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Title: Terrestrial and Celestial Globes Vol II - Their History and Construction Including a Consideration - of their Value as Aids in the Study of Geography and - Astronomy
Author: Stevenson, Edward Luther, 1858-1944
Language: English
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  TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL
  GLOBES

  THEIR HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION
  INCLUDING A CONSIDERATION OF THEIR
  VALUE AS AIDS IN THE STUDY OF
  GEOGRAPHY AND ASTRONOMY


  BY

  EDWARD LUTHER STEVENSON, PH.D., LL.D.

  MEMBER OF
  THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA


  VOLUME II

  [Illustration]

  NEW HAVEN: PUBLISHED FOR
  THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA BY THE
  YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS

  LONDON · HUMPHREY MILFORD · OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

  MDCCCCXXI

  COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY
  THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA



Table of Contents

                                                                  PAGE

  List of Illustrations                                            vii

  Chapter X: Globes and Globe Makers of the Early
    Seventeenth Century. The Dutch Scientific
    Masters and Their Preëminent Leadership.                         1

  The shifting of globe making interest to the northwest of
  Europe at the close of the sixteenth century.--The Van
  Langrens as leaders.--Jodocus Hondius and his son
  Henricus.--Willem Jansz. Blaeu and his sons, John and
  Cornelius.--The Ferreri armillary sphere.--Globes of Peter
  Plancius.--Isaac Habrecht.--Globes of Mattheus Greuter and
  their reproduction by Rossi.--Manfredus Settàla.--Abraham
  Goos.--Adam Heroldt.

  Chapter XI: Globes of the Second Half of the Seventeenth
    Century                                                         72

  Certain striking tendencies exhibited in the matter of
  globe making in this period.--The Gottorp
  globes.--Weigel’s globes.--Carlo Benci.--Amantius
  Moroncelli.--Castlemaine’s immovable globe.--The armillary
  of Treffler.--Armillary sphere of Gian Battista
  Alberti.--The numerous globes of P. Vincenzo
  Coronelli.--Certain anonymous globes of the
  period.--Johannes Maccarius.--Jos. Antonius
  Volpes.--Vitale Giordani.--George Christopher
  Eimmart.--Giuseppe Scarabelli.--Giovanni Battista.--Joseph
  Moxon.--The Chinese globes of Peking.

  Chapter XII: Globes and Globe Makers of the First
    Half of the Eighteenth Century--from Delisle
    to Ferguson                                                    137

  Activities of Guillaume Delisle.--Jean Dominique Cassini
  and his reforms.--Vincenzo Miot.--The globes of Gerhard
  and Leonhard Valk.--Activities of John Senex.--Nicolas
  Bion.--The armillary sphere of Carmelo Cartilia.--Mattheus
  Seutter of Augsburg.--Robert Morden.--Jean Antoine
  Nollet.--Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr of
  Nürnberg.--Terrestrial globe of Cusani.--Terrestrial
  globes of Siena.--The work of the monk Pietro Maria da
  Vinchio.--James Ferguson of Scotland.

  Chapter XIII: Globes and Globe Makers of the Second
    Half of the Eighteenth Century                                 175

  Few globe makers of striking distinction in this
  period.--An apparent decrease in scientific interest in
  globes, but an apparent increase in popular
  interest.--Gilles and Didier Robert de Vaugondy.--The work
  of Desnos.--Globes of Gian Francesco Costa the
  Venetian.--Globes of Akerman and Akrel.--The French globe
  makers Rigobert Bonne and Lalande.--Charles Messier and
  Jean Fortin.--Globes of George Adams the Elder, of George
  Adams the Younger, and of Dudley Adams.--Small globes of
  Nathaniel Hill.--The work of Innocente Alessandri and
  Pietro Scaltaglia.--Charles Francis
  Delamarche.--Manuscript globes of Vincenzo
  Rosa.--Geographer and globe maker Giovanni Maria
  Cassini.--Globes of William Cary.

  Chapter XIV: The Technic of Globe Construction--Materials
    and Methods                                                    196

  General problems to be met.--Development from the simple
  armilla to the complex sphere.--The references of Ptolemy,
  Leontius Mechanicus, Alfonso.--Behaim’s leadership in
  practical globe making.--Materials employed.--Experiments
  in map projection.--The beginning and rapid development of
  globe-gore construction.--Various examples of early gore
  maps.--Equatorial polar and ecliptic polar
  mountings.--Special features of celestial globe
  maps.--Globe mountings.--Varying sizes of globes.--The
  uses of globes.--Moon globes and planetariums.

  Bibliographical List                                             220

  Index of Globes and Globe Makers                                 249

  General Index                                                    276



List of Illustrations


  _Frontispiece._ Rembrandt’s Philosophers                     VOL. II

  FIG.                       CHAPTER X                            PAGE

   88. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. _From original
         in Library of Henry E. Huntington, New York_                4

   89. Celestial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. _From original
         in Library of Henry E. Huntington, New York_                8

   90. Dedication Appearing on Globe of Jodocus Hondius,
         1600                                                        6

   91. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1618. _From original
         in collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                  14

   92. Portrait of Willem Jansz. Blaeu. _From engraving by
         Falck_                                                     18

   93. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1606. _From
         original in collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                  30

   94. Terrestrial and Celestial Globes of Willem Jansz. Blaeu,
         1616. _From originals in collection of The Hispanic
         Society of America, New York_                              32

   95. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. _From
         original in collection of The Hispanic Society
         of America, New York_                                      34

   96. Section of Jodocus Hondius World Map, 1611. _From
         Stevenson’s reproduction_                                  40

   97. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. _From
         original in Chigi Library, Rome_                           44

   98. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. _From original
         in Liceum Foscarini, Venice_                               44

  98a. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, ca. 1640.
         _From original in Royal Library, Madrid_                   66

  98b. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, ca. 1640.
         _From original in Royal Library, Madrid_                   66

   99. Portrait of Peter Plancius. _From an old print_              46

  100. Terrestrial Globe of Peter Plancius, 1614. _From original
         in Astronomical Museum, Rome_                              48

  101. Terrestrial Globe of Isaac Habrecht, 1625. _From original
         in the collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                  50

  102. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Greuter, 1632. _From original
         in the collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                  54

  103. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Greuter, 1638. _From original
         in the collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                  62

 103a. Terrestrial Globe of Dominico Rossi (Mattheus Greuter),
         1695. _From original in the collection of The Hispanic
         Society of America, New York_                              64

 103b. Celestial Globe of Dominico Rossi (Mattheus Greuter),
         1695. _From original in the collection of The Hispanic
         Society of America, New York_                              64


  CHAPTER XI

  104. The Gottorp Armillary Sphere, 1657. _From original in the
         National Museum, Copenhagen_                               74

  105. Terrestrial Globe of Silvester Amantius Moroncelli, 1672.
         _From original in Marciana Library, Venice_                84

  106. Manuscript Celestial Globe (Moroncelli?), Late Seventeenth
         Century. _From original in Library of William R.
         Hearst, New York_                                          92

  107. Portrait of Earl of Castlemaine. _From an old print_         94

  108. Globe of Earl of Castlemaine, 1679. _From Coronelli’s
         Epitome Cosmografica_                                      94

  109. Globe of Christopher Treffler, 1683. _From Coronelli’s
         Epitome Cosmografica_                                      95

  110. Portrait of P. Vincenzo Coronelli. _From his Atlante
         Veneto_                                                    98

  111. Emblem of the Venetian Accademia Cosmografica degli
         Argonauti. _From Coronelli’s Atlante Veneto_              100

  112. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. _From
         original in Marciana Library, Venice_                     110

  113. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. _From
         original in Marciana Library, Venice_                     112

  114. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. _From
         original in Landesmuseum, Zürich_                         114

  115. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1696. _From
         original in collection of The Hispanic Society
         of America, New York_                                     116

 115a. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1693. _From
         original in Academy of Sciences, Turin_                   118

 115b. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1693. _From
         original in Academy of Sciences, Turin_                   120

  116. Portrait of Joseph Moxon. _From his Mechanick Exercises_    124

  117. Ancient Mongolian Armillary Sphere, ca. 1274. _From
         Thompson’s Illustrations of China_                        130

 117a. Armillary Sphere and Celestial Globe of Ferdinand
         Verbiest, 1673. _From Thompson’s Illustrations
         of China_                                                 132


  CHAPTER XII

  118. Terrestrial Globe of Guillaume Delisle, 1700. _From
         original in Royal Library, Madrid_                        140

 118a. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Ludovicus Andreae, 1717.
         _From original in City Historical Museum, Frankfurt_      138

  119. Portrait of Jean Dominique Cassini. _From an old print_     142

  120. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 (?).
         _From original in collection of The Hispanic Society
         of America, New York_                                     144

 120a. Southern Hemisphere Celestial Globe by Gerhard and
         Leonhard Valk, with Author and Date Legend, 1750 (?).
         _From original in collection of The Hispanic Society
         of America, New York_                                     146

  121. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 (?).
         _From original in collection of The Hispanic
         Society of America, New York_                             148

 121a. Celestial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 (?).
         _From original in collection of The Hispanic
         Society of America, New York_                             150

  122. Terrestrial Globe of John Senex, 1793. _From original in
         Royal Library, Madrid_                                    152

  123. Portrait of Nicolas Bion. _From an old print_               142

  124. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710. _From original
         in Astronomical Museum, Rome_                             154

  125. Celestial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710. _From original
         in Astronomical Museum, Rome_                             156

 125a. Terrestrial Globe of Van Lauen Zonen, 1745. _From original
         in City Historical Museum, Frankfurt_                     158

  126. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, 1728.
         _From original in collection of The Hispanic Society of
         America, New York_                                        160

 126a. Celestial Globe of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, 1728.
         _From the original in collection of The Hispanic Society
         of America, New York_                                     162

 126b. Celestial Globe of Johann Puschner, 1730. _From original
         in Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden_                            164

  127. Portrait of James Ferguson. _From an old print_             168

 127a. Pocket Globe of James Ferguson, 1750 (?). _From original
         in collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                 170

 127b. Terrestrial Globe of Herman Moll, 1705. _From original
         in collection of The Hispanic Society of America,
         New York_                                                 170


  CHAPTER XIII

  128. Terrestrial Globe of Pietro Rosini, 1762. _From original in
         the University Library, Bologna_                          180

  129. Armillary Sphere of Jean Fortin, 1780. _From original in
         collection of The Hispanic Society of America, New
         York_                                                     184

 129a. Globe of L. C. Desnos, 1782. _From original, Piacenza_      178

  130. Terrestrial Globe of George Adams, 1782. _From original
         in Astronomical Museum, Rome_                             186

 130a. Terrestrial Globe of Nathaniel Hill, 1754. _From original
         in New York Public Library_                               188

  131. Terrestrial Globe of Giovanni Maria Cassini, 1790. _From
         original in Astronomical Museum, Rome_                    192

  132. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1800. _From original in
         collection of The Hispanic Society of America, New
         York_                                                     194


  CHAPTER XIV

  133. Astrolabe. _From Joseph Moxon, A Tutor to Astronomy
         and Geography, 1695_                                      197

  134. Globe Gores of Henricus Glareanus, 1527. _From his
         Geographia liber unus_                                    203

  135. Gore Map of Leonardo da Vinci, ca. 1515                     206

  136. Anonymous Globe Gores in Plane Map Construction, ca.
         1550. _From original manuscript in John Carter Brown
         Library, Providence_                                      206

  137. Portrait of Johann Hevelius (Hevel). _From his Prodromus_   208

  138. Constellation of Orion by Hevelius. _From his Prodromus_    212

  139. Constellation Ursa Major. _From Apianus Cosmographicus
         liber, 1529_                                              210

  140. Terrestrial Globe Gores by Johannes Oterschaden, ca.
         1675. _From original in collection of The Hispanic
         Society of America_                                       214

  141. Celestial Globe Gores by Johannes Oterschaden, ca. 1675.
         _From original in collection of The Hispanic Society of
         America_                                                  216

  142. Engraved Sections for Globe Horizon Circle by Johannes
         Oterschaden, ca. 1675. _From original in collection of
         The Hispanic Society of America_                          216

  143. The Orrery. _From an engraving by William Pether after
         engraving by Joseph Wright_                               218


  CHAP.                 TAILPIECES

    X. Armillary Sphere. _From Blagrave, Mathematical Jewel,
         1585_                                                      71

  XII. Ship. _From Jodocus Hondius’ World map, 1611_               174

  XIV. Printer’s Mark of the Blaeu Press                           219



Chapter X

Globes and Globe Makers of the Early Seventeenth Century. The Dutch
Scientific Masters and Their Preëminent Leadership

  The shifting of globe making interest to the northwest of
  Europe at the close of the sixteenth century.--The Van
  Langrens as leaders.--Jodocus Hondius and his son
  Henricus.--Willem Jansz. Blaeu and his sons, John and
  Cornelius.--The Ferreri armillary sphere.--Globes of Peter
  Plancius.--Isaac Habrecht.--Globes of Mattheus Greuter and
  their reproduction by Rossi.--Manfredus Settàla.--Abraham
  Goos.--Adam Heroldt.


As the first post-Columbian century came to its close the center of
interest in great transoceanic exploration and discovery shifted to the
northwest of Europe, to England, and to the Netherlands. Since
expeditions were daily setting sail to all shores of the world, “Quoniam
in omnes mundi plagas quotidie magis magisque navigatur,” quoting the
word of the enthusiastic Hondius, the chart and globe makers found their
services in great demand, globes both terrestrial and celestial being
still regarded as essential to a navigator’s complete outfit of sailing
instruments. The quick-witted Netherlanders, with well-developed
business instincts, engravers, printers, map and globe makers, set to
work to correct the old and to construct new “seamen’s cards” to serve
the seafarers in their enterprises, and it was not long after entering
this field of scientific endeavor that leadership by them was clearly
attained.

Although of Danish origin, perhaps logically the Van Langren family
should have had first consideration in this chapter, since father and
sons came to be loyal supporters of their new homeland’s interests, and
it was in the Netherlands where were laid the scenes of their activities
in the field here under consideration. Chronologically, however, they
had place in the preceding chapter because their work as globe makers
began in the early eighties of the sixteenth century. They, at least, be
it said to their credit, led the way, achieving some of their highest
successes in the early seventeenth century. This, too, was the time when
the Hondius, the Blaeu, the Jansson, and the Goos families came to the
front to contribute their part, in a very distinguished manner, toward
the promotion of the work so ably begun by their contemporary, Jacobus
Florentius van Langren.

Jodocus Hondius (1567-1611) was a native of Wacken (Fig. 60).[1] To this
village his parents, shortly before his birth, had fled from Ghent to
escape the persecuting hand of Count Egmont. The father, Oliver de
Hondt, a modest teacher but a man very learned in theology, had embraced
the reformed faith and therefore became an outlaw by decree of the
government. On the arrest of Egmont, he with his family returned to
Ghent, to remain but a short time, for in the year 1569 we find a
residence had been taken up at Duffel near Antwerp. In this city two
children were born, a daughter whose name is now unknown and a son
Henry, usually referred to as Henry the Elder.

Jodocus at an early age gave evidence of possessing very remarkable
talent for designing and engraving. We are told that at the age of eight
he began to apply himself to the art of portraiture, of ivory carving,
and of copper engraving, and that his father, noting the exhibition of
special talent in the son, placed him as an apprentice with an engraver
and sculptor in Antwerp. During this period of apprenticeship he
carried on his studies of the fine arts, also of Latin, Greek, and
mathematics, under the direction of his father, at the same time
applying himself to the work of map engraving. It probably was about the
year 1585 that he went to England, where, by reason of the talent he
exhibited, he found employment with the English geographers, Richard
Hakluyt and Edward Wright, during which period he appears to have
engraved and printed a small world map in hemispheres. In the year 1592
he returned to Amsterdam, where he established himself as an engraver
and printer, turning his attention especially to the issue of
geographical maps.[2] Among his friends he numbered the men most
prominent in his field, notably Petrus Bertius, very learned as a
geographer, and Petrus Montanus.[3] It appears to have been Bertius who
informed him of the intention of the heirs of Mercator to dispose of
that illustrious geographer’s engraving and printing establishment, and
who perhaps negotiated the sale of the same. At any rate, we find that
in the year 1604 Jodocus Hondius came into possession of the Mercator
copper plates of the Ptolemy maps, and at the same time he seems also to
have acquired the greater part of the edition of Mercator’s ‘Atlas’ of
1602 then remaining unsold. In the year 1605 Hondius prepared and issued
a third edition of the Ptolemy maps; in 1606 he issued a third edition
of Mercator’s ‘Atlas’; in 1608 he published a fourth edition; in 1609
and in 1610 other editions.[4] It must have been in the year 1611 that
he issued his great world map in two hemispheres, bearing the title
“Novissima ac exactissima totius orbis terrarum descriptio magna cura &
industria ex optimis quibusque tabulis Geographicis et Hydrographicis
nuperrimisque doctorum virorum observationibus duobus planisphaerijs
delineata. Auct. I. Hondio.” This work has been recently issued in a
superb facsimile of the only known extant original copy, now in the
possession of Prince Maximilian of Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee.[5] Of
such superior excellence is the work of Hondius, as exhibited in this
masterpiece, that it justly entitles him to first place among those who,
up to this date, had undertaken to construct world maps.

It seems to have been early in his career as engraver and printer that
he prepared his first globe gores and issued his first celestial globe.
The director of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg, in
courteous communication, reports that in the rich collection of that
institution there is a Hondius globe of the year 1592, which date, if
accurately read, makes this to be the only known copy of what must be
taken as his first issue. The map is a colored copper engraving covering
a ball of wood having a diameter of 60 cm. The mounting of the globe,
which clearly is the original, consists of the usual circles, resting
upon six wooden support columns. A more detailed description of this
particular example it has not been possible to obtain.[6]

Not until the year 1600 does there appear to have been a second issue of
his globes. Of this second issue a remarkably fine pair (Figs. 88, 89)
was recently acquired by Mr. Henry E. Huntington of New York City.[7]
Excepting very slight damage to the celestial globe in the north polar
region, they may be said to be in practically as fine condition as they
were when first given out from the master’s workshop. Their complete
history has not been obtainable, but so remarkably well preserved are
they that it seems quite probable they have been kept through all these
years in the library case of some rich Italian treasure-loving family.
There cannot be the slightest doubt of their age, certainly none of the
age of the spheres themselves, but the exact date of the bronze
mounting, though clearly in the style of certain Italian workmanship of
the period, is less easy to determine. These globes have a diameter of
about 34 cm. and an entire height, including the base, of 73 cm. The
spheres on which have been pasted the twelve engraved gores are of
papier-mâché, over which is a covering of plaster and a coating of thick
varnish or shellac giving a smooth surface for the terrestrial and the
celestial maps. To each, color was artistically applied by hand, which
still retains a richness of tone. Each is supplied with a bronze
meridian and horizon circle and with an hour circle attached in the
accustomed manner at the north pole. These circles are appropriately
graduated, the horizon circle having, in addition to its graduation into
three hundred and sixty degrees, a series of concentric circles
engraved, counting from the outermost, with the names of the winds,
compass directions in the Dutch language, the names of the months, and
the signs of the zodiac. Each sphere with its circles is carried on a
base composed of three artistically designed and engraved bronze
supports, these being attached at their lower extremities by an
appropriately designed plate, and in this plate has been set a compass,
still apparently in perfect condition, the dial face of this compass
having a diameter of 8 cm. Aside from their scientific value for the
student of geography and of astronomy, these are fit pieces to adorn the
library shelves of a prince among American book collectors, as they
must, in keeping with the custom of the time, have once adorned the
shelves of an Italian patrician book lover.

[Illustration: Fig. 88. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600.]

[Illustration: Fig. 89. Celestial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600.]

The terrestrial globe has the following dedication: “Illustrissimo
Principi Dᵒ Mauritio à Nassau, Principi Auraico, Comiti à Nassau, etc.
Gubernatori Provinciarum Foederatarū Summoque Praefecto mari Inferioris
Germaniae Domino suo colendissimo. Jod. Hondius Flander L. M. D. D. Cum
privilegio decem annorum.” “To the illustrious Prince D. Maurice of
Nassau, Prince of Orange, Knight of Nassau, etc. Governor of the
Federated Provinces and High Prefect of the Lower German Ocean, his Most
Worshipful Master, Jodocus Hondius dedicates (this globe). With
privilege for ten years.” This dedication is placed within an artistic
cartouch (Fig. 90) which is surmounted with the coat of arms of the
Princes of Nassau, to which appropriate colors have been added. To the
left of the above is an address to the reader: “Iod. Hond. Lectori S.
P. Quoniam crebriores in omnes mundi partes quotidie navigationes
instituūt unde situs ejusdem certius perspicitur atque innotescit;
nemini idcirco mirum spero visum iri, si haec nostri globi descriptio ab
aliis antehac in lucem editis plurimū discrepet. Quin uti par est,
nostrae diligentiae et curae favebit, qua recens patefacta et cognita,
qua directiones, latitudines et similia cōgruenter distincta suis locis
habentur. Quod ipsum in ducendis lineis Directorii fecimus et peritis
cumulate satisfactum confidimus. Postremo lectorē benev. rogam⁹ ut si
quam loci alicujis pleniorem notitiam habeat eandem nobiscū, provehēdi
boni publici gratia, lubens comunicet. vale.” “Hondius to the reader
greeting. Inasmuch as frequent voyages into all parts of the world are
undertaken every day, whereby the several locations (of places) are more
certainly seen and are made known, I hope therefore no one will be
surprised to find this delineation on our globe very different from that
on most others previously issued. But who, as is right, will not prefer
our diligence and care, whereby recently discovered and known lands, and
whereby directions, latitudes, and such like are all properly
distinguished and are to be found in their places. What we have done in
drawing the lines of direction, we trust will be satisfactory on the
whole to experts. Finally, we ask the kind reader that, if he has fuller
knowledge of any place, that of his own free will he will communicate
the same to us, to the end of advancing the public welfare. Farewell.”
Within the Arctic circle and north of North America is the title and
date legend reading “Globus Terrestris de integri revisus & emendatus
an. 1600.” “Globe of the entire earth revised and corrected in the year
1600.” To the right of the dedicatory legend we find instruction given
as to the method of finding the direction from one place to another, of
which one may be desirous of having knowledge; it reads: “Modus
investigandi locorū directionē. Duorum locorum in hoc globo quorum
directionem scire cupis hoc est in quam coeli partem alter ab altero
vergat, primo longitudinis et latitudinis differentiam notabis, qua
cognita vertas globum donec Rhumbus aliquis intersecet meridianum in
latitudinē primi loci, deinde volvas versus Ortum aut Occasum, prout res
postulat, donec gradus aequatoris numero aequales differentiae
longitudinis duorū locorum meridianum pertranseant postea vide num
assūptus Rhumbus intersecet meridianum in latitudine loci. Quod si
fecerit hic est horum locorū Rhumbus sive linea directionem indicans:
sin secus, alius assumendus est, usque dum occurrat qui hoc
praestiterit. Subjecimus scalam longitudinum.” “Of two places on this
globe whose direction from one another you are desirous of knowing, that
is in what part of the heavens the one diverges from the other, first of
all note the difference of latitude and longitude. This ascertained turn
the globe until some one rhumb cuts the meridian in the latitude of the
first place, then turn to the east or to the west as is required, until
the degrees of the equator through which the meridians of the places
pass equal in number the difference in longitude of the two places. Then
note whether the selected rhumb cuts the meridian in the latitude of the
place. If it does so then this is the rhumb of these places or the line
which shows the required direction: but if it does not then another
rhumb must be chosen until the condition is satisfied. We subjoin a
scale of longitudes.” Other legends, describing briefly some event in
the history of discovery, or describing briefly the characteristic
features of some locality, are exceedingly numerous. As a record of the
geographical knowledge of the time, this Hondius terrestrial globe map
may justly be referred to as one of the most valuable of the period.

[Illustration: Fig. 90. Dedication Appearing on Globe of Jodocus
Hondius, 1600.]

For astronomical study the celestial globe is none the less valuable and
interesting than is the terrestrial for the study of geography. Its
descriptive title reads: “Globus coelestis. In quo Stellae fixae omnes
quae a N. viro Tycone Brahe sūma industria ac cura observatae sunt
accuratissime designantur: nec non ea quae a peritis. nauclero Petro
Theodori. Mateseos studioso annotatae sunt.” “Celestial globe, in which
all of the fixed stars which were observed by the illustrious Tycho
Brahe, with great care and industry, are most accurately shown for the
scientific student: also those which were noted by the distinguished
navigator Peter Theodorus.” The dedication differs somewhat from that on
the terrestrial globe and reads: “Clarissimis Belgii luminibus
sapientiae doctrinae et verae pietatis officinis Academiae Lugdunensis
Batavorum et Francveriensis. Hos globos ad Mathematicas artes
promovendas manu propria à se caelatas luculentissime dedicat
consacratque Jodocus Hondius ann. 1600.” “To the most renowned lights of
Belgium, fountains of wisdom, of doctrine and of true piety, of the
Academy of Leiden and of Frankfurt these globes, for the promotion of
the mathematical arts and constructed with his own hands, are dedicated
and consecrated by Jodocus Hondius in the year 1600.” The several
constellations are artistically represented in appropriate figures which
include, in addition to those of Ptolemy, a considerable number in the
southern hemisphere, for which, as the author states, he made use of the
observations of the navigator Theodorus. That star in the constellation
Cassiopeia, which so greatly interested Tycho Brahe, has a special but
brief legend distinguishing it, reading “Stella mirabilis quae insolito
prae aliis fulgore aᵒ 1572 p. an. et trientem apparuit.” “Remarkable
star which appeared with brightness beyond all others in the year 1572
and for a year and one third.”

A second pair of Hondius’ globes of the year 1600 is reported as
belonging to Count Rocco Giannini of Lucca. Fiorini says of them that
they have mountings of bronze, resembling in this respect the pair
described above, but he adds that they are without inscriptions of
special note.[8] Either the information which he received concerning
them was inaccurate or there exists a very marked difference between
these pairs, the only ones it has been possible to locate.

In the year 1601 Hondius issued a pair of globes which were somewhat
smaller than the preceding, each having a diameter of 21 cm. The
inscription on the celestial globe, in which appears the date of
construction, differs but little from that appearing on the issue of the
year 1600; it reads: “Globus coelestis in quo fixae omnes quae a N. viro
Thicone Brahe sum̄a cura observatae sunt, accuratissime designantur
quibus adjuncta sunt circa Pol. Australe stel. quae a pertissimo
nauclero Petro Theodori. annotatae sunt simul accomodatae ad annum 1600.
editus vero 1601.” “Celestial globe in which all the fixed stars which
were observed with the utmost care by the illustrious Tycho Brahe and
accurately noted, to which are added the stars around the south pole
which were observed by the skilful navigator Peter Theodorus. Adapted to
the year 1600, but edited in the year 1601.” The general design of the
figures of the several constellations agrees with that of the first
edition, the chief difference lying merely in the matter of size.

On the terrestrial globe is the following dedication: “Serenissimis
Principibus Alberto et Isabellae Cla. austriacis Brabantiae Ducibus.
Jodo. Hondius. auctor et Joan Baptista Vriendt. Antuerpiae.” “To the
Most Serene Rulers Albert and Isabella, the renowned Princes of Austrian
Brabant, Jodocus Hondius author and John Baptist Veen (dedicate this
globe). Antwerp.”

The author has added a rather lengthy address to the reader, in which is
interesting reference to the difficult problem of determining the
longitude of places.[9] “Hondius Lectori S. In locorum longitudine
hactenus mirifice peccatum esse hydrographiae peritis satis constat:
Regiones enim fere omnes descriptae sunt prout naucleri in suis
navigationibus directionem duorum locorum ab uno loco ad alterum
invenerunt, idque nulla habita ratione loci tertii, vel deviationis acus
nauticae, vel etiam directorii nautici, quo indifferenter utuntur,
quamvis in uno non aeque ac in alio chalyben ille acus ponatur, et a
vero septentrione magis vel minus divertatur, pro uso loci in quo
directoria fabbricata sunt, unde necessario longitudo locorum distorta
est. Multi hos errores frustra conati sunt emendare per polares stellas,
alii per Lunae cursum, alii certius per eclipses. Verum hoc opus, ille
labor. Quis enim in tanta locorum multitudine eclipses observabit? At
cum jam tandem per variationem, aut deviationem acus nauticae, ut
vocant, locorum, longitudo inveniatur, operae praetium me facturum
putavi si in hoc globo regiones omnes (saltem quarum longitudo jam
cognita est) suis quasq̄ veris longitudinis gradibus delineavero,
quamvis id non exigui laboris fuerit. Longitudines incepimus non ab
Insulis Fortunatis ut Ptolomeus, sed ab iis quae açores vocantur quod
acus nautica ibi recta in septentrionem vergat. Vale. Anno 1601.”
“Hondius to the reader greeting. In the matter of the longitude of
places all hydrographers, it is agreed, have blundered marvelously,
since nearly all regions have been described as navigators, in their
voyages, found the direction from one to another, of any two places,
without reckoning having been taken from a third place, or account
having been taken of the variation of the nautical needle, or even of
nautical direction, which they indefinitely make use of, although in one
place the needle does not point exactly as in another, being deflected
more or less from the true north according to the usage of the country
in which the compass card employed was made, and thus the longitude of
places is made to vary. Many have tried in vain to eliminate these
errors by the polar stars. Others have tried to do the same by noting
the course of the moon, and others again, with more certainty, by
observations of eclipses; but all this is with much labor, and who will
be able thus to get an accurate observation? But now since the longitude
of places has been sought through the variation or deviation of the
needle, as they say, I thought it would be a work of merit if I noted on
this globe all the regions (at least all whose longitude is known) each
with its own degree of longitude although knowing this would be no
little labor. We have begun our reckoning of longitude not from the
Fortunate Islands, as did Ptolemy, but from those which are called the
Azores, because there the nautical needle points directly to the north.
Farewell. In the year 1601.”

