expel the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, and either decanted
or filtered. A cheap and excellent process.

_c._ (MEDICINAL HYDRIODIC ACID.) Dr Buchanan.——Tartaric acid, 264 gr.;
pure iodide of potassium, 330 gr.; dissolve each separately in 1-1/2 fl.
oz. of water; mix the solutions, and when the precipitate has settled
decant the clear liquid, and add a sufficiency of water to make it up to
6-1/4 fl. oz. The liquid retains a little acid tartrate of potassium in
solution, but this does not interfere with its medicinal properties. This
preparation “possesses all the therapeutic powers of iodine without its
irritating properties.” (Pereira.)——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1 fl. dr., gradually
increased to 2 or 3 fl. dr., twice or thrice daily.

_Prop., &c._ Gaseous hydriodic acid is colourless, fumes in the air, is
very soluble in water, and has a density of about 4·4. Liquid hydriodic
acid, when strong, is very liable to decompose, and should be kept in
well-stoppered bottles. Both the gas and the solution are decomposed by
potassium, zinc, iron, and other metals, with the evolution of hydrogen
and the formation of salts called iodides.

IODIZED COTTON WOOL. (Mehu.) _Prep._ Finely powdered iodine (5 to 10 per
cent.) is strewn upon loose cotton wool in such a manner that the glass
jar in which this operation is performed contains alternate layers of
cotton wool and iodine. The mixture is gently heated in the open jar on a
water bath to expel the air; when this is accomplished the jar is closed
and the application of heat continued for about two hours, during which
the iodine vapour thoroughly penetrates the wool, imparting to it a yellow

=IODO′FORM.= CHI_{3}. _Syn._ IODOFORMUM, L. A solid, yellow,
crystallisable substance, obtained by the action of iodine on alcohol.

_Prep._ 1. An alcoholic solution of potash is added to tincture of iodine,
carefully avoiding excess; the whole is then gently evaporated to dryness,
the residuum is washed with water, and then dissolved in alcohol; the
alcoholic solution yields crystals by evaporation.

2. (Paris Pharmaceutical Society.) Pure carbonate of potash, 2 parts;
alcohol (84°) 5 parts; distilled water, 15 parts. The potash, water,
alcohol, and the iodine reduced to powder are placed together in a flask,
and the whole heated in a water bath until the decoloration of the liquid.
Another 1/2 part of iodine is then added and heat again applied, and the
addition of the element is repeated until the liquid remains slightly
brown coloured. It is then decolorised by the addition of one or two drops
of caustic potash solution, and upon cooling crystals of iodoform are

These are collected upon a filter, washed lightly with cold distilled
water, then dried upon blotting paper and enclosed in well-stoppered

By the evaporation of the mother liquor iodide of potassium is obtained.

_Prop., &c._ Nearly insoluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol; the
solution is decomposed by caustic potassa into formic acid and iodide of
potassa.——_Dose_, 1/2 gr. to 3 gr. Medicinal applications, the same as
those of iodine itself.

IPECACUANHÆ, IPECACUANHA (Ph. L. E. & D.), L. The dried root of _Cephaëlis
Ipecacuanha_, or the true ipecacuanha plant, one of the _Cinchonaceæ_.
“Ashy coloured, tortuous, very much cracked, and marked in rings with deep
fissures, having an acrid, aromatic, bitterish taste.” (Ph. L.) It occurs
in pieces 3 or 4 inches long, and about the size of a writing
quill.——_Dose._ As an emetic, 10 to 20 gr., assisted by the copious use of
warm water; as a nauseant, 1 to 3 gr.; as an expectorant and sudorific,
1/2 to 1 gr. It is undoubtedly the safest and most useful medicine of its
class. It has recently been highly recommended in dyspepsia, combined with
other bitters or aperients. Almond meal is sometimes used as an adulterant
in ipecacuanha powder.

The following is Bucholz’s analysis of ipecacuanha root:——

  Emetic extractive (emetina)   4·13
  Soft resin                    2·43
  Wax                           0·75
  Gum                          25·17
  Starch                        9·00
  Woody fibre                  10·80
  Bitter extractive            10·12
  Sugar                         2·00
  Extractive, gum and starch }
    extracted by potash      } 34·80
  Loss                          0·80

The annexed process for the determination of the emetina in ipecacuanha is
by Zenoffsky:——Take 15 grammes of the root, mix with 15 drops of dilute
sulphuric acid, and so much of 85 per cent. alcohol that the volume shall
be 155 c.c. Digest 24 hours, filter, measure 100 c.c. of the filtrate,
evaporate the alcohol, and add a deci-normal solution of iodo-hydrargyrate
of potassium until no more reaction takes place. The number of c.c. of
the reagent used multiplied by 0·0189 (1/10000th of an equivalent of
emetine) gives the amount of emetine in the 10 grammes of root to which
the 100 c.c. of liquid corresponds. The deci-normal solution of
iodo-hydrargyrate of potassium is made by dissolving 13·546 grammes of
mercuric chloride and 49·8 grammes of potassium iodide in water, and
making up to 1 litre.

Quantitative determination showed that one c.c. of such a solution
corresponds to 0·0189 gramme of emetine. To perform the volumetric
estimation, the standard solution is added to the liquid containing the
alkaloid, until no more turbidity is produced. To determine the end of the
reaction, filter a few drops on to a watch-glass (placed on black glazed
paper) and touch with a glass rod previously moistened with the standard
solution. To prevent loss both filter and filtrate should be returned to
the liquor.

=IRID′IUM.= Ir. A rare metal discovered by Descotils in 1803, and by
Tennant in 1804, in the black powder left in dissolving crude platinum.
This powder is an alloy of iridium with osmium. The metal is also found
native and nearly pure amongst the Uralian platinum ores.

_Prep._ The native alloy of iridium and osmium remaining after dissolving
crude platinum in aqua regia is reduced to powder, mixed with an equal
weight of dry chloride of sodium, and heated to redness in a glass tube,
through which a stream of moist chloride gas is transmitted. The further
extremity of the tube is connected with a receiver containing liquor of
ammonia. Chloride of iridium and chloride of osmium are produced; the
former remains in combination with the chloride of sodium; the latter,
being volatile, is carried forward into the receiver, where it is
decomposed into osmic and hydrochloric acids, which combine with the
ammonia. The contents of the tube, when cold, are treated with water to
dissolve out the double chloride of iridium and sodium; the solution thus
formed is mixed with an excess of carbonate of sodium, and evaporated to
dryness. The residue is ignited in a crucible, boiled with water, and
dried; it then consists of a mixture of sesquioxide of iron and a
combination of oxide of iridium with sodium hydrate. It is reduced by
hydrogen at a high temperature, and treated successively with water and
strong hydrochloric acid, which remove the alkali and the iron, leaving
metallic iridium in a divided state. By strong pressure and exposure to a
welding heat, a certain degree of compactness may be given to the product.

_Prop., &c._ Brittle, white, very hard, only fusible by the strongest heat
of Deville’s gas furnace. In its pure state it is not acted upon by any of
the acids, but it is oxidised by fusion and nitre, and by ignition to
redness in the air. An ingot of iridium, weighing 27-3/4 oz., melted by
Deville’s process, was displayed in Messrs Johnson and Matthey’s case at
the International Exhibition of 1862. An alloy of iridium and osmium
(artificial or native) has been employed for tipping the nibs of gold pens
(everlasting pens).

=Iridium, Chlo′rides of.= DICHLORIDE. IrCl_{2}. An olive-green powder
formed by transmitting chlorine over powdered iridium, heated to a dull
red, or by digesting the hydrated protoxide in hydrochloric acid.
SESQUICHLORIDE, Ir_{2}Cl_{6}, obtained by calcining iridium with nitrate
of potassium, digesting in nitric acid, washing with water, and solution
in hydrochloric acid. TETRACHLORIDE, IrCl_{4}, obtained in solution by
adding hydrofluosilicic acid to the tetrachloride of iridium and potassium
(formed when chloride is passed over a heated mixture of iridium and
chloride of potassium). HEXACHLORIDE, IrCl_{6}, obtained in combination
with potassium by heating iridium with nitrate of potassium, dissolving in
aqua regia, and evaporating to dryness.

=Iridium, Ox′ides of.= MONOXIDE, IrO, prepared by adding potassium hydrate
to the hexachloride of iridium, and digesting the precipitate in an acid.
It is a heavy black powder, insoluble in acid. SESQUIOXIDE, Ir_{2}O_{3},
is best prepared by fusing in a silver crucible a mixture of carbonate of
potassium and the double chloride of iridium and potassium, and boiling
the product in water. Bluish-black TRIOXIDE, IrO_{3}, is produced when
carbonate of potassium is gently heated with hexachloride of iridium. A
greyish-yellow hydrate, containing alkali.

=IRITIS.= A very dangerous disease of the eye, producing inflammation in
the iris or coloured circle which surrounds the pupil. Iritis is
frequently produced by rheumatism, as well as by scrofula and gout, and
often places the sight in great peril.

The symptoms are pains around the ball of the eye and on the brow, which
increase at night, cloudiness of the cornea, difficulty, and inequality of
contraction in the pupil, change of colour in the iris, frequently
disturbed vision, and much pain in and watering from the eye when the
patient is placed in the light, particularly a strong light.

We have described the principal symptoms of this serious disorder in order
that any one affected by them may at once seek the assistance of a skilful
surgeon or oculist.

=I′RON.= Fe. _Syn._ FERRUM, L.; FER, Fr.; EISEN, Ger. The history of this
most important metal extends to the remote past. The discovery of an iron
rod in one of the Assyrian bronzes brought to England by Mr Layard
established the interesting fact that this metal was known and commonly
employed, where strength was required, nearly 3000 years ago. Rust of iron
and scales of iron were used as medicines at a period equally remote.

_Sources._ Iron in a metallic state (native iron) is of very rare
occurrence; but it invariably enters into the composition of meteorites.
Combined with oxygen and other elements, as iron ores, it occurs in nearly
every part of the earth. These ores may be divided into the oxides and the
carbonates. The oxides may be again divided into four distinct classes,
viz.——(1) Magnetic iron ore, consisting of 31% protoxide and 69%
sesquioxide, with an insignificant proportion of silica; (2) specular
iron, or iron glance, composed of the sesquioxide, with a small admixture
of magnetic oxide; (3) red hæmatite, consisting of the sesquioxide nearly
in a state of purity; and (4) brown hæmatite, the hydrated sesquioxide of
iron. The carbonates are principally two, viz.——(5) spathose iron, the
protocarbonate of iron in a sparry condition, and (6) clay ironstone or
black band ironstone, which consists of the protocarbonates associated
with clay and carbonaceous matter.

Swedish iron is made almost entirely from No. 1, which occurs in massive
beds at Arendahl and Dannemora, in Sweden. This iron is of great purity,
being perfectly free from sulphur and phosphorus. The titaniferous iron
sand found at Taranaki, in New Zealand, consists almost entirely of No. 1
and the metal titanium. No. 2 found principally in the island of Elba, in
the form of rhombohedral crystals. The micaceous iron ore found in small
quantities in Wales and Lancashire has nearly the same composition, but
crystallises in brilliant plates. No. 3 occurs in radiated fibrous masses
in different parts of the world. It is found in large quantities in Wales
and Lancashire, some of the specimens from the latter locality containing
nearly 99% of the sesquioxide. It makes excellent iron. No. 4 occurs in
reddish-brown masses of a botryoidal form. It is a valuable ore, and is
found in England, Wales, and Scotland. No. 5 is found chiefly at Siegen,
in Prussia. No. 6 is the principal ore of the Staffordshire and Scotch
iron districts, where it occurs in great abundance, associated with the
fuel and the flux required for smelting it. Iron is contained in plants,
and forms an essential component of the blood of the higher animals.

_Prep., &c._ Iron is only prepared on the large scale, and an account of
the manufacture would be out of place here. Those requiring detailed
information must consult the elaborate works of Percy, Hunt, Fairbairn,
Phillips, and other metallurgists.

Pure iron may be prepared by introducing fine iron wire, cut small, 4
parts, and black oxide of iron, 1 part, into a Hessian crucible; covering
with a mixture of white sand, lime, and carbonate of potassium (in the
proportions used for glass-making); and, after applying a closely fitting
cover, exposing the crucible to a very high degree of heat. A button of
pure metal is thus obtained, the traces of carbon and silicon present in
the wire having been removed by the oxygen of the black oxide.

_Prop., &c._ The properties and uses of iron are too well known to require
description. Its applications are almost universal. It is remarkably
ductile, and possesses great tenacity, but is less malleable than many of
the other metals. Its sp. gr. is 7·844. It is the hardest of all the
malleable and ductile metals, and when combined with carbon (steel) admits
of being tempered to almost any degree of hardness or elasticity. In dry
air it does not oxidise at common temperatures; but at a red heat it soon
becomes covered with a scaly coating of black oxide, and at an intense
white heat burns brilliantly with the production of the same substance.
Pure water, free from air or carbonic acid, does not tarnish the surface
of polished iron, but the combined action of air and moisture, especially
when a little acid vapour is present, causes its surface to be soon
covered with rust, which is hydrated sesquioxide of iron (ferric hydrate).
Nearly all acids attack iron; dilute sulphuric and hydrochloric acid do so
with considerable energy and the evolution of hydrogen gas. At a red heat
iron decomposes water rapidly, hydrogen being evolved, and the black oxide
of iron formed. Iron is magnetic up to a dull-red heat, at which point it
loses all traces of that property. It melts at about 3300° Fahr. With
oxygen, chlorine, iodine, the acids, &c., it forms numerous important
compounds. As a remedial agent, when properly exhibited, iron acts as a
genial stimulant and tonic, and generally proves beneficial in cases of
chronic debility, unaccompanied with organic congestion or inflammation.
The carbonate (ferrous carbonate), as it exists in mineral waters, held in
solution by carbonic acid in excess, appears to be the form most congenial
to the human body; and from its state of dilution is rapidly absorbed by
the lacteals, and speedily imparts a ruddy hue to the wan countenance.
Iron is undoubtedly one of the most valuable articles of the materia
medica, and appears from the antiquity of its introduction into medicine,
and the number of its preparations, to have been deservedly appreciated.

_Tests._ Iron forms two classes of salts, namely, ferrous or proto salts,
in which iron exhibits a power of combining with two atoms of any monad
element, and the ferric or persalts in which iron has a capacity of
uniting with three atoms of any monad element.

The ferrous or proto salts have generally a greenish colour, but yield
nearly colourless solutions, except when concentrated. Their solutions
are known by the following reactions:——They are not precipitated by
hydrosulphuric acid when acid, and but incompletely when neutral. Sulphide
of ammonium produces a black precipitate, becoming brown on exposure to
the air, insoluble in alkalies, but easily soluble in the mineral acids.
Ammonia and potassa give a greenish-white precipitate, gradually becoming
green and then brown in the air. This precipitate occasionally is of a
bluish-black if excess of potassa is used. The presence of ammoniacal
salts interferes with the action of these tests. Ferrocyanide of potassium
gives a nearly white precipitate, becoming gradually blue in the air, and
immediately so on the addition of a little weak nitric acid or chlorine
water. Ferricyanide of potassium produces a rich deep-blue precipitate,
insoluble in hydrochloric acid. In highly dilute solutions the effect is
only a deep bluish-green coloration. Phosphate of sodium produces a white
precipitate, which after a time becomes green.

The ferric salts, which are also called the sesqui or persalts of iron,
have for the most part a reddish-yellow colour, yielding deep-coloured
solutions, which exhibit the following reactions:——They redden litmus
paper. Hydrosulphuric acid in acid solutions reduces ferric to ferrous
salts, giving a white or yellow precipitate of sulphur only. In alkaline
solutions it yields a blackish precipitate, consisting of sulphur and
ferrous sulphide. Sulphide of ammonium gives similar reaction. Ammonia and
potassa produce bulky reddish-brown precipitates insoluble in excess.
Ferrocyanide of potassium gives a rich blue precipitate, insoluble in
hydrochloric acid, and readily decomposed by potassa. Ferricyanide of
potassium deepens the colour, but does not give a blue precipitate, as it
does with ferrous salts (proto salts). Sulphocyanide of potassium gives an
intense ruby-red colour to neutral or acid solutions. Tincture and
infusion of galls strike a black colour. Phosphate of sodium gives a white
precipitate, which becomes brown, and finally dissolves on the addition of

_Estim._ The iron may be thrown down in the state of ferric hydrate or
hydrated sesquioxide, washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. The weight, in
grains, multiplied by ·7, indicates the weight of metallic iron.

Fifty gr. of the ore are reduced to powder, dissolved in aqua regia, with
the aid of heat, and the solution filtered in order to separate the silica
and a little alumina which sometimes is left in an insoluble state; an
excess of ammonia is then added to the filtered liquor, which produces a
reddish-brown precipitate of ferric hydrate mixed with alumina which is
collected on a filter, washed, and boiled with a solution of potassa, in
order to dissolve the alumina; the whole is next thrown upon a filter,
washed, dried, carefully ignited, and weighed. The above is well adapted
to determine the quantity of iron in clay ironstone, the most common
ferruginous ore in England.

The sulphur in cast and wrought iron, and steel, may be estimated by the
following process, invented by M. Koppmayer:——10 grammes of iron, finely
produced and sifted, are introduced into a bottle holding from 1/2 to
1/3rd litre. The stopper has three holes. Through one of these passes a
funnel with a ground-glass tap, its neck reaching to the bottom of the
bottle. Through the second passes the tube at right angles, fitted with a
tap and reaching also to the bottom of the bottle.

Through the third hole passes a delivery tube, connecting the bottle to
the condensing apparatus.

This latter consists of a series of bulbs arranged like a staircase, so as
to permit the gas to come into the greatest possible contact with the
standard solution of iodine in iodide of potassium, with which the
condenser is filled, this solution ought not to be exposed to light.

When the apparatus is arranged as above, the atmospheric air is first
driven out of the bottle by means of a current of hydrogen gas, introduced
by the tube bent at right angles. When it is considered that the air is
entirely expelled, the tap of this tube is closed. The funnel is now
filled with hydrochloric acid, its tap is opened, and by means of the
application of heat the acid is allowed to run down upon the iron without
allowing any common air to enter. Hydrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen are
formed which pass into the condenser.

Acid is thus added until all disengagement of gas ceases. The bottle is
then heated till its contents boil, a little water having been first added
by means of the funnel. After these operations, hydrogen is allowed to
enter anew to sweep out all remaining gases. The iodised solution is then
poured out, care being taken to rinse the bulb-tube thoroughly, and
titrated with hyposulphite of soda, so as to find the remaining proportion
of free iodine. The difference between the original amount of free iodine
present in the solution, and the amount thus found, shows the proportion
of iodine which has been converted into hydriodic acid, and which is
proportional to the sulphur contained in the sample under examination.

=Iron, Preparations of=:——

=Ferric Acetate.= Fe_{2}(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{6}. _Syn._ PERACETATE OF IRON;
FERRI SESQUIACETAS, L. _Prep._ Ferric carbonate, 1 part; acetic acid, 6
parts; digest three days and filter. A dark brownish-red, uncrystallisable
liquid, very soluble and powerfully astringent. The calcined sesquioxide
of iron of the shops, commonly sold as carbonate of iron, does not answer
well for this or any of the sesqui-compounds, owing to its being with
difficulty dissolved by acids, especially by the weaker ones.——_Dose._ (Of
the last) 10 to 25 drops, in water or wine.

=Ferric Albuminate.= _Syn._ FERRI ALBUMINAS, L. _Prep._

Precipitate a filtered solution of white of egg with another of ferric
sulphate or persulphate of iron, wash the deposit in water, and dissolve
it in alcohol holding potassium hydrate in solution.

This preparation is highly spoken of by M. Lassaigne as especially adapted
by its nature, on theoretical grounds, for combining with the tissues of
the body.

=Ferric Citrate.= Fe_{2}(C_{6}H_{5}O_{7})_{2}. _Syn._ PERCITRATE OF IRON,

_Prep._ By saturating a solution of citric acid in an equal weight of
water with freshly precipitated moist hydrated ferric hydrate, evaporating
at 150° Fahr. to the consistence of a syrup, and spreading on glass plates
to dry.

By either of the methods adopted for the AMMONIO-CITRATE, merely omitting
the addition of the ammonia. It much resembles the ammonio-citrate, but is
only slightly soluble in water, and has a rather less agreeable
taste.——_Dose_, 3 to 5 gr.

=Ferric and Ammonium Citrate.= _Syn._ AMMONIO-CITRATE OF IRON: AMMONIO
FERRIC CITRATE; FERRI AMMONIO CITRAS. L. There are several preparations in
which the term ‘citrate of iron’ has been applied. That commonly known
under this name is really a double citrate of iron and ammonia, and
appears to be correctly called ‘ammonio-citrate of iron.’

B. P. Liquor Ferric Persulphatis (B. P.), 8; liquor ammonia, 19-1/2;
citric acid (in crystals) 4; distilled water, a sufficiency, mix 14 of the
solution of ammonia, with 40 of water, and all gradually; the solution of
ferric sulphate stir constantly and briskly; let the mixture stand two
hours, and put into a calico filter and allow to drain. Wash well the
precipitate until it no longer gives a precipitate with barium chloride.
Dissolve the citric acid in 8 oz. of the water, and having applied the
heat of a water bath add the precipitate of ferric hydrate previously well
drained, stir them together until the whole or nearly the whole of the
hydrate has dissolved. Let the solution cool, then add 5-1/2 of the
ammonia, filter through flannel, evaporate to the consistency of syrup,
and dry it in thin layers on flat porcelain or glass plates at a
temperature not exceeding 100°.

_Prep._ (Ph. L.) Ferrous sulphate, 12 oz.; carbonate of sodium, 12-1/2
oz.; dissolve each separately in boiling distilled water, 6 pints; mix the
solutions whilst still hot, and allow the precipitate to subside; after a
time decant the supernatant liquor, wash the precipitate frequently with
water (drain it), add of citric acid (in powder), 6 oz., and dissolve by
the aid of a gentle heat; when the whole has cooled, add of liquor of
ammonia, Ph. L., 9 fl. oz., and gently evaporate to the consistence of a
syrup; in this state spread it very thinly on flat earthenware dishes (or
sheets of glass), dry by a gentle heat, and when dry keep it in
well-stoppered bottles.

(Ph. D.) Citric acid, 4 oz.; distilled water, 16 fl. oz.; hydrated ferric
oxide, obtained from the sulphate, 5 oz.; liquor of ammonia, 4 fl. oz., or
q. s.

(Wholesale.) A mixture of iron filings and citric acid, in powder, with
barely sufficient water to cover it, is kept in a warm situation for some
days, occasionally stirring the mass, and replacing the water as it
evaporates. A saturated solution is next made in distilled water, there
being previously added more citric acid (about half the weight of the acid
first used), as required; it is then neutralised with liquor of ammonia
(about 1-1/4 oz. of liquor of ammonia, sp. gr. ·882, to every gallon of
the solution of sp. gr. 1·025), and the solution is concentrated by
evaporation; the process is then completed as in No. 1. The first part of
this process produces a salt of the protoxide of iron, or ferrous citrate,
which is afterwards converted, by exposure to the atmosphere, into a
citrate of the magnetic acid, or ferri, ferro-citrate, and, lastly, into
citrate of peroxide of iron, or ferric citrate.

B. P. Liquor Ferri Persulphatis 8. Liquor ammoniæ 19-1/2. Citric acid (in
crystals) 4. Distilled water, a sufficiency. Mix 14 of the solution of
ammonia with 40 of water, and add gradually the solution of ferric
sulphate. Stir constantly, let the mixture stand 2 hours and filter
through calico, and allow to drain. Wash until the washing ceases to
precipitate barium chloride, dissolve the citric acid in 8 of water, add
the precipitated ferric hydrate, and heat in a water bath until dissolved.
Let the solution cool, add 5-1/2 of the ammonia, filter through flannel,
evaporate to the consistency of syrup, and dry on flat porcelain plates in
thin layers at a temperature below 100° F.

_Obs._ Pharmaceutical writers have been so diffuse in their disquisitions
on the preparation of this salt, as would lead to the inference that there
is some difficulty attending it. The contrary is, however, the case. The
only care necessary is to spread the syrup solution very thinly on warm
sheets of glass to dry, which it will rapidly do if they are placed in an
atmosphere of warm dry air, for which purpose a ‘drying closet’ is the
most convenient. The dry salt may then be easily detached from the glass,
and will form thin scales, or lamellæ, of great brilliancy and beauty. It
is also better to use a little more oxide than the acid will dissolve, as
the remainder will be employed in a future operation. Less water may be
used, or even a larger quantity than that mentioned; but in the first case
the liquid will become difficult to filter——in the latter it will require
more evaporation. Boiling water dissolves about twice its weight of citric
acid, and there remains 13/20ths of this quantity in solution when cold,
and it takes rather more than twice the weight of the citric acid in
moist hydrated protoxide of iron to produce saturation.

_Prop., &c._ This beautiful salt is of a rich ruby colour, and forms
glistening transparent scales, very soluble in aqueous menstrua, and the
resulting solution is less easily decomposed by reagents than the
solutions of most of the other salts of iron. It is ‘compatible’ with the
alkaline of carbonates and bicarbonates, and several other salts, and is
nearly tasteless, advantages which have been perhaps overrated by both
prescriber and patient. It is doubtful whether this article has not
obtained a larger sale from its pleasing appearance than from its
medicinal virtues. Several persons who have prepared it in lumps or
powder, by the simple evaporation of the solution to dryness, have been
unable to sell it under that form, even at a lower price.

Ammonio-citrate of iron is soluble in water; the solution neither changes
the colour of litmus nor turmeric; nor is it turned blue by ferrocyanide
of potassium; but either potassium hydrate or lime water being added, it
throws down ferric hydrate, and ammonia is evolved. From 100 gr. dissolved
in water, potassium hydrate precipitates about 34 gr. of ferric
hydrate.——_Dose_, 3 to 10 gr., in water, wine, or bitter infusions.

=Ferric and Strychnine Citrate.= (U. S.) _Syn._ FERRI ET STRYCHNIÆ CITRAS.
_Prep._ Citrate of iron and ammonia, 500 gr.; strychnia, 5 gr.; citric
acid, 5 gr.; distilled water, 9 fl. dr. Dissolve the citrate of iron and
ammonia in 1 oz. of the water, and the strychnia and nitric acid in 1 dr.
of distilled water. Mix the two solutions, evaporate the mixture over a
water bath, at 140° Fahr., to the thickness of a syrup, and spread on
glass plates, so that the salt, when dry, may be obtained in scales.

=Ferric and Magnesium Citrate.= _Syn._ CITRIC OF IRON AND MAGNESIA; FERRI
using carbonate of magnesium instead of ammonia to neutralise the
solution.——_Dose_, 2 to 10 gr. It has been recommended as a chalybeate in
the dyspepsia of gouty and debilitated habits.

=Ferric and Quinine Citrate.= _Syn._ CITRATE OF QUININE AND IRON;
FERRI-QUINIO-CITRAS, L. As the ammonio-citrate, but using quinine,
recently precipitated, instead of ammonia, to neutralise the acid.

B. P. Pure ferric hydrate is prepared from liquor ferri persulphatis,
4-1/2 pints, and liquor ammoniæ, 8 pints, as in the ferric and ammonium
citrate. Sulphate of quinine 1 is mixed with water 8, and sulphuric acid
1-1/2, and when dissolved, ammonia added until the quinine is
precipitated. The precipitate is collected and washed with 30 of water.
Citric acid 3 is dissolved in 8 of water by the aid of a water bath, and
the ferric hydrate, well drained, added; stir together until dissolved,
and add the quinine, stirring well until all is dissolved, and allow to
cool; add 1-1/2 of solution of ammonia diluted with 2 of water, stirring
the solution briskly until the quinine at first thrown down by the ammonia
is redissolved; filter and evaporate to a syrup, drying in thin layers on
flat porcelain or glass plates at a temperature of 100°.

Ferric citrate, 4 parts; citrate of quinine, 1 part; distilled water,
q. s.; dissolve, gently evaporate, and proceed as directed for
ammonio-citrate of iron. Greenish golden-yellow scales when prepared by
the B. P. process, soluble in 2 parts of water, and somewhat deliquescent;
entirely soluble in ether; taste bitter as well as chalybeate.——_Dose_, 2
to 6 dr.; in cases where the use of both iron and quinine is indicated.

=Ferric and Sodium Citrate.= _Syn._ FERRI SODIO-CITRAS, FERRI ET SODÆ
CITRAS, L. _Prep._ From citric acid, carbonate of sodium, and iron or the
hydrate, as the ammonio-citrate or potassio-citrate.

=Ferric Chlo′ride.= Fe_{2}Cl_{6}. _Syn._ SESQUICHLORIDE OF IRON,
1. (Anhydrous.) By passing dry chlorine over heated iron filings. Brown

(Hydrated.) Dissolve ferric hydrate in hydrochloric acid, evaporate to the
consistence of a syrup, and crystallise. Yellow or red scaly crystals. The
impure solution of this salt has been greatly used as a sewage deodoriser.

=Ferric and Ammonium Chloride= (Fe_{2}Cl_{6}NH_{4}Cl.Aq). _Syn._ DOUBLE

Ferric oxide, 3 oz.; hydrochloric acid, 1/2 pint; digest in a sand bath
until dissolved, then add of ammonium 2-1/2 lbs., dissolved in water, 3
pints; filter the liquid, evaporate to dryness, and reduce the mass to
coarse powder. Orange-coloured crystalline grains readily soluble in

Ammonio-chloride of iron is tonic, emmenagogue, and aperient.——_Dose_, 5
to 15 gr.; in glandular swellings, obstructions, &c.

=Ferric Ferrocy′anide.= (Fe_{4}(FeCy_{6})_{3}. 18Aq). _Syn._
SESQUIFERROCYANIDUM, L. _Prep._ Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz.; water, 1 pint;
dissolve, add to the solution of nitric acid, 6 fl. dr., in small portions
at a time, boiling for a few moments after each addition; next dissolve
ferrocyanide of potassium, 4-1/2 oz., in water, 1 pint, and add this last
solution, by degrees, to the first liquid, stirring well each time;
lastly, collect the precipitate, wash it with boiling water, drain, and
dry it.——_Dose_, 3 to 5 gr., three or four times daily, as an alterative,
febrifuge, and tonic, gradually increasing the quantity until some obvious
effect is produced; in agues, epilepsy, and neuralgia. See PRUSSIAN BLUE.

=Ferric Hydrate.= Fe_{2}(HO)_{6}. See under Ferric Oxide.

=Ferric Iodide.= Fe_{2}I_{6}. _Syn._ FERRI PERIODIDUM, L. _Prep._ Freely
expose a solution of ferrous iodide to the air; or digest iodine, in
excess, on iron, under water, gently evaporate, and sublime. A
deliquescent, volatile red compound, soluble in water and alcohol. It is
rarely employed in medicine.

=Ferric Oxide.= Fe_{2}O_{3}. _Syn._ SESQUIOXIDE OF IRON, PEROXIDE OF IRON,
This substance is found native under several forms, but that employed in
the arts is prepared by one or other of the following methods:——

From metallic iron. From iron wire or clean iron filings cut into pieces,
moistened with water, and exposed to the air until completely converted
into rust; it is then ground with water, elutriated, and dried, in a
similar way to that adopted for chalk. For sale, it is usually made up
into small conical loaves or lumps.

JEWELLERS’ R.; FERRI OXYDUM RUBRUM, L.)——Calcine ferrous sulphate until
the water of crystallisation is expelled, then roast it with a strong fire
until acid vapours cease to rise; cool, wash the residuum with water until
the latter ceases to affect litmus, and dry it.

Ferrous sulphate, 100 parts; common salt, 42 parts; calcine, wash well
with water, dry, and levigate the residuum. This process yields a cheap
and beautiful product, which is frequently sold for the ferri
sesquioxydum; but it is less soluble, and therefore unfitted for a
substitute for that preparation.

L. By precipitating a solution of ferric sulphate or chloride with
ammonia, in excess, and washing, drying, and igniting in the resulting
hydrate. Pure; anhydrous.

Ferrous sulphate, 4 lbs.; sodium carbonate, 4 lbs. 2 oz.; dissolve each
separately in water, 3 galls.; mix the solution whilst hot, set the
mixture aside, that the precipitate may subside, and subsequently wash and
dry it as before. Contains water, and a trace of alkali.

(Ph. E.) Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz.; sulphuric acid, 3-1/2 fl. dr.; water, 1
quart; mix, dissolve, boil, and gradually add of nitric acid, 9 fl. dr.;
stirring well and boiling for a minute or two after each addition, until
the liquor yields a yellowish-brown precipitate with ammonia; it must then
be filtered and precipitated with liquor of ammonia (fort.), 3-1/2 fl.
oz.; rapidly added and well mixed in; collect the precipitate, wash it
well with water, drain it on a calico filter, and dry it at a heat not
exceeding 180° Fahr. When intended as an antidote for arsenic it should
not be dried, but kept in the moist or gelatinous state.

solution of persulphate of iron (B. P.), 4 fl. oz., with 1 pint of
distilled water, and add it gradually to 33 fl. oz. of solution of soda
(B. P.), stirring constantly and briskly. Let them stand for two hours,
stirring occasionally; then put on a calico filter, and when the liquid
has drained away, wash the precipitate with distilled water till what
passes through ceases to give a precipitate with chloride of barium.
Lastly, enclose the precipitate without drying it in a stoppered bottle,
or other vessel, from which evaporation cannot take place.

moist peroxide, 1 lb., at a temperature not exceeding 212° Fahr., till it
ceases to lose weight. Reduce to a fine powder.——_Dose_, 5 to 30 grains.

_Prop._ Ferric oxide, prepared by precipitation (1, _c_), is an impalpable
powder, of a brownish-red colour, odourless, insoluble in water, freely
soluble in acids, and possessing a slightly styptic taste, especially when
recently prepared. When exposed to heat its colour is brightened, its sp.
gr. increased, and it is rendered less easily soluble in acids. The oxide
prepared by calcination is darker and brighter coloured, less soluble, and
quite tasteless. It has either a scarlet or purplish cast, according to
the heat to which it has been exposed. The finest Indian red, or crocus,
usually undergoes a second calcination, in which it is exposed to a very
intense heat. It is then known as ‘purple brown.’ The best jeweller’s
rouge is prepared by calcining the precipitated oxide until it becomes

The hydrate is of a yellowish-brown colour, and though it can be dried
without decomposition, it requires to be kept in a moist state. It is best
preserved in a well-stoppered bottle, filled with recently distilled or
boiled water.

_Pur._ Medicinal ferric oxide or sesquioxide of iron (FERRI SESQUIOXYDUM,
Ph. L. & D.) is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, scarcely
effervescing, and is again thrown down by potassa. The strained liquor is
free from colour, and is not discoloured by the addition of either
sulphuretted hydrogen or ferrocyanide of potassium.

entirely and very easily soluble in hydrochloric acid, without
effervescence; if previously dried at 180° Fahr., a stronger heat drives
off about 18% of water.

_Uses, &c._ The precipitated oxide is employed in medicine as a tonic and
emmenagogue, in doses of 10 to 30 gr.; and as an anthelmintic and in tic
douloureux, in doses of 1 to 4 dr., mixed up with honey. It is also
employed to make some preparations of iron. The calcined oxide is employed
as a pigment, as an ingredient in a plaster, &c. The hydrate is used
medicinally as a tonic in doses of 10 to 30 gr.; and in much larger, as an
antidote in cases of arsenical poisoning.

We are indebted to Bunsen and Berthold for the introduction of this
substance as an antidote to arsenic. A table-spoonful of the moist oxide
may be given every 5 or 10 minutes, or as often as the patient can swallow
it. (Pereira.) When this preparation cannot be obtained, rust of iron or
even the dry so-called carbonate (sesquioxide) may be given along with
water instead. According to Dr Maclagan, 12 parts, and to Devergie, 32
parts, of the hydrate are required to neutralise 1 part of arsenious acid.
Fehling says that the value of this substance as an antidote to arsenic is
materially impaired by age, even when kept in the moist state. The
presence of potassium, sodium, ammonium, hydrates, sulphates, chlorides or
carbonates, is not of consequence, and, therefore, in cases of emergency,
time need not be lost in washing the precipitate, which, in such cases,
need only be drained and squeezed in a calico filter. The magma obtained
by precipitating ferrous sulphate with magnesia, in excess, and which
contains free magnesia and magnesium sulphate, besides ferric hydrate,
precipitates arsenious acid not only more quickly, but in larger quantity,
than ferric hydrate does when alone. It will even render inert Fowler’s
solution, and precipitate both the copper and arsenic from solutions of
Schweinfurt green in vinegar, which the pure gelatinous oxide alone will
not do.

=Soluble Saccharated Oxide of Iron.= (G.) _Syn._ FERRUM OXYDATUM
SACCHARATUM SOLUBILE. _Prep._ Solution or perchloride of iron (sp. gr.
1·480), 2 oz. (by weight); syrup, 2 oz. (by weight); mix, and add
gradually, solution of caustic soda (sp. gr. 1·330); 4 oz. (by weight);
and set aside for 24 hours; then add to the clear liquid 30 fl. oz. of
distilled hot water; agitate and set aside. Pour off the supernatant
liquid from the precipitate which will have formed, and pour on fresh
distilled water; then collect the precipitate on a filter and wash
thoroughly with distilled water.

Put the drained precipitate into a porcelain vessel, and mix with it 9 oz.
of sugar in powder, and evaporate to dryness with constant stirring over a
water bath, then mix in enough sugar in powder to make up 10 oz. by
weight; reduce to powder and keep in a closed vessel. One hundred parts
contain three of metallic iron.

=Ferric Nitrate.= Fe_{2}(NO_{3})_{6}. _Syn._ PROTO NITRATE OF IRON,
acid (diluted with about half its weight of water) on iron or ferric
hydrate. A deep-red liquid, apt to deposit a basic salt. It is used in
dyeing, and has been recommended in dyspepsia, calculous affections, and
chronic diarrhœa.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 or 12 drops.

=Ferric Phosphate.= Fe_{2}H_{3}(PO_{4})_{3}. _Syn._ FERRIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE
obtained by precipitating ferric chloride by sodium phosphate.——_Uses_ and
_dose_. As the last.

FERRIC PYROPHOSPHATE. Fe_{6}(P_{2}O_{7})_{3}. A salt containing ferric
iron combined with the radical of pyrophosphoric acid.

_Prep._ By precipitating a solution of ferric sulphate with one of
pyrophosphate of sodium, taking care to operate at a temperature below 59°

_Prop., &c._ A gelatinous precipitate which dissolves with facility in
excess of pyrophosphate of sodium. The citrate of ammonium is the most
eligible solvent according to M. Robiquet, who first called attention to
this salt as a remedial agent.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 gr.

=Ferric Sulphate.= Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}. _Syn._ PERSULPHATE OF IRON,
a solution of ferrous sulphate exactly half as much sulphuric acid as it
already contains, raising the liquid to the boiling-point, and then
dropping in nitric acid, until the liquid ceases to blacken by such
addition. The solution evaporated to dryness furnishes a buff-coloured
mass, slowly soluble in water.

_Prop., &c._ With the sulphates of ammonium and potassium it unites to
form compounds to which the name ‘iron alums’ has been given. It forms the
active ingredient in the ‘liquor oxysulphatis ferri’ of Mr Tyson, and is
said by Dr Osborne to be a constituent of ‘Widow Welch’s pills.’ This salt
is also formed when ferrous sulphate is calcined with free exposure to the
air. Dissolved in water, it is used as a test for hydrocyanic, gallic, and
tannic acids.

=Ferric Sulphide.= _Syn._ PERSULPHIDE OF IRON. This compound is prepared
in the hydrated state (FERRI PERSULPHURETUM HYDRATUM) by adding, very
gradually, a neutral solution of ferric sulphate to a dilute solution of
potassium sulphide, and collecting, &c., the precipitate, as in the case
of the hydrated ferrous sulphide. Proposed by Bouchardat and Sandras as a
substitute for ferrous sulphide, to which they say it is preferable.

=Ferric Tan′nate.= _Syn._ FERRI TANNAS, FERRUM TANNICUM, L. _Prep._ From
tannin, 1 part; boiling water, 150 parts; dissolve, add of freshly
precipitated ferric hydrate (dried at 212° Fahr.), 9 parts; evaporate by a
gentle heat to one half, filter, add of sugar 1 part, complete the
evaporation, and at once put it into bottles.——_Dose_, 3 to 5 gr., thrice
daily; in chlorosis, internal hæmorrhages, &c.

Double Ferric and Ammonium Tartrate. _Syn._ AMMONIO TARTRATE OF IRON,

_Prep._ (Aikin.) Tartaric acid, 1 part; iron filings, 3 parts; digest in a
sufficient quantity of hot water to barely cover the mixture for 2 or 3
days, observing to stir it frequently, and to add just enough water to
allow the evolved gas to escape freely; next add ammonia, in slight
excess, stir well, dilute with water, decant, wash the undissolved portion
of iron, filter the mixed liquors, and evaporate to dryness; dissolve the
residuum in water, add a little more ammonia, filter, and again gently
evaporate to dryness, or to the consistence of a thick syrup, when it may
be spread upon hot plates of glass or on earthenware dishes and dried in a
stove-room, as directed for the corresponding citrate.

Tartaric acid, 6-1/2 oz.; water, 7 pints; dissolve, neutralise the
selection with sesquicarbonate of ammonium, and add 6-1/4 oz. more
tartaric acid; to the solution heated in a water bath, further add moist
hydrated oxide of iron (obtained from sesquioxide of iron, 53-1/2 dr.,
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and precipitated by ammonia); when
dissolved, filter, and evaporate, &c., as before.

_Prop., &c._ Glossy, brittle lamellæ, or irregular pieces, of a deep
garnet colour, almost black, very soluble in water, and possessing a
sweetish and slightly ferruginous taste. By repeated re-solution and
evaporation its sweetness is increased, probably from the conversion of a
part of its acid into sugar. It contains more iron than a given weight of
the sulphate of the same base. It is the most pleasant-tasted of all the
preparations of iron except the ammonio-citrate, last noticed.——_Dose_, 3
to 10 gr.

=Ferric and Potassium Tartrate.= _Syn._ TARTRATE OF POTASSA AND IRON,
P.) Prepare ferric hydrate from 4 fl. oz. of liq. ferri persulphas, B. P.,
as in making the double citrate, and add it to 2 oz. of the acid tartrate
of potassium, dissolved in 30 oz. of water. Digest for 6 hours at 140°,
allow to cool, and decant off the clear solution, which is to be
evaporated down and dried on glass plates.——(Ph. L.) Ferrous sulphate, 4
oz., is dissolved in water, 1 pint, previously mixed with sulphuric acid,
1/2 fl. oz.; heat is applied to the solution, and nitric acid, 1 fl. oz.,
gradually added; the solution is boiled to the consistence of a syrup, and
then diluted with water, 4 galls. (less the pint already used); liquor of
ammonia, 10 fl. oz., is next added, and the precipitate washed, and set
aside for 24 hours; at the end of this time, the water being decanted, the
still moist precipitate is added, gradually, to a mixture of bitartrate of
potassium, 2 oz., and water, 1/2 pint, heated to 140° Fahr.; after a time
the undissolved oxide is separated by a linen cloth, and the clear
solution either gently evaporated to dryness or treated in the same manner
as the citrate (lastly, preserve it in well-stoppered bottles). The
formulæ of the Ph. E., D., & U. S., are essentially the same. The Ph. D.
orders a heat not beyond 150° Fahr. to be applied to the mixture of the
oxide and bitartrate, with occasional stirring for 6 hours, and the
desiccation to be conducted at the same temperature.

_Obs._ This preparation is a double salt of potassium and iron; it is
therefore wrongly called ‘tartrate of iron’ as is commonly heard. It is
totally soluble in water; the solution is neutral to litmus and turmeric,
unaffected by ferrocyanide of potassium, and not precipitated by acids nor
alkalies, nor acted on by the magnet. Heated with potassa, 100 gr. throws
down about 34 gr. of sesquioxide of iron. Entirely soluble in cold water;
taste freely chalybeate. That of commerce has generally a feebly inky
taste a slight alkaline reaction, is slightly deliquescent, dissolves in 4
parts of water, and is nearly insoluble in alcohol.

Potassio-tartrate of iron is an excellent ferruginous tonic.——_Dose_, 10
to 20 gr., made into a bolus with aromatics, or dissolved in water or
other convenient menstruum.

OF IRON; FERRI VALERIANAS (Ph. D.), L. _Prep._ (Ph. D.) By adding a
solution of sodium valerianate to another of ferric sulphate, and
collecting and washing the precipitate, which is to be dried by placing it
for some days folded in bibulous paper, on a porous brick; after which it
is to be carefully kept from the air.

_Prop., &c._ A reddish-brown amorphous powder; nearly insoluble in water;
soluble in rectified spirit, and in the dilute acids with decomposition.
Citrate or tartrate, flavoured with oil of valerian, is frequently sold
for it.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 gr.; in anæmia and chlorosis complicated with

=Ferroso-Ferric Hydrate.= Fe_{3}(HO)_{6}. _Syn._ HYDRATED FERROSO-FERRIC
OXIDE, HYDRATED MAGNETIC OXIDE. (B. P.) Liquor ferri persulphas, 5-1/2;
ferri sulphas, 2; solution of soda, 80; distilled water, a sufficiency.
Dissolve the ferrous sulphate in 40 of water, add the solution of soda,
stirring them well, boil the mixture, let it stand for two hours, put in a
calico filter, wash with distilled water until the washing gives no
precipitate with barium chloride, and dry at a temperature not exceeding

Ferrous sulphate, 6 oz.; sulphuric acid, 160 minims; nitric acid, 4 fl.
dr.; stronger solution of ammonia, 4-1/2 fl. oz.; boiling water, 3 pints;
dissolve half of the sulphate in half of the water, add the oil of
vitriol, boil, add the nitric acid gradually, boiling after each addition
for a few minutes; dissolve the remaining half of the sulphate in the rest
of the boiling water; mix the two solutions, add the ammonia, stirring
well (and boil for a short time); collect the precipitate on a calico
filter, wash it with water until it ceases to precipitate a solution of
nitrate of barium, and dry at a heat not exceeding 183° Fahr. The formulæ
of Gregory and Dr Jephson are similar.

Ferrous sulphate, 8 oz., dissolved in a mixture of water, 10 fl. oz., and
sulphuric acid, 6 fl. dr., is converted by means of nitric acid, 4 fl.
dr., diluted with water, 2 fl. oz., into ferric sulphates; this solution
is then added to another, formed by dissolving ferrous sulphate, 4 oz., in
water, 1/2 pint; the whole is then mixed with liquor of potassium hydrate,
2-3/4 pints, and after being boiled for 5 minutes is collected on a calico
filter, and washed, &c., as before; and is to be preserved in a
well-stoppered bottle.

_Prop., &c._ The hydrate is a black sand-like substance, consisting of
very minute crystals. When pure it is attracted by the magnet, and is
entirely soluble in hydrochloric acid; and ammonia added to the solution
throws down a black precipitate. The oxide is the chief product of the
oxidation of iron at a high temperature in the air and in aqueous vapour.
It is more permanent than ferrous oxide, but incapable of forming
salts.——_Dose_, 5 to 20 gr. two or three times a day.

=Ferroso-ferric Oxide.= Fe_{3}O_{4}. _Syn._ MAGNETIC O. OF I.; FERRI
occurs native, but that used in medicine is prepared artificially.

From the black scales of iron that fall around the smith’s anvil, by
washing, drying, detaching them from impurities by means of a magnet, and
then treating them by grinding and elutriation, as directed for prepared
chalk. The product of this process is inferior as a medicine to the
hydrate obtained as below, being less easily soluble in the juices of the

=Ferroso-ferric Oxide.= Fe_{3}O_{4}. _Syn._ MAGNETIC OXIDE. See

=Iron, Black Oxide of.= (B. P.) _Syn._ FERRI OXYDUM MAGNETICUM; FERRI
OXYDUM NIGRUM; MARTIAL ÆTHIOPS. _Prep._ Dissolve sulphate of iron, 2 oz.,
in 2 pints of distilled water, and add solution of persulphate of iron (B.
P.), 5-1/2 fl. oz., then mix with solution of soda, 4 pints (B. P.),
stirring well together. Boil the mixture, let it stand for 2 hours,
stirring occasionally, then put it on a calico filter, and when the liquid
has drained away wash the precipitate with distilled water till what
passes through ceases to precipitate chloride of barium. Finally, dry the
precipitate at a temperature not exceeding 120° Fahr.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 gr.

=Ferrous Acetate.= Fe(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2}. _Syn._ FERRI ACETAS, L.
_Prep._ 1. From freshly precipitated ferrous carbonate dissolved in dilute
acetic acid.

2. By adding a solution of calcium acetate to another of ferrous sulphate,
and evaporating the filtered liquid, out of contact with the air. Small,
colourless, or pale-greenish needles or prisms, very soluble and prone to

=Ferrous Arsenate.= Fe_{3}(AsO_{4})_{2}. _Syn._ FERRI ARSENIAS, L. _Prep._
1. From a solution of sodium arseniate, added to a solution of ferrous
sulphate, the precipitate being collected, washed in a little cold water,
and dried.——_Dose_, 1/20 to 1/12 gr., made into a pill; in lupus,
psoriasis, cancerous affections, &c. Externally, combined with 4 times its
weight of ferrous phosphate and a little water, as a paint to destroy the
vitality of cancerous formations. An ointment (20 to 30 gr. to the oz.) is
also used for the same purpose. They are all dangerous remedies in
non-professional hands.

2. (B. P.) _Prep._ Sulphate of iron, 9 oz.; arseniate of soda dried at
300° F., 4 oz.; acetate of soda, 3 oz. Dissolve the arseniate and the
acetate of soda in 2 pints, and the sulphate of iron in 3 pints, of
boiling distilled water, mix the two solutions, collect the white
precipitate which forms on a calico filter, and wash until the washings
cease to be affected by a dilute solution of chloride of barium. Squeeze
the washed precipitate between folds of strong linen in a screw-press, and
dry it on porous bricks in a warm air-chamber whose temperature shall not
exceed 100° F.——Dose, 1/16th of a gr.

=Ferrous Arsenite.= Fe(AsO_{2})_{2}. _Syn._ FERRI ARSENIS, L. From the
potassium arsenite, and ferrous sulphate, as the last. A yellowish-brown
powder, occasionally used in medicine as a tonic, alterative, and
febrifuge.——_Dose_, 1/16 to 1/12 gr.

=Ferrous Bromide.= FeBr_{2}. _Syn._ FERRI BROMIDUM, L. _Prep._ (Moir.)
Bromine and iron filings, of each 1 part; water, 3 parts; mix in a
stoppered phial, set it aside, occasionally shaking it, for 2 or 3 days,
and when the colour of the bromine has disappeared, and the liquid becomes
greenish, filter and evaporate to dryness.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 gr., as a
tonic, diuretic, and resolvent, in similar cases to those in which iodide
of iron is given.

CARBONAS, F. SUBCARBONAS, L. This occurs in nature as SPATHOSE ORE, the
chief constituent as of CLAY IRONSTONE, and in many CHALYBEATE WATERS.

_Prep._ (B. P.) Ferrous sulphate (sulphate of iron), 2; ammonium
carbonate, 1-1/4; boiling distilled water, 320; refined sugar, 1. Dissolve
the sulphate and ammonium carbonate each in 1/4 of the water, and mix;
allow to stand for 24 hours and decant, of the clear solution, add the
remainder of the water to the precipitate, stir well, allow to settle, and
decant off. Collect the deposit in a calico filter, press, rub in the
sugar in a porcelain mortar, and dry at a temperature not exceeding 212°
Fahr. Small coherent grey lumps. Precipitate a solution of ferrous
sulphate with a solution of sodium carbonate, well wash the green powder
with water which has been boiled, and dry it out of contact with the air.
On the slightest exposure to air it is converted into ferrous hydrate or
oxide. This change is for the most part prevented by combining it with
sugar, as in the following preparation.

CARBONAS SACCHARATUM——Ph. E. & D. L.——(Ph. L.) Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz.;
sodium carbonate, 4-1/4 oz.; dissolve each separately in quart of boiling
water, and mix the solutions whilst hot; after a time collect the
precipitate, wash it frequently with water, and add of sugar, 2 oz.,
previously dissolved in water, 2 fl. oz.; lastly, evaporate the mixture
over a water bath to dryness, and keep it in a well-closed bottle.

_Prop., &c._ A sweet-tasted greenish mass or powder, consisting chiefly of
carbonate of iron. It is one of the best of the chalybeates.——_Dose_, 5 to
10 gr. When pure, it should be easily soluble in hydrochloric acid with
brisk effervescence.

=Ferrous Chloride.= FeCl_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOCHLORIDE OF IRON; MURIATE OF
IRON; FERRI CHLORIDUM, L. _Prep._ 1. (Anhydrous.) By passing dry
hydrochloric acid gas over ignited metallic iron. The chloride sublimes in
yellowish crystals.

2. (Hydrated.) Dissolve iron filings or scale in hydrochloric acid,
evaporate and crystallise. Soluble green crystals.

=Ferrous Citrate.= Fe_{3}(C_{6}H_{5}O_{7})_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOCITRATE OF
IRON, CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON. This salt is easily formed by
digesting iron filings or wire with citric acid, and evaporating the
solution as quickly as possible out of contact with the air. It presents
the appearance of a white powder, nearly insoluble in water, and rapidly
passing to a higher state of oxidation by exposure to the air. Its taste
is very metallic. It is exhibited under the form of pills, mixed with gum
or syrup, to prevent it from being prematurely decomposed.

=Ferrous Ferricy′anide.= _Syn._ FERRIDCYANIDE OF IRON. _Prep._ By adding a
solution of potassium ferricyanide (‘red prussiate of potash’) to a
solution of ferrous sulphate (or any other soluble ferrous salt), and
collecting and drying and precipitate. A bright-blue powder. (See

=Ferrous Hydrate.= Fe_{2}(HO)_{2}. See under FERROUS OXIDE.

=Ferrous Hydrate.= Fe(HO)_{2}. May be precipitated from ferrous solutions
as a white powder, by alkaline hydrates. It rapidly absorbs oxygen, and
turns first green, and then red, by exposure to the air. Both the oxide
and hydrate are very powerful bases, neutralising the acids and forming
stable salts, which, when soluble, have commonly a pale green colour, and
a nauseous metallic taste.

=Ferrous Hypophosphite.= _Syn._ FERRI HYPOPHOSPHIS. From the double
decomposition of hypophosphite of lime and sulphate of iron, as
hypophosphite of potash.

=Ferrous Iodide.= FeI_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOIODIDE OF IRON, IODIDE OF IRON; F.
IODIDUM, FERRI HYDRIODAS, F. IODURETUM, L. _Prep._ (B. P.) Fine iron wire,
1; iodine, 2; distilled water, 10. Introduce the iron, iodine, and 8 of
water into a flask, heat it about ten minutes, and boil until all the red
colour is gone. Filter through paper into a polished iron dish, washing
with the rest of the water, and boil until a drop of the solution taken
out on iron wire solidifies on cooling. Pour on porcelain and cool. (Ph.
L. 1836.) Iodine, 6 oz.; iron filings, 2 oz.; water, 4-1/2 pints; mix,
boil in a sand bath until the liquid turns to a pale green, filter, wash
the residuum with a little water, evaporate the mixed liquors in an iron
vessel at 212° Fahr. to dryness, and immediately put the iodide into
well-stoppered bottles.

Iodine, 1 oz., and clean iron filings or turnings, 1/2 oz., are put into a
Florence flask with distilled water, 4 fl. oz., and having applied a
gentle heat for 10 minutes, the liquid is boiled until it loses its red
colour; it is then at once filtered into a second flask, the filter washed
with water, 1 fl. oz., and the mixed liquid is boiled down, until it
solidifies on cooling.

IODIDUM SACCHARATUM, L. Iron (in powder), 1 dr.; water, 5 dr.; iodine, 4
dr.; obtain a solution of iodide of iron, as above, and add to it of sugar
of milk (in powder), 1-1/4 oz.; evaporate at a temperature not exceeding
122° Fahr., until the mass has a tenacious consistence, then further add
of sugar of milk, 1 oz., reduce the mixture to powder, and preserve it in
a well-stoppered bottle. Every 6 gr. contains 1 gr. of iodide of iron.

From “syrup of iodide of iron” exposed in a shallow vessel, in a warm
place, until it crystallises; the crystals are collected, dried, and
powdered. A simpler plan is to gently evaporate the whole to dryness, and
to powder the residuum. The saccharine iodide may be kept for some time in
a corked bottle without undergoing decomposition.

_Obs._ The preparation of the above compound, like that of the citrates,
has formed a fertile subject during some years for pharmaceutical amateurs
to dilate upon. There is in reality not the least difficulty in the
process. As soon as iodine and iron are mixed together under water much
heat is evolved, and if too much water be not used the combination is soon
complete, and the liquor merely requires to be evaporated to dryness, out
of contact with the air, at a heat not exceeding 212° Fahr. This is most
cheaply and easily performed by employing a glass flask, with a thin broad
bottom and a narrow mouth, by which means the evolved steam excludes air
from the vessel. The whole of the uncombined water may be known to be
evaporated when vapour ceases to condense on a piece of cold glass held
over the mouth of the flask. A piece of moistened starch paper
occasionally applied in the same way will indicate whether free iodine is
evolved; should such be the case, the heat should be immediately lessened.
When the evaporation is completed, the mouth of the flask should be
stopped up by laying a piece of sheet india rubber on it, and over that a
flat weight; the flask must be then removed, and when cold broken to
pieces, the iodide weighed, and put into dry and warm stoppered wide-mouth
glass phials, which must be immediately closed, tied over with bladder,
and the stoppers dipped into melted wax.

_Prop., &c._ Ferrous iodide evolves violet vapours by heat, and ferric
oxide remains. When freshly made it is totally soluble in water, and from
this solution, when kept in a badly stoppered vessel, ferric hydrate is
very soon precipitated; but with iron wire immersed in it, it may be kept
clear in a well-stoppered bottle.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 gr., or more, as a
tonic, stimulant, and resolvent. It has been given with advantage in
anæmia, chlorosis, debility, scrofula, and various glandular affections.

=Ferrous Lactate.= Fe(C_{3}H_{5}O_{3})_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOLACTATE OF IRON;
FERRI LACTAS, FERRUM LACTICUM, L. _Prep._ Boil iron filings in lactic acid
diluted with water, until gas ceases to be evolved, and filter whilst hot
into a suitable vessel, which must be at once closely stopped; as the
solution cools, crystals will be deposited, which after being washed,
first with a little cold water, and then with alcohol, are to be carefully
dried. The mother liquor, on being digested, as before, with fresh iron,
will yield more crystals.

Into sour whey, 2 lbs., sprinkle sugar of milk and iron filings, of each,
in fine powder, 1 oz.; digest at about 100° Fahr., until the sugar of milk
is dissolved, then add a second portion, and as soon as a white
crystalline powder begins to form, boil the whole gently, and filter into
a clean vessel; lastly, collect, wash, and dry the crystals as before.

_Prop., &c._ Ferrous lactate is a greenish-white salt; and when pure,
forms small acicular or prismatic crystals, which have a sweetish
ferruginous taste, and are soluble in about 48 parts of cold and in 12
parts of boiling water. It has been regarded by many high authorities as
superior to every other preparation of iron for internal use, as being at
once miscible with the lactic acid of the gastric juice, instead of having
to be converted into a lactate at the expense of that fluid, as it is
asserted is the case with the other preparations of iron.——_Dose_, 2 to 6
gr., frequently, in any form most convenient.

=Ferrous Ma′late (Impure).= _Syn._ FERRI MALAS IMPURUS, L. _Prep._ (P.
Cod., 1839.) Porphyrised iron filings, 1 part; juice of sour apples, 8
parts; digest for 3 days in an iron vessel, evaporate to one half, strain
through linen whilst hot, further evaporate to the consistence of an
extract, and preserve it from the air.——_Dose_, 5 to 20 gr., where the use
of iron is indicated.

=Ferrous Nitrate.= (FeNO_{3})_{2}. _Syn._ PROTONITRATE OF IRON, NITRATE OF
PROTOXIDE OF IRON; FERRI NITRAS, L. By dissolving ferrous sulphide in
dilute sulphuric acid, in the cold, and evaporating the solution _in
vacuo_. Small green crystals, very soluble, and prone to oxidation.

=Ferrous Oxalate.= (U. S.) _Syn._ FERRI OXALAS. _Prep._ Sulphate of iron,
2 oz.; oxalic acid, 396 gr.; distilled water, q. s. Dissolve the sulphate
in 30 oz. (old measure), and the acid in 15 oz. (old measure) of distilled
water. Filter the solutions, mix them, shake together, and set aside until
the precipitate is formed. Decant the clear liquid, wash the precipitate
thoroughly, and dry it with a gentle heat.

substance is almost unknown in a pure state, from its extreme proneness to
absorb oxygen and pass into the sesquioxide.

S.), L. A salt formed from ordinary or tribasic phosphoric acid.

_Prep._ (B. P.) Ferrous sulphate, 3; sodium phosphate, 2-1/2; sodium
acetate, 1; boiling distilled water, 80; dissolve the sulphate and sodium
salts, each in half the water, mix, and stir carefully, filter through
calico, wash with hot distilled water until it ceases to give a
precipitate with barium chloride, dry at a heat not exceeding 120° Fahr.
(Ph. U. S.) Ferrous sulphate, 5 oz.; sodium phosphate, 6 oz.; dissolve
each separate in 2 quarts of water, mix the solutions, and after repose
for a short time wash and dry the precipitate.

_Prop., &c._ A slate-coloured powder; insoluble in water; soluble in
dilute nitric and hydrochloric acid.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 gr.; in amenorrhœa,
diabetes, dyspepsia, scrofula, &c.; and _externally_, as an application to
cancerous ulcers.

=Ferrous Sulphate.= FeSO_{4}.7Aq. _Syn._ PROTOSULPHATE OF IRON, SULPHATE
Ph. L. E. & D.), VITRIOLUM FERRI. The crude sulphate of iron or green
vitriol of commerce (FERRI SULPHAS VENALIS, Ph. L.) is prepared by
exposing heaps of moistened iron pyrites or native bisulphuret of iron to
the air for several months, either in its unprepared state or after it has
been roasted. When decomposition is sufficiently advanced, the newly
formed salt is dissolved out with water, and the solution crystallised by
evaporation. In this state it is very impure. The ferrous sulphate or
sulphate of iron employed in medicine is prepared as follows:——

_Prep._ (B. P.) Iron wire, 4; sulphuric acid, 4; distilled water, 30. Pour
the water on the iron, add the acid, and when the disengagement of gas has
nearly ceased, boil for ten minutes. Filter through paper. Allow to stand
twenty-four hours, and collect the crystals. Sulphuric acid, 1 fl. oz.;
water, 4 pints; mix, and add of commercial sulphate of iron, 4 lbs.; iron
wire, 1 oz.; digest with heat and occasional agitation until the sulphate
is dissolved, strain whilst hot, and set aside the liquor that crystals
may form; evaporate the mother-liquor for more crystals, and dry the

Dissolve the transparent green crystals of the impure sulphate of iron in
their own weight of water, acidulated with sulphuric acid, and

The formula of the Ph. U. S. is similar.

F. S. SICCATUM——Ph. D. From ferrous sulphate, heated in a shallow
porcelain or earthen vessel, not glazed with lead, till it becomes a
greenish-grey mass, and then reduced to powder. The heat should be that of
an oven, or not exceeding 400° Fahr. Five parts of the crystallised
sulphate lose very nearly 2 parts by drying.

Granulated; FERRI SULPHAS GRANULATA, L. (B. P.) A solution of iron wire, 4
oz., in sulphuric acid, 4 fl. oz., diluted with water, 1-1/2 pint, after
being boiled for a few minutes, is filtered into a vessel containing
rectified spirit, 8 fl. oz., and the whole stirred until cold, when the
granular crystals are collected on a filter, washed with rectified spirit,
2 fl. oz., and dried, first by pressure between bibulous paper, and next
beneath a bell-glass over sulphuric acid, after which they are put into a
stoppered bottle, to preserve them from the air.

_Prop., &c._ Ferrous sulphate forms pale bluish-green rhombic prisms,
having an acid, styptic taste, and acid reaction; it dissolves in two
parts of cold and less than one part of boiling water; at a dull-red heat
it suffers decomposition; sp. gr. 1·82. It is perfectly soluble in water;
a piece of iron put into the solution should not be covered with metallic
copper. By exposure to the air it effloresces slightly, and is partly
converted into a basic ferric sulphate.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 4 gr., in pills or
solution; externally, as an astringent or styptic. In the arts, as
sulphate of iron (copperas), it is extensively used in dyeing, and for
various other purposes. The dried sulphate (ferri sulphus exsiccatum) is
chiefly used to make pills.

Crude sulphate of iron is frequently contaminated with the sulphates of
copper, zinc, manganese, aluminium, magnesium, and calcium, which, with
the exception of the first, are removed with difficulty. It also contains
variable proportions of the neutral and basic ferric sulphates. The
preparation obtained by direct solution of iron in dilute sulphuric acid
should, therefore, be alone used in medicine.

In commerce there are four varieties of crude sulphate of iron or copperas
known,——greenish-blue, obtained from acid liquors,——pale green, from
neutral liquors,——emerald green, from liquors containing ferric
sulphate,——and ochrey brown, which arises from age and exposure of the
other varieties to the air. Even the first two of these contain traces of
ferric sulphate, and hence give a bluish precipitate with ferrocyanide of
potassium; whereas the pure sulphate gives one which is at first nearly

=Ferrous Sulphide.= FeS. _Syn._ SULPHURET OF IRON, SULPHIDE OF I.,
D.) Expose a bar of iron to a full white heat, and instantly apply a solid
mass of sulphur to it, observing to let the melted product fall into
water; afterwards separate the sulphide from the sulphur, dry, and
preserve it in a closed vessel.

From sublimed sulphur, 4 parts; iron filings, 7 parts; mixed together and
heated in a common fire till the mixture begins to glow, and then removing
the crucible from the heat, and covering it up, until the reaction is at
an end, and the whole has become cold.

Hydrated; FERRI PROTOSULPHURETUM HYDRATUM, L. By adding a solution of
ammonium sulphide or of potassium sulphide to a neutral solution of
ferrous sulphate made with recently distilled or boiled water; the
precipitate is collected on a filter, washed as quickly as possible with
recently boiled water, squeezed in a linen cloth, and preserved in the
pasty state, under water, as directed under ferric hydrate.

_Prop., &c._ The sulphide prepared in the dry way is a blackish brittle
substance, attracted by the magnet. It is largely used in the laboratory
as a source of sulphuretted hydrogen. The hydrated sulphide is a black,
insoluble substance, rapidly decomposed by exposure to the air. Proposed
by Mialhe as an antidote to the salts of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, lead,
mercury, silver, and tin, and to arsenious acid; more especially to white
arsenic and corrosive sublimate. A gargle containing a little hydrated
sulphide of iron will instantly remove the metallic taste caused by
putting a little corrosive sublimate into the mouth. (Mialhe.) On contact
with the latter substance it is instantly converted into ferrous chloride
and mercurous sulphide, two comparatively inert substances. It is
administered in the same way as ferrous hydrate. When taken immediately
after the ingestion of corrosive sublimate, it instantly renders it
innocuous; but when the administration is delayed until 15 or 20 minutes
after the poison has been swallowed, it is almost useless.

=Ferrous Tar′trate.= _Syn._ FERRI TARTRAS, FERRI PROTOTARTRAS, L. _Prep._
1. From iron filings, 2 parts; tartaric acid, 1 part; hot water, q. s.;
digest together until reaction ceases, agitate the liquid, pour off the
turbid solution, and collect, wash, and dry the powder as quickly as
possible, and keep it out of contact with the air.

2. Crystallised potassium tartrate, 132 parts; ferrous sulphate, 139
parts; dissolve each separately, mix the solutions, and collect the
precipitate as before. A nearly insoluble powder; seldom used.

_Obs._ By dissolving the corresponding hydrates in a solution of tartaric
acid, employing the former in slight excess, and evaporating, both the
ferrous and ferric tartrate are easily obtained.



=IRON, DIALYSED.= (Paris Pharmaceutical Society.) _Syn._ FERRUM
DIALYSATUM. OXIDE DE FER DIALYSÉ. _Prep._ Solution of ferric chloride (sp.
gr. 1·245), 100 grams; solution of ammonia (sp. gr. 1·169), 35 grams; add
the ammonia in small quantities to the ferric chloride; at first the
precipitate formed is redissolved very rapidly, but afterwards disappears
more slowly. When the liquor has again become transparent, it is
introduced into the dialyser; the distilled water in which the vessel
containing the ferruginous solution is placed, must be frequently renewed.
After a time the highly coloured solution is no longer precipitated by
silver nitrate, and gives no acid reaction. It is then absolutely free
from the disagreeable taste of certain ferruginous preparations. A small
quantity of hydrochloric acid always remains in the liquor, which may be
shown by precipitating the oxide of iron by a slight excess of ammonia,
filtering, adding an excess of nitric acid, and then silver nitrate. Ten
c.c. are evaporated, and from the residue must be calculated how much
distilled water is required to be added to produce a 10 per cent.

2. (‘American Journal of Pharmacy.’) Take 10 parts of liq. ferri perchlor.
(B. P.), precipitate by _liquor ammoniæ_, and wash the precipitate
thoroughly. Mix this with 12 parts of liq. ferri perchlor. (B. P.), and
place in a dialyser. The dialyser is placed in a suitable vessel with
distilled water, the water under it renewed every 24 hours. The operation
is continued until no trace of chlorine exists, at which time the
preparation is found to be neutral. It usually takes from twelve to
fifteen days to complete the process.

The resulting preparation, which should be of a deep dark red colour,
contains about 5 per cent. of the oxide of iron. If the solution after
completion of the operation should contain more than 5 per cent. of iron,
it may be diluted with dialysed water till it reaches that point.

The above formula is said to furnish an article precisely similar to the
original Bravais’ dialysed iron.

3. (E. B. Shuttleworth.) Add ammonia to a solution of perchloride of iron
as long as the precipitate formed is redissolved. A solution is produced
which contains ferric hydrate dissolved in ferric chloride, with free
chloride of ammonium. Either the liquor ferri perchlor. fort. (B. P.), or
the liquor ferri chloridi (U. S.), may be conveniently used, and the
liquor ammoniæ, sp. gr. ·959 or ·960, of either Pharmacopœia will be found
a convenient strength. If the ammonia be added to the strong solution of
iron, considerable heat is evolved, and, on cooling, the preparation
becomes gelatinised——often so much so that the vessel containing it may be
inverted. It is better to avoid this result, and to such end the solution
of perchloride must be diluted until of a sp. gr. of about 1·300. This
degree may be nearly enough approached by diluting two measures of the B.
P. liquor with one of water; or adding one measure of water to five of the
U. S. preparation. This solution will generally remain permanently bright
and fluid. The amount of liquor ammoniæ required will of course vary with
the acidity of the perchloride. The liquor ferri B. P. will sometimes bear
as much as an equal volume. A gelatinised solution, even when made from
the undiluted liquor, will often become fluid when put upon the dialyser,
but, as I have said before, it is better to work with bright solutions.

4. (Dr Pile.) Dr Pile, noticing the fact that chloride of sodium is one of
the most rapid crystalloids to dialyse, used a solution of carbonate of
sodium to add to the solution of ferric chloride in place of the ammonia
so generally recommended, and with great success. The solution of ferric
chloride (U. S.) which has been neutralised by a cold solution of
carbonate of sodium is poured into a floating dialyser. Starting with 1
pint of solution of ferric chloride, which on being treated with the
sodium solution and ready to dialyse, had a sp. gr. of 1·175, it had in 5
days increased to 5 pints. The water in which the dialyser floated was
changed daily. At the end of five days it had passed through the membrane
all the crystalloids, was free from taste of foreign substances, and owing
to increase of bulk had now the sp. gr. of 1·0295, and on evaporation
yielded 5 per cent. dry oxide of iron. Too long dialysation will cause the
solution of iron to become gelatinous.

Mr Shuttleworth[3] says that an efficient dialyser may be made out of one
of the flat hoops of an ordinary flour barrel, a bell jar, or even an
inverted glass funnel. He gives the preference to the former, and limits
its diameter to ten or twelve inches; if it exceeds this, the septum is
liable to bulge in the centre, and to make the layer of liquid too deep
at that point.

[Footnote 3: ‘Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal,’ Oct., 1877.]

The parchment paper employed for the septum must be entirely free from
holes; this is an essential condition, and if any should be discovered——by
the simple process of sponging the upper surface of the paper with water,
and then carefully examining the under surface,——they must be stopped by
means of a little white of egg, applied and coagulated by heat, or by a
drop of collodion.

The parchment paper is not the kind ordinarily known under that name, but
a less porous description, which has been made by previous immersion in
dilute sulphuric acid.

Well-washed bladder, deprived of its outer coat, also makes a good septum.

The septum should be tied around the hoop with twine, but not too tightly,
and should be so arranged that its edges shall be left standing up around
the hoop, so as to absorb any liquid escaping from the hoop at its
junction with the septum. The dialyser being ready for use, the liquid
intended for dialysis is poured into it to a depth of not more than half
an inch, and the dialyser with its contents is then floated on the surface
of some distilled water, contained in a suitable receptacle.

The hoop must only be allowed to sink just below the level of the water;
if it gets below this point, it will be necessary to keep it up by some
support or the other.

It is necessary to change the water in the outer vessel daily. For the
first two or three days distilled water should always be used. When this
is not obtainable rain water should be employed. When the water shows the
absence of chlorides, and the preparation ceases to have a ferruginous
taste, the operation may be regarded as finished. The process generally
occupies one or two weeks.

“A pig’s bladder, completely filled with the iron solution, securely tied,
and immersed in water frequently changed, answers well for making this
preparation. The process requires a longer time than with a carefully
regulated and properly conducted dialysis, but it entails considerably
less trouble. I consider it an advantage to procure the bladder perfectly
fresh, as it is then easily cleaned by pure water, and alkaline ley need
not be used. Great care is necessary in tying the neck carefully. This can
be best accomplished by a few turns of iron wire. Above this may be
secured a piece of twine, to suspend the bladder, by means of a stick, or
rod, placed on the edge of the vessel containing the water. The bladder
should be perfectly full, and immersed altogether in water. The attraction
of the solution for the water is so great, that considerable pressure is
manifested, and should any parts or holes be in the bladder, the liquid
will be forced out, water will take its place, and failure result.”[4]

[Footnote 4: ‘Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal,’ Oct., 1877.]

Pretty general consent appears to have fixed the strength of the solution
of dialysed iron at five per cent. Where it exceeds this, the solution
must be diluted with distilled water; and where it falls short of the
amount, it will have to be reduced to the required volume by standing it
in a warm and dry situation. The employment of much heat must be
particularly avoided as it very frequently leads to the destruction of the
compound; hence every care should be taken to render the evaporation of
the fluid unnecessary.

There seems little doubt that the so-called “dialysed iron” is an
oxychloride of the metal. Prof. Maisch[5] believes it to be a very basic
oxychloride of iron. On the supposition that the oxychloride and chloride
of iron are both present in the liquid put into the dialyser, the origin
of the oxychloride admits of easy explanation:——The chloride being a
crystalloid, diffuses through the septum into the outer water, and thus
becomes separated from the oxychloride, which being a colloid, and
incapable of a passage through the membrane, remains in solution in the

[Footnote 5: Ibid., Oct., 1877.]

The comparative freedom from taste and easy assimilation of the
oxychloride of iron render it a valuable therapeutic agent. The dose of
the five per cent. solution is 15 to 50 drops daily, in divided doses.
Syrup forms a pleasant vehicle for its administration.

Dialysed iron has been successfully employed in a case of arsenical
poisoning. The ‘American Journal of Pharmacy’ for January, 1878, contains
an interesting paper by Dr Mattison detailing a series of experiments,
which conclusively prove its value as an antidote to arsenic. Dr Mattison
recommends the administration of the iron to be immediately followed by a
teaspoonful or more of common salt.

E.), FERRI SCOBS (Ph. D.). The usual method of preparing iron filings for
medical purposes has been already noticed; the only way, however, to
obtain them pure, is to act on a piece of soft iron with a clean file. The
Fr. Cod. orders them to be forcibly beaten in an iron mortar, and to be
separated from oxide and dust by means of a fine sieve, and from the
grosser parts by means of a coarse hair-sieve.——_Dose_, 10 to 30 gr., in
sugar or honey, as a chalybeate; in larger doses it is an excellent
vermifuge, especially for ascarides or the small thread-worm.

LIQUOR, TAR IRON L.; FERRI ACETAS VENALIS, L. This article, so extensively
used in dyeing, is a crude mixed acetate of the protoxide and sesquioxide
of iron. It is usually prepared by one or other of the following

1. Old scraps of iron (hoops, worn-out tin-plate, &c.) are left in a cask
of pyroligneous acid, occasional agitation being had recourse to, until a
sufficiently strong solution is obtained. By keeping the acid moderately
warm in suitable vessels it will become saturated with the iron in a few
days. With cold acid, on a large scale, forty days or more are required to
complete the process.

2. A solution of pyrolignite or crude acetate of lime, is added to another
of green copperas, as long as a precipitate is formed; after repose, the
clear liquor is decanted.

PULVIS, L.; FER REDUIT, F. _Prep._ This preparation, which consists of
metallic iron in a fine state of division mixed with a variable amount of
magnetic oxide of iron, is made by passing perfectly dry hydrogen over
peroxide of iron heated to redness in a gun-barrel.

_Prop._ A greyish-black powder, attracted by the magnet, and exhibiting
metallic streaks when rubbed with firm pressure in a mortar. Rapidly
absorbs oxygen, and must, therefore, be preserved from the air in
well-stoppered bottles. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid with the
evolution of hydrogen. 10 grains added to an aqueous solution of 50 grains
of iodine and 50 grains of iodide of potassium, and digested with them in
a small flask at a gentle heat, should leave not more than 5 grains
undissolved, which should be entirely soluble in hydrochloric acid.

_Uses._ In _medicine_ it is chiefly given to restore the condition of the
blood in all anæmic states of the system. There is no pulverulent state of
iron so convenient as this for children, as it has no taste, and only a
very small dose is required.——_Dose_, 1 to 5 grains (children, 1/4 to 1
grain), in powder, pill, or between bread and butter.

=Iron reduced by Electricity.= See ELECTRICITY, Iron reduced by.

=Iron, to remove Rust from Polished.= Rust of iron may be removed from a
polished grate by means of emery paper, or by scraping some Bath-brick to
a fine powder, mixing it with a little oil and rubbing the spots well with
a piece of flannel dipped in this mixture; after which some whiting should
be applied by diligent friction. This operation requires daily repetition
until the rust has disappeared. Steel fire-irons, fenders, &c., when put
aside in the summer, should be previously smeared thinly over with a
species of paraffin, known to druggists by the name of ‘vaseline’ or
‘cosmoline,’ or with grease, mercurial ointment, &c.

=Iron, to remove the Stains of, from Marble.= Rub on very cautiously
(confining it to the surface only occupied by the spot) some strong
hydrochloric acid, removing it directly the spot disappears. Should this
cause any diminution in the polish, this may be restored by means of emery

FERRI FILA (Ph. D.), L. This is the only form of metallic iron retained
in the Ph. L. It is used to make preparations of iron.

=ISATINE.= C_{16}H_{10}N_{2}O_{4}. A yellow crystalline body obtained by
the oxidation of indigo. When acted upon by potash it becomes converted
into aniline. Isatine may be formed by heating indigo in a dilute solution
of dichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, or by treating indigo under
proper conditions with nitric acid.

=ISCHU′RIA.= In _pathology_, retention, stoppage, or suppression of the

=I′′SINGLASS.= _Syn._ ICHTHYOCOLLA, L. The finest kinds of isinglass are
obtained from various species of the genus _Acipenser_, or sturgeon, that
from the great sturgeon being perhaps the most esteemed. It is the
air-bag, swimming bladder, or sound, dried without any other preparation
than opening, folding, or twisting it. The picked or cut isinglass of the
shops consists of the lamps of staple isinglass picked in shreds by women
and children, or cut by machines.

_Prop., &c._ Good isinglass is the purest natural gelatin known. Its
quality is determined by its whiteness, absence of the least fishy odour,
and ready and almost entire solubility in boiling water; the solution
forming a nearly white, scentless, semi-transparent, solid jelly, when
cold. It is soluble in weak acids, and this solution is precipitated by
alkalies. The aqueous solution is not precipitated by spirit of the common
strengths. 1 part of good isinglass dissolved in 25 parts of hot water
forms a rich, tremulous jelly. It is very commonly adulterated. Of the
different varieties of isinglass, the Russian is the best and most
soluble. See GELATIN.

=ISOM′ERISM.= In _chemistry_, identity of composition, with dissimilarity
of properties. Isomeric compounds (isomerides) are such as contain the
same elements in the same proportions, but which differ from each other in
their chemical properties; thus, formate of ethyl and acetate of methyl
are isomeric, having precisely the same ultimate composition, though
differing in the arrangement of their elements.

=ISOMOR′PHISM.= In _chemistry_, the quality possessed by bodies
differently composed of assuming the same crystalline form. Isomorphous
substances are found to be closely allied in their chemical nature; and
the fact of two bodies crystallising in the same form has often led to the
discovery of other points of similarity between them. The alums, for
instance, no matter what their components, all crystallise in octahedra,
and a crystal of potassium-alum, if transferred to a solution of
chrome-alum, will continue to increase with perfect regularity from the
deposition of the latter salt.

=IS′SUE.= _Syn._ FONICULUS, L. In _surgery_, a small artificial ulcer
formed on any part of the body by means of caustic or the lancet, and kept
open by daily introducing an ISSUE PEA covered with some digestive or
stimulating ointment; the whole being duly secured by an appropriate

=ISSUE PEAS.= _Syn._ PISÆ PRO FONTICULIS, L. Those of the shops are the
immature fruit of the orange tree (ORANGE BERRIES). They are usually
smoothed in a lathe. Issue peas are also ‘turned’ from orris root. The
following compound issue peas are occasionally employed:——

1. Orris root (in powder) and Venice turpentine, of each 1 part; turmeric,
2 parts; beeswax, 3 parts; melted together and made into peas whilst warm.

2. Beeswax, 3 parts; melt, add of Venice turpentine, 1 part; mix, and
further add, of turmeric, 2 parts; orris root (in powder), 1 part; mix
well, and form the mass into peas whilst warm. More irritating than the
common pea.

3. (Dr Gray.) Beeswax, 12 parts; verdigris and white hellebore, of each 4
parts; orris root, 3 parts; cantharides, 2 parts; Venice turpentine, q. s.
Used to open issues instead of caustic, but their employment requires


_pathology_, a cutaneous disease, caused by a minute insect lodging under
the skin, and readily communicated by contact. There are four varieties of
itch, distinguished by nosologists by the names——_scabies papuliformis_,
or rank itch;——_scabies lymphatica_, or watery itch; _scabies purulenta_,
or pocky itch; _scabies cachectica_, a species exhibiting appearances
resembling each of the previous varieties. Our space will not permit more
than a general notice of the common symptoms, and the mode of cure which
is equally applicable to each species, and will not prove injurious to
other skin diseases simulating the itch.

The common itch consists of an eruption of minute vesicles, principally
between the fingers, bend of the wrist, &c., accompanied by intense
itching of the parts, which is only aggravated by scratching. The usual
treatment is repeated applications of sulphur ointment (simple or
compound), well rubbed in once or twice a day, until a cure is effected;
accompanying its use by the internal exhibition of a spoonful or more of
flowers of sulphur, mixed with treacle or milk night and morning. Where
the use of sulphur ointment is objectionable, a sulphur bath, or a lotion
or bath of sulphurated potash, or of chloride of lime, may be employed

In the ‘Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal’ for 1872 is a paper by Professor
Rothmund recommending the employment of balsam of Peru in this
objectionable disease. The writer states that one application generally
effects a cure, and that its use does away with the necessity of baths. He
recommends the balsam being rubbed all over the naked body. Carbolic acid
is another and much cheaper remedy proposed by the same author. To obviate
its caustic action he advises the acid to be mixed with glycerin or
linseed oil, in the proportion of one scruple of the acid to two ounces of
either excipient. He considers the objection to this remedy may be that it
enters too rapidly into the circulation. Another agent employed by
Professor Rothmund is a lotion composed of one part of carbolate of sodium
dissolved in 12 parts of water. The affected parts of the skin are to be
rubbed with this three times a day.

It is further recommended to continue this treatment 8 or 10 days after
the cure, in order to kill any acari or their eggs that may have lurked
among the clothes or bed-linen. See BATH, LOTION (Itch), OINTMENT,

=I′VORY.= The osseous portion of the tusks and teeth of the male elephant,
the hippopotamus, wild boar, &c. That of the narwhal or seahorse is the
most esteemed, on account of its superior hardness, toughness,
translucency, and whiteness. The dust or shavings (IVORY DUST, IVORY
SHAVINGS) of the turner form a beautiful size or jelly when boiled in
water. VEGETABLE IVORY is the hard albumen of the seed of the _Phytelephas
macrocarpa_, one of the Palm family.

Ivory may be dyed or stained by any of the ordinary methods employed for
woollen, after being freed from dirt and grease; but more quickly as

1. BLACK. The ivory, well washed in an alkaline lye, is steeped in a weak
neutral solution of nitrate of silver, and then exposed to the light, or
dried and dipped into a weak solution of sulphide of ammonium.

2. BLUE. Steep it in a weak solution of sulphate of indigo which has been
nearly neutralised with salt of tartar, or in a solution of soluble
Prussian blue. A still better plan is to steep it in the dyer’s green

3. BROWN. As for black, but using a weaker solution of silver.

4. GREEN. Dissolve verdigris in vinegar, and steep the pieces therein for
a short time, observing to use a glass or stoneware vessel; or, in a
solution of verdigris, 2 parts; and sal ammoniac, 1 part, in soft water.

5. PURPLE. Steep it in a weak neutral solution of terchloride of gold, and
then expose it to the light.

6. RED. Make an infusion of cochineal in liquor of ammonia, then immerse
the pieces therein, having previously soaked them for a few minutes in
water very slightly acidulated with aquafortis.

7. YELLOW. _a._ Steep the pieces for some hours in a solution of sugar of
lead, then take them out, and when dry, immerse them in a solution of
chromate of potassa.

_b._ Dissolve as much of the best orpiment in solution of ammonia as it
will take up, then steep the pieces therein for some hours; lastly, take
them out and dry them in a warm place, when they will turn yellow.

Ivory is etched or engraved by covering it with an etching ground or wax,
and employing oil of vitriol as the etching fluid.

Ivory is rendered flexible by immersion in a solution of pure phosphoric
acid (sp. gr. 1·13), until it loses, or partially loses, its opacity, when
it is washed in clean cold soft water, and dried. In this state it is as
flexible as leather, but gradually hardens by exposure to dry air.
Immersion in hot water, however, restores its softness and pliancy.
According to Dr Ure, the necks of some descriptions of INFANTS’ FEEDING
BOTTLES are thus made.

Ivory is whitened or bleached by rubbing it with finely powdered
pumice-stone and water, and exposing it to the sun whilst still moist,
under a glass shade, to prevent desiccation and the occurrence of
fissures; observing to repeat the process until a proper effect is
produced. Ivory may also be bleached by immersion for a short time in
water holding a little sulphurous acid, chloride of lime, or chlorine, in
solution; or by exposure in the moist state to the fumes of burning
sulphur, largely diluted with air. Cloez recommends the ivory or bones to
be immersed in turpentine and exposed for three or four days to sunlight.
The object to be bleached should be kept an eighth or a fourth of an inch
above the bottom of the bath by means of zinc supports. For the
preparation of ivory intended for miniature painting Mr Ernest Spon in his
useful work, ‘Workshop Receipts,’ says: “The bleaching of ivory may be
more expeditiously performed by placing the ivory before a good fire,
which will dispel the wavy lines if they are not very strongly marked,
that frequently destroy the uniformity of surface.”

Ivory may be gilded by immersing it in a fresh solution of proto-sulphate
of iron, and afterwards in solution of chloride of gold.

Ivory is wrought, turned, and fashioned in a similar manner and with
similar tools to those used for bone and soft brass.

_Obs._ Bone for ornamental purposes is treated in a similar way to ivory,
but less carefully, owing to its inferior value. The bones of living
animals may be dyed by mixing madder with their food. The bones of young
pigeons may thus be tinged of a rose colour in 24 hours, and of a deep
scarlet in 3 or 4 days; but the bones of adult animals take fully a
fortnight to acquire a rose colour. The bones nearest the heart become
tinged the soonest. In the same way logwood and extract of logwood will
tinge the bones of young pigeons purple. (Gibson.)

=1.= =Ivory, Artificial.= Let a paste be made of isinglass, egg-shell in
very fine powder, and brandy. Give it the desired colour, and pour it
while warm into oiled moulds. Leave the paste in the moulds until it
becomes hard.

=2.= (L’Union Pharmaceutique.) Two parts of caoutchouc are dissolved in 36
parts of chloroform, and the solution is saturated with pure gaseous
ammonia. The chloroform is then distilled off at a temperature of 85° C.
The residue is mixed with phosphate of lime or carbonate of zinc, pressed
into moulds and dried. When phosphate of lime is used the product
possesses to a considerable degree the nature and composition of ivory.


=JABORANDI.= _Syn._ IABORANDI, JAMBORANDI. The above names are given by
the natives of Brazil, Paraguay, and other parts of South America to any
indigenous plants possessing strongly stimulant, diaphoretic, and
sialagogue properties, which are principally employed in those countries
as antidotes for the bites and stings of venomous snakes and insects.

As far as they have been examined, all the plants known under the generic
name ‘jaborandi’ have been traced to the two natural orders, _Rutaceæ_ and
_Piperaceæ_. Those exercising the most marked physiological effects appear
to belong to the former or the rutaceous division, and are very probably
different species of _Pilocarpus_. The drug was first introduced into
Europe by Dr Coutinho, of Pernambuco, who some four years since sent a
sample of it to Dr Gubler, of Paris, by whom it was administered to some
of the patients of the Beaujon Hospital there. The jaborandi with which
these experiments were made was identified by Professor Baillon, of Paris,
as belonging to the _Pilocarpus pinnatus_ (_pinnatifolius_). Four to six
grams of the bruised leaves and twigs were infused in a cup of water, and
the patient being put to bed, in ten minutes after taking the draught,
finds himself bathed in a perspiration lasting for four or five hours,
this being so profuse as to render several changes of linen necessary
during the time. Accompanying the diaphoresis are great salivary and
bronchial secretions, which sometimes will not permit the patient to speak
without his mouth becoming filled with water.

The quantity of saliva is stated to have sometimes equalled a litre in
measure. These experiments have been repeated in this country with
analogous effects; in one case reported with jaborandi obtained from the
Beaujon Hospital, and in another from London; results the similarity of
which strongly point to a corresponding composition in the two specimens
of the plant used, if, as seems not improbable, they may have belonged to
different species. A case of impaired vision following the administration
of jaborandi is also recorded; but this seems evidently to have been the
effect of an overdose of the drug.[6]

[Footnote 6: ‘Pharm. Journal,’ 3rd series, V, 364 and 561.]

When jaborandi is administered in divided doses instead of producing
salivation or sweating, it acts as an active diuretic only, increasing
the flow of urine to nearly double the usual amount. M. Albert Robins
says:——“The effect of jaborandi on animals is very marked; guinea-pigs are
seized with salivation, weeping and diarrhœa, true ecchymoses being found
in the intestines, and dogs become instantly salivated, their gastric
secretion being also much increased.”[7]

[Footnote 7: ‘Medical Times and Gazette.’]

Drs Coutinho and Gubler affirm they have employed jaborandi in dropsy,
bronchitis, diabetes, and various other diseases, and that they have found
it fully answer their expectations; and in one case of albuminuria it is
narrated that a permanent diminution of albumen from 14·40 to 12 grammes
followed its use.

An alkaloid has been obtained from the piperaceous jaborandi by Parodi,
and named by him _jaborandine_. Some short time afterwards Mr A. W.
Gerrard succeeded in separating the alkaloid from the rutaceous jaborandi,
to which, in accordance with Mr Holmes’ suggestion, and because Parodi had
anticipated him in the adoption of the previous title, he gave the name

Mr Gerrard recommends the following process for the preparation of
_pilocarpine_:——“Prepare a soft extract either with leaf or bark, with 50
per cent. alcohol. Digest this with water, filter and wash. Evaporate the
filtrate to a short extract, cautiously add ammonia in slight excess,
shake well with chloroform, separate the chloroform solution, and allow it
to evaporate; the residue is the alkaloidal pilocarpine with probably a
small amount of impurity.” Mr Gerrard has also succeeded in preparing a
crystalline nitrate and hydrochlorate of the alkaloid, both of which
possess the medicinal powers of the jaborandi.

[Illustration: _Pilocarpus pinnatifolius._ _a_, flower; _b_, flower with
the petals removed; _c_, carpels.]

The abridged description of a sample of jaborandi from Pernambuco is from
Mr Holmes’ paper in the ‘Pharmaceutical Journal.’[8] The cut is from the
last edition of Royle’s ‘Materia Medica.’ “The specimens of the plant
examined appear to belong to a shrub about 5 feet high. The root is
cylindrical, hardly tapering at all, nearly 3/4 inch in diameter for the
first 12 inches, and very sparingly branched. Bark of root of a pale
yellowish brown, about a line in thickness, and has a short fracture. The
root has an odour like a mixture of bruised pea-pods and orange-peel. Its
taste is first like that of green peas; this soon disappears, and gives
rise to a tingling sensation. The stem is 1/2 inch in diameter near the
root, narrowing to 1/4 inch in the upper branches. The bark is thin,
greyish-brown, longitudinally striated, and in some specimens sprinkled
over with a number of white dots. The wood of the stem is yellowish-white
and remarkably fibrous. The leaves (one of which is represented in the
drawing) are imparipinnate, about 9 inches long, with from 3 to 5 pairs of
opposite leaflets, which are articulated to the rachis, and have very
short, slightly swollen petiolates. The rachis of the leaf is swollen at
the base.

[Footnote 8: 3rd series, V, 581.]

The pairs of leaflets are usually about 1-1/4 inch apart, the lowest pair
being about 4 inches from the base of the rachis. The leaflets are very
variable in size, even on the same leaf. Their general outline is
oblong-lanceolate. They are entire, with an emarginate or even retuse apex
and an unequal base, and texture coriaceous. The veins are prominent on
both sides of the leaf, and branch from the midrib at an obtuse angle in a
pinnate manner. When held up to the light the leaflets are seen to be
densely pellucidly punctate. These pellucid dots, which are receptacles of
secretion, are not arranged, as in another kind of jaborandi, in lines
along the veinlets, but are irregularly scattered all over the leaf, and
appear equally numerous in every part. The whole plant is glabrous.”

Mr Holmes says there appear to be two varieties, if not species, of this
_Pilocarpus_, the one being perfectly smooth in every part, as above
described, and the other having the stems, petioles, and under surface of
the leaves covered with a dense velvety pubescence composed of simple

=JAG′GERY.= _Syn._ PALM SUGAR. A coarse brown sugar made in India by the
evaporation of the juice of several species of palms. The following are
the principal varieties of this product:——

1. COCOA JAGGERY. From the juice of the Cocoa-nut palm (_Cocos nucifera_).

2. MALABAR JAGGERY. From the juice of the Gummuti palm (_Saguerus

3. MYSORE JAGGERY. From the juice of the wild Date-palm (_Phœnix
sylvestris_); 17 galls. yields 46 lbs.

4. PALMYRA JAGGERY. From the juice of the Palmyra palm (_Borassus
flabelliformis_); 6 pints yield 1 lb.

JALAPÆ RADIX (Ph. E.), L. The dried tubercles of the _Exogonium purga_,
_I. jalapa_——(Royle.) Jalap is a powerful stimulant and drastic purgative,
producing copious liquid stools; but when judiciously administered, both
safe and efficacious. It appears to be intermediate in its action between
aloes and scammony.——_Dose_, 10 to 30 gr., in powder; in constipation,
cerebral affections, dropsies, obstructed menstruation, worms, &c. Owing
to its irritant properties, its use is contra-indicated in inflammatory
affections of the alimentary canal, and after surgical operations
connected with the abdomen and pelvis. It is usually administered in
combination with sulphate of potassa or bitartrate of potassa and ginger;
with mercurials, as the case may indicate. The powder is very generally

=Jalap Biscuits.= 1. An ounce of jalap mixed with 16 ounces of the
materials for gingerbread or other kind of cake.

2. Pure resin of jalap, 56 grams, powdered sugar and flour, 1000 grams;
tincture of vanilla, 10 grams, white of egg, No. 20, yolk of egg, No. 40.

Let the resin be emulsified with the yolks of the egg, add successively
the sugar, tincture, and flour, and mix thoroughly into a paste, with
which thoroughly incorporate the whites of eggs, previously beaten up. Let
the mass be divided into 144 biscuits, and bake.

=Jalap, Res′in of.= _Syn._ RESINA JALAPÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) See

2. (Nativelle.) Jalap root is digested in boiling water for 24 hours, and
after being reduced to thin slices more water is added, and the whole
boiled for 10 minutes, with occasional agitation; the liquid is then
expressed in a tincture press, and the boiling and pressing repeated a
second and third time (these decoctions by evaporation yield AQUEOUS
EXTRACT OF JALAP); the pressed root is next treated with rectified spirit,
q. s., and boiled for 10 minutes, and then allowed to cool; the tincture
is then pressed out, and the boiling with fresh alcohol and expression is
repeated twice; a little animal charcoal is added to the mixed tinctures,
and, after thorough agitation, the latter are filtered; the liquid is now
distilled until nothing passes over, the supernatant fluid is poured off
the fluid resin, and the latter dried by spreading it over the surface of
the capsule, and continuing the heat. The product is a friable and nearly
colourless resin, which forms a white powder resembling starch. _Prod._
Fully 10% of pure resin.

3. (Planche.) Resinous extract of jalap is dissolved in rectified spirit,
the tincture agitated with animal charcoal, and after filtration gently
evaporated to dryness.

_Pur._ The jalap resin of commerce is generally adulterated with scammony,
gum, guaiacum or resin. When in a state of purity, it does not form an
emulsion with milk, like scammony resin, but runs into a solid mass. It is
insoluble in fixed oils and turpentine, whilst the common resins are
freely soluble in those menstrua. Its alcoholic solution, dropped on a
piece of absorbent white paper, and exposed to the action of nitrous gas,
does not acquire a green or blue colour; if it does, guaiacum resin is
present. 2% of this adulteration may be thus detected. (Gobley.) It is
insoluble in ether; but guaiacum resin, common resin, and some others, are
so; the decanted ether should not become opalescent when mixed with
water, and should evaporate without leaving any residuum. Powdered jalap
resin placed in cold water does not dissolve, but forms a semi-fluid,
transparent mass, as if it had been melted. Dissolved in a watch-glass
with a little oil of vitriol, a rich crimson-coloured solution is
obtained, from which, in a few hours, a brown viscid resin separates.
These last two characteristics distinguish it from other resins.

_Obs._ Earthenware or well-tinned copper vessels must alone be used in the
above processes, as contact with copper or iron turns the resin black, and
this tinge can only be removed by redissolving the resin in alcohol, the
addition of animal charcoal, and re-evaporation.

Jalap resin is an energetic cathartic.——_Dose_, 1 to 5 gr. See JALAPIN.

=Jalap, Factitious Resin of.= _Syn._ RESINÆ JALAPÆ FACTITIA, L. A
substance frequently sold for jalap resin is made by fusing a mixture of
pale yellow resin and scammony resin, and adding, when it has cooled a
little, but still semi-fluid, a few drops of balsam of Peru or tolu; the
mixture is then poured into small paper capsules or tin moulds. Its
effects resemble those of jalap resin, but it inflames less. (Landerer.)

=Jalap, Soap of.= _Syn._ SAPO JALAPÆ, SAPO JALAPINUS, L. _Prep._ (Ph.
Bor.) Resin of jalap and Castile soap, of each 1 part; rectified spirit, 2
parts, or q. s. to dissolve the ingredients softened by a gentle heat;
subsequently evaporate the mixture by the heat of a water bath until
reduced to 4-1/2 oz., or it has acquired the consistence of a pill-mass.

_Prop., &c._ A greyish-brown mass, soluble in rectified spirit. Said to be
milder in its action than the resin alone.——_Dose_, 5 to 15 oz.

an alcoholic solution of acetate of lead to a similar solution of jalap
resin, collect the precipitate (jalapate of lead), and throw down the lead
by means of sulphuretted hydrogen. (See ABSINTHIC ACID.) A brownish, soft,
greasy substance, smelling strongly of jalap, soluble in alcohol and
alkali, and slightly so in ether. Jalap resin contains about 13% of this

=JAL′APIN.= C_{34}H_{56}O_{16}. _Syn._ JALAPINA. Jalap resin is commonly
sold under this name, but pure jalapin is prepared by one or other of the
following formulæ:——

_Prep._ 1. The liquid filtered from the jalapate of lead in preparing
jalapic acid is a solution of acetate of jalapin, which, after any trace
of lead is removed, by adding a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid, and
filtration, yields the whole of its jalapin, as a precipitate, on the
addition of 5 or 6 times its volume of water; this is collected, washed
with a little cold distilled water, and dried by exposure to a current of
warm dry air.

2. (Hume.) Coarsely powdered jalap is digested in strong acetic acid for
14 days, the tincture filtered ammonia added in excess, and the whole
agitated strongly; the mixture is then filtered, the deposit washed in
cold water, redissolved in acetic acid, reprecipitated by ammonia, and
again washed and dried.

3. (Kayser.) Pure jalap resin, in powder, is digested for some time in
boiling ether, by which means the jalapic acid is removed, and pure
jalapin remains undissolved.

_Prop., &c._ A transparent, colourless, scentless, insipid resin, very
soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in ether. It is the active purgative
principle of crude jalap resin.

=JAMAI′CINE.= _Syn._ JAMAICINA. A peculiar alkaloid obtained by
Huttenschmidt from the bark of the Cabbage-tree (_Andira inermis_).

_Prep._ The aqueous solution of cabbage-tree bark, treated with
sulphuretted hydrogen and evaporated.

_Prop._ Yellow crystals soluble in water and, to a limited extent, in
alcohol; fusible, and very bitter tasted. It forms salts with the acids,
which, in small doses, produce restlessness and trembling; and in larger
ones, purging. It is said to be vermifuge.


=JAMS.= _Syn._ PRESERVES. Conserves of fruit with sugar, prepared by
boiling. In the latter respect they differ from the conserves of the

_Prep._ The pulped or bruised fruit is boiled along with 1/2 to 2/3 of its
weight of loaf sugar, until the mixture jellies, when a little is placed
on a cold plate; the semi-fluid mass is then passed through a coarse hair
sieve whilst hot, to remove the stones and skins of the fruit, and as soon
as it has cooled a little is poured into pots or glasses. It is usual to
tie these over, when cold, with paper which has been dipped in brandy. The
pots must then be placed aside in a dry and rather cold situation.

The following fruits are those from which jams are commonly
prepared:——Apricots, cherries (various), cranberries, currants (black,
red, and white), gooseberries (ripe and green), mulberries, Orleans plums,
raspberries, and strawberries. Red currants are commonly added to the
last, to remove insipidity.

=JAPAN′.= See VARNISH, and _below_.

=JAPAN′NING.= The art of covering paper, wood, or metal, with a coating of
hard, brilliant, and durable varnish. The varnishes or lacquers employed
for this purpose in Japan, China, and the Indian Archipelago, are resinous
juices derived from various trees belonging to the natural order
_Anacardiaceæ_, especially _Stagmaria verniciflua_, _Holigarna
longifolia_, _Semecarpus Anacardium_, and species of _Rus_ (Sumach). For
use, they are purified by a defecation and straining, and are afterwards
mixed with a little oil, and with colouring matter, as required. In this
country varnishes of amber, asphaltum, or copal, or mixtures of them, pass
under the names of ‘JAPAN’ and ‘JAPAN VARNISH,’

_Proc._ The surface is coloured or painted with devices, &c., as desired,
next covered with a highly transparent varnish (amber or copal), then
dried at a high temperature (135° to 165° Fahr.), and, lastly, polished.
Wood and paper are first sized, polished, and varnished. For plain
surfaces, asphaltum, varnish or japan is used. See VARNISHING.

=JAPON′IC ACID.= C_{12}H_{10}O_{5}. When catechu is exposed to the air in
contact with caustic alkalies, black solutions (alkaline japonates) are
formed; with carbonated alkalies, red solutions (alkaline rubates); the
acid of the former may be separated. It is a black powder, insoluble in
water, soluble in alkalies, and precipitated by acids. Buric acid forms
red insoluble compounds with the earths and some other metallic oxides.

=JARAVE.= The Spanish name for SARSAPARILLA BEER. See BEERS (in

=JASPER.= _Syn._ IASPIS, L. A mineral of the quartz family, occurring in
rocky masses. It takes various shades of red, yellow, brown, and green,
and is occasionally banded, spotted, or variegated. It was formerly used
as an amulet against hæmorrhages and fluxes. It is now extensively worked
up into rings, seals, snuff-boxes, vases, &c., for which it is well
calculated from its extreme hardness and susceptibility of receiving a
fine polish.

acid discovered by Pelletier and Caventon, and originally regarded by them
as the cathartic principle of croton oil and croton seeds, but since shown
by Redwood and Pereira to be nearly inert.

_Prep._ The oil is saponified by caustic potassa, and the resulting soap
is decomposed by tartaric acid; the fatty matter which floats on the
surface of the liquid is then skimmed off the aqueous portion, and the
latter submitted to distillation; the liquid in the receiver is a solution
of jatrophic acid.

_Prop., &c._ Volatile; very acid; has a nauseous odour; is solid at 23°,
and vaporizes at 35° Fahr. It forms salts with the bases, none of which
possess any practical importance.

=JAU′MANGE.= _Prep._ From isinglass, 1 oz.; boiling water, 12 oz.;
dissolve, add of any sweet white wine, 1/2 pint; the yolks of 2 eggs
beaten to a froth, and the grated yellow peel of two lemons; mix well, and
heat the whole over the fire until sufficiently thickened, stirring all
the time; lastly, serve it up or pour it into moulds.

=JAUN′DICE.= _Syn._ ICTERUS, MORBUS LUTEOLUS, L. A disease characterised
by a yellow colour of the eyes and skin, deep-coloured urine, and pale
alvine evacuations. It appears to arise from a disordered action of the
biliary organs. The treatment consists of the administration of saline
aperients, and small doses of blue-pill, followed by tonics and
diaphoretics. The action of these remedies should be promoted by the
copious use of diluents (particularly saline water), and exertion in the
open air, when possible. When there is much pain and vomiting, anodynes
(or opium, morphia, &c.) may be administered. Jaundice is not in itself a
dangerous disease, but it sometimes lays the patient open to attacks of
others which are so.

_Animals._——Jaundice affects cattle, giving rise to a tawny hue of the
skin and membranes. Pleuro-pneumonia is frequently followed by jaundice.
The best remedies are large doses of Epsom salts combined with ginger; and
if these fail to remove the costiveness, a drachm of calomel should be
added. If necessary, the above purge must be repeated next day, the action
being assisted by giving the animal warm fluids.

Tonics and stimulants are also sometimes superadded to the above

=JEL′LY.= _Syn._ GELATINA, L. A term now very loosely applied to various
substances which are liquid or semi-liquid whilst warm, and become
gelatinous on cooling.

Jellies are coloured by the addition of the usual stains used by
confectioners, and are rendered transparent by clarification with white of

=Jelly, Almond.= _Syn._ GELATINA AMYGDALARUM, L. _Prep._ From rich almond
milk, 1/4 pint; thick hartshorn jelly, 1/2 pint; sugar, 2 oz.; with 2 or 3
bitter almonds and a little lemon peel, to flavour, heated together,
strained, and moulded.

=Jelly, Ar′row-root.= _Syn._ GELATINA MARANTÆ, L. From arrow-root, 1-1/2
oz., to water, 1 pint. Tous les mois jelly is made in the same way.

=Jelly, Bis′cuit.= _Prep._ From white biscuit (crushed beneath the
rolling-pin), 4 oz.; cold water, 2 quarts; soak for some hours, boil to
one half, strain, evaporate to 1 pint, and add, of white sugar, 3/4 lb.,
red wine, 4 oz., and cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful. In weakness of the stomach,
and in dysentery and diarrhœa, and in convalescence combined with rich
beef gravy or soup.

=Jelly, Bladder-wrack.= (Dr Russell.) _Syn._ GELATINA FUCI. _Prep._
Bladder-wrack (_Fucus vesiculosus_), 2 lbs.; sea water, 2 lbs.; macerate
for 15 days. Applied to glandular tumours.

=Jelly, Bread.= _Syn._ PANADA; GELATINA PANIS, L. _Prep._ Cut a French
roll into slices, toast them on each side, and boil in water, 1 quart,
until the whole forms a jelly, adding more water if required; strain, and
add sugar, milk, &c., to palate. It may be made with broth from which the
fat has been skimmed, instead of water. Used as the last.

=Jelly, Broth.= _Syn._ SOUP-JELLY. From broth or soup from which the fat
has been skimmed, evaporated until it becomes gelatinous on cooling. A few
shreds of isinglass are commonly added. See SOUP (Portable).

=Jelly, Calves’ Feet.= _Prep._ For each foot take of water 3 pints, and
boil to one half; cool, skim off the fat, and again boil for 2 or 3
minutes with the peel of a lemon and a little spice; remove it from the
fire, strain through a jelly bag (see FILTRATION), add the juice of a
lemon and a glass of wine, and when it has cooled a little put it into
glasses or ‘forms.’

_Obs._ If this jelly is required to be very transparent it must be treated
as follows:——After the fat is removed it should be gently warmed, just
enough to melt it, next well beaten with the white of an egg and the
seasoning, and then brought to a boil for a minute or two, when it will be
ready for straining, &c. The calves’ feet should not be bought ready
boiled, but only scalded. Cows’ feet (‘COW HEELS’) make nearly as good
jelly as that from calves’ feet, and are much more economical.

=Jelly, Ceylon Moss.= _Syn._ GELATINA GRACILARIÆ, L. _Prep._ (Dr Sigmond.)
Boil Ceylon moss (_Granularia lichenoides_), 1/2 oz. in water, 1 quart,
for 25 minutes, or till the liquid jellies on cooling; strain and flavour.
Very nutritious; recommended in irritation of the mucous membranes and

=Jelly, Copaiba.= (M. Caillot.) _Syn._ GELATINA COPAIBA. _Prep._
Isinglass, 4 parts; water, 40 parts; dissolve in a water bath, and add 20
parts of sugar; pour the clear liquid jelly into a warm mortar, and add
copaiba, 60 parts; triturate, and pour in a vessel to jelly. Flavour with
some aromatic essential oil or balsam of tolu.

=Jelly, Cor′sican Moss.= _Syn._ GELATINA HELMINTHOCORTI, L. _Prep._ (P.
Cod.) Corsican moss (_Gracilaria Helminthocorton_), 1 oz.; water, q. s.;
boil 1 hour, and strain 8 fl. oz.; to this add of isinglass (previously
soaked in a little water), 1 dr.; refined sugar, 2 oz.; white wine, a
wine-glassful. Vermifuge. See DECOCTION.

=Jelly, Fruit.= Under this head we include those jellies made from the
juices of fruits.

_Prep._ The strained juice mixed with 1/3 to 1/2 its weight of refined
sugar, until it ‘jellies’ on cooling, observing to carefully remove the
scum as it rises. The process should be conducted by a gentle heat, and it
is preferable not to add the sugar until the juice is somewhat
concentrated, as by lengthened boiling the quality of the sugar is

_Obs._ Jellies are sold in pots or glasses, like JAMS. Both jams and fruit
jellies are refrigerant and laxative; they are, however, mostly employed
as relishes, especially during fevers and convalescences. The principal
fruit jellies are:——APPLE, BARBERRY, CHERRY (from either Cornelian or
Kentish cherries), CURRANT (black, white, and red), ELDERBERRY,

=Jelly, Glycerin.= _Syn._ GELATINA GLYCERINI. Mix glycerin to the required
consistence with compound tragacanth powder. Or take powdered gum Arabic,
1/2 oz.; syrup, 4 oz. (3 oz. of sugar to 1 oz. of water); the yolks of 3
eggs; olive oil, 4 oz.; glycerin, 2 oz. Rub the gum and syrup well
together, add the yolks, and when mixed add the oil and glycerine,
previously triturated together. Applied to chapped hands, abrasions, &c.

