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´╗┐Title: In the Heart of Africa
Author: Baker, Samuel White, Sir, 1821-1893
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "In the Heart of Africa" ***

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Team of Charles Franks


By Sir Samuel W. Baker, M.A., F.R.G.S.

Condensed By E.J.W From "The Nile Tributaries Of Abyssinia" And "The
Albert N'yanza Great Basin Of The Nile."



The Nubian desert--The bitter well--Change of plans--An irascible
dragoman--Pools of the Atbara--One secret of the Nile--At Cassala


Egypt's rule of the Soudan--Corn-grinding in the Soudan--Mahomet meets
relatives--The parent of Egypt--El Baggar rides the camel


The Arabs' exodus--Reception by Abou Sinn--Arabs dressing the
hair--Toilet of an Arab woman--The plague of lice--Wives among the
Arabs--The Old Testament confirmed


On the Abyssinian border--A new school of medicine--Sacred shrines and


A primitive craft--Stalking the giraffes--My first
giraffes-Rare sport with the finny tribe--Thieving elephants


Preparations for advance--Mek Nimmur makes a foray--The
Hamran elephant-hunters--In the haunts of the elephant--A desperate


The start from Geera--Feats of horsemanship--A curious chase--Abou Do
wins a race--Capturing a young buffalo--Our island camp--Tales of the


The elephant trumpets--Fighting an elephant with swords--The
forehead-shot--Elephants in a panic--A superb old Neptune--The harpoon
reaches its aim--Death of the hippopotamus--Tramped by an elephant


Fright of the Tokrooris--Deserters who didn't desert--Arrival of
the Sherrif brothers--Now for a tally-ho!--On the heels of the
rhinoceroses--The Abyssinian rhinoceros--Every man for himself


A day with the howartis--A hippo's gallant fight--Abou Do leaves
us--Three yards from a lion--Days of delight--A lion's furious
rage--Astounding courage of a horse


The bull-elephant--Daring Hamrans--The elephant
helpless--Visited by a minstrel--A determined musician--The nest of the
outlaws--The Atbara River


Abyssinian slave-girls--Khartoum--The Soudan under Egyptian
rule--Slave-trade in the Soudan--The obstacles ahead


Gondokoro--A mutiny quelled--Arrival of Speke and Grant--The sources of
the Nile-Arab duplicity--The boy-slave's story--Saat adopted


Startling disclosures--The last hope seems gone--The Bari chief's
advice--Hoping for the best--Ho for Central Africa!


A start made at last--A forced march--Lightening the ship--Waiting
for the caravan--Success hangs in the balance--The greatest rascal in
Central Africa--Legge demands another bottle


The greeting of the slave-traders--Collapse of the
mutiny--African funerals-Visit from the Latooka chief--Bokke makes a
suggestion--Slaughter of the Turks--Success as a prophet--Commoro's


Disease in the camp--Forward under difficulties--Our cup of
misery overflows--A rain-maker in a dilemma-Fever again--Ibrahim's
quandary-Firing the prairie


Greeting from Kamrasi's people--Suffering from the sins of others-Alone
among savages--The free-masonry of Unyoro.--Pottery and civilization


Kamrasi's cowardice--Interview with the king--The exchange of blood--The
rod beggar's last chance--An astounded sovereign


A satanic escort--Prostrated by sun-stroke--Days and nights of
sorrow--The reward for all our labor


The cradle of the Nile--Arrival at Magungo--The blind leading the
blind--Murchison Falls


Prisoners on the island--Left to starve--Months of helpless-ness--We
rejoin the Turks--The real Kamrasi--In the presence of royalty


The hour of deliverance--Triumphal entry into Gondokoro--Homeward
bound--The plague breaks out--Our welcome at Khartoum--Return to



The Nubian desert--The bitter well--Change of plans--An irascible
dragoman--Pools of the Atbara--One secret of the Nile--At Cassala.

In March, 1861, I commenced an expedition to discover the sources of the
Nile, with the hope of meeting the East African expedition of Captains
Speke and Grant, that had been sent by the English Government from the
South via Zanzibar, for the same object. I had not the presumption to
publish my intention, as the sources of the Nile had hitherto defied all
explorers, but I had inwardly determined to accomplish this difficult
task or to die in the attempt. From my youth I had been inured to
hardships and endurance in wild sports in tropical climates, and when I
gazed upon the map of Africa I had a wild hope, mingled with humility,
that, even as the insignificant worm bores through the hardest oak, I
might by perseverance reach the heart of Africa.

I could not conceive that anything in this world has power to resist a
determined will, so long as health and life remain. The failure of every
former attempt to reach the Nile source did not astonish me, as the
expeditions had consisted of parties, which, when difficulties occur,
generally end in difference of opinion and in retreat; I therefore
determined to proceed alone, trusting in the guidance of a Divine
Providence and the good fortune that sometimes attends a tenacity of
purpose. I weighed carefully the chances of the undertaking. Before me,
untrodden Africa; against me, the obstacles that had defeated the world
since its creation; on my side, a somewhat tough constitution, perfect
independence, a long experience in savage life, and both time and means,
which I intended to devote to the object without limit.

England had never sent an expedition to the Nile sources previous to
that under the command of Speke and Grant. Bruce, ninety years before,
had succeeded in tracing the source of the Blue or Lesser Nile; thus the
honor of that discovery belonged to Great Britain. Speke was on his road
from the South, and I felt confident that my gallant friend would leave
his bones upon the path rather than submit to failure. I trusted that
England would not be beaten, and although I hardly dared to hope that
I could succeed where others greater than I had failed, I determined to
sacrifice all in the attempt.

Had I been alone, it would have been no hard lot to die upon the
untrodden path before me; but there was one who, although my greatest
comfort, was also my greatest care, one whose life yet dawned at so
early an age that womanhood was still a future. I shuddered at the
prospect for her, should she be left alone in savage lands at my death;
and gladly would I have left her in the luxuries of home instead of
exposing her to the miseries of Africa. It was in vain that I implored
her to remain, and that I painted the difficulties and perils still
blacker than I supposed they really would be. She was resolved, with
woman's constancy and devotion, to share all dangers and to follow me
through each rough footstep of the wild life before me. "And Ruth said,
Entreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following after thee;
for whither thou goest I will go, and where thou lodgest I will lodge;
thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God; where thou diest will
I die, and there will I be buried: the Lord do so to me, and more also,
if aught but death part thee and me."

Thus accompanied by my wife, on the 15th of April, 1861, I sailed up the
Nile from Cairo. The wind blew fair and strong from the north, and we
flew toward the south against the stream, watching those mysterious
waters with a firm resolve to track them to their distant fountain.

I had a firman from the Viceroy, a cook, and a dragoman. Thus my
impedimenta were not numerous. The firman was an order to all Egyptian
officials for assistance; the cook was dirty and incapable; and the
interpreter was nearly ignorant of English, although a professed
polyglot. With this small beginning, Africa was before me, and thus I
commenced the search for the sources of the Nile.

On arrival at Korosko, twenty-six days from Cairo, we started across the
Nubian Desert. During the cool months, from November until February, the
desert journey is not disagreeable; but the vast area of glowing sand
exposed to the scorching sun of summer, in addition to the withering
breath of the simoom, renders the forced march of two hundred and thirty
miles in seven days, at two and a half miles per hour, one of the most
fatiguing journeys that can be endured.

We entered a dead level plain of orange-colored sand, surrounded by
pyramidical hills. The surface was strewn with objects resembling cannon
shot and grape of all sizes from a 32-pounder downward, and looked like
the old battle-field of some infernal region--rocks glowing with heat,
not a vestige of vegetation, barren, withering desolation. The slow
rocking step of the camels was most irksome, and, despite the heat, I
dismounted to examine the Satanic bombs and cannon shot. Many of
them were as perfectly round as though cast in a mould, others were
egg-shaped, and all were hollow. With some difficulty I broke them, and
found them to contain a bright red sand. They were, in fact, volcanic
bombs that had been formed by the ejection of molten lava to a great
height from active volcanoes; these had become globular in falling, and,
having cooled before they reached the earth, they retained their forms
as hard spherical bodies, precisely resembling cannon shot. The exterior
was brown, and appeared to be rich in iron. The smaller specimens
were the more perfect spheres, as they cooled quickly; but many of
the heavier masses had evidently reached the earth when only half
solidified, and had collapsed upon falling. The sandy plain was covered
with such vestiges of volcanic action, and the infernal bombs lay as
imperishable relics of a hailstorm such as may have destroyed Sodom and

Passing through this wretched solitude, we entered upon a scene of
surpassing desolation. Far as the eye could reach were waves like a
stormy sea, gray, coldlooking waves in the burning heat; but no drop of
water. It appeared as though a sudden curse had turned a raging sea to
stone. The simoom blew over this horrible wilderness, and drifted the
hot sand into the crevices of the rocks, and the camels drooped their
heads before the suffocating wind; but still the caravan noiselessly
crept along over the rocky undulations, until the stormy sea was passed;
once more we were upon a boundless plain of sand and pebbles.

In forty-six hours and forty-five minutes' actual marching from Korosko,
we reached Moorahd, "the bitter well." This is a mournful spot, well
known to the tired and thirsty camel, the hope of reaching which has
urged him fainting on his weary way to drink one draught before he dies.
This is the camel's grave. Situated half way between Korosko and Abou
Hammed, the well of Moorahd is in an extinct crater, surrounded upon all
sides but one by precipitous cliffs about three hundred feet high. The
bottom is a dead flat, and forms a valley of sand about two hundred and
fifty yards wide. In this bosom of a crater, salt and bitter water is
found at a depth of only six feet from the surface. To this our tired
camels frantically rushed upon being unloaded.

The valley was a "valley of dry bones." Innumerable skeletons of camels
lay in all directions-the ships of the desert thus stranded on their
voyage. Withered heaps of parched skin and bone lay here and there, in
the distinct forms in which the camels had gasped their last. The dry
desert air had converted the hide into a coffin. There were no flies
here, thus there were no worms to devour the carcasses; but the usual
sextons were the crows, although sometimes too few to perform their
office. These were perched upon the overhanging cliffs; but no sooner
had our overworked camels taken their long draught and lain down
exhausted on the sand, than by common consent they descended from their
high places and walked round and round each tired beast.

As many wretched animals simply crawl to this spot to die, the crows,
from long experience and constant practice, can form a pretty correct
diagnosis upon the case of a sick camel. They had evidently paid a
professional visit to my caravan, and were especially attentive in
studying the case of one particular camel that was in a very weakly
condition and had stretched itself full length upon the sand; nor would
they leave it until it was driven forward.

Many years ago, when the Egyptian troops first conquered Nubia, a
regiment was destroyed by thirst in crossing this desert. The men, being
upon a limited allowance of water, suffered from extreme thirst,
and deceived by the appearance of a mirage that exactly resembled a
beautiful lake, they insisted on being taken to its banks by the Arab
guide. It was in vain that the guide assured them that the lake was
unreal, and he refused to lose the precious time by wandering from his
course. Words led to blows, and he was killed by the soldiers, whose
lives depended upon his guidance. The whole regiment turned from the
track and rushed toward the welcome waters. Thirsty and faint, over the
burning sands they hurried; heavier and heavier their footsteps became;
hotter and hotter their breath, as deeper they pushed into the desert,
farther and farther from the lost track where the pilot lay in his
blood; and still the mocking spirits of the desert, the afreets of the
mirage, led them on, and the hike glistening in the sunshine tempted
them to bathe in its cool waters, close to their eyes, but never at
their lips. At length the delusion vanished--the fatal lake had turned
to burning sand! Raging thirst and horrible despair! the pathless desert
and the murdered guide! lost! lost! all lost! Not a man ever left the
desert, but they were subsequently discovered, parched and withered
corpses, by the Arabs sent upon the search.

During our march the simoom was fearful, and the heat so intense that it
was impossible to draw the guncases out of their leather covers,
which it was necessary to cut open. All woodwork was warped; ivory
knife-handles were split; paper broke when crunched in the hand, and the
very marrow seemed to be dried out of the bones. The extreme dryness of
the air induced an extraordinary amount of electricity in the hair and
in all woollen materials. A Scotch plaid laid upon a blanket for a few
hours adhered to it, and upon being withdrawn at night a sheet of flame
was produced, accompanied by tolerably loud reports.

We reached Berber on May 31st, and spent a week in resting after our
formidable desert march of fifteen days. From the slight experience
I had gained in the journey, I felt convinced that success in my
Nile expedition would be impossible without a knowledge of Arabic.
My dragoman had me completely in his power, and I resolved to become
independent of all interpreters as soon as possible. I therefore
arranged a plan of exploration for the first year, to embrace the
affluents to the Nile from the Abyssinian range of mountains, intending
to follow up the Atbara River from its junction with the Nile in
latitude 17 deg. 37 min. (twenty miles south of Berber), and to examine
all the Nile tributaries from the southeast as far as the Blue Nile,
which river I hoped ultimately to descend to Khartoum. I imagined that
twelve months would be sufficient to complete such an exploration, by
which time I should have gained a sufficient knowledge of the Arabic to
render me able to converse fairly well.

The wind at this season (June) was changeable, and strong blasts from
the south were the harbingers of the approaching rainy season. We had
no time to lose, and we accordingly arranged to start. I discharged my
dirty cook, and engaged a man who was brought by a coffeehouse keeper,
by whom he was highly recommended; but, as a precaution against
deception, I led him before the Mudir, or Governor, to be registered
before our departure. To my astonishment, and to his infinite disgust,
he was immediately recognized as an old offender, who had formerly been
imprisoned for theft! The Governor, to prove his friendship and his
interest in my welfare, immediately sent the police to capture the
coffee-house keeper who had recommended the cook. No sooner was the
unlucky surety brought to the Divan than he was condemned to receive
two hundred lashes for having given a false character. The sentence was
literally carried out, in spite of my remonstrance, and the police were
ordered to make the case public to prevent a recurrence. The Governor
assured me that, as I held a firman from the Viceroy, he could not do
otherwise, and that I must believe him to be my truest friend. "Save
me from my friends," was an adage quickly proved. I could not procure
a cook nor any other attendant, as every one was afraid to guarantee
a character, lest he might come in for his share of the two hundred

The Governor came to my rescue, and sent immediately the promised
Turkish soldiers, who were to act in the double capacity of escort and
servants. They were men of totally opposite characters. Hadji Achmet was
a hardy, powerful, dare-devil-looking Turk, while Hadji Velli was
the perfection of politeness, and as gentle as a lamb. My new allies
procured me three donkeys in addition to the necessary baggage camels,
and we started from Berber on the evening of the 10th of June for the
junction of the Atbara River With the Nile.

Mahomet, Achmet, and Ali are equivalent to Smith, Brown, and Thompson.
Accordingly, of my few attendants, my dragoman was Mahomet, and my
principal guide was Achmet, and subsequently I had a number of Alis.
Mahomet was a regular Cairo dragoman, a native of Dongola, almost
black, but exceedingly tenacious regarding his shade of color, which he
declared to be light brown. He spoke very bad English, was excessively
conceited, and irascible to a degree. He was one of those dragomans who
are accustomed to the civilized expeditions of the British tourist to
the first or second cataract, in a Nile boat replete with conveniences
and luxuries, upon which the dragoman is monarch supreme, a whale among
the minnows, who rules the vessel, purchases daily a host of unnecessary
supplies, upon which he clears his profit, until he returns to Cairo
with his pockets filled sufficiently to support him until the following
Nile season. The short three months' harvest, from November until
February, fills his granary for the year. Under such circumstances the
temper should be angelic.

But times had changed. To Mahomet the very idea of exploration was
an absurdity. He had never believed in it front the first, and he now
became impressed with the fact that he was positively committed to an
undertaking that would end most likely in his death, if not in terrible
difficulties; he determined, under the circumstances, to make himself as
disagreeable as possible to all parties. With this amiable resolution
he adopted a physical infirmity in the shape of deafness. In reality, no
one was more acute in hearing, but as there are no bells where there
are no houses, he of course could not answer such a summons, and he was
compelled to attend to the call of his own name--"Mahomet! Mahomet!"
No reply, although the individual were sitting within a few feet,
apparently absorbed in the contemplation of his own boots. "MaHOMet!"
with an additional emphasis upon the second syllable. Again no response.
"Mahomet, you rascal, why don't you answer?" This energetic address
would effect a change in his position. The mild and lamb-like dragoman
of Cairo would suddenly start from the ground, tear his own hair from
his head in handfuls, and shout, "Mahomet! Mahomet! Mahomet! always
Mahomet! D--n Mahomet! I wish he were dead, or back in Cairo, this
brute Mahomet!" The irascible dragoman would then beat his own head
unmercifully with his fists, in a paroxysm of rage.

To comfort him I could only exclaim, "Well done, Mahomet! thrash him;
pommel him well; punch his head; you know him best; he deserves it;
don't spare him!" This advice, acting upon the natural perversity of
his disposition, generally soothed him, and he ceased punching his
head. This man was entirely out of his place, if not out of his mind,
at certain moments, and having upon one occasion smashed a basin by
throwing it in the face of the cook, and upon another occasion narrowly
escaped homicide by throwing an axe at a man's head, which missed by an
inch, he became a notorious character in the little expedition.

We left Berber in the evening, and about two hours after sunset of the
following day reached the junction of the Nile and Atbara. The latter
presented a curious appearance. In no place was it less than four
hundred yards in width, and in many places much wider. The banks were
from twenty-five to thirty feet deep, and had evidently been overflowed
during floods; but now the river bed was dry sand, so glaring that the
sun's reflection was almost intolerable. The only shade was afforded by
the evergreen dome palms; nevertheless the Arabs occupied the banks at
intervals of three or four miles, wherever a pool of water in some deep
bend of the dried river's bed offered an attraction. In such places were
Arab villages or camps, of the usual mat tents formed of the dome-palm

Many pools were of considerable size and of great depth. In flood-time a
tremendous torrent sweeps down the course of the Atbara, and the sudden
bends of the river are hollowed out by the force of the stream to a
depth of twenty or thirty feet below the level of the bed. Accordingly
these holes become reservoirs of water when the river is otherwise
exhausted. In such asylums all the usual inhabitants of this large river
are crowded together in a comparatively narrow space. Although these
pools vary in size, from only a few hundred yards to a mile in length,
they are positively full of life; huge fish, crocodiles of immense size,
turtles, and occasionally hippopotami, consort together in close and
unwished-for proximity. The animals of the desert--gazelles, hyenas, and
wild asses--are compelled to resort to these crowded drinking-places,
occupied by the flocks of the Arabs equally with the timid beasts of
the chase. The birds that during the cooler months would wander free
throughout the country are now collected in vast numbers along the
margin of the exhausted river; innumerable doves, varying in species,
throng the trees and seek the shade of the dome-palms; thousands of
desert grouse arrive morning and evening to drink and to depart; while
birds in multitudes, of lovely plumage, escape from the burning desert
and colonize the poor but welcome bushes that fringe the Atbara River.

After several days' journey along the bank of the Atbara we halted at a
spot called Collodabad, about one hundred and sixty miles from the Nile
junction. A sharp bend of the river had left a deep pool about a mile in
length, and here a number of Arabs were congregated, with their flocks
and herds.

On the evening of June 23d I was lying half asleep upon my bed by the
margin of the river, when I fancied that I heard a rumbling like
distant thunder. I had not heard such a sound for months, but a low,
uninterrupted roll appeared to increase in volume, although far distant.
Hardly had I raised my head to listen more attentively when a confusion
of voices arose from the Arabs' camp, with a sound of many feet, and
in a few minutes they rushed into my camp, shouting to my men in the
darkness, "El Bahr! El Bahr!" (the river! the river!)

We were up in an instant, and my interpreter, Mahomet, in a state of
intense confusion, explained that the river was coming down, and that
the supposed distant thunder was the roar of approaching water.

Many of the people were asleep on the clean sand on the river's bed;
these were quickly awakened by the Arabs, who rushed down the steep bank
to save the skulls of two hippopotami that were exposed to dry. Hardly
had they descended when the sound of the river in the darkness beneath
told us that the water had arrived, and the men, dripping with wet, had
just sufficient time to drag their heavy burdens up the bank.

All was darkness and confusion, everybody talking and no one listening;
but the great event had occurred; the river had arrived "like a thief in
the night". On the morning of the 24th of June, I stood on the banks of
the noble Atbara River at the break of day. The wonder of the desert!
Yesterday there was a barren sheet of glaring sand, with a fringe of
withered bushes and trees upon its borders, that cut the yellow expanse
of desert. For days we had journeyed along the exhausted bed; all
Nature, even in Nature's poverty, was most poor: no bush could boast a
leaf, no tree could throw a shade, crisp gums crackled upon the stems
of the mimosas, the sap dried upon the burst bark, sprung with the
withering heat of the simoom. In one night there was a mysterious
change. Wonders of the mighty Nile! An army of water was hastening to
the wasted river. There was no drop of rain, no thunder-cloud on the
horizon to give hope. All had been dry and sultry, dust and desolation
yesterday; to-day a magnificent stream, some five hundred yards in width
and from fifteen to twenty feet in depth, flowed through the dreary
desert! Bamboos and reeds, with trash of all kinds, were hurried along
the muddy waters. Where were all the crowded inhabitants of the pool?
The prison doors were broken, the prisoners were released, and rejoiced
in the mighty stream of the Atbara.

The 24th of June, 1861, was a memorable day. Although this was actually
the beginning of my work, I felt that by the experience of this night
I had obtained a clew to one portion of the Nile mystery, and that, as
"coming events cast their shadows before," this sudden creation of a
river was but the shadow of the great cause. The rains were pouring in

The journey along the margin of the Atbara was similar to the route from
Berber, through a vast desert, with a narrow band of trees that marked
the course of the river. The only change was the magical growth of the
leaves, which burst hourly from the swollen buds of the mimosas. This
could be accounted for by the sudden arrival of the river, as the water
percolated rapidly through the sand and nourished the famishing roots.

At Gozerajup, two hundred and forty-six miles from Berber, our route was
changed. We had hitherto followed the course of the Atbara, but we were
now to leave that river on our right, while we travelled about ninety
miles south-east to Cassala, the capital of the Taka country, on the
confines of Abyssinia, and the great depot for Egyptian troops.

The entire country from Gozerajup to Cassala is a dead flat, upon which
there is not one tree sufficiently large to shade a full-sized tent.
There is no real timber in the country; but the vast level extent of
soil is a series of open plains and low bush of thorny mimosa. There is
no drainage upon this perfect level; thus, during the rainy season, the
soakage actually melts the soil, and forms deep holes throughout the
country, which then becomes an impenetrable slough, bearing grass and
jungle. No sooner had we arrived in the flooded country than my wife was
seized with a sudden and severe fever, which necessitated a halt upon
the march, as she could no longer sit upon her camel. In the evening
several hundreds of Arabs arrived and encamped around our fire. It
was shortly after sunset, and it was interesting to watch the extreme
rapidity with which these swarthy sons of the desert pitched their camp.
A hundred fires were quickly blazing; the women prepared the food, and
children sat in clusters around the blaze, as all were wet from paddling
through the puddled ground from which they were retreating.

No sooner was the bustle of arrangement completed than a gray old man
stepped forward, and, responding to his call, every man of the hundreds
present formed in line, three or four deep. At once there was total
silence, disturbed only by the crackling of the fires or by the cry of
a child; and with faces turned to the east, in attitudes of profound
devotion, the wild but fervent followers of Mahomet repeated their
evening prayer. The flickering red light of the fires illumined the
bronze faces of the congregation, and as I stood before the front line
of devotees, I tools off my cap in respect for their faith, and at the
close of their prayer made my salaam to their venerable Faky (priest);
he returned the salutation with the cold dignity of an Arab.

On the next day my wife's fever was renewed, but she was placed on a
dromedary and we reached Cassala about sunset. The place is rich in
hyenas, and the night was passed in the discordant howling of these
disgusting but useful animals. They are the scavengers of the country,
devouring every species of filth and clearing all carrion from the
earth. Without the hyenas and vultures the neighborhood of a Nubian
village would be unbearable. It is the idle custom of the people to
leave unburied all animals that die; thus, among the numerous flocks
and herds, the casualties would create a pestilence were it not for the
birds and beasts of prey.

On the following morning the fever had yielded to quinine, and we were
enabled to receive a round of visits--the governor and suite, Elias Bey,
the doctor and a friend, and, lastly, Malem Georgis, an elderly Greek
merchant, who, with great hospitality, insisted upon our quitting the
sultry tent and sharing his own roof. We therefore became his guests in
a most comfortable house for some days. Here we discharged our camels,
as our Turk, Hadji Achmet's, service ended at this point, and proceeded
to start afresh for the Nile tributaries of Abyssinia.


Egypt's rule of the Soudan--Corn-grinding in the Soudan--Mahomet meets
relatives--The parent of Egypt--El Baggar rides the camel.

Cassala was built about twenty years before I visited the country, after
Taka had been conquered and annexed to Egypt. The general annexation
of the Soudan and the submission of the numerous Arab tribes to the
Viceroy have been the first steps necessary to the improvement of the
country. Although the Egyptians are hard masters, and do not trouble
themselves about the future well-being of the conquered races, it must
be remembered that, prior to the annexation, all the tribes were at war
among themselves. There was neither government nor law; thus the whole
country was closed to Europeans. At the time of my visit to Cassala in
1861 the Arab tribes were separately governed by their own chiefs or
sheiks, who were responsible to the Egyptian authorities for the taxes
due from their people. Since that period the entire tribes of all
denominations have been placed under the authority of that grand old
Arab patriarch, Achmet Abou Sinn, to be hereafter mentioned. The iron
hand of despotism has produced a marvellous change among the Arabs, who
are rendered utterly powerless by the system of government adopted
by the Egyptians; unfortunately, this harsh system has the effect of
paralyzing all industry.

The principal object of Turks and Egyptians in annexation is to increase
their power of taxation by gaining an additional number of subjects.
Thus, although many advantages have accrued to the Arab provinces of
Nubia through Egyptian rule, there exists very much mistrust between the
governed and the governing. Not only are the camels, cattle, and sheep
subjected to a tax, but every attempt at cultivation is thwarted by the
authorities, who impose a fine or tax upon the superficial area of the
cultivated land. Thus, no one will cultivate more than is absolutely
necessary, as he dreads the difficulties that broad acres of waving
crops would entail upon his family. The bona fide tax is a bagatelle to
the amounts squeezed from him by the extortionate soldiery, who are
the agents employed by the sheik; these must have their share of the
plunder, in excess of the amount to be delivered to their employer; he
also must have his plunder before he parts with the bags of dollars to
the governor of the province. Thus the unfortunate cultivator is ground
down. Should he refuse to pay the necessary "backsheesh" or present to
the tax-collectors, some false charge is trumped up against him, and he
is thrown into prison. As a green field is an attraction to a flight of
locusts in their desolating voyage, so is a luxuriant farm in the Soudan
a point for the tax-collectors of Upper Egypt. I have frequently ridden
several days' journey through a succession of empty villages, deserted
by the inhabitants upon the report of the soldiers' approach. The women
and children, goats and cattle, camels and asses, had all been removed
into the wilderness for refuge, while their crops of corn had been left
standing for the plunderers, who would be too idle to reap and thrash
the grain.

Notwithstanding the miserable that fetters the steps of improvement,
Nature has bestowed such great capabilities of production in the fertile
soil of this country that the yield of a small surface is more than
sufficient for the requirements of the population, and actual poverty is
unknown. The average price of dhurra is fifteen piastres per "rachel,"
or about 3s. 2d. for five hundred pounds upon the spot where it is
grown. The dhurra (Sorghum andropogon) is the grain most commonly used
throughout the Soudan; there are great varieties of this plant, of which
the most common are the white and the red. The land is not only favored
by Nature by its fertility, but the intense heat of the summer is the
laborer's great assistant. As before described, all vegetation entirely
disappears in the glaring sun, or becomes so dry that it is swept off by
fire; thus the soil is perfectly clean and fit for immediate cultivation
upon the arrival of the rains.

The tool generally used is similar to the Dutch hoe. With this simple
implement the surface is scratched to the depth of about two inches, and
the seeds of the dhurra are dibbled in about three feet apart, in rows
from four to five feet in width. Two seeds are dropped into each hole.
A few days after the first shower they rise above the ground, and when
about six inches high the whole population turn out of their villages at
break of day to weed the dhurra fields. Sown in July, it is harvested in
February and March. Eight months are thus required for the cultivation
of this cereal in the intense heat of Nubia. For the first three months
the growth is extremely rapid, and the stem attains a height of six or
seven feet. When at perfection in the rich soil of the Taka country, the
plant averages a height of ten feet, the circumference of the stem being
about four inches. The crown is a feather very similar to that of the
sugar-cane; the blossom falls, and the feather becomes a head of dhurra,
weighing about two pounds. Each grain is about the size of hemp-seed.
I took the trouble of counting the corns contained in an average-sized
head, the result being 4,848. The process of harvesting and threshing is
remarkably simple, as the heads are simply detached from the straw
and beaten out in piles. The dried straw is a substitute for sticks in
forming the walls of the village huts; these are plastered with clay and
cow-dung, which form the Arab's lath and plaster.

The millers' work is exclusively the province of the women. No man will
condescend to grind the corn. There are no circular hand-mills, as among
Oriental nations; but the corn is ground upon a simple flat stone, of
cithor gneiss or granite, about two feet in length by fourteen inches
in width. The face of this is roughened by beating with a sharp-pointed
piece of harder stone, such as quartz or hornblende, and the grain is
reduced to flour by great labor and repeated grinding or rubbing with a
stone rolling-pin. The flour is mixed with water and allowed to ferment;
it is then made into thin pancakes upon an earthenware flat portable
hearth. This species of leavened bread is known to the Arabs as the
kisra. It is not very palatable, but it is extremely well suited to Arab
cookery, as it can be rolled up like a pancake and dipped in the general
dish of meat and gravy very conveniently, in the absence of spoons and

On the 14th of July I had concluded my arrangements for the start.
There had been some difficulty in procuring camels, but the all-powerful
firman was a never-failing talisman, and as the Arabs had declined to
let their animals for hire, the Governor despatched a number of soldiers
and seized the required number, including their owners. I engaged two
wild young Arabs of eighteen and twenty years of age, named Bacheet and
Wat Gamma. The latter, being interpreted, signifies "Son of the Moon."
This in no way suggests lunacy; but the young Arab had happened to enter
this world on the day of the new moon, which was considered to be a
particularly fortunate and brilliant omen at his birth. Whether the
climax of his good fortune had arrived at the moment he entered my
service I know not; but, if so, there was a cloud over his happiness in
his subjection to Mahomet, the dragoman, who rejoiced in the opportunity
of bullying the two inferiors. Wat Gamma was a quiet, steady,
well-conducted lad, who bore oppression mildly; but the younger,
Bucheet, was a fiery, wild young Arab, who, although an excellent boy in
his peculiar way, was almost incapable of being tamed and domesticated.
I at once perceived that Mahomet would have a determined rebel to
control, which I confess I did not regret. Wages were not high in this
part of the world--the lads were engaged at one and a half dollars per
month and their keep.

Mahomet, who was a great man, suffered from the same complaint to which
great men are (in those countries) particularly subject. Wherever he
went he was attacked with claimants of relationship. He was overwhelmed
with professions of friendship from people who claimed to be connections
of some of his family. In fact, if all the ramifications of his race
were correctly represented by the claimants of relationship, Mahomet's
family tree would have shaded the Nubian desert

We all have our foibles. The strongest fort has its feeble point, as the
chain snaps at its weakest link. Family pride was Mahomet's weak link.
This was his tender point; and Mahomet, the great and the imperious,
yielded to the gentle scratching of his ear if a stranger claimed
connection with his ancient lineage. Of course he had no family, with
the exception of his wife and two children, whom he had left in Cairo.
The lady whom he had honored by admission into the domestic circle of
the Mahomets was suffering from a broken arm when we started from Egypt,
as she had cooked the dinner badly, and the "gaddah," or large wooden
bowl, had been thrown at her by the naturally indignant husband,
precisely as he had thrown the axe at one man and the basin at another
while in our service. These were little contretemps that could hardly
disturb the dignity of so great a man.

Mahomet met several relatives at Cassala. One borrowed money of him;
another stole his pipe; the third, who declared that nothing should
separate them now that "by the blessing of God" they had met, determined
to accompany him through all the difficulties of our expedition,
provided that Mahomet would only permit him to serve for love, without
wages. I gave Mahomet some little advice upon this point, reminding him
that, although the clothes of the party were only worth a few
piastres, the spoons and forks were silver; therefore I should hold
him responsible for the honesty of his friend. This reflection upon the
family gave great offence, and he assured me that Achmet, our quondam
acquaintance, was so near a relative that he was--I assisted him in the
genealogical distinction: "Mother's brother's cousin's sister's mother's
son? Eh, Mahomet?"

"Yes, sar, that's it!" "Very well, Mahomet; mind he doesn't steal the
spoons, and thrash him if he doesn't do his work!" "Yes, sar", replied
Mahomet; "he all same like one brother; he one good man; will do
his business quietly; if not, master lick him." The new relative not
understanding English, was perfectly satisfied with the success of his
introduction, and from that moment he became one of the party.

One more addition, and our arrangements were completed: the Governor of
Cassala was determined we should not start without a soldier guide to
represent the government. Accordingly he gave us a black corporal, so
renowned as a sportsman that he went by the name of "El Baggar" (the
cow), because of his having killed several of the oryx antelope, known
as "El Baggar et Wabash" (cow of the desert).

After sixteen hours' actual marching from Cassala we arrived at
the valley of the Atbara. There was an extraordinary change in the
appearance of the river between Gozerajup and this spot. There was no
longer the vast sandy desert with the river flowing through its sterile
course on a level with the surface of the country; but after traversing
an apparently perfect flat of forty-five miles of rich alluvial soil,
we had suddenly arrived upon the edge of a deep valley, between five and
six miles wide, at the bottom of which, about two hundred feet below the
general level of the country, flowed the river Atbara. On the opposite
side of the valley the same vast table-lands continued to the western

We commenced the descent toward the river: the valley was a succession
of gullies and ravines, of landslips and watercourses. The entire
hollow, of miles in width, had evidently been the work of the river. How
many ages had the rains and the stream been at work to scoop out from
the flat tableland this deep and broad valley? Here was the giant
laborer that had shovelled the rich loam upon the delta of Lower Egypt!
Upon these vast flats of fertile soil there can be no drainage except
through soakage. The deep valley is therefore the receptacle not only
for the water that oozes from its sides, but subterranean channels,
bursting as land-springs from all parts of the walls of the valley, wash
down the more soluble portions of earth, and continually waste away the
soil. Landslips occur daily during the rainy season; streams of rich
mud pour down the valley's slopes, and as the river flows beneath in
a swollen torrent, the friable banks topple down into the stream and
dissolve. The Atbara becomes the thickness of peasoup, as its muddy
waters steadily perform the duty they have fulfilled from age to age.
Thus was the great river at work upon our arrival on its bank at the
bottom of the valley. The Arab name, "Bahr el Aswat" (black river) was
well bestowed; it was the black mother of Egypt, still carrying to her
offspring the nourishment that had first formed the Delta.

At this point of interest the journey had commenced; the deserts were
passed; all was fertility and life. Wherever the sources of the
Nile might be, the Atbara was the parent of Egypt! This was my first
impression, to be proved hereafter.

A violent thunderstorm, with a deluge of rain, broke upon our camp on
the banks of the Atbara, fortunately just after the tents were pitched.
We thus had an example of the extraordinary effects of the heavy rain in
tearing away the soil of the valley. Trifling watercourses were swollen
to torrents. Banks of earth became loosened and fell in, and the rush
of mud and water upon all sides swept forward into the river with a
rapidity which threatened the destruction of the country, could such a
tempest endure for a few days. In a couple of hours all was over.

In the evening we crossed with our baggage and people to the opposite
side of the ricer, and pitched our tents at the village of Goorashee.
In the morning the camels arrived, and once more we were ready to start.
Our factotum, El Baggar, had collected a number of baggage-camels
and riding dromedaries, or "hygeens". The latter he had brought for
approval, as we bad suffered much from the extreme roughness of our
late camels. There is the same difference between a good hygeen, or
dromedary, and a baggage-camel, as between the thoroughbred and the
cart-horse; and it appears absurd in the eyes of the Arabs that a man
of any position should ride a baggage-camel. Apart from all ideas of
etiquette, the motion of the latter animal is quite sufficient warning.
Of all species of fatigue, the back-breaking, monotonous swing of
a heavy camel is the worst; and should the rider lose patience and
administer a sharp cut with the coorbatch, that induces the creature
to break into a trot, the torture of the rack is a pleasant tickling
compared to the sensation of having your spine driven by a sledge-hammer
from below, half a foot deeper into the skull.

The human frame may be inured to almost anything; thus the Arabs, who
have always been accustomed to this kind of exercise, hardly feel the
motion, and the portion of the body most subject to pain in riding a
rough camel upon two bare pieces of wood for a saddle, becomes naturally
adapted for such rough service, as monkeys become hardened from
constantly sitting upon rough substances. The children commence almost
as soon as they are born, as they must accompany their mothers in their
annual migrations; and no sooner can the young Arab sit astride and hold
on than he is placed behind his father's saddle, to which he clings,
while he bumps upon the bare back of the jolting camel. Nature quickly
arranges a horny protection to the nerves, by the thickening of the
skin; thus, an Arab's opinion of the action of a riding hygeen should
never be accepted without a personal trial. What appears delightful to
him may be torture to you, as a strong breeze and a rough sea may be
charming to a sailor, but worse than death to a landsman.

I was determined not to accept the camels now offered as hygeens until I
had seen them tried. I accordingly ordered our black soldier, El Baggar,
to saddle the most easy-actioned animal for my wife; but I wished to see
him put it through a variety of paces before she should accept it. The
delighted EL Baggar, who from long practice was as hard as the heel of
a boot, disdained a saddle. The animal knelt, was mounted, and off he
started at full trot, performing a circle of about fifty yards' diameter
as though in a circus. I never saw such an exhibition! "Warranted
quiet to ride, of easy action, and fit for a lady!" This had been the
character received with the rampant brute, who now, with head and tail
erect, went tearing round the circle, screaming and roaring like a wild
beast, throwing his forelegs forward and stepping at least three feet
high in his trot.

Where was El Baggar? A disjointed looking black figure was sometimes
on the back of this easy going camel, sometimes a foot high in the air;
arms, head, legs, hands, appeared like a confused mass of dislocation;
the woolly hair of this unearthly individual, that had been carefully
trained in long stiff narrow curls, precisely similar to the tobacco
known as "negro-head," alternately started upright en masse, as though
under the influence of electricity, and then fell as suddenly upon his
shoulders. Had the dark individual been a "black dose", he or it
could not have been more thoroughly shaken. This object, so thoroughly
disguised by rapidity of movement, was El Baggar happy, delighted El
Baggar! As he came rapidly round toward us flourishing his coorbatch, I
called to him, "Is that a nice hygeen for the Sit (lady), EL Baggar?
Is it very easy?" He was almost incapable of a reply. "V-e-r-y
e-e-a-a-s-y," replied the trustworthy authority, "j-j-j-just the
thin-n-n-g for the S-i-i-i-t-t-t." "All right, that will do," I
answered, and the jockey pulled up his steed. "Are the other camels
better or worse than that?" I asked. "Much worse," replied El Baggar;
"the others are rather rough, but this is an easy goer, and will suit
the lady well."

It was impossible to hire a good hygeen; an Arab prizes his riding
animal too much, and invariably refuses to let it to a stranger, but
generally imposes upon him by substituting some lightly-built camel
that he thinks will pass muster. I accordingly chose for my wife a
steady-going animal from among the baggage-camels, trusting to be able
to obtain a hygeen from the great Sheik Abou Sinn, who was encamped upon
the road we were about to take along the valley of the Atbara. We left
Goorashee on the following day.


The Arabs' exodus-Reception by Abou Sinn-Arabs dressing the hair-Toilet
of an Arab woman-The plague of lice-Wives among the Arabs-The Old
Testament confirmed

IT was the season of rejoicing. Everybody appeared in good humor. The
distended udders of thousands of camels were an assurance of plenty. The
burning sun that for nine months had scorched the earth was veiled by
passing clouds. The cattle that had panted for water, and whose food
was withered straw, were filled with juicy fodder. The camels that had
subsisted upon the dried and leafless twigs and branches, now feasted
upon the succulent tops of the mimosas. Throngs of women and children
mounted upon camels, protected by the peculiar gaudy saddle-hood,
ornamented with cowrie-shells, accompanied the march. Thousands of
sheep and goats, driven by Arab boys, were straggling in all directions.
Baggage-camels, heavily laden with the quaint household goods, blocked
up the way. The fine bronzed figures of Arabs, with sword and shield,
and white topes, or plaids, guided their milk-white dromedaries through
the confused throng with the usual placid dignity of their race, simply
passing by with the usual greeting, "Salaam aleikum" (Peace be with

It was the Exodus; all were hurrying toward the promised land--"the land
flowing with milk and honey", where men and beasts would be secure, not
only from the fevers of the south, but from that deadly enemy to camels
and cattle, the fly. This terrible insect drove all before it.

If all were right in migrating to the north, it was a logical conclusion
that we were wrong in going to the south during the rainy season;
however, we now heard from the Arabs that we were within a couple of
hours' march from the camp of the great Sheik Achmet Abou Sinn, to whom
I had a letter of introduction. At the expiration of about that time
we halted, and pitched the tents among some shady mimosas, while I sent
Mahomet to Abou Sinn with the letter, and my firman.

I was busily engaged in making sundry necessary arrangements in the tent
when Mahomet returned and announced the arrival of the great sheik in
person. He was attended by several of his principal people, and as he
approached through the bright green mimosas, mounted upon a beautiful
snow-white hygeen, I was exceedingly struck with his venerable and
dignified appearance. Upon near arrival I went forward to meet him and
to assist him from his camel; but his animal knelt immediately at his
command, and he dismounted with the ease and agility of a man of twenty.

He was the most magnificent specimen of an Arab that I have ever seen.
Although upward of eighty years of age, he was as erect as a lance, and
did not appear more than between fifty and sixty. He was of herculean
stature, about six feet three inches high, with immensely broad
shoulders and chest, a remarkably arched nose, eyes like an eagle's,
beneath large, shaggy, but perfectly white eyebrows. A snow-white beard
of great thickness descended below the middle of his breast. He wore a
large white turban and a white cashmere abbai, or long robe, from the
throat to the ankles. As a desert patriarch he was superb--the very
perfection of all that the imagination could paint, if we should
personify Abraham at the head of his people. This grand old Arab with
the greatest politeness insisted upon our immediately accompanying
him to his camp, as he could not allow us to remain in his country
as strangers. He would hear of no excuses, but at once gave orders to
Mahomet to have the baggage repacked and the tents removed, while we
were requested to mount two superb white hygeens, with saddle-cloths
of blue Persian sheepskins, that he had immediately accoutered when he
heard from Mahomet of our miserable camels. The tent was struck, and
we joined our venerable host with a line of wild and splendidly-mounted
attendants, who followed us toward the sheik's encampment.

Among the retinue of the aged sheik whom we now accompanied, were ten of
his sons, some of whom appeared to be quite as old as their father.
We had ridden about two miles when we were suddenly met by a crowd
of mounted men, armed with the usual swords and shields; many were on
horses, others upon hygeens, and all drew up in lines parallel with our
approach. These were Abou Sinn's people, who had assembled to give us
the honorary welcome as guests of their chief. This etiquette of the
Arabs consists in galloping singly at full speed across the line of
advance, the rider flourishing the sword over his head, and at the same
moment reining up his horse upon its haunches so as to bring it to a
sudden halt. This having been performed by about a hundred riders upon
both horses and hygeens, they fell into line behind our party, and, thus
escorted, we shortly arrived at the Arab encampment. In all countries
the warmth of a public welcome appears to be exhibited by noise. The
whole neighborhood had congregated to meet us; crowds of women raised
the wild, shrill cry that is sounded alike for joy or sorrow; drums were
beat; men dashed about with drawn swords and engaged in mimic fight,
and in the midst of din and confusion we halted and dismounted. With
peculiar grace of manner the old sheik assisted my wife to dismount, and
led her to an open shed arranged with angareps (stretchers) covered with
Persian carpets and cushions, so as to form a divan. Sherbet, pipes, and
coffee were shortly handed to us, and Mahomet, as dragoman, translated
the customary interchange of compliments; the sheik assured us that our
unexpected arrival among them was "like the blessing of a new moon", the
depth of which expression no one can understand who has not experienced
life in the desert, where the first faint crescent is greeted with such

Abou Sinn had arranged to move northward on the following day; we
therefore agreed to pass one day in his camp, and to leave the next
morning for Sofi, on the Atbara, about seventy-eight miles distant.

From Korosko to this point we had already passed the Bedouins,
Bishareens, Hadendowas, Hallongas, until we had entered the
Shookeriyahs. On the west of our present position were the Jalyns, and
to the south near Sofi were the Dabainas. Many of the tribes claim a
right to the title of Bedouins, as descended from that race. The customs
of all the Arabs are nearly similar, and the distinction in appearance
is confined to a peculiarity in dressing the hair. This is a matter
of great importance among both men and women. It would be tedious to
describe the minutiae of the various coiffures, but the great desire
with all tribes, except the Jalyn, is to have a vast quantity of hair
arranged in their own peculiar fashion, and not only smeared, but
covered with as much fat as can be made to adhere. Thus, should a man
wish to get himself up as a great dandy, he would put at least half a
pound of butter or other fat upon his head. This would be worked up with
his coarse locks by a friend, until it somewhat resembled a cauliflower.
He would then arrange his tope or plaid of thick cotton cloth, and throw
one end over his left shoulder, while slung from the same shoulder his
circular shield would hang upon his back; suspended by a strap over the
right shoulder would hang his long two-edged broadsword.

Fat is the great desideratum of an Arab. His head, as I have described,
should be a mass of grease; he rubs his body with oil or other ointment;
his clothes, i.e. his one garment or tope, is covered with grease, and
internally he swallows as much as he can procure.

The great Sheik Abou Sinn, who is upward of eighty, as upright as a
dart, a perfect Hercules, and whose children and grandchildren are like
the sand of the sea-shore, has always consumed daily throughout his life
two rottolis (pounds) of melted butter. A short time before I left the
country he married a new young wife about fourteen years of age. This
may be a hint to octogenarians.

The fat most esteemed for dressing the hair is that of the sheep. This
undergoes a curious preparation, which renders it similar in appearance
to cold cream; upon the raw fat being taken from the animal it is chewed
in the mouth by an Arab for about two hours, being frequently taken
out for examination during that time, until it has assumed the desired
consistency. To prepare sufficient to enable a man to appear in full
dress, several persons must be employed in masticating fat at the same
time. This species of pomade, when properly made, is perfectly white,
and exceedingly light and frothy. It may be imagined that when exposed
to a burning sun, the beauty of the head-dress quickly disappears; but
the oil then runs down the neck and back, which is considered quite
correct, especially when the tope becomes thoroughly greased. The man is
then perfectly anointed. We had seen an amusing example of this when on
the march from Berber to Gozerajup. The Turk, Hadji Achmet, had pressed
into our service, as a guide for a few miles, a dandy who had just been
arranged as a cauliflower, with at least half a pound of white fat
upon his head. As we were travelling upward of four miles an hour in an
intense heat, during which he was obliged to run, the fat ran quicker
than he did, and at the end of a couple of hours both the dandy and his
pomade were exhausted. The poor fellow had to return to his friends with
the total loss of personal appearance and half a pound of butter.

Not only are the Arabs particular in their pomade, but great attention
is bestowed upon perfumery, especially by the women. Various perfumes
are brought from Cairo by the travelling native merchants, among which
those most in demand are oil of roses, oil of sandal-wood, an essence
from the blossom of a species of mimosa, essence of musk, and the oil
of cloves. The women have a peculiar method of scenting their bodies and
clothes by an operation that is considered to be one of the necessaries
of life, and which is repeated at regular intervals. In the floor of
the tent, or hut, as it may chance to be, a small hole is excavated
sufficiently large to contain a common-sized champagne bottle. A fire
of charcoal, or of simply glowing embers, is made within the hole, into
which the woman about to be scented throws a handful of various drugs.
She then takes off the cloth or tope which forms her dress, and crouches
naked over the fumes, while she arranges her robe to fall as a mantle
from her neck to the ground like a tent. When this arrangement is
concluded she is perfectly happy, as none of the precious fumes can
escape, all being retained beneath the robe, precisely as if she wore a
crinoline with an incense-burner beneath it, which would be a far more
simple way of performing the operation. She now begins to perspire
freely in the hot-air bath, and the pores of the skin being thus opened
and moist, the volatile oil from the smoke of the burning perfumes is
immediately absorbed.

By the time that the fire has expired the scenting process is completed,
and both her person and robe are redolent of incense, with which they
are so thoroughly impregnated that I have frequently smelt a party of
women strongly at full a hundred yards' distance, when the wind has been
blowing from their direction.

The Arab women do not indulge in fashions. Strictly conservative in
their manners and customs, they never imitate, but they simply vie with
each other in the superlativeness of their own style; thus the dressing
of the hair is a most elaborate affair, which occupies a considerable
portion of their time. It is quite impossible for an Arab woman to
arrange her own hair; she therefore employs an assistant, who, if clever
in the art, will generally occupy about three days before the operation
is concluded. First, the hair must be combed with a long skewer-like
pin; then, when well divided, it becomes possible to use an exceedingly
coarse wooden comb. When the hair is reduced to reasonable order by the
latter process, a vigorous hunt takes place, which occupies about an
hour, according to the amount of game preserved. The sport concluded,
the hair is rubbed with a mixture of oil of roses, myrrh, and
sandal-wood dust mixed with a powder of cloves and cassia. When well
greased and rendered somewhat stiff by the solids thus introduced, it is
plaited into at least two hundred fine plaits; each of these plaits is
then smeared with a mixture of sandal-wood dust and either gum water or
paste of dhurra flour. On the last day of the operation, each tiny
plait is carefully opened by the long hairpin or skewer, and the head is
ravissante. Scented and frizzled in this manner with a well-greased tope
or robe, the Arab lady's toilet is complete. Her head is then a little
larger than the largest sized English mop, and her perfume is something
between the aroma of a perfumer's shop and the monkey-house at the
Zoological Gardens. This is considered "very killing," and I have been
quite of that opinion when a crowd of women have visited my wife in our
tent, with the thermometer at 95 degrees C, and have kindly consented to
allow me to remain as one of the party.