These globes of 1601 are composed of a hollow wooden shell, over which
have been pasted the twelve engraved gores. They are mounted on
well-constructed bases of copper from which rise the supports for the
horizon circle, on the surface of which are the usual graduations, the
calendar and zodiacal representations. The meridian circles are of
brass, are graduated, and have in addition the engraved designations
“Zona torrida,” “Zona temperata,” “Zona frigida.” An example of each of
these globes of 1601 may be found in the Museo Municipale of Milan, and
one of the celestial globes in the library of the Seminario Vescovile of
Rimini.

In the year 1613, shortly after the death of Jodocus Hondius, there was
issued in Amsterdam, by Adrian Veen[10] and Jodocus Hondius, Jr., a
terrestrial and a celestial globe, each having a diameter of about 56
cm. The dedication of the first reads: “Illustrissimis, Nobilissimis,
Amplissimis et Prudentissimis Federatarum Inferioris Germaniae
Provinciarum Ordinibus ac Patribus Patriae Dominis Suis Clementissimis
Dedicabant Jodocus Hondius Junior et Adrianus Veen. In the year 1613.”
“To the Most Illustrious, Most Noble, Most Exalted, Most Prudent Lords
of the Federated Provinces of the Netherlands, and Fathers of their
Country, their Most Benign Masters, Jodocus Hondius Jr. and Adrian Veen
dedicate (this globe).” The title of the terrestrial globe is given as
“Globus terrestris summa cura ac diligentia a Jodoco Hondio piae
memoriae inchoatus, globosis autem directorii nautici lineis ab Adriano
Venone ad usum navigantium accomodatus, illiusque et Jodoci Hondii
junioris ope et industria absolutus atque perfactus. Amsterodami 1613.”
“Terrestrial globe begun with great care and diligence by Jodocus
Hondius of pious memory, furnished with the lines of nautical direction
(loxodromes) for the use of navigators, by Adrian Veen, and finished by
the industry and labor of the same and of Jodocus Hondius, Jr. Amsterdam
1613.” It seems probable that the Jodocus Hondius here referred to was
Henricus Hondius, who for reasons of business had taken the name of his
father, affixing the word “Junior.”

The celestial globe to accompany the above terrestrial has the title,
“Globus coelestis in quo stellae fixae omnes, quae a Nob. viro Tychone
Brahe summa industria ac cura observatae sunt, accuratissima
designantur, nec non circa polum austrum eae quae a Peritiss. nauclero
Petro Theodorico et Friderico Houtmanno Mathessos studioso annotatae
sunt.” “Celestial globe on which are accurately depicted all the fixed
stars that were observed by the illustrious Tycho Brahe, with great
industry and care: also those stars around the south pole which were
noted for the scientific student by the skilful navigator Peter
Theodorus, and by Frederick Houtmann.” Surmounting the cartouch
containing the above title is a portrait of Tycho Brahe with the legend
“Effigies Nob. viri Tychonis Brahe Dani Domini de Knudstrup. Summi
Mathematici. Aetatis 47.” “Portrait of the illustrious Tycho Brahe,
Danish Lord of Knudstrup, the great mathematician, in his 47th year.”
The dedication of this globe differs somewhat from the former, reading,
“Illustrissimis, Amplissimis, Clarissimisque D. D. Dominis Ordinibus
Provinciarum Foederis Belgici, Don̄is suis Clementissimis in assiduae
Gratitudinis memoriam, Dant Dedicantque Adrianus Veen et Jodocus Hondius
Junior. Anno 1613.” “To the Illustrious, the Great, the Renowned Lords
of the Provinces of United Belgium, their Most Benign Masters, as a
token of constant gratitude, Adrian Veen and Jodocus Hondius Jr. give
and dedicate (this globe). In the year 1613.” There is evidence that
Hondius drew from the work of Willem Jansz. Blaeu for certain features
of this edition, in which he followed a practice of the time. Frequent
complaint is to be met with, that this borrowing was not always done
with the proper note of credit. We find, for example, that in the year
1608 Blaeu presented a special plea to the States of Holland and West
Friesland that he be made secure against the loss caused by pirated
editions of his works. He informed the States that he had given himself
hope of being able to support his family in an honest way, and that he
would have succeeded with God’s mercy and blessing, if certain
individuals engaged in the same business had not undertaken to copy his
productions.[11] It seems probable that Blaeu’s complaint touched in
some manner his large world map of the year 1605, since there is
striking resemblance between this and the world map of Hondius issued in
the year 1611, and, as noted above, we find that Jodocus Hondius’ son,
signing himself Jodocus Hondius, Jr., continued to borrow from his
distinguished contemporary’s work. The practice of borrowing, however,
seems to have been later reversed, when Blaeu, undoubtedly noting the
success of Hondius’ large globe of 1613, decided himself to produce one
yet larger, as a result of which we have the splendid Blaeu globe of
1622.

A pair of this issue of the year 1613 may be found in the Biblioteca
Barbarini of Rome, and another pair in the Biblioteca Civico of Treviso.
An example of the celestial globe may be found in the Museo di Strumenti
Antichi di Astronomia e di Fisica of Florence.

In the year 1615 we find that Josef de Rossi of Milan undertook, without
giving proper credit, the publication of the Hondius globes of the year
1601.[12] In size there is agreement, but certain changes in dates are
to be noted, as in the address to the reader, wherein we find 1615
instead of 1601, but in other respects there has been a literal
transcription. In the celestial globe of 1601 we find the following
reference to the recorded position of the fixed stars, “Accomodata ad
annum 1600, editus vero 1601,” whereas in the Rossi copy we find
“accomodatae ad annum 1614 editus vero 1615.” The dedication of this
terrestrial globe of 1615 reads: “Illᵐᵒ viro optimaraq̄ artium
amatori et Fautori D. Paulo Mellino Romano. Josephus de Rubeis
Mediolanensis devoti animi monumentum dat dicatque.” “To the Most
Illustrious, the Lover and Promoter of the best arts D. Paulus Mellinus
of Rome, Joseph de Rossi of Milan gives and dedicates this token of
devoted friendship.” A copy of the terrestrial globe of 1615 may be
found in the private library of the Italian artist, Lessi, of Florence,
and a copy of the celestial globe belongs to Collegio Romano of Rome.

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a terrestrial globe signed
Jodocus Hondius and dated 1618 (Fig. 91). Jodocus the elder died in the
year 1611, and while the map of this globe may be a reprint of one which
he had engraved, it should be noted that it does not agree in all of its
details with any other known globe of his, and may therefore be the work
of the son. The sphere of papier-mâché has a diameter of 20 cm. and is
supported on a base of wood which includes a horizon circle, having
pasted on its surface the usual representations of zodiacal signs, the
calendar, and the names of the principal winds or directions. This
horizon circle rests upon four small turned legs joined at the bottom by
cross bars, covering which bars is a circular turned disc 22 cm. in
diameter, from the center of which rises a short post. Through a slot in
this post passes a graduated meridian circle within which the globe ball
revolves.

[Illustration: Fig. 91. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1618.]

The map is slightly water-stained, but the American portion is
particularly well preserved. A crack in the sphere along the meridian of
150 degrees east extends from pole to pole, and is rather a
disfigurement than a serious injury to any part of the surface. The map
is a remarkably fine example of the Dutch map engraver’s art. The
lettering and the continental outlines were remarkably well cut in the
copper plate used in the printing, and in many places the luster of the
ink is still preserved. In the northern part of North America is the
brief and interesting dedication “Clarissimis Consultissimique
Nauticae Belgicaeque Federatarum Inferioris Germaniae Regionum
Praefectis D. D. Jodocus Hondius.” “To the most illustrious and most
prudent prefects and seamen of Belgium and of the region of lower
Germany, Jodocus Hondius gives and dedicates (this globe).” In the
“Terra Australis incognita” is the address to the reader which is
practically identical with that to be found on the Hondius terrestrial
globe of 1601, omitting, however, the word “Vale” and changing the date
to “1618.” Near the entrance to Hudson’s Bay is a legend reading “Huc
retrocesserunt Amstelodamensis anno 1612.”

From this bay an arm extends to the southwest which is referred to as
“The bay where Hudson did winter,” and an arm extends to the southeast,
which is referred to as “The Bay of Gosneres.” A few other brief legends
are given, referring to an event or to events supposed to have taken
place in the locality in which they are placed. Small but artistically
engraved ships sail the Atlantic and the Pacific, and here and there a
marine animal is represented. Loxodromic lines are made a conspicuous
feature, having their crossing centers at longitudes 0, 90, 180, and 270
on the equator, likewise on the prime meridian at latitude 35 degrees
both north and south, as well as at the same latitudes on the opposite
side of the sphere, where the prime meridian becomes the meridian of 180
degrees. In addition to this example belonging to The Hispanic Society’s
collection, one may be found in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of
Nürnberg.[13]

Not until the year 1640 do we find the name Hondius again appearing on a
dated globe. Attention has been called to the fact that Henricus, the
son of Jodocus, continued, with more or less diligence, the work of map
engraving and map printing, which the latter had carried on so
successfully in Amsterdam until the time of his death. We are told that
a partnership in the business, about the year 1639, was formed by
Henricus Hondius with Johan Janssonius, his brother-in-law, and that
this business, after the year 1644, passed entirely into the hands of
the latter. It was in the year 1640 that the firm referred to undertook
the reissue of the Hondius globes of earlier date. These had a diameter
of about 52 cm. The gore maps, consisting of twelve parts, were made to
extend to within twenty degrees of each pole, the polar space being
covered with the usual polar cap.

The address to the reader, to be found on the terrestrial globe of the
year 1613, is repeated on this of 1640,[14] but the dedication differs
somewhat in the two, reading, on those of the 1640 issue,
“Illustrissimis, Nobilissimis, Amplissimis et Prudentissimis
Foederatarum Inferioris Germaniae provinciarum Ordinibus ac Patribus
Patriae Dominis suis clementissimis dedicabat Henricus Hondius. Henricus
Hondius excudebat An. 1640.” “To the Most Illustrious, Most Noble, Most
Exalted and Prudent Lords of the United Netherlands, the Fathers of
their Country, his Most Clement Master, Henricus Hondius dedicates (this
globe). Constructed by Henricus Hondius in the year 1640.” There have
been added a number of interesting legends, such as the following:
“Inter S. Laurentii et los Romeros insulas vehemens admodum est versus
ortum et occasum fluxus et refluxus maris.” “Between the islands of St.
Lawrence and Los Romeros there is an exceedingly strong ebb and flow of
the sea eastward and westward”; “Psitacorum regio sic a Lusitanis
appellata ob eorum avium ibidem magnitudinem.” “The region of the
parrots, and this is so called by the Portuguese because of the great
number of these birds found here”;[15] “Promontorium terrae australis
distans 450 leucas a capite Bonae Spei et 600 a S. Augustini.” “This
promontory of the southern land is distant 450 leagues from the Cape of
Good Hope, and 600 from Cape St. Augustine”; “Accolae Freti Magellanici
septentrionem versus procerae, meridiem vero versus exiquae magnitidinis
reperiuntur.” “The inhabitants of the Strait of Magellan toward the
north are of large size, but toward the south they are of small
stature”; “Lybia inferior quae hodie Saara appellatur quae vox idem quod
desertum significat.” “Lower Lybia is called today Sahara, which word
means desert.” In the Hudson Bay region we find, “In sinu Maris Hudsons
Bay vulgo dictus ubi M. Hudson hybernavit, ibidem maris aestus non ultra
duos pedes accrescebat, quod et observabit D. Thomas Jacobus a. 1631 in
sinu ‘James his Bay’ dicto et ubi mensuram duorum pedum non excedebat
maris tumor.” “In the bend of the sea called Hudson’s Bay, where Hudson
passed the winter, the tide of the sea did not rise more than two feet,
which also was observed by Thomas James in the year 1631[16] in the Bay
called James his Bay where the rise of the sea likewise did not exceed
two feet.” Near the last-quoted legend we find, “Thomas Button hibernans
in portu Nelson ad altitudinem grad. 57 observavit singulis ex horis
aestum maris accrescere 15 pedes aut ultra, qui flante Zephiro solito
magis instar plenilunii intumescebat. Sequenti aestate animadvertit
quoque ad altitudinem grad. 60 similes aestus maris qui nunc orientem
versus nunc occidentem vergebant.” “Thomas Button,[17] who passed the
winter in Port Nelson, at the high latitude of 57 degrees, observed hour
by hour the tide of the sea to rise 15 feet or more, which tide, with
the accustomed wind blowing, swelled very like a (spring) tide. Next
summer he noticed at a latitude of 60 degrees similar ocean tides which
now had an eastward flow and now a westward.” A legend has been added
relating to the magnetic poles and to the difficulty of locating the
same, reading “Duos in hoc loco Gerardus Mercator et alii eundem secuti
posuerunt Polos magnetis, unum respectu insularum capitis viridis,
alterum respectu insulae Corvi et Floridis: cum vero de his nihil certi
sit, et quotidiana experientia nos aliter doceat de deviatione acus
nauticae ambos omissimus.” “Gerard Mercator and others following him
have placed two magnetic poles in this locality, one according to the
direction indicated (by the compass needle) at the Cape Verde Islands,
the other according to the direction indicated at the Islands of Corvus
and Flores: but as nothing is known for a certainty concerning these,
and a daily experience teaches us otherwise concerning the variation of
the magnetic needle, we have omitted both poles.”[18]

The globes of this edition were supplied with the usual brass meridian
circles, wooden horizon circles, on the surface of which was pasted the
printed representation of the zodiacal signs, the names of the months,
and of the principal winds or directions.

The celestial globe follows, in its records, more closely than does the
terrestrial, the issue of 1613. The title legend, the reference to Tycho
Brahe, and the reference to the star which appeared in the year 1572 in
the constellation Cassiopeia, all agree with those in the earlier
edition, as do, in the main, the representations of the figures of the
several Ptolemaic constellations and those added in the southern
hemisphere. The dedication reads, “Illustrissimis Nobilissimis
Amplissimis Clarissimisque D. D. Dominis Ordinibus Provinciarum Foederis
Belgici Dominis suis Clementissimis in assiduae gratitudinis memoriam
dat, dicat dedicatque Illustriss. Amplit. Vest. devotus Henricus
Hondius.” “To the Most Illustrious, Most Noble, Most Exalted, Most
Renowned Lords of the United Provinces of Belgium, his Most Clement
Masters, as a memorial of constant gratitude, gives and dedicates to
Your Illustrious Highnesses (this globe). Henricus Hondius.”

A copy of each of these globes of 1640 may be found in the library of
the Seminario Vescovile of Portogruaro, a copy of each in the Biblioteca
Quiriniana of Brescia, and one of each, though undated, in the Museo
Civico of Vicenza.

If the Van Langren family and the Hondius family brought renown to their
country through the excellence of their work in the field of
cartography, so likewise did the Blaeu family, father and sons. Perhaps
to Willem Jansz. Blaeu (Fig. 92) and his son, John, belongs first
place in the long line of distinguished map and globe makers of the
Netherlands.[19]

[Illustration: Fig. 92. Portrait of Willem Jansz. Blaeu.]

A record which finds general acceptance tells us that Willem Blaeu was
born in the village of Alkmaar in the year 1571.[20] Of his childhood
years very little is known. It was some time in his early boyhood that
he went to Amsterdam, where he found employment, it appears, at first in
the house of a Holland merchant, and later as a joiner’s apprentice. We
can be certain neither of the time when he decided to leave Amsterdam,
nor of the exact circumstances which induced him to visit the island of
Hveen, then belonging to Denmark, an event of much significance in his
life. We, however, cannot be far wrong in asserting the promptings for
this visit to have been his early liking for mathematical, geographical,
and astronomical studies. It was here that he first came into intimate
relations with Tycho Brahe, the famous Danish astronomer, who, in the
year 1576, through princely favor, came into possession of this island,
and, as before noted, had erected here his remarkably well-appointed
astronomical observatory, which he called Uranienburg.[21] For nearly a
quarter of a century this was one of the most famous centers in all
Europe for the study of astronomical science and of its practical
application. Blaeu, however, was not the first of the young
Netherlanders to find the way to Uranienburg to receive instruction from
the great master.[22] Of his sojourn on the island we have but little
direct information. It appears certain that he passed at least two years
with Tycho, engaged the while in study and in the construction of
mathematical and astronomical instruments. That the relations between
the two distinguished scientists continued to be of the most friendly
character after Blaeu returned to Amsterdam is very certain. Not a few
of those who in later years praised Blaeu’s scientific attainments refer
to him as “the pupil and longtime friend of Brahe,” and Blaeu himself,
in certain legends appearing on his globes and maps, refers to him as
his teacher. It cannot be doubted that Blaeu owed to his abode on the
Island of Hveen the real foundation of his scientific knowledge, both in
the field of geography and astronomy, as well as his knowledge of the
construction and the skilful use of mathematical instruments. We have
reason for believing that a number of the instruments which served the
great astronomer in his investigations[23] were the work of Blaeu, and
it is an interesting fact, as we know, that Brahe’s observations, here
made, formed the basis for Kepler’s calculations, leading him to the
discovery of the laws which immortalized his name.[24]

It was perhaps late in the year 1596 or early in the year 1597 that
Blaeu returned to Amsterdam, where he soon established himself as a
maker of mathematical instruments, of maps and of globes, and as an
engraver and printer. There is good reason for thinking that from the
first he prospered in his undertakings, and, from incidental references
to his activities, it may be inferred that it was not long after 1600 he
was in his own fully equipped house. From his presses numerous works
were issued, the many examples of which, still adorning the shelves of
most prominent libraries, are a monument to his great abilities.

On his ‘Paescarte,’ one of his earliest publications,[25] and usually
referred to the year 1606, we read that it was “Ghedruckt t’ Amsterdam
bij Willem Janssoon op’t Waeter inde Sonnewijser,” a location often
referred to in certain later publications as “op’ t water In de vergulde
Sonnewyser,” reference here being to the gilded sundial which, as a
business sign, adorned the gable of his establishment. It appears that
in this originally selected locality his work was carried on until the
year 1637, when his entire plant was moved into more commodious quarters
in the Blumengracht, one year only before his death. The sons, John and
Cornelius, succeeded to the business, and to the former especially
belongs the credit of issuing the most sumptuous atlas in that period
of remarkable map making.[26] In the year 1672 practically the entire
establishment was destroyed by fire.

Willem Blaeu’s training admirably fitted him to serve his country in
matters pertaining to its maritime interests, and its calls as well as
its rewards for service were not infrequent. As proof of the confidence
that his contemporaries had in his knowledge of geography and
navigation, the Estates General of Amsterdam, January 3, 1633, by
resolution, appointed him Map Maker of the Republic, an honorable
position held by him until his death, then being successively passed on
to his son and to his grandson.[27]

We are told that Tycho had given to Blaeu a copy of his astronomical
observations before their publication, that this copy was carried to
Amsterdam, and that after a careful study of the records contained
therein the latter began the practice of globe making.[28] The
implication contained in this reference is that his first work as a
globe maker was the preparation of material for a celestial globe, but
no such globe of his, bearing date earlier than 1602, is known. His
first dated work appears to have been a terrestrial globe of the year
1599. In many of its features it gives evidence that Mercator was the
master followed, notably in the representation of the loxodromic lines
which radiate from the numerous wind or compass roses, or from centers
regularly placed on the surface of the globe.

This first issue has a diameter of 34 cm., which is less than that of
Mercator’s globe of the year 1541, but greater than that of the Van
Langren globe of the year 1585.[29] The gores, twelve in number, were
cut seven degrees from the poles, the polar space being covered with a
circular disc. Blaeu, as many other globe makers of his period, found
that by thus dividing the engraved globe map a more nearly perfect
covering for the sphere could be obtained. Meridians and parallels are
drawn at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through
the island of Santa Maria in the Azores group. In a conspicuously placed
cartouch he presents his address to the reader. “Spectatori meo S. Hanc
terrae marisque faciem qui aspicis sic inspice ne dispicias: multa hic
mutata, (sed nihil temere) quae, nisi attendas, facile fugiant. Ratio
constructionis in multis nova, sed proba. Gibbum plano, planum globo
commutavimus: duplicato labori: sed certiori: idque ut ventorum spirae
justis per orbem trrarum gyris discurrerent: hinc factum ut in omnibus
terrae oris praeter parallelorum et meridianorum etiam plagae ratio
nobis fuerit habenda. Quae quidem omnia attento spectatori facile
apparebunt. Vale et fruere. Guilielmus Jansonius Alcmariensis auctor et
sculptor. 1599.” “Greeting to my observer. This representation of the
earth and sea, which thou beholdest, be pleased to take note of in this
manner. Many things here have been changed, but nothing without reason,
and unless thou art attentive these things might easily escape thee. The
method of construction is in many points new, but correct. We have
changed that which is relief into the flat, and the flat into the
globular, a double labor but more nearly correct, and we did this that
the directions of the winds throughout the world might be given their
proper (loxodromic) spirals: and we have made a representation of the
coast lines of all shores of the earth, besides a representation of the
parallels and meridians. All this will be seen by the attentive
observer. Farewell, and may you be happy. William Jansz. Alcmar, author
and sculptor. 1599.” Fiorini is of the opinion the expression “multa hic
mutata” in the above quoted inscription indicates that the copies in
which it is found are reprints of an earlier edition, and that it has
been inserted for the purpose of keeping the globe on sale.[30] Is not
the reference rather to this simple fact that Blaeu borrowed much of his
geographical information from others, as he admits, including Mercator
and Van Langren, and that he had merely altered the same to the end of
bringing his records to date? The dedication reads “Noblissimis,
Amplissimis, Clarissimis, D. D. Dominis Ordinibus Foederatarum
Inferioris Germaniae Provinciarum dignissimis fidis Patriae Patribus
hoc terrae marisque Theatrum L. M. Q. Dat, Dicat, Dedicat Cliens Vester
subjectis. Guilielmus Jansonius Alcmarianus.” “To the Most Noble, Most
Distinguished, Most Illustrious, Lords of the United Provinces of Lower
Germany, Fathers of their Country this representation of the land and
the sea gives, grants, and delivers your humble client Willem Jansz.
Alcmar.” It will be noted that the family name Blaeu was not employed in
the signature, but instead Alcmar, the name of his native place. He
apparently did not consider it essential always to employ the same name.
Sometimes he gave this as Guilielmus Jansonius Blaeu, Guil. Jansz.
Blaeu, Guiljelmus Blaeuw; sometimes he gave it as Guilielmus Janssonius
Alcmarianus, or Guil. Jansz. Alcmar; sometimes as Guiljelmus Caesius or
J. G. Caesius, in which he had classicized his name Blaeu; sometimes the
name is coupled with that of the son as Guil. et Johan Blaeu. The
legends on this globe are numerous which tell of great discoveries and
explorations, of which the principal ones are here quoted from Baudet’s
readings from the Leiden copy. Near the north pole we find “Hic tandem
passi graviora Batavi, proxima tempestate diversum iam iter ingressi,
nostrum altius mundi verticem versus progressi, ignotas quaerere terras,
et si qua proprior ad Chinam aditus aggressi sunt. Mirum quid
invenerint! immane quid evenerit! Sic, macte Proles Neptunia novisque
honoribus hanc gentem nostram cumula, male coepisti, si hic sistas.
Durum hoc, sed perdura, nec cede malis sed contra audentior ito. Fata
viam expedient.” “As far as this, after suffering great hardships, the
Dutch, in recent times have progressed toward the top of the world,
seeking unknown lands, and if there is any shorter way to China.
Wonderful are their discoveries! Strange things have happened! Go on, O
blessed progeny of Neptune, and add new honors to our race. You have
begun ill if you stop here. It is a hard task, but endure. Do not yield
to misfortune, but on the contrary be more daring. Fate will clear the
way.”

In the same locality “Immortale nomen & gloriam incomparabilem vobis,
Columbe et Americe comparastis, Qui primi has terras (alteram orbis
partem) tot iam secula latentes adire, detegere, lustrare et utinam
perlustrare voluistis: Fructˢ vero maximos multis perperistis.” “Ye
have gained an immortal name, and incomparable glory for yourselves,
Columbus and Americus, who were the first to approach these lands to
discover and disclose them (the other part of the world) unknown for so
many centuries, and I would that you had desired to explore them. You
have brought forth much fruit for the many.” Another reads, “Magnam
porro gloriae partem Ferdinande Magellane, iure tibi vendicas: cui ...
vastae regionis Australem terminum quaerere eamq. freto cognimini nobis
perviam facere lubuit & licuit.” “A large share of the glory thou doest
rightly claim, O Ferdinand Magellan, to whom it was pleasing and to whom
it was allowed to seek the southern bounds of a vast region, and to open
the Strait for us that bears thy name”; also a legend referring to the
Cortereals, “Utinam vero par eventus Casparo Cortereali contigisset, qui
iam ante maiori conatu quam successu transitum a Borea attentaverat: et
quoties Britannis idem fervide molientibus et aeris iniutiis gradum
revocare coactis.” “I wish that like success had come to Gaspar
Cortereal, who before, with greater effort than achievement attempted to
find a passage by way of the north. Likewise to the British (I wish
success) strenuously attempting the same but forced to retreat by reason
of adverse weather.”

As in the issue of his sheet maps, Blaeu was not always careful to add
an exact date of preparation, in the majority of instances, indeed,
omitting the date altogether, so also in the issue of his globes he
frequently omitted dates or gave one which we know to have been later
than was that of the original issue. His geographical records serve us,
however, as fairly accurate guides in the determination of these dates,
and what was so frequently true of the globes he constructed in the last
years of his life was true of this his first. We have, for example,
copies of this bearing date 1599, which contains geographical records of
the year 1616, indicating therefore a later reprint with a few
alterations.

It was not until the year 1603 that he undertook the preparation of a
celestial globe to serve as a companion of his first terrestrial. This
he dedicated, “Illustrissᵒ Principi ac Domiō D. Mauritio, Principi
Auraico Comiti de Naussau etc., Marchioni Veriae et Flissingae etc.,
Domino suo Clementissimo, Hos astriferum, stellarum arte coelo
deductarum, coelum Gratus M.O.D.D.C.Q. Guilielmus Jansonius
Alcmarianus.” “To the Illustrious Prince and Lord D. Maurice, Prince of
Orange, Count of Nassau, etc., Marquis of Veria and Flissingen, etc.,
his Most Benign Lord, this globe of the stars brought down from heaven
by art is gratefully dedicated by its maker with dutiful mind. Willem
Jansz. Alcmar.” In his title legend he makes particular reference to his
teacher Tycho, which legend reads: “Sphaera stellifera. In qua ut
speculo quondam firmamenti Universaum Syderū ornatum ac stellarum
ordinem summa, qua fieri potuit, industria a Guilielmo Jansonio, magni
Tychonis quondam discipulo, accuratissime disposititum: earumque numerum
multo quam hactenus, auctiorem ex observationibus recens. a Nob. viro D.
Tychone Brahe, astronomo incōparabili, habitis, depromta anno 1600, et
quo deinceps seculo, accommodata intueri liceat.” “Celestial sphere.
Herein as in a mirror all the stars of the firmament are depicted, and
in proper order with the greatest possible industry and accuracy by
Willem Janson the former pupil of the great Tycho: their number much
increased from recent observations made by the noble D. Tycho Brahe,
that incomparable astronomer, taken from his observations made in the
year 1600, and made with an accommodation for the coming century.” Near
this cartouch is a portrait of the great astronomer with his favorite
motto, “Non haberi, sed esse.” Near the south pole we find a reference
to recent astronomical discoveries in the following words: “Habetis hic,
Astronomum studiosi, trecentas et plures antarctici mundi vertici
viciniores stellas, ex observationibus secundum jam a Frederico
Houtmanno, majori studio et accommodatioribus instrumentis, ad stellas a
Tychone positas factis, depromptas: auctiori numero et accuratiori
dispositione vestro commodo et delectationi depictas A. 1603.” “Thou
hast here, O student of astronomy, more than three hundred stars, that
are nearest the pole of the antarctic world, from the observations made
by Frederick Houtmann with further study and with more suitable
instruments, along with the stars that were located by Tycho: this
increased number and this more accurate location having been set down
for your use and delight in the year 1603.” He adds here and there a
brief legend in which he directs attention to recently discovered stars.

The purchase of a pair of these globes, that of 1599 and of 1603, was
reported in the year 1885 by Dr. Baumgärtner,[31] who refers to them as
having a diameter of 34 cm., as being well mounted and artistically
colored. On the first, he notes, are represented sea monsters swimming
in the oceans, and the natives of many of the little known regions
appear in picture, as, for example, in the region of Patagonia, near
which appears the legend, “Patagonae regio ubi incolae sunt gigantes.”
“The region of Patagonia where giants live.” Greenland is laid down as a
small island, as is also Corea. The region of Bering Sea shows clearly
how inexact was the knowledge of the North Pacific in his day, and the
same inexact geographic knowledge of the southern-most region of South
America and of Australia is strikingly recorded. There are slight
differences apparently existing between Dr. Baumgärtner’s globes and
certain other known copies of the same date, but differences which are
of no special significance.