=Jelly, Gra′′vy.= By evaporating meat gravies.

=Jelly, Harts′horn.= _Syn._ GELATINA CORNU CERVI, L. _Prep._ (P. Cod.)
Hartshorn shavings, 8 oz.; wash it in water, then boil in clean water, 3
pints, till reduced to one half; strain, press, add of sugar, 4 oz., the
juice of one lemon, and the white of an egg beaten up with a little cold
water; mix well, clarify by heat, evaporate till it jellies on cooling,
then add the peel of the lemon, and set it in a cool place. It may be
flavoured with wine, spices, &c. Very nutritious.

=Jelly, Ice′land Moss.= _Syn._ GELATINA LICHENIS, L. _Prep._ (P. Cod.)
Iceland moss, 2 oz.; soak for 1 or 2 days in cold water, then boil for 1
hour in water, q. s. to yield a strong solution; strain, decant the clear
after repose, apply heat, and dissolve therein of isinglass, 1 dr.;
evaporate the whole to a proper consistence, put it into pots, and set
them in a cool place. Nutritious. Recommended in phthisis. The jelly of
Iceland moss and cinchona (GELATINA LICHENIS CUM CINCHONA——P. Cod.) is
made by adding to the above syrup of cinchona, 6 fl. oz.

=Jelly, Iceland Moss (Sweetened).= (P. C.) _Syn._ GELATINA LICHENIS
SACCHARATA. _Prep._ Saccharated Iceland moss (see ICELAND MOSS,
SACCHARATED), 7-1/2 oz.; sugar, 7-1/2 oz.; water, 15 oz.; orange-flower
water, 1 oz. Boil the first three substances and remove the scum which
forms, and then let the jelly flow into a vessel which contains the
orange-flower water.

=Jelly, I′′rish Moss.= _Syn._ GELATINA CHONDRI, L. _Prep._ From Irish or
carrageen moss. See DECOCTION.

L. _Prep._ From isinglass dissolved in water by boiling, and evaporated
till it ‘jellies’ on cooling, adding flavouring, as desired. 1-1/2 oz. of
good isinglass makes fully a pint of very strong jelly. See BLANCMANGE,

=Jelly, Lem′on.= From isinglass, 2 oz.; water, 1 quart; boil, add of sugar
1 lb., clarify, and when nearly cold add the juice of 5 lemons, and the
grated yellow rinds of 2 oranges and of 2 lemons; mix well, strain off the
peel, and put it into glasses.

=Jelly No′yeau.= As PUNCH JELLY, but strongly flavoured with bitter

=Jelly, Or′ange.= From orange juice, 1 pint; let it stand over the grated
yellow rind of 3 or 4 of the oranges for a few hours, then strain, and
add, of loaf sugar, 1/2 lb., or more, isinglass 1/2 oz., dissolved in
water, 1 pint; mix, and put it into glasses before it cools.

=Jelly, Punch.= From isinglass, 2 oz.; sugar, 1-3/4 lb.; water, 1 pint;
dissolve, add of lemon juice, 1/2 pint; the peels of 2 lemons and of 2
oranges; rum and brandy, of each 1/4 pint; keep it in a covered vessel
until cold, then liquefy it by a very gentle heat, strain, and pour it
into moulds. A pleasant and deceptive way of swallowing alcohol.

=Jelly, Quince.= (E. P., 1744.) _Syn._ GELATINA CYDONIORUM. _Prep._ Juice
of quinces, 3 lbs.; sugar, 1 lb.; boil to a jelly.

=Jelly, Rice.= _Syn._ CRÊME DE RIZ. From rice boiled in water, sweetened,
and flavoured.

=Jelly, Sago.= _Prep._ Soak sago in cold water for 1 hour, strain, and
boil in fresh soft water until it becomes transparent; then add wine,
sugar, clear broth, milk, or spices, to flavour. 1 oz. of sugar makes a
pint of good jelly.

=Jelly, Salep.= (Soubeiran). _Syn._ GELATINA SALEPÆ. _Prep._ Ground salep,
4 dr.; sugar, 4 oz.; water, a sufficient quantity. Boil to 12 oz., and
flavour to the taste.

=Jelly, Ta′pioca.= As SAGO JELLY, but using tapioca in lieu of sago.

=JERVINE.= C_{60}H_{5}N_{2}O_{5} An alkaloid discovered in 1837, by Simon,
in the root of the _Veratrum album_, and by Mitchell, in 1874, in the root
of the _Veratrum viride_. Dr H. C. Wood, jun., describing the
physiological effects of jervine, says they consist “in general weakness,
lowering of arterial pressure, a slow pulse, profuse salivation, and
finally convulsions.” Jervine was analysed by Will, who ascribed to it the
above composition.



=JESUIT’S POWDER.= Powdered cinchona bark.

=JET.= A variety of mineral bituminous carbon, very hard, and susceptible
of a fine polish.


=JEWEL′RY.= The gold in articles of jewelry, whether solid or plated,
which are not intended to be exposed to very rough usage, is generally
‘coloured,’ as it is called in the trade. This is done as follows:——

1. (RED GOLD COLOUR.) The article, after being coated with the amalgam, is
gently heated, and, whilst hot, is covered with gilder’s wax; it is then
‘flamed’ over a wood fire, and strongly heated, during which time it is
kept in a state of continual motion, to equalise the action of the fire on
the surface. When all the composition has burned away, the piece is
plunged into water, cleansed with the ‘scratch-brush’ and vinegar, and
then washed and burnished. To bring up the beauty of the colour, the piece
is sometimes washed with a strong solution of verdigris in vinegar, next
gently heated, plunged whilst hot into water, and then washed, first in
vinegar, or water soured with nitric acid, and then in pure water; it is,
lastly, burnished, and again washed and dried.

2. (OR-MOLU COLOUR.) This is given by covering the parts with a mixture of
powdered hematite, alum, common salt, and vinegar, and applying heat until
the coating blackens, when the piece is plunged into cold water, rubbed
with a brush dipped in vinegar, or in water strongly soured with nitric
acid, again washed in pure water, and dried. During this process, the
parts not to be dried in ‘or-molu colour’ should be carefully protected.

The frauds practised in reference to the ‘fineness’ of the metal used in
jewelry is noticed under GOLD (Jeweller’s). See also ASSAYING, DIAMOND,


=JOURNAL BOXES, Alloy for.= Copper, 24 parts; tin 24 parts; antimony, 8
parts. First melt the copper, then add the tin, and lastly the antimony.


=JU′JUBE.= A fruit resembling a small plum, produced by various species of
_Zizyphus_. Combined with sugar, it forms the JUJUBE PASTE of the shops,
when genuine; but that now almost always sold under the name is a mixture
of gum and sugar, slightly coloured and flavoured.

regarded as synonymous with ‘MIXTURE’; but according to the best
authorities, implying a medicine which is used as a vehicle for other
forms of medicine. The word comes through the French, from a Persian
expression, which signifies ‘sweet drink.’ A julep, according to
Continental writers, is a drink of little activity, generally composed of
distilled waters, infusions, and syrups, to which mucilages and acids are
sometimes added; “but never powders or oily substances, which could
interfere with its transparency.” In England the juleps of old pharmacy
are now classed under ‘MIXTURES,’

JUNIPERUS (Ph. L.), L. The fruit of the _Juniperus communis_, or common
juniper tree. In the old Ph. L. & D. both the tops and berries (JUNIPERI
were ordered. The berries are stomachic and diuretic, and have been long
employed in dropsies, either alone or combined with foxglove and squills.
The tops (SUMMITATES) have been highly praised in scurvy and certain
cutaneous affections.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 dr., made into a conserve with
sugar, or in the form of infusion or tea.

Douath found 100 parts of the berries to contain——

  Water                        29·44
  Volatile oil                   ·91
  Formic acid                   1·86
  Acetic acid                    ·94
  Malic acid (combined)          ·21
  Oxalic acid                 traces
  Wax-like fatty matter          ·64
  Green resin (from ethereal
    solution)                   8·46
  Hard brown resin (from
    alcoholic solution)         1·29
  Bitter principle (called
    juniperin)                   ·37
  Pectin                         ·73
  Albuminous substances         4·45
  Sugar                        29·65
  Cellulose                    15·83
  Mineral substances            2·33

=JUN′KET.= _Syn._ DEVONSHIRE JUNKET, CURD JELLY. From warm milk put into a
bowl, and then turned with a little rennet; some scalded cream and sugar
are next added with a sprinkling of cinnamon on the top, without breaking
the curd. Much esteemed by holiday folk in the western counties during the
hot weather of summer. Sometimes, very strangely, a little brandy finds
its way into these trifles.

=JUTE.= This is the fibre yielded by the _Corchorus capsularis_, a lime
tree growing in India and China. It is the material of which sacks, gunny
bags, and coarse thread are made. It mixes even with linen or cotton, and
hence may not improbably be employed as a sophisticant of these

The plates on page 930 exhibit the different microscopic appearances of
the three substances.

=KALEIDOSCOPE.= _Syn._ FLOWER-GLASS. A pleasing philosophical toy invented
by Sir David Brewster, which presents to the eye a series of symmetrical
changing views. It is formed as follows:——Two slips of silvered glass,
from 6 to 10 inches long, and from 1 to 1-1/2 inch wide, and rather
narrower at one end than the other, are joined together lengthwise, by one
of their edges, by means of a piece of silk or cloth glued on their backs;
they are then placed in a tube of tin or pasteboard, blackened inside, and
a little longer than is necessary to contain them, and are fixed by means
of small pieces of cork, with their faces at an angle to each other that
is an even aliquot part of 4 right angles (as the 1/6, 1/8, 1/10, &c.).
The other end of the tube is then closed with an opaque screen or cover,
through which a small eyehole is made in the centre; and the other end is
fitted, first with a plate of common glass, and at the distance of about
1/8th of an inch, with a plain piece of slightly ground glass, parallel to
the former; in the intermediate place or cell are placed the objects to
form the images. These consist of coloured pieces of glass, glass beads,
or any other coloured diaphanous bodies, sufficiently small to move
freely in the cell, and to assume new positions when the tube is shaken or
turned round. A tube so prepared presents an infinite number of changing
and symmetrical pictures, no one of which can be exactly reproduced. This
toy is so easily constructed, is so very inexpensive, and at the same time
so capable of affording an almost inexhaustible fund of amusement to the
young, that we advise our juvenile friends to try their hands at its
construction. Any common tube of tin or pasteboard may be used, and strips
of glass smoked on one side will answer for mirrors.

=KA′LI.= The name formerly applied to a species of _Salsola_ employed for
making BARILLA. It is sometimes used as a designation for the crude
alkalies, and is the German synonym for ‘potassa.’

=Kali, Acid′ulated.= _Syn._ LEMON AND KALI, LEMONATED K. A common
preparation of the shops for making a pleasant effervescing draught. It is
sometimes incorrectly styled ‘citrate of potash.’ _Prep._ 1. Carbonate of
soda and tartaric acid, of each 5 oz.; lump sugar, 1 lb.; all in the state
of fine powder, and separately dried by a very gentle heat, after which
they are mixed together, flavoured with essence of lemon, 1 dr., rubbed
through a gauze sieve in a warm dry situation, put into bottles, and
corked down immediately.

2. Finely powdered white sugar, 16 lbs.; tartaric acid, 4-1/4 lbs.;
carbonate of soda, 4 lbs.; essence of lemon, 1 oz.; as the last. Keeps
well. A dessert-spoonful of either thrown into a glassful of water makes a
pleasant effervescing draught.

=KA′LIUM.= [L.] Potassium.

=KAL′YDOR.= A cosmetic lotion; it resembles ‘GOWLAND’S LOTION,’ but is got
up in a rather more pleasing style. See LOTION.

=KAMALA.= A powder consisting of the minute glands obtained from the
capsules of the _Rottlera tinctoria_, a plant belonging to the nat. ord.
_Euphorbiaceæ_. Kamala is imported from India, where it is known under the
name of kameela. The rottlera, from which it is obtained, is a tree from
15 to 20 feet in height, indigenous to India and to many of the East
Indian Islands.

Kamala has long been employed in India as a remedy for tapeworm, and
within the last few years has been given for the same purpose in this
country with very general success. It may be administered in doses of from
thirty grains to three drachms, suspended in water, rubbed up with
mucilage, or mixed with syrup. In large doses, such as three drachms, it
sometimes purges violently. After the third or fourth motion the worm is
generally evacuated dead. A second dose may be taken in about four hours
should the first fail to act; or instead of a second dose, some castor oil
may be given. Kamala is also used externally by the natives of India in
various skin complaints, particularly in scabies. It is also said to have
proved useful in herpetic ringworm.

[Illustration: COTTON, LINEN AND JUTE.]

Dr Anderson obtained from the resinous colouring matter, which is the
principal constituent of kamala, a yellow crystalline substance, to which
he gave the name _rottlerin_. The existence of rottlerin has since been
confirmed by Mr Groves, who found that it becomes changed by exposure, a
circumstance to which he attributes its non-detection in old specimens of
the drug, and to which may very reasonably be attributed Leube’s failure
to find it.

The ‘British Pharmacopœia’ ascribes the following ‘characters’ to
kamala:——“A fine granular mobile powder, of a brick-red colour; it is with
difficulty mixed with water, but when boiled with alcohol the greater part
is dissolved, forming a red solution. Ether dissolves most of it, the
residue consisting principally of tufted hairs. It should be free from
sand or earthy impurities.”

Kamala forms a very considerable article of export from India, it being a
valuable dye.

=KA′OLIN.= _Syn._ CHINA CLAY, PORCELAIN C. A fine white clay, derived from
the decomposition of the felspar of granitic rocks. The potteries and
porcelain works of this country are chiefly supplied with this substance
from extensive tracts of it which occur near St Austie, Cornwall. See

Elsner[9] gives the following process for distinguishing kaolin from
ordinary clay:——He agitates it in a test-tube with pure strong sulphuric
acid till a uniform mixture is produced, decants the acid after
subsidence, dilutes it carefully with six volumes of water, and
supersaturates the cooled solution with ammonia.

[Footnote 9: Dingl., ‘Pot. Journ.’ (Watts).]

Kaolin thus treated separates but slowly from the strong acid, and the
diluted acid solution gives an immediate white precipitate with ammonia,
whereas ordinary clay is but slightly attacked by the acid, separates
quickly from it, and the acid after dilution gives but an insignificant
precipitate with ammonia.

=KAP′NOMOR.= _Syn._ CAPNOMOR. A colourless oil obtained from crude
kreasote by distillation with potassa. It boils at 360° Fahr., has a
peculiar odour, and is insoluble in water, but readily soluble in an
alkaline solution of kreasote.

=KATAL′YSIS.= _Syn._ CATALYSIS, CONTACT ACTION. Terms applied to a class
of chemical actions in which the decompositions, and the recombination of
the elements of compound bodies, is apparently excited by the mere
presence of, or contact with, other bodies, which do not themselves suffer
such a change.


=KELP.= The alkaline ashes obtained by burning various species of
sea-weed, formerly much used for the preparation of carbonate of soda. The
weeds most valued for the purpose are the _Fucus vesiculosus_, _nodosus_,
and _serratus_, and the _Laminaria bulbosa_ and _digitata_.

Of late years the manufacture of kelp, like that of barilla, has been
almost abandoned except as a source of iodine. Mr E. C. C. Stanford, by
carefully collecting and compressing the weed, and afterwards submitting
it to dry distillation, doubles the yield of iodine and bromine, and
obtains in addition various valuable hydrocarbons. See BARILLA, IODINE,
SODA, &c.

bodies of the female _Coccus Ilicis_ of Linnæus, a small insect of the
order _Hemiptera_, which flourishes on the Ilex oak. It has been used as a
red and scarlet dye-stuff ever since the time of Moses; but is now
superseded in this country by cochineal, which gives colours of much
greater brilliancy.

tersulphide of antimony, containing a small admixture of teroxide of
antimony and sulphuride of potassium. _Prep._ 1. IN THE HUMID WAY.——_a._
(P. Cod.) Carbonate of soda (cryst.), 128 parts (say 21 parts), is
dissolved in water, 1280 parts (say 210 parts), contained in a cast-iron
pan; tersulphide of antimony (in fine powder), 6 parts (say 1 part), is
next added, and the whole boiled for an hour, with constant agitation with
a wooden spatula; the boiling liquid is then filtered into a heated
earthen pan containing a small quantity of very hot water, and the
solution is allowed to cool as slowly as possible; the red powder which is
deposited is collected on a cloth, on which it is well washed with cold
water, and the superfluous water being removed by pressure, the powder is
dried by a gentle heat, and is, lastly, passed through a fine silk-gauze
sieve, and preserved from light and air.

_b._ (Wholesale.) From black sulphuride of antimony, 4 lbs.; carbonate of
potassa, 1 lb.; boil in water, 2 galls., for half an hour, filter, &c., as
before. The undissolved portion of sesquisulphuret of antimony may be
boiled again several times with fresh potassa and water, until the whole
is dissolved. Inferior to the last.

_c._ (CLUZELL’S KERMES.) From tersulphide of antimony, 4 parts;
crystallised carbonate of soda, 90 parts; water, 1000 parts; boil, &c., as
in 1, _a_, and dry the powder, folded up in paper, at a heat not exceeding
90° Fahr.

2. IN THE DRY WAY.——_a._ (P. Cod.) Carbonate of potassa, 100 parts;
tersulphide of antimony, 50 parts; sulphur, 3 parts; mix, fuse in a
Hessian crucible, pour the melted mass into an iron mortar, and when cold
reduce it to powder; next boil it in water, 1000 parts, contained in an
iron vessel, filter the solution, and otherwise proceed as before.
_Product_: large, but of inferior quality.

_b._ (Fownes.) From tersulphide of antimony, 5 parts; carbonate of soda
(dry), 3 parts; water, 80 parts; fuse, &c., as before. Nearly equal to 1,

_c._ (Berzelius.) Carbonate of potassa (pure), 3 parts, tersulphide of
antimony, 8 parts; water, q. s. Resembles the last.

_Prop., &c._ An odourless, tasteless powder, insoluble in both water and
alcohol, and, when pure and carefully prepared, entirely soluble in
hydrosulphate of ammonia. As prepared by the formulæ 1, _a_, and 1, _c_,
it is a very dark crimson powder, of a velvety smoothness; but that from
the other formulæ has a brownish-red colour, more or less deep. The secret
of preparing this compound of a fine and velvety quality, like that
imported from the Continent, consists simply in filtering the solution
whilst boiling hot, and allowing it to cool very slowly, by placing the
vessel in an appropriate situation for that purpose. Another important
point, according to Rose, is to employ sufficient alkali to keep the whole
of the teroxide of antimony in solution as the liquid cools, instead of
allowing a part of it to be deposited with the kermes. This is the reason
of the superior quality and mildness of that prepared according to the
directions of the French Codex. The liquor decanted from the ‘kermes
mineral’ yields the golden sulphide of antimony on the addition of an
acid, for which purpose the acetic is generally employed.

_Dose_, 1/2 gr. to 3 or 4 gr., as a diaphoretic, cathartic, or emetic. It
occupies in foreign practice the place of our James’s Powder.

=KETCH′UP.= _Syn._ CATCHUP, CATSUP, KATCHUP. The juice of certain
vegetables strongly salted and spiced, so as to be used as sauce; or a
simple sauce made without the natural juice as a substitute for the true
ketchup. The following are the principal varieties:——

=Ketchup, Camp.= _Prep._ Take of good old beer, 2 quarts; white wine, 1
quart; anchovies, 4 oz.; mix, heat it to the boiling-point, remove it from
the fire, and add of peeled shalots, 3 oz.; mace, nutmegs, ginger, and
black pepper, of each, bruised, 1/2 oz.; macerate for 14 days, with
frequent agitation, then allow it to settle, and decant and bottle the
clear portion.

=Ketchup, Cu′cumber.= _Prep._ From ripe cucumbers, in the same way as
mushroom ketchup. Very luscious. Mixed with cream, or melted butter, it
forms an excellent white sauce for fowls, &c.

=Ketchup, Marine′.= _Prep._ Take of strong old beer, 1 gall.; anchovies,
1-1/2 lb.; peeled shalots (crushed), 1 lb.; bruised mace, mustard seed,
and cloves, of each 1/2 oz.; bruised pepper and ginger, of each 1/4 oz.;
mushroom ketchup and vinegar, of each 1 quart; beat the mixture to the
boiling point, put it into a bottle, and macerate for 14 days, frequently
shaking; then strain through flannel, and bottle it for use. Excellent
with anything; like the last, it makes good white sauce, and keeps well.

=Ketchup, Mush′room.= _Prep._ 1. Sprinkle mushroom flaps, gathered in
September, with common salt, stir them occasionally for 2 or 3 days, then
lightly squeeze out the juice, and add to each gallon cloves and mustard
seed, of each, bruised, 1/2 oz.; allspice, black pepper, and ginger, of
each, bruised, 1 oz.; gently heat to the boiling-point in a covered
vessel, macerate for 14 days, and decant or strain. Should it exhibit any
indications of change in a few weeks, bring it again to the boiling-point,
with a little more spice, and a table-spoonful more salt.

2. Take of mushroom juice, 2 galls.; pimento, 2 oz.; cloves, black pepper,
mustard seed, and ginger, of each, bruised, 1 oz.; salt, 1 lb. (or to
taste); shalots, 3 oz.; gently simmer for 1 hour in a covered vessel,
cool, strain, and bottle.

3. Take of mushroom juice, 100 galls.; black pepper, 9 lbs.; allspice, 7
lbs.; ginger, 5 lbs.; cloves, 1 lb. (all bruised); salt, q. s.; gently
simmer in a covered tin boiler for 1 hour.

=Ketchup, Oys′ter.= _Prep._ Pulp the oysters, and to each pint add, of
sherry wine, or very strong old ale, 1 pint; salt, 1 oz.; mace, 1/4 oz.;
black pepper, 1 dr.; simmer very gently for 10 minutes, strain, cool,
bottle, and to each bottle add a spoonful or two of brandy, and keep them
in a cool situation. COCKLE KETCHUP and MUSSEL KETCHUP are made in the
same way. Used to flavour sauces when the fish are out of season;
excellent with rump steak, &c.

=Ketchup, Pon′tac.= _Prep._ Take of the juice of elderberries and strong
vinegar, of each 1 pint; anchovies, 1/2 lb.; shalots and spice, q. s. to
flavour; boil for 5 minutes, cool, strain, and bottle. Used to make fish

=Ketchup, Toma′to.= _Prep._ Prepared from tomatoes or love apples, like
mushroom ketchup, except that a little very strong Chili vinegar is
commonly added. An admirable relish for ‘high’ or rich flavoured viands.

=Ketchup, Wal′nut.= _Prep._ 1. Take of the expressed juice of young
walnuts, when tender, 1 gall.; boil 10 minutes, skim, add of anchovies, 2
lbs.; shalots, 1 lb.; cloves and mace, of each 1 oz.; 1 clove of garlic,
sliced; simmer in a covered vessel for 15 minutes, strain, cool, and
bottle, adding a little fresh spice to each bottle, and salt, q. s. Will
keep good in a cool place for 20 years.

2. Take of green walnut shells, 16 galls.; salt, 5 lbs.; mix and beat
together for a week, press out the liquor, and to every gallon add, of
allspice, 4 oz.; ginger, 3 oz.; pepper and cloves, of each 2 oz.; all
bruised; simmer for half an hour, and set aside in a closed vessel and in
a cool situation until sufficiently clear.

3. Take of walnut juice, 1 gall.; vinegar, 1 quart; British anchovies
(sprats), 3 or 4 lbs.; pimento, 3 oz.; ginger, 1/4 oz.; long pepper, 1/2
oz.; cloves, 1 oz.; shalots, 2 oz.; boil and bottle, as before.

4. From the juice of walnut shells, 30 galls.; salt, 1 bushel; allspice
and shalots, of each 6 lbs.; ginger, garlic, and horse-radish, of each 3
lbs.; essence of anchovies, 3 galls.; as before.

=Ketchup, Wine.= _Prep._ Take of mushroom or walnut ketchup, 1 quart;
chopped anchovies, 1/2 lb.; 20 shalots; scraped horse-radish, 2 oz.;
spice, q. s.; simmer for 15 minutes, cool, and add of white and red wine,
of each 1 pint; macerate for 1 week, strain, and bottle.

_General Remarks._ In preparing the above articles, vessels of glazed
earthenware, or stoneware, or well-tinned copper pans, should alone be
used to contain them whilst being boiled or heated, as salt and vegetable
juices rapidly corrode copper, and render the ketchup poisonous. Nothing
in the shape of copper, lead or pewter should be allowed to touch them.
Even a plated copper spoon left in a bottle of ketchup for some time will
render its contents poisonous. Unpleasant and even dangerous fits of
vomiting, colic, and diarrhœa have resulted from the neglect of this
precaution. See SAUCE, &c.

=KIBES.= The vulgar name for ulcerated chilblains.

=KID′NEYS.= _Syn._ RENES, L. (In _anatomy_.) The kidneys, as almost every
one knows, are abdominal viscera which secrete the urine, and form the
great channels by which the effete nitrogenous matter is removed from the
blood. They are subject to various affections, both functional and
organic, chronic and acute, of which some are imperfectly understood, and
others only admit of alleviation, but not of being cured. See URINE and

=Kidneys.= (In _cookery_.) Soyer recommends kidneys to be dressed by
gently broiling them, having previously split them, “so as nearly to
divide them, leaving the fat in the middle,” and “run a skewer through
them, that they may remain open.” After being rubbed with a little butter,
and seasoned with salt and pepper, “they may be served on toast, or with
any sauce.” “You may also egg and bread-crumb them.” “Five minutes suffice
for a sheep or lamb’s kidney of common size.” (Soyer.) One or two lamb’s
kidneys, plainly broiled and served up with the gravy in them, eaten along
with a little dry-toasted bread, form a most excellent and appropriate
luncheon or dinner for a dyspeptic or convalescent.

=KIESERITE.= A sulphate of magnesia found in the refuse salt (abraumsalz)
of Stassfurth, near Magdeburg. It forms about 12% of the _abraumsalz_. It
is employed for washing wool and for the manufacture of ‘permanent white’
by treatment with chloride of barium; also for the preparation of Glauber
salts, and of hypochlorite of magnesia for bleaching linen. See LINEN.

=KING’S CUP.= _Prep._ Yellow peel of 1 lemon; lump sugar, 1-1/2 oz.; cold
water, 1 pint; infuse 8 or 10 hours, and strain. The addition of a
teaspoonful of orange-flower water is a great improvement. Used as a
diluent in cases where acid liquors are inadmissible. See LEMONADE.



peculiar monobasic acid occurring in the cinchona barks, in which it
exists associated with the alkaloids.

Kinic acid is somewhat extensively diffused throughout the vegetable
kingdom, being found in the bark of every species of the true cinchonas,
as well as in the leaves of the oak, the elm, the ash, the ivy, the
privet, and the coffee plant and berries. It occurs in the cinchona barks
most probably combined with the alkaloids, which therefore exist in the
plant as kinates.

It is readily obtained from kinate of lime by the action of dilute
sulphuric acid; the filtered solution evaporated to the consistence of a
syrup, gradually deposits large crystals resembling those of tartaric

Henry and Plisson give the following directions for the preparation of
kinic acid:——Make a decoction of cinchona bark with water containing some
sulphuric acid, and filter whilst hot, and to the filtrate add gradually
freshly precipitated oxide of lead, until the liquid becomes neutral, and
changes from a red to a pale yellow colour; care must be taken to add
sufficient oxide. The filtrate is freed from lead by passing sulphuretted
hydrogen through it, and filtered milk of lime is then added to
precipitate the quinine and cinchonine; and the filtered liquid is
evaporated to a syrup, which yields on cooling crystalline calcic kinate.
To separate the acid from the calcic salt, Berzelius directs an aqueous
solution of the salt to be made and to be precipitated by basic acetate of
lead; the washed precipitate, suspended in water, is then decomposed by
sulphuretted hydrogen, and the solution filtered and evaporated. Or the
calcium kinate may be decomposed by an aqueous or alcoholic solution of
sulphuric acid.[10]

[Footnote 10: Watts.]

Kinic acid is, in the form of large tubular crystals, fusible at 161° C.
These crystals dissolve in two parts of water; they are also soluble in
spirits of wine, but scarcely, if at all, in ether.

It forms salts called kinates. Kinate of calcium is obtained from an
acidulated infusion of cinchona bark, by adding an excess of lime,
filtering, evaporating to a syrup, and setting the liquid aside to
crystallise. These crystals are purified by re-dissolving them, treating
the solution with a little animal charcoal, and crystallising the salt as
before. The liquid from which the bark-alkaloids have been precipitated by
hydrate of lime affords an almost inexhaustible supply of this salt. See

=KI′NO.= _Syn._ GUM KINO; KINO (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.) The juice flowing
from the incised bark of the _Pterocarpus Marsupium_ or Indian, hardened
in the sun.——_Dose_, 10 to 30 gr., in powder; as an astringent in chronic
diarrhœa, &c.

=Kino, Factitious=, met with in the shops, is made as follows:——Logwood,
48 lbs.; tormentil root, 16 lbs.; madder root, 12 lbs.; exhaust by coction
with water, q. s.; to the liquor add of catechu, 16 lbs.; dissolve,
strain, and evaporate to dryness. _Prod._ 24 lbs. Extract of mahogany is
also commonly sold for kino.

=KIRSCH′WASSER= (-văs ser) [Ger.]. _Syn._ KIRSCHENWASSER. A spirituous
liquor distilled in Germany and Switzerland from bruised cherries. From
the rude manner in which it is obtained, and from the distillation of the
cherry-stones (which contain prussic acid) with the liquor, it has often a
nauseous taste, and is frequently poisonous. When properly made and
sweetened, it resembles noyeau.

=KISH.= An artificial graphite occasionally produced in iron-smelting
furnaces. It occurs in brilliant scales, and is said to possess peculiar
efficacy in certain forms of anæmia and chlorosis.

=KITCH′EN.= The late Alexis Soyer set down as one of the crying faults of
our countrymen the employment of an apartment for the kitchen which is
either too small or inconveniently situated, and which, in general, is not
sufficiently provided with ‘kitchen requisites.’ “As a workman cannot work
properly without the requisite tools, or the painter produce the proper
shade without the necessary colours, in like manner does every person
wishing to economise his food and to cook it properly require the proper
furniture wherewith to do it.” The neglect of these matters, which is so
general, is, undoubtedly, a mischievous and deceptive economy.

=KNIVES, to Clean.= After being used all knives should be wiped on a
coarse cloth, so as to ensure their freedom from grease previous to being
cleaned. The practice of dipping the blades in hot water not only fails to
remove any grease that may be on them, but is almost sure to loosen the
handles. It is very essential to remove any grease from them, since if
this remain it will spoil the knife-board.

For cleaning knives, a proper knife-cleaning machine, purchased of a good
maker, is best. But where this is not used, the knife-board ought to be
covered with very thick leather, upon which emery powder should be placed.
The emery gives a good polish to the knives, and does not wear them out so
quickly as Bath-brick. When the points of the knives become worn very
thin, they should be rounded by the knife-grinder. Where the handles are
good it will sometimes be worth while to fit them to new blades.

=KNOX’S POW′DER.= _Prep._ From common salt, 8 parts; chloride of lime, 3
parts; mixed together. An ounce of it dissolved in a tumblerful of water
furnishes a solution which is similar to Labarraque’s disinfecting fluid.

=KŒCHLIN’S LIQUID.= _Prep._ From copper filings, 96 gr.; liquor of
ammonia, 2 fl. oz.; digested together until it turns of a full blue
colour, and then mixed with hydrochloric acid, 5 fl. dr.; distilled water,
5 lbs.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls daily; in scrofula. It is poisonous in
large doses.


=KOU′MISS.= A liquor prepared by the Calmucs, by fermenting mare’s milk,
previously kept until sour, and then skimmed. By distillation it yields a
spirit called rack, racky, or araka. 21 lbs. of fermented milk yield about
3/4 pint of low wines, and this, by rectification, gives fully 1/4 pint of
strong alcohol. It has lately come into use as a remedy for phthisis and
general debility.

The following formula from the _Zeitschrift des Oesterr. Apoth. Ver._
(1876, 526), for the preparation of so-called KOUMISS EXTRACT, is said to
be a good one:——

  Powdered sugar of milk          100 parts
  Glucose (prepared from starch)  100   ”
  Cane sugar                      300   ”
  Bicarbonate of potassium         36   ”
  Common salt                      33   ”

Dissolve these ingredients in 600 parts of boiling fresh whey of milk,
allow the solution to cool, then add 100 parts of rectified spirit, and
afterwards 100 parts of strained fresh beer yeast. Stir the mixture well
and put into bottles containing a quarter of a litre each. The bottles
must be well corked and kept in a cool place.

For the preparation of Koumiss add 5 to 6 tablespoonfuls of this extract
to a litre of skimmed, lukewarm milk, contained in a bottle of thick
glass; cork well, keep the bottle for half a day in a moderately warm room
(at 16°-20° C.), and afterwards in a cool cellar, shaking occasionally.
The bottle should be filled to within 3-4 centimètres of the cork. After
two days the Koumiss is ready for use.

=KOUS′SO.= _Syn._ CUSSO, KOSSO. This substance is the dried flowers of the
_Brayera anthelmintica_, an Abyssinian tree which grows to the height of
about 20 feet, and belongs to the natural order Rosaceæ. It is one of the
most effective remedies known for both varieties of tapeworm. The dose for
an adult is 3 to 5 dr., in powder, mixed with about half a pint of warm
water, and allowed to macerate for 15 or 20 minutes. The method prescribed
for its successful administration is as follows:——The patient is to be
prepared by a purgative or a lavement, and the use of a very slight diet
the day before. The next morning, fasting, a little lemon juice is to be
swallowed, or a portion of a lemon sucked, followed by the dose of kousso
(both liquid and powder), at 3 or 4 draughts, at short intervals of each
other, each of which is to be washed down with cold water acidulated with
lemon juice. The action of the medicine is subsequently promoted by
drinking weak tea without either milk or sugar, or water flavoured with
lemon juice or toasted bread; and if it does not operate in the course of
3 or 4 hours, a dose of castor oil or a saline purgative is taken.

The flavour of kousso is rather disagreeable and nauseating. Its operation
is speedy and effectual; but at the same time it is apt to produce, in
large doses, great prostration of strength, and other severe symptoms,
which unfit it for administration to the delicate of both sexes, or during
pregnancy or affections of the lower viscera. Care should be taken not to
purchase it in powder, as, owing to its high price, it is uniformly
adulterated. The powdered kousso of the shops is, in general, nothing more
than the root-bark of pomegranate, coloured and scented.

& D.), CREAZOTUM (Ph. E.), L. A peculiar substance, discovered by
Reichenbach, and so named on account of its powerful antiseptic property.
It is a product of the dry distillation of organic bodies, and is the
preservative principle of wood smoke and pyroligneous acid.

_Prep._ Kreasote is manufactured from wood-tar, in which it is sometimes
contained to the amount of 20% to 35%, and from crude pyroligneous acid
and pyroxilic oil.

1. (P. Cod.) Wood-tar is distilled in a wrought-iron retort until white
vapours of paraffin appear; the heavy oily matter which forms the lower
layer of the product is collected, washed with water slightly acidulated
with sulphuric acid, and then distilled in a glass retort, rejecting the
first portions, which are chiefly eupion; the distillate is treated with a
solution of potassa (sp. gr. 1·12), the mixed liquids being shaken
strongly together; after it is settled, the layer of eupion which forms is
removed from the surface, and the potash-solution of kreasote exposed to
the air until it becomes black; it is then saturated with dilute sulphuric
acid, the water liquid rejected, and the remainder (consisting of crude
kreasote) submitted to distillation in glass; the treatment by exposure,
potassa, sulphuric acid, and distillation is repeated three times or
oftener, until the combination of kreasote and potassa ceases to become
coloured by the action of the air; it is, lastly, saturated with
concentrated phosphoric acid, and again distilled, rejecting the first
portion that comes over.

2. (M. Simon.) A copper still, capable of containing 80 Berlin quarts, is
filled to one third with the oil of wood-tar, and heat is applied; first,
the more volatile matters pass over; these do not contain kreasote, and
are, therefore, rejected; but when, by gradually increasing the
temperature, there passes over a very acid liquid, which becomes turbid,
and at the same time an oil separates from it when mixed with water, the
product is collected, and the distillation continued until the operator
notices a squirting in the still, when this part of the process is
complete; the distilled product is then nearly saturated with potassa and
returned to the still, which, in the meantime, has been well cleaned out,
and about half filled with water, and the distillation is recommenced; at
first an oil comes over, which floats on water, and which consists chiefly
of eupion, and is, therefore, rejected; as soon, however, as the oil
begins to sink in the water which comes over with it, it is charged with
kreasote, and is carefully collected; the distilling aqueous fluid being
reintroduced from time to time into the still, and the distillation
continued so long as any oil continues to come over with it; the heavy
oily distillate is now agitated with liquor of potassa, sp. gr. 1·120; the
portion which remains undissolved is eupion, and is skimmed off; the
potassa-solution of kreasote still, however, contains a considerable
quantity of eupion, the greater portion of which may be separated by
dilution and distillation with an equal quantity, or with at least 4/5ths
of its volume of water, fresh water being added from time to time, as long
as any eupion comes over with the distilled liquor; when this has ceased
to pass over, sulphuric acid is poured into the still in quantity exactly
sufficient to saturate 1/3rd only of the potassa formerly employed, and
the distillation is again renewed; kreasote now distils over, the first
portions of which, however, still contain eupion, after which pure
kreasote follows; that is to say, “a kreasote which, when mixed with 6 or
8 times its quantity of a solution of pure potassa, furnishes a mixture
which, by the addition of any further quantity whatever of water, does not
become turbid.” The combination of kreasote remaining in the still is now
mixed with sulphuric acid in slight excess, and the distillation renewed,
the water coming over with it being from time to time returned into the
still; and when no further oil passes over with the water, the process is
complete. The kreasote thus obtained is redistilled with the water which
has passed over with it, whilst the distilled water, as before, is allowed
from time to time to run back into the still. The kreasote thus obtained
is then colourless; but it contains a considerable quantity of water in
solution, which is separated by distillation in a glass retort. The water
distils first, and then kreasote, which, after cleaning the neck of the
retort from the water, must be received in another dry receiver. If the
kreasote assumes a red colour after being exposed for some time to the
air, it must be re-distilled, and then it keeps very well. Korne found
that tar prepared from turf furnishes much more kreasote than that from
fir-wood, &c.

3. (Ure.) In operating upon pyroligneous acid, if we dissolve effloresced
sulphate of soda in it to saturation, at the temperature of 267° Fahr.,
the kreasote separates, and floats upon the surface; it is then decanted,
and left in repose for some days, during which it deposits a fresh
portion of salt and vinegar; it is next saturated whilst hot with
carbonate of potassa, and distilled along with water; a pale yellow oily
liquid passes over, which is rectified with phosphoric acid, &c., like the
crude product of kreasote from tar.

_Prop._ Kreasote is a colourless, transparent liquid, heavier than water,
of a peculiar unpleasant penetrating odour resembling that of smoked meat,
and a very pungent and caustic taste; its vapour irritates the eyes; it
boils at 400° Fahr., and is still fluid at -16·6° Fahr.; it produces on
white filter paper greasy spots, which disappear if exposed to a heat of
212° Fahr.; dissolves in 80 parts of water, and mixes in all proportions
with spirit of wine, the essential and fatty oils, acetic acid, naphtha,
disulphide of carbon, ammonia, and potassa; it dissolves iodine,
phosphorus, sulphur, resins, the alkaloids, indigo blue, several salts
(especially the acetates and the chlorides of calcium and tin); reduces
the nitrate and acetate of silver; is resinified by chlorine, and
decomposed by the stronger acids. The aqueous solution is neutral, and
precipitates solutions of gum and the white of eggs. It kindles with
difficulty, and burns with a smoky flame. When quite pure, it is unaltered
by exposure to the air. Sp. gr. 1·071, at 68° Fahr. A slip of deal dipped
into it, and afterwards in hydrochloric acid, and then allowed to dry in
the air, acquires a greenish-blue colour. It turns a ray of polarised
light to the right, whereas carbolic acid does not affect polarisation.

_Pur._ The fluid commonly sold in the shops for kreasote is a mixture of
kreasote, picamar, and light oil of tar; in many cases it is little else
than impure carbolic acid, with scarcely a trace of kreasote. Pure
kreasote is perfectly soluble in both acetic acid and solution of potassa;
shaken with an equal volume of water in a narrow test-tube, not more than
the 1-80th part disappears; otherwise it contains water, of which kreasote
is able to assume 1-10th without becoming turbid. If it can be dissolved
completely in 80 parts by weight of water, at a medium temperature, it
then forms a perfectly neutral liquid. An oily residue floating on the
surface betrays the presence of other foreign products (EUPION, KAPNOMOR,
PICAMAR), which are obtained at the same time with the kreasote during the
dry distillation of organic substances.

Kreasote is “devoid of colour, has a peculiar odour, and is soluble in
acetic acid. When it is dropped on bibulous paper, and a boiling heat is
applied for a short time, it entirely escapes, leaving no transparent
stain.” (Ph. L.) “Entirely and easily soluble in its own weight of acetic
acid.” (Ph. E.) Sp. gr. 1·046 (Ph. L.), 1·066 (Ph. E. & D.). The density
and boiling point of absolutely pure kreasote is given above. When
prescribed in pills with oxide of silver, the mass will take fire unless
the oxide be first mixed with liquorice or other powder. (Squire.)

_Uses._ Kreasote has been recommended in several diseases of the organs of
digestion and respiration, in rheumatism, gout, torpid nervous fever,
spasms, diabetes, tapeworm, &c.; but its use has not, in general, been
attended with satisfactory results. It is given in the form of pills,
emulsion, or an ethereal or spirituous solution. Externally it has been
employed in various chronic diseases of the skin, sores of different
kinds, mortifications, scalds, burns, wounds (as a styptic), caries of the
teeth, &c.; mostly in the form of an aqueous solution (1 to 80); or mixed
with lard (5 drops to 1 dr.), as an ointment; dissolved in rectified
spirit, it forms a useful and a popular remedy for toothache arising from
decay or rottenness. In the _arts_, kreasote is extensively employed to
preserve animal substances, either by washing it over them, or by
immersing them in its aqueous solution. A few drops in a saucer, or on a
piece of spongy paper, if placed in a larder, will effectually drive away
insects, and make the meat keep several days longer than it otherwise
would. A small quantity added to brine or vinegar is commonly employed to
impart a smoky flavour to meat and fish, and its solution in acetic acid
is used to give the flavour of whisky to malt spirit. See CARBOLIC ACID.

=KRE′ATIN.= C_{4}H_{9}N_{3}O_{2}·Aq. _Syn._ CREATIN. A crystallisable
substance obtained from the juice of the muscular fibre of animals. It was
first obtained by Chevreul, but has recently been carefully studied by

_Prep._ (Liebig.) Lean flesh is reduced to shreds, and then exhausted with
successive portions of cold water, employing pressure; the mixed liquid is
heated to coagulate the albumen and colouring matter of the blood, and is
then strained through a cloth; pure baryta water is next added as long as
a precipitate forms, the liquid is filtered, and the filtrate is gently
evaporated to the consistence of a syrup; after repose for some days in a
warm situation, crystals of kreatin are deposited; these are purified by
redissolving them in water, agitating the solution with animal charcoal,
and evaporating, &c., so that crystals may form.

_Prop., &c._ Brilliant, colourless, prismatic crystals; readily soluble in
boiling water, sparingly so in cold water and in alcohol; the aqueous
solution is neutral, bitter tasted, and soon putrefies.

=KREAT′ININ.= C_{4}H_{7}N_{3}O. This substance exists in small quantities,
both in the juice of flesh and in conjunction with kreatin in urine. It is
also produced by the action of the stronger acids on kreatin. It forms
colourless prismatic crystals, which are soluble in water, and the
solution has a strongly alkaline reaction. It is a powerful organic base,
and produces crystallisable salts with the acids.


=KRYSTAL′LINE.= The name originally applied by Unverdorben to ANILINE.

=KUSTITIEN’S METAL.= _Prep._ Take of malleable iron, 3 parts; beat it to
whiteness, and add of antimony, 1 part; Molucca tin, 72 parts; mix under
charcoal, and cool. Used to coat iron and other metals with a surface of
tin; it polishes without a blue tint, is hard, and has the advantage of
being free from lead and arsenic.

=KYANI′ZING.= A method of preserving wood and cordage from decay, long
known and practised; patented by Mr Kyan many years since. It consists in
immersing the materials in a solution of corrosive sublimate, 1 part, and
water, 50 or 60 parts, either under strong pressure or the contrary, as
the urgency of the case or the dimensions of the articles operated on may
require. See DRY ROT.

=KY′ANOL.= A substance obtained from coal-tar oil, and at first thought to
be an independent principle, but since shown to be identical with ANILINE.


=LAB′DANUM.= _Syn._ LADANUM. An odorous, resinous substance found on the
leaves and twigs of the _Cystus creticus_, a plant growing in the island
of Candia and in Syria. It was formerly much used for making stimulating
plasters. The following compound is often vended for it:——

=Labdanum, Facti′′tious.= _Prep._ From gum anime, resin, Venetian
turpentine, and sand, of each 6 parts; Spanish juice and gum Arabic, of
each (dissolved in a little water), 3 parts; Canada balsam, 2 parts; ivory
black, 1 part; balsam of Peru, q. s. to give a faint odour.

=LA′BELS= capable of resisting the action of OILS, SPIRITS, WATER, SYRUPS
and DILUTE ACIDS, may be obtained as follows:——Lay a coat of strained
white of egg over the label (an ordinary paper one), and immediately put
the vessel into the upper portion of a common steam-pan, or otherwise
expose it to a gentle heat till the albumen coagulates and turns opaque,
then take it out and dry it before the fire, or in an oven, at a white
heat of about 212° Fahr.; the opaque white film will then become hard and
transparent. The labels on bottles containing STRONG ACIDS or ALKALINE
SOLUTIONS should be either etched upon the glass by means of hydrofluoric
acid, or be written with incorrodible ink. See ETCHING and INK.

=LAB′ORATORY.= _Syn._ LABORATORIUM, L. A place fitted up for the
performance of experimental or manufacturing operations in chemistry,
pharmacy, and pyrotechny. For full information respecting the best mode of
fitting up a chemical laboratory, the reader is referred to works
especially devoted to chemical manipulation.[11] Almost any well-lighted
spare room may be fitted up as a small laboratory at very little expense.
The gas-furnaces and improved lamps introduced of later years have to a
certain extent rendered chemists independent of brick furnaces. A strong
working bench, fitted with drawers and cupboards, and having gas-pipes at
intervals for attaching different kinds of jets, is an indispensable
fixture. A close cupboard or closet, which is connected by a pipe with the
chimney or the external air, is required to receive vessels emitting
corrosive or evil-smelling vapours; the door of this closet should be of
glass. A sink, with a copious supply of water, must be at hand, for
washing apparatus. A glass, a stoneware barrel, with a tap of the same
material, is required for holding distilled water. Shelves, supports for
apparatus, and drawers, should be provided in abundance. The fine balances
and other delicate instruments should be kept in a separate apartment.
With regard to apparatus, we may state that the articles most frequently
required in a laboratory are the gas or alcohol lamps; iron pans for sand
bath and water bath; evaporating dishes; precipitating jars, funnels, and
wash-bottles; retorts, flasks, and test-tubes; mortars and pestles;
retort- and filtering-stands; rat-tail and triangular files, and glass rod
and tubing.

[Footnote 11: The latest and best work is the ‘Handbook of Chemical
Manipulation,’ by Greville Williams. Faraday’s famous work on the same
subject has long been out of print.]

The principal philosophical instrument-makers sell chests or cabinets
filled with apparatus and chemicals, under the name of ‘PORTABLE
LABORATORIES,’ Those sold by Mr J. J. Griffin and by Messrs Jackson and
Townson are, perhaps, the most complete. They are well adapted for
illustrating all the more valuable facts of chemical science, and
performing all the ordinary operations of qualitative analysis.

=LABURNINE.= A poisonous alkaloid, found in the unripe seeds of the
laburnum plant, associated with another poisonous alkaloid called

=LAC.= _Syn._ LACCA, L. A resinous substance combined with much colouring
matter, produced by the puncture of the female of a small insect, called
the _Coccus lacca_ or _ficus_, upon the young branches of several tropical
trees, especially the _Ficus Indica_, _Ficus religiosa_, and _Croton
lacciferum_. The crude resinous exudation constitutes the STICK-LAC of
commerce. SHELL-LAC or SHELLAC is prepared by spreading the resin into
thin plates after being melted and strained. SEED-LAC is the residue
obtained after dissolving out most of the colouring matter contained in
the resin.

Shell-lac is the kind most commonly employed in the arts. The
palest is the best, and is known as ‘orange-lac.’ The darker
varieties——‘liver-coloured,’ ‘ruby,’ ‘garnet,’ &c.——respectively diminish
in value in proportion to the depth of their colour.

_Uses, &c._ Lac was formerly much used in medicine; its action, if any,
is probably that of a very mild diuretic. It is now chiefly used in

=Lac, Bleached.= _Syn._ WHITE LAC; LACCA ALBA, L. By dissolving lac in a
boiling lye of pearlash or caustic potassa, filtering and passing chlorine
through the solution until all the lac is precipitated; this is collected,
well washed and pulled in hot water, and, finally, twisted into sticks,
and thrown into cold water to harden. Used to make pale varnishes and the
more delicate coloured sealing-wax.

=LAC DYE.= _Syn._ LAC, LAC-LAKE, INDIAN COCHINEAL. A colouring substance
used to dye scarlet, imported from India.

_Prep._ By dissolving out the colour of ground stick-lac by means of a
weak alkaline solution, and then precipitating it along with alumina by
adding a solution of alum.

_Obs._ To prepare the lac for dyeing, it is ground and mixed with diluted
‘lac spirit,’ and the whole allowed to stand for about a week. The ‘cloth’
is first mordanted with a mixture of tartar and ‘lac spirit,’ and
afterwards kept near the boil for three quarters of an hour, in a bath
formed by adding a proportion of the prepared lac dye to the mixture used
for mordanting. Lac dye is only applicable to woollen and silk. The
colours it yields are similar to those obtained from cochineal, but less


=LACE.= This decorative fabric is made by interweaving threads of linen,
cotton, or silk, into various patterns and designs. Although in some
instances lace is made by hand, the greater part is now manufactured by
machinery worked by steam or water. The hand-made lace was called bone,
pillow, or bobbin lace, these two latter names having been given it from
its having been woven upon a pillow or cushion by means of a bobbin. The
manufactured article is bobbin net. Lace and the machinery by which it is
produced is of so complex a nature that Dr Ure says of one particular form
of it “it is as much beyond the most curious chronometer in the
multiplicity of mechanical device as that is beyond a common roasting

Owing to the improvements in machinery introduced of late years, it may be
mentioned that a piece of lace which twenty years since could only be
produced at a cost of 3s. 6d. for labour, may now be turned out for 1d.,
and a quantity of the fabric which sold for £17, now realizes only 7s. A
pair of curtains, each four yards long, may be made in one frame in two

The following statistics relating to the British lace industry are of
interest:——“In 1843 there were 3200 twist net and 800 warp frames,
returning £2,740,000 that year; in 1851, 3200 bobbin net and 800 warp,
giving a return of £3,846,000; and in 1866, 3552 bobbin and 400 warp,
returning £5,130,000. There has since been no actual census, but about
the same number is now at work, and the returns and profits are greatly
increased by improved quality and patterns of goods produced. The returns
of 1872 were certainly £6,000,000 at least; and from advancing wages and
demand for Lever’s laces, must still rapidly increase. Men are now earning
by making them from £4 to £6 for 56 hours’ weekly labour.”[12]

[Footnote 12: ‘British Manufacturing Industries.’ Stanford.]

=Lace, Gold and Silver, to Clean.= Reduce to fine crumbs the interior of a
2-lb. stale loaf, and mix with them 1/4 lb. of powder blue. Sprinkle some
of this mixture plentifully on the lace, afterwards rubbing it on with a
piece of flannel. After brushing off the crumbs rub the lace with a piece
of crimson velvet.

=Lace, to Scour.= Take a perfectly clean wine bottle; wind the lace
smoothly and carefully round it; then gently sponge it in tepid soap and
water; and when clean, and before it becomes dry, pass it through a weak
solution of gum and water. Next pick it out and place it in the sun to
dry. If it be desired to bleach the lace, it should be rinsed in some very
weak solution of chloride of lime, after removal from which it must be
rinsed in cold water. Starch and expose it; then boil and starch, and
again expose it if it has not become sufficiently white.

The following method is also said to whiten lace:——It is first ironed
slightly, then folded and sewn into a clean linen bag, which is then
placed for 24 hours in pure olive oil. Afterwards the bag, with the lace
in it, is to be boiled in a solution of soap and water for 15 minutes,
then well rinsed in lukewarm water, and finally dipped in water containing
a small quantity of starch. The lace is then to be taken from the bag, and
stretched on pins to dry.

To scour point lace proceed as follows:——“Fix the lace in a prepared tent,
draw it tight and straight, make a warm lather of Castile soap, and with a
fine brush dipped in rub over the lace gently, and when clean on one side
do the same on the other; then throw some clean water on it, in which a
little alum has been dissolved, to take off the suds; and, having some
thin starch, go over with it on the wrong side, and iron it on the same
side when dry; then open with a bodkin and set it in order. To clean the
same, if not very dirty, without washing, fix it as before, and go over
with fine bread, the crust being pared off, and when done, dust out the
crumbs.” (Ernest Spon.)

Black lace may be cleaned by passing it through warm water containing some
ox-gall, rinsing it in cold water, and then passing it through water in
which a small quantity of glue has been previously dissolved by means of
heat; it should then be taken out, clapped between the hands, and dried on
a frame.

=LAC′QUER.= A solution of shell-lac in alcohol, tinged with saffron,
annotta, aloes, or other colouring substances. It is applied to wood and
metals to impart a golden colour. See VARNISH.


=LAC′TATE.= _Syn._ LACTAS, L. A salt of lactic acid. The lactates are
characterised by yielding an enormous quantity of perfectly pure carbonic
oxide gas when heated with 5 or 6 parts of oil of vitriol. Most of these
salts may be directly formed by dissolving the hydrate or carbonate of the
metal in the dilute acid.


=LACTIC ACID.= H_{2}C_{6}H_{10}O_{6}. _Syn._ ACID OF MILK; ACIDUM
LACTICUM, L. A sour, syrupy liquid, discovered by Scheele in whey. It is
also found in some other animal fluids, and in several vegetable juices,
especially in that of beet-root.

Lactic acid is by no means an unimportant constituent of the human
organism. It is contained in the gastric juice, and is frequently formed
in the sweat. It has also been detected in the saliva of persons suffering
from diabetes. A modification of the acid, termed sarkolactic acid, occurs
in the fluids of the muscular tissue.

It is likewise a product of the fermentation of many vegetable juices,
such as turnips, carrots, beet-root, and cabbage, which latter vegetable,
after undergoing the lactic fermentation, becomes converted into the sauer
kraut of the Germans.

In the form of calcic lactate it occurs in nux vomica.

_Prep._ 1. Dissolve lactate of barium in water, precipitate the barium
with dilute sulphuric acid, carefully avoiding excess, and gently
evaporate to the consistence of a syrup, or until it acquires the density
1·215. Lactate of calcium may be used instead of lactate of barium, in
which case a solution of oxalic acid must be employed as the precipitant.
Pure. (See No. 5.)

2. Milk (skimmed or stale), 1 gall.; bicarbonate of sodium, 1/2 lb.;
dissolve and expose the liquid to the air for some days, until it becomes
sour, then saturate the excess of acid with some more bicarbonate of
sodium, and again expose it to the air; repeat this as often as the liquid
becomes sour; next heat the liquid to the boiling point, filter, evaporate
to dryness (or nearly), and exhaust the residuum with rectified spirit;
filter the alcoholic solution, which contains lactate of sodium, add
sulphuric acid as long as it causes a precipitate to form, again filter,
and concentrate the clear liquid by evaporation.

3. (Boutron and Fremy.) Milk, 3 or 4 quarts; sugar of milk, 200 to 300
gr.; mix, and expose for 2 or 3 days in an open vessel at 70° to 80°
Fahr., then saturate with bicarbonate of sodium, again expose at a
moderate temperature, saturate with more bicarbonate of sodium, and repeat
the process until the whole of the sugar of milk is decomposed; then
coagulate the casein by heat, filter, evaporate, extract the acid lactate
of sodium by alcohol of sp. gr. ·810, and decompose it by the cautious
addition of dilute sulphuric acid; again filter, distil off the alcohol,
and evaporate as before.

4. (Scheele.) Evaporate sour whey to 1/8th of its bulk, saturate with
slaked lime, filter, add 3 or 4 times the quantity of water, cautiously
precipitate the lime with a solution of oxalic acid, filter, and gently
evaporate to dryness in a warm bath; digest the residuum in strong
rectified spirit, and again filter and evaporate.

5. (Wackenroder.) Sugar of lead, 25 parts; finely powdered chalk, 20
parts; skimmed milk, 100 parts; water, 200 parts; digested together at
about 75° Fahr. In six weeks the chalk will be dissolved; the whole is
then heated, but not to boiling; the cheese is strained off, pressed, and
the decanted liquid is clarified by albumen and evaporated, to let the
lactate of calcium crystallise; the salt is recrystallised and decomposed,
either by sulphuric acid or by the exact quantity of oxalic acid. This is,
perhaps, the most effective mode of preparing lactic acid.

6. (Wholesale.)——_a._ Good raw cane-sugar, 7 lbs., is dissolved in milk
(skimmed or stale), 2 galls., and cheese (in a moist or putrescent state),
1/2 lb., and chalk, 4 lbs., previously rubbed to a cream with water, 1-1/2
gall., is then added; the mixture is then exposed in a loosely covered
jar, at a temperature of 80° to 86° Fahr., with occasional stirring, for 2
or 3 weeks, or until the whole is converted into a semi-solid mass of
crystals of lactate of calcium; this is purified either by draining off
and expressing the liquid portion, dissolving the residue in water, and
evaporating the solution for crystals; or the whole is put into a
stoneware vessel and heated to the boiling-point, by which the casein is
coagulated, and the lactate of calcium is dissolved; the solution filtered
whilst hot, furnishes the salt in crystals on cooling; these crystals are
subsequently dissolved in water, and the filtered solution decomposed by
oxalic acid, as before.

_b._ From cane-sugar, 4 parts; moist cheese, 1 part; chalk, 3 parts;
water, 20 parts; as the last.

_Obs._ Lactic acid prepared by any of the used formulæ may be rendered
quite pure by dilution with water, saturation with baryta, evaporation,
crystallisation, re-solution in water, and the careful addition of dilute
sulphuric acid, as in No. 1; the liquid is, lastly, again filtered and
evaporated. Another plan is to convert the acid into lactate of zinc, by
the addition of commercial zinc-white, and to redissolve the new salt in
water, and then decompose the solution with a stream of sulphuretted
hydrogen. In all cases the evaporation should be conducted at a very
gentle heat, and, when possible, finished over sulphuric acid, or _in
vacuo_. For particular purposes this last product must be dissolved in
ether, filtered, and the ether removed by a very gentle heat. Care must
also be taken to remove the solid lactate of calcium at the proper period
from the fermenting liquid, as otherwise it will gradually redissolve and
disappear, and on examination the liquid will be found to consist chiefly
of a solution of butyrate of calcium.

_Prop._ The product of the above formulæ is a solution of lactic acid. It
may be concentrated _in vacuo_ over a surface of oil of vitriol until it
appears as a syrupy liquid of sp. gr. 1·215; soluble in water, alcohol,
and ether; exhibiting the usual acid properties, and forming salts with
the metals, called LACTATES. Heated in a retort to 266° Fahr.; a small
portion distils over, and the residuum on cooling concretes into a
yellowish, solid, fusible mass, very bitter, and nearly insoluble in
water. This is lactic acid, which has lost half (1 equiv.) of its basic
water. By long boiling in water this substance is reconverted into lactic
acid. Heated to 480° Fahr., it suffers decomposition, lactide (the
anhydrous, concrete, or sublimed lactic acid of former writers) and other
products being formed. This new substance may be purified by pressure
between bibulous paper and solution in boiling alcohol from which it
separates in dazzling white crystals on cooling. By solution in hot water
and evaporation to a syrup, it furnishes common lactic acid.

_Uses._ Lactic acid has been given in dyspepsia, gout, phosphatic urinary
deposits, &c. From its being one of the natural constituents of the
gastric juice, and from its power of dissolving a considerable quantity of
phosphate of calcium, it appears very probable that it may prove
beneficial in the above complaints.——_Dose_, 1 to 5 gr.; in the form of
lozenges, or solution in sweetened water.

=LAC′TIC FERMENTA′TION.= The peculiar change by which saccharine matter is
converted into lactic acid. Nitrogenous substances, which in an advanced
state of putrefactive change act as alcohol-ferments, often possess, at
certain periods of their decay, the property of inducing an acid
fermentation in sugar, by which that substance is changed into lactic
acid. Thus, the nitrogenised matter of malt, when suffered to putrefy in
water for a few days only, acquires the power of acidifying the sugar
which accompanies it; whilst in a more advanced state of decomposition it
converts, under similar circumstances, the sugar into alcohol. The gluten
of grain behaves in the same manner. Wheat flour, made into a paste with
water, and left for four or five days in a warm situation, becomes a true
lactic acid ferment; but if left a day or two longer, it changes its
character, and then acts like common yeast, occasioning the ordinary
panary or vinous fermentation. Moist animal membranes, in a slightly
decaying condition, often act energetically in developing lactic acid. The
rennet employed in the manufacture of cheese furnishes a well-known
example of this class of substances.

In preparing lactic acid from milk, the acid formed, after a time,
coagulates and renders insoluble the casein, and the production of the
acid ceases. By carefully neutralising the free acid by carbonate of
sodium, the casein becomes soluble, and resuming its activity, changes a
fresh quantity of sugar into lactic acid, which may be also neutralised,
and by a sufficient number of repetitions of this process all the sugar of
milk present may, in time, be acidified. This is the rationale of the
common process by which lactic acid is obtained. Cane-sugar (probably by
previously becoming grape-sugar) and the sugar of milk both yield lactic
acid; the latter, however, most readily, the grape-sugar having a strong
tendency towards the alcoholic fermentation. If the lactic fermentation be
allowed to proceed too far, the second stage of the process of
transmutation commences, hydrogen gas and carbonic acid gas are evolved,
and the butyric fermentation, by which oily acids are formed, is

Pasteur ascribes the lactic fermentation to the agency of a specific kind
of ferment, which occurs in the form of a greyish layer deposited upon the
surface of the sediment formed during the fermentation of the sugar,
casein, and chalk (see Lactic acid, _b_), in the manufacture of lactic

If to a mixture of yeast, or any nitrogenous substance, and water, sugar,
and then chalk, be added, and finally a very small quantity of this
greyish substance, taken from a portion of a liquid undergoing active
lactic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation is almost immediately set
up, the chalk disappears owing to the formation of calcic lactate, and the
greyish substance is copiously deposited. When placed under the microscope
this ferment is seen to be composed of “little globules, or very short
articulations, either isolated or in threads, constituting irregular
flocculent particles, much smaller than those of beer yeast, and
exhibiting a rapid gyratory motion.” If these little particles be washed
thoroughly in pure water, and then placed in a solution of sugar, lactic
acidification immediately commences in the saccharine liquid, and goes on
steadily until stopped by the excess of free acid.



=LAC′TOMETER.= _Syn._ GALACTOMETER. An instrument for ascertaining the
quality of milk. Milk may be roughly tested by placing it in a long
graduated tube sold for the purpose, and allowing it to remain until all
the cream has separated and measured, then decanting off the clear whey,
and taking its specific gravity; the result of the two operations, when
compared with the known quantity of cream and the density of the whey of
an average sample of milk, gives the value of the sample tested. See

A little instrument called a ‘milk-tester’ is sold in London at a low
price. It is essentially a hydrometer which sinks to a given mark on the
stem in pure water, and floats at another mark at the opposite end of the
scale in pure milk. The intermediate space indicates the quantity of water
(if any) employed to adulterate the article. As the sp. gr. of pure milk
varies, the indications of the ‘tester’ cannot be depended on.


=LAC′TUCA.= (B. P.) _Syn._ LETTUCE. The leaves and flowering tops of the
wild indigenous plant _Lactuca virosa_. They are sedative, narcotic, and
powerfully diuretic; also mildly laxative and diaphoretic. Given in dropsy
and visceral obstructions. See LETTUCE, EXTRACT OF.

D.). The inspissated milky juice of the _Lactuca sativa_ (common garden
lettuce), or the _Lactuca virosa_ (strong-scented wild lettuce), obtained,
by incision, from the flowering stems, and dried in the air. The latter
species yields by far the greatest quantity. M. Arnaud, of Nancy, adopts
the following method of procuring this substance, which appears to be the
most productive and simple of any yet published:——Before the development
of the lateral branches, the stems of twelve plants are cut, one after
another, a little below the commencement of these branches; returning to
the first one, a milky exudation is found on the cut portion, and on that
which remains fixed in the earth; this milky exudation is adroitly
collected with the end of the finger (or with a bone knife), which is
afterwards scraped on the edge of a small glass; the same operation is
performed on twelve other heads, and so on; on the third day it is
repeated on every portion of the plant remaining in the ground, a thin
slice being first cut off the top; this is done every day until the root
is reached. As soon as the lactucarium is collected it coagulates; the
harvest of each day is divided into small pieces, which are placed on
plates, very near each other, but without touching, and allowed to dry for
two days, after which they are set aside in a bottle. In this way 15 or 20
times the ordinary product is obtained.

_Prop., &c._ Lactucarium is anodyne, hypnotic, antispasmodic, and
sedative, allaying pain and diminishing the force of the circulation. It
has been recommended in cases in which opium is inadmissible, and has been
administered with advantage in chronic rheumatism, colic, diarrhœa,
asthma, and troublesome cough of phthisis, the irritability and
watchfulness in febrile disorders, &c.——_Dose_, 2 to 5 gr.; made into
pills, lozenges, or tincture.

=LACTU′CIN.= _Syn._ LACTUCINUM, L. This is the active principle of
lactucarium, and is found in the juice of several species of lettuce.

_Prep._ Exhaust lactucarium with hot rectified spirit, agitate the
tincture with a little animal charcoal, filter, add a little milk of
lime, and evaporate to dryness; digest the residuum in hot rectified
spirit; filter, and evaporate by a gentle heat, so that crystals may form.

_Prop., &c._ A nearly colourless, odourless, fusible, neutral, bitter
substance; sparingly soluble in cold water and in ether, but freely
soluble in alcohol. It possesses feeble basic properties. Good lactucarium
contains fully 20% of this substance.



=LAKE=. _Syn._ LACCA, L. Animal or vegetable colouring matter,
precipitated in combination with oxide of tin or alumina; usually the
latter. The term was formerly restricted to red preparations of this kind,
but is now indiscriminately applied to all compounds of alumina and
colouring matter. The term ‘LAKE,’ when unqualified by an adjective, is,
however, understood to apply exclusively to that prepared from cochineal.

_Prep._ Lakes are made——1. By adding a solution of alum, either alone or
partly saturated with carbonate of potassa, to a filtered infusion or
decoction of the colouring substance, and after agitation precipitating
the mixture with a solution of carbonate of potash.——2. By precipitating a
decoction or infusion of the colouring substance made with a weak alkaline
lye, by adding a solution of alum.——3. By agitating recently precipitated
alumina with a solution of the colouring matter, prepared as before, until
the liquid is nearly decoloured, or the alumina acquires a sufficiently
dark tint. The first method is usually employed for acidulous solutions of
colouring matter, or for those whose tint is injured by alkalies; the
second, for those that are brightened, or at least uninjured, by alkalies;
the third, for those colouring matters that have a great affinity for
gelatinous alumina, and readily combine with it by mere agitation. By
attention to these general rules, lakes may be prepared from almost all
animal and vegetable colouring substances that yield their colour to
water, many of which will be found to possess great beauty and permanence.
The precise process adapted to each particular substance may be easily
ascertained by taking a few drops of its infusion or decoction, and
observing the effects of alkalies and acids on the colour. The quantity of
alum or of alumina employed should be nearly sufficient to decolour the
dye liquor; and the quantity of carbonate of potassa should be so
proportioned to the alum as to exactly precipitate the alumina without
leaving free or carbonated alkali in the liquid. The first portion of the
precipitate has the deepest colour, and the shade gradually becomes paler
as the operation proceeds. A beautiful ‘tone’ of violet, red, and even
purple, may be communicated to the colouring matter of cochineal by the
addition of perchloride of tin; the addition of arseniate of potassa
(neutral arsenical salt) in like manner gives shades which may be sought
for in vain with alum or alumina. After the lake is precipitated, it must
be carefully collected, washed with cold distilled water, or the purest
rain water, until it ceases to give out colour, and then carefully dried
in the shade. In this state it forms a soft velvety powder. That of the
shops is generally made up into conical or pyramidal drops (drop lake),
which is done by dropping the moist lake through a small funnel on a clean
board or slab, and drying it by a gentle heat as before. A very little
clear gum water is commonly added to the paste to give the drops
consistence when dry.

=Lake, Blue.= _Syn._ LACCA CŒRULEA, L. Prepared from some of the
blue-coloured flowers; fugitive. The name is also applied to lump archil
(lacca cœrulea), to moist alumina coloured with indigo, and to mixed
solutions of pearlash and prussiate of potash, precipitated with another
solution of sulphate of iron and alum. These are permanent and beautiful,
but are seldom used, in consequence of indigo and Prussian blue supplying
all that is wanted in this class of colours.

=Lake, Brazil-wood.= _Syn._ DROP LAKE; LACCA IN GLOBULIS, L. _Prep._ 1.
Take of ground Brazil-wood, 1 lb.; water, 4 galls.; digest for 24 hours,
then boil for 30 or 40 minutes, and add of alum, 1-1/2 lb., dissolved in a
little water; mix, decant, strain, and add of solution of tin, 1/2 lb.;
again mix well and filter; to the clear liquid add, cautiously, a solution
of salt of tartar or carbonate of soda, as long as a deep-coloured
precipitate forms, carefully avoiding excess; collect, wash, dry, &c., as
directed above.

_Obs._ The product is deep red. By collecting the precipitate in separate
portions, lakes varying in richness and depth of colour may be obtained.
The first portion of the precipitated lake has the brightest colour. An
excess of alkali turns it on the violet, and the addition of cream of
tartar, on the brownish red. The tint turns more on the violet red when
the solution of tin is omitted. Some persons use less, others more, alum.

2. Add washed and recently precipitated alumina to a strong and filtered
decoction of Brazil wood. Inferior to the last.

PARIS L., VIENNA L.; LACCA FLORENTINA, L. _Prep._ 1. The residuum of the
cochineal left in making carmine is boiled with repeated portions of
water, until it is exhausted of colour; the resulting liquor is mixed with
that decanted off the carmine, and at once filtered; some recently
precipitated alumina is then added, and the whole gently heated, and well
agitated for a short time; as soon as the alumina has absorbed sufficient
colour, the mixture is allowed to settle, after which the clear portion is
decanted, the lake collected on a filter, washed, and dried, as before.
The decanted liquor, if still coloured, is now treated with fresh alumina
until exhausted, and thus a lake of a second quality is obtained. Very

2. To the coloured liquor obtained from the carmine and cochineal as
above, a solution of alum is added, the filtered liquor precipitated with
a solution of carbonate of potassa, and the alum or alumina; this
brightens the lake collected and treated as before. Scarcely so good as
the last.

_Obs._ Some makers mix a little solution of tin with the coloured liquor
before adding colour. The above lake is a good glazing colour with oil,
but has little body. It may be made directly from a decoction of
cochineal. (See _below_.)

=Lake, Cochineal.= _Prep._ 1. Cochineal (in coarse powder), 1 oz.; water
and rectified spirit, of each 2-1/2 oz.; digest for a week, filter, and
precipitate the tincture with a few drops of solution of tin, added every
two hours, until the whole of the colouring matter is thrown down; lastly,
wash the precipitate in distilled water, and dry it. Very fine.

2. Digest powdered cochineal in ammonia water for a week, dilute the
solution with a little water, and add the liquid to a solution of alum, as
long as a precipitate falls, which is the lake. Equal to the last.

3. Coarsely powdered cochineal, 1 lb.; water, 2 galls.; boil 1 hour,
decant, strain, add a solution of salt of tartar, 1 lb., and precipitate
with a solution of alum. By adding the alum first, and precipitating the
lake with the alkali, the colour will be slightly varied. All the above
are sold as CARMINATED or FLORENCE LAKE, to which they are often superior.

=Lake, Green.= Made by mixing blue and yellow lake together. Seldom kept
in the shops, being generally prepared extemporaneously by the artist on
his palette.

=Lake, Lac.= _Prep._ Boil fresh stick-lac in a solution of carbonate of
soda, filter the solution, precipitate with a solution of alum, and
proceed as before.

=Lake, Lichen.= See ORCEIN.

=Lake, Madder.= _Syn._ LACCA RUBIÆ, L. COLUMBINA, L. _Prep._ 1. (Sir H. C.
Inglefield.) Take of Dutch grappe or crop madder, 2 oz.; tie it in a
cloth, beat it well in a pint of water in a stone mortar, and repeat the
process with fresh water (about 5 pints) until it ceases to yield colour;
next boil the mixed liquor in an earthen vessel, pour it into a large
basin, and add of alum 1 oz., previously dissolved in boiling water, 1
pint; stir well, and while stirring, pour in gradually of a strong
solution of carbonate of potassa (‘oil of tartar’), 1-1/2 oz.; let the
whole stand until cold, then pour off the supernatant yellow liquor,
drain, agitate the residue with boiling water, 1 quart (in separate
portions), decant, drain, and dry. _Product_, 1/2 oz. The Society of Arts
voted their gold medal to the author of the above formula.

2. Add a little solution of acetate of lead to a decoction of madder, to
throw down the brown colouring matter, filter, add a solution of tin or
alum, precipitate with a solution of carbonate of soda or of potassa, and
otherwise proceed as before.

3. (Ure.) Ground madder, 2 lbs.; water, 1 gall.; macerate with agitation
for 10 minutes, strain off the water, and press the remainder quite dry;
repeat the process a second and a third time; then add to the mixed
liquors, alum 1/2 lb., dissolved in water, 3 quarts; and heat in a water
bath for 3 or 4 hours, adding water as it evaporates; next filter, first
through flannel, and, when sufficiently cold, through paper; then add a
solution of carbonate of potassa as long as a precipitate falls, which
must be washed until the water comes off colourless, and, lastly, dried.
If the alkali be added in 3 successive doses, 3 different lakes will be
obtained, successively diminishing in beauty. See MADDER, MADDER, RED, &c.

=Lake, Or′ange.= _Prep._ Take of the best Spanish annotta, 4 oz.;
pearlash, 3/4 lb.; water, 1 gall.; boil for half an hour, strain,
precipitate with alum, 1 lb., dissolved in water, 1 gall., observing not
to add the latter solution when it ceases to produce an effervescence or a
precipitate; strain, and dry the sediment in small squares, lozenges, or
drops. The addition of some solution of tin turns this lake on the LEMON
YELLOW; acids redden it. See LAKE, YELLOW.

=Lake, Red.= _Prep._ Take of pearlash, 1 lb.; clean shreds of scarlet
cloth, 3-1/2 lbs.; water, 5 galls.; boil till the cloth is decoloured,
filter the decoction, and precipitate with a solution of alum, as before.
See the LAKES noticed above (Brazil-wood, Carminated, Cochineal, and

=Lake, Yellow.= _Prep._ 1. Boil French berries, quercitron bark, or
turmeric, 1 lb., and salt of tartar, 1 oz., in water, 1 gall., until
reduced to one half, then strain the decoction, and precipitate with a
solution of alum.

2. Boil 1 lb. of the dye-stuff with alum, 1/2 lb.; water, 1 gall., as
before, and precipitate the decoction with a solution of carbonate of
potash. See LAKE, ORANGE (_above_).

=LAMB= in its general qualities closely resembles mutton, of which,
indeed, it is merely a younger and more delicate kind. It is well adapted
as an occasional article of food for the convalescent and dyspeptic; but
it is unequal for frequent use, more especially for the healthy and
robust, to the flesh of the adult animal.

=LAMBS, DISEASES OF.= Among other diseases, these animals are particularly
prone to one affecting the lungs, in consequence of the existence of
parasites (_Strongylus bronchialis_) in the air-passages. See PARASITES.

=LAMP.= A contrivance for producing artificial light or heat by the
combustion of inflammable liquids. The term ‘lamp’ is also applied to a
portable gas-burner (GAS-LAMP), and to a tubular candle-holder, which, by
the aid of a simple mechanical device, keeps the flame at one height

OIL LAMPS were employed for illumination among the nations of antiquity,
at the earliest period of which any record exists. The Assyrian, Greek,
and Roman lamps preserved in our museums are generally noble specimens of
art-workmanship. Though elegant in form, and rich in external
embellishment, the ancient lamp was simply a vessel to contain the oil,
with a short depression or spout on the one side, in which the wick is
laid. Lamps of this rude construction are still in common use in many

No important improvement in the principle and construction of lamps as a
source of light occurred until a comparatively recent date; the smoke,
dirt, and disagreeable odour of the common lamp having previously led to
its disuse among the superior classes in favour of candles. At length, in
1789, M. Argand made a revolution in illumination by the invention and
introduction of the well-known lamp which bears his name. In the ARGAND
LAMP a hollow tubular wick of woven cotton replaces the solid bundles of
fibres, and is so arranged that air passes through it into the interior of
the flame. Over the burner is placed a cylindrical glass chimney, open at
the bottom, and surrounding the flame at a short distance from it, by
which another current of air is made to act on the exterior portion of the
flame. In this way a due supply of oxygen is secured, and sufficient heat
generated for the perfect combustion of the gaseous products of the oil,
and the smoke and soot which escape from the ordinary lamp are converted
into a brilliant and smokeless flame.

The earliest table-lamps constructed on Argand’s principle had one serious
defect——the oil vessels had to be placed almost on a level with the
burners, in a position which caused them to cast objectionable shadows.
This defect was almost entirely removed by making the oil vessel in the
form of a flattish ring, connected by slender tubes with the burner. The
more elegant contrivances, known as the MODERATOR LAMP and CARCEL LAMP,
which are now so much used for burning colza and similar oils, cast no
shadow. In these the oil, instead of being sucked up by the wick, or
descending to it by the force of gravity, is driven up by mechanical means
from the oil-reservoir contained in the foot or pedestal. A spiral spring,
acting upon a piston, elevates the oil in the ‘moderator,’ while a little
pump worked by clockwork does the same duty in the ‘Carcel.’ The burner
and wick in each are formed on Argand’s principle.

For burning the hydrocarbon oils distilled from coal and petroleum, lamps
of very simple construction are used. These oils, in consequence of their
diffusive character, rise to a considerable height up a wick, and
therefore do not require mechanical lamps. The wicks of HYDRO-CARBON LAMPS
are usually flat, but sometimes circular. To cause perfect combustion, a
strong draught of air is created by placing over the flame a tall glass
chimney, usually much contracted above the flame. A metallic cap, with an
orifice the shape of the flame, is placed over the burner, its use being
to deflect the currents of air upon the flame. The reservoirs of
hydro-carbon lamps ought always to be constructed of some bad conductor of
heat, as glass or porcelain.


For chemical operations, many forms of lamp are used. The ordinary glass
SPIRIT-LAMP, fitted with a ground-glass cap, is quite indispensable for
minor experiments. (See _engr._ 1.) Stoneware wick-holders are preferable
to those of brass, which become greatly heated, and endanger the splitting
of the glass. “An effective spirit-lamp may at any time be constructed out
of a vial having a glass tube passing through the cork, a cover being
formed from a test-tube inverted over the wick, and fitting with moderate
tightness on the superior extremity of the cork” (Greville Williams).
Alcohol or wood spirit is the fuel used.

The ARGAND LAMP, when intended as a source of heat for chemical purposes,
is so modified as to adapt it to burn either oil, spirit of wine, or
wood-spirit, and the combustion is greatly aided by the chimney, which in
this case is made of copper. (See _engr._ 2 and 3.) The lamp itself is
also made of metal, and furnished with ground caps to the wick-holder and
aperture by which the spirit is introduced, in order to prevent loss of
spirit by evaporation when the lamp is not in use. When in use this
aperture must always be left open, otherwise an accident is sure to
happen, as the heat expands the air in the lamp, and the spirit is
forcibly expelled.

In those situations in which coal-gas is cheap, it may be used with great
economy and advantage as a source of heat in most chemical operations.
Retorts, flasks, capsules, and other vessels, can be thus exposed to an
easily regulated and constant temperature for many successive hours. Small
platinum crucibles may be ignited to redness by placing them over the
flame on a little wire triangle. Of the various gas-lamps now used in the
laboratory, the first and most simple consists of a common Argand
gas-burner fixed on a heavy and low foot, and connected with a flexible
gas-tube of caoutchouc or other material. (See _engr._ 4.) With this
arrangement it is possible to obtain any degree of heat, from that of the
smallest blue flame to that which is sufficient to raise a moderately
large platinum crucible to dull redness. When gas mixed with a certain
proportion of air is burnt, a pale blue flame, free from smoke, and
possessing great heating power, is obtained. A lamp for burning the
mixture may easily be made by fitting a close cover of fine wire gauze
over the top of the chimney of the last-mentioned contrivance. The gas is
turned on, and after a few minutes ignited above the wire gauze. (See page
946). The ingenious and useful burners of Bunsen and Griffin are so
constructed that gas and air mixed in any proportions, or gas alone, may
be burnt at pleasure. Bunsen’s is a most efficient and convenient form of
burner. (See illustration on next page.) It consists of a gas jet,
surrounded by a metal tube, about 6 to 9 inches high and about 1/2 inch in
diameter; having at the bottom four large holes. On the admission of air,
when the gas is turned on, the air rushes in by these orifices, and
mingling with the gas, the mixture ascends to the top of the tube and is
there ignited, giving rise to a flame of great heat, but without
luminosity, owing to the simultaneous combustion of the carbon and the
hydrogen. The burner, however, is so contrived that by shutting off the
supply of air entirely, or limiting it, the flame may be made more or less
luminous at pleasure. To distribute the flame, a rosette burner is placed
on the top of the tube.


An improved variety of this burner has been designed by Bunsen, and is
figured below.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.——IMPROVED BUNSEN BURNER.]

It is so contrived as to give a flame that is a very much better
substitute for the flame of the blowpipe, than the ordinary Bunsen’s
burner, and may hence be employed for reducing, oxidising, fusing, and
volatilising, as well as for the observation of coloured flames. Fig. 1 is
a sheath which, by turning round, regulates the admission of air. When it
is used the conical chimney, _d d d d_, is placed in _e e_; it is of a
size sufficient to allow of the flame burning tranquilly. In fig. 1 the
flame is represented of half its natural size. This flame it will be seen
consists of three divisions, viz.——1, _a a a a_ the dark zone, which is
composed of cold gas mixed with about 62 per cent. of air. 2, _a c a b_
the mantle formed by the burning mixture of gas and air. 3, _a b a_, the
luminous tip of the dark cone, which only appears when the orifices for
the air are partially closed. Reductions may be performed in this part of
the flame.

Bunsen, however, divides the flame into six parts, to which he attributes
as many functions. These six divisions of the flame he names as follows:——

1. _The base_ at α has a relatively low temperature, because the burning
gas is here cooled by the constant current of fresh air, and also because
the lamp itself conducts the heat away. This part of the flame serves for
discovering the colours produced by readily volatile bodies, when less
volatile matters which colour the flame are also present. At the
relatively low temperature of this part of the flame, the former vaporises
alone instantaneously, and the resulting colour imparted to the flame is
for a moment visible unmixed with other colours.

2. _The Fusing Zone._ This lies at β, at a distance from the bottom of
somewhat more than one third of the height of the flame, equidistant from
the outside and the inside of the mantle, which is broadest at this part.
This is the hottest part of the flame, viz., about 2300°, and it therefore
serves for testing substances, as to their fusibility, volatility,
emission of light, and for all processes of fusion at a high temperature.

3. _The lower Oxidising Zone_ lies in the outer border of the fusing zone
at γ, and is especially suitable for the oxidation of oxides dissolved in
vitreous fluxes.

4. _The upper Oxidising Flame_ at ε consists of the non-luminous tip of
the flame. Its action is strongest when the air holes of the lamp are
fully open. It is used for the roasting away of volatile products of
oxidation, and generally for all processes of oxidation, when the highest
temperature is not required.

5. _The lower Reducing Zone_ lies at δ, in the inner border of the fusing
zone next to the dark cone. The reducing gases are here mixed with oxygen,
and, therefore, do not possess their full power, hence they are without
action on many substances which are deoxidised in the upper reducing
flame. This part of the flame is especially suited for reduction on
charcoal or in vitreous fluxes.

6. _The upper Reducing Flame_ lies at η, in the luminous tip of the dark
inner cone, which, as already explained, may be produced by diminishing
the supply of air. This part of the flame must not be allowed to get large
enough to blacken a test tube filled with water and held in it. It
contains no free oxygen, is rich in separated incandescent carbon, and
therefore has a much stronger action than the lower reducing zone. It is
used more particularly for the reduction of metals collected in the form
of incrustations.

The subjoined is a drawing of the gauze burner, which is an open cylinder
with wire gauze at the top.

[Illustration: Argand’s lamp, with wire-gauze cap.]

When this is placed over the gas burner, a supply of air is drawn in at
the bottom by the ascending current of gas, and the mixture burns above
the gauze, with a very hot flame, quite free from smoke, the metallic
meshes preventing the flame from passing down to the gas below. See

=Lamp, Flame′less.= _Syn._ GLOW LAMP. A coil of fine platinum wire is
slipped over the wick of a spirit lamp, the greater part being raised
above the cotton; the lamp is supplied with ether or alcohol, lighted for
a moment and then blown out. The coil continues to glow in the mixed
atmosphere of air and combustible vapour, until the liquid in the lamp is

=Lamp, Monochromat′ic.= A lamp fed with a mixture of a solution of common
salt and spirit of wine. It gives a yellow light, and makes every object
illuminated by it appear either yellow or black. The human features are
changed in a remarkable degree; the countenance appearing truly ghastly
and unearthly.

=Lamp, Safety.= _Syn._ MINER’S LAMP, DAVY, GEORDY. The safety lamp of Sir
H. Davy and George Stephenson are similar in principle, and were
independently invented about the same time. That of Sir H. Davy consists
of a common oil lamp, surmounted with a cylinder of wire gauze, the
apertures of which are not greater than the 1/20th of an inch square, and
the wire of which it is made to the 1/40th to the 1/60th of an inch in
diameter. (See _engr._) The fire-damp (carbonetted hydrogen) along with
air passes through the meshes into the interior of the gauze cylinder.
Here it ignites, but the flame which is produced by its combustion cannot
explode a mixture of fire-damp and air by which the lamp may be
surrounded. The flame is prevented from passing to the exterior of the
gauze by the cooling action of the metal of which it is constructed. When
this lamp is taken into an explosive atmosphere, although the fire-damp
may burn within the cage with such energy as sometimes to heat the
metallic tissue to dull redness, the flame is not communicated to the
mixture on the outside. These appearances are so remarkable, that the lamp
becomes an admirable indicator of the state of the air in different parts
of the mine, and if its admonitions are attended to, gives the miner time
to withdraw before an explosion takes place.


=Lamp, Telescope.= This ingenious contrivance, invented by Messrs Murray
and Heath, is intended for microscopic illumination. It consists of three
brass tubes, sliding one within the other, the oil vessel being contained
in the inner tube. The height of the lamp is regulated to the greatest
nicety by simply turning one tube in the other, interior spiral guides
preventing all chance of slipping. The great advantage of this arrangement
is absence of the stand and bar usually employed for raising and lowering
the lamp, which enables it to be used on all sides, and to be brought much
closer to the microscope than other lamps. See _engr._, below.



=LAMP′REY.= _Syn_. GREAT LAMPREY, SEAL. This fish is the _Petromizon
marinus_ of Linnæus. It generally quits the sea in the spring, for the
purpose of spawning, and remains in our rivers for a few months. Its flesh
is soft and glutinous, and though esteemed a delicacy, is extremely
difficult of digestion, if not otherwise unwholesome. Potted lampreys are
usually so highly seasoned as to become a dangerous article of food. Henry
I is said to have lost his life from the effects of a surfeit of lampreys.

=LAUDANINE.= C_{20}H_{25}NO_{3}. An alkaloid obtained by Hesse from the
aqueous extract of opium. It is homologous with morphine and codeine. It
dissolves in strong sulphuric acid with a rose-red colour, in strong
nitric acid with an orange red colour, and in ferric chloride with emerald
green colour.

=LANTHA′NIUM.= La_{92}. A rare metal, discovered by Mosander, associated
with oxide of cerium. Oxide of lanthanium is a pale salmon-coloured
powder, unaffected by ignition in open vessels. According to Zschiesche
the atomic weight of lanthanium is 90·18. See CERIUM.

=LANTHOPINE.= C_{23}H_{25}NO_{4}. A base obtained by Hesse in small
quantity, associated with other bases from the aqueous extract of opium.
It is homologous with papaverine. Strong nitric acid dissolves it, giving
rise to an orange red colour. Strong sulphuric acid gives with it a faint
violet colour.

=LA′PIS.= [L.] A stone. The term was much employed by the old chemists,
and is still commonly applied to several preparations used in medicine.

=Lapis Causticus.= See POTASSIUM.

DIVINE, Fr. _Prep._ 1. (Beer.) Verdigris, nitre, and alum, equal parts,
melted together.

2. (P. Cod.) Alum, nitre, and blue vitriol, of each 3 oz.; camphor, 1 dr.;
as last.

3. (Woolfuss.) Blue vitriol, nitre, alum, and camphor, equal parts, melted
together, adding the camphor last. Astringent and detergent. 1 oz.,
dissolved in water, 1 pint, formed a once celebrated lotion. 1 dr. in
water, 1 pint, is still used as a collyrium.

=Lapis Inferna′lis.= See NITRATE OF SILVER.

=Lapis Lazu′li.= See ULTRAMARINE.

=Lapis Lydius.= _Syn._ LYDIAN STONE. A siliceous slate, used as a
touchstone by jewellers.

=Lapis Medicamento′sus.= _Syn._ MEDICINAL STONE; LAPIS MIRABILIS, L.
_Prep._ (Ph. L. 1746.) Alum, litharge, and Armenian bole, of each 6 oz.;
colcothar of green vitriol, 3 oz.; vinegar, 4 fl. oz.; mix, and evaporate
to dryness. Formerly used to make an astringent and detergent lotion:——1
oz. to water, 1 pint. Once a popular application to ulcers, and in other
cases; now disused.

=Lapis Vulnerar′ius.= Very similar to LAPIS DIVINUS.

=LARCH BARK.= The inner bark of the _Larix Europœa_, the common larch, has
been lately introduced, under the form of a tincture, into the British

Dr Stenhouse obtained from the bark a peculiar volatile constituent,
possessed of acid properties for which the name of lariximic acid has been
proposed. The other trees of the pine family are deficient in this acid.
The young bark abounds most in it. Gum, starch, resin, and that variety of
tannic acid, which forms olive green precipitates with the salts of iron,
have also been found, in addition to other substances, in larch bark.

The inner bark, employed internally, has a special action on the mucous
membranes, and acts as an astringent and mild stimulant. It is said to
have been given with excellent results in hæmoptysis, as well as in
bronchitis attended with copious expectoration, and in diseases of the
urinary passages. Externally has been found serviceable in psoriasis,
chronic eczema, and some other skin diseases. It is best to combine its
extract or tincture with glycerin when it is to be used outwardly. See

SUILLUS (Ph. D.), A. PORCI, A. PRÆPARATUS (B. P.), L. The fat of the pig
(_Sus scrofa_——Linn.) melted by a gentle heat, and strained through
flannel or a hair sieve. The fat about the loins yields the whitest and
hardest lard. “That which has been cured with chloride of sodium is not to
be employed.” (Ph. L.) “It is not to be used without being first carefully
washed with water.” (Ph. L. 1866.) Used chiefly to make ointments, and in
cookery. See ADEPS.

=LARD′ING.= By many this is regarded as belonging to the higher style of
cookery only, and too troublesome and extravagant to be adapted to the
kitchens of the middle classes and the poor. This, we are assured, is not
the case. On the contrary, “it is an economical process, and will make
lean meat go much farther than without it.” The process of larding is as
follows:——“Get what is called a larding needle, that is, a piece of steel
from 6 to 9 inches long, pointed at one end, and having four slits at the
other to hold a small strip of bacon when put between them. It will,
perhaps, cost tenpence. Cut the bacon into pieces 2 or 3 inches long, and
1/4 to 1/2 an inch square; put each one after the other in the pin, insert
it in the meat, and leave only about half an inch out; using 8 pieces to
each pound.” (Soyer.)

=LARK.= The _Alauda arvensis_ (SKYLARK) and the _Alauda cristata_
(FIELD-LARK), with several other species of the same genus, form a light
and nutritious article of food, by many esteemed a delicacy. The last,
according to Galen and Dioscorides, eaten either roasted or boiled, ‘helps
the colic.’ The heart, applied to the thigh, was also regarded to possess
the same virtue.

=LARYNGITIS.= Inflammation of the larynx, or upper part of the windpipe.
The symptoms that indicate this most dangerous malady are sore throat,
accompanied with considerable pain in front of the throat, difficulty in
breathing and swallowing, considerable hoarseness, change or loss of
voice, a sense of suffocation, fever, restlessness, flushing of the face,
and an eager desire for fresh air. We have described the accompaniments of
this dread disease, in order that any one seized with an attack may know
its nature, and at once send for his medical attendant. Should
circumstances prevent his doing so immediately, as many leeches as
possible should be applied to the centre of the throat.

=LAUD′ANUM.= This name is now understood to denote, exclusively, the
common tincture of opium of the Pharmacopœia; but formerly the term was
applied to several preparations of opium differing greatly from each
other, both in their strength and mode of preparation. (See _below_.)

=Laudanum, Dutchman’s.= From the flowers of bull’s hoof or Dutchman’s
laudanum (_Passiflora merucuja_——Linn.) infused in rum. Narcotic. Used as
a substitute for tincture of opium in the West Indies.

=Laudanum, Ford’s.= This is merely the common tincture of opium aromatised
with a little cloves and cinnamon.

=Laudanum, Houlton’s.= _Prep_. From opium 2-1/2 oz.; distilled vinegar,
1-1/2 pint; digested together for a week, the filtered tincture gently
evaporated nearly to dryness, and then redissolved in weak spirit (1 of
rectified spirit to 7 of water), 1 quart.——_Dose_, 10 to 60 drops.

=Laudanum, Neumann’s.= A fermented infusion of opium evaporated to the
consistence of honey.

L. _Prep_. 1. Extract of opium made with quince juice; a few drops of the
oils of cinnamon, cloves, and mace being added before the mass cools. Now
seldom used.

PARATUM FERMENTATIONE, L.) A fermented infusion of opium prepared with
quince juice, aromatised with cloves, cinnamon, aloes wood, and yellow
sandal wood, and evaporated so as to possess about twice the strength of
the ordinary tincture. Now obsolete.

=Laudanum, Rousseau’s.= Wine of opium prepared by fermentation. See WINE.

=Laudanum, Smith’s Concentrated.= Resembles Battley’s LIQUOR OPII
SEDATIVUS, but possesses about 6 times its strength.

=Laudanum, Swediaur’s.= _Prep_. From extract of opium, 2 parts, dissolved
in a mixture of alcohol, 1 part, distilled water, 8 parts. Every 5 drops
contain 1 gr. of opium.

=Laudanum, Sydenham’s Liquid.= _Syn_. LAUDANUM LIQUIDUM SYDENHAMI, L.
Similar to WINE OF OPIUM——Ph. L., but rather stronger, and aromatised with
a little cloves and cinnamon. Wine of opium is now always sold for it.

=Laudanum, Tartarised.= _Syn._ LAUDANUM LIQUIDUM TARTARIZATUM, L. A
tincture of opium prepared with spirit alkalised with salt of tartar, and
flavoured with aromatics. Obsolete.



=LA′VA.= The matter thrown out by volcanoes. The beautiful ornamental
vases, jugs, and other objects sold under the name, are a superior sort of
unglazed coloured porcelain.


=LAV′ENDER.= The flowers or flowering tops of _Lavandula vera_ or common
garden lavender. An essential oil, spirit, and tincture, prepared from it,
are officinal in the Pharmacopœias.

=Lavender Dye= (for COTTON). For 100 yards of material. Take 1 lb. of
logwood, and 2 lbs. of sumach, and scald them separately. Then decant them
into a proper sized tub, let them cool to 150° Fahr., and add 2 gills of
vitriol. Winch the goods in this 20 minutes; lift, and run them slightly
through acetate of iron; wash them in two waters; then give 1 lb. of
logwood as before, raise with a pint of chloride of tin, wash in two
waters; then in a tub of cold water put 4 oz. extract of indigo, enter and
winch in this 15 minutes, lift; give one water, and dry.

=Lavender Dye= (for WOOL). Boil 5-1/2 lbs. of logwood with 2 lbs. of alum.
Then add 10 oz. of extract of indigo. When cold put in the goods, and
gradually raise to the boiling point. For 50 lbs.

=Lavender, Red.= See TINCTURE.

=Lavender, Smith’s British.= _Prep._ From English oil of lavender, 2 oz.;
essence of ambergris, 1 oz.; eau de Cologne, 1 pint; rectified spirit, 1
quart. Very fragrant. See WATER (Lavender).

=Lavender, to Dye Silk.= (Mustpratt.) Into a vessel with warm water, as
hot as the hand can bear, dissolve a little white soap, enough to raise a
lather; then add one gill of archil liquor, and work the goods in this for
fifteen minutes; ring out and dry.

Boil one ounce of cudbear, and add the solution to the soap and water
instead of archil, which will give a lavender having a redder tint than
with the archil. If a still redder shade of lavender be required the soap
may be dispensed with.

=Lavender Water.= See SPIRITS, PERFUMED.

purgatives or cathartics. The principal of these are——almond oil, cassia
pulp, castor oil, confection of senna, cream of tartar, figs, grapes,
honey, phosphate of soda, prunes, salad oil, tamarinds, &c.

=LAY′ERS.= Among gardeners, a mode of propagating plants, by laying down
the shoots of young twigs, and covering a portion of them with the soil,
without detaching them from the parent plant. To facilitate the rooting of
such layers, the part beneath the soil is fractured by twisting or
bruising it, or it is partly cut through with a sharp knife, immediately
under a bud. When the layer has taken root, it is divided from the parent
stem, and transplanted or potted. In this way, with a little care, nearly
all plants may be multiplied.

=LEAD.= Pb. Eq. 207. _Syn._ PLUMBUM. This metal, like gold, silver, and
iron, appears to have been known in the most remote ages of antiquity. The
ore from which it is almost exclusively extracted, as being the only one
found in abundance, is the native sulphide or sulphuret of lead, called by
mineralogists galena.

_Prep._ On the large scale lead is obtained by roasting galena in a
reverberatory furnace, and smelting the residue along with coal and lime.
The lead thus obtained generally contains small quantities of both silver
and gold, which it often pays to extract, by a method termed ‘Pattinson’s
process.’ This process is founded on the circumstance that, when melted,
lead containing silver is allowed to cool. The lead crystallises out
first, leaving an alloy of lead and silver still fused. By removing the
crystals of lead, as formed, until about four fifths are removed, the
residue is an alloy of lead and silver much richer than the original.
Repeated several times, this yields a rich alloy of silver and lead that
is expelled and the silver obtained.

Another method for the removal of silver from lead is one employed in
Glasgow, and known as the ‘Flack-Guillim’ process. It is thus described in
‘Dingler’s Polytechnic Journal,’ ccxxxv, 67-70, and in ‘Engineering’ for
September 15th, 1876. “Eighteen tons of rich lead are melted, and one per
cent. of zinc added. The molten mass then allowed to cool, the crust which
forms is removed, and the lead sweated out in a small pot. The lead in the
large pot is then treated with another half per cent. of zinc in the same
way. A third addition of a quarter per cent. of zinc suffices to remove
the greater part of the remaining silver, 5 dwts. being left in the lead
per ton. This lead is then run into the improving pan, and the last traces
of zinc oxidised out.”

Pure lead for chemical purposes may be obtained as follows, although the
lead of commerce is nearly pure:

By reducing nitrate of lead with charcoal.

By heating the oxide left by igniting pure acetate of lead with black

_Prop., &c._ The general properties of lead are too well known to require
notice here. The sp. gr. of that of commerce is about 11·35; but in a
state of absolute purity its greatest density is 11·45. It melts at about
600° Fahr., and when very slowly cooled, crystallises in octahedrons. At a
white heat it boils, and is volatilised. When exposed to moist air, it
soon becomes covered with a grey film. It is scarcely acted on by
hydrochloric or sulphuric acids, although after some time both coat it
with a film of chloride or sulphate. It is rapidly acted on by nitric
acid, with formation of the nitrate. Pure water put into a leaden vessel
and exposed to the air soon corrodes it, and dissolves the newly formed
oxide; but river and spring water have little action upon lead, provided
there is no free carbonic acid present, the carbonates and sulphates in
such water destroying their solvent powers. It has been found that a very
small amount of phosphate of sodium or of iodide of potassium, dissolved
in distilled water, prevents its corrosive action on this metal. The lead
in contact with such water gradually becomes covered with a superficial
film of an insoluble salt of lead, which adheres tenaciously, and prevents
further change. From this it appears that ordinary water (‘hard water’),
which abounds in mineral salts, may be more or less safely kept in leaden
cisterns; but distilled water and rain water, and all other varieties that
contain scarcely any saline matter, speedily corrode, and dissolve a
portion of lead, when kept in vessels of that metal. When, however, leaden
cisterns have iron or zinc fastenings or braces, a galvanic action is set
up, the preservative power of saline matter ceases, and the water speedily
becomes contaminated with lead, and unfit for consumption as a beverage.
Water containing carbonic anhydride also acts on lead, and this is the
reason why the water of some springs (although loaded with saline matter),
when kept in leaden cisterns, or raised by leaden pumps, possesses
unwholesome properties.

M. Fordos, in a communication to the ‘Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie,’
xix, 20, states that in the course of some experiments on the
applicability of lead for water pipes and cisterns he could not detect a
trace of lead in ten litres of river water taken from the leaden cistern
of one of the Paris hospitals. But upon shaking pure water with shot and
air, a coating of carbonate of lead was formed on the sides of the bottle,
which almost rendered the glass opaque. On dissolving the film in nitric
acid, and estimating the lead, it was found that one litre of water had
produced five milligrammes of the carbonate. Wine and vinegar would also
dissolve that film; and as shot is commonly used for cleaning wine
bottles, lead frequently finds its way into wines, a fact which may
account for many of the cases of chronic poisoning by lead which occur in
large towns. The detection of small quantities of lead in forensic
investigation would afford, therefore, no proof of any intentional

Orfila’s erroneous statement that lead is a normal constituent of the
human organism may also be accounted for in this way.

Free carbonic acid is evolved during the fermentation or decay of
vegetable matter, and hence the absolute necessity of preventing the
leaves of trees falling into water-cisterns formed of lead. The ‘eau de
rose’ and the ‘eau d’orange’ of commerce, which are pure distilled water
holding in solution small quantities of essential oil, and are imported in
leaden canisters, always contain a small quantity of lead, and deposit a
sediment, which is not the case when they are kept in glass or
incorrodible vessels.

Lead and all its preparations are highly poisonous; and whether imbibed in
almost infinitesimal quantities with our daily beverages and food, or
swallowed in larger and appreciable doses, is productive of the most
disastrous consequences, the real cause being unfortunately seldom

Mr G. Bischof[13] writes:——Some eight months ago a tube was passed in my
laboratory, which is supplied with water by the New River Company, into
the slate cistern so as to act as a syphon to supply some apparatus with
water. The external surface of the tube inside the cistern was therefore
alternately exposed to the action of air and water, according to the level
of water in the cistern.

[Footnote 13: ‘Journal of the Chemical Society,’ April, 1867.]

Recently I noticed a white efflorescence on the greater part of the tube
inside the cistern. An adjoining cistern of sheet lead, with a lead
overflow pipe fixed into the bottom, shows nowhere any such corrosion.

On cutting the tube it became evident that it is a composition tube, that
is to say, a lead tube, containing some antimony. On analysis it was found
to be composed of——

  Lead      98·3
  Antimony   1·7

Although the external diameter of the tube is only half an inch, 0·29 gram
of efflorescence was obtained per foot by gentle rubbing. This dried at
100° C. contained 1·02 per cent. of sulphuric acid, corresponding with 4·1
per cent. of sulphate of lead. The remainder, except 1·13 per cent. of a
residue insoluble in nitric acid, is carbonate of lead.

The alternate exposure to air and water appears not essential to the
corrosion, as I have observed a similar effect when the same tubing
remained constantly under water. The interior of the tube has also been
corroded, although of course no permanent efflorescence could be formed,
owing to the rapid flow of the water.

The frequent practice of plumbers of using composition tubing in
connection with water supplies is therefore highly reprehensible, being
fraught with considerable danger to the health of those using the water
for drinking or cooking.

Mr Louis Siebold detected lead in eight out of ten samples of concentrated
solution of acetate of ammonia as well as in a sample of the ordinary
solution of the British Pharmacopœia. In pursuing his investigations Mr
Siebold found that solutions of acetate of ammonium are capable of
dissolving lead from glass. He therefore advises that all forms of the
solution, more particularly the concentrated liquor employed by many
chemists for making the weaker solutions, should be kept in bottles free
from lead.

With the acids lead or its oxides form salts, usually white in colour, and
in the majority nearly insoluble in water, but readily soluble in acids.

_Tests._ The oxides and salts of lead, mixed with a little carbonate of
soda, and exposed on a charcoal support to the reducing flame of the
blowpipe, readily yield a soft and ductile globule of metallic lead, and
the charcoal, at the same time, becomes covered with a yellowish
incrustation of oxide of lead. Both metallic lead and its oxides are
soluble in nitric acid, furnishing a solution which may be examined with

Solution of lead salts may be recognised by the following
reactions:——Sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphydrate of ammonium, and the
alkaline sulphides, give black precipitates, insoluble in the cold dilute
acids, alkalies, alkaline sulphides, and cyanide of potassium. Potassium
and sodium hydrates give a white precipitate, soluble in excess. Ammonia
(except with the acetate) gives a white precipitate, insoluble in excess.
The carbonates of potassium, sodium, and ammonium, give a white
precipitate, insoluble in excess. Dilute sulphuric acid (in excess), and
solutions of the sulphates give a white precipitate, sparingly soluble in
dilute acids, but soluble in a hot boiling solution of potassium
carbonate. Chromate and bichromate of potassium give yellow precipitates
insoluble in dilute nitric acid, and soluble in solution of potassium
hydrate. Iodide of potassium gives a yellow precipitate, soluble in great
excess by heat, and separating in small, brilliant, golden-yellow scales,
as the liquid cools. A piece of polished zinc precipitates metallic lead
in an arborescent form, hence called the lead tree. To prepare for these
tests, a solid supposed to contain lead should be digested in nitric acid,
when the solution, evaporated to dryness and redissolved in water, may be
tested as above.

_Estim._ This has been already referred to under previous heads. The ores
of lead (galena) may be digested in nitric acid, when the solution may be
treated with sulphuric acid, and the lead estimated from the weight of the
precipitated sulphate. This is called an assay in the wet way. The method
adopted by practical mineralogists is an assay in the dry way, and is
conducted as follows:——A small but powerful air-furnace, charged with
coke, is brought to as high a temperature as possible, and a conical
wrought-iron crucible plunged into the midst of it; as soon as the
crucible has attained a dull-red heat, 1000 gr. of the galena, reduced to
powder, are thrown into it, and stirred gently with a long piece of stiff
iron wire flattened at the one end, in order to expose as large a surface
of the powdered ore to the air as possible, observing now and then to
withdraw the wire, to prevent it becoming red hot, in which case some of
the ore would permanently adhere to it, and be reduced before the intended
time; the roasting is completed in 3 or 4 minutes, and any portion of the
ore adhering to the stirrer being detached by a knife, and returned into
the crucible, the latter is covered up, and allowed to attain a full
cherry-red heat, when about 2 or 3 spoonfuls of reducing flux are added,
and the whole brought to a full white heat; in 12 to 15 minutes, the
portion of metal and scoria adhering to the sides of the crucible are
scraped down into the melted mass with a small stick of moist green wood,
after which the crucible is again covered, and the heat urged for 2 or 3
minutes longer, so as to keep the mass in a perfectly liquid state during
the whole time; the crucible is then removed from the fire with the
crucible-tongs, and adroitly tilted so as to discharge its contents into a
small, ingot-mould of brass, observing to rake the scoria from the surface
to the sides of the crucible, so as to allow the molten lead to be poured
out without it; the scoria is then reheated in the crucible with about 1/2
spoonful of flux, and after being cleansed with a piece of green wood, as
before, is at once poured into a second mould, which is instantly
inverted; the little button of lead thus obtained is added to the lead in
the other mould, and the whole is accurately weighed. The weight, divided
by 10, gives the per-centage of lead (including silver, if present) in the
ore examined.

One half of the lead thus obtained is put into a dry cupel of bone ash,
and placed in the cupelling furnace, and treated as described in the
article on assaying; the metallic button left on the cupel is then
detached and weighed. The weight, divided by 5, gives the per-centage of
pure silver.

_Obs._ The flux commonly employed in the above assay is composed of red
argol, 6 parts; nitre, 4 parts; borax, 2 parts; fluor spar, 1 part; well
pulverised and thoroughly mixed together. When the ore is very refractory,
about a spoonful of carbonate of potassium should be added for each 1000
grains of ore, in which case the roasting may be dispensed with. The
quantity of silver in argentiferous galena varies from 3/10000 to 1/3 part
of the whole. Whenever this ore contains above 2 parts of silver in the
1000, it is found to be profitable to extract the latter. Indeed, by
Pattison’s process it is found that as small a proportion as 1 in 8000 can
be extracted with profit.

_Uses._ The uses of lead in the arts are well known. It enters into the
composition of many important alloys (pewter, type-metal, shot-metal,
solder, &c.), it furnishes us with several valuable pigments (chrome
yellow, &c.), and it is extensively used in dyeing. Some of its
preparations are employed in medicine.