It is hardly necessary to add that the operation of hairdressing is
not often performed, but that the effect is permanent for about a
week, during which time the game becomes so excessively lively that the
creatures require stirring up with the long hairpin or skewer whenever
too unruly. This appears to be constantly necessary from the vigorous
employment of the ruling sceptre during conversation. A levee of Arab
women in the tent was therefore a disagreeable invasion, as we dreaded
the fugitives; fortunately, they appeared to cling to the followers of
Mahomet in preference to Christians.

The plague of lice brought upon the Egyptians by Moses has certainly
adhered to the country ever since, if "lice" is the proper translation
of the Hebrew word in the Old Testament. It is my own opinion that the
insects thus inflicted upon the population were not lice, but ticks.
Exod. 8:16: "The dust became lice throughout all Egypt;" again, Exod.
8:17: "Smote dust... it became lice in man and beast." Now the louse
that infests the human body and hair has no connection whatever with
"dust," and if subject to a few hours' exposure to the dry heat of the
burning sand, it would shrivel and die. But the tick is an inhabitant
of the dust, a dry horny insect without any apparent moisture in its
composition; it lives in hot sand and dust, where it cannot possibly
obtain nourishment, until some wretched animal lies down upon the spot,
when it becomes covered with these horrible vermin. I have frequently
seen dry desert places so infested with ticks that the ground was
perfectly alive with them, and it would have been impossible to rest on
the earth.

In such spots, the passage in Exodus has frequently occurred to me as
bearing reference to these vermin, which are the greatest enemies to man
and beast. It is well known that, from the size of a grain of sand in
their natural state, they will distend to the size of a hazelnut after
having preyed for some days upon the blood of an animal. The Arabs are
invariably infested with lice, not only in their hair, but upon their
bodies and clothes; even the small charms or spells worn upon the arm in
neatly-sewn leathern packets are full of these vermin. Such spells
are generally verses copied from the Koran by the Faky, or priest, who
receives some small gratuity in exchange. The men wear several such
talismans upon the arm above the elbow, but the women wear a large bunch
of charms, as a sort of chatelaine, suspended beneath their clothes
around the waist.

Although the tope or robe, loosely but gracefully arranged around the
body, appears to be the whole of the costume, the women wear beneath
this garment a thin blue cotton cloth tightly bound round the loins,
which descends to a little above the knee; beneath this, next to the
skin, is the last garment, the rahat. The latter is the only clothing
of young girls, and may be either perfectly simple or adorned with beads
and cowrie shells according to the fancy of the wearer. It is perfectly
effective as a dress, and admirably adapted to the climate.

The rahat is a fringe of fine dark brown or reddish twine, fastened to
a belt, and worn round the waist. On either side are two long tassels,
that are generally ornamented with beads or cowries, and dangle nearly
to the ankles, while the rahat itself should descend to a little above
the knee, or be rather shorter than a Highland kilt. Nothing can be
prettier or more simple than this dress, which, although short, is of
such thickly hanging fringe that it perfectly answers the purpose for
which it is intended.

Many of the Arab girls are remarkably good-looking, with fine figures
until they become mothers. They generally marry at the age of thirteen
or fourteen, but frequently at twelve or even earlier. Until married,
the rahat is their sole garment. Throughout the Arab tribes of Upper
Egypt, chastity is a necessity, as an operation is performed at the
early age of from three to five years that thoroughly protects all
females and which renders them physically proof against incontinency.

There is but little love-making among the Arabs. The affair of matrimony
usually commences by a present to the father of the girl, which, if
accepted, is followed by a similar advance to the girl herself, and the
arrangement is completed. All the friends of both parties are called
together for the wedding; pistols and guns are fired off, if possessed.
There is much feasting, and the unfortunate bridegroom undergoes the
ordeal of whipping by the relatives of his bride, in order to test
his courage. Sometimes this punishment is exceedingly severe, being
inflicted with the coorbatch or whip of hippopotamus hide, which is
cracked vigorously about his ribs and back. If the happy husband wishes
to be considered a man worth having, he must receive the chastisement
with an expression of enjoyment; in which case the crowds of women again
raise their thrilling cry in admiration. After the rejoicings of the
day are over, the bride is led in the evening to the residence of her
husband, while a beating of drums and strumming of guitars (rhababas)
are kept up for some hours during the night, with the usual discordant

There is no divorce court among the Arabs. They are not sufficiently
advanced in civilization to accept a pecuniary fine as the price of a
wife's dishonor; but a stroke of the husband's sword or a stab with
the knife is generally the ready remedy for infidelity. Although strict
Mahometans, the women are never veiled; neither do they adopt the
excessive reserve assumed by the Turks and Egyptians. The Arab women are
generally idle, and one of the conditions of accepting a suitor is that
a female slave is to be provided for the special use of the wife. No
Arab woman will engage herself as a domestic servant; thus, so long as
their present customs shall remain unchanged, slaves are creatures of
necessity. Although the law of Mahomet limits the number of wives for
each man to four at one time, the Arab women do not appear to restrict
their husbands to this allowance, and the slaves of the establishment
occupy the position of concubines.

The Arabs adhere strictly to their ancient customs, independently of the
comparatively recent laws established by Mahomet. Thus, concubinage
is not considered a breach of morality; neither is it regarded by the
legitimate wives with jealousy. They attach great importance to the
laws of Moses and to the customs of their forefathers; neither can
they understand the reason for a change of habit in any respect where
necessity has not suggested the reform. The Arabs are creatures of
necessity; their nomadic life is compulsory, as the existence of their
flocks and herds depends upon the pasturage. Thus, with the change of
seasons they must change their localities, according to the presence of
fodder for their cattle. Driven to and fro by the accidents of climate,
the Arab has been compelled to become a wanderer; and precisely as the
wild beasts of the country are driven from place to place either by the
arrival of the fly, the lack of pasturage, or by the want of water, even
so must the flocks of the Arab obey the law of necessity, in a country
where the burning sun and total absence of rain for nine months of the
year convert the green pastures into a sandy desert.

The Arab cannot halt on one spot longer than the pasturage will support
his flocks; therefore his necessity is food for his beasts. The object
of his life being fodder, he must wander in search of the ever-changing
supply. His wants must be few, as the constant changes of encampment
necessitate the transport of all his household goods; thus he reduces
to a minimum the domestic furniture and utensils. No desires for strange
and fresh objects excite his mind to improvement, or alter his original
habits; he must limit his impedimenta, not increase them. Thus with
a few necessary articles he is contented. Mats for his tent, ropes
manufactured with the hair of his goats and camels, pots for carrying
fat, water-jars and earthenware pots or gourd-shells for containing
milk, leather water-skins for the desert, and sheep-skin bags for his
clothes--these are the requirements of the Arabs. Their patterns have
never changed, but the water-jar of to-day is of the same form as
that carried to the well by the women of thousands of years ago. The
conversation of the Arabs is in the exact style of the Old Testament.
The name of God is coupled with every trifling incident in life, and
they believe in the continual action of divine special interference.
Should a famine afflict the country, it is expressed in the stern
language of the bible--"The Lord has sent a grievous famine upon the
land;" or, "The Lord called for a famine, and it came upon the land."
Should their cattle fall sick, it is considered to be an affliction by
divine command; or should the flocks prosper and multiply particularly
well during one season, the prosperity is attributed to special
interference. Nothing can happen in the usual routine of daily life
without a direct connection with the hand of God, according to the
Arab's belief.

This striking similarity to the descriptions of the Old Testament is
exceedingly interesting to a traveller when residing among these curious
and original people. With the Bible in one hand, and these unchanged
tribes before the eyes, there is a thrilling illustration of the sacred
record; the past becomes the present; the veil of three thousand years
is raised, and the living picture is a witness to the exactness of the
historical description. At the same time there is a light thrown upon
many obscure passages in the Old Testament by a knowledge of the present
customs and figures of speech of the Arabs, which are precisely those
that were practised at the periods described. I do not attempt to enter
upon a theological treatise, therefore it is unnecessary to allude
specially to these particular points. The sudden and desolating arrival
of a flight of locusts, the plague, or any other unforeseen calamity, is
attributed to the anger of God, and is believed to be an infliction of
punishment upon the people thus visited, precisely as the plagues of
Egypt were specially inflicted upon Pharaoh and the Egyptians.

Should the present history of the country be written by an Arab scribe,
the style of the description would be purely that of the Old Testament;
and the various calamities or the good fortunes that have in the course
of nature befallen both the tribes and individuals would be recounted
either as special visitations of divine wrath or blessings for good
deeds performed. If in a dream a particular course of action is
suggested, the Arab believes that God has spoken and directed him. The
Arab scribe or historian would describe the event as the "voice of the
Lord" ("kallam el Allah"), having spoken unto the person; or, that God
appeared to him in a dream and "said," etc. Thus much allowance would be
necessary on the part of a European reader for the figurative ideas and
expressions of the people. As the Arabs are unchanged, the theological
opinions which they now hold are the same as those which prevailed in
remote ages, with the simple addition of their belief in Mahomet as the


On the Abyssinian border. A new school of medicine--Sacred shrines and

We left the camp of Abou Sinn on the morning of July 25th, and in a few
rapid marches arrived at Tomat, a lovely spot at the junction of the
Atbara with the Settite.

The Settite is the river par excellence, as it is the principal stream
of Abyssinia, in which country it bears the name of "Tacazzy." Above
the junction the Athara does not exceed two hundred yards in width. Both
rivers have scooped out deep and broad valleys throughout their course.
This fact confirmed my first impression that the supply of soil had been
brought down by the Atbara to the Nile. The country on the opposite or
eastern bank of the Atbara is contested ground. In reality it forms
the western frontier of Abyssinia, of which the Atbara River is the
boundary; but since the annexation of the Nubian provinces to Egypt
there has been no safety for life or property upon the line of frontier;
thus a large tract of country actually forming a portion of Abyssinia is

Upon our arrival at Sofi we were welcomed by the sheik, and by a
German, Florian, who was delighted to see Europeans. He was a sallow,
sickly-looking man, who with a large bony frame had been reduced from
constant hard work and frequent sickness to little but skin and sinew.
He was a mason, who had left Germany with the Austrian mission to
Khartoum, but finding the work too laborious in such a climate, he and a
friend, who was a carpenter, had declared for independence, and they had
left the mission. They were both enterprising fellows, and sportsmen;
therefore they had purchased rifles and ammunition, and had commenced
life as hunters. At the same time they employed their leisure hours in
earning money by the work of their hands in various ways.

I determined to arrange our winter quarters at Sofi for three months'
stay, during which I should have ample time to gain information and
complete arrangements for the future. I accordingly succeeded in
purchasing a remarkably neat house for ten piastres (two shillings).
The architecture was of an ancient style, from the original design of a
pill-box surmounted by a candle extinguisher. I purchased two additional
huts, which were erected at the back of our mansion, one as the kitchen,
the other as the servants' hall.

In the course of a week we had as pretty a camp as Robinson Crusoe
himself could have coveted. We had a view of about five miles in extent
along the valley of the Atbara, and it was my daily amusement to scan
with my telescope the uninhabited country upon the opposite side of the
river and watch the wild animals as they grazed in perfect security. We
were thoroughly happy at Sofi. There was a delightful calm and a sense
of rest, a total estrangement from the cares of the world, and an
enchanting contrast in the soft green verdure of the landscape before
us, to the many hundred weary miles of burning desert through which we
had toiled from Lower Egypt.

Time glided away smoothly until the fever invaded our camp. Florian
became seriously ill. My wife was prostrated by a severe attack
of gastric fever, which for nine days rendered her recovery almost
hopeless. Then came the plague of boils, and soon after a species
of intolerable itch, called the coorash. I adopted for this latter
a specific I had found successful with the mange in dogs, namely,
gunpowder, with one fourth sulphur added, made into a soft paste with
water, and then formed into an ointment with fat. It worked like a charm
with the coorash.

Faith is the drug that is supposed to cure the Arab; whatever his
complaint may be, he applies to his Faky or priest. This minister is not
troubled with a confusion of book-learning, neither are the shelves of
his library bending beneath weighty treatises upon the various maladies
of human nature; but he possesses the key to all learning, the talisman
that will apply to all cases, in that one holy book, the Koran. This is
his complete pharmacopoeia: his medicine chest, combining purgatives,
blisters, sudorifies, styptics, narcotics, emetics, and all that
the most profound M.D. could prescribe. With this "multum in parvo"
stock-in-trade the Faky receives his patients. No. 1 arrives, a barren
woman who requests some medicine that will promote the blessing of
childbirth. No. 2, a man who was strong in his youth, but from excessive
dissipation has become useless. No. 3, a man deformed from his birth,
who wishes to become straight as other men. No. 4, a blind child. No.
5, a dying old woman, carried on a litter; and sundry other impossible
cases, with others of a more simple character.

The Faky produces his book, the holy Koran, and with a pen formed of
a reed he proceeds to write a prescription--not to be made up by an
apothecary, as such dangerous people do not exist; but the prescription
itself is to be SWALLOWED! Upon a smooth board, like a slate, he rubs
sufficient lime to produce a perfectly white surface; upon this he
writes in large characters, with thick glutinous ink, a verse or verses
from the Koran that he considers applicable to the case; this completed,
he washes off the holy quotation, and converts it into a potation by the
addition of a little water; this is swallowed in perfect faith by the
patient, who in return pays a fee according to the demand of the Faky.

As few people can read or write, there is an air of mystery in the art
of writing which much enhances the value of a scrap of paper upon which
is written a verse from the Koran. A few piastres are willingly expended
in the purchase of such talismans, which are carefully and very neatly
sewn into small envelopes of leather, and are worn by all people, being
handed down from father to son.

The Arabs are especially fond of relics; thus, upon the return from a
pilgrimage to Mecca, the "hadji" or pilgrim is certain to have purchased
from some religious Faky of the sacred shrine either a few square inches
of cloth, or some such trifle, that belonged to the prophet Mahomet.
This is exhibited to his friends and strangers as a wonderful spell
against some particular malady, and it is handed about and received with
extreme reverence by the assembled crowd. I once formed one of a circle
when a pilgrim returned to his native village. We sat in a considerable
number upon the ground, while he drew from his bosom a leather envelope,
suspended from his neck, from which he produced a piece of extremely
greasy woollen cloth, about three inches square, the original color
of which it would have been impossible to guess. This was a piece of
Mahomet's garment, but what portion he could not say. The pilgrim had
paid largely for this blessed relic, and it was passed round our circle
from hand to hand, after having first been kissed by the proprietor, who
raised it to the crown of his head, which he touched with the cloth,
and then wiped both his eyes. Each person who received it went through
a similar performance, and as ophthalmia and other diseases of the eyes
were extremely prevalent, several of the party had eyes that had not the
brightness of the gazelle's; nevertheless, these were supposed to become
brighter after having been wiped by the holy cloth. How many eyes this
same piece of cloth had wiped, it would be impossible to say, but
such facts are sufficient to prove the danger of holy relics, that are
inoculators of all manner of contagious diseases.

I believe in holy shrines as the pest spots of the world. We generally
have experienced in Western Europe that all violent epidemics arrive
from the East. The great breadth of the Atlantic boundary would
naturally protect us from the West, but infectious disorders, such as
plague, cholera, small-pox, etc., may be generally tracked throughout
their gradations from their original nests. Those nests are in the
East, where the heat of the climate acting upon the filth of semi-savage
communities engenders pestilence.

The holy places of both Christians and Mahometans are the receptacles
for the masses of people of all nations and classes who have arrived
from all points of the compass. The greater number of such people are
of poor estate, and many have toiled on foot from immense distances,
suffering from hunger and fatigue, and bringing with them not only the
diseases of their own remote counties, but arriving in that weak state
that courts the attack of any epidemic. Thus crowded together, with
a scarcity of provisions, a want of water, and no possibility of
cleanliness, with clothes that have been unwashed for weeks or months,
in a camp of dirty pilgrims, without any attempt at drainage, an
accumulation of filth takes place that generates either cholera or
typhus; the latter, in its most malignant form, appears as the
dreaded "plague." Should such an epidemic attack the mass of pilgrims
debilitated by the want of nourishing food, and exhausted by their
fatiguing march, it runs riot like a fire among combustibles, and the
loss of life is terrific. The survivors radiate from this common centre,
upon their return to their respective homes, to which they carry
the seeds of the pestilence to germinate upon new soils in different
countries. Doubtless the clothes of the dead furnish materials for
innumerable holy relics as vestiges of the wardrobe of the Prophet.
These are disseminated by the pilgrims throughout all countries,
pregnant with disease; and, being brought into personal contact with
hosts of true believers, Pandora's box could not be more fatal.

Not only are relics upon a pocket scale conveyed by pilgrims and
reverenced by the Arabs, but the body of any Faky who in lifetime
was considered unusually holy is brought from a great distance to be
interred in some particular spot. In countries where a tree is a rarity,
a plank for a coffin is unknown; thus the reverend Faky, who may have
died of typhus, is wrapped in cloths and packed in a mat. In this form
he is transported, perhaps some hundred miles, slung upon a camel, with
the thermometer above 130 degrees Fah. in the sun, and he is conveyed to
the village that is so fortunate as to be honored with his remains. It
may be readily imagined that with a favorable wind the inhabitants are
warned of his approach some time before his arrival.

Happily, long before we arrived at Sofi, the village had been blessed by
the death of a celebrated Faky, a holy man who would have been described
as a second Isaiah were the annals of the country duly chronicled.
This great "man of God," as he was termed, had departed this life at a
village on the borders of the Nile, about eight days' hard camel-journey
from Sofi; but from some assumed right, mingled no doubt with jobbery,
the inhabitants of Sofi had laid claim to his body, and he had arrived
upon a camel horizontally, and had been buried about fifty yards from
the site of our camp. His grave was beneath a clump of mimosas that
shaded the spot, and formed the most prominent object in the foreground
of our landscape. Thither every Friday the women of the village
congregated, with offerings of a few handfuls of dhurra in small
gourd-shells, which they laid upon the grave, while they ATE THE HOLY
EARTH in small pinches, which they scraped like rabbits, from a hole
they had burrowed toward the venerated corpse. This hole was about two
feet deep from continual scratching, and must have been very near the

Although thus reverent in their worship, the Arab's religion is a sort
of adjustable one. The wild boar, for instance, is invariably eaten
by the Arab hunters, although in direct opposition to the rules of the
Koran. I once asked them what their Faky would say if he were aware of
such a transgression. "Oh!" they replied, "we have already asked
his permission, as we are sometimes severely pressed for food in the
jungles. He says, `If you have the KORAN in your hand and NO PIG, you
are forbidden to eat pork; but if you have the PIG in your hand and NO
KORAN, you had better eat what God has given you.'"


A primitive craft--Stalking the giraffes--My first giraffes--Rare sport
with the finny tribe--Thieving elephants.

For many days, while at Sofi, we saw large herds of giraffes and
antelopes on the opposite side of the river, about two miles distant. On
September 2d a herd of twenty-eight giraffes tempted me at all hazards
to cross the river. So we prepared an impromptu raft. My angarep
(bedstead) was quickly inverted. Six water-skins were inflated, and
lashed, three on either side. A shallow packing-case, lined with tin,
containing my gun, was fastened in the centre of the angarep, and two
towlines were attached to the front part of the raft, by which swimmers
were to draw it across the river. Two men were to hang on behind,
and, if possible, keep it straight in the rapid current. After some
difficulty we arrived at the opposite bank, and scrambled through thick
bushes, upon our hands and knees, to the summit.

For about two miles' breadth on this side of the river the valley was
rough broken ground, full of gullies and ravines sixty or seventy feet
deep, beds of torrents, bare sandstone rocks, bushy crags, fine grassy
knolls, and long strips of mimosa covert, forming a most perfect
locality for shooting.

I had observed by the telescope that the giraffes were standing as usual
upon an elevated position, from whence they could keep a good lookout.
I knew it would be useless to ascend the slope directly, as their long
necks give these animals an advantage similar to that of the man at the
masthead; therefore, although we had the wind in our favor, we should
have been observed. I accordingly determined to make a great circuit
of about five miles, and thus to approach them from above, with the
advantage of the broken ground for stalking. It was the perfection of
uneven country. By clambering up broken cliffs, wading shoulder-deep
through muddy gullies, sliding down the steep ravines, and winding
through narrow bottoms of high grass and mimosas for about two hours, we
at length arrived at the point of the high table-land upon the verge
of which I had first noticed the giraffes with the telescope. Almost
immediately I distinguished the tall neck of one of these splendid
animals about half a mile distant upon my left, a little below the
table-land; it was feeding on the bushes, and I quickly discovered
several others near the leader of the herd. I was not far enough
advanced in the circuit that I had intended to bring me exactly above
them, therefore I turned sharp to my right, intending to make a short
half circle, and to arrive on the leeward side of the herd, as I was now
to windward. This I fortunately completed, but I had marked a thick bush
as my point of cover, and upon arrival I found that the herd had fed
down wind, and that I was within two hundred yards of the great bull
sentinel that, having moved from his former position, was now standing
directly before me.

I lay down quietly behind the bush with my two followers, and anxiously
watched the great leader, momentarily expecting that it would get my
wind. It was shortly joined by two others, and I perceived the heads of
several giraffes lower down the incline, that were now feeding on
their way to the higher ground. The seroot fly was teasing them, and I
remarked that several birds were fluttering about their heads, sometimes
perching upon their noses and catching the fly that attacked their
nostrils, while the giraffes appeared relieved by their attentions.
These birds were of a peculiar species that attacks the domestic
animals, and not only relieves them of vermin, but eats into the flesh
and establishes dangerous sores. A puff of wind now gently fanned the
back of my neck; it was cool and delightful, but no sooner did I feel
the refreshing breeze than I knew it would convey our scent directly
to the giraffes. A few seconds afterward the three grand obelisks threw
their heads still higher in the air, and fixing their great black eyes
upon the spot from which the warning came, they remained as motionless
as though carved from stone. From their great height they could see over
the bush behind which we were lying at some paces distant, and although
I do not think they could distinguish us to be men, they could see
enough to convince them of hidden enemies.

The attitude of fixed attention and surprise of the three giraffes was
sufficient warning for the rest of the herd, who immediately filed up
from the lower ground, and joined their comrades. All now halted and
gazed steadfastly in our direction, forming a superb tableau, their
beautiful mottled skins glancing like the summer coat of a thoroughbred
horse, the orange-colored statues standing out in high relief from a
background of dark-green mimosas.

This beautiful picture soon changed. I knew that my chance of a close
shot was hopeless, as they would presently make a rush and be off;
thus I determined to get the first start. I had previously studied the
ground, and I concluded that they would push forward at right angles
with my position, as they had thus ascended the hill, and that, on
reaching the higher ground, they would turn to the right, in order to
reach an immense tract of high grass, as level as a billiard-table, from
which no danger could approach them unobserved.

I accordingly with a gentle movement of my hand directed my people to
follow me, and I made a sudden rush forward at full speed. Off went the
herd, shambling along at a tremendous pace, whisking their long tails
above their hind quarters, and, taking exactly the direction I had
anticipated, they offered me a shoulder shot at a little within
two hundred yards' distance. Unfortunately, I fell into a deep hole
concealed by the high grass, and by the time that I resumed the hunt
they had increased their distance; but I observed the leader turned
sharply to the right, through some low mimosa bush, to make directly for
the open table-land. I made a short cut obliquely at my best speed,
and only halted when I saw that I should lose ground by altering my
position. Stopping short, I was exactly opposite the herd as they filed
by me at right angles in full speed, within about a hundred and eighty
yards. I had my old Ceylon No. 10 double rifle, and I took a steady shot
at a large dark-colored bull. The satisfactory sound of the ball upon
his hide was followed almost immediately by his blundering forward for
about twenty yards and falling heavily in the low bush. I heard the
crack of the ball of my left-hand barrel upon another fine beast, but
no effects followed. Bacheet quickly gave me the single two-ounce Manton
rifle, and I singled out a fine dark-colored bull, who fell on his knees
to the shot, but, recovering, hobbled off disabled, apart from the herd,
with a foreleg broken just below the shoulder. Reloading immediately, I
ran up to the spot, where I found my first giraffe lying dead, with the
ball clean through both shoulders. The second was standing about one
hundred paces distant. Upon my approach he attempted to move, but
immediately fell, and was despatched by my eager Arabs. I followed the
herd for about a mile to no purpose, through deep clammy ground and high
grass, and I returned to our game.

These were my first giraffes, and I admired them as they lay before me
with a hunter's pride and satisfaction, but mingled with a feeling of
pity for such beautiful and utterly helpless creatures. The giraffe,
although from sixteen to twenty feet in height, is perfectly
defenceless, and can only trust to the swiftness of its pace and the
extraordinary power of vision, for its means of protection. The eye of
this animal is the most beautiful exaggeration of that of the gazelle,
while the color of the reddish-orange hide, mottled with darker
spots, changes the tints of the skin with the differing rays of light,
according to the muscular movement of the body. No one who has merely
seen the giraffe in a cold climate can form the least idea of its beauty
in its native land.

Life at Sofi was becoming sadly monotonous, and I determined to move my
party across the river to camp on the uninhabited side. The rains had
almost ceased, so we should be able to live in a tent by night, and to
form a shady nook beneath some mimosas by day. On the 15th of September
the entire male population of Sofi turned out to assist us across the
river. I had arranged a raft by attaching eight inflated skins to the
bedstead, upon which I lashed our large circular sponging bath. Four
hippopotami hunters were harnessed as tug steamers. By evening all our
party, with the baggage, had effected the crossing without accident--all
but Achmet, Mahomet's mother's brother's cousin's sister's mother's
son, who took advantage of his near relative, when the latter was in the
middle of the stream, and ran off with most of his personal effects.

The life at our new camp was charmingly independent. We were upon
Abyssinian territory, but as the country was uninhabited we considered
it as our own. Our camp was near the mouth of a small stream, the Till,
tributary to the Atbara, which afforded some excellent sport in fishing.
Choosing one day a fish of about half a pound for bait, I dropped
this in the river about twenty yards beyond the mouth of the Till, and
allowed it to swim naturally down the stream so as to pass across the
Till junction, and descend the deep channel between the rocks. For
about ten minutes I had no run. I had twice tried the same water without
success; nothing would admire my charming bait; when, just as it had
reached the favorite turning-point at the extremity of a rock, away
dashed the line, with the tremendous rush that follows the attack of a
heavy fish. Trusting to the soundness of my tackle, I struck hard and
fixed my new acquaintance thoroughly, but off he dashed down the stream
for about fifty yards at one rush, making for a narrow channel between
two rocks, through which the stream ran like a mill-race. Should he pass
this channel, I knew he would cut the line across the rock; therefore,
giving him the butt, I held him by main force, and by the great swirl
in the water I saw that I was bringing him to the surface; but just as I
expected to see him, my float having already appeared, away he darted
in another direction, taking sixty or seventy yards of line without a
check. I at once observed that he must pass a shallow sandbank favorable
for landing a heavy fish; I therefore checked him as he reached this
spot, and I followed him down the bank, reeling up line as I ran
parallel with his course. Now came the tug of war! I knew my hooks
were good and the line sound, therefore I was determined not to let him
escape beyond the favorable ground; and I put upon him a strain that,
after much struggling, brought to the surface a great shovel-head,
followed by a pair of broad silvery sides, as I led him gradually
into shallow water. Bacheet now cleverly secured him by the gills, and
dragged him in triumph to the shore. This was a splendid bayard, of at
least forty pounds' weight.

I laid my prize upon some green reeds, and covered it carefully with the
same cool material. I then replaced my bait by a lively fish, and once
more tried the river. In a very short time I had another run, and landed
a small fish of about nine pounds, of the same species. Not wishing to
catch fish of that size, I put on a large bait, and threw it about forty
yards into the river, well up the stream, and allowed the float to
sweep the water in a half circle, thus taking the chance of different
distances from the shore. For about half an hour nothing moved. I was
just preparing to alter my position, when out rushed my line, and,
striking hard, I believed I fixed the old gentleman himself, for I had
no control over him whatever. Holding him was out of the question; the
line flew through my hands, cutting them till the blood flowed, and
I was obliged to let the fish take his own way. This he did for about
eighty yards, when he suddenly stopped. This unexpected halt was a great
calamity, for the reel overran itself, having no checkwheel, and the
slack bends of the line caught the handle just as he again rushed
forward, and with a jerk that nearly pulled the rod from my hands he
was gone! I found one of my large hooks broken short off. The fish was a

After this bad luck I had no run until the evening, when, putting on
a large bait, and fishing at the tail of a rock between the stream and
still water, I once more had a fine rush, and hooked a big one. There
were no rocks down stream, all was fair play and clear water, and away
he went at racing pace straight for the middle of the river. To check
the pace I grasped the line with the stuff of my loose trousers, and
pressed it between my fingers so as to act as a brake and compel him to
labor for every yard; but he pulled like a horse, and nearly cut through
the thick cotton cloth, making straight running for at least a hundred
yards without a halt. I now put so severe a strain upon him that my
strong bamboo bent nearly double, and the fish presently so far yielded
to the pressure that I could enforce his running in half circles instead
of straight away. I kept gaining line until I at length led him into
a shallow bay, and after a great fight Bacheet embraced him by falling
upon him and clutching the monster with hands and knees; he then tugged
to the shore a magnificent fish of upward of sixty pounds. For about
twenty minutes lie had fought against such a strain as I had never
before used upon a fish; but I had now adopted hooks of such a large
size and thickness that it was hardly possible for them to break, unless
snapped by a crocodile. My reel was so loosened from the rod, that had
the struggle lasted a few minutes longer I must have been vanquished.
This fish measured three feet eight inches to the root of the tail, and
two feet three inches in girth of shoulders; the head measured one foot
ten inches in circumference. It was of the same species as those I had
already caught.

Over a month was passed at our camp, Ehetilla, as we called it. The time
passed in hunting, fishing, and observing the country, but it was for
the most part uneventful. In the end of October we removed to a village
called Wat el Negur, nine miles south-east of Ehetilla, still on the
bank of the Atbara.

Our arrival was welcomed with enthusiasm. The Arabs here had extensive
plantations of sesame, dhurra, and cotton, and the nights were spent in
watching them, to scare away the elephants, which, with extreme cunning,
invaded the fields of dhurra at different points every night, and
retreated before morning to the thick, thorny jungles of the Settite.
The Arabs were without firearms, and the celebrated aggageers or
sword-hunters were useless, as the elephants appeared only at night, and
were far too cunning to give them a chance. I was importuned to drive
away the elephants, and one evening, about nine o'clock, I arrived at
the plantations with three men carrying spare guns. We had not been half
an hour in the dhurra fields before we met a couple of Arab watchers,
who informed us that a herd of elephants was already in the plantation;
we accordingly followed our guides. In about a quarter of an hour we
distinctly heard the cracking of the dhurra stems, as the elephants
browsed and trampled them beneath their feet.

Taking the proper position of the wind, I led our party cautiously in
the direction of the sound, and in about five minutes I came in view of
the slate-colored and dusky forms of the herd. The moon was bright, and
I counted nine elephants; they had trampled a space of about fifty yards
square into a barren level, and they were now slowly moving forward,
feeding as they went. One elephant, unfortunately, was separated from
the herd, and was about forty yards in the rear; this fellow I
was afraid would render our approach difficult. Cautioning my men,
especially Bacheet, to keep close to me with the spare rifles, I crept
along the alleys formed by the tall rows of dhurra, and after carefully
stalking against the wind, I felt sure that it would be necessary to
kill the single elephant before I should be able to attack the herd.
Accordingly I crept nearer and nearer, well concealed in the favorable
crop of high and sheltering stems, until I was within fifteen yards of
the hindmost animal. As I had never shot one of the African species, I
was determined to follow the Ceylon plan, and get as near as possible;
therefore I continued to creep from row to row of dhurra, until I at
length stood at the very tail of the elephant in the next row. I could
easily have touched it with my rifle, but just at this moment it either
obtained my wind or it heard the rustle of the men. It quickly
turned its head half round toward me; in the same instant I took the
temple-shot, and by the flash of the rifle I saw that it fell. Jumping
forward past the huge body, I fired the left-hand barrel at an elephant
that had advanced from the herd; it fell immediately! Now came the
moment for a grand rush, as they stumbled in confusion over the last
fallen elephant, and jammed together in a dense mass with their immense
ears outspread, forming a picture of intense astonishment! Where were my
spare guns? Here was an excellent opportunity to run in and floor them
right and left!

Not a man was in sight! Everybody had bolted, and I stood in advance
of the dead elephant calling for my guns in vain. At length one of my
fellows came up, but it was too late. The fallen elephant in the herd
had risen from the ground, and they had all hustled off at a great pace,
and were gone. I had only bagged one elephant. Where was the valiant
Bacheet--the would-be Nimrod, who for the last three months had been
fretting in inactivity, and longing for the moment of action, when he
had promised to be my trusty gun-bearer? He was the last man to appear,
and he only ventured from his hiding-place in the high dhurra when
assured of the elephants' retreat. I was obliged to admonish the whole
party by a little physical treatment, and the gallant Bacheet returned
with us to the village, crestfallen and completely subdued. On the
following day not a vestige remained of the elephant, except the offal;
the Arabs had not only cut off the flesh, but they had hacked the skull
and the bones in pieces, and carried them off to boil down for soup.


Preparations for advance--Mek Nimmur makes a foray--The Hamran
elephant-hunters--In the haunts of the elephant--A desperate charge.

The time was approaching when the grass throughout the country would
be sufficiently dry to be fired. We accordingly prepared for our
expedition; but it was first necessary for me to go to Katariff, sixty
miles distant, to engage men, and to procure a slave in place of old
Masara, whose owner would not trust her in the wild region we were about
to visit.

I engaged six strong Tokrooris for five months, and purchased a slave
woman for thirty-five dollars. The name of the woman was Barrake. She
was about twenty-two years of age, brown in complexion, fat and strong,
rather tall, and altogether she was a fine, powerful-looking woman, but
decidedly not pretty. Her hair was elaborately dressed in hundreds of
long narrow curls, so thickly smeared with castor oil that the grease
had covered her naked shoulders. In addition to this, as she had been
recently under the hands of the hairdresser, there was an amount of fat
and other nastiness upon her head that gave her the appearance of being
nearly gray.

Through the medium of Mahomet I explained to her that she was no longer
a slave, as I had purchased her freedom; that she would not even be
compelled to remain with us, but she could do as she thought proper;
that both her mistress and I should be exceedingly kind to her, and we
would subsequently find her a good situation in Cairo; in the mean time
she would receive good clothes and wages. This, Mahomet, much against
his will, was obliged to translate literally. The effect was magical;
the woman, who had looked frightened and unhappy, suddenly beamed with
smiles, and without any warning she ran toward me, and in an instant I
found myself embraced in her loving arms. She pressed me to her bosom,
and smothered me with castor-oily kisses, while her greasy ringlets hung
upon my face and neck. How long this entertainment would have lasted I
cannot tell, but I was obliged to cry "Caffa! Caffa!" (enough! enough!)
as it looked improper, and the perfumery was too rich. Fortunately my
wife was present, but she did not appear to enjoy it more than I did. My
snow-white blouse was soiled and greasy, and for the rest of the day
I was a disagreeable compound of smells--castor oil, tallow, musk,
sandal-wood, burnt shells, and Barrake.

Mahomet and Barrake herself, I believe, were the only people who really
enjoyed this little event. "Ha!" Mahomet exclaimed, "this is your own
fault! You insisted upon speaking kindly, and telling her that she is
not a slave; now she thinks that she is one of your WIVES!" This was
the real fact; the unfortunate ** Barrake ** had deceived herself. Never
having been free, she could not understand the use of freedom unless she
was to be a wife. She had understood my little address as a proposal,
and of course she was disappointed; but as an action for breach of
promise cannot be pressed in the Soudan, poor Barrake, although free,
had not the happy rights of a free-born Englishwoman, who can heal her
broken heart with a pecuniary plaster, and console herself with damages
for the loss of a lover.

We were ready to start, having our party of servants complete, six
Tokrooris--Moosa, Abdoolahi, Abderachman, Hassan, Adow, and Hadji
Ali, with Mahomet, Wat Gamma, Bacheet, Mahomet secundus (a groom), and
Barrake; total, eleven men and the cook.

When half way on our return from Katariff to Wat el Negur, we found the
whole country in alarm, Mek Nimmur having suddenly made a foray. He had
crossed the Atbara, plundered the district, and driven off large numbers
of cattle and camels, after having killed a considerable number
of people. No doubt the reports were somewhat exaggerated, but the
inhabitants of the district were flying from their villages with their
herds, and were flocking to Katariff. We arrived at Wat el Negur on the
3d of December, and we now felt the advantage of our friendship with
the good Sheik Achmet, who, being a friend of Mek Nimmur, had saved our
effects during our absence. These would otherwise have been plundered,
as the robbers had paid him a visit. He had removed our tents and
baggage to his own house for protection. Not only had he thus protected
our effects, but he had taken the opportunity of delivering the polite
message to Mek Nimmur that I had entrusted to his charge--expressing
a wish to pay him a visit as a countryman and friend of Mr. Mansfield
Parkyns, who had formerly been so well received by his father.

My intention was to examine thoroughly all the great rivers of Abyssinia
that were tributaries to the Nile. These were the Settite, Royan,
Angrab, Salaam, Rahad, Dinder, and the Blue Nile. If possible, I
should traverse the Galla country, and crossing the Blue Nile, I should
endeavor to reach the White Nile. But this latter idea I subsequently
found impracticable, as it would have interfered with the proper season
for my projected journey up the White Nile in search of the sources. The
Hamran Arabs were at this time encamped about twenty-five miles from Wat
el Negur. I sent a messenger, accompanied by Mahomet, to the sheik, with
the firman of the Viceroy, requesting him to supply me with elephant
hunters (aggageers).

During the absence of Mahomet I received a very polite message from Mek
Nimmur, accompanied by a present of twenty pounds of coffee, with an
invitation to pay him a visit. His country lay between the Settite River
and the Bahr Salaam; thus without his invitation I might have found it
difficult to traverse his territory. So far all went well. I returned my
salaams, and sent word that we intended to hunt through the ** Base **
country, after which we should have the honor of passing a few days with
him on our road to the river Salaam, at which place we intended to hunt
elephants and rhinoceroses.

Mahomet returned, accompanied by a large party of Hamran Arabs,
including several hunters, one of whom was Sheik Abou Do Roussoul, the
nephew of Sheik Owat. As his name in full was too long, he generally
went by the abbreviation "Abou Do." He was a splendid fellow, a
little above six feet one, with a light active figure, but exceedingly
well-developed muscles. His face was strikingly handsome; his eyes were
like those of a giraffe, but the sudden glance of an eagle lighted them
up with a flash during the excitement of conversation, which showed
little of the giraffe's gentle character. Abou Do was the only tall man
of the party; the others were of middle height, with the exception of a
little fellow named Jali, who was not above five feet four inches, but
wonderfully muscular, and in expression a regular daredevil.

There were two parties of hunters among the Hamran Arabs, one under Abou
Do, and the other consisting of four brothers Sherrif. The latter were
the most celebrated aggageers among the renowned tribe of the
Hamran. Their father and grandfather had been mighty Nimrods, and the
broadswords wielded by their strong arms had descended to the men who
now upheld the prestige of the ancient blades. The eldest was
Taher Sherrif. His second brother, Roder Sherrif, was a very small,
active-looking man, with a withered left arm. An elephant had at one
time killed his horse, and on the same occasion had driven its sharp
tusk through the arm of the rider, completely splitting the limb, and
splintering the bone from the elbow-joint to the wrist to such an extent
that by degrees the fragments had sloughed away, and the arm had become
shrivelled and withered. It now resembled a mass of dried leather
twisted into a deformity, without the slightest shape of an arm; this
was about fourteen inches in length from the shoulder. The stiff and
crippled hand, with contracted fingers, resembled the claw of a vulture.

In spite of his maimed condition, Roder Sherrif was the most celebrated
leader in the elephant hunt. His was the dangerous post to ride close
to the head of the infuriated animal and provoke the charge, and then
to lead the elephant in pursuit, while the aggageers attacked it from
behind. It was in the performance of this duty that he had met with
the accident, as his horse had fallen over some hidden obstacle and was
immediately caught. Being an exceedingly light weight he had continued
to occupy this important position in the hunt, and the rigid fingers of
the left hand served as a hook, upon which he could hang the reins.

My battery of rifles was now laid upon a mat for examination; they were
in beautiful condition, and they excited the admiration of the entire
party. The perfection of workmanship did not appear to interest them
so much as the size of the bores. They thrust their fingers down each
muzzle, until they at last came to the "Baby," when, finding that two
fingers could be easily introduced, they at once fell in love with that
rifle in particular.

On the 17th of August, accompanied by the German, Florian, we said
good-by to our kind friend Sheik Achmet and left Wat el Negur. At Geera,
early at daybreak, several Arabs arrived with a report that elephants
had been drinking in the river within half an hour's march of our
sleeping-place. I immediately started with my men, accompanied by
Florian, and we shortly arrived upon the tracks of the herd. I had
three Hamran Arabs as trackers, one of whom, Taher Noor, had engaged to
accompany us throughout the expedition.

For about eight miles we followed the spoor through high dried grass and
thorny bush, until we at length arrived at a dense jungle of kittar--the
most formidable of the hooked thorn mimosas. Here the tracks appeared to
wander, some elephants having travelled straight ahead, while others had
strayed to the right and left. For about two hours we travelled upon the
circuitous tracks of the elephants to no purpose, when we suddenly were
startled by the shrill trumpeting of one of these animals in the thick
thorns, a few hundred yards to our left. The ground was so intensely
hard and dry that it was impossible to distinguish the new tracks from
the old, which crossed and recrossed in all directions. I therefore
decided to walk carefully along the outskirts of the jungle, trusting
to find their place of entrance by the fresh broken boughs. In about an
hour we had thus examined two or three miles, without discovering a
clew to their recent path, when we turned round a clump of bushes, and
suddenly came in view of two grand elephants, standing at the edge of
the dense thorns. Having our wind, they vanished instantly into the
thick jungle. We could not follow them, as their course was down wind;
we therefore made a circuit to leeward for about a mile, and finding
that the elephants had not crossed in that direction, we felt sure that
we must come upon them with the wind in our favor should they still be
within the thorny jungle. This was certain, as it was their favorite

With the greatest labor I led the way, creeping frequently upon my
hands and knees to avoid the hooks of the kittar bush, and occasionally
listening for a sound. At length, after upward of an hour passed in this
slow and fatiguing advance, I distinctly heard the flap of an elephant's
ear, shortly followed by the deep guttural sigh of one of those animals,
within a few paces; but so dense was the screen of jungle that I could
see nothing. We waited for some minutes, but not the slightest sound
could be heard; the elephants were aware of danger, and they were, like
ourselves, listening attentively for the first intimation of an enemy.

This was a highly exciting moment. Should they charge, there would not
be a possibility of escape, as the hooked thorns rendered any sudden
movement almost impracticable. In another moment there was a tremendous
crash; and with a sound like a whirlwind the herd dashed through the
crackling jungle. I rushed forward, as I was uncertain whether they were
in advance or retreat. Leaving a small sample of my nose upon a kittar
thorn, and tearing my way, with naked arms, through what, in cold blood,
would have appeared impassable, I caught sight of two elephants leading
across my path, with the herd following in a dense mass behind them.
Firing a shot at the leading elephant, simply in the endeavor to check
the herd, I repeated with the left-hand barrel at the head of his
companion. This staggered him, and threw the main body into confusion.
They immediately closed up in a dense mass, and bore everything before
them; but the herd exhibited merely an impenetrable array of hind
quarters wedged together so firmly that it was impossible to obtain a
head or shoulder shot.

I was within fifteen paces of them, and so compactly were they packed
that with all their immense strength they could not at once force so
extensive a front through the tough and powerful branches of the dense
kittar. For about half a minute they were absolutely checked, and they
bored forward with all their might in their determination to open a road
through the matted thorns. The elastic boughs, bent from their position,
sprang back with dangerous force, and would have fractured the skull of
any one who came within their sweep. A very large elephant was on
the left flank, and for an instant he turned obliquely to the left. I
quickly seized the opportunity and fired the "Baby," with an explosive
shell, aimed far back in the flank, trusting that it would penetrate
beneath the opposite shoulder. The recoil of the "Baby," loaded with ten
drams of the strongest powder and a half-pound shell, spun me round like
a top. It was difficult to say which was staggered the more severely,
the elephant or myself. However, we both recovered, and I seized one of
my double rifles, a Reilly No. 10, that was quickly pushed into my hand
by my Tokroori, Hadji Ali. This was done just in time, as an elephant
from the battled herd turned sharp round, and, with its immense ears
cocked, charged down upon us with a scream of rage. "One of us she must
have if I miss!"

This was the first downright charge of an African elephant that I had
seen, and instinctively I followed my old Ceylon plan of waiting for
a close shot. She lowered her head when within about six yards, and I
fired low for the centre of the forehead, exactly in the swelling above
the root of the trunk. She collapsed to the shot, and fell dead, with a
heavy shock, upon the ground. At the same moment the thorny barrier gave
way before the pressure of the herd, and the elephants disappeared in
the thick jungle, through which it was impossible to follow them.

I had suffered terribly from the hooked thorns, and the men had
likewise. This had been a capital trial for my Tokrooris, who had
behaved remarkably well, and had gained much confidence by my successful
forehead-shot at the elephant when in full charge; but I must confess
that this is the only instance in which I have succeeded in killing an
African elephant by the front shot, although I have steadily tried the
experiment upon subsequent occasions.

We had very little time to examine the elephant, as we were far from
home and the sun was already low. I felt convinced that the other
elephant could not be far off, after having received the "Baby's"
half-pound shell carefully directed, and I resolved to return on the
following morning with many people and camels to divide the flesh. It
was dark by the time we arrived at the tents, and the news immediately
spread through the Arab camp that two elephants had been killed.

On the following morning we started, and upon arrival at the dead
elephant we followed the tracks of that wounded by the "Baby." The
blood upon the bushes guided us in a few minutes to the spot where the
elephant lay dead, at about three hundred yards' distance. The whole day
passed in flaying the two animals and cutting off the flesh, which was
packed in large gum sacks, with which the camels were loaded. I was
curious to examine the effect of the half-pound shell. It had entered
the flank on the right side, breaking the rib upon which it had
exploded; it had then passed through the stomach and the lower portion
of the lungs, both of which were terribly shattered; and breaking one
of the fore-ribs on the left side, it had lodged beneath the skin of
the shoulder. This was irresistible work, and the elephant had evidently
dropped in a few minutes after having received the shell.

A most interesting fact had occurred. I noticed an old wound unhealed
and full of matter in the front of the left shoulder. The bowels were
shot through, and were green in various places. Florian suggested that
it must be an elephant that I had wounded at Wat el Negur; we tracked
the course of the bullet most carefully, until we at length discovered
my unmistakable bullet of quicksilver and lead, almost uninjured, in
the fleshy part of the thigh, imbedded in an unhealed wound. Thus, by
a curious chance, upon my first interview with African elephants by
daylight, I had killed the identical elephant that I had wounded at Wat
el Negur forty-three days before in the dhurra plantation, twenty-eight
miles distant!


The start from Geera--Feats of horsemanship--A curious chase--Abou Do
wins a race--Capturing a young buffalo--Our island camp--Tales of the

We started from Geera on the 23d of December, with our party complete.
The Hamran sword-hunters were Abou Do, Jali, and Suleiman. My chief
tracker was Taher Noor, who, although a good hunter, was not a
professional aggahr, and I was accompanied by the father of Abou Do, who
was a renowned "howarti" or harpooner of hippopotami. This magnificent
old man might have been Neptune himself. He stood about six feet two,
and his grizzled locks hung upon his shoulders in thick, and massive
curls, while his deep bronze features could not have been excelled in
beauty of outline. A more classical figure I have never beheld than the
old Abou Do with his harpoon as he first breasted the torrent, and then
landed dripping from the waves to join our party from the Arab camp
on the opposite side of the river. In addition to my Tokrooris, I had
engaged nine camels, each with a separate driver, of the Hamrans, who
were to accompany us throughout the expedition. These people were glad
to engage themselves, with their camels included, at one and a half
dollars per month, for man and beast as one. We had not sufficient
baggage to load five camels, but four carried a large supply of corn for
our horses and people.

Hardly were we mounted and fairly started than the monkey-like agility
of our aggageers was displayed in a variety of antics, that were far
more suited to performances in a circus than to a party of steady and
experienced hunters, who wished to reserve the strength of their horses
for a trying journey.

Abou Do was mounted on a beautiful Abyssinian horse, a gray; Suleiman
rode a rough and inferior-looking beast; while little Jali, who was the
pet of the party, rode a gray snare, not exceeding fourteen hands in
height, which matched her rider exactly in fire, spirit, and speed.
Never was there a more perfect picture of a wild Arab horseman than Jali
on his mare. Hardly was he in the saddle than away flew the mare over
the loose shingles that formed the dry bed of the river, scattering the
rounded pebbles in the air from her flinty Hoofs, while her rider in
the vigour of delight threw himself almost under her belly while at full
speed, and picked up stones from the ground, which he flung, and again
caught as they descended. Never were there more complete Centaurs than
these Hamran Arabs; the horse and man appeared to be one animal, and
that of the most elastic nature, that could twist and turn with the
suppleness of a snake. The fact of their being separate beings was well
proved, however, by the rider's springing to the earth with his drawn
sword while the horse was in full gallop over rough and difficult
ground, and, clutching the mane, again vaulting into the saddle with the
ability of a monkey, without once checking the speed. The fact of being
on horseback had suddenly altered the character of these Arabs; from a
sedate and proud bearing, they had become the wildest examples of the
most savage disciples of Nimrod. Excited by enthusiasm, they shook their
naked blades aloft till the steel trembled in their grasp, and away
they dashed over rocks, through thorny bush, across ravines, up and
down steep inclinations, engaging in a mimic hunt, and going through the
various acts supposed to occur in the attack of a furious elephant. I
must acknowledge that, in spite of my admiration for their wonderful
dexterity, I began to doubt their prudence. I had three excellent horses
for my wife and myself; the Hamran hunters had only one for each, and if
the commencement were an example of their usual style of horsemanship,
I felt sure that a dozen horses would not be sufficient for the work
before us. However, it was not the moment to offer advice, as they were
simply mad with excitement and delight.

The women raised their loud and shrill yell at parting, and our party
of about twenty-five persons, with nine camels, six horses, and
two donkeys, exclusive of the German, Florian, with his kicking
giraffe-hunter, and attendants, ascended the broken slope that formed
the broad valley of the Settite River.