A pair of these globes was announced in the sales catalogue,
“Geographie cartographie & voyage, 1891,” of Frederik Muller of
Amsterdam. A geographical record on the terrestrial globe clearly
indicates that it was not issued, however, until after 1616, although
dated 1599, since it contains a reference to the Van Schouten voyage of
1615-1617. It was on this voyage, says Van Schouten in his ‘Journal,’
that he gave the name “Staten Lant” to that region on the left as one
enters the Lemaire Strait, and the name “Isle of Barnevelt” to the
island discovered in this strait.[32] Both of these names appear on this
globe. It has in addition an interesting legend which might be taken to
suggest that the globe was not constructed until the year 1682, although
the gores, save for this legend, may have been printed much earlier.
This legend reads, “’t Amsteldam by Joannes van Ceulen, Joanniszoon op
de hoek van de Mol-steegh, in de Nieuwen Atlas, werd gedruckt en op nieu
uytgegeven met Praevilegie ... alle de Globes en Spaeren by den Heer
Joan Blaeu Zal. nagelaten. Ao. 1682.” The celestial globe seems to agree
with other known copies.

Two copies of the terrestrial globe of 1599 and two of the celestial of
1603 may be found in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg. A pair
may be found in the Biblioteca Angelica of Rome and a pair, reported to
be in good condition, belongs to the Biblioteca Comunale of Fano. Adam
Kästner reports, in his ‘Geschichte der Mathematik,’ the purchase of a
pair of this first edition of Blaeu’s globes.[33] According to a
catalogue entry of objects belonging to the University of Leiden in the
year 1716 there is reference to two pairs of Blaeu’s globes. Only one
pair of these, however, seems now to be known, which pair a few years
since was removed to the Astronomical Observatory.[34]

In the year 1602 Blaeu issued a terrestrial and a celestial globe, each
having a diameter of 23 cm. In a legend on his terrestrial globe he
refers to it as an improvement, doubtless meaning that he had undertaken
to bring its geographical records to date. This globe he dedicates as
follows: “Noblisⁱˢ Illustrⁱˢ Hollandiae Zelandiae ac Westphrisiae
ordinibus, P.P.P. Clementissⁱˢ hanc terrae marisque aphaerum summa
diligentia accuratissime fabricatam: debiti honoris gratique animi
testimonium L.M.D.D.D. Amstelodami. Guilielmus Jansonius Blaeu. anno
1602.” “To the Most Noble, Most Illustrious Princes of Holland, Zeeland
and West Friesland, Most Benign Rulers. This sphere of the earth and
sea, accurately constructed with the utmost care is dedicated by Willem
Jansz. Blaeu of Amsterdam as a testimony of honor due and of a grateful
mind. In the year 1602.” Over this legend have been placed the coats of
arms of the three provinces designated and near it a legend reading, “En
denuo studiose Geographiae, terrestrem contractioriforma globum, multo,
quam ante hac unquam, emendatius et auctius confectum: a ventorum spiris
navigantium comodo, exquisitius adornatum: nec non navigationis
curriculo, ab Oliverio van Noort Batavo in orbem peracto, notatum.
Auctor Guilielmo Iansonio Blaeu.” “Here again, O student of geography,
thou hast a terrestrial globe in smaller size, much smaller than ever
before, and more accurately and completely furnished, having the spiral
directions of the winds (the loxodromes) represented for the use of
navigators. These have been carefully drawn, and there is also indicated
the course of circumnavigation of the Dutchman Oliver van der Noort.[35]
Willem Jansz. Blaeu author.” Van der Noort, to whom reference is made in
this legend, had started out in the year 1598, hence his expedition was
a recent event and was therefore thought worthy of reference. He sailed
through the Strait of Magellan, reached the Indies of the East, and with
four of his original ships returned to Holland in the year 1601. Blaeu,
as he states, marked on his globe the course of this expedition. The
celestial globe constructed as a companion of the former has a similar
dedication reading, “Nobilisⁱˢ Illustⁱˢ Hollandiae Zelandiae
Westphrisiae Ordinibus D. D. suis Clementisⁱˢ hunc astriferum
inerrantium stellarum globum, summa cura et industria adornatum debiti
ossequii et gratitudinis ... D. D. D. Guilielmus Jansonius Blaeu.” “To
the Most Noble, and Illustrious Princes of Holland, Zeeland, and West
Friesland, Most Benign Rulers: this celestial globe of the fixed stars,
prepared with the greatest care and industry is dedicated as a gift of
obedience due and of gratitude. William Jansz. Blaeu.” A legend somewhat
descriptive in character near the former reads, “Habes hic Astrophile
stellarum inerantium ex certisⁱˢ D. Ticho Brahe (mei quondam
praeceptoris) observationibus numero et dispositione prae aliis an̄o
1600 accomodatarum sphaeram accuratissime expolitam et Australibus
asterismis quod novum a Federico Houtmano observatis exornatam. Auctor
Guilielmo Jansᵒ Blaeu.” “Thou hast here, O lover of the stars, a globe
of the fixed stars from the most accurate observations of D. Tycho Brahe
(my onetime preceptor) in their number and disposition, besides other
observations accommodated to the year 1600, finished and furnished with
(a representation) of the southern stars which have of late been
discovered by Frederick Houtmann. Willem Jansz. Blaeu author.” Stars
varying in magnitude from the first to the sixth, receive each an
appropriate representation or sign, and there is a separate
distinguishing mark for the nebulae. To each of the constellations is
given its Latin name. In addition to the forty-eight constellations of
Ptolemy he gives the two sometimes referred to by the ancients,
“Bernice’s Hair” and “Antinous,” adding, with names, more than ten
constellations in the southern sky. A legend in the constellation
“Cepheus” tells us, with reference to one of its stars, “Haec stupendae
magnitudinis stella insolito fulgore anno 1572 in Cassiopeia sede
amicuit.” “This star of great size and unwonted brilliancy appeared in
the Chair of Cassiopeia.” In the constellation “Cygnus” is a legend
reading “Novam illam stellam quae anno 1600 primum in pectore Cygni
apparuit (atque etiam nunc immota parte) ex diligenti nostra ad eandem
Lyrae lucidae observatione Longitudo 16° 15´, latitudo 55° 30´ labore
comperimus.” “The new star which in the year 1600 first appeared in the
breast of the Swan and to the present has not altogether disappeared,
this we have located, by diligent search in Lyra long. 16° 15´ and lat.
55° 30´.”

By reason of the fact that so few copies of this issue are known to
exist, it has been thought that for some reason Blaeu issued a very
limited number. We know, however, that his terrestrial globes were
highly valued and were much in demand, because of the care with which
they had been prepared, because of the efforts to give information
concerning the latest discoveries, and because of his representation of
the loxodromic lines which made them of special value to navigators;
that his celestial globes found favor by reason of the fact that he was
known to be a pupil of Tycho Brahe, and that he himself was known to be
a mathematician and astronomer of distinction. To the following known
examples of the 1602 issue brief reference may be made. In the Accademia
dei Concordi of Rovigo, Italy, there may be found a fine pair. The
Stadtbibliothek of Nürnberg possesses a fine pair, reported by the
librarian to be in excellent condition, and two copies of the celestial
globe may be found in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of the same city.
A copy of the terrestrial globe is to be found in the collection of the
Königliches Museum of Cassel, and one in the town of Rüdingen near
Schaffhausen.

The Hispanic Society of America possesses, in its rich collection of
globes, a fine example of Blaeu’s terrestrial of the year 1606 (Fig.
93). It has a diameter of 13.5 cm., is mounted on a substantial wooden
base, has a graduated meridian circle, half of which, however, is
missing, a wooden horizon circle, on the upper surface of which is
pasted an engraved slip of paper with the usual graduation, the
calendar, and the names of the zodiacal signs. A legend in the great
austral land which is called “Magallanica,” contains the date and refers
to its dedication to Blaeu’s learned friend of Edam, Cornelius Petrius.
This legend reads “Omnium virtutū genere ornatissimo viro Domino
Cornelio Petreio ecclesiastae apud Edamenses vigilantiss. et mathematico
eximio suo singulari hanc orbis sphaerae a se hoc modo delineatae L. M.
Q. D. D. Guilielmus Blaeu. Anno D. 1606.” “To Dom. Cornelius Petrius, a
man adorned with all virtue, a most vigilant ecclesiastic among the
people of Edam and a mathematician of singular renown, Willem Blaeu
dedicates this terrestrial globe now completed by him in the year 1606.”
In the northern part of North America is the title legend reading “Nova
et accurata terrae marisque sphaera denuo recognita et correcta a
Guilielmo Blaeu.” “A new and accurate sphere of the earth and sea newly
revised and corrected by Willem Blaeu.” The globe ball is of hollow
metal thinly covered with a preparation of plaster on which have been
pasted the twelve engraved gores extending from pole to pole. As in the
case of the Muller copy of the issue of 1599 this one, though dated
1606, contains a record of the discoveries of the Van Schouten
expedition, that is, the names “Staten Lant,” “I. Barnevelt,” and “Fr.
le Maire,” discoveries made in the year 1616, as before mentioned.[36]
The magnitude of the austral land is made to equal or to exceed that of
the entire Old World, the most northern extension of which, in the East
Indian region, bears the name “Nova Guinea.”[37] Its geographical
information in general agrees with that so carefully recorded on the
Blaeu maps. In the western and southern sections of North America the
source of information has been largely Spanish, in the eastern the
source has been French and English, and in the northeast almost entirely
English. In the north Atlantic we still find “Brazil,” “Maides,” and
“Frisland,” the mythical islands of the Zeno Brothers, and north of
Europe a record of the attempts of the Netherlanders to reach “Nowaja
Semlja.” For so small a globe the detailed geographical information
given is very remarkable.

[Illustration: Fig. 93. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1606.]

In addition to this example the British Museum kindly sends the
information that in its collection there is a copy of Blaeu’s
terrestrial globe of the year 1606, agreeing in its dimensions with the
copy in the collection of The Hispanic Society of America, also of a
celestial globe of the same date which appears to be a unique copy.

The Hispanic Society of America also possesses a terrestrial and a
celestial globe, the work of Blaeu, globes clearly issued as companion
pieces (Fig. 94), which appear to be the only copies known, the latter
dated 1616, the former undated.[38] The spheres have each a diameter of
about 10 cm., a substantial and artistic mounting of brass, including
meridian and horizon circles, four twisted support columns, and a
circular base plate. Though small in size, probably the smallest
constructed by Blaeu, in their geographical and astronomical details
they are remarkably full.

[Illustration: Fig. 94. Terrestrial and Celestial Globes of Willem
Jansz. Blaeu, 1616.]

The terrestrial globe, in an artistic cartouch near the south pole, is
referred to as “Nova Orbis Terrarum Descriptio Auctor Guilielmo Blaeu.”
“A new description of the world by Willem Blaeu author.” Unlike that of
the year 1606, noted above, it contains no reference to the expedition
of Van Schouten and Le Maire, and records only the Strait of Magellan at
the southern extremity of South America. Continental contours, even that
of “Magallanica” and of the New World, agree in practically all details
with his earlier globes and general world maps. He has retained certain
geographical names which appear more or less conspicuously on some of
the earlier maps, as “Estotiland” north of Labrador, “Frisland” and
“Island” in the north Atlantic and “Norembega” applied to the coast of
Maine. The north Pacific is entirely too narrow and the island of
“Japan” is located not far from the west coast of North America. Bering
Strait is well represented but is unnamed. The map is not well
preserved, the chief injury to it being in the western part of North
America and in the central and eastern Pacific.

The celestial globe, which is the companion of the former, has a similar
brass mounting. It is remarkably well preserved and all inscriptions
on the surface of the ball are easily legible. It is made to revolve
about the axis of the ecliptic. The figures representing the several
constellations have been artistically engraved, and stars up to the
sixth magnitude have appropriate and distinct representation. A legend
near the south pole reads “Sphaera stellata in qua ceu speculo Stellae
fixae ex accuratis Nobilis viri D. Tychonis Brahe observationibus ad
annum 1600 accommodatae conspicuae sito ponuntur.” “The starry sphere in
which as in a mirror the fixed stars are placed by the accurate
observations of the Noble D. Tycho Brahe, accommodated to the year
1600.”

Blaeu’s earliest globes, as has been noted, were of small dimensions. It
must have been shortly after the year 1616 that he decided to undertake
the construction of those of much greater size, to the end of making his
work the more serviceable; but to this he may have been led in part, as
before noted, by the success of the large globes of Hondius of the year
1613.[39] Unfortunately it is not easy to determine the exact date of
the several issues of his work appearing in the last twenty years of his
life. In general, the date of the construction of the globes of these
years is altogether wanting. The dedications in the several reprints or
editions vary, as do many of the inscriptions, while the large size of
the globes remains practically the same. One cannot feel certain that a
date, apparently given as the year of construction, is accurate, since
it is very evident in the several reprints care was not always given to
this detail.

The first issue of his large terrestrial globes seems to date from the
year 1622, though the suggestion is not wanting that he had actually
completed the celestial globe before the close of the year 1616.

With but slight variation in the form of the expression, we find on all
examples of his largest globes the inscription “Amstelredami. Excusum in
aedibus auctoris ...,” indicating at least that the printing was done in
the author’s Amsterdam workshop. All have a diameter of about 68 cm.,
though the mountings of the several known examples differ somewhat.

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a fine example of the
terrestrial globe, dated 1622 (Fig. 95). The ball is formed of
papier-mâché, having over its surface a thin coating of plaster made
perfectly smooth and shellacked to receive the thirty-six engraved
gores, or twice eighteen half gores, and the usual circular polar caps.
It is well preserved, considering its great size and its age, though
somewhat injured in the region of the western Mediterranean, in the East
Indian Islands, in West Africa, in South America, and in parts of the
Pacific Ocean. It is furnished with an elaborate wooden base, a
considerable part of which appears to have been added subsequent to that
constituting the main support, a horizon circle of wood, and a meridian
circle of brass. The map is a fine example of the work done in the
Netherlands by the copper engravers and printers of the period, in
particular of the work which issued from the Blaeu press. Continental
outlines are well drawn, lands and seas are crowded with geographical
records, including individual names and legends. Very artistically
designed ships sail the oceans singly or in fleets, and compass lines as
well as loxodromic lines are very numerous, radiating from centers
distributed over the surface of the map. Much of the original color
which had been artistically applied by hand still remains, particularly
on the southern hemisphere, which has been less exposed to the light and
to careless handling. The author and date legend placed near the south
pole in an artistic cartouch reads, “In ista quam exibimus, terreni
globi descriptione omnium regionum juxta et insularum, quotquot hacetnus
a nostris Argonautis, vel etiam ab aliarum gentium Naucleris visae et
notatae, loca in suo secundum longitudinem et latitudinem situ, summa
sedulitate et industria disposita invenies, quae res non solum
Geographiae studiosis jocunda, verum etiam iis, qui terras longe
dissitas et sub alio sole calentes frequentent, maxime utilis futura
est. In quorum gratiam etiam rhombus nauticos (ita vocantur Helices
lineae secundum ventorum plagus delineatae) quam accuratissime
expressimus. Hunc igitur laborem nostrum ut tam Gratis animis
accipiatis, quanta sedulitate a nobis est obitus, ex aequo omnes rogatos
volo. Guiljelmus Caesius Auctor. Anno CICICCCXXII.” “In this terrestrial
globe, which we here present, you will find all the regions and islands
as far as they have been seen, up to the present, and marked by our
navigators, or have been seen and marked by the navigators of other
nations, placed in their own proper position of longitude and latitude,
with the greatest care and industry, which not only will be a source of
pleasure to the students of geography but also of the greatest utility
to those who visit far distant shores, which are warmed by another sun.
And for their benefit we have also inserted the nautical rhombs (for so
are designated the lines which show the direction of the winds). This
labor of ours I hope and pray you will accept with as much gratitude as
we have bestowed care upon it. Willem Caesius. In the year 1622.” A
citation of all legends which the author has placed on his map would
indeed fill many pages, and but few of these are here quoted.

[Illustration: Fig. 95. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622.]

In the southern hemisphere, and particularly conspicuous by reason of
the artistic cartouch in which it is placed, we find a reference to the
question of the proper location of the prime meridian,[40] somewhat
lengthy but quoted here in full. “Quamvis longitudinis initium
arbitrarium esset, ab occasu tamen ejus auspicium facere ideo veteribus
placuit quod illic aliquis terrae limen esset, qui ortum versus nullis
expeditionibus deprehendi potuisset. Atque eam ob causam Ptolemaeus
(cujus sedulitati et industriae Geographiae incolumitatem omnes, vel
inviti, debent) ab ultimo termino occidentis cognito, quae Insulae in
Atlantico Mari Fortunatae dictae sunt, auspicium fecit in eisque primum
Meridianum defixit: quod theticum principium deinceps fere omnes ejus
auctoritate moti retinuerunt. Interim hoc seculo nonnulli hoc principium
ex ipsa natura eruendum censuere. Qua in re acus Magneti junctae
indicium sequendum sibi sumpserunt, eumque primum Meridianum statuunt
quo in loco ea Boream spectat Quos plane allucinari addita illa Magneti
vis convincit, penes quem nullum longitudinis arbitrium sit, cum is ipse
sub eodem meridiano varium habeat enclisin prout huic aut illi
continenti vicinus fuerit. Sed et illi ipsi qui ita sentiunt, ob
instabile magnetis indicium, in primo Meridiano, multum inter se
dissentiunt. Quamobrem ut summo Geographiae commodo, certus aliquis
Meridianus tamquam primum principium servari et retineri possit,
Ptolemaei vestigiis insistentes, easdem Insulas, et iis Junonem, quae
Teneriffa vulgo creditur, delegimus, cujus excelsa illa et praerupta
petra, perpetuis nebulis obsessa, Indigenis El Pico dicta, primi
Meridiani terminus esto. Qua in re ab Arabum longitudinibus (qui extrema
Africae littora versus occidentem delegerunt), vix unius gradus
quadrante abimus diversi: quod quoque monuisse operae pretium putavi.”
“Although the beginning of longitude is arbitrarily selected
nevertheless it pleased the ancients to begin the counting of it from
the west, because there was the limit of the earth, as some thought,
while no expedition to the east was able to determine this. Therefore
Ptolemy, to whose application and industry all men, even though
unwilling to admit it, owe the preservation of geography (geographical
science), made the location (of the beginning of longitude) in the
farthest known limit of the west, which is called the Fortunate Islands,
in the Atlantic Ocean, and in them he fixed the first meridian. This
hypothetical beginning, almost all who came after him retained because
of his influence. But in our century there are some who have said that
this beginning should be taken from nature herself, and in this matter
they have taken the indication of the magnetic needle as their guide,
and fix the first meridian in that place in which the needle points to
the true north: That this is clearly an error is proved by this
additional (and peculiar) property of the magnetic needle, that on the
same meridian it has a variation according as it is near to this or that
continent. But the very men who think this, on account of the
uncertainty of the variation, disagree much among themselves as to where
the first meridian is to be located, and so for the highest good of
geography, that this same fixed meridian as a first beginning may be
marked and be retained, we ourselves, following in the steps of Ptolemy,
have chosen the same islands as he, and from their number that one which
is called Juno, or commonly Tenerif; of these (islands) that high and
steep rock beset by perpetual clouds and called by the natives El Pico,
shall for us be the location of the first meridian. In this matter, from
the longitude of the Arabs, who selected the shore of Africa farthest
toward the west, we vary scarcely the fourth part of a degree, and this
I thought worthy to be noted.”

There is a brief but important legend near the Strait of Magellan
reading, “Fretum Magellanicum, sic dictum a Ferdinando Magellano
Lusitano, qui omnium primus id aperuit atque emensus est, anno 1520,
Franciscus Draach et Thomas Candish, uterque anglus Fretum emensi sunt,
ille anno 1579, hic anno 1587. Oliverius van Noorth et Georgius
Speilbergius, uterque Belga annis 1600 et 1615.” “The Strait of
Magellan, so called by Ferdinand Magellan a Portuguese who was the first
to discover it and to sail through it in the year 1520, Francis Drake
and Thomas Candish, both Englishmen, sailed through the strait, the one
in the year 1579, the other in the year 1587. Oliver van Noort and
George Spilbergen, both Belgians in the years 1600 and 1615.” Near the
last-quoted legend we find “Fretum Le Maire a Wilhem Scouten Hernano et
Jacobo Le Maire per eum inventum et lustratum Aᵒ 1616.” “The Strait of
Le Maire discovered and surveyed by Wilhem Scouten and Jacob Le Maire in
the year 1616.” To the northwest in the Pacific we find “Magellanus ad
insulas has delatus, cum in iis nec hominum ulla vestigia, nec quicquam
humano usui opportunum invenisset, Infortunatus nuncupavit.” “Magellan
came to these islands and finding in them no trace of man nor of
anything suitable for human use called them the Unfortunate Islands.”
Near New Guinea is the information recorded “Novissime detecta et
lustrata est a Wilhelmo Scouten anno 1616.” “Very recently discovered
and surveyed by Wilhelm Scouten in the year 1616.”

In the far north is a reference to the attempts made by numerous
explorers to find a passage to the east by way of the north, reading,
“Quemadmondum post apertum a Lusitanis iter illud ad regiones
orientales, quod Promontorium Bonae Spei navigantes circumducit non
defuere qui et ante Ferdinandum Magellanum, breviorem aliquam per
Septentrionem Cauriumque ad easdem illas regiones opulentissimas ac toto
orbe decantatus, Moluccas, indagarent viam: et nominatim quidem anno jam
tum 1500, duobusque seqq. Gaspar et Michael Cortereales, fratres
lusitani, et post eos anno 1507, Sebastianus Cabotus venetus: ita et
post superatum jam a praedicto Magellano Fretum, quod de ejus nomine
Magellanicum dicitur, extitere celebres aliquot praestantes naucleri,
qui ne codem quidem itinere contenti, tum per easdem regiones
septentrionales Caurique tractus, tum per Aquilonaria quoque Moscoviae
Tartariaeque littora, idem tentaverint. Tales, ut alios nunc omittam,
fruere anno 1553 Hugo Willoughbeus, Eques anglus, annis 1576 et 77
Martinus Forbisherus, et annis 1585, 86, 87 Ioannes Davisuis, uterque
itidem anglus, item Guilijelmus Bernard et Ioannes Hugo Linschotanus,
Batavi, annis 1594, 95 et 96. Quibus omnibus etsi, post incredibiles
exantlatos labores, conatus non successissent, non destitere tamen
Henricus Hudsonus, et ipse anglus ac post eum Batavi quidam Amsteredami
emissi, eandem terram (quod dici solet) reciprocare. Is Hudsonus anno
1611, superato, ad Americae borealis oras, sub latitudinis 61, 62 et 63
gradu, ut indicat globus noster, praelongo freto, in exitu ejus engens
ac late diffusum, invenit pelagus: cujus quidem detectio, multis spem
addidit fore ut tandem inibi transitus aliquis inveniatur. Utrum vero
huic spei eventus sit responsurus, propediem, quod vovemus, ipsum tempus
ostendet.” “When the way had been opened by the Portuguese to the
eastern regions which led the navigators round the Cape of Good Hope,
there were some who said there was a way, even before Ferdinand
Magellan, a shorter way by the north and the northwest to those opulent
and world famous regions, the Moluccas. To name these, in 1500, the two
brothers Miguel and Gaspar Cortereal, and after them in the year 1507
Sebastian Cabot a Venetian, and after the Strait had been navigated by
the aforesaid Magellan, which is called the Strait of Magellan after
him, there were certain famous and excellent navigators who, not content
with a knowledge of this passage, attempted another both by the same
northern and northwestern route and by the northern coasts of Moscovie
and Tartary, among these, to omit others for the present, there were in
the year 1553 Hugo Willoughby an English Knight: in the years 1576 and
1577 Martin Frobisher: in the years 1585, 86, 87 John Davis, both of the
last named being Englishmen: also William Bernard and John Hugo
Linschoten, Dutchmen, in the years 1594, 95, 96. Although none of these
attempts, in spite of the Herculean labors, were successful,
nevertheless Henry Hudson, himself an Englishman, and after him certain
Dutchmen sent from Amsterdam, did not give up the attempts to find that
land, as it was called. Hudson himself, in the year 1611, having
navigated along the shore of North America in latitudes 61, 62, and 63,
as our globe indicates, a very long inlet at its farthest extremity
discovered an immense and far-stretching sea, the discovery of which
gave hope to many that at last some outlet would be found therein.
Whether the event would answer to this hope, and we pray it may, only
time will tell.”[41] Somewhat nearer the pole we read “Anno 1594 et
seqq. Illm̄orum D. D. Ordinum Foederatorum, anno vero 1596 Amplisᵐⁱ
Senatus Amsterodamensis jussu atque auspiciis. Fortissimus
Archithelassus Iacobus Heelmsterchius et cum eo pertissimus navarcha
Guilijelmus Bernard filius uterque civis Amsterodamensis viam per
Septentrionem ad regna Cathayae et Chinae indagaturi, cum littora Novae
Zemlae usque ad gradum latitudinis 78 perlustrassent, neque immensis e
glacie coacervatis montibus impedito, ulterius possent tendere, tertio
postremoque itinere, quo loco casam a nobis expressam vides, hibernare
coacti sunt.” “In the year 1594 and the following years, by the command
and under the auspices of the illustrious Lords of the United
Netherlands, and in the year 1596, under the auspices of the
distinguished Senate of Amsterdam, the brave sea captain Jacob
Heelmstrech, and with him the skilful navigator William Bernard’s son,
both citizens of Amsterdam, sought passage by the north to the regions
of Cathay and China. When they had passed the shore of Nova Zembla to
latitude 78, without being stopped by the immense mountains of ice, and
could have gone further, on this third and last journey they were
compelled to pass the winter at the spot where you see a hut depicted by
us.” In addition to the above legends we find such as “Hic anno 1611 H.
Hudson hibernavit.” “Here in the year 1611 Henry Hudson passed the
winter.” “Huc usque processit H. Hudson anno 1612.” “As far as this
Henry Hudson came in the year 1612.” In the western part of North
America, that is, in “Nova Albion,” there is a legend referring to the
expedition of Francis Drake, reading, “Hoc loco ad latitu. 42 grad.
appulsus Franciscus Dracus in gentem incidit prorsus indolatricam, et
quod merito quis miretur ipso adeo mense Junio prae frigoris quam
acerrime saevientis vi coactus est, terram hanc Novae Albionis nomine a
se decoratam deserere.” “In this place, at latitude 42° Francis Drake
came upon a tribe wholly idolatrous and what is justly to be wondered
at, in the month of June he was compelled by the violence of the cold
that raged here to desert this land of New Albion which he
distinguished with its name.”[42]

The great inland sea appearing on the large world map of Jodocus Hondius
of the year 1611 (Fig. 96), and called “Mare Septentrionale Americae,”
is here represented as “Lacus iste quantum ex accolis colligi potuit
trecenta ut minimum miliaria in longitudinem pateat.” “This lake, as far
as can be learned from the inhabitants, stretches at least three hundred
miles in length.”[43]

[Illustration: Fig. 96. Section of Jodocus Hondius World Map, 1611.]

This representation is of particular interest in connection with a grant
to the London Company, as expressed in its charter of the year 1609
wherein the jurisdiction of the company is defined as extending “In that
part of America called Virginia, from the point of land called Cape or
Point Comfort, all along the sea coast, to the northward two hundred
miles, and from the said point of Cape Comfort, all along the sea coast
to the southward, two hundred miles, and all that space and circuit of
land, lying from the sea coast of the precinct aforesaid up into the
land, throughout from sea to sea, west and northwest.”[44] It is of
further interest to note that on this globe of Blaeu there appears for
the first time on a dated map the representation of Manhattan as an
island.

The Osservatorio Astronomico, located near Florence, possesses a fine
pair of Blaeu’s large globes, the terrestrial being signed, at the
conclusion of the address to the reader, “Guiljelmus Blaeu” instead of
“Guiljelmus Caesius,” as on The Hispanic Society’s copy, although as on
this copy the signature “Guiljelmus Caesius anno 1622” appears on the
celestial globe. The dedications of these Florentine examples read,
“Serenissimo Potentissimoque Principi Ferdinando Secondo Magno Etruriae
Duci, Domino Suo Clementissimo. Suos hosce Coelestem et Orbis Terrarum
Globos accuratius pleniusque quam hanctenus descriptos editosque L. M.
D. C. Q. Humillimus Cliens Guilielmus Blaeuw.” “To the Most Serene, Most
Powerful Prince Ferdinand II, Prince of Etruria, his Most Clement Lord,
these globes, both celestial and terrestrial, more carefully and more
accurately depicted and edited than has been done previously, Willem
Blaeu His Most humble client dedicates and consecrates.” It may here be
noted that Ferdinand II was of the house of Medici and that he came to
the throne in the year 1621.

A pair of Blaeu’s globes of 1622, signed “Guiljelmus Caesius,” belongs
to the Biblioteca Comunale of Palermo, reported to be without mountings
and otherwise in bad condition. Most of the terrestrial globe map is
missing but there remains enough of each to determine their original
likeness to the preceding pair.