_Ant., &c._ Administer an emetic of sulphate of zinc or sulphate of
copper, and, if necessary, tickle the fauces with the finger or a feather,
to induce vomiting. Should this not succeed the stomach-pump may be had
recourse to. Epsom or Glauber’s salts, or alum, dissolved in water, or
water acidulated with sulphuric acid, followed by tea, water gruel, or
barley water, are the proper antidotes, and should be taken as soon after
the poison has been swallowed as possible. In poisoning by white lead, Dr
Alfred Taylor recommends the administration of a mixture of sulphate of
magnesium and vinegar, as preferable to the sulphate alone. When the
symptoms are those of painter’s colic, the treatment recommended under
that head should be adopted. In paralysis arising from lead, small doses
of strychnine and its preparations may be cautiously administered. A
symptom of poisoning by lead is the formation of a narrow leaden blue
line, from 1/20th to 1/6th of an inch wide, bordering the edges of the
gums, attached to the neck of two or more teeth of either jaw. (Dr
Burton.) This discoloration may often be detected or rendered more
conspicuous by rinsing the mouth out with water holding a little
sulphuretted hydrogen or sulphydrate of ammonium in solution. Chevallier
and Rayer recommend the use of sulphurous or hepatic mineral waters, or of
artificial solutions of sulphuretted hydrogen or alkaline sulphides in
water, both in cases of acute and chronic poisoning by lead; but the
practical success of this plan does not appear to have been in proportion
to theoretical anticipations. The moist and freshly precipitated sulphides
of iron are said by their advocates to be infallible if taken sufficiently

=Lead in Aerated Water.= Some time since Sir Robert Christison condemned
the use of syphons for lemonade, owing to the action of free tartaric acid
upon lead, and the rapidity with which waters containing any free acid
become charged with lead in syphons. According to Professor Miller, 0·0175
gr. of lead per gallon is not an unusual amount for average cistern water.
Mr John S. Thompson, however, reports to the Edinburgh University Chemical
Society that, after such water has been aerated and put into a syphon, the
amount of lead dissolved in it begins to rise in a rapid manner. Thus in
potash water, drawn from a syphon, 0·0408 grain of lead per gallon was
found to be present, being nearly 25 times the quantity found in the same
water before it entered the syphon. Pure aerated water again drawn in a
similar manner from a syphon gave 0·0816 gr. of lead per gallon, or
exactly double the amount found in the potash water, showing at once the
well-known protective action that salts of the alkalies and alkaline
earths have on lead. “Although,” says the ‘Medical Journal,’ “these
results are sufficiently high and alarming; still, when the water is drawn
off in small quantities at a time, as is frequently the case with
invalids, the results are found to be still higher; thus, when potash
water was so treated, 0·0455 gr. of lead per gallon was found, while
aerated water, drawn off in small quantities, gave 0·0933 gr. of lead per
gallon, showing a very marked rise in both cases. The cause of this
increase in quantity of the lead appears to be owing, not so much to the
lengthened period of contact between the liquid and the metal as to the
fact that the nozzle of the syphon, being exposed to the atmosphere in a
moist state, becomes rapidly oxidised or carbonated, and is left in the
most suitable condition for entering into solution, so that, when merely
small portions of the liquid are drawn off each time, a comparatively
concentrated solution of lead is obtained. These results,” continues the
same authority, “compare accurately with those which were obtained by
Messrs Savory and Moore, in examining the contents of a series of syphons
of aerated water for Dr George Owen Rees, F.R.S., whose attention was
drawn to the subject by detecting symptoms of lead-poisoning in himself
after he had been in the habit for some time of drinking such aerated

=Lead, Acetate of.= Pb(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2}. _Syn._ PLUMBIC ACETATE, SUGAR
OF LEAD, PLUMBI ACETAS. (B. P.) _Prep._ Litharge (in fine powder) 24;
acetic acid, 40; distilled water, 20; mix the acetic acid and the water,
add the litharge, and dissolve with the aid of a gentle heat, filter,
evaporate until a pellicle forms, and crystallise. Drain and dry the

Acetic acid (sp. gr. 1·0843), 23 parts, is gently heated in a copper
boiler rendered electro-negative by means of a large flat piece of lead
soldered within it, and litharge (pure, and in fine powder), 13 parts, is
sprinkled in; the heat is then continued, with constant stirring, until
the acid is saturated, when the mother-waters of a former process, if any,
are added, and the whole is heated to the boiling point, and allowed to
settle until cold; the clear portion is now decanted, and evaporated in a
similar vessel until the liquor has the sp. gr. 1·266 or 1·267, when it is
run into salt-glazed stone-ware vessels (the edges of which have been well
smeared with candle grease), and allowed to crystallise. The product is 38
to 38-1/2 parts of crystallised sugar of lead. It is found to be
advantageous to preserve a very slight excess of acid during the boiling
and crystallisation, to prevent the formation of any basic acetate the
presence of which impedes the formation of regular crystals.

From litharge, 112 lbs.; acetic acid (sp. gr. 1·057), 128 lbs. _Prop._ 180
to 184 lbs.

_Prop._ Pure acetate of lead forms colourless, transparent, prismatic
crystals, slightly efflorescent in dry air; it is soluble in 8 parts of
alcohol and in 1-1/4 part of cold water; the aqueous solution has a sweet
astringent taste, and feebly reddens litmus, but turns turmeric and the
juice of violets green; when gently heated, it melts in its water of
crystallisation; by continuing the heat, the whole of the water is
expelled, and the dry acetate obtained; at a higher temperature the salt
suffers decomposition, and acetic acid, acetone, &c., is given off.
Commercial acetate of lead is in general a confused crystalline mass,
somewhat resembling broken lump sugar. It is powerfully astringent and

When pure it is completely soluble in distilled water acidulated with
acetic acid forming a transparent colourless solution, “38 grains
dissolved in water require for complete precipitation 200 grains measures
of the volumetric solution of oxalic acid.” (B. P.)

_Uses, &c._ Acetate of lead is extensively employed in dyeing and
calico-printing. In _medicine_ it is used as an astringent, styptic, and
hæmostatic; in pulmonary, uterine, and intestinal hæmorrhage, colliquative
diarrhœa, phthisical sweats, &c. It is usually combined with morphia or
opium, and with acetic acid to prevent it passing into the state of the
poisonous carbonate in the stomach.——_Dose_, 1/2 gr. to 2 gr. (Collier); 1
to 2 gr. to 8 or 10 gr., twice or thrice a day (Pereira); 3 gr. to 10 gr.,
every 6 or 8 hours (A. T. Thomson). _Externally_, as a collyrium, 10 gr.
to water, 8 fl. oz. (A. T. Thomson); as a lotion, 20 gr. (A. T. Thomson),
1 dr. (Collier) to water, 8 or 10 fl. oz.; as an injection, 40 gr. to rose
water, 1/2 pint. The lotion is cooling and sedative, and is commonly used
in excoriations, local inflammations, &c.

=Basic Acetates.= There are several of these salts, but only one is of any

=Tribasic Lead Acetate or Double Plumbic Acetate, and Dioxide.=
Pb(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2} 2PbO. _Syn._ SUBACETATE OF LEAD; BASIC LEAD
Litharge, 7; acetate of lead, 10; and distilled water, 40; are boiled half
an hour, and evaporated down, and allowed to crystallise out of contact
with air.

Used under the form of “Plumbi subacetas liquor” v. (B. P.)

=Lead, Arse′′niate of.= Pb_{3}(AsO_{4})_{2}. _Syn._ ARSENATE OF L.; PLUMBI
ARSENIAS, L. _Prep._ Gradually add a solution of acetate of lead to
another of arseniate of sodium. A white, insoluble powder. Proposed as an
external application in certain forms of cancer.

=Lead, Bro′mide of.= PbBr_{2}. _Syn._ PLUMBI BROMIDUM, L. _Prep._ By
precipitating a solution of neutral acetate or nitrate of lead with a
solution of bromide of potassium. A white, crystalline powder, sparingly
soluble in water. It fuses by heat into a red liquid, which turns yellow
when cold. It has been used in the same cases as iodide of lead.

=Lead, Car′bonate of.= PbCO_{3}. _Syn._ PLUMBI CARBONAS, L. _Prep._ By
precipitating a cold solution of either acetate or nitrate of lead with a
solution of an alkaline carbonate, observing to well wash the precipitate
and dry it in the shade. This preparation is seldom employed, the
commercial carbonate (WHITE LEAD) being substituted for it. See WHITE

=Lead, Chloride of.= PbCl_{2}. _Syn._ CHLORIDE LEAD; PLUMBI CHLORIDUM (Ph.
L. 1836). _Prep._ (Ph. L. 1836). Dissolve acetate of lead, 19 oz., in
boiling water, 3 pints; next dissolve chloride of sodium, 6 oz., in
boiling water, 1 pint; mix the two solutions, and when cold wash and dry
the precipitate. A white, crystalline powder.

Dissolve finely powdered litharge in boiling dilute hydrochloric acid,
and set aside the filtered solution to cool. Brilliant colourless needles.

_Prop._ Soluble in 135 parts of cold and in 22 parts of boiling water; it
melts when heated, and solidifies on cooling, forming a horn-like
substance (horn lead; plumbi corneum).

_Uses, &c._ In the Ph. L. 1836, chloride of lead was ordered to be
employed in the preparation of ‘hydrochlorate of morphia.’ Mr Tuson highly
recommends it in cancerous affections, to allay pain and restrain morbid
action, either in the form of a lotion or ointment.

Various mixtures of lead chlorides and oxide are employed as a white
pigment under the name of ‘Pattison’s white.’ It is prepared by rapidly
mixing a boiling solution of lead chloride with an equal volume of lime
water. Another similar compound is called ‘patent yellow’ or ‘Turner’s

=Lead, Chromate of.= PbCrO_{4}. _Syn._ LEMON YELLOW, LEIPSIG YELLOW, PARIS
YELLOW. _Prep._ By adding a filtered solution of acetate or nitrate of
lead to a like solution of chromate of potassium, as long as the
precipitate forms, which is collected, washed with water, and dried. For
information respecting the manufacture of this substance on the large
scale, as a colouring substance (chrome yellow), see YELLOW PIGMENTS.

=Lead, Dichromate of.= _Syn._ CHROME ORANGE, CHROME RED. PbCrO_{4}.PbO.
_Prep._ By adding to a solution of nitrate or acetate of lead a solution
of chromate of potassium, to which an equivalent of potassa has been
added. This compound is of a splendid scarlet colour. See RED PIGMENTS.

=Lead, Cy′anide of.= PbCy_{2}. _Syn._ PLUMBI CYANIDUM, L. _Prep._ By
adding hydrocyanic acid to a solution of acetate of lead, as long as a
precipitate forms, which, after being washed with distilled water, is
dried by a very gentle heat, and preserved from the light and air.
Sometimes used as a source of medicinal hydrocyanic acid.

=Lead, Iodide of.= PbI_{2}. _Syn._ LEAD IODIDE; PLUMBI IODIDUM (B. P., Ph.
L. E. D.). _Prep._ (B. P.) Nitrate of lead, 4; iodide of potassium, 4;
distilled water, a sufficiency. Dissolve with the aid of heat the nitrate
of lead in 30 of water, and the iodide of potassium in 10 of water, mix,
collect the precipitate, wash, and dry at a gentle heat.

_Prop., &c._ A rich yellow-coloured powder, soluble in acetic acid,
alcohol, and boiling water; when heated, it fuses and volatilises in
yellow vapour, but with a higher degree of heat, violet vapours of iodine
are evolved, leaving a residuum (lead) which is wholly soluble in nitric
acid.——_Dose_, 1/4 gr. to 4 gr. or more, made into a pill; as a
deobstruent and resolvent, in enlargements of the cervical, axillary, and
mesenteric glands, and in scrofulous affections and scirrhous tumours.

=Lead, Nitrate of.= Pb(NO_{3})_{2}. _Syn._ PLUMBI NITRAS, L. (B. P., Ph.
E. D.)

_Prep._ (Ph. D.) Litharge (in fine powder), 1 oz.; pure nitric acid, 2 fl.
oz., diluted with water, 1/2 pint; mix, apply a sand-heat, and evaporate
to dryness, occasionally stirring; boil the residuum in water, 2-1/2
pints; filter, acidulate with a few drops of nitric acid, evaporate to a
pellicle, and set the liquid aside to cool; lastly, dry the deposited
crystals on bibulous paper, and preserve them in a well closed bottle.

(Commercial.) By dissolving white lead in dilute nitric acid, and

_Uses, &c._ This salt is extensively used in calico printing, and in the
preparation of the iodide and other salts of lead. It was formerly much
esteemed in asthmas, hæmorrhages, and epilepsy. It is now often used in an
external application in cancer, ulcers, wounds, and various cutaneous
affections. It is the basis of Liebert’s celebrated ‘cosmétique
infallible,’ and of Ledoyen’s ‘disinfecting fluid.’ A very weak solution
is an excellent application to chapped nipples, lips, hands, &c.——_Dose_,
1/2 to 1 gr.; in the form of pill or solution, washed down with a
tablespoonful of water very slightly acidulated with nitric acid.

=Lead, Nitro-sac′charate of.= _Syn._ PLUMBI NITROSACCHARAS, L. _Prep._ (Dr
S. E. Hoskins.) Nitric acid, 1 part; water, 19 parts; mix; in this dilute
acid saccharate of lead (in fine powder) is to be dissolved, and set aside
that crystals may form, which are to be dried by pressure between the
folds of bibulous paper. A weak solution of the salt, acidulated with
saccharic acid, has been employed by Dr Hoskins as a solvent for
phosphatic calculi, with apparent success.

OXIDE OF LEAD, PLUMBI OXYDUM (B. P.) _Prep._ This substance is obtained
perfectly pure by expelling the acid from nitrate of lead, by exposing it
to heat in a platinum crucible; or, still better, by adding ammonia to a
cold solution of nitrate of lead until the liquid becomes faintly
alkaline, washing the precipitate with cold water, drying it, and heating
it to moderate redness for 1 hour.

_Prop., &c._ Pure protoxide of lead has a lemon-yellow colour, and is the
best of all the salts of lead. It is very heavy, slightly soluble in
water, and freely so in acids, particularly when in the hydrated state;
the aqueous solution has an alkaline reaction; at a red heat it melts, and
assumes a semi-crystalline form on cooling; in the melted state it rapidly
attacks and dissolves siliceous matter, with which it unites to form glass
(flint glass); when heated along with organic substances of any kind, it
is easily reduced to the metallic state.

On the commercial scale, this oxide is prepared by heating the grey film
or dross that forms on the surface of melted lead when freely exposed to
the air. When the process is arrested, as soon as the oxide acquires a
uniform yellow colour, it is called massicot; when the heat is still
further increased, until it fuses or partially vitrifies, it forms
litharge of which there are several varieties. See LITHARGE, MASSICOT.

=Lead, Red Oxide of.= _Syn._ RED LEAD, MINIUM. _Prep._ This is prepared by
exposing unfused protoxide of lead to the air for a long time, at a dull
red heat. It is a very heavy powder, of a fine red colour, decomposed by a
strong heat into protoxide of lead, and oxygen gas, which is evolved.
Somewhat uncertain in its composition, but is generally of the composition
Pb_{3}O_{4} or PbO_{2}2PbO. See RED PIGMENT.

OXIDE OF LEAD. _Prep._ By digesting red oxide of lead in dilute nitric
acid; or by infusing a mixture of protoxide of lead and chlorate of
potassium at a heat a little below redness, and washing the powdered mass
in water; or by transmitting a current of chlorine gas through a solution
of neutral acetate of lead. This oxide gives up half its oxygen at a red
heat; acids also decompose it. Its chief use is in chemical analysis, to
separate sulphurous acid from certain gaseous mixtures, which it converts
into sulphuric acid, which it at the same time absorbs, forming sulphate
of lead. It has recently been employed as an oxidising agent in the
manufacture of the ANILINE DYES.

=Lead, Pyrolig′nite of.= Sugar of lead made with rough pyroligneous acid.
Used in dyeing, chiefly for the preparation of acetate of alumina.

=Lead, Sac′charate of.= _Syn._ PLUMBI SACCHARAS, L. _Prep._ (Dr S. E.
Hoskins.) Nitric acid, 2 parts; water, 10 parts; mix in a porcelain
capsule, add of sugar, 1 part; and apply heat until reaction ceases; then
dilute the liquid with distilled water, neutralise it with powdered chalk,
filter, and add to the filtrate a solution of acetate of lead, as long as
a precipitate (saccharate of lead) forms; lastly, collect the precipitate
on a filter, wash and dry it. Used to make nitro-saccharate of lead, and
as a source of saccharic acid.

=Lead, Sul′phate of.= PbSO_{4}. _Syn._ PLUMBI SULPHAS, L. This salt occurs
native in transparent octohedra (lead vitriol), and is obtained in large
quantities as a by-product in the preparation of acetate of aluminum for

_Prep._ By adding dilute sulphuric acid to a solution of a soluble salt of
lead. It is very sparingly soluble in water and in dilute sulphuric acid,
soluble in strong hydrochloric acid and bitartrate of ammonium.

=Lead, Sul′phide of.= PbS. _Syn._ PLUMBI SULPHIDE. This occurs abundantly
in nature in the form of GALENA.

_Prep._ By fusing metallic lead with sulphur or by passing sulphuretted
hydrogen through a solution of a salt of lead.

=Lead, Tan′nate of.= _Syn._ PLUMBI TANNAS, L. _Prep._ Precipitate a
solution of acetate of lead with an infusion of galls, and wash and dry
the precipitate. Astringent, sedative, and hæmostatic.——_Dose_, 1 gr. and
upwards, made into a pill. It has been highly recommended in the form of
ointment and cataplasms, in bed-sores, chronic ulcers of the feet, white
swellings, &c.

=Lead, Tar′trate of.= _Syn._ PLUMBI TARTRAS, L. _Prep._ By precipitating
acetate of lead, by tartrate of ammonium, washing and drying.

new lead, adding bruised charcoal, mixing with violent agitation, which
must be continued until the metal ‘sets,’ and then pounding and washing
away the charcoal. Used by potters.

=LEAD, GRANULATED.= _Prep._ By melting new lead, and pouring it in a small
stream from an iron ladle with a hole drilled in its bottom, into a pail
of water. Used to make solutions and alloys.




=LEATH′ER.= _Syn._ CORIUM, CORIUS, L. Leather is the skin of animals which
has been prepared by one or other of several processes adopted for the
purpose, having the common object of preventing its spontaneous
destruction by putrefaction, besides other objects, which are more or less
peculiar to each variety of this useful substance.

Leather is only prepared on the large scale, and primarily either by the
process of ‘TANNING’ or ‘TAWING,’ in the manner briefly described under
these heads.

CURRIED LEATHER is leather which has been tanned, and sold to the currier,
who, after soaking it in water, and rubbing it to soften it, pares it even
with a broad, sharp knife, rubs it with a piece of polished stone or wood,
and, whilst still wet, besmears it with oil or grease (DUBBING), which
gradually penetrates the leather as the moisture evaporates. It next
undergoes the operation of ‘waxing,’ which consists of first rubbing it on
the flesh side with a mixture of oil and lamp black; it is then
‘black-sized’ with a brush or sponge, and, when dry, is lastly ‘tallowed’
with a proper cloth, and ‘slicked’ upon the flesh side with a broad and
polished lump of glass. Leather curried on the hair or grain side, termed
‘black on the grain,’ is blackened by wetting it with iron liquor, and
rubbing it with an iron ‘slicker’ before applying the oil or grease. The
grain is finally raised by the ‘pommel’ or ‘graining board’ passed over it
in various directions.

Leather is dyed or stained by the application, with an ordinary brush, of
any of the strong liquid dyes, in the cold or only gently heated, to the
surface of the skin previously stretched on a board. The surface, when
dry, is commonly finished off with white of egg and the pommel or
smoothing stick. Bookbinders generally employ copperas water as a black
stain or sprinkle; a solution of indigo as a blue one; and a solution of
salt of tartar or common soda, as a brown one.

Leather, before being japanned or varnished, as in the preparation of what
is called ‘ENAMELLED’ and ‘PATENT LEATHER,’ is carefully freed from grease
by the application of absorbent substances or hard pressure between
rollers, and the surface is nicely shaved, smoothed, and polished by
appropriate tools, the varnish is then applied to the grain side for the
former, and the flesh side of the skin for the latter, which is previously
stretched out tight on a board to receive it. The whole is, lastly,
submitted to a gentle stove-heat to harden the varnish; and the process is
repeated, if necessary.

_Uses, &c._ These are well known, and are all but universal. The leather
manufacture of Great Britain is equal in importance and utility to any
other department of our industry, and inferior in point of value and
extent only to those of cotton, wool, and iron. “If we look abroad on the
instruments of husbandry, on the implements used in most of the mechanic
trades, on the structure of a multitude of engines and machines; or if we
contemplate at home the necessary parts of our clothing——breeches, shoes,
boots, gloves——or the furniture of our houses, the books on our shelves,
the harness of our horses, or even the substance of our carriages; what do
we see but instances of human industry exerted upon leather? What an
aptitude has this single material in a variety of circumstances for the
relief of our necessities, and supplying conveniences in every state and
stage of life! Without it, or even without it in the plenty we have it, to
what difficulties should we be exposed?” (Dr Campbell.) Leather is a kind
of natural felt, but of much closer and firmer texture than that of
artificial origin. “The thinner and softer kinds of leather are sometimes
used as body-clothing; but its special and proper purpose is the
manufacture of coverings for the feet, to protect them from cold and
water.” (Eras. Wilson.) See JAPANNING, VARNISH, &c.

=Leather, destruction of, by Gas.= It is well-known that the binding of
books suffer considerable damage, when the books are kept in apartments
lighted by coal gas. That the cause of this deterioration is due, as was
believed, to the combustion of the bisulphide of carbon contained in the
gas, and its consequent oxidation into sulphuric acid, is exemplified by
the following interesting communication from Professor Church, published
in the ‘Chemical News’ for October 19th, 1877. He says:——“Vellum seems
unaffected; morocco suffers least; calf is much injured, and russia still
more so. The disintegration is most rapid with books on the upper shelves
of a library, whither the heated products of combustion ascend, and where
they are absorbed and condensed.

By comparing specimens of old leather, with specimens of new, it is quite
clear that the destructive influence of gas is due mainly to its sulphur.

True there are traces of sulphates in the dye and size of new leather
bindings, but the quantity is insignificant and there is practically no
free sulphuric acid. That leather may be destroyed by the oil of vitriol
produced by the burning of gas in a library is proved by the following
observations and analyses.

The librarian of one of our public libraries forwarded to me the backs of
several volumes, which had been ‘shed’ by the books on the upper shelves
in an apartment lighted by gas. The leather of one of these backs (a
volume of the ‘Archæologia’) was carefully scraped off so as to avoid any
paper or size from underneath. This task of scraping was easy enough, for
the leather was reduced to the consistency of Scotch snuff. On analysis of
the watery extract of this leather, the following figures were obtained:——

  Free sulphuric acid in decayed
    leather                      6·21 per cent.
  Combined                       2·21    ”

=LEAV′EN.= Dough which has become sour or run into a state of incipient
putrefaction. When a small quantity of it is added to recent dough, it
excites fermentation, but is apt to produce a disagreeable taste and odour
in the bread. It is now superseded by yeast. Both these substances are
used in the same way.

=LEAVES (Medicated).= _Syn._ FOLIA MEDICATA, L. On the Continent several
preparations of this kind are in use. In many cases the leaves of tobacco
deprived of nicotine, by soaking them in water, are dried, and then
moistened or steeped in a tincture or infusion of the medicinal substance.
In this way belladonna, camphor, and henbane, are often administered.
Cruveilhier recommends opiated belladonna leaves for smoking in
troublesome coughs, phthisis, spasmodic asthmas, &c., to be prepared as
follows:——Belladonna leaves, 1 oz., are steeped in an infusion of opium,
10 gr., in water, 1 fl. oz. (or less), and are then carefully dried in the
shade. “MUSTARD LEAVES (Riggollot’s) consist of mustard moistened with
water, spread on paper, and dried.” (Squire.) See CIGARS (in _pharmacy_),

=Leaves, How to Dissect.= “For the dissection of leaves,” says Mrs
Cussons, “I find the process of maceration too long and tedious, to say
nothing of the uncertainty as to the results. I have therefore adopted the
use of alkali in saturated solution, the specimens to be introduced while
the liquid is heated to the boiling point; the time of immersion to be
regulated by the character of the various leaves and the nature of the
epidermis to be removed. When the specimen is freed from epidermis and
cellular tissue, it must be subjected to the action of chlorine to destroy
the colouring matter. The introduction of peroxide of hydrogen not only
serves to render the lace-like specimen purer in colour, but also
preserves it. In destroying the colouring matter in ferns this also is
invaluable; added to the chlorine it gives a solidity to the bleached
fronds, and appears to equalise the action of the chlorine. For
skeletonising capsules the slow process of maceration by steeping in
rain-water is alone available; a moderate heat may be applied to hasten
the process, but alkali is useless. The only known flower which can be
dissected is the _Hydrangea japonica_. The fibrous nature of the petals
renders it easy to skeletonise in the perfect truss in which it grows.
Skeletonised leaves and capsules appear to gain in the process a toughness
and durability not possessed by them in their natural state.”


=LEECH.= _Syn._ HIRUDO (B. P., Ph. L. & D.), L. The officinal leech
of the Pharmacopœias is the _Sanguisuga medicinalis_ (_Hirudo
medicinalis_——Cuv.), familiarly known as the ‘old English’ or ‘speckled
leech.’ It is also occasionally called the ‘Hamburg grey’ or ‘Russian
leech,’ from being imported from those parts. Its characteristics
are——Back, greenish or olive green, sometimes almost black or intense
brown, with 6 rusty-red or yellowish longitudinal stripes, which are
mostly spotted with black.——Belly, dirty yellow or light olive green,
spotted more or less with black. The spots are very variable in size and
number; in some cases few, in others so numerous as to form the prevailing
tint of the belly. This variety, which is the most valuable of the
commercial leeches, is chiefly imported from Hamburg.

Another variety of leech, the _Sanguisuga officinalis_, familiarly known
as the ‘Hamburg’ or ‘French green leech,’ is imported from Bordeaux,
Lisbon, and Hamburg. Its characteristics are——Back, brownish olive-green,
with 6 reddish or rusty yellow longitudinal bands.——Belly, light dirty
pea-green, or yellowish green, free from spots, but exhibiting two lateral
stripes. This leech is vastly inferior to the preceding variety, and some
of those imported from France and Portugal are absolutely useless, from
their indisposition to bite, arising from the fraud practised by the
collectors and dealers of gorging them with blood to improve their
appearance before sending them to market. The above are the species of
leech commonly employed in medicine in this country, but many others are
noticed by writers on the subject.

Leeches are best preserved in water obtained from a pond, and occasionally
changed; when kept in spring water they soon die. The introduction of a
hand to which an ill-flavoured medicine or odour adheres into the water in
which they are kept is often sufficient to poison them. The application
of saline matter to the skin of leeches, even in very small quantities,
immediately occasions the expulsion of the contents of the stomach; hence
a few grains of common salt are frequently sprinkled over them, to make
them disgorge the blood which they have swallowed. The frequent changing
of the water in which leeches are kept is injudicious. Once a month in
winter, and once a week in summer, is deemed sufficiently often by the
large dealers, unless the water becomes discoloured or bloody, when it
should be changed every day, or every other day. When clean pond water
cannot be obtained, clean rain water that has been well exposed to the air
should alone be employed. Mr J. R. Kenworthy recommends placing in the
water a few balls of irregular lumps of pure clay, about 2-1/2 inches in
diameter; a method which we can recommend as both simple and successful.
The plan adopted by M. Fée is as follows:——Place 7 inches of a mixture of
moss, turf, and charcoal, in a marble or stone trough, over which sprinkle
some small pebbles. At one end of the trough, and about half way up, place
a thin shelf of stone or marble, pierced with small holes, on which put
first some moss, or portions of marsh horse-tail (_Equisetum palustre_),
and on this a layer of pebbles to keep it down; then pour in water
sufficiently high just to moisten the moss and pebbles, put in the
leeches, and tie over the mouth of the trough with a cloth. Another plan
consists in keeping the leeches in a glass tank, or aquarium, provided
with a pebbly bottom and a few healthy aquatic plants.

_Propag._ According to Dr Wagner, an annual feast on living blood is
necessary to render leeches able to grow and propagate. These conditions
can only be fulfilled by restoring to the breeding cisterns those which
have been already employed. All artificial methods of feeding them by
bladders or sponges of blood have been found to fail. He recommends the
employment of two tanks, with the bottom formed of loam, clay, or turf,
surrounded by an inner border of a similar substance, and an outer one of
sand——the one for leeches fit for medical use——and the other for breeding,
or for such leeches as have been applied. No leeches are to be taken from
the breeding tank until a year has elapsed after their having been applied
and fed with human blood; and their removal to the first tank should take
place in September, or October, as by this time the breeding season is
over. By this plan all leeches that have been applied are to be carefully
restored to the breeding tank, without making them disgorge the blood they
have swallowed.

=LEECH′ING.= This consists in the application of leeches to any vascular
part of the body, for the purpose of withdrawing blood from it, and thus
allaying local inflammation, distension of vessels, &c. Leeches are most
conveniently applied by means of a common pill-box or a wine glass. The
part should be previously washed perfectly clean, and if covered with hair
should be closely shaved. Sometimes leeches are indisposed to bite; in
such cases, allowing them to crawl over a piece of dry linen or calico,
rolling them in porter, moistening the part with a little milk or
sweetened milk, or drawing a little blood by a slight puncture or scratch,
will usually make them bite freely. To stop the bleeding from leech-bites
various plans are adopted, among which the application of nitrate of
silver or creasote, or gentle pressure for some hours with the finger, are
the most successful. Of late years a piece of matico leaf or soldier’s
herb, applied in the same manner as a piece of lint, has been commonly
adopted to stop the bleeding of leech-bites.

=LEEK.= _Syn._ PORRUM, L. The _Allium porrum_ (Linn.). Its general
properties are intermediate between those of the onion and garlic. The
juice is said to be powerfully diuretic, and capable of dissolving
phosphate calculi.

=LEGU′MIN.= Vegetable casein. It is found most abundantly in the seeds of
leguminous (podded) plants, _e.g._ beans, peas, &c., as well as in the
sweet and bitter almond.

In properties it closely resembles the casein of milk.

Legumin may be obtained from peas or from almonds as follows:——After
digesting the crushed seeds for 2 or 3 hours in warm water, the
undissolved portion is removed by straining through linen, and the
strained liquid, after depositing the starch suspended in it, is next
filtered and mixed with diluted acetic acid. The white flocculent
precipitate which is thus produced, is then collected on a filter and
washed. It is afterwards dried, powdered, and digested, first in alcohol,
and afterwards in ether.

Rochleder considered that, as thus obtained by Dumas and Cahours, it was
not absolutely pure, since as it was not entirely soluble in a cold
concentrated solution of potash, he recommended the alkaline solution
being decanted from the undissolved portion, and again precipitated by the
addition of acetic acid.

Legumin as thus prepared was believed by Rochleder to be pure, and was
found on analysis to give results analogous to those furnished by casein.

In the seed, legumin occurs associated with considerable quantities of the
phosphates of calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Rennet coagulates it like
it does the casein of milk, its similarity to which is exemplified by the
manufacture of a kind of cheese from peas and beans by the Chinese.

Dried peas contain about a fourth of their weight of legumin.

=LEM′ON.= _Syn._ LIMO, L. The fruit of the _Citrus limonum_ or lemon tree.
The juice, peel, and essential oil are officinal. See OIL, and _below_.



D.), L. The juice of the lemon, obtained by squeezing and straining. When
freshly expressed, it is turbid, owing to the presence of mucilage and
extractive matter. These substances render the juice liable to
decomposition, and various methods have from time to time been proposed
for preserving it. Amongst these may be mentioned the addition to the
fresh juice of one per cent. of bisulphite of calcium, or ten per cent. of
proof spirit.

“We have examined the juice expressed from two varieties of lemons, viz.
Palermo and Messina, with the following results:

                               Palermo.  Messina.
  “Ounces of juice yielded
    by 100 lemons                   108        96
  Specific gravity of juice     1044·85   1038·56
  Percentage of citric acid        8·12      7·04
  Percentage of ash               0·289     0·301

“100 parts of the ash of the juice of Palermo lemons gave:

  “Sulphuric acid     10·59
  Carbonic acid       16·33
  Chlorine             0·81
  Phosphoric acid      6·74
  Ferric phosphate     1·32
  Lime                 8·89
  Magnesia             3·02
  Potash              47·84
  Soda                 3·32
  Silica               0·72
  Loss                 0·42

“If lemons are kept a few months before squeezing, the yield of juice is
slightly increased, but its specific gravity and percentage of citric acid
remains unaltered. It is erroneous to suppose that the acid of the lemon
is, by keeping, changed into sugar. We have kept lemons for 12 months, and
found that the percentage of acid was not diminished. A certain proportion
of sugar was formed, but at the expense of the soluble starch contained in
the cell-walls of the lemon. Lemon juice on being kept is found to
decrease in density, but the amount of acid remains the same.” (Harkness.)

Lemon juice may be preserved by heating it to 150° Fahr., filtering, and
setting it aside in bottles completely filled. If this process be
performed in the winter, the juice, it is said, may be kept perfectly good
for 12 months. Fresh lemon juice is prevented from decomposition and
rendered fit for exportation by mixing it with 1/10th of alcohol.

The Merchant Shipping Act of 1867 requires that after a ship has been at
sea ten days 1 oz. of lime or lemon juice, mixed with 1 oz. of sugar and
1/2 pint of water, shall be served out to each of the crew between the
hours of 12 and 1 in the day.

_Adult._ Lemon juice is frequently adulterated, the adulterants being
water, sugar, or gum, and sulphuric or acetic acid. The _modus operandi_
is, to dilute the genuine juice with water, and then bring up the density
with the sugar or gum, and the percentage of acid with one or other of the
above acids. The examination of lemon and lime juice supplied to the navy
is now conducted in the Inland Revenue Laboratory, Somerset House, and it
speaks well for that department when we say that cases of scurvy on board
ships are now of very rare occurrence. No juice is passed unless it comes
up to a certain standard in specific gravity, and percentage of citric
acid, and any sample containing any other acid is at once rejected.

_Prop._ Lemon juice is refrigerant and antiscorbutic, and has long been
extensively employed in the preparation of cooling drinks and effervescing
draughts, which are justly esteemed as wholesome summer beverages, as well
as palliatives in fevers, nausea, &c. In scurvy, there is no remedy equal
to freshly expressed lemon juice; and in acute rheumatism and gout,
according to the united testimony of Dr Owen Rees, Dr Babington, and
numerous Continental practitioners, it has been exhibited with
considerable success. In agues, dysentery, English cholera, nausea, and
vomiting, heartburn, putrid sore-throat, hospital gangrene, syphilis, and
numerous skin diseases, it has proved most serviceable. See CITRIC ACID,
GOUT, &c.

=Lemon Juice, Facti′′tious.= _Syn._ SOLUTIO ACIDI CITRICI, SUCCUS LIMONUM
FACTITIUS, L. _Prep._ 1. Citric acid, 1-1/4 oz.; carbonate of potassa, 45
gr.; white sugar, 2-1/2 oz.; cold water, 1 pint; dissolve, add the yellow
peel of a lemon, and in 24 hours strain through a hair sieve or a piece of

2. As the last, but using 15 or 16 drops of oil of lemon, to flavour
instead of the lemon peel.

_Obs._ The above is an excellent substitute for lemon juice, and keeps
well in a cool place. Tartaric acid, and even vinegar, are sometimes used
instead of citric acid; but it is evident that it then loses all claim to
being considered as an imitation of lemon juice, and to employ it in lieu
of which would be absurd.

=LEM′ON PEEL.= _Syn._ CORTEX LIMONUM (B. P., Ph. L.), L. “The fresh outer
part of the rind.” (B. P.) “The fresh and the dried exterior rind of the
fruit;” the latter dried “in the month of April or May.” (Ph. L.) Candied
lemon peel (CORTEX LIMONUM CONDITUS) is employed as a dessert, and as a
flavouring ingredient by cooks and confectioners. It is reputed stomachic.


Fr. _Prep._ 1. Lemons (sliced), 2 in no.; sugar, 2-1/2 oz.; boiling water,
1-1/2 pint; mix, cover up the vessel, and let it stand, with occasional
stirring until cold, then pour off the clear through a piece of muslin or
a clean hair sieve.

2. Juice of 3 lemons; yellow peel of 1 lemon; sugar, 1/4 lb.; cold water,
1 quart; digest for 5 or 6 hours, or all night, and decant or strain as

3. Citric acid, 1 to 1-1/2 dr.; essence of lemon, 10 drops; sugar, 2 oz.;
cold water, 1 pint; agitate together until dissolved.

_Obs._ Lemonade is a pleasant, cooling summer beverage, and when made as
above may be drank in large quantities with perfect safety. It also forms
an excellent refrigerant and antiseptic drink in fevers and putrid
diseases generally. Tartaric acid is commonly substituted for citric acid,
from being cheaper; it is, however, much, inferior, being less wholesome
and less agreeable. Lemonade for icing is prepared as above, only using a
little more sugar. Orange sherbet, or orangeade for icing is made in a
similar way from oranges.

=Lemonade, Aera′ted.= _Syn._ LIMONADUM AERATUM, L.; LIMONADE GAZEUSE, Fr.
_Prep._ 1. (P. Cod.) Water, charged with 5 times its volume of carbonic
acid gas, 1 pint; syrup of lemon, 2 oz.; mix.

2. (Without a bottling machine.)——_a._ Into each bottle put lemon syrup, 1
to 1-1/2 oz.; essence of lemon, 3 drops; sesquicarbonate of soda, 1/2 dr.;
water, q. s. to nearly fill the bottle; have the cork fitted and ready at
hand, then add of tartaric acid (cryst.), 1 dr.; instantly close the
bottle, and wire down the cork; it should be kept inverted in a cool
place, and, preferably, immersed in a vessel of ice-cold water.

_b._ As the last, but substituting lump sugar, 3/4 oz., for the lemon

_c._ From lump sugar, 1 oz.; essence of lemon, 3 drops; bicarbonate of
potassa, 25 gr.; water q. s., as No. 1; then add citric acid (cryst.), 45
gr., and cork, &c., as before. The last is most wholesome, especially for
the scorbutic, dyspeptic, gouty, and rheumatic.

_Obs._ The best aerated lemonade of the London makers is prepared by
putting 1-1/2 fl. oz. of rich lemon syrup into each bottle, which is then
filled up with aerated water at the bottling machine.

=Lemonade, Antimo′′niated.= _Syn._ LIMONADUM ANTIMONIATUM, L. _Prep._ By
adding tartar emetic, 1 gr., to each pint of ordinary lemonade.——_Dose._ A
wineglassful every 1/2 hour or hour; as a diaphoretic and expectorant. See
ANTIMONY (Potassio-tartrate).

=Lemonade, Ape′′rient.= _Syn._ LIMONADUM LAXATIVUM, L. _Prep._ 1. Sugar, 1
oz.; lemon juice, 3/4 fl. oz.; sulphate of soda, 3 dr.; water, 8 fl. oz.;
put them into a soda-water bottle without shaking, have the cork ready
fitted, add of sesquicarbonate of soda (in cryst.), 1/2 dr., and instantly
cork the bottle, wire it down, and keep it in a cool place, inverted. For
a dose.

2. Heavy carbonate of magnesia, 1-1/2 dr.; refined sugar, 1 oz.; essence
of lemon, 5 or 6 drops; water, 8 fl. oz.; bottle as last, then add of
citric acid (cryst.), 3 dr., and instantly cork, &c., as before. For a
dose. It should be kept for at least 24 hours before being taken.

=Lemonade, Lactic.= _Syn._ LIMONADUM LACTICUM, L. _Prep._ (Magendie.)
Lactic acid, 1 to 4 dr.; syrup, 2 oz.; water, 1 pint; mix. Recommended in
dyspepsia, &c.

=Lemonade, Milk.= _Syn._ LIMONADUM LACTIS, L. _Prep._ Take of sugar, 1/2
lb.; water, 1 pint; dissolve, add the juice of 3 lemons; milk or whey, 1/2
pint; stir the whole together and strain through a hair sieve. Some
persons add a glassful of sherry.

=Lemonade, Min′eral.= _Syn._ LIMONADE MINERALE, Fr. On the Continent this
name is applied to various drinks consisting of water acidulated with the
mineral acids and sweetened with sugar. Thus we have limonade
chlorhydrique, nitrique, phosphorique, sulphurique, &c., all of which are
used as cooling drinks in fevers, inflammations, skin diseases, &c.

=Lemonade, Port′able.= See POWDERS.



=LEN′ITIVES.= In _medicine_, purgatives which act in a gentle manner, and
have a soothing effect. See LAXATIVES.

=LENS.= In _optics_, a piece of glass or other transparent medium, having
one or two curved surfaces, either convex or concave. A description of the
different kinds of lenses belongs to a work on optics. It may, however, be
useful to the chemical student to remark here that the CODDINGTON and
STANHOPE LENSES, which may now be bought at any of the opticians, neatly
mounted and of great power, for a few shillings, will be found of the
greatest service in examining minute crystals, precipitates, &c.; and for
all ordinary purposes offer a cheap and efficient substitute for more
complicated microscopes. An extemporaneous instrument, possessing
considerable power, may be made by simply piercing a small circular hole
in a slip of metal, and introducing into it a drop of water, which then
assumes a spherical form on each side of the metal, while the latter is
held in a horizontal position. The ingenious little TOY MICROSCOPES sold
about the streets of London, under the form of a perforated pill-box, at
one penny each, consist of such a lens made with Canada balsam instead of
water, which has the property of hardening without losing its transparency
after exposure for a few hours to the air. A still simpler substitute for
a lens is a piece of blackened card-paper with the smallest possible
needle-hole pierced through it. Any very small object held in a strong
light, and viewed through this hole at the distance of about an inch, will
appear quite distinct, and from 10 to 12 times larger than its usual size.
We have often found this little instrument of incalculable service in
situations and under circumstances in which a more powerful or complicated
apparatus was unattainable or could not be applied.

Another method for the manufacture of an extemporaneous lens, by Mr
Francis, is the following:——Procure a piece of thin platinum wire, and
twine it once or twice round a pin’s point, so as to form a minute ring
with a handle to it. Break up a piece of flint glass into fragments a
little larger than a mustard seed; place one of these pieces on the ring
of wire, and hold it in the point of the flame of a candle or of a
gas-light. The glass will melt and assume a complete lens-light or
globular form. Let it cool gradually and keep it for mounting. It may be
mounted by placing it between two pieces of brass which have corresponding
circular holes cut in them of such a size as to hold the edge of the lens.

=LEN′TIL.= _Syn._ LENS, L. The seed of the _Ervum Lens_, a plant of the
natural order _Leguminosæ_. The lentil is considerably smaller than an
ordinary pea, and is of the shape of a double convex lens. Several
varieties are cultivated on the Continent of Europe and in many parts of
Asia, where they are largely consumed as human food. Lentils are more
nourishing than any other description of pulse, but are reputed difficult
of digestion, apt to disorder the bowels, and injurious to the eyes.
Several alimentary preparations, sold at high prices as cures for
dyspepsia, constipation, &c., contain lentil flour as the principal

  _Composition of Lentils._

  Nitrogenous matter      25·2
  Starch, &c.             56·0
  Cellulose                2·4
  Fatty matter             2·6
  Mineral matter           2·3
  Water                   11·5

Lentils on account of their difficult digestibility require to be very
thoroughly cooked. See ERVALENTA and REVALENTA.

=LEPROSY.= _Syn._ LEPRA. A disease of the skin distinguished by circular
scaly patches.

=LEPTANDRIN.= A peculiar crystalline principle obtained from the root of
_Leptandra Virginica_, a North American plant belonging to the nat. order
_Scrophulariaceæ_. Leptandrin is chiefly employed in American medical
practice as a cathartic and cholagogue, in which latter function it has
been recommended as a substitute for mercury. It is stated to be very
serviceable in cases of duodenal indigestion and chronic
constipation.——_Dose_, 1/4 to 1/2 grain.

Mr Wayne obtained leptandrin by adding subacetate of lead to an infusion
of the root, filtering, precipitating the excess of lead by carbonate of
sodium, removing the carbonate of lead by filtration, passing the filtered
liquid through animal charcoal to absorb all the active matter, washing
the charcoal with water till the washings began to be bitter, then
treating it with boiling alcohol, and allowing the alcoholic solution to
evaporate spontaneously. By dissolving the powder thus obtained in water,
treating this with ether, and allowing the ether to evaporate,
needle-shaped crystals were obtained, which had the bitter taste of the
root. Leptandrin is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether.

=LETH′ARGY.= _Syn._ LETHARGUS, L. A heavy, unnatural sleep, sometimes
bordering upon apoplexy, with scarcely any intervals of waking, from which
the patient is with difficulty aroused, and into which he again sinks as
soon as the excitement is withdrawn. It frequently arises from plethora,
in which case depletion is indicated; or from the suppression of some
usual discharge or secretion, which it should then be our business to
re-establish. It also often arises from over mental fatigue and nervous
debility, when relaxation from business, the use of a liberal diet, and
ammoniacal stimulants and antispasmodics, are found useful. When depending
on a determination of blood to the head, cupping may be had recourse to,
and all sources of excitement avoided. In all cases the bowels should be
moved as soon as possible by means of mild purgatives.

=LET′TUCE.= _Syn._ LACTUCA, L. The early leaves or head of the _Lactuca
sativa_, or garden lettuce, forms a common and wholesome salad. They are
reputed as slightly anodyne, laxative, hypnotic, and antaphrodisaic, and
have been recommended to be eaten at supper by those troubled by
watchfulness, and in whom there exists no tendency to apoplexy. The leaves
and flowering tops of _L. virosa_ are officinal in the B. P., the
“flowering herb” (LACTUCA), in the Ph. L.; the “inspissated juice,” in the
Ph. E.; and the “inspissated juice and leaves,” in the Ph. D. The
“inspissated juice” of _Lactuca virosa_, or strong-scented wild lettuce,
is also officinal in the Ph. E.; and both the “leaves and inspissated
juice” of the same variety are ordered in the Ph. D. The last species is
more powerful than the cultivated lettuce. See EXTRACT and LACTUCARIUM.

symptoms of this disease are well known to most adult females. The common
causes are debility, a poor diet, excessive use of hot tea, profuse
menstruation or purgation, late hours, immoderate indulgence of the
passions, frequent miscarriages, protracted or difficult labours, or local
relaxation. Occasionally it is symptomatic of other affections. The
treatment must be directed to the restoration of the general health, and
imparting tonicity to the parts affected. Tepid or sea bathing, or shower
baths; bark, chalybeates, and other tonics; with local affusions of cold
water, and mild astringent injections, as those of black tea or oak bark,
are generally found successful in ordinary cases.


=LEVIGA′TION.= _Syn._ LEVIGATIO, L. The process of reducing substances to
fine powder, by making them into a paste with water, and grinding the mass
upon a hard smooth stone or slab, with a conical piece of stone having a
flat, smooth, under surface, called a ‘muller.’ Levigation is resorted to
in the preparation of paints on the small scale, and in the elutriation of
powders. The term is also, sometimes, incorrectly applied to the
lengthened trituration of a substance in a marble or Wedgwood-ware mortar.


=LEY′DEN JAR.= _Syn._ LEYDEN PHIAL, ELECTRICAL JAR. An instrument for the
accumulation of the electric fluid. Its simplest form is that of a
wide-mouthed jar of rather thin glass, coated on both sides with tin-foil,
except on the upper portion, which is left uncoated, and having a cover of
baked wood, through which passes a brass wire, terminating in a metallic
knob, and communicating with the inner coating. To charge the jar, the
outer coating is connected with the earth, and the knob put in contact
with the conductor of an electrical machine. The inner and outer surfaces
of the glass thus become respectively positive and negative, and the
particles of the glass become strongly polarised. On making connection
between the two coatings with a conducting substance, discharge takes
place by a bright spark and a loud snap; and if any part of the body be
interposed in the circuit, a shock is felt.


=LI′CHEN.= In _pathology_, a dry papulous or pimply eruption of the skin,
terminating in scurfy exfoliations. “Lichen exhibits great variety in its
outward characters in different individuals; in one the pimples are
brightly red; in another, of debilitated constitution, they are bluish and
livid; in a third they are developed around the base of hairs; in a fourth
they appear as circular groups, and increase by their circumference, while
they fade in the centre, forming so many rings of various size; in a
fifth, a modification of the preceding, they have the appearance of
flexuous bands; while in a sixth they are remarkable for producing
intensity of suffering, or unusual disorganisation of the skin. They are
all occasioned by constitutional disturbance, sometimes referable to the
digestive, and sometimes to the nervous system. In some instances,
however, they depend upon a local cause. I have had a crop of lichenous
pimples on the backs of my hands from rowing in hot weather; and in hot
climates that annoying disorder called prickly heat is a lichen.” (Eras.
Wilson.) The treatment of this affection is noticed under ERUPTIONS

=LICHENS.= _Syn._ LICHENES——Juss., LICHENALES——Lind., L. In _botany_,
these are cryptogamous plants, which appear under the form of thin, flat
crusts, covering rocks and the barks of trees. Some of them, like Iceland
moss (_Cetraria Islandica_), are esculent and medicinal and employed
either as medicine or food; and others, when exposed in a moistened state
to the action of ammonia, yield purple or blue colouring principles,
which, like indigo, do not pre-exist in the plant. Thus, the _Rocella
tinctoria_, the _Variolaria orcina_, the _Lecanora tartarea_, _&c._, when
ground to a paste with water, mixed with putrid urine or solution of
carbonate of ammonia, and left for some time freely exposed to the air,
furnish the archil, litmus, and cudbear of commerce, very similar
substances, differing chiefly in the details of their preparation. From
these the colouring matter is easily extracted by water or very dilute
solution of ammonia. See ARCHIL, CUDBEAR, and LITMUS.

=LIEBER’S HERBS OF HEALTH——Gesundeheitskräuter Liebersche——Blankenheimer
Thee——Blankenheimer Tea=——Herba Galeopsidis Grandifloræ Concisa (Yellow
Hemp Nettle).

=LIG′ATURE.= In _surgery_, a small waxed piece of cord or string formed of
silk or thread, employed for the purpose of tying arteries, veins, and
other parts, to prevent hæmorrhage, or to cause their extirpation. To be
safe and useful they should be round, smooth, and sufficiently strong to
permit of being tied with security without incurring the danger of
breaking or slipping. There are many cases recorded in which emigrants,
soldiers, and travellers have lost their lives from the simple inability
of those around them to apply a ligature.

=LIGHT.= _Syn._ LUMEN, LUX, L. Light acts as a vivifying or vital stimulus
on organised beings, just as privation of light, or darkness, disposes to
inactivity and sleep. “In maladies characterised by imperfect nutrition
and sanguinification, as scrofula, rickets, and anæmia, and in weakly
subjects with œdematous (dropsical) limbs, &c., free exposure to solar
light is sometimes attended with very happy results. Open and elevated
situations probably owe part of their healthy qualities to their position
with regard to it.” On the contrary, “in diseases of the eye, attended
with local vascular or nervous excitement, in inflammatory conditions of
the brain, in fever, and in mental irritation, whether attended or not
with vascular excitement, the stimulus of light proves injurious, and, in
such cases, darkness of the chamber should be enjoined. After parturition,
severe wounds, and surgical operations, and in all inflammatory
conditions, exclusion of strong light, contributes to the well-doing of
the patient.” (Pereira.)

=LIGHT, ELECTRIC.= We believe we are correct in stating, that within the
last two or three years some 600 registrations for patents, more or less,
have been taken out for electricity applied to the purposes of artificial
illumination. Conceding that many, if not the greater part, of these
inventions may prove useless, their number is nevertheless an index of the
mental activity that has lately been directed to the subject of electric
lighting; and although we are far from affirming that the problem of the
practical application of electricity to the lighting of our streets and
dwellings may eventually be successfully thought out, still, we think,
looking upon these constant endeavours to accomplish the end in view as
links in the chain of that experimental evolution and gradation which has
characterised the course of most great discoveries, we are justified in
regarding them as not altogether improbable auguries and precursors of
subsequent success.

Shortly after Faraday’s discovery in 1830 of electrical induction, or the
power of a bar of magnetised steel to set up in a certain direction a
current of electricity in a coil of insulated wire when introduced into
it, Pixü, reducing the result of Faraday’s researches to practice,
constructed an instrument, which appears to have been the first dynamic
magneto-electric machine. By Pixü’s contrivance a current of electricity
was generated by means of the poles of a permanent horseshoe magnet being
made to revolve across those of an electro, or temporary magnet, the
induced electricity set up in which in its turn established in the
surrounding helix a current of electricity, which being made to escape by
the terminals or ends of the wire coils could be applied to practical use.

The dynamic electro-magnetic machines of Saxton and Clarke, which
succeeded Pixü’s, may be regarded as modifications of this latter, since
they differed only in the arrangement of their parts and mode of action.
All three machines were chiefly in use in chemical and physical
laboratories, whence they have gradually been supplanted by the far more
useful Ruhmkorff’s coil, a very powerful variety of the electro-magnetic
instrument. In a small form Clarke’s is now chiefly used for medical
purposes. That electro-magnetic machines, as cheaper and more convenient
sources of electric force, should have been applied to the purposes of
telegraphy, will be an obvious inference.

Among the most important and effective of the various instruments for
attaining this end, it will suffice to mention the magneto-electric
machine of Messrs Siemens and Halske, first brought into use in 1854.

Except, however, in the case of short distances, or with telegraphs
belonging to private persons or commercial firms, these instruments have
not met with very general adoption. This is owing to the great tension of
the induced current, and the consequent difficulty of insulating the wire,
particularly for long distances, objections from which the old galvanic
apparatus is in a much greater measure free. Mr Henley was the first to
use the dynamic magneto-electric machine for working the electric
telegraph soon after this instrument had been adopted in England; but as
we have seen, the method, except in the cases quoted, have been in great
measure abandoned. A large magneto-electric machine has lately been
invented by Wheatstone, the induced spark from which is used for firing

The first electro-magnetic machine used for lighting purposes appears to
have been one that was the joint invention of MM. Nollet and Van Malderen,
of Brussels, a circumstance to which it probably owes its name of the
‘Alliance Machine.’

Nollet, who brought out his invention (which is a modification of
Clarke’s) in 1850, originally designed it for the electrolysis of water,
the hydrogen resulting from which it was proposed to pass through
camphine, or some other hydro-carbon illuminant, and to burn as gas.
Additionally it was designed to use the hydrogen as a source of motive
power by exploding it in a suitably constructed engine. Owing to the
improvements, however, effected in the machine by Van Malderen, by which
it became a powerful generator of magneto-electricity, this purpose was
abandoned. ‘The Alliance Machine’ consists of a cast-iron frame, on the
circumference of which 40 powerful horseshoe magnets, each capable of
supporting a weight of 120 to 130 lbs., are fixed, in eight series of 5
magnets each. A number of circular metal discs, around the circumference
of which are attached sixteen bobbins of insulated wire fixed to a
horizontal shelf turned by a pulley, are in such a position with regard to
the magnets, that with each revolution of the shaft each bobbin passes
sixteen alternate poles of the magnets, and will have had sixteen
alternate currents set up or induced in it. Until replaced by the later
and smaller magneto-electric machine, the ‘Alliance’ has been the one
mostly employed for the production of the electric light in France, and it
is still in use in the lighthouses of Hève and Grisnez, as well as in
those of many other places in that country. In 1856 Mr Holmes took out a
patent for a machine, which differs from Nollet’s in increasing the number
of bobbins by arranging them in concentric circles between two brass
discs. By this device the bobbins revolve more quickly in succession in
front of the poles of the magnets, a plan which ensures the generation of
a greater number of currents for every revolution.

Like the first application of Nollet’s, Holmes’ machine was used for
lighthouse illumination. It was in work from December, 1858, until June,
1862, at the South Foreland lighthouse, since which time it has been
removed to Dungeness, in the lighthouse of which station it has been in
use ever since.

When applied to lighting purposes, both the ‘Alliance’ and Holmes’, and
the other machines named, are worked in conjunction with the carbon
points, which when arranged with proper machinery constitute the electric

Wild’s and Ladd’s are powerful dynamic magneto-electric instruments,
capable of yielding large quantities of the electric fluid.

Artificial illumination by means of electricity has, however, been more or
less occasionally practised for other than lighthouse purposes.

For instance, in 1854, during the building of the Napoleon Docks at Rouen,
when 800 workmen were engaged nightly for four hours, the electric light
was used for several nights with perfect success, the men being able to
carry on their work at a distance of more than 100 yards from the source
of the light.

In 1862 and 1863 it was frequently employed in Spain during the night in
the construction of railways. During the late Franco-German war in 1870 it
was applied to submarine illumination, and more lately it has been used in
a series of street illumination in St Petersburg.

The electric light apparatus was placed on the tower of the Admiralty
Buildings of that city, and by means of it three of the larger streets
were illuminated at night from 7 until 10 o’clock. In this latter case, as
well as in that of the Rouen Docks, the lamps were supplied with the
electric current generated in batteries.

It may be said, however, to have been only within the last two years that
the question of electric lighting has developed into a burning one, and
that the light itself has become so much more generally and extensively

This new era in the history of artificial illumination may be said to date
from the introduction of two forms of dynamic magneto-electric apparatus,
the one invented by Dr Siemens, the eminent telegraphic engineer, the
other by M. Gramme, of Paris, who, from having been formerly a journeyman
carpenter, has now become the head of a manufacture which forms a most
important branch of scientific industry.

In the apparatus of Gramme and Siemens three marked features and
improvements over the older machines have been achieved:——

1. A great reduction in size, and, consequently, in cost, and requisite
space for the machine.

2. The method of generating large quantities of electricity by the mutual
action between the different parts of the same machine, and the induction
therein set up.[14]

[Footnote 14: This discovery was made independently and nearly
simultaneously by Drs Siemens and Sir Charles Wheatstone.]

3. The production of the electric current at a much less expenditure of
motive power.

On this latter point Professor Tyndall, in his report to the elder
brethren of the Trinity House, states that magneto-electric machines of
old construction cost ten times more, occupied twenty-five times the
space, and weighed fourteen times as much as the recent machines, while
they produced only one-fifth of the light with practically the same
driving power; which in effect amounts to this——that taking illuminating
effect in each case into consideration, the new machines cost
one-fiftieth, and are, as regards space occupied, 125 times more
advantageous than the earlier forms.

In all the older and larger machines the current of electricity, as it was
given off from the wire and passed through the carbon points, was
alternate, or first in one direction and then in the opposite——that is, it
was a momentary current, first positive and then negative.

In Siemens’ machine, and in one form of Gramme’s, the current is
direct——that is, it pursues one uniform course in its passage through the
carbon points of the lamp, and in its circuit from the terminal of one
wire to that of the other.

Scientific opinion is somewhat at variance as to the disadvantages of the
indirect current; many electricians consider that it causes the partial
destruction of the contacts, and sets up unnecessary heat in the machine.
In magneto-electric machines employed in electro-metallurgic operations,
it is essential the current should be a direct one.

In the Gramme machine the electro-magnet consists of a ring composed of
soft iron wire attached to a horizontal spindle or axis, which latter is
turned by an endless strap revolving on a pulley. Around this iron ring
are wound a number of coils, each having 300 turns, of insulated copper
wire, each coil being bent inside the ring, and fixed to an insulated
piece of brass.

The wire being continuous, each coil is connected with the adjacent one,
the whole of the coils thus forming a single conductor. The series of
pieces of brass to which the wire is soldered are formed into a circle,
which surrounds the axis of the machine, each piece of brass being
insulated from its neighbour. The iron-wire ring with its attachments is
so arranged, that when the shaft or axis to which it is fixed is turned,
it revolves between the poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet in the same
plane with it. As it turns the ring gives rise in the coils to two
different and diverse currents of electricity, one in one half of the
coils around the ring, and the other in the other half.

These currents are made to pass to the circle composed of the insulated
pieces of brass, which are arranged radially to the axis of the machine.

Two brass brushes press against these insulated brass radii, one on each

These brushes are connected one to each terminal of the machine, and so
contrived as always to be in contact with the coils, not becoming
insulated from one coil until contact is established with the next one, an
arrangement which gives rise to a continuous current of electricity
always, and in the same direction.

The Gramme, although of very small dimensions, is an extremely powerful
machine. It easily decomposes water, and will heat an iron wire 8 inches
in length and a 25th of an inch in diameter to redness.

The following description of the Siemens magneto-electric machine is from
a paper read some few months back at the Society of Arts by Dr Paget
Higgs, and is extracted from the journal published by that body:

“In the latest form of construction of the Siemens magneto-electric
machine the armature, as the revolving coil may be called, consists of
several lengths of insulated copper wire, coiled in several convolutions
upon a cylinder. The whole surface of the cylinder is covered with wire,
laid on in sections, each convolution being parallel to its longitudinal
axis. For about two thirds of its surface the wire cylinder is surrounded
by curved iron bars, there being just sufficient space left between these
curved iron bars and the wire cylinder to allow of its free rotation. The
curved iron bars are prolongations of the cores of large, flat
electro-magnets; the coils of these electro-magnets and the wire on the
cylinder (from brush to brush) form a continuous electrical circuit. On
revolving the cylinder (which is supported on a longitudinal axis in
suitable bearings, the axis carrying a pulley) an initially weak current
is generated into its wires by their passage through the magnetic field,
formed by the residual magnetism of the iron coils of the electro-magnets,
and the current being directed into the coils of the electro-magnets,
increases the magnetism of the cores, which again induce a stronger
current in the wire cylinder. This material action may continue until the
iron has attained its limit of magnetisation. The maximum magnetic power
acting upon each convolution is attained at every revolution of the
armature, when the convolution passes through the centre of both magnetic
fields, and gradually falls to zero as the convolution becomes
perpendicular to that position. Each convolution has, therefore, a neutral
position, and a convolution leaving that position on the one side of the
axis and advancing towards the north pole of the electro-magnet would be
subject to a direct induced current, and that portion of the convolution
on the opposite side of the axis would be traversed by a current of
opposite direction as regards a given point, but of the same direction as
regards circuit. Each of the sections of wire coiled upon the cylinder
consists of two separate coils, leaving four ends; two of these ends are
connected to each of the segments of a circular commutator divided into
parts. But all the coils are connected to the several segments of
commutator in such a manner that the whole of the double sections form a
continuous circuit, but not one continuous helix. Two brushes placed
tangentially to the segments of the commutator collect the electric
currents; these brushes are connected one to each electro-magnet, and the
two free ends of the electro-magnet coils are connected to the conducting
wires leading to the lamp.

“The dimensions, weight, number of revolutions made by the armature, light
equivalent in normal candles, and horse-power required for driving, are
for the three sizes of machines as follows:——

  | Dimension in Inches. |Weight |Revolutions |Candles’|Horse Power.|
  +-------+------+-------+in lbs.|of cylinder.| Light. |            |
  |Length.|Width.|Height.|       |            |        |            |
  |   25  | 21   |  8·8  |  298  |   1100     |  1,000 | 1-1/2 to 2 |
  |   29  | 26   |  9·5  |  419  |    650     |  6,000 | 3-1/4 to 4 |
  |   44  | 28·3 | 12·6  | 1279  |    480     | 14,000 |    9 to 10 |

“In the lamp which it is preferred to use with the Siemens machine, the
points of the carbons after being separated are brought together again by
the gravitation of the top carbon and its holder. The descent of the top
carbon actuates by means of the straight rack it carries at its lower end,
a large pinion, the spindle of which carries a small pinion, gearing into
a second neck attached to the lower carbon holder, the superior weight of
the top carbon and holder, in conjunction with the multiplying ratio of
the two pinions, producing a continual tendency of the carbons to approach
each other. The large and small pinions are connected to each other, and
to the spindle that carries them, by an arrangement of friction discs, and
the object of this construction is to allow of the two racks being moved
equally and simultaneously up or down for the purpose of focussing the
light when required. This movement is effected by means of bevelled
gearing, and actuated by a milled head, which can be pressed into
position when required. On the spindle carrying the large and small
pinions and the friction discs is placed a toothed wheel, connected with
the spindle by a pawl and ratchet.

“This wheel is the first of a train of wheels and pinions driving a
regulating fly in the usual way. The pawl and ratchet are provided to
allow of the rapid distancing of the carbon holders when it becomes
necessary to introduce fresh carbons. The spindle of the fly also carries
a small finely-toothed ratchet wheel. This ratchet wheel is actuated by a
spring pawl, carried at the end of a lever, which lever is the
continuation of the armature of the electro-magnet, in such a manner that
when the armature is attracted by the electro-magnet, the spring pawl
engages in the teeth of the ratchet wheel, and causes the wheels in
gearing therewith to act upon the racks of the carbon holders to draw them

“The action of the lamp is as follows:——The current passes from the
conductor to the top carbon holder, thence through the carbons to the
bottom carbon holder, then to the coils of the electro-magnet situated in
the base of the lamp. From the coils of the electro-magnet the circuit is
completed to the other conductor. Upon the current passing through the
circuit, the armature of the electro-magnet is attracted, and the abutment
from the armature lever caused to short-circuit the coils of the
electro-magnet, releasing the armature. The armature being released, the
short-circuit is removed from the coils of the electro-magnet, and the
cycle of movement repeated; in this manner an oscillatory motion is given
to the armature lever, which by the spring pawl actuates the ratchet
wheel, the train of clockwork, and the racks of the carbon holders,
forcing the carbons apart until the distance between their points
sufficiently weakens the current, so that it no longer attracts the
armature of the electro-magnet. Thus, by the combined action of
gravitation of the top carbon in drawing the carbons together, and of the
current to separate the carbons when they approach too closely, a working
distance is maintained between the points with perfect automatism.”

Siemens’ lamp is at the present time employed in the Lizard Lighthouse, in
Messrs Siemens’ Engineering Works in England and Wales, as well as in
other localities or buildings requiring powerfully lighting up.

An interesting illustration of the value of the electric light to the
sailor is furnished by the ‘Telegraph Journal’ of April 5th, 1878. This
publication contains a letter from the captain of the S.S. ‘Faraday,’
narrating how that vessel was by its means prevented from running into
another vessel during a dense fog.

Siemens’ magneto-electric apparatus and lamp were used on the occasion
above referred to.

In every form of contrivance for electrical illumination the lamp or
lighting apparatus consists of carbon points separated by a very slight
interval, through which the current of electricity passes by means of
terminal wires attached to the dynamo-electrical machine.

The lighting effect is produced by the passage of the electric spark
through the small gap which separates the carbon points, in which interval
extremely minute but solid particles of carbon, given off by the points,
are heated up to incandescence in the path of the spark, and thus give
rise to the intensely luminous focus known as ‘the electric light.’ The
brilliancy of the light of course depends upon the quantity of electricity

A very large number and variety of designs and patents for electric lamps
have made their appearance in England, America, France, and Russia within
the period following the invention of the small, powerful, and economic
dynamo-electric machines of Siemens and Gramme.

The lighting apparatus generally attached to and worked by that variety of
Gramme’s machine generating the continuous current is that known as the
‘Serrin Lamp.’ Two carbon electrodes placed vertically one above the other
(the positive being the upper one) are fixed on brass holders, which are
so connected by a suitably contrived clockwork movement, combined with the
working of an electro-magnet in connection with the electric circuit, as
to maintain the two carbon poles during their combustion at the necessary
distance from each other. Serrin’s lamp differs in detail from Siemens’,
but, like this latter, is automatic in principle. In Paris it was the one
in general use until the introduction of the Jablochkoff candle, and, with
the Duboscq lamp, may be looked upon as the precursor of the various lamps
and regulators now employed in electric lighting. Serrin’s lamp or
regulator, with some slight modification in the machinery, is also used in
the Lontin system of electric illumination, by which separate lights are
supplied by separate circuits of electricity. Lontin’s method is that by
which the Gaiety Theatre in the Strand is lighted; and is also used at the
Western Railway Station (Gare, St Lazare) at Paris. The Jablochkoff
candle, which in Paris has lately superseded the Serrin lamp, probably
because its use renders unnecessary the use of automatic machinery, is the
invention of a Russian engineer, whose name it bears.

It consists of two sticks of gas carbon, about 9 inches long and 1/5th of
an inch thick, which are placed vertically side by side, and insulated
from one another by a very thin strip of kaolin or china clay (a silicate
of alumina and potash), the whole forming a candle. Each carbon rod is
connected with one of the terminal wires of a Gramme dynamo-electric
machine, the electric current from which, however, not being continuous,
sets up an alternate current between the tips or poles of the candles,
which are gradually consumed like an ordinary taper, and with this only
difference in action between Serrin’s and Siemens’ lamps, that whereas in
these latter the spark passes from the top to the bottom carbon point, in
the Jablochkoff candle it jumps from side to side. The inventor contends
that the kaolin by becoming heated diminishes the resistance of the
circuit, and thus permits of the passage of the electric spark more easily
through the carbons, and also, we believe, asserts that the kaolin being
electrolytically decomposed as the carbons are consumed, becomes converted
into silica, which melts and drops down, whilst the aluminium liberated
contributes luminosity during combustion to the flame.

One of the chief advantages, however, claimed by M. Jablochkoff is, that
he can divide the circuit into a number of different lights, as the
resistance of the circuit is uniform.

A large number of Jablochkoff candles are employed in the celebrated
‘Magasins du Louvre,’ one of the most extensive commercial establishments
in Paris for the sale of silks, ribbons, gloves, &c., and clothing of
every description.

The pure white light diffused by electricity admirably adapts it for
viewing colours of all kinds at night, whether seen in pictures or on
fabrics and raiments, and more particularly blues and greens, the hues of
which are frequently indistinguishable from each other by gaslight. The
candle is also used to light the courtyard of the Hotel du Louvre, a large
building contiguous to, and with its apartments running over, the
Magasins, as well as in several shops.

Jablochkoff’s system is also in work in Paris in front of many public
buildings, and by its means the Place and Avenue de l’Opera, together
occupying a space 900 yards long by 30 wide, are brilliantly illuminated
every night.

That celebrated circus, so well known to every visitor to Paris, the
Hippodrome, is also lighted by it.

Another form of electric lamp is that of M. Rapieff, now in use in the
machine-room of the ‘Times’ newspaper office. In this lamp there are four
carbon points instead of two. M. Rapieff, like M. Jablochkoff, states that
by means of his system he is enabled to supply several lamps with the same
electric current. In the Wallace-Farmer lamp slabs of carbon instead of
points are had recourse to.

In the lamps of M. Regnier in one variety two revolving carbon discs are
used, whilst in another a rod of carbon descends upon a disc of the same
material, an arrangement which the inventor states leads to the
subdivision of the current and its separate utilisation by a number of
such lights.

One of the latest and apparently most successful methods for dividing the
electric current, so that one and the same current shall be made
simultaneously to supply and render incandescent a series of carbon
points, and in so doing give rise to as many effective electric
illuminators, is that of Mr Werdermann. Mr Werdermann, observing the
disparity of consumption between the positive and negative poles of the
electrodes, found by experiment that when the sectional area of the
negative pole was sixty-four times greater than the positive one, the
electric arc was so far reduced, that the two carbons were in contact.
Under these conditions the electric arc was infinitely small, the negative
electrode was not consumed, whilst the positive one was incandescent. Two
supplies of electric light, therefore, ensued, one by the electric arc,
and the other by the incandescent carbon of the positive electrode. Under
these circumstances, if it were possible to devise a plan by which the
positive pole as it consumed should be kept in uniform contact with the
negative pole, the difficulty which had hitherto proved the
stumbling-block to using a series of lights from one current would be

Mr Werdermann demonstrated the correctness of his premises by a practical
illustration of his plan very lately (November, 1878) at the British
Telegraph Manufactory, 374, Euston Road. The current from a
dynamo-electric Gramme machine of 2-horse power was conducted to two
electric lamps, each having an illuminating value equal to 360 candles
each. The light so produced is described by a spectator as “being soft and
sun-like, and as being capable of being looked at without discomfort,
though it was not shaded.” These being extinguished, ten smaller lamps
were ignited by means of the same current, each one having an illuminating
power equal to forty candles. “The lamps burned steadily with a beautiful
soft and clear white light. First one of the ten lights was then
extinguished, and afterwards a second, the only effect on the remainder
being that they became slightly more brilliant.”[15]

[Footnote 15: ‘Daily News.’]

Unlike Mr Edison, Mr Werdermann does not believe in the indefinite
divisibility of the electric light. It will be observed that the candle
power of the light becomes diminished by subdivision. Two lights gave a
light equal to 700 candles, whereas the same current divided into ten
lights gave an aggregate light of only 400 candles.

The following extract from the ‘Times’ of December 5th, 1878, illustrates
the financial aspect of the electric light question:——

“At the usual weekly meeting of the Society of Arts, held last evening, Dr
C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., in the chair, a paper on electric lighting was read
by Mr J. N. Shoolbred, M. Inst. C.E. The object of the author was to
present some results of the application of electric lighting to industrial
purposes, especially as regards cost. He noticed first the Holmes and the
Alliance magneto-electric machines, giving alternating currents and single
lights for lighthouse use. Secondly, he referred to the dynamo-electric
machines, producing single lights for general industrial purposes, as well
as for lighthouses, and including the Siemens and the Gramme machines. In
his third group the author included the machines used for producing
divided lights, each group indicating a marked period representing a
clearly defined stage of progress in electric lighting. With regard to
cost, Mr Shoolbred stated that in every instance his figures and
particulars were those afforded by the users of the various lights, and
not by the inventors or their representatives. In the case of the Holmes
machine the annual cost per lighthouse was about £1035, inclusive of
interest, repairs, and wages. With the Siemens machine the annual cost was
about £494 per lighthouse, including interest and the other expenses. With
the Alliance machine as used at Havre the cost was about £474 per annum
per lighthouse, interest, &c., included. The single-light Gramme machine
has been in use in the Paris goods station of the Northern of France
Railway for two years. Six machines have been kept going with one light
each, and the cost is found to be 5_d._ per light per hour, or with
interest on outlay at 10 per cent., 8_d._ per hour. The same light at the
ironworks of Messrs Powell at Rouen was stated to cost 4_d._ per light per
hour, exclusive of interest and charge for motive power, the latter being
derived from one of the engines on the works. In 1877 a series of
experiments were carried out with the Lontin light at the Paris terminus
of the Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean Railway. The passenger station was
lighted, and the results were so satisfactory that the company have
entered into a permanent contract with the proprietors of the Lontin light
for lighting their Paris goods station with 12 lights, at a cost of 5_d._
per light per hour. The Western of France Railway Company have had 6
Lontin lights in the goods station at the Paris terminus, St Lazare, since
May last, and 12 lights in the passenger station since June. Careful
experiments have shown the cost to be 8_d._ per light per hour, inclusive
of interest. Referring to the Jablochkoff light, Mr Shoolbred placed
before the meeting some particulars with regard to its application in the
Avenue de l’Opéra, Paris, which were afforded him by M. J. Allard, the
chief engineer of the lighting department of the City of Paris. It appears
that the authorities pay the Société Générale d’Électricité 37f. 2c. per
hour for the 62 lamps in use there. These 62 lamps supersede 344 gas-jets
which were previously used, and which cost the authorities 7·244f. per
hour. The electric illumination, however, is considered as equal to 682
gas-jets, or about double the original illumination——that is, to a cost of
14·45f. per hour as against 37·2f. for the electric light, the cost of
which, therefore, is 2·6 times that of the gas. The contract for lighting
by electricity was terminated by the City of Paris on the 30th ult., and
the authorities have declined to renew it except at the price paid for
gas, namely, 7·224f. (or about 6_s._) per hour, and that only until the
15th of January next. These terms have been accepted by the Société, so
that the price paid to them will be at the rate of about 1-1/8_d._ per
light per hour. Mr Shoolbred stated that the Société place their expenses
at 1·06f. (or just 11_d._) per light per hour, which, however, they hope
shortly to reduce by one half. A series of careful photometric experiments
carried out by the municipal authorities with the Jablochkoff lights,
above referred to, showed each naked light to possess a maximum of 300
candles of intensity. With the glass globe this was reduced to 180
candles, showing a loss of 40 per cent., while during the darker periods
through which the lights passed the light was as low as 90 candles. The
foregoing were the only authenticated particulars which the author could
obtain as regards the working of the various electric systems of electric
lighting. In conclusion, Mr Shoolbred referred to the Rapieff light at the
‘Times’ office, which, he observed, worked fairly and with regularity,
which could not be said of all others, and it might therefore be entitled
to take rank as an established application of electric illumination. The
paper was illustrated by the Siemens, Rapieff, Serrin, and other forms of
electric light, which were shown in operation.”

That the electric light is eventually destined to supplant coal gas in
illuminating the fronts of large buildings, open spaces, squares, assembly
rooms, public halls, theatres, picture galleries, workshops and factories,
&c., seems no very extravagant prediction. We have already seen that it
has for some years been employed in one lighthouse; and we have the
testimony of Mr Douglas, of the Trinity House, at a very recent meeting of
the Society of Arts, that at the Souter Point Lighthouse there had been
only two stoppages in eight years, once through a bad carbon breaking, and
once through the lighthouse-keeper going to sleep.

In addition to places above specified, amongst other localities in which
it is in work, we may mention the chocolate factories of M. Menier, at
Noiselle, his india-rubber works at Grenelle, his sugar refinery at Nice,
and Messrs Caille’s works at Paris. In this country it was employed in the
erection of the Tay Bridge, as well as in the works of Messrs Head, at
Stockton-on-Tees, and in London it may be nightly seen burning before the
Gaiety Theatre in the Strand, at Billingsgate Market, and frequently
lighting up the front of the Stereoscopic Company’s premises in Regent
Street. Further, we may add that the Metropolitan Board of Works are
making the experiment of lighting the Victoria Embankment and the City
authorities the Holborn Viaduct, with the Jablochkoff candle. The former
have placed a dynamo-electric apparatus, worked by a steam engine of
20-horse power, close to the foot of Hungerford Bridge, from whence wires
will be carried right and left towards Westminster and Blackfriars

We believe the main conducting wire is carried under the coping-stone of
the parapet running along the Embankment, and that the carbon points are
fixed on the top of a certain number of gas standards which now surmount
the wall of the Embankment.

That electricity is more economical as a method of artificial lighting
than coal-gas the figures previously given seem to demonstrate, and there
can be no question as to the much greater luminosity and purity of the
light over the gas flame, qualities which render it an admirable
substitute for the sunlight, the absence of which it may be said to supply
at night. One disadvantage urged against its employment in weaving rooms
is, that it casts such dark and distinct shadows that these are frequently
mistaken for the threads themselves, an objection which is said to have
been remedied by placing the light as near the ceiling as possible. The
non-generation of carbonic acid and sulphurous products such as are given
off by burning gas, although of slight importance when the light is
employed in the open air, becomes a great advantage when it is used in
crowded assembly rooms or theatres, since the atmospheric contamination
caused by carbonic acid becomes of course considerably reduced. The
absence of sulphur compounds especially qualifies the light for use in
large libraries. If it be true that the light gives rise to an appreciable
amount of ozone, this constitutes another point in its favour. Opinion is
at variance as to the possibility of the practical application of the
electric light for illuminating private houses and dwellings in such a
manner as to supply the place of the gas we now burn in them. One serious
impediment to the probable accomplishment of this result certainly seems
to be the fact that electricity for lighting purposes can only practically
be conveyed to short distances from its source, which would necessitate
the establishment and supervision of a number of generating machines near
the houses to be lighted. Another obstacle, which hitherto has not been
overcome, is the circumstance that the current when subdivided yields
proportionately a greatly diminished amount of light. For instance, one
light which had a certain photometric candle valve would yield when
divided into two an aggregate amount of light considerably less than the
one; and if divided into three still less, and so on. This has been
pointed out when noticing Mr Werdermann’s invention for the divisibility
of the light. Mr Edison, an American inventor, asserts that he has
conquered this difficulty, and additionally perfected a machine for
measuring the current used in the electric light. He states that it
consists of an apparatus placed in every house lighted by electricity,
which registers the quantity of electricity consumed, and uses for the
purpose 1000th part of the quantity employed in the building.

Dr Siemens, no mean authority, doubts the practicability of applying
electric lighting to household illumination.

A matter of primary importance in connection with the successful working
of the electric light is the quality of the carbon points. In their
manufacture gas carbon obtained from the necks of the retorts used in
gas-making, as being the hardest and purest, is employed.

Superior, however, as this form of carbon is to every other description of
the substance, it is never chemically pure, and as any foreign substance
imparts to the light the irregularity or flickering that sometimes
accompanies it, it is necessary the impurities should be removed. To
effect their separation the carbon has to undergo several processes, such
as soaking in caustic potash to remove the silica, treatment with strong
acids, several washings, grinding, &c. It is then kneaded and put into
moulds, in which it is subjected to a pressure as high as 12 tons to the
square foot. Subsequently the points so made are baked.


=LIG′NIN.= C_{6}H_{10}O_{5}. _Syn._ CELLULOSE. This is woody fibre
deprived of all foreign matter. It forms about 95 per cent. of baked wood,
and constitutes the woody portion of all vegetable substances. Fine linen
and cotton are almost entirely composed of lignin, the associated
vegetable principles having been removed by the treatment the fibres have
been subjected to during the process of their manufacture.

Pure lignin is tasteless, inodorous, insoluble in water and alcohol, and
absolutely innutritious; dilute acids and alkaline solutions scarcely
affect it, even when hot; oil of vitriol converts it into dextrin or grape
sugar, according to the mode of treatment. When concentrated sulphuric
acid is added very gradually to about half its weight of lint, linen rag,
or any similar substance shredded small, and contained in a glass vessel,
with constant trituration, the fibres gradually swell up and disappear,
without the disengagement of any gas, and a tenacious mucilage is formed,
which is entirely soluble in water. If, after a few hours, the mixture be
diluted with water, the acid neutralised by the addition of chalk, and,
after filtration, any excess of lime thrown down by the cautious addition
of a solution of oxalic acid, the liquid yields, after a second
filtration, and the addition of alcohol in considerable excess, a gummy
mass, which possesses all the characters of pure dextrin. If, instead of
at once saturating the diluted acid solution with chalk, we boil it for 4
or 5 hours, the dextrin is entirely converted into grape sugar, which, by
the addition of chalk and filtration, as before, and evaporation by a
gentle heat to the consistence of a syrup, will, after repose for a few
days, furnish a concrete mass of crystallised sugar. By strong pressure
between folds of porous paper or linen, redissolving it in water,
agitation with animal charcoal, and recrystallisation, brilliant
colourless crystals of grape sugar may be obtained. Hemp, linen, or
cotton, thus treated, yield fully their own weight of gum, and 1 per cent.
of their weight of grape sugar. During the above transformation, the
sulphuric acid is converted into sulpholignic acid, and may be procured in
a separate state. A solution of oxide of copper in ammonia, or solution of
basic carbonate of copper in strong ammonia, dissolves cotton, which may
then be precipitated by acids in colourless flakes.

=LIG′NITE.= _Syn._ BROWN COAL. Wood and other matter more or less
mineralised and converted into coal. The lignites are generally dark
brown, and of obvious woody structure. They are distinguished from true
coals by burning with little flame and much smoke. Those of Germany are
largely used as a source of paraffin and burning oils.


=LIME.= CaO. _Syn._ OXIDE OF CALCIUM; CHAUX, Fr.; KALK, Ger. Lime, when
pure, and as a chemical and medical reagent, will be found treated of
under CALCIUM (Oxide of). It is prepared on the large scale for commerce
by calcining chalk, marble or limestone, in kilns, and is called
quicklime, caustic lime, burnt lime, stone lime, &c. The lime kilns are
usually of the form of an inverted cone, and are packed with alternate
layers of limestone and fuel, and the burnt lime raked out from the
bottom. The lime thus obtained is a pale yellow powder, combining eagerly
with water, and crumbling to a light white powder, “slaked lime,” with the
evolution of much heat. Lime which slakes well is termed “fat lime,” while
if it slakes badly is termed “poor lime.” The slaked lime, the CALCIS
HYDRAS of the B. P., is fresh lime sprinkled with water till it falls to

=Lime, Salts of.= See under CALCIUM.

=Lime, Pyrolignite of.= An impure acetate of calcium used for making
mordants in dyeing and calico printing, as a substitute for the more
expensive acetate of lead.


This article was formerly believed to be a compound of lime and chlorine
(CaO.Cl), and consequently received the name of ‘chloride of lime.’ We now
know, however, that it is not a definite substance, but a mixture of
calcium hypochlorite, calcium chloride, and calcium hydrate. The value of
this preparation is due to the readiness with which the calcium
hypochlorite is decomposed by acids, even by the carbonic acid of the air,
with the evolution of hypochlorous acid which abstracts hydrogen from many
vegetable colouring matters, badly smelling gases, &c.: the former are
thereby bleached and the latter deodorised.

Chloride of lime is most extensively used for bleaching linen, calico, and
similar fabrics, thousands of tons being made near Newcastle alone every
year. It is also largely employed as a deodoriser.

_Prep._ Freshly slaked lime is thinly spread out in a proper vessel and
exposed to an atmosphere of chlorine gas until it is saturated. Now
included in the Materia Medica.

Slaked lime (fresh), 20 parts, common salt, 1 part, are mixed together,
and the powder placed in long earthenware vessels into which chlorine is
passed until the mixture begins to grow damp, or until one part of it,
dissolved in 130 parts of water, is capable of decolouring 4-1/2 parts of
sulphate of indigo (see CHLORIMETRY), when the whole is transferred to dry

(Wholesale.) The chlorine is generated from the usual materials mixed in
leaden vessels, heated by steam, and the gas, after passing through water,
is conveyed by a leaden tube into an apartment built of siliceous
sandstone, and arranged with shelves or trays, containing dry fresh slaked
lime, placed one above another, about an inch asunder. The process, to
produce a first-class article, is continued for 4 or 5 days. During this
time the lime is occasionally agitated by means of iron rakes, the handles
of which pass through boxes of lime placed in the walls of the chamber,
which thus act as valves.

The successful manufacture of bleaching powder is dependent upon the
careful observance of a number of conditions, such as the quality of the
limestone,[16] which should be free from iron; the presence of magnesia at
the time is also very objectionable, since it gives rise to the formation
and presence in the bleaching powder of deliquescent chloride of
magnesium; the apportionment of the water in slaking the lime is also a
matter of no inconsiderable importance, the lime forming into balls, which
fail to properly absorb the gas if the water be insufficient, whilst if it
be in excess, it yields a powder deficient in chlorine. When slaked, the
lime is passed through a sieve to free it from small pebbles. After being
slaked it is kept for 2 or 3 days before being used, as it is found that
under these circumstances it absorbs chlorine more readily than when
recently prepared. Previous to its entrance into the lime chamber, the
chlorine is passed through water, to free it from vapour, and solid
particles of chloride of manganese.

[Footnote 16: A very pure kind of limestone, and one which is largely used
in the preparation of bleaching powder, is found at Buxton.]

The temperature of the chamber into which the chlorine is passed ought not
to exceed 62° F. An excess of chlorine has been found to yield a powder
deficient in hypochlorite.

Bleaching powder, unless protected from the air (carbonic acid), slowly
parts with its chlorine. In summer it has been estimated that it loses as
much as 86 per cent. of the gas, and in winter about 26 per cent.

_Prop., &c._ Chloride of lime is a pale, yellowish-white powder, generally
more or less damp, and evolving a chlorine-like odour of hypochlorous
acid. Its soluble constituents dissolve in about 20 parts of water. It is
decomposed by acids with the evolution of chlorine and oxygen
(hypochlorous acid). Good chloride of lime should contain from 32% to 36%
of chlorine, of which, however, but 25% to 30% can be easily liberated by
an acid.


_Uses._ Chloride of lime is employed in medicine as a deodoriser and
disinfectant. An ointment of chloride of lime has been used in scrofula,
and a lotion or bath, moderately dilute, is one of the cleanest and
readiest ways of removing the ‘itch,’ and several other skin diseases. It
is also in great use as a disinfectant, and may be used either in
substance or solution. A small quantity of the powder spread on a flat
dish or plate, and placed on the chimney-piece, and a like quantity in an
opposite part of the room, will continue to evolve sufficient chlorine or
hypochlorous acid to disinfect (? Ed.) the air of an apartment for several
days. The evolution of chlorine is promoted by occasionally renewing the
exposed surface, by stirring it with a piece of stick, and after it
becomes scentless, by the addition of a little acid, as strong vinegar, or
hydrochloric acid, or oil of vitriol, largely diluted with water. Of late,
however, it has been partly superseded by sulphurous acid, carbolic acid,
&c. The most extensive consumption of chloride of lime is, however, for
bleaching textile fabrics. When employed for this purpose, the goods are
first immersed in a dilute solution of this substance, and then
transferred to a vat containing dilute sulphuric acid. The chlorine thus
disengaged in contact with the cloth, causes the destruction of the
colouring matter. This process is generally repeated several times, it
being unsafe to use strong solutions. White patterns may thus be imprinted
upon coloured cloth; the figures being stamped with tartaric acid
thickened with gum water, the stuff is immersed in the chloride bath, when
the parts to which the acid has been applied remain unaltered, while the
printed portions are bleached white.

_Concluding Remarks._——Chloride of lime is now scarcely ever made on the
small scale, as it can be purchased of the large manufacturer of better
quality and cheaper than it could possibly be made by the druggist. The
chief precaution to be observed in the manufacture of good bleaching
powder is to maintain the ingredients at a rather low temperature.

=LIME.= The fruit of _Citrus limetta_. It resembles the lemon, but is
smaller and has a smoother skin. It is imported into Great Britain in a
preserved state for use as a dessert. Its juice is also largely imported
for the preparation of CITRIC ACID, and for the prevention of scurvy on
board ship (see _below_).

=LIME JUICE.= _Syn._ LEMON JUICE. The juice of the fruits of various
species of _Citrus_, principally LIMES, is known in commerce under these
names. It is very variable as to quality, which depends upon the method of
extraction, the quality of the fruit, and the honesty of the shipper.

We have examined the juice expressed from limes sent from the West Indies,
from Jamaica, and from South Africa, with the following results:

                      W. Indies.   Jamaica.   S. Africa.
  Specific gravity
    of juice           1041·30     1044·18     1044·90
  Per cent. of
    citric acid           7·96        8·66        8·50
  Per cent. of ash        0·321       0·401       0·364

The yield from limes is very small, and the freshly expressed juice
contains a large amount of pulp. This, however, on standing a few weeks,
separates, and a clear sherry-coloured liquid is obtained.

A concentrated lime or lemon juice is used by calico printers. It is a
“dark, treacly-looking fluid, marking from 48° to 54° Twaddell,” and
contains about 30 per cent. of pure citric acid.

_Adult._ See LEMON JUICE.

_Estim._ Lime juice is only valuable on account of the citric acid it
contains. If of good quality, 100 gr. will neutralise from 70 to 76 gr. of
pure crystallised carbonate of soda. “For commercial purposes each grain
of carbonate of soda neutralised may represent a half grain of
crystallised citric acid (equal to 38 gr. of dry acid), and the value of
the lime juice be calculated in proportion.” (O’Neill.) As commercial lime
juice contains variable proportions of vegetable extractive matter, the
indications of the hydrometer cannot be depended upon. ACIDIMETRY, CITRIC
ACID, &c.

=LIME′STONE.= A general term applied to a great variety of rocks in which
carbonate of lime is the principal constituent.

_Estim._ The value of chalk, limestone, marble, &c., for hydraulic mortars
and cements, may be determined as follows:

A given weight (say 100 gr.) of the sample is reduced to powder and
digested in hydrochloric acid dilated with about an equal weight of water,
with frequent agitation for an hour or longer; the mixture is then diluted
with thrice its volume of water, thrown upon a filter, and the undissolved
portion washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. This weight indicates the
per-centage of clay and silica or sand, and the loss that of the lime or
calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and ferric oxide, present in the
substance examined. In most cases these results will be sufficient to show
the quality of the limestone for the purpose of making mortar or cement.

The filtrate and the washings are mixed together, and ammonia is added in
excess; the bulky, reddish-brown precipitate is collected, washed, dried,
ignited, and weighed. This gives the per-centage of ferric oxide.

The filtrate from last is then treated with oxalate of ammonium, and the
quantity of lime determined in the manner described under the head of

The liquid filtered from the precipitate in last is boiled for some time
with carbonate of potassium until ammoniacal fumes are no longer evolved;
the precipitate is then collected on a filter, washed with hot water,
dried, and strongly ignited for 3 or 4 hours, and, lastly, weighed. This
gives the per-centage of magnesium.

Fr. A medicine of the consistence of honey, intended to be licked off a
spoon. This form of medicine is well adapted to females and children, but
is not much used in England at the present time. Those employed in modern
pharmacy and prescribing are included under the heads CONFECTION,
CONSERVE, or ELECTUARY.——The _Dose_, when it is not otherwise stated, is a
teaspoonful occasionally.

=Linctus, Acid.= (Dr Copland.) _Syn._ LINCTUS ACIDUS. _Prep._ Honey of
roses, 10 dr.; hydrochloric acid, 20 minims; syrup of red poppies, 2 dr.

=Linctus of Borax.= (Univ. Coll. Hosp.) _Syn._ LINCTUS BORACIS. _Prep._
Borax, 3 dr.; honey, 1 oz. Melt, and stir together, and then add syrup, 1

=Linctus, Caca′o.= _Syn._ LINCTUS CACAO, L.; CRÊME DE TRONCHIN, Fr.
_Prep._ From cocoa-butter, 2 oz.; white sugar (in powder), syrup of
capillaire, and syrup of tolu, of each 1 oz.; mix. Demulcent and pectoral;
in coughs, sore throats, hoarseness, &c.

=Linctus, Common.= _Prep._ From oil of almonds and syrup of tolu, of each
1 oz.; powdered white sugar, 2 dr. As the last.

1. (Dr Latham.) Compound ipecacuanha powder (Dover’s powder), 1/2 dr.;
compound tragacanth powder, 2 dr.; syrup of tolu, confection of hips, and
simple oxymel, of each 1 oz.——_Dose_, 1 teaspoonful, 3 or 4 times a day.
“This linctus has been extensively used, as a remedy for coughs, in the
West-end of London, having been found to be a safe and generally
efficacious remedy.” (Redwood.) The preceding as well as the following are
also useful preparations.

=Linctus, Demulcent.= _Syn._ LINCTUS DEMULCENS L.; LOOCH DE TRONCHIN, Fr.
_Prep._ From oil of almonds, syrup of capillaire, manna and cassia pulp,
of each 2 oz.; powdered gum tragacanth, 20 gr.; orange-flower water, 2
fl. oz. As the last. The above is the quantity for two days, which is as
long as it will keep.

=Linctus of Egg.= _Syn._ LINCTUS OVI; LOHOCH OVI. _Prep._ Oil of almonds,
1/2 dr.; yolk of 1 egg; syrup of marshmallow, 1 oz. Mix.

OLEOSA, L.; LOOCH HUILEUX, Fr. _Prep._ (P. Cod.) Oil of almonds, powdered
gum, and orange-flower water, of each 4 dr.; syrup of marshmallow, 1 oz.;
water, 3 fl. oz. or q. s.; for an emulsion. In troublesome coughs.

=Linctus, Expec′torant.= _Syn._ LINCTUS EXPECTORANS, LOHOCH E., L. _Prep._
1. Oxymel of squills, confection of hips, syrup of marshmallow, and
mucilage of gum Arabic (thick), equal parts. Demulcent and expectorant.

2. (Dr Copland.) Oil of almonds and syrup of lemons, of each 1 fl. oz.;
powdered ipecacuanha 6 gr.; confections of hips, 1 oz.; compound powder of
tragacanth, 3 dr.

3. (Zanetti.) Kermes mineral, 4 gr.; manna, 6 oz.; oil of almonds, syrup
of squills, and syrup of senega, of each 2 dr. Laxative, demulcent, and
expectorant. The above are useful in hoarseness, tickling coughs, sore
throats, &c.

=Linctus, Green.= _Syn._ LINCTUS VIRIDE; LOHOCH VIRIDE. _Prep._ Pistachio
nuts (or sweet almonds), no. 14; syrup of violets, 1 oz.; oil of almonds,
1/2 oz.; gum tragacanth, 15 gr.; tincture of saffron, 1 scruple;
orange-flower water, 2 dr.; water, 4 oz. Mix.

=Linctus of Linseed.= (E. 1744.) _Syn._ LINCTUS LINI; LOHOCH LINI. _Prep._
Fresh drawn linseed oil, 1 oz.; syrup of tolu, 1 oz.; sulphur, 2 dr.;
white sugar, 2 dr. Mix.

=Linctus of Manna.= (E. 1744.) _Syn._ LINCTUS MANNÆ; LOHOCH MANNÆ. _Prep._
Equal parts of manna, oil of almonds, and syrup of violets. Mix.

=Linctus of Naphthalin.= (Dupasquier) _Syn._ LINCTUS NAPHTHALINI; LOHOCH
NAPHTHALINI. _Prep._ To one common lohoch add from 8 gr. to 30 gr. of
naphthalin. The latter must be well triturated with the gum.——_Dose._ One
teaspoonful, as an expectorant.

PULMONE VULPIUM, L. _Prep._ From spermaceti and Spanish juice, of each 8
oz.; water, q. s. to soften the liquorice; make a thin electuary, and add
of honey, 3 lbs.; oil of aniseed, 1 oz.; mix well. A popular and excellent
demulcent in coughs. It formerly contained the herb fox lungs, but
spermaceti is now substituted for that article.

=Linctus of Poppies.= (Th. Hosp.) _Syn._ LINCTUS PAPAVERIS. _Prep._
Compound tincture of camphor, syrup of poppies, and syrup of tolu, of each
equal parts. Mix.——_Dose_, 1 fl. dr.

=Linctus of Spermaceti.= (E. 1744.) _Syn._ LINCTUS CETACEI; LOHOCH
CETACEI. _Prep._ Spermaceti, 2 dr.; yolk of egg, q. s.; triturate, and add
gradually oil of almonds, 1/2 oz.; syrup of tolu, 1 oz. Mix.

=Linctus of Syrup of White Poppies.= (P. C.) _Syn._ LINCTUS SYRUPI
parts; syrup of poppies (P. C.), 1 part. Mix.

ANTHELMINTICUM, L. _Prep._ (Recamier.) Oil of turpentine, 2 dr.; honey of
roses, 3 oz.; mix.——_Dose._ A teaspoonful, night and morning, followed by
a draught of any weak liquid; in worms, more especially tape-worm.

LOOCH BLANC, Fr. _Prep._ (P. Cod.) Jordon almonds, 4-1/2 dr.; bitter
almonds, 1/2 dr.; blanch them by steeping them in hot water and removing
the skins; add of white sugar, 1/2 oz.; gum tragacanth, 20 gr.; beat to a
smooth paste, and further add of oil of almonds and orange-flower water,
of each 4 dr.; pure water, 4 fl. oz. A pleasant demulcent in tickling

=LIN′EN.= _Syn._ LINTEUM, L. Linen is a textile fabric made of the
libre-fibres of the _Linum usitatissimum_, or common flax, a plant which
from time immemorial has been cultivated for this purpose. It is
remarkable for the smoothness and softness of its texture, and is hence
highly esteemed in temperate climates as an elegant and agreeable article
of clothing to be worn next the skin. Its fibres are better conductors of
heat, more porous, and more attractive of moisture, than those of cotton,
which render it less adapted for body linen in cold weather, as well as in
hot weather and hot climates, than calico. The latter, however, lacks the
luxurious softness and freshness of linen, whilst the peculiar twisted and
jagged character of its fibres render it apt to excite irritation in
extremely delicate skins. The common prejudice in favour of old linen and
flax lint for dressing wounds is thus shown to have reason on its side,
and, like many other vulgar prejudices, to be supported by the
investigations of science.

_Identif._ Linen fabrics are commonly sophisticated with cotton, which is
a much less costly and a more easily wrought material. Various plans have
been proposed to detect this fraud, many of which are too complicated and
difficult for practical purposes. The following commend themselves for
their simplicity and ease of application:——

1. A small strip (a square inch, for instance) of the suspected cloth is
immersed for 2 or 3 minutes in a boiling mixture of about equal parts of
hydrate of potassium and water, contained in a vessel of silver,
porcelain, or hard glass; after which it is taken out and pressed between
the folds of white blotting paper or porous calico. By separating 8 or 10
threads in each direction, their colour may be readily seen. The deep
yellow threads are LINEN, the white or pale yellow ones are COTTON.

2. A small strip of the cloth, after having been repeatedly washed with
rain water, boiled in the water, and dried, is immersed for 1 to 2 minutes
in sulphuric acid; it is then withdrawn, carefully pressed under water
with the fingers, washed, immersed for a few seconds in ammonia, solution
of carbonate of potassium, or solution of carbonate of sodium, again
washed with water, and dried between filtering paper. By this treatment
the cotton fibres are dissolved, while the linen fibres are merely
rendered thinner and more translucent according to the duration of the
experiment; after a short immersion, the cotton fibres appear transparent,
while the linen fibres remain white and opaque.

3. Böttger recommends the linen stuffs to be dipped into an alcoholic
solution of rosolic acid, then into a concentration solution of sodium
carbonate, and finally washed with water. The linen fibre assumes a pink
colour, whilst the cotton fibre remains unaltered.


4. (By the MICROSCOPE.) The indications afforded by both the previous
tests, although quite visible to the naked eye, are rendered still more
palpable by the use of a magnifying glass of small power, as the common
pocket lens. Under a good microscope the presence of cotton in a linen
tissue is very perceptible. The fibres of cotton present a distinctly flat
and shrivelled appearance, not unlike that of a narrow, twisted ribbon,
with only occasional joints; whilst those of flax are round, straight, and
jointed. The fibres of cotton, after being exposed to the action of strong
alkaline lyes, untwist themselves, contract in length, and assume a
rounded form, but still continue distinct in appearance from the fibres of
linen. The engraving represents a fibre of linen (1) and a fibre of cotton
(2), as they appear when magnified 155 diameters. The difference between
the two may be perceived, although less distinctly through a good Stanhope
or Coddington lens, provided the object be well illuminated.

_Dyeing._ Linen and cotton, from the similarity of their behaviour with
dye-stuffs, are treated in nearly the same manner. The affinity of their
fibres for colouring matter is very much weaker than that of the fibres of
silk and woollen. On this account they are dyed with greater difficulty
than those substances, and the colours so imparted are, in general, less
brilliant and permanent under similar conditions. Linen shows less
disposition to take dyes than cotton. The yarn or cloth, after being
scoured and bleached in the usual manner, requires to have an additional
tendency given to it, by chemical means, to condense and retain the
materials of the dye-bath in its pores. This is effected by steeping the
goods in solutions (mordants) which have at once an affinity for both the
fibres of the cloth and the colouring matter. A similar process is
employed in dyeing most other substances; but with cotton and linen,
attention to this point is essential to the permanency of the dye. These
matters are more fully explained under the heads DYEING and MORDANT.

The following new process for bleaching linen, having been omitted from
our article on “Bleaching” is inserted here:——

Mr Hodges’ process, which is known in Ireland as the “Chemico-Mechanical
Process,” owing to the patentee turning to account the advantages
derivable from the employment of mechanical contrivances driven by steam,
combined with the introduction of a new method of obtaining the hitherto
little used hypochlorite of magnesia, may be said to date from the
discovery of the substance, known as _Kieserite_ (native sulphate of
magnesia), which occurs as an essential constituent of the Abraumsalts of
Stassfurth. For some time after the introduction of this substance into
the market, it was considered of little value except for the production of
Epsom salts; but Mr. Hodges, in the course of some investigations in
bleaching jute, having had occasion to employ large quantities of
hypochlorite of magnesia, it occurred to him that kieserite might be
substituted for the more expensive crude sulphate of magnesia; and the
importation into Ireland of the sample for this purpose was the first that
was ever sent into that country for the manufacture of a bleaching liquor,
or, indeed, for any other use. Mr. Hodges on experimenting with the
kieserite, found that it not only supplied the place of the crude
sulphate, but acted as a better precipitant for the lime of the bleaching
powder, which is employed in the production of the hypochlorite of
magnesia; and that it also produced a stronger and clearer solution.
Without entering into a minute description of the process (which is at
present successfully carried out in a factory erected for the purpose in
the neighbourhood of Belfast), the following outline will be sufficient to
show the nature of the methods adopted. The kieserite, which is imported
from Germany in square blocks, on arriving at the works, is conveyed to a
house, on the ground-floor of which it is stacked until required, when it
is ground to a fine powder, and placed in barrels, is drawn up by means of
a crane to a room at the top of the building, at one end of which is a row
of three tanks furnished with water taps, agitators, and false bottoms. In
one of the end tanks a definite quantity of the kieserite powder (varying
according to its strength, is ascertained by analysis) is placed and
dissolved in a given quantity of water, the solution being assisted by
agitators, and on settling the clear liquor is siphoned over into the
middle tank. In the third tank bleaching powder (hypochlorite of lime),
varying in quantity according to the strength of the kieserite solution,
is placed. The bleaching powder after being agitated with water is allowed
to settle, and the clear solution is siphoned over into the middle tank
containing the clear kieserite solution, the agitator being kept in
motion, not only during the mixing of the liquids, but for some time
after. The mixed liquids are then allowed to remain undisturbed all night,
after which the clear hypochlorite of magnesia solution is siphoned into a
large settling tank, which is situated in the room below. From this vessel
it is conducted through wooden pipes (which are so contrived that they can
be opened and cleansed at will), into a large cistern standing in the
bleaching house. This cistern is fitted with a ball-cock, by which
arrangement the liquid can be drawn off by a system of wooden pipes as
required. The bleaching house in which the cistern is situated is fitted
up in an original manner, and covers something more than an acre of
ground; whilst the reeling-shed, which is the only part of the works our
limits will permit us describe, is 240 feet long by 24 feet broad, and
contains ten steeps and twelve reel boxes. Each box is provided with
water, a solution of the bleaching agent, and steam pipes, and is capable
of reeling at a time about 500 lbs. of yarn. Above the box is a line of
rails or pillars. A travelling crane runs along the reels, and carries the
reels from one box to another. Attached to this crane is a newly-invented
hydraulic pump, by means of which the reels with the yarn on them can be
lifted in a few seconds from one box to another.

After the yarn has been boiled, washed, and passed through the squeezers
in the usual manner, it is put on to a wagon, in which it is carried, by
means of a line of rails, down to the first reel box. Here it is placed on
to the reels, which are made to revolve by means of steam; first in one
direction and then in another, through a solution of carbonate of soda,
previously heated by means of the steam-pipes before mentioned. The yarn
having been sufficiently scalded and so saturated with soda, the reels to
which it is attached are raised by the hydraulic pump out of the box, and
the yarn allowed to drain for a few minutes, after which the travelling
crane carries it on to the next box. Into this box the yarn is again
lowered by the pump and made to revolve as before, but this time through a
solution of the bleaching agent, which immediately re-acting on the
carbonate of soda with which the yarn is charged, renders this bleaching
agent free from the danger which attends the employment of chlorine, or
the ordinary bleaching powder used in the older methods of bleaching.
After the yarns have been brought to the desired shade in the solution of
Hodges’ bleaching agent they are either removed as before to a new box,
and there washed before being scoured, or they are thrown into one of the
steeps filled with water for the night. These operations are repeated with
weaker solutions in the remaining reel boxes, either once or twice
according to the shade required.

Mr Hodges claims as the chief features of his invention that it consists,
first, in the employment of a bleaching agent which has not hitherto been
practically employed, and a cheap method for its production; second, in
the preparation of the yarn prior to being submitted to the action of the
bleaching agent, this preparation setting free not only the imprisoned
chlorine of the hypochlorite, but also another powerful bleaching agent,
oxygen; third, in new and improved machinery, by which the work of
bleaching the yarn is greatly shortened; fourth, in doing away with the
tedious and expensive operation of exposing the yarn on the grass; if this
last were the only feature in Mr Hodges’ invention, the patentee would
have greatly improved the process of bleaching, not only, however, does
the new process supplant the old long and tedious one, but a great economy
of time is additionally gained in other parts of the process, added to
these advantages it is stated that a superior finish is given to the
yarns, and that in consequence a much greater demand for them has arisen.

Mr Hodges contends that the absence of caustic lime from his new bleaching
compound gives it great advantages over the old bleaching powder,
particularly in its application to finely woven fabrics, such as muslins,
&c. He also says that fabrics bleached by it receive an increased capacity
for imbibing and retaining colouring matter, a fact of considerable
importance to the dyer and calico-printer, as they are thus enabled to
communicate to the fabrics tints which have heretofore been considered
impossible. See KIESERITE.

The domestic management of linen may here receive a few moments’
attention. Fruit stains, iron-moulds, and other spots on linen, may, in
general, be removed by applying to the part, previously washed clean, a
weak solution of chlorine, chloride of lime, spirits of salts, oxalic
acid, or salts of lemons, in warm water, and frequently by merely using a
little lemon juice. When the stain is removed the part should be
thoroughly rinsed in clear warm water (without soap) and dried. Recent
iron-moulds or ink spots on starched linen, as the front of a shirt, may
be conveniently removed by allowing a drop or two of melted tallow from a
common candle to fall upon them before sending the articles to the
laundress. The oxide of iron combines with the grease, and the two are
washed out together. If the spot is not entirely removed the first time,
the process should be repeated. Linen that has acquired a yellow or bad
colour by careless washing may be restored to its former whiteness by
working it well in water to which some strained solution of chloride of
lime has been added, observing to well rinse it in clean water both before
and after the immersion in the bleaching liquor. The attempt to bleach
unwashed linen should be avoided, as also using the liquor too strong, as
in that case the linen will be rendered rotten.

=LING.= The _Galus molua_ (Linn.), an inferior species of the cod-fish
tribe, common in the Northern seas, and used as a coarse article of food
by the poor.

=LIN′IMENT.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM, L. A semifluid ointment, or soapy
application to painful joints, swellings, burns, &c. The term is also
occasionally extended to various spirituous and stimulating external
applications. A preparation of a thinner consistence, but similarly
employed, is called an ‘EMBROCATION,’ These terms are, however, frequently
confounded together, and misapplied. Liniments are generally administered
by friction with the hand or fingers, or with some substance (as a piece
of flannel) capable of producing a certain amount of irritation of the
skin. Sometimes a piece of linen rag dipped in them is simply laid on the
part. In most cases in which liniments are found beneficial, the advantage
obtained from them is attributable rather to the friction or local
irritation than to any medicinal power in the preparation itself. The
greater number of cerates and ointments may be converted into liniments by
simply reducing their consistence with almond or olive oil, or oil of

_Prep._ 1. (Sir B. Brodie.) Salad oil, 3 oz.; oil of vitriol, 1 dr.; mix,
then add of oil of turpentine, 1 oz., and agitate the whole well together.
As a counter-irritant, in rheumatism, stiff joints, &c. It closely

2. (Hosp. F.) Olive oil, 3 oz.; oil of turpentine, 2 oz.; sulphuric acid,
1 fl. dr. An excellent alterative, stimulant, discutient, and
counter-irritant, in chronic rheumatism, stiff joints, indolent tumours,
and various chronic diseases of the skin.

=Liniment of Albumen.= (Dr Christison.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM ALBUMINIS.
_Prep._ Equal parts of white of egg and rectified spirit, agitated
together. In excoriation from pressure.

=Liniment of Am′ber-oil.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM SUCCINI, L. _Prep._ 1. From
olive oil, 3 parts; oils of amber and cloves, of each 1 part. Resembles

2. (Opiated; LINIMENTUM SUCCINI OPIATUM, L.) From rectified oil of amber
and tincture of opium, of each 2 fl. oz.; lard, 1 oz. Anodyne,
antispasmodic, and stimulant. A once popular remedy in cramp, stiff
joints, &c.

=Liniment of Ammo′′nia.= _Syn._ AMMONIACAL LINIMENT, VOLATILE L., OIL AND
HARTSHORN; LINIMENTUM AMMONIÆ (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.), L. _Prep._ 1. (B.
P.) Solution of ammonia, 1; olive oil, 3; mix.

2. (Ph. L. & E.) Liquor of ammonia (sp. gr. ·960), 1 fl. oz.; olive oil, 2
fl. oz.; shake them together until they are mixed.

3. (Ph. D.) To the last add of olive oil, 1 fl. oz. Stimulant and
rubefacient. Used in rheumatism, lumbago, neuralgia, sore throat, spasms,
bruises, &c. When the skin is irritable more oil should be added, or it
should be diluted with a little water.

CAMPHORATA, L.)——_a._ (Hosp. F.) Olive oil, 3 oz.; camphor, 1/2 oz.;
dissolve by a gentle heat, and when cold, add of liquor of ammonia, 1 fl.

_b._ Soap liniment, 2 oz.; olive oil and liquor of ammonia, of each 2 dr.
As the last; more especially for sprains, bruises, chilblains, &c.

of ammonia (sp. gr. ·880), 5 fl. oz.; tincture of camphor, 2 fl. oz.;
spirit of rosemary, 1 fl. oz.; mix. It should be kept in a well-stoppered
bottle and in a cool situation.