There was very little game in the neighbourhood, as it was completely
overrun by the Arabs and their flocks, and we were to march about
fifty miles east-south-east before we should arrive in the happy
hunting-grounds of the Base country, where we were led to expect great

In a day's march through a beautiful country, sometimes upon the high
table-land to cut off a bend in the river, at other times upon the
margin of the stream in the romantic valley, broken into countless hills
and ravines covered with mimosas, we arrived at Ombrega (mother of
the thorn), about twenty-four miles from Geera. We soon arranged a
resting-place, and cleared away the grass that produced the thorn which
had given rise to the name of Ombrega, and in a short time we were
comfortably settled for the night. We were within fifty yards of the
river, the horses were luxuriating in the green grass that grew upon its
banks, and the camels were hobbled, to prevent them from wandering from
the protection of the camp-fires, as we were now in the wilderness,
where the Base by day and the lion and leopard by night were hostile to
man and beast.

We were fast asleep a little after midnight, when we were awakened by
the loud barking of the dogs, and by a confusion in the camp. Jumping up
on the instant, I heard the dogs, far away in the dark jungles, barking
in different directions. One of the goats was gone! A leopard had sprung
into the camp, and had torn a goat from its fastening, although tied to
a peg, between two men, close to a large fire. The dogs had given
chase; but, as usual in such cases, they were so alarmed as to be almost
useless. We quickly collected firebrands and searched the jungles, and
shortly we arrived where a dog was barking violently. Near this spot
we heard the moaning of some animal among the bushes, and upon a search
with firebrands we discovered the goat, helpless upon the ground, with
its throat lacerated by the leopard. A sudden cry from the dog at a few
yards' distance, and the barking ceased.

The goat was carried to the camp where it shortly died. We succeeded
in recalling two of the dogs, but the third, which was the best, was
missing, having been struck by the leopard. We searched for the body in
vain, and concluded that it had been carried off.

The country that we now traversed was so totally uninhabited that it was
devoid of all footprints of human beings; even the sand by the river's
side, that, like the snow, confessed every print, was free from all
traces of man. The Bas-e were evidently absent from our neighbourhood.

We had several times disturbed antelopes during the early portion of the
march, and we had just ascended from the rugged slopes of the valley,
when we observed a troop of about 100 baboons, which were gathering
gum-arabic from the mimosas; upon seeing us, they immediately waddled
off. "Would the lady like to have a girrit (baboon)?" exclaimed the
ever-excited Jali. Being answered in the affirmative, away dashed the
three hunters in full gallop after the astonished apes, who, finding
themselves pursued, went off at their best speed. The ground was rough,
being full of broken hollows, covered scantily with mimosas, and the
stupid baboons, instead of turning to the right into the rugged and
steep valley of the Settite, where they would have been secure from the
aggageers, kept a straight course before the horses. It was a curious
hunt. Some of the very young baboons were riding on their mother's
backs; these were now going at their best pace, holding onto their
maternal steeds, and looking absurdly humans but in a few minutes, as
we closely followed the Arabs, we were all in the midst of the herd, and
with great dexterity two of the aggageers, while at full speed, stooped
like falcons from their saddles, and seized each a half-grown ape by the
back of the neck, and hoisted them upon the necks of the horses. Instead
of biting, as I had expected, the astonished captives sat astride of
the horses, and clung tenaciously with both arms to the necks of their
steeds, screaming with fear.

The hunt was over, and we halted to secured the prisoners. Dismounting,
to my surprise the Arabs immediately stripped from a mimosa several
thongs of bark, and having tied the baboons by the neck, they gave them
a merciless whipping with their powerful coorbatches of hippopotamus
hide. It was in vain that I remonstrated against this harsh treatment;
they persisted in the punishment. Otherwise they declared that
the baboons would bite, but if well-whipped they would become
"miskeen"(humble). At length by wife insisted upon mercy, and the
unfortunate captives wore an expression of countenance like prisoners
about to be led to execution, and they looked imploringly at our faces,
in which they evidently discovered some sympathy with their fate. They
were quickly placed on horseback before their captors, and once more we
continued our journey, highly amused with the little entr' acte.

We had hardly ridden half a mile when I perceived a fine bull tetel
standing near a bush a few hundred yards distant. Motioning to the
party to halt, I dismounted, and with that the little Fletcher rifle
I endeavored to obtain a shot. When within about a hundred and seventy
yards, he observed our party, and I was obliged to take the shot,
although I could have approached unseen to a closer distance, had his
attention not been attracted by the noise of the horses. He threw his
head up preparatory to starting off, and he was just upon the move as
I touched the trigger. He fell like a stone to the shot, but almost
immediately he regained his feet and bounded off, receiving a bullet
from the second barrel without a flinch. In full speed he rushed away
across the party of aggageers about three hundred yards distant.

Out dashed Abou Do from the ranks on his active gray horse, and away he
flew after the wounded tetel, his long hair floating in the wind, his
naked sword in hand, and his heels digging into the flanks of his
horse, as though armed with spurs in the last finish of a race. It was
a beautiful course. Abou Do hunted like a cunning greyhound; the tetel
turned, and, taking advantage of the double, he cut off the angle;
succeeding by the manoeuvre, he again followed at tremendous speed over
the numerous inequalities of the ground, gaining in the race until he
was within twenty yards of the tetel, when we lost sight of both game
and hunter in the thick bushes. By this time I had regained my horse,
that was brought to meet me, and I followed to the spot, toward which my
wife and the aggageers, encumbered with the unwilling apes, were already
hastening. Upon arrival I found, in high yellow grass beneath a large
tree, the tetel dead, and Abou Do wiping his bloody sword, surrounded
by the foremost of the party. He had hamstrung the animal so delicately
that the keen edge of the blade was not injured against the bone. My
two bullets had passed through the tetel. The first was too high, having
entered above the shoulder--this had dropped the animal for a moment;
the second was through the flank.

The Arabs now tied the baboons to trees, and employed themselves in
carefully skinning the tetel so as to form a sack from the hide. They
had about half finished the operation, when we were disturbed by a
peculiar sound at a considerable distance in the jungle, which, being
repeated, we knew to be the cry of buffaloes. In an instant the tetel
was neglected, the aggageers mounted their horses, and leaving my wife
with a few men to take charge of the game, accompanied by Florian we
went in search of the buffaloes. This part of the country was covered
with grass about nine feet high, that was reduced to such extreme
dryness that the stems broke into several pieces like glass as we
brushed through it. The jungle was open, composed of thorny mimosas at
such wide intervals that a horse could be ridden at considerable speed
if accustomed to the country. Altogether it was the perfection of ground
for shooting, and the chances were in favour of the rifle.

We had proceeded carefully about half a mile when I heard a rustling in
the grass, and I shortly perceived a bull buffalo standing alone beneath
a tree, close to the sandy bed of a dried stream, which was about a
hundred yards distant, between us and the animal. The grass had been
entirely destroyed by the trampling of a large herd. I took aim at the
shoulder with one of my No. 10 Reilly rifles, and the buffalo rushed
forward at the shot, and fell about a hundred paces beyond in the bush.
At the report of the shot, the herd, that we had not observed, which had
been lying upon the sandy bed of the stream, rushed past us with a sound
like thunder, in a cloud of dust raised by several hundreds of large
animals in full gallop. I could hardly see them distinctly, and I waited
for a good chance, when presently a mighty bull separated from the rest,
and gave me a fair shoulder-shot. I fired a little too forward, and
missed the shoulder; but I made a still better shot by mistake, as the
Reilly bullet broke the spine through the neck, and dropped him dead.
Florian, poor fellow, had not the necessary tools for the work, and one
of his light guns produced no effect.

Now came the time for the aggageers. Away dashed Jali op his fiery mare,
closely followed by Abou Do and Suleiman, who in a few instants were
obscured in the cloud of dust raised by the retreating buffaloes. As
soon as I could mount my horse that had been led behind me, I followed
at full speed, and, spurring hard, I shortly came in sight of the three
aggageers, not only in the dust, but actually among the rear buffaloes
of the herd. Suddenly, Jali almost disappeared from the saddle as he
leaned forward with a jerk and seized a fine young buffalo by the tail.
In a moment Abou Do and Suleiman sprang from their horses, and I arrived
just in time to assist them in securing a fine little bull about twelve
hands high, whose horns were six or seven inches long. A pretty fight
we had with the young Hercules. The Arabs stuck to him like bulldogs, in
spite of his tremendous struggles, and Florian, with other men, shortly
arriving, we secured him by lashing his legs together with our belts
until impromptu ropes could be made with mimosa bark.

I now returned to the spot where we had left my wife and the tetel. I
found her standing about fifty yards from the spot with a double rifle
cocked, awaiting an expected charge from one of the buffaloes that,
separated from the herd, had happened to rush in her direction.

Mahomet had been in an awful fright, and was now standing secure behind
his mistress. I rode through the grass with the hope of getting a shot,
but the animal had disappeared. We returned to the dead tetel and to our
captive baboons; but times had changed since we had left them. One had
taken advantage of our absence, and, having bitten through his tether,
had escaped. The other had used force instead of cunning, and, in
attempting to tear away from confinement, had strangled himself with the
slip-knot of the rope.

We now pushed ahead, and at 5 P.M. we arrived at the spot on the margin
of the Settite River at which we were to encamp for some time. For many
miles on either side the river was fringed with dense groves of the
green nabbuk, but upon the east bank an island had been formed of about
three hundred acres. This was a perfect oasis of verdure, covered with
large nabbuk trees, about thirty feet high, and forming a mixture of
the densest coverts, with small open glades of rich but low herbage.
To reach this island, upon which we were to encamp, it was necessary to
cross the arm of the river, that was now dry, with the exception of deep
pools, in one of which we perceived a large bull buffalo drinking,
just as we descended the hill. As this would be close to the larder, I
stalked to within ninety yards, and fired a Reilly No. 10 into his
back, as his head inclined to the water. For the moment he fell upon his
knees, but recovering immediately, he rushed up the steep bank of
the island, receiving the ball from my left-hand barrel between his
shoulders, and disappeared in the dense covert of green nabbuk on the
margin. As we were to camp within a few yards of the spot, he was close
to home; therefore, having crossed the river, we carefully followed the
blood tracks through the jungle. But, after having pushed our way
for about twenty paces through the dense covert, I came to the wise
conclusion that it was not the place for following a wounded buffalo,
and that we should find him dead on the next morning.

A few yards upon our right hand was a beautiful open glade, commanding
a view of the river, and surrounded by the largest nabbuk trees, that
afforded a delightful shade in the midst of the thick covert. This was a
spot that in former years had been used by the aggageers as a camp,
and we accordingly dismounted and turned the horses to graze upon the
welcome grass. Each horse was secured to a peg by a long leathern thong,
as the lions in this neighbourhood were extremely dangerous, having the
advantage of thick and opaque jungle.

We employed ourselves until the camels should arrive in cutting thorn
branches and constructing a zareeba or fenced camp, to protect our
animals during the night from the attack of wild beasts. I also hollowed
out a thick green bush to form an arbour, as a retreat during the
heat of the day, and in a short space of time we were prepared for
the reception of the camels and effects. The river had cast up immense
stores of dry wood; this we had collected, and by the time the camels
arrived with the remainder of our party after dark, huge fires were
blazing high in air, the light of which had guided them direct to our
camp. They were heavily laden with meat, which is the Arab's great
source of happiness; therefore in a few minutes the whole party was
busily employed in cutting the flesh into long thin strips to dry. These
were hung in festoons over the surrounding trees, while the fires were
heaped with tidbits of all descriptions. I had chosen a remarkably
snug position for ourselves; the two angareps (stretchers) were neatly
arranged in the middle of a small open space free from overhanging
boughs; near these blazed a large fire, upon which were roasting a row
of marrow-bones of buffalo and tetel, while the table was spread with a
clean cloth and arranged for dinner.

The woman Barrak, who had discovered with regret that she was not a
wife but a servant, had got over the disappointment, and was now making
dhurra cakes upon the doka. This is a round earthenware tray about
eighteen inches in diameter, which, supported upon three stones or
lumps of earth, over a fire of glowing embers, forms a hearth. Slices
of liver, well peppered with cayenne and salt, were grilling on the
gridiron, and we were preparing to dine, when a terrific roar within
a hundred and fifty yards informed us that a lion was also thinking of
dinner. A confusion of tremendous roars proceeding from several lions
followed the first round, and my aggageers quietly remarked, "There
is no danger for the horses tonight; the lions have found your wounded

Such a magnificent chorus of bass voices I had never heard. The jungle
cracked, as with repeated roars they dragged the carcass of the buffalo
through the thorns to the spot where they intended to devour it. That
which was music to our ears was discord to those of Mahomet, who with
terror in his face came to us and exclaimed, "Master, what's that? What
for master and the missus come to this bad country? That's one bad kind
will eat the missus in the night! Perhaps he come and eat Mahomet!" This
afterthought was too much for him, and Bacheet immediately comforted
him by telling the most horrible tales of death and destruction that
had been wrought by lions, until the nerves of Mahomet were completely

This was a signal for story-telling, when suddenly the aggageers
changed the conversation by a few tales of the Bas-e natives, which so
thoroughly eclipsed the dangers of wild beasts that in a short time the
entire party would almost have welcomed a lion, provided he would have
agreed to protect them from the Bas-e. In this very spot where we were
then camped, a party of Arab hunters had, two years previous, been
surprised at night and killed by the Bas-e, who still boasted of the
swords that they possessed as spoils from that occasion. The Bas-e knew
this spot as the favorite resting-place of the Hamran hunting-parties,
and they might be not far distant NOW, as we were in the heart of their
country. This intelligence was a regular damper to the spirits of
some of the party. Mahomet quietly retired and sat down by Barrak, the
ex-slave woman, having expressed a resolution to keep awake every hour
that he should be compelled to remain in that horrible country. The
lions roared louder and louder, but no one appeared to notice such small
thunder; all thoughts were fixed upon the Bas-e, so thoroughly had
the aggageers succeeded in frightening not only Mahomet, but also our


The elephant trumpets--Fighting an elephant with swords--The
forehead-shot--Elephants in a panic--A superb old Neptune--The harpoon
reaches its aim--Death of the hippopotamus--Tramped by an elephant.

The aggageers started before daybreak in search of elephants. They soon
returned, and reported the fresh tracks of a herd, and begged me to lose
no time in accompanying them, as the elephants might retreat to a great
distance. There was no need for this advice. In a few minutes my horse
Tetel was saddled, and my six Tokrooris and Bacheet, with spare rifles,
were in attendance. Bacheet, who had so ingloriously failed in his
first essay at Wat el Negur, had been so laughed at by the girls of the
village for his want of pluck that he had declared himself ready to
face the devil rather than the ridicule of the fair sex; and, to do him
justice, he subsequently became a first-rate lad in moments of danger.

The aggageers were quickly mounted. It was a sight most grateful to a
sportsman to witness the start of these superb hunters, who with the
sabres slung from the saddle-bow, as though upon an every-day occasion,
now left the camp with these simple weapons, to meet the mightiest
animal of creation in hand-to-hand conflict. The horses' hoofs clattered
as we descended the shingly beach, and forded the river shoulder-deep,
through the rapid current, while those on foot clung to the manes of the
horses and to the stirrup-leathers to steady themselves over the loose
stones beneath.

Tracking was very difficult. As there was a total absence of rain, it
was next to impossible to distinguish the tracks of two days' date from
those most recent upon the hard and parched soil. The only positive clew
was the fresh dung of the elephants, and this being deposited at long
intervals rendered the search extremely tedious. The greater part of the
day passed in useless toil, and, after fording the river backward and
forward several times, we at length arrived at a large area of sand in
the bend of the stream, that was evidently overflowed when the river was
full. This surface of many acres was backed by a forest of large trees.
Upon arrival at this spot the aggageers, who appeared to know every inch
of the country, declared that, unless the elephants had gone far away,
they must be close at hand, within the forest. We were speculating
upon the direction of the wind, when we were surprised by the sudden
trumpeting of an elephant, that proceeded from the forest already
declared to be the covert of the herd. In a few minutes later a fine
bull elephant marched majestically from the jungle upon the large area
of sand, and proudly stalked direct toward the river.

At that time we were stationed under cover of a high bank of sand that
had been left by the retiring river in sweeping round an angle. We
immediately dismounted, and remained well concealed. The question of
attack was quickly settled. The elephant was quietly stalking toward the
water, which was about three hundred paces distant from the jungle. This
intervening space was heavy dry sand, that had been thrown up by the
stream in the sudden bend of the river, which, turning from this point
at a right angle, swept beneath a perpendicular cliff of conglomerate
rock formed of rounded pebbles cemented together.

I proposed that we should endeavor to stalk the elephant, by creeping
along the edge of the river, under cover of a sand-bank about three feet
high, and that, should the rifles fail, the aggageers should come on at
full gallop and cut off his retreat from the jungle; we should then have
a chance for the swords.

Accordingly I led the way, followed by Hadji Ali, my head Tokroori, with
a rifle, while I carried the "Baby." Florian accompanied us. Having the
wind fair, we advanced quickly for about half the distance, at which
time we were within a hundred and fifty yards of the elephant, who
had just arrived at the water and had commenced drinking. We now crept
cautiously toward him. The sand-bank had decreased to a height of about
two feet, and afforded very little shelter. Not a tree or bush grew upon
the surface of the barren sand, which was so deep that we sank nearly
to the ankles at every footstep. Still we crept forward, as the elephant
alternately drank and then spouted the water in a shower over his
colossal form; but just as we arrived within about fifty yards he
happened to turn his head in our direction, and immediately perceived
us. He cocked his enormous ears, gave a short trumpeting, and for an
instant wavered in his determination whether to attack or fly; but as
I rushed toward him with a shout, he turned toward the jungle, and I
immediately fired a steady shot at the shoulder with the "Baby." As
usual, the fearful recoil of the rifle, with a half-pound shell and
twelve drams of powder, nearly threw me backward; but I saw the mark
upon the elephant's shoulder, in an excellent line, although rather
high. The only effect of the shot was to send him off at great speed
toward the jungle. At the same moment the three aggageers came galloping
across the sand like greyhounds in a course, and, judiciously keeping
parallel with the jungle, they cut off his retreat, and, turning toward
the elephant, confronted him, sword in hand.

At once the furious beast charged straight at the enemy. But now came
the very gallant but foolish part of the hunt. Instead of leading the
elephant by the flight of one man and horse, according to their usual
method, all the aggageers at the same moment sprang from their saddles,
and upon foot in the heavy sand they attacked the elephant with their

In the way of sport I never saw anything so magnificent or so absurdly
dangerous. No gladiatorial exhibition in the Roman arena could have
surpassed this fight. The elephant was mad with rage, and nevertheless
he seemed to know that the object of the hunters was to get behind him.
This he avoided with great dexterity, turning as it were upon a pivot
with extreme quickness, and charging headlong, first at one and then at
another of his assailants, while he blew clouds of sand in the air with
his trunk, and screamed with fury. Nimble as monkeys, nevertheless the
aggageers could not get behind him. In the folly of excitement they had
forsaken their horses, which had escaped from the spot. The depth of the
loose sand was in favor of the elephant, and was so much against the men
that they avoided his charges with extreme difficulty. It was only
by the determined pluck of all three that they alternately saved each
other, as two invariably dashed in at the flanks when the elephant
charged the third, upon which the wary animal immediately relinquished
the chase and turned round upon his pursuers. During this time I had
been laboring through the heavy sand, and shortly after I arrived at the
fight the elephant charged directly through the aggageers, receiving a
shoulder-shot from one of my Reilly No. 10 rifles, and at the same time
a slash from the sword of Abou Do, who with great dexterity and speed
had closed in behind him, just in time to reach the leg. Unfortunately,
he could not deliver the cut in the right place, as the elephant, with
increased speed, completely distanced the aggageers, then charged across
the deep sand and reached the jungle. We were shortly upon his tracks,
and after running about a quarter of a mile he fell dead in a dry
watercourse. His tusks were, like those of most Abyssinian elephants,
exceedingly short, but of good thickness.

Some of our men, who had followed the runaway horses, shortly returned
and reported that during our fight with the bull they had heard other
elephants trumpeting in the dense nabbuk jungle near the river. We all
dismounted, and sent the horses to a considerable distance, lest they
should by some noise disturb the elephants. We shortly heard a crackling
in the jungle on our right, and Jali assured us that, as he had
expected, the elephants were slowly advancing along the jungle on the
bank of the river, and would pass exactly before us. We waited patiently
in the bed of the river, and the crackling in the jungle sounded closer
as the herd evidently approached. The strip of thick thorny covert that
fringed the margin was in no place wider than half a mile; beyond that
the country was open and park-like, but at this season it was covered
with parched grass from eight to ten feet high. The elephants would,
therefore, most probably remain in the jungle until driven out.

In about a quarter of an hour we knew by the noise in the jungle,
about a hundred yards from the river, that the elephants were directly
opposite to us. I accordingly instructed Jali to creep quietly by
himself into the bush and to bring me information of their position. To
this he at once agreed.

In three or four minutes he returned. He declared it impossible to use
the sword, as the jungle was so dense that it would check the blow; but
that I could use the rifle, as the elephants were close to us--he had
seen three standing together, between us and the main body of the herd.
I told Jali to lead me directly to the spot, and, followed by Florian
and the aggageers, with my gun-bearers, I kept within a foot of my
dependable little guide, who crept gently into the jungle. This was
exceedingly thick, and quite impenetrable, except in the places where
elephants and other heavy animals had trodden numerous alleys. Along
one of these narrow passages we stealthily advanced, until Jali stepped
quietly on one side and pointed with his finger. I immediately observed
two elephants looming through the thick bushes about eight paces from
me. One offered a temple-shot, which I quickly took with a Reilly No.
10, and floored it on the spot. The smoke hung so thickly that I could
not see distinctly enough to fire my second barrel before the remaining
elephant had turned; but Florian, with a three-ounce steel-tipped
bullet, by a curious shot at the hind-quarters, injured the hip joint to
such an extent that we could more than equal the elephant in speed.

In a few moments we found ourselves in a small open glade in the middle
of the jungle, close to the stern of the elephant we were following. I
had taken a fresh rifle, with both barrels loaded, and hardly had I made
the exchange when the elephant turned suddenly and charged. Determined
to try fairly the forehead-shot, I kept my ground, and fired a Reilly
No. 10, quicksilver and lead bullet, exactly in the centre, when
certainly within four yards. The only effect was to make her stagger
backward, when, in another moment, with her immense ears thrown forward,
she again rushed on. This was touch-and-go; but I fired my remaining
barrel a little lower than the first shot. Checked in her rush, she
backed toward the dense jungle, throwing her trunk about and trumpeting
with rage. Snatching the Ceylon No. 10 from one of my trusty Tokrooris
(Hassan), I ran straight at her, took a most deliberate aim at the
forehead, and once more fired. The only effect was a decisive charge;
but before I fired my last barrel Jali rushed in, and, with one blow of
his sharp sword, severed the back sinew. She was utterly helpless in the
same instant. Bravo, Jali! I had fired three beautifully correct shots
with No. 10 bullets and seven drams of powder in each charge. These were
so nearly together that they occupied a space in her forehead of about
three inches, and all had failed to kill! There could no longer be any
doubt that the forehead-shot at an African elephant could not be relied
upon, although so fatal to the Indian species. This increased the danger
tenfold, as in Ceylon I had generally made certain of an elephant by
steadily waiting until it was close upon me.

I now reloaded my rifles, and the aggageers quitted the jungle to
remount their horses, as they expected the herd had broken cover on the
other side of the jungle, in which case they intended to give chase,
and, if possible, to turn them back into the covert and drive them
toward the guns. We accordingly took our stand in the small open glade,
and I lent Florian one of my double rifles, as he was only provided
with one single-barrelled elephant gun. I did not wish to destroy the
prestige of the rifles by hinting to the aggageers that it would be
rather awkward for us to receive the charge of the infuriated herd, as
the foreheads were invulnerable; but inwardly I rather hoped that they
would not come so directly upon our position as the aggageers wished.

About a quarter of an hour passed in suspense, when we suddenly heard
a chorus of wild cries of excitement on the other side of the jungle,
raised by the aggageers, who had headed the herd and were driving them
back toward us. In a few minutes a tremendous crashing in the jungle,
accompanied by the occasional shrill scream of a savage elephant and
the continued shouts of the mounted aggageers, assured us that they were
bearing down exactly upon our direction. They were apparently followed
even through the dense jungle by the wild and reckless Arabs. I called
my men close together, told them to stand fast and hand me the guns
quickly, and we eagerly awaited the onset that rushed toward us like a

On they came, tearing everything before them. For a moment the jungle
quivered and crashed; a second later, and, headed by an immense
elephant, the herd thundered down upon us. The great leader came
directly at me, and was received with right and left in the forehead
from a Reilly No. 10 as fast as I could pull the triggers. The shock
made it reel backward for an instant, and fortunately turned it and
the herd likewise. My second rifle was beautifully handed, and I made a
quick right and left at the temples of two fine elephants, dropping them
both stone dead. At this moment the "Baby" was pushed into my hand by
Hadji Ali just in time to take the shoulder of the last of the herd, who
had already charged headlong after his comrades and was disappearing in
the jungle. Bang! went the "Baby;" round I spun like a weathercock, with
the blood pouring from my nose, as the recoil had driven the sharp top
of the hammer deep into the bridge. My "Baby" not only screamed, but
kicked viciously. However, I knew that the elephant must be bagged, as
the half-pound shell had been aimed directly behind the shoulder.

In a few minutes the aggageers arrived. They were bleeding from
countless scratches, as, although naked with the exception of short
drawers, they had forced their way on horseback through the thorny path
cleft by the herd in rushing through the jungle. Abou Do had blood upon
his sword. They had found the elephants commencing a retreat to the
interior of the country, and they had arrived just in time to turn them.
Following them at full speed, Abou Do had succeeded in overtaking and
slashing the sinew of an elephant just as it was entering the jungle.
Thus the aggageers had secured one, in addition to Florian's elephant
that had been slashed by Jali. We now hunted for the "Baby's" elephant,
which was almost immediately discovered lying dead within a hundred and
fifty yards of the place where it had received the shot. The shell had
entered close to the shoulder, and it was extraordinary that an animal
should have been able to travel so great a distance with a wound through
the lungs by a shell that had exploded within the body.

We had done pretty well. I had been fortunate in bagging four from
this herd, in addition to the single bull in the morning; total, five.
Florian had killed one and the aggageers one; total, seven elephants.
One had escaped that I had wounded in the shoulder, and two that
had been wounded by Florian. The aggageers were delighted, and they
determined to search for the wounded elephants on the following day, as
the evening was advancing, and we were about five miles from camp.

At daybreak the next morning the aggageers in high glee mounted their
horses, and with a long retinue of camels and men, provided with axes
and knives, together with large gum sacks to contain the flesh, they
quitted the camp to cut up the numerous elephants. As I had no taste for
this disgusting work, I took two of my Tokrooris, Hadji Ali and Hassan,
and, accompanied by old Abou Do, the father of the sheik, with
his harpoon, we started along the margin of the river in quest of

The harpoon for hippopotamus and crocodile hunting is a piece of soft
steel about eleven inches long, with a narrow blade or point of about
three quarters of an inch in width and a single but powerful barb. To
this short and apparently insignificant weapon a strong rope is secured,
about twenty feet in length, at the extremity of which is a buoy or
float, as large as a child's head, formed of an extremely light wood
called ambatch (Aanemone mirabilis) that is of about half the specific
gravity of cork. The extreme end of the short harpoon is fixed in the
point of a bamboo about ten feet long, around which the rope is twisted,
while the buoy end is carried in the left hand.

The old Abou Do, being resolved upon work, had divested himself of his
tope or toga before starting, according to the general custom of the
aggageers, who usually wear a simple piece of leather wound round the
loins when hunting; but, I believe in respect for our party, they had
provided themselves with a garment resembling bathing drawers, such as
are worn in France, Germany, and other civilized countries. But the old
Abou Do had resisted any such innovation, and he accordingly appeared
with nothing on but his harpoon; and a more superb old Neptune I never
beheld. He carried this weapon in his hand, as the trident with which
the old sea-god ruled the monsters of the deep; and as the tall Arab
patriarch of threescore years and ten, with his long gray locks flowing
over his brawny shoulders, stepped as lightly as a goat from rock to
rock along the rough margin of the river, I followed him in admiration.

After walking about two miles we noticed a herd of hippopotami in a pool
below a rapid. This was surrounded by rocks, except upon one side, where
the rush of water had thrown up a bank of pebbles and sand. Our old
Neptune did not condescend to bestow the slightest attention when I
pointed out these animals; they were too wide awake; but he immediately
quitted the river's bed, and we followed him quietly behind the fringe
of bushes upon the border, from which we carefully examined the water.

About half a mile below this spot, as we clambered over the intervening
rocks through a gorge which formed a powerful rapid, I observed, in
a small pool just below the rapid, the immense head of a hippopotamus
close to a perpendicular rock that formed a wall to the river, about six
feet above the surface. I pointed out the hippo to old Abou Do, who had
not seen it. At once the gravity of the old Arab disappeared, and the
energy of the hunter was exhibited as he motioned us to remain, while
he ran nimbly behind the thick screen of bushes for about a hundred and
fifty yards below the spot where the hippo was unconsciously basking,
with his ugly head above the surface. Plunging into the rapid torrent,
the veteran hunter was carried some distance down the stream; but,
breasting the powerful current, he landed upon the rocks on the opposite
side, and, retiring to some distance from the river, he quickly advanced
toward the spot beneath which the hippopotamus was lying. I had a fine
view of the scene, as I was lying concealed exactly opposite the hippo,
who had disappeared beneath the water.

Abou Do now stealthily approached the ledge of rock beneath which he had
expected to see the head of the animal. His long, sinewy arm was raised,
with the harpoon ready to strike, as he carefully advanced. At length he
reached the edge of the perpendicular rock. The hippo had vanished,
but, far from exhibiting surprise, the old Arab remained standing on the
sharp edge, unchanged in attitude. No figure of bronze could have been
more rigid than that of the old river-king as he stood erect upon the
rock with the left foot advanced and the harpoon poised in his ready
right hand above his head, while in the left he held the loose coils of
rope attached to the ambatch buoy. For about three minutes he stood
like a statue, gazing intently into the clear and deep water beneath his
feet. I watched eagerly for the reappearance of the hippo; the surface
of the water was still barren, when suddenly the right arm of the statue
descended like lightning, and the harpoon shot perpendicularly into
the pool with the speed of an arrow. What river-fiend answered to the
summons? In an instant an enormous pair of open jaws appeared, followed
by the ungainly head and form of the furious hippopotamus, who,
springing half out of the water, lashed the river into foam, and,
disdaining the concealment of the deep pool, charged straight up the
violent rapids. With extraordinary power he breasted the descending
stream, gaining a footing in the rapids, about five feet deep. He
ploughed his way against the broken waves, sending them in showers of
spray upon all sides, and, upon gaining broader shallows, tore along
through the water, with the buoyant float hopping behind him along the
surface, until he landed from the river, started at full gallop along
the dry shingly bed, and at length disappeared in the thorny nabbuk

I never could have imagined that so unwieldy an animal could have
exhibited such speed; no man would have had a chance of escape, and it
was fortunate for our old Neptune that he was secure upon the high ledge
of rock; for if he had been in the path of the infuriated beast there
would have been an end of Abou Do. The old man plunged into the deep
pool just quitted by the hippo and landed upon our side, while in the
enthusiasm of the moment I waved my cap above my head and gave him
a British cheer as he reached the shore. His usually stern features
relaxed into a grim smile of delight: this was one of those moments
when the gratified pride of the hunter rewards him for any risks. I
congratulated him upon his dexterity; but much remained to be done.
I proposed to cross the river, and to follow upon the tracks of the
hippopotamus, as I imagined that the buoy and rope would catch in the
thick jungle, and that we should find him entangled in the bush; but the
old hunter gently laid his hand upon my arm and pointed up the bed of
the river, explaining that the hippo would certainly return to the water
after a short interval.

In a few minutes later, at a distance of nearly half a mile, we observed
the hippo emerge from the jungle and descend at full trot to the bed
of the river, making direct for the first rocky pool in which we had
noticed the herd of hippopotami. Accompanied by the old howarti (hippo
hunter), we walked quickly toward the spot. He explained to me that I
must shoot the harpooned hippo, as we should not be able to secure him
in the usual method by ropes, as nearly all our men were absent from
camp, disposing of the dead elephants.

Upon reaching the pool, which was about a hundred and thirty yards in
diameter, we were immediately greeted by the hippo, who snorted and
roared as we approached, but quickly dived, and the buoyant float ran
along the surface, directing his course in the same manner as the
cork of a trimmer marks that of a pike upon the hook. Several times he
appeared, but as he invariably faced us I could not obtain a favorable
shot; I therefore sent the old hunter round the pool, and he, swimming
the river, advanced to the opposite side and attracted the attention of
the hippo, who immediately turned toward him. This afforded me a good
chance, and I fired a steady shot behind the ear, at about seventy
yards, with a single-barrelled rifle. As usual with hippopotami, whether
dead or alive, he disappeared beneath the water at the shot. The crack
of the ball and the absence of any splash from the bullet told me that
he was hit; the ambatch float remained perfectly stationary upon the
surface. I watched it for some minutes--it never moved. Several heads of
hippopotami appeared and vanished in different directions, but the float
was still; it marked the spot where the grand old bull lay dead beneath.

I shot another hippo, that I thought must be likewise dead; and, taking
the time by my watch, I retired to the shade of a tree with Hassan,
while Hadji Ali and the old hunter returned to camp for assistance in
men and knives, etc.

In a little more than an hour and a half, two objects like the backs
of turtles appeared above the surface. These were the flanks of the
two hippos. A short time afterward the men arrived, and, regardless of
crocodiles, they swam toward the bodies. One was towed directly to the
shore by the rope attached to the harpoon, the other was secured by a
long line and dragged to the bank of clean pebbles. We had now a good
supply of food, which delighted our people.

I returned to the camp, and several hours elapsed, but none of the
aggageers returned, and neither had we received any tidings of our
people and camels that had left us at daybreak to search for the dead
elephants. Fearing that some mishap might have occurred in a collision
with the Bas-e, I anxiously looked out for some sign of the party. At
about 4 P.M. I observed far up the bed of the river several men,
some mounted and others upon foot, while one led a camel with a
curious-looking load. Upon a nearer approach I could distinguish upon
the camel's back some large object that was steadied by two men, one of
whom walked on either side. I had a foreboding that something was wrong,
and in a few minutes I clearly perceived a man lying upon a make-shift
litter, carried by the camel, while the Sheik Abou Do and Suleiman
accompanied the party upon horseback; a third led Jali's little gray

They soon arrived beneath the high bank of the river upon which I stood.
Poor little Jali, my plucky and active ally, lay, as I thought, dead
upon the litter. We laid him gently upon my angarep, which I had raised
by four men, so that we could lower him gradually from the kneeling
camel, and we carried him to the camp, about thirty yards distant. He
was faint, and I poured some essence of peppermint (the only spirits
I possessed) down his throat, which quickly revived him. His thigh
was broken about eight inches above the knee, but fortunately it was a
simple fracture.

Abou Do now explained the cause of the accident. While the party of
camel, men and others were engaged in cutting up the dead elephants, the
three aggageers had found the track of a bull that had escaped wounded.
In that country, where there was no drop of water upon the east bank of
the Settite for a distance of sixty or seventy miles to the river Gash,
an elephant, if wounded, was afraid to trust itself to the interior. One
of our escaped elephants had therefore returned to the thick jungle, and
was tracked by the aggageers to a position within two or three
hundred yards of the dead elephants. As there were no guns, two of the
aggageers, utterly reckless of consequences, resolved to ride through
the narrow passages formed by the large game, and to take their chance
with the elephant, sword in hand. Jali, as usual, was the first to lead,
and upon his little gray mare he advanced with the greatest difficulty
through the entangled thorns, broken by the passage of heavy game; to
the right and left of the passage it was impossible to move. Abou Do had
wisely dismounted, but Suleiman followed Jali. Upon arriving within a
few yards of the elephant, which was invisible in the thick thorns, Abou
Do crept forward on foot, and discovered it standing with ears cocked,
evidently waiting for the attack. As Jali followed on his light gray
mare, the elephant immediately perceived the white color and at once
charged forward. Escape was next to impossible. Jali turned his snare
sharply around, and she bounded off; but, caught in the thorns, the mare
fell, throwing her rider in the path of the elephant that was within
a few feet behind, in full chase. The mare recovered herself in an
instant, and rushed away; the elephant, attracted by the white color of
the animal, neglected the man, upon whom it trod in the pursuit, thus
breaking his thigh. Abou Do, who had been between the elephant and Jali,
had wisely jumped into the thick thorns, and, as the elephant passed
him, he again sprang out behind and followed with his drawn sword, but
too late to save Jali, as it was the affair of an instant. Jumping over
Jali's body, he was just in time to deliver a tremendous cut at the hind
leg of the elephant, that must otherwise have killed both horses and
probably Suleiman also, as the three were caught in a cul de sac, in a
passage that had no outlet, and were at the elephant's mercy.

Abou Do seldom failed. It was a difficult feat to strike correctly in
the narrow jungle passage with the elephant in full speed; but the blow
was fairly given, and the back sinew was divided. Not content with the
success of the cut, he immediately repeated the stroke upon the other
leg, as he feared that the elephant, although disabled from rapid
motion, might turn and trample Jali. The extraordinary dexterity and
courage required to effect this can hardly be appreciated by those who
have never hunted a wild elephant; but the extreme agility, pluck, and
audacity of these Hamran sword-hunters surpass all feats that I have
ever witnessed.

I set Jali's broken thigh and attended to him for four days. He was a
very grateful but unruly patient, as he had never been accustomed to
remain quiet. At the end of that time we arranged an angarep comfortably
upon a camel, upon which he was transported to Geera, in company with a
long string of camels, heavily laden with dried meat and squares of hide
for shields, with large bundles of hippopotamus skin for whip-making,
together with the various spoils of the chase. Last but not least were
numerous leathern pots of fat that had been boiled down from elephants
and hippopotami.

The camels were to return as soon as possible with supplies of corn for
our people and horses. Another elephant-hunter was to be sent to us in
the place of Jali, but I felt that we had lost our best man.


Fright of the Tokrooris--Deserters who didn't desert--Arrival of
the Sherrif brothers--Now for a tally-ho!--On the heels of the
rhinoceroses--The Abyssinian rhinoceros--Every man for himself.

Although my people had been in the highest spirits up to this time, a
gloom had been thrown over the party by two causes--Jali's accident and
the fresh footmarks of the Bas-e that had been discovered upon the sand
by the margin of the river. The aggageers feared nothing, and if the
Bas-e had been legions of demons they would have faced them, sword in
hand, with the greatest pleasure. But my Tokrooris, who were brave in
some respects, had been so cowed by the horrible stories recounted of
these common enemies at the nightly camp-fires by the Hamran Arabs, that
they were seized with panic and resolved to desert en masse and return
to Katariff, where I had originally engaged them, and at which place
they had left their families.

In this instance the desertion of my Tokrooris would have been a
great blow to my expedition, as it was necessary to have a division of
parties. I had the Tokrooris, Jaleens, and Hamran Arabs. Thus they would
never unite together, and I was certain to have some upon my side in a
difficulty. Should I lose the Tokrooris, the Hamran Arabs would have the
entire preponderance.

The whole of my Tokrooris formed in line before me and my wife, just as
the camels were about to leave. Each man had his little bundle prepared
for starting on a journey. Old Moosa was the spokesman. He said that
they were all very sorry; that they regretted exceedingly the necessity
of leaving us, but some of them were sick, and they would only be a
burden to the expedition; that one of them was bound upon a pilgrimage
to Mecca, and that God would punish him should he neglect this great
duty; others had not left any money with their families in Katariff,
that would starve in their absence. (I had given them an advance
of wages, when they engaged at Katariff, to provide against this
difficulty.) I replied: "My good fellows, I am very sorry to hear all
this, especially as it comes upon me so suddenly; those who are sick
stand upon one side" (several invalids, who looked remarkably healthy,
stepped to the left). "Who wishes to go to Mecca?" Abderachman stepped
forward (a huge specimen of a Tokroori, who went by the nickname of "El
Jamoos" or the buffalo). "Who wishes to remit money to his family, as I
will send it and deduct it from his wages?" No one came forward.
During the pause I called for pen and paper, which Mahomet brought. I
immediately commenced writing, and placed the note within an envelope,
which I addressed and gave to one of the camel-drivers. I then called
for my medicine-chest, and having weighed several three-grain doses of
tartar emetic, I called the invalids, and insisted upon their taking the
medicine before they started, or they might become seriously ill upon
the road, which for three days' march was uninhabited. Mixed with a
little water the doses were swallowed, and I knew that the invalids were
safe for that day, and that the others would not start without them.

I now again addressed my would-be deserters: "Now, my good fellows,
there shall be no misunderstanding between us, and I will explain to you
how the case stands. You engaged yourselves to me for the whole journey,
and you received an advance of wages to provide for your families during
your absence. You have lately filled yourselves with meat, and you have
become lazy; you have been frightened by the footprints of the Bas-e;
thus you wish to leave the country. To save yourselves from imaginary
danger, you would forsake my wife and myself, and leave us to a fate
which you yourselves would avoid. This is your gratitude for kindness;
this is the return for my confidence, when without hesitation I advanced
you money. Go! Return to Katariff to your families! I know that all
the excuses you have made are false. Those who declare themselves to be
sick, Inshallah (please God), shall be sick. You will all be welcomed
upon your arrival at Katariff. In the letter I have written to the
Governor, inclosing your names, I have requested him to give each
DESERTION, and to imprison him until my return."

Checkmate! My poor Tokrooris were in a corner, and in their great
dilemma they could not answer a word. Taking advantage of this moment of
confusion, I called forward "the buffalo," Abderachman, as I had heard
that he really had contemplated a pilgrimage to Mecca. "Abderachman," I
continued, "you are the only man who has spoken the truth. Go to Mecca!
and may God protect you on the journey! I should not wish to prevent you
from performing your duty as a Mahometan."

Never were people more dumbfounded with surprise. They retreated, and
formed a knot in consultation, and in about ten minutes they returned to
me, old Moosa and Hadji Ali both leading the pilgrim Abderachman by the
hands. They had given in; and Abderachman, the buffalo of the party,
thanked me for my permission, and with tears in his eyes, as the camels
were about to start, he at once said good-by. "Embrace him!" cried old
Moosa and Hadji Ali; and in an instant, as I had formerly succumbed to
the maid Barrake, I was actually kissed by the thick lips of Abderachman
the unwashed! Poor fellow! this was sincere gratitude without the
slightest humbug; therefore, although he was an odoriferous savage,
I could not help shaking him by the hand and wishing him a prosperous
journey, assuring him that I would watch over his comrades like a
father, while in my service. In a few instants these curious people were
led by a sudden and new impulse; my farewell had perfectly delighted old
Moosa and Hadji Ali, whose hearts were won. "Say good-by to the Sit!"
(the lady) they shouted to Abderachman; but I assured them that it was
not necessary to go through the whole operation to which I had been
subjected, and that she would be contented if he only kissed her hand.
This he did with the natural grace of a savage, and was led away crying
by his companions, who embraced him with tears, and they parted with the
affection of brothers.

Now, to hard-hearted and civilized people, who often school themselves
to feel nothing, or as little as they can, for anybody, it may appear
absurd to say that the scene was affecting, but somehow or other it was.
And in the course of half an hour, those who would have deserted had
become stanch friends, and we were all, black and white, Mahometans and
Christians, wishing the pilgrim God-speed upon his perilous journey to

The camels started, and, if the scene was affecting, the invalids began
to be more affected by the tartar emetic. This was the third act of the
comedy. The plot had been thoroughly ventilated; the last act exhibited
the perfect fidelity of my Tokrooris, in whom I subsequently reposed
much confidence.

In the afternoon of that day the brothers Sherrif arrived. These were
the most renowned of all the sword-hunters of the Hamrans, of whom I
have already spoken. They were well mounted, and, having met our caravan
of camels on the route, heavily laden with dried flesh, and thus seen
proofs of our success, they now offered to join our party. I am sorry to
be obliged to confess that my ally, Abou Do, although a perfect Nimrod
in sport, an Apollo in personal appearance, and a gentleman in manner,
was a mean, covetous, and grasping fellow, and withal absurdly jealous.
Taher Sherrif was a more celebrated hunter, having had the experience of
at least twenty years in excess of Abou Do; and although the latter was
as brave and dexterous as Taher and his brothers, he wanted the cool
judgment that is essential to a first-rate sportsman.

The following day was the new year, January 1st, 1862; and with the four
brothers Sherrif and our party we formed a powerful body of hunters:
six aggageers and myself all well mounted. With four gun-bearers and two
camels, both of which carried water, we started in search of elephants.
Florian was unwell, and remained in camp.

The immediate neighborhood was a perfect exhibition of
gun-arabic-bearing mimosas. At this season the gum was in perfection,
and the finest quality was now before us in beautiful amber-colored
masses upon the stems and branches, varying from the size of a nutmeg to
that of an orange. So great was the quantity, and so excellent were the
specimens, that, leaving our horses tied to trees, both the Arabs and
myself gathered a large collection. This gum, although as hard as ice on
the exterior, was limpid in the centre, resembling melted amber, and
as clear as though refined by some artificial process. The trees were
perfectly denuded of leaves from the extreme drought, and the beautiful
balls of frosted yellow gum recalled the idea of the precious jewels
upon the trees in the garden of the wonderful lamp of the "Arabian
Nights." This gum was exceedingly sweet and pleasant to the taste; but,
although of the most valuable quality, there was no hand to gather it in
this forsaken although beautiful country; it either dissolved during the
rainy season or was consumed by the baboons and antelopes. The aggageers
took off from their saddles the skins of tanned antelope leather that
formed the only covering to the wooden seats, and with these they made
bundles of gum. When we remounted, every man was well laden.

We were thus leisurely returning home through alternate plains and low
open forest of mimosa, when Taher Sherrif, who was leading the party,
suddenly reined up his horse and pointed to a thick bush, beneath which
was a large gray but shapeless mass. He whispered, as I drew near,
"Oom gurrin" (mother of the horn), their name for the rhinoceros.
I immediately dismounted, and with the short No. 10 Tatham rifle I
advanced as near as I could, followed by Suleiman, as I had sent all
my gum-bearers directly home by the river when we had commenced our
circuit. As I drew near I discovered two rhinoceroses asleep beneath a
thick mass of bushes. They were lying like pigs, close together, so that
at a distance I had been unable to distinguish any exact form. It was an
awkward place. If I were to take the wind fairly I should have to
fire through the thick bush, which would be useless; therefore I
was compelled to advance with the wind directly from me to them. The
aggageers remained about a hundred yards distant, while I told Suleiman
to return and hold my horse in readiness with his own. I then walked
quietly to within about thirty yards of the rhinoceroses; but so
curiously were they lying that it was useless to attempt a shot. In
their happy dreams they must have been suddenly disturbed by the scent
of an enemy, for, without the least warning, they suddenly sprang to
their feet with astonishing quickness, and with a loud and sharp whiff,
whiff, whiff! one of them charged straight at me. I fired my right-hand
barrel in his throat, as it was useless to aim at the head protected by
two horns at the nose. This turned him, but had no other effect, and the
two animals thundered off together at a tremendous pace.

Now for a "tally-ho!" Our stock of gum was scattered on the ground,
and away went the aggageers in full speed after the two rhinoceroses.
Without waiting to reload, I quickly remounted my horse Tetel, and with
Suleiman in company I spurred hard to overtake the flying Arabs. Tetel
was a good strong cob, but not very fast; however, I believe he never
went so well as upon that day, for, although an Abyssinian Horse, I had
a pair of English spurs, which worked like missionaries. The ground was
awkward for riding at full speed, as it was an open forest of mimosas,
which, although wide apart, were very difficult to avoid, owing to the
low crowns of spreading branches, and these, being armed with fish-hook
thorns, would have been serious in a collision. I kept the party in view
until in about a mile we arrived upon open ground. Here I again applied
the spurs, and by degrees I crept up, always gaining, until I at length
joined the aggageers.

Here was a sight to drive a hunter wild! The two rhinoceroses were
running neck and neck, like a pair of horses in harness, but bounding
along at tremendous speed within ten yards of the leading Hamran. This
was Taher Sherrif, who, with his sword drawn and his long hair flying
wildly behind him, urged his horse forward in the race, amid a cloud of
dust raised by the two huge but active beasts, that tried every sinew of
the horses. Roder Sherrif, with the withered arm, was second; with the
reins hung upon the hawk-like claw that was all that remained of a hand,
but with his naked sword grasped in his right, he kept close to his
brother, ready to second his blow. Abou Do was third, his hair flying in
the wind, his heels dashing against the flanks of his horse, to which
he shouted in his excitement to urge him to the front, while he leaned
forward with his long sword, in the wild energy of the moment, as though
hoping to reach the game against all possibility.

Now for the spurs! and as these, vigorously applied, screwed an extra
stride out of Tetel, I soon found myself in the ruck of men, horses, and
drawn swords. There were seven of us, and passing Abou Do, whose face
wore an expression of agony at finding that his horse was failing,
I quickly obtained a place between the two brothers, Taher and Roder
Sherrif. There had been a jealousy between the two parties of aggageers,
and each was striving to outdo the other; thus Abou Do was driven almost
to madness at the superiority of Taher's horse, while the latter, who
was the renowned hunter of the tribe, was determined that his sword
should be the first to taste blood. I tried to pass the rhinoceros on my
left, so as to fire close into the shoulder my remaining barrel with my
right hand, but it was impossible to overtake the animals, who bounded
along with undiminished speed. With the greatest exertion of men and
horses we could only retain our position within about three or four
yards of their tails--just out of reach of the swords. The only chance
in the race was to hold the pace until the rhinoceroses should begin.
to flag. The horses were pressed to the utmost; but we had already run
about two miles, and the game showed no signs of giving in. On they
flew, sometimes over open ground, then through low bush, which tried the
horses severely, then through strips of open forest, until at length
the party began to tail off, and only a select few kept their places.
We arrived at the summit of a ridge, from which the ground sloped in
a gentle inclination for about a mile toward the river. At the foot
of this incline was thick thorny nabbuk jungle, for which impenetrable
covert the rhinoceroses pressed at their utmost speed.