In the archaeological section of the Biblioteca Gambalunghiana of Rimini
there may be found a well-preserved pair, each dated 1622.

A terrestrial globe dated 1622, and a celestial clearly intended as its
companion but dated 1616 and signed “Guilielmus Janssonius,” belong to
the Biblioteca Barbarini of Rome. If correctly dated it is evident that
Blaeu completed his work on this globe of large size in the same year
that he completed his work on the smallest of all his globes, to which
attention has been called above. These examples are in a fair state of
preservation, having each a base consisting of a single column supported
on the backs of two satyrs who are seated with hands upraised.

A pair of these globes of 1622 may be found in the Museo Civico of
Venice with dedication differing from those which have been previously
noted. On these globes we read, “Serenissimo Potentissimo Gustavo II
ejus nomine Suedorum Gothorum, Vandalorum Regi et Principi hereditario,
Magno Duci Finlandiae, Estmanniae, Westmanniaeque Domino Suo
Clementissimo, Suos hosce coelestem et Ordis Terrarum Globos accuratius
pleniusque quam hactenus descriptos L. M. D. C. Q. Humillimus Cliens
Guiljelmus Caesius.” “To the Most Serene and Most Powerful Gustavus II,
King and Hereditary Prince of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, the
Mighty Ruler of Finland, Eastmania and Westmania, his Most Clement Lord,
these his celestial and terrestrial globes more accurately and fully
depicted and edited than previously, Willem Caesius, his humble client
dedicates and consecrates.”

A copy of the 1622 celestial globe, signed “Guilielmus Caesius,” belongs
to the Stadtbibliothek of Nürnberg, and a copy of the same, dedicated to
Gustavus II of Sweden, is in the possession of Reichsgraf Hans von
Oppersdorf in Oberglogau.

Eleven additional pairs of Blaeu’s globes, reprints, and reissues, not
all agreeing in details, but alike in their main features, have been
located. These belong to the years 1622-1640, having only an occasional
record or date in legend to indicate, though indefinitely, the year of
construction. A very brief reference to these editions here follows.

A pair may be found in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Bologna, somewhat
damaged by neglect and careless handling. It seems probable, though the
records are imperfect, that these are the globes referred to in an old
catalogue of the Specola Library, and that they have been in the
observatory since its founding in the year 1724.[45]

The Royal Estense Library of Modena is in possession of a well-preserved
pair of Blaeu’s large globes, as the librarian has kindly informed the
author.[46] Each is supplied with an artistic wooden base, with a
meridian and a horizon circle, the whole being about 79 cm. in height.
Each is furnished with a domelike cover of pasteboard, over the outside
of which, and crossing at right angles, are two bands of carved leaves,
and in each of the four spaces thus formed is a decoration consisting of
the lily of the Royal House of France. It appears not to be known how or
when these globes came to the Estense Library; perhaps as a gift to a
prince of the Ducal House of Este, from a member of the House of
Orleans, or they were purchased perchance by an Estense ambassador once
having residence in Holland, as has been suggested.

Other undated pairs of the 1622 and 1640 issues may be found in the
Seminario Vescovile of Chioggia, in the Museo di Strumenti Antichi of
Florence, in the Biblioteca Governativo of Lucca, in the Biblioteca
Nazionale of Naples, in the Biblioteca Chigi of Rome (Fig. 97), in the
Collegio delle Scuole Pie of Savona, in the Liceo Marco Foscarini of
Venice (Fig. 98), in the Pinacoteca Quirini of Venice, and in the
private library of Count Francesco Franco of Venice. A copy of the
terrestrial only may be found in the Biblioteca Comunale of Como, in the
Königl. Math. Phys. Salon in Dresden, in the Istituto Tecnico of
Florence, in the Biblioteca delle Misione Urbane of Genoa, in the
Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg, and a copy of the eighteen
unmounted terrestrial globe gores, probably of the year 1647, in the
British Museum. A copy of the celestial globe only may be found in the
Biblioteca Civico of Aquila in the Königl. Math. Phys. Salon of Dresden,
and one in the British Museum, which is reported, however, to have a
diameter of only twenty-four inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 97. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98a. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu,
  ca. 1640.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98b. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu,
  ca. 1640.]

The Biblioteca Barbarini of Rome possesses four armillary spheres, all
appearing to be of the early seventeenth century. A description of two
of these, neither signed nor dated, it has not been possible to obtain;
two are the work of J. Paolo Ferreri, the one constructed in the year
1602 according to the brief record “Jo. Paulus Ferrerius f. f. an.
1602,” and the other in the year 1624 being inscribed “Fᵉᵒ gio. Paulo
Ferreri Roⁿᵒ** ano 1624.” Professor Uzielli has given to the author the
information that these are of brass, having each a graduated horizon
circle supported by four half circles which in turn rest on a single
brass column. Through this horizon circle passes an adjustable meridian
circle 39 cm. in diameter, which is graduated and which supports other
movable circles, such as the colures carrying the polar circles, the
tropics, which are graduated, and the ecliptic, a broad band inclined
23-1/2 degrees to the equator, likewise graduated and engraved with the
names of the months and of the constellations of the zodiac. Within the
circles of each of these spheres, placed at what may be called their
common center, is a small solid sphere to serve as a representation of a
terrestrial globe but without geographical details. There appear to be
but slight differences in the construction of these two armillary
spheres, the one of 1624 having certain circles which are slightly
smaller than are the corresponding ones on that of earlier date. From
the same source it is learned that the artist, Tito Lessi of Florence,
possesses an armillary sphere signed and dated “Lud: ˢ Sem: ˢ Bon:
Fac: A. D. MDCXII,” near which is a representation of a coat of arms
with a dragon. The sphere is of brass, the diameter of its greatest
circle being 63 cm. We know nothing of the Ludovico referred to as the
maker, but who, as is noted, was a Bolognese. The same artist, as we are
informed, likewise possesses another unsigned and undated armillary
sphere which presumably is of the early seventeenth century.

Peter Plancius (1552-1622), a native of Drane-outer, West Flanders, is
especially remembered as a militant theologian (Fig. 99) and as one of
the most influential men active in the shaping of the colonial policy of
the States of the Netherlands in the late sixteenth and early
seventeenth centuries. His was indeed a stormy career wherein it touched
the Reformation movements. In early life a monk, he later became an
ardent reformer supporting the Calvinistic faith. After passing some
years in Germany and in England in study, he became, in the year 1578, a
pastor in the city of Brussels. When persecution threatened him, he
fled, in the year 1585, to Amsterdam, where he again became a pastor,
exerting for many years a far-reaching influence in matters touching the
relations of the reform movements and the state. Plancius, however, was
not only learned in matters theological, he was interested, as stated
above, in Dutch colonial enterprise, was a geographer, and a map and
globe maker of great distinction. He in part planned and actively
supported the Dutch expeditions of Barents, Hemskerken, Linschoten, and
Le Maire, who undertook to find new routes to the Indies, both East and
West. He assisted in the organization of the East India Company, which
company made large contributions to the commercial prosperity of the
Netherlands.[47] He was instrumental, with his countryman, William
Usselinx, and others, in organizing the West India Company.[48] He took
an active part in the planting of New Amsterdam in the New World, and in
the establishment of Batavia in Java. He was counselor for twenty-five
years in practically all matters pertaining to the welfare of the
peoples of the Netherlands.

[Illustration: Fig. 99. Portrait of Peter Plancius.]

As map maker Plancius appears to have begun his activities shortly after
taking up a residence in Amsterdam. His great world map in two
hemispheres, one of his first productions, and one which may in part
have served Blaeu and Hondius in the preparation of their masterpieces,
of the years 1605 and 1611, respectively, was issued in the year 1592, a
unique copy of which belongs to the Collegio del Corpus Christi of
Valencia.[49] This map, bearing the title “Nova et exacta terrarum orbis
tabula geographica ac hydrographica,” is composed of eighteen sheets,
which, when joined, give a world map measuring 146 by 233 cm.
Blundeville makes interesting reference to this map under the following
caption: “A Plaine and full Description of Petrus Plancius his
vniuersall Mappe, seruing both for Sea and Land, and by him lately put
forth in the yeere of our Lord 1592. In which Mappe are set downe many
more places, as well of both the Indies, as Afrique, together with their
true Longitudes and Latitudes, than are to be found either in Mercator
his Mappe, or in any other Moderne Mappe whatsoeuer: And this Mappe doth
show what Riches, Power, or Commodities, as what kind of Beasts both
wild and tame, what Plants, Fruits, or Mines any Region hath, and what
kinds of Merchandize do come from euery Region. Also the diuers
Qualities and Manners of the People, and to whom they are subiect. Also
who be the most mightie and greatest Princes of the World: A Mappe meet
to adorne the House of any Gentleman or Merchant, that delighteth in
Geographie: and herewith this Booke is also meete to be bought, for that
it plainely expoundeth euery thing contained in the said Mappe.”[50]
Blundeville notes further that Plancius drew another map of the whole
earth in two hemispheres, employing the polar projection. He does not
give the date of this map, but it presumably was issued shortly after
that of 1592. A Plancius world map in two hemispheres, bearing title
“Orbis terrarum typus de integro multis in locis amendatus, auctore
Petro Plancio 1594,” appears in the account of Linschoten’s expedition
of 1599.[51] It is a well-drawn map, containing much valuable
geographical data. Like Mercator, Hondius, and Blaeu, Plancius also
undertook the construction of globes. Of these the oldest known appears
to have been begun as early as the year 1612, the date appearing in the
following dedication, “Nobilissimis Amplissimis Consultissimis ac
Prudentissimis Dominis Consulariis Thalassiarchis atque Thalatto
Oratoribus Hollandiae Zelandiae et Frisiae occidentalis nec non
Magnificis ac Clarissimis Dominis Consulibus praeclarissimi Emporii
Amstelodami, Petrus Kaerius humillimus cliens L. M. Q. dat, dicat,
dedicat. Anno 1612.” “To the Most Noble, Exalted, Learned and Prudent
Consular Lords and Orators Maritime of Holland, Zeeland and West
Friesland, also to the Great and Distinguished Lords Counselors of the
Renowned Emporium of Amsterdam, Peter Kaerius their humble client gives
and dedicates (this globe). In the year 1612.” Below the legend is
engraved “Petrus Kaerius excudit ann. 1614,” the date here given clearly
indicating the year of issue. Not far from the dedicatory legend appears
the following: “Ipsa experientia peritos Naucleros docuit volubiles
libellas magnetis virtute infectas in Insulis Corvi et Florum Mundi
polos recte respicere: idcirco ibi, taquam a communi Mundi Magn.
Meridiano Logitud. justis de causis initum sumunt Petrus Kaerius et
Abrahamus Goos patrueles sculptores.” “Experience itself has taught
skilful mariners that loose leaves when under the electrical influence,
in the islands of Corvo and Flores, turn directly toward the poles of
the world, and for this reason it is here, as a common magnetic meridian
of the world, that Peter Kaerius and Abraham Goos his cousin, engravers,
locate with reason the beginning of longitude.” The customary address to
the reader, though here not so designated, reads, “In hujus nostri Globi
delineatione ubique castigatissimas Tabulas Hydrographicas ac
Geographicas sequuti sumus, quibus Germani, Hispani, Galli, Itali,
Angli, Scoti, Dani, Norvegi, Suedi nec non et navigationibus utuntur: ad
quae omnia comparanda nulli nec labori nec sumptui pepercimus: ventorum
quoque regimmes ad usum navigantium admussim accomodavimus: quemadmodum
artis periti, proprius inspiciendo, reperient. Vale ac frere. Petrus
Plancius.” “In the delineation of this our globe, we have everywhere
followed the most correct hydrographic and geographic tables which the
Germans, Spaniards, French, Italians, English, Scotch, Danes, Norwegians
and Swedes use in their voyages. In doing this we have spared no labor
nor expense. The directions of the winds (loxodromic lines) we have laid
down with great exactness for the use of sailors, as those experienced
in navigation will see on close inspection. Farewell and be happy. Peter
Plancius.” This gives us definitely to understand that this terrestrial
globe was the work of Plancius.

The sphere is covered with a world map engraved on twelve gores,
truncated at latitude 70 degrees, the polar spaces being covered by the
usual circular discs, each having in this case a radius of twenty
degrees.

On his celestial globe, probably issued at the same time as the
terrestrial just referred to, and intended as a companion of the same,
having the same dimensions, we find the following legend: “In hac
coelesti sphaera stellae affixae majore quam hactenus numero ac
accuratiore industria delineantur. Novos Asterismos in philomathēom
gratiam de integro addidi: quae omnia secundum Astronomorum Principis
Tychonis Brahe, ac meam observationem verae suae Longitudinis ac
Latitudinis ad annum Christi 1615 restitui. Petrus Plancius.” “In this
celestial sphere the fixed stars to a greater number than previously and
with more exactness are depicted. I have added for the use of the
student some entirely new star readings according to the prince of
astronomers Tycho Brahe, and also my own observations of their true
latitude and longitude adapting these to the year of Christ 1615. Peter
Plancius.” It then will be noted that the position of the stars located
thereon is computed to the year 1615. In the southern hemisphere is a
portrait of Tycho Brahe with the inscription “D. Tyco Brahe Summ.
Mathematic,” below which is the legend “Tabula continens quantum quovis
proposito anno vel addendum vel demendum sit Lōgitudini affixarum: nam
hae 70 annorum et 5 mensis spacio unicum gradū secundū signorū ordinē,
super Pol. Zod. progrediuntur.” “Table indicating how much for any given
year is to be added to or to be subtracted from the longitude of the
fixed stars. For these in the space of 70 years and 5 months move one
degree reckoned on the signs of the zodiac.” But one pair of Plancius’
globes can now be located, this pair having been acquired a few years
since for the Museo Astronomico of Rome (Fig. 100). They are reported to
be in excellent condition. The spheres are of wood covered with plaster,
having a diameter of about 21 cm., upon which the gores have been
pasted. Wind roses are numerous, from which the usual direction or
loxodromic lines radiate. Ships and sea monsters add to the decoration
of the terrestrial globe map, and the figures of the several
constellations have been artistically drawn. Each globe is furnished
with a wooden base, having its horizon circle supported by four columns
which are joined below by crossbars. Each has a brass meridian circle
within which the globe is adjusted to revolve.

[Illustration: Fig. 100. Terrestrial Globe of Peter Plancius, 1614.]

Fiorini reports information received from Gabriel Marcel of the
Bibliothèque Nationale and Captain F. v. Ortroy that there may be found
in the Stein Museum of Antwerp a terrestrial globe of copper, neither
signed nor dated, but which is thought to be the work of Peter
Plancius.[52] Additional information concerning this globe has not been
obtainable.

Isaac Habrecht (1589-1633), physician and mathematician, was a native of
Strassburg, where he passed the greater part of his life.[53] Incidental
references to him assure that he was regarded in his day as a man of
much ability. Among his publications, not numerous but scholarly,
reference here may be made to his ‘Tractatum de planiglobio coelesti &
terrestri,’ issued in Latin in the year 1628, and again in the year 1666
in both Latin and German, by Johann Christoph Sturm of Nürnberg.[54] In
this work Habrecht describes his terrestrial and celestial globes,
constructed, it appears, a few years previous to the issue of the
publication.

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a fine example of what appears
to be his first terrestrial globe (Fig. 101). It is undated, but
internal evidence assures us that it was not constructed prior to the
year 1612. Near the Arctic circle and north of the representation of
Hudson’s Bay we read “Huc usque retrocesserunt Amstelodamenses anno
1612.” “At this point the Amsterdam (explorers) turned about in the year
1612.” His first celestial globe, referred to below, seems clearly to be
of the year 1619, and there is reason for placing his first terrestrial
globe in the same year, since, in their size, and in many of their
general features there is agreement. The globe ball of wood has a
diameter of 20 cm. Its horizon circle, which has pasted on its upper
surface the usual information relative to the names of the months, to
the principal directions, and to the signs of the zodiac, is supported
by four turned legs joined below by crossing bars, these bars in turn
supporting a carved circular disc with a raised center through a slot in
which the meridian circle is made to pass. The whole is indeed a
remarkably well-preserved example of Habrecht’s work.

[Illustration: Fig. 101. Terrestrial Globe of Isaac Habrecht, 1625.]

In an artistic cartouch to the south of the East Indian Islands and
within “Terra Australis” is the following signed dedication:
“Perillustri et Generossissimo Dnᵒ Dnᵒ Eberardo Dynaste in
Rappolstein. Hohenaccio et Geroltzeccio ad Vogasinum Divi Mathiae II
Imp. nec non Sereniss. Maximiliani Archiducis Austriae. P. M. Camerario
et Citeriorum Ordinum Provincialium Praesidi Magnifico: ex antiqua Ducā
Spoleti familia oriundo: Domino meo Clementissiᵒ Triplicem hunc globum:
Coelestem scilicet: convexum et concavum et hunc terrestrem novissimae
editionis et correctionis. D. D. D. Isaacus Habrect Phil. et med. d.
Argentinensis.” “To the Most Illustrious and Most Generous Lord
Eberhardt Ruler in Ruppelstein, Hohenau and Geroldseck in the Vosges,
Divine Emperor Matties II and also the Most Serene Maximilian Archduke
of Austria, the Exalted President of the Provincial Orders of the
Cameria, and those on this side of the mountains, sprung from the
Ancient Ducal Family of Spoleto, my Most Gracious Lord, this triple
globe, that is celestial, convex and concave terrestrial, corrected
according to the latest information, gives and dedicates Isaac Habrecht,
philosopher and physician of Strassburg.” In the northern part of North
America is a legend referring to the expeditions of Davis, Schouten, and
Le Maire reading, “Versus Articum polum ulterior transgressus hactenus
ab Herculis licet Davis Angli labore id examinatus fuerit sicut et circa
antarcticum fretum noviter a Guilielmo Schout detectum Le Maire
nuncupatum extremus adhuc navigationum est terminus. Quamvis nullus
dubitet maxima totius orbis magnalia sub polis delitescere quorum
detectionem forsitan summus Deus suo tempore reservat. Typis Jacop. ab
Heyden Argentinae.” “Toward the Arctic pole the last voyage up to the
present was made, with Herculean labors, by Davis an Englishman. Around
the Antarctic a strait has lately been discovered by William Schouten
and named Le Maire, and this, up to the present, is the extreme limit of
navigation, although no one doubts that the greatest wonders of all the
world lie hidden under the poles, the discovery of which, it may be that
Almighty God reserves for his own time. Printed by Jacob von Heyden of
Strassburg.” It is probable that the Jacob von Heyden here referred to
was a relative of Christian Heyden of Nürnberg, mathematician and globe
maker of renown.[55] Below the legend last quoted is a brief one
reading, “America septentrionalis a Christoforo Colombo 1492 detecta.”
“North America discovered by Christopher Columbus in the year 1492.”
This appears to have been quoted from the Hondius globe of the year
1618. The austral continent is referred to as “Terra Australis
incognita,” and near New Guinea is inscribed the following, likewise
quoted from Hondius: “Sic dicta quod ejus littora locorūq Guineae
Affricanae multum sint similia. Dicitur a nonnullis Terra de
Piccinaculi; et sit ne insula an pars continentis Australis incertum
est.” “So called because its shores are much like those of African
Guinea. It is called by some the land of Piccinaculi: and it is
uncertain whether it is an island or a part of the Australian
continent.”

A considerable number of brief legends appear upon different parts of
the globe map, each having a local significance. In coloring the map
attention was given to the representation of territorial boundaries
which gives an added interest to the globe. The “Meridianus Primus” is
made to pass through the Island of Corvo, and other meridians are drawn
at intervals of ten degrees. The loxodromic lines, as on the Hondius
globes, are made a conspicuous feature of the map, having their crossing
centers at longitudes 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° on the equator, and on the
prime meridian at latitude 35° both north and south, as well as at the
same latitude on the opposite side of the sphere, where the prime
meridian becomes the meridian of 180°. Habrecht appears to have followed
somewhat closely the globes of Hondius for his geographical data.

In addition to the Habrecht terrestrial globe in The Hispanic Society’s
collection, two other copies are known, which likewise are undated. One
of these belongs to the Biblioteca Comunale of Sondrio, and the other to
the Archivo Municipale of Asti.

Of the celestial globes of Habrecht four copies have been located; one
being in the Biblioteca Comunale of Sondrio, in a good state of
preservation; one in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg,
wanting, however, the original mounting, having its map engraved, as
stated in a legend, by Jacob von Heyden et Johann Christoph Weigel; one
in the Biblioteca Comunale of Asti; one in the Royal Museum of Cassel.

It is strikingly evident that Habrecht followed in the main the work of
Willem Jansz. Blaeu, and Jodocus Hondius for his celestial globes. As
the year 1619 was selected as the one in which star positions were to be
recorded, it is probable, as intimated above, that these globes were
constructed in that year. Each of the globes referred to is reported as
retaining the brilliant coloring which had been laid on by hand.

Garcia de Céspedes, writing in 1606,[56] calls attention to a globe,
concerning which nothing farther is known, referring to it as a
“Globillo que hizo en Portugal aquel grau Piloto que se emborrachana
cuyo nombre no me acuerdo.” “A small globe constructed in Portugal by a
great pilot, whose name is unknown, but who was a great drunkard.”

In the year 1893 Baron Nordenskiöld presented to the Royal Geographical
Society a facsimile in gores of a globe map, which fact is noted in that
society’s Journal. The globe is one of silver, bearing the author and
date legend “Johann Hauer. 1620.” The record tells of its having been
presented in the year 1632 to Gustavus Adolphus and that it is now one
of the treasures of the National Museum of Stockholm. The engraved map
is of the Hondius or the Mercator type presenting in the main the best
geographical knowledge of the time. Its many legends are in the Latin
language; the lettering, though small, is easily legible. The engraver
has adorned the seas with ships and with such marine animals as are
frequently to be found in the maps of the period.[57]

It has been previously noted that the employment of engraved gore maps
in globe construction was not received with general favor in Italy in
the sixteenth century, although Mercator’s globes were copied to some
extent, as were those of De Mongenet. Toward the close of the century,
the preference for manuscript globes, or for engraved bronze or copper
globes seems gradually to have yielded to a belief in the more practical
method of construction which had established itself in the North.
Originality, however, does not appear to have been a striking feature of
Italian endeavor in this method of globe making. There was an occasional
manifestation of independence and individuality, it is true, but in
general there was a disposition to copy, and the early seventeenth
century furnishes us an example in the reissue by Giuseppe de Rossi of
the work of Jodocus Hondius, but without credit, as has been previously
observed.

Among those who attained distinction in Italy in the first half of the
seventeenth century in the construction of globes having engraved gore
maps, may be named Mattheus Greuter. He was born in Strassburg in the
year 1556, where he learned designing and engraving. In early life he
went to Lyons in France where he carried on his work, but later he
removed to Avignon, adding to his art in this city that of type cutting.
We next find him in Rome, busily engaged in the work of engraving, in
which he had become exceedingly proficient, winning for himself a high
place among the Italian artists of his day. Map engraving, we learn,
early claimed his attention, and among his masterpieces in this field
may be mentioned a large map of Italy. Of this work no copy is at
present known, but it is thought that it probably served Magini as a
model for his “Italia” which was published in the year 1620. It could
not have been long after he had taken up his residence in Rome, where he
became a naturalized citizen, that he began the preparation of his first
terrestrial globe, which he issued in the year 1632. So well did he
perform his work that he is entitled to rank with the leading globe
makers of the Netherlands.

An excellent example of this first issue may be found in the Museum of
The Hispanic Society of America (Fig. 102), this being one of the most
valuable in its large collection. It has a diameter of 50 cm., and is
mounted on a wooden base having four feet, which, though evidently very
old, is clearly not the original base. It is furnished with a narrow
wooden horizon circle which is not graduated, and the calendar and other
representations, which one usually finds pasted on this circle in early
globes, are entirely wanting. The meridian circle of iron, likewise, is
not graduated, and like the wooden base is not a part of the original
mounting. The sphere itself is remarkably well preserved, there being
scarcely a noticeable injury to its surface save the slight
discoloration of age. The engraved gore map covering the papier-mâché
ball, which is of very light construction, is composed of twelve
sections, or rather of twenty-four, since each of the sections is cut at
the equator, and the poles are covered with small circular discs.

[Illustration: Fig. 102. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Greuter, 1632.]

In the south Atlantic and near the great southern continent, in a neat
cartouch surmounted by the coat of arms of the Boncompagni family of
Bologna, is the following dedication: “Illustrissimo et Excellentissimo
Principi D. Iacobo Boncompagno Sorae Arcisque Duci Marchioni Vignolae
Aquini Comiti Dno suo colendissimo. Mattheus Greuter Humill. obseqii
ergo. D. D.” “To the Most Illustrious and Excellent Prince Lord Jacob
Boncompagni, Duke of Sora and Arce, Marquis of Vignola and Count of
Aquino, his Most Worshipful Lord Mattheus Greuter with humble obedience
dedicates (this globe).” Iacopo Boncompagni, to whom Greuter dedicated
his work, belonged to a famous family of Bologna.[58] He was born in
Sora in the year 1613 and died in the year 1636. It was his
great-grandfather, Hugo, who, in the year 1572, at the age of seventy,
became Pope Gregory XIII, and who immortalized himself through his
reform of the calendar. Iacopo, the grandfather of that member of the
family to whom Greuter dedicated his globe, was in position, at the time
of the elevation of his father to the Papacy, to have bestowed upon him
great honors and riches. He was nominated Castellan of St. Angelo, and
shortly thereafter, receiving the title General of the Holy Church, was
sent to Ancona with a commission to defend the maritime regions of the
papal states. He was soon thereafter admitted to the nobility of Rome,
of the Kingdom of Naples, and of Venice. Through the riches of the
Papacy he was able to purchase from Alfonso II of Este the Marquisate of
Vignola for seventy-five thousand Roman scudi, the Duchy of Sora and of
Arce from the Duke of Urbino for one hundred and ten thousand ducats,
and the lands of Arpino and Roccasecca, together with the County of
Aquino from Alfonso of Avalon, Marquis of Guasto, for one hundred and
forty thousand ducats.

In the austral continent, and on the opposite side of the globe to that
on which the dedication is placed is an address to the reader which is
inscribed in a neat cartouch, reading “In ista quam exhibemus terreni
globi descriptione omnium regionum iuxta et insularum quotquot hactenus
ab Argonautis tam Lusitaniae quam aliarum gentium Naucleris visae et
notatae loca in suo secundū longitudinem et latitudinem situ sum̄a
sedulitate et industria disposita invenies quae res non solum
Geographiae studiosis jucūda, verum etiam ijs, qui terras longe dissitas
et sub alio sole calentes frequentent, maxime utilis futura est. Hūc
igitur laborem nostrum ut tam gratis animis acceptatis sedulitate a
nobis est obitus ex aequo omnes rogatos volo. Mattheus Greuter auctor.
Excudit Roma Anno MDCXXXII.” “On this globe which we exhibit, you will
find all the regions and islands as far as they have hitherto been seen
and noted by navigators of Portugal and of other nations, set down in
their proper positions of latitude and longitude with the greatest care
and industry. This will be pleasing not only to students of geography
but it will be especially useful to those who visit far distant lands
(which are) warmed by another sun. I hope therefore that all those whom
I ask will accept this labor of ours with as much gratitude as we have
employed care upon it. Matthew Greuter maker. Made in Rome in the year
1632.” This address agrees with that on the Blaeu terrestrial globe of
1622 except that Blaeu wrote “vel etiam ab aliarum gentium ...,” whereas
Greuter writes “tam Lusitaniae quam aliarum gentium ...,” and Blaeu
inserted a reference to the loxodromes he had drawn on his map, which
loxodromes Greuter, omitting, had therefore no occasion for such
reference. In the inscription referring to the prime meridian, Greuter
again borrowed from Blaeu with scarcely an alteration, as he did in his
reference to recent discoveries made for the purpose of finding a way to
the East by the North. Blaeu’s legend in the vicinity of the Tiborone
Island, that near the Cape of Good Hope, and that near the Strait of
Magellan were all copied literally by Greuter, and likewise that
referring to the Le Maire Strait.

Greuter employed, in general, for the names of the regions of the Old
World and for the seas, the Latin language, though he wrote “Mar del
Nort” for the Atlantic and “Mar del Zur” for the Pacific. For the names
of the New World he used the Spanish or the Portuguese, but occasionally
the English, the French, the Dutch, or the language native to the region
bearing the name. For the names of the cities he generally employed the
language of the country or the Italian language.

Numerous ships are represented sailing the seas, and the pictures of
sea monsters are many. A few wind roses adorn the map, but, as before
stated, loxodrome lines, regarded in general at that time as of great
importance to sailors who had occasion to make use of the chart or the
globe, were omitted by Greuter.

Hudson Bay, which is left nameless, is represented without a definite
coast line in the north, but through a wide and extended channel it
opens into “Fretum Davis.” The St. Lawrence River appears to drain a
lake, which may be taken from its location to be Lake Ontario; but the
remaining four Great Lakes appear as one great inland sea with an outlet
of somewhat uncertain character northward toward Hudson Bay. The
geographical representations in this region are of special historical
interest, as are indeed the geographical records in the several sections
of North America, particularly in the South and the West.