_b._ (WEAKER.) Solution of ammonia (·880), 5 fl. oz.; tincture of camphor,
3 fl. oz.; spirit of rosemary, 2 fl. oz.

_Obs._ The above formulæ are nearly identical with the original ones of Dr
Granville; the principal difference being in his ordering liquor of
ammonia of the sp. gr. ·872, instead of ·880. They are counter-irritant,
rubefacient, vesicant, and cauterising, according to the mode and length
of their application. The milder lotion is sufficiently powerful to
produce considerable rubefaction and irritation in from 1 to 5 or 6
minutes; vesication, in 8 or 10 minutes; and cauterisation, in 4 or 5
minutes longer. For the latter purpose the stronger lotion is generally
employed. According to Dr Granville, these lotions are prompt and powerful
remedies in rheumatism, lumbago, cramp, neuralgia, sprains, swollen and
painful joints, headache, sore throat, and numerous other affections in
which the use of a powerful counter-irritant has been recommended. They
are ordered to be applied by means of a piece of linen, 6 or 7 times
folded, or a piece of thick, coarse flannel wetted with the lotion, the
whole being covered with a thick towel, and firmly pressed against the
part with the hand. The stronger lotion is only intended to be employed in
apoplexy, and to produce cauterisation. See COUNTER-IRRITANTS.

SESQUICARBONATIS——Ph. L.) Solution of sesquicarbonate of ammonia, 1 fl.
oz.; olive oil, 3 fl. oz.; shake them together until mixed. This
preparation resembles ordinary liniment of ammonia in its general
properties, but it is much less active, owing to the alkali being
carbonated. It is the ‘oil and hartshorn’ and the ‘volatile liniment’ of
the shops.

TEREBINTHINA. _Prep._ Liniment of ammonia, 1-1/4 fl. oz.; oil of
turpentine, 1/2 fl. oz.; mix.


=Liniment, Antispasmod′ic.= _Syn_. LINIMENTUM ANTISPASMODICUM, L. CAJEPUTI
COMPOSITUM, L. _Prep._ (Hufeland.) Oils of cajeput and mint, of each 1
part; tincture of opium, 3 parts; compound camphor liniment, 24 parts.
Anodyne, stimulant, and rubefacient.

=Liniment, Arceus’s.= Compound elemi ointment.

=Liniment of Arnica.= _Syn._ ARNICA OPODELDOC, LINIMENTUM ARNICÆ. _Prep._
Dissolve by heat Castile soap, 4 parts, and camphor, 1 part, in rectified
spirit, 10 parts. Add tincture of arnica, 5 parts.

=Liniment of Belladon′na.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM BELLADONNÆ, B. P. L. _Prep._
1. (B. P.) Prepared the same as LINIMENTUM ACONITII. A fluid ounce is
equal to a solid ounce. Prescribed with equal parts of soap liniment, or
compound camphor liniment, and is an excellent topical application for
neuralgic pain.

2. Extract of belladonna, 1 dr.; oil of almonds, 2 oz.; lime water, 4 fl.
oz. In eczema, and some other cutaneous affections, to allay irritation,

3. (Cutan. Hosp.) Extract of belladonna, 4 dr.; glycerine, 1 oz.; soap
liniment, 6 oz. As the last.

4. (Guy’s Hosp.) Extract of belladonna 1 oz.; soap liniment, 8 fl. oz.

5. (Phœbus.) Extract of belladonna, 40 gr.; rectified ether, 1 dr.;
cherry-laurel water, 2 fl. oz. As a friction to the abdomen in lead colic.

_Obs._ The above are reputed excellent stimulants, anodynes,
antispasmodics, and resolvents, in various diseases, as rheumatism,
neuralgia, painful affections of the skin and joints, tumours, &c. &c.

=Liniment of Belladonna and Chloroform.= (Mr Squire.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM
BELLADONNÆ ET CHLOROFORMI. _Prep._ Belladonna liniment, 7 fl. dr.;
belladonna chloroform (made by percolating the root with chloroform) 1 fl.
dr.; sprinkled on piline and applied to the loins, excellent in lumbago.

=Liniment of Borax.= (Swediaur). _Syn._ LINIMENTUM BORACIS. _Prep._ Borax,
2 dr.; tincture of myrrh, 1 oz., distilled water, 1 oz.; honey of roses, 2
oz. Mix.

=Liniment of Caj′eput Oil.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM OLEI CAJEPUTI, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Dr Copland.) Compound camphor liniment and soap liniment, of each 1-1/2
fl. oz.; oil of cajeput, 1 fl. oz.

2. (Dr Williams.) Oil of cajeput, 1/2 fl. dr.; castor oil, 1 fl. dr.;
olive oil, 4-1/2 fl. dr. A warm, antispasmodic, diffusible stimulant and
rubefacient; in spasmodic asthma, colic, chronic rheumatism, spasms, chest
affections, &c. See ANTISPASMODIC L. (_above_).

=Linimentum Calcis.= (B. P.) Solution of lime, 1; olive oil, 1; mix. The
best liniment for burns and scalds.

1. (B. P.) Camphor, 1; olive oil, 4; dissolve.

2. (Ph. L. & E.) Camphor, 1 oz.; olive oil, 4 fl. oz.; gently heat the
oil, add the camphor (cut small), and agitate until dissolved. The Dublin
College orders only 1/2 the above camphor. Stimulant, anodyne, and
resolvent; in sprains, bruises, rheumatic pains, glandular enlargements,

3. (Compound; LINIMENTUM CAMPHORÆ COMPOSITUM——B. P., Ph. L. & D.)——_a._
(B. P.) Camphor, 5; English oil of lavender, 1/4; strong solution of
ammonia, 10; rectified spirit, 20. Dissolve the oil and camphor in the
spirit and gradually add the ammonia.

_b._ (Ph. L.) Camphor, 2-1/2 oz.; oil of lavender, 1 fl. dr.; rectified
spirit, 17 fl. oz.; dissolve, then add of stronger liquor of ammonia, 3
fl. oz., and shake them together until they are mixed.

_c._ (Ph. L. 1836.) Liquor of ammonia, 7-1/2 fl. oz.; spirit of lavender,
1 pint; distil off 1 pint, and dissolve in it camphor, 2-1/2 oz. The
formula of the Ph. D. 1826 was nearly similar.

_d._ (Wholesale.) Camphor (clean), 21 oz.; English oil of lavender, 3-3/4
oz.; liquor of ammonia, 2-3/4 lbs.; rectified spirit, 7 pints; mix, close
the vessel, and agitate occasionally, until the camphor is dissolved.
Powerfully stimulant and rubefacient. It closely resembles, and is now
almost universally sold for, Ward’s ‘Essence for the Headache.’

_e._ (Ethereal.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM CAMPHORÆ ETHEREUM. _Prep._ Camphor, 1
dr.; ether, 1 dr.; oil of vipers, 2 dr. Mix.

=Liniment of Canthar′ides.= _Syn._ LINIMENT OF SPANISH FLIES; LINIMENTUM
LYTTÆ, LIN. CANTHARIDIS (Ph. D. & U. S.), L. _Prep._ 1. (Dr Collier.)
Tincture of cantharides and soap liniment, equal parts.

2. (Ph. D.) Cantharides (in fine powder), 3 oz.; olive oil, 12 fl. oz.;
digest for 3 hours over a waterbath, and strain through flannel, with

3. (Ph. U. S.) Spanish flies, 1 oz.; oil of turpentine, 8 fl. oz.; proceed
as last. The above are irritant and rubefacient; but should be used
cautiously, lest they produce strangury.

=Liniment of Capsicum.= 1. (Dr Copland.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM CAPSICI.
_Prep._ Compound camphor liniment, 1 fl. oz.; volatile liniment, 1 fl.
oz.; tincture of capsicum, 3 fl. oz.; mix.

2. (Dr Turnbull.) Capsicums, 1 oz.; rectified spirit, 3 fl. oz. Macerate 7
days, and strain for use.

=Liniment of Colchicum.= (Ear Infirmary.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM COLCHICI.
_Prep._ Soap liniment, 1 fl. oz.; wine of colchicum seed, 1/2 fl. oz.;

=Liniment of Colocynth.= (Heim). _Syn._ LINIMENTUM COLOCYNTHIDIS. _Prep._
Tincture of colocynth, 1/2 fl. oz.; castor oil, 1-1/2 oz.

=Liniment of Chlo′′ride of Lime.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM CALCIS CHLORINATÆ, L.
_Prep._ 1. Chloride of lime, 1 dr.; water (added gradually), 3 fl. oz.;
triturate together in a glass mortar for 10 minutes, pour off the liquid
portion, and add of oil of almonds 2 fl. oz.

2. (Kopp.) Solution of chloride of lime (ordinary), 1 part; olive oil, 2

3. (Waller.) Chloride of lime (in fine powder), 1 part; soft soap, 2
parts; soft water, q. s. to make a liniment.

_Obs._ The above are cleanly and excellent applications in itch, scald
head, herpes, lepra, foul ulcers, &c.

=Liniment of Chlo′′roform.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM CHLOROFORMI, B. P. _Prep._
1. (B. P.) Chloroform, 1; liniment of camphor, 1; mix. The oil in the
camphor liniment prevents the evaporation of the chloroform. Stimulating
on application to a tender skin.

2. Chloroform, 1 fl. dr.; almond oil, 7 fl. dr.; mix in a phial, and
agitate it until the two unite.

3. (Tuson.) Chloroform, 1 fl. dr.; soap liniment, 2 fl. oz.; as the last.
Used as an application in neuralgic pains, rheumatism, &c.

=Liniment of Cod-liver Oil.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM OLEI MORRHUÆ, L. O. JACORIS
ASELLI, L. _Prep._ (Dr Brach.) Cod-liver oil, 2 fl. oz.; liquor of
ammonia, 1 fl. oz.; mix. Resolvent, dispersive; applied to glandular
tumours, scrofulous enlargements, &c.

=Liniment of Cro′ton Oil.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM CROTONIS (B. P., Ph. D.), L.
OLEI CROTONIS, L. O. TIGLII, L. _Prep._ 1. (B. P.) Croton oil, 1; oil of
cajeput, 3-1/2; rectified spirit, 3-1/2; mix.

2. (Ph. D.) Croton oil, 1 fl. oz.; oil of turpentine, 7 fl. oz.; mix by

3. (J. Allen.) Croton oil and liquor of potassa, of each, 1 fl. dr.;
agitate until mixed, then add of rose water, 2 fl. oz.

4 (Pereira.) Croton oil, 1 part; olive oil, 5 parts.

_Obs._ The above are used as counter-irritants; in rheumatism, neuralgia,
bronchial and pulmonary affections, &c. When rubbed on the skin, redness,
and a pustular eruption ensue, and in general the bowels are acted on.

=Liniment, Diuretic.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM DIURETICUM, L. _Prep._ 1. (Dr
Calini.) Squills (in fine powder), 1 dr.; gastric juice of a calf, 2 oz.;

2. (Dr Christison.) Soap liniment, tincture of foxglove, and tincture of
squills, equal parts. In dropsies; rubbed over the abdomen or loins twice
or thrice a day.

=Liniment, Emol′lient.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM ALBUM, L. EMOLLIENS, L. _Prep._
From camphor, 1 dr.; Peruvian balsam, 1/2 dr.; oil of almonds, 1 fl. oz.;
dissolve by heat, add of glycerin, 1/2 fl. oz., agitate well, and, when
cold, further add of oil of nutmeg, 15 drops. Excellent for chapped hands,
lips, nipples, &c.

=Liniment of Foxglove.= (Dr Royle.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM DIGITALIS. _Prep._
Infusion of digitalis, 2 fl. oz.; water of ammonia, 2 fl. dr.; oil of
poppy seed, 4 fl. dr.; mix. To be rubbed on the abdomen 3 or 4 times a

=Liniment of Gar′lic.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM ALII, L. _Prep._ From juice of
garlic, 2 parts; olive oil, 3 parts; mix. In hooping-cough, infantile
convulsions, &c.

=Liniment of Gin′ger.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM ZINGIBERIS, L. _Prep._ (Dr
Turnbull.) Ginger, 1 part; rectified spirit, 2 parts; make a tincture or
essence. For short-sightedness. A few drops are occasionally rubbed on the
forehead for 8 or 10 minutes at a time. How this tincture came to be
called a liniment we are at a loss to determine.

=Liniment of Glycerin.= (Mr Startin.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM GLYCERINI. _Prep._
Soap liniment, 3 oz.; glycerin, 1 oz.; extract of belladonna, 1 oz.; mix.
For gouty, rheumatic, and neuralgic pains. A little veratrine is sometimes

=Liniment, Green.= (Dr Campbell.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM VIRIDE. Camphor, 1
oz.; olive oil, 6 oz.; extract of hemlock, 1 oz.; spirit of ammonia, 2 oz.

=Liniment of Hellebore.= (Dornbleuth.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM HELLEBORI.
_Prep._ Soft soap, 4 oz.; hellebore powder, 2 oz.; hot water, q. s.

=Liniment, Hunga′′rian.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM HUNGARICUM, L. _Prep._
(Soubeiran.) Powdered cantharides and sliced garlic, of each 1 dr.;
camphor, bruised mustard seed, and black pepper, of each 4 dr.; strong
vinegar, 6 fl. oz.; rectified spirit, 12 fl. oz.; macerate a week, and
filter. An excellent rubefacient and counter-irritant.

=Liniment of Hydrochlo′′ric Acid.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM MURIATICUM, L. ACIDI
MURIATICI, L. A. HYDROCHLORICI, L. _Prep._ 1. (Hosp. F.) Olive oil, 2 oz.;
white wax, 2 dr.; dissolve by a gentle heat, add of balsam of Peru, 1 dr.;
hydrochloric acid, 2 dr.; mix well. An excellent application to chilblains
before they break.

2. (W. Cooley.) Olive oil, 1/4 pint; white spermaceti (pure) and camphor,
of each 1/2 oz.; mix with heat, add of hydrochloric acid, 1/2 fl. oz., and
proceed as before. Equal to the last, and cheaper. This was extensively
employed among the seamen of the Royal Navy by Mr Cooley with uniform

=Liniment of I′odide of Potas′sium.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM IODURETUM
GELATINOSUM, L. GELÉE POUR LE GOITRE, Fr. _Prep._ (Foy.) Iodide of
potassium, 4 dr.; proof spirit, 2 oz.; dissolve, and add the liquid to a
solution of curd soap, 6 dr., in proof spirit, 2 oz., both being at the
time gently warmed; lastly, aromatise with rose or neroli, pour it into
wide-mouthed bottles, and keep them closely corked. In goitre, &c.

=Liniment of Iodide of Sulphur.= (Prof. E. Wilson.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM
SULPHURIS IODIDI. _Prep._ Iodide of sulphur, 30 gr.; olive oil, 1 fl. dr.;
triturate together.

=Liniment of I′odine.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM IODI (B. P.); IODURETTED
5; iodide of potassium, 2; camphor, 1; rectified spirit, 40; dissolve.

2. (Cutan. Hosp.) Compound tincture of iodine and laudanum, equal parts.

3. (Dr Copland.) Soap liniment, 1 oz.; iodine, 8 to 10 gr.

4. (Guibourt.) Iodide of potassium, 1 dr.; water, 1 fl. dr.; dissolve, and
add to it white soap (in shavings) and oil of almonds, of each 10 dr.,
previously melted together. Some perfume may be added. In scrofula,
glandular enlargements, rheumatism, &c.

=Liniment of Ipecacuanha.= (Dr Neligan.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM IPECACUANHÆ.
_Prep._ Ipecacuanha in fine powder, 4 dr.; lard, 2 dr.; olive oil, 1-1/2
fl. oz.

=Liniment of Juniper.= (Dr Sully.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM JUNIPERI. _Prep._ Oil
of juniper, 1-1/2 oz.; lard, 2 oz.; oil of aniseed, 6 drops. For

=Liniment of Labdanum.= (Quincy.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM LABDANI; LINIMENTUM
CRINISCANI. _Prep._ Labdanum, 6 dr.; bear’s grease, 2 oz.; honey, 1/2 oz.;
powdered southernwood, 3 dr.; oil of nutmeg, 1 dr.; balsam of Peru, 2 dr.;
mix. To restore the hair.

=Liniment of Lead.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM PLUMBI, L. _Prep._ (Gaozey.) Acetate
of lead, 40 gr.; soft water, 12 fl. oz.; olive oil, 6 oz.; mix, and
agitate well. Astringent and refrigerant. Useful in excoriations,
especially when accompanied with inflammation.

1. From olive oil (linseed oil——Ph. E.) and lime water, equal parts,
shaken together until they are mixed. Very useful in burns and scalds.

2. (Compound; LINIMENTUM CALCIS COMPOSITUM, L.)——_a._ (Camphorated——W.
Cooley.) Camphor liniment and lime water, equal parts.

_b._ (Opiated——W. Cooley.) Lime water and camphor liniment, of each 1 oz.;
extract of opium, 5 gr.; mix. Both are used as anodynes to allay pain and
irritation in severe burns, chilblains, &c., for which purpose they are
excellent. All the above liniments with lime water should be used as soon
as possible after being prepared, as the ingredients separate by keeping.

(B. P., Ph. L.), LIN. H. COMPOSITUM (Ph. L. 1836), L. _Prep._ 1. (B. P.)
Ointment of mercury, 1; solution of ammonia, 1; liniment of camphor, 1.
Melt the ointment in the liniment, add the ammonia, and shake them

2. (Ph. L.) Camphor, 1 oz.; spirit of wine, 1 fl. dr.; sprinkle the latter
on the former, powder, add of lard and mercurial ointment (stronger), of
each 4 oz.; rub them well together, then gradually add of liquor of
ammonia, 4 fl. oz.; and mix well. Stimulant and discutient. It resembles
mercurial ointment in its effects; but though milder in its operation, it
more quickly produces salivation.

=Liniment of Mor′phia.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM MORPHIÆ, L. _Prep._ (W. Cooley.)
Pure morphia, 3 gr.; put it into a warm mortar, add very gradually, of oil
of almonds (warm), 1 fl. oz., and triturate until the morphia is
dissolved, then add of camphor liniment, 1 oz. An excellent topical
anodyne and antispasmodic, which often allays pain when other means have

=Liniment of Mus′tard.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM SINAPIS, L. _Prep._ 1. Flour of
mustard (best), 1 oz.; water, tepid, 2 fl. oz.; mix, and add of glycerin,
liquor of ammonia, and olive oil, of each 1 fl. oz.

2. (Béral.) Carbonate of ammonia (in fine powder), 1 part; camphor (in
powder), 2 parts; oil of lavender, 4 parts; tincture of mustard, 6 parts;
mix, dissolve by agitation, add of simple liniment (warm), 56 parts, and
again agitate until the whole is perfectly incorporated.

3. Black mustard seed (ground in pepper-mill or otherwise well bruised),
1/4 lb.; oil of turpentine, 1 pint; digest, express the liquid, filter,
and dissolve it in camphor, 1/2 lb. Stimulant and rubefacient. A popular
and useful remedy in rheumatic pains, lumbago, colic, chilblains, &c. The
last is a close imitation of Whitehead’s ‘Essence of Mustard.’

4. (LIN. OLEI VOLATILIS SINAPIS.)——_a._ From volatile oil of black mustard
seed, 1/2 dr.; oil of almonds, 1 fl. oz. As a rubefacient.

_b._ From volatile oil, 1 part; alcohol (sp. gr. ·815), 1 to 2 parts. As a

=Liniment of Mustard (Compound).= LINIMENTUM SINAPIS COMPOSITUM (B. P.).
Oil of mustard, 1 dr.; ethereal extract of mezereon, 40 gr.; camphor, 2
dr.; castor oil, 5 dr.; rectified spirit, 32 dr.; dissolve.

=Liniment, Narcotic.= (P. Codex.) _Syn._ LINIMENT CALMANT; LINIMENTUM
NARCOTICUM. _Prep._ Anodyne balsam, 8 parts; compound wine of opium, cold
cream, of each 1 part. Mix.

=Liniment of Ni′trate of Mercury.= _Syn._ CITRINE LINIMENT; LINIMENTUM
HYDRARGYRI NITRATIS, L. _Prep._ (Sir H. Halford.) Ointment of nitrate of
mercury and olive oil, equal parts, triturated together in a glass mortar,
or mixed by a gentle heat. This liniment is stimulant, discutient, and
alterative, and in its general properties resembles the ointment of the
same name. For most purposes the quantity of oil should be at least

=Liniment of Nux Vom′ica.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM NUCIS VOMICÆ, L. _Prep._
(Magendie.) Tincture of nux vomica, 1 fl. oz.; liquor of ammonia, 2 fl.
dr.; mix. As a stimulating application to paralysed limbs. The addition of
1/2 fl. dr. each of glycerin and salad oil renders it an excellent
application in chronic rheumatism and neuralgia.

=Liniment of Oil of Ergot.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM OLEI ERGOTÆ. _Prep._ Oil of
ergot, 1 dr.; oil of almonds, or sulphuric ether, 3 dr.; mix.

=Liniment of O′pium.= _Syn._ ANODYNE LINIMENT; LINIMENTUM OPII (B. P., Ph.
L. & E.), L. OPII or L. ANODYNUM (Ph. D.), L. SAPONIS CUM OPIO, L. _Prep._
1. (B. P.) Tincture of opium, 1; liniment of soap, 1; mix.

2. Tincture of opium, 2 fl. oz.; soap liniment, 6 fl. oz.; mix.

3. (Ph. E.) Castile soap, 6 oz.; opium, 1-1/2 oz.; rectified spirit, 1
quart; digest for three days, then filter, add of camphor, 3 oz., oil of
rosemary, 6 fl. dr., and agitate briskly.

4. (Ph. D.) Soap liniment and tincture of opium, equal parts.

5. (Wholesale.) Soft soap, 1-1/4 lb.; powdered opium and camphor, of each
1/4 lb.; rectified spirit, 1 gall.; digest a week.

_Obs._ This preparation is an excellent anodyne in local pains,
rheumatism, neuralgia, sprains, &c.

=Liniment of Phos′phorus.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM PHOSPHORATUM, L. _Prep._
(Augustin.) Phosphorus, 6 gr.; camphor, 12 gr.; oil of almonds, 1 oz.;
dissolve by heat; when cold, decant the clear portion, and add of
strongest liquor of ammonia 10 drops. A useful friction in gout, chronic
rheumatism, certain obstinate cutaneous affections, &c.

=Liniment de Rosen.= (P. C.) _Prep._ Oil of mace, 4 parts; oil of cloves,
4 parts; oil of juniper, 9 parts. Mix.

=Liniment, Sim′ple.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM SIMPLEX (Ph. E.), L. _Prep._ (Ph.
E.) White wax, 1 oz.; olive oil, 4 fl. oz.; melt together, and stir the
mixture until it is cold. Emollient; resembles spermaceti ointment in all
except its consistence.

SAPONIS CAMPHORATA, BALSAMUM SAPONIS, L. _Prep._ 1. (B. P.) Hard soap (cut
small), 2-1/2 oz.; camphor, 1-1/4 oz.; English oil of rosemary, 3 dr.;
rectified spirit, 18 oz.; distilled water, 2 oz.; mix the water and
spirit, add the other ingredients, digest at a temperature not exceeding
70° Fahr., agitating occasionally for seven days, and filter.

2. (Ph. L.) Castile soap (cut small), 2-1/2 oz.; camphor (small), 10 dr.;
spirit of rosemary, 18 fl. oz.; water, 2 fl. oz.; digest with frequent
agitation until the solid substances are dissolved.

3. (Ph. E.) Castile soap, 5 oz.; camphor, 2-1/2 oz.; oil of rosemary, 6
fl. dr.; rectified spirit, 1 quart.

4. (Ph. D.) Castile soap (in powder), 2 oz.; camphor, 1 oz.; proof spirit,
16 fl. oz.

5. (LINIMENT SAVONNEAU——P. Cod.) Tincture of soap (P. Cod.) and rectified
spirit (·863 or 41 o. p.), of each 8 parts; olive oil, 1 part.

_Obs._ This article, prepared according to the directions of the
Pharmacopœia, from ‘soap made of olive oil and soda’ (Castile soap), is
apt to gelatinise in cold weather, and to deposit crystals of elaidate and
stearate of lime. This may be avoided, when expense is not an objection,
by first well drying the soap, employing a spirit of at least 85%, and
keeping the preparation in well-closed bottles. A cheaper and better plan
is to substitute the ‘soft soap’ of the Ph. L. (‘soap made with olive oil
and potassa’) for the Castile soap ordered by the College. The soft soap
of commerce imparts to the liniment an unpleasant smell. The following
formula, one of those commonly adopted by the wholesale druggists,
produces a very good article, though much weaker than that of the

6. (Wholesale.) Camphor (cut small), 1-1/2 lb.; soft soap, 7 lbs.; oil of
rosemary, 3 fl. oz.; rectified spirit of wine and water, of each 3-1/2
galls.; digest with occasional agitation for a week, and filter. This is
the ‘opodeldoc’ or ‘soap liniment’ of the shops.

_Uses._ Soap liniment is stimulant, discutient, and lubricating, and is a
popular remedy in rheumatism, local pains, swellings, bruises, sprains,

7. (With Opium.) See LINIMENT OF OPIUM.

Jadelot, L.) Sulphuret of potassium, 3 oz.; soap, 12 oz.; water, q. s.;
melt together, and add of olive oil, 12 oz.; oil of origanum, 1 fl. dr.;
mix well. An excellent remedy for the itch, and some allied skin diseases.

=Liniment of Strychnia.= (Dr Neligan.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM STRYCHNIÆ.
Strychnia, 30 gr.; olive oil, 1-1/2 fl. oz. Ten drops to be rubbed over
the temples in amaurosis.

=Liniment of Sul′phide of Carbon.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM CARBONIS SULPHURETI,
L. _Prep._ 1. From bisulphide of carbon, 1 dr.; camphorated oil, 1 oz.;

2. (Lampadius.) Camphor, 2 dr.; bisulphuret of carbon, 4 fl. dr.;
dissolve, and add of rectified spirit, 1 fl. oz. In rheumatism, gouty
nodes, &c.

=Liniment of Sulphu′ric Acid.= See LINIMENT, ACID.

=Liniment, Tripharm′ic.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM TRIPHARMICUM (Ph. L. 1746), L.
_Prep._ Take of lead plaster and olive oil, of each 4 oz.; melt, add of
strong vinegar, 1 fl. oz., and stir until cold. Cooling and desiccative;
in excoriations, burns, &c.

=Liniment of Tur′pentine.= _Syn._ KENTISH’S LINIMENT; LINIMENTUM
TEREBINTHINÆ (B. P., Ph. L. & D.), L. TEREBINTHINATUM (Ph. E.), L. _Prep._
1. (B. P.) Oil of turpentine, 16; camphor, 1; soft soap, 2; dissolve the
camphor in the turpentine, then add the soap, and rub till thoroughly

2. (Ph. L.) Soft soap, 2 oz.; camphor, 1 oz.; oil of turpentine, 10 fl.
oz.; shake them together until mixed. Stimulant; in lumbago, cholera,
colic, &c.

3. (Ph. L. 1824.) Resin cerate, 6 oz.; oil of turpentine, 4 fl. oz.; mix.
An excellent application to burns.

4. (Ph. E.) Resin ointment, 4 oz.; camphor, 4 dr.; dissolve by a gentle
heat, and stir in oil of turpentine, 5 fl. oz.

5. (Ph. D.) Oil of turpentine, 5 fl. oz.; resin ointment, 8 oz.; mix by a
gentle heat. This forms Dr Kentish’s celebrated application to burns and
scalds. The parts are first bathed with warm oil of turpentine or brandy,
and then covered with pledgets of lint, smeared with the liniment.

turpentine, 1; acetic acid, 1; liniment of camphor, 1; mix.

rose water, 2-1/2 fl. oz.; acetic acid, 5 dr.; oil of lemons, 1 dr.; yolk
of egg, 1; make an emulsion. As a counter-irritant in phthisis.

_c._ (Ammoniated——Debreyne.) Lard, 3 oz.; melt, and add, of oil of
turpentine and olive oil, of each 1 oz.; when cold, further add of
camphorated spirit, 4 fl. dr.; liquor of ammonia, 1 fl. dr. In sciatica,
lumbago, &c.

_d._ (Opiated——Recamier.) Oil of turpentine, 1 fl. oz.; oil of chamomile,
2 fl. oz.; tincture of opium, 1 fl. dr. In neuralgia, &c.

_e._ (Sulphuric——Ph. Castr. Ruthena.) Oil of turpentine, 2 oz.; olive oil,
5 oz.; mix, and add of dilute sulphuric acid, 1-1/2 dr. See ACID LINIMENT.

=Liniment of Vera′trine.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM VERATRIÆ, L. _Prep._ (Brande.)
Veratrine, 8 gr.; alcohol, 1/2 fl. oz.; dissolve, and add of soap
liniment, 1/2 fl. oz. In neuralgic and rheumatic pains, gout, &c.

1826), L. _Prep._ (Ph. L.) Verdigris (in powder), 1 oz.; vinegar, 7 fl.
oz.; dissolve, filter, through linen, add of honey, 14 oz., and evaporate
to a proper consistence.

_Obs._ This preparation is wrongly named a ‘liniment.’ The College, after
‘beating about the bush’ for nearly a century, found a right name for it
in 1788; but, as in many other cases, soon abandoned it for another less

Oxymel of verdigris is stimulant, detergent, and escharotic. It is applied
to indolent ulcers, especially of the throat, by means of a camel-hair
pencil; and, diluted with water, it is used as a gargle. Care must be
taken to avoid swallowing it, as it occasions vomiting and excessive

_Prep._ Castor oil, 1 oz.; essential oils of wormwood and tansy, of each
1/2 oz.; Dr Peschier’s ethereal tincture of pennyroyal buds, 20 drops;
mix. Employed in frictions on the abdomen in cases of worms in children.
Its activity may be still further increased by the addition of a little
garlic juice. (‘Journ. de Méd.’) An excellent medicine.

=Liniment, Vesicating.= (Dr Montgomery.) _Syn._ LINIMENTUM VESICANS. For
children. Prep. Compound camphor liniment, 4 fl. dr.; oil of turpentine, 2
fl. dr. To produce immediate vesication in adults. Mix one part of the
strongest liquor ammoniæ, with two of olive oil, and apply six drops on
spongio-piline for ten minutes.

=Liniment, Ware’s.= _Prep._ From camphor liniment, 1 oz.; solution of
carbonate of potassa, 1 dr. In amaurosis.

=Liniment, White’s.= The old name for spermaceti ointment.

=Liniment, White.= _Syn._ LINIMENTUM ALBUM. _Prep._ Rectified oil of
turpentine, 2 oz.; solution of ammonia, 2 oz.; soap liniment, 3 oz.;
spirit of rosemary, 1 oz. Mix in the above order, and gradually add with
continual agitation, distilled vinegar, 8 oz. For chapped hands.

=Liniment, Wilkinson’s.= _Prep._ (Phœbus.) Prepared chalk, 20 gr.;
sulphur, lard, and tar, of each 1/2 oz.; mix, and add of Boyle’s fuming
liquor, 10 or 15 drops. In certain chronic skin diseases, neuralgia, &c.

=Linimentum Aconiti.= (B. P.) Aconite root, in powder, 20; camphor, 1;
rectified spirit, to percolate, 30. Moisten the root for 3 days, then pack
in a percolator, and pour sufficient rectified spirit upon it to produce
with the camphor 20.

Strength, 1 in 1. Applied with a camel-hair pencil, alone or mixed in
equal proportions, with a soap liniment or compound camphor liniment, and
rubbed on the part. Seven parts of this, and 1 part of chloroformum
belladonna, and sprinkled thinly on impermeable piline, is the best
application for neuralgia or lumbago.

=Linimentum Potassii Iodidi cum Sapone.= (B. P.) Hard soap, in powder,
1-1/2; iodide of potassium, 1-1/2; glycerin, 1; oil of lemon, 1/8; water,
1. Dissolve the soap in 7 of water by heat of a water bath; dissolve the
iodide of potassium in the remainder of the water, and mix by trituration
the two solutions, and when cold add the oil of lemon, and mix thoroughly.

=LINOLEIC ACID.= C_{16}H_{28}O_{2}. This may be obtained by saponifying
linseed oil. It is a liquid acid, and rapidly oxidizes when exposed to the
air, becoming converted into oxylinoleic acid, which is incapable of
solidification even at low temperatures.

=LIN′SEED.= _Syn._ FLAX SEED; LINI SEMINA, L. The seed of _Linum
usitatissimum_ (Linn.), or common flax. (Ph. L.) Oily, emollient,
demulcent, and nutritive. Ground to powder (linseed meal; farina lini), it
is used for poultices. The cake left after expressing the oil (linseed
cake) contains, when of average quality, in 100 parts, moisture, 12·70;
oil, 11·32; albumenoids, 28·21; mucilage, &c., 29·42; indigestible fibre,
12·46; ash, 5·89. It is used for feeding cattle. Under the form of tea or
infusion it is used as a diluent, and to allay irritation in bronchial,
urinary, and other like affections. See INFUSION OF LINSEED.


=LINT.= _Syn._ LINTEUM, L. White linen-cloth, scraped by hand or
machinery, so as to render it soft and woolly. The hand-made lint is now
little used; it was prepared from pieces of old linen-cloth. The
machine-made lint is prepared from a fabric woven on purpose. A lint made
from cotton (cotton-lint) is now largely manufactured; it is much inferior
to the true lint, being a bad conductor of heat. Lint is used for dressing
ulcers, either alone or smeared with some suitable ointment or cerate.

_Prep._ 1. Nitrate of silver, 20 to 30 gr.; distilled water, 1 fl. oz.;
dissolve, saturate dry lint, 1/2 oz., with the solution, and expose it in
a saucer or capsule to the light and air, until it has become black and

2. Nitrate of silver and nitrate of copper, of each 1/2 dr.; lint, 1 oz.;
water, 1-1/2 fl. oz.; as the last. Used to dress old and indolent ulcers.


=LIQUA′TION.= The process of sweating out by heat the more fusible metals
of an alloy. Metallurgists avail themselves of this method in assaying and
refining the precious metals and procuring antimony and some other metals
from their ores.

_pharmacy_, substances or agents which promote secretion and exhalation,
soften and loosen textures, and promote the absorption or removal of
enlargements, indurations, &c. To this class belong the alkalies,
antimony, bromine, chlorine, iodine, mercury, sulphur, &c., and their

=LIQUEFAC′TION.= The assumption of the liquid form. It is usually applied
to the conversion of a solid into the liquid state, which may arise from
increase of temperature (fusion), absorption of water from the atmosphere
(deliquescence), or the action of a body already fluid (solution).

=Liquefaction of Gases.= Under the combined influence of pressure and
cold, all the gases may be liquefied, and some even solidified. The first
satisfactory experiments in this direction were made by Faraday, who
succeeded in reducing to the liquid condition eight bodies which had
hitherto been regarded as permanent gases, namely, ammonia, carbonic
anhydride, chlorine, cyanogen, hydrochloric acid, nitrous oxide,
sulphuretted hydrogen, and sulphurous anhydride. His method of proceeding
was very simple:——the materials were sealed up in a strong, narrow, glass
tube, bent so as to form an obtuse angle, together with a little ‘pressure
gauge,’ consisting of a slender tube closed at one end, and having within
it, near the open extremity, a globule of mercury. The gas, being
disengaged by the application of heat or otherwise, accumulated in the
tube, and by its own pressure brought about liquefaction. The force
required for this purpose was judged of by the diminution of volume of the
air in the pressure gauge. By employing powerful condensing syringes, and
an extremely low temperature, Faraday subsequently succeeded in liquefying
olefiant gas, hydriodic and hydrobromic acids, phosphuretted hydrogen, and
the gaseous fluorides of silicon and boron. He failed, however, with
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, nitric oxide, carbonic oxide, and coal-gas,
all of which refused to liquefy at the temperature of -166° Fahr., while
subjected to pressures varying in different cases from 27 to 58

Within the last year, however, viz. toward the end of 1877, these hitherto
refractory gases have been reduced to the liquid, and, in the case of
hydrogen, to the solid state. These results have been accomplished by
subjecting the gases to a pressure considerably greater than that employed
by Faraday, combined with the expedient of the sudden removal of this
pressure, whereby the escaping gas (previously enormously reduced in
temperature) in the act of expansion robs the remainder of so much of its
heat as to leave it in the fluid condition.

The liquefaction of oxygen was accomplished independently by M. Cailletet,
of Paris, and M. Pictet, of Geneva; the French chemist having effected it
on December 2nd, 1877, and the Swiss one on the 22nd of the same month.

Simultaneously with Cailletet’s announcement of the liquefaction of
oxygen, that of carbonic oxide was made by the same chemist; who, about
three weeks after at a meeting in the Paris Academy of Sciences, stated
that he had also reduced hydrogen, nitrogen, and atmospheric air to the
fluid state.

In the previous November he had been equally successful in converting
gaseous nitric oxide into a liquid.

M. Cailletet, in a communication to the Paris Academy of Sciences, read by
M. Dumas at a meeting of that body on 24th December, 1877, thus describes
the process by which he liquefied the gases oxygen and carbonic oxide.

“If oxygen or pure carbonic oxide be enclosed in a tube such as I have
before described, and placed in an apparatus for compression like that
which has already been worked before the Academy,[17] and the gas be then
lowered in temperature to 29° C., by means of sulphurous acid and at a
pressure of about 300 atmospheres, the two gases preserve their gaseous

[Footnote 17: This apparatus, which consists of a hollow steel cylinder,
to which is attached a strong glass tube, is described in the ‘Comptes
Rendus,’ tome 85, p. 851. The gas is forced into it by means of a
hydraulic pump with the intervention of a cushion of mercury.]

“But if they are allowed to suddenly expand, this expansion, according to
the formula of Poisson, reducing them to a temperature at least 200° C.
below their initial temperature, causes them immediately to assume the
appearance of an intense fog, which is caused by the liquefaction and
perhaps by the solidification of the oxygen or carbonic acid.

“The same phenomenon is also observed, upon the expansion of carbonic
acid, and of protoxide and binoxide of nitrogen, when under strong

“This fog is produced with oxygen, even when the gas is at the ordinary
pressure, provided time is allowed for it to part with the heat it
acquires in the mere act of compression.

“This I demonstrated by experiments performed on Sunday, the 16th
December, at the Chemical Laboratory of the Ecole Normale Supérieure,
before a certain number of savants and professors, amongst whom were some
members of the Academy of Sciences. I had hoped to find in Paris, together
with the materials necessary for the production of a high degree of cold
(protoxide of nitrogen or liquid carbonic acid), a pump capable of
supplying the place of my compression apparatus at Châtillon-sur-Seine.
Unfortunately a pump well fixed and suited to this sort of experiment
could not be found in Paris, and I was obliged to send to
Châtillon-sur-Seine for the refrigerating substances for collecting the
condensed matters on the walls of the tube.

“To know whether oxygen and carbonic oxide are in a liquid or a solid
state in the fog would necessitate an optical experiment more easy to
imagine than to accomplish, because of the form and the thickness of the
tubes containing them. Furthermore, chemical reactions will assure me that
the oxygen is not transformed into ozone in the act of compression. I
shall reserve the study of all these questions till the apparatus I am now
having made is complete.

“Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, even the most
rapid expansion of pure hydrogen gives no trace of nebulous matter. There
remains for me only nitrogen to study, the small solubility of which in
water induces me to believe that it will prove very refractory to all
change of condition.”[18]

[Footnote 18: ‘Comptes Rendus,’ tome 5, p. 1213.]


M. Pictet’s process for liquefying oxygen, although differing in the
method of working, is similar in principle to that of M. Cailletet. His
paper, which was read at the same sitting of the Academy as M.
Cailletet’s, thus describes it:——

“A and B, in the accompanying figure, are two double section and force
pumps, coupled together on the compound system, one causing a vacuum in
the other in such a manner as to obtain the greatest possible difference
between the pressures of suction and forcing.”

The pumps act on anhydrous sulphurous acid contained in the cylindrical
receiver c. The pressure in this receiver is such that the sulphurous acid
is evaporated from it at a temperature of 65° C. below zero.

The sulphurous acid is forced by the pumps into a condenser, d, cooled by
a current of cold water; here it liquefies at the temperature of 25° above
zero, and at a pressure of about 2-3/4 atmospheres.

The sulphurous acid returns to the receiver C as it liquefies by the
little tube _d_.

E and F are two pumps resembling the preceding, and coupled in the same
manner. They act upon carbonic acid contained in a cylindrical receiver H.

The temperature in this latter receiver is such that the carbonic acid
evaporates from it at a temperature of 140° C. below zero.

The carbonic acid forced on by the pumps is driven into the condenser K,
enclosed in the sulphurous acid receiver C, which has a temperature of 65°
below zero; the carbonic acid here becomes liquefied at a pressure of five

The carbonic acid, in proportion as it liquefies, returns to the
receptacle H by the small tube _k_.

L is a retort of wrought iron, sufficiently thick to resist a pressure of
500 atmospheres. It contains chlorate of potassium, and is heated in such
a manner as to give off pure oxygen. It communicates by a tubulure with an
inclined tube, M, made of very thick glass, one metre in length, which is
enveloped by the receiver, H, containing carbonic acid at the temperature
of 140° below zero.

A tap, N, situated upon the tubulure of the retort, permits of the opening
of an orifice, P, which leads into the surrounding air.

After the four pumps have been worked for several hours by means of a
steam engine of 15-horse power, and when all the oxygen has been
disengaged, the pressure in the glass tube is 320 atmospheres, and the
temperature at 140° below zero.

Upon suddenly opening the orifice, P, the oxygen escapes with violence,
producing, in doing so, so considerable an expansion and absorption of
heat as to cause a liquefied portion to appear in the glass tube, and to
spirt out from the orifice when the apparatus is sloped.

It ought to be stated that the quantity of liquefied oxygen contained in
the tube one metre long and 0·01 m. in internal diameter, occupied about a
third of its length, and issued from the orifice P in the form of a liquid

In a communication to M. Dumas, received two days after the above sitting,
M. Pictet described his experiments more fully, prefacing the account by
the following very interesting remarks:——“The end to which I have been
tending for the last 3 years has been to seek to demonstrate
experimentally that molecular cohesion is a general property of bodies
without exception.

“If the permanent gases cannot be liquefied, it must be concluded that
their constituent particles do not attract each other, and are therefore
independent of this law.

“To succeed experimentally in bringing the molecules of a gas into the
closest possible proximity, and thus to obtain its liquefaction, certain
indispensable conditions are necessary, which I thus sum up:

“1. To have a gas that must be perfectly pure and without a trace of
foreign gas.

“2. To have at one’s disposal very powerful means of compression.

“3. To obtain an intense degree of cold, and the abstraction of heat at
these low temperatures.

“4. To have a large surface of condensation maintained at these low

“5. To have the power of utilising the expansion of the gas under
considerable pressure to the atmospheric pressure, which expansion added
to the preceding means compels liquefaction.

“With these five conditions fulfilled, we may formulate the following

“When a gas is compressed at 500 or 600 atmospheres, and kept at a
temperature of -100° or 140°, and then let expand to the pressure of the
atmosphere, one of two things must occur. Either the gas, obeying the
action of cohesion, liquefies and yields its heat of condensation to the
portion of the gas, which expands and is lost in the gaseous form; or
under the hypothesis that cohesion is not a natural law, the gas passes
beyond absolute zero, that is to say, it becomes inert, a dust without
consistence. The work of expansion would be impossible, and the loss of
heat absolute.”

Spite of M. Cailletet’s supposition that nitrogen would prove a very
incoercible gas, his experiments showed the contrary, since he found that
it easily condensed under a pressure of about 200 atmospheres and at a
temperature of 13° C., the conditions as to its sudden expansion being

Hydrogen, the lightest of all the gases, which M. Cailletet could only
procure in the form of mist, was unmistakably liquefied by M. Pictet
within less than a fortnight afterwards, under a pressure of 650
atmospheres and 140° of cold.

The tap which confined the gas at this pressure, being opened, a jet of a
steel blue colour escaped from the orifice, accompanied by a hissing
sound, like that given off when a red-hot iron is dipped into cold water.
The jet suddenly became intermittent, and a shower of solid particles of
the hydrogen fell to the ground with a crackling noise. The hydrogen was
obtained by the decomposition of formiate of potash by caustic potash, the
gas thus yielded being absolutely pure.

Cailletet states that he succeeded perfectly in liquefying atmospheric
air, previously deprived of moisture and carbonic acid, but he omits to
mention the pressure and reduction of temperature to which the air was
subjected. He liquefied nitric oxide at the pressure of 104 atmospheres
and at a temperature of -11° C.

Carbonic anhydride is liquefied on the large scale by condensing it in
strong vessels of gun-metal or boiler-plate. Thilorier was the first to
procure it in a solid condition. It requires a pressure of between 27 and
28 atmospheres at 32° F. (Adams.) The liquefied acid is colourless and
limpid, lighter than water, and four times more expansible than air; it
mixes in all proportions with ether, alcohol, naphtha, oil of turpentine,
and sulphide of carbon; and is insoluble in water and fat oils. When a jet
of liquid carbonic anhydride is allowed to issue into the air from a
narrow aperture, such an intense degree of cold is produced by the
evaporation of a part, that the remainder freezes to a solid (solid
carbonic anhydride), and falls in a shower of snow. This substance, which
may be collected, affords a means of producing extreme cold. Mixed with a
little ether, and poured upon a mass of mercury, the latter is almost
instantly frozen. The temperature of this mixture in the air was found to
be -106° Fahr.; when the same mixture was placed beneath the receiver of
an air-pump, and exhaustion rapidly performed, the temperature sank to
-166°. This degree of cold was employed in Faraday’s last experiments on
the liquefaction of gases.

=LIQUEUR.= [Fr.] _Syn._ CORDIAL. A stimulating beverage, formed of weak
spirit, aromatised and sweetened. The manufacture of liqueurs constitutes
the trade of the ‘compounder,’ ‘rectifier,’ or ‘liquoriste.’

The materials employed in the preparation of liqueurs or cordials are rain
or distilled water, white sugar, clean flavourless spirit, and flavouring
ingredients. To these may be added the substances employed as ‘finings,’
when artificial clarification is had recourse to.

The utensils and apparatus required in the business are those ordinarily
found in the wine and spirit cellar; together with a copper still,
furnished with a pewter head and a pewter worm or condenser, when the
method ‘by distillation’ is pursued. A barrel, hogshead, or rum puncheon,
sawn in two, or simply ‘unheaded,’ as the case may demand, forms an
excellent vessel for the solution of the sugar; and 2 or 3 fluted funnels,
with some good white flannel, will occasionally be found useful for
filtering the aromatic essences used for flavouring. Great care is taken
to ensure the whole of the utensils, &c., being perfectly clean and
‘sweet,’ and well ‘seasoned,’ in order that they may neither stain nor
flavour the substances placed in contact with them.

In the preparation or compounding of liqueurs, one of the first objects
which engages the operator’s attention is the production of an alcoholic
solution of the aromatic principles which are to give them their peculiar
aroma and flavour. This is done either by simple solution or maceration,
as in the manufacture of tinctures and medicated spirits, or by maceration
and subsequent distillation. The products, in this country, are called
ESSENCES or SPIRITS, and by the French INFUSIONS, and are added to the
solution of sugar (SYRUP or CAPILLAIRE) or to the dulcified spirit, in the
proportions required. Grain or molasses spirit is the kind usually
employed for this purpose in England. As before observed, it should be of
the best quality; as, if this is not the case, the raw flavour of the
spirit is perceptible in the liquor. Rectified spirit of wine is generally
very free from flavour, and when reduced to a proper strength with clear
soft water, forms a spirit admirably adapted for the preparation of
cordial liquors. Spirit weaker than about 45 o. p., which has been freed
from its own essential oil by careful rectification, is known in trade
under the title of ‘pure,’ ‘flavourless,’ ‘plain,’ or ‘silent spirit.’
Before macerating the ingredients, if they possess the solid form, they
are coarsely pounded, bruised, sliced, or ground, as the peculiar
character of the substance may indicate. This is not done until shortly
before submitting them to the action of the menstruum; as, after they are
bruised they rapidly lose their aromatic properties by exposure to the
air. When it is intended to keep them for any time in the divided state
they should be preserved in well-corked bottles or jars. The practice of
drying the ingredients before pounding them, frequently adopted by
ignorant and lazy workmen for the sake of lessening the labour, is, of
course, even more destructive to their most valuable qualities than mere
exposure to the air. The length of time the ingredients should be digested
in the spirit should never be less than 5 or 6 days, but a longer period
is preferable when distillation is not employed. In either case the time
may be advantageously extended to 10 days or a fortnight, and frequent
agitation should be had recourse to during the whole period. When
essential oils are employed to convey the flavour, they are first
dissolved in a little of the strongest rectified spirit of wine, in the
manner explained under ESSENCE; and when added to the spirit, they are
mixed up with the whole mass as rapidly and as perfectly as possible. In
managing the still, the fire is proportioned to the ponderosity of the oil
or flavouring substance, and the receiver is changed before the faints
come over; as these are unfitted to be mixed with the cordial. In many
cases the addition of a few pounds of common salt to the liquor in the
still facilitates the process and improves the product. Ingredients which
are not volatile are, of course, always added after distillation. The
stronger spirit is reduced to the desired strength by means of either
clear soft water or the clarified syrup used for sweetening. The sugar
employed should be of the finest quality, and is preferably made into
capillaire or syrup before adding it to the aromatised spirit; and not
until this last has been rendered perfectly ‘fine’ or transparent, by
infiltration or clarification, as the case may demand. Some spirits or
infusions, as those of aniseed, caraway, &c., more particularly require
this treatment, which is best performed by running them through a clean
wine bag, made of rather fine cloth, having previously mixed them with a
spoonful or two of magnesia; but in all cases clarification by simple
repose should be preferred. Under proper management, liqueurs or cordials
prepared of good materials will be found perfectly ‘clear’ or ‘bright’ as
soon as made, or will become so after being allowed a few days for
defecation; but in the hands of the inexperienced operator, and when the
spirit employed is insufficient in strength or quantity, it often happens
that they turn out ‘foul’ or ‘milky.’ When this is the case, the liquid
may be ‘fined down’ with the whites of 12 to 20 eggs per hogshead; or a
little alum, either alone or followed by a little carbonate of sodium or
potassium, both dissolved in water, may be added, in the manner described
under FININGS.

An excellent and easy way of manufacturing cordial liquors, especially
when it is inconvenient to keep a large stock on hand, is by simply
‘aromatising’ and ‘colouring,’ as circumstances or business may demand,
spirit 60 or 64 u. p., kept ready sweetened for the purpose. To do this to
the best advantage, two descriptions of sweetened spirit should be
provided, containing respectively 1 lb. and 3 lbs. of sugar to the gallon.
From these, spirit of any intermediate sweetness may be made, which may be
flavoured with any essential oil dissolved in alcohol, or any aromatised
spirit or ‘infusion’ (see _below_), prepared either by digestion or
distillation. As a general rule, the concentrated essences, made by
dissolving 1 oz. of the essential oil in 1 pint of the strongest rectified
spirit of wine, will be found admirably adapted for this purpose. These
essences, which should be kept in well-corked bottles, are employed by
dropping them cautiously into the sweetened spirit until the desired
flavour is produced. During this operation the liquor should be
frequently and violently shaken to produce complete admixture. If by any
accident the essence is added in too large a quantity, the resulting
‘milkiness’ or excess of flavour may be removed by the addition of a
little more spirit, or by clarification. In this way the majority of the
liqueurs in common use may be produced extemporaneously, of nearly equal
quality to those prepared by distillation. For those which are coloured,
simple digestion of the ingredients is almost universally adopted. The
“process by distillation” should, however, be always employed to impart
the flavour and aroma of volatile aromatics to the spirit, when expense,
labour, and time are of less importance than the production of a superior

The French liqueuristes are famed for the preparation of cordials of
superior quality, cream-like smoothness, and delicate flavour. Their
success chiefly arises from the employment of very pure spirit and sugar
(the former in a larger proportion than that adopted by the English
compounder), and in the judicious application of the flavouring
ingredients. They distinguish their cordials as ‘eaux’ and ‘extraits’
(waters, extracts), or liqueurs which, though sweetened, are entirely
devoid of viscidity; and ‘baumes,’ ‘crêmes,’ and ‘huiles’ (balms, creams,
oils), which contain sufficient sugar to impart to them a syrupy
consistence. The greatest possible attention is given to the preparation
of the aromatised or flavouring essences, in France called ‘infusions.’
These are generally made by macerating the aromatic ingredients in spirit
at about 2 to 4 u. p. (sp. gr. ·922 to ·925), placed in well-corked glass
carboys, or stoneware jars or bottles. The maceration is continued, with
occasional agitation, for 3, 4, or even 5 weeks, when the aromatised
spirit is either distilled or filtered; generally the former. The outer
peel of cedrats, lemons, oranges, limettes, bergamottes, &c., is alone
used by our Continental neighbours, and is obtained either by carefully
peeling the fruit with a knife, or by ‘oleo-saccharum,’ by rubbing it off
with a lump of hard white sugar. Aromatic seeds and woods are bruised by
pounding before being submitted to infusion. The substances employed in
France to colour liqueurs are, for——blue, soluble Prussian blue, sulphate
of indigo (nearly neutralised with chalk), and the juice of blue flowers
and berries;——amber, fawn, and brandy colour, burnt sugar or spirit
colouring;——green, spinach or parsley leaves (digested in spirit), and
mixtures of blue and yellow;——red, powdered cochineal or brazil wood,
either alone or mixed with a little alum;——violet, blue violet petals,
litmus, or extract of logwood;——purple, the same as violet, only
deeper;——yellow, an aqueous infusion of safflower or French berries, and
the tinctures of saffron and turmeric.

A frequent cause of failure in the manufacture of liqueurs and cordials is
the addition of too much flavouring matter. Persons unaccustomed to the
use of strong aromatic essences and essential oils seldom sufficiently
estimate their power, and, consequently, are very apt to add too much of
them, by which the liqueur is rendered not only disagreeably high
flavoured, but, from the excess of oil present, also ‘milky,’ or ‘foul,’
either at once, or, what is nearly as bad, on the addition of water. This
source of annoyance, arising entirely from bad manipulation, frequently
discourages the tyro, and cuts short his career as a manufacturer. From
the viscidity of cordials they are less readily ‘fined down’ than
unsweetened liquor, and often give much trouble to clumsy and
inexperienced operators. The most certain way to prevent disappointment in
this respect is to use too little rather than too much flavouring; for if
the quantity proves insufficient, it is readily ‘brought up’ at any time,
but the contrary is not effected without some trouble and delay.

A careful attention to the previous remarks will render this branch of the
rectifier’s art far more perfect and easy of performance than it is at
present, and will, in most cases, produce at once a satisfactory article,
‘fine, sweet, and pleasant.’

The cordials of respectable British ‘compounders’ contain fully 3 lbs. of
white lump sugar per gallon, and are of the strength of 60 to 64 u. p. The
baumes, crêmes, and huiles imported from the Continent are richer both in
spirit and sugar than ours, and to this may be referred much of their
superiority. Mere sweetened or cordialised spirits (eaux, of the Fr.)
contain only from 1 to 1-1/2 lb. of sugar per gallon.

The purity of liqueurs is determined in the manner noticed under BRANDY,
WINE, &c.

The following list embraces nearly all the cordials and liqueurs, both
native and imported, met with in trade in this country:——

WORMWOOD. _Prep._ From the tops of _Absinthum majus_, 4 lbs.; tops of
_Absinthum minus_, 2 lbs.; angelica root, _Calamus aromaticus_, Chinese
aniseed, and leaves of dittany of Crete, of each 15 gr.; brandy or spirit
at 12 u. p., 4 galls.; macerate for 10 days, then add water, 1 gall.;
distil 4 galls. by a gentle heat, and dissolve in the distilled spirit, of
crushed white sugar, 2 lbs. Tonic and stomachic.

=Alker′mes.= This liqueur is highly esteemed in some parts of the South of

_Prep._ 1. Bay leaves and mace, of each 1 lb.; nutmegs and cinnamon, of
each 2 oz.; cloves, 1 oz. (all bruised); cognac brandy, 3-1/2 galls.;
macerate for 3 weeks, frequently shaking, then distil over 3 galls., and
add of clarified spirit of kermes, 18 lbs.; orange-flower water, 1 pint;
mix well, and bottle. This is the original formula for the ‘alkermes de
Santa Maria Novella,’ which is much valued.

2. Spice, as last; British brandy, 4 galls. water, 1 gall.; macerate as
before, and draw over 4 galls., to which add, of capillaire, 2 galls., and
sweet spirit of nitre, 1/4 pint. Cassia is often used for cinnamon.
Inferior to the last.

=An′iseed Cordial.= _Prep._ 1. From aniseed, 2 oz. (or essential oil,
1-1/2 dr.), and sugar, 3 lbs. per gall. It should not be weaker than about
45 u. p., as at lower strengths it is impossible to produce a
full-flavoured article without its being milky, or liable to become so.

2. (ANISETTE DE BORDEAUX.)——_a._ (Foreign.) Aniseed, 4 oz.; coriander and
sweet fennel seeds, of each 1 oz. (bruised); rectified spirit, 1/2 gall.;
water, 3 quarts; macerate for 5 or 6 days, then draw over 7 pints, and add
of lump sugar, 2-1/2 lbs.

_b._ (English.) Oil of aniseed, 15 drops; oils of cassia and caraway, of
each 6 drops; rub them with a little sugar, and then dissolve it in spirit
(45 u. p.), 3 quarts, by well shaking them together; filter, if necessary,
and dissolve in the clear liquor sugar, 1-1/2 lb. See PEPPERMINT

=Balm of Molucca.= _Prep._ From mace, 1 dr.; cloves, 1/2 oz.; clean spirit
(22 u. p.), 1 gall.; infuse for a week in a well-corked carboy or jar,
frequently shaking, colour with burnt sugar q. s., and to the clear
tincture add of lump sugar, 4-1/2 lbs.; dissolved in pure soft water, 1/2
gall. On the Continent this takes the place of the ‘cloves’ of the English

=Bit′ters.= These have generally from 1 to 1-1/2 lb. of sugar per

[Footnote 19: See article BITTERS.]

=Car′away Cordial.= _Prep._ Generally from the essential oil, with only
2-1/2 lbs. of sugar per gall. 1 fl. dr. of the oil is commonly reckoned
equal to 1/4 lb. of the seed. The addition of a very little oil of cassia,
and about half as much of essence of lemon or of orange, improves it. See
BRANDY (Caraway).

=Ce′drat Cordial.= _Prep._ From essence (oil) of cedrat, 1/4 oz.; pure
spirit (at proof), 1 gall.; dissolve, add of water, 3 pints, agitate well;
distil 3 quarts, and add an equal measure of clarified syrup. A delicious
liqueur. See CRÊME and EAU (_below_).

=Cin′namon Cordial.= _Prep._ This is seldom made with cinnamon, owing to
its high price, but with either the essential oil or bark of cassia, with
about 2 lbs. of sugar to the gall. It is preferred coloured, and therefore
may be very well prepared by simple digestion. The addition of 5 or 6
drops each of essence of lemon and orange peel, with about a spoonful of
essence of cardamoms per gall., improves it. 1 oz. of oil of cassia is
considered equal to 8 lbs. of the buds or bark. 1 fl. dr. of the oil is
enough for 2-1/2 galls. It is coloured with burnt sugar.

=Cit′ron Cordial.= _Prep._ From the oil or peel, with 3 lbs. of sugar per
gall., as above. (See _below_.)

=Citronelle.= _Syn._ EAU DE BARBADES. _Prep._ 1. From fresh orange peel,
2 oz.; fresh lemon peel, 4 oz.; cloves, 1/2 dr.; corianders and cinnamon,
of each 1 dr.; proof spirit, 4 pints; digest for 10 days, then add of
water, 1 quart, and distil 1/2 gall.; to the distilled essence add of
white sugar, 2 lbs., dissolved in water, 1 quart.

2. Essence of orange, 1/2 dr.; essence of lemon, 1 dr.; oil of cloves, and
cassia, of each 10 drops; oil of coriander, 20 drops; spirit (58 o. p.), 5
pints; agitate until dissolved, then add of distilled or clear soft water,
3 pints; well mix, and filter it through blotting paper, if necessary;
lastly add of sugar (dissolved), q. s.

=Clairet.= _Syn._ ROSSALIS DES SIN GRAINES. _Prep._ From aniseed, fennel
seed, coriander seed, caraway seed, dill seed, and seeds of the
candy-carrot (_Athamantia cretensis_——Linn.), of each (bruised) 1 oz.;
proof spirit 1/2 gall.; digest for a week, strain, and add of loaf sugar,
1 lb., dissolved in water, q. s.

=Cloves.= _Syn._ CLOVE CORDIAL. _Prep._ From bruised cloves, 1 oz., or
essential oil, 1 fl. dr., to every 3 galls. of proof spirit. If distilled,
some common salt should be added, and it should be drawn over with a
pretty quick fire. It requires fully 3 lbs. of sugar per gall., and is
generally coloured with poppy flowers or burnt sugar. The addition of 1
dr. of bruised pimento, or 5 drops of the oil for every oz. of cloves,
improves this cordial. See BALM OF MOLUCCA (_above_).

=Coriander Cordial.= _Prep._ From corianders, as the last. A few sliced
oranges improve it.

=Crême d’Anis.= As ANISEED CORDIAL, only richer.

=Crême des Barbades.= As CITRONELLE, adding some of the juice of the
oranges, and an additional lb. of sugar per gall.

=Crême de Cacao.= _Prep._ Infuse roasted caracca-cacao nuts (cut small), 1
lb., and vanilla, 1/2 oz., in brandy, 1 gall., for 8 days; strain, and add
of thick syrup, 3 quarts.

=Crême de Cedrat.= _Syn._ HUILE DE CEDRAT. _Prep._ From spirit of citron,
1 pint; spirit of cedrat, 1 quart; proof spirit, 3 quarts; white sugar, 16
lbs., dissolved in pure soft water, 2 galls.

=Crême de Macarons.= _Prep._ 1. From cloves, cinnamon, and mace, of each
(bruised) 1 dr.; bitter almonds (blanched and beaten to a paste), 7 oz.;
spirit (17 u. p.), 1 gall.; digest a week, filter, and add of white sugar,
6 lbs., dissolve in pure water, 2 quarts.

2. Clean spirit (at 24 u. p., sp. gr. ·945), 2 galls.; bitter almonds, 3/4
lb.; cloves, cinnamon, and mace, of each in coarse powder, 1-1/2 dr.;
infuse for 10 days, filter, and add of white sugar, 8 lbs.; dissolved in
pure water, 1 gall.; lastly, give the liqueur a violet tint with infusion
or tincture of litmus and cochineal. An agreeable, nutty-flavoured
cordial, but, from containing so much bitter almonds, should be only drank
in small quantities at a time. The English use only one half the above
quantity of almonds.

=Crême de Naphe.= _Prep._ From sweetened spirit (60 u. p.) containing
3-1/2 lbs. of sugar per gall., 7 quarts; orange-flower water (foreign), 1
quart. Delicious.

=Crême de Noyeau.= See NOYEAU.

=Crême d’Orange.= _Prep._ From oranges, (sliced), 3 dozen; rectified
spirit, 2 galls.; digest for 14 days; add, of lump sugar, 28 lbs.
(previously dissolved in water, 4-1/2 galls.); tincture of saffron, 1-1/2
fl. oz.; and orange-flower water, 2 quarts.

=Crême de Portugal.= Flavoured with lemon, to which a little oil of bitter
almonds is added.

=Curaçao.= _Prep._ From sweetened spirit (at 56 u. p.), containing 3-1/2
lbs. of sugar per gall., flavoured with a tincture made by digesting the
‘oleo-saccharum’ prepared from Seville oranges, 9 in number; cinnamon, 1
dr.; and mace, 3/4 dr., in rectified spirit, 1 pint. It is coloured by
digesting in it for a week or 10 days Brazil-wood (in powder), 1 oz., and
afterwards mellowing the colour with burnt sugar, q. s.

=Delight of the Mandarins.= From spirit (22 u. p.), 1 gall.; pure soft
water, 1/2 gall.; white sugar (crushed small), 4-1/2 lbs.; Chinese aniseed
and ambrette or musk seed, of each (bruised) 1/2 oz.; safflower, 1/4 oz.;
digested together in a carboy or stone bottle capable of holding double,
and agitated well every day for a fortnight.

=Eau de Cedrat.= _Syn._ CEDRAT WATER. As CRÊME DE CEDRAT, but using less

=Eau de Chasseurs.= See PEPPERMINT (_below_).

_Prep._ From brandy or proof spirit, 1 gall.; sugar, 3/4 lb.; dissolved in
aniseed water, 1 pint.

=Gold Cordial.= _Prep._ From angelica root (sliced), 1 lb.; raisins, 1/2
lb.; coriander seeds, 2 oz.; caraway seeds and cassia, of each 1-1/2 oz.;
cloves, 1/2 oz.; figs and sliced liquorice root, of each 4 oz.; proof
spirit, 3 galls.; water, 1 gall.; digest 2 days, and distil 3 gallons by a
gentle heat; to this add, of sugar, 9 lbs., dissolved in rose water and
clean soft water, of each 1 quart; lastly, colour the liquid by steeping
in it of bay saffron, 1-1/4 oz. This cordial was once held in much esteem.
It derives its name from a small quantity of gold leaf being formerly
added to it.

=Huile d’Anis.= See CRÊME D’ANIS (_above_).

=Huile de Vanille.= Flavoured with essence or tincture of vanilla. It is
kept in a decanter, and used to flavour liqueurs, grog, &c.

=Huile de Venus.= _Prep._ From the flowers of the wild carrot, 2-1/2 oz.,
and sugar, 3 lbs. to the gall. It is generally coloured by infusing a
little powdered cochineal in it.

=Jargonelle.= _Syn._ JARGONELLE CORDIAL. Flavoured with essence of
jargonelle pear (acetate of amyl). Pine-apple cordial and liqueurs from
some other fruits are also prepared from the new fruit essences. See

=Lem′on Cordial.= _Prep._ Digest fresh and dried lemon peel, of each 2
oz., and fresh orange peel, 1 oz., in proof spirit, 1 gall., for a week;
strain with expression, add of clear soft water q. s. to reduce it to the
desired strength, and lump sugar, 3 lbs. to the gallon. The addition of a
little orange-flower or rose water improves it.

=Liquodilla.= Flavoured with oranges and lemons, of each, sliced, 3 in
number; with sugar 2-1/2 lbs. per gall.

=Lov′age Cordial.= _Prep._ From the fresh roots of lovage, 1 oz. to the
gallon. A fourth of this quantity of the fresh roots of celery and sweet
fennel are also commonly added. In some parts a little fresh valerian root
and oil of savine are added before distillation. It is much valued by the
lower classes in some of the provinces for its stomachic and emmenagogue

=Oil of Ce′drat.= See CRÊME DE CEDRAT (_above_).

=Orange Cordial.= Like LEMON CORDIAL or CRÊME D’ORANGE, from fresh orange
peel, 1/2 lb., to the gallon.

=Parfait Amour.= _Syn._ PERFECT LOVE. _Prep._ Flavoured with the yellow
rind of 4 lemons, and a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla to the gallon,
with sugar, 3 lbs., and powdered cochineal q. s. to colour.

CHASSEURS, Fr. This well-known compound is in greater demand in every part
of the kingdom than all the other cordials put together.

_Prep._ 1. From peppermint water and gin or plain spirit (22 u. p.), of
each 1 pint; lump sugar, 3/4 lb.

2. (Wholesale.) English oil of peppermint, 5 oz., is added to rectified
spirits of wine, 3 pints, and the mixture is agitated well together for
some time in a corked bottle capable of holding 4 pints or more; it is
then emptied into a cask having a capacity of upwards of 100 galls., and
perfectly white and flavourless proof spirit, 36 galls., is poured in, and
the whole well agitated for ten minutes; a solution of the best double
refined lump sugar, 2-3/4 cwt., in about 35 galls. of pure filtered rain
water, is then added, and the contents of the cask well ‘rummaged up’ in
the usual manner for at least 15 minutes; sufficient clear rain water to
make up the whole quantity to exactly 100 gallons, and holding in solution
alum, 5 oz., is next added, and the whole is again well agitated for at
least a quarter of an hour, after which the cask is bunged down, and
allowed to repose for a fortnight before it is ‘broached’ for sale.

_Obs._ The last formula produces a beautiful article provided the
ingredients are of good quality. Care on this point is particularly
necessary in reference to the essential oil, which should only be
purchased of some known respectable dealer. The sugar should be
sufficiently pure to dissolve in a wine-glassful of clear soft water
without injuring its transparency, and the cask should be a fresh-emptied
gin pipe, or one properly prepared for gin, as, if it gives colour, it
will spoil the cordial. When these particulars are attended to, the
product is a bright transparent liquor as soon as made, and does not
require fining. Should there be the slightest opacity, the addition of 2
oz. of salt of tartar, dissolved in a quart of hot water, will have the
effect of ‘clearing it down’ in the course of a few days. The product is
100 galls. of cordial at 64 u. p.

=Pimen′to.= _Syn._ PIMENTO CORDIAL, PIMENTO DRAM. Rather strongly
flavoured with allspice or pimento. It has obtained a great repute in the
West Indies in diarrhœa, cholera, and bowel complaints generally.

=Rasp′berry Cordial.= _Prep._ From raspberry brandy, capillaire, and
water, equal parts. A similar article is prepared by flavouring sweetened
spirit with the new ‘raspberry essence.’

=Rat′ifia.= The numerous liqueurs bearing this name are noticed in another
part of this volume. See RATIFIA.

=Shrub.= See the article SHRUB in another part of this work.

=Sighs of Love.= _Prep._ 1. From proof spirit flavoured with otto of roses
and capillaire, equal parts.

2. From sugar, 6 lbs., pure soft water, q. s. to produce a gallon of
syrup, to which add, of eau de rose, 1 pint; proof spirit, 7 pints. It is
stained of a pale pink by powdered cochineal. A very pleasant cordial. A
drop or two (not more) of essence of ambergris or vanilla improves it.

=Tears of the Widow of Malabar.= _Prep._ As BALM OF MOLUCCA, but employing
cloves (bruised), 1/2 oz., mace (shredded), 1 dr., and a teaspoonful of
essence of vanilla for flavouring. Some add of orange-flower water, 1/4
pint. It is slightly coloured with burnt sugar.

=Tent.= From plain spirit (22 u. p.) and port wine, of each 1 quart;
sherry and soft water, of each 1 pint; orange-flower water and lemon
juice, of each 1/4 pint; essence of ambergris, 2 drops (not more); sugar,
2 lbs. See WINE.

=Us′quebaugh.= See the article USQUEBAUGH in another part of this work.


=LIQUEUR DORÉE.= [Fr.] _Prep._ Take of cinnamon, bitter orange peel, and
Peruvian bark, of each 1/2 oz.; hay saffron, 1/4 oz.; brandy and Malaga
wine, of each 3 quarts; digest for a week, strain, and add of lump sugar,
2 lbs. Tonic, stomachic, and stimulant; chiefly used as an agreeable
alcoholic dram.

=LIQUEUR DE PRESSAVIN.= [Fr.] _Prep._ From oxide of mercury (freshly
precipitated) and cream of tartar, of each 1 oz.; hot water, 1 quart;
dissolve and filter. For use 2 spoonfuls of this liquor are added to 1
quart of water.——_Dose._ A wine-glassful 3 or 4 times a day, avoiding the
use of common salt. This is simply a solution of potassio-tartrate of
mercury, and may be taken in the usual cases in which mercury is


=LIQUID-AMBAR.= _Syn._ COPAIBÆ BALSAM. A fluid balsamic juice obtained
from the _Liquidamber styraciflua_, an American tree. It closely resembles
LIQUID STORAX in its properties, and may be applied to the same purposes.

=LIQ′UOR.= _Syn._ LIQUOR, L.; LIQUEUR, Fr. This term is given in the
London Pharmacopœia to those aqueous solutions commonly though improperly
called ‘WATERS,’ ammoniæ liquor potassæ, &c. It is now more correctly
applied to the ‘WATERS’ of the British Pharmacopœia. See SOLUTION.

The term ‘liquor’ has also, of late years, been applied to certain
concentrated preparations, most of which would be more correctly termed
‘FLUID EXTRACTS,’ as they merely differ from good extracts in their
consistence, and from ordinary extracts in containing less starchy matter,
albumen, and gum. There is also usually a little spirit added to them to
prevent decomposition. Liquors of this kind may be prepared of the finest
quality by the same processes that are required for the preparation of
good soluble extracts; observing to stop the evaporation as soon as the
consistence of treacle is acquired, and when cold, to add 1-4th or 1-5th
part of their weight (after evaporation) in rectified spirit. The addition
of 3 or 4 drops of the oils of cloves and mustard seed, dissolved in the
spirit, will secure them from any risk of ‘moulding’ or fermenting; in
fact, with this addition many of them will keep well without spirit,
provided they are evaporated sufficiently, and kept in a cool place. The
liquors, which are merely concentrated infusions or decoctions, and which,
in their consistence, do not even approximate to extracts, may be made in
the manner directed under those heads.

Much confusion would be prevented if the terms ‘concentrated decoction,’
‘concentrated infusion,’ &c., were adopted for those vegetable
preparations possessing eight times the usual strength; ‘liquors’ for
those of a higher strength, but still sufficiently liquid to be treated as
such in dispensing, &c.; and ‘fluid extracts’ for those possessing
considerable consistence, and approaching the common extracts in their
degree of concentration and mode of preparation. See DECOCTION, INFUSION,

⁂ The following formulæ present some illustrations of the preparation of
this class of medicines.

=Liquor of Ammonia.= _Syn._ LIQUOR AMMONIÆ. _Prep._ Strong solution of
ammonia, 1 pint; distilled water, 2 pints; mix and preserve in a stoppered
bottle. Sp. gr. ·959.

=Liquor of Ammonia, Stronger.= _Syn._ LIQUOR AMMONIÆ FORTIOR. _Prep._ Mix
chloride of ammonium in coarse powder 3 lbs., and slaked lime 4 lbs., and
introduce the mixture into an iron bottle, placed in a metal pot
surrounded by sand. Connect the iron tube which screws air-tight into the
bottle in the usual manner, by corks, glass tubes, and caoutchouc collars,
with a Woulf’s bottle capable of holding a pint; connect this with a
second Woulf’s bottle of the same size, the second bottle with a matrass
of the capacity of three pints, in which 22 oz. of distilled water are
placed, and the matrass by means of a tube bent twice at right angles,
with an ordinary bottle containing distilled water 10 oz. Bottles 1 and 2
are empty, and the latter and the matrass which contains the 22 oz. of
distilled water are furnished each with a siphon safety-tube charged with
a very short column of mercury.

The heat of a fire, which should be very gradually raised, is to be now
applied to the metal pot, and continued until bubbles of condensible gas
cease to escape from the extremity of the glass tube which dips into the
water of the matrass.

The process being terminated, the matrass will contain about 43 fl. oz. of
strong solution of ammonia. Bottles 1 and 2 will now include the first,
about 16, the second, about 10 fl. oz. of a coloured ammoniacal liquid.

Place this in a flask closed by a cork, which should be perforated by a
siphon safety-tube containing a little mercury, and also by a second
safety-tube bent twice at right angles, and made to pass to the bottom of
the terminal bottle used in the preceding process. Apply heat to the flask
until the coloured liquid it contains is reduced to three fourths of its
original bulk. The product now contained in the terminal bottle will be
nearly of the strength of solution of ammonia, and may be made exactly so
by the addition of the proper quantity of distilled water, or of strong
solution of ammonia. Density ·191, contains 32·5 per cent. of ammonia.

_Antidotes._——Vinegar and water followed by acidulated demulcent drinks.

=Liquor, Anodyne.= See SPIRIT OF ETHER.

=Liquor, Antinephritic.= _Syn._ LIQUOR ANTINEPHRITICUS, L. _Prep._
(Adams.) Poppy heads, 6 oz.; water, 1-1/2 pint; boil to one third, strain
with pressure, and add of nitrate of potassa, 1 oz.——DOSE, 1 to 2
teaspoonfuls night and morning; in gravel and painful affections of the
kidneys and bladder.

=Liquor, Antipodag′ric (Beguin’s).= _Syn._ HOFFMANN’S GOUT LIQUID; LIQUOR
ANTIPODAGRICUS HOFFMANNII, L. _Prep._ From Boyle’s fuming liquor, 1 part;
spirit of wine, 3 parts. Sudorific.——_Dose_, 20 to 30 drops; or
externally, in gout, and other painful affections, either alone or
combined with camphor. See AMMONIUM, PERSULPHIDE OF.

=Liquor Antipsor′ic.= _Syn._ LIQUOR ANTIPSORICUS, LOTIO A., L. _Prep._
(Van Mons.) Sulphuret of sodium, 1-1/2 dr.; hydrochlorate of ammonia, 75
gr.; dissolve each separately in water, 1/2 pint, mix the solutions, and
filter. In itch and other moist skin diseases.

=Liquor, Bleaching.= See SOLUTION OF CHLORIDE OF LIME.

CANTHARIDES. _Prep._ Mix cantharides in powder, 8 oz.; and acetic acid, 4
fl. oz. Pack in a percolator, and after 24 hours pass ether slowly through
until 20 fl. oz. are obtained. Keep in a stoppered bottle.

=Liquor, Boyle’s Fu′′ming.= The perhydrosulphate of ammonia.

=Liquor of Calum′ba.= _Syn._ LIQUOR CALUMBÆ, L. Same as CONCENTRATED

=Liquor of Cam′phor.= See ESSENCE.


SPISSATUM (Ph. L.), L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.) Yellow cinchona bark (bruised),
3 lbs., is macerated in distilled water, 6 pints, at two successive
operations, as directed under EXTRACT OF CINCHONA——Ph. L.; the mixed
infusions are evaporated by the heat of a water bath to one fourth, and
placed aside to settle; the clear portion is decanted, the remainder
strained, and the mixed liquid again evaporated until its sp. gr. reaches
1·200; to this, when cold, rectified spirit is dropped in, by degrees, “so
that 3 fl. dr. may be added to each fl. oz. of the liquor;” lastly, allow
it to repose for 20 days, that the dregs may subside.

_Obs._ It is not at all clear whether the College means 3 fl. dr. of
spirit to be added to each fl. oz. of the liquid before its addition, or
that it is to be added so that each fl. oz. of the product shall contain
that quantity. We presume the former. 1 fl. dr. of this preparation is
said to represent fully 4 fl. oz. of the INFUSION OF CINCHONA——Ph. L.; but
it is obvious that it must be liable to great variations in strength. “In
a general way 1 fl. dr. may be considered equal to 3 fl. oz. of the
infusion.” (Pereira.) As commonly met with, this preparation is nearly
destitute of the cinchona alkaloids.

2. Yellow cinchona bark, bruised, 56 lbs., and water holding in solution
sulphuric acid, 1-1/2 lb., are macerated together, with occasional
agitation, in a covered earthen vessel, for 48 hours, after which the
liquor is expressed, and the residuum or marc is treated with fresh water;
the mixed strained liquid is then evaporated as rapidly as possible in
earthenware, to exactly 6 lbs.; to this rectified spirit, 1-1/4 lb., is
added, and the whole is set aside for a week or 10 days; the clear portion
is, lastly, decanted and preserved in well-closed bottles. The product is
very rich in quinine. It is 96 times as strong as the DECOCTION OF
CINCHONA——Ph. L., and 12 times as strong as the above preparation of the
Ph. L. This preparation resembles the ‘LIQUOR CINCHONÆ’ sold by certain
houses in the trade at 24s. per lb., wholesale.

3. Exhaust the bark as above by maceration in 3 successive waters without
acid, filter, evaporate the mixed liquors to 7 lbs., and proceed as
before. Inferior to the last, and less rich in the cinchona alkaloids.
Very thick; scarcely liquid.

SPISSATUM——Ph. L.) From pale bark, as the last. See INFUSION OF CINCHONA.

=Liquor, Disinfect′ing.= See SOLUTION (Chlorides of Lime, Soda, and Zinc),

CONCENTRATUM, L. _Prep._ Recent ergot of rye (reduced to coarse powder by
pounding, or preferably by grinding it in a pepper-mill), 1-1/2 lb., and
boiling distilled water, 4 lbs., are digested together in a closed vessel,
with frequent agitation until cold, and then put into a wide-mouthed
bottle, along with rectified spirit, 2 lbs.; the whole is then allowed to
macerate for a week, after which the liquor is expressed and filtered.
_Obs._ 4 fl. dr. of this essence are equal to 1 dr. of ergot in substance.
It is 8 times the strength of the INFUSION (as usually prepared according
to the formula of Pereira and others), and 2-1/2 times the strength of the
TINCTURE OF ERGOT of the London Apothecaries’ Hall. This is the only
ESSENCE OF LIQUOR OF ERGOT known in the wholesale trade.

=Liquor of Flints.= See SOLUTION.

=Liquor of Gutta Percha.= B. _Syn._ LIQUOR GUTTA PERCHA. Gutta percha in
thin slices, 1 oz.; carbonate of lead in fine powder, 1 oz.; chloroform, 8
fl. oz. Add the gutta percha to 6 fl. oz. of chloroform in a stoppered
bottle, and shake them frequently till solution has been effected. Then
add the carbonate of lead previously mixed with the remainder of the
chloroform, and having several times shaken the whole together set the
mixture aside, and let it remain at rest until the soluble matter has
subsided. Lastly, decant the clear liquid and keep in a well-stoppered

=Liquor, Libavius’s.= Bichloride of tin.

1 lb.; rectified spirit, 1/2 pint; distilled water, 32 fl. oz.; digest 10
days, express, and filter. 1 fl. dr. added to 7 fl. dr. of water is equal
to 1 fl. oz. of the common INFUSION.

LIQUAMINIS MYRRHÆ, L. _Prep._ (Ph. Bor.) Extract of myrrh (Ph. Bor.), 1
oz.; distilled water, 5 fl. oz.; mix thoroughly, decant, and strain. It
should be of a brownish-yellow colour, and turbid.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1 fl.

=Liquor of O′pium.= _Syn._ LIQUOR OPII, L. O. CONCENTRATUS, L. OPIATUS, L.

[Footnote 20: Under DROPS, p. 591.]

1. (Messrs Smith.) Opium, 4 oz., is made into an extract, and
‘denarcotised’ by ether; it is then dissolved in alcohol, filtered,
evaporated nearly to dryness, and redissolved in water q. s. to furnish 12
oz. of solution; to this is added, of rectified spirit, 2-3/4 oz., with
water q. s. to make the whole up to 16 oz.——_Dose_, 3 to 12 drops.

2. (Acetic; LIQUOR OPII ACETICUS, L.) See LAUDANUM (Houlton’s).

3. (Citric; LIQUOR OPII CITRICUS, L.)——_a._ Powdered opium, 1-1/2 oz.;
lemon juice, 1-1/2 pint; evaporate to one half, cool, add of rectified
spirit, 5 fl. oz., and the next day decant or filter; same strength as

_b._ (LIQUOR MORPHIÆ CITRATIS——Dr Porter.) Opium, 4 oz.; citric acid, 2
oz.; triturate, and add of boiling water, 15 fl. oz.; digest with
agitation for 24 hours, and filter. This last has above three times the
strength of ‘LAUDANUM,’ It is sadly misnamed.

HYDROCHLORICUS, L.——Dr Nichol.) Powdered opium, 1-1/2 oz.; distilled
water, 1 pint; hydrochloric acid, 1-1/2 fl. oz.; digest a fortnight, and
strain with expression. Same strength as ‘LAUDANUM,’ According to Dr
Nichol, this is preferable to every other preparation of opium.

L.)——_a._ Hard aqueous extract of opium (bruised), 3 oz., is boiled in
water, 1-1/2 pint, until dissolved; to the solution, when cold, rectified
spirit, 6 oz. is added, together with water, q. s. to make the whole
measure exactly 1 quart; the liquor is, lastly, filtered.

_b._ From hard extract of opium, 22 oz.; boiling water, 13 pints;
rectified spirit, 3 pints; as the last.

_c._ From extract of opium——Ph. L., 4-1/4 oz.; water, 1 quart; boil till
reduced to 34 fl. oz.; cool, filter, and add of rectified spirit, 5 fl.
oz., and water, q. s. to make up exactly 1 quart.

_Obs._ The first two formulæ, which vary only in their quantities, are
identical with that employed by Mr Battley. As hard extract of opium is
not always at hand, we have introduced a formula in which the ordinary
extract is ordered. It gives a precisely similar product to the others,
provided the cold aqueous decoction is filtered before adding the spirit.
Battley’s LIQUOR OPII SEDATIVUS is an excellent preparation, less exciting
than opium or laudanum.——_Dose_, 10 to 30 drops. Dr Christison states that
20 drops of Battley’s solution are equal to 30 drops of the common

=Liquor, Pancreatic= (Van den Corput). _Syn._ LIQUOR PANCREATINI.
Pancreatin and carbonate of potash, of each 10 gr.; balm water, 2-1/2 fl.
oz.; syrup of orange peel, 5 dr.——_Dose_, 1/2 fl. oz. to 1 fl. oz.

=Liquor of Pepsin.= (Mr Squire.) _Syn._ LIQUOR PEPSINI. _Prep._ 1 drachm
of Boudault’s pepsin in 1 oz. of distilled water. Salt must be added if it
is to be preserved.——_Dose._ A teaspoonful.

_Prep._ 1. Rhubarb (well bruised), 6-3/4 oz.; water, q. s.; rectified
spirit, 1/2 pint; proceed as for INFUSION OF CALUMBA (conc.); to produce a
quart. 8 times the usual strength.

2. See INFUSION OF RHUBARB (Concentrated).


=Liquor of Sarsaparil′la.= _Syn._ FLUID EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA; LIQUOR
SARZÆ, ESSENTIA SARSAPARILLÆ, L. _Prep._ Either the simple or the compound
liquor of sarsaparilla may be made from the corresponding decoction, or,
preferably, the infusion prepared with water at 125° Fahr., by carefully
evaporating it until sufficiently concentrated, and then straining it
through flannel, and adding a little spirit. Jamaica sarsaparilla should
be alone employed, as the other varieties, especially the Honduras, not
only possess less medicinal virtue, and yield less extract, but are very
liable to ferment and get mouldy, unless an undue proportion of spirit is
added to them. See EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA (Fluid).

=Liquor of Sen′na.= _Syn._ LIQUOR SENNÆ, L. Both the FLUID EXTRACT and the
CONCENTRATED INFUSION OF SENNA are called by this name, but more generally
the former. The following are additional formulæ:——

1. (Duncan.) Senna, 15 lbs.; boiling water, 5 galls.; proceed by the
method of displacement, evaporate the product to 10 lbs., add of molasses,
6 lbs. (previously concentrated over a water bath until it begins to
congeal on cooling), dissolve, and further add of rectified spirit, 1-1/4
pint, together with water q. s. to make the whole measure exactly 12
pints. Every fl. oz. represents 1 oz. of senna.

2. (Dr Tweedy.) As the last, but using tincture of ginger (prepared with
rectified spirit), 1-1/2 pint, instead of the spirit there ordered.

=Liquor of Soap.= _Syn._ LIQUOR SAPONIS, L. See TINCTURE.

=Liquor, Styp′tic.= _Syn._ LIQUOR STYPTICUS, L. _Prep._ (Ph.
Slevico-Holsat. 1831.) Alum and sulphate of copper, of each 1-1/2 oz.;
sulphuric acid, 1 oz.; water, 1 lb.; dissolve, and filter.

TARAXACI FLUIDUM, LIQUOR TARAXACI, L. _Prep._ 1. Dandelion roots (dried),
28 lbs., are rinsed in clean cold water to remove dirt, and then sliced
small, and macerated in enough cold water to cover them for 24 hours; the
liquid is next pressed out, and after the fecula has subsided the clear
portion is decanted, and heated to 180° or 190° Fahr., to coagulate the
albumen; the liquid is then filtered while hot and evaporated by steam, or
preferably by a current of warm air, until it is reduced to 22-1/2 lbs.;
to this rectified spirit, 6 lbs., is added, and after thorough agitation
the vessel is set aside for a week or a fortnight, after which the clear
portion is gently poured from the sediment and preserved in well-closed
bottles in a cool place. A very fine article. It represents an equal
weight of the root.

2. The expressed juice of dandelion is heated to near the boiling point,
strained, and evaporated, as the last, to a proper consistence; 1/4th or
1/5th of rectified spirit is then added, and the liquid is otherwise
treated as before. Very odorous and pale coloured.

3. Dried root (coarsely powered), 1 lb.; water, 1-1/4 pint; rectified
spirit, 1/2 pint; digest a week, express the liquor, pass it through a
hair sieve into a bottle, and in 10 days decant the clear portion.

4. (Ph. Bor.) Extract of dandelion, 3 parts; water, 1 part (or q. s.);
triturated together.

5. (W. Procter.) Fresh root, 2 lbs., is sliced and reduced to a pulp, and
macerated with 1/6th of its bulk of rectified spirit for 24 hours; it is
then subjected to strong pressure, the marc is treated with water
containing a little spirit, 1 pint, and the liquid is again expressed; the
mixed product is evaporated to 12 fl. oz., and when cold, rectified
spirit, 4 fl. oz. is added, and the whole filtered.

_Obs._ Liquor of taraxacum has a very large sale. The dose is 1 to 2 fl.
dr. See EXTRACT.

=Liquor of Valer′ian.= See EXTRACT OF VALERIAN (Fluid).

EXTRACTUM V. FLUIDUM, L. _Prep._ 1. Vanilla (sliced), 1 lb.; rectified
spirit, 3 pints; prepare a tincture either by displacement or maceration,
and reduce it, by distillation at the lowest possible temperature, to
1-1/2 lb.; put this into a strong bottle whilst hot, add of white sugar
candy (in powder), 1/2 lb., cork down, and agitate the whole until it is
nearly cold. Very fine. Used chiefly for its odour and flavour. It
represents half its weight of vanilla.

2. (W. Procter.) Vanilla (cut into thin transverse slices), 1 oz.; sugar,
3 oz.; triturate until reduced to fine powder, put it into a strong pint
bottle, along with syrup, 1/2 pint; water, 2 oz.; tie down the cork, and
set the bottle for half an hour in boiling water; cool, strain, and treat
the residue in a like manner with a mixture of water, 6 fl. oz., and
rectified spirit, 1 fl. oz.; lastly, mix the two products. Greatly
inferior to the last.

“The root or underground stem of the _Glycyrrhiza glabra_, fresh and
dried, cultivated in Britain.” “The recent and the dried root of
_Glycyrrhiza glabra_,” or common liquorice. “The fresh root is to be kept
buried in dried sand for use.” (Ph. L.) It has a sweetish taste, and is
slightly aperient, expectorant, and diuretic. It is a popular demulcent
and pectoral. Its extract and solution are much used as a domestic remedy
for cough. As a masticatory it allays thirst and irritation.

Composition of the fresh root of liquorice:

  Glycyrrhizin                8·60
  Gum                        26·60
  Matter soluble in alcohol,
    chiefly resin             0·75
  Albumen                     0·97
  Starch                     22·91
  Woody fibre                13·36
  Moisture                   26·81
  Ash, 3·07 per cent.         ——

Roussin asserts that the sweetness of liquorice root is not due to
glycyrrhizin, as has been hitherto assumed, but to an ammoniacal compound
of that substance. Glycyrrhizin, when purified four successive times by
dissolving it in alcohol, and precipitating the foreign matter
accompanying it by ether, is a yellowish substance, insoluble in cold
water, and almost tasteless. Treated with dilute solution of potash or
soda, it rapidly develops a sweet taste. In liquorice root, however, it is
not contained in combination with either of these two alkalies, but
appears to exist as an ammoniacal compound, for solutions of potash and
soda liberate ammonia, both from the root and the extract. In its
compounds with the alkalies glycyrrhizin plays the part of an acid, as it
forms true salts capable of undergoing decomposition with most of the
metallic salts, and also with the salts of the organic alkaloids. With
ammonia it forms two compounds, a basic salt, which yields a deep yellow
solution, and another containing less ammonia, the solution of which has
an amber colour. The former is produced by dissolving glycyrrhizin in
water with an excess of ammonia. Upon evaporating the resulting deep
yellow solution to dryness it leaves a yellowish, scaly, shining, brittle,
non-hygroscopic residue, which constitutes the second ammoniacal compound.
This is readily soluble in cold water, to which it imparts a pale yellow
colour and a very sweet taste. The solution turns deep yellow on the
addition of a few drops of solution of ammonia, owing to the formation of
the basic compound. The pale yellow solution possesses, in a marked
degree, the taste of liquorice root, which, indeed, owes its sweetness to
this glycyrrhizate of ammonia, or ammoniacal glycyrrhizin, as the author
prefers to call it. One gram of this compound imparts the sweet taste of
the root to two litres of water.

The author gives the following process for the preparation of the
ammoniacal glycyrrhizin in the pure state: The carefully-selected roots,
freed from all portions presenting a dark fracture, are scraped, and then
well pounded, so as to reduce them to a kind of stringy tow. This
substance is macerated in cold distilled water for some hours, pressed,
and treated a second time in the same manner. The two liquors are mixed
and allowed to stand for some time to deposit the starch. The supernatant
liquor is then boiled and filtered, to separate the coagulated albumen.
After cooling, sulphuric acid diluted with its weight of water is added
gradually, with brisk stirring, until a precipitate is no longer formed.
The precipitate, at first gelatinous and flocculent, after standing some
time, forms a compact semi-solid mass at the bottom of the vessel. The
supernatant liquor is rejected, and after roughly washing the precipitate
several times with pure water it is finally kneaded repeatedly in
distilled water until all trace of acidity has disappeared. The mass is
then well drained and agitated in a flask with three times its weight of
90° alcohol until dissolved, when a similar quantity of 96° to 98° alcohol
is added to the syrupy liquid so produced. A little pectic acid is thus
precipitated, which is removed by filtration. Ether is then added to the
alcoholic liquor as long as a precipitate is formed. After standing
twenty-four or even forty-eight hours a blackish pitchy substance is
deposited, which adheres to the glass, and allows of the clear liquor
being decanted. To this clear liquor is added, in small quantities at a
time, alcohol of 90° charged with gaseous ammonia, which determines the
formation of a yellow, rather heavy, flocculent precipitate of
glycyrrhizate of ammonia. This precipitate is washed rapidly on a fine
cloth with a mixture of equal parts of alcohol and ether, pressed and
dried in a current of warm air, or over sulphuric acid.

The author suggests the addition of ammoniacal glycyrrhizin to pill
masses, powders, or mixtures, and states that its power of masking the
taste of nauseous medicines is equal to 100 times its weight of sugar.
Sulphate of quinine, sulphate of magnesia, iodide of potassium, and
ipecacuanha, lose much of their taste by such an addition.

A dose of cod-liver oil or syrup of iodide of iron is rendered more
palatable by being preceded by a small dose of the solid ammoniacal
glycerin.[21] Its extract is the common LIQUORICE, SPANISH LIQUORICE, or
SPANISH JUICE, of the shops. See EXTRACT, &c.

[Footnote 21: ‘Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie,’ xii 6-11.]

=LISBON DIET DRINK.= 1. (Foy.) _Prep._ Guaiacum wood, rasped, 1 oz.;
sarsaparilla, bruised, 3 oz.; mezereon, sliced, 1/2 oz.; crude antimony
(in a rag), 2 oz.; water, 12 pints. Boil down to 8 pints, and add——red
sanders, rasped, white sandal, rasped, of each 3 oz.; rosewood, rasped
sassafras bark, sliced, of each 1 oz.; liquorice root, sliced, 1/2 oz.
Infuse for four hours, strain, and add syrup according to taste.——_Dose_,
1 to 2 pints a day.

2. (Pearson.) Sarsaparilla, bruised, 4 oz.; dried walnut peel, 4 oz.;
guaiacum, rasped, 1-1/2 oz.; crude antimony (in a rag), 1/2 oz.; water, 4
pints. Boil down to 3 pints.

=LIST.= The border or selvage torn off a piece of cloth. It is used by the
French polishers and law stationers to form their rubbers, and for
numerous other purposes.

of commerce is semi-vitrified protoxide of lead, obtained chiefly by
scraping off the drops that form on the surface of melted lead exposed to
a current of air (dross of lead; plumbum ustum), and heating it to a full
red, to melt out any undecomposed metal. The fused oxide, in cooling,
forms a yellow or reddish semi-crystalline mass, which readily separates
into scales; these, when ground, constitute the ‘powdered litharge’ of the
shops. Litharge is also prepared by exposing red lead to a heat
sufficiently high to fuse it, and ‘English litharge’ is obtained as a
secondary product, by liquefaction, from argentiferous lead ore, when it
is often called ‘silver stone.’

_Pur._ “Entirely, or almost entirely, soluble in dilute nitric acid. This
solution is blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen. Potassa throws down a
white precipitate, which is redissolved by adding the same in excess. If
sulphate of soda be added to 100 gr. of this oxide dissolved in nitric
acid, 135 gr. of sulphate of lead is precipitated.” (Ph. L.) “50 gr.
dissolve entirely, and without effervescence, in 1-1/2 fl. oz. of
pyroligneous acid, and the solution precipitated by 53 gr. of phosphate of
soda remains precipitable by more of the test.” (Ph. E.) The solution in
both acetic and nitric acid should be colourless. It is of great
importance to the pharmaceutist to obtain pure litharge, as the slightest
impurity will often colour and spoil his lead plaster (EMP. PLUMBI), and
solution of diacetate of lead (LIQ. PLUMBI DIACETATIS).

_Uses._ Litharge is employed in pharmacy, to make plasters and several
other preparations of lead; by painters as a ‘drier’ for oils; and for
various other purposes in the arts.

_Obs._ The litharge of commerce is distinguished by its colour as LITHARGE
ARGENTI, L. ARGENTUM, L. ARGYRITIS), which is purer, and paler coloured.
The dark colour of the former is generally said to be owing to the
presence of red lead. Foreign litharge generally contains copper and
iron; and, not infrequently, a little silver and silica. These are readily
detected by the usual tests. In grinding litharge, about 1 lb. of olive
oil is usually added to each 1 cwt. to prevent dust. The best solvents of
litharge are nitric acid and acetic acid. As it slowly absorbs the
carbonic acid of the air, it generally effervesces slightly when treated
with acids, and this effervescence is stronger in proportion to its age.

=LITH′IUM.= Li. The metallic base of LITHIA, first obtained by Sir H. Davy
by exposing hydrate of lithium in contact with mercury to galvanic action,
and decomposing the resulting amalgam by distillation. It is now obtained
by fusing pure chloride of lithium in a small, thick, porcelain crucible,
and decomposing it while in a fused state by a current of electricity. It
is a white metal, like sodium, very oxidisable, fusing at 356°, and having
a sp. gr. of ·59. It is the lightest metal known. It belongs to the
‘alkaline group,’ of which potassium, sodium, cæsium, and rubidium, are
the other members.

Lithium forms salts analogous to those of sodium, but usually somewhat
less soluble. They can be distinguished from those of potassium and sodium
by the phosphate and carbonate, being only sparingly soluble in
water,——from those of barium, strontium, and calcium, by forming
crystallisable and soluble salts with sulphuric acid and oxalic acid,——and
from those of magnesium, by the solution of its carbonate exhibiting an
alkaline reaction. Heated on platinum, they tinge the flame of the
blowpipe carmine red. The salts of lithium may generally be formed by
dissolving the hydrate or carbonate in dilute acids.

=Lithium, Benzoate.= LiC_{7}H_{5}O_{2},H_{2}O. (Paris Pharm. Society.)
Benzoic acid, 122 grams; lithium carbonate, 37 grams. Suspend the benzoic
acid in 10 parts of water, add the lithium carbonate, and heat. Solution
takes place with effervescence, and upon evaporation, handsome, much
flattened, more or less elongated prismatic crystals are obtained.

Lithium benzoate is very soluble in water. One grain of the salt calcined,
and then treated with slight excess of sulphuric acid, and heated to
redness should give 0·376 gram of lithium sulphate.

=Lithium, Bromide of.= LiBr. To 37 grams of carbonate of lithium suspended
in 200 grams of distilled water, 80 grams of bromine are added. A current
of sulphuretted hydrogen is then passed through the mixture until the
whole of the bromide has disappeared. Hydro-bromic acid is thus formed,
which decomposes the carbonate of lithium, bromide of lithium being
produced and sulphur set free. The mixture is then gently heated to drive
off the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen and to agglutinate the sulphur.
After filtration the liquor is concentrated, and if it be desired to
obtain the bromide in crystals, the desiccation is finished under a bell
jar by means of sulphuric acid.

=Lithium, Car′bonate of.= Li_{2}CO_{3}. _Syn._ CARBONATE OF LITHIA; LITHIÆ
CARBONAS (B. P.). _Prep._ To an aqueous solution of sulphate of lithium
add a strong solution of carbonate of ammonium, collect the precipitate,
drain, and press, wash with a little rectified spirit, and dry. By
dissolving it in boiling water, and slowly evaporating the solution,
crystals may be obtained.

_Prop., &c._ It resembles carbonate of magnesium in appearance; is soluble
in about 100 parts of cold water, and in considerably less of boiling
water, and is insoluble in alcohol. The tests for its purity given in the
B. P. are——in giving no precipitate with oxalate of calcium or lime water,
and leaving, when 10 grains are neutralised with sulphuric acid and
ignited, 14·86 grains of dry sulphate. It has been proposed by M.
Lipowitz, Dr Garrod, and others, as a solvent for uric acid calculi.
According to Biswanger, 1 part of carbonate of lithia in 120 parts of
water takes up, at blood-heat, nearly 4 parts of uric acid. Mr Alexander
Ure recommends a dilute solution of this substance as an injection in
lithic calculus, as it is a better solvent of uric acid than either borax
or the alkaline carbonates. “Of all the various menstrua hitherto
recommended, none appear to promise more favorably than the carbonate of
lithia.” “If by means of injections” (of this solution) “we can reduce a
stone at the rate of a grain or more an hour, we shall not merely diminish
the bulk of the calculus, but further loosen its cohesion, disintegrate
it, so to speak, causing it to crumble down, and be washed away in the
stream of urine.” (Mr A. Ure.)——_Dose_, 2 to 5 gr., twice or thrice a day;
as an injection, 1 gr. to water, 1 fl. oz.

=Lithium, Citrate of.= Li_{3}C_{6}H_{5}O_{7}. _Syn._ LITHIÆ CITRAS (B.
P.). A white deliquescent amorphous powder, made by acting on 50 grains of
lithium carbonate with 100 of citric acid, and is readily soluble in 2-1/2
parts of water.

_Tests, &c._ 20 grains burnt at a low red heat until white leave 10·6
grains of carbonate of lithium. Its medical properties are similar to
those of the carbonate.——_Dose_, 5 to 16 grains, largely diluted.

=Lithium, Citrate of, Effervescing.= (Paris Pharm. Society.) Citric acid,
40 grams; sodium bicarbonate, 50 grams; lithium bicarbonate, 10 grams. Mix
the powders and place them in a flat-bottomed vessel having a large
surface; heat to about 100° C., stirring the powder continually until it
takes the granular form, then by means of appropriate sieves obtain
granules of suitable and uniform size, and preserve the preparation in
well-closed bottles.

=Lithium, Oxide of.= Li_{2}O. _Syn._ LITHIA. An alkaline earth found in
petalite, &c., and in small quantities in most mineral waters.

_Prep._ Petalite (a silicate of aluminum and lithium) in powder mixed
with twice its weight of fluor spar is heated with strong sulphuric acid
as long as acid vapours are given off. The residue is treated with
ammonia, boiled, and filtered, evaporated to dryness, and heated to
redness. The residue consists of sulphate of lithium, from which the oxide
is obtained by decomposing it with acetate of barium, filtering and
heating after having evaporated the solution to dryness.

This yields the so-called oxide, which is in reality the hydrate, LiHO,
and is a white, non-volatile, soluble, caustic solid. The true oxide is a
white powder decomposed by water forming the hydrate, and obtainable by
igniting the metal in oxygen.

=Lithia, Effervescing Solution of.= _Syn._ LIQUOR LITHIÆ EFFERVESCENS.
_Comp._ Water charged with carbonic acid and holding in solution carbonate
of lithium. 10 fl. oz. contain 5 grains of the carbonate.——_Props._
Colourless liquid, possessing powerful diuretic properties.——_Use._
Antilithic, for dissolving calculi of uric acid.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 fl. oz.


=LITHOG′RAPHY.= The art of tracing letters, figures, and other designs, on
stone, and transferring them to paper by impression. Our notice of this
beautiful and useful art must necessarily be brief.

There are two methods of lithography in general use. In the one, a drawing
is made on the stone with a lithographic crayon, or with lithographic ink;
in the other method the design is made on lithographic paper, which, on
being moistened and passed through the press, leaves its design on the
surface of the stone, reversed. In either method, water acidulated with
nitrous acid, oil of vitriol, or hydrochloric acid, is poured over the
stone, and this, by removing the alkali from the chalk or ink, leaves the
design on it in a permanent form, at the same time that it ‘etches’ away a
portion of the lights, and renders the surface more absorbent of water.

The process of lithographic printing is as follows:——Water is thrown over
the stone, the roller charged with printing ink is passed over the
surface, the paper is applied, and a copy is obtained by the action of the
lithographic press. The same process must be had recourse to for each
copy. The nature of the stone is such that it retains with great tenacity
the resinous and oily substances contained in the ink or crayon employed
to form the design and also absorbs water freely; this, combined with the
peculiar affinity between resinous and oily substances, and their mutual
power of repelling water, occasions the ink on the printing roller to
adhere to the design, and to leave untouched the lights.

The stones are prepared for lithography by polishing in the ordinary way;
the style of work for which they are intended determining the degree of
labour bestowed upon them. For crayon drawings the surface should have a
fine grain, but the finish of the stone must depend upon the desired
softness of the intended drawing; for writing or drawing on in ink the
surface must receive a higher polish, and must be finished off with
pumice-stone and water.

The best lithographic stones are obtained from Solenhofen, near Munich,
and from Pappenheim, on the banks of the Danube. The white lias which lies
immediately under the blue, near Bath, also yields good lithographic
stones, and furnishes the principal portion of those employed in this
country. See CRAYONS, INK and PAPER.

head are intended numerous substances (LITHICS; LITHICA, L.) used to
prevent the formation of urinary calculi, or to dissolve them when already
formed. Those employed with the former intention are more correctly termed

The following are the principal substances included under this head by
pharmacological writers:——Alkalies and their carbonates, benzoic acid,
borax, carbonate of lithia, effervescing solution of lithia, carbonic
acid, cinnamic acid, diluents (generally), diuretics (generally), juniper,
malic acid, Malvern waters, mineral acids, nitrosaccharate of lead, opium,
phosphate of soda, phosphoric acid, poppies, turpentines, uva ursi,
vegetable acids, vegetable astringents, vegetable bitters, Vichy waters,
wall pellitory, water (pure).

A blue substance prepared by the united influence of water, air, ammonia,
and either potassa or soda, from _Rocella tinctoria_, _Lecanora tartarea_,
or any of the other tinctorial lichens capable of yielding archil, by a
process essentially similar to that adopted for the latter substance,
except that chalk is generally used to form the paste, which is moulded
into cakes and dried.

_Pur., &c._ “Soluble in both water and alcohol. Its blue colour is
reddened by acids, and is restored by the addition of alkalies.” (Ph. L.
1836.) It is extensively used by the dyer as a red and crimson colouring
matter, and by the chemist as a test for acids.

The colouring matter of litmus, when purified as much as possible, may be
kept for an indefinite period unaltered in glycerin. Litmus is treated
with hot water, and the solution, after concentration, is mixed with a
sufficient quantity of alcohol (of 80 per cent.) to precipitate the
colouring matter. After standing for twenty hours the alcohol is poured
off, and carries with it a dirty blue foreign substance, which frequently
occurs in litmus, and is not altered by acids. The sediment is treated
with hot water, which dissolves it on account of the potassium carbonate
which is present.

To remove this carbonate, sulphuric acid is added till the liquid assumes
a faint wine tint; it is then heated to boiling for a few minutes, and
again rendered blue by the addition of a few drops of lime water. After
the lapse of twenty-four hours the liquid is filtered, and evaporated to a
syrup, and left all night in a cool place, when the potassium sulphate
crystallises out in the form of a crust. It is then filtered through a
moist cotton mixed with glycerin, and carefully preserved from damp.[22]

[Footnote 22: J. C. Martenson, from ‘Chem. Centr.,’ translated into the
‘Journal of the Chemical Society.’]

=LIVE-LONG.= Digestive candy. See CANDYING.

=LIV′ER.= _Syn._ HEPAR, L. A large abdominal viscus, the exclusive duty of
which, until recently, was stated by physiologists to be to secrete bile;
but the secretion of sugar for combustion in the lungs or capillaries is
now said to be one of its chief duties. The liver is subject to several
diseases, both functional and organic, among which inflammation
(hepatitis) holds the most prominent place. The acute form of this disease
is ushered in with pain in the region of the liver, with sickness,
costiveness, and a strong, hard, and frequent pulse, with great pain about
the clavicle and shoulders. There is cough, oppressed breathing, and often
vomiting of bilious matter. The urine is scanty, and of a saffron-yellow
colour, and the skin and eyes are also tinged yellow. The treatment
consists chiefly in purging with salines accompanied with mercurials, the
use of antimonials, and a blister applied over the region of the liver.
Bitter tonics, as calumba, cascarilla, and gentian may afterwards be had
recourse to; and if the patient resides in a hot climate a change to a
temperate one should be made, if possible. Chronic hepatitis requires
similar treatment, but of a less active character. The more usual causes
of diseases of the liver, besides those common to the other viscera, are
residence in a hot climate, and the excessive use of highly seasoned food
and alcoholic liquors.

=Liv′er.= _Syn._ HEPAR, L. In _chemistry_ and _pharmacy_, a term formerly
applied to numerous substances, on account of their colour; as liver of
antimony (HEPAR ANTIMONII), liver of sulphur (HEPAR SULPHURIS), &c.

=Liver, Edible.= The livers of animals, such as the bullock, the calf, and
the sheep, contain a large amount of nitrogenous matter,[23] as may be
seen from the following analysis by Payen:

[Footnote 23: Hence the instinct that leads man to cook it with a food
rich in carbon——such as fat bacon.]

          _Composition of Calf’s Liver._

  Nitrogenous matter              20·10
  Fat                              3·58
  Carbo-hydrates (amyloid matter)  0·45
  Saline matter                    1·54
  Water                           72·33

They are generally regarded as indigestible articles of diet, and as such
should be avoided by dyspeptics.

It is of great importance to have the livers of animals thoroughly cooked,
so as to ensure the destruction of a dangerous parasite——the _Distoma
hepatica_, the liver fluke——that frequently infests them.

The foie gras, of which the celebrated Strasbourg pie is made, is the
abnormally enlarged or, rather, diseased liver of the goose, brought to
its enormous size and fatty condition by subjecting the bird to close
confinement in a hot place and overfeeding it.

=LIVER AND BACON.= The liver must be washed, not soaked, then wiped dry
and cut into slices. Flour each slice. Remove the rind from the bacon, and
cut it into rashers. Let the bacon be fried first, then stand it in a hot
dish before the fire during the time the liver is being fried in the
melted fat from the bacon. When the liver is cooked place it on the bacon.
Next mix a dessert-spoonful of flour into a smooth paste with a cupful of
water, stir in it a pinch of pepper and salt, and pour it into the
frying-pan; let it just boil, stirring it meanwhile, and, lastly, strain
it over the liver and bacon.

=LIXIVIA′TION.= The process of dissolving out or extracting the saline
matter of bodies, more especially of ashes, the residua of distillations,
&c., by means of ablution or digestion in water. The solution so obtained
is called a ‘LYE,’ ‘LEY,’ or ‘LIXIVIUM,’ and the salts resulting from the
evaporation of such solutions ‘LIXIVIAL SALTS,’

=LLA′MA.= _Syn._ GUANACO; LAMA, L. A genus of animals of the family
_Bovidæ_ and tribe _Camelina_. The llama is confined to South America, and
may be regarded as the representative of the camel in the New World. The
most important species are _Lama vicugna_ (the VICUNA) and _L. Guanacus_
(the GUANACO). The wool of llamas is woven into stuffs for _ponchos_, and
made into cords, sacks, &c. See ALPACA.