Never was there better ground for the finish of a race. The earth was
sandy, but firm, and as we saw the winning-post in the jungle that
must terminate the hunt, we redoubled our exertions to close with the
unflagging game. Suleiman's horse gave in--we had been for about twenty
minutes at a killing pace. Tetel, although not a fast horse, was good
for a distance, and he now proved his power of endurance, as I was
riding at least two stone heavier than any of the party. Only four of
the seven remained; and we swept down the incline, Taher Sherif still
leading, and Abou Do the last! His horse was done, but not the rider;
for, springing to the ground while at full speed, sword in hand, he
forsook his tired horse, and, preferring his own legs, he ran like an
antelope, and, for the first hundred yards I thought lie would really
pass us and win the honor of first blow. It was of no use, the pace was
too severe, and, although running wonderfully, he was obliged to give
way to the horses. Only three now followed the rhinoceroses--Taher
Sherrif, his brother Roder, and myself. I had been obliged to give the
second place to Roder, as he was a mere monkey in weight; but I was a
close third.

The excitement was intense. We neared the jungle, and the rhinoceroses
began to show signs of flagging, as the dust puffed up before their
nostrils, and, with noses close to the ground, they snorted as they
still galloped on. Oh for a fresh horse! "A horse! a horse! my kingdom
for a horse!" We were within two hundred yards of the jungle; but the
horses were all done. Tetel reeled as I urged him forward. Roder pushed
ahead. We were close to the dense thorns, and the rhinoceroses
broke into a trot; they were done! "Now, Taher, for-r-a-a-r-r-d!
for-r-r-a-a-r-d, Taher!!"

Away he went. He was close to the very heels of the beasts, but his
horse could do no more than his present pace; still he gained upon the
nearest. He leaned forward with his sword raised for the blow. Another
moment and the jungle would be reached! One effort more, and the sword
flashed in the sunshine, as the rear-most rhinoceros disappeared in
the thick screen of thorns, with a gash about a foot long upon his
hind-quarters. Taher Sherrif shook his bloody sword in triumph above
his head, but the rhinoceros was gone. We were fairly beaten, regularly
outpaced; but I believe another two hundred yards would have given us
the victory. "Bravo, Taher!" I shouted. He had ridden splendidly, and
his blow had been marvellously delivered at an extremely long reach,
as he was nearly out of his saddle when he sprang forward to enable
the blade to obtain a cut at the last moment. He could not reach the
hamstring, as his horse could not gain the proper position.

We all immediately dismounted. The horses were thoroughly done, and I at
once loosened the girths and contemplated my steed Tetel, who, with head
lowered and legs wide apart, was a tolerable example of the effects
of pace. The other aggageers shortly arrived, and as the rival Abou Do
joined us, Taher Sherrif quietly wiped the blood off his sword without
making a remark. This was a bitter moment for the discomfited Abou Do.

There is only one species of rhinoceros in Abyssinia; this is the
two-horned black rhinoceros, known in South Africa as the keitloa. This
animal is generally five feet six inches to five feet eight inches
high at the shoulder, and, although so bulky and heavily built, it is
extremely active, as our long and fruitless hunt had shown us. The skin
is about half the thickness of that of the hippopotamus, but of extreme
toughness and closeness of texture. When dried and polished it resembles
horn. Unlike the Indian species of rhinoceros, the black variety of
Africa is free from folds, and the hide fits smoothly on the body
like that of the buffalo. This two-horned black species is exceedingly
vicious. It is one of the very few animals that will generally assume
the offensive; it considers all creatures to be enemies, and, although
it is not acute in either sight or hearing, it possesses so wonderful a
power of scent that it will detect a stranger at a distance of five or
six hundred yards should the wind be favorable.

Florian was now quite incapable of hunting, as he was in a weak state of
health, and had for some months been suffering from chronic dysentery.
I had several times cured him, but he had a weakness for the strongest
black coffee, which, instead of drinking, like the natives, in minute
cups, he swallowed wholesale in large basins several times a day; this
was actual poison with his complaint, and he was completely ruined in
health. At this time his old companion, Johann Schmidt, the carpenter,
arrived, having undertaken a contract to provide for the Italian
Zoological Gardens a number of animals. I therefore proposed that the
two old friends should continue together, while I would hunt by myself,
with the aggageers, toward the east and south. This arrangement was
agreed to, and we parted.

Our camels returned from Geera with corn, accompanied by an Abyssinian
hunter, who was declared by Abou Do to be a good man and dexterous with
the sword. We accordingly moved our camp, said adieu to Florian and
Johann, and penetrated still deeper into the country of the Bas-e.

Our course lay, as usual, along the banks of the river. We decided to
encamp at a spot known to the Arabs as Deladilla. This was the forest
upon the margin of the river where I had first shot the bull elephant
when the aggageers fought with him upon foot. I resolved to fire the
entire country on the following day, and to push still farther up the
course of the Settite to the foot of the mountains, and to return to
this camp in about a fortnight, by which time the animals that had
been scared away by the fire would have returned. Accordingly, on the
following morning, accompanied by a few of the aggageers, I started
upon the south bank of the river, and rode for some distance into the
interior, to the ground that was entirely covered with high withered
grass. We were passing through a mass of kittar and thorn-bush, almost
hidden by the immensely high grass, when, as I was ahead of the party,
I came suddenly upon the tracks of rhinoceroses. These were so
unmistakably recent that I felt sure we were not far from the animals
themselves. As I had wished to fire the grass, I was accompanied by my
Tokrooris and my horse-keeper, Mahomet No. 2. It was difficult ground
for the men, and still more unfavorable for the horses, as large
disjointed masses of stone were concealed in the high grass.

We were just speculating as to the position of the rhinoceros, and
thinking how uncommonly unpleasant it would be should he obtain our
wind, when whiff! whiff! whiff! We heard the sharp whistling snort, with
a tremendous rush through the high grass and thorns close to us, and
at the same moment two of these determined brutes were upon us in full
charge. I never saw such a scrimmage. SAUVE QUI PEUT! There was no time
for more than one look behind. I dug the spurs into Aggahr's flanks, and
clasping him round the neck I ducked my head down to his shoulder, well
protected with my strong hunting-cap, and kept the spurs going as hard
as I could ply them, blindly trusting to Providence and my good horse.
Over big rocks, fallen trees, thick kittar thorns, and grass ten feet
high, with the two infernal animals in full chase only a few feet behind
me! I heard their abominable whiffing close to me, but so did my good
horse, and the good old hunter flew over obstacles in a way I should
have thought impossible, and he dashed straight under the hooked
thorn-bushes and doubled like a hare. The aggageers were all scattered;
Mahomet No. 2 was knocked over by a rhinoceros; all the men were
sprawling upon the rocks with their guns, and the party was entirely

Having passed the kittar thorn I turned, and, seeing that the beasts had
gone straight on, I brought Aggahr's head round and tried to give chase;
but it was perfectly impossible. It was only a wonder that the horse had
escaped in ground so difficult for riding. Although my clothes were of
the strongest and coarsest Arab cotton cloth, which seldom tore, but
simply lost a thread when caught in a thorn, I was nearly naked. My
blouse was reduced to shreds. As I wore sleeves only half way from
the shoulder to the elbow, my naked arms were streaming with blood.
Fortunately my hunting-cap was secured with a chin strap, and still more
fortunately I had grasped the horse's neck; otherwise I must have been
dragged out of the saddle by the hooked thorns. All the men were cut and
bruised, some having fallen upon their heads among the rocks, and others
had hurt their legs in falling in their endeavors to escape. Mahomet
No. 2, the horse-keeper, was more frightened than hurt, as he had been
knocked down by the shoulder and not by the horn of the rhinoceros, as
the animal had not noticed him; its attention was absorbed by the horse.

I determined to set fire to the whole country immediately, and
descending the hill toward the river to obtain a favorable wind, I put
my men in a line, extending over about a mile along the river's bed,
and they fired the grass in different places. With a loud roar the flame
leaped high in air and rushed forward with astonishing velocity. The
grass was as inflammable as tinder, and the strong north wind drove the
long line of fire spreading in every direction through the country.


A day with the howartis--A hippo's gallant fight--Abou Do leaves
us--Three yards from a lion--Days of delight--A lion's furious
rage--Astounding courage of a horse.

A LITTLE before sunrise I accompanied the howartis, or
hippopotamus-hunters, for a day's sport. At length we arrived at a large
pool in which were several sand-banks covered with rushes, and many
rocky islands. Among these rocks was a herd of hippopotami, consisting
of an old bull and several cows. A young hippo was standing, like an
ugly little statue, on a protruding rock, while another infant stood
upon its mother's back that listlessly floated on the water.

This was an admirable place for the hunters. They desired me to lie
down, and they crept into the jungle out of view of the river. I
presently observed them stealthily descending the dry bed about two
hundred paces above the spot where the hippos were basking behind the
rocks. They entered the river and swam down the centre of the stream
toward the rock. This was highly exciting. The hippos were quite
unconscious of the approaching danger, as, steadily and rapidly, the
hunters floated down the strong current. They neared the rock, and both
heads disappeared as they purposely sank out of view; in a few seconds
later they reappeared at the edge of the rock upon which the young hippo
stood. It would be difficult to say which started first, the astonished
young hippo into the water, or the harpoons from the hands of the
howartis! It was the affair of a moment. The hunters dived as soon as
they had hurled their harpoons, and, swimming for some distance under
water, they came to the surface, and hastened to the shore lest an
infuriated hippopotamus should follow them. One harpoon had missed; the
other had fixed the bull of the herd, at which it had been surely aimed.
This was grand sport! The bull was in the greatest fury, and rose to the
surface, snorting and blowing in his impotent rage; but as the ambatch
float was exceedingly large, and this naturally accompanied his
movements, he tried to escape from his imaginary persecutor, and dived
constantly, only to find his pertinacious attendant close to him upon
regaining the surface. This was not to last long; the howartis were
in earnest, and they at once called their party, who, with two of the
aggageers, Abou Do and Suleiman, were near at hand. These men arrived
with the long ropes that form a portion of the outfit of hippo hunting.

The whole party now halted on the edge of the river, while two men swam
across with one end of the long rope. Upon gaining the opposite bank,
I observed that a second rope was made fast to the middle of the main
line. Thus upon our side we held the ends of two ropes, while on the
opposite side they had only one; accordingly, the point of junction of
the two ropes in the centre formed an acute angle. The object of this
was soon practically explained. Two men upon our side now each held a
rope, and one of these walked about ten yards before the other. Upon
both sides of the river the people now advanced, dragging the rope on
the surface of the water until they reached the ambatch float that was
swimming to and fro, according to the movements of the hippopotamus
below. By a dexterous jerk of the main line the float was now placed
between the two ropes, and it was immediately secured in the acute angle
by bringing together the ends of these ropes on our side.

The men on the opposite bank now dropped their line, and our men hauled
in upon the ambatch float that was held fast between the ropes. Thus
cleverly made sure, we quickly brought a strain upon the hippo, and,
although I have had some experience in handling big fish, I never knew
one to pull so lustily as the amphibious animal that we now alternately
coaxed and bullied. He sprang out of the water, gnashed his huge jaws,
snorted with tremendous rage, and lashed the river into foam. He
then dived, and foolishly approached us beneath the water. We quickly
gathered in the slack line, and took a round turn upon a large rock,
within a few feet of the river. The hippo now rose to the surface,
about ten yards from the hunters, and, jumping half out of the water, he
snapped his great jaws together, endeavoring to catch the rope; but at
the same instant two harpoons were launched into his side. Disdaining
retreat, and maddened with rage, the furious animal charged from the
depths of the river, and, gaining a footing, he reared his bulky form
from the surface, came boldly upon the sand-bank, and attacked the
hunters open-mouthed.

He little knew his enemy. They were not the men to fear a pair of gaping
jaws, armed with a deadly array of tusks; but half a dozen lances were
hurled at him, some entering his mouth from a distance of five or six
paces. At the same time several men threw handfuls of sand into his
enormous eyes. This baffled him more than the lances; he crunched the
shafts between his powerful jaws like straws, but he was beaten by the
sand, and, shaking his huge head, he retreated to the river. During his
sally upon the shore two of the hunters had secured the ropes of the
harpoons that had been fastened in his body just before his charge. He
was now fixed by three of these deadly instruments; but suddenly one
rope gave way, having been bitten through by the enraged beast, who
was still beneath the water. Immediately after this he appeared on
the surface, and, without a moment's hesitation, he once more charged
furiously from the water straight at the hunters, with his huge mouth
open to such an extent that he could have accommodated two inside
passengers. Suleiman was wild with delight, and springing forward lance
in hand, he drove it against the head of the formidable animal, but
without effect. At the same time Abou Do met the hippo sword in hand,
reminding me of Perseus slaying the sea-monster that would devour
Andromeda; but the sword made a harmless gash, and the lance, already
blunted against the rocks, refused to penetrate the tough hide. Once
more handfuls of sand were pelted upon his face, and, again repulsed by
this blinding attack, he was forced to retire to his deep hole and wash
it from his eyes.

Six times during the fight the valiant bull hippo quitted his watery
fortress and charged resolutely at his pursuers. He had broken several
of their lances in his jaws, other lances had been hurled, and, falling
upon the rocks, they were blunted and would not penetrate. The fight had
continued for three hours, and the sun was about to set; accordingly the
hunters begged me to give him the COUP DE GRACE, as they had hauled him
close to the shore, and they feared he would sever the rope with his
teeth. I waited for a good opportunity, when he boldly raised his head
from water about three yards from the rifle, and a bullet from the
little Fletcher between the eyes closed the last act. This spot was not
far from the pyramidical hill beneath which I had fixed our camp, to
which I returned after an amusing day's sport.

The next morning I started to the mountains to explore the limit that I
had proposed for my expedition on the Settite. The Arabs had informed me
that a river of some importance descended from the mountains and joined
the main stream about twelve miles from our camp. In about three hours
and a half we arrived at Hor Mehetape, the stream that the Arabs
had reported. Although a powerful torrent during the rains, it was
insignificant as one of the tributaries to the Settite, as the breadth
did not exceed twenty-five yards. At this season it was nearly dry, and
at no time did it appear to exceed the depth of ten or twelve feet. It
was merely a rapid mountain torrent. But we were now among the mountains
whose drainage causes the sudden rise of the Atbara and the Nile.

Abou Do and Suleiman had lately given us some trouble, especially the
former, whose covetous nature had induced him to take much more than his
share of the hides of rhinoceros and other animals shot. The horses of
the aggageers had, moreover, been lamed by reckless riding, and Abou Do
coolly proposed that I should lend them horses. Having a long journey
before me, I refused, and they became discontented. It was time to part,
and I ordered him and his people to return to Geera. As Taher Sherrif's
party had disagreed with Abou Do some time previously, and had left us,
we were now left without aggageers.

On the following day I succeeded in killing a buffalo, which I ordered
my men, after they had flayed it, to leave as a bait for lions.

That night we were serenaded by the roaring of these animals in all
directions, one of them having visited our camp, around which we
discovered his footprints on the following morning. I accordingly took
Taher Noor, with Hadji Ali and Hassan, two of my trusty Tokrooris, and
went straight to the spot where I had left the carcass of the buffalo.
As I had expected, nothing remained--not even a bone. The ground was
much trampled, and tracks of lions were upon the sand; but the body of
the buffalo had been dragged into the thorny jungle. I was determined,
if possible, to get a shot; therefore I followed carefully the track
left by the carcass, which had formed a path in the withered grass.
Unfortunately the lions had dragged the buffalo down wind; therefore,
after I had arrived within the thick nabbuk and high grass, I came to
the conclusion that my only chance would be to make a long circuit, and
to creep up wind through the thorns, until I should be advised by my
nose of the position of the carcass, as it would by this time be in a
state of putrefaction, and the lions would most probably be with the
body. Accordingly I struck off to my left, and continuing straight
forward for some hundred yards, I again struck into the thick jungle and
came round to the wind. Success depended on extreme caution; therefore I
advised my three men to keep close behind me with the spare rifles, as I
carried my single-barrelled Beattie. This rifle was extremely accurate,
therefore I had chosen it for this close work, when I expected to get a
shot at the eye or forehead of a lion crouching in the bush.

Softly and with difficulty I crept forward, followed closely by my men,
through the high withered grass, beneath the dense green nabbuk bushes,
peering through the thick covert, with the nerves braced up to full
pitch, and the finger on the trigger ready for any emergency. We had
thus advanced for about half an hour, during which I frequently applied
my nose to within a foot of the ground to catch the scent, when a sudden
puff of wind brought the unmistakable smell of decomposing flesh. For
the moment I halted, and, looking round to my men, I made a sign that
we were near to the carcass, and that they were to be ready with the
rifles. Again I crept gently forward, bending and sometimes crawling
beneath the thorns to avoid the slightest noise. As I approached the
scent became stronger, until I at length felt that I must be close to
the cause.

This was highly exciting. Fully prepared for a quick shot, I stealthily
crept on. A tremendous roar in the dense thorns within a few feet of me
suddenly brought my rifle to the shoulder. Almost in the same instant I
observed the three-quarter figure of either a lion or a lioness within
three yards of me, on the other side of the bush under which I had
been creeping. The foliage concealed the head, but I could almost have
touched the shoulder with my rifle. Much depended upon the bullet, and I
fired exactly through the shoulder. Another tremendous roar! and a
crash in the bushes as the animal made a bound forward was succeeded
immediately by a similar roar, as another lion took the exact position
of the last, and stood wondering at the report of the rifle, and seeking
for the cause of the intrusion. This was a grand lion with a shaggy
mane; but my rifle was unloaded, and, keeping my eyes fixed on the
beast, I stretched my hand back for a spare rifle. The lion remained
standing, but gazing up wind with his head raised, snuffing in the air
for a scent of the enemy. No rifle was put in my hand. I looked back for
an instant, and saw my Tokrooris faltering about five yards behind me. I
looked daggers at them, gnashing my teeth and shaking my fist. They saw
the lion, and Taher Noor snatching a rifle from Hadji Ali was just about
to bring it; when Hassan, ashamed, ran forward. The lion disappeared
at the same moment. Never was such a fine chance lost through
the indecision of the gun bearers! I made a vow never to carry a
single-barrelled rifle again when hunting large game. If I had had my
dear little Fletcher 24 1 should have nailed the lion to a certainty.

However, there was not much time for reflection. Where was the first
lion? Some remains of the buffalo lay upon my right, and I expected to
find the lion most probably crouching in the thorns somewhere near us.
Having reloaded, I took one of my Reilly No. 10 rifles and listened
attentively for a sound. Presently I heard within a few yards a low
growl. Taher Noor drew his sword and, with his shield before him, he
searched for the lion, while I crept forward toward the sound, which was
again repeated. A low roar, accompanied by a rush in the jungle, showed
us a glimpse of the lion as he bounded off within ten or twelve yards;
but I had no chance to fire. Again the low growl was repeated, and upon
quietly creeping toward the spot I saw a splendid animal crouched upon
the ground amid the withered and broken grass. The lioness lay dying
with the bullet wound in the shoulder. Occasionally in her rage she bit
her own paw violently, and then struck and clawed the ground. A pool of
blood lay by her side. She was about ten yards from us, and I instructed
my men to throw a clod of earth at her (there were no stones), to prove
whether she could rise, while I stood ready with the rifle. She merely
replied with a dull roar, and I terminated her misery by a ball through
the head. She was a beautiful animal. The patch of the bullet was
sticking in the wound. She was shot through both shoulders, and as we
were not far from the tent I determined to have her brought to camp
upon a camel as an offering to my wife. Accordingly I left my Tokrooris,
while I went with Taher Noor to fetch a camel.

On our road through the thick jungle I was startled by a rush close
to me. For the moment I thought it was a lion, but almost at the same
instant I saw a fine nellut dashing away before me, and I killed it
immediately with a bullet through the back of the neck. This was great
luck, and we now required two camels, as in two shots I had killed a
lioness and a nellut (A. Strepsiceros).

We remained for some time at our delightful camp at Delladilla. Every
day, from sunrise to sunset, I was either on foot or in the saddle,
without rest, except upon Sundays. As our camp was full of meat, either
dried or in the process of drying in festoons upon the trees, we had
been a great attraction to the beasts of prey, which constantly prowled
around our thorn fence during the night. One night in particular a lion
attempted to enter, but had been repulsed by the Tokrooris, who pelted
him with firebrands. My people woke me up and begged me to shoot him;
but as it was perfectly impossible to fire correctly through the hedge
of thorns, I refused to be disturbed, but promised to hunt for him on
the following day. Throughout the entire night the lion prowled around
the camp, growling and uttering his peculiar guttural sigh. Not one of
my people slept, as they declared he would bound into the camp and take
somebody unless they kept up the watch-fires and drove him away with
brands. The next day before sunrise I called Hassan and Hadji Ali,
whom I lectured severely upon their cowardice on a former occasion, and
received their promise to follow me to death. I intrusted them with my
two Reillys No. 10, and with my little Fletcher in hand I determined to
spend the whole day in searching every thicket of the forest for lions,
as I felt convinced that the animal that had disturbed us during the
night was concealed somewhere within the neighboring jungle.

The whole day passed fruitlessly. I had crept through the thickest
thorns in vain; having abundance of meat, I had refused the most
tempting shots at buffaloes and large antelopes, as I had devoted
myself exclusively to lions. I was much disappointed, as the evening had
arrived without a shot having been fired, and as the sun had nearly set
I wandered slowly toward home. Passing through alternate open glades
of a few yards' width, hemmed in on all sides by thick jungle, I was
carelessly carrying my rifle upon my shoulder, as I pushed my way
through the opposing thorns, when a sudden roar, just before me, at once
brought the rifle upon full cock, and I saw a magnificent lion standing
in the middle of the glade, about ten yards from me. He had been lying
on the ground, and had started to his feet upon hearing me approach
through the jungle. For an instant he stood in an attitude of attention,
as we were hardly visible; but at the same moment I took a quick but
sure shot with the little Fletcher. He gave a convulsive bound, but
rolled over backward; before he could recover himself I fired the
left-hand barrel.

It was a glorious sight. I had advanced a few steps into the glade, and
Hassan had quickly handed me a spare rifle, while Taher Noor stood by
me sword in hand. The lion in the greatest fury, with his shaggy mane
bristling in the air, roared with death-like growls, as open-mouthed he
endeavored to charge upon us; but he dragged his hind-quarters upon the
ground, and I saw immediately that the little Fletcher had broken his
spine. In his tremendous exertions to attack he rolled over and over,
gnashing his horrible jaws and tearing holes in the sandy ground at each
blow of his tremendous paws that would have crushed a man's skull like
an egg-shell. Seeing that he was hors de combat I took it coolly, as it
was already dusk, and the lion having rolled into a dark and thick bush
I thought it would be advisable to defer the final attack, as he would
be dead before morning. We were not ten minutes' walk from the camp,
at which we quickly arrived, and my men greatly rejoiced at the
discomfiture of their enemy, as they were convinced that he was the same
lion that had attempted to enter the zareeba.

On the following morning before sunrise I started with nearly all my
people and a powerful camel, with the intention of bringing the lion
home entire. I rode my horse Tetel, who had frequently shown great
courage, and I wished to prove whether he would advance to the body of a

Upon arrival near the spot which we supposed to have been the scene
of the encounter, we were rather puzzled, as there was nothing to
distinguish the locality; one place exactly resembled another, as the
country was flat and sandy, interspersed with thick jungle of green
nabbuk. We accordingly spread out to beat for the lion. Presently Hadji
Ali cried out, "There he lies, dead!" and I immediately rode to the
spot together with the people. A tremendous roar greeted us as the lion
started to his fore-feet, and with his beautiful mane erect and his
great hazel eyes flashing fire he gave a succession of deep short roars,
and challenged us to fight. This was a grand picture. He looked like
a true lord of the forest; but I pitied the poor brute, as he was
helpless, and although his spirit was game to the last, his strength was
paralyzed by a broken back.

It was a glorious opportunity for the horse. At the first unexpected
roar the camel had bolted with its rider. The horse had for a moment
started on one side, and the men had scattered; but in an instant I had
reined Tetel up, and I now rode straight toward the lion, who courted
the encounter about twenty paces distant. I halted exactly opposite the
noble-looking beast, who, seeing me in advance of the party, increased
his rage and growled deeply, fixing his glance upon the horse. I now
patted Tetel on the neck and spoke to him coaxingly. He gazed intently
at the lion, erected his mane, and snorted, but showed no signs of
retreat. "Bravo! old boy!" I said, and, encouraging him by caressing his
neck with my hand, I touched his flank gently with my heel. I let him
just feel my hand upon the rein, and with a "Come along, old lad," Tetel
slowly but resolutely advanced step by step toward the infuriated lion,
that greeted him with continued growls. The horse several times snorted
loudly and stared fixedly at the terrible face before him; but as I
constantly patted and coaxed him he did not refuse to advance. I checked
him when within about six yards of the lion.

This would have made a magnificent picture, as the horse, with
astounding courage, faced the lion at bay. Both animals kept their eyes
fixed upon each other, the one beaming with rage, the other cool with
determination. This was enough. I dropped the reins upon his neck; it
was a signal that Tetel perfectly understood, and he stood firm as a
rock, for he knew that I was about to fire. I took aim at the head of
the glorious but distressed lion, and a bullet from the little Fletcher
dropped him dead. Tetel never flinched at a shot. I now dismounted,
and, having patted and coaxed the horse, I led him up to the body of the
lion, which I also patted, and then gave my hand to the horse to smell.
He snorted once or twice, and as I released my hold of the reins and
left him entirely free, he slowly lowered his head and sniffed the mane
of the dead lion. He then turned a few paces upon one side and commenced
eating the withered grass beneath the nabbuk bushes.

My Arabs were perfectly delighted with this extraordinary instance of
courage exhibited by the horse. I had known that the beast was disabled,
but Tetel had advanced boldly toward the angry jaws of a lion that
appeared about to spring. The camel was now brought to the spot and
blindfolded, while we endeavored to secure the lion upon its back.
As the camel knelt, it required the united exertions of eight men,
including myself, to raise the ponderous animal and to secure it across
the saddle.

Although so active and cat-like in its movements, a full-grown lion
weighs about five hundred and fifty pounds. Having secured it we shortly
arrived in camp. The COUP D'OEIL was beautiful, as the camel entered the
enclosure with the shaggy head and massive paws of the dead lion hanging
upon one flank, while the tail nearly descended to the ground upon the
opposite side. It was laid at full length before my wife, to whom
the claws were dedicated as a trophy to be worn around the neck as a
talisman. Not only are the claws prized by the Arabs, but the mustache
of the lion is carefully preserved and sewn in a leather envelope, to be
worn as an amulet; such a charm is supposed to protect the wearer from
the attacks of wild animals.

We were now destined to be deprived of two members of the party. Mahomet
had become simply unbearable, and he was so impertinent that I was
obliged to take a thin cane from one of the Arabs and administer a
little physical advice. An evil spirit possessed the man, and he bolted
off with some of the camel men who were returning to Geera with dried

Our great loss was Barrake. She had persisted in eating the fruit of
the hegleek, although she had suffered from dysentery upon several
occasions. She was at length attacked with congestion of the liver. My
wife took the greatest care of her, and for weeks she had given her
the entire produce of the goats, hoping that milk would keep up her
strength; but she died after great suffering, and we buried the poor
creature, and moved our camp.


The bull-elephant--Daring Hamrans--The elephant helpless--Visited by
a minstrel--A determined musician--The nest of the outlaws--The Atbara

Having explored the Settite into the gorge of the mountain chain of
Abyssinia, we turned due south from our camp at Deladilla, and at a
distance of twelve miles reached the river Royan. Our course now was
directed up this stream, and at the junction of the Hor Mai Gubba, or
Habbuk River, some of my Arabs, observing fresh tracks of horses on the
sand, went in search of the aggageers of Taher Sherrif's party, whom
they had expected to meet at this point. Soon after, they returned with
the aggageers, whose camp was but a quarter of a mile distant. I agreed
to have a hunt for elephants the next day with Taher Sherrif, and before
the following sunrise we had started up the course of the Royan for a
favorite resort of elephants.

We had ridden about thirty miles, and were beginning to despair, when
suddenly we turned a sharp angle in the watercourse, and Taher Sherrif,
who was leading, immediately reined in his horse and backed him toward
the party. I followed his example, and we were at once concealed by
the sharp bend of the river. He now whispered that a bull-elephant was
drinking from a hole it had scooped in the sand, not far around the
corner. Without the slightest confusion the hunters at once fell quietly
into their respective places, Taher Sherrif leading, while I followed
closely in the line, with my Tokrooris bringing up the rear; we were a
party of seven horses.

Upon turning the corner we at once perceived the elephant, that was
still drinking. It was a fine bull. The enormous ears were thrown
forward, as the head was lowered in the act of drawing up the water
through the trunk. These shaded the eyes, and with the wind favorable we
advanced noiselessly upon the sand to within twenty yards before we
were perceived. The elephant then threw up its head, and with the ears
flapping forward it raised its trunk for an instant, and then slowly but
easily ascended the steep bank and retreated. The aggageers now halted
for about a minute to confer together, and then followed in their
original order up the crumbled bank. We were now on most unfavorable
ground; the fire that had cleared the country we had hitherto traversed
had been stopped by the bed of the torrent. We were thus plunged at once
into withered grass above our heads, unless we stood in the stirrups.
The ground was strewn with fragments of rock, and altogether it was
ill-adapted for riding.

However, Taher Sherrif broke into a trot, followed by the entire party,
as the elephant was not in sight. We ascended a hill, and when near
the summit we perceived the elephant about eighty yards ahead. It was
looking behind during its retreat, by swinging its huge head from
side to side, and upon seeing us approach it turned suddenly round and

"Be ready, and take care of the rocks!" said Taher Sherrif, as I rode
forward by his side. Hardly had he uttered these words of caution when
the bull gave a vicious jerk with its head, and with a shrill scream
charged down upon us with the greatest fury. Away we all went,
helter-skelter, through the dry grass, which whistled in my ears, over
the hidden rocks, at full gallop, with the elephant tearing after us
for about a hundred and eighty yards at a tremendous pace. Tetel was a
sure-footed horse, and being unshod he never slipped upon the stones.
Thus, as we all scattered in different directions, the elephant became
confused and relinquished the chase. It had been very near me at one
time, and in such ground I was not sorry when it gave up the hunt. We
now quickly united and again followed the elephant, that had once more
retreated. Advancing at a canter, we shortly came in view. Upon seeing
the horses the bull deliberately entered a stronghold composed of rocky
and uneven ground, in the clefts of which grew thinly a few leafless
trees of the thickness of a man's leg. It then turned boldly toward us,
and stood determinedly at bay.

Now came the tug of war! Taher Sherrif came close to me, and said, "You
had better shoot the elephant, as we shall have great difficulty in this
rocky ground." This I declined, as I wished the fight ended as it had
been commenced, with the sword; and I proposed that he should endeavor
to drive the animal to more favorable ground. "Never mind," replied
Taher, "Inshallah (please God) he shall not beat us." He now advised me
to keep as close to him as possible and to look sharp for a charge.

The elephant stood facing us like a statue; it did not move a muscle
beyond a quick and restless action of the eyes, that were watching all
sides. Taher Sherrif and his youngest brother, Ibrahim, now separated,
and each took opposite sides of the elephant, and then joined each other
about twenty yards behind it. I accompanied them, until Taher advised me
to keep about the same distance upon the left flank. My Tokrooris
kept apart from the scene, as they were not required. In front of the
elephant were two aggageers, one of whom was the renowned Roder Sherrif,
with the withered arm. All being ready for action, Roder now rode slowly
toward the head of the cunning old bull, who was quietly awaiting
an opportunity to make certain of some one who might give him a good

Roder Sherrif rode a bay mare that, having been thoroughly trained
to these encounters, was perfect at her work. Slowly and coolly she
advanced toward her wary antagonist until within about eight or nine
yards of the elephant's head. The creature never moved, and the mise en
scene was beautiful. Not a word was spoken, and we kept our places amid
utter stillness, which was at length broken by a snort from the mare,
who gazed intently at the elephant, as though watching for the moment of

One more pace forward, and Roder sat coolly upon his mare, with his eyes
fixed upon those of the elephant. For an instant I saw the white of the
eye nearest to me. "Look out, Roder, he's coming!" I exclaimed. With a
shrill scream the elephant dashed upon him like an avalanche.

Round went the mare as though upon a pivot, and away, over rocks and
stones, flying like a gazelle, with the monkey-like form of little
Roder Sherrif leaning forward, and looking over his left shoulder as the
elephant rushed after him.

For a moment I thought he must be caught. Had the mare stumbled, all
were lost; but she gained in the race after a few quick, bounding
strides, and Roder, still looking behind him, kept his distance so close
to the elephant that its outstretched trunk was within a few feet of the
mare's tail.

Taher Sherrif and his brother Ibrahim swept down like falcons in the
rear. In full speed they dexterously avoided the trees until they
arrived upon open ground, when they dashed up close to the hind-quarters
of the furious elephant, which, maddened with the excitement, heeded
nothing but Roder and his mare, that were almost within its grasp. When
close to the tail of the elephant Taher Sherrif's sword flashed from
its sheath, as grasping his trusty blade he leaped nimbly to the ground,
while Ibrahim caught the reins of his horse. Two or three bounds on
foot, with the sword clutched in both hands, and he was close behind the
elephant. A bright glance shone like lightning as the sun struck upon
the descending steel; this was followed by a dull crack, as the sword
cut through skin and sinews, and settled deep in the bone, about twelve
inches above the foot. At the next stride the elephant halted dead short
in the midst of its tremendous charge. Taher had jumped quickly on one
side, and had vaulted into the saddle with his naked sword in hand. At
the same moment Roder, who had led the chase, turned sharp round, and
again faced the elephant as before. Stooping quickly from the saddle,
he picked up from the ground a handful of dirt, which he threw into the
face of the vicious-looking animal, that once more attempted to rush
upon him. It was impossible! The foot was dislocated, and turned up in
front like an old shoe. In an instant Taher was once more on foot, and
the sharp sword slashed the remaining leg.

The great bull-elephant could not move! The first cut with the sword had
utterly disabled it; the second was its deathblow. The arteries of
the leg were divided, and the blood spouted in jets from the wounds.
I wished to terminate its misery by a bullet behind the ear, but Taher
Sherrif begged me not to fire, as the elephant would quickly bleed to
death without pain, and an unnecessary shot might attract the Base, who
would steal the flesh and ivory during our absence. We were obliged to
return immediately to our far distant camp, and the hunters resolved to
accompany their camels to the spot on the following day. We turned our
horses' heads, and rode directly toward home, which we did not reach
until nearly midnight, having ridden upward of sixty miles during the

The hunting of Taher Sherrif and his brothers was superlatively
beautiful; with an immense amount of dash there was a cool,
sportsman-like manner in their mode of attack that far excelled the
impetuous and reckless onset of Abou Do. It was difficult to decide
which to admire the more, the coolness and courage of him who led the
elephant, or the extraordinary skill and activity of the aggahr who
dealt the fatal blow.

After hunting and exploring for some days in this neighborhood, I
determined to follow the bed of the Royan to its junction with the
Settite. We started at daybreak, and after a long march along the sandy
bed, hemmed in by high banks or by precipitous cliffs of sandstone, we
arrived at the junction.

Having explored the entire country and enjoyed myself thoroughly, I
was now determined to pay our promised visit to Mek Nimmur. Since our
departure from the Egyptian territory his country had been invaded by a
large force, according to orders sent from the Governor-General of the
Soudan. Mek Nimmur as usual retreated to the mountains, but Mai Gubba
and a number of his villages were utterly destroyed by the Egyptians. He
would under these circumstances be doubly suspicious of strangers.

We were fortunate, however, in unexpectedly meeting a party of Mek
Nimmur's followers on a foray, who consented to guide us to his
encampment. Accordingly on March 20th, we found ourselves in a rich and
park-like valley occupied by his people, and the day following was spent
in receiving visits from the head men. Messengers soon after arrived
from Mek Nimmur inviting us to pay him a visit at his residence.

As we were conversing with Mek Nimmur's messengers through the medium of
Taher Noor, who knew their language, our attention was attracted by the
arrival of a tremendous swell, who at a distance I thought must be Mek
Nimmur himself. A snow-white mule carried an equally snow-white person,
whose tight white pantaloons looked as though he had forgotten his
trousers and had mounted in his drawers. He carried a large umbrella
to shade his complexion; a pair of handsome silver-mounted pistols
were arranged upon his saddle, and a silver-hilted curved sword, of the
peculiar Abyssinian form, hung by his side. This grand personage was
followed by an attendant, also mounted upon a mule, while several men
on foot accompanied them, one of whom carried his lance and shield. Upon
near approach he immediately dismounted and advanced toward us, bowing
in a most foppish manner, while his attendant followed him on foot with
an enormous violin, which he immediately handed to him. This fiddle was
very peculiar in shape, being a square, with an exceedingly long neck
extending from one corner. Upon this was stretched a solitary string,
and the bow was very short and much bent. This was an Abyssinian
Paganini. He was a professional minstrel of the highest grade, who had
been sent by Mek Nimmur to welcome us on our arrival.

These musicians are very similar to the minstrels of ancient times. They
attend at public rejoicings, and at births, deaths, and marriages of
great personages, upon which occasions they extemporize their songs
according to circumstances. My hunting in the Base country formed his
theme, and for at least an hour he sang of my deeds in an extremely loud
and disagreeable voice, while he accompanied himself upon his fiddle,
which he held downward like a violoncello. During the whole of his song
he continued in movement, marching with a sliding step to the front, and
gliding to the right and left in a manner that, though intended to be
graceful, was extremely comic. The substance of this minstrelsy was
explained to me by Taher Noor, who listened eagerly to the words, which
he translated with evident satisfaction. Of course, like all minstrels,
he was an absurd flatterer, and, having gathered a few facts for his
theme, he wandered slightly from the truth in his poetical description
of my deeds.

He sang of me as though I had been Richard Coeur de Lion, and recounted,
before an admiring throng of listeners, how I had wandered with a young
wife from my own distant country to fight the terrible Base; how I had
slain them in a single combat, and bow elephants and lions were struck
down like lambs and kids by my hands. That during my absence in the hunt
my wife had been carried off by the Base; that I had, on my return to
my pillaged camp, galloped off in chase, and, overtaking the enemy,
hundreds had fallen by my rifle and sword, and I had liberated and
recovered the lady, who now had arrived safe with her lord in the
country of the great Mek Nimmur, etc., etc.

This was all very pretty, no doubt, and as true as most poetical and
musical descriptions; but I felt certain that there must be something
to pay for this flattering entertainment. If you are considered to be
a great man, a PRESENT is invariably expected in proportion to your
importance. I suggested to Taher Noor that I must give him a couple of
dollars. "What!" said Taher Noor, "a couple of dollars? Impossible!
a musician of his standing is accustomed to receive thirty and forty
dollars from great people for so beautiful and honorable a song."

This was somewhat startling. I began to reflect upon the price of a box
at Her Majesty's Theatre in London; but there I was not the hero of the
opera. This minstrel combined the whole affair in a most simple manner.
He was Verdi, Costa, and orchestra all in one. He was a thorough
Macaulay as historian, therefore I had to pay the composer as well as
the fiddler. I compromised the matter, and gave him a few dollars, as I
understood that he was Mek Nimmur's private minstrel; but I never parted
with my dear Maria Theresa (* The Austrian dollar, that is the only
large current coin in that country.) with so much regret as upon that
occasion, and I begged him not to incommode himself by paying us another
visit, or, should he be obliged to do so, I trusted he would not think
it necessary to bring his violin.

The minstrel retired in the same order that he had arrived, and I
watched his retreating figure with unpleasant reflections, that were
suggested by doubts as to whether I had paid him too little or too much.
Taher Noor thought that he was underpaid; my own opinion was that I
had brought a curse upon myself equal to a succession of London
organ-grinders, as I fully expected that other minstrels, upon hearing
of the Austrian dollars, would pay us a visit and sing of my great

In the afternoon we were sitting beneath the shade of our tamarind tree,
when we thought we could perceive our musical friend returning. As he
drew near, we were convinced that it was the identical minstrel, who had
most probably been sent with a message from Mek Nimmur. There he was, in
snow-white raiment, on the snow-white mule, with the mounted attendant
and the violin as before. He dismounted upon arrival opposite the
camp, and approached with his usual foppish bow; but we looked on in
astonishment: it was not our Paganini, it was ANOTHER MINSTREL! who
was determined to sing an ode in our praise. I felt that this was an
indirect appeal to Maria Theresa, and I at once declared against music.
I begged him not to sing; "my wife had a headache--I disliked the
fiddle--could He play anything else instead?" and I expressed a variety
of polite excuses, but to no purpose; he insisted upon singing. If I
disliked the fiddle, he would sing without an accompaniment, but he
could not think of insulting so great a man as myself by returning
without an ode to commemorate our arrival.

I was determined that he should NOT sing; he was determined that he
WOULD, therefore I desired him to leave my camp. This he agreed to do,
provided I would allow him to cross the stream and sing to my Tokrooris
in my praise, beneath a neighboring tree about fifty yards distant.
He remounted his mule with his violin, to ford the muddy stream, and
descended the steep bank, followed by his attendant on foot, who drove
the unwilling mule. Upon arrival at the brink of the dirty brook, that
was about three feet deep, the mule positively refused to enter the
water, and stood firm with its fore feet sunk deep in the mud. The
attendant attempted to push it on behind, and at the same time gave it a
sharp blow with his sheathed sword. This changed the scene to the "opera
comique." In one instant the mule gave so vigorous and unexpected a
kick into the bowels of the attendant that he fell upon his back, heels,
uppermost, while at the same moment the minstrel, in his snow-white
garments, was precipitated head fore-most into the muddy brook, and, for
the moment disappearing, the violin alone could be seen floating on the
surface. A second later, a wretched-looking object, covered with slime
and filth, emerged from the slongh; this was Paganini the second! who,
after securing his fiddle, that had stranded on a mud-bank, scrambled
up the steel slope, amid the roars of laughter of my people and of
ourselves, while the perverse mule, having turned harmony into discord,
kicked up its heels and galloped off, braying an ode in praise of
liberty, as the "Lay of the Last Minstrel." The discomfited fiddler was
wiped down by my Tokrooris, who occasionally burst into renewed fits
of laughter during the operation. The mule was caught, and the minstrel
remounted, and returned home completely out of tune.

On the following morning at sunrise I mounted my horse, and, accompanied
by Taher Noor and Bacheet, I rode to pay my respects to Mek Nimmur. Our
route lay parallel to the stream, and after a ride of about two miles
through a fine park-like country, bounded by the Abyssinian Alps about
fifteen miles distant, I observed a crowd of people round a large
tamarind tree, near which were standing a number of horses, mules, and
dromedaries. This was the spot upon which I was to meet Mek Nimmur. Upon
my approach the crowd opened, and, having dismounted, I was introduced
by Taher Noor to the great chief. He was a man of about fifty, and
exceedingly dirty in appearance. He sat upon an angarep, surrounded
by his people; lying on either side upon his seat were two brace of
pistols, and within a few yards stood his horse ready saddled. He
was prepared for fight or flight, as were also his ruffianly looking
followers, who were composed of Abyssinians and Jaleens. After a long
and satisfactory conversation I retired. Immediately on my arrival at
camp I despatched Wat Gamma with a pair of beautiful double-barrelled
pistols, which I begged Mek Nimmur to accept. On March 27th we said
good-by and started for the Bahr Salaam.

The next few days we spent in exploring the Salaam and Angrab rivers.
They are interesting examples of the destructive effect of water, that
has during the course of ages cut through and hollowed out, in the solid
rock, a succession of the most horrible precipices and caverns, in which
the maddened torrents, rushing from the lofty chain of mountains, boil
along until they meet the Atbara and assist to flood the Nile. No one
could explore these tremendous torrents, the Settite, Royan, Angrab,
Salaam, and Atbara, without at once comprehending their effect upon the
waters of the Nile. The magnificent chain of mountains from which they
flow is not a simple line of abrupt sides, but the precipitous slopes
are the walls of a vast plateau, that receives a prodigious rainfall
in June, July, August, and until the middle of September, the entire
drainage of which is carried away by the above-named channels to
inundate Lower Egypt.

I thoroughly explored the beautiful country of the Salaam and Angrab,
and on the 14th of April we pushed on for Gallabat, the frontier
market-town of Abyssinia.

We arrived at our old friend, the Atbara River, at the sharp angle as
it issues from the mountains. At this place it was in its infancy. The
noble Atbara, whose course we had tracked for hundreds of weary
miles, and whose tributaries we had so carefully examined, was here a
second-class mountain torrent, about equal to the Royan, and not to be
named in comparison with the Salaam or Angrab. The power of the Atbara
depended entirely upon the western drainage of the Abyssinian Alps; of
itself it was insignificant until aided by the great arteries of
the mountain-chain. The junction of the Salaam at once changed its
character, and the Settite or Taccazzy completed its importance as the
great river of Abyssinia, that has washed down the fertile soil of those
regions to create the Delta of Lower Egypt, and to perpetuate that Delta
OF THE MEDITERRANEAN. We had seen the Atbara a bed of glaring
sand--a mere continuation of the burning desert that surrounded its
course--fringed by a belt of withered trees, like a monument sacred to
the memory of a dead river. We had seen the sudden rush of waters when,
in the still night, the mysterious stream had invaded the dry bed and
swept all before it like an awakened giant; we knew at that moment "the
rains were falling in Abyssinia," although the sky above us was without
a cloud. We had subsequently witnessed that tremendous rainfall, and
seen the Atbara at its grandest flood. We had traced each river
and crossed each tiny stream that fed the mighty Atbara from the
mountain-chain, and we now, after our long journey, forded the Atbara in
its infancy, hardly knee-deep, over its rocky bed of about sixty yards'
width, and camped in the little village of Toganai, on the rising ground
upon the opposite side. It was evening, and we sat upon an angarep among
the lovely hills that surrounded us, and looked down upon the Atbara for
the last time, as the sun sank behind the rugged mountain of Ras el Feel
(the elephant's head). Once more I thought of that wonderful river Nile,
that could flow forever through the exhausting deserts of sand, while
the Atbara, during the summer months, shrank to a dry skeleton, although
the powerful affluents, the Salaam and the Settite, never ceased to
flow; every drop of their waters was evaporated by the air and absorbed
by the desert sand in the bed of the Atbara, two hundred miles above its
junction with the Nile!

The Atbara exploration was completed, and I looked forward to the fresh
enterprise of exploring new rivers and lower latitudes, that should
unravel the mystery of the Nile!


Abyssinian slave-girls--Khartoum--The Soudan under Egyptian
rule--Slave-trade in the Soudan--The obstacles ahead.

A rapid march of sixteen miles brought us to Metemma or Gallabat. As we
descended the valley we perceived great crowds of people in and about
the town, which, in appearance, was merely a repetition of Katariff. It
was market-day, and as we descended the hill and arrived in the scene
below, with our nine camels heavily laden with the heads and horns of
a multitude of different beasts, from the gaping jaws of hippopotami to
the vicious-looking heads of rhinoceroses and buffaloes, while the
skins of lions and various antelopes were piled above masses of the
much-prized hide of the rhinoceros, we were beset by crowds of people,
who were curious to know whence so strange a party had come. We formed
a regular procession through the market, our Tokrooris feeling quite at
home among so many of their brethren.

While here I visited the establishments of the various slave merchants.
These were arranged under large tents formed of matting, and contained
many young girls of extreme beauty, ranging from nine to seventeen years
of age. These lovely captives, of a rich brown tint, with delicately
formed features, and eyes like those of the gazelle, were natives of the
Galla, on the borders of Abyssinia, from which country they were brought
by the Abyssinian traders to be sold for the Turkish harems. Although
beautiful, these girls are useless for hard labor; they quickly fade
away, and die unless kindly treated. They are the Venuses of that
country, and not only are their faces and figures perfection, but they
become extremely attached to those who show them kindness, and they make
good and faithful wives. There is something peculiarly captivating in
the natural grace and softness of these young beauties, whose hearts
quickly respond to those warmer feelings of love that are seldom known
among the sterner and coarser tribes. Their forms are peculiarly elegant
and graceful; the hands and feet are exquisitely delicate; the nose is
generally slightly aquiline, the nostrils large and finely shaped; the
hair is black and glossy, reaching to about the middle of the back,
but rather coarse in texture. These girls, although natives of Galla,
invariably call themselves Abyssinians, and are generally known under
that name. They are exceedingly proud and high-spirited, and are
remarkably quick at learning. At Khartoum several of the Europeans of
high standing have married these charming ladies, who have invariably
rewarded their husbands by great affection and devotion. The price of
one of these beauties of nature at Gallabat was from twenty-five to
forty dollars!

On the march from Gallabat to the Rahad River I was so unfortunate as to
lose my two horses, Gazelle and Aggahr. The sudden change of food from
dry grass to the young herbage which had appeared after a few showers,
brought on inflammation of the bowels, which carried them off in a few
hours. We now travelled for upward of a hundred miles along the bank of
the Rahad, through a monotonous scene of flat alluvial soil. The entire
country would be a Mine of wealth were it planted with cotton, Which
could be transported by river to Katariff, and thence directly to

I shall not weary the reader with the details of the rest of our journey
to Khartoum, the capital of the Soudan provinces, at which we arrived on
the 11th of June.

The difference between the appearance of Khartoum at the distance of a
mile, with the sun shining upon the bright river Nile in the foreground,
and its appearance upon close inspection, was equal to the difference in
the scenery of a theatre as regarded from the boxes or from the stage.
Even that painful exposure of an optical illusion would be trifling
compared with the imposture of Khartoum. The sense of sight had been
deceived by distance, but the sense of smell was outraged by innumerable
nuisances, when we set foot within the filthy and miserable town. After
winding through some narrow, dusty lanes, hemmed in by high walls of
sun-baked bricks that had fallen in gaps in several places, exposing
gardens of prickly pears and date palms, we at length arrived at a large
open place, that, if possible, smelt more strongly than the landing
spot. Around this square, which was full of holes where the mud had been
excavated for brick-making, were the better class of houses; this was
the Belgravia of Khartoum. In the centre of a long mud wall, ventilated
by certain attempts at frameless windows, guarded by rough wooden bars,
we perceived a large archway with closed doors. Above this entrance was
a shield, with a device that gladdened my English eyes: there was the
British lion and the unicorn! Not such a lion as I had been accustomed
to meet in his native jungles, a yellow cowardly fellow that had often
slunk away from the very prey from which I had driven him; but a real
red British lion, that, although thin and ragged in the unhealthy
climate of Khartoum, looked as though he was pluck to the back-bone.