As a companion to the terrestrial globe of the year 1632, Greuter
prepared a celestial globe of the same dimensions, and with similar
mountings, which he issued in the year 1636. He gives due credit, in one
of his legends, to Tycho Brahe and to Willem Blaeu as sources of
information for his representation of the stars and the several
constellations, following, in particular, Blaeu’s globe of 1622. His
explanatory legend reads “In hoc coelesti Globo notantur omnes stellae
fixie an annum 1636 accom̄odatae q̄ iuxta observationē Nob. viri
Tychonis Brahe, in max̄ illo Iansonii, an̄o 1622 edito, positae sunt
additis stellis q̄ à peritissᵒ nauclero Petro Theod: circa Pol. Aust.
notatae sū novisque Asterismis et stellis min. apparētib’, ab aliis sum̄
studio observatis, omnia in Philomatico gratia copiosa delineata. Romae,
1636, M. Greuter.” “In this celestial globe are noted all the fixed
stars accommodated to the year 1636, which are placed (on the map)
according to the observations of the noble Tycho Brahe in that great
(work) of Jansson (Blaeu), edited in the year 1622, to which are added
the stars noted by the skilful navigator Peter Theodori around the south
pole and the new and less apparent stars observed by others with great
zeal. All these have been represented for the use of the student. At
Rome, 1636. M. Greuter.” As to how much he thought should be added to or
subtracted from the longitude of the fixed stars each year, to the end
of taking due note of the precession of the equinoxes, he copied
Plancius literally. The equatorial circle, the tropics, the polar
circles, the equinoxes, the solstitial colures, the ecliptic, and twelve
meridians are all represented. The constellations include the Ptolemaic,
with the addition of those recently discovered and named in the southern
hemisphere. The figures of the several constellations are well drawn,
having their names in Latin or in Arabic, and are artistically colored
in most of the copies of the globe known.

Greuter’s globes all appear to have been made in the same size, and they
have the same general construction, with the exceptions noted below.

A pair of these globes, that is, of the terrestrial, of the year 1632
and the celestial of 1636, may be found in the following public and
private libraries and museums in addition to those above mentioned:
Scuole Comunale of Ancona; in the Biblioteca Comunale of Bologna; in the
Biblioteca Comunale of Camarino; in the Seminario Vescovile of Carpi; in
the Biblioteca Comunale and also in the Museo Agabiti of Fabriano; in
the Biblioteca Comunale of Ferrara; in the Biblioteca di Santa Maria
Nuova of Florence; in the Biblioteca Comunale of Gubbio; in the
Biblioteca Governativo of Lucca; in the Biblioteca Capitolari of Reggio;
in the Museo Astronomico, also in the Biblioteca Chigi and the
Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele of Rome; in the Biblioteca Comunale of
Sanseverino; in the Biblioteca Gonzaga of Mantua; in the Biblioteca
Universitario of Messina; in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Milan; in the
Museo Civico of Modena; in the Museo di Fisica and also in the Seminario
Vescovile of Padua; in the Biblioteca Palatina of Parma and a pair in
the possession of Joseph Baer & Company of Frankfurt, 1914. A copy of
the terrestrial globe of the year 1632, in addition to the one described
above as belonging to The Hispanic Society of America, may be found in
the Biblioteca Comunale of Bassano; in the Ateneo of Brescia; in the
Museo di Fisica of Catania; in the Archivo di Stato of Venice. In
private libraries copies of these globes may be found in the possession
of the General Antonio Gandolfi of Bologna; of Sr. P. Marezio Bazolle,
once belonging to the Counts of Piloni of Belluno; of Professor Luigi
Bailo of Treviso; of Sr. D. Luigi Belli of Genga. A copy of the
celestial globe of the year 1636 may be found in the Biblioteca Comunale
of Serra S. Quirico, and also a copy in the library of Mr. W. B.
Thompson of Yonkers, N. Y.

It does not appear that Greuter himself issued other editions of his
globes. His death occurred in the year 1638, and in this same year what
may be called a second edition of his globes of the years 1632 and 1636,
having the same dimensions, was offered to the public. It has been noted
above that one Giuseppe de Rossi of Milan reprinted in Rome, in the year
1615, the Hondius terrestrial and celestial globes of 1601, making but
slight alterations in the same but giving the impression that he was the
original author. It was perhaps a near relative of this Milanese
engraver and printer, Giovanni Battista de Rossi, who in the year 1638
reprinted in Rome the Greuter globes with but few changes, none of which
can be considered of special import save the introduction of his own
name as printer instead of that of Greuter. It may, however, be noted
that both globes are dated 1636, that below the Tropic of Capricorn on
the terrestrial globe is the legend “Si stampa da Gio Bat̄ta de Rossi
Milanese in Piazza Navona. Roma,” and that the title legend of the
celestial reads “In hac coelesti sphaera stellae fixae majori quam
hactenus numero et accuratiori industria delineantur novis Asterismis in
Philomaticom̄ gratiam de integro additis: quae omnia secundum
Astronomorum Principis Tychonis Brahe et aliorum observationem verae
suae longitudini ac latitudini ad annum Christi 1636 restituta sunt.
Romae Matteus Greuter exc. 1636.” “In this celestial globe are shown the
fixed stars in greater number than previously, and with greater care and
industry, the new constellations being added for the sake of the
student. All these, according to the observations of the Prince of
Astronomers, Tycho Brahe, and likewise the observations of others, have
been assigned to their proper latitude and longitude for the year of
Christ 1636. Made at Rome by Mattheus Greuter 1636.”

A pair of these globes of the second edition may be found in the private
library of Cav. Giampieri-Carletti of Piticchio in the Marche; in a
private library of Ancona (owner unknown); in the Seminario Vescovile of
Toscanella. A copy of the terrestrial globe may be found in the
Seminario Vescovile of Macerata; and of the celestial in the library of
Count Francesco Conestabile of Perugia.

The Hispanic Society of America has in its collection a unique globe
which is clearly the work of Mattheus Greuter (Fig. 103), although
issued by Giovanni Battista de Rossi, as is attested by the legend, “Si
Stampa da Gio Batta de Rossi Milanese in Piazza Navona Roma.” This
legend, appearing in a neat cartouch, occupies the same position in the
southern hemisphere, near the prime meridian, as that in which one finds
the dedication of his first issue, but that part of the cartouch in the
earlier issue showing the coat of arms of the Boncompagni family is here
left blank. The title of the first issue is repeated save in the
concluding words. Here we read “In iste quam exhibimus ... Mattheus
Greuter auctor. Excudit Romae 1638.” Other legends, such as those in the
northern part of North America beginning, “Post apertum a Lusitanis
...,” that southeast of Africa beginning, “Quam longitudinis initium
...,” and the briefer ones referring to the discovery of the Cape of
Good Hope, to the expedition of Schouten, and to that of Magellan, are
identical in the two editions. It, however, is to be noted that many of
the briefer legends appearing in the first edition are wanting in this
of the year 1638, and that in the latter the place names are greatly
reduced in number. It is further particularly worthy of note that the
North American continent in this later issue is very much altered in its
outline. California appears as an island, “Insula California,” and is
separated from the great northwestern section of North America, which is
likewise represented, though somewhat doubtfully, as an island, by the
“Stretto di Anian,” while the “Estreito de Jeso” separates the New World
from Asia. The globe ball has a diameter of 26 cm. Its mounting is of
wood. It has a broad horizon circle, on which are the representations of
the signs of the zodiac, the calendar, the Roman and the Italian names
of the winds or directions appearing in concentric circles, the whole
being supported on a base consisting of four exquisitely carved and
rather heavy support columns which are joined below by carved cross
bracings. Its meridian circle is a comparatively recent and very clumsy
substitute of wood for the original which doubtless was of brass. It is
very seldom that one finds a globe of a date so early as is this which
is so well preserved. The engraved map has the freshness of a new and
unused print, excepting a very slight yellow tinge which is the
contribution of age. On this globe map may be found one of the earliest
attempts to give boundary lines to territorial divisions in the New
World such as “Virginia,” “La Florida,” “Nuovo Mexico,” “N. Amsterdam,”
“N. Suetia.”

[Illustration: Fig. 103. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Greuter, 1638.]

[Illustration: Fig. 103a. Terrestrial Globe of Dominico Rossi (Mattheus
Greuter), 1695.]

[Illustration: Fig. 103b. Celestial Globe of Dominico Rossi (Mattheus
Greuter), 1695.]

Attention has previously been called to the reproduction in Italy of the
Hondius globes by Giuseppe de Rossi in the year 1615. It appears that to
the Rossi family belonged a number of map engravers and art printers
during the seventeenth century and particularly to that branch making
its home in the city of Rome. As globe makers we however find them
playing the rôle of copyists rather than that of independent producers.

In The Hispanic Society’s collection of old globes may be found a pair
in an excellent state of preservation signed “Dominici de Rubeis
(Rossi),” and dated “1695.” Each globe ball is composed of papier-mâché,
having a diameter of 49 cm. and each is covered with a map printed on
twelve gores, with a small circular disc for the polar space (Figs.
103a, 103b). In the List of Globe Makers other examples are noted.

In the South Pacific, on the terrestrial globe, one finds the
inscription “Romae ex Chalcographia Dominici de Rubeis, heredis 70.
Jacobi, ad templum S. Mariae de Pace, Anno 1695.” Dominico, whose name
here appears, achieved considerable distinction as the publisher, with
his relative Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi, of an atlas of one hundred and
fifty-two maps, one of the finest examples of Italian cartography of the
period. In a cartouch in the South Atlantic, on this globe, we find the
name Mattheus Greuter given as the engraver, whose work has been
referred to above, clearly suggesting that Rossi had merely reissued a
globe of earlier date, since Greuter had died in the year 1638. A
careful examination of the globe map confirms the suggestion, since no
record is made of geographical discoveries after the year 1630. In the
region of the North Pole the discoveries of the English and of the Dutch
are recorded to the year 1628, and it may further be noted that in this
same northern region the islands of “Frislanda” and “Brasil” are laid
down, while in Greenland is a reference to the location of the fabled
Monastery of St. Thomas.

References are made in legends to the discoveries of Magellan, Lemaire,
Schouten, Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, and Drake. The region about New York
is called “Nieu Nederland.” One can recognize the representation of the
St. Lawrence, and the Mississippi. In the western region of the New
World there appears to be considerable confusion as to the geography of
the country, apparently the result of reading, without understanding,
the records of the Spanish and of the English. One finds, for example,
California represented as an island, and a double representation of the
Strait of Anian.

The Spanish, French, English, Dutch, and Latin languages have been
employed in names and legends.

The mounting of the globe is artistic and substantial, consisting of the
usual horizon circle, octagonal on its outer edge, but circular on the
inner edge to receive the globe ball, and having pasted on its upper
surface the usual engraved paper strips and all that there is engraved
thereon in the best examples of globe making. The meridian circle of
wood, within which the sphere is made to revolve, is graduated. The
supporting base consists of four exquisitely turned columns, braced at
bottom with correspondingly well-turned crossbars.

The celestial globe has a mounting altogether like that of the
terrestrial, and in the character of the map engraving there is
agreement. The figures of the several constellations are copies of these
drawn by Tycho Brahe, and all have been exquisitely colored. Stars from
the first to the sixth magnitude are represented, while special
attention is called to the new star in Cassiopeia first appearing in the
year 1572, and to the comets of the years 1597 and 1616. Near Ursa Major
is the author and date legend reading “In hoc Caelesto Globo notantur
omnes stellae fixae, ad annum 1636 accommodatae, quae iuxta
observationes Tychonis Brahae maximo illo Jansonii anno 1622 edito
positae sunt, additis stellis quae a nauclero Petro Theod. circa Polum
Australem notatae sunt ... Romae ex chalcographia Dominici de Rubeis,
her. Jo. Jac. de Rubeis anno 1695.”

The twelve gores of the map have been mounted so as to join at the north
and south poles of the ecliptic, there however being a small covering
disc at each pole, so frequently employed since Mercator’s day, the
globe itself being made to revolve on its equatorial axes.

To the makers of armillary spheres in the first half of the seventeenth
century there may be added the name of Adam Heroldt, a native of
Germany. We know little, however, of the extent of his activities. One
example of his work is known, which bears the simple inscription
engraved near the south polar circle “Adam Heroldt fecit Romae anno dn̄i
MDCIL.” “Made by Adam Heroldt in the year 1649.” This sphere once
belonged to the astronomer De Gasparis of Naples, but passed some years
since into the collection of the Museo Astronomico of Rome. It is
constructed entirely of brass, the diameter of the largest circle being
about 14 cm. Its several circles, including the polar, the equatorial,
the zodiacal, and the horizon, are graduated, the last-named having
engraved on its surface the names of the months and of the winds, and
resting on two semicircles, which in turn are supported by an
artistically designed foot. The entire height of the sphere is about 20
cm. At the north pole is an hour circle bearing the inscription “Index
Hor: Italic.” Within and at the common center of the several circles is
a small ball representing the terrestrial sphere, which has a diameter
of but 1 cm., and within the circle of the ecliptic and coördinated with
it is a ring carrying the sun, while within this is one for the moon.
The piece may be referred to as a fine example of the armillary sphere
of the period.

Manfredo Settàla (1600-1680)[59], a nobleman of Italy, was in his day a
distinguished promoter of science and art, and an intelligent collector
of rare objects, which he brought together in a museum of his own
founding. This he described in a work bearing title ‘Museum
Septalianum,’ which was published in Italian in the year 1666 by
Scarabelli. This museum later passed into the possession of the
Ambrosiana of Milan, where it has been considered one of the choicest
additions.

Settàla had included globes in his collection, among which there has
previously been mentioned that made by the Cremonese Gianelli, in the
year 1549. But not only was he a collector; he likewise became
interested in the actual work of globe construction. Among the objects
coming to the Ambrosiana from his museum is an armillary sphere bearing
the inscription, “Manfredus Settalius fecit MDCXLVI.”[60] It is
described as a sphere having a base of brass, its several circles
including those representing the zodiac, the equator, the meridians, and
the horizon, all being movable on a common axis, on which axis at the
common center of the circles is a small ball 4 cm. in diameter,
representing the earth. To this sphere rather extravagant praise is
given in the descriptive catalogue referred to above.

There is a third armillary sphere belonging to the Settàla collection,
which is of silver and which probably was constructed near the middle of
the seventeenth century, although it is neither signed nor dated. It is
40 cm. in height, having a circle representing the ecliptic 15 cm. in
diameter, which is graduated, having on its upper surface engraved
figures representing the twelve zodiacal constellations. The meridian
circle has a diameter of 16 cm., the horizon a diameter of 16 cm. and a
breadth of 3 cm., on the upper surface of which have been engraved the
names of the months, and the signs of the zodiac. In addition to the
parts mentioned it has two small polar circles, and at the common center
a small silver ball 1 cm. in diameter representing the earth.

Attention has been previously called to the transfer of the business of
Jodocus Hondius into the hands of the son-in-law, Johan Janssonius, and
of Abraham Goos, by whom it was carried on after the year 1640. This
firm continued to issue the Hondius globes, modifying them from issue to
issue with the addition of some of the latest geographical information
obtainable. In the year 1648, with Johan Janssonius as editor and
Abraham Goos as author and engraver, there was issued a pair of these
revised Hondius globes, each having a diameter of 87 cm. On the
terrestrial globe we read “Amstelodami Edebat Joannes Jansonius
Sculpebat magnoque studio componebat Abrahamus Goos Amstelodamensis.”
“Amsterdam. Edited by Johan Jansonius. Composed with much study and
engraved by Abraham Goos a native of Amsterdam.” Further details
concerning this globe have not been obtainable, but it is very certain,
although differing in size, it contains practically all the features
common to the earlier editions of the Hondius terrestrial globes, and
especially of the later ones.

The celestial globes have the following inscription: “Sphaera nova summo
studio summaque diligentia atque industria Clarissimi viri D. Adriani
Metii Watheseos apud Frunequeranos Professoris Ordinarii ad abacos
Nobilissimi viri Thiconis Brahe configurata observationibus quamplurimis
tum circa polum arcticum a discipulo suo Houtmanno adhibitis aucta et in
annum 1620 reducta. Edente Joanne Jansonio 1648.” “A new globe
constructed with the greatest industry, zeal and diligence accommodated
to the tables of the most noble Tycho Brahe, enlarged by very many
observations, those around the Arctic pole being made by myself, and
those around the Antarctic by his disciple Houtmann. All, accommodated
to the year 1630. Constructed by Johan Jansonius, 1648.” A pair of these
globes may be found in the library of the Marquis Borromeo of Milan.


NOTES

[1] Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. XXVII, p. 242; Aa, A. J.
v. d. Biographische Woordenboek der Nederlanden. Haarlem, 1853.
“Hondius, Jodocus,” to which notice there is appended a list of
short bibliographical references; Kramm, C. De Leven en Werken der
Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunstenaars. Amsterdam, 1857-1861.
“Hondius, Jodocus.”

[2] See for an interesting example of his early work his world map
printed at The Hague in the year 1595. This map, in two hemispheres,
lays down the track of Drake’s circumnavigation, 1577-1580, and that
of Cavendish, 1586-1588. An original of this may be found in the
Grenville Library of the British Museum, a reproduction in the work
referred to below, n. 42.

[3] Aa, op. cit., “Bertius, Petrus de,” “Montanus, Petrus.” See also
Kramm, op. cit.

[4] For a list of the Hondius Atlases of various dates see Phillips,
P. L. A list of Geographical Atlases. Washington, 1909-1914. 3
vols.

[5] Stevenson, E. L., and Fischer, J. Map of the World by Jodocus
Hondius, with the title, ‘Novissima ac exactissima totius orbis
terrarum descriptio magna cura & industria ex optimis quibusque
tabulis Geographicis et Hydrographicis nuperrimisque doctorum
virorum observationibus duobus planisphaerijs delineata. Auct. I.
Hondio.’ New York, 1907. Facsimile in eighteen large sheets with key
map and text.

[6] There is much doubt as to the correct reading of the date.

[7] These globes were acquired by Mr. Huntington at the auction sale
held in the rooms of the American Art Association, November 24,
1916. They were listed in the catalogue of “Art treasures and
Antiquities from the famous Davanzati Palace, and the Villa Pia,
Florence, Italy,” under No. 575 as “a pair of sixteenth century
Italian globes.” No other printed reference than that contained in
this catalogue has hitherto appeared. It is hardly probable that a
finer pair of these early Holland globes can be found in any of the
museums or private libraries of Europe.

[8] Fiorini. Sfere terrestre e celesti. p. 265.

[9] Wagner, H. Lehrbuch der Geographie. Leipzig, 1903. pp. 78-81;
Frisius, G. De principiis astronomiae et cosmographiae. Antwerp,
1530. Chap. titled “De novo modo inveniendi longitudinem”;
Ptolemaeus. Geographia. Chap. 4. Ptolemy here refers to an eclipse
of the moon, in the year 331 B.C., which was observed in Arbela the
fifth hour, in Carthage the second hour. He therefore noted a
difference in time of three hours between the two places, and he
therefore concluded the difference in longitude to be 43 degrees.
Since the actual difference in longitude is but 34 degrees his error
was of considerable magnitude, which found expression in his maps,
and in the maps of those who followed him, as the greatest of
geographical teachers, well into the seventeenth century. The method
of determining longitude by means of the observation of the eclipses
of the moon remained practically the only method until the end of
the fifteenth century. Attention may here be called to work of
Cassini and of other astronomers of his period. See II, 141.

[10] Aa, op. cit., “Veen, Adrien,” also Kramm, op. cit.

[11] Baudet, P. J. H. Leven en werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu.
Utrecht, 1871. pp. 156-158; “Extract uit de Resol. der Staten van
Holland en West-Vriesland, 5 Aug. 1608.”

[12] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 271.

[13] Information kindly furnished by the director.

[14] See II, 11.

[15] The parrot particularly interested the early explorers who
visited the South American coast. See the artistic representation
appearing on the Cantino map, in apparently the oldest extant
representation of an American landscape.

[16] Voyages of Fox and James to the Northwest. Ed. by Christy
Miller for the Hakluyt Society. London, 1894. See especially the
second part of Vol. II, “The strange and dangerous voyage of Captain
Thomas James, London, 1633.”

[17] The voyage of Thomas Button was made in the years 1612-1613, an
account of which is given in Voyages of Fox and James, Vol. I. pp.
162-201.

[18] Bauer, L. A. Principal Facts Relating to the Earth’s Magnetism.
(In: United States Magnetic Declination Tables and Isogonic Charts
for 1902. Washington, 1902.) Printed also as a separate;
Wolkenhauer, A. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Kartographie und Nautik
des 15 bis 17 Jahrhundert. München, 1904; Hellmann, G. Ueber die
Kentniss der magnetischen Deklination vor Christopher Columbus. (In:
Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Braunschweig, 1906.) Gilbert, W. De
Magnete. London, 1600, and reissued in translation in 1893. This
work is one of great significance in its treatment of magnetism and
electricity. See especially Bk. IV on Variation, Pedro Medina in his
Art de Navigar, Valladolid, 1545, contended that the magnetic needle
always points to the true north; Stevenson, E. L. Early Spanish
Cartography of the New World. (In: Proceedings of the American
Antiquarian Society. Worcester, 1909.) Attention is called in this
paper to certain errors in early Spanish maps, probably due to a
failure to note properly the declination of the magnetic needle.

[19] Baudet, op. cit.; same author. Nachscrift, 1872; same author.
Notice sur la part prise par Willem Jansz. Blaeu dans la
détermination des longitudes terrestres. Utrecht, 1875. Stevenson,
E. L. Willem Janszoon Blaeu (1571-1638), a sketch of his life and
work with an especial reference to his large world map of 1605 with
facsimile. New York, 1914; Aa, op. cit., Vol. II. pp. 578-580; Dozy,
C. M. Willem Janszoon Blaeu. (In: Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch
Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. Amsterdam, 1887. pp. 206-215.); Tiele,
P. A. Leven en werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu door P. J. Baudet.
(In: De Gids. Amsterdam, 1872. Dorde Serie, Vol. I, pp. 356-367.);
Tiele, P. A. Nederlandsche Bibliographie van Land- en Volkerkunde.
Amsterdam, 1884. See this work for a bibliography of the works of
Blaeu.

[20] Baudet, op. cit., pp. 77-114.

[21] See reference to Tycho Brahe, I, 183.

[22] See I, 184.

[23] Pictures of these instruments may be found in Le grand Atlas.

[24] Kepler, J. Astronomia nova ... De Motibus Stellae Martis.
Prague, 1609; Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, “Kepler, Johann”;
Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, pp. 281-310.

[25] In his earliest maps and charts Blaeu clearly had as his main
purpose that of being of service to navigators.

[26] Blaeu, J. Le grand Atlas ou Cosmographie Blaviane. Amsterdam,
1663-1671. 12 Vols. Practically the same work in the Latin, the
Dutch, and the Spanish languages. A bibliographical list of Blaeu’s
principal geographical publications is given in Stevenson, op. cit.,
pp. 65-67, in Phillips, op. cit., and in Tiele, op. cit.

[27] Stevenson, op. cit., p. 25.

[28] Génard, P. M. N. J. Les globes de Guillaume Blaeu. (In:
Bulletin Société Géographie d’Anvers. Anvers, 1883. Vol. VIII, pp.
159-160.); Baudet, op. cit., pp. 35-52; Stevenson, op. cit., pp. 15,
43-50.

[29] The Mercator globe has a diameter of 41 cm. and the Van Langren
a diameter of 32 cm.

[30] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 242.

[31] Baumgärtner, J. Zwei alte Globen von Blaeu. Erdkugel von 1599
und Himmel-Globis von 1603. (In: Das Ausland. Stuttgart, 1885. No.
15, pp. 299-300.)

[32] (In: Hakluyt Society Publications, Ser. II, Vol. XVIII, pp.
187, 189.)

[33] Kästner, A. G. Geschichte der Mathematik, Vol. III, p. 86.

[34] Catalogus librorum, tam impressorum, quam manuscriptorum,
Bibliothecae publicae Universitatis Lugduno-Batavae. Lugduni apud
Batavos, 1716. p. 500.

[35] Van der Noort sailed in the year 1598.

[36] See reference in note 32 above.

[37] Compare the austral land on this globe with that on Mercator’s
globe of 1541, on the Hondius globe of 1600, on the Spano globe of
1593, et al.

[38] Photographs of these globes were reproduced in Stevenson,
Willem Janszoon Blaeu. p. 44.

[39] See II, 13.

[40] There was much discussion throughout these years as to the
proper location of the prime meridian.

[41] Asher, G. M. Henry Hudson the Navigator. (In: Hakluyt Society
Publications. London, 1860. Ser. I, Vol. 27.)

[42] Drake, Sir F. The World Encompassed, with introduction by Vaux,
W. S. W. (In: Hakluyt Society Publications. London, 1854. First
Series, 16.)

[43] Stevenson and Fischer. World Map of Jodocus Hondius. The
evolution of a knowledge of the Great Lakes region and its
cartographical representation should prove to be a topic of
absorbing interest.

[44] Brown, A. The Genesis of the United States. Boston and New
York, 1891. Vol. I, p. 229.

Historians of this period in American history, with scarcely an
exception, have taken it for granted that the expression “from sea
to sea” means from the Atlantic to the Pacific, apparently not
stopping to inquire as to the geographical notions entertained at
the time of the granting of the Charter concerning the regions in
question. The interpretation here offered takes into consideration
the fact that Jodocus Hondius, perhaps the most distinguished
geographer and map maker of his day, was much in favor in England at
the time of the formation of the London Company and was much
consulted concerning the geography of the New World. What he thought
of the Virginia region to the “west and northwest” he has laid down
in his large world map. It seems all but proven that the statement
“from sea to sea west and northwest” means from the Atlantic to the
great but indefinite inland sea “Mare Septentrionale Americae.”

To interpret this expression as meaning from the Atlantic to the
Pacific shows the historian, as Freeman has stated it, “in bondage
to the modern map.” Here is a striking illustration of the
importance attaching to the study of historical geography, and to
its subordinate branch, historical cartography. Blaeu, Plancius,
Greuter, and others, if not so clear and emphatic in their
presentation of this region, evidently entertained practically the
same geographical notion as Hondius.

[45] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 257.

[46] Letter to the author signed and dated, D. Fana, 28/1/1914.

[47] Founded in the year 1602.

[48] Jameson, J. F. Willem Usselinx, Founder of the Dutch and
Swedish West India Companies. New York, 1887.

[49] Wieder, F. C. De Wereldkaart van Petrus Plancius in het Colegio
del Corpus Cristi te Valencia. (In: Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch
Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. Leiden, 1915. pp. 301-318.)

[50] Blundeville. Exercises. pp. 245-278. In this volume pages are
numbered on recto only.

[51] Linschoten, J. H. v. Itinerarium ofte schipvaert naer dost ofte
Portugaels Indien. Groningen, 1614.

[52] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 278.

[53] Doppelmayr, op. cit., pp. 101, 115, 116.

[54] See Doppelmayr.

[55] See reference to Christian Heyden, I, 156.

[56] Garcia de Céspedes. Regimiento de Navigacion. Madrid, 1606. p.
148.

[57] Royal Geographical Journal, London. London, 1893. p. 384.

[58] Baglione, G. Le vite de’ pittori, scultori, architetti ed
intagliatori dal pontificato di Gregorio XIII del 1572 fino ai tempi
di Urbano VIII nel 1642. Napoli, 1743. p. 282; Vaugondy, R. d. Essai
sur l’histoire de la Géographie. Paris, 1775. p. 189; Magini, A.
Italia di Gio: Al Serenissimo Ferdinando Gonzaga duca di Mantova e
di Monferrato, cum privilegio. Bononiae, MDCXX.

[59] Litta, P. Le famiglie celebri d’Italia. Milano, 1819.

[60] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 299-301.

[Illustration: Armillary Sphere. _From Blagrave, Mathematical Jewel,
1585_]



Chapter XI

Globes of the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century

  Certain striking tendencies exhibited in the matter of
  globe making in this period.--The Gottorp
  globes.--Weigel’s globes.--Carlo Benci.--Amantius
  Moroncelli.--Castlemaine’s immovable globe.--The armillary
  of Treffler.--Armillary sphere of Gian Battista
  Alberti.--The numerous globes of P. Vincenzo
  Coronelli.--Certain anonymous globes of the
  period.--Joannes Maccarius.--Jos. Antonius Volpes.--Vitale
  Giordani.--George Christopher Eimmart.--Giuseppe
  Scarabelli.--Giovanni Battista.--Joseph Moxon.--The
  Chinese globes of Peking.


Among the globes constructed in the second half of the seventeenth
century there were none which surpassed in scientific value, if indeed
any equaled, those sent out from the workshops of the Netherland masters
in the first half. The work of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, the Venetian monk,
crowns the period. His abilities were of a high order, and entitle him
to a place among the world’s great map and globe makers, but the traces
of his influence seem not to be so pronounced as were those of his
immediate northern predecessors.

The period was one which lent encouragement to some extravagance in
globe making. The earliest of those constructed in the post-Columbian
years, as has been noted, were of small size, but before the close of
the sixteenth century we occasionally find one of large dimensions, as,
for example, that of the great Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe. Blaeu’s
globes of the year 1622 were thought to be of extraordinary size, but
the half century here under consideration furnishes us with examples of
globes having gigantic proportions, globes such, for example, as would
have pleased the Greek geographer, Strabo,[61] who thought that one to
be of value should have a diameter of at least ten feet. The Gottorp
globe, the globes of Weigel, the Coronelli globes constructed for Louis
XIV, were not such as would lend themselves to easy duplication,
certainly not as to size, ranging as they did from about nine to fifteen
feet. Of real value they possessed but little. They were interesting
mechanical curiosities, representing a tendency in globe construction
which might be referred to as the ultrapractical. In the following
century we find the opposite extreme exemplified in what were known as
pocket globes.