Native magnetic oxide of iron (Fe_{3}O_{4}). It is often found massive,
frequently crystallised, and occasionally in beds of considerable
thickness. Its colour varies from reddish black to deep grey. Native
magnets from Arabia, China, and Bengal are commonly of a reddish colour,
and are powerfully attractive. Those found in Germany and England have the
colour of unwrought iron; those from Macedonia are more black and dull.

=LOAM.= A native mixture of clay, sand, and oxide of iron, with more or
less chalk. Loamy soils are of this description. They are called heavy or
light, according to the proportion of clay; and sandy, calcareous, or
gravelly, just as sand, gravel, or chalk, form a characteristic portion of

=LOBEL′IA.= _Syn._ INDIAN TOBACCO; LOBELIA (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.), L.
“The flowering herb of _Lobelia inflata_” (B. P., Ph. L.), or
bladder-podded lobelia. The herb has an unpleasant odour, and an acrid,
burning, nauseous taste, somewhat resembling that of tobacco. In small
doses (1 to 3 gr.) it is expectorant and diaphoretic; in larger doses (5
to 15 gr.) nauseant and emetic; and in excessive doses, poisonous.
According to Dr Pereira, its principal value is that of an anti-spasmodic.
It has been highly recommended by Dr Elliotson in spasmodic asthma. He
commences with small doses, and gradually increases them unless headache
or nausea occurs. Others give a full dose at or before the commencement of
the fit. It has been also tried in croup, hooping-cough, and other
diseases of the respiratory organs, with variable effect.

Lobelia is the panacea of Dr Coffin, the author of the pretended system of
medicine irreverently called ‘Coffinism.’

=LOBEL′IC ACID.= The acid existing in decoction of lobelia. It closely
resembles gallic acid. It reddens litmus, and is precipitated by several
metallic salts.

=LOBEL′INE.= _Syn._ LOBELINA, L. A light yellowish-brown oily substance,
found by Calhoun, of Philadelphia, in _Lobelia inflata_. It is volatile,
soluble in alcohol, ether, and water; and in oil of turpentine, oil of
almonds, and some other fixed oils; with the acids it forms crystallisable
salts, which are soluble. It may be obtained from the seeds by the action
of alcohol acidulated with acetic acid, evaporating, treating with
magnesia and then with ether, and again evaporating. 1 oz. of the seeds
furnishes 2 gr. When perfectly pure, 1 gr. will kill a large dog.


=LOCK′SOY.= Rice boiled to a paste and drawn into threads. Used to thicken
soups. It is imported from China.

=LODGING-HOUSES.= The following sections of the Public Health Act of 1875
embody the regulations in force with regard to _common_ lodging-houses:

(S. 76.) Every local authority shall keep a register, in which shall be
entered the names and residences of the keepers of all common
lodging-houses within the district of such authority, and the situation of
every such house, and the number of lodgers authorised according to this
Act to be received therein.

A copy of any entry in such register certified by the person having charge
of the register to be a true copy shall be received in all courts and on
all occasions as evidence, and shall be sufficient proof of the matter
registered without production of the register, or of any document or thing
on which the entry is founded; and a certified copy of any such entry
shall be supplied gratis by the person having charge of the register to
any person applying at a reasonable time for the same.

(S. 77.) A person shall not keep a common lodging-house or receive a
lodger therein until the house has been registered in accordance with the
provisions of this Act, nor until his name as the keeper thereof has been
entered in the register kept under this Act; provided that when the person
so registered dies his widow or any member of his family may keep the
house as a common lodging-house for not more than four weeks after his
death without being registered as the keeper thereof.

(S. 78.) A house shall not be registered as a common lodging-house until
it has been inspected and approved for the purpose by some officer of the
local authority; and the local authority may refuse to register as the
keeper of a common lodging-house a person who does not produce to the
local authority a certificate of character in such form as the local
authority direct, signed by three inhabitant house-holders of the parish
respectively rated to the relief of the poor of the parish within which
the lodging-house is situated, for property of the yearly rateable value
of £6 or upwards.

(S. 79.) The keeper of every common lodging-house shall, if required in
writing by the local authority so to do, affix and keep undefaced and
legible a notice with the words, “Registered common lodging-house,” in
some conspicuous place on the outside of such house.

The keeper of any such house who, after requisition in writing from the
local authority, refuses or neglects to affix or renew such notice, shall
be liable to a penalty not exceeding £5, and to a further penalty of 10s.
for every day that such refusal or neglect continues after conviction.

(S. 80.) Every local authority shall from time to time make bye-laws:

    1. For fixing from time to time, varying the number of lodgers who
        may be received into a common lodging-house, and for the
        separation of the sexes therein; and——

    2. For promoting cleanliness and ventilation in such houses; and——

    3. For the giving of notices and taking precautions in the case of any
        infectious disease; and——

    4. Generally for the well-ordering of such houses.

(S. 81.) Where it appears to any local authority that a common
lodging-house is without a proper supply of water for the use of the
lodgers, and that such a supply can be furnished thereto at a reasonable
rate, the local authority may by notice in writing require the owner or
keeper of such house, within a time specified therein, to obtain such
supply, and to do all works necessary for that purpose; and if the notice
be not complied with accordingly, the local authority may remove such
house from the register until it is complied with.

(S. 82.) The keeper of a common lodging-house shall, to the satisfaction
of the local authority, limewash the walls and ceilings thereof in the
first week of each of the months of April and October in every year.
Penalty for neglect, £2 or less.

(S. 83.) The keeper of a common lodging-house in which beggars or vagrants
are received to lodge shall from time to time, if required in writing by
the local authority so to do, report to the local authority or to such
person as the local authority direct, every person who resorted to such
house during the preceding day or night, and for that purpose schedules
shall be furnished by the local authority to the person so ordered to
report, which schedules he shall fill up with the information required,
and transmit to the local authority.

(S. 84.) The keeper of a common lodging-house shall, when a person in such
house is ill of fever or any infectious disease, give immediate notice
thereof to the medical officer of health of the local authority, and also
to the poor-law relieving officer of the union or parish in which the
common lodging-house is situated.

(S. 85.) The keeper of a common lodging-house, and every other person
having or acting in the care or management thereof, shall, at all times
when required by any officer of the local authority, give him free access
to such house or any part thereof. Penalty for refusing such access, £5 or

(S. 86.) Any keeper of a common lodging-house, or other person having or
acting in the care or management thereof, who——

    1. Receives any lodger in such house without the same being
        registered under this Act; or——

    2. Fails to make a report after he has been furnished by the local
        authority with schedules for the purpose, in pursuance of this
        Act, of the persons resorting to such house; or——

    3. Fails to give the notices required by this Act, where any person
        has been confined to his bed in such house by fever or other
        infectious disease,——

Shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £5, and in the case of a
continuing offence to a further penalty not exceeding £2 for every day
during which the offence continues.

(S. 87.) In any proceedings under the provisions of this Act relating to
common lodging-houses, if the inmates of any house or part of a house
allege that they are members of the same family, the burden of proving
such allegation shall lie on the persons making it.

(S. 88.) Where the keeper of a common lodging-house is convicted of a
third offence against the provisions of this Act relating to common
lodging-houses, the Court before whom the conviction for such third
offence takes place may, if it thinks fit, adjudge that he shall not at
any time within five years after the conviction, or within such shorter
period after the conviction as the court thinks fit, keep, or have, or act
in the care or management of a common lodging-house without the previous
licence in writing of the local authority, may withhold or grant on such
terms or conditions as they think fit.

(S. 89.) For the purposes of this Act the expression ‘common
lodging-house’ includes, in any case in which only part of a house is used
as a common lodging-house, the part so used of such house.

                _Bye-laws as to Houses let as Lodgings._

    (S. 90.) The Local Government Board may, if they think fit, by
    notice published in the ‘London Gazette,’ declare the following
    enactment to be in force within the district or any part of the
    district of any local authority, and from and after the
    publication of such notice such authority shall be empowered to
    make bye-laws for the following matter (that is to say):

    1. For fixing the number, and from time to time varying the number,
        of persons who may occupy a house or part of a house which is let
        in lodgings, or occupied by members of more than one family, and
        for the separation of the sexes in a house so let or occupied.

    2. For the registration of houses so let or occupied.

    3. For the inspection of such houses.

    4. For enforcing drainage and the provision of privy accommodation for
        such houses, and for promoting cleanliness and ventilation in such

    5. For the cleansing and limewashing at stated times of the premises,
        and for the paving of the courts and courtyards thereof.

    6. For the giving of notices and taking of precautions in case of any
        infectious disease.

This section shall not apply to common lodging-houses within the
provisions of this Act, relating to such houses.

heart-wood of _Hæmatoxylon Campechianum_, a native of the coast of
Campeachy, but now common in the West Indies and India. It is a valuable
astringent, and its decoction, extract, and infusion are useful remedies
in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery, and in hæmorrhages, &c. The extract is
an efficient substitute for catechu and kino.

Logwood is extensively employed in dyeing and calico printing, for the
production of reds, violets, purples, blacks, drabs, &c. It readily yields
its colour both to spirit and boiling water. The colouring matter requires
a large quantity of water to dissolve it, but when dissolved can be
concentrated to any degree by boiling down. The infusion is of a fine red,
turning on the purple or violet; acids turn it on the yellow, and alkalies
deepen it. To stuffs mordanted with alum it gives various shades of
violet and purple, according to the proportions of the materials. By using
solution of tin as the mordant, various shades of red, lilac, and violet,
may be obtained. The addition of a little Brazil wood is commonly made to
brighten the red. With a mordant of sulphate or acetate of iron it dyes
black; and with the addition of a little sulphate of copper greys of
various shades. It is, however, chiefly employed, in conjunction with
gall-nuts, for blacks, to which it imparts a lustre and velvety
appearance. Silk is usually turned through the cold decoction, but for
wool the decoction is used either hot or boiling. Logwood is one of the
cheapest and most easily managed of the dye stuffs. It is also used to
make ink. See HEMATOXYLIN, INK, &c.


=LOR′ICA.= A species of lute applied as a coating to chemical vessels
before exposing them to the fire. Its application is called LORICATION.

=LO′TION.= _Syn._ LOTIO, L. An external application, or wash, consisting
of water holding in solution medicinal substances. Lotions may be prepared
of any soluble medicaments that are capable of exerting their action by
contact with the skin. Writers on pharmacology have arranged them in
classes, as sedative, anodyne, stimulant, &c., according to their effects.
Sedative and refrigerant lotions are commonly employed to allay
inflammation;——anodyne and narcotic lotions, to relieve pain;——stimulant
lotions, to induce the maturation of tumours, &c.;——detergent lotions, to
clean foul ulcers;——repellent and resolvent lotions, to discuss tumours,
remove eruptions, &c.;——counter-irritant lotions, to excite a secondary
morbid action, with the intention of relieving one already existing.
Lotions are usually applied by wetting a piece of linen with them and
keeping it on the part affected; or, in slight cases, by moistening the
part with the fingers previously dipped into them. Lotions are more
agreeable if made with rose water, but are not thereby rendered more
efficacious. In all cases, distilled water, or filtered soft water, is
alone admissible as the solvent.

As lotions are, in general, mere extemporaneous or magistral preparations,
it will, of course, be only necessary here to give the formulæ for a few
of those which are the most useful or the most frequently employed. These
will serve as examples from which others may be prepared. As a general
rule, the medium dose of any substance dissolved in a fluid ounce of
distilled water, forms a lotion of the proper strength, under all ordinary
circumstances; or, what is the same thing, the medium dose in grains,
taken in scruples, is sufficient for a pint of such a lotion. Thus, the
dose of sulphate of zinc is 1 to 3 gr., therefore—— (1 + 3)/2 = 2 gr.,
which is the proportion of sulphate of zinc to be taken for 1 fl. oz. of
water, or 40 gr. for 1 pint. Again, the dose of bichloride of mercury is
1/8 to 3/4 gr.; therefore—— (1/8+3/4)/2 = 7/16 gr.; or nearly 1/2 gr. per
fl. oz., and 8-1/2 gr. per pint. In this method extreme or unusual doses,
as, for instance, those of sulphate of zinc, as an emetic, in poisoning,
&c., are not taken into the calculation. In all cases in which lotions are
intended for extremely susceptible parts, it is proper to dilute them with
an equal bulk of water. When intended for eye-waters (COLLYRIA), they
should be diluted with at least 3 to 4 times their bulk of water. See

=Lotion of Ac′etate of Ammo′′nia.= _Syn._ LOTIO AMMONIÆ ACETATIS, L.
_Prep._ 1. Solution of acetate of ammonia, 1 part; water, 2 parts.

2. (Hosp. F.) Solution of acetate of ammonia, rectified spirit, and water,
equal parts. Discutient and refrigerant. In ordinary inflammations.

=Lotion of Ac′etate of Lead.= _Syn._ LOTIO PLUMBI ACETATIS, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Collier.) Acetate of lead, 1 dr.; distilled water, 8 fl. oz. Sometimes a
little vinegar is added. In excoriations, burns, sprains, contusions, &c.

2. Acetate of lead, 2 gr.; distilled water, 1 oz. (Ophthalmic Hospital.)

=Lotion of Ac′etate of Mercury.= _Syn._ LOTIO HYDRARGYRI ACETATIS, L.
_Prep._ Acetate of mercury, 1 scruple; distilled water, 1 pint. Mix.

=Lotion of Ac′etate of Zinc.= _Syn._ LOTIO ZINCI ACETATIS, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Béral.) Acetate of zinc, 1-1/2 dr.; water, 1 pint. Astringent; similar to
lotion of sulphate of zinc.

2. Acetate of zinc, 1 to 2 gr.; water, 1 oz. An astringent collyrium in
ophthalmia, and as injection in gonorrhœa after the acute stage has
passed. Neither tincture nor wine of opium gives a precipitate with this

=Lotion, Acetic.= _Syn._ LOTIO ACETI, L. _Prep._ 1. Vinegar, 1 part;
water, 2 or 3 parts. For bruises, contusions, &c., and as a general
refrigerant application to sound parts.

2. Vinegar, 1 fl. oz.; cold water, 1/2 pint; as a wash in chronic
ophthalmia, &c.

=Lotion, Acid.= See LOTIONS OF ACETIC, =Nitric=, and PHOSPHORIC ACID, &c.

=Lotion of Acon′itine.= _Syn._ LOTIO ACONITINÆ, L. _Prep._ (Turnbull.)
Aconitine, 8 gr.; rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz. In neuralgia; applied by
means of a small piece of sponge mounted at the end of a stick. It must
never be employed when the skin is broken or abraded; and it would be
wise, in most cases, to dilute it with double its volume of proof spirit.

_Prep._ (P. Cod.) From salt of tartar, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. Stimulant and
detergent. Diluted with an equal bulk of water, it forms an excellent
cosmetic wash to remove scurf from the hair. Sometimes it is made with
almond milk instead of water.

=Lotion, Almond, Alkaline.= (Dr A. T. Thomson). _Syn._ Solution of potash,
4 fl. oz.; emulsion of bitter almonds, 5-1/2 fl. oz. To remove the scurf
in porrigo furfurans, applied twice a day diluted with warm water.

=Lotion of Al′um.= _Syn._ LOTIO ALUMINIS, L. _Prep._ From alum, 1-1/2 dr.;
distilled or rose water, 1 pint. Astringent. For sore gums, nipples,
excoriations, &c.

=Lotion, Ammonio-Camphorated.= _Syn._ AQUA SEDATIVA, L. EAU SEDATIVE DE
(·923), 6 parts; camphorated spirit, 1 part; salt, 6 parts; water, 10
parts. No. 2 contains 8 parts, and No. 3 10 parts of ammonia.

=Lotion, Ammoni′acal.= _Syn._ LOTIO AMMONIÆ, L. AMMONIACALIS, L. _Prep._
1. Liquor of ammonia, 3 fl. dr.; cold water, 5 fl. oz. As a stimulant to
indolent ulcers, and in certain skin diseases.

2. (Swediaur.) Liquor of ammonia, spirit of thyme, and spirit of camphor,
equal parts. In headaches; applied to the forehead and temples, and in
other cases, as a counter-irritant. In most cases it should be used

3. (Opiated——Dr Kirkland.) Sal volatile, 3-1/2 fl. oz.; tincture of opium,
1/2 fl. oz.; water, 4 fl. oz. Anodyne, stimulant, and resolvent.

=Lotion, Antiphlogis′tic.= _Syn._ LOTIO ANTIPHLOGISTICA, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Copland.) Solution of diacetate of lead, 3 fl. dr.; solution of acetate
of ammonia, 2 fl. oz.; distilled water, 1 pint. Refrigerant, sedative, and
repellant. Used to allay inflammation, &c.

2. (A. T. Thomson.) Opium, 2 dr., distilled vinegar, 1/2 pint. Anodyne and
refrigerant; in swelled joints, &c.

=Lotion of Ar′nica.= _Syn._ LOTIO ARNICÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. Tincture of
arnica, 1 fl. dr.; rose water, 2-1/2 fl. oz. In contusions, bruises,
extravasations, &c.

2. (Niemann.) Arnica flowers, 1/2 oz.; hot vinegar, 3 fl. oz.; boiling
water, 5 fl. oz., infuse until cold, and strain. In acute hydrocephalus;
or with water, q. s. to measure a pint, as a common lotion.

_Prep._ 1. Arsenious acid, 5 gr.; water, 1 pint. In psoriasis, &c.

2. (Compound——M. le Febre.) Arsenious acid, 8 gr.; boiling water, 16 fl.
oz.; dissolve, and add of extract of hemlock, 1 oz.; solution of diacetate
of lead, 3 fl. oz.; tincture of opium, 1 fl. dr. Every morning, in cancer.

=Lotion, Astrin′gent.= _Syn._ LOTIO ASTRINGENS, L. See LOTIONS OF ALUM,

=Lotion, Barlow’s.= _Prep._ From sulphuret of potassium (in powder), 3
dr.; soap (sliced), 1-1/2 dr.; lime water, 7-1/2 fl. oz.; proof spirit, 2
fl. oz. In itch, ringworm, &c.

=Lotion, Bateman’s.= _Prep_. From bichloride of mercury, 2 gr.; compound
spirit of lavender, 1 fl. oz.; dissolve, and add of distilled water, 4 fl.
oz. In obstinate cutaneous eruptions, more especially those of a papular

=Lotion of Belladon′na.= _Syn._ LOTIO BELLADONNÆ, L. _Prep._ (Graefe.)
Extract of belladonna, 1/2 dr.; dilute solution of diacetate of lead, 1/2
pint. Applied to tumours and glandular enlargements.

=Lotion of Benzoin.= LOTIO BENZOINI. Tincture of benzoin, 1; rose water,
40. A nice lotion to protect the face from the heat of the sun.

=Lotion of Bichlo′′ride of Mercury.= _Syn._ LOTIO HYDRARGYRI BICHLORIDI,
L. H. CHLORIDI CORROSIVI, L. _Prep._ 1. Corrosive sublimate, 5 to 10 gr.;
distilled water, 1 pint. The addition of 5 or 6 gr. of hydrochlorate of
ammonia, or as many drops of hydrochloric acid, increases the solvent
action of the water, and renders the preparation less liable to change.
Some persons dissolve the sublimate in 1 or 2 fl. dr. of rectified spirit
before adding it to the water; but this is unnecessary. In obstinate
eruptions, glandular swelling, obstinate sores, &c.; also as an injection.

2. (Good.) Corrosive sublimate, 1 dr.; sal ammoniac, 2 dr.; nitre, 4 dr.;
water, 6 fl. oz.; dissolve. In itch, &c. For use, it should be diluted
with about 3 times its bulk of water.

3. (LOTIO HYDRARGYRI AMYGDALINA——St B. Hosp.) Blanched bitter almonds, 1
oz.; water, 1 pint; make an emulsion, and add of bichloride of mercury
(dissolved in a little rectified spirit), 10 gr. This resembles GOWLAND’S
LOTION, and may be used for it.

=Lotion of Bismuth.= LOTIO BISMUTHI. Nitrate of bismuth, 6 gr.; corrosive
sublimate, 1/2 gr.; spirits of camphor, 1-1/2 minim; water, 1 oz. A
soothing lotion in chronic skin affections.

=Lotion, Black.= See LOTION, MERCURIAL.

=Lotion of Borax.= _Syn._ LOTIO BORACIS, L. BORACICA, L. _Prep._ 1. (Dr
Abercrombie.) Borax, 2-1/2 dr.; distilled vinegar, 1/4 pint. In ringworm.

2. (Copland.) Borax (in powder), 1 dr.; rose water and orange-flower
water, of each 3 fl. oz.; dissolve. A fragrant and effective application
to sore gums, sore nipples, excoriations, &c.

3. (Dr Johnson.) Borax, 2 dr.; precipitated chalk, 1 oz.; rose water and
rectified spirit, of each 3 oz. For sore nipples.

4. (Dr Meigs.) Borax, 1/2 oz.; sulphate of morphia, 6 gr.; rose water, 8
fl. oz. To allay itching and irritation, especially pruritus vulvæ.

5. Borax, 1; rose water, 24. Cosmetic.

=Lotion, Bro′mine.= _Syn._ LOTIO BROMINII, L. _Prep._ (Dr Glover.)
Bromine, 1 dr.; water, 1 pint. As an application to scrofulous ulcers.

=Lotion for Burns.= See LINIMENT.

=Lotion, Camphora′ted.= See LOTION, EVAPORATING.

=Lotion of Cap′sicum.= _Syn._ LOTIO CAPSICI, L. _Prep._ (Griffith.)
Tinctures of capsicum and camphor, of each 4 fl. oz.; liquor of ammonia, 2
fl. oz. A powerful rubefacient and counter-irritant.

=Lotion of Carbolic Acid.= (Mr Lister.) _Syn._ LOTIO ACIDI CARBOLICI.
_Prep._ 1 part of acid in 20 of water is used to promote the healing of
wounds, abscesses, ulcers and burns. A weaker solution of 1 in 40 is in
common use in the London hospitals. 5 drops to 1 fl. oz. of glycerin forms
a good application to eruptions of the skin.

=Lotion of Car′bonate of So′da.= _Syn._ LOTIO SODÆ CARBONATIS, L. _Prep._
From carbonate of soda, 1/2 oz.; water, 1 pint. To allay itching and
irritation. See LOTION, ALKALINE.

=Lotion of Cher′ry Laurel.= _Syn._ LOTIO LAURO-CERASI, L. _Prep._ 1.
Cherry-laurel water (distilled), 1-1/2 fl. oz.; distilled water, 1/2 pint.
Anodyne; useful to allay irritation, &c. Some persons with delicate skin
employ it as a wash after shaving.

2. Cherry-laurel water (distilled), 4 oz.; rectified spirit and ether, of
each 1 fl. oz.; extract of belladonna, 2 dr.; agitate well together in the
cold. An excellent application in neuralgia, painful tumours, &c.

=Lotion for Chilblains.= See CHILBLAIN, LINIMENT, &c.

=Lotion of Chlo′′rate of Soda.= _Syn._ LOTIO SODÆ CHLORATIS, L. _Prep._
(Darling.) Chlorate of soda, 5 dr.; water, 1/2 pint. In pruritus, &c.

=Lotion of Chlo′′ride of Ammonium.= LOTIO AMMONII CHLORIDI. Chloride of
ammonium, 1 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 oz.; water, 10 oz. To this vinegar is
sometimes added. Used as a dressing for bruises. See also LOTION OF

=Lotion of Chlo′′ride of Lead.= _Syn._ LOTIO PLUMBI CHLORIDI, L. _Prep._
(Tuson.) Chloride of lead, 1 dr.; hot distilled water, 1 pint; dissolve.
In cancerous ulcerations, painful neuralgic tumours, &c.

=Lotion of Chloride of Tin.= _Syn._ LOTIO STANNI CHLORIDI, L. _Prep._
(Nauche.) Chloride of tin, 1 gr.; distilled water, 2 to 3 fl. oz. In
cancerous ulcerations.

=Lotion of Chloride of Zinc.= _Syn._ LOTIO ZINCI CHLORIDI, L. _Prep._ 1.
Chloride of zinc, 10 gr. (or solution, 1/2 fl. dr.); water, 1 pint. As a
disinfectant and preventive lotion.

2. (Voght.) Chloride of zinc, 8 gr.; extract of aloes, 40 gr.; distilled
water, 4 fl. oz. In atonic and foul ulcers.

=Lotion, Chlorina′ted.= _Syn._ LOTIO CHLORINATA, L. _Prep._ 1. (LOTIO
CALCIS CHLORINATÆ.)——_a._ From chloride of lime, 3 dr.; water, 1 pint;
agitate together for some time, and strain through muslin.

_b._ (Derheims.) Chloride of lime, 1 oz.; water, 1 quart; triturate and

2. (LOTIO SODÆ CHLORINATÆ.) From chloride of soda, as the last. They are
both excellent washes for foul ulcers, the itch, &c.; and, when diluted
for the teeth, to sweeten the breath, remove the smell of tobacco smoke,
to prevent infection, and for various purposes. When intended for
application to very tender or abraded surfaces, they must be largely
diluted with water.

=Lotion of Chlo′′roform.= _Syn._ LOTIO CHLOROFORMI, L. _Prep._ Chloroform
(pure), 1-1/2 fl. oz.; rectified spirit and cold distilled water, of each
1/2 pint. Anodyne. A piece of oiled silk should be laid over the rag to
prevent evaporation. The lotion made with water, as commonly prescribed,
is inert.

=Lotion for Corns.= See CORN.

=Lotion of Crea′sote.= _Syn._ LOTIO CREASOTI, L. _Prep._ 1. Creasote, 2
fl. dr.; liquor of potassa, 3 fl. dr.; water, 1/2 pint.

2. Creasote, 3 fl. dr.; vinegar and water, of each 1/2 pint. In burns,
itch, phagedenic ulcerations, ringworm, chancre, &c.

=Lotion of Cy′anide of Potas′sium.= _Syn._ LOTIO POTASSI CYANIDI, L.
_Prep._ 1. (Cazenave.) Cyanide of potassium, 10 gr.; emulsion of bitter
almonds, 6 fl. oz. In chronic eruptions and other cases attended with much
itching or irritation.

2. (Foy.) Cyanide of potassium, 8 gr.; distilled water, 1 fl. oz. In
neuralgia, acute rheumatism, &c.; applied by means of compresses of linen.
Both the above are poisonous if swallowed.

=Lotion of Delphin′ine.= _Syn._ LOTIO DELPHINIÆ, EMBROCATIO D., L. _Prep._
(Dr Turnbull.) Delphinine, 20 to 60 gr.; rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz. Used

=Lotion of Diac′etate of Lead.= _Syn._ GOULARD’S LOTION; LOTIO PLUMBI
DIACETATIS, L. The dilute liquor of diacetate of lead (LIQ. PLUMBI
DIACETATIS DILUTUS——Ph. L.). See SOLUTION. Also Solution of subacetate of
lead (B. P.), 3 minims, with 7 minims to 1 oz. water.

=Lotion, Evap′orating.= _Syn._ LOTIO EVAPORANS, L. VAPORANS, L. SPIRITUS
DILUTI, L. _Prep._ 1. (Copland.) Sulphuric ether, rectified spirit, and
solution of acetate of ammonia, of each 1-1/2 fl. oz.; rose water, 3-1/2
fl. oz.

2. (Guy’s Hosp.) Rectified spirit, 1 part; water, 5 parts.

3. (Erasmus Wilson.) Rectified spirit, 1 part; water, 4 to 6 parts.

4. (CAMPHORATED——Ware.) Camphor, 1/2 dr.; elder flowers, 1/2 oz.;
rectified spirit, 4 oz.; digest 24 hours, and strain.

_Obs._ The above are soothing and refrigerant, if allowed to evaporate by
free exposure; stimulant, if the evaporation is prevented by covering the
part with the hand, or a piece of oiled silk. They are useful applications
in nervous headaches, restlessness, itching and irritability of the skin,
&c. “A little rose water added to the simple water makes an agreeable
addition, and sometimes camphor water (julep), or a little Goulard’s
extract, may be deemed advantageous, when a greater degree of calming
effect is required.” (Eras. Wilson.) Eau de Cologne, diluted with an equal
quantity of water, is often used as an evaporating lotion.

=Lotion of Gall-nuts.= _Syn._ LOTIO GALLÆ, L. _Prep._ From gall-nuts
(bruised), 1/2 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint; infuse until cold, and strain.
Astringent. An excellent application to sore nipples, or to strengthen
them before suckling; spirit of wine, 3 fl. oz., may be advantageously
added to the cold infusion, and a like portion of water omitted, See

=Lotion of Glyc′erin.= _Syn._ LOTIO GLYCERINI, L. GLYCERINIÆ, L. _Prep._
1. Glycerin, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. To allay itching, and remove dryness,
&c., in various skin diseases; also in chaps of the nipples, lips, and
hands. For the latter purpose the addition of 2 to 3 dr. of borax is
recommended by some writers.

2. Glycerin, 1 oz.; thick mucilage, 2 oz.; lime water, 7 oz. In burns,
scalds, chaps, excoriations, &c.

3. (Startin.) Glycerin, 1 oz.; extract of belladonna, 1 dr.; soap
liniment, 3 oz.; triturate together. In bruises, sprains, and swelled
joints; gouty, neuralgic, and rheumatic pains, &c.

4. (Startin.) Trisnitrate of bismuth, 1/2 dr.; tincture of foxglove and
dilute nitric acid, of each 1 fl. dr.; glycerin, 4 dr.; rose water, 8-1/2
fl. oz. To allay the itching in prurigo, and some other skin diseases.

_Obs._ Various lotions may be prepared by dissolving active medicinal
substances in glycerin.


=Lotion, Gout.= _Syn._ LOTIO ANTARTHRITICA, L. _Prep._ 1. Glycerin, 1 oz.;
extract of belladonna, 3 dr.; veratrine, 10 gr., dissolved in rectified
spirit, 2 fl. oz.; mix, and further add, of water, 17 fl. oz. It is
poisonous if swallowed.

2. (‘SCUDAMORE’S G. L.’) From camphor mixture, 9 fl. oz.; rectified
spirit, 3 fl. oz. The above are applied on rags or compresses, or are
poured on the surface of poultices.

=Lotion, Gowland’s.= This celebrated nostrum is prepared as follows:——Take
of Jordan almonds, 1 oz.; bitter almonds, 1/2 oz.; blanch them, and make
an emulsion in soft water, 1 pint; to this add of bichloride of mercury,
15 gr.; previously dissolved in rectified spirit, 2 fl. dr., together with
enough water to make the whole measure 1 pint, and put it into bottles.

_Obs._ This preparation is chiefly used as a cosmetic to improve the
complexion; and also as a wash for obstinate eruptions and minor
glandular swellings and indurations. As a beautifier of the complexion, it
is employed by simply wetting the skin with it, either by means of the
corner of a napkin or the fingers dipped into it, after which it is gently
wiped off with a dry cloth. Dr Paris represents this nostrum to contain
1/2 dr. of corrosive sublimate in every pint, which is not the case.

=Lotion, Granville’s Counter-irritant.= See LINIMENT OF AMMONIA

=Lotion, Hem′lock.= _Syn._ LOTII CONII, L. _Prep._ (Mid. Hosp.) Extract of
hemlock, 3 dr.; opium, 1 dr.; boiling water, 1 pint; digest until cold,
and strain. Anodyne and resolvent; in glandular enlargements, painful
ulcers, cancer, indurations, rheumatism, neuralgia, &c.

=Lotion, Hooping-cough.= (Struve’s.) LOTIO ANTIPERTUSSICA, L. _Prep._
(Paris.) Potassio-tartrate of antimony, 1 dr.; tincture of cantharides, 1
oz.; water, 2 oz. This is a powerful counter-irritant, and should be used
with caution; as it is apt to induce a troublesome eruption on the parts
to which it is frequently applied.

=Lotion of Hydrochlo′′rate of Ammonia.= _Syn._ LOTIO AMMONIÆ
HYDROCHLORATIS, L. _Prep._ 1. (WEAKER.) From sal ammoniac, 1 to 4 dr.;
water, 1 pint. As a wash in itch, ulcers, tender feet, swelled joints, &c.

2. (STRONGER.) From sal ammoniac, 1 to 2 oz.; water, 1 pint. In
contusions, chronic tumours, extravasations, chilblains, &c., when the
skin is not broken. Both are stimulant and resolvent or discutient.
Vinegar is often substituted for the whole or part of the water, and
sometimes a fifth or sixth part of rectified spirit is added. See also

=Lotion, Hydrochlo′′ric.= _Syn._ LOTIO ACIDI HYDROCHLORICI, L. _Prep._ 1.
Hydrochloric acid, 1 fl. oz.; water, 1 pint. In lepra, and several other
skin diseases.

2. (Foy.) Hydrochloric acid, 1 part; water, 16 parts. In chilblains, when
the skin is unbroken.

L. _Prep._ 1. (Magendie.) Medicinal hydrocyanic acid, 1 to 2 fl. dr.;
lettuce water, 1 pint. In hepatic affections.

2. (Sneider.) Medicinal acid, 1-1/2 fl. dr.; rectified spirit and water,
of each 6 fl. oz.

3. (A. T. Thomson.) Medicinal acid and rectified spirit, of each 2 fl.
dr.; acetate of lead, 16 gr.; distilled water, 7-1/2 fl. oz. In impetigo,

_Obs._ Lotions of prussic acid are employed to allay pain and irritation
in various chronic skin diseases, especially the scaly and itchy
eruptions; and in cancer, &c., with variable success. See HYDROCYANIC

=Lotion of Hyposul′phite of Soda.= _Syn._ LOTIO SODÆ HYPOSULPHITIS, L.
_Prep._ (Startin.) Hyposulphite of soda and alum, of each 1-1/2 dr.; eau
de Cologne, 1/2 fl. oz.; rose water, 7-1/2 fl. oz.; in the advanced stages
of acne.

=Lotion of I′odide of Ar′senic and Mer′cury.= _Syn._ LOTIO ARSENICI ET
HYDRARGYRI HYDRIODATIS, L. _Prep._ From Donovan’s solution, 1 part; water,
9 parts. In lepra, psoriasis, and other scaly skin diseases. See SOLUTION.

=Lotion of Iodide of Potas′sium.= _Syn._ LOTIO POTASSII IODIDI, L. _Prep._
1. From iodide of potassium, 1 to 2 dr.; water, 1 pint. In the usual cases
in which ioduretted preparations are employed.

2. (Dr O. Ward.) Iodide of potassium, 1 dr.; water, 3/4 pint. In itch.
(See _below_.)

=Lotion of Iodide of Zinc.= _Syn._ LOTIO ZINCI IODIDI, L. _Prep._ (Ross.)
iodine, 1-1/2 dr.; zinc filings, 1 dr.; water, 8 fl. oz.; digest with heat
until the liquid becomes coloured, then filter. In enlarged tonsils.

=Lotion of I′odine.= _Syn._ LOTIO IODINII, L. _Prep._ From iodine, 2 gr.;
rectified spirit, 1 fl. dr.; dissolve, well agitate the solution with
distilled water, 1 pint, and filter. An excellent wash for scrofulous
ulcers, and in chronic ophthalmia, cutaneous scrofula, and several chronic
skin diseases, particularly in highly sensitive habits.

=Lotion of Iodine Compound.= _Syn._ LOTIO IODI COMP., L. _Prep._ 1. Iodide
of potassium, 80 gr.; iodine, 60 gr.; water, 1 oz.

2. (Cazenave.) Iodide of potassium and iodide of sulphur, of each 1 dr.;
water, 1 pint. In itch; either alone or diluted with an equal bulk of

3. (Dauvergne.) Iodine, 3 dr.; iodide of potassium, 6 dr.; water, 3 fl.
oz.; dissolve, and label the bottle No. 1. Sulphuret of potassium, 4 oz.;
water, 8 fl. oz.; dissolve. For use, a teaspoonful of No. 1, and a
table-spoonful of No. 2, are to be added to about a pint of water. In
itch, and several other skin diseases.

4. (Lugol.) Iodine, 1 to 2 gr.; iodide of potassium, 3 to 6 gr.; water, 1
pint. In scrofulous ophthalmia, fistulas, &c.; and as a wash in numerous
skin diseases.

5. (Righini.) Chloride of lime, 4 dr.; water, 2-1/2 fl. oz.; triturate
together, filter into a stoppered bottle, and add of tincture of iodine, 1
dr. With a pint of water it forms an effective application in itch.

6. (Soubeiran.) Iodide of potassium, 1 oz.; iodine, 1/2 oz.; water, 6 oz.;
dissolve. Used as iodine paint; also as a caustic to touch the surfaces of
scrofulous ulcers, and the eyelids in scrofulous ophthalmia.

7. Iodide of potassium, 1/2 dr.; iodine, 16 gr.; water, 1 pint. This is
the common and best form of iodine lotion, but for certain purposes it is
used much stronger. (See _above_.)

=Lotion of Iron with Conium.= LOTIO FERRI CUM CONIO. Sulphate of iron, 8
gr.; extract of conium, 8 gr.; water, 1 oz.

=Lotion, Itch.= _Syn._ LOTIO ANTIPSORICA, L. _Prep._ (Cazenave.) Sulphuret
of potassium, 1 dr.; soft soap, 2 dr.; water, 8 fl. oz.; dissolve. An
excellent remedy for the itch. It leaves little smell behind, and does not
soil the linen. (See _above_.)

=Lotion, Kirkland’s.= See LOTION OF MYRRH.

=Lotion of Lemon Juice.= _Syn._ LOTIO SUCCI LIMONIS, L. _Prep._ From the
freshly expressed juice of lemon, diluted with 4 or 5 times its bulk of
water. To render it more agreeable, rose water may be employed, or a few
drops of eau de Cologne added. It is cooling and detergent, and forms an
excellent application to foul ulcers, and to allay the itching in numerous
cutaneous affections.

=Lotion of Lime Wa′ter.= _Syn._ LOTIO CALCIS SPIRITUOSA, L. _Prep._ (Ph.
Chirur.) Rectified spirit, 4 oz.; lime water, 8 fl. oz. See EVAPORATING
LOTION (_above_.)

_Prep._ (Iverg.) Balsam of Peru, 1 dr.; yolk of 1 egg; make an emulsion,
and add of spirit of wild thyme, 3 fl. oz. For sore nipples; to be
followed, whilst still wet, by a ‘dusting’ with a powder composed of
Peruvian bark, 1 dr.; gum Arabic, 2 dr.

=Lotion, Mercu′′rial.= _Prep._ 1. (BLACK WASH, BLACK LOTION, MILD

_a._ (B. P.) From calomel, 3 gr.; lime water, 1 oz.; well shaken together.

_b._ (Mid. Hosp.) To the last add of thick mucilage, 1 fl. oz.

_c._ (Guy’s Hospital.) From calomel, 1 dr., lime water, 8 fl. oz.

_Obs._ Black wash is a favourite application to all kinds of syphilitic
and scrofulous sores. The bottle should be well shaken before the lotion
is applied.

P.) Corrosive sublimate, 18 gr.; lime water, 10 oz.; well shaken together.

_b._ (St B. Hosp.) Corrosive sublimate, 20 gr.; lime water, 6 fl. oz. Used
as the last, but it is stronger and more active, from containing a little
undecomposed bichloride.

=Lotion of Myrrh.= _Syn._ KIRKLAND’S LOTION; LOTIO MYRRHÆ, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Dr Kirkland.) Tincture of myrrh and lime water, equal parts. In scorbutic
ulcers and gums.

2. (Compound; LOTIO MYRRHÆ COMPOSITA, L.——Ph. Chirur.) Honey of roses and
tincture of myrrh, of each 2 fl. dr.; lime water, 2-1/2 fl. oz. As No. 1;
also used as a dentifrice.

=Lotion of Ni′trate of Bis′muth.= _Syn._ LOTIO BISMUTHI NITRATIS, L.
_Prep._ (Cutan. Hosp.) Subnitrate or trisnitrate of bismuth, 1/2 dr.;
corrosive sublimate, 12 gr.; spirit of camphor, 1/2 fl. dr.; water, 1
pint. In itch, and some other eruptions.

=Lotion of Nitrate of Sil′ver.= _Syn._ LOTIO ARGENTI NITRATIS, L. _Prep._
1. Nitrate of silver, 15 gr.; nitric acid, 10 drops; distilled water, 1/2
pint. As a wash for indolent ulcers, sore legs, &c.

2. (Jackson.) Nitrate of silver, 10 gr.; water, 1 fl. oz. For bed-sores;
applied, at first, twice or thrice a day.

3. (Schreider.) Nitrate of silver, 1/2 dr.; nitric acid, 10 drops; water,
1-1/2 fl. oz. In chilblains, soft corns, &c.

=Lotion of Nitrate of Silver (Strong).= LOTIO ARGENTI NITRATIS FORTIS.
Nitrate of silver, 60 gr.; distilled water, 1 oz.

=Lotion of Nitrate of Sil′ver, Etherial.= LOTIO ARGENTI NITRATIS ÆTHEREA.
Nitrate of silver, 20 gr.; distilled water, 1 dr.; spirit of nitrous
ether, 1 oz.

=Lotion of Ni′tre.= _Syn._ LOTIO POTASSÆ NITRATIS, L. _Prep._ 1. Nitre, 3
dr.; vinegar, 1/4 pint; water, 3/4 pint.

2. Nitre, 2 dr.; sal ammoniac, 1 dr.; vinegar and water, of each 1/2 pint.
In sprains, contusions, extravasations, tender feet, chilblains, &c.
Diluted with an equal bulk of water, it is a popular application to ‘black

=Lotion of Ni′tric Acid.= _Syn._ LOTIO ACIDI, L. ACIDI NITRICI, L. _Prep._
1. (Collier.) Nitric acid, 1/2 fl. oz.; water, 1 pint. In lepra, and other
scaly skin diseases.

2. (Phœbus.) Nitric acid, 1 fl. dr.; laudanum, 1-1/2 fl. dr.; rose water,
1/2 pint. For venereal ulcers.

=Lo′tion of Nitromuriat′ic Acid.= _Syn._ LOTION OF AQUA REGIA. _Prep._
(Copland.) Nitromuriatic acid, 1-1/4 dr.; water, 1 pint. In gangrene and

=Lotion of Nux Vom′ica.= _Syn._ LOTIO NUCIS VOMICÆ, L. _Prep._ 1.
Alcoholic extract of nux vomica, 10 gr.; rectified spirit and water, of
each 2-1/2 fl. oz. In amaurosis.

2. (Radius.) Alcoholic extract of nux vomica, 8 gr.; liquor of ammonia
(stronger), 1/2 fl. oz.; rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz. In paralysed limbs.

=Lotion of O′pium.= _Syn._ LOTIO OPII, L. OPIATA, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Christison.) Opium, 40 gr.; water, 1/4 pint; infuse, add to the filtered
liquid a solution of sugar of lead, 40, in water, 1/4 pint, and filter.

2. (St B. Hosp.) Opium, 1-1/2 dr.; boiling water, 1 pint; triturate and
strain. Anodyne; the first is also refrigerant and discutient.

=Lotion of Ox′ide of Zinc.= _Syn._ LOTIO ZINCI OXYDI, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Augustin.) Oxide of zinc, 1 dr.; elder-flower water, 1-1/2 fl. oz. In
pustular erysipelas.

2. (Hosp. F.) Oxide of zinc, 1/2 dr.; mucilage, 2 fl. dr.; water, 6 fl.
dr. As an astringent and desiccant, in scrofulous eruptions, excoriations,
moist chaps, &c.

=Lotion, Phageden′ic.= See MERCURIAL LOTION (_above_).

=Lotion of Phos′phoric Acid.= _Syn._ LOTIO ACIDI PHOSPHORICI, L. _Prep._
(Pereira.) Dilute phosphoric acid (Ph. L.), 1 fl. oz.; water, 1/2 pint. In
caries and fistula.

=Lotion of Potas′sa.= See LOTIO POTASSÆ, L. _Prep._ From liquor of
potassa, 1 fl. oz.; water, 1 pint. Detergent; in scorbutic eruptions, and
foul ulcers, and to prevent infection.

=Lotion of Potas′sio-tar′trate of An′timony.= _Syn._ LOTIO ANTIMONIALIS,
emetic, 1 dr.; tincture of camphor, 2 fl. dr.; water, 1 pint. As a local
stimulant. Diluted with twice or thrice its weight of water, it is
employed as a collyrium in chronic ophthalmia, and in specks on the

2. (Sir Wm. Blizard.) Tartar emetic, 20 gr.; boiling water, 1 fl. oz. Used
to cleanse foul ulcers, to repress fungous growths and warts, and in
ringworm, &c.

3. (Pereira.) Tartar emetic, 1 dr.; boiling water, 1-1/2 fl. oz.;
dissolve. Employed as a local irritant instead of the ointment. All the
above are rubefacient and counter-irritant. See ANTIMONY.

=Lotion of Quin′ine.= _Syn._ LOTIO QUINÆ, EMBROCATIO Q., L. _Prep._ From
disulphate of quinine, 1 dr.; rectified spirit, 5 fl. oz. Applied over the
spine in intermittents.

=Lotion, Sapona′ceous.= _Syn._ LOTIO SAPONIS, L. SAPONACEA (Ph. L. 1746),
L. _Prep._ From liquor of carbonate of potassa, 1/2 oz.; olive oil, 4 oz.;
rose water, 12 oz.; agitate together. Emollient; chiefly as a cosmetic.

=Lotion, Saviard’s.= _Prep._ (Foy.) Caustic potassa, 1 dr.; camphor, 20
gr.; sugar, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. As a wash for indolent ulcers.

=Lotion, Struve’s.= See HOOPING-COUGH LOTION.

=Lotion of Sul′phate of Cop′per.= _Syn._ LOTIO CUPRI SULPHATIS, L. _Prep._
1. Blue vitriol, 1 dr.; camphor julep, 1 pint. For phagedenic ulcers, and
in itch, &c.

2. (Dr Graves.) Sulphate of copper, 10 gr.; water, 1 fl. oz. In
chilblains, ringworm, &c.

3. (Lloyd.) Sulphate of copper, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. In itch; either
alone or diluted.

=Lotion of Sul′phate of Iron.= _Syn._ LOTIO FERRI SULPHATIS. Sulphate of
iron, 2 gr.; water, 1 oz.

=Lotion of Sul′phate of Zinc.= _Syn._ LOTIO ZINCI SULPHATIS, L. _Prep._ 1.
Sulphate of zinc, 3/4 dr.; water, 1 pint. Astringent; in some chronic skin
diseases, as a wash for loose, flabby granulations, and for ulcers that
discharge profusely, &c.

2. (Collier.) Sulphate of zinc, 2 dr.; water, 1 pint. As a
counter-irritant in pains of the joints, periosteum, old sprains, &c.

=Lotion of Sulphuret of Sodium.= (Dr Barlow.) _Syn._ LOTIO SODII
SULPHURETI. _Prep._ Sulphide of sodium, 2 dr.; white soap, 2-1/2 dr.;
rectified spirit, 2 dr.; lime water, 7 oz. For ringworm.

=Lotion of Tannin.= (Mr Druitt.) _Syn._ LOTIO TANNINI. _Prep._ Tannic
acid, 5 gr.; distilled water, 1 oz.; mix. On lint, covered with oil silk,
to sore nipples.

=Lotion of Tar.= _Syn._ LOTIO PICIS LIQUIDÆ, L. _Prep._ (Saunders.)
Quicklime, 6 oz.; water, 2-1/2 pints; slake, add of tar, 4 oz., and boil
to one half. This liquid may be advantageously employed in various chronic
skin diseases, especially those affecting the heads of children. See

E. EMMENAGOGA, L. _Prep._ From tincture of valerian and proof spirit,
equal parts. In hysteria, suppressions, &c.

=Lotion of Vera′trine.= _Syn._ LOTIO VERATRIÆ, L. _Prep._ (Dr Turnbull.)
Veratrine, 20 to 60 gr.; rectified spirit, 2 oz. In gout, rheumatism, &c.
It is extremely poisonous, and must only be used where the skin is sound,
and then with great caution.

=Lotion of Ver′digris.= _Syn._ LOTIO ÆRUGINIS, L. CUPRI CITRATIS, L.
_Prep._ From verdigris, 3 dr.; vinegar, 1/4 pint; water, 3/4 pint. As a
wash for indolent, scrofulous, and venereal ulcers.

=Lotion of Vin′egar.= See ACETIC LOTION (_above_).

=Lotion, Yellow.= See MERCURIAL LOTION (_above_).

=LOUSE.= _Syn._ PEDICULUS. There are several species of this offensive
parasite infesting the bodies of man and domesticated animals. The three
varieties of lice found on the human skin are:——(1) The _Pediculus
corporis_, (2) the _P. capitis_, (3) the _P. pubis_.

(1.) The _P. corporis_, the body louse, is of a dirty white colour, and
varies from half to two lines in length. Its body is broad and elongated,
with the margins divided into lobes, and covered with minute hairs; but it
has a narrow thorax, furnished on each side with three legs, which
terminate in claws. This creature produces great irritation of the skin,
giving rise to a number of little pimples on it, which frequently
discharge a watery fluid. It multiplies with extraordinary rapidity.

(2.) The _P. capitis_, the head louse, is much smaller than the above. It
is devoid of hairs, with legs large in proportion to its body. It gives
rise to a very troublesome eruption, attended with a watery discharge. It
is propagated by means of the ova or nits, which are glued to the hairs of
the head.

(3.) The _P. pubis_, the crab louse, is a small, round variety, which
attaches itself with considerable tenacity to the hairs of the stomach and
lower part of the body more particularly, and, like the preceding
parasite, glues its eggs to the hairs.

Various applications have been recommended for the destruction of these
loathsome parasites; amongst which we may mention sulphur, stavesacre,
white precipitate, and cocculus indicus, in the form of ointments;
carbolic acid and perchloride of mercury lotions, and tobacco. Benzoic
acid has been found of service in allaying the irritation. Diligent
washing with soap and water should be had recourse to previous to applying
any of the above remedies, and should the head be infested, the hair
should be cut short, and frequently combed with a small toothcomb.

Pediculi are sometimes conveyed from filthy to cleanly persons by means of
dirty water-closets, chairs, sheets, brushes and combs, and in various
other ways.

School children frequently obtain them in consequence of their heads being
brought into too close contact with the heads of other children infested
by them.

cake, often medicated, consisting principally of powdered sugar, made into
a mass with some glutinous liquid, without the aid of heat, and dried. The
form given to lozenges (TROCHE, TABELLÆ, TROCHISCI, TABLETTES) is
generally that of a small round tablet or flattened cylinder; but
originally they were exclusively made in the shape of a lozenge or rhomb,
from which circumstance their familiar name is derived. LOZENGES are
distinguished from DROPS OR PASTILLES by the non-employment of heat in
their preparation; and from PASTES, by the latter being formed of
vegetable juice or pulp, and having a softer consistence.

In the preparation of lozenges the dry ingredients, separately reduced to
a very fine powder, are first perfectly mixed together, and then beaten
into a stiff paste with the glutinous liquid employed to give them form;
the mass is next rolled out to a desired thickness, and cut into pieces of
the proper shape by means of a small cylinder or punch of steel or
tin-plate, called a ‘lozenge-cutter.’ The newly formed lozenges are lastly
dried by placing them on an inverted sieve or frame covered with paper in
a dry, warm, and airy situation, and are frequently turned until they
become hard and brittle, due care being taken to preserve them from dust
and dirt. To prevent the mass adhering to the fingers and utensils during
the process of manufacture, a little finely powdered starch, or a very
little olive oil, scented with the same aromatic as that contained in the
lozenges, may be used. Mucilage of gum Arabic or of gum tragacanth, thin
isinglass size, or the strained white of egg, are the substances usually
employed to make the pulverulent materials adhere together. A strained
decoction of Irish moss is now frequently used for the same purpose, for
inferior qualities. The larger the proportion of gum which enters into the
composition of lozenges, the slower they dissolve in the mouth; hence
powdered gum is frequently added to the other materials to increase their
quality in this respect, as well as to give an additional solidity to
those which, like chalk, for instance, are of a peculiarly dry or crumbly
nature. Starch and potato flour are often added to lozenge-masses in lieu
of a portion of the sugar, and even plaster of Paris is not unfrequently
employed to give them weight; frauds which are readily detected in the
manner noticed under GUM and SUGAR.

As a general rule, MEDICATED LOZENGES should weigh from 8 to 10 gr. each,
and a medium dose of their active ingredient should be distributed through
the bulk of 6 to 8 of them, in which case 3 to 5 of them may be safely
taken as a dose, or sucked during the lapse of 3 or 4 hours. This will be
useful in the preparation of those for which no established proportions
are given. In ‘sending out’ compounds of this class containing active
medicaments, as morphia or opium, the retailer as well as the manufacturer
should be careful that the quantity contained in each lozenge is plainly
marked on the label.

In lozenges intended for MOUTH COSMETICS or to perfume the breath,
ambergris is generally regarded as the most appropriate perfume; but hard
smokers frequently prefer cloves and cinnamon, and some ladies give the
preference to roses, orange flowers, and orris or violets.

Lozenges are coloured with the same stains as are used for liqueurs and

Lozenges, as well as all other similar articles of confectionery, should
be preserved in well-closed glass bottles, or jars, or in tin canisters,
so as to be perfectly excluded from the air and damp.

=Lozenges, Absor′bent.= TROCHISCI ANTACIDI, L. _Prep._ 1. Take of
precipitated chalk, 1/4 lb.; gum Arabic, 2 oz.; double refined white
sugar, 14 oz.; all in impalpable powder; oil of nutmeg, 1/2 fl. dr.; pass
the mixture through a fine sieve, beat it up with mucilage q. s., roll the
mass into a thin sheet, and cut it into lozenges; lastly, dry them by
exposing them on a sheet of white paper to the air, out of contact with

2. As the last, but substituting heavy carbonate of magnesia, 1-1/2 oz.,
for an equal weight of chalk. In diarrhœa, heartburn, acidity, &c. See

=Lozenges, Aca′cia.= See LOZENGES, GUM.

L.; TROCHISCI ACIDI TARTARICI (Ph. E.), L. _Prep._ From tartaric acid, 2
dr.; oil of lemon, 10 drops; white sugar, 8 oz.; mucilage, q. s. to make a
lozenge mass. The same ingredients mixed with heat form ACIDULATED or ACID
DROPS. Both are useful in coughs, hoarseness, sore throats, &c. See

=Lozenges, Al′kaline.= See LOZENGES, SODA, VICHY, &c.

=Lozenges, A′lum.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ALUMINIS, L. Each lozenge contains
1-1/2 gr. of alum. As an astringent. See LOZENGES, ASTRINGENT.

=Lozenges, An′iseed.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ANISI, L. _Prep._ From oil of
aniseed, 1-1/2 fl. dr.; finest white sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage, q. s.
Carminative and stomachic. In colic, griping, &c.; and as a pectoral.

=Lozenges, Anthelmin′tic.= See LOZENGES, WORM.

KUNKELII, L.; TABLETTES DE KUNKEL, Fr. _Prep._ (P. Cod.) Levigated
sulphuret of antimony and cardamom seeds, of each 1 oz.; almonds
(blanched), 2 oz.; cinnamon, 1/2 oz.; sugar, 13 oz.; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s.; to be divided into 15-gr. lozenges. As an alterative.

=Lozenges, Ape′′rient.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI APERIENTES, L. Each lozenge
contains 1 gr. each of calomel and scammony, and 2 gr. of jalap; or,
instead of the last, 1/4 gr. of jalapine. 2 to 3 for a dose.

=Lozenges, Astrin′gent.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ASTRINGENTES, L. Each lozenge
contains 1-1/2 gr. of alum and 2 gr. of catechu. In spitting of blood,
relaxed uvula, sore throat, &c. See LOZENGES, ALUM.

=Lozenges, Bark.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CINCHONÆ, L. _Prep._ (P. Cod.)
Cinchona, 2 oz.; cinnamon, 2 dr.; white sugar, 14 oz.; mucilage of gum
tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 16-gr. lozenges. Tonic.

=Lozenges, Bath.= _Syn._ DAWSON’S LOZENGES. From extract of liquorice and
gum Arabic, of each 1-1/2 oz.; sugar, 17 oz. It is both rolled into
lozenges and formed into pipes. Demulcent; in tickling coughs, &c.

=Lozenges, Benzoic Acid.= (Th. Hosp.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACIDI BENZOICI.
_Prep._ Benzoic acid in powder, 175 gr.; tragacanth in powder, 70 gr.;
refined sugar in powder, 280 gr.; red currant paste, a sufficient quantity
to make 1 lb. Divide into 350 lozenges, and dry at a moderate heat in a
hot-air chamber. A valuable stimulant and voice lozenge in nervomuscular
weakness of the throat.

=Lozenges, Bicarbonate of Soda.= TROCHISCI SODÆ BICARBONATIS. Bicarbonate
of soda, in powder, 3600 gr. (8-1/4 oz.); refined sugar, 25 oz.; gum
acacia, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, 1 oz.; mix,
and form in 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 5 gr. of bicarbonate of
soda.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 lozenges.

=Lozenges, Bis′muth.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI BISMUTHI, L. _Prep._ 1. (B. P.)
Subnitrate of bismuth, 346 gr.; carbonate of magnesia, 4 oz.; precipitated
chalk, 6 oz.; sugar, 29 oz.; gum acacia, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; rose
water, a sufficiency; make 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 2 gr. of
subnitrate of bismuth.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 lozenges.

2. (Trousseau.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of subnitrate of bismuth.
Tonic and antispasmodic; in chronic dyspepsia, gastrodynia, nausea, cramp
of the stomach, &c.

=Lozenges, Black Cur′rant.= TROCHISCI RIBIS NIGRI, L. _Prep._ From
inspissated juice of black currants and sugar, of each, in powder, 1 lb.;
tartaric acid, 1/4 oz.; mucilage, q. s. In hoarseness, &c.

=Lozenges, Bo′′rax.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI BORACIS, L. Each lozenge contains 3
gr. of borax. One occasionally in aphthous sore mouth, sore throat, &c.

=Lozenges, Bromide of Ammonium.= Each lozenge contains 2 gr. of bromide of
ammonium.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 lozenges. In hooping-cough.

=Lozenges, Burnt Sponge.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI SPONGIÆ, T. S. USTÆ, L. _Prep._
(P. Cod.) Burnt sponge, 4 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth,
q. s.; divide into 12-gr. lozenges. In scrofula, glandular enlargements,

=Lozenges, Caca′o.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI BUTYRI CACAO, L. Each lozenge
contains 1-3rd of its weight of pure cacao butter. In habitual
constipation; and in phthisis, scrofula, &c., instead of cod-liver oil;
taken _ad libitum_. They are usually scented with roses.

=Lozenges, Caffe′ine.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CAFFEINÆ, L. Each lozenge contains
1/4 gr. of caffeine and 1/2 gr. of citric acid. In hemicrania,
hypochondriasis, &c.

HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDI, L. _Prep._ (P. Cod.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of
calomel. Alterative, &c. They afford a simple way of introducing mercury
into the system. During their use salt food and acid liquors should be
avoided. When given for worms they should be followed, in a few hours, by
a purge.

=Lozenges, Cam′phor.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CAMPHORÆ, L. Each lozenge contains
3/4 gr. of (finely powdered) camphor. They must be kept in a well-corked

=Lozenges of Carbolic Acid.= (Th. Hosp.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACIDI CARBOLICI.
_Prep._ Carbolic acid, 350 gr.; gum Arabic, 220 gr.; refined sugar, 12-1/2
oz.; mucilage, 1 oz.; distilled water q. s. to make 1 lb. Divide into 350
lozenges, and finish as with benzoic acid lozenges.

=Lozenges, Car′bonate of Lime.= See LOZENGES, CHALK.

=Lozenges, Cat′echu.= _Syn._ CACHOU LOZENGES; TROCHISCI CATECHU (B. P.),
1744.) Catechu, 2 oz.; tragacanth, 1/2 oz.; white sugar, 12 oz.; rose
water, q. s.

2. (P. Cod.) Extract of catechu, 4 oz.; sugar, 16 oz.; mucilage of gum
tragacanth q. s.; for 10-gr. lozenges.

3. (TRO. CATECHU ET MAGNESIÆ——P. Cod.) Magnesia, 2 oz.; powdered catechu,
1 oz.; sugar, 13 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth (made with cinnamon
water), q. s. to mix.


5. (B. P.) Pale catechu, in powder, 720 gr.; refined sugar, in powder, 25
oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, a
sufficiency; divide into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of
catechu.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 lozenges.

_Obs._ All the above are taken in diarrhœa, in relaxation of the uvula, in
irritation of the larynx, and as cosmetics to fasten the teeth, and
disguise a fetid breath. The one containing magnesia (No. 3) is also
sucked in dyspepsia, acidity, and heartburn.

=Lozenges, Cayenne′.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CAPSICI, L. Flavoured with essence
or tincture of capsicum or cayenne, with a very concentrated Chili
vinegar, or a little pure soluble cayenne pepper.

2. (ACIDULATED.) To each lb. add of tartaric acid, 1/2 oz. Both are used
in dyspepsia, and to promote digestion and create an appetite. They have
also been recommended in temporary deafness arising from exposure to cold.
They are generally tinged of a light pink or red colour.

=Lozenges, Chalk.= _Syn._ HEARTBURN LOZENGES; TROCHISCI CRETÆ; (Ph. E.),
T. CARDIALGICI, TABELLÆ CARDIALGICÆ, L. _Prep._ (Ph. E.) Prepared chalk, 4
oz.; gum Arabic, 1 oz.; nutmeg, 1 dr.; white sugar, 6 oz.; rose or
orange-flower water, q. s. Antacid and absorbent. 3 or 4 sucked _ad
libitum_; in heartburn, dyspepsia, diarrhœa, acidity of the stomach and
bowels, &c.

=Lozenges, Char′coal.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CARBONIS, L. _Prep._ 1. (P. Cod.)
Prepared charcoal, 4 oz.; white sugar, 12 oz., mucilage, q. s. to mix. In
diarrhœa, cholera, dyspepsia, &c.

2. (TRO. CARBONAS CUM CHOCOLAT——M. Chevallier.) Charcoal and white sugar,
of each 1 oz.; chocolate, 3 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s. to mix.
Nutritious; used as the last.

=Lozenges, Ching’s Worm.= _Prep._ 1. (YELLOW.) From saffron, 1/2 oz.;
boiling water, 1 pint; infuse, strain, add, of calomel, 1 lb.; powdered
white sugar, 28 lbs.; mix well, make a mass with mucilage of tragacanth,
and divide it into 7000 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of calomel.

2. (BROWN.) From calomel, 7 oz.; resinous extract of jalap, 3-1/2 lbs.;
white sugar, 10 lbs.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into
6125 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1/2 gr. of calomel and 3-1/2 gr. of
resinous extract of jalap. 1 to 6 of the yellow lozenges over night, as a
vermifuge, followed by an equal number of the brown ones the next morning

=Lozenges, Chlo′′rate of Potassa.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI POTASSÆ CHLORATIS, L.
_Prep._ 1. Each lozenge contains 1-1/2 gr. of chlorate of potassa. In
phthisis, sore throat, &c. 6 to 12 a day.

2. (B. P.) Chlorate of potash, in powder, 3600 gr. (8-1/4 oz.); refined
sugar, in powder, 25 oz.; gum acacia, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.,
distilled water, 1 oz., or a sufficiency; mix the powders, and add the
mucilage and water to form a proper mass; divide in 720 lozenges. Each
lozenge contains 5 gr. of chlorate of potash.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 lozenges.

=Lozenges, Chloride of Ammonium.= Each lozenge contains 2 to 3 gr. of
chloride of ammonium. Used in bronchitis.——_Dose_, 2 to 4 lozenges.

=Lozenges, Chlo′′ride of Gold.= 1. (TROCHISCI AURI CHLORIDI, L.) Each
lozenge contains 1/40 gr. of neutral chloride of gold. 2 to 4 daily; in
scrofula, cancer, &c.

L.——Chrestien.) Each lozenge contains 1/16th gr. of soda-chloride of gold.
Two daily; as the last.

=Lozenges, Chloride of Lime.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CALCIS CHLORIDI, T. C.
CHLORINATÆ, L. Each lozenge contains 1/4 gr. of dry chloride of lime. They
are frequently tinged with a little carmine. Used to sweeten the breath
and whiten the teeth. They do not keep well.

=Lozenges of Chlorinated Soda.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI SODÆ CHLORINATÆ. _Prep._
Solution of chloride of soda, 1 fl. dr.; sugar, 10 dr.; gum Arabic, 2 dr.;
mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. (1/2 dr. of camphor may be added). To be
held in the mouth during infection.

=Lozenges, Choc′olate.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CHOCOLATÆ, L. From vanilla
chocolate pressed into sheets, and cut into pieces whilst hot.

=Lozenges, Cincho′na.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CINCHONÆ EXTRACTI, L. Each lozenge
contains 1-1/2 gr. of dry extract of bark. A little cinnamon or nutmeg is
often added. See BARK LOZENGES.

=Lozenges, Cin′namon.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CINNAMONI, L. From cinnamon (in
fine powder), 1 oz., or the essential oil, 1 fl. dr., to each lb. of
sugar. Carminative and stomachic. CASSIA LOZENGES are made in the same
way, and are frequently substituted for them.

=Lozenges, Ci′trate of Iron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI CITRATIS, L. Each
lozenge contains 1-1/2 gr. of ammonio-citrate of iron. As a mild
chalybeate tonic. They are sometimes made with equal parts of sugar and
vanilla chocolate.

=Lozenges, Citrate of Magne′sia.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MAGNESIÆ CITRATIS, L.
Each 15-gr. lozenge contains 5 gr. of pure citrate of magnesia. Laxative.

=Lozenges, Cit′ric Acid.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACIDI CITRICI, L. _Prep._ (P.
Cod.) Citric acid, 3 dr.; sugar, 16 oz.; essence of lemon, 16 drops;
mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 12-gr. lozenges. In
coughs, hoarseness, &c.

=Lozenges, Clove.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CARYOPHILLI, L. From cloves (powdered
along with sugar), 2 oz., or essential oil, 1 fl. dr., to each lb. of
sugar. They are frequently coloured. Carminative and stomachic; also used
as a restorative after fatigue, added to chocolate to improve its
flavour, and sucked to sweeten the breath.

ANTICATARRHALES, L. _Prep._ 1. Black-currant lozenge-mass, 1 lb.;
ipecacuanha (in very fine powder), 2 dr. For 12-gr. lozenges.

2. To the last add of powdered opium and camphor, 1-1/2 dr.

3. To either No. 1 or 2 add of oil of aniseed, 1-1/2 fl. dr.

4. (TABLETTES DE TRONCHIN.) From powdered gum Arabic, 8 oz.; oil of
aniseed, 16 drops; extract of opium, 12 gr.; kermes mineral, 1 dr.; pure
extract of liquorice, 2 oz.; white sugar, 32 oz.; water, q. s.; mix, and
divide into 10-gr. lozenges.

5. (TABLETTES DE VANDAMME.) From benzoic acid, 1 dr.; orris powder, 2 dr.;
gum Arabic (powdered), 1 oz.; starch, 2 oz.; sugar, 16 oz.; water, q. s.;
mix and divide into 15-gr. lozenges.

6. Each lozenge contains 1/2 gr. of lactucarium, 1/8 gr. of powdered
ipecacuanha, and 1/12 gr. of powdered squills, together with 1/3rd of
their weight of pure extract of liquorice.

_Obs._ To render the above serviceable in coughs, hoarseness, &c., the
bowels should be kept gently open with some mild aperient, and a light
diet adopted, with abstinence from stimulating liquors. See LOZENGES,

=Lozenges, Cro′ton Oil.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CROTONIS, L. _Prep._
(Soubeiran.) Croton oil, 5 drops; powdered starch, 40 gr.; white sugar, 1
dr.; chocolate, 2 dr.; divide into 30 lozenges; 5 or 6 generally prove

=Lozenges, Cu′bebine.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CUBEBINI, L. _Prep._ (Ph. Hamb.)
Copaiba and extract of cubebs, of each 6 oz.; yolks of 3 eggs; mix, add of
powdered marshmallow root, 6 oz.; make it into pipes of 12 gr. each, and
roll them in sugar. In gleet, &c., and in affections of the mucous
membranes of the throat and fauces. Lablonye orders them to be made of
sugar, and flavoured with oil of peppermint.

=Lozenges, Cu′bebs.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CUBEBÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. (Spitta.)
Cubebs, 2 dr.; balsam of tolu, 6 gr.; mix, and add of extract of
liquorice, 1 oz.; syrup of tolu, 1 dr.; powdered gum, q. s.; divide into
10-gr. lozenges. One of these, allowed to melt gradually in the mouth, is
said to alleviate the obstruction in the nose, in coryza.

2. (U. S.) _Prep._ Oleoresin of cubebs, 1/2 fl. oz. o. m.; oil of
sassafras, 1 fl. dr.; extract of liquorice in powder, 4 oz.; gum Arabic in
powder, 3 oz.; sugar in fine powder, 3 oz.; syrup of tolu, q. s. Divide
into 480 lozenges.

=Lozenges of Cyanide of Gold.= (Chrestien.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI AURI CYANIDI.
_Prep._ Cyanide of gold, 2 gr.; chocolate paste, 1 oz. Made into 24
lozenges. From 1 to 4 in the day.

=Lozenges, D′Arcet’s.= See LOZENGES, VICHY.


=Lozenges, Edinburgh.= _Prep._ From extract of poppies, 2 oz.; powdered
tragacanth, 4 oz.; sugar, 10 oz.; rose water, q. s. to form a

=Lozenges, Emet′ine.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI EMETINÆ, L. _Prep._ (Magendie.)——1.
From impure or coloured emetine, 32 gr. (or pure emetine, 8 gr.); white
sugar, 2 oz.; mucilage, q. s. to mix; divide into 64 lozenges.
Emetic.——_Dose_, 1 for a child, and 4 for an adult. They are generally
tinged of a pink colour with carmine.

2. From impure or coloured emetine, 32 gr. (or pure emetine, 8 gr.);
sugar, 4 oz.; mucilage, q. s.; divide into 256 lozenges. Pectoral. One
every hour, or oftener, for an adult. The last are intended to take the
place of ipecacuanha lozenges, but are rather stronger.

=Lozenges, Escharot′ic.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ESCHAROTICI, L. _Prep._ (P.
Cod.) Corrosive sublimate, 2 dr.; starch, 4 dr.; mucilage of tragacanth,
q. s.; mix, and divide into 3-gr. oat-shaped granules. For external use
only. See CAUSTIC (Zinc).

=Lozenges, Ferrocy′anide of Iron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI FERROCYANIDI, T.
CÆRULEI, L. Each lozenge contains 1-1/2 gr. of pure Prussian blue.
Alterative, febrifuge, and tonic; in epilepsy, intermittents, diseases of
the ganglionic system, &c.

=Lozenges, Fruit.= _Prep._ From juice of black currants (boiled to the
consistence of an extract), 1 lb.; juice of red currants (similarly
treated), 1/2 lb.; powdered gum tragacanth, 1/4 lb.; sugar, 3 lbs.;
raspberry syrup, q. s.; pear essence, a few drops. Resemble black currant
lozenges, but are more agreeable.

=Lozenges, Garana′.= See LOZENGES, PAULLINIA.

=Lozenges, Gin′ger.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ZINGIBERIS, L. _Prep._ From the best
unbleached Jamaica ginger and gum Arabic, of each, in very fine powder,
1-1/2 oz.; double refined lump sugar, 1 lb.; rose water (tinged with
saffron), q. s. A still finer quality may be made by using an equivalent
proportion of essence of ginger, instead of the powder. Inferior qualities
are prepared with coarser sugar to which some starch is often added.
Ginger lozenges are carminative and stomachic, and are useful in
flatulency, loss of appetite, &c.

=Lozenges, Gold.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI AURI, L. Each lozenge contains 1/16 gr.
of pulverulent gold.

=Lozenges, Gum.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACACIÆ (Ph. E.), T. GUMMI ARABICI, T.
GUMMOSI, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) Gum Arabic, 4 oz.; starch, 1 oz.; white
sugar, 12 oz. (all in very fine powder); rose water, q. s.

2. (P. Cod.) Gum Arabic, 1 lb.; sugar, 3 lbs.; orange-flower water, 2 fl.

3. (Transparent.) From the same materials, but employing a gentle heat.
Demulcent; used to allay tickling coughs.

=Lozenges, Guaiacum.= (Th. Hosp.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI GUAIACI. _Prep._
Guaiacum resin in powder, 700 gr.; tragacanth, 70 gr.; sugar, 280 gr.;
black currant paste, q. s. Divide into 350 lozenges, and finish as benzoic
acid lozenges.

=Lozenges, Gum Tra′gacanth.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI TRAGACANTHÆ, T. GUMMI T., L.
_Prep._ (Ph. E. 1744.) Compound powder of tragacanth, 3 oz.; sugar, 12
oz.; rose water, 4 fl. oz. Resemble the last, but are more durable in the

=Lozenges, Heart′burn.= See LOZENGES, CHALK, &c.

=Lozenges, Iceland Moss.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI LICHENIS, L. (P. Cod.) Contain
half their weight of dried and powdered lichen jelly. Resemble gum

=Lozenges, Indian Hemp.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CANNABIS, D. C. INDICI, L.
(Ebriard.) Each lozenge contains 1/12 gr. of extract of Indian hemp.

=Lozenges, I′odide of Iron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI IODIDI, L. Each
lozenge contains 1/2 gr. of dry iodide of iron. 12 to 20 daily; in
amenorrhœa, chlorosis, scrofulous debility, &c. They are generally
flavoured with a little nutmeg or cinnamon.

=Lozenges, Iodide of Potassium.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI POTASSI IODIDI, L. Each
lozenge contains 1 gr. of iodide of potassium, flavoured with nutmeg or
cinnamon. 10 to 15 daily; in scrofula, indurations, &c. One of the best
ways of taking iodide of potassium.

=Lozenges, Ipecacuan′ha.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI IPECACUANHÆ;, L. _Prep._ 1. (B.
P.) Mix ipecacuanha in powder, 180 gr.; refined sugar in powder, 25 oz.;
gum acacia in powder, 1 oz.; add mucilage of acacia, 2 fl. oz., and
distilled water, 1 oz., or sufficient to form a proper mass. Divide into
720 lozenges, and dry in a hot-air chamber with a moderate heat. Each
lozenge contains 1/4 gr. of ipecacuanha.

2. (P. Cod., Hamb. do., and Ph. U. S.) Each lozenge contains 1/4 gr. of

3. (TRO. IPECAC. CUM CAMPHORÂ.) Each lozenge contains 1/2 gr. of camphor,
and 1/4 gr. of ipecacuanha.

4. (TRO. IPECAC. CUM CHOCOLAT——P. Cod.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of
ipecacuanha, and 12 gr. of chocolate _à la vanilla_. The above are
pectoral and expectorant, and are very useful in tickling and chronic
coughs, hoarseness, &c.

=Lozenges, Ipecacuanha and Morphia.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI IPECACUANHÆ ET
MORPHIÆ (B. P.). Each lozenge contains 1/12 gr. ipecacuanha and 1/36 gr.
hydrochlorate morphia.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 lozenges. See LOZENGES, MORPHIA AND

=Lozenges, I′ron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI, T. CHALYBEATI, L. 1. Each
lozenge contains 1 gr. of Quevenne’s iron. See LOZENGES, REDUCED IRON.

2. (TRO. FERRI CARBONATIS.) Each lozenge contains 1-1/2 gr. of saccharine
carbonate of iron. They are both mild and excellent chalybeates. See

=Lozenges, Ju′jube.= See PASTE, JUJUBE.

=Lozenges, Ker′mes Mineral.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI KERMETIS, L. _Prep._ 1. (P.
Cod.) Each lozenge contains 1/6 gr. of kermes mineral, and about 3/4 gr.
of gum, made up with sugar and orange-flower water. Diaphoretic and

2. (Compound.) As the last, but with the addition of 1/6 gr. of opium, 1/4
gr. of squills, and 1/2 gr. of ipecacuanha. Anodyne and expectorant; both
are very useful in catarrhs.

=Lozenges, Lactate of Iron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI LACTATIS, L. _Prep._
(Cap.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of lactate of iron. Tonic. Useful in
debility, accompanied with a diseased state of the organs of digestion.

=Lozenges, Lac′tic Ac′id.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACIDI LACTICI, L. Each lozenge
contains 1 gr. of lactic acid to about 12 gr. of sugar. They are best
flavoured with vanilla or nutmeg. In dyspepsia, &c., especially in gouty
subjects. Those prepared by Magendie’s formulæ contain a larger proportion
of acid, but are much too sour for frequent use.

=Lozenges, Lactuca′′rium.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI LACTUCARII, L. _Prep._ (Ph.
E.) Prepared with lactucarium in the same manner as the opium lozenges,
Ph. E. Each of these lozenges contains from 1/6 to 1/7 gr. of lactucarium.
Anodyne and demulcent. Used to allay tickling coughs, &c.

=Lozenges, Lavender.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI LAVANDULÆ, L. From 3/4 fl. dr. of
Mitcham oil of lavender to each lb. of sugar, and tinged red with liquid
lake or carmine; or violet, with litmus or indigo. Used chiefly to scent
the breath. Those of the shops are generally deficient in odour.

=Lozenges, Lem′on.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI LIMONIS, T. LIMONUM, L. _Prep._ 1.
From 1-1/2 fl. dr. of oil of lemon to each lb. of double refined white

2. (Acidulated.) See LOZENGES, CITRIC and TARTARIC.

_Obs._ Lemon lozenges and drops are agreeable sweetmeats, and those that
are acidulated are often very useful to promote expectoration in coughs,
&c. The last are also made into drops as well as lozenges, when they form
the ‘ACIDULATED LEMON DROPS’ of the shops. Those that are made of citric
acid are by far the most wholesome. Both lemon lozenges and drops are
generally coloured with infusion of saffron or turmeric.

=Lozenges, Lettuce.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI LACTUCÆ, L. _Prep._ From extract of
lettuce, extract of liquorice, gum, and sugar, equal parts. Anodyne and
demulcent; in obstinate cough without expectoration. See LOZENGES,

=Lozenges, Lichen.= See LOZENGES, ICELAND MOSS.

GLABRÆ, T. BECHICI NIGRI, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) Extract of liquorice and
gum acacia, of each 6 oz; white sugar, 12 oz.; dissolve in water, q. s.;
evaporate into a paste, and form into lozenges. Pectoral and demulcent.
Useful to allay tickling coughs and remove hoarseness.


E.), L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) Carbonate of magnesia, 6 oz.; powdered white
sugar, 3 oz.; oil of nutmeg, 20 drops; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to

2. (Ph. U. S.) Calcined magnesia, 4 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.; nutmeg, 1 dr.;
mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; for 10-gr. lozenges.

3. (Wholesale.) Calcined magnesia, 3 oz.; powdered gum tragacanth, 1 oz.;
double refined lump sugar, 3/4 lb.; rose or orange-flower water, q. s. to
make a lozenge mass.

_Obs._ Magnesia lozenges are very useful in heartburn, acidity, and
indigestion. The confectioners generally omit the nutmeg, and make their
mucilage with either rose or orange-flower water, or else add the dry gum
to the mass, and then mix up the powders with one or other of these
liquids. It is also an improvement to use calcined magnesia, which is
about twice as strong as the carbonate, and consequently less need be

=Lozenges, Manna.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MANNÆ, L. _Prep._ (Van Mons.) Powdered
tragacanth, 1 dr.; white sugar, 12 oz.; manna, 3 oz.; orange-flower water,
q. s. to mix. Demulcent, and in large numbers slightly laxative.

=Lozenges, Marshmallow.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ALTHÆÆ, L.; TABLETTES DE
GUIMAUVE, Fr. _Prep._ (P. Cod.) Marshmallow root (decorticated and finely
powdered), 2 oz.; sugar, 14 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth (made with
orange-flower water), q. s. Demulcent and expectorant. Useful to allay the
irritation in cough, &c. The preparations of marshmallow have always been
highly esteemed as pectorals by the vulgar.

=Lozenges, Min′ium.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MINII (Ph. E. 1744), L. _Prep._ From
red lead, 1 dr.; corrosive sublimate, 2 dr.; crumb of bread, 1 oz.; rose
water, q. s.; to be made up into oat-like grains. For external use only.

=Lozenges, Morphia.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MORPHIÆ (B. P., Ph. E.), T. M.
HYDROCHLORATIS, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) Hydrochlorate of morphia, 20 gr.;
tincture of tolu, 1/2 fl. oz.; powdered white sugar, 25 oz.; dissolve the
hydrochlorate in a little warm water, mix it with the tincture and the
sugar, make a mass with mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s., and divide it
into 15-gr. lozenges. Each lozenge contains about 1/40 gr. of
hydrochlorate of morphia. Used as opium lozenges, but are pleasanter. The
morphia lozenges of the shop generally contain 1/24 gr. of hydrochlorate
of morphia. (Pereira.)

last, adding of ipecacuanha, 1 dr. Each lozenge contains about 1/40 gr. of
hydrochlorate of morphia, and 1/13 gr. of ipecacuanha. Anodyne and
expectorant; in tickling coughs, &c., and to allay pain.

3. Hydrochlorate of morphia, 20 gr.; tincture of tolu, 1/2 oz.; refined
sugar, in powder, 24 oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.,
or a sufficiency; boiling distilled water, 1/2 oz. Divide the mass into
720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1/36 gr. of hydrochlorate of
morphia.——_Dose_, 1 or 2 occasionally, for cough.

=Lozenges, Morphia and Ipecacuanha.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MORPHIÆ ET
IPECACUANHÆ (B. P.) Hydrochlorate of morphia, 20 gr.; ipecacuanha, in fine
powder, 24 oz.; tincture of tolu, 1/2 oz.; refined sugar, in powder, 24
oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz., or a sufficiency;
distilled water, 1/2 oz.; divide the mass into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge
contains 1/36 gr. of hydrochlorate of morphia and 1/12 gr. of
ipecacuanha.——_Dose_, 1 or 2 occasionally, for cough.

=Lozenges of Naphthalin.= (Dupasquier.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI NAPHTHALINI.
_Prep._ Naphthalin, 5 scruples; sugar, 20 oz.; oil of aniseed to flavour;
form a mass with mucilage of tragacanth, and divide into lozenges of 15
gr. each. Expectorant, and may be taken to the extent of 20 a day.

=Lozenges, Ni′tre.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI NITRICI, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E. 1783.)
Nitre, 3 oz.; white sugar, 9 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to mix.
Diuretic; but chiefly sucked, without swallowing, to remove incipient sore

2. Camphorated; TROCHISCI NITRI CAMPHORATI, L.——Chaussier. Each lozenge
contains 1/8 gr. of opium, 1/2 gr. of camphor, and 1 gr. of nitre. In
hoarseness, sore throat, &c.

=Lozenges, Nut′meg.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MYRISTICÆ, L. From oil of nutmeg, 1
fl. dr., to each lb. of sugar, and coloured with infusion of saffron.
Carminative and stomachic; in colic, &c.

=Lozenges, O′pium.= _Syn._ ANODYNE LOZENGES; TROCHISCI OPII (Ph. E.), T.
GLYCYRRHIZÆ CUM OPIO, L. _Prep._ 1. (B. P., Ph. E.) Opium (strained), 2
dr.; tincture of tolu, 1/2 oz.; triturate together, add of powdered sugar,
6 oz.; extract of liquorice (soft) and powdered gum acacia, of each 5 oz.;
mix, and divide into 10-gr. lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1/6 to 1/7 gr.
of opium. Used to allay tickling cough and irritation of the fauces, and
as an anodyne and hypnotic.

2. (Ph. U. S.) Opium (in fine powder), 2 dr.; extract of liquorice, gum
Arabic, and sugar, of each 5 oz.; oil of aniseed, 1/2 fl. dr.; water,
q. s.; divide into 6-gr. lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1/10 gr. of
opium. As the last.

3. Extract of opium, 72 gr.; tincture of tolu, 1/2 oz.; refined sugar (in
powder), 2 oz.; extract of liquorice, 6 oz.; distilled water, a
sufficiency. Divide the mass into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1/10
gr. of extract of opium.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 lozenges.

=Lozenges, Or′ange.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI AURANTII, L. From oil of orange,
1-1/2 fl. dr. to each lb. of sugar, and infusion of saffron for colouring.
By adding nitric or tartaric acid, 3 dr. ‘ACIDULATED ORANGE LOZENGES’ will
be formed.

=Lozenges, Orange-flow′er.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI AURANTII FLORUM, L. _Prep._
(P. Cod.) Powdered sugar, 1 lb.; neroli, 1 dr.; orange-flower water,
q. s.; make it into drops (pastilli); or, omit the water, and make it into
lozenges with mucilage of tragacanth made with orange-flower water.
Delightfully fragrant.

=Lozenges, Or′ris-root.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI IRIDIS, L. _Prep._ From
orris-root (in very fine powder), 1 oz.; sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s. to mix. Used to perfume the breath.

=Lozenges Ox′alate of Potassa.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI POTASSÆ OXALATIS, T. P.
SUPER-OXALATIS, L. As ACIDULATED LOZENGES, but using quadraoxalate of
potassa (salt of sorrel) instead of tartaric acid. (See _below_.)

=Lozenges, Oxal′ic Acid.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACIDI OXALICI, L. As ACIDULATED
LOZENGES, but using oxalic acid instead of tartaric acid. The last two are
refrigerant, but their use is objectionable, especially for patients who
labour under the oxalic diathesis. In large quantities they are poisonous.

=Lozenges, Paregor′ic.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI PAREGORICI, L. Medicated with 2
fl. oz. of paregoric and 2 dr. of tartaric acid, to each lb. of sugar, and
tinged of a pink colour with lake or cochineal. As a pectoral in catarrhs,

=Lozenges, Paullin′ia.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI PAULLINIÆ, T. GUARANÆ, L. _Prep._
(Dr Gavrelle.) Each lozenge contains nearly 1/2 gr. of extract of garana
or paullinia, and is flavoured with vanilla. 12 to 20 daily, as an
alterative and tonic; in chlorosis, diarrhœa.

=Lozenges, Pec′toral.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI PECTORALES, T. BECHICI, L. _Prep._
1. (Dr Grunn.) Powdered squills, 4 parts; extract of lettuce, 8 parts;
ipecacuanha, 18 parts; manna, 125 parts; sugar, 250 parts; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s. to mix.

2. (Magendie.) See LOZENGES, EMETINE.


4. (WHITE; T. BECHICI ALBI.) Orris root, 4 dr.; liquorice powder, 6 dr.;
starch, 1-1/2 oz.; sugar, 18 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to make a

5. (YELLOW; T. BECHICI FLAVI.) Powdered orris root, 6 dr.; starch, 4 dr.;
liquorice powder, 3 dr.; saffron, 2 dr.; sugar, 8 oz.; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s. to mix.

_Obs._ All the above are used as demulcents in coughs, colds, &c. Nos. 1
and 2 are anodyne as well as demulcent. For other formulæ see LOZENGES,

=Lozenges, Pel′litory.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI PYRETHRI, L. _Prep._ From
pellitory, mastic, and tragacanth, of each in fine powder, equal parts;
orange-flower water, q. s. to mix. In toothache.

=Lozenges, Pep′permint.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI MENTHÆ PIPERITÆ, L. _Prep._ 1.
(P. Cod.) Oil of peppermint, 1 dr.; powdered sugar, 16 oz.; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s.

2. (Ph. U. S.) Oil of peppermint, 1 fl. dr.; sugar, 12 oz.; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s.

3. (Wholesale.) 1 fl. dr. of the finest Mitcham oil of peppermint to each
lb. of the finest double refined white sugar, with mucilage of either gum
Arabic or tragacanth to mix.

_Obs._ The best peppermint lozenges are made of the very finest double
refined sugar and of English oil of peppermint only; carefully mixed up
with very clean mucilage. The commoner qualities are made by employing
inferior lump sugar and foreign oil of peppermint, or, what is better,
English oil of peppermint, but in a less proportion than for the better
sorts. The addition of starch, in quantity varying from 1/6 to 2/9 of the
whole mass, is also commonly made to them; and in the cheapest varieties
even plaster of Paris or chalk is occasionally introduced by unprincipled
makers. The addition of a very small quantity of blue smalts, reduced to
an impalpable powder, is commonly made to the sugar, to increase its
made from the same materials as the opaque ones; but the sugar is not
reduced to quite so fine a powder, and the cake is rolled thinner before
cutting it. A little oil of almonds or of olives is also occasionally
mixed with the ingredients, to promote the transparency; but it tends to
render the lozenges less white.

Peppermint lozenges and drops are useful in flatulency, nausea, and
griping; and judging from the enormous and constantly increasing demand
for them, they are more highly esteemed by the public than all other
lozenges and confections.

=Lozenges, Pontefract.= These are made of the purest refined juice or
extract of liquorice, and have long been esteemed as a demulcent.

=Lozenges, Pop′py.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI PAPAVERIS, L. _Prep._ From extract of
poppies, 3 oz.; sugar, 15 oz.; powdered gum tragacanth, 2 oz.; rose water,
q. s. to mix. Used in coughs as an anodyne and demulcent, in lieu of opium

=Lozenges, Pulmon′ic.= See LOZENGES, COUGH, PECTORAL, WAFERS, &c.

=Lozenges, Quin′ine.= _Syn._ =Trochisci quininæ sulphatis=, L. _Prep._
(Soubeiran.) Each lozenge contains about 1/10 gr. of sulphate (disulphate)
of quinine. Tonic and stomachic in dyspepsia, &c.; but to render them
useful, the quantity of the alkaloid should be doubled.

=Lozenges, Reduced Iron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI REDACTI. (B. P.) Reduced
iron, 720 gr.; refined sugar, in powder, 25 oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1
oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, 1 oz., or a sufficiency. Mix the
iron, sugar, and gum, and add the mucilage and water to form a proper
mass. Divide into 720 lozenges, and dry them in a hot-air chamber with a
moderate heat. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of reduced iron.——_Dose_, 1 to
6 lozenges.

=Lozenges, Reduced Iron, with Chocolate.= (Bouchardat.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI
CHOCOLATÆ ET FERRI. _Prep._ Fine chocolate, 14 oz.; iron reduced by
hydrogen, 1 oz. Soften the chocolate by heat, mix with the iron, and
divide into lozenges of 15-1/2 gr. each. Levigated iron filings are
sometimes substituted for the reduced iron; others direct the peroxide.

=Lozenges of Rhatany.= (Th. Hosp.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI KRAMERIÆ. _Prep._
Extract of rhatany in powder, 1050 gr.; tragacanth, 70 gr.; sugar, 280
gr.; red currant paste, q. s. Mix, and divide into 350 lozenges, and
finish as in benzoic acid lozenges.

_Prep._ (P. Cod.) Powdered rhubarb, 1 oz.; sugar, 11 oz.; mucilage of
tragacanth, q. s.; divide into 12-gr. lozenges. Stomachic and laxative.
Sucked before dinner, they excite the appetite, and, after it, promote
digestion. They are frequently aromatised with a little cinnamon or
vanilla. See CANDY (Digestive).

=Lozenges, Rose.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ROSÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. (ACIDULATED; T. R.
ACIDÆ.) From otto, 5 to 10 drops; citric or tartaric acid, 3 dr.; sugar, 1
lb.; mucilage, q. s.

2. (Ph. E. 1746.) Red-rose leaves (powdered), 1 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.;
mucilage, q. s.

3. (PÂTE DE ROSE LOZENGES.) As No. 1, omitting one half of the acid.

4. (RED; T. R. RUBRI.) As No. 1; but coloured with liquid lake, or
infusion of cochineal.

_Obs._ Some makers add of starch, 4 oz., substitute oil of rhodium for
otto of roses, and use mucilage made with rose water; but the quality of
course suffers. They are chiefly used to perfume the breath.

=Lozenges, Saf′fron.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI CROCI, L. _Prep._ From hay saffron
(in fine powder), 1 oz.; white sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage of gum tragacanth,
q. s. to mix. Anodyne, pectoral, and emmenagogue; but chiefly used to
raise the spirits in hypochondriasis.

SANTONINI, L. Each lozenge contains 1/2 gr. (nearly) of santonine. 5 to 10
daily, as a vermifuge.

=Lozenges, Scammony.= (Bourières.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI SCAMMONII. _Prep._
Resin of scammony, 4 dr.; calomel, 4 dr.; sugar, 6 oz.; tragacanth, 1/2
dr.; tincture of vanilla, 40 minims. Make into 300 lozenges. 1 or 2 for a
child; 2 to 4 for an adult.

=Lozenges, So′da.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI SODÆ BICARBONATIS (Ph. E.), L. _Prep._
1. (Ph. E.) Bicarbonate of soda, 1 oz.; powdered gum Arabic, 1/2 oz.;
sugar, 3 oz.; mucilage, q. s.

2. (Wholesale.) From bicarbonate of soda and powdered gum tragacanth, of
each 2 oz.; double refined lump sugar, 3/4 lb.; rose water, q. s. to mix.
In acidity, heartburn, &c. See LOZENGES, VICHY.

3. (With GINGER); TROCHISCI SODÆ ET ZINGIBERIS, L. To the last, add of
ginger (in very fine powder), 1-1/2 oz.; powdered gum, 1/2 oz.

=Lozenges of Soluble Tartar.= (Guibort.) _Syn._ TROCHISCI TARTARI
SOLUBILIS. _Prep._ Borotartrate of potash, 1 oz.; sugar, 7 oz.; mucilage
of tragacanth, q. s.; flavoured with lemon.

=Lozenges, Squills.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI SCILLÆ, L. 1. Each lozenge contains
1/8 gr. of powdered squills and 2 gr. of extract of liquorice.

adding for each lozenge 1/4 gr. of powdered ipecacuanha. Both the above
are useful cough lozenges.

=Lozenges, Starch.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ALIMY, T. BECHICI ALBI. L. See

=Lozenges, Steel.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI FERRI, T. CHALYBEATI, L. _Prep._ (P.
Cod.) Levigated iron filings, 1 oz.; sugar, 10 oz.; cinnamon, 2 dr.;
mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 480 lozenges. Tonic.

=Lozenges, Sul′phur.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI SULPHURIS, L. _Prep._ (P. Cod.)
From sulphur (pure precipitate), 2 oz.; sugar, 16 oz.; mucilage of
tragacanth (made with rose water), q. s. to mix. Useful in piles and some
skin diseases.

=Lozenges, Tannic Acid.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ACIDI TANNICI (B. P.) Tannic
acid, 360 gr.; tincture of tolu, 1/2 oz,; refined sugar, 25 oz.; gum
acacia, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, 1 oz. Dissolve the tannic
acid in the water; add first the tincture of tolu previously mixed with
the mucilage, then the gum and the sugar, also previously well mixed. Form
the whole into a proper mass, divide into 720 lozenges, and dry them in a
hot-air chamber with a moderate heat. Each lozenge contains 1/2 gr. of
tannic acid.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 lozenges.

=Lozenges, Tarta′ric Acid.= See LOZENGES, ACIDULATED.

BALSAMICÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. (P. Cod.) Balsam of tolu and rectified spirit, of
each 1 oz.; dissolve, add of water, 2 fl. oz., heat the mixture in a water
bath, and filter; make a mucilage with the filtered liquid, and gum
tragacanth (in powder), 80 gr.; add of sugar, 16 oz.; make a mass, and cut
it into lozenges.

2. (Wholesale.) As the last, but using only one half the weight of balsam
of tolu. Pectoral and balsamic.

=Lozenges, Tronchin’s.= _Syn._ TABLETTES DE TRONCHIN, Fr. See LOZENGES,

=Lozenges, Vanil′la.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI VANILLÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. Essence of
vanilla, 3 fl. dr., to each lb. of sugar.

2. (Guibourt.) From vanilla triturated to a fine powder with 7 times its
weight of sugar. Antispasmodic, nervine, and stomachic. Used to sweeten
the breath, to flavour chocolate, &c.

=Lozenges, Vichy.= _Syn._ D’ARCET’S LOZENGES; TROCHISCI SODÆ, L.;
PASTILLES DE VICHY, Fr. _Prep._ 1. (P. Cod.) Bicarbonate of soda, 1 oz.;
powdered sugar, 19 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide
into 20-gr. lozenges.

2. (D’Arcet.) As the last, adding a little oil of peppermint to give a
slight flavour. Antacid or absorbent; in heartburn, &c.

=Lozenges, Vi′olet.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI VIOLÆ, T. VIOLARUM, L. _Prep._ Orris
lozenges coloured with the juice of violets.

=Lozenges, Wistar’s Cough.= _Prep._ Gum Arabic, extract of liquorice, and
sugar, of each 2-1/2 oz.; powdered opium, 1 dr.; oil of aniseed, 40 drops;
for 60 lozenges. One, three or four times a day.

Most of the advertised nostrums under this name have a basis of calomel
(about 1 gr. per lozenge), and require to be followed by a purge a few
hours afterwards.

1. (Ph. Austr. 1836.) Ethereal extract of wormseed, 1 dr.; jalap, starch,
and sugar, of each 2 dr.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s.; divide into
60 lozenges.

2. (Ph. Dan. 1840.) Wormseed, 1 oz.; ethiops mineral and jalap, of each 3
dr.; cinnamon, 2 dr.; sugar, 7 oz.; rose water, q. s. See LOZENGES,
CALOMEL, CHING’S, SANTONIN, &c. (_above_).

=Lozenges, Zinc.= _Syn._ TROCHISCI ZINCI, T. Z. SULPHATIS, L. _Prep._ (Dr
Copland.) Each lozenge contains 1/2 gr. of sulphate of zinc.
Antispasmodic, expectorant, and tonic, and in quantity emetic.



=LUMBA′GO.= Rheumatism of the loins. It is distinguished from nephritis,
or inflammation of the kidneys, by the pain being aggravated on stooping.
The treatment consists of strong stimulant embrocations or liniments, or
of blisters over the parts affected, with active aperients, warmth, and
diaphoretics (as Dover’s powder) at bedtime. The hot or vapour bath often
gives almost immediate relief. See LINIMENT OF BELLADONNA and CHLOROFORM.


=LU′NA, CORNEA.= [L.] _Syn._ HORN SILVER. Fused chloride of silver.

=LU′NAR, CAUSTIC.= Fused nitrate of silver. See CAUSTIC and SILVER.

=LUNCHEONS, HOT, by the River Side.= We extract the following from ‘Land
and Water’:——“In cold weather, by river side or on mountain or moor, when
not too far from home, a hot lunch is often a _desideratum_, but one not
easily accomplished without a more or less complicated apparatus and the
trouble of lighting a fire——often an impossibility from the want of dry
wood. A hot, substantial meal at the end of a hard day’s work is often
difficult to get when the time of return home may depend entirely on the
humour of the fish; and for either purpose nothing will beat the homely
Hot Pot, or ‘Paté de Lancashire,’ as I have seen it pretentiously termed,
though the latter name does not convey any of the comforting, cheering
sensation to the inner man contained in the simpler denomination. I have
never seen a good recipe for it, so append my own. Take a strong glazed
earthenware jar of a cylindrical form, ten inches deep and twelve broad.
At the bottom of this place a layer, about an inch thick, of potatoes cut
into pieces, sprinkle with a little salt; on these place a layer of four
or five mutton chops, season with salt and pepper, and a teaspoonful of
Worcester sauce. Pour in enough broth, stock, or water to nearly cover the
chops; then add another layer of potatoes (rather thicker than the first),
on which place two or three chops, and two kidneys, cut into smallish
pieces for the sake of the gravy. If mushrooms are procurable, add a few
with each layer of meat, or, in place of these, a few oysters. Season, and
continue the meat and potatoes in alternate layers until within an inch of
the top, when cover with small potatoes whole, or large ones cut into
halves or quarters; bake slowly in the oven till the potatoes are quite
soft inside, and brown and well cooked at the top, when the dish is ready.
If it is not wanted at once, it may easily be kept hot, and the addition
of a little stock will prevent its getting dry. To serve out-of-doors,
wrap up in cloths, and carry in a small hamper lined with straw, when it
will keep steaming hot for an hour or more. One of the great excellences
of this dish lies in the fact that all the aroma of the meat is retained,
while the potatoes absorb any superfluous gravy. Sliced onions will
improve the flavour for those who like them, especially when mushrooms
cannot be got. I have tested the appreciation of this dish among a
grouse-driving party on the Yorkshire moors on a raw December day, and
there was no dissentient voice as to its merits when thankfully discussed
over the subsequent pipe. I have found it not ungrateful, after a long
day’s fishing, nearly up to my waist in water, when the dinner ordered for
six, with a view of taking an evening basket, would have been ruined
before my arrival at eleven, had it consisted of aught else; nay, I have
assisted at more than one bachelor supper in chambers, where it formed the
dish of the evening, and mid-day, evening, or night I have always found it

=LUNGS.= In _anatomy_, the organ of respiration occupying the thorax or

=LU′PULIN.= _Syn._ LUPULINA, LUPULINE. Under this name two products are
known, namely, 1. (LUPULINIC GRAINS, L. GLANDS.) The yellow powder
obtained from the dried strobiles or catkins of the hops, by gently
rubbing and sifting them.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 gr.; as an anodyne, tonic, &c.

2. The aromatic bitter principle of hops.

_Prep._ The aqueous extract of the yellow powder or lupulinic grains of
the strobiles, along with a little lime, are treated with rectified
spirit; the filtered tincture is evaporated to dryness, redissolved in
water, and the solution is again filtered, and evaporated to dryness; the
residuum is, lastly, washed with ether, and allowed to dry.

_Prop., &c._ The latter product is a yellowish-white, bitter,
uncrystallisable substance, soluble in 20 parts of water, very soluble in
alcohol, and slightly so in ether. The yellow powder above alluded to (No.
1) is improperly called lupulin; a name which appears more appropriate to
the pure bitter principle than to the lupulinic grains.

_Adult._ The lupulin sold to brewers is largely adulterated with quassia.
In some samples, lately examined, the quassia amounted to 70 per cent.

=LU′PUS.= In _pathology_, a disease affecting the skin, remarkable for
eating away the parts which it attacks with extreme rapidity. It is
generally confined to the face, and commences with small, spreading
ulcerations, which become more or less concealed beneath bran-like scabs,
and end in ragged ulcers, which gradually destroy the skin and muscular
tissue to a considerable depth.


=LUTE.= _Syn._ LUTING; LUTUM, CÆMENTUM, L. A composition employed to
secure the joints of chemical vessels, or as a covering to protect them
from the violence of the fire.

_Prep._ 1. Linseed meal, either alone or mixed with an equal weight of
whiting, and made into a stiff paste with water. It soon becomes very hard
and tough.

2. Ground almond cake, from which the oil has been pressed, mixed up as
the last. Both the above are much used for stills, retorts, and other
vessels that are not exposed to a heat higher than about 320° Fahr. They
are capable of resisting the action of the fumes of volatile oils,
spirits, weak acids, &c., for some time.

3. Fresh-slaked lime made into a paste with strained bullock’s blood or
size. As the last.

4. Plaster of Paris made into a paste with water, and at once applied. It
bears a nearly red heat, but becomes rather porous and friable.

5. Powdered clay or whiting made into putty with water and boiled linseed
oil. This is commonly known as ‘fat lute.’

6. A mixture of powdered clay and ground bricks, made up with water or a
solution of borax. For joining crucibles, &c., which are to be exposed to
a strong heat.

7. Pipe-clay and horse-dung, made into a paste with water. As a coating
for glass vessels, to preserve them from injury from exposure to the fire.
This composition is used by the pipe-makers, and will stand unharmed the
extremest heat of their kiln for 24 hours. It is applied by spreading it
on paper.

8. As the last, but employing shredded tow or plumbago for horse-dung.

_Obs._ For the joints of small vessels, as tubes, &c., especially those of
glass or earthenware, pieces of vulcanized Indian tubing, slipped over and
tied above and below the joint, are very convenient substitutes for lutes,
and have the advantage of lasting for a long time, and bearing uninjured
the heat at which oil of vitriol boils. Flat rings or “washers” of
vulcanised rubber are also excellent for still heads, &c., whenever the
parts can be pinched together by screws or clamps.

=LYCOPO′DIUM.= The fine powder known in commerce under this name consists
of the minute spores of the common club moss, or _Lycopodium clavatum_. It
is exceedingly combustible; thrown suddenly from a powder-puff or bellows
across the flame of a candle, it produces the imitation flashes of
lightning of our theatres. The powder is also employed as a ‘dusting
powder’ in excoriations, and to roll up boluses and pills.

According to M. Paul Cazeneuve, pine pollen is occasionally substituted
for lycopodium.

=MACARO′NI.= This only differs from VERMICELLI in the size of the pipes,
which are about as large as a goose-quill. When properly dressed it is
very wholesome and nutritious. A pleasant dish may be made by boiling
macaroni in water until soft, either with or without a little salt,
draining off the water, and then stewing it with a little butter, cream,
or milk, and grated cheese, adding spice to palate. It may be made into a
‘form’ and browned before the fire.

=MAC′AROONS (English).= _Prep._ Take of sweet almonds, 1 lb.; blanch and
beat them to a paste, add of lump sugar 1-1/4 lb.; whites of 6 eggs; the
grated yellow peel of 2 lemons; mix well, make it into ‘forms,’ cover with
wafer paper, and bake in a moderate oven.

=MACE.= _Syn._ MACIS, L. The tough membranous, lacerated covering
(ariliode) of the NUTMEG. It has a flavour and odour more agreeable than
that of nutmeg, which in its general properties it resembles. It is used
as a flavouring by cooks, confectioners, and liqueuristes; and in
medicine as a carminative. See OIL, &c.

=MACERA′TION.= _Syn._ MACERATIO, L. The steeping of a substance in cold
water, for the purpose of extracting the portion soluble in that
menstruum. The word is also frequently applied to the infusion of organic
substances in alcohol or ether, or in water, either alkalised or

=MACKEREL.= The _Scomber Scombrus_ (Linn.), a well-known spiny-finned
sea-fish, much esteemed at certain seasons for the table. Though
nutritious, it is very apt to disagree with delicate stomachs, and
occasionally induces symptoms resembling those of poisoning.

=MAD′DER.= _Syn._ RUBIA, RUBIÆ RADIX, L. The root of _Rubia tinctorum_
(Linn.), or dyer’s madder. The best madder has the size of a common
goose-quill, a reddish appearance, and a strong odour. As soon as the
roots are taken from the ground they are picked and dried; and before use
they are ground in a mill. Levant, Turkey, and Smyrna madder is imported
whole; French, Dutch, and Zealand madder, ground. The finest quality of
ground madder is called ‘crop’ or ‘grappe,’ ‘ombro’ and ‘gamene’ are
inferior sorts, and ‘mull’ the worst.

Madder contains several distinct principles as——madder red, or
alizarin;——madder purple, or purpurin;——madder orange, or rubiacin; madder
yellow, or xanthin, &c. The first of these (noticed _below_) is by far the
most important.

_Pur._ Madder is frequently adulterated with logwood, Brazil wood, and
other dye-stuffs of inferior value; and also, not unfrequently, with
brickdust, red ochre clay, sand, mahogany sawdust, bran, &c. These
admixtures may be detected as follows:——

1. When dried at 212° Fahr., and then incinerated, not more than 10% to
12% of ash should be left.

2. It should not lose more than 50% to 56% by exhaustion with cold water.

3. When assayed for alizarin (see _below_), the quantity of this substance
obtained should be equal to that from a sample of the same kind of madder
which is known to be pure, and which has been treated in precisely the
same manner. The operation may be conducted as follows:——500 gr. of the
sample are weighed, and, after being dried by the heat of boiling water or
steam, are gradually added to an equal weight of concentrated sulphuric
acid, contained in a glass vessel, and stirred with a glass rod; after a
few hours the charred mass is washed with cold water, collected on a
filter, and dried by the heat of boiling water; the carbonised mass
(‘garacine’) is next powdered, and treated with successive portions of
rectified spirit, to which a little ether has been added, at first in the
cold, and afterwards with heat, until the liquid is no longer coloured by
it, when the mixed tincture is filtered, and evaporated (distilled) to
dryness; the weight of the residuum, divided by 5, gives the percentage
of red colouring matter present. Or,——The dried carbonized matter is
exhausted by boiling it in a solution of 1 part of alum in 5 or 6 parts of
water, and the decoction, after being filtered whilst in the boiling
state, is treated with sulphuric acid as long as a precipitate falls,
which is washed, dried, and weighed as before.

_Uses, &c._ Madder has been given in jaundice and rickets, and as an
emmenagogue.——_Dose_, 1/2 dr. to 2 dr., twice or thrice a day. It is
principally employed as a dye-stuff. See RED DYES, IVORY, PURPURIN, &c.,
also _below_.

=MADDER RED.= _Syn._ ALIZARIN. C_{14}H_{8}O_{4}. 2Aq. The red colouring
principle of madder, first obtained in a separate form by Robiquet.

_Prep._ 1. The aqueous decoction of madder is treated with dilute
sulphuric acid as long as a precipitate falls, which, after being washed,
is boiled in a solution of chloride of aluminum as long as it gives out
colour; the liquid is then filtered, precipitated with hydrochloric acid,
and the precipitate washed and dried. It may be purified from a little
adhering purpurin, by dissolving it in alcohol, again throwing it down
with hydrate of aluminum, boiling the precipitate with a strong solution
of soda, and separating the alizarin from its combination with alumina by
means of hydrochloric acid; it is lastly crystallised from alcohol.

2. (Meillet.) Alum, 3 parts, is dissolved in water at 140° Fahr., 30
parts, and madder, 13 parts, added to the solution; the whole is then
gently boiled for 30 or 40 minutes, after which it is thrown upon a
filter, and submitted to strong pressure; this treatment is repeated with
fresh solutions a second and a third time; the mixed filtrates are then
decanted, and when nearly cold, oil of vitriol, 1 part, diluted with twice
its bulk of water, is added, care being taken to stir the liquid all the
time; the supernatant fluid is next decanted, and the residuum well
washed, and, lastly, dried in the air. If required quite pure, it is
dissolved, whilst still moist, in a solution of 1-1/2 times its weight of
carbonate of potassa in 15 parts of water, and, after reprecipitation with
sulphuric acid, is washed and dried as before.

3. (Robiquet & Colin.) Powdered madder is exhausted with water of a
temperature not exceeding 68° Fahr., and, after being dried, 1 part of it
is boiled for 15 or 20 minutes in a solution of alum, 8 parts, in water,
40 parts; the liquid is filtered whilst boiling, the marc well washed with
a fresh solution of alum, the mixed liquids precipitated with sulphuric
acid, and the precipitate washed and dried, as before.

_Obs._ Alizarin has recently been produced artificially by Graebe and
Liebermann from anthracene (C_{14}H_{10}), a liquid hydrocarbon existing
in coal-tar. For a description of the process see ALIZARIN, ARTIFICIAL.

4. Madder exhausted by 2 or 3 macerations in 5 or 6 times its weight of
cold water, is submitted to strong pressure, to remove adhering water, and
the marc, whilst still moist, is mixed with half its weight of oil of
vitriol diluted with an equal quantity of water; the whole is kept at the
temperature of 212° for an hour, and after being mixed with cold water is
thrown on a linen strainer, well washed with cold water, and dried.

5. From powdered madder and oil of vitriol, equal parts, without heat, as
described under MADDER.

6. (F. Steiner.) The ‘used madder’ of the dye-works is run into filters,
and precipitated with sulphuric acid; the matter thus obtained is put into
bags and rendered as dry as possible by hydraulic pressure; the pressed
cake is next crumbled to pieces, placed in a leaden vessel, and treated
with 1-5th of its weight of oil of vitriol, afterwards assisting the
action of the acid by introducing steam to the mixture; the resulting dark
brown carbonized mass is, lastly, well washed, dried, powdered, and mixed
with about 5% of carbonate of soda, when it is ready for sale.

_Obs._ The last three formulæ produce the ‘GARANCE’ or ‘GARANCINE’ of
commerce, now so extensively used in dyeing.