This was the English Consulate. The consul was absent, in the hope of
meeting Speke and Grant in the upper Nile regions, on the road from
Zanzibar, but he had kindly placed rooms at our disposal.

For some months we resided at Khartoum, as it was necessary to make
extensive preparations for the White Nile expedition, and to await
the arrival of the north wind, which would enable us to start early in
December. Although the north and south winds blow alternately for six
months, and the former commences in October, it does not extend many
degrees southward until the beginning of December. This is a great
drawback to White Nile exploration, as, when near the north side of the
equator, the dry season commences in November and closes in February;
thus the departure from Khartoum should take place by a steamer in
the latter part of September. That would enable the traveller to leave
Gondokoro, lat. N. 4 "degrees" 54', shortly before November. He would
then secure three months of favorable weather for an advance inland.

Khartoum is a wretchedly unhealthy town, containing about thirty
thousand inhabitants, exclusive of troops. In spite of its unhealthiness
and low situation, on a level with the river at the junction of the Blue
and White Niles, it is the general emporium for the trade of the Soudan,
from which the productions of the country are transported to Lower
Egypt, i.e. ivory, hides, senna, gum arabic, and beeswax. During my
experience of Khartoum it was the hotbed of the slave-trade. It will be
remarked that the exports from the Soudan are all natural productions.
There is nothing to exhibit the industry or capacity of the natives. The
ivory is the produce of violence and robbery; the hides are the simple
sun-dried skins of oxen; the senna grows wild upon the desert; the
gum arabic exudes spontaneously from the bushes of the jungle; and
the bees-wax is the produce of the only industrious creatures in that
detestable country.

When we regard the general aspect of the Soudan, it is extreme
wretchedness. The rainfall is uncertain and scanty; thus the country is
a desert, dependent entirely upon irrigation. Although cultivation is
simply impossible without a supply of water, one of the most onerous
taxes is that upon the sageer or water-wheel, with which the fields
are irrigated on the borders of the Nile. It would appear natural that,
instead of a tax, a premium should be offered for the erection of such
means of irrigation, which would increase the revenue by extending
cultivation, the produce of which might bear an impost. With all the
talent and industry of the native Egyptians, who must naturally depend
upon the waters of the Nile for their existence, it is extraordinary
that for thousands of years they have adhered to their original simple
form of mechanical irrigation, without improvement.

The general aspect of the Soudan is that of misery; nor is there a
single feature of attraction to recompense a European for the drawbacks
of pestilential climate and brutal associations. To a stranger it
appears a superlative folly that the Egyptian Government should have
retained a possession the occupation of which is wholly unprofitable,
the receipts being far below the expenditure malgre the increased
taxation. At so great a distance from the sea-coast and hemmed in by
immense deserts, there is a difficulty of transport that must nullify
all commercial transactions on an extended scale.

The great and most important article of commerce as an export from the
Soudan is gum arabic. This is produced by several species of mimosa,
the finest quality being a product of Kordofan; the other natural
productions exported are senna, hides, and ivory. All merchandise both
to and from the Soudan must be transported upon camels, no other animals
being adapted to the deserts. The cataracts of the Nile between Assouan
and Khartoum rendering the navigation next to impossible, camels are the
only medium of transport, and the uncertainty of procuring them without
great delay is the trader's greatest difficulty. The entire country is
subject to droughts that occasion a total desolation, and the want of
pasture entails starvation upon both cattle and camels, rendering it at
certain seasons impossible to transport the productions of the country,
and thus stagnating all enterprise. Upon existing conditions the
Soudan is worthless, having neither natural capabilities nor political
importance; but there is, nevertheless, a reason that first prompted its
occupation by the Egyptians, and that is, THE SOUDAN SUPPLIES SLAVES.

Without the White Nile trade Khartoum* would almost cease to exist;

     (* This was written about twenty years ago, and does not
     apply to the Khartoum of to-day. In 1869 The Khedive of
     Egypt despatched an expedition under Sir Samuel Baker to
     suppress slavery in the Soudan and Central Africa. To the
     success of that expedition, and to the efforts of Colonel
     (now General) Gordon, who succeeded to the command of the
     Soudan, was owing the suppression of the traffic in slaves.
     Within the last few weeks, under the stress of
     circumstances, General Gordon has been forced to promise the
     removal of this prohibition of slavery.--E. J. W.)

and that trade is kidnapping and murder. The character of the
Khartoumers needs no further comment. The amount of ivory brought down
from the White Nile is a mere bagatelle as an export, the annual value
being about 40,000 pounds.

The people for the most part enraged in the nefarious traffic of
the White Nile are Syrians, Copts, Turks, Circassians, and some few
EUROPEANS. So closely connected with the difficulties of my expedition
is that accursed slave-trade, that the so-called ivory trade of the
White Nile requires an explanation.

Throughout the Soudan money is exceedingly scarce and the rate of
interest exorbitant, varying, according to the securities, from
thirty-six to eighty per cent. This fact proves general poverty and
dishonesty, and acts as a preventive to all improvement. So high and
fatal a rate deters all honest enterprise, and the country must lie in
ruin under such a system. The wild speculator borrows upon such terms,
to rise suddenly like a rocket, or to fall like its exhausted stick.
Thus, honest enterprise being impossible, dishonesty takes the lead, and
a successful expedition to the White Nile is supposed to overcome all
charges. There are two classes of White Nile traders, the one possessing
capital, the other being penniless adventurers. The same system of
operations is pursued by both, but that of the former will be evident
from the description of the latter.

A man without means forms an expedition, and borrows money for this
purpose at 100 per cent. after this fashion: he agrees to repay the
lender in ivory at one-half its market value. Having obtained the
required sum, he hires several vessels and engages from 100 to 300 men,
composed of Arabs and runaway villains from distant countries, who have
found an asylum from justice in the obscurity of Khartoum. He purchases
guns and large quantities of ammunition for his men, together with a few
hundred pounds of glass beads. The piratical expedition being complete,
he pays his men five months' wages in advance, at the rate of forty-five
piastres (nine shillings) per month, and he agrees to give them eighty
piastres per month for any period exceeding the five months for which
they are paid. His men receive their advance partly in cash and partly
in cotton stuffs for clothes at an exorbitant price. Every man has a
strip of paper, upon which is written, by the clerk of the expedition,
the amount he has received both in goods and money, and this paper he
must produce at the final settlement.

The vessels sail about December, and on arrival at the desired locality
the party disembark and proceed into the interior, until they arrive at
the village of some negro chief, with whom they establish an intimacy.

Charmed with his new friends, the power of whose weapons he
acknowledges, the negro chief does not neglect the opportunity of
seeking their alliance to attack a hostile neighbor. Marching throughout
the night, guided by their negro hosts, they bivouac within an hour's
march of the unsuspecting village doomed to an attack about half an
hour before break of day. The time arrives, and, quietly surrounding the
village while its occupants are still sleeping, they fire the grass
huts in all directions and pour volleys of musketry through the flaming
thatch. Panic-stricken, the unfortunate victims rush from their burning
dwellings, and the men are shot down like pheasants in a battue, while
the women and children, bewildered in the danger and confusion, are
kidnapped and secured. The herds of cattle, still within their kraal
or "zareeba," are easily disposed of, and are driven off with great
rejoicing, as the prize of victory. The women and children are then
fastened together, and the former secured in an instrument called a
sheba, made of a forked pole, the neck of the prisoner fitting into
the fork, and secured by a cross-piece lashed behind, while the wrists,
brought together in advance of the body, are tied to the pole. The
children are then fastened by their necks with a rope attached to the
women, and thus form a living chain, in which order they are marched to
the head-quarters in company with the captured herds.

This is the commencement of business. Should there be ivory in any
of the huts not destroyed by the fire, it is appropriated. A general
plunder takes place. The trader's party dig up the floors of the huts
to search for iron hoes, which are generally thus concealed, as the
greatest treasure of the negroes; the granaries are overturned and
wantonly destroyed, and the hands are cut off the bodies of the slain,
the more easily to detach the copper or iron bracelets that are usually
worn. With this booty the TRADERS return to their negro ally. They have
thrashed and discomfited his enemy, which delights him; they present him
with thirty or forty head of cattle, which intoxicates him with joy, and
a present of a pretty little captive girl of about fourteen completes
his happiness.

An attack or razzia, such as described, generally leads to a quarrel
with the negro ally, who in his turn is murdered and plundered by the
trader--his women and children naturally becoming slaves.

A good season for a party of a hundred and fifty men should produce
about two hundred cantars (20,000 lbs.) of ivory, valued at Khartoum at
4,000 pounds. The men being paid in slaves, the wages should be NIL,
and there should be a surplus of four or five hundred slaves for the
trader's own profit--worth on an average five to six pounds each.

The amiable trader returns from the White Nile to Khartoum; hands over
to his creditor sufficient ivory to liquidate the original loan of 1,000
pounds, and, already a man of capital, he commences as an independent

Such was the White Nile trade when I prepared to start from Khartoum
on my expedition to the Nile sources. Every one in Khartoum, with the
exception of a few Europeans, was in favor of the slave-trade, and
looked with jealous eyes upon a stranger venturing within the precincts
of their holy land--a land sacred to slavery and to every abomination
and villainy that man can commit.

The Turkish officials pretended to discountenance slavery; at the
same time every house in Khartoum was full of slaves, and the Egyptian
officers had been in the habit of receiving a portion of their pay in
slaves, precisely as the men employed on the White Nile were paid by
their employers. The Egyptian authorities looked upon the exploration of
the White Nile by a European traveller as an infringement of the slave
territory that resulted from espionage, and every obstacle was thrown in
my way.

To organize an enterprise so difficult that it had hitherto defeated the
whole world, required a careful selection of attendants, and I looked
with despair at the prospect before me. The only men procurable for
escort were the miserable cut-throats of Khartoum, accustomed to murder
and pillage in the White Nile trade, and excited not by the love
of adventure, but by the desire for plunder. To start with such men
appeared mere insanity.

There was a still greater difficulty in connection with the White Nile.
For years the infernal traffic in slaves and its attendant horrors had
existed like a pestilence in the negro countries, and had so exasperated
the tribes that people who in former times were friendly had become
hostile to all comers. An exploration to the Nile sources was thus
a march through an enemy's country, and required a powerful force of
well-armed men. For the traders there was no great difficulty, as they
took the initiative in hostilities, and had fixed camps as "points
d'appui;" but for an explorer there was no alternative, but he must make
a direct forward march with no communications with the rear. I had but
slight hope of success without assistance from the authorities in
the shape of men accustomed to discipline. I accordingly wrote to the
British consul at Alexandria, and requested him to apply for a few
soldiers and boats to aid me in so difficult an enterprise. After some
months' delay, owing to the great distance from Khartoum, I received a
reply inclosing a letter from Ismail Pacha (the present Viceroy), the
regent during the absence of Said Pacha, REFUSING the application.

I confess to the enjoyment of a real difficulty. From the first I had
observed that the Egyptian authorities did not wish to encourage English
explorations of the slave-producing districts, as such examinations
would be detrimental to the traffic, and would lead to reports to the
European governments that would ultimately prohibit the trade. It was
perfectly clear that the utmost would be done to prevent my expedition
from starting. This opposition gave a piquancy to the undertaking, and I
resolved that nothing should thwart my plans. Accordingly I set to
work in earnest. I had taken the precaution to obtain an order upon
the Treasury at Khartoum for what money I required, and as ready cash
performs wonders in that country of credit and delay, I was within a
few weeks ready to start. I engaged three vessels, including two large
noggurs or sailing barges, and a good decked vessel with comfortable
cabins, known by all Nile tourists as a diahbiah.

On December 18th, 1862, we left Khartoum. Our course up the river was
slow and laborious. At times the boats had to be dragged by the men
through the high reeds. It is not surprising that the ancients gave up
the exploration of the Nile, when they came to the countless windings
and difficulties of the marshes. The river is like an entangled skein of
thread, and the voyage is tedious and melancholy beyond description. We
did not reach Gondokoro until February 2d. This was merely a station of
the ivory traders, occupied for two months during the year, after
which time it was deserted, the boats returning to Khartoum and the
expeditions again departing to the interior.


Gondokoro--A mutiny quelled--Arrival of Speke and Grant--The sources of
the Nile--Arab duplicity--The boy-slave's story--Saat adopted.

Having landed all my stores, and housed my corn in some granaries belong
to Koorshid Aga, I took a receipt from him for the quantity, and gave
him an order to deliver one half from my depot to Speke and Grant,
should they arrive at Gondokoro during my absence in the interior. I was
under an apprehension that they might arrive by some route without my
knowledge, while I should be penetrating south.

There were a great number of men at Gondokoro belonging to the various
traders, who looked upon me with the greatest suspicion. They could
not believe that simple travelling was my object, and they were shortly
convinced that I was intent upon espionage in their nefarious ivory
business and slave-hunting.

I had heard when at Khartoum that the most advanced trading station was
fifteen days' march from Gondokoro. I now understood that the party from
that station were expected to arrive at Gondokoro in a few days, and I
determined to await them, as their ivory porters returning might carry
my baggage and save the backs of my transport animals.

After a few days' detention at Gondokoro I saw unmistakable sign of
discontent among my men, who had evidently been tampered with by the
different traders' parties. One evening several of the most disaffected
came to me with a complaint that they had not enough meat, and that
they must be allowed to make a razzia upon the cattle of the natives to
procure some oxen. This demand being of course refused, they retired,
muttering in an insolent manner their determination of stealing cattle
with or without my permission. I said nothing at the time, but early on
the following morning I ordered the drum to beat and the men to fall
in. I made them a short address, reminding them of the agreement made
at Khartoum to follow me faithfully, and of the compact that had been
entered into, that they were neither to indulge in slave-hunting nor in
cattle-stealing. The only effect of my address was a great outbreak of
insolence on the part of the ringleader of the previous evening. This
fellow, named Eesur, was an Arab, and his impertinence was so violent
that I immediately ordered him twenty-five lashes, as an example to the

Upon the vakeel's (Saati) advancing to seize him, there was a general
mutiny. Many of the men threw down their guns and seized sticks, and
rushed to the rescue of their tall ringleader. Saati was a little man,
and was perfectly helpless. Here was an escort! These were the men upon
whom I was to depend in hours of difficulty and danger on an expedition
into unknown regions! These were the fellows that I had considered to be
reduced "from wolves to lambs"!

I was determined not to be balked, but to insist upon the punishment
of the ringleader. I accordingly went toward him with the intention
of seizing him; but he, being backed by upward of forty men, had
the impertinence to attack me, rushing forward with a fury that was
ridiculous. To stop his blow and to knock him into the middle of the
crowd was not difficult, and after a rapid repetition of the dose I
disabled him, and seizing him by the throat I called to my vakeel Saati
for a rope to bind him, but in an instant I had a crowd of men upon me
to rescue their leader.

How the affair would have ended I cannot say; but as the scene lay
within ten yards of my boat, my wife, who was ill with fever in the
cabin, witnessed the whole affray, and seeing me surrounded, she rushed
out, and in a few moments she was in the middle of the crowd, who at
that time were endeavoring to rescue my prisoner. Her sudden appearance
had a curious effect, and calling upon several of the least mutinous to
assist, she very pluckily made her way up to me. Seizing the opportunity
of an indecision that was for the moment evinced by the crowd, I shouted
to the drummer boy to beat the drum. In an instant the drum beat, and
at the top of my voice I ordered the men to "fall in." It is curious how
mechanically an order is obeyed if given at the right moment, even in
the midst of mutiny. Two thirds of the men fell in and formed in line,
while the remainder retreated with the ringleader, Eesur, whom they led
away, declaring that he was badly hurt. The affair ended in my insisting
upon all forming in line, and upon the ringleader being brought forward.
In this critical moment Mrs. Baker, with great tact, came forward and
implored me to forgive him if he kissed my hand and begged for pardon.
This compromise completely won the men, who, although a few minutes
before in open mutiny, now called upon their ringleader, Eesur, to
apologize and all would be right. I made them rather a bitter speech,
and dismissed them.

From that moment I felt that my expedition was fated. This outbreak was
an example of what was to follow. Previously to leaving Khartoum I had
felt convinced that I could not succeed with such villains for escort as
these Khartoumers; thus I had applied to the Egyptian authorities for a
few troops, but had been refused. I was now in an awkward position.
All my men had received five months' wages in advance, according to the
custom of the White Nile; thus I had no control over them. There were no
Egyptian authorities in Gondokoro. It was a nest of robbers, and my
men had just exhibited so pleasantly their attachment to me, and their
fidelity! There was no European beyond Gondokoro, thus I should be the
only white man among this colony of wolves; and I had in perspective a
difficult and uncertain path, where the only chance of success lay in
the complete discipline of my escort and the perfect organization of
the expedition. After the scene just enacted I felt sure that my escort
would give me more cause for anxiety than the acknowledged hostility of
the natives.

I had been waiting at Gondokoro twelve days, expecting the arrival of
Debono's party from the south, with whom I wished to return. Suddenly,
on the 15th of February, I heard the rattle of musketry at a great
distance and a dropping fire from the south. To give an idea of the
moment I must extract verbatim from my journal as written at the time.

"Guns firing in the distance; Debono's ivory porters arriving, for whom
I have waited. My men rushed madly to my boat, with the report that two
white men were with them who had come from the SEA! Could they be Speke
and Grant? Off I ran, and soon met them in reality. Hurrah for old
England! They had come from the Victoria N'yanza, from which the Nile
springs.... The mystery of ages solved! With my pleasure of meeting them
is the one disappointment, that I had not met them farther on the road
in my search for them; however, the satisfaction is, that my previous
arrangements had been such as would have insured my finding them
had they been in a fix.... My projected route would have brought me
vis-a-vis with them, as they had come from the lake by the course I had
proposed to take.... All my men perfectly mad with excitement. Firing
salutes as usual with ball cartridge, they shot one of my donkeys--a
melancholy sacrifice as an offering at the completion of this
geographical discovery."

When I first met the two explorers they were walking along the bank
of the river toward my boats. At a distance of about a hundred yards I
recognized my old friend Speke, and with a heart beating with joy I
took off my cap and gave a welcome hurrah! as I ran toward him. For the
moment he did not recognize me. Ten years' growth of beard and mustache
had worked a change; and as I was totally unexpected, my sudden
appearance in the centre of Africa appeared to him incredible. I
hardly required an introduction to his companion, as we felt already
acquainted, and after the transports of this happy meeting we walked
together to my diahbiah, my men surrounding us with smoke and noise
by keeping up an unremitting fire of musketry the whole way. We were
shortly seated on deck under the awning, and such rough fare as could be
hastily prepared was set before these two ragged, careworn specimens
of African travel, whom I looked upon with feelings of pride as my own
countrymen. As a good ship arrives in harbor, battered and torn by a
long and stormy voyage, yet sound in her frame and seaworthy to the
last, so both these gallant travellers arrived at Gondokoro. Speke
appeared the more worn of the two; he was excessively lean, but in
reality was in good, tough condition. He had walked the whole way from
Zanzibar, never having once ridden during that wearying march. Grant
was in honorable rags, his bare knees projecting through the remnants of
trousers that were an exhibition of rough industry in tailor's work. He
was looking tired and feverish, but both men had a fire in the eye that
showed the spirit that had led them through.

They wished to leave Gondokoro as soon as possible, en route for
England, but delayed their departure until the moon should be in a
position for an observation for determining the longitude. My boats were
fortunately engaged by me for five months, thus Speke and Grant could
take charge of them to Khartoum.

At the first blush on meeting them, I had considered my expedition as
terminated by having met them, and by their having accomplished the
discovery of the Nile source; but upon my congratulating them with all
my heart upon the honor they had so nobly earned, Speke and Grant with
characteristic candor and generosity gave me a map of their route,
showing that they had been unable to complete the actual exploration
of the Nile, and that a most important portion still remained to be
determined. It appeared that in N. lat. 2 "degrees" 17', they had
crossed the Nile, which they had tracked from the Victoria Lake; but the
river, which from its exit from that lake had a northern course, turned
suddenly to the WEST from Karuma Falls (the point at which they crossed
it at lat. 2 "degrees" 17'). They did not see the Nile again until they
arrived in N. lat. 3 "degrees" 32', which was then flowing from the
west-south-west. The natives and the King of Unyoro (Kamrasi) had
assured them that the Nile from the Victoria N'yanza, which they had
crossed at Karuma, flowed westward for several days' journey, and at
length fell into a large lake called the Luta N'zige; that this
lake came from the south, and that the Nile on entering the northern
extremity almost immediately made its exit, and as a navigable river
continued its course to the north, through the Koshi and Madi countries.
Both Speke and Grant attached great importance to this lake Luta N'zige,
and the former was much annoyed that it had been impossible for them
to carry out the exploration. He foresaw that stay-at-home geographers,
who, with a comfortable arm-chair to sit in, travel so easily with their
fingers on a map, would ask him why he had not gone from such a place to
such a place? why he had not followed the Nile to the Luta N'zige lake,
and from the lake to Gondokoro? As it happened, it was impossible for
Speke and Grant to follow the Nile from Karuma: the tribes were fighting
with Kamrasi, and no strangers could have gone through the country.
Accordingly they procured their information most carefully, completed
their map, and laid down the reported lake in its supposed position,
showing the Nile as both influent and effluent precisely as had been
explained by the natives.

Speke expressed his conviction that the Luta N'zige must be a second
source of the Nile, and that geographers would be dissatisfied that he
had not explored it. To me this was most gratifying. I had been much
disheartened at the idea that the great work was accomplished, and that
nothing remained for exploration. I even said to Speke, "Does not one
leaf of the laurel remain for me?" I now heard that the field was not
only open, but that an additional interest was given to the exploration
by the proof that the Nile flowed out of one great lake, the Victoria,
but that it evidently must derive an additional supply from an unknown
lake, as it entered it at the NORTHERN extremity, while the body of the
lake came from the south. The fact of a great body of water such as the
Luta N'zige extending in a direct line from south to north, while the
general system of drainage of the Nile was from the same direction,
showed most conclusively that the Luta N'zige, if it existed in the form
assumed, must have an important position in the basin of the Nile.

My expedition had naturally been rather costly, and being in excellent
order it would have been heartbreaking to return fruitlessly. I
therefore arranged immediately for my departure, and Speke most kindly
wrote in my journal such instructions as might be useful.

On the 26th of February Speke and Grant sailed from Gondokoro. Our
hearts were too full to say more than a short "God bless you!" They had
won their victory; my work lay all before me. I watched their boat until
it turned the corner, and wished them in my heart all honor for their
great achievement. I trusted to sustain the name they had won for
English perseverance, and I looked forward to meeting them again in
dear old England, when I should have completed the work we had so warmly
planned together.

I now weighed all my baggage, and found that I had fifty-four cantars
(100 lbs. each). The beads, copper, and ammunition were the terrible
onus. I therefore applied to Mahommed, the vakeel of Andrea Debono,
who had escorted Speke and Grant, and I begged his co-operation in the
expedition. Mahommed promised to accompany me, not only to his camp at
Faloro, but throughout the whole of my expedition, provided that I would
assist him in procuring ivory, and that I would give him a handsome
present. All was agreed upon, and my own men appeared in high spirits
at the prospect of joining so large a party as that of Mahommed, which
mustered about two hundred men.

At that time I really placed dependence upon the professions of Mahommed
and his people; they had just brought Speke and Grant with them, and had
received from them presents of a first-class double-barrelled gun and
several valuable rifles. I had promised not only to assist them in their
ivory expeditions, but to give them something very handsome in addition,
and the fact of my having upward of forty men as escort was also an
introduction, as they would be an addition to the force, which is a
great advantage in hostile countries. Everything appeared to be in good
trim, but I little knew the duplicity of these Arab scoundrels. At the
very moment that they were most friendly, they were plotting to deceive
me, and to prevent the from entering the country. They knew that, should
I penetrate the interior, the IVORY TRADE of the White Nile would be no
longer a mystery, and that the atrocities of the slave trade would be
exposed, and most likely be terminated by the intervention of European
Powers; accordingly they combined to prevent my advance, and to
overthrow my expedition completely. All the men belonging to the various
traders were determined that no Englishman should penetrate into the
country; accordingly they fraternized with my escort, and persuaded them
that I was a Christian dog that it was a disgrace for a Mahometan to
serve; that they would be starved in my service, as I would not allow
them to steal cattle; that they would have no slaves; and that I should
lead them--God knew where--to the sea, from whence Speke and Grant had
started; that they had left Zanzibar with two hundred men, and had only
arrived at Gondokoro with eighteen, thus the remainder must have been
killed by the natives on the road; that if they followed me and arrived
at Zanzibar, I would find a ship waiting to take me to England, and
I would leave them to die in a strange country. Such were the reports
circulated to prevent my men from accompanying me, and it was agreed
that Mahommed should fix a day for our pretended start IN COMPANY, but
that he should in reality start a few days before the time appointed;
and that my men should mutiny, and join his party in cattle-stealing
and slave-hunting. This was the substance of the plot thus carefully

My men evinced a sullen demeanor, neglected all orders, and I plainly
perceived a settled discontent upon their general expression. The
donkeys and camels were allowed to stray, and were daily missing, and
recovered with difficulty. The luggage was overrun with white ants,
instead of being attended to every morning. The men absented themselves
without leave, and were constantly in the camps of the different
traders. I was fully prepared for some difficulty, but I trusted that
when once on the march I should be able to get them under discipline.

Among my people were two blacks: one, "Richarn," already described as
having been brought up by the Austrian Mission at Khartoum; the other, a
boy of twelve years old, "Saat." As these were the only really faithful
members of the expedition, it is my duty to describe them. Richarn was
an habitual drunkard, but he had his good points: he was honest, and
much attached to both master and mistress. He had been with me for some
months, and was a fair sportsman, and being of an entirely different
race from the Arabs, he kept himself apart from them, and fraternized
with the boy Saat.

Saat was a boy that would do no evil. He was honest to a superlative
degree, and a great exception to the natives of this wretched country.
He was a native of "Fertit," and was minding his father's goats, when a
child of about six years old, at the time of his capture by the Baggara
Arabs. He described vividly how men on camels suddenly appeared while he
was in the wilderness with his flock, and how he was forcibly seized and
thrust into a large gum sack and slung upon the back of a camel. Upon
screaming for help, the sack was opened, and an Arab threatened him with
a knife should he make the slightest noise. Thus quieted, he was carried
hundreds of miles through Kordofan to Dongola on the Nile, at which
place he was sold to slave-dealers and taken to Cairo to be sold to the
Egyptian government as a drummer-boy. Being too young he was rejected,
and while in the dealer's hands he heard from another slave, of the
Austrian Mission at Cairo, that would protect him could he only reach
their asylum. With extraordinary energy for a child of six years, he
escaped from his master and made his way to the Mission, where he was
well received, and to a certain extent disciplined and taught as much of
the Christian religion as he could understand. In company with a branch
establishment of the Mission, he was subsequently located at Khartoum,
and from thence was sent up the White Nile to a Mission-station in
the Shillook country. The climate of tie White Nile destroyed thirteen
missionaries in the short space of six months, and the boy Saat returned
with the remnant of the party to Khartoum and was readmitted into the
Mission. The establishment was at that time swarming with little black
boys from the various White Nile tribes, who repaid the kindness of the
missionaries by stealing everything they could lay their hands upon. At
length the utter worthlessness of the boys, their moral obtuseness, and
the apparent impossibility of improving them determined the chief of
the Mission to purge his establishment from such imps, and they were
accordingly turned out. Poor little Saat, the one grain of gold amid the
mire, shared the same fate.

It was about a week before our departure from Khartoum that Mrs. Baker
and I were at tea in the middle of the court-yard, when a miserable boy
about twelve years old came uninvited to her side, and knelt down in the
dust at her feet. There was something so irresistibly supplicating
in the attitude of the child that the first impulse was to give him
something from the table. This was declined, and he merely begged to
be allowed to live with us and to be our boy. He said that he had
been turned out of the Mission, merely because the Bari boys of the
establishment were thieves, and thus he suffered for their sins. I could
not believe it possible that the child had been actually turned out into
the streets, and believing that the fault must lie in the boy, I told
him I would inquire. In the mean time he was given in charge of the

It happened that on the following day I was so much occupied that I
forgot to inquire at the Mission, and once more the cool hour of evening
arrived, when, after the intense heat of the day, we sat at table in
the open court-yard. Hardly were we seated when again the boy appeared,
kneeling in the dust, with his head lowered at my wife's feet, and
imploring to be allowed to follow us. It was in vain that I explained
that we had a boy and did not require another; that the journey was long
and difficult, and that he might perhaps die. The boy feared nothing,
and craved simply that he might belong to us. He had no place of
shelter, no food; had been stolen from his parents, and was a helpless

The next morning, accompanied by Mrs. Baker, I went to the Mission and
heard that the boy had borne an excellent character, and that it must
have been BY MISTAKE that he had been turned out with the others. This
being conclusive, Saat was immediately adopted. Mrs. Baker was shortly
at work making him some useful clothes, and in an incredibly short time
a great change was effected. As he came from the hands of the cook,
after a liberal use of soap and water, and attired in trousers, blouse,
and belt, the new boy appeared in a new character.

From that time he considered himself as belonging absolutely to his
mistress. He was taught by her to sew. Richarn instructed him in the
mysteries of waiting at table, and washing plates, etc., while I taught
him to shoot, and gave him a light double-barrelled gun. This was his
greatest pride.

Not only was the boy trustworthy, but he had an extraordinary amount of
moral in addition to physical courage. If any complaint were made, and
Saat was called as a witness, far from the shyness too often evinced
when the accuser is brought face to face with the accused, such was
Saat's proudest moment; and, no matter who the man might be, the boy
would challenge him, regardless of all consequences.

We were very fond of this boy; he was thoroughly good, and in that land
of iniquity, thousands of miles away from all except what was evil,
there was a comfort in having some one innocent and faithful in whom to


Startling disclosures--The last hope seems gone--The Bari chief's
advice--Hoping for the best--Ho for Central Africa!

We were to start upon the following Monday. Mahommed had paid me a
visit, assuring me of his devotion, and begging me to have my baggage
in marching order, as he would send me fifty porters on Monday, and we
would move off in company. At the very moment that he thus professed,
he was coolly deceiving me. He had arranged to start without me on
Saturday, while he was proposing to march together on Monday. This I did
not know at the time.

One morning I had returned to the tent after having, as usual,
inspected the transport animals, when I observed Mrs. Baker looking
extraordinarily pale, and immediately upon my arrival she gave orders
for the presence of the vakeel (headman). There was something in her
manner so different from her usual calm, that I was utterly bewildered
when I heard her question the vakeel, whether the men were willing to
march. "Perfectly ready," was the reply. "Then order them to strike the
tent and load the animals; we start this moment."

The man appeared confused, but not more so than I. Something was
evidently on foot, but what I could not conjecture. The vakeel wavered,
and to my astonishment I heard the accusation made against him that
during the night the whole of the escort had mutinously conspired to
desert me, with my arms and ammunition that were in their hands, and to
fire simultaneously at me should I attempt to disarm them. At first
this charge was indignantly denied, until the boy Saat manfully stepped
forward and declared that the conspiracy was entered into by the whole
of the escort, and that both he and Richarn, knowing that mutiny was
intended, had listened purposely to the conversation during the night;
at daybreak the boy reported the fact to his mistress. Mutiny, robbery,
and murder were thus deliberately determined.

I immediately ordered an angarep (travelling bedstead) to be
placed outside the tent under a large tree. Upon this I laid five
double-barrelled guns loaded with buckshot, a revolver, and a naked
sabre as sharp as a razor. A sixth rifle I kept in my hands while I sat
upon the angarep, with Richarn and Saat both with double-barrelled
guns behind me. Formerly I had supplied each of my men with a piece of
mackintosh waterproof to be tied over the locks of their guns during the
march. I now ordered the drum to be beaten, and all the men to form in
line in marching order, with their locks TIED UP IN THE WATERPROOF. I
requested Mrs. Baker to stand behind me and point out any man who should
attempt to uncover his locks when I should give the order to lay down
their arms. The act of uncovering the locks would prove his intention,
in which event I intended to shoot him immediately and take my chance
with the rest of the conspirators.

I had quite determined that these scoundrels should not rob me of my own
arms and ammunition, if I could prevent it.

The drum beat, and the vakeel himself went into the men's quarters and
endeavored to prevail upon them to answer the call. At length fifteen
assembled in line; the others were nowhere to be found. The locks of the
arms were secured by mackintosh as ordered. It was thus impossible for
any man to fire at me until he should have released his locks.

Upon assembling in line I ordered them immediately to lay down their
arms. This, with insolent looks of defiance, they refused to do. "Down
with your guns thus moment," I shouted, "sons of dogs!" And at the sharp
click of the locks, as I quickly cocked the rifle that I held in my
hands, the cowardly mutineers widened their line and wavered. Some
retreated a few paces to the rear; others sat down and laid their guns
on the ground, while the remainder slowly dispersed, and sat in twos
or singly, under the various trees about eighty paces distant. Taking
advantage of their indecision, I immediately rose and ordered my vakeel
and Richarn to disarm them as they were thus scattered. Foreseeing that
the time had arrived for actual physical force, the cowards capitulated,
agreeing to give up their arms and ammunition if I would give them their
written discharge. I disarmed them immediately, and the vakeel having
written a discharge for the fifteen men present, I wrote upon each paper
the word "mutineer" above my signature. None of them being able to
read, and this being written in English, they unconsciously carried the
evidence of their own guilt, which I resolved to punish should I ever
find them on my return to Khartoum.

Thus disarmed, they immediately joined other of the traders' parties.
These fifteen men were the "Jalyns" of my party, the remainder being
Dongolowas--all Arabs of the Nile, north of Khartoum. The Dongolowas
had not appeared when summoned by the drum, and my vakeel being of their
nation, I impressed upon him his responsibility for the mutiny, and that
he would end his days in prison at Khartoum should my expedition fail.

The boy Saat and Richarn now assured me that the men had intended to
fire at me, but that they were frightened at seeing us thus prepared,
but that I must not expect one man of the Dongolowas to be any more
faithful than the Jalyns. I ordered the vakeel to hunt up the men and to
bring me their guns, threatening that if they refused I would shoot any
man that I found with one of my guns in his hands.

There was no time for mild measures. I had only Saat (a mere child)
and Richarn upon whom I could depend; and I resolved with them alone
to accompany Mahommed's people to the interior, and to trust to good
fortune for a chance of proceeding.

I was feverish and ill with worry and anxiety, and I was lying down
upon my mat when I suddenly heard guns firing in all directions, drums
beating, and the customary signs of either an arrival or departure of
a trading party. Presently a messenger arrived from Koorshid Aga, the
Circassian, to announce the departure of Mahommed's party without me,
and my vakeel appeared with a message from the same people, that if I
followed on their road (my proposed route) they would fire upon me and
my party, as they would allow no English spies in their country.

My last hope seemed gone. No expedition had ever been more carefully
planned; everything had been well arranged to insure success. My
transport animals were in good condition, their saddles and pads had
been made under my own inspection, my arms, ammunition, and supplies
were abundant, and I was ready to march at five minutes' notice to
any part of Africa; but the expedition, so costly and so carefully
organized, was completely ruined by the very people whom I had engaged
to protect it. They had not only deserted, but they had conspired to
murder. There was no law in these wild regions but brute force; human
life was of no value; murder was a pastime, as the murderer could escape
all punishment. Mr. Petherick's vakeel had just been shot dead by one of
his own men, and such events were too common to create much attention.
We were utterly helpless, the whole of the people against us, and openly
threatening. For myself personally I had no anxiety; but the fact of
Mrs. Baker's being with me was my greatest care. I dared not think of
her position in the event of my death among such savages as those around
her. These thoughts were shared by her; but she, knowing that I had
resolved to succeed, never once hinted an advice for retreat.

Richarn was as faithful as Saat, and I accordingly confided in him my
resolution to leave all my baggage in charge of a friendly chief of the
Baris at Gondokoro, and to take two fast dromedaries for him and Saat,
and two horses for Mrs. Baker and myself, and to make a push through the
hostile tribe for three days, to arrive among friendly people at "Moir,"
from which place I trusted to fortune. I arranged that the dromedaries
should carry a few beads, ammunition, and the astronomical instruments.

Richarn said the idea was very mad; that the natives would do nothing
for beads; that he had had great experience on the White Nile when with
a former master, and that the natives would do nothing without receiving
cows as payment; that it was of no use to be good to them, as they had
no respect for any virtue but "force;" that we should most likely be
murdered; but that if I ordered him to go, he was ready to obey.

I was delighted with Richarn's rough and frank fidelity. Ordering the
horses to be brought, I carefully pared their feet. Their hard flinty
hoofs, that had never felt a shoe, were in excellent order for a gallop,
if necessary. All being ready, I sent for the chief of Gondokoro.
Meanwhile a Bari boy arrived, sent by Koorshid Aga, to act as my

The Bari chief was, as usual, smeared all over with red ochre and fat,
and had the shell of a small land tortoise suspended to his elbow as an
ornament. I proposed to him my plan of riding quickly through the Bari
tribe to Moir. He replied, "Impossible! If I were to beat the great
nogaras (drums), and call my people together to explain who you are,
they would not hurt you; but there are many petty chiefs who do not
obey me, and their people would certainly attack you when crossing some
swollen torrent, and what could you do with only a man and a boy?"

His reply to my question concerning the value of beads corroborated
Richarn's statement: nothing could be purchased for anything but cattle.
The traders had commenced the system of stealing herds of cattle from
one tribe to barter with the next neighbor; thus the entire country was
in anarchy and confusion, and beads were of no value. My plan for a dash
through the country was impracticable.

I therefore called my vakeel, and threatened him with the gravest
punishment on my return to Khartoum. I wrote to Sir R. Colquhoun, H.M.
Consul-General for Egypt, which letter I sent by one of the return
boats, and I explained to my vakeel that the complaint to the British
authorities would end in his imprisonment, and that in case of my death
through violence he would assuredly be hanged. After frightening him
thoroughly, I suggested that he should induce some of the mutineers,
who were Dongolowas (his own tribe), many of whom were his relatives, to
accompany me, in which case I would forgive them their past misconduct.

In the course of the afternoon he returned with the news that he had
arranged with seventeen of the men, but that they refused to march
toward the south, and would accompany me to the east if I wished to
explore that part of the country. Their plea for refusing a southern
route was the hostility of the Bari tribe. They also proposed a
BEHIND ME." To this insane request, which completely nullified their
offer to start, I only replied by vowing vengeance against the vakeel.

The time was passed by the men in vociferously quarrelling among
themselves during the day and in close conference with the vakeel during
the night, the substance of which was reported on the following morning
by the faithful Saat. The boy recounted their plot. They agreed to march
to the east, with the intention of deserting me at the station of a
trader named Chenooda, seven days' march from Gondokoro, in the Latooka
country, whose men were, like themselves, Dongolowas; they had conspired
to mutiny at that place and to desert to the slave-hunting party with
my arms and ammunition, and to shoot me should I attempt to disarm
them. They also threatened to shoot my vakeel, who now, through fear of
punishment at Khartoum, exerted his influence to induce them to start.
Altogether it was a pleasant state of things.

I was determined at all hazards to start from Gondokoro for the
interior. From long experience with natives of wild countries I did not
despair of obtaining an influence over my men, however bad, could I once
quit Gondokoro and lead them among the wild and generally hostile tribes
of the country. They would then be separated from the contagion of the
slave-hunting parties, and would feel themselves dependent upon me
for guidance. Accordingly I professed to believe in their promises to
accompany me to the east, although I knew of their conspiracy; and I
trusted that by tact and good management I should eventually thwart all
their plans, and, although forced out of my intended course, should be
able to alter my route and to work round from the east to my original
plan of operations south. The interpreter given by Koorshid Aga had
absconded; this was a great loss, as I had no means of communication
with the natives except by casually engaging a Bari in the employment
of the traders, to whom I was obliged to pay exorbitantly in copper
bracelets for a few minutes' conversation.

A party of Koorshid's people had just arrived with ivory from the
Latooka country, bringing with them a number of that tribe as porters.
They were to return shortly, but they not only refused to allow me to
accompany them, but they declared their intention of forcibly repelling
me, should I attempt to advance by their route. This was a good excuse
for my men, who once more refused to proceed. By pressure upon the
vakeel they again yielded, but on condition that I would take one of the
mutineers named "Bellaal," who wished to join them, but whose offer I
had refused, as he had been a notorious ringleader in every mutiny. It
was a sine qua non that he was to go; and knowing the character of the
man, I felt convinced that it had been arranged that he should head the
mutiny conspired to be enacted upon our arrival at Chenooda's camp in
the Latooka country.

The plan that I had arranged was to leave all the baggage not
indispensable with Koorshid Aga at Gondokoro, who would return it to
Khartoum. I intended to wait until Koorshid's party should march, when I
resolved to follow them, as I did not believe they would dare to oppose
me by force, their master himself being friendly. I considered their
threats as mere idle boasting to frighten me from an attempt to
follow them; but there was another more serious cause of danger to be

On the route between Gondokoro and Latooka there was a powerful tribe
among the mountains of Ellyria. The chief of that tribe (Legge) had
formerly massacred a hundred and twenty of a trader's party. He was an
ally of Koorshid's people, who declared that they would raise the tribe
against me, which would end in the defeat or massacre of my party. There
was a difficult pass through the mountains of Ellyria which it would
be impossible to force; thus my small party of seventeen men would be
helpless. It would be merely necessary for the traders to request the
chief of Ellyria to attack my party to insure its destruction, as the
plunder of the baggage would be an ample reward.

There was no time for deliberation. Both the present and the future
looked as gloomy as could be imagined; but I had always expected
extraordinary difficulties, and they were, if possible, to be
surmounted. It was useless to speculate upon chances. There was no hope
of success in inaction, and the only resource was to drive through all
obstacles without calculating the risk.

The day arrived for the departure of Koorshid's people. They commenced
firing their usual signals, the drums beat, the Turkish ensign led
the way, and they marched at 2 o'clock P.M., sending a polite message
"DARING" me to follow them.

I immediately ordered the tent to be struck, the luggage to be arranged,
the animals to be collected, and everything to be ready for the march.
Richarn and Saat were in high spirits; even my unwilling men were
obliged to work, and by 7 P.M. we were all ready.

We had neither guide nor interpreter. Not one native was procurable, all
being under the influence of the traders, who had determined to render
our advance utterly impossible by preventing the natives from assisting
us. All had been threatened, and we, perfectly helpless, commenced the
desperate journey in darkness about an hour after sunset.

"Where shall we go?" said the men, just as the order was given to start.
"Who can travel without a guide? No one knows the road." The moon was
up, and the mountain of Belignan was distinctly visible about nine miles
distant. Knowing that the route lay on the east side of that mountain,
I led the way, Mrs. Baker riding by my side, and the British flag
following close behind us as a guide for the caravan of heavily laden
camels and donkeys. And thus we started on our march into Central Africa
on the 26th of March, 1863.


A start made at last--A forced march--Lightening the ship--Waiting
for the caravan--Success hangs in the balance--The greatest rascal in
Central Africa--Legge demands another bottle.

The country was park-like, but much parched by the dry weather. The
ground was sandy, but firm, and interspersed with numerous villages, all
of which were surrounded with a strong fence of euphorbia. The country
was well wooded, being free from bush or jungle, but numerous trees,
all evergreens, were scattered over the landscape. No natives were to be
seen but the sound of their drums and singing in chorus was heard in the
far distance. Whenever it is moonlight the nights are passed in singing
and dancing, beating drums, blowing horns, and the population of whole
villages thus congregate together.

After a silent march of two hours we saw watchfires blazing in the
distance, and upon nearer approach we perceived the trader's party
bivouacked. Their custom is to march only two or three hours on the
first day of departure, to allow stragglers who may have lagged behind
in Gondokoro to rejoin the party before morning.

We were roughly challenged by their sentries as we passed, and were
instantly told "not to remain in their neighborhood." Accordingly we
passed on for about half a mile in advance, and bivouacked on some
rising ground above a slight hollow in which we found water.

The following morning was clear, and the mountain of Belignan, within
three or four miles, was a fine object to direct our course. I could
distinctly see some enormous trees at the foot of the mountain near a
village, and I hastened forward, as I hoped to procure a guide who
would also act as interpreter, many of the natives in the vicinity of
Gondokoro having learned a little Arabic from the traders. We cantered
on ahead of the party, regardless of the assurance of our unwilling men
that the natives were not to be trusted, and we soon arrived beneath
the shade of a cluster of most superb trees. The village was within a
quarter of a mile, situated at the very base of the abrupt mountain. The
natives seeing us alone had no fear, and soon thronged around us. The
chief understood a few words of Arabic, and I offered a large payment
of copper bracelets and beads for a guide. After much discussion and
bargaining a bad-looking fellow offered to guide us to Ellyria, but no
farther. This was about twenty-eight or thirty miles distant, and it was
of vital importance that we should pass through that tribe before
the trader's party should raise them against us. I had great hopes of
outmarching the trader's party, as they would be delayed in Belignan by
ivory transactions with the chief.

At that time the Turks were engaged in business transactions with the
natives; it was therefore all important that I should start immediately,
and by a forced march arrive at Ellyria and get through the pass before
they should communicate with the chief. I had no doubt that by paying
blackmail I should be able to clear Ellyria, provided I was in advance
of the Turks; but should they outmarch me, there would be no hope; a
fight and defeat would be the climax. I accordingly gave orders for
an IMMEDIATE start. "Load the camels, my brothers!" I exclaimed to the
sullen ruffians around me; but not a man stirred except Richarn and a
fellow named Sali, who began to show signs of improvement. Seeing that
the men intended to disobey, I immediately set to work myself loading
the animals, requesting my men not to trouble themselves, and begging
them to lie down and smoke their pipes while I did the work. A few
rose from the ground ashamed and assisted to load the camels, while the
others declared it an impossibility for camels to travel by the road
we were about to take, as the Turks had informed them that not even
the donkeys could march through the thick jungles between Belignan and

"All right, my brothers!" I replied; "then we'll march as far as the
donkeys can go, and leave both them and the baggage on the road when
they can go no farther; but I GO FORWARD."

With sullen discontent the men began to strap on their belts and
cartouche boxes and prepare for the start. The animals were loaded, and
we moved slowly forward at 4.30 P.M. We had just started with the Bari
guide that I had engaged at Belignan, when we were suddenly joined by
two of the Latookas whom I had seen when at Gondokoro and to whom I
had been very civil. It appeared that these follows, who were acting as
porters to the Turks, had been beaten, and had therefore absconded and
joined me. This was extraordinary good fortune, as I now had guides the
whole way to Latooka, about ninety miles distant. I immediately gave
them each a copper bracelet and some beads, and they very good-naturedly
relieved the camels of one hundred pounds of copper rings, which they
carried in two baskets on their heads.

We now crossed the broad dry bed of a torrent, and the banks being steep
a considerable time was occupied in assisting the loaded animals in
their descent. The donkeys were easily aided, their tails being held
by two men while they shuffled and slid down the sandy banks; but every
camel fell, and the loads had to be carried up the opposite bank by the
men, and the camels reloaded on arrival. Here again the donkeys had the
advantage, as without being unloaded they were assisted up the steep
ascent by two men in front pulling at their ears, while others pushed
behind. Altogether the donkeys were far more suitable for the
country, as they were more easily loaded. The facility of loading is
all-important, and I now had an exemplification of its effect upon both
animals and men. The latter began to abuse the camels and to curse the
father of this and the mother of that because they had the trouble of
unloading them for the descent into the river's bed, while the donkeys
were blessed with the endearing name of "my brother," and alternately
whacked with the stick.

For some miles we passed through a magnificent forest of large trees.
The path being remarkably good, the march looked propitious. This good
fortune, however, was doomed to change. We shortly entered upon thick
thorny jungles. The path was so overgrown that the camels could scarcely
pass under the overhanging branches, and the leather bags of provisions
piled upon their backs were soon ripped by the hooked thorns of the
mimosa. The salt, rice, and coffee bags all sprang leaks, and small
streams of these important stores issued from the rents which the men
attempted to repair by stuffing dirty rags into the holes. These thorns
were shaped like fishhooks; thus it appeared that the perishable baggage
must soon become an utter wreck, as the great strength and weight of the
camels bore all before them, and sometimes tore the branches from the
trees, the thorns becoming fixed in the leather bags. Meanwhile the
donkeys walked along in comfort, being so short that they and their
loads were below the branches.

My wife and I rode about a quarter of a mile at the head of the party as
an advance guard, to warn the caravan of any difficulty. The very nature
of the country showed that it must be full of ravines, and yet I could
not help hoping against hope that we might have a clear mile of road
without a break. The evening had passed, and the light faded. What had
been difficult and tedious during the day now became most serious; we
could not see the branches of hooked thorns that over-hung the broken
path. I rode in advance, my face and arms bleeding with countless
scratches, while at each rip of a thorn I gave a warning shout--"Thorn!"
for those behind, and a cry of "Hole!" for any deep rut that lay in the
path. It was fortunately moonlight; but the jungle was so thick that the
narrow track was barely perceptible; thus both camels and donkeys ran
against the trunks of trees, smashing the luggage and breaking all that
could be broken. Nevertheless the case was urgent; march we must at all

My heart sank whenever we cane to a deep ravine or hor; the warning
cry of "halt" told those in the rear that once more the camels must be
unloaded and the same fatiguing operation must be repeated. For hours we
marched; the moon was sinking; the path, already dark, grew darker; the
animals, overloaded even for a good road, were tired out, and the men
were disheartened, thirsty, and disgusted. Everything was tired out. I
had been working like a slave to assist and to cheer the men; I was also
fatigued. We had marched from 4.30 P.M--it was now 1 A.M.; we had thus
been eight hours and a half struggling along the path. The moon had
sunk, and the complete darkness rendered a further advance impossible;
therefore, on arrival at a large plateau of rock, I ordered the animals
to be unloaded and both man and beast to rest.

Every one lay down supperless to sleep. Although tired, I could not rest
until I had arranged some plan for the morrow. It was evident that
we could not travel over so rough a country with the animals thus
overloaded; I therefore determined to leave in the jungle such articles
as could be dispensed with, and to rearrange all the loads.