The so-called Gottorp globe, constructed in the years 1654-1664, at the
instance of Duke Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, we may refer to as the
first one of importance of the period, as it was one of the largest,
being, however, rather an object[62] of interest by reason of its
peculiar construction, than one of great scientific importance for the
study of astronomy and geography. This globe, about eleven feet in
diameter, was prepared by Andreas Busch of Limberg under the direction
of Adam Oelschläger (Olearius)[63] (1599-1671), Duke Frederick’s
librarian and court mathematician. The world map on the outer surface of
the sphere included a record of the recent discoveries according to the
most reliable sources of information. It was furnished with a brass
meridian circle, and within this it was so adjusted as to make one
revolution every twenty-four hours. The pole elevation could not be
altered, it being permanently set for the latitude of Gottorp, that is,
for latitude 54° 30′. Its horizon circle was broad, and served as a
platform upon which an observer might walk, he being thus enabled to
examine the terrestrial map to the best advantage. A door was provided
which could be opened and closed, permitting not less than twelve
persons to enter the sphere at one time. On its inner surface was
represented the entire expanse of the sky with the several
constellations properly located, having their figures carefully
outlined; the several stars being placed according to calculation for
the year 1700, and each star was gilded that it might the more easily be
seen. From the inner axis was suspended a circular gallery or platform
from which the machine could be set in motion, and from which, as
representing the horizon, one might observe the rising and the setting
of the stars. The whole interior was lighted by two small lamps. At the
center of the sphere, the inner surface of which, as stated above,
represented the starry heavens, was placed a small ball, about 15 cm. in
diameter, representing the earth. The great globe, driven by water
power, was therefore made to appear to revolve around this central
terrestrial globe. A representation of the sun, made of glass, had its
own proper motion along the circle of the ecliptic, and a representation
of the moon likewise was made to move in its own proper course. This
globe, in the year 1713, was presented by the grandson of Duke Frederick
to Czar Peter the Great of Russia.

A note in the Royal Geographical Journal refers to this as a
seventeenth-century globe, adding in substance that the St. Petersburg
Academy of Sciences has lately installed at Tsarskoe Selo this large
globe, weighing some three and one half tons, constructed in the
seventeenth century for Duke Frederick of Holstein, under the
superintendence of Olearius, the astronomer and traveler. On its
completion it was placed in the castle of Gottorp, from which fact it
became known as the Gottorp globe. It was presented to the Academy in
the year 1725 and up to the present has remained in the Zoölogical
Museum.[64]

Information has been kindly given by the director of the National Museum
of Copenhagen that an exceedingly fine armillary sphere (Fig. 104) may
be found in the Museum of National History in the Friedricksborg Castle.
From the catalogue of this institution we learn that it was
constructed in the year 1657 by Andreas Busch, under the guidance of
Adam Olearius, for Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp. As will be noted
from the illustration it is an elaborately constructed piece of
mechanism. What we may term the globe proper is composed of six great
circles on which are the fixed constellations, having the several stars
represented in silver. Through the mechanism passes a steel bar which
carries a ball of brass representing the sun, which is at the center of
the complicated system of circles. Around the sun are six circles of
brass representing the orbits of the planets each carrying a small
silver angel. That part of the mechanism which represents the equator
and the zodiac is calculated to make one revolution in 25,000 years. In
the base of the globe has been placed the clockwork by which the several
movements of circles and planets are effected, and time is told by the
striking of hours and quarters. Topping the piece is a small armillary
sphere representing the Ptolemaic system.

[Illustration: Fig. 104. The Gottorp Armillary Sphere, 1657.]

We are likewise informed that in the National Museum’s collections may
be found a celestial globe which is attributed to Petrus Theodorus. It
is of gilded brass, having a diameter of 24 cm., and while undated
presumably is of the last quarter of the seventeenth century. The globe
ball is supported by a bronze figure of Atlas, the whole standing 86 cm.
in height. Tycho Brahe is the accredited authority for the
representation of the several fixed stars.

Erhard Weigel (1625-1699)[65] has place among the globe makers of the
period as one who sought to reform, and, in some measure, to popularize
both astronomical and geographical science, particularly the former,
applying his own inventive ability to that end in the matter of globe
construction. In this he appears to have been rather more ingenious than
practical. He seems to have achieved special distinction in his day as
theologian, philosopher, astrologer, and mathematician.

Weigel was a native of the Rhenish Palatinate. Under many difficulties,
on account of the poverty of the family, he acquired the necessary
educational training for admission into the University of Halle. Here he
soon found himself in favor with Professor Bartholemeus Schimpfer,[66]
who was counted one of the leading astrologers of the time. In addition
to the youthful student’s general duties as secretary to the professor,
there was assigned to him the task of calendar making. This was a task
which especially appealed to him, and he soon had a following, as a
tutor, among those students who like himself found the astrological
science one of absorbing interest. Led by the fact that students from
the University of Leipzig came to him for instruction, he transferred
his residence from Halle to this University, thinking thereby to improve
his opportunities for mathematical studies. Here he continued his
astrological work, not so much, it appears, because of a genuine belief
in the practical value of the science, as such; the rather because he
found in its pursuit a good source of income.[67] His theological bent
soon led him to a conclusion that the science of astrology rested upon a
very unsubstantial foundation. “If God be the creator and supporter of
the universe, what an insignificant part,” thought he, “can the stars
play in determining the destiny of the individual.”

In the year 1654 he became a professor of mathematics in the University
of Jena and sprang immediately into favor as a lecturer.[68] Naturalism,
as heralded in his day, appealed to him and he became an outspoken
opponent of the Latinists and of the Scholastics. When his knowledge of
mathematics failed him he was inclined to resort to theology as a
subject furnishing endless themes and illustrative material. From his
early belief in astrology he turned to astronomy, but he remained a
visionary, making some contribution to the science but none of lasting
value. He appears to have been particularly distressed over the heathen
names of the several constellations and the figures which so long had
been employed to represent them, regarding such representations as
sacrilegious and wholly unworthy the great inventive genius of man. All
this he wished to have swept from the heavens, proposing to substitute
for the same the coats of arms of the ruling houses of Europe.[69] For
Ursa Major he proposed the name Elephas with the figure of the Danish
elephant, for Orion the name Aquila biceps and the Austrian double
eagle, for Hercules the name Eques cum districto gladio and the insignia
of Poland, for Leo the name tria Castella cum Aureo Vellere and the
insignia of Spain, for Erichthonius the name Lilia tria and the insignia
of France, for Lyra the name Citharae and the insignia of Britain,
running thus through the entire list. In assigning his new names to the
constellations he endeavored, in so far as possible, to assign them to
such relative position in the heavens as the respective countries or
houses occupied on earth.

In one of his publications[70] Weigel describes his several mechanical
devices, including his globes, to which he refers as “Globus Mundanus,”
“Viceglobus,” “Globus coelestis perpetuus,” and “Geocosmus,” the latter
being referred to by the author as a useful terrestrial globe, which
exhibits not only all countries, but the time of the day and of the year
in all localities; also the wind and the rain and volcanic eruptions.
Coronelli gives a brief description of the same, which he calls a
“Pancosmo, o Mondo Universale,” from which, in the main, the following
is taken.[71]

This machine, he says, has a circumference of thirty-two feet, being
constructed in the form of an armillary sphere. On its surface the stars
are represented, each in its proper size and place, and Coronelli,
perhaps indirectly quoting Weigel’s own opinion of his production, notes
its real superiority to nature, for he states that the stars, as
represented, can be seen at all hours of the day and night and as well
in sunshine or rain. This “Pancosmo” was made to appear, in its
mounting, as if standing or resting on the clouds, the whole being
supported by two statues each eight feet in height, the one
representing Hercules and the other Athene. Through a door, which was
practically invisible, the great sphere could be entered by a
considerable number of persons at one time, and be enjoyed by them,
implies Coronelli, some standing and some sitting. It was so arranged
within that when one half of the celestial sphere was lighted the other
half remained in darkness, the revolution of the sphere giving a
representation of the rising and the setting of the stars. At the center
was placed a small terrestrial globe within which was a reservoir; this
could be made to serve in a representation of the subterranean fires
which issued, at times most opportune, from the craters of volcanoes
represented, such as Vesuvius and Aetna in the south of Italy, others in
the East Indian Islands and still others in America. “They give out
steam, flames, and pleasant odors,” says Coronelli, “which please the
spectators.” By means of a screen and lantern it was made possible to
represent the inhabitants of any country desired, moving about as in
actual life, even “the antipodes,” says the author, “with heads downward
and feet upward.” At pleasure a breeze could be made to blow from any
desired quarter, meteors could be made to flit across the sky; rain- and
hailstorms, lightning and thunder, could be imitated. On the surface of
the terrestrial globe were represented the several countries of the
earth, likewise the several seas. Coronelli notes that which Weigel
seems to have regarded an especially commendable feature, the grouping
of the stars into new constellations, which grouping was particularly
designed to aid the memory. This of all the large globes constructed in
the period seems especially to have represented the ultrapractical, and
we have no knowledge that it was ever regarded in any other light than
as a great mechanical wonder. The final disposition of this “Pancosmo”
is unknown. Günther doubts that globes such as Weigel proposed to
construct are still in existence. He, however, refers to a globe in the
collection of the Germanisches Museum which exhibits the constellations
somewhat after Weigel’s plan.

That a certain preference manifested itself in Italy, during the greater
part of the sixteenth century, and among certain individuals interested
in geographical and astronomical matters, in engraved metal globes or in
globes with manuscript maps, has been previously noted. An argument
frequently advanced in opposition to that favoring the use of printed
maps was that the manuscript globe could the more easily be made of
large size, indeed could easily be made of any desirable size. The later
years of the seventeenth century furnish us with excellent examples in
proof that a preference for such globes lingered in certain circles in
the peninsula.

Carlo Benci (1616-1676), a Silvestrian monk, born in the Tuscan town of
Montepulciano, may be named as one of the foremost among the manuscript
globe makers of the period.[72] At the age of twenty-one he entered the
monastery of S. Benedetto of Fabriano, receiving in the ceremony
attending his admission the name D. Doroteo. One year later we find him
in the monastery of S. Giovanni in Montepulciano, and in the year 1652
in the convent of S. Stefano del Cacco of Rome, on entering which he
changed his name to D. Carlo Benci, we are told, attained to a place of
eminence among men of learning in Italy on account of his philosophical
and theological studies. In the year 1645 he was chosen for an
administrative office in his order, and later he successively became
sacristan, curate prior, and titular abbé of S. Bonifazio near Cingoli
in the Marche, retaining to the end of his life the headship of the
parish of S. Stefano.

To his fame as philosopher and theologian he seems to have added that of
expert cosmographer, winning through the wide extent of his interests
the special favor of Pope Clement X, who selected him as his spiritual
adviser. It must be noted, however, that his name nowhere appears
especially conspicuous among contemporary writers on philosophical,
theological or scientific subjects, and we have only the tangible
evidence of his cosmographical interests in a fine pair of globes
constructed in the year 1671, now belonging to Prince D. Camillo Massimo
of Rome.

These globes have a diameter of about 1 m. and still retain the greater
part of their original mounting, which, in each, consists of a meridian
circle (this in the terrestrial globe is modern) not graduated, within
which they are adjusted to revolve on their equatorial polar axes, of a
horizon band, likewise not graduated, being circular on the inner edge,
but octagonal on the outer, the whole being supported by four turned
legs joined by crossbars at their lower extremities. Both spheres are of
papier-mâché and are well preserved, the terrestrial having suffered
slightly more injury than the celestial. The spheres are covered with
somewhat irregular pieces of paper, though carefully matched, which are
yellow with age. On this paper surface the maps terrestrial and
celestial were drawn with a stylus.

On a plate attached to the terrestrial globe we find a dedication to
Pope Clement X, this being surmounted with a coat of arms of the Altieri
family, of which family Pope Clement was a member. This dedication
reads:

“Beatissimo Padre. Non si debbono questi due globi rappresentanti il
Cielo e la Terra da me con diligente studio composti consecrare ad altri
che alla Sᵗᵃ Vʳᵃ, come quella, che dell’ uno maneggia le Chiavi e
dell’ altra regge lo Scettro. Considerava io, che l’ Imperio di Vʳᵃⁿ
Beatitⁿᵉ per non avere confini, che lo restringano, è contanto vasto,
che non può quasi essere da humano intendimᵒ compreso, poichè non ha la
Terra, nè monte, nè fiume, nè l’Oceano istesso, che i termini gli
prescriva, nè ha il Cielo, nè Asterismo, nè gruppo di stelle sì folto
che faccia sbarra et impedisca che l’ autorità della St̄a V.r̄a non
giunga alle porte dell’ Empireo, che chiude e disserra a suo talento.
Quindi riflettendo io sopra l’ampiezza o per così dire incomprensibilità
del suo sacro Regno, per agevolare il suo conoscimᵒ mi disposi di
portare quasi in compendio de l’ uno e l’altro orbe, cioè Celeste e
Terreno, in queste due moli di giro non ordinario la descritione dove
possa l’occhio con un semplice sguardo ravvisare ciò che non può la
nostra mente con la sua acutezza comprendere, e dove la S.t̄a V.r̄a,
sollevata tal’ hora dal peso delle cure gravissime, possa rivolgere le
luci per contemplare la D. grandezza del suo Sacro dominio. Di qui spero
che V.r̄a Beatitudine sia per gradire queste mie deboli fatiche, come di
un suddito che porta il carattere di suo servitore attuale, e che sia
per misurare dalla grandezza di queste Sfere l’eccesso delle
obbligazioni che le professo. E. qui augurandole l’età e gl’ anni di
Nestore, le bacio humilmente prostrato a terra i Santissimi piedi.

  “Di S. Stefano del Cacco di Roma li 28 di Dicembre 1671
  “Di V.r̄a Beatitudine.
    “Humᵐᵒ Devotᵐᵒ Obligᵐᵒ servʳᵉ e Suddito
        “D. Carlo Benci Monaco Silvestrino.”[73]

“Most blessed Father. These two globes, which represent the heavens and
the earth, constructed by myself with painstaking industry, ought not to
be dedicated to any one but to Your Holiness, who with one hand controls
the keys and with the other wields the scepter. I reflect that the
empire of Your Holiness, having no boundaries to restrict it, is so vast
that it scarcely can be grasped by the human imagination, since earth
has not mountain, river, or even ocean that can set limits thereto; nor
is there sky, or planet, or star, or constellation so dense as to check
or hinder Your Holiness from reaching the gate of empyrean which You
open and shut at will. Reflecting therefore upon the expanse, and so to
speak, upon incomprehensibleness of Your Holiness’ Empire, I determined,
with a view to furthering the knowledge of it to give a representation
of both worlds (that is of the celestial and of the terrestrial), much
reduced, as it were, upon these two spheres of no mean size, on which
the eye will be able at one glance to recognize what the human
intellect with all its powers is impotent to grasp; and over which Your
Holiness, when at times relieved from the pressure of overwhelming
responsibilities, will be able to cast your glance in order to view the
aforesaid vastness of Your Dominion.

“Wherefore I trust that Your Holiness will be inclined to accept these
my feeble labors, as those of a subject whose real capacity is that of
Your Holiness’ servant, and that You may be willing to take the great
size of these globes as the measure of the vastness of the obligation
which I avow myself under to Your Holiness. And now wishing Your
Holiness the age and the years of Nestor, I humbly prostrate myself upon
the ground, and kiss Your Most Holy Feet.

“San Stefano del Cacco, Rome, 28, December 1671.

“Your Holiness’ most humble, most devoted, and most
obliged servant and subject,

  “Dom Carlo Benci
     “Silvestrin monk.”

Near this dedication is a portrait of the Pope, the subscription reading
“Clemens Decimus Pont. Max.”

The terrestrial globe shows the parallels at intervals of ten degrees,
and the meridians at like intervals counting from that passing through
the Island of Ferro which has been taken as the prime meridian. The
polar circles, the tropics, and the ecliptic are made especially
prominent. Place names and legends are given either in Latin or in
Italian, some of the briefer legends taking note of geographical
discoveries of special importance, and clearly indicating that the
author was well informed on the progress of discovery.

The celestial globe has represented on its surface both the equator and
the ecliptic with their respective poles indicated; circles of latitude
and of longitude are omitted. The year 1600 was selected as the normal
year for recording the position of the stars, and a statement is made
noting the corrections becoming necessary by reason of the precession of
the equinoxes. Only the Ptolemaic constellations are given, and the
figures representing the same are very artistically drawn. The famous
star which appeared in the year 1572 and the position of numerous comets
are indicated, with the date of the appearance of each.

Until the year 1862 these globes were preserved in the Altieri Library,
when they were offered for sale and were purchased by Prince D. Camillo
Massimo, finding a place in his palace at the Villa Peretti.

If Benci, through his cosmographical studies, as well as through his
other studies, brought fame to himself and to his order of Silvestrin
monks, to Amantius Moroncelli, likewise a member of this order and a
contemporary, no less credit should be given for his achievements as a
maker of manuscript globes.[74] It has been noted that but one pair of
Benci’s globes can now be located, but no less than ten constructed by
Moroncelli may today be found in Italian libraries and museums, most of
which possess both scientific and artistic value of a high order.

A pair of his earliest globes is in the possession of the Biblioteca di
S. Marco of Venice (Fig. 105). These were probably constructed as early
as the year 1672 for the monastery of Cassenesi, located on the Island
of S. Georgio Maggiore. The director of the S. Marco Library informs the
author[75] that they have a diameter of more than 2 m., and that through
want of proper care they are in a very bad state of preservation, being
so darkened with age as to render their maps quite illegible. On the
terrestrial globe there is a portrait, opposite which is a
representation of the coat of arms of a bishop. The celestial globe is
somewhat better preserved, having a title, only a part of which can be
deciphered, reading “In hoc coelesti globo adnotantur omnes stellae
fixae ad annum ... ac cometae,” and concluding “Extruxit D. Silvester
Amantius Moroncellus Fabrianensis benedictinus sub congregationem
Silvestri Abbatis. Venetiis in Augustissima bibliotheca S. Georgii
Majoris....” The director of the library reads the date as 1683, others
have thought it to be 1672.

[Illustration: Fig. 105. Terrestrial Globe of Silvester Amantius
Moroncelli, 1672.]

In the Biblioteca Alessandrini of Rome may be found two manuscript
globes of Moroncelli, a terrestrial and a celestial, each having a
diameter of about 88 cm. These spheres are covered with paper gores
fashioned as are printed gore maps, eighteen in number, the polar space
being covered with semicircular sections, two in number for each pole.
On this paper covering the maps were drawn by hand. Each of the globes
is furnished with a brass meridian circle and a horizon circle of wood,
the whole being supported by a plane base. Under the portrait of Pope
Innocent XI is the following inscription: “Regnante Innocentio XI. Hos
cosmographicos globos toto studio construxit, calamoque conscripsit, D.
Silvester Amantius Mon. Benedictinus Cong. Silvestrin. Ann. D.
MDCLXXVII.” “In the Pontificate of Innocent XI these cosmographic
spheres were constructed with all zeal, and completed with the pen, by
D. Silvester Amantius a monk of the Benedictine order and of the
Silvestrin Congregation. In the year 1677.” The legend containing the
usual address to the reader is taken from Greuter’s globe of 1632 or
from Blaeu’s globe of 1622,[76] concluding, however, with the following,
“D. Silvester Amantius Moroncellus Fabrianensis Monachus Silvestrinus
auctor, construxit et notavit. Aetatis suae an. 27. 1679.” “D. Silvester
Amantius Moroncelli of Fabriano, a monk of the Silvestrin order;
constructed and lettered (this globe) in the 27th year of his age.
1679.” On the terrestrial globe meridians and parallels are indicated at
intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the Canary
Islands.

On the celestial globe is the following legend or inscription:
“Laudatissimum Astronomiae studium atquum sit difficilimum, jucunditas
tamen cum difficultate conjungitur, prospere ut homines et coelum potius
quam calcata intueri. Creator noster omnipotens cetera animantia per
terram sternere jussit, at homines non sic, sed totum ad sidera extolli.
Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera terrae Os homini sublime dedit
coelumque videre Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. Et ideo
optimum erat ut aliquod exemplum sub oculis hic opponeretur quod non
immerito in medio sapientiae sistit, ut sciant non aliter quam et per
sapientiam ipsum posse cognosci.

“In isto igitur per ipsum coelestium siderum ordinem cognoscent et
nomina astrorum juxta exactum observationem Hipparchi, Ptolomei,
Alphonsi, et Copernici per Ticonem Brahe ad trutinam examinatiae, et ne
octium me opprimeret, in istud quod cernunt per me accurate delineata.
Ita ut omnes cognoscant in vita quod post mortem omnibus opto valeant.
Romae apud S. Stephanum supra Caccum die VI men. Jan. MDCLXXX. D.
Silvester Amantius Moroncellus Fabrianensis Mon. Congⁱˢ
Silvestrinorum.” “The much lauded study of astronomy, although it is
very difficult, yet pleasure is joined with the difficulty, for it is a
happier lot for men to look at the sky, than to look at the road trodden
by their feet; our Omnipotent Creator ordained that other living beings
should be prone on the earth, that man should not be so, but should be
wholly lifted up to the stars. For while other living beings look
earthward, He has given man an uplifted countenance and bidden him look
heavenward, and raise his uplifted face toward the stars. And therefore
it was good that some example should be placed here under his eyes,
which might assist him to stand in the midst of wisdom, so that men
might understand that God could be known in no otherwise than by wisdom.
On this globe therefore, and by its aid will be known the order and the
names of the celestial stars according to the exact observations of
Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Alfonso, and Copernicus, and arranged for general
use by Tycho Brahe; and that idleness might not oppress me, accurately
depicted by me, according to their discoveries. This I have done in
order that all men may know in their lifetime what I hope they may all
attain to know after their death. At Rome, from S. Stevens on the hill,
January 6th, 1680. D. Silvester Amantius Moroncelli of Fabriano, a monk
of the Silvestrin Congregation.”

The tropics, the polar circles, and the ecliptic are represented, and
the figures of the several constellations are artistically drawn, the
effect being heightened by skilful shading.

The Biblioteca Municipale of Fermo possesses a fine manuscript
terrestrial globe made by Moroncelli and dated 1713. This globe is not a
perfect sphere, having a polar diameter of 180 cm. and an equatorial
diameter of 194 cm. The ball is composed of thin strips of wood
extending from pole to pole, having first, over the same, a covering of
heavy parchment paper, and over this somewhat irregular but well-joined
pieces of fine draughting paper. It is furnished with a meridian circle
of iron, a horizon circle of wood, the whole resting on a wooden base.
The author and date legend, placed in a shield-shaped cartouch, reads,
“Opus meccanicum hoc mirifice compositum ab Ill. m̄o Domino Philippo
Antonio Morrono Archipresbitero Firmⁿᵒ Mirificentius vere geographice
distinctum a Revᵐᵒ P. Abb. D. Silvestro Amantio Moroncello
Fabrianensi. Anno a Redemptore nato MDCCXIII.” “This mechanical work was
marvelously constructed by the Illustrious D. Philip Antony Morono,
Archdeacon of Fermo. Its geographical details were wonderfully inserted
by the Rev. Father Abbot D. Silvester Amantius Moroncelli of Fabriano,
in the year of Redemption, 1713.”

In a cartouch similar to that containing the legend just quoted, though
much larger and resting on a representation of the imperial eagle of
Fermo, having a white cross on its breast and the motto “Firmum firma
fides Romanorum colonia,” there is drawn a picture of the city of Fermo
with a red background. Near the Tropic of Cancer, on the meridian of 250
degrees, there is a shield with the coat of arms of the Morone family,
and below the Tropic of Cancer, on the meridian of 200 degrees, is the
coat of arms of the author, likewise within a shield and artistically
sketched. The picture of a Moor and of a black eagle, around which is a
band of blue with three golden stars, the whole surmounted by a
prelate’s black hat with tassels, the Moor indicating the origin of the
name Moroncelli, and the prelate’s hat honoring the author’s intimate
friend, Gian Francesco Albani, who became Pope Clement XI and who had
nominated him a domestic prelate.

In longitude 113 degrees, in a shield, is the coat of arms of this pope,
at the right of which is the inscription, “Implebitur vaticinium,” at
the left “Replebitur majestate omnis terra,” and below “Irradiatibur
evangelio, studio recentis Clementiae et Successorum.” There are two or
three additional shields, in one of which is an illegible inscription,
and one has been left blank. Although meridians and parallels are
indicated, loxodromic lines are wanting, which so generally appear on
those globes constructed in the Netherlands. The nomenclature is either
Latin, Italian or local. Mythological and allegorical figures are
numerous, as are also representations of sea monsters and sailing ships.

A pair of Moroncelli’s globes, in excellent condition, may be found in
the Accademia Etrusca of Cortona. These are reported to have come to the
Academy in the year 1727 as a gift from the Abbé Onofrio Baldelli. They
have each a diameter of about 80 cm., are mounted on plain bases, and
are furnished with the usual meridian circles within which they may be
revolved. On the terrestrial globe a legend is placed within a
shieldlike cartouch surmounted with a coat of arms of the patrician
family Baldelli of Cortona, and reads, “Virorum probitas, eruditio et
virtus existimationem exigunt. Haec in Illᵐᵒ D. Abb. Onofrio Baldelli
Patritio Cortonensi mirifice effulgent. Ne dum in Humanis Artibus
summopere praedito. Verum etiam in Magnanimitatem laudabili: Dum ad
complementum Bibliotechae, pro Studiorum Concivium utilitate et
eruditione, ab ipso erectae, globos etiam cosmographicos, licet etiam
dispendio trescentorum scutorum libenter auxit. Quamobrem tantis meritis
coactus D. Silʳ Amantius Moroncelli Fabrianens: Abb: Bened. Congr.
Silvestrinorum Auctor ad perpetuam rei memoriam Monumentum hoc posuit
Ann. Sal. MDCCXIV.” “The uprightness of men, their learning and virtue
call for respect; these qualities marvelously shine forth in the
illustrious lord Abbot Onofri Baldelli of patrician rank of Cortona; not
only was he endowed beyond others in the humanities, but also he was
praiseworthy for his magnanimity. To furnish the library erected by him,
for the use and the instruction of his student fellow citizens, he
generously contributed these cosmographic globes, although they cost 300
scudi. Wherefore, being executed by his great abilities, D. Silvester
Amantius Moroncelli of Fabriano, Benedictine Abbot of the Silvestrin
Congregation, has erected this monument for their perpetual remembrance
of his generosity. In the year of our Salvation 1714.”

A second legend in a less decorative cartouch reads, “Orbis Terraquei,
juxta presentem notitiam, cum multa adhuc invenienda remaneant, non
solum in Terra Australi incognita, verum etiam in Septentrionalibus
Americae Superioris ubi molta Jam occulta manent a D. Silvestro Amantio
Moroncelli Fabrianensi Abb: Bened: Congr. Silvest. Cosmographo Reginae
Svecorum, nec non Sapientiae Rom. Anno etatis sue, 64, Red. v͞o.
MDCCXV.” “In our present knowledge of the terraqueous world much yet
remains to be discovered, not only in the unknown lands of the south,
but also in the northern regions of North America where many things are
still undiscovered. D. Silvester Amantius Moroncelli of Fabriano,
Benedictine Abbot of the Silvestrin Congregation, Cosmographer of the
Queen of Sweden and also of the Roman Academy (made this globe) in the
64th year of his age, and in the year of Redemption, 1715.”

The parallels and meridians are drawn at intervals of five degrees, and
one compass is placed in the southern hemisphere. Both Latin and
Italian have been employed for the geographical names.

The celestial globe contains the figures of the several constellations
exquisitely drawn, the name of each being given in Latin, in Arabic, and
in Greek. One finds on this globe but the one short legend reading
“Stella praeclara et peregrina Anno D. 1572 et per annum et quatuor
menses, scilicet a principio Novvemb. usque ad ultimum Martii 1573.” “A
very bright and wandering star (appearing) in the year 1572 and for one
year and four months, visible from the first of November to the last of
March 1573.”