_Prop., &c._ Pure anhydrous alizarin crystallises in magnificent
orange-red crystals, which may be fused and sublimed; it is freely soluble
in alkaline solutions, which it colours purple or violet; and, in oil of
vitriol, giving a rich red colour; water throws it down from the last
unchanged; it is also soluble in hot alcohol, a hot solution of alum, and,
less freely, in hot water. Hydrated alizarin occurs in small scales
resembling mosaic gold. When impure, it generally forms shining
reddish-brown scales. Commercial ‘garancine’ is a deep-brown or
puce-coloured powder, and will probably, ere long, entirely supersede
crude madder for dyeing. The properties of garancine as a dye-stuff are
precisely similar to those of madder. A solution of alum added to a
solution of alizarin, and precipitated by carbonate of potassa, furnishes
a rose lake; which, after being washed with water and dried, possesses a
most charming tint.

=MAGILP′.= _Syn._ MEGELLUP. A mixture of pale linseed oil and mastic
varnish, employed by artists as a ‘vehicle’ for their colours. The
proportions vary according to the work. It is thinned with turpentine.

=MAG′ISTERY.= _Syn._ MAGISTERIUM, L. The old name of precipitates. The
following are the principal substances to which this term has been
applied:——MAGISTERY OF ALUM, hydrate of alumina; M. OF BISMUTH,
sub-nitrate of bismuth; M. OF DIAPHORETIC ANTIMONY, washed diaphoretic
antimony; M. OF OPIUM (Ludolph’s), crude morphia; M. OF LAPIS CALAMINARIS
or M. OF ZINC, hydrated oxide of zinc.


=Magnesia, Hydrate of.= (P. Cod.) _Syn._ MAGNESIÆ HYDRAS. Obtained by
boiling magnesia in 20 or 30 times its weight of water for 20 minutes,
draining on a linen cloth and drying. It contains 31 per cent. of water.

=Magnesia, Lactate of= (Ph. Ger.) _Syn._ MAGNESIÆ LACTAS. _Prep._ Mix 1
oz. (by weight) of lactic acid in 10 oz. of distilled water, just made
slightly warm, and add light carbonate of magnesia enough to neutralise
it. Filter and evaporate till crystals form.

=MAGNE′SIAN APE′′RIENT (Effervescing).= _Prep._ 1. Heavy carbonate of
magnesia, 2 lbs.; tartaric acid and double refined lump sugar, of each
1-1/2 lb.; bicarbonate of soda (dried without heat), 1 lb.; each
separately dried and in very fine powder; essential oils of orange and
lemon, of each 1/2 fl. dr.; mix well in a warm, dry situation, pass the
whole through a sieve, put it into warm, dry bottles, and keep them well

2. As the last, but substituting calcined magnesia, 1 lb., for the heavy
carbonate, and adding sugar, 3/4 lb. The preceding furnish a very pleasant
effervescing saline draught.

3. (MOXON’S.)——_a._ Take of sulphate of magnesia, 2 lbs.; dry it by a
gradually increased heat, powder, add of tartaric acid (also dried and
powdered), 1-1/4 lb.; calcined magnesia, 1/2 lb.; finely powdered white
sugar, 3 lbs.; bicarbonate of soda (dried without heat), 1 lb.; essence of
lemon, 1 dr.; mix, and proceed as before.

_b._ (Durande.) Carbonate of magnesia, 1 part; bicarbonate of soda,
tartrate of soda and potassa (sel de Seignette), and tartaric acid, of
each 2 parts; mix as before.

_c._ (Pharm. Journ.) Sulphate of magnesia and bicarbonate of soda, of each
1 lb.; tartaric acid, 1/2 lb.; mix as before. The last two are much less
agreeable than the others.

4. Carbonate of magnesia, 2 parts; calcined magnesia, 4 parts; citric
acid, 13 parts; lump sugar, 25 parts; essence of lemon, q. s. to flavour.
Very agreeable. This is known as ‘ROGÉS PURGATIF,’

_Obs._ The above are very useful and popular medicines in indigestion,
heartburn, nausea, habitual costiveness, dyspepsia, &c.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 2
dessert-spoonfuls, thrown into tumbler 3 parts filled with cold water,
rapidly stirred and drank whilst effervescing, early in the morning
fasting, or between breakfast and dinner.


=MAGNESIUM.= Mg. _Syn._ MAGNIUM, TALCIUM. The metallic radical of
magnesia. The existence of this metal was demonstrated by Sir H. Davy in
1808; but it was first obtained in sufficient quantity to examine its
properties by Bussy in 1830.

_Prep._ 5 or 6 pieces of sodium, about the size of peas, are introduced
into a test-tube, and covered with small fragments of chloride of
magnesium; the latter is then heated to near its point of fusion, when the
flame of the lamp is applied to the sodium, so that its vapour may pass
through the stratum of heated chloride; when the vivid incandescence that
follows is over, and the whole has become cold, the mass is thrown into
water, and the insoluble metallic portion collected and dried.

Commercial magnesium is prepared by evaporating solution of the chlorides
of sodium and magnesium, in the proportion of 1 to 3, to dryness, mixing
with one quarter of its weight of fluor spar and a like amount of sodium,
and heating to bright redness in an iron crucible of proper construction.

On a larger scale it is prepared by heating to redness a mixture of
chloride of magnesium, 9 parts; fused chloride of sodium, 1-1/2 parts;
fluoride of calcium, 1-1/2 parts; and sodium in slices, 1-1/2 parts.

_Prop., &c._ In colour and lustre it resembles silver, but in chemical
properties is more like zinc; its sp. gr. is only 1·743; it is malleable;
fusible at a red heat, and can be distilled like zinc; unaffected by dry
air and by cold water; burns with brilliancy when heated to dull redness
in air or oxygen gas, yielding oxide of magnesium; inflames spontaneously
in chlorine, yielding chloride of magnesium; it dissolves in the acids
with the evolution of hydrogen gas, and pure salts of magnesium result.

It has been used somewhat extensively as an illuminating agent for
photographing at night, and also for the purpose of affording a brilliant
light for microscopic and magic lantern effects.

=Magnesium, Bromide.= _Syn._ MAGNESII BROMIDUM. To bromide of iron in
solution add calcined magnesia in excess, heat the mixture, filter, and
evaporate the clear solution to dryness.

=Magnesium, Carbonate of (Light).= _Syn._ LIGHT CARBONATE OF MAGNESIA;
3MgCO_{3}.MgO.5H_{2}O. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.) Sulphate of magnesium, 4 lbs.,
and carbonate of sodium, 4 lbs. 9 oz.; boiling distilled water, 4 galls.;
dissolve the salts separately in one half the water, filter, mix the
solutions, and boil for 2 hours, constantly stirring with a spatula,
distilled water being frequently added to compensate for that lost by
evaporation; lastly, the solution being poured off, wash the precipitated
powder with boiling distilled water, and dry it. The formulæ of the Ph. E.
& D. are essentially the same, except that the ebullition is limited to
from 10 to 20 minutes.

2. (B. P.) Similar to the foregoing except that precipitation takes place
in the cold. The formula of this compound is (Mg.CO_{3})_{3}.

3. (HENRY’S.) Ordinary carbonate of magnesia, the washing of which has
been finished with a little rose water.

4. Add a solution of carbonate of potassium or sodium to the bittern or
residuary liquor of the sea-salt works, and well wash and dry the
precipitate as before. This is known in commerce as ‘Scotch magnesia.’

_Obs._ The carbonate of magnesia of commerce is usually made up into cakes
or dice while drying; or it is permitted to drain and dry in masses, which
are then cut into squares with a thin knife. It is powdered by simply
rubbing it through a wire sieve. The presence of iron in the solution of
the sulphate of magnesium, when the crude salt is employed, and which is
destructive to the beauty of the preparation may be got rid of by the
addition of lime water until the liquor acquires a slight alkaline
reaction, and subsequent decantation after repose.

=Magnesium, Carbonate of (Heavy).= _Syn._ HEAVY CARBONATE OF MAGNESIA;
MAGNESIÆ CARBONAS (B. P.). 3MgCO_{3}.MgO.5H_{2}O. _Prep._ 1. Apothecaries’
Hall. A saturated solution of sulphate of magnesium, 1 part, is diluted
with water, 3 parts, and the mixture heated to the boiling point; a cold
saturated solution of carbonate of sodium, 1 part (all by measure), is
then added, and the whole is boiled with constant agitation until
effervescence ceases; boiling water is next freely poured in, and after
assiduous stirring for a few minutes, and repose, the clear liquid is
decanted, and the precipitate thrown on a linen cloth and thoroughly
washed with hot water; it is, lastly, drained, and dried in an iron pot.

2. (Ph. D.) Dissolve sulphate of magnesium, 10 oz., in boiling distilled
water, 1/2 pint; and carbonate of sodium (cryst.), 12 oz., in boiling
distilled water, 1 pint; mix the two solutions, and evaporate the whole to
dryness by the heat of a sand bath; then add of boiling water 1 quart,
digest with agitation for half an hour, and wash the insoluble residuum as
before; lastly, drain it, and dry it at the temperature of boiling water.

3. (B. P.) White granular powder precipitated from a boiling solution of
sulphate of magnesium by a solution of carbonate of sodium, the whole
evaporated to dryness, and the dry residue digested in water, collected on
a filter, and washed.

_Prop._ The ordinary or light carbonate of magnesia is a white, inodorous,
tasteless powder, possessing similar properties to calcined magnesia,
except effervescing with acids, and having less saturating power. An ounce
measure is filled by 45 to 48 gr. of the powder lightly placed in it. The
heavy carbonate is sometimes fully thrice as dense (see _below_), but in
other respects is similar.

_Dose._ As an antacid, 1/2 to a whole teaspoonful, 3 or 4 times daily; as
a laxative 1/2 dr. to 2 dr. It is commonly taken in milk. It is apt to
produce flatulence, but in other respects is preferable to calcined

_General Remarks._ Although commonly called ‘carbonate of magnesia,’ the
above substance, whether in the light or heavy form, appears to be a
compound of carbonate with hydrate, in proportions which are not perfectly
constant. (For B. P. formula see preceding article.) On account of the
excess of base in its composition it was formerly regarded as a subsalt
(subcarbonate of magnesia). A great deal has been written uselessly
respecting the preparation of these carbonates, about which, however,
there is neither mystery nor difficulty, as some writers would lead their
readers to suppose. If the solutions are very dilute, the precipitate is
exceedingly light and bulky; if otherwise, it is denser. By employing
nearly saturated solutions, and then heating them and mixing them together
whilst very hot, a very heavy precipitate is obtained, but it is apt to be
gritty or crystalline. The same occurs when cold solutions are mixed, and
no heat is employed. The lightest precipitate is obtained from cold,
highly dilute solutions, and subsequent ebullition of the mixture.

Mr Pattinson, a chemist of Gateshead, prepares a very beautiful and pure
heavy carbonate from magnesian limestone. The latter is calcined at a dull
red heat (not hotter) for some time, by which the carbonic anhydride is
expelled from the carbonate of magnesium, but not from the carbonate of
calcium, which hence continues insoluble. The calcined mass is next
reduced to a milk with water in a suitable cistern, and the carbonic
anhydride resulting from its own calcination forced into it under powerful
pressure. The result is a saturated solution of carbonate of magnesia, the
lime remaining unacted on so long as the magnesium is in excess. The
solution by evaporation yields the heavy carbonate, whilst carbonic
anhydride is expelled, and may be again used in the same manufacture. 154
to 160 gr. of the heavy carbonate are required to fill an ounce measure
when lightly placed in it, by which it appears to be fully thrice as dense
as the light carbonate. The bicarbonate of magnesium (magnesiæ bicarbonas,
L.) exists only in solution. The so-called ‘fluid magnesias’ of Murray,
Dinneford, Husband, &c., are solutions of this salt. The small prismatic
crystals which are deposited when ‘fluid magnesia’ is exposed to the air
for some time consist of hydrated neutral carbonate, and not bicarbonate,
as is sometimes stated.

=Magnesium, Chloride of.= MgCl_{2}. _Syn._ MAGNESII CHLORIDUM, L. _Prep._
(Liebig.) By dissolving magnesia in hydrochloric acid, evaporating to
dryness, adding an equal weight of chloride of ammonium, projecting the
mixture into a red-hot platinum crucible, and continuing the heat till a
state of tranquil fusion is attained. On cooling, it forms a transparent,
colourless, and very deliquescent mass, which is anhydrous, and soluble in

_Obs._ Without the addition of the chloride of ammonium it is impossible
to expel the last portion of the water without at the same time driving
off the chlorine, in which case nothing but magnesia is left. The fused
mass should be poured out on a clean stone, and when solid broken into
pieces, and at once transferred to a warm, dry bottle. The P. Cod. orders
the solution to be evaporated to the sp. gr. 1·384, and to be put, whilst
still hot, into a wide-mouthed flask to crystallise.——_Dose_, 1 to 4 dr.;
as a laxative.

=Magnesium, Cit′rate of.= Mg_{3}(C_{6}H_{5}O_{7})_{2}. _Syn._ MAGNESIÆ
CITRAS. L. _Prep._ There is some difficulty in obtaining this salt in an
eligible form for medicinal purposes. When precipitated from a solution it
is insoluble. The following formulæ can be highly recommended.

1. (Parrish.) Dissolve crystallised citric acid, 100 gr., in water, 15
drops, and its own ‘water of crystallisation’ by the aid of heat; then
stir in calcined magnesia, 35 gr.; a pasty mass will result, which soon
hardens, and may be powdered for use.

_Obs._ The chief practical difficulty in this process results from the
great comparative bulk of the magnesia, and the very small quantity of the
fused mass with which it is to be incorporated. A part of the magnesia is
almost unavoidably left uncombined, and the salt is consequently not
neutral. The uncombined earth should be dusted off the mass before
powdering the latter. A high temperature must be avoided.

2. (Robiquet.) Citric acid, 35-1/4 parts, is powdered and dissolved in
boiling water, 10-5/8 parts; when the solution is cold, and before it
crystallises, it is poured in a wide earthen vessel, kept cold by
surrounding it with water; then, by means of a sieve, carbonate of
magnesium, 21-1/6 parts, is distributed evenly and rapidly over the
surface without stirring; when the reaction ceases the mixture is beaten
rapidly as long as it retains its pasty consistence. The salt should be
dried at a temperature not exceeding 70° Fahr.

3. (Effervescing; MAGNESIÆ CITRAS EFFERVESCENS, L.)——_a._ Citric acid
(dried and powdered), 7 parts; heavy carbonate of magnesium, 5 parts; mix,
and preserve in well-corked bottles.

_b._ (Ellis.) Mix powdered citric acid, 2-1/2 oz., with powdered sugar, 8
oz.; triturate to a fine powder, and drive off the water of
crystallisation by the heat of a water bath; add citrate of magnesium
(prepared by fusion), 4 oz., and oil of lemons, 10 drops, and mix
intimately; then add bicarbonate of sodium, 3 oz., and again triturate
until the whole forms a fine powder, which must be preserved in stoppered
bottles. From 1 to 3 tablespoonfuls, mixed in a tumbler of water,
furnishes an effervescing draught in which the undissolved portion is so
nicely suspended, that it can be taken without inconvenience.

_c._ (Ph. Germ.) Light carbonate of magnesia, 25 oz.; citric acid, 75 oz.;
distilled water, q. s.; mix into a thick paste and dry at 86° Fahr. With
14 oz. of the dried mass mix bicarbonate of soda, 13 oz.; citric acid, 6
oz.; sugar, 3 oz. Sprinkle over the mixture enough rectified spirit so as
to make it sufficiently moist to be granulated by rubbing through a tinned
iron sieve.

_d._ (Extemporaneous.) Citric acid (cryst.), 20 gr.; carbonate of
magnesium, 14 gr.; mix in a tumbler of cold water, and drink the mixture
whilst effervescing. A pleasant saline.

_Obs._ A dry white powder, sometimes sold as citrate of magnesia in the
shops, is quite a different preparation to the above, and does not contain
a particle of citric acid. The following formula is that of a wholesale
London drug-house that does largely in this article:——

Calcined magnesia, magnesium oxide, 1-1/4 lb. (or carbonate, 2 lbs.);
powdered tartaric acid, 1-1/2 lb.; bicarbonate of sodium, 1 lb.; dry each
article by a gentle heat, then mix them, pass the mixture through a fine
sieve in a warm dry room, and keep it in well-corked bottles. A few drops
of essence of lemon and 3 lbs. of finely powdered sugar are commonly added
to the above quantity. This addition renders it more agreeable.

_Prop., &c._ Citrate of magnesium is a mild and agreeable laxative; its
secondary effects resemble those of the carbonate.——_Dose._ As a
purgative, 1/2 to 1 oz. The dose of the effervescing citrate must depend
on the quantity of magnesia present. A solution of this salt in water,
sweetened and flavoured with lemon, forms magnesian lemonade.

=Magnesium, Boro-cit′rate of.= _Syn._ MAGNESIÆ BORO-CITRAS, L. _Prep._
(Cadet.) Boracic acid (in powder), 113 gr.; oxide of magnesium, 80 gr.;
mix in a porcelain capsule, and add enough of a solution of citric acid,
260 gr., in water, 3-1/2 pints, to form a thin paste; then add the
remainder of the citric solution, and gently evaporate, with constant
stirring, to dryness. A cooling saline, and, in small doses, emmenagogue
and lithontriptic.——_Dose._ As an aperient, 3 to 6 dr.

MAGNESIA (B. P., Ph. L.).

_Prep._ 1. (B. P.) Magnesium carbonate, heated in a crucible until all the
carbonic anhydride is driven off.

_Prop., &c._ White heavy powder, scarcely soluble in water, but readily
soluble in acids without effervescence. Its solution in hydrochloric acid,
neutralised by a mixed solution of ammonia and ammonium chloride, gives a
copious crystalline precipitate when sodium phosphate is added to it. See
next preparation.

=Magnesia levis= (B. P.) _Syn._ LIGHT MAGNESIA. _Prep._ (B. P.) 1. Light
carbonate of magnesium heated in a Cornish crucible until all the carbonic
anhydride is driven off.

A bulky white powder, differing from the magnesia (B. P.) only in its
density, the volume occupied by the same weight being 3-1/2 to 1.

The properties of the two varieties of magnesium oxide are identical, and
are used in medicine as antacids, laxatives, and antilithics, and much
used in dyspepsia, heartburn, &c.——_Dose_, 10 to 20 gr. as an antacid and
20 to 60 gr. as a purgative.

=Magnesium, Phos′phate of.= MgHPO_{4}.6Aq. _Syn._ MAGNESIÆ PHOSPHAS, L.
_Prep._ From the mixed solutions of phosphate of sodium and sulphate of
magnesium, allowed to stand for some time. Small, colourless, prismatic
crystals, which, according to Graham, are soluble in about 1000 parts of
cold water. Phosphate of magnesium exists in the grains of the cereals,
and in considerable quantity in beer. It is also found in guano.

=Magnesium and Ammo′′nium, Phosphate of.= MgNH_{4}.PO_{4}, 6 Aq. _Syn._
compound falls as a white crystalline precipitate whenever ammonia or
carbonate of ammonium is added, in excess, to a solution of a salt of
magnesium which has been previously mixed with a soluble phosphate, as
that of soda. It subsides immediately from concentrated solutions, but
only after some time from very dilute ones.

_Prop., &c._ Ammonio-phosphate of magnesium is very slightly soluble in
pure water; when heated, it is resolved into pyrophosphate of magnesium,
and is vitrified at a strong red heat. It is found in wheaten bran, guano,
potatoes, &c., and occasionally forms one of the varieties of urinary

=Magnesium, Sil′icates of.= There are several native silicates of
magnesia, more or less pure, of which, however, none is directly employed
in medicine. Meerschaum and steatite or soapstone are well-known
varieties. Serpentine is a compound of silicate and hydrate of magnesium.
The minerals augite and hornblende are double salts of silicic acid,
magnesium, and calcium with some ferrous oxide. The beautiful crystallised
mineral called chrysolite is a silicate of magnesium, coloured with
ferrous oxide. Jade is a double silicate of magnesium and aluminum,
coloured with chromic oxide.

=Magnesium, Sulphate of.= MgSO_{4}, 7 Aq. _Syn._ EPSOM SALT, MAGNESIÆ
SULPHAS (B. P. Ph. L. E. & D.), SAL EPSOMENSIS, L. This compound was
originally extracted from the saline springs of Epsom, Surrey, by Dr Grew,
in 1695. It is now exclusively prepared on the large scale, and from
either magnesian limestone or the residual liquor of the sea-salt works.

_Prep._ 1. From dolomite or magnesian limestone.——_a._ The mineral, broken
into fragments, is heated with a sufficient quantity of dilute sulphuric
acid to convert its carbonates into sulphates; the sulphate of magnesium
is washed out of the mass with hot water, and the solution, after
defecation, is evaporated and crystallised.

_b._ The ‘limestone,’ either simply broken into fragments or else calcined
(burnt), and its constituents quicklime and oxide magnesium converted into
hydrates by sprinkling (slaking) it with water, is treated with a
sufficient quantity of dilute hydrochloric acid to dissolve out all the
calcium hydrate without touching the magnesium hydrate; the residuum of
the latter, after being washed and drained, is dissolved in dilute
sulphuric acid, and crystallised as before.

2. From bittern.——_a._ The residual liquor or mother-water of sea-salt is
boiled for some hours in the pans which are used during the summer for the
concentration of brine; the saline solution is then skimmed and decanted
from some common salt which has been deposited, after which it is
concentrated by evaporation, and, finally, run into wooden coolers; in
about 36 hours, 1-8th part of Epsom salts usually crystallises out. This
is called ‘singles.’ By re-dissolving this in water, and
re-crystallisation, ‘doubles,’ or Epsom salts fit for the market, are
obtained. A second crop of crystals may be procured by adding sulphuric
acid to the mother-liquor, and re-concentrating the solution, but this is
seldom had recourse to in England. Bittern yields fully 5 parts of
sulphate of magnesia for every 100 parts of common salt that has been
previously obtained from it.

_b._ A concentrated solution of sulphate of sodium is added to bittern, in
equivalent proportion to that of the chloride of magnesium in it, and the
mixed solution is evaporated at the temperature of 122° Fahr. (Ure);
cubical crystals of common salt are deposited as the evaporation proceeds,
after which, by further concentration and repose, regular crystals of
sulphate of magnesia are obtained.

_c._ A sufficient quantity of calcined and slaked magnesian limestone is
boiled in bittern to decompose the magnesium salts, and the liquid is
evaporated, &c., as before. This is a very economical process.

_Prop._ Small acicular crystals, or (by careful crystallisation) large
four-sided rhombic prisms; colourless; odourless, transparent; slightly
efflorescent; extremely bitter and nauseous; when heated, it fuses in its
water of crystallisation, the larger portion of which readily passes off,
but one equivalent of water is energetically retained; at a high
temperature it runs into a species of white enamel; it dissolves in its
own weight of cold water, and in 3-4ths of that quantity of boiling water;
it is insoluble in both alcohol and ether. Sp. gr. 1·66.

_Pur._ Sulphate of magnesium is soluble in an equal weight of water at 60°
Fahr., by which it may be distinguished from sulphate of sodium, which is
much more soluble.

An aqueous solution in the cold is not precipitated by oxalate of
ammonium. The precipitate given by carbonate of sodium from a solution of
100 gr. should, after well washing and heating to redness, weigh 16·26 gr.
(B. P.)

Digested in alcohol, the filtered liquid does not yield a precipitate with
nitrate of silver nor burn with a yellow flame, and evaporates without
residue. “Not deliquescent in the air.” (Ph. L.) 100 gr. of the pure
crystallised sulphate yields 16-1/4 gr. of calcined magnesium oxide.
(Pereira.) 10 gr., dissolved in 1 fl. oz. of water, and treated with a
solution of carbonate of ammonium, are not entirely precipitated by 280
minims of solution of phosphate of sodium. (Ph. E.)

_Uses, &c._ Sulphate of magnesium is an excellent cooling purgative, and
sometimes proves diuretic and diaphoretic.——_Dose_, 1 dr. to 1 oz., as a
purgative, or an antidote in poisoning by lead. Large doses should be
avoided. Instances are on record of their having proved fatal. Dr
Christison mentions the case of a boy 10 years old who swallowed 2 oz. of
salts, and died within 10 minutes. The best antidote is an emetic. A small
quantity of Epsom salts, largely diluted with water (as a drachm to 1/2
pint or 3/4 pint), will usually purge as much as the common dose. This
increase of power has been shown by Liebig to result rather from the
quantity of water than the salt. Pure water is greedily taken up by the
absorbents; but water holding in solution saline matter is rejected by
those vessels, and consequently passes off by the intestines.

_Obs._ Oxalic acid has occasionally been mistaken for Epsom salt, with
fatal results. They may be readily distinguished from each other by the
following characteristics:——

      EPSOM SALT.            |     OXALIC ACID.
  Tastes extremely bitter    | Tastes extremely sour.
    and nauseous.            |
                             | Volatilises when heated
  Does not volatilise        |   on platinum foil.
    when heated on platinum  |
    foil. Does not           | Produces milkiness
    produce milkiness        |   when dissolved in
    when dissolved in        |   _hard_ water.
    _hard_ water.            |

=Magnesium, Tar′trate of.= _Syn._ MAGNESIÆ TARTRAS, MAGNESIA TARTARICA, L.
_Prep._ By saturating a solution of tartaric acid with carbonate of
magnesium, and gently evaporating to dryness. It is only very slightly
soluble in water.——_Dose_, 20 to 60 gr., or more; in painful chronic
maladies of the spleen. (Pereira, ex Radmacher.) The effervescing tartrate
of magnesium, commonly sold under the name citrate, has already been

=Magnesium and Potas′sium, Tartrate of.= _Syn._ POTASSIO-TARTRATE OF
From acid tartrate of potassium (in powder), 7 parts; carbonate of
magnesium, 2 parts; water, 165 parts; boiled until the solution is
complete, and then evaporated and crystallised. A mild aperient.——_Dose_,
1 to 5 dr.; in scurvy, &c.

=MAG′NET.= _Syn._ MAGNES, L. Besides its application to the loadstone,
this name was formerly given to several compounds used in
medicine.——ARSENICAL MAGNET (MAGNES ARSENICALIS), a substance once used as
a caustic, consisted of common antimony, sulphur, and arsenious acid,
fused together until they formed a sort of glass. MAGNES EPILEPSIÆ was
native cinnabar.

=MAHOG′ANY.= This is the wood of _Swietenia Mahogoni_ (Linn.), a native of
the hotter parts of the new world. It is chiefly imported from Honduras
and Cuba. The extract is astringent, and has been used in tanning, and as
a substitute for cinchona bark. The wood is chiefly employed for furniture
and ornamental purposes, and, occasionally, in ship-building.

Imitations of mahogany are made by staining the surface of the inferior
woods by one or other of the following methods:

1. Warm the wood by the fire, then wash it over with aquafortis, let it
stand 24 hours to dry, and polish it with linseed oil reddened by
digesting alkanet root in it; or, instead of the latter, give the wood a
coat of varnish, or French polish which has been tinged of a mahogany
colour with a little aloes and annotta.

2. Socotrine aloes, 1 oz.; dragon’s blood, 1/2 oz.; rectified spirit, 1
pint; dissolve, and apply 2 or 3 coats to the surface of the wood,
previously well smoothed and polished; lastly, finish it off with wax or
oil tinged with alkanet root.

3. Logwood, 2 oz.; madder, 8 oz.; fustic, 1 oz.; water, 1 gall.; boil 2
hours, and apply it several times to the wood boiling hot; when dry,
slightly brush it over with a solution of pearlash, 1 oz.; in water, 1
quart; dry, and polish as before.

4. As the last, but using a decoction of logwood, 1 lb., in water, 5
pints. The tint may be brightened by adding a little vinegar or oxalic
acid, and darkened by a few grains of copperas.

Stains and spots may be taken out of mahogany furniture with a little
aquafortis or oxalic acid and water, by rubbing the part with the liquid
by means of a cork till the colour is restored; observing afterwards to
well wash the wood with water, and to dry it and polish it as before.

=MAIZE.= _Syn._ INDIAN CORN. The seeds of _Zea Mays_ (Linn.). Like the
other corn plants, it belongs to the Grass family (_Graminaceæ_), and has
albuminous grains sufficiently large and farinaceous to be ground into

Maize is extremely nutritious, and although it is poorer in albumenoid
matters than wheat, it is, of all the cereal grains, the richest in fatty
oil, of which it contains about 9%. (Dumas and Payen.) It is remarkable
for its fattening quality on animals, but is apt to excite slight
diarrhœa in those unaccustomed to its use. Its meal is the ‘POLENTA’ of
the shops. The peculiar starch prepared from it is known as ‘CORN FLOUR,’
In America the young ears are roasted and boiled for food.

The centesimal composition of maize is as follows:——Flesh formers
(albumenoid bodies), 9·9; heat and fat formers (starch, dextrin, and fat),
71·2, fibre, 4·0; ash, 1·4; water, 13·5.

Letheby says of maize: “The grain is said to cause disease when eaten for
a long time, and without other meal——the symptoms being a scaly eruption
upon the hands, great prostration of the vital powers, and death after a
year or so, with extreme emaciation.

These effects have been frequently observed amongst the peasants of Italy,
who use the meal as their chief food, but I am not aware of any such
effects having been seen in Ireland, where it is often the only article of
diet for months together.”

Millions of bushels are grown every year in the United States of America,
and large quantities are continually imported into England, where it is
held in high esteem by cattle breeders, it being much cheaper than many of
our home-grown productions. It is occasionally given to horses as a
substitute for oats.

=MALAG′MA.= In _pharmacy_, a poultice or emollient application.

=MA′LIC ACID.= H_{3}C_{4}H_{3}O_{5}. _Syn._ ACIDUM MALICUM, L. This acid
exists in the juice of many fruits and plants, either alone or associated
with other acids, or with potassa or lime. In the juice of the garden
rhubarb it exists in great abundance, being associated with acid oxalate
of potassa.

_Prep._ (Everitt.) The stalks of common garden rhubarb are peeled, and
ground or grated to a pulp, which is subjected to pressure; the juice is
heated to the boiling point, neutralised with carbonate of potassa, mixed
with acetate of lime, and the insoluble oxalate of lime which falls is
removed by filtration; to the clear and nearly colourless liquid, solution
of acetate of lead is next added as long as a precipitate (‘malate of
lead’) continues to form; this is collected on a filter, washed, diffused
through water, and decomposed by sulphuric acid, avoiding excess, the last
portion of lead being thrown down by a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen;
the filtered liquid is, lastly, carefully evaporated to the consistence of
a syrup, and left in a dry atmosphere until it becomes converted into a
solid and somewhat crystalline mass of malic acid. If perfectly pure malic
acid is required, the malate of lead must be crystallised before
decomposing it with sulphuretted hydrogen. _Prod._ 20,000 gr. of the
peeled stalks yield 12,500 gr. of juice, of which one imperial gallon
contains 11,139-1/4 gr. of dry malic acid.

_Obs._ By a similar process malic acid may be prepared from the juice of
thee berries of the mountain ash (_Sorbus aucuparia_), just when they
commence to ripen, or from the juice of apples, pears, &c.

_Prop., &c._ Malic acid is slightly deliquescent, very soluble in water,
soluble in alcohol, and has a pleasant acidulous taste. The aqueous
infusion soon gets mouldy by keeping. When kept fused for some time at a
low heat, it is converted into fumaric acid; and when quickly distilled,
it yields maleic acid, while fumaric acid is left in the retort. With the
bases malic acid forms salts called malates. Of these the acid malate of
ammonia is in large, beautiful crystals; malate of lead is insoluble in
cold water, but dissolves in warm dilute acid, from which it separates on
cooling in brilliant silvery crystals; acid malate of lime also forms very
beautiful crystals, freely soluble in water; neutral malate of lime is
only sparingly soluble in water; the first is obtained by dissolving the
latter in hot dilute nitric acid, and allowing the solution to cool very

=MALLEABIL′ITY.= The peculiar property of metals which renders them
capable of extension under the hammer.

=MALT.= _Syn._ BINA, BYNE, BRASIUM, MALTUM, L. The name given to different
kinds of grain, such as barley, bere or bigg, oats, rye, maize, &c., which
have become sweet, from the conversion of a portion of their starch into
sugar, in consequence of incipient germination artificially produced.
Barley is the grain usually employed for this purpose.

_Var._ Independently of variations of quality, or of the grain from which
it is formed, malt is distinguished into varieties depending on the heat
of the kiln employed for its desiccation. When dried at a temperature
ranging between 90° and 120° Fahr., it constitutes ‘PALE MALT,’ when all
the moisture has exhaled, and the heat is raised to from 125° to 135°,
‘YELLOW,’ or ‘PALE AMBER MALT,’ is formed; when the heat ranges between
140° and 160°, the product receives the name of ‘AMBER MALT,’ at 160° to
180°, ‘AMBER-BROWN,’ or ‘PALE BROWN MALT,’ is obtained. ROASTED, PATENT,
or BLACK MALT, and CRYSTALLISED MALT, are prepared by a process similar to
that of roasting coffee. The malt is placed in sheet-iron cylinders over a
strong fire, and the cylinders made to revolve at the rate of about 20
revolutions per minute if roasted malt is required, or 120 for
crystallised malt. In the former case the finished malt has a dark brown
colour; in the latter, the interior of the grain becomes dark brown,
whilst the husk assumes a pale amber hue. The temperature must never
exceed 420°, or the malt will become entirely carbonised.

_Qual._ Good malt has an agreeable smell and a sweet taste. It is friable,
and when broken discloses a floury kernel. Its husk is thin, clean, and
unshrivelled in appearance, and the acrospire is seen extending up the
back of the grain, beneath the skin. The admixture of unmalted with malted
grain may be discovered, and roughly estimated, by throwing a little into
water, malt floats on water, but barley sinks in it. The only certain
method, however, of determining the value of malt is to ascertain the
amount of soluble matter which it contains, by direct experiment. This
varies from 62 to 70%, and for good malt is never less than 66 to 67%. If
we assume the quarter of malt at 324 lbs., and the average quantity of
soluble matter at 66%, then the total weight of soluble matter will be
fully 213-3/4 lbs. per quarter; but as this, “in taking on the form of gum
and sugar” during the process of mashing, “chemically combines with the
elements of water, so the extract, if evaporated to dryness, would reach
very nearly 231 lbs.; and this reduced to the basis of a barrel of 36
gallons, becomes in the language of the brewer, 87 lbs. per barrel, which,
however, merely means that the wort from a quarter of malt, if evaporated
down to the bulk of a barrel of 36 gallons, would weigh 87 lbs. more than
a barrel of water.” (Ure.)

_Assay._ 1. A small quantity of the sample being ground in a coffee or
pepper mill, 100 gr. are accurately weighed, and dried by exposure for
about 1 hour at the temperature of boiling water. The loss in weight, in
grains, indicates the quantity of moisture per cent. This, in good malt,
should not exceed 6-1/2 gr.

2. A second 100 gr. is taken and stirred up with about 1/2 pint of cold
water; the mixture is then exposed to the heat of boiling water for about
40 minutes; after which it is thrown on a weighed filter, and the
undissolved portion washed with a little hot water; the undissolved
portion, with the filter, is then dried at 212° Fahr., and weighed. The
loss in weight, less the percentage of moisture last found, taken in
grains, gives the percentage of soluble matter. This should not be less
than 66 gr. The same result will be arrived at by evaporating the filtered
liquid and ‘washings’ to dryness, and weighing the residuum.

3. A third 100 gr. is taken and mashed with about 1/2 pint of water at
160° Fahr., for 2 or 3 hours; the liquid is then drained off, the residue
gently squeezed, and the strained liquid evaporated to dryness, as before,
and weighed. This gives the percentage of saccharine matter, and should
not be less than about 71 gr., taking the above average of malt as the
standard of calculation.

_Uses, &c._ Malt is chiefly employed in the arts of brewing and
distillation. Both roasted and crystallised malt are merely used to colour
the worts produced from pale malt. 1 lb. of roasted malt, mashed with 79
lbs. of pale malt, imparts to the liquor the colour and flavour of
‘porter.’ The paler varieties of malt contain the largest quantity of
saccharine matter. After the malt has been kiln-dried, the rootlets may be
removed by means of a sieve. Before malt is mashed for beer it must be
broken up, and the law requires that it be bruised or crushed by smooth
metal rollers, and not ground by millstones. It has also been proposed to
employ malt, instead of raw grain, for fattening domestic animals, and as
food for their young and those in a sickly state. Infusion of malt (sweet
wort, malt tea) is laxative, and has been recommended as an antiscorbutic
and tonic. It has been given with great advantage in scurvy; but for this
purpose good, well-hopped, mild beer is equally serviceable and more

=MALT LIQ′UORS.= The qualities of ale, beer, and porter, as beverages, the
detection of their adulteration, and the methods of preparing them, are
described under their respective names and in the article upon ‘BREWING’;
the present article will, therefore, be confined to a short notice of the
cellar management, and the diseases of malt liquors generally.

AGE. The appearance and flavour to which this term is applied can, of
course, be only given to the liquor by properly storing it for a
sufficient time. Fraudulent brewers and publicans, however, frequently add
a little oil of vitriol (diluted with water) to new beer, by which it
assumes the character of an inferior liquor of the class 1 or 2 years old.
Copperas, alum, sliced onions, Seville oranges, and cucumbers, are also
frequently employed by brewers for the same purpose.

BOTTLING. Clean, sweet, and dry bottles, and sound and good corks, should
be had in readiness. The liquor to be bottled should be perfectly clear;
and if it be not so, it must be submitted to the operation of ‘fining.’
When quite fine, and in good condition, the bung of the cask should be
left out all night, and the next day the liquor should be put into
bottles, which, after remaining 12 or 24 hours, covered with sheets of
paper to keep out the flies and dust, must be securely corked down. Porter
is generally wired over. The wire for this purpose should be ‘annealed,’
and not resilient. If the liquor is intended for exportation to a hot
climate, the bottles should remain filled for 2 or 3 days, or more, before
corking them. The stock of bottled liquor should be stored in a cool
situation; and a small quantity, to meet present demands only, should be
set on their sides in a warmer place to ripen. October beer should not be
bottled before Midsummer, nor March beer till Christmas.

CLOUDINESS. Add a handful of hops boiled in a gallon of the beer, and in a
fortnight fine it down.


FLATNESS. When the liquor is new, or has still much undecomposed sugar
left in it, a sufficient remedy is to remove it into a warmer situation
for a few days. When this is not the case, 2 or 3 pounds of moist sugar
(foots) may be ‘rummaged’ into each hogshead. In this way a second
fermentation is set up, and in a few days the liquor becomes brisk, and
carries a head. This is the plan commonly adopted by publicans. On the
small scale the addition of a few grains of carbonate of soda, or of
prepared chalk, to each glass, is commonly made for the same purpose; but
in this case the liquor must be drunk within a few minutes, else it
becomes again flat and insipid. This may be adopted for home-brewed beer
which has become sour and vapid.

FOXING OR BUCKING. The spontaneous souring of worts or beer during their
fermentation or ripening, to which this name is applied, may generally be
remedied by adding to the liquor some fresh hops (scalded), along with
some black mustard seed (bruised). Some persons use a little made mustard,
or a solution of alum or of catechu, and in a week or 10 days afterwards
further add some treacle, or moist sugar.

Frosted beer is recovered by change of situation; by the addition of some
hops boiled in a little sweet wort; or by adding a little moist sugar or
treacle to induce a fresh fermentation.

HEADING. This is added to thin and vapid beer to make it bear a frothy
head. The most innocent, pleasant, and effective addition of this sort is
a mixture of pure ammonio-citrate of iron and salt of tartar, about equal
parts in the proportion of only a few grains to a quart.

IMPROVING. This is the trade synonym of ‘ADULTERATION’ and ‘DOCTORING,’
Nevertheless there are cases in which ‘improvement’ may be made without
affecting the wholesome character of the liquor. Of this kind is the
addition of hops, spices, &c., during the maturation of beer that exhibits
a tendency to deteriorate. For this purpose some persons cut a half
quartern loaf into slices, and after toasting them very high, place them
in a coarse linen bag along with 1/2 lb. of hops, and 2 oz. each of
bruised ginger, cloves, and mustard seed, and suspend the bag by means of
a string a few inches below the surface of the beer (a hogshead), which is
then bunged close. The addition of a little ground capsicum in the same
way is also a real improvement to beer, when judiciously made.

MUSTINESS. To each hogshead, racked into clean casks, add 1 lb. of new
hops boiled in a gallon of the liquor, along with 7 lbs. of newly-burnt
charcoal (coarsely bruised, and the fine dust sifted off), and a 4-lb.
loaf of bread cut into thin slices and toasted rather black; ‘rouse up’
well every day for a week, then stir in of moist sugar 3 or 4 lbs., and
bung down for a fortnight.

RECOVERING. This is said of unsaleable beer when rendered saleable, by
giving it ‘head’ or removing its ‘tartness.’

RIPENING. This term is applied to the regular maturation of beer. It is
also used to express the means by which liquors already mature are
rendered brisk, sparkling, or fit and agreeable for immediate use. In the
language of the cellar, malt liquors are said to be ‘up’ when they are
well charged with gaseous matter, and bear a frothy head. These qualities
depend on the undecomposed sugar undergoing fermentation, which, when
active, can only be of comparatively short duration, and should,
therefore, be repressed rather than excited in beers not required for
immediate consumption. When we desire to give ‘briskness’ to these
liquors, whether in cask or bottle, it is only necessary to expose them
for a few days to a slight elevation of temperature, by removing them, for
instance, to a warmer apartment. This is the plan successfully adopted by
bottlers. The addition of a small lump of white sugar to each bottle of
ale or beer, or a teaspoonful of moist sugar to each bottle of porter,
just before corking it, will render it fit for drinking in a few days in
ordinary weather, and in 2 or 3 days in the heat of summer. A raisin or a
lump of sugar candy is often added to each bottle with a like intention.
The Parisians bottle their beer one day and sell it the next. For this
purpose, in addition to the sugar as above, they add 2 or 3 drops of
yeast. Such bottled liquor must, however, be drunk within a week, or else
stored in a very cold place, as it will otherwise burst the bottles or
blow out the corks.

ROPINESS. A little infusion of catechu or of oak bark, and some fresh
hops, may be added to the beer, which in a fortnight should be rummaged
well, and the next day ‘fined’ down.

SOURNESS. Powdered chalk, carbonate of soda, salt of tartar, or pearlash,
is commonly added by the publicans to the beer, until the acidity is
nearly removed, when 4 or 5 lbs. of moist sugar or foots per hogshead are
‘rummaged’ in, together with sufficient water to disburse double the
amount of the outlay and trouble. Such beer must be soon put on draught,
as it is very apt to get flat by keeping. Oyster shells and egg shells are
also frequently used by brewers for the same purpose. To remove the
acidity of beer, on the small scale, a few grains of carbonate of soda per
glass may be added just before drinking it.

STORING. The situation of the beer-cellar should be such as to maintain
its contents at a permanently uniform temperature, ranging between 44° and
50° Fahr., a condition which can only be ensured by choosing for its
locality an underground apartment, or one in the centre of the basement
portion of a large building.

VAMPING. Half fill casks with the old liquor, fill them up with some newly
brewed, and bung close for 3 weeks or a month.

=MALTIN.= A nitrogenous ferment obtained from malt, which it is believed
by Dubrunfaut to be the active principle, and is more energetic than
diastase. The above chemist states it may be precipitated from extract of
malt, by the addition of two molecules of alcohol at 90 per cent.
According to Dubrunfaut maltin exists in all cereal grains, and in the
water of rivers and brooks; but not in the well water of Paris.

=MALTING.= The method of converting barley, wheat, oats, or any other
description of grain into malt. There are four successive stages in the
process of malting, viz., steeping, couching, flooring, and kiln-drying.

1. _Steeping or moistening._——The grain is placed in a large wooden or
stone cistern, and sufficient water run in to cover it. Here it remains
for a period of from 40 to 60 hours, depending on the temperature of the
weather, or until it becomes soft enough to be easily pierced with a
needle, or crushed between the thumb and finger without yielding a milky
juice. While in steep the grain swells, increasing nearly one fifth in
bulk, and about 50 per cent. in weight. The water is then drained off, and
the grain is ready for the next operation.

2. _Couching or germinating._——From the cistern the swollen barley is
thrown out into the couch frame to the depth of from 14 or 20 inches,
where heat is generated and germination induced. Here it is allowed to
remain for from 20 to 30 hours, according to the state of the weather,
until the acrospire or pumule shoots forth. Were the grain to remain long
in the couch, particularly in warm weather, it would be either unduly
forced or turn sour. Whilst in couch it rises in temperature about 15
degrees, and gives off some of its extra moisture. This is called
sweating, and as the rootlets now begin to shoot out, means must be taken
to check the germination.

3. _Flooring or regulating._——This consists in spreading the heated barley
on the floor at different depths, according as it is required to increase
or retard germination. During this stage of the operation the art of the
maltster may be more properly said to commence, as now all his judgment is
brought into requisition. The grain must be turned three or four times a
day, and at each turning the layer is spread out more and more, until it
is reduced to the depth of about three or four inches. The chief object to
be attained by this operation is a regular germination of the grain.

4. _Kiln-drying._——The sprouted barley is next spread in a thin layer on
the malt kiln, and heat applied. The temperature to which the kiln is
raised varies according to the purpose for which the malt is required, the
difference between pale, amber, and brown malt depending solely on the
degree of heat to which each has been subjected, and the manner in which
the heat has been applied (see MALT). If the malt were not kiln-dried it
would not keep, but would become mouldy. By the process of drying, the
vitality of the seed is destroyed, and it may then be preserved without
suffering further change.

_Product._——Good barley yields about 80% by weight and 109% by measure, of
dried and sifted malt. Of the loss by weight 12% must be referred to water
existing in the raw grain.

=MAN′′GANESE.= Mn. _Syn._ MANGANESIUM, L. A hard, brittle metal,
discovered by Gahn in the black oxide of manganese of commerce.

_Prep._ Reduce manganous carbonate to fine powder, make it into a paste
with oil, adding about 1-10th of its weight of calcined borax, place the
mixture in a Hessian crucible lined with charcoal, lute on the cover, and
expose it to the strongest heat of a smith’s forge for 2 hours; when cold,
break the crucible and preserve the metallic button in naphtha.

_Obs._ The product is probably a carbide of manganese, just as steel is a
carbide of iron. Deville has lately prepared pure manganese by reducing
the pure oxide by means of an insufficient quantity of sugar charcoal in a
crucible made of caustic lime.

_Prop._ As prepared by Deville, metallic manganese has a reddish lustre,
like bismuth; it is very hard and brittle; when powdered, it decomposes
water, even at the lowest temperature. Dilute sulphuric acid dissolves it
with great energy, evolving hydrogen. Sp. gr. 7·13. In an oxidised state
manganese is abundant in the mineral kingdom, and traces of it have been
found in the ashes of plants and in mineral waters.

The salts of manganese may be easily prepared in a state of purity by
dissolving the precipitated carbonate in the acids. Most of them are
soluble, and several are crystallisable.

_Tests._ Manganous salts are distinguished as follows:——The hydrates of
potassium and sodium give white precipitates insoluble in excess, and
rapidly turning brown. The presence of ammonium salts interferes with
these tests. Ammonia gives similar results.

Ferrocyanide of potassium gives a white precipitate. Sulphuretted hydrogen
gives no precipitate in acid solutions, and precipitates neutral solutions
only imperfectly; but in alkaline solutions it gives a bright,
flesh-coloured, insoluble precipitate, which becomes dark brown on
exposure to the air. Sulphide of ammonium, in neutral solutions, also
yields a similar precipitate, which is very characteristic. A compound of
manganese fused with borax in the outer flame of the blowpipe gives a
bead, which appears of a violet-red colour whilst hot, and upon cooling
acquires an amethystine tint; this colour is lost by fusion in the inner
flame. Heated upon platinum foil with a little carbonate of sodium, in the
outer flame, it yields a green mass whilst hot, which becomes bluish green
when cold.

=Manganous Ace′tate.= Mn(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2}. _Syn._ ACETATE OF PROTOXIDE
OF MANGANESE; MANGANII ACETAS, L. _Prep._ 1. By neutralising concentrated
acetic acid with manganous carbonate, and evaporating the solution so
that crystals may form.

_Prop., &c._ The crystals, when pure, are of a pale red colour; permanent
in the air; soluble in alcohol, and 3-1/2 parts of water, and possess an
astringent and metallic taste.——_Dose_, 5 to 10 gr., as an alterative,
hæmatinic, &c.

=Manganous Car′bonate.= MnCO_{3}. _Syn._ CARBONATE OF PROTOXIDE OF
MANGANESE; MANGANESII CARBONAS, L. _Prep._ Reduce the black oxide of
manganese of commerce to fine powder, and after washing it in water
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, dissolve it in strong hydrochloric
acid, and evaporate the resulting solution to dryness; dissolve the
residue in water, and add to the solution sufficient sodium carbonate to
precipitate all the iron present; digest the mixed precipitate in the
remainder of the liquid, filter, add ammonium sulphide until it begins to
produce a flesh-coloured precipitate, then filter, and add sodium
carbonate as long as a precipitate falls; lastly, well wash the
newly-formed carbonate in water, and dry it by a gentle heat.

2. By directly precipitating a solution of the chloride with sodium
carbonate, and washing and drying the powder as before.

_Prop., &c._ A pale buff or cream-coloured powder; insoluble in water;
freely soluble in acids; exposed to a strong heat, it loses its carbonic
acid, absorbs oxygen, and is converted into the red oxide. It is chiefly
employed in the preparation of the other salts of manganese.

=Manganous Chlo′′ride.= MnCl_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOCHLORIDE OF MANGANESE,
MURIATE OF M.; MANGANESII CHLORIDUM, L. _Prep._ 1. By saturating
hydrochloric acid with manganous carbonate; the solution is greatly
concentrated by evaporation, when crystals may be obtained, or it is at
once evaporated to dryness; in either case the product must be placed in
warm, dry, stoppered bottles, and preserved from the air.

2. From the dark brown residual liquid of the process of obtaining
chlorine from binoxide of manganese and hydrochloric acid; this liquid is
evaporated to dryness, and then slowly heated to dull redness in an
earthen vessel, with constant stirring, and kept at that temperature for a
short time; the greyish-looking powder thus obtained is treated with
water, and the solution separated from the ferric oxide and other
insoluble matter by filtration; if any iron still remains, a little
manganous carbonate is added, and the whole boiled for a few minutes; the
filtered solution is then treated as before. This is the least expensive
and most convenient source of this salt.

_Prop., &c._ Rose-coloured tabular crystals; inodorous; very soluble both
in water and alcohol; very deliquescent; when gradually heated to fusion
the whole of the water is expelled, and at a red heat it slowly suffers
decomposition. Astringent, tonic, hæmatinic, and alterative.——_Dose_, 3 to
10 gr.; in scorbutic, syphilitic, and certain chronic cutaneous
affections; anæmia, chlorosis, &c.

=Manganous Hydrate.= Mn(HO)_{2}. _Syn._ HYDRATED PROTOXIDE OF MANGANESE.
_Prep._ Formed by adding potassium hydrate to manganous sulphate, and
filtering and drying the precipitate in vacuo. White powder rapidly
absorbing oxygen and burning first green and then brown from formation of
higher oxides.

=Manganous I′odide.= MnI_{2}. _Syn._ MANGANESII IODIDUM, L. _Prep._ By
dissolving the carbonate in hydriodic acid and evaporating the filtered
liquid in vacuo or out of contact with air.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 gr.; in
anæmia, chlorosis, &c., occurring in scrofulous subjects.

=Manganous Oxide.= MnO. _Syn._ PROTOXIDE OF MANGANESE. _Prep._ By passing
a current of hydrogen over manganous carbonate heated to whiteness in a
porcelain tube. Olive-green powder rapidly oxidising on exposure to air,
and soluble in acids forming manganous salts.

There are four other oxides and two oxyhydrates that may be treated of
here, but of which only the peroxide and the manganates and permanganates
are of practical importance.

=Manganous-manganic Oxide.= Mn_{3}O_{4}, or MnO.Mn_{2}O_{3}. _Syn._ RED
“Hansmanite”. It is produced by igniting manganous carbonate, or manganic
oxide, or manganic peroxide. Reddish-brown, coloured crystals or powder,
and communicates an amethyst colour to glass when fused with it.

=Manganous-manganic Peroxide.= Mn_{4}O_{7} or MnO_{3}.Mn_{2}O_{3}. _Syn._
INTERMEDIATE, OXIDE OF MANGANESE. Found native as “Varvicile,” as a black
hard crystalline mass. Decomposed when heated into a lower oxide and

=Manganous Phosphate.= MnH.PO_{4} + 6Aq. _Syn._ PHOSPHATE OF PROTOXIDE OF
MANGANESE; MANGANESII PHOSPHAS, L. _Prep._ By precipitating a solution of
manganous sulphate with a solution of sodium phosphate. It must be
preserved from the air.——_Dose_, 3 to 12 gr.; in anæmia, rickets, &c.

=Manganous Sul′phate.= MnSO_{4}. _Syn._ SULPHATE OF PROTOXIDE OF
MANGANESE; MANGANESII SULPHAS, L. _Prep._ 1. By dissolving manganous
carbonate in dilute sulphuric acid, and evaporating the filtered solution
so that crystals may form, or at once gently evaporating it to dryness.

2. (Commercial.) By igniting manganic peroxide (pyrolusite) mixed with
about 1-10th of its weight of powdered coal in an iron crucible or
gas-retort, and digesting the residuum of the calcination in sulphuric
acid, with the addition after a time of a little hydrochloric acid; the
solution of manganous sulphate thus obtained, after defecation, is
evaporated to dryness, and heated to redness as before; the mass, after
ignition, is crushed small, and treated with water; the solution is nearly
pure, the whole of the iron having been reduced into the state of
insoluble peroxide. Used by the calico printers. Cloth steeped in the
solution, and afterwards passed through a solution of chloride of lime, is
dyed of a permanent brown.

_Prop., &c._ Pale rose-coloured crystals of the formulæ MnSO_{4}, 7Aq.;
MnSO_{4}, 5Aq.; or MnSO_{4}, 4Aq.; according to the method of
crystallising, furnishing a solution of a rich amethystine colour. With
sulphate of potassa it forms a double salt (‘manganese alum’).——_Dose._ As
an alterative and tonic, 5 to 10 gr.; as a cholagogue cathartic, 1 to 2
dr., dissolved in water, either alone or combined with infusion of senna.
According to Ure, its action is prompt and soon over; 1 dr. of it
occasions, after the lapse of an hour or so, one or more liquid bilious
stools. In large doses it occasions vomiting, and in excessive doses it
destroys life by its caustic action on the stomach. (Dr G. C.
Mitscherlich.) It has been administered with manifest advantage in torpor
of the liver, gout, jaundice, syphilis, and certain skin diseases; and,
combined with iron, in anæmia, chlorosis, rickets, &c.

=Manganous Tar′trate.= MnC_{4}H_{4}O_{6}. _Syn._ MANGANESII TARTRAS, L.
_Prep._ By saturating a solution of tartaric acid with most manganous
carbonate. Alterative and tonic.——_Dose_, 4 to 12 gr.

=Manganate of Barium.= BaMnO_{4}. Green insoluble powder, obtained by
fusing barium hydrate, potassium chlorate, and manganic peroxide together,
and washing the product.

=Manganate of Potassium.= K_{2}MnO_{4}. Finely powdered manganic peroxide,
potassium chlorate, and potassium hydrate, made into a thick paste with
water, and heated to dull redness. The fused product is treated with a
small quantity of water, and crystallised by evaporation in vacuo.

Dark green, almost black crystals, readily soluble in water, but
decomposed by excess, or by acids into manganic peroxide, and potassium

=Manganate of Sodium.= Na_{2}MnO_{4}. Prepared on the large scale by
heating a mixture of manganic peroxide and sodium hydrate to redness in a
current of air. Used in strong solution as a disinfectant under the name
of “Condy’s green fluid.”

=Manganic Acid.= H_{2}MnO_{4}. This acid has not yet been obtained free,
but some of its salts are extensively employed as disinfectants, as “green
Condy’s fluid.” The chief compounds are the following:——

=Manganic Hydrate.= Mn_{2}(HO)_{6}. _Syn._ HYDRATED SESQUIOXIDE OF
MANGANESE. Found native as “manganite,” in reddish-brown crystals. _Prep._
By passing a current of air through recently precipitated and moist
manganous hydrate. Soft dark brown powder converted into the oxide by

=Manganic Oxide.= Mn_{2}O_{3}. _Syn._ SESQUIOXIDE OF MANGANESE. Found
native as “Braumite,” and readily formed by exposing manganous hydrate to
the action of air, and drying, or by gently igniting the peroxide brown or
black powder decomposed by heat.

=Manganic Peroxide.= MnO_{2}. _Syn._ PERMANGANIC OXIDE, BINOXIDE OF

It is the only oxide of manganese that is directly employed in the arts.
It is a very plentiful mineral production, and is found in great abundance
in some parts of the West of England. The manganese of the shop is
prepared by washing, to remove the earthy matter, and grinding in mills.
The blackest samples are esteemed the best. It is chiefly used to supply
oxygen gas, and in the manufacture of glass and chlorine; in dyeing and to
form the salts of manganese. It has been occasionally employed in
medicine, chiefly externally in itch and porrigo, made into an ointment
with lard. It has been highly recommended by Dr Erigeler in scrofula.
Others have employed it as an alterative and tonic with variable success.
When slowly introduced into the system during a lengthened period, it is
said to produce paralysis of the motor nerves. (Dr Coupar.)——_Dose_, 3 to
12 gr., or more, thrice daily, made into pills.

_Pur._ Native binoxide of manganese (pyrolusite) is usually contaminated
with variable proportions of argillaceous matter, calcium carbonate,
ferric oxide, silica, and barium sulphate, all of which lower its value as
a source of oxygen, and for the preparation of chlorine. The richness of
this ore can, therefore, be only determined by an assay for its principal

_Assay._ There are several methods adopted for this purpose, among which
the following recommend themselves as being the most accurate and

1. A portion of the mineral being reduced to very fine powder, 50 gr. of
it are put into the little apparatus employed for the analysis of
carbonates described at page 406, together with about 1/2 fl. oz. of cold
water, and 100 gr. of strong hydrochloric acid, the latter contained in
the little tube (_b_); 50 gr. of crystallised oxalic acid are then added,
the cork carrying the chloride of calcium tube fitted in, and the whole
quickly and accurately weighed or counterpoised; the apparatus is next
inclined so that the acid contained in the small tube may be mixed with
the other contents of the flask, and the reaction of the ingredients is
promoted by the application of a gentle heat; the disengaged chlorine
resulting from the mutual decomposition of the hydrochloric acid and the
manganic peroxide converts the oxalic acid into carbonic acid gas, which
is dried in its passage through the chloride of calcium tube before it
escapes into the air. As soon as the reaction is complete, and the
residual gas has been driven off by a momentary ebullition, the apparatus
is allowed to cool, when it is again carefully and accurately weighed. The
loss of weight in grains, if doubled, at once indicates the percentage
richness of the mineral examined in manganic peroxide; or, more correctly,
every grain of carbonic anhydride evolved represents 1·982 gr. of the

2. (Fresenius and Will.) The apparatus employed is the ‘alkalimeter’
figured at page 30. The operation is similar to that adopted for the assay
of alkalies, and is a modification of the oxalic acid and sulphuric acid
test for manganese, originally devised by M. Berthier. The standard weight
of manganic peroxide recommended to be taken by Fresenius and Will is 2·91
grammes, along with 6·5 to 7 grammes of neutral potassium oxalate. The
process, with quantities altered to adapt it for employment in the
laboratories of these countries, is as follows:——Manganic peroxide (in
very fine powder), 50 gr.; neutral potassium oxalate (in powder), 120 gr.;
these are put into the flask _A_ (see _engr._, p. 31), along with
sufficient water to about 1-4th fill it; the flask _A_ and _B_ (the latter
containing the sulphuric acid) are then corked air-tight, and thus
connected in one apparatus, the whole is accurately weighed. The opening
of the tube _b_ being closed by a small lump of wax, a little sulphuric
acid is sucked over from the flask _B_ into the flask _A_; the
disengagement of oxygen from the manganese immediately commences and this
reacting upon the oxalic acid present, converts it into carbonic anhydride
gas, which passing through the concentrated sulphuric acid in the flask
_B_, which robs it of moisture, finally escapes from the apparatus through
the tube _d_. As soon as the disengagement of carbonic acid ceases, the
operator sucks over a fresh portion of sulphuric acid, and this is
repeated at short intervals, until bubbles of gas are no longer
disengaged. The little wax stopper is now removed, and suction is applied
at _h_ until all the carbonic acid in the apparatus is replaced by common
air. When the whole has become cold it is again weighed. The loss of
weight, doubled, indicates the amount of pure manganic peroxide, in the
sample, as before.

3. (Otto.) 50 gr. of the sample reduced to very fine powder are mixed in a
glass flask, with hydrochloric acid 1-1/2 fl. oz., diluted with 1/2 oz. of
cold water, and portions of ferrous sulphate, from a weighed sample,
immediately added, at first in excess, but afterwards in smaller doses,
until the liquid ceases to give a blue precipitate with red prussiate of
potash, or to evolve the odour of chlorine; heat being employed towards
the end of the process. The quantity of ferrous sulphate consumed is now
ascertained by again weighing the sample. If the peroxide examined was
pure, the loss of weight will be 317 gr.; but if otherwise, the percentage
of the pure peroxide may be obtained by the rule of three. Thus: suppose
only 298 gr. of the sulphate were consumed, then

  317 : 100 :: 298 : 94,

and the richness of the sample would be 94%. The percentage value of the
oxide for evolving chlorine may be obtained by multiplying the weight of
the consumed ferrous sulphate by ·2588, which, in the above case, would
give 76% of chlorine. For this purpose, as well as for chlorometry, the
ferrous sulphate is best prepared by precipitating it from its aqueous
solution with alcohol, and drying it out of contact with air until it
loses its alcoholic odour.

_Obs._ Before applying the above processes it is absolutely necessary that
we ascertain whether the peroxide examined contains any carbonates, as the
presence of these would vitiate the results. This is readily determined by
treating it with a little dilute nitric acid:——if effervescence ensues,
one or more carbonates are present, and the sample, after being weighed,
must be digested for some time in dilute nitric acid in excess, and then
carefully collected on a filter, washed, and dried. It may then be assayed
as before. The loss of weight indicates the quantity of carbonates
present, with sufficient accuracy for technical purposes. The
determination of this point is the more important, as these contaminations
not merely lessen the richness of the mineral in pure manganic peroxide,
but also cause a considerable waste of acid when it is employed in the
manufacture of chlorine.

=Permanganic Acid.= HMnO_{4}. Obtained by distilling cautiously potassium
permanganate and sulphuric acid. Dark violet-black liquid, green by
reflected light, and rapidly absorbing water forming a violet solution.
Oxidises organic matter with explosive violence.

=Permanganate of Barium.= Ba(MnO)_{45}. Black soluble prisms, formed by
decomposing silver permanganate by means of barium chloride, and
cautiously evaporating.

=Permanganate of Potassium.= KMnO_{4}. _Prep._ Potassium chlorate, or
nitrate, and potassium hydrate are made into a paste with water, and
manganic peroxide added; the mass is dried and heated to redness. The
residue is boiled with water, filtered through asbestos, and evaporated
down and recrystallised.

Dark purple, red, almost black anhydrous long prisms, readily soluble in
16 pints of water. Decomposed in presence of acids by most organic matter.

=Permanganate of Silver.= AgMnO_{4}. _Prep._ Precipitate a strong solution
of silver nitrate by means of a concentrated solution of potassium
permanganate. Small black prisms, soluble in 100 parts of water, with a
purple colour.

=Permanganate of Sodium.= NaMnO_{4}. Obtained as a dark purple liquid by
passing a current of carbonic anhydride through sodium manganate. Condy’s
red fluid is chiefly a sodium permanganate dissolved in water.

=MANGE.= An eruptive disease, corresponding to the itch in man, resulting
from the burrowing into the skin of minute animalcules (mites or _acari_),
and common to several domestic animals, more especially the dog and horse.
Like the itch, it is contagious. The causes are confinement, dirt, and bad
living. The treatment should consist in the immediate removal of the
cause, the frequent use of soft soap and water, followed by frictions with
sulphur ointment, solution of chloride of lime or sporokton, the
administration of purgatives, and a change to a restorative diet. Dun
states that in India a very efficient remedy for mange is employed by the
native farriers, which consists of castor oil seeds well bruised, steeped
for twelve hours in sour milk, and rubbed into the skin, previously
thoroughly cleansed with soap and water. “The itchiness disappears almost
immediately and the acari are speedily destroyed.” A dressing consisting
of 1 oz. of chloride of zinc (Burnett’s disinfectant fluid) and 1 quart of
water may also be applied with advantage.

The _Beta vulgaris_, var. _campestris_, a variety of the common beet. The
root abounds in sugar, and has been used in Germany as a substitute for
bread in times of scarcity. In these countries it is chiefly cultivated as
food for cattle. The young leaves are eaten as spinach. The percentage
composition of mangold wurzel is as follows:——Flesh-formers (albumenoid
bodies), 1·54; heat and fat-formers (sugar, &c.) 8·60; indigestible fibre,
1·12; ash, 0·96; 87·78.

=MAN′HEIM GOLD.= A gold-coloured brass. See GOLD (Dutch).

=MAN′NA= _Syn._ MANNA (B. P., Ph. L., E., & D.), L. A concrete exudation
from the stem of _Fraxinus ornus_ and _F. rotundifolia_, obtained by
incision. (B. P.) “The juice flowing from the incised bark” of “_Fraxinus
rotundifolia_ and _F. ornus_, hardened by the air.” (Ph. L.) The finest
variety of this drug is known as flake manna, and occurs in pieces varying
from 1 to 6 inches long, 1 or 2 inches wide, and 1/2 to 1 inch thick. It
has a yellowish-white or cream colour; an odour somewhat resembling honey,
but less pleasant, a sweet, mawkish taste; and is light, porous, and
friable. It is laxative in doses of 1 to 2 oz.

=Manna Factitious=, made of a mixture of sugar, starch, and honey, with a
very small quantity of scammony to give it odour and flavour, and to
render it purgative, has been lately very extensively offered in trade,
and met with a ready sale.

=MAN′NACROUP.= A granular preparation of wheat deprived of bran, used as
an article of food for children and invalids. (Brande.)

A sweet, crystallisable substance, found in manna and in several other
vegetable productions. It has been formed artificially by the action of
sodium-amalgam upon an alkaline solution of cane sugar.

_Prep._ 1. Digest manna in boiling rectified spirit, and filter or decant
the solution whilst hot; the mannite crystallises as the liquid cools in
tufts of slender, colourless needles.

2. (Ruspini.) Manna, 6 lbs.; cold water (in which the white of an egg has
been beaten), 3 lbs.; mix, boil for a few minutes, and strain the syrup
through linen whilst hot; the strained liquid will form a semi-crystalline
mass on cooling; submit this to strong pressure in a cloth, mix the cake
with its own weight of cold water, and again press it; dissolve the cake
thus obtained in boiling water, add a little animal charcoal, and filter
the mixture into a porcelain dish set over the fire; lastly, evaporate the
filtrate to a pellicle, and set the syrup aside to crystallise. Large
quadrangular prisms; perfectly white and transparent.

_Prop., &c._ Mannite has a powerfully sweet and agreeable taste; dissolves
in 5 parts of cold water and about half that quantity of boiling water;
freely soluble in hot, and slightly so in cold alcohol; fuses by heat
without loss of weight; with sulphuric acid it combines to form a new acid
compound. It is distinguished from the true sugars by its aqueous solution
not being susceptible of the vinous fermentation, and not possessing the
property of rotary polarisation. When pure, it is perfectly destitute of
purgative properties. It is now extensively imported from Italy, and is
chiefly used to cover the taste of nauseous medicines, and as a sweetmeat.

=MANURES′.= Substances added to soils to increase their fertility. The
food of vegetables, as far as their organic structure is concerned,
consists entirely of inorganic compounds; and no organised body can serve
for the nutrition of vegetables until it has been, by the process of
decay, resolved into certain inorganic substances. These are carbonic
acid, water, and ammonia, which are well known to be the final products of
putrefaction. But even when these are applied to vegetables, their growth
will not proceed unless certain mineral substances are likewise furnished
in small quantities, either by the soil or the water used to moisten it.
Almost every plant, when burned, leaves ashes, which commonly contain
silica, potassa, and phosphate of lime; often, also, magnesia, soda,
sulphates, and oxide of iron. These mineral bodies appear to be essential
to the existence of the vegetable tissues; so that plants will not grow in
soils destitute of them, however abundantly supplied with carbonic acid,
ammonia, and water. The carbon of plants is wholly derived from carbonic
acid, which is either absorbed from the atmosphere, and from rain water,
by the leaves, or from the moisture and air in the soil, by the roots. Its
carbon is retained and assimilated with the body of the plant, while its
oxygen is given out in the gaseous form; this decomposition being always
effected under the influence of light at ordinary temperatures. The
hydrogen and oxygen of vegetables, which, when combined with carbon,
constitute the ligneous, starchy, gummy, saccharine, oily, and resinous
matters of plants, are derived from water chiefly absorbed by the roots
from the soil. The nitrogen of vegetables is derived chiefly, if not
exclusively, from ammonia, which is supplied to them in rain, and in
manures, and which remain in the soil till absorbed by the roots.

According to the celebrated ‘mineral theory’ of agriculture advanced by
Liebig a soil is fertile or barren for any given plant according as it
contains those mineral substances that enter into its composition. Thus,
“the ashes of wheat-straw contain much silica and potassa, whilst the
ashes of the seeds contain phosphate of magnesia. Hence, if a soil is
deficient in any one of these, it will not yield wheat. On the other hand,
a good crop of wheat will exhaust the soil of these substances, and it
will not yield a second crop till they have been restored, either by
manure or by the gradual action of the weather in disintegrating the
subsoil. Hence the benefit derived from fallows and from the rotation of

“When, by an extraordinary supply of any one mineral ingredient, or of
ammonia, a large crop has been obtained, it is not to be expected that a
repetition of the same individual manure next year will produce the same
effect. It must be remembered that the unusual crop has exhausted the soil
probably of all the other mineral ingredients, and that they also must be
restored before a second crop can be obtained.

“The salt most essential to the growth of the potato is the double
phosphate of ammonia and magnesia; that chiefly required for hay is
phosphate of lime; while for almost all plants potassa and ammonia are
highly beneficial.”

From these principles we “may deduce a few valuable conclusions in regard
to the chemistry of agriculture. First, by examining the ashes of a
thriving plant, we discover the mineral ingredients which must exist in a
soil to render it fertile for that plant. Secondly, by examining a soil,
we can say at once whether it is fertile in regard to any plants the ashes
of which have been examined. Thirdly, when we know the defects of a soil,
the deficient matters may be easily obtained and added to it, unmixed with
such as are not required. Fourthly, the straw, leaves, &c., of any plant,
are the best manure for that plant, since every vegetable extracts from
the soil such matters alone as are essential to it. This important
principle has been amply verified by the success attending the use of
wheat-straw, or its ashes, as manure for wheat, and of the chippings of
the vines as a manure for the vineyard. When these are used (in the proper
quantity) no other manure is required. Fifthly, in the rotation of crops,
those should be made to follow which require different materials; or a
crop which extracts little or no mineral matter, such as peas, should come
after one which exhausts the soil of its phosphates and potassa.”

The experiments of Messrs Lawes and Gilbert have forced upon them opinions
differing from those of Baron Liebig on some important points in relation
to his ‘mineral theory,’ which endeavours to prove that “the crops on a
field diminish or increase in exact proportion to the diminution or
increase of the mineral substances conveyed to it in manure.” The results
obtained by the English investigators appear to prove that it is
impossible to get good crops by using mineral manures alone, and that
nitrogenous manures (farm-yard manure, guano, ammoniacal salts, &c.) are
fertilising agents of the highest order.

Of the chemical manures now so much used bone-dust is, perhaps, the most
important, as it supplies the phosphates which have been extracted by
successive crops of grass and corn, the whole of the bones of the cattle
fed on these crops having been derived from the soil; its gelatin also
yields ammonia by putrefaction. Guano acts as a source of ammonia,
containing much oxalate and urate of ammonia, with some phosphates.
Nightsoil and urine, especially the latter, are most valuable for the
ammonia they yield, as well as for the phosphates and potassa; but are
very much neglected in this country, although their importance is fully
appreciated in Belgium, France, and China. Nitrate of soda is valued as a
source of nitrogen.

All organic substances may be employed as manures; preference being,
however, given to those abounding in nitrogen, and which readily decay
when mixed with the soil.

The analysis of manures, soils, and the ashes of plants, for the purpose
of ascertaining their composition and comparative value, is not easily
performed by the inexperienced; but a rough approximation to their
contents, sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes, may be
generally made by any intelligent person with proper care and attention.

=Manures, Artificial.= Various formulæ belonging to this head will be
found dispersed, under their respective names, throughout this work. The
following are additional ones:——

1. (Anderson.) Sulphate of ammonia, common salt, and oil of vitriol, of
each 10 parts; chloride of potassium, 15 parts; gypsum and sulphate of
potassa, of each 17 parts; saltpetre, 20 parts; crude Epsom salts, 25
parts; sulphate of soda, 33 parts. For clover.

2. (Huxtable.) Crude potash, 28 lbs.; common salt, 1 cwt.; bone-dust and
gypsum, of each 2 cwt.; wood-ashes, 15 bushels. For either corn, turnips,
or grass.

3. (Johnstone.) Sulphate of soda (dry), 11 lbs.; wood-ashes, 28 lbs.;
common salt, 3/4 cwt.; crude sulphate of ammonia, 1 cwt.; bone-dust, 7
bushels. As a substitute for guano.

4. (Lawes’ ‘Superphosphate.’) See COPROLITE.

5. (Fertilising powder.) A mixture of very fine bone-dust, 18 parts;
calcined gypsum, and sulphate of ammonia, of each 1 part. The seed is
ordered to be steeped in the ‘drainings’ from a dunghill, and after being
drained, but whilst still wet, to be sprinkled with the powder, and then
dried. See FLOWERS, LIME (Superphosphate), &c.

=MANUSCRIPTS, Faded, to Restore.= One of the methods in use for the
restoration of old or faded writing is to expose it to the vapours of
hydrosulphate of ammonia (hydrosulphide of ammonium) until the ink becomes
darkened by the formation of sulphide of iron. Another consists in
carefully washing, or sponging, the faded manuscript over with a weak
solution of the ammonic sulphide, and as soon as the characters become
legible, soaking it in water so as to remove the remaining sulphide, and
then drying it between folds of blotting paper. A third plan, and one
attended with less risk to the paper, is to brush over the manuscript with
a moderately strong aqueous solution of gallo-tannic acid, to wash with
water, and afterwards to dry it at a temperature of about 150° Fahr.

The solution of gallo-tannic acid may be obtained by making a strong
infusion of bruised nutgalls in boiling water, and when cold, straining
it. Some old and mediæval manuscripts are written in inks made of carbon.
To such the above treatment is inapplicable; being suited only to those
traced in ordinary writing ink. For parchments the latter method is

=MAPS.= These, as well as architect’s and engineer’s designs, plans,
sections, drawings, &c., may be tinted with any of the simple liquid
colours mentioned under ‘VELVET COLOURS,’ preference being given to the
most transparent ones, which will not obscure the lines beneath them. To
prevent the colours from sinking and spreading, which they usually do on
common paper, the latter should be wetted 2 or 3 times with a sponge
dipped in alum water (3 or 4 oz. to the pint), or with a solution of white
size, observing to dry it carefully after each coat. This tends to give
lustre and beauty to the colours. The colours for this purpose should also
be thickened with a little gum water. Before varnishing maps after
colouring them, 2 or 3 coats of clean size should be applied with a soft
brush——the first one to the back.

=MARASCHI′NO= (-kēno). _Syn._ MARASQUIN, Fr. A delicate liqueur spirit
distilled from a peculiar cherry growing in Dalmatia, and afterwards
sweetened with sugar. The best is from Zara, and is obtained from the
marasca cherry only. An inferior quality is distilled from a mixture of
cherries and the juice of liquorice root.

CARBONAS DURUS, M. ALBUM (B. P., Ph. E. & D.), L. Marbles are merely purer
and more compact varieties of limestone, which admit of being sawn into
slabs, and are susceptible of a fine polish. White marble is employed for
the preparation of carbonic acid and some of the salts of lime. It
contains about 65% of lime. Sp. gr. 2·70 to 2·85. The tests of its purity
are the same as those already noticed under CHALK.

Marble is best cleaned with a little soap-and-water, to which some ox-gall
may be added. Acids should be avoided. Oil and grease may be generally
removed by spreading a paste made of soft soap, caustic potash lye, and
fullers earth over the part, and allowing it to remain there for a few
days; after which it must be washed off with clean water. Or, equal parts
of American potash (crude carbonate of potash) and whiting are made into a
moderately stiff paste with a sufficiency of boiling water, and applied to
the marble with a brush. At the end of two or three days the paste is
removed and the marble washed with soap-and-water. Any defect of polish
may be brought up with tripoli, followed by putty powder, both being used
along with water.

Marble is mended with one or other of the compounds noticed under CEMENTS.

Marble may be stained or dyed of various colours by applying coloured
solutions or tincture to the stone, made sufficiently hot to make the
liquid just simmer on the surface. The following are the substances
usually employed for this purpose:——

BLUE. Tincture or solution of litmus, or an alkaline solution of indigo.

BROWN. Tincture of logwood.

CRIMSON. A solution of alkanet root in oil of turpentine.

FLESH COLOUR. Wax tinged with alkanet root, and applied to the marble hot
enough to melt it freely.

GOLD COLOUR. A mixture of equal parts of white vitriol, sal ammoniac, and
verdigris, each in fine powder, and carefully applied.

GREEN. An alkaline solution or tincture of sap green, or wax strongly
coloured with verdigris; or the stone is first stained blue, and then the
materials for yellow stain are applied.

RED. Tincture of dragon’s blood, alkanet root, or cochineal.

YELLOW. Tincture of gamboge, turmeric, or saffron; or wax coloured with
annotta. Success in the application of these colours requires considerable
experience. By their skilful use, however, a very pleasing effect, both
of colour and grain, may be produced.

=MARBLING (of Books, &c.).= The edges and covers of books are ‘marbled’ by
laying the colour on them with a brush, or by means of a wooden trough
containing mucilage, as follows:——Provide a wooden trough, 2 inches deep,
6 inches wide, and the length of a super-royal sheet; boil in a brass or
copper pan any quantity of linseed and water until a thick mucilage is
formed; strain this into the trough, and let it cool; then grind on a
marble slab any of the following colours in table beer. For——blue,
Prussian blue or indigo;——red, rose-pink, vermilion, or drop
lake;——yellow, king’s yellow, yellow ochre, &c.;——white, flake
white;——black, ivory black, or burnt lampblack;——brown umber, burnt u.,
terra di sienna, burnt s.; black mixed with yellow or red also makes
brown;——green, blue and yellow mixed;——purple, red and blue mixed. For
each colour provide two cups——one for the ground colours, the other to mix
them with the ox-gall, which must be used to thin them at discretion. If
too much gall is used the colours spread; when they keep their place on
the surface of the trough, on being moved with a quill, they are fit for
use. All things being in readiness, the prepared colours are successively
sprinkled on the surface of the mucilage in the trough with a brush, and
are waved or drawn about with a quill or a stick according to taste. When
the design is thus formed, the book, tied tightly between cutting boards
of the same size, is lightly pressed with its edge on the surface of the
liquid pattern, and then withdrawn and dried. The covers may be marbled in
the same way, only the liquid colours must be allowed to run over them.
The film of colour in the trough may be as thin as possible; and if any
remains after the marbling, it may be taken off by applying paper to it
before you prepare for marbling again. This process has been called FRENCH

To diversify the effect, a little sweet oil is often mixed with the
colours before sprinkling them on, by which means a light halo or circle
appears round each spot. In like manner spirit of turpentine, sprinkled on
the surface of the trough, produces white spots. By staining the covers
with any of the liquid dyes, and then dropping on them, or running over
them, drops of the ordinary liquid mordants, a very pleasing effect may be
produced. Vinegar black, or a solution of green copperas, thus applied to
common leather, produces black spots or streaks, and gives a similar
effect with most of the light dyes. A solution of alum or of tin in like
manner produces bright spots or streaks, and soda or potash water dark
ones. This style has been called EGYPTIAN MARBLE.——SOAP MARBLING is done
by throwing on the colours, ground with a little white soap to a proper
consistence, by means of a brush. It is much used for book-edges,
stationery, sheets of paper, ladies’ fancy work, &c.——THREAD MARBLE is
given by first covering the edge uniformly of one colour, then laying
pieces of thick thread irregularly on different parts of it, and giving it
a fine dark sprinkle. When well managed the effect is very pleasing.——RICE
MARBLE is given in a similar way to the last by using rice.——TREE MARBLE
is done on leather book-covers, &c., by bending the board a little in the
centre, and running the marbling liquid over it in the form of vegetation.
The knots are given by rubbing the end of a candle on those parts of the
cover.——WAX MARBLE is given in a similar way to thread marble, but using
melted wax, which is removed after the book is sprinkled and dried; or a
sponge charged with blue, green, or red may be passed over. This, also, is
much used for stationery work, especially for folios and quartos. The
‘vinegar black’ of the bookbinders is merely a solution of acetate of
iron, made by steeping a few rusty nails or some iron filings in vinegar.
All the ordinary liquid colours that do not contain strong acids or
alkalies may be used, either alone or thickened with a little gum, for
marbling or sprinkling books.

SPRINKLING is performed by simply dipping a stiff-haired painter’s brush
into the colour, and suddenly striking it against a small stick held in
the left hand over the work. By this means the colour is evenly scattered
without producing ‘blurs’ or ‘blots.’

PAPER, PASTEBOARD, &c., in sheets, are marbled and sprinkled in a similar
manner to that above described, but in this case the gum trough must, of
course, be longer.

=MARGAR′IC ACID.= This term was formerly applied to a mixture of palmitic
and stearic acids, produced by decomposing the alkaline soaps of solid
fats with an acid, but it is now given to a fatty acid which can only be
obtained artificially.

=MAR′GARIN.= _Syn._ MARGARATE OF GLYCERYL. A constituent formerly supposed
to exist in solid fats, but now regarded as a mixture of stearin and


=MARL.= A natural mixture of clay and chalk, with sand. It is
characterised by effervescing with acids. According to the predominance of
one or other of its component parts, it is called argillaceous,
calcareous, or sandy marl. It is very generally employed as a manure for
sandy soils, more particularly in Norfolk. See SOILS.

=MAR′MALADE.= Originally a conserve made of quinces and sugar; now
commonly applied to the conserves of other fruit, more especially to those
of oranges and lemons.

_Prep._ Marmalades are made either by pounding the pulped fruit in a
mortar with an equal or a rather larger quantity of powdered white sugar,
or by mixing them together by heat, passing them through a hair sieve
whilst hot, and then putting them into pots or glasses. The fruit-pulps
are obtained by rubbing the fruit through a fine hair sieve, either at
once or after it has been softened by simmering it for a short time along
with a little water. When heat is employed in mixing the ingredients, the
evaporation should be continued until the marmalade ‘jellies’ on cooling.

=Marmalade, Apricot.= From equal parts of pulp and sugar.

=Marmalade, Mixed.= From plums, pears, and apples, variously flavoured to

=Marmalade, Orange.= _Prep._ 1. From oranges (either Seville or St
Michael’s, or a mixture of the two), by boiling the peels in syrup until
soft, then pulping them through a sieve, adding as much white sugar, and
boiling them with the former syrup and the juice of the fruit to a proper

2. By melting the confection of orange peel (Ph. L.), either with or
without the addition of some orange or lemon juice, and then passing it
through a sieve.

3. (CANDIED ORANGE MARMALADE.) From candied orange peel, boiled in an
equal weight each of sugar and water, and then passed through a sieve.

4. (SCOTCH MARMALADE.)——_a._ Seville orange juice, 1 quart; yellow peel of
the fruit, grated; honey, 2 lbs.; boil to a proper consistence.

_b._ Seville oranges, 8 lbs.; peel them as thinly as possible, then
squeeze out the juice, boil it on the yellow peels for 1/4 of an hour,
strain, add white sugar, 7 lbs., and boil to a proper consistence.

=Marmalade, Quince.= _Syn._ DIACYDONIUM. From quince flesh or pulp and
sugar, equal parts; or from the juice (miva cydoniorum, gelatina c.), by
boiling it to half, adding an equal quantity of white wine and 2/3rds of
its weight of sugar, and gently evaporating the mixture.

=Marmalade, Tomato.= Like APRICOT MARMALADE, adding a few slices of onion
and a little parsley.

=MARMORA′TUM.= Finely powdered marble and quicklime, well beaten together;
used as a cement or mortar.

=MAR′ROW (Beef).= This is extensively employed by the perfumers in the
preparation of various pomades and other cosmetics, on account of its
furnishing an exceedingly bland fat, which is not so much disposed to
rancidity as the other fats. It is prepared for use by soaking and working
it for some time in lukewarm water, and afterwards melting it in a water
bath, and straining it through a piece of muslin whilst hot. When scented
it is esteemed equal to bear’s grease for promoting the growth of the

=MARSH GAS.= Light carbonetted hydrogen.


=MARSHMALLOW.= _Syn._ ALTHÆA (Ph. L. & E.), L. The root (leaves and
root——Ph. E.) of _Althæa officinalis_, Linn., or common marshmallow. (Ph.
L.) It is emollient and demulcent; the decoction is useful in irritation
of the respiratory and urinary organs, and of the alimentary canal. The
flowers as well as the root are reputed pectoral.

=MARTIN’S POWDER.= A mixture of white arsenic and the powdered stems of
_Orobanche virginiana_ (Linn.), a plant common in Virginia. An American
quack remedy for cancer.

=MASS.= _Syn._ MASSA, L. This term is commonly applied in pharmacy and
veterinary medicine to certain preparations which are not made up into
their ultimate form. Thus, we have ‘ball-masses,’ ‘pill-masses,’ &c.; of
which, for convenience, large quantities are prepared at a time, and are
kept in pots or jars, ready to be divided into balls or pills, as the
demands of business may require. (See _below_.)

=MASSES (Veterinary).=[24]

[Footnote 24: Reprinted from Tuson’s ‘Veterinary Pharmacopœia.’]

=Massa Aloes.= MASS OF ALOES. _Syn._ CATHARTIC MASS. _Prep._ Take of
Barbadoes aloes, in small pieces, 8 parts; glycerin, 2 parts; ginger, in
powder, 1 part; melt together in a water bath, and thoroughly incorporate
by frequent stirring.——_Use._ Cathartic for the horse.——_Dose._ From 6 to
8 dr.

_Prep._ Take of Barbadoes aloes, in powder, 1 oz.; soft soap, 1 oz.;
common mass, 6 oz.; thoroughly incorporate by beating in a mortar, so as
to form a mass.——_Use._ Alterative for the horse.——_Dose_, 1 oz.

=Massa Antimonii Tartarata Composita.= COMPOUND MASS OF TARTARATED
ANTIMONY. _Syn._ FEVER BALL. _Prep._ Take of tartrated antimony, in
powder, 1/2 dr.; camphor, in powder, 1/2 dr.; nitrate of potash, in
powder, 2 dr.; common mass, a sufficiency; mix so as to form a
bolus.——_Use._ Febrifuge for the horse.——_Dose._ The above mixture
constitutes 1 dose.

=Massa Belladonnæ Composita.= COMPOUND MASS OF BELLADONNA. _Syn._ COUGH
BALL. _Prep._ Take of extract of belladonna, 1/2 to 1 dr.; Barbadoes
aloes, in powder, 1 dr.; nitrate of potash, in powder, 2 dr.; common mass,
a sufficiency; mix so as to form a bolus.——_Use._ For the horse in chronic
cough.——_Dose._ The above mixture constitutes 1 dose.

=Massa Cathechu Composita.= COMPOUND MASS OF CATECHU. _Syn._ ASTRINGENT
MASS. _Prep._ Take of extract of catechu, in fine powder, 1 oz.; cinnamon
bark, in fine powder, 1 oz.; common mass, 6 oz.; mix.——_Use._ Astringent
for the horse.——_Dose_, 1 oz., in the form of a bolus.

=Massa Communis.= COMMON MASS. _Prep._ Take of linseed, finely ground, and
treacle, of each equal parts; mix together so as to form a mass.——_Use._
An excipient for medicinal agents when they are to be administered in the
form of bolus.

=Massa Cupri Sulphatis.= MASS OF SULPHATE OF COPPER. _Syn._ TONIC MASS.
_Prep._ Take of sulphate of copper, finely powdered, 1 oz.; ginger, in
powder, 1 oz.; common mass, 6 oz.; mix.——_Use._ Tonic for the
horse.——_Dose_, 6 to 8 dr.

=Massa Digitalis Composita.= COMPOUND MASS OF DIGITALIS. _Syn._ COUGH
BALL. _Prep._ Take of Barbadoes aloes, in powder, 2 oz.; digitalis, 1 oz.;
common mass, 13 oz.; mix.——_Use._ For the horse in chronic cough.——_Dose_,
1 oz. once or twice a day.

=Massa Ferri Sulphatis.= MASS OF SULPHATE OF IRON. _Syn._ TONIC MASS.
_Prep._ Take of sulphate of iron, in powder, 2 oz.; ginger, in powder, 1
oz.; common mass, 5 oz.; mix.——_Use._ Tonic for the horse.——_Dose_, 6 to 8

=Massa Resinæ Composita.= COMPOUND MASS OF RESIN. _Syn._ DIURETIC MASS.
_Prep._ Take of resin, in powder, nitrate of potash, in powder, hard soap,
of each equal parts; mix.——_Use._ Diuretic for the horse.——_Dose_, 1 oz.

=Massa Zingiberis Composita.= COMPOUND MASS OF GINGER. _Syn._ CORDIAL
MASS. _Prep._ Take of ginger, in powder, gentian root, in powder, treacle,
of each equal parts, a sufficiency; mix so as to form a mass.——_Use._
Stomachic for the horse.——_Dose_, 1 oz.

FLAVUM, CERUSSA CITRINA, L. The dross that forms on melted lead exposed to
a current of air, roasted until it acquires a uniform yellow colour.
Artists often apply the same name to white lead roasted until it turns
yellow. Used as a pigment.

=MAS′TIC.= _Syn._ MASTICH, GUM MASTIC; MASTICHE, L. The “resin flowing
from the incised bark of _Pistacia Lentiscus_, var. _Chia_.” (Ph. L.) It
occurs in pale yellowish, transparent, rounded tears, which soften between
the teeth when chewed, and giving out a bitter, aromatic taste. Sp. gr.
1·07. It is soluble in both rectified spirit and oil of turpentine,
forming varnishes. It is chiefly used as a ‘masticatory,’ to strengthen
and preserve the teeth, and perfume the breath.

=Mastic.= Fine mortar or cement used for plastering walls, in which the
ingredients, in a pulverulent state, are mixed up, either entirely or with
a considerable portion of linseed oil. It sets very hard, and is ready to
receive paint in a few days. See CEMENTS.

=MASTICA′TION.= The act of chewing food, by which it not only becomes
comminuted, but mixed with the saliva, and reduced to a form fit for
swallowing. It has been justly regarded by the highest authorities as the
first process of digestion, and one without which the powers of the
stomach are overtasked, and often performed with difficulty. Hence the
prevalence of dyspepsia and bowel complaints among persons with bad teeth,
or who ‘bolt’ their food without chewing it.

=MAS′TICATORIES.= _Syn._ MASTICATORIA, L. Substances taken by chewing
them. They are employed as intoxicants, cosmetics, and medicinals;
generally with the first intention. The principal masticatory used in this
country is tobacco. In Turkey, and several other Eastern nations, opium is
taken in a similar manner. In India, a mixture of areca nut, betel leaf,
and lime, performs the same duties; whilst in some other parts of the
world preparations of the cacao are employed. As cosmetics, orris root,
cassia, cinnamon, and sandal wood are frequently chewed to scent the
breath. Among medicinals, mastic and myrrh are frequently chewed to
strengthen the teeth and gums; pellitory, to relieve the toothache; and
rhubarb, ginger, and gentian, to relieve dyspepsia and promote the

_Prep._ 1. (Augustin.) Mastic, pellitory (both in powder), and white wax,
of each 1 dr.; mixed by heat and divided into 6 balls. In toothache, loose
teeth, &c.

2. (W. Cooley.) Mastic, myrrh, and white wax, of each 1 part; rhubarb,
ginger, and extract of gentian, of each 2 parts; beaten up with tincture
of tolu, q. s., and divided into boluses or lozenges of 10 gr. each. One
or two to be chewed an hour before dinner; in dyspepsia, defective
appetite, &c.

3. (Quincy.) Mastic, 3 oz.; pellitory and stavesacre seed, of each 2 dr.;
cubebs and nutmegs, of each 1 dr.; angelica root, 1/2 dr.; melted wax,
q. s. to make it into small balls. As a stimulant to the gums, and in

4. Opium, ginger, rhubarb, mastic, pellitory of Spain, and orris root, of
each 1 dr.; melted spermaceti, q. s. to mix; for 6-gr. pills. As the last,
and in toothache and painful gums.


=MATCHES (Cooper’s).= _Syn._ SWEETENING MATCHES. These are made by dipping
strips of coarse linen or canvas into melted brimstone. For use, the
brimstone on one of them is set on fire, and the match is then at once
suspended in the cask, and the bung loosely set in its place. After the
lapse of 2 or 3 hours the match is removed and the cask filled with
liquor. Some persons pour a gallon or two of the liquor into the cask
before ‘matching’ it. The object is to allay excessive fermentation. The
operation is commonly adopted in the Western Counties for cider intended
for shipment, or other long exposure during transport. It is also
occasionally employed for inferior and ‘doctored’ wines.

=MATCHES (Instantaneous Light).= Of these there are several varieties, of
which the one best known, and most extensively used, is the common
phosphorus match, known as the ‘congreve’ or ‘lucifer.’[25] We need not
describe the ‘chemical matches,’ ‘phosphorus bottles,’ and ‘prometheans,’
in use during the early part of the present century, as these are quite
obsolete. We will simply sketch the general process of manufacture now in
use for phosphorus matches:

[Footnote 25: The original ‘LUCIFERS,’ or ‘LIGHT-BEARING MATCHES,’
invented in 1826, consisted of strips of pasteboard, or flat splints of
wood, tipped first with sulphur, and then with a mixture of sulphide of
antimony and chlorate of potassa, and were ignited by drawing them briskly
through folded glass-paper. They required a considerable effort to ignite
them, and the composition was apt to be torn off by the violence of the
friction. The term ‘lucifer’ having become familiar, was applied to the
simpler and more effective match afterwards introduced under the names of

_Manuf._ The wooden splints are cut by steam machinery from the very best
quality of pine planks, perfectly dried at a temperature of 400° Fahr.
English splints are of two sizes——‘large’ and ‘minnikins,’ the former
2-1/4 inches longer, and the latter somewhat shorter. In the manufacture
double-lengths are used, so that each splint may be coated with the
igniting composition at both ends, and then cut asunder in the middle to
form two matches. In England the splints are usually cut square in form,
but in Germany they are cylindrical, being prepared by forcing the wood
through circular holes in a steel plate. The ends of the double splints
having been slightly charred by contact with a red-hot plate, are coated
with sulphur by dipping them to the requisite depth in the melted
material. In some cases the ends are saturated with melted wax or paraffin
instead of sulphur. The splints are then arranged in a frame between
grooved boards in such a manner that the prepared ends project on each
side of the frame. These projecting ends are then tipped with the
phosphorus composition, which is spread to a uniform depth of about 1/8
inch on a smooth slab of stone, kept warm by means of steam beneath. When
partially dry, the tipped splints are taken from the frames, cut through
the middle, and placed in heaps of 100, ready for ‘boxing.’

The different compositions for tipping the matches in use in different
countries and factories all consist essentially of emulsions of phosphorus
in a solution of glue or gum, with or without other matters for increasing
the combustibility, for colouring, &c. In England the composition contains
a considerable quantity of chlorate of potassa, which imparts a snapping
and flaming quality to the matches tipped with it, and but little
phosphorus, on account of the moisture of the climate. In Germany the
proportion of phosphorus used is much larger, and nitre, or some metallic
peroxide, replaces chlorate of potassa. The German matches light quietly
with a mild lambent flame, and are injured quickly by damp. The following
formulæ have been selected:

1. (ENGLISH.) Fine glue, 2 parts, broken into small pieces, and soaked in
water till quite soft, is added to water, 4 parts, and heated by means of
a water bath until it is quite fluid, and at a temperature of 200° to 212°
Fahr. The vessel is then removed from the fire, and phosphorus, 1-1/2 to 2
parts, is gradually added, the mixture being agitated briskly and
continually with a ‘stirrer’ having wooden pegs or bristles projecting at
its lower end. When a uniform emulsion is obtained, chlorate of potassa, 4
to 5 parts, powdered glass, 3 to 4 parts, and red lead, smalt, or other
colouring matter, a sufficient quantity (all in a state of very fine
powder) are added, one at a time, to prevent accidents, and the stirring
continued until the mixture is comparatively cool.

According to Mr G. Gore, the above proportions are those of the best
quality of English composition. The matches tipped with it deflagrate with
a snapping noise. (See _above_.)

2. (GERMAN.)——_a._ (Böttger.) Dissolve gum Arabic, 16 parts, in the least
possible quantity of water, add of phosphorus (in powder), 9 parts, and
mix by trituration; then add of nitre, 14 parts; vermillion or binoxide of
manganese, 16 parts, and form the whole into a paste, as directed above;
into this the matches are to be dipped, and then exposed to dry. As soon
as the matches are quite dry they are to be dipped into very dilute copal
varnish or lac varnish, and again exposed to dry, by which means they are
rendered waterproof, or at least less likely to suffer from exposure in
damp weather.

_b._ (Böttger.) Glue, 6 parts, is soaked in a little cold water for 24
hours, after which it is liquefied by trituration in a heated mortar;
phosphorus, 4 parts, is now added, and rubbed down at a heat not exceeding
150° Fahr.; nitre (in fine powder), 10 parts, is next mixed in, and
afterwards red ochre, 5 parts, and smalt, 2 parts, are further added, and
the whole formed into a uniform paste, into which the matches are dipped,
as before. Cheaper than the last.

_c._ (Diesel.) Phosphorus, 17 parts; glue, 21 parts; red lead, 24 parts;
nitre, 38 parts. Proceed as above.

_Obs._ Matches tipped with the above (_a_, _b_, and _c_) inflame without
fulmination when rubbed against a rough surface, and are hence termed
‘noiseless matches’ by the makers.

3. (SAFETY MATCHES.) The latest improvement of note in the manufacture of
matches is that of Landstrom, of Jonkoping, in Sweden, adopted by Messrs
Bryant and May (Patent). It consists in dividing the ingredient of the
match-mixture into two separate compositions, one being placed on the ends
of the splints, as usual, and the other, which contains the phosphorus,
being spread in a thin layer upon the end or lid of the box. The following
are the compositions used by the patentee:——_a._ (For the splints.)
Chlorate of potassa, 6 parts; sulphuret of antimony, 2 to 3 parts; glue, 1
part.——_b._ (For the friction surface.) Amorphous phosphorus, 10 parts;
sulphuret of antimony or peroxide of manganese, 8 parts; glue, 3 to 6
parts; spread thinly upon the surface, which has been previously made
rough by a coating of glue and sand.

By thus dividing the composition the danger of fire arising from ignition
of the matches by accidental friction is avoided, as neither the portion
on the splint nor that on the box can be ignited by rubbing against an
unprepared surface. Again, by using the innocuous red or amorphous
phosphorus, the danger of poisoning is entirely prevented.

=MATÉ.= _Syn._ PARAGUAY TEA. This is the dried leaf of a small shrub, the
_Ilex Paraguayenses_, or Brazilian holly, growing in Paraguay and Brazil;
by the inhabitants of which places, as well as South America generally, it
is largely employed in the form of a beverage as tea. Its active
ingredient, _Paraguaine_, formerly supposed to be a distinct principle,
has from further researches into its composition been discovered to be
identical with theine and caffeine——the alkaloids of tea and coffee.

Mr Wanklyn ascribes the following composition to maté:——

  Moisture                      6·72
  Ash                           5·86
  Soluble organic matter       25·10
  Insoluble organic matter     62·32

=MATE′′RIA MED′ICA.= A collective name of the various substances, natural
and artificial, employed as medicines or in the cure of disease. In its
more extended sense it includes the science which treats of their sources,
properties, classification, and applications. The _materia medica of the
Pharmacopœia_ is a mere list, with occasional notes, “embracing the
animal, vegetable, and chemical substances, whether existing naturally,
prepared in officinal chemical preparations, or sold in wholesale trade,
which we (the College) direct to be used either in curing diseases or in
preparing medicines.” (Ph. L.)

MATICÆ, L. The dried leaves of a Peruvian plant, generally believed to be
the _Artanthe elongata_, one of the _Piperaceæ_. The leaves have been
employed with considerable success as a mechanical external styptic;
applied to leech-bites, slight cuts, and other wounds, &c., and pressed on
with the fingers, they seldom fail to arrest the bleeding. Matico has also
been much lauded as an internal astringent and styptic, in hæmorrhages
from the lungs, stomach, bowels, uterus, &c.; but as it is nearly
destitute of astringent properties, its virtues in these cases must have
been inferred from its external action. As an aromatic, bitter stimulant,
closely resembling the peppers, it has been proposed as a substitute for
cubebs and black pepper, in the treatment of diseases of the mucous
membranes, piles, &c.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 2 dr.; in powder; or under the form
of infusion, tincture, or boluses.

=MATURA′TION.= Growing ripe. Amongst surgeons this term is applied to the
process of suppuration, or that which succeeds inflammation, and by which
pus or matter is collected in an abscess. Warmth, irritation, and a
liberal diet promote this change; cold, sedatives, and depletion, retard
it. The maturation of fermented liquor is noticed under BREWING, MALT

=MEAD.= _Syn._ MELLINA, L. An old English liquor, made from the combs from
which the honey has been drained, by boiling them in water, and fermenting
the saccharine solution thus obtained. It is commonly confounded with
metheglin. Some persons add 1 oz. of hops to each gallon; and, after
fermentation, a little brandy. It is then called sack mead, See METHEGLIN.

=MEAL.= The substance of edible grain ground to powder, without being
bolted or sifted. Barley meal and oat meal are the common substances of
this class in England. In North America the term is commonly applied to
ground Indian corn, whether bolted or not. (Goodrich.) The four resolvent
meals of old pharmacy (_quatuor farinæ resolventes_) are those of barley,
beans, linseed, and rye.

=MEALS.= The “periods of taking food, usually adopted, in conformity with
convenience and the recurrences of hunger, are those which are best
adapted to the purposes of health; namely, the morning meal, the midday
meal, and the evening meal.” “That these are the proper periods for meals
is evident from the fact of their maintaining their place amid the changes
which fashion is constantly introducing.” “If we look at these periods in
another point of view, we shall find an interval of four hours left
between them for the act of digestion and subsequent rest of the stomach.
Digestion will claim between two and three hours of the interval; the
remaining hour is all that the stomach gets of rest, enough, perhaps, but
not too much, not to be justly infringed.” (Eras. Wilson.)

=MEA′SLES.= _Syn._ RUBEOLA, MORBILLI, L. This very common disease is
characterised by feverishness, chilliness, shivering, head-pains,
swelling and inflammation of the eyes, shedding of sharp tears, with
painful sensibility to light, oppressive cough, difficulty of breathing,
and sometimes vomiting or diarrhœa. These are followed about the fourth
day by a crimson rash upon the skin, in irregular crescents or circles,
and by small red points or spots, which are perceptible to the touch, and
which, after four or five days, go off with desquamation of the cuticle.
The fever, cough, &c., often continue for some time; and unless there have
been some considerable evacuations, either by perspiration or vomiting,
they frequently return with increased violence, and occasion great
distress and danger.

_Treat._ When there are no urgent local symptoms, mild aperients,
antimonial diaphoretics, and diluents, should be had recourse to; but when
the inflammatory symptoms are emergent, and the lungs are weak, especially
in plethoric habits, blood may be taken. The cough may be relieved by
expectorants, demulcents, and small doses of opium; and the diarrhœa by
the administration of the compound powder of chalk and opium; the
looseness of the bowels, however, had better not be interfered with,
unless it be extreme.

Measles are most prevalent in the middle of winter, and though common to
individuals of all ages, are most frequent amongst children. The
plethoric, and those of a scrofulous habit, or one which has a syphilitic
taint, suffer most from them.

Like the smallpox, the measles are contagious, and seldom attack the same
person more than once during life. See RASH.

=MEASURE.= _Syn._ MENSURA, L. The unit or standard by which we estimate
extension, whether of length, superficies, or volume. The following tables
represent the values and proportions of the principal measures employed in
commerce and the arts:——

          TABLE I. _English Lineal Measures._

  | Inches. |   Feet.  |  Yards.  |   Poles.  |  Furlongs. |     Miles.   |
  |     1·  |     ·083 |     ·028 |    ·00505 |  ·00012626 |  ·0000157828 |
  |    12·  |    1·    |     ·333 |    ·06060 |  ·00151515 |  ·00018939   |
  |    36·  |    3·    |    1·    |    ·1818  |  ·004545   |  ·00056818   |
  |   198·  |   16·5   |    5·5   |   1·      |  ·025      |  ·003125     |
  |  7920·  |  660·    |  220·    |  40·      | 1·         |  ·125        |
  | 63360·  | 5280·    | 1760·    | 320·      | 8·         | 1·           |

⁂ The unit of the above table is the yard, of which no legal standard has
existed since that established by the statute of 1824 was destroyed by the
fire which consumed the two Houses of Parliament in 1834.

          TABLE II. _English Measures of Superficies._

  |  Square  |  Square   |    Poles.    |    Roods.   |   Acres.    |
  |   Feet.  |   Yards.  |              |             |             |
  |          |           |              |             |             |
  |     1·   |     ·1111 |    ·00367309 |  ·000091827 |  ·000022957 |
  |     9·   |    1·     |    ·0330579  |  ·000826448 |  ·000206612 |
  |   272·25 |   30·25   |   1·         |  ·025       |  ·00625     |
  | 10890·   | 1210·     |  40·         | 1·          |  ·25        |
  | 43560·   | 4840·     | 160·         | 4·          | 1·          |

        TABLE III. _English Measure of Volume.——The_ IMPERIAL
            STANDARD, _and the relative value of its divisions,
            including those used in Medicine, with their_
            EQUIVALENTS _in avoirdupois and troy weight._

  |[minims]    fʒ      |    f℥       |     O.      |    Oij.    |    C.     |       |        |           |                       |
  |Minims|             |            |             |            |           |       |        |           |    Equivalents in     |
  |  or  |    Fluid    |    Fluid   |             |            |           |       |        |           | _distilled water_, at |
  |drops.|   Drachms.  |   Ounces.  |   Pints.    |   Quarts.  | Gallons.  | Pecks.|Bushels.| Quarters. |     62° Fahr., in     |
  |      |             |            |             |            |           |       |        |           |   Troy    |  Avoird.  |
  |      |             |            |             |            |           |       |        |           |  grains.  |  weight.  |
  |      |             |            |             |            |           |       |        |           +-----------+-----------+
  |    1·|    ·01666666|   ·00208333|    ·00010416|   ·00005208|  ·00001302|   ——  |   ——   |    ——     |     ·91146|           |
  |   60·|   1·        |   ·125     |    ·00625   |   ·003125  |  ·00078125|   ——  |   ——   |    ——     |   54·6875 |_lb._ _oz._|
  |  480·|   8·        |   1·       |    ·05      |   ·025     |  ·00625   |   ——  |   ——   |    ——     |  437·5    |        1  |
  | 9600·| 160·        |  20·       |   1·        |   ·5       |  ·125     |  ·0625| ·015625| ·001953125| 8750·     |   1    4  |
  |19200·| 320·        |  40·       |   2·        |  1·        |  ·25      |  ·125 | ·03125 | ·00390625 |17500·     |   2    8  |
  |76800·|1280·        | 160·       |   8·        |  4·        | 1·        |  ·5   | ·125   | ·015625   |70000·     |  10       |
  |      |2560·        | 320·       |  16·        |  8·        | 2·        | 1·    | ·25    | ·03125    |    ——     |  20       |
  |      |             |1280·       |  64·        | 32·        | 8·        | 4·    |1·      | ·125      |    ——     |  80       |
  |      |             |            | 512·        |256·        |64·        |32·    |8·      |1·         |    ——     | 640       |

⁂ The standard unit of the above table is the gallon, which is declared,
by statute, to be capable of “containing ten pounds avoirdupois weight of
distilled water, weighed in the air at the temperature of 62° Fahr., the
barometer being at 30 inches.” The pound avoirdupois contains 7000 grains,
and it is declared that a cubic inch of distilled water, under the above
conditions, weighs 252·458 grains; hence the capacity of the imperial
gallon and its divisions are as follows:——

  Imperial gallon = 277·274 cubic inches.
    ”      quart  =  69·3185      ”
    ”      pint   =  34·65925     ”
  Fluid ounce     =   1·73296     ”
    ”   drachm    =    ·21662     ”

‡‡‡ The imperial gallon is 1-5th larger than the old wine
gallon,——1-60th smaller than the old beer gallon, and——1-32nd larger than
the old dry-measure gallon.

          TABLE IV. _French Metrical or Decimal Measures of

  |          |         |                Equivalents in                  |
  |          |         |/---------------------/\-----------------------\|
  | Names.   | Eq. in  |English Inches,|      English Long Measure,     |
  |          | Mètres. |at  32° Fahr.  |         at 62° Fahr.           |
  |          |         |               |Miles.  Fur.  Yds.  Feet.  Inch.|
  |Millimètre|     ·001|       ·03937  |                                |
  |Centimètre|     ·01 |       ·39371  |                                |
  |Décimètre |     ·1  |      3·93708  |                                |
  |Mètre     |    1·   |     39·37079  |                1     0    3·37 |
  |Decamètre |   10·   |    393·70790  |               10     2    9·7  |
  |Hectomètre|  100·   |   3937·07900  |              109     1    1·078|
  |Kilomètre | 1000·   |  39370·79000  |         4    213     1   10·3  |
  |Myriamètre|10000·   | 393707·90000  |   6     1    156     0    9·17 |

⁂ The standard unit of the above table is the mètre, which has been
determined to be 39·37079 inches, at 32° Fahr. (Capt. Kater); the English
foot is taken at 62° Fahr. The true length of the mètre, reduced to the
latter temperature, is 39·370091 English inches; a number which varies
from that in the table only at the fourth decimal figure. It will be
perceived that the principle of nomenclature adopted in applying the
names, was to prefix the Greek numerals to the decimal multiples, and the
Latin numerals to the decimal subdivisions.

          TABLE V. _French Metrical or Decimal Measures of

  |  Names.  | Eq. in  | Eq. in  |                                      |
  |          | Litres. |English  |   Equivalent in English Measures.    |
  |          |         | Cubic   |                                      |
  |          |         | Inches  |                                      |
  |          |         |         |_Gall._ _Pints._ _Oz._ _Dr._ _Minims._|
  |Millilitre|     ·001|    ·0610|                               16·9   |
  |Centilitre|     ·01 |    ·6103|                         2     49·    |
  |Decilitre |     ·1  |   6·1028|                   3     4     10·36  |
  |Litre     |    1·   |  61·028 |           1      15     1     43·69  |
  |Decalitre |   10·   | 610·28  |    2      1      12     1     16·9   |
  |Hectolitre|  100·   |6102·8   |   22      0       1     4     49·    |
  |Kilolitre | 1000·   |61028·   |  220      0      16     6     40·    |
  |Myrialitre|10000·   |610280·  |2201 (=275-1/8 _bushels_).            |

⁂ The standard unit in the above table is the litre, or the cube of the
1/10 of a mètre. The French centiare contains 1 square mètre,——the are,
100 do.,——the hectare, 10,000 do. The old Paris pint is equal to 1·678
English imperial pint.