At 4 A.M. I awoke, and lighting a lamp I tried in vain to wake any of
the men, who lay stretched upon the ground like so many corpses, sound

I threw away about 100 lbs. of salt, divided the heavy ammunition more
equally among the animals, rejected a quantity of odds and ends that,
although most useful, could be forsaken, and by the time the men awoke,
a little before sunrise, I had completed the work. We now reloaded the
animals, who showed the improvement by stepping out briskly. We marched
well for three hours at a pace that bade fair to keep us well ahead of
the Turks, and at length we reached the dry bed of a stream, where the
Latooka guides assured us we should obtain water by digging. This proved
correct; but the holes were dug deep in several places, and hours passed
before we could secure a sufficient supply for all the men and animals.
Ascending from this place about a mile we came to the valley of Tollogo.
We passed the night in a village of the friendly natives, and were off
again bright and early. On reaching the extremity of the valley we
had to thread our way through the difficult pass. Had the natives been
really hostile they could have exterminated us in five minutes, as it
was only necessary to hurl rocks from above to insure our immediate
destruction. It was in this spot that a trader's party of one hundred
and twenty-six men, well armed, had been massacred to a man the year

Bad as the pass was, we had hope before us, as the Latookas explained
that beyond this spot there was level and unbroken ground the whole way
to Latooka. Could we only clear Ellyria before the Turks, I had no fear
for the present; but at the very moment when success depended upon speed
we were thus baffled by the difficulties of the ground. I therefore
resolved to ride on in advance of my party, leaving them to overcome the
difficulties of the pass by constantly unloading the animals, while I
would reconnoitre in front, as Ellyria was not far distant. My wife
and I accordingly rode on, accompanied only by one of the Latookas as
a guide. After turning a sharp angle of the mountain, leaving the cliff
abruptly rising to the left from the narrow path, we descended a ravine
worse than any place we had previously encountered, and were obliged to
dismount in order to lead our horses up the steep rocks on the opposite
side. On arrival at the summit a lovely view burst upon us. The valley
of Ellyria was about four hundred feet below, at about a mile distant.
Beautiful mountains, some two or three thousand feet high, of gray
granite, walled in the narrow vale, while the landscape of forest and
plain was bounded at about fifty or sixty miles' distance to the east
by the blue mountains of Latooka. The mountain of Ellyria was the
commencement of the fine range that continued indefinitely to the south.
The whole country was a series of natural forts occupied by a large
population. A glance at the scene before me was quite sufficient. To
FIGHT a way through a valley a quarter of a mile wide, hemmed in by high
walls of rock and bristling with lances and arrows, would be impossible
with my few men, encumbered by transport animals. Should the camels
arrive I could march into Ellyria in twenty minutes, make the chief a
large present, and pass on without halting until I cleared the Ellyria
valley. At any rate I was well before the Turks, and the forced march
at night, however distressing, had been successful. The great difficulty
now lay in the ravine that we had just crossed; this would assuredly
delay the caravan for a considerable time.

Tying our horses to a bush, we sat upon a rock beneath the shade of a
small tree within ten paces of the path, and considered the best course
to pursue. I hardly liked to risk an advance into Ellyria alone before
the arrival of my whole party, as we had been very rudely received by
the Tollogo people on the previous evening; nevertheless I thought it
might be good policy to ride unattended into Ellyria, and thus to court
an introduction to the chief. However, our consultation ended in a
determination to wait where we then were until the caravan should have
accomplished the last difficulty by crossing the ravine, when we would
all march into Ellyria in company. For a long time we sat gazing at the
valley before us in which our fate lay hidden, feeling thankful that
we had thus checkmated the brutal Turks. Not a sound was heard of
our approaching camels; the delay was most irksome. There were many
difficult places that we had passed through, and each would be a source
of serious delay to the animals.

At length we heard them in the distance. We could distinctly hear
the men's voices, and we rejoiced that they were approaching the last
remaining obstacle; that one ravine passed through, and all before would
be easy. I heard the rattling of the stones as they drew nearer, and
looking toward the ravine I saw emerge from the dark foliage of the
trees within fifty yards of us the hated RED FLAG AND CRESCENT LEADING
THE TURK'S PARTY! We were outmarched!

One by one, with scowling looks, the insolent scoundrels filed by us
within a few feet, without making the customary salaam, neither noticing
us in any way, except by threatening to shoot the Latooka, our guide,
who had formerly accompanied them.

Their party consisted of a hundred and forty men armed with guns,
while about twice as many Latookas acted as porters, carrying beads,
ammunition, and the general effects of the party. It appeared that we
were hopelessly beaten.

However, I determined to advance at all hazards on the arrival of my
party, and should the Turks incite the Ellyria tribe to attack us, I
intended, in the event of a fight, to put the first shot through the
leader. To be thus beaten at the last moment was unendurable. Boiling
with indignation as the insolent wretches filed past, treating me with
the contempt of a dog, I longed for the moment of action, no matter what
were the odds against us. At length their leader, Ibrahim, appeared in
the rear of the party. He was riding on a donkey, being the last of the
line, behind the flag that closed the march.

I never saw a more atrocious countenance than that exhibited in this
man. A mixed breed, between a Turk sire and all Arab mother, he had
the good features and bad qualities of either race--the fine, sharp,
high-arched nose and large nostril, the pointed and projecting chin,
rather high cheek-bones and prominent brow, overhanging a pair of
immense black eyes full of expression of all evil. As he approached he
took no notice of us, but studiously looked straight before him with the
most determined insolence.

The fate of the expedition was at this critical moment retrieved by
Mrs. Baker. She implored me to call him, to insist upon a personal
explanation, and to offer him some present in the event of establishing
amicable relations. I could not condescend to address the sullen
scoundrel. He was in the act of passing us, and success depended upon
that instant. Mrs. Baker herself called him. For the moment he made no
reply; but upon my repeating the call in a loud key he turned his donkey
toward us and dismounted. I ordered him to sit down, as his men were
ahead and we were alone.

The following dialogue passed between us after the usual Arab mode of
greeting. I said: "Ibrahim, why should we be enemies in the midst of
this hostile country? We believe in the same God; why should we quarrel
in this land of heathens, who believe in no God? You have your work
to perform; I have mine. You want ivory; I am a simple traveller; why
should we clash? If I were offered the whole ivory of the country I
would not accept a single tusk, nor interfere with you in any way.
Transact your business, and don't interfere with me; the country is wide
enough for us both. I have a task before me, to reach a great lake--the
head of the Nile. Reach it I WILL(Inshallah). No power shall drive me
back. If you are hostile I will imprison you in Khartoum; if you assist
me I will reward you far beyond any reward you have ever received.
Should I be killed in this country, you will be suspected. You know
the result: the Government would hang you on the bare suspicion. On the
contrary, if you are friendly I will use my influence in any country
that I discover, that you may procure its ivory for the sake of your
master, Koorshid, who was generous to Captains Speke and Grant, and kind
to me. Should you be hostile, I shall hold your master responsible as
your employer. Should you assist me, I will befriend you both. Choose
your course frankly, like a man--friend or enemy?"

Before he had time to reply, Mrs. Baker addressed him much in the same
strain, telling him that he did not know what Englishmen were; that
nothing would drive them back; that the British Government watched over
them wherever they might be, and that no outrage could be committed with
impunity upon a British subject; that I would not deceive him in any
way; that I was not a trader; and that I should be able to assist him
materially by discovering new countries rich in ivory, and that he would
benefit himself personally by civil conduct.

He seemed confused, and wavered. I immediately promised him a new
double-barrelled gun and some gold when my party should arrive, as an
earnest of the future.

He replied that he did not himself wish to be hostile, but that all the
trading parties, without one exception, were against me, and that the
men were convinced that I was a consul in disguise, who would report
to the authorities at Khartoum all the proceedings of the traders. He
continued that he believed me, but that his men would not; that all
people told lies in their country, therefore no one was credited for the
truth. "However," said he, "do not associate with my people, or they may
insult you; but go and take possession of that large tree (pointing to
one in the valley of Ellyria) for yourself and people, and I will come
there and speak with you. I will now join my men, as I do not wish them
to know that I have been conversing with you." He then made a salaam,
mounted his donkey, and rode off.

I had won him. I knew the Arab character so thoroughly that I was
convinced that the tree he had pointed out, followed by the words, "I
will come there and speak to you," was to be the rendezvous for the
receipt of the promised gun and money.

I did not wait for the arrival of my men, but mounting our horses,
my wife and I rode down the hillside with lighter spirits than we had
enjoyed for some time past. I gave her the entire credit of the "ruse."
Had I been alone I should have been too proud to have sought the
friendship of the sullen trader, and the moment on which success
depended would leave been lost.

On arrival at the grassy plain at the foot of the mountain there was a
crowd of the trader's ruffians quarrelling for the shale of a few large
trees that grew on the banks of the stream. We accordingly dismounted,
and turning the horses to graze we took possession of a tree at some
distance, under which a number of Latookas were already sitting. Not
being very particular as to our society, we sat down and waited for the
arrival of our party.

The natives were entirely naked, and precisely the same as the Bari.
Their chief, Legge, was among them, and received a present from Ibrahim
of a long red cotton shirt, and he assumed an air of great importance.
Ibrahim explained to him who I was, and he immediately came to ask
for the tribute he expected to receive as "blackmail" for the right of
entree into his country. Of all the villainous countenances that I have
ever seen, that of Legge excelled. Ferocity, avarice, and sensuality
were stamped upon his face, and I immediately requested him to sit for
his portrait, and in about ten minutes I succeeded in placing within my
portfolio an exact likeness of about the greatest rascal that exists in
Central Africa.

I had now the satisfaction of seeing my caravan slowly winding down the
hillside in good order, having surmounted all their difficulties.

Upon arrival my men were perfectly astonished at seeing us so near the
trader's party, and still more confounded at my sending for Ibrahim
to summon him to my tree, where I presented him with some English
sovereigns and a double-barrelled gun. Nothing escapes the
inquisitiveness of these Arabs; and the men of both parties quickly
perceived that I had established an alliance in some unaccountable
manner with Ibrahim. I saw the gun lately presented to him being handed
from one to the other for examination, and both my vakeel and men
appeared utterly confused at the sudden change.

The chief of Ellyria now came to inspect my luggage, and demanded
fifteen heavy copper bracelets and a large quantity of beads. The
bracelets most in demand are simple rings of copper five-eighths of an
inch thick and weighing about a pound, smaller ones not being so much
valued. I gave him fifteen such rings, and about ten pounds of beads in
varieties, the red coral porcelain (dimiriaf) being the most acceptable.
Legge was by no means satisfied; he said his belly was very big and it
must be filled, which signified that his desire was great and must be
gratified. I accordingly gave him a few extra copper rings; but suddenly
he smelt spirits, one of the few bottles that I possessed of spirits of
wine having broken in the medicine chest. Ibrahim begged me to give him
a bottle to put him in a good humor, as he enjoyed nothing so much as
araki. I accordingly gave him a pint bottle of the strongest spirits of

To my amazement he broke off the neck, and holding his head well back
he deliberately allowed the whole of the contents to trickle down
his throat as innocently as though it had been simple water. He was
thoroughly accustomed to it, as the traders were in the habit of
bringing him presents of araki every season. He declared this to be
excellent, and demanded another bottle. At that moment a violent storm
of thunder and rain burst upon us with a fury well known in the tropics.
The rain fell like a waterspout, and the throng immediately fled for
shelter. So violent was the storm that not a man was to be seen; some
sheltered themselves under the neighboring rocks, while others ran
to their villages that were close by. The trader's people commenced a
fusillade, firing off all their guns lest they should get wet and miss


The greeting of the slave--traders--Collapse of the mutiny--African
funerals--Visit from the Latooka chief--Bokke makes a
suggestion--Slaughter of the Turks--Success as a prophet--Commoro's

Although Ellyria was a rich and powerful country, we were not able to
procure any provisions. The natives refused to sell, and their general
behavior assured me of their capability of any atrocity had they been
prompted to attack us by the Turks. Fortunately we had a good supply of
meal that had been prepared for the journey prior to our departure from
Gondokoro; thus we could not starve. I also had a sack of corn for the
animals, a necessary precaution, as at this season there was not a blade
of grass, all in the vicinity of the route having been burned.

We started on the 30th of March, at 7.30 A.M., and entered from the
valley of Ellyria upon a perfectly flat country interspersed with trees.
The ground was most favorable for the animals, being perfectly flat and
free from ravines. We accordingly stepped along at a brisk pace, and the
intense heat of the sun throughout the hottest hours of the day made the
journey fatiguing for all but the camels. The latter were excellent of
their class, and now far excelled the other transport animals, marching
along with ease under loads of about 600 pounds each.

My caravan was at the rear of the trader's party; but the ground being
good we left our people and cantered on to the advanced flag. It was
curious to witness the motley assemblage in single file extending over
about half a mile of ground. Several of the people were mounted on
donkeys, some on oxen; the most were on foot, including all the women to
the number of about sixty, who were the slaves of the trader's people.
These carried heavy loads, and many, in addition to the burdens, carried
children strapped to their backs in leather slings. After four or five
hours' march during the intense heat, many of the overloaded women
showed symptoms of distress and became footsore. The grass having been
recently burned had left the sharp charred stumps, which were very
trying to those whose sandals were not in the best condition. The
women were forced along by their brutal owners with sharp blows of the
coorbatch, and one who was far advanced in pregnancy could at length go
no further. Upon this the savage to whom she belonged belabored her with
a large stick, and not succeeding in driving her before him, he
knocked her down and jumped upon her. The woman's feet were swollen and
bleeding, but later in the day I again saw her hobbling along in the
rear by the aid of a bamboo.

After a few days' march we reached Latome, a large Latooka town, and
upon our near approach we discovered crowds collected under two enormous
trees. Presently guns fired, drums beat, and we perceived the Turkish
flags leading a crowd of about a hundred men, who approached us with the
usual salutes, every man firing off ball cartridge as fast as he could
reload. My men were soon with this lot of ragamuffins, and this was the
ivory or slave-trading party that they had conspired to join. They
were marching toward me to honor me with a salute, which, upon close
approach, ended by their holding their guns muzzle downward, and firing
them almost into my feet. I at once saw through their object in
giving me this reception. They had already heard from the other party
exaggerated accounts of presents that their leader had received, and
they were jealous at the fact of my having established confidence with
a party opposed to them. The vakeel of Chenooda was the man who had from
the first instigated my men to revolt and to join his party, and he
at that moment had two of my deserters with him that had mutinied and
joined him at Gondokoro. It had been agreed that the remainder of my men
were to mutiny at this spot and to join him with MY ARMS AND AMMUNITION.
This was to be the stage for the outbreak. The apparent welcome was only
to throw me off my guard.

I was coldly polite, and begging them not to waste their powder, I
went to the large tree that threw a beautiful shade, and we sat down,
surrounded by a crowd of both natives and trader's people. Mahommed
Her sent me immediately a fat ox for my people. Not to be under any
obligation, I immediately gave him a double-barrelled gun. Ibrahim and
his men occupied the shade of another enormous tree at about one hundred
and fifty yards' distance.

The evening arrived, and my vakeel, with his usual cunning, came to ask
me whether I intended to start tomorrow. He said there was excellent
shooting in this neighborhood, and that Ibrahim's camp not being more
than five hours' march beyond, I could at any time join him, should I
think proper. Many of my men were sullenly listening to my reply, which
was that we should start in company with Ibrahim. The men immediately
turned their backs and swaggered insolently to the town, muttering
something that I could not distinctly understand. I gave orders directly
that no man should sleep in the town, but that all should be at their
posts by the luggage under the tree that I occupied. At night several
men were absent, and were with difficulty brought from the town by
the vakeel. The whole of the night was passed by the rival parties
quarrelling and fighting. At 5.30 on the following morning the drum of
Ibrahim's party beat the call, and his men with great alacrity got their
porters together and prepared to march. My vakeel was not to be found;
my men were lying idly in the positions where they had slept, and not a
man obeyed when I gave the order to prepare to start-except Richarn and
Sali. I saw that the moment had arrived. Again I gave the order to the
men to get up and load the animals. Not a man would move except three or
four, who slowly rose from the ground and stood resting on their guns.
In the mean time Richarn and Sali were bringing the camels and making
them kneel by the luggage. The boy Saat was evidently expecting a row,
and although engaged with the black women in packing, he kept his eyes
constantly on me.

I now observed that Bellaal was standing very near me on my right, in
advance of the men who had risen from the ground, and employed himself
in eying me from head to foot with the most determined insolence. The
fellow had his gun in his hand, and he was telegraphing by looks with
those who were standing near him, while not one of the others rose from
the ground, although close to me. Pretending not to notice Bellaal, who
was now, as I had expected, once more the ringleader, for the third time
I ordered the men to rise immediately and to load the camels. Not a man
moved; but the fellow Bellaal marched up to me, and looking me straight
in the face dashed the butt-end of his gun in defiance on the ground
and led the mutiny. "Not a man shall go with you! Go where you like with
Ibrahim, but we won't follow you nor move a step farther. The men shall
not load the camels; you may employ the 'niggers' to do it, but not us."

I looked at this mutinous rascal for a moment. This was the outburst of
the conspiracy, and the threats and insolence that I had been forced to
pass over for the sake of the expedition all rushed before me. "Lay down
your gun!" I thundered, "and load the camels!" "I won't," was his reply.
"Then stop here!" I answered, at the same time lashing out as quick as
lightning with my right hand upon his jaw.

He rolled over in a heap, his gun flying some yards from his hand, and
the late ringleader lay apparently insensible among the luggage, while
several of his friends ran to him and played the part of the Good
Samaritan. Following up on the moment the advantage I had gained by
establishing a panic, I seized my rifle and rushed into the midst of
the wavering men, catching first one by the throat and then another,
and dragging them to the camels, which I insisted upon their immediately
loading. All except three, who attended to the ruined ringleader,
mechanically obeyed. Richarn and Sali both shouted to them to "hurry";
and the vakeel arriving at this moment and seeing how matters stood,
himself assisted, and urged the men to obey.

Ibrahim's party had started. The animals were soon loaded, and leaving
the vakeel to take them in charge, we cantered on to overtake Ibrahim,
having crushed the mutiny and given such an example that, in the event
of future conspiracies, my men would find it difficult to obtain a
ringleader. So ended the famous conspiracy that had been reported to me
by both Saat and Richarn before we left Gondokoro; and so much for
the threat of firing simultaneously at me and deserting my wife in the
jungle. In those savage countries success frequently depends upon one
particular moment; you may lose or win according to your action at that
critical instant. We congratulated ourselves upon the termination of
this affair, which I trusted would be the last of the mutinies.

Upon our arrival at a large town called Kattaga, my vakeel reported the
desertion of five of my men to Mahommed Her's party, with their guns and
ammunition. I abused both the vakeel and the men most thoroughly, and
declared, "As for the mutineers who have joined the slave-hunters,
Inshallah, the vultures shall pick their bones!"

This charitable wish--which, I believe, I expressed with intense
hatred--was never forgotten either by my own men or by the Turks.
Believing firmly in the evil eye, their superstitious fears were
immediately excited.

I had noticed during the march from Latome that the vicinity of every
town was announced by heaps of human remains. Bones and skulls formed a
Golgotha within a quarter of a mile of every village. Some of these were
in earthenware pots, generally broken; others lay strewn here and there,
while a heap in the centre showed that some form had originally been
observed in their disposition. This was explained by an extraordinary
custom, most rigidly observed by the Latookas. Should a man be killed in
battle the body is allowed to remain where it fell, and is devoured by
the vultures and hyenas; but should he die a natural death he is buried
in a shallow grave within a few feet of his own door, in the little
courtyard that surrounds each dwelling. Funeral dances are then kept up
in memory of the dead for several weeks, at the expiration of which time
the body, being sufficiently decomposed, is exhumed.

The bones are cleaned and are deposited in an earthenware jar, and
carried to a spot near the town which is regarded as the cemetery.

There is little difficulty in describing the toilette of the native,
that of the men being limited to the one covering of the head, the body
being entirely nude. It is curious to observe among these wild savages
the consummate vanity displayed in their head-dresses. Every tribe has a
distinct and unchanging fashion for dressing the hair, and so elaborate
is the coiffure that hair-dressing is reduced to a science. European
ladies would be startled at the fact that to perfect the coiffure of a
man requires a period of from eight to ten years! However tedious the
operation, the result is extraordinary. The Latookas wear most exquisite
helmets, all of which are formed of their own hair, and are, of course,
fixtures. At first sight it appears incredible; but a minute examination
shows the wonderful perseverance of years in producing what must be
highly inconvenient. The thick, crisp wool is woven with fine twine,
formed from the bark of a tree, until it presents a thick network of
felt. As the hair grows through this matted substance it is subjected to
the same process, until, in the course of years, a compact substance is
formed like a strong felt, about an inch and a half thick, that has been
trained into the shape of a helmet. A strong rim about two inches deep
is formed by sewing it together with thread, and the front part of the
helmet is protected by a piece of polished copper, while a piece of the
same metal, shaped like the half of a bishop's mitre and about a foot
in length, forms the crest. The framework of the helmet being at length
completed, it must be perfected by an arrangement of beads, should
the owner of the bead be sufficiently rich to indulge in the coveted
distinction. The beads most in fashion are the red and the blue
porcelain, about the size of small peas. These are sewn on the surface
of the felt, and so beautifully arranged in sections of blue and red
that the entire helmet appears to be formed of beads; and the handsome
crest of polished copper surmounted by ostrich plumes gives a most
dignified and martial appearance to this elaborate head-dress. No helmet
is supposed to be complete without a row of cowrie-shells stitched
around the rim so as to form a solid edge.

Although the men devote so much attention to their head-dress, the
woman's is extremely simple. It is a curious fact that while the men are
remarkably handsome the women are exceedingly plain. They are immense
creatures, few being under five feet seven in height, with prodigious
limbs. They wear exceedingly long tails, precisely like those of horses,
but made of fine twine and rubbed with red ochre and grease. These are
very convenient when they creep into their huts on hands and knees!
In addition to the tails, they wear a large flap of tanned leather in
front. Should I ever visit that country again, I should take a great
number of Freemasons' aprons for the women; these would be highly
prized, and would create a perfect furore.

The day after my arrival in Latooka I was accommodated by the chief with
a hut in a neat courtyard, beautifully clean and cemented with clay,
ashes, and cow-dung. Not patronizing the architectural advantages of a
doorway two feet high, I pitched my large tent in the yard and stowed
all my baggage in the hut. All being arranged, I had a large Persian
carpet spread upon the ground, and received the chief of Latooka in
state. He was introduced by Ibrahim, and I had the advantage of his
interpreter. I commenced the conversation by ordering a present to be
laid on the carpet of several necklaces of valuable beads, copper bars,
and colored cotton handkerchiefs. It was most amusing to witness his
delight at a string of fifty little "berrets" (opal beads the size of
marbles) which I had brought into the country for the first time, and
which were accordingly extremely valuable. No sooner had he surveyed
them with undisguised delight than he requested me to give him
another string of opals for his wife, or she would be in a bad humor;
accordingly a present for the lady was added to the already large pile
of beads that lay heaped upon the carpet before him. After surveying
his treasures with pride, he heaved a deep sigh, and turning to the
interpreter he said, "What a row there will be in the family when my
other wives see Bokke (his head wife) dressed up with this finery. Tell
the 'Mattat' that unless he gives necklaces for each of my other wives
they will fight!" Accordingly I asked him the number of ladies that made
him anxious. He deliberately began to count upon his fingers, and having
exhausted the digits of one hand I compromised immediately, begging him
not to go through the whole of his establishment, and presented him
with about three pounds of various beads to be divided among them. He
appeared highly delighted, and declared his intention of sending all his
wives to pay Mrs. Baker a visit. This would be an awful visitation, as
each wife would expect a present for herself, and would assuredly
leave either a child or a friend for whom she would beg an addition. I
therefore told him that the heat was so great that we could not bear too
many in the tent, but that if *Bokke*, his favorite, would appear, we
should be glad to see her. Accordingly he departed, and shortly we were
honored by a visit.

*Bokke* and her daughter were announced, and a pair of prettier savages
I never saw. They were very clean; their hair was worn short, like that
of all the women of the country, and plastered with red ochre and fat
so as to look like vermilion; their faces were slightly tattooed on the
cheeks and temples, and they sat down on the many-colored carpet with
great surprise, and stared at the first white man and woman they had
ever seen. We gave them both a number of necklaces of red and blue
beads, and I secured Bokke's portrait in my sketch-book, obtaining a
very correct likeness. She told us that Mahommed Her's men were very bad
people; that they had burned and plundered one of her villages; and that
one of the Latookas who had been wounded in the fight by a bullet had
just died, and they were to dance for him to-morrow; if we would like to
we could attend. She asked many questions; among others, how many wives
I had, and was astonished to hear that I was contented with one.
This seemed to amuse her immensely, and she laughed heartily with her
daughter at the idea. She said that my wife would be much improved if
she would extract her four front teeth from the lower jaw and wear the
red ointment on her hair, according to the fashion of the country; she
also proposed that she should pierce her under lip, and wear the long
pointed polished crystal, about the size of a drawing-pencil, that is
the "thing" in the Latooka country. No woman among the tribe who has
any pretensions to being a "swell" would be without this highly-prized
ornament; and one of my thermometers having come to an end, I broke
the tube into three pieces, and they were considered as presents of the
highest value, to be worn through the perforated under lip. Lest the
piece should slip through the hole in the lip, a kind of rivet is formed
by twine bound round the inner extremity, and this, protruding into the
space left by the extraction of the four front teeth of the lower jaw,
entices the tongue to act upon the extremity, which gives it a wriggling
motion indescribably ludicrous during conversation.

It is difficult to explain real beauty. A defect in one country is a
desideratum in another. Scars upon the face are, in Europe, a blemish;
but here and in the Arab countries no beauty can be perfect until the
cheeks or temples have been gashed. The Arabs make three gashes upon
each cheek, and rub the wounds with salt and a kind of porridge
(asida) to produce proud-flesh; thus every female slave captured by the
slave-hunters is marked to prove her identity and to improve her charms.
Each tribe has its peculiar fashion as to the position and form of the

The Latookas gash the temples and cheeks of their women, but do not
raise the scar above the surface, as is the custom of the Arabs.

Polygamy is, of course, the general custom, the number of a man's wives
depending entirely upon his wealth, precisely as would the number of his
horses in England. There is no such thing as LOVE in these countries;
the feeling is not understood, nor does it exist in the shape in
which we understand it. Everything is practical, without a particle of
romance. Women are so far appreciated as they are valuable animals. They
grind the corn, fetch the water, gather firewood, cement the floors,
cook the food, and propagate the race; but they are mere servants, and
as such are valuable. The price of a good-looking, strong young wife,
who could carry a heavy jar of water, would be ten cows; thus a man
rich in cattle would be rich in domestic bliss, as he could command a
multiplicity of wives. However delightful may be a family of daughters
in England, they nevertheless are costly treasures; but in Latooka and
throughout savage lands they are exceedingly profitable. The simple rule
of proportion will suggest that if one daughter is worth ten cows, ten
daughters must be worth a hundred; therefore a large family is a source
of wealth: the girls bring the cows, and the boys milk them. All being
perfectly naked (I mean the girls and the boys), there is no expense,
and the children act as herdsmen to the flocks as in the patriarchal
times. A multiplicity of wives thus increases wealth by the increase
of family. I am afraid this practical state of affairs will be a strong
barrier to missionary enterprise.

A savage holds to his cows and his women, but especially to his COWS. In
a razzia fight he will seldom stand for the sake of his wives, but when
he does fight it is to save his cattle.

One day, soon after Bokke's visit, I heard that there had been some
disaster, and that the whole of Mahommed Her's party had been massacred.
On the following morning I sent ten of my men with a party of Ibrahim's
to Latome to make inquiries. They returned on the following afternoon,
bringing with them two wounded men. It appeared the Mahommed Her had
ordered his party of 110 armed men, in addition to 300 natives, to
make a razzia upon a certain village among the mountains for slaves and
cattle. They had succeeded in burning a village and in capturing a great
number of slaves. Having descended the pass, a native gave them the
route that would lead to the capture of a large herd of cattle that
they had not yet discovered. They once more ascended the mountain by a
different path, and arriving at the kraal they commenced driving off the
vast herd of cattle. The Latookas, who had not fought while their
wives and children were being carried into slavery, now fronted bravely
against the muskets to defend their herds, and charging the Turks they
drove them down the pass.

It was in vain that they fought; every bullet aimed at a Latooka struck
a rock, behind which the enemy was hidden. Rocks, stones, and lances
were hurled at them from all sides and from above. They were forced to
retreat. The retreat ended in a panic and precipitate flight. Hemmed
in on all sides, amid a shower of lances and stones thrown from the
mountain above, the Turks fled pell-mell down the rocky and precipitous
ravines. Mistaking their route, they came to a precipice from which
there was no retreat. The screaming and yelling savages closed round
them. Fighting was useless; the natives, under cover of the numerous
detached rocks, offered no mark for an aim, while the crowd of armed
savages thrust them forward with wild yells to the very verge of the
great precipice about five hundred feet below. Down they fell, hurled to
utter destruction by the mass of Latookas pressing onward! A few fought
to the last, but one and all were at length forced, by sheer pressure,
over the edge of the cliff, and met a just reward for their atrocities.

My men looked utterly cast down, and a feeling of horror pervaded the
entire party. No quarter had been given by the Latookas, and upward of
two hundred natives who had joined the slave-hunters in the attack
had also perished with their allies. Mahommed Her had not himself
accompanied his people, both he and Bellaal, my late ringleader, having
remained in camp, the latter having, fortunately for him, been disabled,
and placed hors de combat by the example I had made during the mutiny.

My men were almost green with awe when I asked them solemnly, "Where are
the men who deserted from me?" Without answering a word they brought
two of my guns and laid them at my feet. They were covered with clotted
blood mixed with sand, which had hardened like cement over the locks and
various portions of the barrels. My guns were all marked. As I looked at
the numbers upon the stocks, I repeated aloud the names of the owners.
"Are they all dead?" I asked. "All dead," the men replied. "FOOD FOR THE
VULTURES?" I asked. "None of the bodies can be recovered," faltered my
vakeel. "The two guns were brought from the spot by some natives who
escaped, and who saw the men fall. They are all killed." "Better for
them had they remained with me and done their duty. The hand of God is
heavy," I replied. My men slunk away abashed, leaving the gory witnesses
of defeat and death upon the ground. I called Saat and ordered him to
give the two guns to Richarn to clean.

Not only my own men but the whole of Ibrahim's party were of opinion
that I had some mysterious connection with the disaster that had
befallen my mutineers. All remembered the bitterness of my prophecy,
"The vultures will pick their bones", and this terrible mishap having
occurred so immediately afterward took a strong hold upon their
superstitious minds. As I passed through the camp the men would quietly
exclaim, "Wah Illahi Hawaga!" (My God, Master!) To which I simply
replied, "Robine fe!" (There is a God.) From that moment I observed
an extraordinary change in the manner of both my people and those of
Ibrahim, all of whom now paid us the greatest respect.

One day I sent for Commoro, the Latooka chief, and through my two young
interpreters I had a long conversation with him on the customs of his
country. I wished if possible to fathom the origin of the extraordinary
custom of exhuming the body after burial, as I imagined that in this act
some idea might be traced to a belief in the resurrection.

Commoro was, like all his people, extremely tall. Upon entering my tent
he took his seat upon the ground, the Latookas not using stools like the
other White Nile tribes. I commenced the conversation by complimenting
him on the perfection of his wives and daughters in a funeral dance
which had lately been held, and on his own agility in the performance,
and inquired for whom the ceremony had been performed. He replied that
it was for a man who had been recently killed, but no one of great
importance, the same ceremony being observed for every person without

I asked him why those slain in battle were allowed to remain unburied.
He said it had always been the custom, but that he could not explain it.

"But," I replied, "why should you disturb the bones of those whom you
have already buried, and expose them on the outskirts of the town?"

"It was the custom of our forefathers," he answered, "therefore we
continue to observe it."

"Have you no belief in a future existence after death? Is not some idea
expressed in the act of exhuming the bones after the flesh is decayed?"

Commoro (loq.).--"Existence AFTER death! How can that be? Can a dead man
get out of his grave, unless we dig him out?"

"Do you think man is like a beast, that dies and is ended?"

Commoro.--"Certainly. An ox is stronger than a man, but he dies, and his
bones last longer; they are bigger. A man's bones break quickly; he is

"Is not a man superior in sense to an ox? Has he not a mind to direct
his actions?"

Commoro--"Some men are not so clever as an ox. Men must sow corn to
obtain food, but the ox and wild animals can procure it without sowing."

"Do you not know that there is a spirit within you different from flesh?
Do you not dream and wander in thought to distant places in your sleep?
Nevertheless your body rests in one spot. How do you account for this?"

Commoro (laughing)--"Well, how do YOU account for it? It is a thing I
cannot understand; it occurs to me every night."

"The mind is independent of the body. The actual body can be fettered,
but the mind is uncontrollable. The body will die and will become dust
or be eaten by vultures; but the spirit will exist forever."

Commoro--"Where will the spirit live?"

"Where does fire live? Cannot you produce a fire*

     (* The natives always produce fire by rubbing two sticks

by rubbing two sticks together? Yet you SEE not the fire in the wood.
Has not that fire, that lies harmless and unseen in the sticks, the
power to consume the whole country? Which is the stronger, the small
stick that first PRODUCES the fire, or the fire itself? So is the spirit
the element within the body, as the element of fire exists in the stick,
the element being superior to the substance."

Commoro--"Ha! Can you explain what we frequently see at night when lost
in the wilderness? I have myself been lost, and wandering in the dark I
have seen a distant fire; upon approaching the fire has vanished, and I
have been unable to trace the cause, nor could I find the spot."

"Have you no idea of the existence of spirits superior to either man or
beast? Have you no fear of evil except from bodily causes?"

Commoro.--"I am afraid of elephants and other animals when in the jungle
at night; but of nothing else."

"Then you believe in nothing--neither in a good nor evil spirit! And you
believe that when you die it will be the end of body and spirit; that
you are like other animals; and that there is no distinction between man
and beast; both disappear, and end at death?"

Commoro.--"Of course they do."

"Do you see no difference in good and bad actions?"

Commoro.--"Yes, there are good and bad in men and beasts."

"Do you think that a good man and a bad must share the same fate, and
alike die, and end?"

Commoro.--"Yes; what else can they do? How can they help dying? Good and
bad all die."

"Their bodies perish, but their spirits remain; the good in happiness,
the bad in misery. If you leave no belief in a future state, WHY
SHOULD A MAN BE GOOD? Why should he not be bad, if he can prosper by

Commoro.--"Most people are bad; if they are strong they take from the
weak. The good people are all weak; they are good because they are not
strong enough to be bad."

Some corn had been taken out of a sack for the horses, and a few grains
lying scattered on the ground, I tried the beautiful metaphor of St.
Paul as an example of a future state. Making a small hole with my finger
in the ground, I placed a grain within it: "That," I said, "represents
you when you die." Covering it with earth, I continued, "That grain will
decay, but from it will rise the plant that will produce a reappearance
of the original form."

Commoro.--"Exactly so; that I understand. But the original grain does
NOT rise again; it rots like the dead man, and is ended. The fruit
produced is not the same grain that we buried, but the PRODUCTION of
that grain. So it is with man. I die, and decay, and am ended; but my
children grow up like the fruit of the grain. Some men have no children,
and some grains perish without fruit; then all are ended."

I was obliged to change the subject of conversation. In this wild naked
savage there was not even a superstition upon which to found a religious
feeling; there was a belief in matter, and to his understanding
everything was MATERIAL. It was extraordinary to find so much clearness
of perception combined with such complete obtuseness to anything ideal.


Disease in the camp--Forward under difficulties--Our cup of misery
overflows--A rain-maker in a dilemma--Fever again--Ibrahim's
quandary--Firing the prairie.

Sickness now rapidly spread among my animals. Five donkeys died within
a few days, and the rest looked poor. Two of my camels died suddenly,
having eaten the poison-bush. Within a few days of this disaster my good
old hunter and companion of all my former sports in the Base
country, Tetel, died. These terrible blows to my expedition were most
satisfactory to the Latookas, who ate the donkeys and other animals the
moment they died. It was a race between the natives and the vultures as
to who should be first to profit by my losses.

Not only were the animals sick, but my wife was laid up with a violent
attack of gastric fever, and I was also suffering from daily attacks of
ague. The small-pox broke out among the Turks. Several people died, and,
to make matters worse, they insisted upon inoculating themselves and
all their slaves; thus the whole camp was reeking with this horrible

Fortunately my camp was separate and to windward. I strictly forbade my
men to inoculate themselves, and no case of the disease occurred among
my people; but it spread throughout the country. Small-pox is a scourge
among the tribes of Central Africa, and it occasionally sweeps through
the country and decimates the population.

I had a long examination of Wani, the guide and interpreter, respecting
the country of Magungo. Loggo, the Bari interpreter, always described
Magungo as being on a large river, and I concluded that it must be the
Asua; but upon cross-examination I found he used the word "Bahr" (in
Arabic signifying river or sea) instead of "Birbe" (lake). This important
error being discovered gave a new feature to the geography of this part.
According to his description, Magungo was situated on a lake so large
that no one knew its limits. Its breadth was such that, if one journeyed
two days east and the same distance west, there was no land visible on
either quarter, while to the south its direction was utterly unknown.
Large vessels arrived at Magungo from distant arid unknown parts,
bringing cowrie-shells and beads in exchange for ivory. Upon these
vessels white men had been seen. All the cowrie-shells used in Latooka
and the neighboring countries were supplied by these vessels, but none
had arrived for the last two years.

I concluded the lake was no other than the N'yanza, which, if the
position of Mangungo were correct, extended much farther north than
Speke had supposed. I determined to take the first opportunity to push
for Magungo. The white men spoken of by Wani probably referred to Arabs,
who, being simply brown, were called white men by the blacks. I was
called a VERY WHITE MAN as a distinction; but I have frequently been
obliged to take off my shirt to exhibit the difference of color between
myself and men, as my face had become brown.

The Turks had set June 23d as the time for their departure from Latooka.
On the day preceding my wife was dangerously ill with bilious fever, and
was unable to stand, and I endeavored to persuade the trader's party to
postpone their departure for a few days. They would not hear of such a
proposal; they had so irritated the Latookas that they feared an attack,
and their captain or vakeel, Ibrahim, had ordered them immediately to
vacate the country. This was a most awkward position for me. The traders
had incurred the hostility of the country, and I should bear the brunt
of it should I remain behind alone. Without their presence I should be
unable to procure porters, as the natives would not accompany my feeble
party, especially as I could offer them no other payment than beads or
copper. The rain had commenced within the last few days at Latooka, and
on the route toward Obbo we should encounter continual storms. We were
to march by a long and circuitous route to avoid the rocky passes that
would be dangerous in the present spirit of the country, especially as
the traders possessed large herds that must accompany the party. They
allowed five days' march for the distance to Obbo by the intended route.
This was not an alluring programme for the week's entertainment, with
my wife almost in a dying state! However, I set to work and fitted an
angarep with arched hoops from end to end, so as to form a frame like
the cap of a wagon. This I covered with two waterproof Abyssinian tanned
hides securely strapped, and lashing two long poles parallel to the
sides of the angarep, I formed an excellent palanquin. In this she was
assisted, and we started on June 23d.

On our arrival at Obbo both my wife and I were excessively ill with
bilious fever, and neither could assist the other. The old chief of
Obbo, Katchiba, hearing that we were dying, came to charm us with some
magic spell. He found us lying helpless, and immediately procured a
small branch of a tree, and filling his month with water he squirted it
over the leaves and about the floor of the hut. He then waved the branch
around my wife's head, also around mine, and completed the ceremony by
sticking it in the thatch above the doorway. He told us we should now
get better, and, perfectly satisfied, took his leave.

The hut was swarming with rats and white ants, the former racing over
our bodies during the night and burrowing through the floor, filling our
only room with mounds like molehills. As fast as we stopped the holes,
others were made with determined perseverance. Having a supply of
arsenic, I gave them an entertainment, the effect being disagreeable
to all parties, as the rats died in their holes and created a horrible
effluvium, while fresh hosts took the place of the departed. Now and
then a snake would be seen gliding within the thatch, having taken
shelter front the pouring rain.

The small-pox was raging throughout the country, and the natives were
dying like flies in winter. The country was extremely unhealthy, owing
to the constant rain and the rank herbage, which prevented a free
circulation of air, and the extreme damp induced fevers. The temperature
was 65 degrees Fahr. at night and 72 degrees during the day; dense
clouds obscured the sun for many days, and the air was reeking with
moisture. In the evening it was always necessary to keep a blazing fire
within the hut, as the floor and walls were wet and chilly.

The wet herbage disagreed with my baggage animals.

Innumerable flies appeared, including the tsetse, and in a few weeks the
donkeys had no hair left, either on their ears or legs. They drooped and
died one by one. It was in vain that I erected sheds and lighted fires;
nothing would protect them from the flies. The moment the fires were lit
the animals would rush wildly into the smoke, from which nothing would
drive them; and in the clouds of imaginary protection they would remain
all day, refusing food. On the 16th of July my last horse, Mouse, died.
He had a very long tail, for which I obtained A COW IN EXCHANGE.
Nothing was prized so highly as horses' tails, the hairs being used for
stringing beads and also for making tufts as ornaments, to be suspended
from the elbows. It was highly fashionable in Obbo for the men to wear
such tufts formed of the bushy ends of cows' tails. It was also "the
thing" to wear six or eight polished rings of iron, fastened so tightly
round the throat as almost to choke the wearer, and somewhat resembling

For months we dragged on a miserable existence at Obbo, wrecked by
fever. The quinine was exhausted; thus the disease worried me almost to
death, returning at intervals of a few days. Fortunately my wife did
not suffer so much as I did. I had nevertheless prepared for the journey
south, and as travelling on foot would have been impossible in our weak
state, I had purchased and trained three oxen in lieu of horses. They
were named "Beef," "Steaks," and "Suet." "Beef" was a magnificent
animal, but having been bitten by the flies he so lost his condition
that I changed his name to "Bones." We were ready to start, and the
natives reported that early in January the Asua would be fordable. I had
arranged with Ibrahim that he should supply me with porters for payment
in copper bracelets, and that he should accompany me with one hundred
men to Kamrasi's country (Unyoro) on condition that he would restrain
his people from all misdemeanors, and that they should be entirely
subservient to me.

It was the month of December, and during the nine, months that I had
been in correspondence with his party I had succeeded in acquiring an
extraordinary influence. Although my camp was nearly three quarters of
a mile from their zareeba, I had been besieged daily for many months
for everything that was wanted. My camp was a kind of general store that
appeared to be inexhaustible. I gave all that I had with a good grace,
and thereby gained the good-will of the robbers, especially as my large
medicine chest contained a supply of drugs that rendered me in their
eyes a physician of the first importance. I had been very successful
with my patients, and the medicines that I generally used being those
which produced a very decided effect, both the Turks and natives
considered them with perfect faith. There was seldom any difficulty
in prognosticating the effect of tartar emetic, and this became the
favorite drug that was almost daily applied for, a dose of three grains
enchanting the patient, who always advertised my fame by saying "He
told me I should be sick, and, by Allah! there was no mistake about it."
Accordingly there was a great run upon the tartar emetic.

Many people in Debono's camp had died, including several of my deserters
who had joined them. News was brought that in three separate fights with
the natives my deserters had been killed on every occasion, and my men
and those of Ibrahim unhesitatingly declared it was the "hand of God."
None of Ibrahim's men had died since we left Latooka. One man, who
had been badly wounded by a lance thrust through his abdomen, I had
successfully treated; and the trading party, who would at one time
gladly have exterminated me, now exclaimed, "What shall we do when the
Sowar (traveller) leaves the country?" Mrs. Baker had been exceedingly
kind to the women and children of both the traders and natives, and
together we had created so favorable an impression that we were always
referred to as umpires in every dispute. My own men, although indolent,
were so completely disciplined that they would not have dared to disobey
an order, and they looked back upon their former mutinous conduct with
surprise at their own audacity, and declared that they feared to return
to Khartoum, as they were sure that I would not forgive them.

One day, hearing a great noise of voices and blowing of horns in the
direction of Katchiba's residence, I sent to inquire the cause. The old
chief himself appeared very angry and excited. He said that his people
were very bad, that they had been making a great noise and finding fault
with him because he had not supplied them with a few showers, as they
wanted to sow their crop of tullaboon. There had been no rain for about
a fortnight.

"Well," I replied, "you are the rain-maker; why don't you give your
people rain?" "Give my people rain!" said Katchiba. "I give them rain if
they don't give me goats? You don't know my people. If I am fool enough
to give them rain before they give me the goats, they would let me
starve! No, no! let them wait. If they don't bring me supplies of corn,
goats, fowls, yams, merissa, and all that I require, not one drop of
rain shall ever fall again in Obbo! Impudent brutes are my people! Do
you know, they have positively threatened to kill me unless I bring the

"They shan't have a drop. I will wither the crops and bring a plague upon
their flocks. I'll teach these rascals to insult me!"

With all this bluster, I saw that old Katchiba was in a great dilemma,
and that he would give anything for a shower, but that lie did not know
how to get out of the scrape. It was a common freak of the tribes to
sacrifice the rain-maker should he be unsuccessful. He suddenly altered
his tone, and asked, "Have you any rain in your country?" I replied that
we had, every now and then. "How do you bring it? Are you a rain-maker?"
I told him that no one believed in rain-makers in our country, but that
we understood how to bottle lightning (meaning electricity). "I don't
keep mine in bottles, but I have a houseful of thunder and lightning,"
he most coolly replied; "but if you can bottle lightning, you must
understand rain-making. What do you think of the weather to-day?"
I immediately saw the drift of the cunning old Katchiba; he wanted
professional advice. I replied that he must know all about it, as he was
a regular rain-maker. "Of course I do," he answered, "but I want to know
what YOU think of it." "Well," I said, "I don't think we shall have any
steady rain, but I think we may have a heavy shower in about four days."
I said this as I had observed fleecy clouds gathering daily in the
afternoon. "Just my opinion!" said Katchiba, delighted. "In four or
perhaps in five days I intend to give then one shower--just one shower.
Yes, I'll just step down to them now and tell the rascals that if they
will bring me some goats by this evening and some corn to-morrow morning
I will give them in four or five days just one shower." To give effect
to his declaration he gave several toots upon his magic whistle. "Do
you use whistles in your country?" inquired Katchiba. I only replied
by giving so shrill and deafening a whistle on my fingers that Katchiba
stopped his ears, and relapsing into a smile of admiration he took a
glance at the sky from the doorway to see if any sudden effect had been
produced. "Whistle again," he said, and once more I performed like the
whistle of a locomotive. "That will do; we shall have it," said the
cunning old rain-maker, and proud of having so knowingly obtained
"counsel's opinion" on his case, he toddled off to his impatient

In a few days a sudden storm of rain and violent thunder added to
Katchiba's renown, and after the shower horns were blowing and nogaras
were beating in honor of their chief. Entre nous, my whistle was
considered infallible.

A bad attack of fever laid me up until the 31st of December. On the
first day of January, 1864, I was hardly able to stand, and was nearly
worn out at the very time that I required my strength, as we were to
start south in a few days. Although my quinine had been long since
exhausted, I had reserved ten grains to enable me to start in case the
fever should attack me at the time of departure. I now swallowed my last

It was difficult to procure porters; therefore I left all my effects at
my camp in charge of two of my men, and I determined to travel light,
without the tent, and to take little beyond ammunition and cooking
utensils. Ibrahim left forty-five men in his zareeba, and on the 5th of
January we started.

In four days' march we reached the Asua River, and on January 13th
arrived at Shooa, in latitude 3 degrees 4'.

Two days after our arrival at Shooa all of our Obbo porters absconded.
They had heard that we were bound for Kamrasi's country, and having
received exaggerated accounts of his power from the Shooa people, they
had determined upon retreat; thus we were at once unable to proceed,
unless we could procure porters from Shooa. This was exceedingly
difficult, as Kamrasi was well known here, and was not loved. His
country was known as "Quanda," and I at once recognized the corruption
of Speke's "Uganda." The slave woman "Bacheeta," who had formerly given
me in Obbo so much information concerning Kamrasi's country, was to
be our interpreter; but we also had the luck to discover a lad who
had formerly been employed by Mahommed in Faloro, who also spoke the
language of Quanda, and had learned a little Arabic.

I now discovered that the slave woman Bacheeta had formerly been in the
service of a chief named Sali, who had been killed by Kamrasi. Sali was
a friend of Rionga (Kamrasi's greatest enemy), and I had been warned
by Speke not to set foot upon Rionga's territory, or all travelling in
Unyoro would be cut off. I plainly saw that Bacheeta was in favor
of Rionga, as a friend of the murdered Sali, by whom she had had two
children, and that she would most likely tamper with the guide, and that
we should be led to Rionga instead of to Kamrasi. There were "wheels
within wheels."

It was now reported that in the last year, immediately after the
departure of Speke and Grant from Gondokoro, Debono's people had marched
directly to Rionga, allied themselves to him, crossed the Nile with his
people, and had attacked Kamrasi's country, killing about three hundred
of his men, and capturing many slaves. I now understood why they had
deceived me at Gondokoro: they had obtained information of the country
from Speke's people, and had made use of it by immediately attacking
Kamrasi in conjunction with Rionga.

This would be a pleasant introduction for me on entering Unyoro, as
almost immediately after the departure of Speke and Grant, Kamrasi had
been invaded by the very people into whose hands his messengers had
delivered them, when they were guided from Unyoro to the Turks' station
at Faloro. He would naturally have considered that the Turks had been
sent by Speke to attack him; thus the road appeared closed to all
exploration, through the atrocities of Debono's people.

Many of Ibrahim's men, at hearing this intelligence, refused to proceed
to Unyoro. Fortunately for me, Ibrahim had been extremely unlucky in
procuring ivory. The year had almost passed away, and he had a mere
nothing with which to return to Gondokoro. I impressed upon him how
enraged Koorshid would be should he return with such a trifle. Already
his own men declared that he was neglecting razzias because he was to
receive a present from me if we reached Unyoro. This they would report
to his master (Koorshid), and it would be believed should he fail in
securing ivory. I guaranteed him 100 cantars (10,000 pounds) if he would
push on at all hazards with me to Kamrasi and secure me porters from
Shooa. Ibrahim behaved remarkably well. For some time past I had
acquired a great influence over him, and he depended so thoroughly upon
my opinion that he declared himself ready to do all that I suggested.
Accordingly I desired him to call his men together, and to leave in
Shooa all those who were disinclined to follow us.

At once I arranged for a start, lest some fresh idea should enter the
ever-suspicious brains of our followers and mar the expedition. It
was difficult to procure porters, and I abandoned all that was not
indispensable--our last few pounds of rice and coffee, and even the
great sponging-bath, that emblem of civilization that had been clung to
even when the tent had been left behind.