Another fine pair of Moroncelli’s manuscript globes, constructed in the
year 1716, is to be found in the Biblioteca Casanatense of Rome. They
have each a diameter of about 160 cm. and are mounted on plain octagonal
bases. The terrestrial has a graduated meridian of brass, a horizon
circle of wood, likewise graduated and having indicated on its surface
the several signs of the zodiac, the names of the months, and of the
principal winds. On the surface of the globe, the parallels and the
meridians are drawn at intervals of five degrees, the prime meridian
passing through the most western island of the Canaries. The address to
the reader, like that on the globe in the Alessandrian Library, is
practically a copy of the one to be found on the Greuter globe of the
year 1632. A lengthy legend relating to the prime meridian reads: “Ut
recta methodo ad cognitionem Geographie deveniamus, Principium desumere
a pᵒ Meridiano, a quo longitudo habetur, debemus. Unde sic. Quamvis
igitur Longitudinis initium arbitrarium sit, ab occasu tamen ejus
auspicium facere ideo Veteribus placuit quod illic aliquis Terre limes
esset inventus qui Ortum versus nullus expeditionibus deprehendi
potuisset atque eam ob causam Ptolemeus cujus sedulitati ac industriae
Geographie incolumitatem omnes vel inviti debent ab ultimo termino
Occidentis cognito que Insule in Atlantico mari Fortunate olim dicte
nunc Canariae vocantur auspicium fecit. In iisque Primum meridianum
defixit quod theticum principium deinceps fere omnes ejus auctoritate
moti retinuerunt. Nunnulli quidem Seculo transacto principium tenendum
censuere ubi Acus Magneti junctae recta in boream spectat: Sed multum
inter se dissentientes allucinantur. Nos autem Ptolomei vestigiis
insistentes easdem Insulas delegimus et Lineam meridionalem in Insula De
Ferro dicta que de Fortunatis ut olim et de Canariis nunc, una de
Principalibus est fiximus.” “That we may come to the right method for
acquiring a knowledge of geography we must make a beginning from the
first meridian from which longitude is reckoned. Although the beginning
of longitude is arbitrary it pleased the ancients to make this beginning
from the west because there was found a limit of the earth which could
not be found by voyages toward the east. For this reason Ptolemy, to
whose application and industry all men owe the preservation of geography
though grudgingly, made the beginning from the farthest known bounds of
the west, which are the Fortunate Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, but now
called the Canary Islands. In these he fixed the first meridian, and
this hypothetical beginning almost all who have followed him have been
led by his authority to retain. Not a few in the century just passed
have thought that the beginning should be made where the magnetic needle
points directly to the north. But these, as they disagree among
themselves are mistaken. We follow in the footsteps of Ptolemy and have
chosen the same island, and placed the meridian line in the Island of
Ferro, one of the principal islands of the Fortunate group now called
the Canaries.”

In addition to the one just quoted there are a few other legends
relating to geographical discoveries which contain allusions, very
similar to the many which may be found on certain other globes of the
period, adding little or nothing that is new.

The celestial globe, mounted practically the same as the terrestrial,
contains the following legend: “Ecce damus methodo Ptolemaica seu
Orteliana coelestium siderum quotquot hodie extare comperimus schemata,
situs et ut decet reperiuntur perfecta. Sunt enim ex descriptionibus
Hipparchi, Ptolomei, Alphonsi, Copernici, per Tyconem Brahe ad trutinam
examinata, nec non Joannis Bayeri, qui Uranometriam per imagines in
tabulis aeneis expressit. Et nunc per me D. Silvestrum Amantium
Moroncelli Fabrianen̄ Abbatem Bened. Congreg. Silv. calamo descripta
coloribusque effigiata adattataque ad Ann. 1716.” “Observe that we give
after the method of Ptolemy or Ortelius the settings of the stars of
heaven, as far as they have, to the present, been discovered, and as far
as their positions have been made known. We have employed the
descriptions of Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Alfonso, and Copernicus, as tested
and confirmed by Tycho Brahe, and also by the observations of Johannes
Bayer, who expressed the star system (of Tycho Brahe) objectively in
brass tables, now by myself D. Silvester Amantius Moroncelli of
Fabriano, Benedictine Abbot of the Silvestrin Congregation. All these
have been expressed in letters and represented in colors, and
accommodated to the year 1716.”

There is given a second legend of some importance reading, “Tabula
continens quantum quovis proposito anno vel addendum vel demendum sit
longitudini affixarum. Stellae enim spatio septuaginta Annorum et
quinque mensium unicum gradum secondum Asterismorum ordinem super Polum
Zodiaci progrediuntur ab Occasu ad Orientem. Ex hujusmodi Regula
invenitur Sidera migrasse a Mundi creatione usque ad hunc annum 6915,
Gr. 98, M. 47, S. 20. Et ab adventu D. N. J. C. usque ad hunc annum
1716, Gr. 24, M. 30, S. 25.” “Table noting how much must be added to or
subtracted from the longitude of the fixed stars in any given year. The
stars move from west to east one degree in the space of seventy years
and five months according to the order of the constellations of the
zodiac. From this rule it is found that the stars have moved from the
creation of the world a period of 6915 years to the present 98 degrees,
47 minutes and 20 seconds, and from the advent of Our Lord Jesus Christ
to this year 1716, 24 degrees, 30 minutes, and 25 seconds.”

In addition to the above-mentioned examples of Moroncelli’s work, there
may be cited a number of allusions to others which cannot now be
located. Fiorini notes first a fine cosmographic sphere designed to
represent both the terrestrial and the celestial, having a circumference
of 2.62 palms, and probably constructed for the patrician family
Trevisiani.[77] It appears that it later passed into the hands of Prince
Lucio Odescalchi of Milan, and in the year 1849 was taken to Rome, after
which it appears that all trace of it was lost. It is said to have been
a very artistic piece, brilliantly colored with numerous pictures
executed in miniature, and to have been dated 1690. The anonymous
biographer of Moroncelli, whose account exists only in manuscript and is
frequently cited by Fiorini, notes that Moroncelli constructed a
manuscript globe for Queen Christina of Sweden.[78] This has been
thought by Porti to be the globe just referred to, but the identity is
doubtful. Again Fiorini makes allusion to the probable existence at one
time of a pair of Moroncelli’s globes in the Monasterio Biblioteca of S.
Benedetto of Fabriano, and of still another pair in the Collegio De
Vecchi of the same city, but of these nothing at present is known.[79]
The anonymous biography likewise alludes to one of his celestial globes
which he constructed and dedicated to Cardinal Alessandro Albani of
Urbino. In this the author undertook, like certain others of his day, to
substitute for the Greek mythological characters or figures representing
the several constellations, pictures of biblical objects and characters,
or of individuals selected from Christian martyrology.[80] While this
particular globe cannot now be located, there is a small one of similar
character which belongs to the Accademia Etrusca of Cortona, having a
diameter of about 27 cm., its map being partly in manuscript and partly
printed. There is the following author and date legend: “Sacrometria
omnium asterismorum coelestium figuris Aecclesiasticis reformatorum a
Rev. Abb. D. Sil. Amantio Moroncelli Fabrianen. Silvestrino Ann. 1710.”
“Sacred measurements of all the heavenly stars expressed in
ecclesiastical notation by the Rev. D. Silvester Amantius Moroncelli of
Fabriano, a Silvestrian, in the year 1710.” A brief descriptive legend
reads, “In hac coelesti sphaera Stellae affixae majori quam hactenus
numero et accuratiori industria delineantur novis asterismis in
Philomateorū gratiam de integro additis: quae omnia secondum
Astronomorum Principis Thyconis Brahe et aliorum observationem verae
suae Longitudini ac Latitudini ad annum Christi 1636 restituta sunt.”
“In this celestial sphere the fixed stars are depicted in greater number
than previously and with more accurate care, the new stars being added
for the use of the student; all of which, according to the observations
of that Prince of astronomers Tycho Brahe, and of others, are given with
their true latitude and longitude, and accommodated to the year of
Christ 1636.” This library of Cortona possesses a manuscript of
Moroncelli titled “Sacrometria omnium asterismorum continens schemata
figuris ecclesiasticis expressa Silvestri Amantii Moroncelli
Fabrianensis ecc. anno 1707.” “Sacred measurement of all the stars being
a scheme expressing in ecclesiastical notation by Silvester Amantius
Moroncelli of Fabriano in the year 1707.” The constellations he divides
into three groups: the boreal from 1-19, the zodiacal from 20-31, the
southern from 32-58, giving to each a new name. Hercules, for example,
he changed to Samson; Lyra to David; Cassiopeia to Eve; Virgo to Virgo
Maria Assumpta in Coelum. One can scarcely affirm that Moroncelli
exerted a wide-reaching influence, nevertheless he has, for his day, a
place of considerable prominence among globe makers.

Mr. William R. Hearst of New York possesses an exceedingly fine
manuscript celestial globe which circumstances have not left it possible
to identify. He has courteously furnished the photograph from which it
is here shown in illustration (Fig. 106). Once belonging to Mr. Stanford
White, it probably was purchased in Italy, passing in the year 1907 into
the hands of Mr. Hearst. In the sales catalogue of The American Art
Society it is referred to as a globe of the sixteenth century. There,
however, is reason for assigning it to the latter part of the
seventeenth century, as there is reason for attributing it to the Abbot
Silvester Amantius Moroncelli. If the authorship is correctly attributed
it may be counted one of great value. The figures of the several
constellations are well colored. The mounting is of wrought iron, with
gilt ornaments. The globe itself has a diameter of about 90 cm., while
its entire height, including the tripod base, is about 200 cm.

[Illustration: Fig. 106. Manuscript Celestial Globe (Moroncelli?), Late
Seventeenth Century.]

Roger Palmer (Fig. 107), Count of Castlemaine (1634-1705),[81]
published, in the year 1679, a work bearing the title ‘The English globe
being a stabil and immobil one, performing what the ordinary globes do,
and much more.’ In this he described a globe of his own invention,
having a diameter of about one foot. It does not appear that the Earl
especially distinguished himself in matters either geographical or
astronomical. As a diversion from his other interests which claimed his
attention, he appears to have turned to the construction of a globe for
which he claimed an especial superiority over all others, primarily on
account of its simplicity. He set forth in his descriptive text more
than twenty of its superior features, and it is interesting to note that
Moxon thought well enough of the work to reissue it in the year
1696.[82] (Fig. 108.)

[Illustration:  Fig 107. ROGER PALMER _EARL of CASTLEMAIN._ _from an
  Original by Sir G Kneller at Strawberry Hill._]

[Illustration: Fig. 108. Globe of Earl of Castlemaine, 1679.]

Coronelli gives us the following information concerning a rather
remarkable globe which he had occasion to examine in the city of
Augsburg, of which he made a drawing for the Venetian Academy (Fig.
109), as he tells us, afterward reproducing the same in his ‘Epitome
Cosmografica.’[83] This globe he says was the invention of Christopher
Treffler of Augsburg and was constructed by Christopher Rad, jeweler
to His Majesty the Emperor, in the year 1683. He calls it an
“Automaton Sphaeridicum,” that is, a celestial globe provided with an
automatic movement, so contrived as to exhibit accurately the course of
the stars, and to indicate the years, months, days, hours, and minutes,
together with the eclipses for seventeen years in advance. At the top of
the instrument was placed a little sphere by means of which one could
represent certain celestial phenomena, past and future. This mechanism,
says Coronelli, is ornamented with great ingenuity, good taste, and all
regardless of expense. In its construction eighteen hundred ounces of
gold and silver had been used. Its height was seven feet, and at the
bottom it measured four feet, the entire work rising in the manner of a
pyramid above its support of four artistically designed figures. This
globe, says Coronelli, which we have seen and handled, and of which we
have an exceedingly high opinion, was for sale at eight thousand thaler,
and had been fully described in a duodecimo volume printed by the House
of Koppmeyer, in the year 1683.[84] It is not known what became of this
globe which Coronelli found to be so worthy of his commendation.

[Illustration: Fig. 109. Globe of Christopher Treffler, 1683.]

The Atheneo of Brescia possesses an armillary sphere, having on one of
its armillae an inscription which tells us that it was constructed by
Gian Battista Alberti in the year 1688, for Count Martinengo.[85] The
graduated horizon circle, on which appear the names of the sixteen
principal winds or directions, rests upon two semicircles, which in turn
rest on a support of brass ornamented by six allegorical figures. In
this supporting base there has been placed a compass. Its graduated hour
circle is furnished with a movable index, such as had become common in
globe construction. Five prominent circles represent the equator, the
tropics, and the polar circles, to which is added a zodiacal band which
is graduated and bears the names and the symbolical figures of the
twelve constellations, and the names of the months. Two rings for the
purpose of indicating celestial latitude and longitude are placed within
the above-named circles and carry representations of the sun and the
moon.

A contemporary of Alberti, Giovanni Maccari of Mirandola, likewise a
maker of armillary spheres, is known to us through one only, but a fine
example of his work.[86] This sphere belongs to the Liceo Spallanzi of
Regio Emilia. The meridian circle, having a diameter of about 16 cm., is
graduated both for latitude and co-latitude by fives. Adjusted to this
meridian is a circle representing the colures, likewise graduated both
for latitude and co-latitude, but by tens, and adjusted to these are the
polar circles, the tropics, and the equator. On the zodiacal circle are
engraved the names of the twelve constellations, the names of the days,
and on the inner surface the inscription “Joannes Maccarius Mirandulanus
Feccit 1689.” The supporting base is triangular in shape, having a
compass placed in the center. Within the three angles of this base
shields have been placed, the one bearing the inscription “Anno Domini
1689,” the second the name “Jo Vulpis Mirandulanus Domᵘˢ,” by whom the
work was probably ordered; the third has a representation of a fox, the
emblem of the Volpi family. In addition to the above the base is
ornamented with a bronze scroll, to the points of which are attached
semicircles which support the horizon circle. This circle has a diameter
of about 15 cm., on which are engraved the usual zodiacal names and
signs, the names of the months, and of the principal winds or
directions. An hour circle is placed at the south pole with a movable
index, and within, at the common center of the circles, a small sphere
to represent the terrestrial globe, through which the polar axis is made
to pass.

In the Biblioteca Estense of Modena there may be found three armillary
spheres apparently of about the same date as the two just described.[87]
One of the three bears the inscription “Jos Antᵘˢ Vulpes Mirandula
Domin. anno Domini 1689.” The other two, somewhat larger in size than
the preceding, give us no particular indication of the maker, and no
exact date of construction. They may be the work of Alberti or of
Maccari.

In Italy’s long line of illustrious geographers, cartographers, and
globe makers none has rank in advance of P. Vincenzo Maria Coronelli
(1650-1718).[88] His achievements within his field were prodigious.[89]
While, as noted above, there is wanting the evidence that his influence
was extended in striking manner into transalpine countries, he seems at
least to have won the enthusiastic recognition of contemporary men of
science, as one worthy of honor for his great achievements.

He was a native of Ravenna (Fig. 110), a member of the Franciscan Order
of monks, serving in the last years of his life as its general. It was
in his young manhood that he went to Venice, which city became the scene
of the greater part of his literary and scientific activities.

[Illustration: Fig. 110. Portrait of P. Vincenzo Coronelli.]

More than four hundred maps were drawn, engraved, and printed by him in
the Franciscan Convent located on one of the Venetian islands, and known
as the Gran Casa del Frari, where he lived with other brothers of the
Order. It was in this convent that Coronelli founded, in the year 1680,
the first geographical society, to which he gave the name Accademia
Cosmografo degli Argonauti,[90] which in its organization followed
somewhat that of certain other learned societies owing their origin to
the literary and scientific activities of the renaissance period. Its
membership, in the course of years, included men of distinction in other
cities of Italy and in the North; men famous for their achievements and
for their interest in geographical science, literary men, men who held
high rank in Europe’s aristocracy, cardinals, prelates, princes, and
monarchs.[91] The society became one of the most active of the period,
and the list of publications which issued from its press, each bearing
the argonautic emblem or device--a ship on a terrestrial globe with the
motto “Plus Ultra” (Fig. 111)--is a long one.[92]

[Illustration: Fig. 111. Emblem of the Venetian Accademia Cosmografica
degli Argonauti.]

So great had become the fame of Coronelli as early as the year 1685,
that he was honored with the title Cosmografo della Serenissima
Republica, and was granted an annual allowance of four hundred florins,
and a copyright privilege protecting him in his right to print and
publish any of his works for a period of twenty-five years.[93]

We have no definite information as to the circumstances attending
Coronelli’s first interest in globe construction. It appears that his
first work in this line, a pair of large manuscript globes, opened
immediately to him a path to fame, for these had come to adorn the
library of the Duke of Parma to whom the French Cardinal, d’Estrées, in
the year 1680 had occasion to pay a visit and they immediately won the
cardinal’s interest. A pair of such globes, thought he, for so runs the
story, would be a source of great delight to His Majesty the French
King, Louis XIV. Learning that the construction of still larger globes
was altogether possible, but that their removal from Italy to France
would be attended with great difficulty, he persuaded Coronelli to
accept an invitation to take up a residence in Paris, there to direct
the construction of a terrestrial and a celestial globe, sparing neither
labor nor expense that they might be worthy of presentation to the Grand
Monarch. If Olearius could construct a globe ten feet and more in
diameter for Duke Frederick of Holstein, and Weigel one of similar
dimensions for the demonstration of his theories, why, thought
Coronelli, should I not undertake the preparation of those at least
fifteen feet in diameter, which in all the details of globe construction
should be made to surpass any that had hitherto been conceived? The
author himself has given us the first though brief description of his
completed work,[94] and the royal astronomer, La Hire, supplemented this
description in his little volume published in the year 1704, when the
globes had been placed in the Château Marly.[95] In the author’s own
account he alludes to the globes as having been constructed at Paris
under his direction, and by order of the Most Eminent Cardinal
d’Estrées, for the service of His Most Christian Majesty. Great care was
especially exercised in the construction of the machinery designed for
the rotation of the spheres, the author being especially proud of the
fact that, so delicate was this mechanism, each could be set in motion
by a single finger. He further gives us to understand that each sphere
was so well fashioned “one could design upon its surface all the degrees
in the manner in which a turner designs any circle on a ball without
having it removed from the turner’s lathe,” and that the material of
which they were constructed was so solid and so well joined that each
was able to sustain the weight of thirty men. Each was furnished with a
door through which a considerable number of persons might enter at one
time, their presence within affecting in no wise the solidity of
construction. Each was covered with fine canvas so carefully laid on
that none of the joints could be seen, giving a surface smooth as ivory.
The meridian and horizon circles were of bronze, the whole being
supported by columns which were richly ornamented. In the base, between
the four columns supporting the meridian circles, large compasses were
placed, being so designed as properly to indicate the needle’s
declination.

On the celestial globe the greater and the lesser circles were
represented in gilt bronze, and were so graduated for both latitude and
longitude, ascension and declination, that it was made easy for an
astronomer to pass from one co-ordinate to the other without the aid of
trigonometry. On a fine background of ultramarine the several
constellations with their respective figures were represented, each of
the planets and fixed stars being gilded in order to give it due
prominence. The author so designed his star map as to represent the
appearance of the heavens at the time of the birth of the Grand
Monarch,[96] as is told in the following dedication engraved on a brass
tablet and attached to the surface of the sphere: “A l’Auguste Majesté
de Louis le Grand l’Invincible, l’Heureux, le Sage, le Conquerant. Cesar
Cardinal d’Estrées a consacré ce globe celeste, ou toutes les etoilles
du firmament, et les planetes sont placées au lieu mesme, ou elles
estoient a la naissance de ce Glorieux Monarque, afin de conserver a
l’eternite une image fixe de cette heureuse disposition, sous laquelle
la France a receu le plus grand present, que le ciel ait iamais fait a
la terre. M.DC.LXXXIII.” “To His August Majesty Louis the Great, the
Invincible, the Happy, the Wise, the Conquering. Cesar Cardinal
d’Estrées has dedicated this celestial globe, on which all the stars of
heaven and the planets are placed in the same position in which they
were at the birth of the Glorious Monarch, in order to preserve
throughout eternity a fixed image of that happy disposition under which
France has received the most noble present which Heaven has ever made to
earth.”

On the terrestrial globe, which in its general features resembled the
celestial, the seas were painted blue and the land white, that the
several names and legends might appear the more distinct. A portrait of
the King was placed above a cartouch containing the dedication,
resembling that on the celestial globe, reading “A l’Auguste Majeste de
Louis le Grand l’Invincible, l’Heureux, le Sage, le Conquerant. Cesar
Cardinal d’Estrées a consacré ce globe terrestre, pour rendre un
continuel hommage a sa Glore, et a ses Heroiques Vertus, en mostrant les
pays ou mille grandes Actions ont esté executées et par Luy Mesme, et
par ses Ordres, a l’estonnement de tant de nations, qu’il avroit pu
soumetre a son empire, si sa Moderation n’eust arrestè le Cours de Ses
Conquestes, et prescrit des bornes a Sa Valeur, plus grande encore que
sa Fortune. M.DC.LXXXIII.” “To His August Majesty Louis the Great, the
Invincible, the Happy, the Wise, the conquering. Cesar Cardinal
d’Estrées has dedicated this terrestrial globe, in order to render
perpetual homage to His Glory and to His Heroic Virtue in representing
the countries wherein a thousand great acts have been performed both by
Himself and by his Order, to the astonishment of all nations, which He
would have been able to bring under his subjection if his moderation had
not restrained the course of his Conquests and prescribed bounds to his
Courage yet greater than his Fortune. M.DC.LXXXIII.”

Below this dedication, likewise below the corresponding dedication on
the celestial globe, we read “Cet ouvrage a eté inventé et achevé par le
Père Coronelli Venitien des. Min. Conv.” “This work was conceived and
accomplished by P. Coronelli, a Venetian of the Minorite Order.”

In his brief description, the author says that he has shown on his
terrestrial globe all ancient and modern discoveries, basing the same on
the maps, the observations, and the reports of the most renowned
geographers, to which he has added the results of his own studies not
recorded on other globes nor in other maps. Special mention is made of
information given concerning the interior regions of Africa, noting that
“besides outlining the Monomotapa and Abyssinia countries, we have been
the first to describe correctly the source as well as the course of the
Nile River correcting, by many degrees the errors of the ancients.”
Andrea Baba, public censor and secretary of the Argonauts, notes, in his
letter to the reader appearing in the first volume of the ‘Atlante
Veneto,’ that the author of the two globes, constructed for the King of
France, had obtained numerous authentic reports of geographers and
explorers, which he had included in his work. Ludolf, writing in the
year 1691 concerning Ethiopia, records “Ethiopia: Nostram tabulam
chorographicam comunicavimus cum P. Vincentio Coronellio, nunc
cosmographo Veneto, qui eam adhibuit in globis quos Cardinalis Estresius
pro rege Galliae construi fecit, maximos, qui unquam visi fuerint. Ibi
in Globo terrestri Habessina et Nilus secundum nostram delineationem
visitur. Satis mature eam communicaverim Adamo Oleario, cum insignem
globum, qui Gottorfii cernitur, construeret, sed ille mihi, ut tum
temporis juveni, fidem non habuit.” “Ethiopia: we made known our
chorographic record to P. Vincentio Coronelli now cosmographer of
Venice, who included it on his globe which Cardinal d’Estrées had made
for the King of France, the largest globe ever seen. There, on the
terrestrial globe, Abyssinia and the Nile are seen following our
representation. Quite a long time ago we made this known to Adam
Olearius, when he was making the renowned globe which may be seen at
Gottorp, but he, as I was then a young man, did not have confidence in
me.”[97]

Marcel, in writing of the Portuguese in Africa, observed: “Si nous
examinons les cartes de Mercator, de Bertius, de Hondius, de Meursius,
de Sanson, de Duval, nous y trouvons un cours du Cuama ou Zanbèsi
absolument fantaisiste. Il faut arriver au fameux globe de Coronelli
pour y trouver en 1683 le cours de Zambèse tracé comme sur la carte que
nous reproduisons. Il est évident que ce géographe vénitien a pu
consulter des documents portugais aujourd’hui perdus, cartes ou
relations de voyages, qui viendraient jeter un jour infiniment précieux
sur les explorations des Portugais et les relations qu’ils entretenaient
avec les populations belliqueuses du bassin du Chiré.” “If we examine
the maps of Mercator, of Bertius, Hondius, Meureius, Sanson, Duval, we
will find the course of the Cuama or Zambesi absolutely fantastic. One
must examine the famous globe of Coronelli to find in 1683 the course of
the Zambesi represented as on the map which we reproduce. It is evident
that the Venetian geographer had been able to consult Portuguese
documents which today are lost, maps or accounts of Voyages which would
throw light of great value on the explorations of the Portuguese and the
relations they had with the warlike people of the basin of the
Chiré.”[98]

Coronelli adorned his globe map with very artistic representations of
merchant ships sailing over the ocean highways, and with elaborate
pictures of many naval battles.

It was in the year 1704 that these globes were placed in the royal
Château Marly,[99] where they remained until the year 1722, when they
were placed in the old Palace of the Louvre. A final resting place was
found for them in the Royal Library, now known as the Bibliothèque
Nationale, in a room especially constructed to receive them. Recent
information from the library notes that, on account of certain
reconstructive work, they have been placed in an inaccessible part of
the building, and cannot be photographed.

The success of this first endeavor to construct globes of large size led
other Princes to entertain the thought of adorning their palaces with
similar productions. It is not known, however, that the great Venetian
actually set himself to the task of duplicating his French masterpieces;
we have rather the assurance, as is noted below, that he thought better
of a plan for issuing globes of smaller size, whose map records should
contain practically all he had been able to include in his large work.
The Royal Estense Library of Modena possesses a manuscript, cited by
Fiorini, which assures us that Coronelli had been approached with a
proposition to construct for Francis II of Modena a pair of globes equal
in size to those he had prepared for the French King. This document
reads: “Rispondendo il P.r̄e Cosmografo Coronelli alii di lei questiti
per la fabbrica delli globi, gli dice, che il farà tanto grandi, quanta
sarà la capacità della stanza, e bisognando fabbricare anco una stanza
dentro del Globo, resta solo che il Principe che la desidera, habbia
curiosità e volontà do spendere; limitandosi però il P. Cosmografo alia
grandezza di Globi di diametro di quindici piedi, dice, che per il solo
pagamento di materiali, e degli Artifici, si ricercano ducento doppie;
che per delineare la Geografia, scriveri, collocarvi le stelle, ed
assegnare il luogo alle figure vi vorrà di spesa quattrocento doppie.
Per accomodare il luogo che sia capace per la fabrica delli Globi di
questa grandezza, vi vogliono cinquanta doppie. Per gli ornamenti della
Pittura, Miniatura, Scultura, et altri, si potrà fare quella spesa che
parerà più propria al Principe, che desidera; mentre in questi si può o
meno. E perchè il Principe conosca il genio dell’ autore in questa
materia, osserverà nella picciolezza delle due mostre, ch’esibisce,
confrontandole colle migliori carte, di qual perfetione e pulizia
sarebbe questa di quindici piedi. Il P. Coronelli per ricompensa
desidera una pensione annua sua vita durante di quella soma che parerà
propria alia generosità del Principe. S’aggiunge, un quinternetto della
supputazione delle stelle d’Orione, perchè il Principe osservi
l’accrescimento delle stelle di questa costellazione, come sono
accresciute di gran numero tutte le altro del Globo del Cielo del P.
Coronelli.” “Father Coronelli, in reply to your questions regarding the
construction of the globes which you say you wish to have made as large
as the capacity of the room will allow, and with space in the globe
itself, says that all that is necessary is to know how much his
Excellency the Prince should wish to expend. However Father Coronelli
limits himself to the construction of globes of fifteen feet in
diameter, for which the cost of the material alone and of the
workmanship is two hundred doubloons. For outlining the geographical
map, for the proper placing of the stars, and the representation of the
figures, the cost will be four hundred doubloons. To arrange a place for
globes of this size another fifty doubloons will be necessary. For the
decorations, the miniatures and engravings His Excellency can spend as
much as he desires. In order that His Excellency the Prince may
appreciate the great genius of the author in this matter, he will please
take note of the two small globes which he exhibits, (and think) how
perfect and attractive those fifteen feet in diameter will be in
comparison with the best of maps. Father Coronelli desires, as
compensation, an annual pension for life, such sum as His Excellency the
Prince considers sufficiently generous. We enclose an account showing
the representation of the stars of Orion, in order that the Prince may
note the increase in the number of the stars in this constellation, and
also note how all of the other constellations as represented on the
globe of Father Coronelli show an increase in the number of stars.”[100]
There is no evidence known that this work was actually undertaken by our
Venetian globe maker, the presumption being that the matter did not
receive further consideration.

As an expression of appreciation for the honors shown to him by the
Academy of the Argonauts, Coronelli decided to issue his Paris globes
reduced in size, choosing a diameter of three and one half feet or
about 107 cm. instead of fifteen feet. His globes, therefore, of the
year 1688 were the largest to date in which engraved gore maps had been
employed in construction. In one of his legends he thus alludes to the
Academy. “Il genio della virtù raccomanda all’eternità il nome di Cesare
Cardinale eminentissimo d’Estrées, Duca e Pari Francia, mentre fece
elaborare per Ludovico il Magno dal P. Coronelli due gran Globi l’idea
dei quali ha poi epilogata in questi per l’Accademia cosmografica degli
Argonauti. L’anno MDCLXXXVIII.” “The genius of virtue commends to
posterity the name of Cesar, most eminent Cardinal d’Estrées, Duke and
Peer of France, since he had constructed for Louis the Great by P.
Coronelli two large globes, the idea of which he then summarized
herewith for the Cosmographical Academy of the Argonauts. In the year
1688.” The dedication, the same as that on the celestial globe, reads as
follows: “Alla Serenissima Republica e Serinissimo Principe Francesco
Morosini Doge di Venezia Capitan Gen: de Mare. Vincenzo Coronelli M. C.
Suddito Cosmografo e Lettore publico.” “To the Most Serene Republic and
the Most Serene Prince Francesco Morosini, Doge of Venice, Captain
General of the Sea, by Vincenzo Coronelli M. C., the above mentioned
cosmographer and public reader.” Placed below this legend in a cartouch
containing the portrait of the author is the inscription “P. V.
Coronelli M. C. Cosmografo Publico.” There is an inscription on the
celestial globe which reads, “Si presentano a V. Serenità li Globi del
Mondo, Teatro delle cospicue attioni de’ Principi, perchè mentre corre
il terzo decimo secolo (ch’è quasi la quarta parte della vita d’esso)
ne’ quali la Serenissima Republica agisse ugualmente e collo splendore
delle lettre e col luminoso dell’armi, Vede l’Universale delle genti col
mezzo di Stampa così reguardevole sin dove si vada sempre più estendendo
la gloria del Veneto Nome. Quella che se ne assume l’Accademia
Cosmografica degli Argonauti nella presente dedicazione e chi vive di V.
V. Coronelli Cosmografo della medesima.” “There are hereby presented to
Your Serene Highness these globes of the world, the scene of the
remarkable deeds of Princes, in order that while the thirteenth century
is passing (which makes nearly a fourth part of the life of the world)
wherein the Most Serene Republic has proceeded equally with the splendor
of letters and the brilliancy of arms may be seen by the universality of
the races; by means of this so important publication however there is
more widely spread the glory of the Venetian name; of which glory a
portion is assumed by the Cosmographical Academy of the Argonauts, in
the present dedication, and by him who lives by our permission,
Coronelli, Cosmographer of the same.”