‡‡‡ The capacity of solids and aëriform fluids is taken in cubic
inches, or feet, in England. In France, the stere, or mètre cube, equal to
35·31658 English cubic feet, is the standard unit.

          TABLE VI. _Miscellaneous Measures and their

  Tea or coffee spoonful     (average) =  1 fl. dr.
  Dessert spoonful               ”     =  2    ”
  Table spoonful                 ”     =  4    ”
  Wine-glassful                  ”     =  2 fl. oz.
  Tea-cupful                     ”     =  5    ”
  Breakfast-cupful               ”     =  8    ”
  Tumblerful                     ”     =  8    ”
  Basinful                       ”     = 12    ”
  Thimbleful                     ”     =  3/4 fl. dr.
  Pinch (of leaves and flowers)  ”     =  1 dr.
  Handful (of leaves and flowers) ”    =  10 ”
  Cubic inch of water, at 62° Fahr.    = 252·458 gr.
  Cubic foot of water, at 62° Fahr.    = 62·32106 lb.
  Line                                 = 1/12 inch.
  Barleycorn                           = 1/3   ”
  Hand                                 =   4   ”
  Chain                                =   4 poles or 22 yards.

=MEAT.= The muscular tissue or flesh of the principal animals constituting
the food of man may be said to be composed of the same proximate
principles, and, given an equal digestibility and power of being
assimilated, may be also said to have an equally nutritive value.

Since meat, however, is generally eaten with a certain amount of fat,
which accompanies it in varying quantity, the capacity of the meat for
forming muscle will, of course, be in inverse proportion to the amount of
fat it contains; on the contrary, its power of raising the bodily
temperature will be in direct proportion. Moleschott (quoted by Parkes)
gives the following as the mean composition of fresh beef, as determined
by all the Continental chemists:——

  Water                            73·4
  Soluble albumen and hæmatin       2·25
  Insoluble albuminous substances  15·20
  Gelatinous substances             3·30
  Fat                               2·87
  Extractive matter                 1·38
  Creatin                           0·068
  Ash                               1·6

Dr Parkes remarks of the amount of fat given in the above analysis “that
it is evidently too low.”

In the above table we recognise in the albuminous and gelatinous
substances the source of the muscular tissue of the human organism. The
ash contains the chlorides, carbonates, and phosphates of potassium,
sodium, and calcium. From these salts are derived the hydrochloric acid
of the gastric juice, the sodium of the bile, and the calcium phosphate
and carbonate of the skeleton. Iron is also present, and this finds its
way into the blood.

The flavour of meat is much influenced by the food of the animal. The
flesh of the Pampas pig is found to be rank and disagreeable when the
animal is killed in its wild state; if, however, the food be changed for
the better, the flesh becomes altogether different and quite eatable. The
pork of pigs fed on flesh is said to give off a strong odour, the fat at
the same time being unusually soft. Soft fat is also said to form in
animals that have been fed on oily foods.

When meat is roasted, the fire gradually coagulates the albumen of the
joint, the coagulation commencing at the surface, and spreading by degrees
to the interior. Unless the roasting be continued long enough, sufficient
heat will not reach the parts nearest the centre to effect their
coagulation; and if under these circumstances the meat be removed from the
fire, the uncoagulated or inner parts will present the well-known red and
juicy appearance known as ‘underdone.’ Although a certain quantity of the
gravy (which consists of the soluble and saline ingredients) escapes in
the process, the greater part is retained. The brown agreeably sapid
substance formed on the outside of the meat is known as _osmazome_, and
which is concentrated gravy. The melting fat which collects below forms
the dripping. The loss in the meat is principally water.

The chemical effects of boiling are explained under the article devoted to
that subject.

Meat generally loses from 30 to 40 per cent., and sometimes as much as 60
per cent. in weight, by cooking.

The amount of bone varies, being seldom less than 8 per cent. It amounts
in the neck and brisket to about 10 per cent. and from one third to
sometimes half the total weight in shins and legs of beef.

The most economical parts are the round and thick flank, next to these the
brisket and sticking-piece, and lastly, the leg.

In choosing mutton and pork, selection should be made of the leg, after
this of the shoulder.[26]

[Footnote 26: Letheby.]

“Oxen,” says M. Bizet, “yield of _best quality_ beef 57 per cent. of meat,
and 43 per cent. waste. The waste includes the internal viscera, &c.
_Second quality_ of beef, 54 per cent. meat and 46 per cent. waste; _third
quality_ beef, 51 per cent. meat and 49 per cent. waste. In milking-cows,
46 per cent. meat and 54 per cent. waste. Calves yield 60 per cent. meat,
and 40 per cent. loss; and sheep yield 50 per cent. meat, and 50 per cent.
loss.” Dr Parkes differs from Bizet as to the latter’s value of the meat
of the calf. He says the flesh of young animals loses from 40 to 50 per
cent. in cooking.

It seems to be agreed, however, that animals when slaughtered should be
neither too young nor too old. The flesh of young animals, although more
tender, is less digestible than that of older ones; it is also poorer in
salts, fat, and an albuminous substance called _syntonin_.

=Consumption of Meat.= Dr Letheby, writing in 1868, says that in London
“the indoor operatives eat it to the extent of 14·8 oz. per adult weekly;
70 per cent. of English farm labourers consume it, and to the extent of 16
oz. per man weekly; 60 per cent. of the Scotch, 30 of the Welsh, and 20 of
the Irish also eat it. The Scotch probably have a larger allowance than
the English, considering that braxy mutton[27] is the perquisite of the
Scotch labourer; but the Welsh have only an average amount of 2-1/2 oz.
per adult weekly; and the Irish allowance is still less. It is difficult
to obtain accurate returns of the quantity of meat consumed in London; but
if the computation of Dr Wynter is correct, it is not less than 30-3/4 oz.
per head weekly, or about 4-1/2 oz. per day for every man, woman, and
child. In Paris, according to M. Armand Husson, who has carefully
collected the _octroi_ returns, “it is rather more than 49 oz. per head
weekly, or just 7 oz. a day.” Bondin states that throughout France the
consumption is about 50 grammes daily, or under 1-3/4 oz.

[Footnote 27: See further on.]

Dr Letheby, in his work ‘On Food,’ gives the following as the
characteristics of good meat:——

“1st. It is neither of a pale pink colour nor of a deep purple tint, for
the former is a sign of disease, and the latter indicates that the animal
has not been slaughtered, but has died with the blood in it, or has
suffered from acute fever.

“2nd. It has a marked appearance from the ramifications of little veins of
fat among the muscles.

“3rd. It should be firm and elastic to the touch, and should scarcely
moisten the fingers——bad meat being wet, and sodden and flabby, with the
fat looking like jelly or wet parchment.

“4th. It should have little or no odour, and the odour should not be
disagreeable, for diseased meat has a sickly cadaverous smell, and
sometimes a smell of physic. This is very discoverable when the meat is
chopped up and drenched with warm water.

“5th. It should not shrink or waste much in cooking.

“6th. It should not run to water, or become very wet on standing for a day
or so, but should, on the contrary, dry upon the surface.

“7th. When dried at a temperature of 212° or thereabout, it should not
lose more than from 70 to 74 per cent. of its weight, whereas bad meat
will often lose as much as 80 per cent.

“Other properties of a more refined character will also serve for the
recognition of bad meat, as that the juice of the flesh is alkaline or
neutral to test-paper, instead of being distinctly acid, and the muscular
fibre, when examined under the microscope is found to be sodden and

_Unsound meat——diseased meat._ Dr Letheby, in his ‘Lectures on Food,’
published in 1868, states that the seizure and condemnation, in London, of
meat unfit for human food, during a period extending over seven years,
amounted to 700 tons per annum, or to about 1-750th of the whole quantity
consumed. These 700 tons he dissects into lbs. as follows:——“805,653 lbs.
were diseased, 568,375 lbs. were putrid, and 193,782 lbs. were from
animals that had not been slaughtered, but had died from accident or
disease. It consisted of 6640 sheep and lambs, 1025 calves, 2896 pigs,
9104 quarters of beef, and 21,976 joints of meat.”

He admits, however, that this amount, owing to the difficulties and
inefficiency of the mode of supervision, bears a very insignificant
proportion to the actual quantity which escaped detection, and which was,
therefore, partaken of as food. Professor Gamgee says that one fifth of
the meat eaten in the metropolis is diseased. In 1863 the bodies of an
enormous number of animals suffering from _rinderpest_, as well as from
_pleuro-pneumonia_, were consumed in London; and we know that thousands of
sheep die every year, in the country, of _rot_; the inference from which
latter fact is that, since the carcases are neither eaten there nor buried
on the spot, they are sent up to, and thrown upon, the London markets. The
worst specimens find their way to the poorer neighbourhoods, where, as
might be expected, their low price ensures a ready sale for them. These
sales, it is said, mostly take place at night.

The above statements, which, if we exclude Professor Gamgee’s figures, do
not solve the problem as to the quantity of unsound meat consumed in
London, not unreasonably justify the assumption that it is very
considerable; and this being admitted, we should be prepared to learn that
it was a fertile source of disease of a more or less dangerous character.

There is, however, such extensive divergence in the various data bearing
upon this point, that no satisfactory solution of it can be said to be
afforded. Thus, Livingstone states that, when in South Africa, he found
that neither Englishmen nor natives could partake of the flesh of animals
affected with _pleuro-pneumonia_ without its giving rise to malignant
carbuncle, and sometimes, in the case of the natives, to death, and Dr
Letheby attributes the increased number of carbuncles and phlegmons
amongst our population to the importation from Holland of cattle suffering
from the same disease. On the contrary, Dr Parkes says he was informed, on
excellent authority, that the Caffres invariably consume the flesh of
their cattle that die of the same epidemic, without the production of any
ill effects. Again, there are numerous well-attested cases in which the
flesh of sheep which have died from _braxy_ (a disease that makes great
ravages amongst the flocks in Scotland) is constantly eaten without
injurious results by the Scotch shepherd. The malady causes death in the
sheep from the blood coagulating in the vital organs, and the sheep that
so dies becomes the property of the shepherd, who, after removing the
offal, is careful to cut out the dark congealed blood before cooking
it.[28] Sometimes he salts down the carcase. In cases, however, where
thorough cooking or an observance of the above precautions have been
neglected, very dangerous and disastrous consequences have ensued. During
the late siege of Paris large quantities of the flesh of horses with
glanders appear to have been eaten with no evil consequences: and Mr
Blyth, in his ‘Dictionary of Hygiène,’ quotes a similar case from Tardieu,
who states that 300 army horses affected with glanders (_morve_) were led
to St Germain, near Paris, and killed. For several days they served to
feed the poor of the town without causing any injury to health.

[Footnote 28: Letheby.]

A similar exemption from any evil effect following the consumption of
diseased flesh is recorded by Professor Brucke, of Vienna.

Not many years since the cattle of a locality in Bohemia, being attacked
by _rinderpest_, were ordered by the Government to be slaughtered, after
which they were buried. The poor people dug up the diseased carcases,
cooked the meat, and ate it, with no injurious result.

Parent Duchâtelet cites a case where the flesh of seven cows attacked with
rabies was eaten without injury; and Letheby states that pigs with scarlet
fever and spotted typhus have been used for food with equally harmless
results. The flesh of sheep with smallpox had been found to produce
vomiting and diarrhœa, sometimes accompanied with fever.

One obvious suggestion of the immunity from disease recorded in part of
the cases above given is that the injurious properties of the flesh had
been destroyed by the heat to which it had been subjected in the process
of cooking, combined with the antiseptic and protective power of the
gastric juice. The subject, however, has not been sufficiently examined to
warrant the conclusion that every kind of unsound meat may be rendered
innocuous by culinary means.

But even were this so the idea of partaking of meat which had once been
unsound, from whatever cause, and, as in the instances above quoted, with
the pustules of smallpox, the spots generated by typhus, and the rash of
scarlet fever upon it, becomes unspeakably repulsive and revolting. But we
must not be misled because of the difficulty of reconciling the
contradictory statements above given, nor by the evidence some of them
appear to afford as to the innocuous character of diseased meat, since it
is just possible that closer and more prolonged observation of the facts
may have led to different conclusions. Thus, for example, pork, infested
with that formidable entozoon, the _Trichina spiralis_, had been partaken
of for years, under the impression that it was a perfectly healthy food,
until Dr Zencker, of Dresden, discovered that the parasite was the cause
of a frightful disease, which he called _Trichinosis_, and which had
hitherto baffled all attempts to find out its origin. Dr Letheby, writing
on this subject, says: “I have often had occasion to investigate cases of
mysterious disease, which had undoubtedly been caused by unsound meat. One
of these, of more than ordinary interest, occurred in the month of
November, 1860. The history of it is this:——A forequarter of cow-beef was
purchased in Newgate Market by a sausage-maker who lived in Kingsland, and
who immediately converted it into sausage-meat. Sixty-six persons were
known to have eaten of that meat, and sixty-four of them were attacked
with sickness, diarrhœa, and great prostration of vital powers. One of
them died; and at the request of the coroner I made a searching inquiry
into the matter, and I ascertained that the meat was diseased, and that
it, and it alone, had been the cause of all the mischief.”[29]

[Footnote 29: Letheby, ‘Lectures on Food,’ Longman and Co.]

Here are two instances in which but for subsequent investigation the evil
effects narrated would not have been debited to diseased meat, but to some
other cause.

“One of the principal and by far the most prolific sources of
food-poisoning is the sausage, the eating of which, in Germany more
particularly, has caused the death of a number of persons.

The sausages in which these poisonous qualities occasionally develop
themselves are the large kinds made in Wurtemburg, in which district alone
they have caused the deaths of more than 150 out of 400 persons during the
last fifty years. The poisonous character of the sausage is said to
develop itself generally in the spring, when it becomes musty, and also
soft in the interior. It is then found to be acid to test paper, and to
have a very disagreeable and tainted flavour.

Should it be eaten when in this state, after from about twelve to
twenty-four hours the patient is attacked with severe intestinal
irritation in the form of pains in the stomach and bowels by vomitings,
and diarrhœa.

To these symptoms succeed great depression, coldness in the limbs, weak
and irregular pulse, and frequent fainting fits. Should the sufferer be
attacked with convulsions, and difficult respiration, the seizure
generally ends in death. The nature of the poisonous substance that gives
rise to these effects in the sausage has not yet been determined. Liebig
believed them to be due to the presence in the meat of a particular animal
ferment, which he conceived acted on the blood by catalysis, and thus
rendered it diseased. Others have surmised that a poisonous organic
alkaloid may have been produced in the decaying meat; and others again
that the effects may have been caused by some deleterious substance of a
fatty nature. M. Van den Corput was of opinion that the mischief was due
to the presence in the meat of a poisonous fungus, which he calls a
_sarcina botulina_. This last theory receives support from the fact that a
peculiar mouldiness is always to be observed in these dangerous sausages,
and that this is coincident with the development of their poisonous

Several effects have been produced by other kinds of animal food——as veal,
bacon, ham, salt-beef, salt-fish, cheese, &c., and the food has usually
been in a decayed and mouldy condition. It would be tedious if I were to
detail, or even to enumerate the cases recorded by medico-legal writers;
but I may perhaps refer to a few of them. In 1839 there was a popular fête
at Zurich, and about 600 persons partook of a repast of cold roast veal
and ham. In a few hours most of them were suffering from pain in the
stomach, with vomiting and diarrhœa; and before a week had elapsed nearly
all of them were seriously ill in bed. They complained of shiverings,
giddiness, headache and burning fever. In a few cases there was delirium,
and when they terminated fatally there was extreme prostration of the
vital powers. Careful inquiry was instituted into the matter, and the only
discoverable cause of the mischief was incipient putrefaction and slight
mouldiness of the meat.” A case is recorded by Dr Geisler of eight persons
who became ill from eating bacon which was mouldy; and another by M.
Ollivier of the death of four persons out of eight, all of whom had
partaken of partially decomposed mutton.

If some of the foregoing statements fail to demonstrate that the act of
partaking of diseased meat is a necessary source of danger to health,
there can be no such doubt as to the pernicious and perilous consequences
which ensue when meat is consumed containing in its tissues the ova and
larvæ of certain parasitic creatures. If the fleshy part of a piece of
measly pork be carefully examined, it will be found to be more or less
dotted about with a number of little bladder-like spots, in size about as
large as a hemp-seed.[30]

[Footnote 30: See article “Cysticerci.”]

If now we carefully rupture one of these little bodies or cysts, there
will be found in it a minute worm, which under the microscope will be seen
to have a head from which proceed a number of little hooks that perform a
very disagreeable office should the parasite be taken into the human
stomach by any one making a meal off measly and undercooked pork. For,
then, being liberated from its sac, or nidus, by the action of the gastric
juice of the stomach on this latter, the creature passes into the
intestines. To these it attaches itself by means of the hooklets on its
head, and instantly becomes a tapeworm, which grows by a succession of
jointed segments it is able to develop, and each one of which is capable
of becoming a separate and prolific tapeworm filled with countless eggs.

These eggs reach the land through the agency of manure (for they are found
in the intestines of the horse), and from this source they get into the
stomachs of pigs and oxen, where they hatch not into tapeworm, or _tenia_,
but, travelling through the animal’s stomach, burrow into its muscular
tissue. Here they establish and envelop themselves in the little cyst or
small bladder-like substance, whose presence, as explained, constitutes
the condition called “measly” pork, and here they remain dormant until
such time as, taken into the stomach, they may again become tapeworms, to
be again expelled and to perpetuate by their ova the round of
metamorphosis. From the circumstance of their being met with enclosed in
little sacs or cysts, these parasites have been termed _Cysticerci_. The
variety of them we have just been considering as occurring in pork is
called the _Cysticercus cellulosæ_, whilst the tapeworm to which it gives
rise is known as the _Tinea solium_.

Another variety of _Cysticercus_ is met with in the flesh of the ox, the
cow, and the calf. In the human body this also develops into a tapeworm
called the _Tinea mediocanellata_. Tapeworm is a very common disease in
Russia and Abyssinia, and its prevalence is no doubt due to the habit of
giving the children in those countries raw meat to suck, under the
impression that the child is strengthened in consequence. From experiments
made by Dr Lewis it was found that a temperature of 150° F., maintained
for five minutes, was sufficient to destroy these cysticerci.

Another and more formidable entozoon, communicable by unsound meat, is the
_Echinococcus hominis_,[31] which represents one of the metamorphoses of
the _Tinea echinococcus_, the tapeworm of the dog. In Iceland, where a
sixth of the population are said to suffer from the ravages of the
_Echinococcus hominis_, it is the custom to feed the dogs on the flesh of
slaughtered animals affected with this parasite, which in the body of the
dog develops into a tapeworm. The innumerable eggs which the worm produces
are, however, incapable of being hatched in the dog’s intestines. They
have to find another and more suitable habitat, and this is secured for
them as follows:——Segments of the tapeworm, with their countless ova,
being voided with dog’s excrement, fall into the running water, and on to
the fields and pastures, whence they gain their entrance into the stomachs
of human beings, oxen, and sheep. Here the eggs become hatched, not into
tapeworms, but into _Echinococci hominis_, or prospective tapeworms.
Burrowing through the membranes of the stomach, the echinococcus
establishes itself most commonly in the liver, but not unfrequently in the
spleen, heart, lungs, and even the bones of man. In the animal economy
they enclose themselves in little sacs or cysts, and give rise to the most
alarming and painful diseases, which hitherto have proved incurable. They
attack the brain in sheep, and are the cause of the disease known as
“staggers.” Sheep are also infested by another parasite known as the
_Distoma hepatica_, the ravages of which give rise in the sheep to that
devastating disease——“the rot.” The creature is also known by the name of
the “liver-fluke,” since it principally attacks this important organ in
the animal. The liver-fluke is of constant occurrence in the livers of
diseased sheep, and unless destroyed by thorough cooking will of course
pass into the human economy. The embryo fluke gains admission to the
sheep’s body through the instrumentality of small snails, to the shells of
which it attaches itself. In wet weather the snails crawl over the grass
of the meadow which forms the pastures of the sheep, and are swallowed by
it. Once in the sheep’s stomach the embryo becomes a fluke, and commences
its depredations on the animal’s liver. After this, the reason why the rot
attacks sheep after a continuance of wet weather will be evident.

[Footnote 31: See article “Echinococcus hominis.”]

The most terrible of all the meat parasites is a minute worm about 1/30th
of an inch long, found in the flesh of pork. This creature, which is named
the _Trichina spiralis_ (from the form it assumes when coiled up in the
little cyst or capsule which encloses it), when it gets conveyed into the
human stomach with improperly cooked or underdone pork, soon becomes
liberated from its confinement owing to the destruction of its envelope by
the gastric juice. Once in the stomach the parasite grows rapidly, giving
birth to innumerable young _trichinæ_, which, by first boring through the
membranes of the alimentary canal, pierce their way through the different
parts of the body into the muscular tissue, where they become encysted,
and where they remain until conditions favorable to their liberation again

Until such time, however, as they have become enclosed in the cyst, their
movements give rise to indescribable torture, and to a disease known as
_trichinosis_, of which it has been estimated more than 50 per cent. of
those attacked by it die. The symptoms of trichinosis commence with loss
of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhœa, succeeded after a few days by great
fever——resembling, according to Dr Aitken, that of typhoid or typhus. As
might be expected the pains in the limbs are extreme. Boils and dropsical
swellings are not unusual concomitants of the malady.

Hitherto this frightful disease has been mostly confined to Germany, where
there have been several outbreaks of it since its discovery in 1860 by Dr
Zencker. Feidler says that only free _trichinæ_ are killed by a
temperature of 155° F.; and that when they are in their cysts a greater
heat may be necessary. From what has been said the importance of efficient
cooking must become manifest. There must always be risk in underdone pork,
whether boiled or roasted. In the pig, the trichina, if present, may
always be found in the muscles of the eye. In Germany the makers of pork
sausages are now said to have these muscles subjected to a microscopic
examination previous to using the meat, which, of course, is rejected if
the examination has been unfavorable.

The trichinæ, if present in the flesh of pork, may be seen as small round
specks by the naked eye, the surrounding flesh itself being rather darker
than usual owing to the inflammation set up in it. All doubt, however, on
this point may be removed by having recourse to the microscope. Dr Parkes
says a power of 50 to 100 diameters is sufficient, and that “the best plan
is to take a thin slice of flesh, put it into liquor potassæ (1 part to 8
of water), and let it stand for a few minutes till the muscle becomes
clear; it must not be left too long, otherwise the trichinæ will be
destroyed. The white specks come out clearly and the worm will be seen
coiled up. If the capsule is too dense to allow the worm to be seen, a
drop or two of weak hydrochloric acid should be added. If the meat be very
fat a little ether or benzine may be put on it in the first place.”

_Legislation relative to meat inspection and seizure._——The law
recognising the importance of the supply of pure and wholesome meat gives
considerable powers to the different sanitary officers who are appointed
to inspect it. See FOOD, INSPECTION OF.


=MEAT BISCUITS.= _Prep._ 1. The flour is mixed up with a rich fluid
extract of meat, and the dough is cut into pieces and baked in the usual

2. Wheaten flour (or preferably the whole meal), 3 parts; fresh lean beef
or other flesh (minced and pulped), 2 parts; thoroughly incorporate the
two by hand-kneading or machinery, and bake the pieces in a moderately
heated oven. Both the above are very nutritious; the last more especially
so. 1 oz. makes a pint of good soup.

=MEAT, COLD, to Stew.= Let the cold meat be cut into slices about half an
inch thick. Take two large-sized onions, and fry them in a wineglass of
vinegar; when done, pour them on to the meat; then place the whole in a
stewpan, and pour over sufficient water to cover it. After stewing about
half an hour add sufficient flour and butter to thicken the gravy, and
also pepper, salt, and ketchup, to flavour; then let it simmer gently for
another half an hour. Serve up with a little boiled rice around it.

=MEAT EXTRACTS.= Some preparations of this nature have been already
noticed under the heads ESSENCE and EXTRACT; the following are additional
and highly valuable formulæ:——

_Prep._ 1. (Dr Breslau.) Young ox-flesh (free from fat) is minced small,
and well beaten in a marble mortar, at first alone, and afterwards with a
little cold or lukewarm water; the whole is then submitted to the action
of a press, and the solid residuum is treated in the same manner, with a
little more cold water; the juice (reddish in colour) is now heated to
coagulate the albumen, strained, and finally evaporated in a water bath to
the consistence of an extract. As ordinary flesh contains only 1% of
kreatine, while that of the heart, according to Dr Gregory, contains from
1·37% to 1·41%, this is the part employed by Dr Breslau. The product
possesses an agreeable odour and taste; and is easily soluble in water.

2. (Falkland.) Fresh lean beef (or other flesh), recently killed, is
minced very fine, and digested, with agitation, in cold water, 1 pint, to
which hydrochloric acid, 6 drops, and common salt, 1 dr., have been added;
after about an hour the whole is thrown upon a fine hair sieve, and the
liquid portion allowed to drain off without pressure, the first portions
that pass through being returned until the fluid, at first turbid, becomes
quite clear and transparent; when all the liquid has passed through, cold
water, 1/4 pint, is gently poured on, in small portions at a time, and
allowed to drain through into that previously collected. The product is
about 3/4 pint of cold extract of flesh, having a red colour, and a
pleasant, soup-like taste. It is administered cold to the invalid——a
teacupful at a time, and must on no account be warmed, as the application
of even a very slight heat causes its decomposition and the separation of
a solid mass of coagulated albumen. This cold extract of flesh is not only
much more nutritious than ordinary beef tea, but also contains a certain
quantity of the red colouring matter of blood, in which there is a much
larger proportion of the iron requisite for the formation of
blood-particles. The hydrochloric acid also greatly facilitates the
process of digestion. This formula is a modification of the one recently
recommended by Liebig for the preparation of a highly nutritive and
restorative food for invalids.

3. (EXTRACTUM SANGUINIS BOVIS——Dr Mauthner.) Pass fresh blood (caught from
the slaughtered animal) through a sieve, evaporate it to dryness in a
water bath, and when cold rub it to powder.——_Dose_, 10 to 20 gr., or
more, per diem, in a little water.

_Obs._ The above preparations are intended to supersede the inefficient
compounds——beef tea, meat soups, &c.——during sickness and convalescence.
MM. Breslau and Mauthner describe their extracts of flesh and blood as
being peculiarly advantageous in scrofulous exhaustion, exhaustion from
anæmia, diarrhœa, &c. The extract of Falkland or Liebig is represented as
having been employed both in the hospitals and in private practice at
Munich with the most extraordinary success. It is said to be capable of
assimilation with the least possible expenditure of the vital force.

=Meat, Fluid.= This preparation consists of lean meat, in which the
albumen has been changed so as to be non-coagulable by heat, and the
fibrin and gelatin from their normal insoluble condition to one admitting
of their being dissolved in water.

In this soluble condition, the first stage effected in stomach digestion,
the several bodies are known as peptones or albuminose, and the proportion
of their simple constituents remains the same as in ordinary fibrin,
albumen, and gelatin.

The alteration is effected by finely mincing meat and digesting it with
peptone, hydrochloric acid, and water, at a temperature of about 100°
Fahr., until dissolved.

The solution is then filtered, the bitter principle, formed during the
digestion, removed by the addition of a little pancreatic emulsion, and
the liquor, which has been neutralised by the addition of carbonate of
soda, evaporated to a thick syrup or extractive consistence.

Fluid meat is the only preparation which entirely represents, and yields
the amount of nourishment afforded by, lean meat; it differs altogether
from beef tea and extracts of meat, as all these contain only a small
portion of the different constituents of meat. A patent has been granted
to its inventor, Mr Darby.

=Meat, Liebig’s Extract of.= _Syn._ EXTRACT OF FLESH, EXTRACTUM CARNO.
This preparation is an aqueous infusion evaporated to the consistence of a
thick paste, of those principles of meat which are soluble in water.[32]

[Footnote 32: “Altered as they be by the Application of Heat.” Deane and
Brady, ‘Pharmaceutical Journal,’ Oct. 1866.]

It is chiefly composed of alkaline phosphates and chlorides, a nitrogenous
crystalline base known as kreatine, various extractive matters, which it
has been surmised may have originated in the decomposition of certain
nitrogenous bodies, and possibly of a small quantity of lactic acid, as it
contains neither albumen nor fibrin, two of the most important and
nutritious ingredients of flesh; it must not, therefore, be regarded as a
concentrated form of meat. Liebig says that it requires 34 lbs. of meat to
yield 1 lb. of this extract——a statement which, as Dr Pavy justly remarks,
shows how completely the substance of the meat which constitutes its real
nutritive portion must be excluded. This absence of direct nutrient power,
now admitted by physiologists, whilst disqualifying the extract as a
substitute for meat, does not, however, preclude its use in certain cases
of indisposition requiring the administration of a stimulant or
restorative, in which circumstances it has been found a useful and
valuable remedy, and has been suggested as a partial substitute for
brandy where there is considerable exhaustion or weakness, accompanied
with cerebral depression and lowness of spirits. In this latter respect
its action seems analogous to strong tea.

In the vast pastures of Australia and the pampas of South America are
countless herds of oxen and sheep, whose numbers far exceed the food
requirements of the comparatively sparse population of those districts.
The fat, horns, hoofs, bones, skins, and wool of these cattle, which form
the chief part of the wealth of those countries, are exported principally
to Europe. Until within a few years, however, no means had been adopted
for the utilisation of the superfluous flesh of the animals, beyond
employing it as a manure. By manufacturing it, however, into “extract of
meat,” this waste has been remedied, and immense works for its preparation
are now erected both in South America and in Australia. The process
followed by the different makers, although varying in some particulars, is
essentially the same, and consists in extracting by water, either hot,
cold, or in the form of the steam, those portions of the meat which are
soluble in that fluid, and subsequently evaporating the solution so
obtained until it becomes of a proper consistence to be put into jars. The
extract so obtained keeps well (if all the fat and gelatin are removed),
and is most conveniently adapted for exportation. It is said that the
extract as being obtained from cattle that have had English progenitors
possesses a flavour superior to that which comes from South America, where
the animals are of a different and inferior breed.

The following interesting description of the manufacture of “Liebig’s
Extract of Meat” is taken from the Buenos Ayres ‘Standard’ of September,
1867. The establishment, of which it is a description, is at Fray Bentos,
on the Uruguay, South America. “The new factory is a building which covers
about 20,000 square feet, and is roofed in iron and glass. We first enter
a large flagged hall, kept dark, cool, and extremely clean, where the meat
is weighed, and passed through apertures to the meat-cutting machines. We
next come to the beef-cutting hall, where are four powerful meat-cutters,
especially designed by the company’s general manager, M. Geibert; each
machine can cut the meat of 200 bullocks per hour. The meat being cut is
passed to ‘digerators’ made of wrought iron; each one holds about 12,000
lbs. of beef; there are nine of these digerators, and three more have to
be put up. Here the meat is digerated by high-pressure steam of 75 lbs.
per square inch; from this the liquid which contains the extract and the
fat of the meat proceeds in tubes to a range of ‘fat separators’ of
peculiar construction. Here the fat is separated in the hot state from the
extract, as no time can be lost for cool operation, otherwise
decomposition would set in in a very short time.

“We proceed downstairs to an immense hall, sixty feet high, where the fat
separators are working; below them is a range of five cast-iron
clarifiers, 1000 gallons each, worked by high-pressure steam through
Hallet’s tube system.

“Each clarifier is provided with a very ingenious steam-tap. In the
monstrous clarifiers the albumen, fibrin, and phosphates are separated.
From hence the liquid extract is raised by means of air-pumps, driven by
two thirty horse-power engines, up to two vessels about twenty feet above
the clarifiers; thence the liquid runs to the other large evaporators. Now
we ascend the staircase reaching the hall, where two immense sets of four
vacuum apparatus are at work, evaporating the extract by a very low
temperature; here the liquid passes several filtering processes before
being evaporated in vacuo. We now ascend some steps and enter the
ready-making hall, separated by a wire gauze wall, and all the windows,
doors, &c., guarded by the same to exclude flies and dust. The ventilation
is maintained by patent fans, and the place is extremely clean. Here are
placed five ready-making pans constructed of steel plates, with a system
of steel discs revolving in the liquid extract.

“These five pans, by medium of discs, 100 in each pan, effect in one
minute more than two million square feet evaporating surface.

“Here concludes the manufacturing process. The extract is now withdrawn in
large cans and deposited for the following day.

“Ascending a few steps we enter the decrystallising and packing hall,
where two large cast-iron tanks are placed, provided with hot water baths
under their bottoms; in these tanks the extract is thrown in quantities of
10,000 lbs. at once, and here decrystallising is made a homogeneous mass
and of uniform quality. Now samples are taken and analysed by the chemist
of the establishment, Dr Seekamp, under whose charge the chemical and
technical operations are performed.

“It may be mentioned that the company’s butcher killed at the rate of 80
oxen per hour; separating by a small double-edged knife the vertebræ, the
animal drops down instantaneously on a waggon, and is conducted to a place
where 150 men are occupied dressing the meat for the factory, cutting each
ox into six pieces; 400 are being worked per day.”

Mr Tooth at a meeting before the “Food Committee” held at the Society of
Arts in January, 1868, said that he did not claim any difference in the
composition of his article (which was made in Australia) as compared with
that made by the South American Company.

In the annexed table the composition of some of the extracts of meat of
commerce is given:——

  |              |   Liebig’s  | Tooth,|French Company,|Whitehead.|Twentyman.|
  |              |   Company.  |Sydney.|South America. |          |          |
  |Water         | 18·56| 16·00| 17·06 |    16·50      |   24·49  |   20·81  |
  |Extractive,   |      |      |       |               |          |          |
  |  soluble in  |      |      |       |               |          |          |
  |  alcohol     | 45·43| 53·00| 51·28 |    28·00      |   22·08  |   13·37  |
  |Extractive,   |      |      |       |               |          |          |
  |  insoluble   | 13·93| 13·00| 10·57 |    46·00      |   44·47  |   59·10  |
  |Mineral matter| 22·08| 18·00| 21·09 |     9·50      |    8·96  |    6·72  |
  |              +------+------+-------+---------------+----------+----------+
  |              |100·00|100·00|100·00 |   100·00      |  100·00  |   100·00 |

The following are the characteristics of extract of meat of good quality.
It should always have an acid reaction, its colour should be a pale
yellowish brown, and it should have an agreeable meat-like odour and
taste. It should be entirely soluble in cold water, and should be free
from albumen, fat, and gelatin.

=Meat Pie.= Stew 2 lbs. of beef steak with one small onion, the gravy from
which is to be thickened with flour, and flavoured with pepper and salt.
Put it into a baking dish, and cover with a lard crust. It should be baked
for one hour. The addition of two kidneys will greatly improve the pie.

=Meat (Australian) Pie.= Take 2 lbs. of Australian meat, or 1-1/2 lb. of
meat and 1/2 lb. of kidney. Season to taste, pour in a little water, cover
with a lard crust, and bake _not more_ than half an hour.

=MEAT PRESERVING.= “The Belgian _Musée de l’Industrie_ notes the following
methods of preserving meats as the most deserving of attention amongst
those communicated to the French Academy of Sciences, and published in the
_Comptes Rendus_. 1. M. Bundet’s method, by which the meat is kept in
water acidulated with carbolic acid in the proportion of 1 to 5 parts of
acid per 1000 of water. A series of experiments proved that all kinds of
meat could thus be kept fresh for lengthened periods, without acquiring an
ill taste or odour.

“The meat may be placed in barrels or air-tight tin cases, filled with
acidulated water of the strength above specified, and headed up; or the
pieces may be packed in barrels or cases in alternate layers with
charcoal, pounded small, and saturated with water containing 5/1000 of
carbolic acid. The charcoal serves as a vehicle for the antiseptic fluid,
and as an absorbent of any gaseous matters given off by the meat. The
latter should be wrapped in thin linen covers to prevent the charcoal
working its way into the tissues.

“This method, it is suggested, might be employed in curing pork in place
of ‘salting,’ or of the more lengthy and costly process of ‘smoking,’ and
also for the preservation of poultry, game, butter, eggs, &c.

“2. In the case of South American meat M. Baudet proposes the use of large
sacks of caoutchouc. The meat should be packed in them, with alternate
layers of charcoal as above described, and each sack, when filled, should
be hermetically closed by drawing another empty caoutchouc sack, cap-wise,
over it. The caoutchouc, it is supposed, would fetch enough in the
market——its low price notwithstanding——to cover expenses of packing and
freight, and so permit the meat to be sold in Europe at a very small
advance on cost price. If intended for use a second time, the empty bags
should be steeped in boiling water for a few minutes, to remove any
organic impurities adhering to them.

“3. M. Gorge’s method, which is in use in La Plata, consists in washing
and drying the meat, and afterwards steeping in successive waters
containing hydrochloric acid and sulphite of soda, and then packing it in
air-tight cases holding 1, 5, or 10 kilog. each. Meat thus treated
requires to be soaked in warm water for about half an hour before use.

“4. M. Leon Soubeiran has recommended braying and drying, in the fashion
adopted by the Chinese and Mongols, as described by M. Simon, French
consul in China, in a communication made by him to the Société
d’Acclimatation. The _pemmican_ of our Arctic voyagers and the _charqui_
of South America are familiar examples of meat preserved by analogous
processes. The late M. Payen, a distinguished member of the Academy,
insisted upon the great perfection to which this system might be carried
by the aid of hot-air stoves and suitable apparatus.”

Besides the foregoing, numerous patents have from time to time been taken
out, and processes proposed for the preservation of meat; so as to enable
it to be sent from those distant countries, such as South America,
Australia, Canada, &c., where it is greatly in excess of the wants of the
population, to other lands, in which the supply is as much below the
demand, and the meat at such a price as to preclude its being regularly
used as an article of food by the body of the people.

As the putrefactive changes set up in dead flesh are dependent upon the
combined influences of moisture, air, and a certain temperature, it
follows that most of the various methods of meat preservation resolve
themselves into so many different efforts to remove the meat from the
operation of one of the conditions above specified as necessary for its

The _charqui_ or jerked beef of South America affords an example of meat
preserved by means of being deprived of moisture. It occurs in thongs or
strips which have been prepared by placing freshly killed meat between
layers of salt and drying them in the sun. _Charqui_, although it retains
its soundness for a great length of time, and is rendered eatable by
soaking in water and prolonged cooking, is difficult of digestion and
wanting in flavour, and if any fat be associated with it, this is liable
to become rancid.

_Pemmican_ is meat which, after being dried and powdered, is mixed with
sugar and certain spices, both of which assist to preserve the meat as
well as to improve its flavour, and to remove the tendency to rancidity
caused by any fat that may be accidentally present.

Another process for the preservation of meat by means of desiccation is
that of MM. Blumenthal and Chollet, who, in 1854, obtained a patent for
preparing tablets composed of dried meat and vegetables, which, after
being several times dipped into rich soup, were dried in warm air after
each immersion.

At a meeting of the Food Committee, held at the Society of Arts, in May,
1868, specimens of dried beef and mutton in powder, from Brisbane, were
shown by Mr Orr, who said they had been dried on tinned plates by means of
steam. Dr A. S. Taylor, F.R.S., who examined the sample, found it
perfectly fresh and good. It had been prepared at least six months

At a subsequent meeting, the Committee reported that the soup prepared
from this desiccated meat, with the addition of a small quantity of
vegetables, was considered very successful, and the Committee were of
opinion that meat so preserved was likely to prove a valuable and cheap
addition to the food resources of the people.

The specimen from which the soup was made had been in the Society’s
possession, and formed part of the contents of a tin opened upwards of two
years ago. The preservation was perfect.

We have only space briefly to describe some of the more prominent of the
processes which have been devised for the preservation of meat by
excluding atmospheric air.

Mr Tallerman, a large importer of Australian meat, stated in evidence
before the Food Committee of the Society of Arts, in May, 1870, that in
the preservation of the meat he sent over to this country he had recourse
to a very old practice, which was that of packing the joints in fat, the
meat being previously salted or cured. Instead of the meat being packed in
brine, the casks with the meat are filled up with melted fat.

In Mr Warrington’s patent, which dates from 1846, it is proposed that
animal substances shall be preserved by enveloping them in a layer of
glue, gelatin, or concentrated meat gravy, or otherwise by dipping them in
warm solutions of such substances, or by wrapping them in waterproof
cloth, or by covering them with caoutchouc, gutta percha, or varnish, or
thin cream of plaster of Paris, which when set was saturated with melted
suet, wax, or stearin.

The patent of Prof. Redwood, which resembles Mr Warrington’s in seeking to
exclude atmospheric air by surrounding the meat with an impervious
substance, claimed the use of paraffin for this purpose, the paraffin
being afterwards coated with a mixture of gelatin and treacle, or gelatin
and glycerin. The paraffin is easily removed from the meat by plunging
this latter into boiling water, which dissolves the outer coating of
gelatin mixture, and at the same time melts the paraffin and liberates the
enclosed joint.

Messrs Jones and Trevethick’s patent consisted in exhausting of air the
vessel containing the meat, then forcing into it a mixture of nitrogen and
sulphurous acids, and subsequently soldering the apertures. Dr Letheby
says meat, fish, and poultry preserved in this manner have been found good
after seven or eight years; and specimens of them were exhibited in the
London Exhibition of 1862.

The removal, however, of atmospheric air from the vessels containing the
meat it is designed to preserve is now principally accomplished by means
of steam. The germ of this idea originated with M. Pierre Antonie
Angilbert more than half a century ago, but the modification of
Angilbert’s process, which in principle is that generally adopted by the
importers of Australian and South American _cooked_ meat, as well as by
the English preparers of the article, originated with Messrs Goldner and
Wertheimer, nearly forty years since, and, briefly, is as follows:——The
freshly killed meat is placed in tins, with a certain quantity of cold
water. The tins and their contents are then securely soldered down, with
the exception of a small opening not larger than a pin-hole, which is left
in the lid. The tins are next placed in a bath of chloride of calcium, the
effect of which is to heat the water in them up to the boiling point, and
after a certain time to more or less cook the meat contained in them. When
the meat is thought to be sufficiently cooked, and whilst the steam
arising from the boiling water is escaping from the aperture, this last is
carefully soldered down, the steam not only having driven out all the
atmospheric air from the vessel, but in the act of escaping having
prevented the ingress of any from without. To still further guard against
the entrance of air, the tins are covered over with a thick coating of

Previously to their being allowed to leave the preserving works they are
tested by being placed for some time in an apartment in which the
temperature is sufficiently high to set up putrefactive action in the meat
if any air has been left in the tins, the evidence of which would be the
bulging out of the tins, owing to the liberation of certain gaseous
products of decomposition. When no distension from inside takes place,
the result is considered satisfactory, and the vessels are regarded as
properly and hermetically sealed. In some cases the vessels, instead of
being heated in a bath of chloride of calcium, are exposed to the action
of steam. If the operation be successfully performed, the meat so prepared
will keep perfectly good avid sound for years.

Mr Richard Jones effects the removal of the air from the vessels
containing the meat as follows:——The meat is put into the tins and
entirely soldered up, with the exception of a small tube about the size of
a quill, which is soldered on the top of the tin. This tube is placed in
connection with a vacuum chamber, and the air exhausted from the tin by
means of it. In cooking the meat he also employs a chloride of calcium

Dr Letheby, in one of his Canton Lectures on Food, delivered in 1865,
speaking on this part of the subject, and on the above method of meat
preservation, says:——“To-night, through the kindness of Messrs Crosse and
Blackwell, I am able to show you a specimen of preserved mutton which has
been in the case forty-four years, and you will perceive that it is in
excellent condition. It formed part of the stores supplied by Messrs
Donkin and Gamble, in 1824, to His Majesty’s Exploring ship _Fury_, which
was wrecked in Prince Regent’s Inlet in 1825, when the cases were landed
with the other stores, and left upon the beach.

“Eight years afterwards, in August, 1833, they were found by Sir John Ross
in the same condition as they were left; and he wrote to Mr Gamble at the
end of that year, saying, ‘that the provisions were still in a perfect
state of preservation, although annually exposed to a temperature of 92°
below and 80° above zero.’ Some of the cases were left untouched by Sir
John Ross; and after a further interval of sixteen years the place was
visited by a party from Her Majesty’s ship _Investigator_, when, according
to a letter from the captain, Sir James Ross, ‘the provisions were in
excellent condition, after having lain upon the beach, exposed to the
action of the sun, and all kinds of weather, for a period of nearly a
quarter of a century.’ Messrs Crosse and Blackwell have placed the
original letters in my hands for perusal, and they show beyond all doubt
that meat preserved in this manner will keep good for nearly half a
century——in fact, the case of boiled mutton now before you has been
preserved for forty——four years.”

The generality of the samples of preserved meat from Australia are
excellent in quality and flavour,[33] except that in most cases the meat
has been overcooked, which has arisen from the too prolonged contact of
the meat with the steam, which it is judged necessary shall be generated
in such quantities as to ensure the certainty of the exclusion of the air.
Another inconvenience attending the process, viz. the liability of the
sides of the tin to collapse, owing to the vacuum formed in its interior,
has been remedied by the introduction into the vessel of some inert gas,
such as carbonic acid, or nitrogen.

[Footnote 33: The Food Committee of the Society of Arts, who have
carefully and impartially examined numerous samples of Australian and
South American preserved meat, say: “It is perfectly sweet and fresh, but
somewhat insipid from overcooking, and it seems likely the flavour could
be improved if the duration of exposure to heat could be shortened without
endangering the preservation.”]

Preserved meat at the present time forms a very considerable article of
export both from Australia and South America. In the former country there
are several establishments of a colossal character, where the work of
tinning the meat is carried on, in many of which establishments hundreds
of cattle are slaughtered daily. The largest establishments of the kind
are at Sydney and Melbourne, whence extensive shipments are being
constantly made. The following figures are taken from the Board of Trade

      _Value of Meat preserved otherwise than by Salting._

            Imports from      Total
             Australia.      Imports.

  1871        £481,093       £610,228
  1872         657,945        816,463
  1873         557,552        733,331
  1874         509,698        757,001
  1875         249,611        592,196

Since 1876 tinned meat has been imported from North America.

Several methods have been proposed for the preservation of meat by
subjecting it to such conditions that the surrounding temperature should
be sufficiently low to arrest putrefaction. In Mr Harrison’s process the
reduction of temperature was effected by the application of melting ice
and salt, made to run down the outside of the iron chambers containing the
meat. It is affirmed that although the joints submitted to this treatment
were solidly frozen, no loss of either flavour or immediate decomposition
of the meat took place. Mr Harrison’s experiment was perfectly successful
in Australia, but broke down during the voyage of a large cargo of meat
shipped from Australia in 1873, owing to a defect in the construction of
the ice chamber of the vessel and the failure of the supply of ice.

Of other forms of refrigeration applied for this purpose we may mention
the process of M. Tellier, by which he proposes to place (on ship-board or
elsewhere) joints of meat in a chamber through which a current of air
charged with ether or other volatile substance may be passed, with a view
to reduce the temperature to 30° F. Also that of M. Poggiale, from whose
report to the Paris Academy of Medicine it appears that in chambers
contrived on principles similar to M. Tellier’s, all kinds of butcher’s
meat and poultry have been hung for ten weeks, at the end of which time
they were found perfectly fresh and wholesome. The agent used in the
latter case for the production of cold was methylic ether.

The process, however, of refrigeration which has proved not only the most,
but in every respect successful, was first satisfactorily carried out
since 1876, in which time large cargoes of dead meat have been constantly
sent to our metropolitan markets, as well as to Glasgow, from New York.
The following extract from the ‘Dundee Advertiser’ gives some interesting
details of this process:——

“As to dead meat, the first sale was held on the 5th of June, when 100
carcases of beef and 72 of mutton were disposed of. Since then there has
never been a smaller supply, and on the average about 150 carcases have
been sold weekly. Last week 210 carcases were sold, and on Wednesday
evening there were no fewer than 33 lorries, each laden with three tons of
butcher’s meat. The freight paid for carriage to Glasgow, Liverpool, and
London, last week amounted to £1900. Altogether, since the importation
began, a million and a quarter pounds of dead meat have been sold in
Glasgow. The result of this importation has been a reduction in retail
price of 1d. per lb., instead of an increase in price, which must have
taken place without the increased supply.

“The oxen are collected chiefly in the states of Illinois and Kentucky.
They are there reared in enormous numbers on the prairies. Before they
reach New York they are driven over railway for fully a thousand miles.
Those animals the carcases of which are to be sent to this country are
killed the day before the departure of the steamer. As soon as the
carcases are dressed they are put into a cooling room capable of
containing 500, and subject to a constant current of cold air, supplied by
means of a 25 horse-power engine. This sets the beef and extracts the
animal heat. Each carcase is next cut into quarters, and these are sewn up
in canvas, and during the night transferred on board the vessel. Six of
the Anchor Line mail steamers have been fitted up with refrigeration
compartments, constructed on a patented principle specially for the
conveyance of meat.

“After the quarters have been hung up in the room the door is hermetically
closed. Adjoining the compartment is a chamber filled with ice. Air tubes
are connected with the beef room, and through them the animal heat
ascends, and by means of a powerful engine it is blown across the ice, and
returned to the beef room in a cold state. A temperature of about 38° is
thus maintained in the beef-room. If it were to get so low as
32°——freezing-point——the meat would be seriously injured.[34] The heat is,
therefore, regulated by a thermometer, and when the temperature gets too
low, the speed of the engine is slackened, the normal degree of cold being
thus maintained almost without variation during the voyage. Cattle killed
on Thursday in New York are sold that day fortnight in Glasgow.”

[Footnote 34: Mr Harrison’s experiments make this statement doubtful.]

The first patent for the preservation of food by means of ice was granted
to Mr John Ling in 1845.

Lastly, mention must not be omitted of another method for the preservation
of meat, which consists in the application to it of certain antiseptic
substances, the action of which in preventing putrefaction is due to their
power of destroying minute parasitic organisms of low animal or vegetable
life, that would otherwise attack and set up decomposition in the meat.
Our ordinary salted meats owe their immunity from decay, as is well known,
to the presence in their tissues of common salt. Meat preserved, however,
by this means is tough, indigestible, and wanting in many of its most
important soluble constituents, which, dissolving part of the salt, run
off from the meat and are lost.

Amongst other agents which have been found serviceable as antiseptics, and
for which from time to time numerous patents have been taken out, are
nitrate of potash, acetate and hydrochlorate of ammonia, the sulphates of
soda and potash, and bisulphate of lime. The writer remembers partaking,
some years since, of some Canadian turkey, which had been preserved by
means of this latter substance, and the turkey having been killed some two
months before being eaten. It was perfectly sound and of excellent
flavour. In this instance the bird had been sent from Canada, with several
others, packed in waterproof casks, filled up with a weak solution of
bisulphite of lime.

In some cases the saline solution is merely brushed over the outside of
the meat; whilst in others it is injected into the substance of the flesh.

Thiebierge’s process consists in dipping the joints for five minutes into
dilute sulphuric acid, of the strength of about ten of water to one of
acid. The meat after being taken out is carefully wiped and dried, and is
then hung up for keeping.

Sulphurous acid also forms the subject of several patents for the
preservation of meat. In the process of Laury, for which a patent was
taken out in 1854, the gas was introduced into the vessels containing the
food. In that of Belford, for which a provisional specification was
granted the same year, the meat was soaked for 24 hours in a solution of
sulphurous and hydrochloric acids (the latter being in the proportion of a
hundredth of the volume of the former). The addition of the hydrochloric
acid was made with the intention of decomposing any alkaline sulphites
that might be formed by the combination of the alkaline salts of the meat
with the sulphurous acid.

Dr Dewar’s process, which is very similar to the foregoing, proposes,
instead of exposing the meat to sulphurous acid fumigation, to immerse it
in a solution of the acid of the same strength as that of the British
Pharmacopœia. On being taken out of the liquid the meat, or other article,
is, as speedily as possible, dried at a temperature not exceeding 140° F.,
so that the albumen may be preserved simply in a desiccated, and not in a
coagulated condition.

In the patent of Demait, which dates from 1855, the meat was directed to
be hung up in a properly constructed chamber, and exposed for some time to
the action of the gas. More recently, Professor Gamgee has taken out a
patent, which is a modification of Demait’s, and which consists in hanging
up the carcase of the animal, previously killed when under the influence
of carbonic oxide, in a chamber filled with this latter gas, to which a
little sulphurous acid has been added, the chamber having been first
exhausted of air. The carcase is allowed to remain in the chamber from 24
to 48 hours, after which it is hung in dry air. It is stated that meat
subjected to the above treatment has been found perfectly sound and
eatable after an interval of five months.

M. Lanjorrois proposes to preserve animal substances from decay by the
addition to them of 1 per cent. of magenta. He states the process had been
applied to slices of beef, which, after being kept for several months,
yielded, after being washed and boiled, very good soup. Commenting on this
suggestion for the preservation of meat, the ‘Chemical News’ very sensibly
and properly remarks: “It is to be hoped the magenta employed will be free
from arsenic.”

The patent of M. de la Peyrouse (which dates from 1873) also consists in
excluding the air by enveloping meat in fat. In this process, however, the
fat is mixed, when in a melting condition, with a certain quantity of the
carbonates of sodium, potassium, and ammonium, as well as with some
chlorides of magnesium and aluminium, with the object of preventing the
fat becoming rancid and decomposing, and thus imparting a disagreeable
flavour to the meat.

In M. George’s process the meat is partially dried, and then steeped in
successive waters containing hydrochloric acid and sulphate of soda.

=MECON′IC ACID.= H_{3}C_{7}HO_{7}. _Syn._ ACIDUM MECONICUM, L. A peculiar
acid, first obtained by Sertuerner from opium, in 1804.

_Prep._ Meconate of lime is suspended in warm water, and treated with
hydrochloric acid. Impure meconic acid crystallises on cooling, and may be
purified by repeated treatment in the same way with hydrochloric acid. Its
purity is ascertained by its leaving no residue when heated in a platinum
or glass capsule.

_Prop._ Meconic acid forms beautiful pearly scales; possesses a sour
astringent taste; is soluble in boiling water, and to a less extent in
cold; it is also soluble in alcohol. With the acids it forms salts called
‘meconates,’ most of which are crystallisable. Meconate of lime is
obtained by heating a solution of chloride of calcium with an infusion of
opium made with cold water, and neutralised by powdered marble, and
collecting the precipitate. Meconate of potassa is prepared by direct
solution of the base in the impure acid obtained from meconate of lime
till the liquor turns green, heat being applied, when the salt
crystallises out as the liquid cools; it may be purified by pressure and

_Tests._ Meconic acid is characterised by——1. Turning ferric salts red,
and the red colour not being destroyed by the action of corrosive
sublimate.——2. Precipitating a weak solution of ammonio-sulphate of copper
green.——3. With acetate of lead, nitrate of silver, and chloride of
barium, it gives white precipitates, which are soluble in nitric acid.——4.
It is not reddened by chloride of gold.

=MEC′ONIN.= C_{10}H_{10}O_{4}. A white, crystalline, odourless, neutral
substance, discovered by Couerbe in opium.


=MED′ICINES.= However skilful the medical practitioner may be, and however
judicious his treatment, both are interfered with, and their value more or
less neutralised, if the remedies he orders are not administered precisely
according to his instructions. It is the duty of the attendant on the sick
to follow implicitly the directions of the physician, as well in exactly
complying with his orders as in doing nothing that she has not been
ordered to do. At the same time there are exceptions to this rule, in
which a suspension of the remedy, or a deviation from the order of the
physician, is not only allowable, but is absolutely required. Thus, from
idiosyncrasy or some other cause, the remedy in the doses ordered may have
no effect, or may produce one widely different from that intended or
expected. In such cases it is evident that a strict adherence to the
direction of the physician would be productive of evil; but he should be
immediately apprised of the circumstance. The common practice of
neglecting to administer the doses of medicine at the prescribed time, or
after prescribed intervals, and then, to compensate for the omission,
giving the medicine more frequently or in larger doses, cannot be too
severely censured, as destructive to the welfare of the patient and
injurious to the credit of the physician.

For the purpose of disguising the taste of medicine, or lessening their
nauseating properties, Dr Pollio has recommended a means founded on the
physiological fact that a strong impression on the nerves (whether of
vision, hearing, or taste) renders that which follows less perceptible
than under the usual circumstances. Instead, therefore, of applying to
the mouth agreeable substances after swallowing nauseous medicines, we
should prepare it beforehand, in order that the taste of the medicine may
not be perceived. Aromatic substances, as orange or lemon peel, &c.,
chewed just before taking medicine, effectually prevent castor oil, &c.,
being tasted. In preparing the mouth for bitters, liquorice is the only
sweet that should be used, the others creating a peculiarly disagreeable
compound taste. We have noticed already the effect of oil of orange peel
in correcting the nauseating qualities of copaiba. See DOSE and

=MEDICINES FOR PASSENGER SHIPS.= The annexed scale of medicines, medical
stores, and instruments for ships clearing under the Passengers Acts,
other than steamships engaged in the North Atlantic trade, has been issued
and caused to be published by the Board of Trade, and is intended to
supersede the scales hitherto in force.

The quantities mentioned in the scale are for every 100 passengers, when
the length of the passage, computed according to the Passengers Act, is
100 days and upwards. Half the quantity of medicines indicated, but the
same kind and quantity of medical stores should be taken when the passage
is less than 100 days.

_N.B.——There is a separate scale for North Atlantic steam passenger

The medicines are to be prepared according to the British Pharmacopœia, to
be plainly labelled in English, and the average doses for an adult stated,
according to the British Pharmacopœia.

All bottles are to be stoppered, and all medicines indicated thus (*) are
to be marked with a red poison label. All fluid quantities are to be
measured by _fluid_ lbs., oz., or dr.

                                           Lbs.   oz.   dr.
   Acid, Acetic                              0     6     0
  *Acid, Carbolic                            0     1     0
  *Acid, Carbolic (a powder containing
     not less than 20 per
     cent. of pure carbolic or
     cresylic acid)                        112     0     0
   Acid, Citric                              0     3     0
   Acid, Gallic                              0     1     0
   Acid, Hydrocyanic Dil.                    0     0     4
   Acid, Nitric                              0     1     0
   Acid, Sulph. Dil.                         0     6     0
   Æther                                     0     1     0
   Alumen                                    0     1     0
   Ammon. Carb.                              0     6     0
   Amylum                                    1     0     0
   Argent. Nit. (Stick)                      0     0     2
   Calx Chlorate                             7     0     0
   Camphor                                   0     6     0
   Charta Epispatica, 4 sq. ft., in case
  *Chlor. of Zinc (Burnett’s sol. of)       16     0     0
  *Chloroform                                0     8     0
   Copaiba                                   0     8     0
   Creosote                                  0     0     2
   Cupri Sulph.                              0     1     0
   Emp. Cantharidis                          0     1     0
   Ferri et Quiniæ Cit.                      0     1     0
   Ferri Sulph.                              0     0     4
   Glycerin                                  0     6     0
   Glycerin Acid. Tannic                     0     4     0
  *Hydrat. Chloral                           0     1     6
   Hydrarg. cum Cretâ                        0     0     4
   Hydrarg. Subchloridi                      0     0     4
   Lini Farina                               6     0     0
   Lin. Camph.                               0     8     0
   Lin. Opii                                 0     2     0
   Lin. Saponis                              1     0     0
  *Liq. Atropiæ                              0     0     1
   Liq. Calcis                               1     0     0
  *Liq. Morphiæ Acetatis                     0     1     0
  *Liq. Plumbi Subacetatis                   0     2     0
   Liq. Potassæ                              0     2     0
  *Liq. Potassæ Permanganatis
     (B. P. or Condy’s Crimson
     Fluid)                                  3     0     0
   Magnes. Sulph.                            4     0     0
   Mist. Sennæ Co. (omit Extract of
     Liquorice and substitute Aromatic
     Spirit of Ammonia, 1
     oz. to 1 pint of the mixture)           3     0     0
   Ol. Croton                                0     0     1
   Ol. Lini                                  0     8     0
   Ol. Menthæ Pip.                           0     0     2
   Ol. Morrhuæ                               3     0     0
   Ol. Olivæ                                 1     0     0
   Ol. Ricini                                2     0     0
   Ol. Terebinthinæ                          1     0     0
  *Opium                                     1     0     0
   Plumbi Acetatis                           0     1     0
   Potassæ Bicarb. Pulv.                     0     4     0
   Potassii Iodid.                           0     2     0
   Pulv. Antimonialis                        0     0     3
  *Pulv. Astringens (double the
     quantity indicated to be
     taken to all tropical ports.
     Pulv. Catechu Co., Pulv.
     Cretæ Arom. cum Opiô——equal
     parts)                                  1     0     0
   Pulv. Cretæ Arom. cum Opiô.               0     2     0
   Pulv. Ipecac.                             0     2     0
   Pulv. Ipecac. Co.                         0     2     0
   Pulv. Jalapæ Co.                          0     3     0
   Pulv. Potassæ Nitratis                    0     4     0
   Pulv. Rhei Co.                            0     4     0
   Pulv. Scammon. Co.                        0     0     6
   Quiniæ Sulph. (double the
     quantity indicated to be taken
     to all tropical ports)                  0     1     0
   Sodæ Bicarb.                              1     0     0
   Sp. Æther. Nitrosi                        0     8     0
   Sp. Ammon. Arom.                          0     8     0
   Sp. Rectif.                               0     4     0
   Sp. Sulphur Sublimatum                    3     0     0
   Syr. Ferri Iodidi                         0     4     0
  *Sol. Morphiæ Acetat. (a neutral
     solution containing 4 grains
     in a drachm, and so marked.
     To be labelled——for hypodermic
     injection)                              0     0     4
   Tr. Arnicæ                                0     6     0
   Tr. Camphoræ Co.                          0     8     0
   Tr. Digitalis                             0     0     6
   Tr. Ergotæ                                0     6     0
   Tr. Ferri Perchloridi                     0     4     0
  *Tr. Opii                                  0     6     0
   Tr. Scillæ                                0     2     0
   Tr. Valerian. Ammon.                      0     3     0
   Ung. Cetacei                              1     0     0
   Ung. Hydrargyri                           0     2     0
   Ung. Hydrargyri Ox. Rub.                  0     1     0
   Ung. Sulph.                               1     0     0
   Ung. Zinci                                0     2     0
   Vin. Colchici                             0     1     0
   Vin. Ipecac.                              0     1     0
   Zinci Sulphatis                           0     1     0
   Desiccated Soup                           4     0     0

  _All pills to be made and marked +5+ grains._
   Pil. Aloes cum Myrrhâ                     2 doz.
   Pil. Col. c. Hyoscy                       4 doz.
   Pil. Hydrarg.                             3 doz.
   Pil. Ipecac. cum Scillâ                   5 doz.
   Pil. Quiniæ                               6 doz.
   Pil. Sapon. Co.                           6 doz.

            _Medical Stores._
   Lint                                     10 oz.
   Tow                                       1 lb.
   Adhesive Plaster                          3 yds.
   Male Syringe                              1
   Male Syringe Glass                        1
   Female Syringe                            1
   Phials (assorted)                         2 doz.
   Phial corks                               6 doz.
   Sponges                                   3
   Bed-pan                                   1
   Paper of Pins                             1
   Hernia Truss, 36 in., reversible          1
   Paper of Pill Boxes                       1
   Gallipots                                 6
   Leg and Arm Bandages                      6
   Calico                                    3 yds.
   Flannel Bandages, 7 yds. long, 6
     in. wide                                2
   Flannel                                   2 yds.
   Triangular Bandages, base 48
     in., sides 33 in.                 each  2
  † Minim Measures                           2
  † 1 oz. Measures                           1
  † 2 oz. Measures                           1
  † Set of Splints                           1
  † Waterproof sheeting                      4 yds.
  † Oiled Silk                               1 yd.
  † Enema Syringe and Stomach Pump           1
  † Box of Small Scales and Weights          1
  † Wedgwood Mortar and Pestle               1
    Wedgwood Funnel                          1
  † Spatulas                                 2
  † Authorised Book of Directions for
    Medicine Chests                          1
  † British Pharmacopœia                     1

† One set only of these articles required, irrespective of number of

N.B.——Only one set of instruments required, without regard to the number
of surgeons, passengers, or the length of the voyage.


  I {  1 Tenaculum.
  n {  1 Artery Forceps.
    {  1 Operating ditto.
  P {  1 Finger Knife.
  o {  1 Curve Bistoury, Probe Point.
  c {  1 Curve Bistoury, Spear Point.
  k {  2 Probes.
  e {  1 Silver Director.
  t {  1 Caustic Case.
    {  1 Scissors.
  C {  1 Spatula.
  a { 12 Needles.
  s {  1 Skein Ligature Silk.
  e {  3 Lancets.
       1 Amputating Saw.
       2 Amputating Knives.
       1 Bone Forceps.
       3 Tooth Forceps.
       1 Skull Forceps.
       1 Trephine.
       1 Elevator.
       1 Hey’s Saw.
       1 Trephine Brush.
       2 Scalpels.
       1 Hernia Knife.
       2 Trocars and Canulas.
       1 Aneurism Needle.
       1 Hernia Director.
       1 Tourniquet.
       2 Silver Catheters (Nos. 4 and 8).
       4 Elastic Gum Catheters (Nos. 3, 5, and 7).
       1 Clinical Thermometer.
       1 Hypodermic Syringe.
       1 dozen charged Tubes for Vaccination.
       1 Set of Midwifery Instruments.

=MEER′SCHAUM.= _Syn._ ECUME DE MER, L. A native silicate of magnesia. It
has a sp. gr. ranging between 2·6 to 3·4; is readily acted on by acids,
and fuses before a powerful blowpipe into a white enamel. The finest
qualities are found in Greece and Turkey. Its principal application is to
the manufacture of tobacco-pipes. The Germans prepare their pipes for sale
by soaking them in tallow, then in white wax, and, finally, by polishing
them with shavegrass. Genuine meerschaum pipes are distinguished from mock
ones by the beautiful brown colour which they assume after being smoked
for some time. Of late years some of the pipemakers have produced a
composition clay pipe, which closely resembles meerschaum in appearance,
and is “warranted to colour well.” The composition, which is comparatively
valueless, is made up into pipes of suitable patterns, which are
frequently sold to the ignorant for “meerschaums.” See CEMENTS, HYDRAULIC.

=ME′GRIM.= _Syn._ MEAGRIM, HEMICRANIA, L. A pain affecting one side of the
head only, often periodic, like an ague, and generally of a nervous,
hysterical, or bilious character. It is clavus when there is a strong
pulsation, conveying the sensation of a nail piercing the part. See

=MEG′RIMS.= _Syn._ MEAGRIMS, VERTIGO. In veterinary medicine this term is
applied to horses which when at work reel, then stand for a minute dull
and stupid, or fall to the ground, and lie partially insensible for a few
minutes. “Horses subject to this affection should be driven with a
breastplate or pipe collar, so as to prevent pressure on the veins
carrying the blood from the head; the bowels should be kept in good order;
an occasional laxative is advisable, and a course, either of arsenic or
quinine, or of arsenic and iron.” (Dun.)


=MELIS′SIC ALCOHOL.= A substance obtained by Brodie from beeswax. By
oxidation it yields ‘melissic acid.’

=MELLA′GO.= The old name for a medicine having the consistence of honey,
with a somewhat sweetish taste. Mellago taraxaci is fluid extract of

=MELTING-POINT.= The temperature at which solids assume the liquid form.

=MEN′STRUUM.= [L.] A solvent or dissolvent. The principal MENSTRUA
employed in chemistry and pharmacy to extract the active principles of
bodies by digestion, decoction, infusion, or maceration, are water,
alcohol, oils, and solutions of the acids and alkalies.


results from the injudicious or excessive use of mercury, or exposure to
the fumes of this metal. The common and leading symptoms are a
disagreeable coppery taste; excessive salivation; sponginess, tumefaction,
and ulceration of the gums; swollen tongue; loosening of the teeth;
exfoliation of the jaws; remarkably offensive breath; debility;
emaciation; ending (when not arrested) in death from exhaustion. Fever,
cachexia, violent purging and griping, a species of eczema (ECZEMA
MERCURIALE, LEPRA MERCURIALIS), and other forms of skin disease, are also
phases of the same affection, the first of which occasionally proves fatal
under the influence of sudden and violent physical exertion.

The treatment, in ordinary cases, may consist in free exposure to the open
air, avoiding either heat or cold; the administration of saline aperients,
as Epsom salts, phosphate of soda, &c.; the free use of lemon juice and
water as a common drink; with weak gargles or washes of chloride of soda
or chloride of lime to the gums, mouth, and throat. Severe cases often
resist every variety of treatment, and instances are recorded in the
medical journals in which the use of even small doses of mercurials,
administered by the faculty, have, owing to the peculiar idiosyncrasy of
the patients, been followed by the most horrible sufferings, terminating
in death.

=MER′CURY.= Hg. _Syn._ QUICKSILVER, HYDRARGYRUM (B. P., Ph. L. E. and D.);
MERCURE, VIF ARGENT, Fr.; QUECKSILBER, Ger. A remarkable metal, which has
been known from a very early period. The Romans employed it as a medicine
externally, as did the Arabs; but the Hindoos were probably the first to
prescribe it internally.

_Sources._ The most important are the mines of Idria, in Carniola;
Almaden, in New Castile; and New Almaden, in California, where it exists
combined with sulphur, under the form of cinnabar. From this ore the pure
metal is obtained by distilling it with lime or iron filings, in iron
retorts, by which the sulphur it contains is seized and retained, while
the mercury rises in the state of vapour, and is condensed in suitable
receivers. Quicksilver is commonly imported in cylindrical iron bottles;
containing 1/2 cwt. to 1 cwt. each. It is also imported in small
quantities from China, contained in bamboo bottles holding about 20 lbs.

_Prep._ Mercury, as imported, is usually sufficiently pure for medicinal
purposes without any further preparation. Mere mechanical impurities, as
floating dust, dirt, &c., may be got rid of by squeezing the metal through
chamois leather or flannel, or by filtering it through a small hole in the
apex of an inverted cone of paper. It can be further cleaned by shaking
well with a little strong nitric acid, washing with distilled water, and
drying by blotting paper, or filtering through warm chamois leather.

_Prop., &c._ Mercury, at all common temperatures, is a heavy liquid,
possessing a nearly silver-white colour, and a brilliant metallic lustre;
solidifies (freezes) at -40° Fahr., and is then ductile, malleable, and
tenacious; boils at 662° Fahr., and escapes in colourless transparent
vapour, of great density; it also volatilises slowly at the ordinary
temperature of the atmosphere. The presence of minute quantities of lead
and zinc greatly retard its evaporation at its boiling heat. It unites
with oxygen, chlorine, iodine, &c., forming numerous compounds. With the
metals it unites to form AMALGAMS. The only acids which act directly on
metallic mercury are the sulphuric and nitric, but for this purpose the
former must be heated and concentrated. Nitric acid, however, even when
dilute and in the cold, dissolves it freely. Pure mercury is unalterable
in the air at ordinary temperatures. Sp. gr. 13·59 at 60° Fahr.; about 14·
when in the solid state.

_Uses, &c._ Mercury is applied to various purposes in the arts; as the
amalgamation of gold and silver, ‘wash gilding,’ the silvering of
looking-glasses, the manufacture of barometers and thermometers, and the
preparation of several very valuable medicines. In its metallic state it
appears to be inert when swallowed, unless it meets with much acidity in
the alimentary canal, or is in a state of minute division; its compounds
are, however, all of them more or less poisonous.

Mercury has been employed in one or other of its forms in almost _all_
diseases; but each of its numerous preparations is supposed to have some
peculiarity of action of its own, combined with that common to all the
compounds of this metal. The mercurials form, indeed, one of the most
important classes of the materia medica.

_Tests._ 1. _Metallic mercury_ is detected by its liquid condition and
volatility; and, when in a finely divided or pulverulent state, by the
microscope, or by staining a piece of copper white when the two are rubbed

Mercury, when present in combination, can be detected as under:

When intimately mixed with anhydrous sodium carbonate, and heated in a
small test-tube, under a layer of the carbonate, decomposition ensues, and
a crust of grey sublimate forms on the cooler portion of the tube. When
examined by a lens this crust is seen to consist of minute metallic
globules. By friction with a bright glass or iron rod these are united
into globules, which are visible to the naked eye.

A perfectly clean and bright piece of copper, immersed in a slightly acid
solution of mercury, becomes in a short time covered with a grey or
whitish stain, which assumes a silvery lustre when gently rubbed with a
piece of soft cork or leather, and is removed by the subsequent
application of heat. A single drop of liquid may be tested on a bright
copper coin in this way.

The plate of copper with the deposit of mercury, obtained as above, after
being washed with a weak solution of ammonia, and in distilled water, and
dried by pressure between the folds of bibulous paper, may be cut into
small pieces, and heated in a test-tube, in order to obtain metallic
globules. When the suspected solution contains organic matter, bright
copper filings may be employed, and the process modified so as nearly to
resemble Reinsch’s test for arsenious acid. According to Orfila, “scraped
copper plate” is capable of detecting the presence of 1/80000th part of
corrosive sublimate in a solution. MM. Trousseau and Reveil state that a
plate of yellow copper (brass) is even more susceptible than one of red

(Smithson’s electrolytic test.) This consists in the use of a polished
wire or plate of gold or copper round which a strip or thread of zinc or
tin is wound in a spiral direction. The suspected liquid is acidulated
with a few drops of hydrochloric acid, and after immersion for a longer or
a shorter period (as half an hour to an hour or two), the gold will have
become white if any mercury is present. The coil of zinc or tin is then
removed from the gold, and the latter, after being washed and dried
between the folds of bibulous paper, is heated in a test-tube, to obtain
metallic globules, as before.

An ingenious extemporaneous application of the electrolytic test may be
made as follows:——Place a drop or two of the suspected liquid on a clean
and bright gold or copper coin, and apply a bright key, so that it may at
once touch the edge of the coin and the solution. (See _engr._) An
electric current will then be established as before, and a white spot of
reduced mercury will appear on the surface of the metal, which may be
recognised in the manner already explained.


  _a._  A gold or copper coin.
  _b._  Drop of suspected solution.
  _c._  A bright key.]

The salts of mercury are divided into two classes——mercurous, where
mercury is a monad element, and unites with one atom of chlorine; and
mercuric salts, where it plays the part of a dyad element, or unites with
two atoms. The latter of these will be taken first.

=Mercury, Pure.= (Ph. B.) _Syn._ HYDRARGYRUM PURUM. Place commercial
mercury, 3 lbs., in a glass retort or iron bottle, and applying heat cause
2-1/2 lbs. of the metal to distil over into a flask employed as a
receiver. Boil on this for five minutes hydrochloric acid, 3 dr., diluted
with distilled water, 9 fl. dr., and having by repeated affusions of
distilled water, and decantations, removed every trace of acid, let the
mercury be transferred to a porcelain capsule, and dried first by
filtering paper, and finally on a water bath.

=Mercuric Salts.= _Tests._ Sulphuretted hydrogen and ammonium sulphide,
added in very small quantities, produce on agitation a perfectly white
precipitate, which acquires successively a yellow, orange, and
brownish-red colour, as more of the test is added; and, ultimately, when
the test is added in considerable excess, an intensely black colour. This
precipitate is insoluble in excess of the precipitant, potassium hydrate,
potassium cyanide, hydrochloric acid, or nitric acid, even when boiling;
but it dissolves readily and completely in potassium sulphide and in ‘aqua
regia’ with decomposition. These reactions are characteristic.

Ammonia gives a white precipitate.

Potassium hydrate gives a reddish precipitate, turning yellow when the
test is added in excess. The presence of ammonia causes the precipitate to
be white, and when the solution contains much acid both reactions are

Alkaline carbonates give a brick-red precipitate.

Potassium iodide gives a scarlet precipitate, which is soluble in excess,
and in alcohol, and solution of sodium chloride.

The alkaline bicarbonates either do not disturb the solution, or only
cause a slight degree of opalescence.

=Mercuric Acetate.= Hg(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2}. _Syn._ PROTACETATE OF
MERCURY. _Prep._ By dissolving mercuric oxide in warm acetic acid. It
crystallises in brilliant micaceous lamina, soluble in their own weight of
cold water, and somewhat more soluble in boiling water. According to
Robiquet, this is the basis of Keyser’s antivenereal pills, which do not
contain subacetate of mercury, as has been asserted.

=Mercuric Bromide.= HgBr_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOBROMIDE OF MERCURY, HYDRARGYRI
BIBROMIDUM. _Prep._ Two equal parts of bromine and mercury and sublime.
Soluble reddish mass; resembles the iodide in its action.——_Dose_, 1/20 to
1/8 gr.

=Mercuric Chloride.= HgCl_{2}. _Syn._ PROTOCHLORIDE OF MERCURY,
the ‘corrosive sublimate’ of the shops.

_Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.) Mercury, 2 lbs.; sulphuric acid, 21-1/2 fl. oz.; boil
to dryness, and rub the residuum, when cold, with sodium chloride, 1-1/2
lb., in an earthenware mortar; lastly, sublime by a gradually increased

2. (Ph. E.) Mercury, 4 oz.; sulphuric acid, 2 fl. oz. 3 fl. dr.; pure
nitric acid, 1/2 fl. oz.; dissolve, add of sodium chloride, 3 oz., and
sublime as before.

3. (Ph. D.) ‘Persulphate of mercury’ (mercuric sulphate), 2 parts; dried
sodium chloride, 1 part; triturate, &c., as before.

4. (Ph. B.) Reduce sulphate of mercury, 20 oz., and chloride of sodium,
dried, 16 oz., each to fine powder, and having mixed them add black oxide
of manganese, in fine powder, 1 oz., thoroughly by trituration in a
mortar, place the mixture in an apparatus adapted for sublimation, and
apply sufficient heat to cause vapours of perchloride of mercury to rise
into the less heated part of the apparatus arranged for their

_Obs._ In preparing corrosive sublimate, as well as calomel, by the common
process, the solution of the mercury is usually made in an iron pot, set
in a furnace under a chimney, to carry off the fumes; and the sublimation
is conducted in an earthen alembic placed in a sand bath, or in an iron
pot, covered with a semi-spherical earthen head. Corrosive sublimate may
also be made by the direct solution of mercuric oxide in hydrochloric
acid, or by bringing its constituents together in the state of vapour. The
latter plan was patented by the late Dr A. T. Thomson.

_Prop._ The mercuric chloride of commerce occurs in white,
semi-transparent, crystalline masses, of considerable density; it
possesses an intense coppery taste, is soluble in about 16 parts of cold,
and in 3 parts of boiling water; the boiling solution deposits its excess
of salt in long white prisms as it cools; soluble in alcohol and ether, in
the latter so much so that it has even the property of withdrawing it from
its aqueous solutions; the addition of hydrochloric acid, ammonious
chloride or camphor, increases its solubility in all these menstrua. It is
decomposed by contact with nearly all metallic bodies, and in solution by
various organic substances, and by exposure to light. Sp. gr. 5·2 (5·14 to
5·42——Liebig). It melts at about 509° Fahr., and boils and volatilises at
a higher temperature.

_Tests._ The presence of mercuric chloride may, under most circumstances,
be readily detected by the tests given. To distinguish it from other
salts, special tests for chlorine or hydrochloric acid must be applied. If
on filtering the solution, acidulating it with dilute nitric acid, and
testing it with silver nitrate, a cloudy white precipitate be formed,
which is insoluble in excess of the precipitant, and in nitric acid, but
soluble in ammonia water, and blackened by lengthened exposure to light,
corrosive sublimate is shown to be present in the substance examined.
Calomel, the only compound of mercury with chlorine besides corrosive
sublimate, is an insoluble powder, which could not, therefore, be found in
the filtered liquid. Calomel, or the white precipitate formed by the
mercurous salt, with hydrochloric acid and the soluble chlorides, is
soluble in excess of the precipitant, and is not only insoluble in liquor
of ammonia, but is immediately blackened by it.

For the purpose of demonstrating the presence of corrosive sublimate in a
highly coloured liquid, or one loaded with organic matter, it is necessary
to agitate it for some minutes with an equal volume of ether. After repose
for a short time, the ethereal solution is decanted, and allowed to
evaporate spontaneously. The residuum (if any) contains the corrosive
sublimate, which, after being dissolved in distilled water, is readily
recognised by the above characteristics.

When the substance under examination consists of food, or the contents of
the digestive canal, or of animal tissue, it is in general necessary to
destroy the organic matter in a nearly similar way to that described under
ARSENIOUS ACID. The process adopted by Devergie for this purpose consists
in dissolving the substance in concentrated hydrochloric acid, and passing
a stream of chlorine through the liquid.——Flandin first carbonises the
mass with 1/3 or 1/2 its weight of concentrated sulphuric acid, at 212°
Fahr., and then saturates the acid in the cold, with dry ‘chloride of
lime,’ added in fragments, assisting the action by stirring, and further
adding, by degrees, as the matter thickens and becomes white, a sufficient
quantity of distilled water.——Lassaigne boils the suspected mixture for
some time with a solution of sodium chloride; a method which, according to
Orfila, is not sufficiently delicate to withdraw minute portions of
mercury from flesh.——Millon agitates organic liquids (more especially
blood, milk, &c.) in large flasks containing gaseous chlorine, which is
frequently renewed.——Orfila either dissolves the matter in aqua regia, and
passes a stream of chlorine through the liquid, or he carbonises it by
means of concentrated sulphuric acid, in close vessels.——Personne proceeds
by a similar method, but avoids raising the temperature of the substances
operated on.——Reveil employs either the last method or that of Millon. In
all cases it is advisable to operate in close vessels, on account of the
volatility of the bichloride; Orfila’s apparatus consists of a matrass,
provided with a bent tube, the one end of which is plunged into a jar of
cold distilled water. The corrosive sublimate is found both in the
volatilised matter and in the carbonised residuum, and is extracted from
the latter by boiling it for 15 or 20 minutes in aqua regia.

When the organic matter has been destroyed by any of the above processes,
and a colourless and filtered solution in distilled water obtained, the
usual tests may be at once applied. But in this way we can only detect the
presence of mercury, but are unable to decide in what way it has entered
the system, although we may infer it from other circumstances. It is,
therefore, absolutely necessary, in all medico-legal investigations, to
previously employ ether (see _above_), in order that we may be enabled to
examine the deleterious matter in its original form, or that in which it
was swallowed.

_Uses, &c._ Mercuric chloride is employed as an alterative, diaphoretic,
and resolvent, in the chronic forms of secondary syphilis, rheumatism,
scrofula, cancer, old dropsies, numerous skin diseases, &c.; and
externally, as a caustic, in cancer, and made into an ointment, lotion, or
injection, in a vast number of skin diseases, ulcers, gleet, &c., and as a
preventive of contagion. It acts quicker than the other preparations of
mercury, and it is less apt to induce salivation; but it has been said
that its effects are less apparent.——_Dose_, 1/10 to 1/4 gr., either made
into a pill, or in solution. It is highly poisonous, and must be exhibited
and handled with the greatest caution. Its use is contra-indicated in
cases complicated with pulmonary affections or nervous derangement.

_Pois._——1. _Symptoms._ Strong coppery or metallic taste; intense pain in
the mouth, pharynx, œsophagus, stomach, and intestines; nausea, vomiting
(often bloody), diarrhœa, and (sometimes) violent dysentery (these
evacuations are generally more frequent than in poisoning by other
metallic compounds). After a certain time there is generally an abatement
of the severity of the symptoms; the circulation becomes slower, the pulse
small and thready, the respiration gentle, and the skin cold; syncope then
supervenes, and great general insensibility, always commencing at the
pelvic extremities; and sometimes convulsions occur; the secretion of
urine is generally diminished, sometimes even entirely suppressed; but the
patients always urinate if the sublimate has been employed in a very
diluted state, and if drinks have been administered. Death often appears
to result from the shock to the nervous system, from intense exhaustion,
or from mortification or intense inflammation of the primæ viæ. Poisoning
by corrosive sublimate is distinguished from that by arsenic, by the
countenance being flushed, and even swollen; whereas, in poisoning by
arsenic, it is wholly contracted and ghastly, and by the whitened
condition of the epithelium of the mouth.

2. _Antidotes._ White of egg, hydrated ferric sulphide or ferrous
sulphide, and gluten, are each of them powerful antidotes. White of egg
has proved efficacious in numerous cases. It requires the white of one egg
to decompose 4 gr. of corrosive sublimate. (Peschier.) The recently
precipitated protosulphuret of iron is, however, according to Mialhe, the
antidote par excellence, not only to corrosive sublimate, but to the salts
of lead and copper. The gluten of wheat has also been recommended
(Taddei); or, what is equally efficacious, wheat flour mixed up with
water. When any of the above are not at hand, copious draughts of milk may
be substituted. Iron filings have been occasionally used as an antidote.
All these substances should be taken in considerable quantities; the dose
should be frequently repeated, and the general treatment similar to that
in cases of poisoning by arsenic. Vomiting should be, in all cases,
immediately induced, to remove, if possible, the poisonous matter from the

=Mercuric-ammonium Chloride.= HgNH_{2}Cl. _Syn._ AMMONIO-CHLORIDE OF

_Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.) Mercuric chloride, 6 oz.; distilled water, 3 quarts;
dissolve, with heat, and when the solution has cooled, add of liquor of
ammonia 8 fl. oz., frequently shaking it; lastly, wash the precipitate
with water, and dry it. The formulæ of the Ph. E. & D. are nearly similar.

2. Mercuric chloride and ammonium chloride, of each 1/2 lb.; water, 3
quarts; dissolve, and precipitate with solution of potassium hydrate,
q. s.

_Prop., &c._ A white, inodorous, light mass, or powder; insoluble in
alcohol, partially soluble in boiling water, and wholly dissolved by
sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, without effervescence. It is
totally dissipated by heat. When heated with solution of potash, it
exhales ammonia, and assumes a yellow colour. Used to make an ointment,
which is employed in herpes, porrigo, itch, and other skin diseases, &c.;
and by the lower orders as a dusting powder to destroy pediculi, an
application which, from its liberal employment, is not always a safe one.
It is highly poisonous, and must not be swallowed.

=Mercuric and Ammonium Chloride.= NH_{4}Cl,HgCl_{2}. _Syn._ CHLORIDE OF
_Prep._ (P. Cod.) From mercuric chloride and ammonium chloride, equal
parts, triturated together. “The object in adding the ammonium chloride
here is to render the corrosive sublimate more soluble in water. The
action of the latter is not otherwise altered.” (Redwood.) It is chiefly
used for lotions and injections.

=Mercuric and Quinine Chloride.= _Syn._ CHLORIDE OF MERCURY AND QUININE;
HYDRARGYRI ET QUINÆ CHLORIDUM, L. _Prep._ (M’Dermott.) From mercuric
chloride, 1 part; quinine chloride, 3 parts; separately formed into
saturated solutions with water and then mixed; the crystalline precipitate
is collected and dried by a gentle heat.——_Dose_, 1/8 to 1/2 gr., made
into a pill with crum of bread; daily, as an alterative in debilitated
habits; or combined with opium thrice daily, to produce salivation.

=Mercuric Cyanide.= HgCy_{2} or Hg(CN)_{2}. _Syn._ CYANIDE OF MERCURY;
1. (Pb. L. 1836.) Ferric ferrocyanide (pure Prussian blue), 8 oz.;
mercuric oxide, 10 oz.; distilled water, 4 pints; boil for half an hour,
filter, evaporate, and crystallise; wash what remains frequently with
boiling distilled water, and again evaporate, that crystals may form. This
is Proust’s process. The formula of the Ph. U. S. is similar.

2. (Ph. D. 1826.) Prussian blue (pure), 6 parts; mercuric oxide, 5 parts;
distilled water, 40 parts; as the last.

3. (Desfosses.) Potassium ferrocyanide, 1 part, is boiled for 1/4 hour
with mercuric sulphate, 2 parts, and distilled water, 8 parts; the deposit
is separated by filtration, and the liquid evaporated to crystallising

4. (Winckler.) Saturate dilute hydrocyanic acid with mercuric oxide;
evaporate and crystallise. Pure.

_Prop., &c._ Heavy, colourless, inodorous, square prisms; tasting strongly
metallic; soluble in 8 parts of cold water; slightly soluble in alcohol.
Those made by the first two formulæ are of a pale yellow colour. It is
transparent and totally soluble in water. The solution, on the addition of
hydrochloric acid, evolves hydrocyanic acid, known by its smell; and a
glass moistened with a solution of nitrate of silver, and held over it,
gives a deposit soluble in boiling nitric acid. When heated it evolves
cyanogen, and runs into globules of metallic mercury. It has been
administered in some hepatic and skin diseases, and has been proposed as a
substitute for corrosive sublimate. (Parent.) It has been said to act
directly on the skin and bones, and to have proved useful in allaying the
pain of nodes and in dispersing them. (Mendaga.) It is, however,
principally used as a source of cyanogen and hydrocyanic acid.——_Dose_,
1/16 to 1/4 gr. (beginning with the smaller quantity), made into pills
with crum of bread, or in alcoholic solution; as a gargle or lotion, 10
gr. to water, 1 pint; as an ointment, 10 or 12 gr., to lard, 1 oz.

=Mercuric Iodide.= HgI_{2}. _Syn._ PROTIODIDE OF MERCURY, RED IODIDE OF
RUBRUM (Ph. D.), L. _Prep._ 1. (B. P.) Mercuric chloride (corrosive
sublimate), 4; potassium iodide, 5; boiling distilled water, 80. Dissolve
the mercuric chloride in 60 of water, and the potassium iodide in the
remainder, and mix the two solutions. Allow to stand, decant the
supernatant liquor, and collect the precipitate on a filter, wash twice
with cold water, and dry at 212° F.

2. (Ph. L. 1836.) Mercury, 1 oz.; iodine, 10 dr.; rectified spirit, q. s.
(2 or 3 fl. dr.); triturate until the globules of mercury disappear, and
the mixture assumes a scarlet colour, then dry it in the shade, and
preserve it in a well-stoppered vessel.

3. (Ph. E.) Mercury, 2 oz.; iodine, 2-1/2 oz.; spirit, q. s.; triturate
together as last, dissolve the product, by brisk ebullition, in
concentrated solution of sodium chloride, 1 gall., filter whilst boiling
hot, wash the crystals that are deposited as the solution cools, and dry

4. (Ph. D.) Mercuric chloride, 1 oz.; hot distilled water, 25 fl. oz.;
dissolve potassium iodide, 1-1/2 oz.; water, 5 fl. oz.; dissolve; when the
solutions are cold, mix them, collect the precipitate on a paper filter,
drain it, wash it with distilled water, 10 fl. oz., and dry it at a heat
not above that of boiling water.

_Prop., &c._ A bright scarlet powder, insoluble in water, but soluble in
alcohol and ether, and in the solutions of several of the iodides and
chlorides. It is also soluble in cod-liver oil, and in several other fixed
oils. Readily sublimed.——_Dose_, 1/16 to 1/4 gr., dissolved in alcohol or
made into a pill; in the same cases as the subiodides, from which it
differs chiefly in its greater energy and poisonous qualities.


=Mercuric and Potassium Iodide.= HgI_{2}.KI. _Syn._ IODIDE OF MERCURY AND
L. _Prep._ 1. (M. Boullay.) Mercuric iodide, potassium iodide, and water,
equal parts; dissolve by heat, and crystallise by evaporation or
refrigeration, or gently evaporate to dryness.

2. (Puche.) From mercuric iodide and potassium iodide, equal parts,
triturated together.——_Dose_, 1/16 to 1/8 gr., dissolved in water; in the
same cases as the biniodide, and in chronic bronchitis, hooping-cough,
inflammatory sore throat, &c.

=Mercuric and Potassium Iodo-cy′anide.= _Syn._ HYDRARGYRI ET POTASSII
IODO-CYANIDUM, L. _Prep._ To a concentrated solution of mercuric cyanide
add a rather strong solution of potassium iodide, and dry the precipitate
by a gentle heat.

_Prop., &c._ Small, white, pearly, crystalline plates or scales. It is
chiefly used as a test of the purity of hydrocyanic acid. When put into
this liquid it is instantly turned red if any mineral acid is present.

=Mercuric Nitrate.= Hg(NO_{3})_{2}. _Syn._ PROTONITRATE OF MERCURY,
PERNITRATE OF MERCURY. _Prep._ 1. (NEUTRAL.) This is obtained by solution
of mercuric oxide, in excess of nitric acid. The solution, evaporated in a
bell-jar over sulphuric acid, yields crystals which are neutral. The same
compound is obtained as a crystalline powder when the syrupy liquid is
dropped into strong nitric acid.

(Basic.) 1st. 2Hg(NO_{3})HO.H_{2}O. _Prep._ _a._ By saturating hot dilute
nitric acid with mercuric oxide. The salt, which is bibasic, crystallises
on cooling.

_b._ By dissolving mercury in excess of nitric acid, with heat, until the
solution, when diluted with distilled water, ceases to give a precipitate
with common salt. It is now a mixed solution of the neutral and bibasic
pernitrates; but by evaporation crystals of the latter salt only are
deposited. The acid solution (before evaporation) is used as a caustic in
cancerous, syphilitic, and other ulcerations; but it frequently produces
intense pain, and occasionally the usual constitutional effects of
mercury. It was formerly given in similar cases to those in which the
bichloride is now employed.——_Dose_ (of the dry salt), 1/20 to 1/12 gr.
This is the preparation ordinarily referred to under the name ‘pernitrate
of mercury.’

2nd. 2Hg(NO_{3})HO.HgO. _c._ By saturating strong nitric acid with
mercury, by heat, throwing the solution into cold water, and collecting
and drying the precipitate. This salt, which is tribasic, is also formed
when the preceding crystallised salts are put into hot water.

_Obs._ This last preparation is a heavy, yellow powder, but the shade
varies according to its basicity, which increases with the temperature of
the water employed to effect the precipitation, until, at the boiling
temperature, the colour is a dull red. It is extensively employed for the
extemporaneous preparation of the ointment of nitrate of mercury,
according to the formula on the following label which accompanies each
bottle:——“Hydrarg. subnitras.” “Two scruples, mixed with one ounce of
simple cerate, make the ung. hydrarg. nit. of the London Pharmacopœia.” We
need scarcely add that this statement, so unblushingly uttered, is a
dangerous falsehood. An ointment so made possesses neither the quantity of
mercury nor of nitric acid employed in the Pharmacopœia preparation,
besides wanting many of its most sensible and valuable properties.

OXYDUM, H. O. RUBRUM, B. & L. There are several methods by which this
substance may be prepared. The following are those which have been ordered
at different times in the Pharmacopœias:——

1. By precipitation (HYDRARGYRI BINOXYDUM——Ph. L. 1836.). Mercuric
chloride (corrosive sublimate), 4 oz.; distilled water, 6 pints; dissolve
and add of liquor of potass, 28 fl. oz.; drain the precipitate, wash it in
distilled water, and dry it by a gentle heat.

_Obs._ A bright orange-red powder. It usually contains a little combined
water; hence its readier solubility in acids than the oxide prepared by
heat. When heated sufficiently it yields oxygen, and the mercury either
runs into globules or is totally dissipated. It is entirely soluble in
hydrochloric acid. (Ph. L. 1836.) The preparation of the shops has
frequently a brick-red colour, and contains a little oxychloride, arising
from too little alkali being used.

2. By calcination of the nitrate (RED PRECIPITATE; HYDRARGYRI NITRICI
P. Mercury, by weight, 8; nitric acid, 4-1/2; water, 2. Dissolve half the
mercury in the water and acid, evaporate to dryness, and triturate with
the rest of the mercury until well blended. Heat in a porcelain capsule,
repeatedly stirring, until acid vapours cease to be evolved.

Mercury, 3 lbs.; nitric acid, 18 fl. oz. (1-1/2 lb., Ph. L. 1836); water,
2 quarts; dissolve by a gentle heat, evaporate to dryness, powder, and
calcine this in a shallow vessel, with a gradually increased heat, until
red vapours cease to arise. The process of the Ph. E. and D. are similar,
except that the Dublin College directs the evaporation and calcination to
be performed in the same vessel, without powdering or stirring the mass.

_Obs._ Bright red crystalline scales, which usually contain a little
undecomposed pernitrate of mercury; in other respects it resembles the
last two preparations. It is more generally used as an escharotic and in
ointments than the precipitated oxide. It is volatilised by heat without
the evolution of nitrous vapours.

According to Mr Brande it contains about 2-1/2 per cent. of nitric acid.
According to Mr Barker the process of the Ph. D. yields the finest
coloured product; but Mr Brande states that “the nitrate requires to be
constantly stirred during the process, which is usually performed in a
cast-iron pot.” On the large scale, the evaporation is generally conducted
in a shallow earthen dish, and as soon as the mass becomes dry a second
dish is inverted over it, and the calcination is continued, without
disturbance, until the process is concluded. The heat of a sand bath is
employed. 120 lbs. of mercury, and 48 lbs. of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·48)
yields 112 lbs. of red precipitate. (Brande.)

_Uses, &c._ Red oxide of mercury, whether obtained by calcination or
precipitation, possesses the same general properties. It is very slightly
soluble in water, but sufficiently so to give that fluid an alkaline
reaction, and a metallic taste. It was formerly employed in medicine to
induce salivation; but is now chiefly used as an escharotic, either in the
form of powder or made into an ointment.——_Dose_, 1/8 to 1 gr., combined
with opium. It is very poisonous.

(Neutral.)——_a._ By boiling together sulphuric acid and metallic mercury
until the latter is wholly converted into a heavy, white, crystalline
powder; the excess of acid is removed by evaporation. Equal weights of
acid and metal may conveniently be employed.

_b._ (Ph. D. 1826.) Dissolve mercury, 6 parts, in a mixture of sulphuric
acid, 6 parts, and nitric acid, 1 part, by boiling them in a glass vessel,
and continue the heat until the mass becomes perfectly dry and white. Used
to make calomel.

_c._ (Ph. B.) Place 20 oz. of quicksilver in a porcelain capsule with 12
fl. oz. of sulphuric acid, and apply heat until nothing remains but a
white, dry, crystalline salt. Used to make perchloride and chloride of

MINERALE, L.——_a._ Dissolve mercury in an equal weight of sulphuric acid
by boiling them to dryness, fling the mass into hot water, and wash and
dry the resulting yellow powder.

_b._ (Ph. D. 1826.) Mercuric sulphate, 1 part; warm water, 20 parts;
triturate together in an earthen mortar, wash well with distilled water,
drain, and dry it.

_Prop., &c._ A heavy, lemon-yellow powder, soluble in 2000 parts of cold,
and about 600 parts of boiling water. By long-continued washing with very
hot water it loses all its remaining acid, and is at length converted into
red oxide of mercury.——_Dose._ As an alterative, 1/8 to 1/2 gr.; as an
emetic, 3 to 5 gr.; as an errhine, 1 gr.; mixed up with a pinch of
liquorice powder or fine snuff. It is a powerful poison, and one of the
least useful of the mercurial preparations.

_Obs._ The temperature of the water employed to decompose the neutral
sulphate influences the shade of colour of the resulting salt in a similar
manner to that pointed out under the nitrate. It is now superseded as a
pigment by chrome yellow and orpiment, which are not only more beautiful,
but cheaper preparations.

Quicksilver, 24 oz.; sulphur, 5 oz.; melt together, and continue the heat
till the mixture swells up, then cover the vessel, remove it from the
heat, and when cold, powder and sublime it. (Ph. B.) Quicksilver, 2 lbs.;
sulphur, 5 oz.

_Prop., &c._ Mercuric sulphide has a dark-red semi-crystalline appearance
in the mass, but acquires a brilliant scarlet colour by powdering. It is
tasteless, odourless, and insoluble. It is chiefly used as a pigment; but
it is occasionally employed in medicine as a diaphoretic and vermifuge,
and in some cutaneous diseases and gout.——_Dose_, 10 to 30 gr.; as a
fumigation, about 1/2 dr. is thrown on a plate of iron heated to dull
redness. For the last purpose it is inferior to mercurous oxide, owing to
the more irritating nature of its vapour.

_Tests._ MERCUROUS SALTS. Sulphuretted hydrogen and ammonium sulphide give
black precipitates, insoluble in dilute acids, ammonium sulphide,
potassium cyanide, and hot nitric acid, but slightly soluble in sodium
sulphide, and decomposed by nitro-hydrochloric acid.

Potassium hydrate and ammonia give black grey or black precipitates, which
are insoluble in excess of the precipitant.

Hydrochloric acid and the soluble metallic chlorides occasion a
precipitate, which assumes the form of a very fine powder of dazzling
whiteness, insoluble in excess, but soluble in aqua regia and liquid
chlorine. Potassium hydrate and ammonia turn it dark grey or black.

Potassium iodide gives a greenish-yellow precipitate, soluble in ether,
and subliming in red crystals when heated.

=Mercurous Acetate.= Hg(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}). _Syn._ ACETATE OF MERCURY,
SUBACETATE. _Prep._ (P. Cod.) Dissolve mercurous nitrate, 1 part, in water
(slightly acidulated with nitric acid), 4 parts, and precipitate the
liquid with a solution of sodium acetate, gradually added, until in slight
excess; carefully wash the precipitate with cold water, and dry it in the

_Prop., &c._ Small, white, micaceous, flexible scales; insoluble in
alcohol; soluble in about 300 parts of water; blackened by light; and
carbonised by a strong heat. It has been said to be one of the mildest of
the mercurials; but this cannot be the case, as it occasionally acts with
great violence on both the stomach and bowels, producing much pain and
prostration.——_Dose_, 1/6 to 1 gr., night and morning, gradually

BROMIDUM, L. _Prep._ (Magendie.) By precipitating a solution of mercurous
nitrate by another of potassium bromide. It closely resembles calomel in
both its appearance and properties.——_Dose_, 1 to 5 gr.

=Mercurous Chloride.= HgCl or Hg_{2}Cl_{2}. _Syn._ CALOMEL, SUBCHLORIDE OF
CHLORIDUM (Ph. L.), H. C. MITE (Ph. U. S.), CALOMELAS (Ph. E. & D.), L.
This substance is one of the best known, and probably the most valuable,
of all the mercurials.

_Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.) Mercury, 2 lbs.; sulphuric acid, 21-1/2 fl. oz.; mix,
boil to dryness (in a cast-iron vessel), and when the resulting mass has
cooled, add of mercury, 2 lbs., and triturate the ingredients in an
earthenware mortar until they are well mixed; then add of sodium chloride,
1-1/2 lb., and again triturate until the globules are no longer visible;
next sublime the mixture, reduce the sublimate to the finest possible
powder, diligently wash it with boiling distilled water, and dry
it.——_Prod._ 117 or 118% of the weight of mercury employed.

2. (Ph. F.) Mercury, 4 oz., is dissolved in a mixture of sulphuric acid, 2
fl. oz. 3 fl. dr., and nitric acid, 1/2 fl. oz., by the aid of heat; when
cold, mercury, 4 oz., is added, and the remainder of the process is
conducted as before.

3. (CALOMELAS SUBLIMATUM.——Ph. D.) Sulphate of mercury, 10 parts; mercury,
7 parts; dry sodium chloride, 5 parts; triturate, &c., as before, and
afterwards resublime it into a large chamber or receiver.

4. (Ph. B.) Same as Dublin.

5. (Apothecaries’ Hall.) Quicksilver, 50 lbs., and sulphuric acid, 70
lbs., are boiled to dryness in a cast-iron vessel; of the dry salt, 62
lbs. are triturated with quicksilver, 40-1/2 lbs., until the globules are
extinguished, when sodium chloride, 34 lbs., is added, and after thorough
admixture the whole is sublimed, &c., as before.——_Prod._ 96 to 100 lbs.

6. (Jewel’s Patent.) The receiver, which is capacious, is filled with
steam, so that the calomel vapour is condensed in it in a state of
extremely minute division. The engr. represents the apparatus now usually
employed when this plan is adopted. The product is extremely white, and of
the finest quality. It is sometimes called ‘hydrosublimed calomel’ and
‘hydrosublimate of mercury.’ The ‘flowers of calomel,’ of old pharmacy,
were prepared in a nearly similar manner.

[Illustration: _a._ Furnace.

_b._ An earthenware retort, having a short and wide neck, containing the
ingredients for making calomel.

_c._ An earthen receiver, having three tubulatures.

_d._ A vessel containing water.

_e._ A steam-boiler.]

7. (Soubeiran.) The crude calomel mixture is heated in an earthen tube in
a furnace, and a current of air is directed uninterruptedly into the tube
by means of a small ventilator. This sweeps away, as it were, the vapours
of calomel, and in a straight tube will carry them a distance of 60 feet,
to avoid which the end of the recipient is immersed in water, by which
means the calomel is moistened and falls down. This plan, slightly
modified, is now extensively adopted in this country.

quicksilver, 9 parts, in nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·02 to 1·25), 8 parts,
until no more metal will dissolve, applying heat as the effervescence
ceases; then mix the hot liquid quickly with a boiling solution of sodium
chloride, 8 parts, dissolved in water (slightly acidulated with
hydrochloric acid), 64 parts; lastly, well wash the precipitate in boiling
distilled water, and dry it. The product, when the process is skilfully
managed, is perfectly white and pure.

_Prop._ A heavy, white, tasteless powder; insoluble in water, alcohol, and
cold dilute nitric acid; volatilises at a temperature below redness, and
yields a white or yellowish-white sublimate; hot nitric acid oxidises and
dissolves it; alkalies, the alkaline carbonates, and lime water, decompose
it, with the production of the black oxide; ammonia converts it into a
dark slate-grey coloured powder (BLACK PRECIPITATE——Kane). Sp. gr. 7·14
(Boullay; 7·156——Pelouze and Fremy; 7·176——Ure).

_Pur._ Calomel is frequently contaminated with small quantities of
corrosive sublimate, which may be detected by digesting a little in
alcohol, decanting the clear portion, and testing it with a drop or two of
potassium hydrate, when a reddish precipitate will be formed if any
mercuric chloride be present. It is pulverulent, whitish, and sublimes
entirely by heat. It becomes black on the addition of potassium hydrate,
then, heat being applied, it runs into globules of mercury. Neither silver
nitrate, lime water, nor sulphuretted hydrogen, being added to the water
in which it has been washed, or boiled throws down anything.

_Uses._ Calomel is one of the milder mercurials, and in this respect takes
its position immediately after blue pill, mercury with chalk, and the grey
oxide; but it probably ranks before all the other salts of mercury.
Universal experience appears to show it to be a most valuable alterative
when judiciously administered. With this intention it is given in doses of
1/4 to 1 gr., generally combined with antimonials, as in Plummer’s pill,
and repeated every night, or every other night, for some time, followed by
a mild saline aperient in the morning. As a purgative, 2 to 5 gr., either
combined with or followed by other purgatives, as jalap, rhubarb, senna,
colocynth, Epsom salts, &c. As a vermifuge, 2 to 5 gr., over-night,
followed by a sufficient dose of castor oil next morning. Combined with
opium it is frequently used in various complaints to produce salivation,
or bring the system under the influence of mercury. It is also employed as
a sedative and errhine, and in a vast number of other indications. It is,
indeed, more frequently used, and in a greater variety of complaints, than
probably any other medicine.

_Obs._ Of the two methods of preparing calomel, that by precipitation is
not only the best, but the most economical. That by sublimation is,
however, the one generally adopted in England. Mr Brande states that “a
small portion of sodium chloride is apt to remain combined with it, which
might affect its medical uses.” Such a contamination is not found in
carefully prepared precipitated calomel, although we doubt whether the
quantity of it which exists in any of the samples we have met with (being
merely a trace) would at all interfere with its therapeutical action; more
especially when it is recollected that alkaline chlorides are present in,
not merely the primæ viæ, but also in every part of the animal body. The
late Mr Fownes, a chemist who was unsurpassed in the accuracy of his
researches, and the caution and delicacy with which he expressed his
opinions, once assured us that calomel was more easily and cheaply
prepared of the best quality by precipitation than by sublimation, and
that if, from careless manipulation, it occasionally contained a minute
quantity of common salt, this was of much less importance than the
contamination of corrosive sublimate, which was frequently present in
samples of sublimed calomel.

To produce a superior article of calomel in the dry way is a somewhat
difficult task, and the process frequently fails in the hands of
inexperienced operators. The solution of the mercury is best made in an
iron vessel, and the sublimation should be conducted (preferably) in an
earthenware retort with a short but very wide neck, and fitted in a
spacious receiver, having a large flat bottom, also of earthenware, and
containing a little cold water. On the small scale the heat may be applied
by means of a sand bath. The form above given for calomel, by
precipitation, produces a large product, perfectly free from corrosive
sublimate and mercurous nitrate, and is consequently free from the
objections frequently raised against that mode of preparing it.

“The form in which calomel sublimes depends much upon the dimensions and
temperature of the subliming vessels. In small vessels it generally
condenses in a crystalline cake, the interior surface of which is often
covered with beautiful quadrangular prismatic crystals, transparent, and
of a texture somewhat elastic or horny. In this state it acquires, by the
necessary rubbing into powder, a decided yellow or buff colour, more or
less deep, according to the degree of trituration it has undergone. If, on
the contrary, the calomel be sublimed into a very capacious and cold
receiver, it falls in an impalpable and perfectly white powder, which
requires only one elutriation to fit it for use; it then remains perfectly
colourless.” (Brande.)

The long-continued action of steam on calomel in a state of minute
division is attended by the formation of a small quantity of corrosive
sublimate. (Righini.) Boiling water, hot air, and light, also produce a
like effect.

SUBIODUM, H. IODIDUM (Ph. L.), H. I. VIRIDE (Ph. D.), L. _Prep._ 1. (B.
P.) Mercury, 1 oz.; iodine, 278 gr.; rectified spirit, a sufficiency. Rub
the iodine and mercury in a porcelain mortar, moistening occasionally with
a few drops of spirit, and continue the trituration until the mass assumes
a uniform green colour, and no metallic globules are visible.

2. Precipitate a solution of mercurous nitrate by another of mercurous
potassium iodide; wash the precipitate, first in a solution of sodium
chloride, and then in pure water; lastly, dry it in the shade.

3. (Ph. L.) Mercury, 1 oz.; iodine, 5 dr.; triturate together, gradually
adding of rectified spirit, q. s. (about 1 to 2 fl. dr.), until globules
are no longer seen; dry the powder, by a gentle heat, in the shade, as
quickly as possible, and preserve it in a well-stoppered black glass
vessel. The formula of the Ph. D. is similar.

_Prop., &c._ A heavy, greenish-yellow powder; insoluble in water, alcohol,
and a solution of common salt; soluble in ether, and slightly so in an
aqueous solution of iodide of potassium. “Freshly prepared, it is
yellowish. Heat being cautiously applied, it sublimes in red crystals,
which quickly turn yellow, and, on access of light, blacken. It is
insoluble in a solution of chloride of sodium.” The process of the Ph. L.
and F. P. does not answer when larger quantities than 4 or 5 oz. are
prepared at once, owing to the great heat generated by the reaction of the
ingredients, and the consequent volatilisation of a portion of the iodine,
by which the colour of the product suffers.——_Dose_, 1/8 to 1 gr., made
into pills; “in syphilis and scrofula, especially where they occur in the
same individual.” It is also used externally, in the form of ointment. It
is very poisonous.

=Mercurous Nitrate.= HgNO_{3}. _Syn._ SUBNITRATE OF MERCURY; HYDRARGYRI
SUBNITRAS, H. NITRAS, H. PROTONITRAS, L. _Prep._ 1. (Neutral.) By
digesting mercury in excess of cold dilute nitric acid, observing to
remove the short prismatic crystals within a short time after they are
formed; these, when drained, and redissolved in water slightly acidulated
with nitric acid, furnish crystals of pure neutral mercurous nitrate by
cautious evaporation.

2. (Basic.) Deposited after some time, when excess of mercury has been
employed as above. A fine crystallised salt.