On the 18th of January, 1864, we left Shooa. The pure air of that
country had invigorated us, and I was so improved in strength that I
enjoyed the excitement of the launch into unknown lands. The Turks
knew nothing of the route south, and I accordingly took the lead of the
entire party. I had come to a distinct understanding with Ibrahim that
Kamrasi's country should belong to ME; not an act of felony would be
permitted; all were to be under my government, and I would insure him at
least 100 cantars of tusks.

Eight miles of agreeable march through the usual park-like country
brought us to the village of Fatiko, situated upon a splendid plateau
of rock upon elevated ground with beautiful granite cliffs, bordering a
level table-land of fine grass that would have formed a race-course. The
high rocks were covered with natives, perched upon the outline like a
flock of ravens.

We halted to rest under some fine trees growing among large isolated
blocks of granite and gneiss. In a short time the natives assembled
around us. They were wonderfully friendly, and insisted upon a personal
introduction to both myself and Mrs. Baker. We were thus compelled to
hold a levee--not the passive and cold ceremony of Europe, but a most
active undertaking, as each native that was introduced performed the
salaam of his country by seizing both my hands and raising my arms
three times to their full stretch above my head. After about one hundred
Fatikos had been thus gratified by our submission to this infliction,
and our arms had been subjected to at least three hundred stretches
each, I gave the order to saddle the oxen immediately, and we escaped a
further proof of Fatiko affection that was already preparing, as masses
of natives were streaming down the rocks hurrying to be introduced.
Notwithstanding the fatigue of the ceremony, I took a great fancy to
these poor people. They had prepared a quantity of merissa and a sheep
for our lunch, which they begged us to remain and enjoy before we
started; but the pumping action of half a village not yet gratified by
a presentation was too much, and mounting our oxen with aching shoulders
we bade adieu to Fatiko.

On the following day our guide lost the road; a large herd of elephants
had obscured it by trampling hundreds of paths in all directions. The
wind was strong from the north, and I proposed to clear the country to
the south by firing the prairies. There were numerous deep swamps in the
bottoms between the undulations, and upon arrival at one of these green
dells we fired the grass on the opposite side. In a few minutes it
roared before us, and we enjoyed the grand sight of the boundless
prairies blazing like infernal regions, and rapidly clearing a path
south. Flocks of buzzards and the beautiful varieties of fly-catchers
thronged to the dense smoke to prey upon the innumerable insects that
endeavored to escape from the approaching fire.


Greeting from Kamrasi's people--Suffering for the sins of others--Alone
among savages--The free-masonry of Unyoro--Pottery and civilization.

After an exceedingly fatiguing march we reached the Somerset River,
or Victoria White Nile, January 22d. I went to the river to see if the
other side was inhabited. There were two villages on an island, and
the natives came across in a canoe, bringing the BROTHER OF RIONGA.
The guide, as I had feared during the journey, had deceived us, and
following the secret instructions of the slave woman Bacheeta, had
brought us directly to Rionga's country.

The natives at first had taken us for Mahomet Wat-el-Mek's people;
but, finding their mistake, they would give us no information. We
could obtain no supplies from them; but they returned to the island
and shouted out that we might go to Kamrasi if we wished, but we should
receive no assistance from them.

After a most enjoyable march through the exciting scenery of the
glorious river crashing over innumerable falls, and in many places
ornamented with rocky islands, upon which were villages and plantain
groves, we at length approached the Karuma Falls, close to the village
of Atada above the ferry. The heights were crowded with natives, and a
canoe was sent across to within parleying distance of our side, as the
roar of the rapids prevented our voices from being heard except at a
short distance. Bacheeta now explained that "SPEKE'S BROTHER had arrived
from his country to pay Kamrasi a visit, and had brought him valuable

"Why has he brought so many men with him?" inquired the people from the

"There are so many presents for the M'Kamma (king) that he has many men
to carry them," shouted Bacheeta.

"Let us look at him!" cried the headman in the boat. Having prepared for
the introduction by changing my clothes in a grove of plantains for
my dressing-room, and altering my costume to a tweed suit, something
similar to that worn by Speke, I climbed up a high and almost
perpendicular rock that formed a natural pinnacle on the face of the
cliff, and waving my cap to the crowd on the opposite side, I looked
almost as imposing as Nelson in Trafalgar Square.

I instructed Bacheeta, who climbed up the giddy height after me, to
shout to the people that an English lady, my wife, had also arrived, and
that we wished immediately to be presented to the king and his family,
as we had come to thank him for his kind treatment of Speke and Grant,
who had arrived safe in their own country. Upon this being explained and
repeated several times the canoe approached the shore.

I ordered all our people to retire and to conceal themselves among
the plantains, that the natives might not be startled by so imposing a
force, while Mrs. Baker and I advanced alone to meet Kamrasi's people,
who were men of some importance. Upon landing through the high reeds,
they immediately recognized the similarity of my beard and general
complexion to those of Speke, and their welcome was at once displayed by
the most extravagant dancing and gesticulating with lances and shields,
as though intending to attack, rushing at me with the points of their
lances thrust close to my face, and shouting and singing in great

I made each of them a present of a bead necklace, and explained to them
my wish that there should be no delay in my presentation to Kamrasi, as
Speke had complained that he had been kept waiting fifteen days
before the king had condescended to see him; that if this occurred no
Englishman would ever visit him, as such a reception would be considered
an insult. The headman replied that he felt sure I was not an impostor;
but that very shortly after the departure of Speke and Grant in the
previous year a number of people had arrived in their name, introducing
themselves as their greatest friends. They had been ferried across the
river, and well received by Kamrasi's orders, and had been presented
with ivory, slaves, and leopard-skins, as tokens of friendship; but they
had departed, and suddenly returned with Rionga's people, and attacked
the village in which they had been so well received; and upon the
country being assembled to resist them, about three hundred of Kamrasi's
men had been killed in the fight. The king had therefore given orders
that upon pain of death no stranger should cross the river.

He continued, that when he saw our people marching along the bank of
the river they imagined us to be the same party that had attacked
them formerly, and they were prepared to resist us, and had sent on
a messenger to Kamrasi, who was three days' march from Karuma, at his
capital, M'rooli; until they received a reply it would be impossible to
allow us to enter the country. He promised to despatch another messenger
immediately to inform the king who we were, but that we must certainly
wait until his return. I explained that we had nothing to eat, and
that it would be very inconvenient to remain in such a spot; that I
considered the suspicion displayed was exceedingly unfair, as they must
see that my wife and I were white people like Speke and Grant, whereas
those who had deceived them were of a totally different race, all being
either black or brown.

I told him that it did not much matter; that I had very beautiful
presents intended for Kamrasi, but that another great king would be only
too glad to accept them, without throwing obstacles in my way. I should
accordingly return with my presents.

At the same time I ordered a handsome Persian carpet, about fifteen feet
square, to be displayed as one of the presents intended for the king.
The gorgeous colors, as the carpet was unfolded, produced a general
exclamation. Before the effect of astonishment wore off I had a basket
unpacked, and displayed upon a cloth a heap of superb necklaces, that
we had prepared while at Obbo, of the choicest beads, many as large as
marbles, and glittering with every color of the rainbow. The garden of
jewels of Aladdin's wonderful lamp could not have produced more enticing
fruit. Beads were extremely rare in Kamrasi's land; the few that existed
had arrived from Zanzibar, and all that I exhibited were entirely new
varieties. I explained that I had many other presents, but that it was
not necessary to unpack them, as we were about to return with them to
visit another king, who lived some days' journey distant. "Don't go;
don't go away," said the headman and his companions. "Kamrasi will--"
Here an unmistakable pantomimic action explained their meaning better
than words; throwing their heads well back, they sawed across their
throats with their forefingers, making horrible grimaces, indicative of
the cutting of throats. I could not resist laughing at the terror that
my threat of returning with the presents had created. They explained
that Kamrasi would not only kill them, but would destroy the entire
village of Atada should we return without visiting him; but that he
would perhaps punish them in precisely the same manner should they ferry
us across without special orders. "Please yourselves," I replied; "if my
party is not ferried across by the time the sun reaches that spot on
the heavens (pointing to the position it would occupy at about 3 P.M.)
I shall return." In a state of great excitement they promised to hold
a conference on the other side, and to see what arrangements could
be made. They returned to Atada, leaving the whole party, including
Ibrahim, exceedingly disconcerted, having nothing to eat, an impassable
river before us, and five days' march of uninhabited wilderness in our

The whole day passed in shouting and gesticulating our peaceful
intentions to the crowd assembled on the heights on the opposite side
of the river; but the boat did not return until long after the time
appointed. Even then the natives would only approach sufficiently near
to be heard, but nothing would induce them to land. They explained that
there was a division of opinion among the people on the other side: some
were in favor of receiving us, but the greater number were of opinion
that we intended hostilities; therefore we must wait until orders could
be sent from the king.

To assure the people of our peaceful intentions, I begged them to take
Mrs. Baker and myself alone, and to leave the armed party on this side
of the river until a reply should be received from Kamrasi. At this
suggestion the boat immediately returned to the other side.

The day passed away, and as the sun set we perceived the canoe again
paddling across the river. This time it approached directly, and the
same people landed that had received the necklaces in the morning. They
said that they had held a conference with the headman, and that they
had agreed to receive my wife and myself, but no other person. I replied
that my servants must accompany us, as we were quite as great personages
as Kamrasi, and could not possibly travel without attendants. To this
they demurred; therefore I dropped the subject, and proposed to load the
canoe with all the presents intended for Kamrasi. There was no objection
to this, and I ordered Richarn, Saat, and Ibrahim to get into the canoe
to stow away the luggage as it should be handed to them, but on
no account to leave the boat. I had already prepared everything in
readiness, and a bundle of rifles tied up in a large blanket and
500 rounds of ball cartridge were unconsciously received on board as
PRESENTS. I had instructed Ibrahim to accompany us as my servant, as he
was better than most of the men in the event of a row; and I had given
orders that, in case of a preconcerted signal being given, the whole
force should swim the river, supporting themselves and guns upon bundles
of papyrus rush. The men thought us perfectly mad, and declared that
we should be murdered immediately when on the other side; however, they
prepared for crossing the river in case of treachery.

At the last moment, when the boat was about to leave the shore, two of
the best men jumped in with their guns. However, the natives positively
refused to start; therefore, to avoid suspicion, I ordered them to
retire, but I left word that on the morrow I would send the canoe across
with supplies, and that one or two men should endeavor to accompany the
boat to our side on every trip.

It was quite dark when we started. The canoe was formed of a large
hollow tree, capable of holding twenty people, and the natives paddled
us across the rapid current just below the falls. A large fire was
blazing upon the opposite shore, on a level with the river, to guide us
to the landing-place. Gliding through a narrow passage in the reeds, we
touched the shore and landed upon a slippery rock, close to the fire,
amid a crowd of people, who immediately struck up a deafening welcome
with horns and flageolets, and marched us up the steep face of the rocky
cliff through a dark grove of bananas. Torches led the way, followed
by a long file of spearmen; then came the noisy band and ourselves, I
towing my wife up the precipitous path, while my few attendants followed
behind with a number of natives who had volunteered to carry the

On arrival at the top of the cliff, we were about 180 feet above
the river; and after a walk of about a quarter of a mile, we were
triumphantly led into the heart of the village, and halted in a small
courtyard in front of the headman's residence.

Keedja waited to receive us by a blazing fire. Not having had anything
to eat, we were uncommonly hungry, and to our great delight a basketful
of ripe plantains was presented to us. These were the first that I had
seen for many years. A gourd bottle of plantain wine was offered and
immediately emptied; it resembled extremely poor cider. We were now
surrounded by a mass of natives, no longer the naked savages to whom we
had been accustomed, but well-dressed men, wearing robes of bark cloth,
arranged in various fashions, generally like the Arab "tope" or the
Roman toga. Several of the headmen now explained to us the atrocious
treachery of Debono's men, who had been welcomed as friends of Speke and
Grant, but who had repaid the hospitality by plundering and massacring
their hosts. I assured them that no one would be more wroth than Speke
when I should make him aware of the manner in which his name had been
used, and that I should make a point of reporting the circumstance to
the British Government. At the same time I advised them not to trust
any but white people should others arrive in my name or in the names of
Speke and Grant. I upheld their character as that of Englishmen, and I
begged them to state if ever they had deceived them. They replied that
"there could not be better men." I answered, "You MUST trust me, as I
trust entirely in you, and have placed myself in your hands; but if you
have ever had cause to mistrust a white man, kill me at once!--either
kill me or trust in me; but let there be no suspicions."

They seemed much pleased with the conversation, and a man stepped
forward and showed me a small string of blue beads that Speke bad given
him for ferrying him across the river. This little souvenir of my
old friend was most interesting. After a year's wandering and many
difficulties, this was the first time that I had actually come upon
his track. Many people told me that they had known Speke and Grant; the
former bore the name of "Mollegge" (the bearded one), while Grant had
been named "Masanga" (the elephant's tusk), owing to his height. The
latter had been wounded at Lucknow during the Indian mutiny, and I spoke
to the people of the loss of his finger. This crowned my success, as
they knew without doubt that I had seen him. It was late, therefore I
begged the crowd to depart, but to send a messenger the first thing in
the morning to inform Kamrasi who we were, and to beg him to permit us
to visit him without loss of time.

A bundle of straw was laid on the ground for Mrs. Baker and myself,
and, in lieu of other beds, the ground was our resting-place. We were
bitterly cold that night, as the guns were packed up in the large
blanket, and, not wishing to expose them, we were contented with a
Scotch plaid each. Ibrahim, Saat, and Richarn watched by turns.

On the following morning an immense crowd of natives thronged to see us.
There was a very beautiful tree about a hundred yards from the village,
capable of shading upward of a thousand men, and I proposed that we
should sit beneath this protection and hold a conference. The headman
of the village gave us a large hut with a grand doorway about seven feet
high, of which my wife took possession, while I joined the crowd at the
tree. There were about six hundred men seated respectfully on the ground
around me, while I sat with my back to the huge knotty trunk, with
Ibrahim and Richarn at a few paces distant.

The subject of conversation was merely a repetition of that of the
preceding night, with the simple addition of some questions respecting
the lake. Not a man would give the slightest information; the only
reply, upon my forcing the question, was the pantomime already
described, passing the forefinger across the throat, and exclaiming
"Kamrasi!" The entire population was tongue-locked. I tried the children
to no purpose: they were all dumb. White-headed old men I questioned,
as to the distance of the lake from this point. They replied, "We
are children; ask the old people who know the country." Never was
freemasonry more secret than in the land of Unyoro. It was useless to
persevere. I therefore changed the subject by saying that our people
were starving on the other side, and that provisions must be sent
immediately. In all savage countries the most trifling demand requires
much talking. They said that provisions were scarce, and that
until Kamrasi should give the order, they could give no supplies.
Understanding most thoroughly the natural instincts of the natives, I
told them that I must send the canoe across to fetch three oxen that I
wished to slaughter. The bait took at once, and several men ran for the
canoe, and we sent one of our black women across with a message to the
people that three men, with their guns and ammunition, were to accompany
the canoe and guide three oxen across by swimming them with ropes tied
to their horns. These were the riding oxen of some of the men that it
was necessary to slaughter, to exchange the flesh for flour and other

Hardly had the few boatmen departed than some one shouted suddenly, and
the entire crowd sprang to their feet and rushed toward the hut where I
had left Mrs. Baker. For the moment I thought that the hut was on fire,
and I joined the crowd and arrived at the doorway, where I found
a tremendous press to see some extraordinary sight. Every one was
squeezing for the best place, and, driving them on one side, I found
the wonder that had excited their curiosity. The hut being very dark, my
wife had employed her solitude during my conference with the natives, in
dressing her hair at the doorway, which, being very long and blonde, was
suddenly noticed by some natives; a shout was given, the rush described
had taken place, and the hut was literally mobbed by the crowd of
savages eager to see the extraordinary novelty. The gorilla would not
make a greater stir in London streets than we appeared to create at

The oxen shortly arrived; one was immediately killed, and the flesh
divided into numerous small portions arranged upon the hide. Blonde
hair and white people immediately lost their attractions, and the crowd
turned their attention to beef. We gave them to understand that we
required flour, beans, and sweet potatoes in exchange.

The market soon went briskly, and the canoe was laden with provisions
and sent across to our hungry people on the other side the river.

The difference between the Unyoro people and the tribes we had hitherto
seen was most striking. On the north side of the river the natives were
either stark naked or wore a mere apology for clothing in the shape of a
skin slung across their shoulders. The river appeared to be the limit
of utter savagedom, and the people of Unyoro considered the indecency of
nakedness precisely in the same light as Europeans.

Nearly all savages have some idea of earthenware; but the scale
of advancement of a country between savagedom and civilization may
generally be determined by the style of its pottery. The Chinese, who
were as civilized as they are at the present day at a period when the
English were barbarians, were ever celebrated for the manufacture of
porcelain, and the difference between savage and civilized countries is
always thus exemplified; the savage makes earthenware, but the civilized
make porcelain; thus the gradations from the rudest earthenware will
mark the improvement in the scale of civilization. The prime utensil of
the African savage is a gourd, the shell of which is the bowl presented
to him by nature as the first idea from which he is to model. Nature,
adapting herself to the requirements of animals and man, appears in
these savage countries to yield abundantly much that savage man can
want. Gourds with exceedingly strong shells not only grow wild, which
if divided in halves afford bowls, but great and quaint varieties
form natural bottles of all sizes, from the tiny vial to the demijohn
containing five gallons.

The most savage tribes content themselves with the productions of
nature, confining their manufacture to a coarse and half-baked jar for
carrying water; but the semi-savage, like those of Unyoro, afford an
example of the first step toward manufacturing art, by their COPYING
FROM NATURE. The utter savage makes use of nature--the gourd is his
utensil; and the more advanced natives of Unyoro adopt it as the model
for their pottery. They make a fine quality of jet-black earthenware,
producing excellent tobacco-pipes most finely worked in imitation of
the small egg-shaped gourd. Of the same earthenware they make extremely
pretty bowls, and also bottles copied from the varieties of the bottle
gourds; thus, in this humble art, we see the first effort of the human
mind in manufactures, in taking nature for a model, precisely as the
beautiful Corinthian capital originated in a design from a basket of

In two days reports were brought that Kamrasi had sent a large force,
including several of Speke's deserters, to inspect me and see if I was
really Speke's brother. I received them standing, and after thorough
inspection I was pronounced to be "Speke's own brother," and all were
satisfied. However, the business was not yet over; plenty of talk, and
another delay of four days was declared necessary until the king should
reply to the satisfactory message about to be sent. Losing all patience,
I stormed, declaring Kamrasi to be mere dust, while a white man was a
king in comparison. I ordered all my luggage to be conveyed immediately
to the canoe, and declared that I would return immediately to my own
country; that I did not wish to see any one so utterly devoid of manners
as Kamrasi, and that no other white man would ever visit his kingdom.

The effect was magical! I rose hastily to depart. The chiefs implored,
declaring that Kamrasi would kill them all if I retreated, to prevent
which misfortune they secretly instructed the canoe to be removed. I was
in a great rage, and about 400 natives, who were present, scattered in
all quarters, thinking that there would be a serious quarrel. I told the
chiefs that nothing should stop me, and that I would seize the canoe
by force unless my whole party should be brought over from the opposite
side that instant. This was agreed upon. One of Ibrahim's men exchanged
and drank blood from the arm of Speke's deserter, who was Kamrasi's
representative; and peace thus firmly established, several canoes were
at once employed, and sixty of our men were brought across the river
before sunset. The natives had nevertheless taken the precaution to send
all their women away from the village.


Kamrasi's cowardice--Interview with the king--The exchange of blood--The
royal beggar's last chance--An astounded sovereign.

On January 31st throngs of natives arrived to carry our luggage gratis,
by the king's orders. On the following day my wife became very ill, and
had to be carried on a litter during the following days. On February 4th
I also fell ill upon the road, and having been held on my ox by two men
for some time, I at length fell into their arms and was laid under a
tree for five hours. Becoming better, I rode on for two hours.

On the route we were delayed in every possible way. I never saw such
cowardice as the redoubtable Kamrasi exhibited. He left his residence
and retreated to the opposite side of the river, from which point he
sent us false messages to delay our advance as much as possible. He had
not the courage either to repel us or to receive us. On February 9th he
sent word that I was to come on ALONE. I at once turned back, stating
that I no longer wished to see Kamrasi, as he must be a mere fool, and
I should return to my own country. This created a great stir, and
messengers were at once despatched to the king, who returned an answer
that I might bring all my men, but that only five of the Turks could be
allowed with Ibrahim.

After a quick march of three hours through immense woods we reached the
capital--a large village of grass huts situated on a barren slope. We
were ferried across a river in large canoes, capable of carrying fifty
men, but formed of a single tree upward of four feet wide. Kamrasi
was reported to be in his residence on the opposite side; but upon our
arrival at the south bank we found ourselves thoroughly deceived. We
were upon a miserable flat, level with the river, and in the wet season
forming a marsh at the junction of the Kafoor River with the Somerset.
The latter river bounded the flat on the east, very wide and sluggish,
and much overgrown with papyrus and lotus. The river we had just crossed
was the Kafoor. It was perfectly dead water and about eighty yards wide,
including the beds of papyrus on either side. We were shown some filthy
huts that were to form our camp. The spot was swarming with mosquitoes,
and we had nothing to eat except a few fowls that I had brought with me.
Kamrasi was on the OTHER SIDE OF THE RIVER; they had cunningly separated
us from him, and had returned with the canoes. Thus we were prisoners
upon the swamp. This was our welcome from the King of Unyoro! I now
heard that Speke and Grant had been lodged in this same spot.

Ibrahim was extremely nervous, as were also my men. They declared
that treachery was intended, as the boats had been withdrawn, and they
proposed that we should swim the river and march back to our main party,
who had been left three hours in the rear. I was ill with fever, as
was also my wife, and the unwholesome air of the marsh aggravated the
disease. Our luggage had been left at our last station, as this was
a condition stipulated by Kamrasi; thus we had to sleep upon the
damp ground of the marsh in the filthy hut, as the heavy dew at night
necessitated shelter. With great difficulty I accompanied Ibrahim and
a few men to the bank of the river where we had landed the day before,
and, climbing upon a white ant hill to obtain a view over the high
reeds, I scanned the village with a telescope. The scene was rather
exciting; crowds of people were rushing about in all directions and
gathering from all quarters toward the river; the slope from the river
to the town M'rooli was black with natives, and I saw about a dozen
large canoes preparing to transport them to our side. I returned from my
elevated observatory to Ibrahim, who, on the low ground only a few yards
distant, could not see the opposite side of the river owing to the high
grass and reeds. Without saying more, I merely begged him to mount upon
the ant hill and look toward M'rooli. Hardly had he cast a glance at the
scene described, than he jumped down from his stand and cried, "They
are going to attack us!" "Let us retreat to the camp and prepare for
a fight!" "Let us fire at them from here as they cross in the canoes,"
cried others; "the buckshot will clear them off when packed in the
boats." This my panic-stricken followers would have done had I not been

"Fools!" I said, "do you not see that the natives have no SHIELDS with
them, but merely lances? Would they commence an attack without their
shields? Kamrasi is coming in state to visit us." This idea was by no
means accepted by my people, and we reached our little camp, and, for
the sake of precaution, stationed the men in position behind a hedge of
thorns. Ibrahim had managed to bring twelve picked men instead of five
as stipulated; thus we were a party of twenty-four. I was of very little
use, as the fever was so strong upon me that I lay helpless on the

In a short time the canoes arrived, and for about an hour they were
employed in crossing and recrossing, and landing great numbers of men,
until they at length advanced and took possession of some huts about 200
yards from our camp. They now hallooed that Kamrasi had arrived,
and, seeing some oxen with the party, I felt sure they had no evil
intentions. I ordered my men to carry me in their arms to the king,
and to accompany me with the presents, as I was determined to have a
personal interview, although only fit for a hospital.

Upon my approach, the crowd gave way, and I was shortly laid on a mat
at the king's feet. He was a fine-looking man, but with a peculiar
expression of countenance, owing to his extremely prominent eyes; he was
about six feet high, beautifully clean, and was dressed in a long robe
of bark cloth most gracefully folded. The nails of his hands and feet
were carefully attended to, and his complexion was about as dark brown
as that of an Abyssinian. He sat upon a copper stool placed upon a
carpet of leopard-skins, and he was surrounded by about ten of his
principal chiefs.

Our interpreter, Bacheeta, now informed him who I was, and what were my
intentions. He said that he was sorry I had been so long on the road,
but that he had been obliged to be cautious, having been deceived by
Debono's people. I replied that I was an Englishman, a friend of Speke
and Grant, that they had described the reception they had met with from
him, and that I had come to thank him, and to offer him a few presents
in return for his kindness, and to request him to give me a guide to the
Lake Luta N'zige. He laughed at the name, and repeated it several times
with his chiefs. He then said it was not LUTA, but M-WOOTAN N'zige;
but that it was SIX MONTHS' journey from M'rooli, and that in my weak
condition I could not possibly reach it; that I should die upon the
road, and that the king of my country would perhaps imagine that I had
been murdered, and might invade his territory. I replied that I was weak
with the toil of years in the hot countries of Africa, but that I was in
search of the great lake, and should not return until I had succeeded;
that I had no king, but a powerful Queen who watched over all her
subjects, and that no Englishman could be murdered with impunity;
therefore he should send me to the lake without delay, and there would
be the less chance of my dying in his country.

I explained that the river Nile flowed for a distance of two years'
journey through wonderful countries, and reached the sea, from which
many valuable articles would be sent to him in exchange for ivory, could
I only discover the great lake. As a proof of this, I had brought him a
few curiosities that I trusted he would accept, and I regretted that the
impossibility of procuring porters had necessitated the abandonment of
others that had been intended for him.

I ordered the men to unpack the Persian carpet, which was spread upon
the ground before him. I then gave him an Abba (large white Cashmere
mantle), a red silk netted sash, a pair of scarlet Turkish shoes,
several pairs of socks, a double-barrelled gun and ammunition, and a
great heap of first-class beads made up into gorgeous necklaces and
girdles. He took very little notice of the presents, but requested that
the gun might be fired off. This was done, to the utter confusion of the
crowd, who rushed away in such haste that they tumbled over each other
like so many rabbits. This delighted the king, who, although himself
startled, now roared with laughter. He told me that I must be hungry and
thirsty; therefore he hoped I would accept something to eat and drink.
Accordingly he presented me with seventeen cows, twenty pots of sour
plantain cider, and many loads of unripe plantains. I inquired whether
Speke had left a medicine-chest with him. He replied that it was a very
feverish country, and that he and his people had used all the medicine.
Thus my last hope of quinine was cut off. I had always trusted to obtain
a supply from the king, as Speke had told me that he had left a bottle
with him. It was quite impossible to obtain any information from him,
and I was carried back to my hut, where I found Mrs. Baker lying down
with fever, and neither of us could render assistance to the other.

On the following morning the king again appeared. I was better, and had
a long interview. He did not appear to heed my questions, but he at
once requested that I would ally myself with him, and attack his enemy,
Rionga. I told him that I could not embroil myself in such quarrels,
but that I had only one object, which was the lake. I requested that
he would give Ibrahim a large quantity of ivory, and that on his return
from Gondokoro he would bring him most valuable articles in exchange. He
said that he was not sure whether my belly was black or white; by this
he intended to express evil or good intentions; but that if it were
white I should, of course, have no objection to exchange blood with him,
as a proof of friendship and sincerity. This was rather too strong
a dose! I replied that it would be impossible, as in my country the
shedding of blood was considered a proof of hostility; therefore he must
accept Ibrahim as my substitute. Accordingly the arms were bared and
pricked. As the blood flowed it was licked by either party, and an
alliance was concluded. Ibrahim agreed to act with him against all his
enemies. It was arranged that Ibrahim now belonged to Kamrasi, and that
henceforth our parties should be entirely separate.

On February 21st Kamrasi was civil enough to allow us to quit the marsh.
My porters had by this time all deserted, and on the following day
Kamrasi promised to send us porters and to allow us to start at once.
There were no preparations made, however, and after some delay we were
honored by a visit from Kamrasi, who promised we should start on the
following day.

He concluded, as usual, by asking for my watch and for a number of
beads; the latter I gave him, together with a quantity of ammunition for
his guns. He showed me a beautiful double-barrelled rifle that Speke
had given him. I wished to secure this to give to Speke on my return to
England, as he had told me, when at Gondokoro, how he had been obliged
to part with that and many other articles sorely against his will. I
therefore offered to give him three common double-barrelled guns in
exchange for the rifle. This he declined, as he was quite aware of the
difference in quality. He then produced a large silver chronometer that
he had received from Speke. "It was DEAD," he said, "and he wished me
to repair it." This I declared to be impossible. He then confessed to
having explained its construction and the cause of the "ticking" to his
people, by the aid of a needle, and that it had never ticked since that
occasion. I regretted to see such "pearls cast before swine." Thus he
had plundered Speke and Grant of all they possessed before he would
allow them to proceed.

It is the rapacity of the chiefs of the various tribes that renders
African exploration so difficult. Each tribe wishes to monopolize your
entire stock of valuables, without which the traveller would be utterly
helpless. The difficulty of procuring porters limits the amount of
baggage; thus a given supply must carry you through a certain period of
time. If your supply should fail, the expedition terminates with
your power of giving. It is thus extremely difficult to arrange
the expenditure so as to satisfy all parties and still to retain a
sufficient balance. Being utterly cut off from all communication
with the world, there is no possibility of receiving assistance. The
traveller depends entirely upon himself, under Providence, and must
adapt himself and his means to circumstances.

The day of starting at length arrived. The chief and guide appeared,
and we were led to the Kafoor River, where canoes were in readiness
to transport us to the south side. This was to our old quarters on the
marsh. The direct course to the lake was west, and I fully expected some
deception, as it was impossible to trust Kamrasi. I complained to the
guide, and insisted upon his pointing out the direction of the lake,
which he did, in its real position, west; but he explained that we must
follow the south bank of the Kafoor River for some days, as there was
an impassable morass that precluded a direct course. This did not appear
satisfactory, and the whole affair looked suspicious, as we had formerly
been deceived by being led across the river to the same spot, and not
allowed to return. We were now led along the banks of the Kafoor for
about a mile, until we arrived at a cluster of huts; here we were to
wait for Kamrasi, who had promised to take leave of us. The sun was
overpowering, and we dismounted from our oxen and took shelter in a
blacksmith's shed. In about an hour Kamrasi arrived, attended by a
considerable number of men, and took his seat in our shed. I felt
convinced that his visit was simply intended to peel the last skin from
the onion. I had already given him nearly all that I had, but he hoped
to extract the whole before I should depart.

He almost immediately commenced the conversation by asking for a pretty
yellow muslin Turkish handkerchief fringed with silver drops that Mrs.
Baker wore upon her head. One of these had already been given to him,
and I explained that this was the last remaining, and that she required
it.... He "must" have it.... It was given. He then demanded other
handkerchiefs. We had literally nothing but a few most ragged towels. He
would accept no excuse, and insisted upon a portmanteau being unpacked,
that he might satisfy himself by actual inspection. The luggage, all
ready for the journey, had to be unstrapped and examined, and the rags
were displayed in succession, but so wretched and uninviting was the
exhibition of the family linen that he simply returned them, and said
they did not suit him. Beads he must have, or I was "his enemy." A
selection of the best opal beads was immediately given him. I rose
from the stone upon which I was sitting and declared that we must start
immediately. "Don't be in a hurry," he replied; "you have plenty of
time; but you have not given me that watch you promised me."... This was
my only watch that he had begged for, and had been refused, every day
during my stay at M'rooli. So pertinacious a beggar I had never seen. I
explained to him that without the watch my journey would be useless,
but that I would give him all that I had except the watch when the
exploration should be completed, as I should require nothing on my
direct return to Gondokoro. At the same time I repeated to him the
arrangement for the journey that he had promised, begging him not to
deceive me, as my wife and I should both die if we were compelled
to remain another year in this country by losing the annual boats at

The understanding was this: he was to give me porters to the lake,
where I was to be furnished with canoes to take me to Magungo, which was
situated at the junction of the Somerset. From Magungo he told me that
I should see the Nile issuing from the lake close to the spot where the
Somerset entered, and that the canoes should take me down the river,
and porters should carry my effects from the nearest point to Shooa,
and deliver me at my old station without delay. Should he be faithful to
this engagement, I trusted to procure porters from Shooa, and to reach
Gondokoro in time for the annual boats. I had arranged that a boat
should be sent from Khartoum to await me at Gondokoro early in this
year, 1864; but I felt sure that should I be long delayed, the boat
would return without me, as the people would be afraid to remain alone
at Gondokoro after the other boats had quitted.

In our present weak state another year of Central Africa without quinine
appeared to warrant death. It was a race against time; all was untrodden
ground before us, and the distance quite uncertain. I trembled for my
wife, and weighed the risk of another year in this horrible country
should we lose the boats. With the self-sacrificing devotion that she
had shown in every trial, she implored me not to think of any risks on
her account, but to push forward and discover the lake--that she had
determined not to return until she had herself reached the "M'wootan

I now requested Kamrasi to allow us to take leave, as we had not an hour
to lose. In the coolest manner he replied, "I will send you to the lake
and to Shooa, as I have promised, but YOU MUST LEAVE YOUR WIFE WITH ME!"

At that moment we were surrounded by a great number of natives, and
my suspicions of treachery at having been led across the Kafoor River
appeared confirmed by this insolent demand. If this were to be the end
of the expedition, I resolved that it should also be the end of Kamrasi,
and drawing my revolver quickly, I held it within two feet of his chest,
and looking at him with undisguised contempt, I told him that if I
touched the trigger, not all his men could save him; and that if he
dared to repeat the insult I would shoot him on the spot. At the same
time I explained to him that in my country such insolence would entail
bloodshed, and that I looked upon him as an ignorant ox who knew no
better, and that this excuse alone could save him. My wife, naturally
indignant, had risen from her seat, and maddened with the excitement of
the moment she made him a little speech in Arabic (not a word of which
he understood), with a countenance almost as amiable as the head of
Medusa. Altogether the mine en scene utterly astonished him. The woman
Bacheeta, although savage, had appropriated the insult to her mistress,
and she also fearlessly let fly at Kamrasi, translating as nearly as she
could the complimentary address that "Medusa" had just delivered.

Whether this little coup be theatre had so impressed Kamrasi with
British female independence that he wished to be quit of his proposed
bargain, I cannot say; but with an air of complete astonishment he said,
"Don't be angry! I had no intention of offending you by asking for your
wife. I will give your a wife, if you want one, and I thought you might
have no objection to give me yours; it is my custom to give my visitors
pretty wives, and I thought you might exchange. Don't make a fuss about
it; if you don't like it, there's an end of it; I will never mention it
again." This very practical apology I received very sternly, and merely
insisted upon starting. He seemed rather confused at having committed
himself, and to make amends he called his people and ordered them to
carry our loads. His men ordered a number of women, who had assembled
out of curiosity, to shoulder the luggage and carry it to the next
village, where they would be relieved. I assisted my wife upon her ox,
and with a very cold adieu to Kamrasi I turned my back most gladly on


A satanic escort--Prostrated by sun-stroke--Days and nights of
sorrow-The reward for all our labor.

The country was a vast flat of grass land interspersed with small
villages and patches of sweet potatoes. These were very inferior, owing
to the want of drainage. For about two miles we continued on the banks
of the Kafoor River. The women who carried the luggage were straggling
in disorder, and my few men were much scattered in their endeavors to
collect them. We approached a considerable village; but just as we were
nearing it, out rushed about six hundred men with lances and shields,
screaming and yelling like so many demons. For the moment I thought it
was an attack, but almost immediately I noticed that women and children
were mingled with the men. My men had not taken so cool a view of the
excited throng that was now approaching us at full speed, brandishing
their spears, and engaging with each other in mock combat. "There's a
fight! there's a fight!" my men exclaimed; "we are attacked! fire at
them, Ilawaga." However, in a few seconds I persuaded them that it was a
mere parade, and that there was no danger.

With a rush like a cloud of locusts the natives closed around us,
dancing, gesticulating, and yelling before my ox, feigning to attack us
with spears and shields, then engaging in sham fights with each other,
and behaving like so many madmen. A very tall chief accompanied them;
and one of their men was suddenly knocked down and attacked by the crowd
with sticks and lances, and lay on the ground covered with blood.
What his offence had been I did not hear. The entire crowd were most
grotesquely got up, being dressed in either leopard or white monkey
skins, with cows' tails strapped on behind and antelopes' horns fitted
upon their heads, while their chins were ornamented with false beards
made of the bushy ends of cows' tails sewed together. Altogether I never
saw a more unearthly set of creatures; they were perfect illustrations
of my childish ideas of devils-horns, tails, and all, excepting the
hoofs. They were our escort, furnished by Kamrasi to accompany us to the
lake! Fortunately for all parties, the Turks were not with us on that
occasion, or the Satanic escort would certainly have been received with
a volley when they so rashly advanced to compliment us by their absurd

We marched till 7 P.M. over flat, uninteresting country, and then halted
at a miserable village which the people had deserted, as they expected
our arrival. The following morning I found much difficulty in
getting our escort together, as they had been foraging throughout the
neighborhood; these "devil's own" were a portion of Kamrasi's troops,
who considered themselves entitled to plunder ad libitum throughout the
march; however, after some delay they collected, and their tall chief
approached me and begged that a gun might be fired as a curiosity. The
escort had crowded around us, and as the boy Saat was close to me I
ordered him to fire his gun. This was Saat's greatest delight, and bang
went one barrel unexpectedly, close to the tall chief's ear. The effect
was charming. The tall chief, thinking himself injured, clasped his
head with both hands, and bolted through the crowd, which, struck with a
sudden panic, rushed away in all directions, the "devil's own" tumbling
over each other and utterly scattered by the second barrel which Saat
exultingly fired in derision, as Kamrasi's warlike regiment dissolved
before a sound. I felt quite sure that, in the event of a fight, one
scream from the "Baby," with its charge of forty small bullets, would
win the battle if well delivered into a crowd of Kamrasi's troops.

On the morning of the second day we had difficulty in collecting
porters, those of the preceding day having absconded; and others were
recruited from distant villages by the native escort, who enjoyed
the excuse of hunting for porters, as it gave them an opportunity of
foraging throughout the neighborhood. During this time we had to wait
until the sun was high; we thus lost the cool hours of morning, and
it increased our fatigue. Having at length started, we arrived in the
afternoon at the Kafoor River, at a bend from the south where it was
necessary to cross over in our westerly course. The stream was in
the centre of a marsh, and although deep, it was so covered with
thickly-matted water-grass and other aquatic plants, that a natural
floating bridge was established by a carpet of weeds about two feet
thick. Upon this waving and unsteady surface the men ran quickly across,
sinking merely to the ankles, although beneath the tough vegetation
there was deep water.

It was equally impossible to ride or to be carried over this treacherous
surface; thus I led the way, and begged Mrs. Baker to follow me on
foot as quickly as possible, precisely in my track. The river was about
eighty yards wide, and I had scarcely completed a fourth of the distance
and looked back to see if my wife followed close to me, when I was
horrified to see her standing in one spot and sinking gradually through
the weeds, while her face was distorted and perfectly purple. Almost as
soon as I perceived her she fell as though shot dead. In an instant I
was by her side, and with the assistance of eight or ten of my men, who
were fortunately close to me, I dragged her like a corpse through the
yielding vegetation; and up to our waists we scrambled across to the
other side, just keeping her head above the water. To have carried her
would have been impossible, as we should all have sunk together through
the weeds. I laid her under a tree and bathed her head and face
with water, as for the moment I thought she had fainted; but she lay
perfectly insensible, as though dead, with teeth and hands firmly
clinched, and her eyes open but fixed. It was a coup de soleil--a

Many of the porters had gone on ahead with the baggage, and I started
off a man in haste to recall an angarep upon which to carry her and also
for a bag with a change of clothes, as we had dragged her through the
river. It was in vain that I rubbed her heart and the black women rubbed
her feet to restore animation. At length the litter came, and after
changing her clothes she was carried mournfully forward as a corpse.
Constantly we had to halt and support her head, as a painful rattling
in the throat betokened suffocation. At length we reached a village, and
halted for the night.

I laid her carefully in a miserable hut, and watched beside her. I
opened her clinched teeth with a small wooden wedge and inserted a wet
rag, upon which I dropped water to moisten her tongue, which was dry as
fur. The unfeeling brutes that composed the native escort were yelling
and dancing as though all were well, and I ordered their chief at once
to return with them to Kamrasi, as I would travel with them no longer.
At first they refused to return, until at length I vowed that I would
fire into them should they accompany us on the following morning. Day
broke, and it was a relief to have got rid of the brutal escort. They
had departed, and I had now my own men and the guides supplied by

There was nothing to eat in this spot. My wife had never stirred since
she fell by the coup de soleil, and merely respired about five times in
a minute. It was impossible to remain; the people would have starved.
She was laid gently upon her litter, and we started forward on our
funereal course. I was ill and broken-hearted, and I followed by her
side through the long day's march over wild park lands and streams, with
thick forest and deep marshy bottoms, over undulating hills and through
valleys of tall papyrus rushes, which, as we brushed through them on our
melancholy way, waved over the litter like the black plumes of a hearse.

We halted at a village, and again the night was passed in watching. I
was wet and coated with mud from the swampy marsh, and shivered with
ague; but the cold within was greater than all. No change had taken
place; she had never moved. I had plenty of fat, and I made four balls
of about half a pound, each of which would burn for three hours. A piece
of a broken water-jar formed a lamp, several pieces of rag serving for
wicks. So in solitude the still calm night passed away as I sat by her
side and watched. In the drawn and distorted features that lay before
me I could hardly trace the same face that for years had been my comfort
through all the difficulties and dangers of my path. Was she to die? Was
so terrible a sacrifice to be the result of my selfish exile?

Again the night passed away. Once more the march. Though weak and ill,
and for two nights without a moment's sleep, I felt no fatigue, but
mechanically followed by the side of the litter as though in a dream.
The same wild country diversified with marsh and forest! Again we
halted. The night came, and I sat by her side in a miserable hut, with
the feeble lamp flickering while she lay as in death. She had never
moved a muscle since she fell. My people slept. I was alone, and no
sound broke the stillness of the night. The ears ached at the utter
silence, till the sudden wild cry of a hyena made me shudder as the
horrible thought rushed through my brain that, should she be buried in
this lonely spot, the hyena--would disturb her rest.

The morning was not far distant; it was past four o'clock. I had passed
the night in replacing wet cloths upon her head and moistening her lips,
as she lay apparently lifeless on her litter. I could do nothing more;
in solitude and abject misery in that dark hour, in a country of savage
heathen, thousands of miles away from a Christian land, I beseeched an
aid above all human, trusting alone to Him.

The morning broke; my lamp had just burned out, and cramped with the
night's watching I rose from my low seat and seeing that she lay in the
same unaltered state I went to the door of the hut to breathe one gasp
of the fresh morning air. I was watching the first red streak that
heralded the rising sun, when I was startled by the words, "Thank God,"
faintly uttered behind me. Suddenly she had awoke from her torpor, and
with a heart overflowing I went to her bedside. Her eyes were full of
madness! She spoke, but the brain was gone!

I will not inflict a description of the terrible trial of seven days of
brain fever, with its attendant horrors. The rain poured in torrents,
and day after day we were forced to travel for want of provisions, not
being able to remain in one position. Every now and then we shot a few
guinea-fowl, but rarely; there was no game, although the country was
most favorable. In the forests we procured wild honey, but the deserted
villages contained no supplies, as we were on the frontier of Uganda,
and M'tese's people had plundered the district. For seven nights I had
not slept, and although as weak as a reed, I had marched by the side
of her litter. Nature could resist no longer. We reached a village one
evening. She had been in violent convulsions successively; it was all
but over. I laid her down on her litter within a hat, covered her with a
Scotch plaid, and fell upon my mat insensible, worn out with sorrow and
fatigue. My men put a new handle to the pickaxe that evening, and sought
for a dry spot to dig her grave!

The sun had risen when I woke. I had slept, and horrified as the idea
flashed upon me that she must be dead and that I had not been with her,
I started up. She lay upon her bed, pale as marble, and with that calm
serenity that the features assume when the cares of life no longer act
upon the mind and the body rests in death. The dreadful thought bowed me
down; but as I gazed upon her in fear her chest gently heaved, not with
the convulsive throbs of fever, but naturally. She was asleep; and when
at a sudden noise she opened her eyes, they were calm and clear. She was
saved! When not a ray of hope remained, God alone knows what helped us.
The gratitude of that moment I will not attempt to describe.

Fortunately there were many fowls in this village. We found several
nests of fresh eggs in the straw which littered the hut; these were
most acceptable after our hard fare, and produced a good supply of soup.
Having rested for two days we again moved forward, Mrs. Baker being
carried on a litter.

The next day we reached the village of Parkani. For several days past
our guides had told us that we were very near to the lake, and we were
now assured that we should reach it on the morrow. I had noticed a lofty
range of mountains at an immense distance west, and I had imagined that
the lake lay on the other side of this chain; but I was now informed
that those mountains formed the western frontier of the M'wootan N'zige,
and that the lake was actually within a day's march of Parkani. I could
not believe it possible that we were so near the object of our search.
The guide Rabonga now appeared, and declared that if we started early on
the following morning we should be able to wash in the lake by noon!

That night I hardly slept. For years I had striven to reach the "sources
of the Nile." In my nightly dreams during that arduous voyage I had
always failed, but after so much hard work and perseverance the cup was
at my very lips, and I was to DRINK at the mysterious fountain before
another sun should set--at that great reservoir of nature that ever
since creation had baffled all discovery.

I had hoped, and prayed, and striven through all kinds of difficulties,
in sickness, starvation, and fatigue, to reach that hidden source; and
when it had appeared impossible we had both determined to die upon the
road rather than return defeated. Was it possible that it was so near,
and that to-morrow we could say, "The work is accomplished"?

The sun had not risen when I was spurring my ox after the guide, who,
having been promised a double handful of beads on arrival at the lake,
had caught the enthusiasm of the moment. The day broke beautifully
clear, and having crossed a deep valley between the hills, we toiled
up the opposite slope. I hurried to the summit. The glory of our prize
burst suddenly upon me! There, like a sea of quicksilver, lay far
beneath the grand expanse of water--a boundless sea horizon on the south
and south-west, glittering in the noonday sun; and in the west, at fifty
or sixty miles' distance, blue mountains rose from the bosom of the lake
to a height of about 7000 feet above its level.

It is impossible to describe the triumph of that moment. Here was the
reward for all our labor--for the years of tenacity with which we had
toiled through Africa. England had won the sources of the Nile! Long
before I reached this spot I had arranged to give three cheers with
all our men in English style in honor of the discovery; but now that I
looked down upon the great inland sea lying nestled in the very heart
of Africa, and thought how vainly mankind had sought these sources
throughout so many ages, and reflected that I had been the humble
instrument permitted to unravel this portion of the great mystery
when so many greater than I had failed, I felt too serious to vent my
feelings in vain cheers for victory, and I sincerely thanked God for
having guided and supported us through all dangers to the good end. I
was about 1500 feet above the lake, and I looked down from the steep
granite cliff upon those welcome waters--upon that vast reservoir which
nourished Egypt and brought fertility where all was wilderness--upon
that great source so long hidden from mankind, that source of bounty
and of blessings to millions of human beings; and as one of the greatest
objects in nature, I determined to honor it with a great name. As an
imperishable memorial of one loved and mourned by our gracious Queen
and deplored by every Englishman, I called this great lake "the Albert
N'yanza." The Victoria and the Albert lakes are the two Sources of the

The zigzag path to descend to the lake was so steep and dangerous that
we were forced to leave our oxen with a guide, who was to take them to
Magungo and wait for our arrival. We commenced the descent of the steep
pass on foot. I led the way, grasping a stout bamboo. My wife in extreme
weakness tottered down the pass, supporting herself upon my shoulder,
and stopping to rest every twenty paces. After a toilsome descent
of about two hours, weak with years of fever, but for the moment
strengthened by success, we gained the level plain below the cliff.
A walk of about a mile through flat sandy meadows of fine turf
interspersed with trees and bushes brought us to the water's edge. The
waves were rolling upon a white pebbly beach; I rushed into the lake,
and thirsty with heat and fatigue, with a heart full of gratitude, I
drank deeply from the Sources of the Nile.


The cradle of the Nile--Arrival at Magungo--The blind leading the
blind--Murchison Falls.

The beach was perfectly clean sand, upon which the waves rolled like
those of the sea, throwing up weeds precisely as seaweed may be seen
upon the English shore. It was a grand sight to look upon this vast
reservoir of the mighty Nile and to watch the heavy swell tumbling upon
the beach, while far to the south-west the eye searched as vainly for
a bound as though upon the Atlantic. It was with extreme emotion that I
enjoyed this glorious scene. My wife, who had followed me so devotedly,
stood by my side pale and exhausted--a wreck upon the shores of the
great Albert Lake that we had so long striven to reach. No European
foot had ever trod upon its sand, nor had the eyes of a white man ever
scanned its vast expanse of water. We were the first; and this was the
key to the great secret that even Julius Caesar yearned to unravel, but
in vain. Here was the great basin of the Nile that received EVERY DROP
OF WATER, even from the passing shower to the roaring mountain torrent
that drained from Central Africa toward the north. This was the great
reservoir of the Nile!

The first coup d'oeil from the summit of the cliff 1500 feet above the
level had suggested what a closer examination confirmed. The lake was a
vast depression far below the general level of the country, surrounded
by precipitous cliffs, and bounded on the west and south-west by great
ranges of mountains from five to seven thousand feet above the level of
its waters--thus it was the one great reservoir into which everything
MUST drain; and from this vast rocky cistern the Nile made its exit, a
giant in its birth. It was a grand arrangement of nature for the birth
of so mighty and important a stream as the river Nile. The Victoria
N'yanza of Speke formed a reservoir at a high altitude, receiving a
drainage from the west by the Kitangule River; and Speke had seen the
M'fumbiro Mountain at a great distance as a peak among other mountains
from which the streams descended, which by uniting formed the main river
Kitangule, the principal feeder of the Victoria Lake from the west, in
about 2 degrees S. latitude. Thus the same chain of mountains that fed
the Victoria on the east must have a watershed to the west and north
that would flow into the Albert Lake. The general drainage of the Nile
basin tending from south to north, and the Albert Lake extending much
farther north than the Victoria, it receives the river from the latter
lake, and thus monopolizes the entire head-waters of the Nile. The
Albert is the grand reservoir, while the Victoria is the eastern source.
The parent streams that form these lakes are from the same origin, and
the Kitangule sheds its waters to the Victoria to be received EVENTUALLY
by the Albert, precisely as the highlands of M'fumbiro and the Blue
Mountains pour their northern drainage DIRECTLY into the Albert Lake.

That many considerable affluents flow into the Albert Lake there is
no doubt. The two waterfalls seen by telescope upon the western shore
descending from the Blue Mountains must be most important streams, or
they could not have been distinguished at so great a distance as fifty
or sixty miles. The natives assured me that very many streams, varying
in size, descended the mountains upon all sides into the general

It was most important that we should hurry forward on our journey, as
our return to England depended entirely upon the possibility of reaching
Gondokoro before the end of April, otherwise the boats would have
departed. I started off Rabonga, to Magungo, where he was to meet us
with riding oxen.

We were encamped at a small village on the shore of the lake, called
Vacovia. On the following morning not one of our party could rise from
the ground. Thirteen men, the boy Saat, four women, besides my wife and
me, were all down with fever. The natives assured us that all strangers
suffered in a like manner. The delay in supplying boats was most
annoying, as every hour was precious. The lying natives deceived us in
every possible manner, delaying us purposely in hope of extorting beads.

The latitude of Vacovia was 1 deg. 15' N.; longitude 30 deg. 50'
E. My farthest southern point on the road from M'rooli was latitude 1
deg. 13'. We were now to turn our faces toward the north, and every
day's journey would bring us nearer home. But where was home? As
I looked at the map of the world, and at the little red spot that
represented old England far, far away, and then gazed on the wasted form
and haggard face of my wife and at my own attenuated frame, I hardly
dared hope for home again. We had now been three years ever toiling
onward, and having completed the exploration of all the Abyssinian
affluents of the Nile, in itself an arduous undertaking, we were now
actually at the Nile head. We had neither health nor supplies, and the
great journey lay all before us.

Eight days were passed at Vacovia before we could obtain boats, which,
when they did come, proved to be mere trees neatly hollowed out in
the shape of canoes. At last we were under way, and day after day we
journeyed along the shore of the lake, stopping occasionally at small
villages, and being delayed now and then by deserting boatmen.

The discomforts of this lake voyage were great; in the day we were
cramped in our small cabin like two tortoises in one shell, and at
night it almost invariably rained. We were accustomed to the wet, but no
acclimatization can render the European body mosquito-proof; thus we had
little rest. It was hard work for me; but for my unfortunate wife, who
had hardly recovered from her attack of coup de soleil, such hardships
were most distressing.

On the thirteenth day from Vacovia we found ourselves at the end of our
lake voyage. The lake at this point was between fifteen and twenty miles
across, and the appearance of the country to the north was that of a
delta. The shores upon either side were choked with vast banks of reeds,
and as the canoe skirted the edge of that upon the east coast we could
find no bottom with a bamboo of twenty-five feet in length, although the
floating mass appeared like terra firma. We were in a perfect wilderness
of vegetation. On the west were mountains about 4000 feet above the lake
level, a continuation of the chain that formed the western shore from
the south. These mountains decreased in height toward the north, in
which direction the lake terminated in a broad valley of reeds.

We were informed that we had arrived at Magungo, and after skirting the
floating reeds for about a mile we entered a broad channel, which
we were told was the embouchure of the Somerset River from Victoria
N'yanza. In a short time we landed at Magungo, where we were welcomed
by the chief and by our guide Rabonga, who had been sent in advance to
procure oxen.

The exit of the Nile from the lake was plain enough, and if the broad
channel of dead water were indeed the entrance of the Victoria Nile
(Somerset), the information obtained by Speke would be remarkably
confirmed. But although the chief of Magungo and all the natives assured
me that the broad channel of dead water at my feet was positively the
brawling river that I had crossed below the Karuma Falls, I could
not understand how so fine a body of water as that had appeared could
possibly enter the Albert Lake as dead water. The guide and natives
laughed at my unbelief, and declared that it was dead water for a
considerable distance from the junction with the lake, but that a great
waterfall rushed down from a mountain, and that beyond that fall
the river was merely a succession of cataracts throughout the entire
distance of about six days' march to Karuma Falls. My real wish was to
descend the Nile in canoes from its exit from the lake with my own men
as boatmen, and thus in a short time to reach the cataracts in the Madi
country; there to forsake the canoes and all my baggage, and to march
direct to Gondokoro with only our guns and ammunition. I knew from
native report that the Nile was navigable as far as the Madi country
to about Miani's tree, which Speke had laid down by astronomical
observation in lat. 3 "degrees" 34'. This would be only seven days'
march from Gondokoro, and by such a direct course I should be sure to
arrive in time for the boats to Khartoum.

I had promised Speke that I would explore most thoroughly the doubtful
portion of the river that he had been forced to neglect from Karuma
Falls to the lake. I was myself confused at the dead-water junction;
and although I knew that the natives must be right--as it was their own
river, and they had no inducement to mislead me--I was determined to
sacrifice every other wish in order to fulfil my promise, and thus to
settle the Nile question most absolutely. That the Nile flowed out of
the lake I had heard, and I had also confirmed by actual inspection;
from Magungo I looked upon the two countries, Koshi and Madi, through
which it flowed, and these countries I must actually pass through and
again meet the Nile before I could reach Gondokoro. Thus the only point
necessary to settle was the river between the lake and the Karuma Falls.

The boats being ready, we took leave of the chief of Magungo, leaving
him an acceptable present of beads, and descended the hill to the river,
thankful at having so far successfully terminated the expedition as to
have traced the lake to that important point, Magungo, which had been
our clew to the discovery even so far away in time and place as the
distant country of Latooka. We were both very weak and ill, and my
knees trembled beneath me as we walked down the easy descent. I, in
my enervated state, endeavoring to assist my wife, we were the "blind
leading the blind;" but had life closed on that day we could have died
most happily, for the hard fight through sickness and misery had ended
in victory; and although I looked to home as a paradise never to be
regained, I could have lain down to sleep in contentment on this spot,
with the consolation that, if the body had been vanquished, we died with
the prize in our grasp.

On arrival at the canoes we found everything in readiness, and the
boatmen already in their places. Once in the broad channel of dead water
we steered due east, and made rapid way until the evening. The river as
it now appeared, although devoid of current, was on an average about 500
yards in width. Before we halted for the night I was subjected to a most
severe attack of fever, and upon the boat reaching a certain spot I
was carried on a litter, perfectly unconscious, to a village, attended
carefully by my poor sick wife, who, herself half dead, followed me on
foot through the marches in pitch darkness, and watched over me until
the morning. At daybreak I was too weak to stand, and we were both
carried down to the canoes, and crawling helplessly within our grass
awning we lay down like logs while the canoes continued their voyage.
Many of our men were also suffering from fever. The malaria of the dense
masses of floating vegetation was most poisonous, and upon looking back
to the canoe that followed in our wake I observed all my men sitting
crouched together sick and dispirited, looking like departed spirits
being ferried across the melancholy Styx.

The woman Bacheeta knew the country, as she had formerly been to Magungo
when in the service of Sali, who had been subsequently murdered by
Kamrasi. She informed me on the second day that we should terminate our
canoe voyage on that day, as we should arrive at the great waterfall of
which she had often spoken. As we proceeded the river gradually narrowed
to about 180 yards, and when the paddles ceased working we could
distinctly hear the roar of water. I had heard this on waking in the
morning, but at the time I had imagined it to proceed from distant
thunder. By ten o'clock the current had so increased as we proceeded
that it was distinctly perceptible, although weak. The roar of the
waterfall was extremely loud, and after sharp pulling for a couple
of hours, during which time the stream increased, we arrived at a few
deserted fishing-huts, at a point where the river made a slight turn.
I never saw such an extraordinary show of crocodiles as were exposed on
every sandbank on the sides of the river. They lay like logs of timber
close together, and upon one bank we counted twenty-seven of large size.
Every basking place was crowded in a similar manner. From the time we
had fairly entered the river it had been confined by heights somewhat
precipitous on either side, rising to about 180 feet. At this point the
cliffs were still higher and exceedingly abrupt. From the roar of the
water I was sure that the fall would be in sight if we turned the corner
at the bend of the river; accordingly I ordered the boatmen to row as
far as they could. To this they at first objected, as they wished to
stop at the deserted fishing village, which they explained was to be the
limit of the journey, further progress being impossible.

However, I explained that I merely wished to see the falls, and they
rowed immediately up the stream, which was now strong against us. Upon
rounding the corner a magnificent sight burst suddenly upon us. On
either side the river were beautifully wooded cliffs rising abruptly to
a height of about 300 feet; rocks were jutting out from the intensely
green foliage; and rushing through a gap that cleft the rock exactly
before us, the river, contracted from a grand stream, was pent up in a
narrow gorge of scarcely fifty yards in width. Roaring furiously
through the rock-bound pass, it plunged in one leap of about 120 feet
perpendicular into a dark abyss below.

The fall of water was snow-white, which had a superb effect as it
contrasted with the dark cliffs that walled the river, while the
graceful palms of the tropics and wild plantains perfected the beauty of
the view. This was the greatest waterfall of the Nile, and in honor of
the distinguished President of the Royal Geographical Society I named it
the Murchison Falls, as the most important object throughout the entire
course of the river.

At this point we had ordered our oxen to be sent, as we could go no
farther in the canoes. We found the oxen ready for us; but if we looked
wretched, the animals were a match. They had been bitten by the flies,
thousands of which were at this spot. Their coats were staring, ears
drooping, noses running, and heads hanging down--all the symptoms of
fly-bite, together with extreme looseness of the bowels. I saw that
it was all up with our animals. Weak as I was myself, I was obliged to
walk, as my ox could not carry me up the steep inclination. I toiled
languidly to the summit of the cliff, and we were soon above the falls,
and arrived at a small village a little before evening.

On the following morning we started, the route as before being parallel
to the river, and so close that the roar of the rapids was extremely
loud. The river flowed in a deep ravine upon our left. We continued for
a day's march along the Somerset, crossing many ravines and torrents,
until we turned suddenly down to the left, and arriving at the bank
we were to be transported to an island called Patooan, that was the
residence of a chief. It was about an hour after sunset, and, being
dark, my riding ox, which was being driven as too weak to carry me, fell
into an elephant pitfall. After much hallooing, a canoe was brought from
the island, which was not more than fifty yards from the mainland, and
we were ferried across. We were both very ill with a sudden attack of
fever; and my wife, not being able to stand, was, on arrival at the
island, carried on a litter I knew not whither, escorted by some of
my men, while I lay down on the wet ground quite exhausted with the
annihilating disease. At length the rest of my men crossed over, and
those who had carried my wife to the village returning with firebrands,
I managed to creep after them with the aid of a long stick, upon which I
rested with both hands. After a walk through a forest of high trees for
about a quarter of a mile, I arrived at a village where I was shown a
wretched hut, the stars being visible through the roof. In this my wife
lay dreadfully ill upon her angarep, and I fell down upon some straw.
About an hour later a violent thunderstorm broke over us, and our hut
was perfectly flooded. Being far too ill and helpless to move from our
positions, we remained dripping wet and shivering with fever until the
morning. Our servants and people had, like all native, made themselves
much more comfortable than their employers; nor did they attempt
to interfere with our misery in any way until summoned to appear at

The island of Patooan was about half a mile long by 150 yards wide, and
was one of the numerous masses of rocks that choke the river between
Karuma Falls and the great Murchison cataract. My headman now informed
me that war was raging between Kamrasi and his rivals, Fowooka and
Rionga, and it would be impossible to proceed along the bank of the
river to Karuma. My exploration was finished, however, as it was by no
means necessary to continue the route from Patooan to Karuma.


Prisoners on the island--Left to starve--Months of helplessness--We
rejoin the Turks--The real Kamrasi--In the presence of royalty.

We were prisoners on the island of Patooan as we could not procure
porters at any price to remove our effects. We had lost all our riding
oxen within a few days. They had succumbed to the flies, and the only
animal alive was already half dead; this was the little bull that had
always carried the boy Saat. It was the 8th of April, and within a few
days the boats upon which we depended for our return to civilization
would assuredly quit Gondokoro. I offered the natives all the beads that
I had (about 50 lbs.) and the whole of my baggage, if they would carry
us to Shooa directly from this spot. We were in perfect despair, as we
were both completely worn out with fever and fatigue, and certain death
seemed to stare us in the face should we remain in this unhealthy spot.
Worse than death was the idea of losing the boats and becoming prisoners
for another year in this dreadful land, which must inevitably happen
should we not hurry directly to Gondokoro without delay. The natives
with their usual cunning at length offered to convey us to Shooa,
provided that I paid them the beads in advance. The boats were prepared
to ferry us across the river; but I fortunately discovered through
the woman Bacheeta their treacherous intention of placing us on the
uninhabited wilderness on the north side, and leaving us to die
of hunger. They had conspired together to land us, but to return
immediately with the boats after having thus got rid of the incubus of
their guests.

We were in a great dilemma. Had we been in good health, I would have
forsaken everything but the guns and ammunition, and have marched
directly to Gondokoro on foot; but this was utterly impossible. Neither
my wife nor I could walk a quarter of a mile without fainting. There was
no guide, and the country was now overgrown with impenetrable grass and
tangled vegetation eight feet high. We were in the midst of the rainy
season--not a day passed without a few hours of deluge. Altogether it
was a most heart-breaking position. Added to the distress of mind at
being thus thwarted, there was also a great scarcity of provision. Many
of my men were weak, the whole party having suffered much from fever; in
fact, we were completely helpless.

Our guide, Rabonga, who had accompanied us from M'rooli, had absconded,
and we were left to shift for ourselves. I was determined not to remain
on the island, as I suspected that the boats might be taken away, and
that we should be kept prisoners; I therefore ordered my men to take the
canoes, and to ferry us to the main land, from whence we had come. The
headman, upon hearing this order, offered to carry us to a village, and
then to await orders from Kamrasi as to whether we were to be forwarded
to Shooa or not. The district in which the island of Patooan was
situated was called Shooa Moru, although having no connection with the
Shooa in the Madi country to which we were bound.

We were ferried across to the main shore, and my wife and I, in our
respective angareps, were carried by the natives for about three miles.
Arriving at a deserted village, half of which was in ashes, having been
burned and plundered by the enemy, we were deposited on the ground
in front of an old hut in the pouring rain, and were informed that we
should remain there that night, but that on the following morning we
should proceed to our destination.

Not trusting the natives, I ordered my men to disarm them, and to
retain their spears and shields as security for their appearance on the
following day. This effected, we were carried into a filthy hut about
six inches deep in mud, as the roof was much out of repair, and the
heavy rain had flooded it daily for some weeks. I had a canal cut
through the muddy floor, and in misery and low spirits we took

On the following morning not a native was present! We had been entirely
deserted; although I held the spears and shields, every man had
absconded. There were neither inhabitants nor provisions. The whole
country was a wilderness of rank grass that hemmed us in on all sides.
Not an animal, nor even a bird, was to be seen; it was a miserable,
damp, lifeless country. We were on elevated ground, and the valley
of the Somerset was about two miles to our north, the river roaring
sullenly in its obstructed passage, its course marked by the double belt
of huge dark trees that grew upon its banks.

My men naturally felt outraged and proposed that we should return to
Patooan, seize the canoes, and take provisions by force, as we had been
disgracefully deceived. The natives had merely deposited us here to get
us out of the way, and in this spot we might starve. Of course I would
not countenance the proposal of seizing provisions, but I directed my
men to search among the ruined villages for buried corn, in company with
the woman Bacheeta, who, being a native of this country, would be up to
the ways of the people, and might assist in the discovery.

After some hours passed in rambling over the black ashes of several
villages that had been burned, they discovered a hollow place, by
sounding the earth with a stick, and, upon digging, arrived at a granary
of the seed known as "tullaboon;" this was a great prize, as, although
mouldy and bitter, it would keep us from starving. The women of the
party were soon hard at work grinding, as many of the necessary stones
had been found among the ruins.

Fortunately there were three varieties of plants growing wild in great
profusion, that, when boiled, were a good substitute for spinach; thus
we were rich in vegetables, although without a morsel of fat or animal
food. Our dinner consisted daily of a mess of black porridge of bitter
mouldy flour that no English pig would condescend to notice, and a large
dish of spinach. "Better a dinner of herbs where love is," etc. often
occurred to me; but I am not sure that I was quite of that opinion after
a fortnight's grazing upon spinach.

Tea and coffee were things of the past, the very idea of which made
our months water; but I found a species of wild thyme growing in the
jungles, and this when boiled formed a tolerable substitute for tea.
Sometimes our men procured a little wild honey, which added to the thyme
tea we considered a great luxury.

This wretched fare, in our exhausted state from fever and general
effects of climate, so completely disabled us that for nearly two months
my wife lay helpless on one angarep, and I upon the other. Neither of
us could walk. The hut was like all in Kamrasi's country, with a perfect
forest of thick poles to support the roof (I counted thirty-two); thus,
although it was tolerably large, there was but little accommodation.
These poles we now found very convenient, as we were so weak that we
could not rise from bed without lifting ourselves up by one of the

We were very nearly dead, and our amusement was a childish conversation
about the good things in England, and my idea of perfect happiness was
an English beefsteak and a bottle of pale ale; for such a luxury I would
most willingly have sold my birthright at that hungry moment. We were
perfect skeletons, and it was annoying to see how we suffered upon the
bad fare, while our men apparently throve. There were plenty of wild red
peppers, and the men seemed to enjoy a mixture of porridge and legumes a
la sauce piquante. They were astonished at my falling away on this food,
but they yielded to my argument when I suggested that a "lion would
starve where a donkey grew fat." I must confess that this state of
existence did not improve my temper, which, I fear, became nearly as
bitter as the porridge. My people had a windfall of luck, as Saat's
ox, that had lingered for a long time, lay down to die, and stretching
himself out, commenced kicking his last kick. The men immediately
assisted him by cutting his throat, and this supply of beef was a luxury
which, even in my hungry state, was not the English beefsteak for which
I sighed, and I declined the diseased bull.

The men made several long excursions through the country to purchase
provisions, but in two months they procured only two kids; the entire
country was deserted, owing to the war between Kamrasi and Fowooka.
Every day the boy Saat and the woman Bacheeta sallied out and conversed
with the inhabitants of the different islands on the river. Sometimes,
but very rarely, they returned with a fowl; such an event caused great

We gave up all hope of Gondokoro, and were resigned to our fate. This,
we felt sure, was to be buried in Chopi, the name of our village. I
wrote instructions in my journal, in case of death, and told my headman
to be sure to deliver my maps, observations, and papers to the English
Consul at Khartoum. This was my only care, as I feared that all my labor
might be lost should I die. I had no fear for my wife, as she was quite
as bad as I, and if one should die the other would certainly follow; in
fact, this had been agreed upon, lest she should fall into the hands of
Kamrasi at my death. We had struggled to win, and I thanked God that
we had won. If death were to be the price, at all events we were at the
goal, and we both looked upon death rather as a pleasure, as affording
REST. There would be no more suffering, no fever, no long journey before
us, that in our weak state was an infliction. The only wish was to lay
down the burden. Curious is the warfare between the animal instincts and
the mind! Death would have been a release that I would have courted; but
I should have liked that one "English beefsteak and pale ale" before I

During our misery of constant fever and starvation at Shooa Moru, insult
had been added to injury. There was no doubt that we had been thus
deserted by Kamrasi's orders, as every seven or eight days one of his
chiefs arrived and told me that the king was with his army only four
days' march from me, and that he was preparing to attack Fowooka, but
that he wished me to join him, as with my fourteen guns, we should win a
great victory. This treacherous conduct, after his promise to forward me
without delay to Shooa, enraged me exceedingly. We had lost the boats
at Gondokoro, and we were now nailed to the country for another year,
should we live, which was not likely. Not only had the brutal king thus
deceived us, but he was deliberately starving us into conditions, his
aim being that my men should assist him against his enemy. At one time
the old enemy tempted me sorely to join Fowooka against Kamrasi; but,
discarding the idea, generated in a moment of passion, I determined to
resist his proposals to the last. It was perfectly true that the king
was within thirty miles of us, that he was aware of our misery, and made
use of our extremity to force us to become his allies.

After more than two months passed in this distress it became evident
that something must be done. I sent my headman, or vakeel, and one man,
with a native as a guide (that Saat and Bacheeta had procured from
an island), with instructions to go direct to Kamrasi, to abuse him
thoroughly in my name for having thus treated us, and tell him that
I was much insulted at his treating with me through a third party in
proposing an alliance. My vakeel was to explain that I was a much more
powerful chief than Kamrasi, and that if he required my alliance,
he must treat with me in person, and immediately send fifty men to
transport my wife, myself, and effects to his camp, where we might, in a
personal interview, come to terms.

I told my vakeel to return to me with the fifty men, and to be sure
to bring from Kamrasi some token by which I should know that he had
actually seen him. The vakeel and Yaseen started.

After some days the absconded guide, Rabonga, appeared with a number of
men, but without either my vakeel or Yaseen. He carried with him a small
gourd bottle, carefully stopped; this he broke, and extracted from the
inside two pieces of printed paper that Kamrasi had sent to me in reply.

On examining the papers, I found them to be portions of the English
Church Service translated into (I think) the "Kisuabili" language, by
Dr Krapf! There were many notes in pencil on the margin, written in
English, as translations of words in the text. It quickly occurred to
me that Speke must have given this book to Kamrasi on his arrival from
Zanzibar, and that he now extracted the leaves and sent them to me as a
token I had demanded to show that my message had been delivered to him.

Rabonga made a lame excuse for his previous desertion. He delivered a
thin ox that Kamrasi had sent me, and he declared that his orders were
that he should take my whole party immediately to Kamrasi, as he was
anxious that we should attack Fowooka without loss of time. We were
positively to start on the following morning! My bait had taken, and we
should escape from this frightful spot, Shooa Moru.

After winding through dense jungles of bamboos and interminable groves
of destroyed plantains, we perceived the tops of a number of grass hats
appearing among the trees. My men now begged to be allowed to fire a
salute, as it was reported that the ten men of Ibrahim's party who
had been left as hostages were quartered at this village with Kamrasi.
Hardly had the firing commenced when it was immediately replied to by
the Turks from their camp, who, upon our approach, came out to meet
us with great manifestations of delight and wonder at our having
accomplished our long and difficult voyage.

My vakeel and Yaseen were the first to meet us, with an apology that
severe fever had compelled them to remain in camp instead of returning
to Shooa Moru according to my orders; but they had delivered my message
to Kamrasi, who had, as I had supposed, sent two leaves out of a book
Speke had given him, as a reply. An immense amount of news had to be
exchanged between my men and those of Ibrahim. They had quite given us
up for lost, until they heard that we were at Shooa Moru. A report
had reached them that my wife was dead, and that I had died a few days
later. A great amount of kissing and embracing took place, Arab fashion,
between the two parties; and they all came to kiss my hand and that of
my wife, with the exclamation, that "By Allah, no woman in the world had
a heart so tough as to dare to face what she had gone through." "El
hamd el Illah! El hamd el Illah bel salaam!" ("Thank God--be grateful to
God") was exclaimed on all sides by the swarthy throng of brigands who
pressed round us, really glad to welcome us back again; and I could not
help thinking of the difference in their manner now and fourteen months
before, when they had attempted to drive us back from Gondokoro.

Hardly were we seated in our hut when my vakeel announced that Kamrasi
had arrived to pay me a visit. In a few minutes he was ushered into
the hut. Far from being abashed, he entered with a loud laugh, totally
different from his former dignified manner. "Well, here you are
at last!" he exclaimed. Apparently highly amused with our wretched
appearance, he continued, "So you have been to the M'wootan N'zige!
Well, you don't look much the better for it; why, I should not have
known you! ha, ha, ha!" I was not in a humor to enjoy his attempts at
facetiousness; I therefore told him that he had behaved disgracefully
and meanly, and that I should publish his character among the adjoining
tribes as below that of the most petty chief that I had ever seen.

"Never mind," he replied, "it's all over now. You really are thin, both
of you. It was your own fault; why did you not agree to fight Fowooka?
You should have been supplied with fat cows and milk and butter, had you
behaved well. I will have my men ready to attack Fowooka to-morrow.
The Turks have ten men, you have thirteen; thirteen and ten make
twenty-three. You shall be carried if you can't walk, and we will give
Fowooka no chance. He must be killed--only kill him, and MY BROTHER will
give you half of his kingdom."

He continued, "You shall have supplies to-morrow; I will go to my
BROTHER, who is the great M'Kamma Kamrasi, and he will send you all
you require. I am a little man; he is a big one. I have nothing; he has
everything, and he longs to see you. You must go to him directly; he
lives close by."

I hardly knew whether he was drunk or sober. "My bother the great
M'Kamma Kamrasi!" I felt bewildered with astonishment. Then, "If you are
not Kamrasi, pray who are you?" I asked. "Who am I?" he replied. "Ha,
ha, ha! that's very good; who am I?--I am M'Gambi, the brother of
Kamrasi; I am the younger brother, but HE IS THE KING."

The deceit of this country was incredible. I had positively never seen
the real Kamrasi up to this moment, and this man M'Gambi now confessed
to having impersonated the king, his brother, as Kamrasi was afraid that
I might be in league with Debono's people to murder him, and therefore
he had ordered his brother M'Gambi to act the king.

I told M'Gambi that I did not wish to see his brother, the king, as I
should perhaps be again deceived and be introduced to some impostor like
himself; and that as I did not choose to be made a fool of, I should
decline the introduction. This distressed him exceedingly. He said that
the king was really so great a man that he, his own brother, dared not
sit on a stool in his presence, and that he had only kept in retirement
as a matter of precaution, as Debono's people had allied themselves
with his enemy Rionga in the preceding year, and he dreaded treachery.
I laughed contemptuously at M'Gambi, telling him that if a woman like my
wife dared to trust herself far from her own country among such savages
as Kamrasi's people, their king must be weaker than a woman if he dared
not show himself in his own territory. I concluded by saying that I
should not go to see Kamrasi, but that he should come to visit me.

On the following morning, after my arrival at Kisoona, M'Gambi appeared,
beseeching me to go and visit the king. I replied that "I was hungry and
weak from want of food, and that I wanted to see meat, and not the man
who had starved me." In the afternoon a beautiful cow appeared with
her young calf, also a fat sheep and two pots of plantain cider, as a
present from Kamrasi. That evening we revelled in milk, a luxury that
we had not tasted for some months. The cow gave such a quantity that we
looked forward to the establishment of a dairy, and already contemplated
cheese-making. I sent the king a present of a pound of powder in
canister, a box of caps, and a variety of trifles, explaining that I
was quite out of stores and presents, as I had been kept so long in his
country that I was reduced to beggary, as I had expected to return to my
own country long before this.

In the evening M'Gambi appeared with a message from the king, saying
that I was his greatest friend, and that he would not think of taking
anything from me as he was sure that I must be hard up; that he desired
nothing, but would be much obliged if I would give him the "little
double rifle that I always carried, and my watch and compass!" He wanted
"NOTHING," only my Fletcher rifle, that I would as soon have parted with
as the bone of my arm; and these three articles were the same for which
I had been so pertinaciously bored before my departure from M'rooli. It
was of no use to be wroth, I therefore quietly replied that I should not
give them, as Kamrasi had failed in his promise to forward me to Shooa;
but that I required no presents from him, as he always expected a
thousandfold in return. M'Gambi said that all would be right if I would
only agree to pay the king a visit. I objected to this, as I told him
the king, his brother, did not want to see me, but only to observe what
I had, in order to beg for all that he saw. He appeared much hurt, and
assured me that he would be himself responsible that nothing of the kind
should happen, and that he merely begged as a favor that I would visit
the king on the following morning, and that people should be ready to
carry me if I were unable to walk. Accordingly I arranged to be carried
to Kamrasi's camp at about 8 A.M.

At the hour appointed M'Gambi appeared, with a great crowd of natives.
My clothes were in rags, and as personal appearance has a certain
effect, even in Central Africa, I determined to present myself to
the king in as favorable a light as possible. I happened to possess a
full-dress Highland suit that I had worn when I lived in Perthshire many
years before. This I had treasured as serviceable upon an occasion like
the present: accordingly I was quickly attired in kilt, sporran,
and Glengarry bonnet, and to the utter amazement of the crowd, the
ragged-looking object that had arrived in Kisoona now issued from the
obscure hut with plaid and kilt of Athole tartan. A general shout of
exclamation arose from the assembled crowd, and taking my seat upon an
angarep, I was immediately shouldered by a number of men, and, attended
by ten of my people as escort, I was carried toward the camp of the
great Kamrasi.

In about half an hour we arrived. The camp, composed of grass huts,
extended over a large extent of ground, and the approach was perfectly
black with the throng that crowded to meet me. Women, children, dogs,
and men all thronged at the entrance of the street that led to Kamrasi's
residence. Pushing our way through this inquisitive multitude, we
continued through the camp until at length we reached the dwelling of
the king. Halting for the moment, a message was immediately received
that we should proceed; we accordingly entered through a narrow passage
between high reed fences, and I found myself in the presence of the
actual king of Unyoro, Kamrasi. He was sitting in a kind of porch in
front of a hut, and upon seeing me he hardly condescended to look at me
for more than a moment; he then turned to his attendants and made some
remark that appeared to amuse them, as they all grinned as little men
are wont to do when a great man makes a bad joke.

I had ordered one of my men to carry my stool; I was determined not to
sit upon the earth, as the king would glory in my humiliation. M'Gambi,
his brother, who had formerly played the part of king, now sat upon the
ground a few feet from Kamrasi, who was seated upon the same stool of
copper that M'Gambi had used when I first saw him at M'rooli. Several of
his chiefs also sat upon the straw with which the porch was littered. I
made a "salaam" and took my seat upon my stool.

Not a word passed between us for about five minutes, during which time
the king eyed me most attentively, and made various remarks to the
chiefs who were present. At length he asked me why I had not been to see
him before. I replied, because I had been starved in his country, and I
was too weak to walk. He said I should soon be strong, as he would now
give me a good supply of food; but that he could not send provisions
to Shooa Moru, as Fowooka held that country. Without replying to this
wretched excuse for his neglect, I merely told him that I was happy to
have seen him before my departure, as I was not aware until recently
that I had been duped by M'Gambi. He answered me very coolly, saying
that although I had not seen him, he had nevertheless seen me, as he was
among the crowd of native escort on the day that we left M'rooli. Thus
he had watched our start at the very place where his brother M'Gambi had
impersonated the king.

Kamrasi was a remarkably fine man, tall and well proportioned, with
a handsome face of a dark brown color, but a peculiarly sinister
expression. He was beautifully clean, and instead of wearing the bark
cloth common among the people, he was dressed in a fine mantle of black
and white goatskins, as soft as chamois leather. His people sat on the
ground at some distance from his throne; when they approached to address
him on any subject they crawled upon their hands and knees to his feet,
and touched the ground with their foreheads.

True to his natural instincts, the king commenced begging, and being
much struck with the Highland costume, he demanded it as a proof of
friendship, saying that if I refused I could not be his friend. The
watch, compass, and double Fletcher rifle were asked for in their turn,
all of which I refused to give him. He appeared much annoyed, therefore
I presented him with a pound canister of powder, a box of caps, and a
few bullets. He asked, "What's the use of the ammunition if you won't
give me your rifle?" I explained that I had already given him a gun, and
that he had a rifle of Speke's. Disgusted with his importunity I rose to
depart, telling him that I should not return to visit him, as I did not
believe he was the real Kamrasi I had heard that Kamrasi was a great
king, but he was a mere beggar, and was doubtless an impostor, like
M'Gambi. At this he seemed highly amused, and begged me not to leave so
suddenly, as he could not permit me to depart empty-handed. He then
gave certain orders to his people, and after a little delay two loads of
flour arrived, together with a goat and two jars of sour plantain cider.
These presents he ordered to be forwarded to Kisoona. I rose to take
leave; but the crowd, eager to see what was going forward, pressed
closely upon the entrance of the approach, seeing which, the king
gave certain orders, and immediately four or five men with long heavy
bludgeons rushed at the mob and belabored them right and left, putting
the mass to flight pell-mell through the narrow lanes of the camp.

I was then carried back to my camp at Kisoona, where I was received by a
great crowd of people.


The hour of deliverance--Triumphal entry into Gondokoro--Home-bound--The
plague breaks out--Our welcome at Khartoum to civilization.

The hour of deliverance from our long sojourn in Central Africa was at
hand. It was the month of February, and the boats would be at Gondokoro.
The Turks had packed their ivory; the large tusks were fastened to
poles to be carried by two men, and the camp was a perfect mass of
this valuable material. I counted 609 loads of upward of 50 lbs. each;
thirty-one loads were lying at an out-station; therefore the total
results of the ivory campaign during the last twelve months were about
32,000 lbs., equal to about 9,630 pounds sterling when delivered in
Egypt. This was a perfect fortune for Koorshid.

We were ready to start. My baggage was so unimportant that I was
prepared to forsake everything, and to march straight for Gondokoro
independently with my own men; but this the Turks assured me was
impracticable, as the country was so hostile in advance that we must of
necessity have some fighting on the road; the Bari tribe would dispute
our right to pass through their territory.

The day arrived for our departure; the oxen were saddled, and we were
ready to start. Crowds of people cane to say "good-by;" but, dispensing
with the hand-kissing of the Turks who were to remain in camp, we
prepared for our journey toward HOME. Far away though it was, every step
would bring us nearer. Nevertheless there were ties even in this wild
spot, where all was savage and unfeeling--ties that were painful to
sever, and that caused a sincere regret to both of us when we saw
our little flock of unfortunate slave children crying at the idea of
separation. In this moral desert, where all humanized feelings were
withered and parched like the sands of the Soudan, the guilelessness
of the children had been welcomed like springs of water, as the only
refreshing feature in a land of sin and darkness.

"Where are you going?" cried poor little Abbai in the broken Arabic that
we had taught him. "Take me with you, Sitty!" (lady), and he followed
us down the path, as we regretfully left our proteges, with his fists
tucked into his eyes, weeping from his heart, although for his own
mother he had not shed a tear. We could not take him with us; he
belonged to Ibrahim, and had I purchased the child to rescue him from
his hard lot and to rear him as a civilized being, I might have been
charged with slave-dealing. With heavy hearts we saw hint taken up
in the arms of a woman and carried back to camp, to prevent him from
following our party, that had now started.

I will not detain the reader with the details of our journey home. After
much toil and some fighting with hostile natives, we bivouacked
one sunset three miles from Gondokoro. That night we were full of
speculations. Would a boat be waiting for us with supplies and letters?
The morning anxiously looked forward to at length arrived. We started.
The English flag had been mounted on a fine straight bamboo with a new
lance-head specially arranged for the arrival at Gondokoro. My men felt
proud, as they would march in as conquerors. According to White Nile
ideas, such a journey could not have been accomplished with so small
a party. Long before Ibrahim's men were ready to start, our oxen were
saddled and we were off, longing to hasten into Gondokoro and to find a
comfortable vessel with a few luxuries and the post from England. Never
had the oxen travelled so fast as on that morning; the flag led the way,
and the men, in excellent spirits, followed at double-quick pace.

"I see the masts of the vessels!" exclaimed the boy Saat. "El hambd el
Illah!" (Thank God! ) shouted the men. "Hurrah!" said I; "Three cheers
for Old England and the Sources of the Nile! Hurrah!" and my men joined
me in the wild, and to their ears savage, English yell. "Now for a
salute! Fire away all your powder, if you like, my lads, and let the
people know that we're alive!"

This was all that was required to complete the happiness of my people,
and, loading and firing as fast as possible, we approached near to
Gondokoro. Presently we saw the Turkish flag emerge from Gondokoro at
about a quarter of a mile distant, followed by a number of the traders'
people, who waited to receive us. On our arrival they immediately
approached and fired salutes with ball cartridge, as usual advancing
close to us and discharging their guns into the ground at our feet. One
of my servants, Mahomet, was riding an ox, and an old friend of his in
the crowd happening to recognize him immediately advanced and saluted
him by firing his gun into the earth directly beneath the belly of the
ox he was riding.

The effect produced made the crowd and ourselves explode with laughter.
The nervous ox, terrified at the sudden discharge between his legs,
gave a tremendous kick, and continued madly kicking and plunging, until
Mahomet was pitched over his head and lay sprawling on the ground. This
scene terminated the expedition.

Dismounting from our tired oxen, our first inquiry was concerning boats
and letters. What was the reply? Neither boats, letters, supplies, nor
any intelligence of friends or the civilized world! We had long since
been given up as dead by the inhabitants of Khartoum, and by all those
who understood the difficulties and dangers of the country. We were
told that some people had suggested that we might possibly have gone to
Zanzibar, but the general opinion was that we had all been killed.

At this cold and barren reply I felt almost choked. We had looked
forward to arriving at Gondokoro as to a home; we had expected that a
boat would have been sent on the chance of finding us, as I had left
money in the hands of an agent in Khartoum; but there was literally
nothing to receive us, and we were helpless to return. We had worked for
years in misery, such as I have but faintly described, to overcome
the difficulties of this hitherto unconquerable exploration. We had
succeeded--and what was the result? Not even a letter from home to
welcome us if alive!

As I sat beneath a tree and looked down upon the glorious Nile that
flowed a few yards beneath my feet, I pondered upon the value of my
toil. I had traced the river to its great Albert source, and as the
mighty stream glided before me, the mystery that had ever shrouded its
origin was dissolved. I no longer looked upon its waters with a feeling
approaching to awe, for I knew its home, and had visited its cradle. Had
I overrated the importance of the discovery? and had I wasted some of
the best years of my life to obtain a shadow? I recalled to recollection
the practical question of Commoro, the chief of Latooka, "Suppose you
get to the great lake, what will you do with it? What will be the good
of it? If you find that the large river does flow from it, what then?"

At length the happy day came when we were to quit this miserable place
of Gondokoro. The boat was ready to start, we were all on board, and
Ibrahim and his people came to say good-by. Crowds lined the cliff
and the high ground by the old ruins of the mission-station to see us
depart. We pushed off from shore into the powerful current; the English
flag, that had accompanied us all through our wanderings, now fluttered
proudly from the masthead unsullied by defeat, and amidst the rattle
of musketry we glided rapidly down the river and soon lost sight of

What were our feelings at that moment? Overflowing with gratitude to
a Divine Providence that had supported us in sickness and guided us
through all dangers. There had been moments of hopelessness and despair;
days of misery, when the future had appeared dark and fatal; but we had
been strengthened in our weakness, and led, when apparently lost, by an
unseen hand. I felt no triumph, but with a feeling of calm contentment
and satisfaction we floated down the Nile. My great joy was in
the meeting that I contemplated with Speke in England, as I had so
thoroughly completed the task we had agreed upon.

We had heard at Gondokoro of a remarkable obstruction in the White Nile
a short distance below the junction of the Bahr el Gazal. We found this
to be a dam formed by floating masses of vegetation that effectually
blocked the passage.

The river had suddenly disappeared; there was apparently an end to
the White Nile. The dam was about three-quarters of a mile wide, was
perfectly firm, and was already overgrown with high reeds and grass,
thus forming a continuation of the surrounding country. Many of the
traders' people had died of the plague at this spot during the delay of
some weeks in cutting the canal; the graves of these dead were upon
the dam. The bottom of the canal that had been cut through the dam
was perfectly firm, composed of sand, mud, and interwoven decaying
vegetation. The river arrived with great force at the abrupt edge of
the obstruction, bringing with it all kinds of trash and large floating
islands. None of these objects hitched against the edge, but the instant
they struck they dived under and disappeared. It was in this manner that
a vessel had recently been lost. Having missed the narrow entrance to
the canal, she had struck the dam stem on; the force of the current
immediately turned her broadside against the obstruction, the floating
islands and masses of vegetation brought down by the river were heaped
against her and, heeling over on her side, she was sucked bodily under
and carried beneath the dam. Her crew had time to save themselves by
leaping upon the firm barrier that had wrecked their ship. The boatmen
told me that dead hippopotami had been found on the other side, that had
been carried under the dam and drowned.

Two days' hard work from morning till night brought us through the
canal, and we once more found ourselves on the open Nile on the other
side of the dam. The river was in that spot perfectly clean; not a
vestige of floating vegetation could be seen upon its waters. In its
subterranean passage it had passed through a natural sieve, leaving all
foreign matter behind to add to the bulk of the already stupendous work.

All before us was clear and plain sailing. For some days two or three of
our men had been complaining of severe headache, giddiness, and violent
pains in the spine and between the shoulders. I had been anxious when at
Gondokoro concerning the vessel, as many persons while on board had died
of the plague, during the voyage from Khartoum. The men assured me that
the most fatal symptom was violent bleeding from the nose; in such
cases no one had been known to recover. One of the boatmen, who had been
ailing for some days, suddenly went to the side of the vessel and hung
his head over the river; his nose was bleeding!

Another of my men, Yaseen, was ill; his uncle, my vakeel, came to me
with a report that "his nose was bleeding violently!" Several other men
fell ill; they lay helplessly about the deck in low muttering delirium,
their eyes as yellow as orange-peel. In two or three days the vessel was
so horribly offensive as to be unbearable. THE PLAGUE HAD BROKEN OUT! We
floated past the river Sobat junction; the wind was fair from the south,
thus fortunately we in the stern were to windward of the crew. Yaseen
died; he was one who had bled at the nose. We stopped to bury him. The
funeral hastily arranged, we again set sail. Mahommed died; he had bled
at the nose. Another burial. Once more we set sail and hurried down the
Nile. Several men were ill, but the dreaded symptom had not appeared. I
had given each man a strong dose of calomel at the commencement of the
disease; I could do nothing more, as my medicines were exhausted. All
night we could hear the sick muttering and raving in delirium, but from
years of association with disagreeables we had no fear of the infection.

One morning the boy Saat came to me with his head bound up, and
complained of severe pain in the back and limbs, with all the usual
symptoms of plague. In the afternoon I saw him leaning over the ship's
side; his nose was bleeding violently! At night he was delirious. On the
following morning he was raving, and on the vessel stopping to collect
firewood he threw himself into the river to cool the burning fever that
consumed him. His eyes were suffused with blood, which, blended with
a yellow as deep as the yolk of egg, gave a terrible appearance to his
face, that was already so drawn and changed as to be hardly recognized.
Poor Saat! the faithful boy that we had adopted, and who had formed so
bright an exception to the dark character of his race, was now a victim
to this horrible disease. He was a fine strong lad of nearly fifteen,
and he now lay helplessly on his mat, and cast wistful glances at the
face of his mistress as she gave him a cup of cold water mixed with a
few lumps of sugar that we had obtained from the traders at Gondokoro.

Saat grew worse and worse. Nothing would relieve the unfortunate boy
from the burning torture of that frightful disease. He never slept;
but night and day he muttered in delirium, breaking the monotony of his
malady by occasionally howling like a wild animal. Richarn won my heart
by his careful nursing of the boy, who had been his companion through
years of hardship. We arrived at the village of Wat Shely, only three
days from Khartoum. Saat was dying. The night passed, and I expected
that all would be over before sunrise; but as morning dawned a change
had taken place; the burning fever had left him, and, although raised
blotches had broken out upon his chest and various parts of his body, he
appeared much better. We now gave him stimulants; a teaspoonful of araki
that we had bought at Fashooder was administered every ten minutes on a
lump of sugar. This he crunched in his mouth, while he gazed at my wife
with an expression of affection; but he could not speak. I had him well
washed and dressed in clean clothes, that had been kept most carefully
during the voyage, to be worn on our entree to Khartoum. He was laid
down to sleep upon a clean mat, and my wife gave him a lump of sugar to
moisten his mouth and relieve his thickly-furred tongue. His pulse was
very weak, and his skin cold. "Poor Saat," said my wife, "his life
hangs upon a thread. We must nurse him most carefully; should he have a
relapse, nothing will save him."

An hour passed, and he slept. Karka, the fat, good-natured slave woman,
quietly went to his side; gently taking him by the ankles and knees, she
stretched his legs into a straight position, and laid his arms parallel
with his sides. She then covered his face with a cloth, one of the few
rags that we still possessed. "Does he sleep still?" we asked. The tears
ran down the cheeks of the savage but good-hearted Karka as she sobbed,
"He is dead!"

We stopped the boat. It was a sandy shore; the banks were high, and a
clump of mimosas grew above high-water mark. It was there that we dug
his grave. My men worked silently and sadly, for all loved Saat. He
had been so good and true, that even their hard hearts had learned
to respect his honesty. We laid him in his grave on the desert shore,
beneath the grove of trees.

Again the sail was set, and, filled by the breeze, it carried us away
from the dreary spot where we had sorrowfully left all that was good and
faithful. It was a happy end--most merciful, as he had been taken from a
land of iniquity in all the purity of a child converted from Paganism to
Christianity. He had lived and died in our service a good Christian. Our
voyage was nearly over, and we looked forward to home and friends; but
we had still fatigues before us: poor Saat had reached his home and

On the following morning, May 6, 1865, we were welcomed by the entire
European population of Khartoum, to whom are due my warmest thanks
for many kind attentions. We were kindly offered a house by Monsieur
Lombrosio, the manager of the Khartoum branch of the "Oriental and
Egyptian Trading Company."

I now heard the distressing news of the death of my poor friend Speke.
I could not realize the truth of this melancholy report until I read the
details of his fatal accident in the appendix of a French translation
of his work. It was but a sad consolation that I could confirm his
discoveries, and bear witness to the tenacity and perseverance with
which he had led his party through the untrodden path of Africa to the
first Nile source.

While at Khartoum I happened to find Mahommed Iler! the vakeel of
Chenooda's party, who had instigated my men to mutiny at Latooka,
and had taken my deserters into his employ. I had promised to make an
example of this fellow; I therefore had him arrested and brought before
the divan. With extreme effrontery, he denied having had anything to do
with the affair. Having a crowd of witnesses in my own men, and others
that I had found in Khartoum who had belonged to Koorshid's party
at that time, his barefaced lie was exposed, and he was convicted. I
determined that he should be punished, as an example that would insure
respect to any future English traveller in those regions. My men, and
all those with whom I had been connected, had been accustomed to rely
most implicitly upon all that I had promised, and the punishment of this
man had been an expressed determination.

I went to the divan and demanded that he should be flogged. Omer Bey was
then Governor of the Soudan, in the place of Moosa Pacha deceased. He
sat upon the divan, in the large hall of justice by the river. Motioning
me to take a seat by his side, and handing me his pipe, he called the
officer in waiting, and gave the necessary orders. In a few minutes
the prisoner was led into the hall, attended by eight soldiers. One man
carried a strong pole about seven feet long, in the centre of which was
a double chain, riveted through in a loop. The prisoner was immediately
thrown down with his face to the ground, while two men stretched out his
arms and sat upon them. His feet were then placed within the loop of
the chain, and the pole being twisted round until firmly secured, it was
raised from the ground sufficiently to expose the soles of the feet.
Two men with powerful hippopotamus whips stood one on either side.
The prisoner thus secured, the order was given. The whips were most
scientifically applied, and after the first five dozen the slave-hunting
scoundrel howled most lustily for mercy. How often had he flogged
unfortunate slave women to excess, and what murders had that wretch
committed, who now howled for mercy! I begged Omer Bey to stop the
punishment at 150 lashes, and to explain to him publicly in the divan
that he was thus punished for attempting to thwart the expedition of an
English traveller, by instigating my escort to mutiny.

We stayed at Khartoum two months, waiting for the Nile to rise
sufficiently to allow the passage of the cataracts. We started June
30th, and reached Berber, from which point, four years before, I had set
out on my Atbara expedition.

I determined upon the Red Sea route to Egypt, instead of passing the
horrible Korosko desert during the hot month of August. After some
delay I procured camels, and started east for Souakim, where I hoped to
procure a steamer to Suez.

There was no steamer upon our arrival. After waiting in intense heat for
about a fortnight, the Egyptian thirty-two-gun steam frigate Ibrahimeya
arrived with a regiment of Egyptian troops, under Giaffer Pacha, to
quell the mutiny of the black troops at Kassala, twenty days' march
in the interior. Giaffer Pacha most kindly placed the frigate at our
disposal to convey us to Suez.

Orders for sailing had been received; but suddenly a steamer was
signalled as arriving. This was a transport, with troops. As she was to
return immediately to Suez, I preferred the dirty transport rather than
incur a further delay. We started from Souakim, and after five days'
voyage we arrived at Suez. Landing from the steamer, I once more found
myself in an English hotel.

The hotel was thronged with passengers to India, with rosy, blooming
English ladies and crowds of my own countrymen. I felt inclined to talk
to everybody. Never was I so in love with my own countrymen and women;
but they (I mean the ladies) all had large balls of hair at the backs
of their heads! What an extraordinary change! I called Richarn, my pet
savage from the heart of Africa, to admire them. "Now, Richarn, look at
them!" I said. "What do you think of the English ladies? eh, Richarn?
Are they not lovely?"

"Wah Illahi!" exclaimed the astonished Richarn, "they are beautiful!
What hair! They are not like the negro savages, who work other people's
hair into their own heads; theirs is all real--all their own--how

"Yes, Richarn," I replied, "ALL THEIR OWN!" This was my first
introduction to the "chignon."

We arrived at Cairo, and I established Richarn and his wife in a
comfortable situation as private servants to Mr. Zech, the master of
Sheppard's Hotel. The character I gave him was one that I trust has done
him service. He had shown an extraordinary amount of moral courage in
totally reforming from his original habit of drinking. I left my old
servant with a heart too full to say good-by, a warm squeeze of his
rough but honest black hand, and the whistle of the train sounded--we
were off!

I had left Richarn, and none remained of my people. The past appeared
like a dream; the rushing sound of the train renewed ideas of
civilization. Had I really come from the Nile Sources? It was no dream.
A witness sat before me--a face still young, but bronzed like an Arab
by years of exposure to a burning sun, haggard and worn with toil and
sickness, and shaded with cares happily now past, the devoted companion
of my pilgrimage, to whom I owed success and life--my wife.

I had received letters from England, that had been waiting at the
British Consulate. The first I opened informed me that the Royal
Geographical Society had awarded me the Victoria Gold Medal, at a time
when they were unaware whether I was alive or dead, and when the success
of my expedition was unknown. This appreciation of my exertions was the
warmest welcome that I could have received on my first entrance
into civilization after so many years of savagedom. It rendered the
completion of the Nile Sources doubly grateful, as I had fulfilled the
expectations that the Geographical Society had so generously expressed
by the presentation of their medal BEFORE my task was done.

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