_Prop., &c._ Both the above are decomposed by water, but the former may be
dissolved in a very small quantity without decomposition. When the neutral
salt is triturated with an excess of sodium chloride, and water
subsequently added, the whole of the mercury is thrown down as calomel,
and the filtered supernatant liquid does not contain corrosive sublimate.
If this salt is detected, the salt examined contained mercuric nitrate,
and if any basic mercurous nitrate was present, the newly formed calomel
has a grey or black colour, due to presence of oxide.——_Dose._ Of the
neutral salts, 1/16 to 1/8 gr. It is seldom used internally. A solution is
sometimes employed as a mild caustic to ulcers; and, more dilute, as a
lotion in lepra, porrigo, psoriasis, etc.; or made into an ointment, in
the same diseases.

=Mercurous Oxide.= Hg_{2}O. _Syn._ SUBOXIDE OF MERCURY, GREY O. OF M.,
1836.) Calomel, 1 oz.; lime water, 1 gall.; mix, agitate well together,
decant the clear liquid after subsidence, and well wash the sediment with
distilled water; lastly, drain and dry it, wrapped in bibulous paper, in
the air.

2. (Ph. D. 1826.) Sublimed calomel, 1 part; solution of potassium hydrate
(warm), 4 parts; triturate together, &c., as last.

3. Briskly triturate calomel in a mortar with pure potassium hydrate, in
excess; wash it with water, and dry it in the shade.

_Prop., &c._ A very dark grey or black powder, suffering decomposition by
exposure to light and air, becoming olive coloured, from a portion being
resolved into metallic mercury and binoxide. Digested for a short time in
dilute hydrochloric acid, it remains undissolved, and the filtered liquid
is not affected by potassium hydrate, or by ammonium oxalate. It is
totally soluble in acetic acid, and entirely dissipated by heat. As a
medicine pure mercurous oxide is one of the mildest of the mercurials, and
is used both internally and externally; but chiefly as a fumigant, or made
into an ointment.——_Dose_, 1/2 gr. to 3 gr. twice a day.

=Mercurous Phosphate=, _Syn._ HYDRARGYRI PHOSPHAS, L. _Prep._ Add a
solution of mercurous nitrate (slightly acidulated with nitric acid) to a
solution of sodium phosphate, and wash and dry the precipitate which
forms. In its physical characters it closely resembles calomel, than which
it is said to be more appropriate in certain cases, especially in
secondary syphilis. Alkalies turn it black.——_Dose_, 1/4 to 1 gr., made
into a pill with sugar and aromatics.

=Mercurous Sulphate.= Hg_{2}SO_{4}. _Syn._ SUBSULPHATE OF MERCURY,
SUBSULPHAS, L. _Prep._ By adding sulphuric acid to a solution of mercurous
nitrate. The salt falls as a white crystalline powder.

=Mercurous Sulphide.= Hg_{2}S. _Syn._ SUBSULPHATE OF MERCURY; HYDRARGYRI
falls as a black precipitate when a solution of mercurous nitrate is
treated with sulphuretted hydrogen or ammonium sulphide.

NIGRUM——Ph. L. 1824 & Ph. D. 1826); (ÆTHIOPS MINERALIS——Ph. L. 1836 & Ph.
D. 1826.) (Quicksilver and sulphur, equal parts, triturated together in a
stoneware mortar——Ph. D.) until globules are no longer visible.

_Prop., &c._ The last preparation of mercurous sulphide is alone employed
medicinally. It is a heavy, insoluble, black powder. It is frequently met
with imperfectly prepared, and sometimes adulterated. It is said to be a
mixture of mercurous sulphide and sulphur, in variable proportions
depending on the length of the trituration. On the large scale it is
generally made by melting the ingredients together, and afterwards
reducing the mass to a fine powder in a mill or mortar. It is said to be
vermifuge and alterative, and has been used in some cutaneous and
glandular diseases, but appears to be nearly inert.——_Dose_, 5 to 30 gr.

=Mercurous Tartrate.= (P. Cod.) _Syn._ PROTO-TARTRATE OF MERCURY,
HYDRARGYRI TARTRAS. Made by adding a solution of proto-nitrate of mercury
in water, slightly acidulated with nitric acid, to a solution of tartrate
of potash as long as a precipitate forms. Wash it with distilled water,
dry it in the shade, and keep it in bottles covered with black
paper.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 gr.

=MERCURY, Other Preparations of.=

=Mercury, Hahnemann’s.= _Syn._ HAHNEMANN’S SOLUBLE MERCURY, H.’S BLACK
MERCURIUS SOLUBILIS HAHNEMANNI, L.——_a._ By dropping weak ammonia into a
solution of mercurous nitrate as long as the precipitate formed is of a
black colour; the powder is washed, dried in the shade without artificial
heat, and then preserved from the light and air.

(Ph. Bor. 1847.) Solution of mercurous nitrate (recent; sp. gr. 1·1),
9-1/4 oz.; distilled water, 2 lbs.; mix, filter, and add to the solution
of ammonia (sp. gr. ·960), 1/2 oz., diluted with water, 4 fl. oz.; collect
the powder immediately on a filter, wash it with water, 3 fl. oz., and dry
it, &c., as before. A very black powder.——_Dose_, 1/4 to 1 gr.

=Mercury, Precipitates of.= 1. BLACK PRECIPITATE, Hahnemann’s soluble
mercury (basic mercurous and ammonium nitrate). 2. GREEN P. (MERCURIUS
PRÆCIPITATUS VIRIDIS, LACERTA VIRIDIS), from equal parts of mercury and
copper, separately dissolved in nitric acid, the solutions mixed,
evaporated to dryness, and then calcined until red fumes cease to arise.
Caustic. 3. RED P., mercuric oxide. 4. WHITE P., ammonio-chloride of

NITRAS, L. To nitric acid, 4 parts, contained in a spacious bolt-head or
matrass, add, gradually, ammonium sesquicarbonate, 2 parts; afterwards add
of mercury, 1 part, and digest in a gentle heat, until the solution is

=Mercury with Chalk.= _Syn._ HYDRARGYRUM CUM CRETÂ. GREY POWDER (B. P.)
_Prep._ Rub 1 oz. (by weight) of mercury, and prepared chalk, 2 oz., in a
porcelain mortar, until metallic globules cease to be visible to the naked
eye and the mixture acquires a uniform grey colour.——_Dose._ From 3 to 8

A little water is said to aid in the extinction of the mercury. Mr Bottle
suggests a slight departure from the Grey _modus operandi_ followed by the
British Pharmacopœia in the above preparation. He proposes to substitute
for the tedious process of trituration in a porcelain mortar the agitation
of the mercury with the chalk in a wide-mouthed glass bottle; by which
means the metal may be minutely subdivided, at a considerably less
expenditure of time and labour.

=Mercury with Magnesia.= (Ph. D.) _Syn._ HYDRARGYRUM CUM MAGNESIÂ. Pure
mercury, 1 oz., carbonate of magnesia, 2 oz. Rub together in a porcelain
mortar until the globules cease to be visible and the mixture acquires a
uniform, grey colour.——_Dose_, 3 to 8 grains.

=Mercury, Yellow Oxide of.= (Ph. B.) _Syn._ HYDRARGYRI OXYDUM FLAVUM.
_Prep._ Perchloride of mercury, 4 oz.; solution of soda (Ph. B.), 2 pints;
distilled water, q. s. Dissolve the perchloride in 4 pints of distilled
water, adding the solution by the application of heat, and add this to the
solution of soda. Stir them together, allow the yellow precipitate to
subside, remove the supernatant liquor by decantation, thoroughly wash the
precipitated oxide on a calico filter with distilled water, and finally
dry it by the heat of a water bath.

=MES′LIN.= A mixture of various kinds of grain. (Brande.)

=METAGAL′LIC ACID.= Obtained by heating dry gallic acid, by a quick fire,
to about 480° Fahr., or until it froths, melts, and becomes black and
solid, then dissolving the residuum in an alkali, filtering, and
precipitating by an acid. An insoluble, black powder.


=METAL′LICA.= [L.] Preparations of the metals. One of the divisions of the
Ph. L.


=METAL′LO-CHROMES.= A name given by Nobili to extremely thin films of
peroxide of lead deposited by electrolytic action upon plates or polished
steel, so as to produce an iridescent play of colours. The effect is often
very beautiful.

=MET′ALLOIDS.= A name sometimes applied to the NON-METALLIC ELEMENTS.

=METAL′LURGY.= “The art of extracting metals from their ores, and adapting
them to various processes of manufacture.” (Percy.)

“Notwithstanding the striking analogy which exists between common chemical
and metallurgic operations, since both are employed to isolate certain
bodies from each other, there are essential differences which should be
carefully noted. In the first place, the quantity of materials being
always very great in metallurgy, requires corresponding adaptations of
apparatus, and often produces peculiar phenomena; in the second place, the
agents to be employed for treating great masses must be selected with a
view to economy, as well as chemical action. In analytical chemistry, the
main object being exactness of result and purity of product, little
attention is bestowed upon the value of the reagents, on account of the
small quantity required for any particular process. But in smelting metals
upon the large scale, profit being the sole object, cheap materials and
easy operations are alone admissible.”[35]

[Footnote 35: ‘Ure’s Dict. of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines,’ 4th edit.]

The limits of this work do not permit of more than a general reference to
the leading operations of metallurgy under this head. These are——digging,
picking or sorting, stamping or crushing, and washing, included under the
general term, ‘dressing ore,’——roasting or calcination, which is either
performed with the fuel in contact with the ore, or in reverberatory
furnaces; and the liquation or reduction to the reguline form. The
application of these processes is noticed under the leading metals. Those
who desire to study the subject minutely are referred to the treatises of
Dr Percy, Robert Hunt, Karsten, and Le Play.

=MET′ALS.= _Syn._ METALLA, L. Metals are elementary bodies, which are
generally distinguished by their lustre and power of conducting heat and
electricity. When their solutions are electrolysed, the metals always
appear at the electro-negative surface, and are hence termed
electro-positive elements.

Formerly, when science was much less advanced than at present, the metals
constituted a well-defined class. The properties which were regarded as
specially characteristic were physical, and were not founded on chemical
relations; thus, lustre and high specific gravity were considered to be
essential characters of all metals. But we are now acquainted with metals
which have a lower specific gravity than water (lithium, sodium, &c.), and
with so-called non-metallic elements which present a strong metallic
lustre (carbon in the state of graphite, crystallised silicon). It will
therefore be seen that the term ‘metal’ is rather conventional than
strictly scientific. By far the greater number of elementary bodies at
present known are metals. Their physical characters and leading chemical
properties are noticed under each of them in its alphabetical place. The
following table exhibits some useful particulars:——

          TABLE _of some of the properties of some of the

        Names arranged in the order of their
       Ductility.         |    Malleability.
      Gold.               |     Gold.
      Silver.             |     Silver.
      Platinum.           |     Copper.
      Iron.               |     Tin.
      Nickel.             |     Platinum.
      Copper.             |     Lead.
      Zinc.               |     Zinc.
      Tin.                |     Iron.
      Lead.               |     Nickel.

         Names arranged in the order of their
    Power of conducting   |   Power of conducting
           Heat.          |      Electricity.
      Silver.             |     Silver.
      Copper.             |     Copper.
      Gold.               |     Gold.
      Tin.                |     Zinc.
      Iron.               |     Iron.
      Lead.               |     Tin.
      Bismuth.            |     Lead.
                          |     Antimony.
                          |     Bismuth.

=METANTIMON′IC ACID.= H_{4}Sb_{2}O_{7}. The name given by M. Fremy to that
variety of antimonic acid obtained by decomposing pentachloride of
antimony with excess of water. It differs from common antimonic acid in
being tetra, and forming two different classes of salts with the acids.
The acid metantimoniate of potassium is the only reagent which yields a
precipitate with the sodium salts, and is therefore of great value in
chemical analysis. It is prepared by fusing antimonic acid with excess of
potassa, in a silver crucible, dissolving the fused mass in a little cold
water, and allowing it to crystallise in vacuo. The resulting crystals
(metantimoniate of potassa), by solution in pure water, are resolved into
free potassa and the acid salt. See ANTIMONY.




honey, 1 cwt.; warm water, 24 galls.; stir well until dissolved; the next
day add of yeast, 1 pint, and hops, 1 lb., previously boiled in water, 1
gall.; along with water q. s. to make the whole measure 1 barrel; mix
well, and ferment the whole with the usual precautions adopted for other
liquors. It contains on the average from 7% to 8% of alcohol. See MEAD.

=ME′THYL.= CH_{3}. The hypothetical radical of PYROXYLIC SPIRIT
(WOOD-SPIRIT, METHYLIC ALCOHOL) and the methyl series. It forms a number
of compounds analogous to those of ethyl.

=METHYLAMINE.= _Syn._ METHYLIA. CH_{3}H_{2}N. A colourless gas possessing
a very powerful odour of ammonia, and a strongly alkaline reaction. It
differs from ammonia, however, in being non-inflammable. In other respects
it bears a considerable resemblance to it. Water at 55° Fahr. dissolves
more than eleven hundred times its bulk of methylamine. It may be easily
condensed to a liquid by means of a freezing mixture.

To obtain it nascent hydrogen is made to react on prussic or formic acid.
Methylia exists in herring brine, and is a frequent product of the
destructive distillation of substances containing nitrogen. Most of its
salts are very soluble in water.

=METHYLATED SPIRIT.= A mixture of 1 part of methylic alcohol (wood spirit)
and 9 parts of ethylic alcohol (spirit of wine). See SPIRIT.

various methods of obtaining this compound:——1. By heating chloroform with
zinc filings and dilute sulphuric acid. 2. By acting on methylene iodide
with chlorine. In this process prolonged treatment with chlorine, at
ordinary temperatures, is required to remove the last traces of iodine.
(Buttlerow.) Chloride of methylene is a colourless mobile fluid, having a
smell like chloroform, and a burning taste. It is used as an anæsthetic in
place of chloroform. According to Dr Armstrong, the substance known as
METHYLENE ETHER is a mechanical mixture of bichloride of methylene and
ethylic ether. Dr Richardson says of this latter it is not so quick in its
action as the methylene chloride, but that it is safer. See ANÆSTHETICS.


MEZEREON——Ph. L., E., & D. The dried bark of the _Daphne Mezereum_,
mezereon; or _Daphne Laureola_, spurge, or wood-laurel. The “bark of the
root of _Daphne Mezereum_,” or spurge olive. (Ph. L.) A stimulant and
diuretic. It is employed as a sudorific and alterative, in syphilis,
rheumatism, scrofula, and chronic cutaneous diseases, usually in
conjunction with sarsaparilla. It has also been used as a masticatory in
toothache, paralysis of the tongue, &c. On the Continent it is used as a
vesicant. For this purpose it is softened by soaking it in hot vinegar,
and is then bound on the part, and renewed after intervals of some hours,
until vesication is produced.


AND AMMONIUM. _Prep._ 1. Phosphates of soda and ammonia, equal parts;
water, q. s.; dissolve separately, mix the solutions, evaporate, and
crystallise. A slight excess of phosphate of ammonia aids the

2. (Fownes.) Phosphate of sodium, 6 parts; water, 2 parts; liquefy by
heat, and add of sal ammoniac (in powder), 1 part; common salt separates,
and after its removal the liquid is concentrated so that crystals may
form. Used as a flux in blowpipe assays.

=MI′CROSCOPE.= The value of the microscope in chemistry and the collateral
sciences is now so generally acknowledged that it would be folly to do
more than merely allude to the subject here.

In the COMPOUND MICROSCOPE, which has quite superseded the ‘simple
microscope’ as an instrument of research, the object is magnified in the
first instance by the object-glass, and then remagnified by the eye-piece.
It follows, therefore, that the magnifying power of the instrument may be
increased either by increasing the power of the object-glass or that of
the eye-piece. It must be borne in mind, however, that in increasing the
power of the eye-piece we do not magnify the object itself in a greater
degree, but simply increase the image of the object formed by the
object-glass. Any imperfections which may exist in the latter are thus
greatly increased. At first the great drawback to the use of the compound
microscope was its deficiency in achromatism; but the researches of Mr
Lester and Dr Goring led to the achromatising of the object-glass, which
was the first of the rapid strides towards perfection made by this
instrument during the last twenty years. The two most useful
object-glasses are the ‘quarter-inch,’ which should magnify from 200 to
220 diameters, and the ‘inch,’ which should magnify from 30 to 40
diameters. The definition of these glasses should be good, and they should
transmit plenty of light. Any lines in a structure examined by them should
appear sharp and distinct, and there should be no coloured fringes around
the object. It is of great importance that the object-glasses are kept
perfectly free from dust. A few shreds of wash-leather of the finest
quality should be kept in a pill-box for cleaning them. Before rubbing
them with the leather they may be breathed upon, but no whiting or liquid
of any kind should be used, as each object-glass, being achromatic, is a
very delicate piece of workmanship, consisting of two lenses of flint and
crown-glass cemented together by Canada balsam. Compound microscopes are
now sold by the best London makers at very low prices. A really good
instrument, adapted to most of the wants of the chemical, pharmaceutical,
or medical student, may be obtained for five guineas.

The following formulæ for the preparation of the chief substances,
together with the principal reagents required in the working of the
microscope, are from Dr Lionel Beale’s valuable book, ‘How to Work with
the Microscope,’[36]

[Footnote 36: Harrison, 59, Pall Mall.]


1. Alcohol, of various strengths.

2. Ether, to dissolve oil globules.

3. Nitric acid (1 part of strong acid to 5 of water)

4. Sulphuric acid (1 to 5).

5. Hydrochloric acid.

6. Acetic acid, glacial and dilute (1 to 5).

7. Chromic acid, very dilute, to harden tissues.

8. Solution of potash, saturated and dilute (1 to 10).

9. Solution of soda (25 gr. of fused soda to 1 oz.).

10. Ammonia (1 part of the strongest solution to 3 of water).

11. Nitrate of baryta, a cold saturated solution of.

12. Nitrate of silver (120 gr. to 2 oz.). These two are for the mineral

13. Oxalate of ammonia in solution. Test for lime.

14. Solution of iodine saturated, _i.e._ 1 to 7000 parts of water. Another
solution is——1 gr. of iodine and 3 of iodide of potassium in 1 oz. of
distilled water.

1. _Cements._——1. _Brunswick Black._ Boil together 1/4 lb. foreign
asphaltum and 4-1/4 oz. of linseed oil (previously thickened with
litharge), then mix to a proper consistence with oil of turpentine (about
1 pint).

2. _Gold Size._ Boil 25 parts of linseed oil with 1 of minium and 1/3rd
part of umber for 3 hours; pour off the clear fluid, and mix with equal
parts of powdered white lead, and yellow ochre, added in small successive
portions. Then boil well the whole again, and pour off the clear fluid. It
dries slowly, but firmly. Both this and the last are dissolved by

3. _Goadby’s Marine Glue._ Dissolve separately in coal naphtha equal parts
of shell-lac and india rubber. Mix thoroughly with heat.

4. _Sealing-wax Varnish._ Dissolve the best sealing-wax in enough strong
spirit of wine to reduce it to the proper consistence. This is brittle.

5. _Canada Balsam._ This dries spontaneously.

Solutions of shell-lac, gum, and various other cements and glues are
employed by microscopic manipulators.

_Preservative Fluids._ Canada balsam, spirit and water, glycerin, solution
of gelatin, saturated solution of alum, chloride of zinc, and chloride of
calcium, are all used to preserve microscopic objects.

The following formulæ will be found useful:——

1. _Goadby’s Solution._ Bay salt, 4 oz.; alum, 2 oz.; corrosive sublimate,
4 gr.; boiling water, 4 pints. Mix and filter. It may often be more

2. _Thwaite’s Fluid._ Mix spirit of wine, 1 oz., with creosote sufficient
to saturate it; rub up with chalk to form a thin paste, and mix gradually
with 16 oz. of water. To this may be added an equal quantity of water,
saturated with camphor.

3. _Simple Creosote Solution._ Dissolve creosote, 1 dr., in pyroligneous
acid, 1 dr., and mix gradually with cold water, 1 pint.

4. _Passini’s Solution. For blood-globules, nerves, and white tissues
generally._ Perchloride of mercury, 1 part; chloride of sodium, 2 parts;
glycerin, 13 parts; distilled water, 113 parts.

=MIL′DEW.= _Syn._ RUST, BLIGHT. The mouldy appearance on the leaves of
plants produced by innumerable microscopic fungi. The hop, wheat, and the
choicest garden fruit trees, are those most commonly attacked. The causes
are said to be excess of moisture, and absence of the free circulation of
air and sunshine. On the small scale, finely powered sulphur is
occasionally dusted over the parts affected, as a remedy.

=MIL′IARY FEVER.= _Syn._ MILIARIA, L. Among the other symptoms
are——anxiety and frequent sighing, the perspiration has a strong and
peculiar smell, and there is a sensation of pricking on the neck and
breast, followed by an eruption of small red pimples, which in two or
three days become white vesicles, dry up, peel off, and are succeeded by
others. The moist weather of spring and autumn are the periods in which it
is most prevalent; and delicate females, particularly in child-bed, are
those most liable to its attacks. Sometimes it assumes a malignant
character. The _treatment_ of this affection consists chiefly in
combating the depression of the system by a supporting diet; but
everything that heats or stimulates the skin should be avoided. The
apartment should be kept cool and well ventilated, and cooling saline
laxatives and bitter tonics, with cooling drinks, should also be had
recourse to.

=MILK.= _Syn._ LAC, L. The value of milk as an article of food is clearly
shown by the fact of it being sufficient to support, and to increase the
growth of, the young of every species of the mammalia; at once supplying
materials for the formation of the osseous, fleshy, and liquid portions of
the body. “The substances present in milk are wonderfully adapted to its
office of producing materials for the rapid growth and development of the
animal frame. It contains an azotised matter, casein, nearly identical in
composition with muscular flesh, fatty principles, and a peculiar sugar,
and, lastly, various salts, among which may be mentioned phosphate of
lime, held in complete solution in a slightly alkaline liquid.

“The white and almost opaque, appearance of milk is an optical illusion.
Examined by a microscope of even moderate power, it is seen to consist of
a perfectly transparent fluid, in which float about numbers of minute
transparent globules; these consist of fat surrounded by an albuminous
envelope, which can be broken mechanically, as in the churning, or
dissolved by the chemical action of caustic potassa, after which, by
agitating the milk with ether, the fat can be dissolved.” (Fownes.)

_Comp._ COWS’ MILK, of average quality, contains from 10% to 12% of solid
matter when evaporated to dryness by steam heat, and has the mean sp. gr.
1·030; while that of the skimmed milk is about 1·035; and of the cream,
1·0244. (Ure.) The average CREAM of cows’ milk contains 4·5% of butter,
3·5% of curd, and 92% of whey. (Berzelius.) The SKIMMED MILK consists of
water, 92·9%; curd, 2·%; sugar of milk, 3·5%; lactic acid, lactate of
potassa, and a trace of lactate of iron, ·6%, chloride of potassium,
phosphate of potassa, and earthy phosphates (lime), ·2%. (Berzelius.)

The following analysis of fresh milk is by M. Haidlen:——

  Water                              873·00
  Butter                              30·00
  Casein                              48·20
  Milk sugar                          43·90
  Phosphate of lime                    2·31
  Phosphate of magnesia                 ·42
  Phosphate of iron                     ·07
  Chloride of potassium                1·44
  Chloride of sodium                    ·24
  Soda in combination with casein       ·42

Professor Wanklyn has devised and published in his excellent little manual
‘Milk Analysis’[37] a process by which a very thorough chemical
examination of milk may be accomplished with great facility and

[Footnote 37: Trubner and Co.]

In his preliminary remarks he condemns, as utterly unreliable and
misleading, the inferences to be drawn from those hydrometric instruments,
the lactometer or lactodensimeter, and creamometer. “A very little
consideration,” he says “will suffice to make intelligible the obliquity
of the indications of the lactometer and to show how untrustworthy it must
be. The lactometer, as of course will be understood, is simply the
hydrometer applied to milk; and readings of the instrument are neither
more nor less than specific gravities. The more milk-sugar, and casein,
and mineral matter there is in a given specimen of milk, the greater
(other things being equal) will be its density or specific gravity, and
the higher the lactometer reading.

“If, however, fat globules (as happens in the instance of milk) be
diffused through the fluid, then, because fat is lighter than water, the
effect of the other milk solids on the gravity of the liquid, will be more
or less neutralised. The density of milk-fat is about 0·9, water being
1·0. Now, if a solution of casein and milk-sugar, of specific gravity
1·030, be sufficiently charged with fat globules, its specific gravity may
be sent down even below the gravity of water. How much would be required
to bring about such a result is a matter of simple calculation.

“This being understood, it will be obvious that if the specimens of milk
differ in specific gravity, there must be two distinct and equally valid
ways of accounting for the difference.

“The milk with the lower gravity may be milk let down with water, or let
down with fat, _i. e._ milk let down by being enriched.”

In support of this last assertion Professor Wanklyn quotes corroborative
instances afforded by the examination of different specimens of milk known
as ‘strippings,’ these being the last portions of milk yielded by the cow
at the termination of the milking. All these ‘strippings’ had a lower
specific gravity than normal milk.

Further, Professor Wanklyn points out that the specific gravity of organic
fluids is a fallacious index of the amount of solids they may contain, as
is illustrated by the fact, that whilst a 10 per cent. solution of
chloride of potassium has a specific gravity of 1·065 at 15° C., and a 10
per cent. solution of casein and milk sugar, has a specific gravity of
only about 1·035.

The creamometer meets with equal condemnation in Professor Wanklyn’s
little book, since different specimens of milk vary considerably in their
yield of cream, and a perfectly pure sample of milk may yield less cream
than one which has been tampered with.

A complete analysis of milk involves the determination of the water, the
fat (the essential constituent of the cream), the casein, milk-sugar, and

The following is an outline of Professor Wanklyn’s neat and ingenious
method of analysis:——

By means of an accurately graduated pipette, he first places 5 cubic
centimetres of the milk in a small weighed platinum dish (about 14 grammes
in weight) just previously ensuring the sample from which the milk is
taken being thoroughly mixed.

The dish is then placed over a water-bath (the water in which must be kept
vigorously boiling the whole time) for three hours, at the end of which
time all the water having been driven off, there will remain in the dish a
completely dried up residue.

The increase in weight between the empty dish and the residue, will give
the weight of the ‘milk solids’ from 5 c.c. of milk. Of course, if this
weight be multiplied by 20, the yield from 100 c.c. of milk will be

To reduce this to a percentage statement it is necessary to remember that
100 c.c. of average milk weigh 102·9 grammes. The next proceeding consists
in the determination of the fat. This is done by treating the dried milk
solids resulting from the 5 c.c. of milk with ether. There are several
important minutiæ necessary to be observed in connection with this part of
the process, for the particulars of which the reader is referred to
Professor Wanklyn’s book. Suffice it to say, that if properly performed,
the whole of the fat is dissolved by the ether, and being separated from
the non-fatty portion of the residue is weighed and calculated as ‘fat.’

If, then, the amount found as fat be deducted from the whole of the milk
solids previous to their treatment with ether, the ‘milk solids, not fat,’
will be arrived at. Professor Wanklyn estimates the casein[38] as
follows:——He treats the milk solids, not fat, with hot alcohol, by which
means he dissolves out from them, and removes the milk-sugar and the
soluble chlorides. The remaining residue, consisting of casein and
phosphate of sodium (chemically combined with the casein), is dried on a
water-bath until it ceases to lose weight. It is then weighed along with
the vessel containing it, and ignited. The combined weight of the vessel
and phosphate of sodium remaining after ignition being deducted from the
weight previous to ignition, the difference is the casein.

[Footnote 38: Under the head “Casein” Prof Wanklyn includes the entire
nitrogenous materials of milk.]

Another and quicker method, recommended by Professor Wanklyn, for the
determination of the casein, is to measure it by the amount of albuminoid
ammonia it is capable of yielding when subjected to the ‘albuminoid
ammonia process,’ invented by Messrs Wanklyn, Chapman, and Smith.

The alcoholic solution filtered off from the combined casein and phosphate
of sodium, contains the milk sugar and soluble chlorides. It is
evaporated to dryness on a water-bath, and the residue with the vessel
containing it, is weighed. It is then gently ignited, and the weight of
the remaining residue being deducted from the total weight before
ignition, gives the yield of milk sugar. Or the milk sugar may be
determined by titration with a standard copper solution.

For the determination of the ash it is only necessary to ignite the milk
solids from 5 c.c. of milk, in the small platinum dish, by which operation
all the organic matter being driven off, that which remains behind
constitutes the ‘ash’ and is weighed as such.

It will be obvious that in order to determine with anything like rigid
accuracy the quality of any sample of milk by analysis, not only must a
normal standard for the purpose of comparison be adopted, but such normal
standard must represent very closely and with but little variation the
definite composition of all sound and genuine milk.

Professor Wanklyn says that “the following, which is the result of several
concordant analyses of country-fed milk, may be taken as representing
normal milk. In 100 grammes of milk——

  Solids (dry at 100° C)   12·5 grammes.
  Water                    87·5

“The 12·5 grammes consist of 9·3 grammes of ‘solids which are not fat,’
and 3·2 grammes of fat.” The above data, which are founded on the
examination of a very large number of different samples of milk, are
confirmed by the researches of Müller and Eisenstuck, who were employed by
the Royal Agricultural Society of Sweden in a similar investigation. The
labours of these chemists extended over a twelvemonth, and the result of
them was to show that the milk yielded day by day, for a whole year, by a
herd of cows was remarkably constant in composition.

Professor Wanklyn gives the following formulæ for the calculation and
statement of the results of milk analysis. He says, treating the question
quite rigidly, which I believe is the proper way of dealing with it, we
arrive at the following:——

_Problem_ 1. Given the percentage of ‘solids, not fat’ (= _a_), in a
specimen of sophisticated milk (_i. e._ milk, either watered, or skimmed,
or both)——required the number of grammes of genuine milk which was
employed to form 100 grammes of it.

_Answer._ Multiply the percentage of ‘solids, not fat’ by 100, and divide
by 9·3.

  Or——       (100 / 9·3)_a_.

_Problem_ II.——Given the percentage of ‘solids, not fat’ (= _a_), also the
percentage of fat (= _b_), in a specimen of sophisticated milk——required
the number of grammes of fat which have been removed by skimming from the
genuine milk which was employed to form 100 grammes of it.

  _Answer._——        (3·2 / 9·3)(_a_ - _b_).

In translating fat into cream, the rule is that a removal of 0·2 gramme of
fat equals a removal of 1·0 gramme of cream. This rule is directly founded
on experiment. I do not, however, claim a high degree of accuracy for the
measurement of the cream.

Finally, a slight refinement may be noticed. If a specimen of
sophisticated milk has been produced by both skimming and watering, it
will be obvious, on consideration, that the extraneous waters employed in
manufacturing 100 grammes of it is equal to the difference between 100 and
the quantity of genuine milk employed to make 100 grammes of sophisticated
milk, together with a quantity of water equal to that of fat removed by

  Extraneous water = 100(100 / 9·3)_a_ + (3·2 / 9·3)(_a_ - _b_)

                   = 100[(100 + 3·2) / 9·3](_a_ - _b_)

Save for the purpose of finding out the presence of matters other than an
excess of water in the milk (a contingency regarded as very improbable),
the estimation of the casein and milk sugar is unnecessary. The
determination of the ash is for the object of learning if foreign mineral
matters, such as chalk or any other inorganic impurity, are present.
Professor Wanklyn says he believes that such like extraneous bodies are
never employed. The chief, if not the sole, form of dishonesty are
watering and skimming.

The amount of ash, however, is a good criterion as to the extent of
dilution that has been practised, a deficient amount being, of course,
confirmatory of a watered milk.

The determination of the amount of ‘solids, not fat,’ is, in almost every
instance, all that is necessary to enable an opinion to be arrived at as
to whether the sample of milk has had water added to it or not.

Out of fifty-six samples of milk supplied to the different London unions
in 1873, Professor Wanklyn reports that he found only fifteen unwatered,
or nearly unwatered. Of these fifteen samples nine had been skimmed,
leaving only six that were at once unwatered and unskimmed. These figures,
therefore, show that only about 10 per cent. of the milk supplied in the
above year to the Metropolitan unions was genuine. He adds——“It is curious
to compare the language of the contract under which (as it appears from Mr
Rowsell’s report) the dealer supplied the various unions with milk, with
the quality of the article as exhibited by the analysis. ‘New unskimmed
milk unadulterated,’ ‘genuine as from the cow,’ ‘best new unskimmed milk,
to produce 10 per cent. of cream,’ occur in these contracts.”

_Prop._ These are well known. Perfectly fresh milk is slightly alkaline,
but soon becomes acid on exposure to the air, and after a time white
coagula of casein (CURDS) separate from it. This change is immediately
effected by the addition of rennet or an acid. That from the first, when
dried and pressed, constitutes cheese.

_Pur., Tests, &c._ The common frauds practised by the milk-dealers are the
addition of water and the subtraction of part of the cream. Sometimes
potato starch is added to the milk, to give it a creamy or rich
appearance, and this addition is still more frequently made to cream, to
increase its consistence and quality.

The presence of potato starch may be determined by boiling some of the
milk with a little vinegar, and after separating the coagulum by a
strainer, and allowing the liquid to become cold, testing it with solution
or tincture of iodine. If it turns blue, starch, flour, or some other
amylaceous substance, has been used to adulterate it. In most cases it
will be sufficient to apply the test to the unprepared suspected milk.

It has frequently been stated that chalk, plaster of Paris, gum, gelatin,
sugar, flour, mucilage of hemp-seed, the brains of animals, and other
similar substances, are often added to London milk, but there is no reason
to suppose there is any truth in these assertions, as some of these
articles are too costly to be used, and the presence of others would so
alter the flavour or appearance of the milk, or would so soon exhibit
themselves by subsidence, as to lead to their detection.

_Pres._ Milk may be preserved in stout bottles, well corked, and wired
down, by heating them, in this state, to the boiling-point, in a water
bath, by which means the oxygen of the small quantity of enclosed air
becomes absorbed. It must be afterwards stored in a cool situation. By
this method, which is also extensively adopted for the preservation of
green gooseberries, green peas, &c., milk will retain its properties
unaltered for years. A few grains of carbonate of magnesia, or, still
better, of bicarbonate of potassa or soda, may be advantageously dissolved
in each bottle before corking it.

Under Bethel’s patent the milk or cream is scalded, and, when cold,
strongly charged with carbonic-acid gas, by means of a soda-water machine,
and the corks are wired down in the usual manner. The bottles should be
kept inverted, in a cool place.

An excellent method of preventing milk from turning sour, or coagulating,
is to add to every pint of it about 10 or 12 gr. of carbonate or
bicarbonate of soda. Milk thus prepared may be kept for eight or ten days
in temperate weather. This addition is harmless, and, indeed, is
advantageous to dyspeptic patients. According to D’Arcot, 1/2000th part
of the bicarbonate is sufficient for the purpose. An excess of alkali used
in this manner may be detected by the milk turning turmeric paper brown,
even after it has been kept some hours, and by the ash obtained by
evaporating a little to dryness, and then heating it to dull redness,
effervescing with an acid. (See _below_.)

⁂ Milk should not be kept in lead or zinc vessels, as it speedily
dissolves a portion of these metals, and becomes poisonous.

_Concluding Remarks._ The principal difference between cows’ milk and
human milk consists in the former containing more casein and less sugar of
milk than the latter. The remarkable indisposition to coagulate is another
character which distinguishes human milk from cows’ milk. Prof. Falkland,
who has practically investigated the subject has prepared a nutritive
fluid for infants from cows’ milk, closely resembling that of the healthy
adult woman. His process is, however, unnecessarily complicated, and,
therefore, unsuited to those who would have to employ it in the nursery.
To remove this objection we have adopted the following formula:——Sugar of
milk, 2 oz.; hot water, 1/4 pint; dissolve, and, when the liquor has
become quite cold, add it to fresh cows’ milk, 3/4 pint, and stir them
together. This quantity, prepared morning and evening, will constitute the
proper food for an infant of from 5 to 8 months old. More may be allowed
it if it ‘craves’ it; but there must be no ‘cramming.’ At first it will be
advisable to remove a little of the cream from the milk before adding to
it the saccharine solution; but after a few days this will be found to be
unnecessary, and, indeed, injurious. One very important particular to be
attended to is, the employment of pure cows’ milk, obtained from a healthy
grass-fed animal only. With this precaution, and the use of a good
FEEDING-BOTTLE, the infant will thrive nearly as well as on the breast of
any human female, excepting its mother’s. (See _below_.)

ASSES’ MILK closely resembles human milk in colour, smell, and
consistence, but it contains rather less cream. (See _below_.)

EWES’ MILK closely resembles cows’ milk, than which, however, it is
slightly richer in cream.

GOATS’ MILK, for the most part, resembles cows’ milk, but its consistence
is much greater, and it contains much more solid matter. (See _below_.)

MARES’ MILK, in consistence; is between that of cows’ and human milk. Its
cream is not converted into butter by agitation. See BUTTER, CHEESE,

_Milk as a cause or carrier of disease._——Milk of a mother labouring under
strong mental emotion is, as is well known, capable of seriously
endangering the health of the suckling babe. Payne narrates the case of a
woman suffering under a nervous affection whose milk, two hours after an
attack of the disease, became viscid, like the white of an egg. Similarly,
a deterioration and consequent alteration in properties is induced in the
milk of the cow if she be over driven, exhausted, or harassed. The food of
the animal likewise exercises an influence on the quality of its milk;
thus when cows are fed on turnips, wormwood, decayed leaves, and plants of
the cabbage or onion families, the flavour of these substances is imparted
to their milk. The milk of animals that have fed on poisonous or
deleterious plants is capable of setting up toxic symptoms in human beings
partaking of it. In June, 1875, the inhabitants of a certain quarter of
Rome were attacked with an epidemic, distinguished by great
gastro-intestinal irritation. The cause of the outbreak was traced to the
use of goats’ milk, yielded by goats that had eaten of the meadow saffron,
the _Colchicum autumnale_. It also appears that in the Western States of
America the milk of cows that have fed on the poison-oak, the _Rhus
toxicodendron_, has on several occasions given rise to attacks of illness
in children, marked by extreme weakness, vomiting, fall in bodily
temperature, swollen and dry tongue, and constipation. Boiling seems to
remove the dangerous properties of the milk.

Milk, as has been shown by Fuchs, is sometimes infested by a fungus, the
_Oidium lactis_ or _Penicillium_, which is capable of giving rise to
gastric irritation, and sometimes to severe febrile gastritis.[39]

[Footnote 39: Parkes.]

Although the evidence as to the power of the milk of animals affected with
epizootic diseases to convey the particular affection to human beings is
contradictory, there is little reason to doubt that soured milk may become
a carrier of infection from the ailing or convalescent subject to the
healthy one.

Typhoid and scarlet fever have been known to have originated in this

The outbreak of the former malady in Marylebone in 1874 was traced to the
contamination of milk by the remains of the water which had been used in
rinsing the milk pans. This water had been obtained from a well into which
the excrete from a typhus patient had percolated from a privy.

At Leeds a similar outbreak was caused by the absorption by the milk of
the typhoid effluvium. In the case of scarlet fever the malady has been
conveyed by means of the throat-discharges and cuticle falling into the
milk from the persons of servants and others employed in dairies.

=Milk, Al′mond.= See EMULSION and MIXTURE.

=Milk, Arrowroot.= _Prep._ From arrowroot, 1 table-spoonful, first wetted
and stirred with a little cold water, afterwards adding, gradually, of
boiling water, 1/4 pint; and, lastly, of boiling milk, 1/2 pint; with
sugar, spice, wine, &c., to palate. Very nutritious, and excellent in
chronic diarrhœa. Some persons employ all milk.

=Milk, Choc′olate.= _Prep._ Dissolve chocolate (scraped), 1 oz., in
boiling new milk, 1 pint. Nutritious; but apt to offend delicate stomachs.

=Milk, Cof′fee.= _Prep._ 1. Coffee, 1 oz.; boiling water, 1/4 pint; infuse
for 10 or 15 minutes in a warm situation, and add the strained liquid to
boiling milk, 3/4 pint.

2. Coffee, 1 oz.; tie it loosely in a piece of muslin, and simmer it for
15 minutes in milk, 1 pint. Both the above have been recommended for
persons of spare habits, and for those disposed to affections of the
lungs, more especially for the asthmatic.

=Milk, Facti′′tious.= _Syn._ ARTIFICIAL MILK. Of the numerous compounds
which have been proposed as substitutes for natural milks, the following
are examples:——

L.)——_a._ Cows’ milk, 1 quart; ground rice, 1 oz.; oringo root (bruised),
1 dr,; boil, strain, and add sugar candy (or white sugar), 1 oz.

_b._ Whites of 2 eggs; lump sugar, 1 oz.; cows’ milk (new), 3/4 pint; mix,
then add syrup of tolu, 3/4 oz.

_c._ Water, 1 pint; hartshorn shavings, 1 oz.; boil to a jelly; then add
lump sugar, 2 oz.; cool, add new milk, 1 pint; syrup of tolu, 1/2 oz. Used
as substitutes for asses’ milk, taken freely as a beverage. A cupful, with
or without a spoonful of rum, 3 or 4 times daily, is a popular remedy in
consumption and debility.

2. (F. GOATS’ MILK——A. T. Thomson.) Fresh mutton suet (minced), 1 oz.; tie
it in a muslin bag, and boil it in cows’ milk, 1 quart; lastly, add of
sugar candy, 2 gr. In scrofulous emaciation, and in the latter stages of
phthisis. The proportion of suet in the above may be advantageously
increased a little. The LAC CUM SERO of Guy’s Hospital is a similar

3. (F. HUMAN MILK; LAC HUMANUM FACTITIUM, L.)——_a._ See _above_.

_b._ (Rosenstein.) Almonds (blanched), 2 in number; white sugar, 1 dr.;
water, 4 fl. oz.; make an emulsion, strain, and add of fresh cows’ milk, 6
fl. oz. As a substitute for the breast in nursing.

_Prep._ 1. Fresh skimmed milk, 1 gall.; carbonate of soda (in very fine
powder), 1-1/2 dr.; mix, evaporate to 1/3rd by the heat of steam or a
water bath, with constant agitation, then add of powdered white sugar,
3-1/2 lbs., and complete the evaporation at a reduced temperature; reduce
the dry mass to powder, add the cream (well drained) which was taken from
the milk, and after thorough admixture put the whole into well-stoppered
bottles or tins, which must be at once hermetically sealed.

2. (Legrip.) Carbonate of soda, 1/2 dr.; water, 1 fl. oz.; dissolve, add
of fresh milk, 1 quart; sugar, 1 lb.; reduce it by heat to the
consistence of a syrup, and finish the evaporation on plates by exposure
in an oven.

_Obs._ About an ounce of the powder agitated with a pint of water, forms
an agreeable and nutritious drink, and a good substitute for milk at sea.
It may also be used for tea or coffee in a solid form. This process, which
is very old, has been recently patented. See MILK (_above_).

The condensed or preserved milk, now in such general use, and which is met
with in tins as milk which has been more or less deprived of water by
evaporation in _vacuo_. It occurs in the market in two forms——in one
simply as condensed milk, and in the other as condensed milk mixed with a
large quantity of sugar. Milk preserved as above without sugar will keep
only for two or three days; whereas with sugar it may be preserved for an
almost indefinite time. Either variety mixed with the proper quantity of
water becomes normal milk again, the sweetened kind being, of course, milk
with the addition of a considerable amount of cane sugar. Professor
Wanklyn says he has examined the principal brands of preserved and
condensed milk sent to the London market, and finds they contain their due
proportion of fat. He gives the following analyses of the produce of the
English Condensed Milk Company:


      In 100 parts by weight.
  Water                       20·5
  Fat                         10·4
  Casein                      11·0
  Ash                          2·0
  Cane and milk sugar         56·1


  Water                      51·12
  Fat                        12·11
  Casein                     13·64
  Milk sugar                 20·36
  Ash                         2·77

=Roses, Milk of.= _Syn._ LAC ROSÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. (English.)——_a._ Almonds
(blanched), 1 oz.; oil of almonds and white soft soap, of each 1 dr.; rose
water, 1 pint; make an emulsion.

_b._ From liquor of potassa and oil of almonds, of each 1 fl. oz.; hot
water, 2 fl. oz,; agitate together until mixed, then add of rose water and
distilled or filtered soft water, of each 1/4 pint, and again agitate

_c._ As the last, but using half a tea-spoonful of salt of tartar for the
liquor of potassa.

_d._ (Redwood.) Blanched almonds, 8 oz.; rose water, 3 pints; make an
emulsion, add of white Windsor soap, white wax, and oil of almonds, of
each 1/2 oz.; previously melted together by a gentle heat; triturate
until united, and strain; lastly, add a solution of oil of bergamot, 1/2
oz.; oil of lavender, 1 dr.; and attar of roses, 1/2 dr.; (dissolved in)
rectified spirit, 12 oz.

2. (FRENCH.)——_a._ From rose water, 1 quart; tinctures of benzoin and
styrax, of each 1 fl. oz.; spirit of roses, 1/2 fl. oz.; rectified spirit,
1/2 fl. oz.; mix.

_b._ (Augustin.) Tincture of benzoin, 1/2 fl. oz.; liquor of carbonate of
potassa, 2-1/2 fl. dr.; rose water, 1/2 pint; agitate well together. As a
lotion in acne.

_c._ (Gianinni.) Tincture of benzoin, 1 dr.; tincture of balsam of Peru,
20 drops; rose water, 1 pint; as the last.

_d._ (Schubarth.) Almond paste, 3 dr.; rose water, 1/2 pint; tincture of
benzoin, 1/2 fl. oz. As before. The addition to the last 3 of a little
rectified spirit is an improvement.

3. (GERMAN.) From dilute solution of diacetate of lead (Goulard water),
and spirit of lavender, of each 1 fl. oz.; rose water, 6 fl. oz.; soft
water, 1 pint.

_Obs._ All the above are used as cosmetic washes, and to remove scurf,
pimples, and eruptions, in slight cases.

=Milk, Sa′go.= _Syn._ LAC SAGO, L. _Prep._ (Dr A. T. Thomson.) Sago, 1
oz.; cold water, 1 pint; macerate half an hour, pour off the water, add of
milk, 1-1/2 pint, and boil slowly until the sago is dissolved. Very
nutritious; also in lieu of arrow-root milk.

=Milk of Sulphur.= _See_ SULPHUR (Precipitated).

=Milk, Thick.= Mix one table-spoonful of flour with a pint of milk, and
boil for ten minutes, stirring it well the whole time. It may be flavoured
either with a little salt, or sugar.

=Milk, Vanil′la.= _Syn._ LAC VANILLÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. Essence of vanilla, 12
drops; lump sugar, 1 oz.; triturate, and add gradually, new milk, 1 pint.

2. (Bèral.) Vanilla sugar, 1/2 oz.; milk, 16 oz.; dissolve.

=MILK FEVER.= _Syn._ FEBRIS LACTEA, L. A febrile condition of the system
that sometimes occurs at the time the milk begins to be secreted after
parturition. It often assumes a malignant character. See PUERPERAL FEVER.

=MIL′LET.= _Syn._ MILIUM, L. Several varieties of grain are known by this
name. That commonly referred to under the name is the produce of _Panicum
miliaceum_ (‘Indian millet’). The husked seeds (MILIUM MUNDATUM) are used
to make gruel, and are ground for flour. ‘Turkish millet,’ or ‘Guinea
corn,’ is produced by _Sorgham vulgare_; and the ‘German’ and ‘Italian
millet’ by species of _Setaria_. In some parts of the world millet flour
is used for bread, but it is chiefly cultivated as food for domestic

Letheby says millets are a little more nutritious than rice.

In the subjoined table, is given the composition of three different
samples of millet meal, free from bran.

  |              | _Panicum_   | _Penicillaria_| _Sorghum_
  |              |_miliaceum_, |  _spicata_    |_vulgare_,
  |              |  common     |   a kind of   | Dharra of
  |              |  millet.    |    millet,    | the Arabs,
  |              |             |   much used   |  Goar of
  |              |             |   in India    |  India.
  |              |             |   under the   |
  |              |             |   name of     |
  |              |             |    Bajia.     |
  |              |             |               |
  | Water        |    12·22    |     11·8      |   11·95
  | Nitrogenous  |             |               |
  |   substances |     9·27    |    10·13      |    8·64
  | Dextrin      |     9·13    |     ...       |    3·82
  | Sugar        |     1·80    |     ...       |    1·46
  | Fat          |     7·43    |     4·62      |    3·90
  | Starch       |    59·04    |    71·75      |   70·23[40]
  | Silicin      |     0·11    |     ...       |    ...

[Footnote 40: With husks.]

=MINCE MEAT.= _Prep._ From stoned raisins, currants, sugar, and suet, of
each 2 lbs.; sultana raisins and boiled beef (lean and tender), of each 1
lb.; apples 4 lbs.; juice of 2 lemons; the rind of 1 lemon, chopped very
fine; mixed spice, 1/4 lb.; candied citron and lemon peel, of each 2 oz.;
brandy, a glassful or two; the whole chopped very fine. It may be varied
by adding other spice or flavouring, and by the addition of eggs, or the
substitution of chopped fowl or veal for beef, according to the state of
the cuisinier.

=MINCE PIES.= Take 3 apples, 3 lemons, 1 lb. of raisins, 3/4 lb. of
currants, 1 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of raw beef, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 1/4
lb. of mixed candied peel, 1/4 of a rind of a fresh orange, 1 teaspoonful
of powdered mixed spice, composed of equal parts of cloves, cinnamon, and
nutmeg, 1/2 pint of brandy, and 1 glass of port wine. Peel the apples and
cut out the cores very carefully, and then bake the pieces until they are
quite soft. The raisins must be carefully stoned, and the currants well
washed, dried, and picked. Chop the suet very finely, as well as the raw
meat and lemon-peel. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together, add the
brandy last of all, and press the whole down into a stone jar, and place a
piece of paper soaked in brandy on the top. Remove the paper and stir up
the mixture thoroughly every three days, replacing the paper. If this is
done the mincemeat will keep a long time. To make the pies, roll out some
thin puff-paste, butter a small round tin, and line it with a piece of
paste, then put in a generous quantity of the mincemeat, cover it over
with a similar piece of puff paste, and bake it in a moderate oven. Mince
pies are none the worse for being warmed up, but pray take care they are
sent to table hot. (Cassell.)


=MINERAL CHAME′LEON.= _Prep._ From a mixture of binoxide of manganese and
potassa and nitre, equal parts, heated to redness. It must be preserved
in a well-corked bottle until required for use.

_Prop., &c._ When dissolved in water, its solution, at first green, passes
spontaneously through all the coloured rays to the red, when, if potassa
be added, the colour retrogrades until it reaches the original green. The
addition of oil of vitriol, or of chlorine, renders the solution
colourless. The addition of a weak acid, or even boiling or agitating the
liquid, turns it from green to red. See MANGANIC ACID.

=MIN′ÉRALISERS.= Substances which, by association with metallic bodies,
deprive them of their usual properties, and impart to them the character
of ores. Their removal belongs to metallurgy. The term ‘MINERALISED’ has
been applied to caoutchouc, gutta percha, bitumen, &c., which has been
combined with sulphur, silica, or metallic matter.

=MIN′IM.= _Syn._ MINIMUM, L. A measured drop, of which 60 are equal to a
fluid drachm. The size of drops vary so greatly with different liquids and
are also so much influenced by the size and shape of the vessels from
which they are poured, that they afford no reliable measure of quantity
for medicinal purposes. The poured drop has, in some cases, only 1/3rd the
volume of the measured drop, or minim; whilst, in others, it is nearly 3
times as large. According to Mr Durande, “liquids which contain a small
proportion of water, afford a small drop; while, on the contrary, liquids
containing a large quantity of water furnish a large drop.” “Among liquids
containing a large proportion of water, those which are not charged with
remedial substances, give a larger and heavier drop than the same liquids
when containing extraneous bodies in solution.” In all cases in which the
word ‘drop’ is mentioned in this work a minim is intended, and the
quantity should be determined by means of a graduated minim measure.


recent and the dried flowering herb” of _Mentha viridis_. It is aromatic
and carminative, but its flavour is less agreeable than that of
peppermint. It is employed in flatulence, colic, nausea, diarrhœa, &c.;
also to make sauce.



DAMOCRATIS, L. “This composition originally consisted of but few
ingredients; viz. 20 leaves of rue, 2 walnuts, 2 figs, and a little salt.
Of this we are informed that Mithridates took a dose every morning, to
guard himself against the effects of poison. It was afterwards altered,
and the number of the ingredients increased to sixty-one. In this more
complex form it contained opium, and was, in effect, an aromatic opiate,
of which the confection of opium of the present day may be considered as
a simplification. The ‘mithridate’ is still prepared in some shops, and is
occasionally, though very rarely, prescribed.” (Med. Lex.) “The formulæ
for CONFECTION or ELECTUARY OF CATECHU may be considered as the
representatives, in our modern Pharmacopœias, of the once celebrated
Mithridate was formerly conceived to be good for nearly every disease, and
an antidote for every known poison.

=MIXTURE.= _Syn._ MISTURA, L. A compound liquid medicine, taken in divided
doses. Mixtures are usually extemporaneous preparations, and in
prescribing them care should be taken not to bring together substances
that decompose each other, nor to order heavy powders, that speedily
separate from the body of the liquid by subsidence. EMULSIONS, JULEPS, and
MUCILAGES, are included in the ‘MISTURÆ’ of the London Pharmacopœia.

Mixtures are usually dispensed in flat octagonal 6-or 8-oz. bottles, with
long necks; or in regular ‘octagons’ with short necks, having the doses
marked on the glass, to which the strength of the medicine is made to

Our remarks respecting ‘DRAUGHTS’ equally apply here. By putting the
active ingredients of six draughts into a 6-oz. mixture bottle, and
filling it up with distilled water, a mixture will be made of
corresponding properties, of which the dose will be 2 table-spoonfuls.
When the formula for the draughts includes a decoction or infusion as the
vehicle, instead of water, four of them only must be taken, which will
then fill the 6-oz. bottle, and the proper dose will be 3 table-spoonfuls,
or a small wine-glassful.

The following formulæ embraces the whole of the ‘MISTURÆ’ of the British
Pharmacopœia, as well as a few others in general use. These will serve as
examples for the like preparations of medicinals which are not included in
the list. (See also DRAUGHT, EMULSION, JULEP, WATER, &c.)

=Mixture, Absor′bent.= See MIXTURE, ANTACID.

=Mixture, Aca′cia.= See MIXTURE, GUM.

=Mixture, Ace′tate of Ammo′′nia.= _Syn._ MINDERERUS’S MIXTURE; MISTURA
AMMONIÆ ACETATIS, L. _Prep._ From solution of acetate of ammonia, 1-1/2
fl. oz.; nitre, 40 gr.; camphor mixture, 6 fl. oz.; rose syrup, 1/2 fl.
oz.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 table-spoonfuls, every third or fourth hour, as a
diaphoretic in inflammatory fevers, &c.

=Mixture of Acetic Acid.= _Syn._ MISTURA ACIDI ACETICI. _Prep._ Distilled
vinegar, 2 fl. dr.; syrup, 4 fl. dr.; water, 2 fl. oz. A fourth part every
three hours. For children with scarlatina.

=Mixture of Aconite.= (Mr Fleming.) _Syn._ MISTURA ACONITI. _Prep._
Tincture of aconite, 1 fl. dr.; carbonate of soda, 1-1/2 dr.; sulphate of
magnesia, 1-1/2 oz.; water, 6 oz. A table-spoonful when the pain is
urgent. In gastralgia this should only be administered under medical
supervision or advice.

=Mixture, Al′kaline.= See MIXTURE, ANTACID.

AMYGDALÆ (B. P., Ph. L., E., & D.), LAC AMYGDALÆ, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.)
Confection of almonds, 2-1/2 oz.; distilled water, 1 pint; gradually add
the water to the confection while triturating, until they are mixed; then
strain the liquid through linen.

2. (Ph. E.) From almond confection, 2 oz., and water, 1 quart; as the
last. Or, from sweet almonds (blanched), 10 dr.; white sugar, 5 dr.;
mucilage, 1/2 fl. oz. (or powdered gum, 3 dr.); made into an emulsion with
water, 1 quart.

3. (Ph. D.) Sweet almonds (blanched), 5 dr.; refined sugar, 2 dr.;
powdered gum, 1 dr.; distilled water, 8 fl. oz.; as the last.

4. (B. P.) Compound powder of almonds (sweet), 1; water, 8; triturate and

_Obs._ The last formula produces the article usually employed in
dispensing in the shops. The addition of a little more sugar renders it
more pleasant; and 2 or 3 bitter almonds, as in the formula of the Ph. D.
1826, or 1 or 2 fl. dr. of rose or orange-flower water, may occasionally
be added, to diversify the flavour.——_Dose_, 2 or 3 table-spoonfuls, _ad
libitum_; as a demulcent and emollient in coughs and colds, or as a
vehicle for more active medicines.

=Mixture of Ammonia, Muriate of.= (Sir G. Lefevre.) _Syn._ MISTURA AMMONIÆ
MURIATIS. _Prep._ Muriate of ammonia, 60 gr.; extract of liquorice, 3 dr.;
tartarised antimony, 2 gr.; distilled water, 8 oz. A tablespoonful every 2
hours in pleurisy, congestion of mucous membranes, &c.

=Mixture, Ammoni′acum.= _Syn._ EMULSION OF AMMONIACUM, MILK OF A.; MISTURA
AMMONIACI (B. P., Ph. L. & D.), LAC AMMONIACI, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.)
Prepared ammoniacum, 5 dr.; distilled water, 1 pint; rub the ammoniacum
with the water, gradually added, until they are perfectly mixed.

2. (Ph. D.) Ammoniacum, 1/4 oz.; water, 8 fl. oz.; as the last, but
straining through muslin.

3. (B. P.) Ammoniacum, 1/4 oz.; rubbed down with water, 8 oz., and
strain.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1 gr.

_Obs._ The last formula produces the best and most effective mixture,
owing to the use of the raw instead of the strained drug.——_Dose_, 1 to 2
table-spoonfuls, either alone or combined with squills or ipecacuanha; as
an expectorant and demulcent in chronic coughs, humoral asthma, &c.

=Mixture, A′nodyne.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANODYNA, JULEPUM CALMANS, L. _Prep._
1. Prepared chalk, 2 dr.; syrup of poppies, 1 oz.; fetid spirit of
ammonia, 1-1/2 dr.; oils of dill and aniseed, of each 3 drops; water,
4-1/4 fl. oz.——_Dose._ A teaspoonful 3 or 4 times a day; in the diarrhœa
and colic of infancy.

2. (P. Cod.) Syrup of opium, 2 dr.; syrup of orange flowers, 6 dr.;
lettuce water, 4 fl. oz. To allay pain, induce sleep, &c. _Dose_, 1

3. (Vicat.) Ammoniated alcohol, 3/4 fl. oz.; powdered opium, 1 dr.;
powdered camphor, 1/2 dr.; proof spirit, 1-1/2 fl. oz.; digest, with
agitation, for 3 or 4 days, and filter. In toothache arising from caries,
and as a lotion to the temples in headache.

ALKALINA, M. ANTACIDA, L. _Prep._ 1. Liquor of potassa and spirit of
nutmeg, of each 2 fl. dr.; tincture of rhubarb, 3 fl. dr.; tincture of
opium, 1 fl. dr.; water, 5 fl. oz. In dyspepsia, heartburn, &c.,
accompanied with flatulence.

2. Spirit of sal volatile and orange-flower water, of each 1 fl. oz.;
simple syrup, 1-1/2 fl. oz; water, 2-1/2 fl. oz. In acidity, &c.,
accompanied with languor and low spirits.

3. Sesquicarbonate of ammonia, 2 dr.; syrup of orange peel and tincture of
gentian, of each 1 fl. oz.; water, 4 fl. oz. In dyspepsia, heartburn, &c.,
arising from excessive indulgence in spirituous or fermented liquors. It
also possesses considerable stimulating properties, and will partially
remove the fit of drunkenness.

4. (Collier.) Prepared chalk, 2 dr.; tincture of ginger, 2 fl. dr.;
compound tincture of cardamoms, 1-1/2 fl. oz.; pimento water, 6 fl. oz. In
diarrhœa accompanied with acidity.

5. (Collier.) Chalk mixture, 5 fl. oz.; tinctures of catechu and cinnamon,
of each 1/2 fl. oz. In chronic diarrhœa.

6. (Ryan.) Liquor of potassa, 2 fl. dr.; tincture of opium, 1 fl. dr.;
calcined magnesia, 1 dr.; oil of peppermint, 5 drops; lime water, 8 fl.
oz. In dyspepsia accompanied with acidity, flatulence, and constipation.

=Mixture, Anticroup′al.= _Syn._ MISTURA SENEGÆ, L. _Prep._ (Jadelot.)
Infusion of senega, 4 oz.; syrup of ipecacuanha, 1 oz.; oxymel of squills,
3 dr.; tartarised antimony, 1-1/2 gr.; mix. By spoonfuls, in croup.

=Mixture, Anti-eme′tic.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTI-EMETICA, L. _Prep._ 1.
Creasote, 12 drops; acetate of morphia, 1-1/2 gr.; camphor, 10 gr.
rectified spirit, 1/2 fl. oz.; syrup of orange peel, 1-1/2 fl. oz.;
distilled vinegar, 4 fl. oz. In sea-sickness, &c.——_Dose_, 1
table-spoonful on the approach of vomiting, and repeated at intervals of
half an hour until the vomiting ceases.

2. (Dr. Barker.) Compound tincture of camphor, 1 fl. dr.; burnt brandy, 1
fl. oz.; sugar, 1/2 oz.; infusion of mint, 6 fl. oz.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1
table-spoonful, every 1/4 hour, until the vomiting ceases.

=Mixture, Anti-epilep′tic.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTI-EPILEPTICA, L. _Prep._ (M.
Lemoine.) Liquor of ammonia, 12 drops; syrup of orange flowers, 1 oz.;
distilled water of linden flowers, 2 oz.; do. of cherry laurel, 1/2 oz.;
mix. According to M. Lemoine, this is a specific in epilepsy.——_Dose_, 1
table-spoonful, or more.

=Mixture, Antihyster′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTIHYSTERICA, L.; POTION
ANTIHYSTERIQUE, Fr. _Prep._ (Dr Josat.) Cyanide of potassium, 1-3/4 gr.;
distilled lettuce water, 4-1/2 fl. oz.; syrup of orange flowers, 1-1/2 fl.
oz.——_Dose_, 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls every ten minutes, when the fit is
expected; during the fit it may be given in double doses. Dr Josat
declares its efficacy to have been indisputably proved in upwards of 55

2. (Magendie.) Cyanide of potassium, 2 gr.; lettuce water (distilled), 4
oz.; syrup of marshmallow, 2 oz. Resembles the last.

3. (Dr Paris.) Assafœtida, 1 dr.; peppermint water, 5 fl. oz.; make an
emulsion, and add of ammoniated tincture of valerian, 2 fl. dr.; tincture
of castor, 3 fl. dr.; sulphuric ether, 1-1/2 fl. dr.——_Dose_, 1
table-spoonful, 3 or 4 times a day, or oftener.

4. (P. Cod.) Syrup of wormwood, 1 oz.; tincture of castor, 1/2 dr.;
valerian water and orange-flower water, of each 2 oz.; ether, 1 dr. As the

=Mixture, Antimo′′nial.= See MIXTURE, CONTRA-STIMULANT.

=Mixture, Antipertus′sic.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTIPERTUSSIENS, L. _Prep._ 1.
COCHINEAL (powdered), 2 dr.; carbonate of potassa, 1 dr.; boiling water, 8
fl. oz.; infuse for 1 hour, strain, and add of lump sugar, 1-1/2 oz.

2. (Dr Bird.) Extract of hemlock, 12 gr.; alum, 25 gr.; syrup of red
poppies, 2 fl. dr.; dill water, 3 fl. oz.

3. (Dr Reece.) Tincture of assafœtida, 1 fl. dr.; tincture of opium, 10 or
12 drops; powdered ipecacuanha, 10 gr.; water, 2 fl. oz.——_Dose_. A
teaspoonful every 3 hours, in hooping cough, for a child 2 or 3 years old,
and other ages in proportion.

=Mixture, Antiscrof′ulous.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTISCROFULOSA, L. _Prep._ From
tincture of bichloride of gold, 30 drops; tincture of iodine, 40 drops;
tincture of gentian, 1 fl. dr.; simple syrup, 7 fl. dr.; rose water, 5 fl.
oz.——_Dose._ A dessert-spoonful, 3 or 4 times daily, in a wine-glassful of
water; observing to shake the bottle before pouring out the liquid. Mr
Cooley states that he has seen repeated instances of the excellent effects
of this medicine in scrofula, syphilis, and various glandular diseases,
even under all the disadvantages of a salt-meat diet and confinement on

=Mixture, Antispasmod′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTISPASMODICA, L. _Prep._ 1.
Tincture of castor, 6 fl. dr.; sulphuric ether and laudanum, of each 1 fl.
dr.; syrup of saffron, 1 fl. oz.; cinnamon water, 4 fl. oz.

2. (Dr Collier.) Assafœtida and camphor mixtures, of each 2-1/2 fl. oz.;
tincture of valerian, 1 fl. oz.

3 (P. Cod.) Lime or linden-flower water and orange-flower water, of each 2
oz.; syrup of orange flowers, 1 oz.; ether, 1/2 dr.——_Dose._ (Of each of
the above) 1 to 2 table-spoonfuls.

=Mixture, Ape′′rient.= _Syn._ MISTURA APERIENS, L. _Prep._ 1. (Abernethy.)
Sulphate of magnesia, 1 oz.; manna, 1/2 oz.; infusion of senna, 1-1/2 fl.
oz.; tincture of senna, 1/2 fl. oz.; mint water, 2 fl. oz.; distilled
water, 4 fl. oz.; mix. This is the true ‘ABERNETHY BLACK DRAUGHT,’

2. (Dr Christison.) Sulphate of magnesia, 1-1/2 oz.; water, 4 fl. oz.;
dissolve, and add, of tincture of senna, 1 fl. oz.; infusion of roses, 4
fl. oz.——_Dose._ A wine-glassful hourly, until it begins to operate.

3. (Dr Collier.) Sulphate of iron, 20 gr.; Epsom salts, 1 oz.; pennyroyal
water, 1 pint; dissolve.——_Dose._ A wine-glassful twice a day, in atonic

=Mixture, Aromat′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA AROMATICA, L. _Prep._ 1. (P. Cod.)
Syrup of clove gilliflowers, 1 oz.; spirit of cinnamon, 1/2 oz.;
confection of hyacinth, 2 dr.; peppermint water and orange-flower water,
of each 2 oz.

2. (Guy’s Hosp.) Aromatic confection (Ph. L., in powder), 3 dr.;
peppermint water, 9 fl. oz. Sometimes a little tincture of calumba is

3. (St Barth. Hosp.) Aromatic confection, 2-1/2 dr.; water, 5 fl. oz.;
pimento water, 3 fl. oz.; mix. The last two are excellent aromatic
absorbents in diarrhœa, heartburn, flatulence, acidity, &c.——_Dose_, 1 or
2 table-spoonfuls every 2 or 3 hours, or as required.

=Mixture, Aromatic Iron.= Pale bark, in powder, 4; calumba, in powder, 2;
cloves, bruised, 1; iron wire, 2; compound tincture of cardamoms, 12;
tincture of orange peel, 2; peppermint water, 50; macerate the first four
ingredients in the last one for three days, agitating occasionally,
filter, add the tinctures, and make up to 50. Used as a tonic.——_Dose_, 1
to 2 oz.

=Mixture, Arsen′ical.= _Syn._ MISTURA ARSENICALIS, L. _Prep._ From liquor
of arsenite of potassa——Ph. L., 2 fl. dr.; compound tincture of cardamoms,
4 fl. dr.; cinnamon water, 2 fl. oz.; pure water, 3 fl. oz.; mix.——_Dose._
A small table-spoonful, twice a day, after a full meal; in agues, periodic
headaches, lepra, psoriasis, chronic rheumatism, &c. It should be
exhibited with caution, and its effects watched; and after 5 or 6 days the
dose should be reduced to half the quantity.

=Mixture, Astrin′gent.= _Syn._ MISTURA ASTRINGENS, L. _Prep._ 1. (Pradel.)
Tannin, 12 gr.; tincture of rhatany, 1 dr.; simple syrup, 7 dr.; mucilage,
1 oz.; camphor mixture, 4 oz.

2. (A. T. Thomson.) Extract of catechu, 2 dr. (or tincture 1 oz.);
cinnamon water, 8 oz.; dissolve.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 table-spoonfuls, after
every liquid dejection, in diarrhœa and dysentery.

=Mixture, Atroph′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA ATROPHICA, L.; POTION ATROPHIQUE, Fr.
_Prep._ (Magendie.) Iodide of potassium, 4 dr.; lettuce water, 8 oz.;
peppermint water, 2 dr.; syrup of marshmallow, 1 oz.——_Dose_, 1
tablespoonful, twice a day; in hypertrophy (enlargement) of the heart.
Sometimes 1 to 2 dr. of tincture of foxglove is added to the mixture.

=Mixture, Balsamic.= (P. Cod.) _Syn._ MISTURA BALSAMICA. _Prep._ Balsam
copaiba, 2 oz.; rectified spirit, 2 oz.; syrup of tolu, 2 oz.; peppermint
water, 4 oz.; nitric ether, 2 dr. Mix the alcohol and ether, add the
balsam, then the syrup and water.

=Mixture, Bar′ley.= _Syn._ MISTURA HORDEI, L. See DECOCTION.

=Mixture of Bismuth.= (St Th. Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA BISMUTHI. _Prep._
Subnitrate of bismuth, 10 gr.; compound powder of tragacanth, 5 gr.;
water, 1 oz. For 1 dose.

=Mixture of Bisulphide of Carbon.= (Clarus.) _Syn._ MISTURA BISULPHURETI
CARBONIS. _Prep._ Bisulphide of carbon, 20 minims; sugar, 2 dr.; milk, 6
oz.——_Dose_, 1/2 oz. 4 times a day.

=Mixture of Boracic Acid.= (Chaussier.) _Syn._ MISTURA ACIDI BORACICI.
_Prep._ Camphor mixture, 4 oz.; boracic acid, 60 gr.; syrup of orange
peel, 1 oz.

=Mixture of Burnt Hartshorn.= See DECOCTION, WHITE.

MISTURA SPIRITUS VINI GALLICI (B. P., Ph. L.), L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.)
Brandy and cinnamon water of each 4 fl. oz.; yolks of 2 eggs; white sugar,
1/2 oz.; oil of cinnamon, 2 drops; mix. A valuable stimulant and
restorative in low fevers, and in extreme exhaustion from hæmorrhages,
&c.; but scarcely a fitting subject for the labours of the College of
Physicians, since almost every cook and housewife could produce a better
compound than the product of the College formula.

2. (B. P.) Brandy, 4 gr.; cinnamon water, 4 oz.; the yolks of 2 eggs;
sugar, 1/2 oz.; mix.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1-1/2 oz., in prostration and last
stages of fever.

=Mixture of Caffein.= (Vanden-Corput.) _Syn._ MISTURA CAFFEINÆ. _Prep._
Caffein, 7 gr.; distilled water, 3 oz.; hydrochloric acid, 2 drops; syrup
of orange-flower water, 1/2 oz.; mix.——_Dose_, 1 tablespoonful.

(Ph. L.) Camphor, 1/2 dr.; rectified spirit, 10 drops; triturate together,
gradually adding of water, 1 pint; and strain through linen.

2. (Ph. D.) Tincture of camphor, 1 fl. oz.; distilled water, 3 pints;
agitate well together, and after 24 hours filter through paper.

3. (Ph. E.) See EMULSION.

_Uses, &c._ Camphor julep is chiefly used as a vehicle for other
medicines.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1 wine-glassful.

CAMPHORÆ——Ph. U. S.)——_a._ (Ph. E.) Camphor, 10 gr., carbonate of
magnesia, 25 gr.; triturate together, then gradually add of water, 6 fl.
oz., still continuing the trituration.

_b._ (Ph. D.) Camphor, 12 gr.; carbonate of magnesia, 1/2 dr.; water, 6
fl. oz.; as last.

_c._ (Ph. U. S.) Camphor, 2 dr.; rectified spirit, 40 drops; triturate,
add of carbonate of magnesia, 4 dr., and again triturate, adding,
gradually, of water, 32 fl. oz. Antacid, antispasmodic, and
anodyne.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 table-spoonfuls. Used without straining. It is
stronger than the simple mixture.

strongly charged with carbonic acid gas, agitated with powdered camphor
and strained.

=Mixture, Carmin′ative.= _Syn._ MISTURA CARMINATIVA, L. _Prep._ (Dr
Paris.) Calcined magnesia, 1/2 dr.; peppermint water, 2-1/2 fl. dr.;
compound tincture of lavender, 1/2 fl. dr.; spirit of caraway, 4 fl. dr.;
syrup of ginger, 2 fl. dr.; mix. Antacid and carminative. For 1 or 2

=Mixture of Cassia.= (Fr. Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA CASSIÆ, L.; EAU DE CASSE,
F. Cassia pulp, 2 oz.; hot water, 1-1/2 pint. May be taken by the
wineglass. Laxative.

=Mixture of Cassia, Antimoniated.= (Foy.) _Syn._ MISTURA CASSIÆ
ANTIMONIATA, EAU DE CASSE. Emitisée. _Prep._ Pulp of cassia, 1 oz.;
boiling water, 1-1/2 pint. Macerate, strain, and add sulphate of magnesia,
1 oz.; emetic tartar, 3 gr. By cupfuls. In painters’ colic.

=Mixture, Cathar′tic.= See MIXTURE, APERIENT, M. SENNA, &c.

MISTURA CRETA (Ph. L. E. & D.), M. CRETACEA, L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. L.)
Prepared chalk, 1/2 oz.; sugar, 3 dr.; mixture of acacia (mucilage), 1-1/2
fl. oz., triturate together, then add of cinnamon water, 18 fl. oz.

2. (Ph. E.) Prepared chalk, 10 dr.; white sugar, 5 dr.; mucilage, 3 fl.
oz; spirit of cinnamon, 2 fl. oz.; water, 1 quart; as the last.

3. (Ph. D.) Prepared chalk, 2 dr.; syrup and mucilage, of each, 1/2 oz.;
cinnamon water, 7 fl. oz.

4. (B. P.) Prepared chalk, 1; gum Arabic, in powder, 1; syrup, 2; cinnamon
water, 30; mix by trituration.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 gr., with astringent
tinctures and opium.

_Obs._ The above are antacid and absorbent.——_Dose_, 1 to 3
table-spoonfuls, either alone or combined with aromatic confection; in
heartburn, and in diarrhœa after every liquid motion. In the latter
affection, a little tincture of catechu or laudanum is often added; and
when there is vomiting or nausea, either peppermint or spearmint water is
generally substituted for the whole or a part of the simple water ordered
in the above formulæ.

=Mixture of Chlorine.= _Syn._ MISTURA CHLORINII. Dr Watson prescribes 2
fl. dr. of the solution to 1 pint of water. The dose of the mixture is 4
fl. dr. every 3 hours, according to age, in scarlatina.

=Mixture of Chloroform.= (Ph. U. S.) _Syn._ MISTURA CHLOROFORMI. _Prep._
Chloroform, 1/2 oz. (by weight); camphor, 1 dr.; yolk of 1 egg; water, 6
oz. Rub the yolk first by itself, then with the camphor, previously
dissolved in the chloroform, and lastly, with the water gradually added.

=Mixture, Cincho′na.= _Syn._ BARK MIXTURE; MISTURA CINCHONÆ, L. _Prep._
(Copland.) Confection of roses, 1/2 oz.; boiling decoction of bark, 1 fl.
oz.; triturate, in 10 minutes strain, and add diluted sulphuric acid,
1-1/2 fl. dr.; spirit of nutmeg, 4 fl. dr. Febrifuge, tonic, and
stomachic.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 table-spoonfuls, 2 or 3 times a day.

=Mixture of Citrate of Caffein.= _Syn._ MISTURA CAFFEINÆ CITRATIS, POTION
CONTRE MIGRAINÆ. Syrup of citrate of caffein, 1 fl. oz.; water (or any
agreeable diluent), 5 oz. A table-spoonful frequently.

COLCHICI, L. _Prep._ (Sir S. Scudamore.) Magnesia, 1-1/2 dr.; vinegar of
colchicum and syrup of orange peel, of each 4 fl. dr.; peppermint water, 3
fl. oz. A table-spoonful every 3 or 4 hours during the fit of gout.

=Mixture, Contra-stim′ulant.= _Syn._ MISTURA CONTRA-STIMULANS, JULEPUM C.,
M. ANTIMONII POTASSIO-TARTRATIS, L. _Prep._ (Laennec.) Tartar emetic, 3
gr.; infusion of orange leaves, 8 fl. oz.; syrup of do., 1 fl.
oz.——_Dose._ A wine-glassful, or more, every 2 hours; in inflammation of
the lungs, hooping-cough, &c.

=Mixture of Copaiba.= (Guy’s Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA COPAIBÆ. _Prep._ Balsam
of copaiba, 3 dr.; solution of carbonate of potash, 1-1/2 dr. Rub together
and gradually add decoction of barley, 8 oz.; spirit of nitric ether, 3
dr.——_Dose_, 1 oz. 3 times a day. See MIXTURES, BALSAMIC.

=Mixture, Cough.= _Syn._ MISTURA BECHICA, L. _Prep._ 1. Almond mixture, 4
fl. oz.; oxymel of squills, 1 fl. oz.; ipecacuanha wine and syrup of tolu,
of each 1/2 fl. oz.

2. Tincture of tolu, 1/8 fl. oz.; paregoric elixir and tincture of
squills, of each 1 fl. oz.; syrup of poppies, 3 fl. oz.; water, 3-1/2 fl.

3. Mixture of ammoniacum, 4 fl. oz.; syrup of squills, 2 fl. oz. In the
coughs of old persons.

4. Antimonial wine, 3 fl. dr.; syrup of poppies, 1-1/2 fl. oz.; water, 4
fl. oz. In dry, husky coughs.——_Dose_ (of each of the above), 1
table-spoonful, 2 or 3 times a day, or oftener.

5. (Dr Monro.) Paregoric, 1/2 fl. oz.; sulphuric ether and tincture of
tolu, of each 1/4 oz.——_Dose._ A teaspoonful in water, night and morning,
or when the cough is troublesome.

6. (Dr Radcliff.) Syrup of poppies, syrup of squills, and paregoric,
equal parts.——_Dose._ As the last. In all cases the bowels should be kept
gently moved by some mild aperient.

7. (Dr Wood’s Brown Mixture.) Extract of liquorice, 2 dr.; powdered gum
Arabic, 2 dr.; boiling water, 4 oz.; dissolve, and add antimonial wine, 2
dr.; laudanum, 20 minims.——_Dose._ A table-spoonful occasionally. A
popular American remedy.

=Mixture, Cre′asote.= _Syn._ MISTURA CREASOTI, M. CREAZOTI (B. P., Ph.
E.), L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) Creasote and acetic acid, of each 16 drops;
mix, then add of compound spirit of juniper and syrup, of each 1 fl. oz.;
water, 14 fl. oz.; and agitate well together.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1
wine-glassful, in nausea and vomiting, especially to prevent or relieve

2. (B. P.) Creasote, 16 minims; glacial acetic acid, 16 minims; spirit of
juniper, 1/2 dr.; syrup, 1 oz.; distilled water, 15 oz.; mix.——1 to 2 oz.

=Mixture of Cubebs.= _Syn._ MISTURA CUBEBÆ. Powder of cubebs, 1 oz.;
sugar, 2 dr.; mucilage, 2 oz.; cinnamon water, 6 oz.——_Dose_, 1/2 oz. to 1

M., &c.

=Mixture, Diaphoret′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA DIAPHORETICA, L. _Prep._ 1.
Solution of acetate of ammonia, 3 fl. oz.; antimonial wine, 2 fl. dr.;
tincture of henbane, 1-1/2 fl. dr.; camphor mixture, 3 fl. oz.——_Dose_, 1
table-spoonful every 3 or 4 hours; in fevers, &c.

2. To the last add of sweet spirit of nitre, 1/2 fl. oz. As above.

=Mixture for Diarrhœa.= (Board of Health.) _Syn._ MISTURA PRO DIARRHŒA.
Aromatic powder, 3 dr.; compound spirits of ammonia, 3 dr.; tincture of
catechu, 10 dr.; compound tincture of cardamoms, 6 dr.; tincture of opium,
1 dr.; chalk mixture to make 20 oz.——_Dose._ For an adult, 1 oz.; for a
child of 12 years of age, 1/2 oz.; for 7 years, 1/4 oz.; after each liquid

=Mixture, Diarrhœ′a.= See MIXTURE, CHALK, &c.

=Mixture, Diuret′ic= _Syn._ MISTURA DIURETICA, L. _Prep._ 1. Nitrate of
potassa, 2 dr.; sweet spirit of nitre, 3 fl. dr.; syrup of squills, 1-1/2
fl. oz.; peppermint water, 4 fl. oz.

2. (A. T. Thomson.) Infusion of foxglove, 5-1/2 fl. oz.; tincture of
foxglove, 1/2 fl. dr.; acetate of potassa, 2 dr.; spirit of juniper, 1/2
fl. oz.; tincture of opium, 1/2 fl. In dropsy.——_Dose_, 1 to 2
table-spoonfuls, every 2 or 3 hours. The last must be used with caution.

=Mixture, Effervescing.= (P. Cod.) _Syn._ MISTURA EFFERVESCENS; POTION
GAZEUSE DE RIVIÈRE. _Prep._ Dissolve 1/2 dr. of bicarbonate of potash in 2
oz. of water, and add 4 dr. of syrup. Mix also 1/2 dr. of citric acid with
1/3 oz. of syrup of citric acid and 2 oz. of water. Mix an equal quantity
of each, and give it while effervescing.

=Mixture of Elaterium.= (Dr Ferriar.) _Syn._ MISTURA ELATERII. _Prep._
Elaterium, 1 gr.; spirit of nitric ether, 2 fl. oz.; tincture of squills,
1/2 oz.; oxymel of colchicum, 1/2 oz.; syrup of buckthorn, 1 fl.
oz.——_Dose_, 1 dr. 3 times a day in water.

=Mixture, Emet′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA EMETICA, L. _Prep._ 1. (Copland.)
Sulphate of zinc, 40 gr.; ipecacuanha wine and tincture of serpentary, of
each 4 fl. dr.; tincture of capsicum, 40 drops; oil of chamomile, 12
drops; peppermint water, 4-1/2 fl. oz. As an excitant emetic; in cases of
poisoning by narcotics, &c.

2. (Magendie.) Coloured emetine, 4 gr. (or white emetine, 1 gr.); acetic
acid, 8 drops; mix, and add of infusion of orange leaves or lime flowers,
3-1/2 fl. oz.; syrup of marshmallows, 1 fl. oz.

3. (A. T. Thomson.) Ipecacuanha, 1/2 dr.; tartar emetic, 1 gr.; tincture
of squills, 1 fl. dr.; water, 6 fl. oz. _Dose_, 1 to 2 table-spoonfuls,
followed by half the quantity every 10 or 15 minutes, until vomiting is
produced; at the same time assisting the action of the medicine by
drinking copiously of warm water.

=Mixture, Emmen′agogue.= See MIXTURE, STEEL, &c.

=Mixture, Expec′torant.= _Syn._ MISTURA EXPECTORANS, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Collier.) Oxymel of squills and mucilage, of each 1 oz.; syrup of
marshmallows, 2 oz.; camphor julep, 3 fl. oz.——_Dose_, 1 to 2
table-spoonfuls, 2 or 3 times a day; in coughs, hoarseness, asthma, &c.

2. (A. T. Thomson.) Almond mixture, 5 fl. oz.; ipecacuanha wine and
tincture of squills, of each 1 fl. dr.; syrup of tolu, 6 fl. dr.——_Dose_,
1 table-spoonful; in humoral asthma, catarrh, &c., when the cough is

=Mixture, Feb′rifuge.= _Syn._ MISTURA FEBRIFUGA, L. See ACETATE OF AMMONIA

=Mixture of Gentian.= (Ph. B.) _Syn._ MISTURA GENTIANÆ. _Prep._ Macerate
gentian root, sliced, 1/4 oz.; bitter orange peel, cut small, and
coriander fruit, bruised, of each 30 gr., in proof spirit, 2 fl. oz., for
2 hours. Add distilled water, 8 fl. oz.; macerate again for 2 hours, and
strain through calico.——_Dose_, 1 oz.

=Mixture, Gentian (Compound).= Gentian, bruised, 1-1/2; bitter orange
peel, bruised, 3/4; cardamom seeds, bruised, 1/4; proof spirit, 20:
macerate for forty-eight hours with 15 of the spirit, agitating
occasionally, pack in a percolator, let it drain, and then pour on the
remaining spirit; when it ceases to drop, wash the marc with spirit to
make up 20.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 drachms.

=Mixture, Gregory’s.= See POWDERS.

=Mixture, Griffith’s.= See MIXTURE, STEEL.

=Mixture, Guai′acum.= _Syn._ EMULSION OF GUAIACUM, MILI OF G.; MISTURA
GUAIACI (B. P.), (Ph. L. & E.), LAC G., L. _Prep._ (Ph. L.) Gum guaiacum,
3 dr.; white sugar, 1/2 oz.; gum acacia, 2 dr. (all in powder); triturate
together, and to these, whilst rubbing, gradually add of cinnamon water, 1

2. (Ph. E.) Guaiacum, 3 dr.; sugar, 1/2 oz.; mucilage, 1/2 fl. oz.;
cinnamon water, 19-1/2 fl. oz.; as before.——_Dose_, 1 to 3
table-spoonfuls, 2 or 3 times a day; in chronic rheumatism, gout, &c.

3. (B. P.) Guaiac resin, in powder, 2; sugar, 2; gum Arabic, in powder, 1;
cinnamon water, 80; triturate, adding the cinnamon water
gradually.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 2 oz.

=Mixture, Gum.= _Syn._ MUCILAGE; MISTURA ACACIÆ (Ph. L.), MUCILAGO (Ph.
L.) Gum acacia (in powder), 13 oz.; boiling distilled water, 1 pint; rub
the gum with the water, gradually poured in, until solution is complete.

2. (Ph. E.) Gum, 9 oz.; cold water, 1 pint; macerate, with occasional
stirring, until dissolved, then strain through linen or calico.

3. (Ph. D.) Gum (coarsely powdered), 4 oz.; water (cold), 6 fl. oz.;
dissolve, and strain through flannel.

_Uses, &c._ Mucilage of gum acacia is chiefly employed to render oily and
resinous substances miscible with water. “Oils require about 3/4 their
weight; balsams and spermaceti, equal parts; resins, 2 parts; and musk, 5
times its weight,” for this purpose. (Montgomery.) The GUM MIXTURE, Ph.
E., will be found under ‘EMULSION,’

=Mixture of Hemidesmus.= (Mid. Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA HEMIDESMI. _Prep._
Bruised root of hemidesmus, 10 oz.; extract of liquorice, 10 gr.;
distilled water, 10 oz. Digest for 12 hours, heat the strained liquor to
180° F., and strain again.——_Dose_, 1/3 part 3 times a day.

=Mixture of Hemlock, Compound.= (Guy’s Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA CONII
COMPOSITA. _Prep._ Extract of hemlock, 1 dr.; carbonate of soda, 1-1/2
dr.; decoction of liquorice, 11 oz.; spirit of pimento, 6 dr.——_Dose_, 1
oz. to 2 oz. Myrrh mixture is sometimes substituted for decoction of

=Mixture of Horseradish, Compound.= (Dr Paris.) _Syn._ MISTURA ARMORACIÆ
COMPOSITA. _Prep._ Horseradish root, 1/2 oz.; mustard seed, 1/2 oz.;
boiling water, 1 pint. Macerate for an hour, and to 7 oz. of the strained
infusion add aromatic spirit of ammonia, 1 fl. dr.; spirit of pimento, 1/2
oz. In paralysis.

=Mixture, Hydrocyan′ic.= _Syn._ MIXTURE OF PRUSSIC ACID; MISTURA ACIDI
HYDROCYANICI, L. _Prep._ From medicinal prussic acid, 15 drops; simple
syrup (pure), 1 fl. oz.; distilled water, 5 fl. oz.;——_Dose_, 1
table-spoonful, 2 or 3 times daily. Each dose contains 1-1/4 drop of
medicinal prussic acid. The bottle should be shaken before pouring out the
dose. Magendie’s formulæ for this mixture are omitted, because the acid
which he orders is not kept in the shops in England.

=Mixture of Iodine with Sarsaparilla.= (Magendie.) _Syn._ MISTURA IODINII
CUM SARZA. _Prep._ Decoction of sarsaparilla, 1-1/2 pint; iodide of
potassium, 1 dr.; syrup of orange, 2 oz.

=Mixture, I′ron.= See MIXTURE, STEEL.

=Mixture, I′ron (Compound).= See MIXTURE, STEEL.

=Mixture, Marshmallow.= _Syn._ MISTURA ALTHÆÆ (Ph. E.), L. _Prep._ (Ph.
E.) Marshmallow root (dried), 4 oz.; stoned raisins, 2 oz.; water, 5
pints; boil to 3 pints, strain through linen, and after the sediment has
subsided, decant the clear portion.

2. (Ph. D.) See DECOCTION. Demulcent.——_Dose._ A few spoonfuls _ad
libitum_, so as to take 1 to 3 pints in the 24 hours; in strangury,
calculus, coughs, fevers, &c.

=Mixture of Monesia.= (Neligan.) _Syn._ MISTURA MONESIÆ. _Prep._ Extract
of monesia, 2 scruples; water, 7-1/2 oz.; compound tincture of cardamoms,
1/2{?} oz.

=Mixture of Musk.= (Ph. L.) _Syn._ MISTURA MOSCHI. _Prep._ Musk, 3 dr.;
triturate it with white sugar, 3 dr.; gum acacia, 3 dr.; and gradually add
rose water, 1 pint.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 oz.

=Mixture of Musk-seed.= (Dr Reece.) _Syn._ MISTURA ABELMOSCHI. _Prep._
Tincture of musk-seeds, 1 oz.; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 3 fl. dr.;
compound spirit of lavender, 4 fl. dr.; camphor mixture, 6 oz.——_Dose_,
1/2 oz. to 1 oz.

=Mixture, Myrrh.= _Syn._ EMULSION OF MYRRH; MISTURA MYRRHÆ, L. _Prep._
(Copland.) Myrrh, 1-1/2 dr.; add to it gradually, triturating all the
time, decoction of liquorice, 6 fl. oz., and strain.——_Dose_, 1 to 2
table-spoonfuls, twice or thrice a day, combined with carbonate of soda,
dilute hydrochloric acid, or paregoric; in debility, and diseases of the
digestive organs.

=Mixture, Narcot′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA NARCOTICA, M. FEBRIFUGA, L. _Prep._
1. Tincture of henbane, 2 fl. dr.; solution of acetate of ammonia, 3 fl.
oz.; water, 2-3/4 fl. oz.; mix.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 table-spoonfuls, to
relieve pain, procure sleep in fevers, &c.

2. (W. Cooley.) Laudanum, 1-1/2 fl. dr.; syrup of poppies, sulphuric
ether, and spirit of cinnamon, of each 1 oz.; tincture of henbane, 2-1/2
fl. dr.; tincture of capsicum, 4 fl. dr.; water 2 fl. oz.——_Dose_, 1 to 2
table-spoonfuls, at the commencement of the hot fit of ague.

=Mixture, Oleo-balsam′ic.= _Syn._ MISTURA OLEO-BALSAMICA, L. _Prep._
(Hamb. Cod.) Oils of cedrat, cinnamon, cloves, lavender, mace, and
marjoram, of each 20 drops; oil of rue, 10 drops; balsam of Peru, 1/2 dr.;
rectified spirit, 10 oz.; digest and filter.

=Mixture of Oxalic Acid.= (Nardo.) _Syn._ MISTURA ACIDI OXALICI. _Prep._
Oxalic acid, 8 gr.; mucilage, 3 oz.; syrup, 1 oz. In inflammation, of the
fauces and digestive tube.

=Mixture of Phosphorus.= (Soubeiran.) _Syn._ MISTURA PHOSPHORICI. _Prep._
Phosphorated oil, 2 dr.; powdered gum acacia, 2 dr.; peppermint water, 3
oz.; syrup, 2 oz. Mix the gum with 10 dr. of water, and thin with the oil,
and gradually add the others. Contains 1 gr. of phosphorus.——_Dose_, 1/2
fl. oz.

=Mixture of Platinum Chloride.= (Hoeffer.) _Syn._ MISTURA PLATINI
CHLORIDI. _Prep._ Perchloride of platinum, 1-1/2 gr.; gum juleps, 6 oz.

=Mixture of Potassium Iodide.= (Cazenave.) _Syn._ MISTURA POTASSII IODIDI.
_Prep._ Iodide of potassium, 2 dr.; distilled water, 16 oz.; syrup, 2 fl.
oz. 2 or 3 table-spoonfuls per diem.

=Mixture, Pur′gative.= _Syn._ MISTURA CATHARTICA, M. LAXATIVA, M. PURGANS.
L. _Prep._ 1. From any of the purging salts (Epsom, Glauber, tasteless,
&c.), 2 oz.; infusion of senna, 5 fl. oz.; syrup of orange peel, 1 fl.
oz.; tincture of ginger, 1/2 fl. oz.; spirit of pimento, 2 fl. dr.;
mix.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 table-spoonfuls, early in the morning; as an aperient
in stomach complaints, &c.

2. (Dr Copland.) Manna, 1-1/2 oz.; cream of tartar, 1/2 oz.; whey, 1
quart. By wine-glassfuls, as an aperient drink, in fevers, &c.

3. (Corvisart.) Borotartrate of potassa (soluble tartar), 1 oz.; tartar
emetic, 1/2 gr.; sugar, 2 oz.; water, 1-1/2 pint; dissolve. By
wine-glassfuls, until it begins to operate. This has been called
‘NAPOLEON’S MEDICINE,’ from its having been frequently taken by Napoleon

=Mixture of Quinine and Coffee.= _Syn._ MISTURA QUINIÆ ET CAFFEÆ; CAFÉ
QUININE. Prepare 5 oz. of infusion from 4 dr. of ground coffee by
percolation, and add 24 gr. of neutral sulphate of quinine and 4 dr. of
sugar.——_Dose._ A tablespoonful. The coffee conceals the bitterness of the

=Mixture of Quinine with Iron.= _Syn._ MISTURA QUINIÆ CUM FERRO. Sulphate
of quinine, 1 gr.; sulphate of iron, 2 gr.; dilute sulphuric acid, 5
minims; water, 1 oz. For 1 dose.

=Mixture of Rhubarb with Magnesia.= (St Thom. Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA RHEI
CUM MAGNESIA. _Prep._ Rhubarb, 7-1/2 gr.; carbonate of magnesia, 15 gr.;
peppermint water, 1-1/2 oz. For 1 dose.

=Mixture, Saline.= _Syn._ MISTURA SALINA, L. See DRAUGHT and LEMONADE.

=Mixture, Scam′mony.= _Syn._ SCAMMONY MILK; MISTURA SCAMMONII (B. P.), L.
_Prep._ 1. (Ph. E.) Resin of scammony, 7 gr.; unskimmed milk, 3 fl. oz.:
gradually mix, triturating all the time, so as to form an emulsion.
Purgative.——_Dose._ One half.

2. (Planche’s PURGATIVE POTION.) To the last add of white sugar, 1/4 oz.;
cherry-laurel (or bitter-almond) water, 4 or 5 drops. The above are the
most tasteless and pleasant purgatives of an active character known.

3. (B. P.) Resin of scammony, 4 gr.; fresh milk, 2 oz.; triturate and form
an emulsion.——_Dose._ The quantity of the formula for an adult, half for a

=Mixture, Senega, with Ammonia.= (St Th. H.) _Syn._ MISTURA SENEGÆ CUM
AMMONIA. _Prep._ Infusion of senega, 1 oz.; carbonate of ammonia, 4 gr.
For 1 dose.

=Mixture, Sen′na (Compound).= _Syn._ BLACK DRAUGHT, ABERNETHY’S D.,
of senna, 3/4 pint; tincture of senna, 1-1/2 fl. oz.; Epsom salts, 4 oz.;
carbonate of ammonia, 1/2 dr.; sugar, 3 oz.; agitate until the solids are

2. Senna, 13 oz.; boiling water, 2 quarts; digest for 4 hours in a hot
place, then press out the liquor in a tincture press, and add, of compound
tincture of senna, 3/4 pint; Epsom salts, 1 lb.

3. East India senna, 2 lbs.; boiling water, 9 quarts; tincture of senna
and Epsom salts, of each 3-1/4 lbs.; as the last.

4. Senna, 8 lbs.; boiling water, 9 galls.; Epsom salts, 16 lbs.; tincture
of senna, 1-1/2 galls.; treacle and colouring, of each 1 quart.

5. (Guy’s Hosp.) Senna and mint, of each 1-1/4 oz. (say 1-1/2 oz.);
boiling water, 1 quart; Epsom salts, 7-1/2 oz. (say 1/2 lb.).

6. (Redwood.) Infusion of senna, 18 oz.; tincture of senna, 3 oz.;
sulphate of magnesia, 6 oz.; extract of liquorice and spirit of sal
volatile, of each 3/4 oz.; oil of cloves, 6 drops.

7. (B. P.) Infusion of senna, 14; sulphate of magnesia, 4; extract of
liquorice, 1/2; tincture of senna, 2-1/2; compound tincture of cardamoms,
1-1/4: dissolve and mix.——_Dose_, 1 to 1-1/2 oz.

_Obs._ As the above mixture contains very little spirit, and from its
great consumption being made in large quantities at a time, it frequently
spoils before the whole is sold especially in hot weather. To avoid this,
1-1/2 dr. of cloves, and 3 dr. of mustard seed, both bruised, may be added
to every gall. of the strained liquor at the same time with the salts,
spirit, and colouring, after which it must be shaken up repeatedly for a
few days, and then allowed to repose for a few days more when it will
become quite clear. It may be filtered through a flannel bag, but there is
much loss and delay, owing to the consistence of the liquid. It is
purgative in doses of 1 to 1-1/2 fl. oz.

It is a singular circumstance, that although an enormous quantity of this
preparation is consumed in these countries, there is no standard formula
for it in the British Pharmacopœias. See MIXTURE, APERIENT, &c.

CHALYBEATA, L. Two compounds of this class are officinal:——

M. F. COMPOSITA——Ph. L. E. & D.) _Prep._——_a._ (Ph. L. & E.) Carbonate of
potassa, 1 dr.; powdered myrrh, 2 dr.; spirit of nutmeg, 1 fl. oz.;
triturate together, and whilst rubbing, add gradually, of sugar, 2 dr.;
rose water, 18 fl. oz.; mix well; then add of sulphate of iron (powdered),
50 gr.; and place it at once in a bottle, which must be kept closely

_b._ (Ph. D.) Powdered myrrh and sugar, of each 1 dr.; carbonate of
potassa, 1/2 dr.; essence of nutmeg, 1 fl. dr.; rose water, 7 fl. oz.;
sulphate of iron, 1/2 dr.; (dissolved in) rose water, 1 fl. oz.;——_Dose_,
1 to 2 oz., 3 or 4 times a day, as a mild and genial chalybeate tonic and
stimulant; in amenorrhœa, chlorosis, debility, &c., when there is no
determination of blood to the head.

AROMATICA——Ph. D.) Pale cinchona bark, 1 oz.; calumba root, 3 dr. (both in
coarse powder;) cloves (bruised), 2 dr.; iron filings, 1/2 oz.; peppermint
water, 16 fl. oz.; digest in a close vessel for 3 days, agitating
frequently, then strain, and add of tincture of cardamoms (comp.), 3 fl.
oz.; tincture of orange peel, 3 fl. dr. Bitter, stomachic, and
aromatic.——_Dose_, 1 or 2 table-spoonfuls, or more, 3 or 4 times a day. It
is very slightly chalybeated. See also MIXTURE, AROMATIC IRON.

3. Sulphate of iron, 25 gr.; carbonate of potash, 30 gr.; myrrh, 60 gr.;
sugar, 60 gr.; spirit of nutmegs, 4 dr.; rose water, 9-1/2 oz. Reduce the
myrrh to powder, add the carbonate of potash of sugar, and triturate them
with a small quantity of rose water so as to form a thin paste, then
gradually add more rose water, and the spirit of nutmegs, continuing the
trituration and further addition of rose water until about eight fluid
ounces of milky liquid is formed, then add the sulphate of iron previously
dissolved in the remainder of the rose water and cork the bottle
immediately.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 oz. as a stimulating tonic.

=Mixture of Sulphuric Acid.= (Ph. G.) _Syn._ MISTURA ACIDI SULPHURICI;
HALLER’S ELIXIR. _Prep._ To 3 oz. (by weight) of rectified spirit add
gradually 1 oz. (by weight) of pure sulphuric acid.——_Dose_, 5 to 20 drops

_Prep._ 1. Infusion of cascarilla, 5 fl. oz.; tincture of orange peel, 7
fl. dr.; aromatic sulphuric acid, 2 fl. dr.

2. (Collier.) Decoction of bark, 5-1/2 fl. oz.; tincture of do., 3 fl.
dr.; aromatic confection, 20 gr.; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 1 fl. dr.

3. (Thomson.) Infusion of calumba, 5-1/2 fl. oz.; compound tincture of
cinnamon and syrup of orange peel, of each 2 fl. dr.——_Dose_, 1 to 3
table-spoonfuls, 2 or 3 times a day; in debility of the digestive organs,
loss of appetite, to check nausea and vomiting, &c.

=Mixture of Wine.= (Guy’s Hosp.) _Syn._ MISTURA VINI. White wine, 6 fl.
oz.; yolks of 2 eggs; sugar, 1/2 oz.; oil of cinnamon, 3 drops.——_Dose_, 1

=Mixture, Worm.= _Syn._ MISTURA ANTHELMINTICA, M. VERMIFUGA, L. _Prep._ 1.
(Collier.) Sulphate of iron, 20 gr.; infusion of quassia, 8 fl.
oz.——_Dose._ Two table-spoonfuls every morning fasting.

2. (Copland.) Valerian, 2 dr.; worm-seed, 4 dr.; boiling water, 8 fl.
oz.; macerate 1 hour, strain, and add of assafœtida, 1 dr., previously
triturated with the yolk of one egg. As the last.

3. (Richard.) Root of male fern, 1 oz.; water, 9 fl. oz.; boil to 6 fl.
oz., strain, and add, of sulphuric ether, 1 dr.; syrup of tansy, 1 fl. oz.
In tapeworm; as above.

=Mixture, Zinc.= _Syn._ MISTURA ZINCI, M. Z. SULPHATIS, L. _Prep._
(Collier.) Sulphate of zinc, 5 gr.; sulphate of quinine, 10 gr.; compound
infusion of roses, 2 fl. oz. Tonic.——_Dose._ A teaspoonful 2 or 3 times a
day, in a glass of water. Said to be very efficacious in the cure of
coughs of a spasmodic character.

=MIXTURES (Arithmetic of).= The constantly recurring necessity in business
and chemical manipulations of determining the value of mixtures, and of
producing articles and preparations of different strengths or prices to
those already in stock, has rendered a ready means of making such
calculations an indispensable qualification in almost every department of
trade and industrial art. As we address ourselves to the intelligent
operative and busy tradesman, as well as to those more blessed by
education and leisure, we feel we are bestowing a boon on many of our
readers in giving a short, but sufficient, outline of this useful branch
of commercial arithmetic, which is most intimately connected with the
objects of the present work.

1. To determine the price of a mixture from the value and quantity of each
ingredient of which it is composed.——RULE. Divide the ‘gross value’ by the
‘gross saleable’ or ‘useful quantity,’ the quotient is the value or cost
per gallon, pound, &c., as the case may be.——_Example._ Required, the
value per gallon of a hogshead of wine containing——

               _s._ _d._      £  _s._ _d._

  30 gallons @  10   6   =   15   15   0
  20    ”    ”  12   6   =   12   10   0
  13    ”    ”  14   6   =    9    8   6
  ——                         ---------------
  63        divide into      37   13   6
      Cost per gallon         0   11  11-1/2

2. To determine the proportions of substances or articles of different
values or strengths which must be taken to prepare a mixture of any other
value or strength.——RULE. Arrange the ‘prices’ or ‘strengths of the
ingredients’ in a column, and link them together in pairs; each of those
above the required price being always connected with another below it.
Then set the difference between the required price and these numbers,
alternately against those they are linked to; when they will indicate the
quantities to be taken, as in the following examples:——_a._ Required the
proportions of tea at 3_s._, 4_s._, 6_s._, and 7_s._, that must be taken
to produce a mixture 5_s._ the pound. Here——

    { 3——+         1, or 1 lb. @ 3_s._
    { 4——|——+      2,  ” 2  ”  ” 4_s._
  5 { 6——+  |      2,  ” 2  ”  ” 6_s._
    { 7-----+      1,  ” 1  ”  ” 7_s._

_b._ (When the number of the ingredients or prices is odd.) Required the
proportions of teas at 3_s._, 5_s._, and 6_s._, the pound, to sell at
4_s._ Here the odd number must be taken a second time:——

    { 3——+——+      1 + 2 or 3 lbs @ 3_s._
  4 { 5——+  |          1, ” 1  ”  ” 6_s._
    { 6-----+          1, ” 1  ”  ” 6_s._

_c._ (When the number of the ingredients is not merely odd, but the prices
are unequally distributed either above or below the required price.) A
dealer having wines of the same name at 7_s._, 9_s._, 11_s._, 12_s._, and
14_s._, per gallon, wishes to produce a mixture of them worth 10_s._ per

     {  7——+---+   1 + 4, or 5 galls. @  7_s._
     {  9——+-+ |       2,  ” 2   ”    ”  9_s._
  10 { 11——+ | |       3,  ” 3   ”    ” 11_s._
     { 12----+ |       1,  ” 1   ”    ” 12_s._
     { 14------+       3,  ” 3   ”    ” 14_s._

It will be seen that by varying the manner of linking the numbers,
different answers may often be obtained to the same question. It also
often happens that the dealer or operator desires to use a given quantity
of one particular article, or to produce a certain quantity only of the
mixture instead of those indicated by the above calculations. In these
instances he has simply to apply the common rule of ‘practice’ or the
‘rule of three,’ as the particular case may demand.

In the above manner the proportions of the constituents of a compound may
be determined from their specific gravity, when no change of volume has
arisen from their admixture; but when this is the case, as in alloys,
alcoholic mixtures, &c., it is either quite inapplicable or the results
obtained are mere approximations to the truth. It may, however, be
conveniently employed for calculations connected with the ‘mixing’ and
‘reduction’ of spirits and other liquids, by substituting their
per-centage value in ‘proof gallons’ or other corresponding denomination,
for the prices in the above examples; water, when introduced be reckoned,
=0. Thus:——A spirit merchant having two puncheons of rum of the strengths
of 17 and 21 o. p., wishes to know what proportions of each and of water
he must take to form a spirit 10 u. up. The proof value of 100 gallons of
these spirits are respectively equal to 121, 117, 90, and 0 (water).

     |   0----+    27 + 31, or 58 g. water.
  90 | 117——| |         90,  ” 90 ”  rum @ 117 o.p.
     | 121----+         90,  ” 90 ”  rum ” 121  ”

Suppose the dealer required to use different proportions of the spirits
referred to, instead of equal measures, he has only to take such aliquot
parts of the quantities thus found referring to the smaller proportion; or
such multiples of those referring to the larger one, as he wishes them to
bear to each in the new mixture. Numerous other applications of this rule
will occur to the ingenious reader.

Questions in ‘alligation,’ as the department of arithmetic above referred
to is called, are very easily resolved by the ‘method of indeterminate
analysis,’ even by persons but slightly conversant with rudimentary
algebra; of which, indeed, they form a simple class of problems, often
admitting of an almost indefinite number of solutions.

=MO′HAIR.= The hair of a goat indigenous in Asia Minor. It is dyed and
manufactured by similar materials and in a similar manner to wool.


=MOIRÉE METALLIQUE.= [Fr.] A beautiful crystalline appearance produced on
the surface of tin plate by acids. The tin plate is submitted for a few
seconds, whilst gently heated, to the action of dilute aqua regia, by
which it acquires a variegated primrose appearance. It is afterwards
washed in hot water, dried, and lacquered. The degree of heat and dilution
of the acid modifies the beauty and character of the surface. The effect
is also varied by employing dilute sulphuric acid, either alone or mixed
with a portion of nitric or hydrochloric acid; or by using a solution of
citric acid or caustic potassa. According to Herberger, the best metal for
the purpose is plate iron, which has been coated by dipping it into a tin
bath composed of pure tin, 200 parts; copper, 3 parts; arsenic, 1 part.
The varnish should consist of copal in highly rectified spirit. Moirée
metallique is in much less demand now than formerly.


=MOLES.= The small, soft excrescences and discolorations of the skin which
are popularly known under this name may, when slight, be removed by
touching them every day with a little concentrated acetic acid, by means
of a hair pencil, observing due care to prevent the application from
spreading to the surrounding parts. This does not discolour the skin. The
application of lunar caustic is also very effective, but it turns the spot
temporarily black. In the pure mole there is always a considerable
production of hair. When other means fail, they may be easily and safely
removed by surgical means. The operation is trifling; and when judiciously
performed no trace of such a proceeding is left behind.


molybdenum, after being well roasted, is reduced to fine powder, digested
with ammonia, and the mixture filtered, and the filtrate evaporated to
dryness; the residue, molybdate of ammonium, is then dissolved in water,
purified by crystallisation; and, lastly, decomposed by heat.

_Prop., &c._ Small white scales, soluble in 570 parts of water; the
solution reddens litmus paper; dissolves in the alkalies, forming alkaline
molybdates, from which it is again precipitated by strong acids. It is
used in the preparation of molybdenum blue, and in calico-printing, but
its scarcity precludes its extensive employment in the arts. Molybdate of
ammonium is the salt principally used in dyeing. Silks and cottons passed
through a solution of this salt, then through a bath soured with
hydrochloric acid, and, lastly (without washing), through another of
protochloride of tin, are dyed of a rich and permanent blue colour. A
solution of molybdate of ammonia in excess of nitric acid forms a valuable
agent as a test for phosphates, with which it gives a beautiful yellow
precipitate (phospho-molybdate of ammonia). See PHOSPHORIC ACID.

=MOLYB′DENUM.= Mo. A very rare metal, having a white colour, discovered by
Hielm in 1782.

_Prep._ By exposing molybdic acid, mixed with charcoal and placed in a
covered crucible, to the strongest heat of a smith’s forge.

_Prop., &c._ It is brittle and very infusible; when heated in contact with
the air, it is converted into molybdic anhydride, MoO_{3}.


=MOMRAUGHAN FOR HARNESS, &c.= A correspondent of the ‘Field’ newspaper
gives the following formulæ for momraughan, a substance used in India for
preserving saddles and every description of leather. It is made as
follows:——1 lb. white wax, 3 lb. mutton fat, 1 pint spirits of turpentine;
melt, and mix well together while liquid. The saddle or leather should be
rubbed well with a lime in the sun, then scrubbed with a brush with soap
and water; when thoroughly dry, rub it well with the momraughan (letting
it soak in) in the sun. One tablespoonful will be enough for a saddle.
Another recipe is:——1 pint neats-foot oil, 2 oz. beeswax, 2 oz. spirits of
turpentine, other directions as above. This latter mixture, with the
addition of 1 oz. Burgundy pitch, makes a very good waterproof composition
for boots.

of _Chrysophyllum Buranheim_, a tree growing in the Brazils. The rough,
imported extract of this drug also commonly passes under the name of
MONESIA. It is astringent, and possesses no advantage over rhatany or
catechu.——_Dose_ (of the latter), 18 to 20 gr.

=MONE′SIN.= A peculiar acrid principle, analogous to saponin, found in
monesia bark, to the extent of 4·7%.



=MOR′DANT.= In _dyeing_ and _calico printing_, any substance employed to
fix the colouring matter of dye-stuffs in the fibres of organic bodies,
and to give it brilliancy and permanency. This it effects either by
serving as a bond of union between the two, owing to its attraction for
each of them; or it acts by uniting with the colouring particles in the
minute pores of the fibres, a