The author selected the year 1700 as that in which to indicate the
position of the stars which he represented on his globe, referring to
this fact in his legend. “L’epoca di questo globo è perfissa nell’anno
futuro 1700 acciocchè l’arte in quest’ opera precorra quel tempo che per
natura dovrà consumarla. Prevenendo questo globo tardo il Corso veloce
del Cielo, comparisce presente il secolo venturo acciò possi ognuno con
ordine più facile ridurre agli anni scorsi le stelle fisse colla
sottrazione di 51 secondi come piace a Ticone, o 50 seguendo il parere
del Ricciolo. Volendo specolare il sistema degli anni anco posteriore
all’epoca stabilita, aggiungasi proporzionalmente al 1700 che seguirà la
riduttione senza errore sensibile per tutto lo spazio di 400 anni.” “The
epoch of this globe is fixed for the year 1700, in order that the labor
in its construction may have the time which naturally will be required
for its completion. As this belated globe anticipates the rapid movement
of the sky, the coming century appears as though present, anyone may be
able in easier fashion to change to past years the fixed stars, by the
subtraction of fifty-one seconds as Tycho reckons, or fifty according to
the opinion of Ricciola. If one desires to speculate also upon the
system of the years posterior to the established epoch, let him add
proportionally to 1700, and the change will follow without sensible
error for the entire period of 400 years.”

To the constellations he makes the following reference: “Furono
osservate molte stelle in vicinanza del Polo antartico incognite non
solo agli Egizij e Greci, ma ancora a Ticone Brahe. Osservò parimente
Federico Houtmano, nell’Isola Sumatra, molte stelle vicine al Polo
medesimo, le quali essendo state incognite agli accinnati autori, le
ridussero in 13 costellazioni cioè Fenice Colomb Mosca, Pesce volante,
Camaleonte, Triangolo Australe, Uccello Indiano, Pavone, l’Uomo Indiano,
la Gru, il Toucan, l’Hindro e il dorado; altri dopo v’hanno aggiunto la
Nube Grande, la Picciola e la Romboide. Noi abbiamo arricchito questo
Globo d’un maggior numero di stelle, scoperte dall’ Hallei Inglese, che
si trasportò a tal effetto nell’Isola S. Elena, coll’aggiunta d’altre
osservatione, così do questo come d’altri scritton.” “There have been
observed many stars in the vicinity of the Antarctic pole, unknown not
only to the Egyptians and Greeks, but also to Tycho Brahe. There have
been observed likewise by Frederick Houtmann, on the Island of Sumatra,
many stars near the same pole which having been unknown to the
above-mentioned authors, they reduced to 13 constellations, namely the
Phoenix, the Dove, the Fly, the Flying Fish, the Chameleon, the Southern
Triangle, the Indian Bird, the Peacock, the Indian Man, the Crane, the
Toucan, the Water-Snake, and the Goldfish; others since then have been
added to these, the Greater Cloud and the Lesser, and the Rhomboid. We
have enriched this globe with a considerable number of stars discovered
by the Englishman Halley, who was sent to the Island of St. Helena for
this purpose, with the addition of other observations as they have
written.”

Thirty-eight constellations are designated in the northern hemisphere,
twelve in the zodiac, and thirty-three in the southern hemisphere, thus
adding thirty-five to the number as given by Ptolemy. Instead of
Ptolemy’s 1022 catalogued stars, including fifteen of the first
magnitude, forty-five of the second, two hundred and eight of the third,
four hundred and seventy-four of the fourth, two hundred and seventeen
of the fifth, forty-nine of the sixth, and forty which were nebular and
indistinct, Coronelli gives the number as 1902, including eighteen of
the first, sixty-eight of the second, two hundred and thirty-seven of
the third, four hundred and ninety-six of the fourth, four hundred and
eighty-nine of the fifth, five hundred and sixteen of the sixth, and
seventy-eight which were nebular and indistinct. Five of the latter,
having been discovered in the previous one hundred and twenty-five
years, had wholly or in part disappeared in Coronelli’s day, of which,
that making its appearance in the constellation Cassiopeia in the year
1572 disappeared in the year 1574, that discovered in the year 1596 in
the Whale was rapidly diminishing in size, that discovered by Tycho
Brahe in the Swan in the year 1600 ceased to be visible in the year 1629
to reappear in the year 1659, that in the Serpent larger than the planet
Jupiter which was visible but thirteen months, that in the head of the
Swan discovered in the year 1670 and still visible.

Coronelli seems to have made every endeavor to produce maps for his
terrestrial globes which should omit nothing of real interest and value
to geographers, navigators, and explorers. He added a rather unusual
number of legends, explanatory and informative in character, but never
seemed to crowd the space which he had at his disposal. So exquisitely
engraved were his maps that he was able to avoid the appearance of
confusion noticeable on certain other globes of his century, as, for
example, in the Old World parts of Blaeu’s globe of 1622. It is very
evident that many pages would be required for anything like a detailed
description of his records, and the great majority must necessarily be
omitted. To those quoted above a few, however, may be added.

Blaeu’s reference to the prime meridian was cited in full as was that of
Moroncelli; Coronelli’s reference is here likewise cited, which, it
will be noted, is not without errors. It is one having to do with
problems concerning the determination of longitude, hence involving
interests of vital concern to navigation. “Del primo meridiano. Sono in
questo 72 meridiani, 36 con linee continuate, le altre sono di punti, da
ciascuno dei quali è diviso in G. 5 di longitudine che è il corso del
Sole in un terzo d’oro. Li Geografi antichi e moderni non convengono nel
luogo dove passa il primo meridiano; tra li primi Eratostene l’ha posto
alle Colonne d’Hercole, Marino di Tyr all’Isole Fortunate, Tolomeo nella
sua Geografia ha seguito la stessa opinione; ma ne’ suoi libri di
Astronomia l’ ha passato per Alessandria d’Egitto. Tra li moderni
Ismaele Abulfeda lo segna a Cadiz, Alfonzo a Toledo, Pigafetta et
Herrera hanno fatto il medisimo; Copernico lo pone a Freudenburgo;
Renoldo a Monte Reale o Konisberg; Keplero a Uraniburgo; Longo Montano a
Kopenhagen; Lansbergius a Goes; Ricciolo a Bologna. Gli Atlanti di
Jansonio e di Blaeu a Monte Pico. Per continuare l’origine della mia
Geografia ho posto in questo Globo il primo meridiano nella parte più
occidentale della Isola di Ferro, com’onche per seguire il Decreto di
Luigi XIII, che col consiglio de’ Geog. nel 1634 lo determinò in questo
stesso luogo.” “Concerning the first meridian. There are represented on
this 72 meridians, 36 with continuous lines--the others are marked,--by
each of which it is divided into 5 degrees of longitude, which is the
course of the sun in one third of an hour. The ancient and modern
geographers do not agree upon the place through which the first meridian
passes: among the former, Eratosthenes put it at the Pillars of
Hercules; Marinus of Tyre at the Canary Islands; Ptolemy in his
geography has followed the same opinion, but in his books on astronomy
he has located it as running through Alexandria in Egypt. Among the
moderns, Ismail Aboulfeda puts it at Cadiz; Alfonso at Toledo; Pigafetta
and Herrera have done the same; Copernicus puts it at Freudenberg;
Reinhold at Mount Royal (Königsberg); Kepler at Uranienburg;
Longomontanus at Copenhagen; Lansberg at Goa; Ricciola at Bologna; the
atlases of Jansson and Blaeu at Mount Pico. To continue the precedent of
my geography I have on this globe placed the first meridian in the most
western part of the Island of Ferro,--as also to follow the decree of
Louis XIII, who on the advice of the geographers in 1634 assigned it to
this same place.” California he lays down as an island, west of which is
a legend relating to “Nuova Albione,” and north in the Pacific one
relating to “Stretto di Anian.” There is reference to the route to Goa,
which is placed near the Island of Madagascar. The reference to the
Zambesi River clearly gives evidence of acquaintance with Portuguese
records of which we have no other knowledge. This legend reads, “Rio
Zambese: Città e fortezza di Tete de Portugal; Fortezza di S. Estevao;
Minere di Ferro; Minere d’argento che il Re di Monom. promise al Re di
Spagna nel 1604; Fortezza di Chicova.” “Zambesi River: City and fortress
of Tete of Portugal; fortress of S. Estevao; iron mines; silver mines
which the King of Monomotapa promised to the King of Spain in 1604;
fortress of Chicova.” Like the other leading map makers of the period he
has indicated the course of certain transoceanic expeditions,
occasionally noting the distance sailed on each successive day, with
other valuable and interesting information relating to the position of
the sun and the moon, to atmospheric conditions, to the appearance of
sea birds and of certain marine animals.

Globes of this 1688 edition may be found in the Biblioteca Comunale of
Fano; in the Biblioteca Comunale of Faenza; in the Königliche
Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon of Dresden, celestial undated; in the
Biblioteca Civico of Bergamo; in the Biblioteca Gonzaga of Mantua; in
the Biblioteca Marciana of Venice (Figs. 112, 113); in the Museo Civico
of Venice; in the Biblioteca Universitario of Naples; in the Palazzo
Manin of Passeriano. The twelve gores of the terrestrial globe may be
found in the British Museum; a fine copy of the twelve gores may also
be found in the Library of Congress, Washington; a copy of the mounted
terrestrial globe belongs to the Biblioteca Emanuele of Rome; three
copies of this globe in addition to the pair referred to above belong to
the Museo Civico of Venice.

[Illustration: Fig. 112. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli,
1688.]

[Illustration: Fig. 113. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli,
1688.]

It appears that Coronelli’s terrestrial globe gores of the year 1688,
which were frequently reissued, were but little altered in the several
editions. His celestial globe in successive issues seems to have been
much altered. France had specially honored the Venetian globe maker in
giving to him every facility for the production of his great
masterpieces, the Marly globes. The Société Gallica of Paris decided, in
the year 1693, to add to his honors, and to give expression to an
appreciation of his merits through the publication of a new edition of
his globes, at least of the celestial, the Venetian terrestrial of 1688
being made to serve as a companion. In the following legend we have
information concerning the date, and concerning the participants in its
preparation: “Orbis coelesti typus. Opus a Coronelli Serenissimae
Reipublicae Cosmographo inchoatum Societatis Gallicae sumptibus
absolutum, Lutetiae Parisiorum. Anno N. S. MDCXCIII. Delin. Arnoldus
Deuvez Regiae Acad. Pictor; Sculp. I. B. Nolin Reg. Chr. Calcographus.”
“Representation of a celestial globe. A work begun by Coronelli, the
cosmographer of the Venetian Republic; finished at the expense of the
French Society at Paris in the year 1693. Drawn by Arnold Deuvez painter
of the Royal Academy; I. B. Nolin Royal Cartographer, draughtsman.”

The Parisian Society did not find it necessary to substitute the French
language in the legends for the language of the author, as appears in
the address to the reader, which of course is not Coronelli phrasing.
“Amico lettore. Rappresenta questa Globo le Costellazioni del
Firmamento, quali agli occhi nostri compariscono e non come negli altri
esposte, poichè nel centro loro bisogna immaginarsi d’essore per
intenderle. Le stelle d’esso calcolate all’Epoca 1700 sono pubblicati.
Quelle comprese dalle Costellazioni di Baiero, come le più cognite,
perchè con maggiore facilità si possino colle nostre confrontare, sono
accompagnate cogli caratteri greci e latini da es so usati. Le stelle,
ch’ appresso Baiero, restano informi, sono, da noi segnate di giallo; le
Nuove colorite di minio; le osservate dal P. Antelmo di verde, quelle
dell’ Hallei di pavonazzo, l’altre di Hevelio di lacca; le corrette da
Baiero di Cinabro, e l’osservazioni fatte dagli altri autori si
distinguono nel nostro Epitome Cosmografico, stampato in Venetia nel
1693. In questo pure vengono dilucidati gli Numeri, Caratteri, le
Frezze, che passano diametralmente per le stelle, la loro Obliquità,
Lunghezza, l’Acume, gli Pianeti che l’accompagnano; il moto diario delle
Comete, disegnate di molti secoli, ed ogni altro perticolare che per
l’angustia del sito non è permesso esprimere senza il di cui libra non
possono avere uso gli Globi presenti che pure restano descritti nel
nostro Atlante Veneto non però così diffusamente.” “Dear reader. This
globe represents the constellations of the firmament as they appear to
our eyes and not as shown by others, since it is necessary to imagine
that one is in their center in order to conceive them. The stars of the
globe are represented as calculated for the year 1700. Those included in
the constellations of Bayer, as the best known, in order that they, with
greater ease may be compared with ours, are designated by the Greek and
Latin characters used by him. Stars, which according to Bayer remain
undetermined, are indicated by us as yellow; the new ones colored with
red; those observed by P. Antelmo, with green, those of Halley with
violet, the others of Hevelius with lake color; the stars corrected by
Bayer with cinnabar; and the observations made by other authors are
distinguished in our Cosmographical Epitome, printed in Venice in 1693.
In this also are elucidated the numbers, characters, the lines that pass
diametrically through the stars, their obliquity, length, extremity, the
planets that accompany them, the daily movement of the comets, traced
for many centuries, and every other particular which because of the
limitations of space it is not here permitted to express,--without which
book it is not possible to make use of the present globes, which are
also described in our Venetian Atlas, but not so detailed.”

Pairs of his globes are very numerous which include the terrestrial of
the year 1688, now and then with some modifications, and the celestial
of the year 1693, these being usually, but not in all instances dated,
the latter being the Paris issue or apparently a slightly modified
Venetian edition of the same. It must be admitted that it is not easy to
classify the copies of his globes which followed his first issue of the
year 1688, but which have the same dimensions. In not a few of these
provision was made for a special dedication, the cartouch for such
dedication being often left blank, to be filled when occasion seemed to
offer for the bestowal of the special honor. Some of these globes
containing such special dedication are known, to which reference is made
below.

Examples of Coronelli’s work belonging to this group may be found in the
following libraries or museums: In the Landesmuseum of Zürich (Fig.
114); in the Seminario Vescovile of Aversa; in the Biblioteca Comunale
of Bologna; in the Archivo di Stato of Bologna; in the Biblioteca
Privato of Professor Liuzzi of Bologna; in the Convento dell’ Osservanza
of Bologna; in the Museo di Strumenti Antichi of Florence; in the Museo
Civico of Genoa; a copy of the celestial in the British Museum of
London; in the Biblioteca Brancacciana of Naples; in the Biblioteca
Nazionale of Naples; in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Palermo; in the
Biblioteca Antoniana of Padua; in the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris;
in the Biblioteca Classense of Ravenna; in the Biblioteca Lancisiana of
Rome; in the Accademia delle Scienze of Turin; in the Seminario
Patriarcale of Venice; in the Biblioteca Comunale of Vicenza; of the
terrestrial in the Royal Library of Madrid. The Vicenza examples, also
those in the Archivo di Stato of Bologna and in the Biblioteca Nazionale
of Palermo, are dedicated to the “Eminentissimo e reverendissimo
Principe” Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. The interesting brief legend,
reading “Alexander a Via Veronensis sculpsit” on the celestial globe,
gives us clearly to understand that there were Venetian issues of that
edition which made its first appearance in Paris under the auspices of
the Société Gallica. The gores of this issue Coronelli printed in his
‘Atlante Veneto,’ Volume XI.

[Illustration: Fig. 114. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli,
1688.]

In the year 1696 Coronelli made an extensive European tour which carried
him as far as England, an account of which he published in Venice in the
following year under the title ‘Viaggio de Venezia fino in Inghilterra.’
In this work the author describes an edition of his globes which he
referred to as having a diameter of “un piede e mezzo,” or about 48 cm.,
prepared in London and dedicated to the English King William III, of
which it has been possible to locate several examples. A particularly
fine copy of the terrestrial may be found in the collection of The
Hispanic Society of America (Fig. 115), agreeing in all its details with
the other copies, in so far, at least, as the information obtained seems
to indicate. In an elaborately decorated cartouch near the south polar
region is the dedicatory inscription, reading “Globum hujusmodi
Terraqueum Guglielmo invictissimo ac potentissimo Magnae Britaniae etc.
Regi Dicat, Vocat. consecrat. Pater, Magister Vincentius Coronelli Mon.
Con. S. Francisci Serenissimae Venetorum Reipublicae Cosmographus
MDCLXXXXVI. Londini.” “This terrestrial globe, Father and Master
Vincentio Coronelli, Brother of the Franciscan Order and Cosmographer of
the Venetian Republic, dedicates, names and consecrates to William III,
the Invincible and Mighty King of Great Britain.” Not far from the above
is a somewhat elaborate representation of the king’s coat of arms with
the motto “Hony soit qui mal y pense. Je maintienderay.” Its mounting
consists of a narrow graduated meridian circle of wood which is made to
pass, in the usual manner, through a horizon circle of wood, the outer
edge of which is octagonal. The upper surface of this horizon circle is
covered with an engraved horizon sheet giving within concentric circles
the names of the zodiacal constellations, names of the months with the
names of the prominent saints, the names of the principal winds, and of
the principal directions in Italian. It has a supporting base of four
artistically turned columns with binding crossbars extending from each
post to a central circular plate 17 cm. in diameter, carrying the post
through a slot in which the meridian circle is made to pass. The north
pole is topped with a thin pasteboard hour circle and pointer. The globe
map is composed of twelve gores which are truncated in latitude 80
degrees both north and south, the polar spaces being covered with
circular discs, and are cut on the line of the equator. The sphere is
exceedingly light in weight, being composed of papier-mâché. In every
particular the globe is one remarkably well preserved, and is one of the
finest examples of early globe making in the society’s collection.

[Illustration: Fig. 115. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli,
1696.]

[Illustration: Fig. 115a. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli,
1693.]

[Illustration: Fig. 115b. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli,
1693.]

In geographical names the map records are very full, these being given
either in Italian, Spanish, Latin, Dutch, English, or in the native
language of the country in which they appear. Curiously enough in many
instances the author appears to give his own peculiar spelling,
approaching therein, to the best of his ability, the spelling suggested
by the pronunciation of the several names. Legends are exceedingly
numerous, many of them recording incidents relating to certain
expeditions or to certain discoveries, such as the expedition of
Magellan; early expeditions along the west coast of North America,
including reference to Cortes, Ulloa, Alarçon, Cabrillo, Guzman, Drake;
expeditions to the East Indies, including that of Le Maire, Hoorn, Van
Diemen, Chaumont, and others. Boundary lines of local regions, in both
the Old and the New World are exceedingly numerous, which fact in itself
gives a somewhat unique value to the map as of geographical and
historical value. California appears as an island, and a great stretch
of ocean appears between northwest North America and northeast Asia
wherein is located land with indefinite outline marked, “Terra de Jesso
ó Jeco, Yedco, Esso et Sesso Scoperta dagli Hollandesi l’anno 1643.” The
map of North America is particularly of interest and value, especially
for the region of the United States.

Pictures of ships sailing the ocean, those of the oriental peoples as
well as those of the occidental are numerous, as are also pictures
representing seal fishing, and pictures representing the methods of
capturing polar bears and whales. It is interesting to note that
loxodromic lines or sailing lines have disappeared from such maps, that
the map and the chart are here seen to merge.

The celestial globe of this edition has practically the same dedication
as the terrestrial, the word “Terraqueum” alone being changed to
“Coelestem.” There is on this the following address: “Amico Lettore.
Oltre ai molti Globi delineati dal P. Cosmografo Coronelli per Sovrani
diversi di varie e vaste misure, ne ha ultimamente composti e stampati
di cinque grandezze a pubblico beneficio, fra i quali i più comodi ed
esatti sono i presenti. I numeri che accompagnano le stelle calcolate
all’epoca del 1700; così l’altre notizie, ad uso dei medesimi Globi,
vengono nel suo Epitome Cosmografico diffusamente spiegati.” “Dear
reader. Besides the many globes delineated by the cosmographer P.
Coronelli, for divers Sovereigns, he has recently composed and printed
some in five sizes for the use of the public, among which the most
convenient and exact are the present ones. The numbers that accompany
the stars are calculated for the epoch 1700; moreover the other
particulars for the use of these same globes are extensively developed
in his Epitome Cosmografico.”

In the reference to the several constellations there is repeated, with
but slight alteration, the statements made on his larger globes, the
position of the fixed stars being referred to the year 1700.

Examples of the 1696 edition of Coronelli’s globes may be found in the
Seminario Vescovile of Finale; in the Biblioteca Franzoniana of Genoa;
in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg; in the Biblioteca
Comunale of Perugia; in the Museo Civico of Trieste; a copy of the
terrestrial in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence, and one in the
Certosa of Pisa; the unmounted gores of the celestial in the Museo
Astronomico of Rome.

The globes of the year 1696 were reissued in the year 1699, with certain
unimportant alterations. It may be noted that as in certain copies of
the 1693 edition the cartouch designed for a dedicatory inscription was
left blank, that the author might insert the name of the recipient whom
he might choose to honor. So in his globes of the year 1699 he left a
like blank space, but in the terrestrial globe he inscribed what he
evidently felt he should want to insert in each instance--a dedication
in blank, as it were, reading “D. D. D. Pater Magister Vincentius
Coronelli Mon: Con: Francisci Serenissimae Venetorum Reipublicae
Cosmographus MDCLXXXXIX.” One example has been located in which the name
of the honored individual has been inserted, reading, in addition to the
author and date as above, “Illustrissimo et Praexcelso Nobili Viro D. D.
Comiti Aloysio Paoluccio Militiae Sanctae Apostolicae Sedis in Piceno
Praefecto,” this copy being in the Biblioteca Privato of Sr. Remigio
Salotti of Modena. Copies of each of the 1699 issue may also be found in
the Biblioteca Marucelliana of Florence; in the Biblioteca Vittorio
Emanuele of Rome; in the Biblioteca of the Marquis Piero Bargagli of
Rome; a copy of the terrestrial in the Museo Astronomico of Rome, a copy
of the same in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence, and a copy in the
Certosa of Pisa.

In one of his own publications issued in Venice in the year 1697
Coronelli tells us of an edition of his celestial globe which he was
preparing.[101] He announces “To the Public” that the large celestial
globe, three and one half feet in diameter, which he was then having
reëngraved and which would exhibit all of the artistic features of the
Paris edition of 1693, would be one of superior excellence. He adds that
the many corrections and additions, as the parts already completed
clearly indicate, would make it one very exact, and its completion was
promised before the end of the year 1698. This celestial globe was
issued in Venice in the year 1699, edited, according to an inscribed
legend, by Coronelli and the Academy of the Argonauts. We cannot with
certainty locate a copy of this globe. Perhaps it may be found in one of
the undated examples, now known, of the size designated.

The Abbot Gimma, to whom reference has been made, informs us that
Coronelli constructed other globes, the same having diameters
respectively six, four, and two inches, and in the ‘Epitome
Cosmografica’ of the author, under the paragraph heading, “Opere
stampate dal Padre Coronelli,” we read that he constructed celestial and
terrestrial globes three inches in diameter for the pocket. In Volume X
of the ‘Atlanta Veneto,’ under the title “Globi del Coronelli,” the
gores of these globes are reproduced, and from these reprints we are
able to get certain information concerning them. But one pair of his
six-inch globes has been located and none of the smaller size, this one
pair being the unmounted gores, twelve in number for each globe, to be
found in the British Museum. The terrestrial has the following
dedication: “Hos Globos Terraqueum ac Coelestem dicat et donat R. m̄o P.
D. Sigismundo Pollitio a Placentia Praeposito Generali Monarchorum
Ermitorum S. Hyeronimi Congreg. Lombardiae P. M. Coronelli Cosmographus
P.” “These globes, a terrestrial and a celestial P. M. Coronelli gives
and dedicates to the Rev. P. D. Sigismund Pollitus head of the
congregation of Hermit Monks of St. Jerome of Lombardy. At Placentia.”
And the celestial has the following, “R. m̄o P. D. Sigismundo Pollitio
Praep. Generali Mon. Erem. S. Hyeron.” “To the Rev. P. D. Sigismund
Pollitus. General of the Hermit Monks of St. Jerome.” Three other
inscriptions of the celestial globe read respectively “Auct. P.
Vincentius Coronelli Cosmog. Publ.,” “Stellae supput. fuerunt ad annum
1700,” and “Venetiis. In Academiae Cosmog. Argon.”

Fiorini makes brief mention of a rather remarkable armillary sphere, cut
out of a solid block of alabaster, now belonging to the Museo Civico of
Siena.[102] It is neither signed nor dated, but was probably constructed
toward the close of the seventeenth century.

It has two meridian circles, circles representing the tropics whose
outer circumference is 66 cm., polar circles having a circumference of
21 cm., and circles representing the solstitial colures and the equator,
the latter having an outer circumference of 72 cm. All circles are
graduated, but in the case of the polar circles the numbers of the
degrees are not marked. In addition to the above-mentioned circles,
there is one representing the zodiac which is exceedingly heavy, on
which have been cut the signs of the several constellations and the
names of the months.

This assemblage of armillae is adjusted to revolve within a brass
circle, the whole resting upon a base of alabaster. At the common center
is a small ball mounted on a metallic rod which passes through the poles
of the circles. This small terrestrial sphere has a diameter of 8 cm.,
and around it are two small circles probably intended to represent the
path of the moon and of the planet Mercury.

Word has been received of another armillary sphere of about 1700, though
undated, constructed by Vitale Giordani (1633-1711), a mathematician of
some note in his day. This sphere belongs to the Biblioteca Lancisiana
of Rome, which, as noted above, possesses one by Barocci of the year
1570.[103]

The idea of constructing large manuscript globes, such as were those
of Benci and of Moroncelli, was taken up by Giuseppe Scarabelli of
Mirandola, who appears to have won special distinction in his day as an
engineer.[104] Although the large globes, terrestrial and celestial,
three braccia (ca. 200 cm.) in diameter, which he is known to have made,
assisted by his son Massimo, cannot now be located, we are told that
they were of such size and quality that their equal could not be found
“in Milan, in Venice, or in Rome.”

In what has been stated above concerning globe makers of Italy in the
late seventeenth century and the early eighteenth, it has been noted
that a number of those most prominent were members of some one or other
of the many monastic orders. Benci and Moroncelli were of the Silvestrin
Congregation; Coronelli was a Minorite, being honored with an election
to the office of General of the Franciscan Order. It was in the late
seventeenth century that Giovanni Battista da Cassine,[105] a Capuchin
monk, began to achieve distinction as a map and globe maker, in
particular, however, through the maps he drafted of the various
provinces of his order which he described in his ‘Descrizione
cosmografica della Provincie e dei Conventi de FF: Min. Cappuccini di S.
Francesco.’[106] He was a native of Cassine in the district of
Alessandria, and entered in early life into the Convent of the
Immaculata Concezzione of Milan. He tells us, in his introduction to his
work noted above, that he constructed two globes for the library of his
convent in Milan, a terrestrial and a celestial, adding, “Quondam
aedificabam, simul et delineabam pro Bibliotheca nostra Immacolatae
Conceptionis duos satis grandes Globos nimirum coelestem unum,
terrestrem alium.” “I once designed and constructed for our library of
the Immaculate Conception, two large globes, one a terrestrial, the
other a celestial.” We do not know the exact date of the construction of
these globes, but it probably was near 1700.[107] It is further probable
that these globes were examples of Italy’s best productions within this
field. They, however, cannot now be located, having disappeared at the
time of the dissolution of the convent in the year 1810.

George Christopher Eimmart (1638-1705), a native of Ravensburg, was one
of Germany’s most famous mathematicians of the seventeenth century.[108]
He is reported to have been for some time associated with Erhard Weigel
in the University of Jena, where he won distinction for himself in his
mathematical and law studies. It was about the year 1658, after the
death of his father, that he became especially interested in the art of
copper engraving, and in the year 1660 he established himself in this
business in the city of Nürnberg. The study of mathematics, however,
continued to interest him, and we soon find him giving especial
attention to astronomical science, to the construction of astronomical
instruments, such as quadrants, sextants, telescopes, astronomical
clocks, and celestial spheres. In one of the fortifications of the city
he erected a small observatory, in which he carried on his astronomical
studies, evincing, as the months passed, much interest in giving
practical instruction to many of the young students of the city, among
whom may be named Johannes Philipp Würzelbauer, who later was ennobled
by Emperor Leopold on account of his scientific attainments, and who at
the time of the reception of this honor changed his name to Wurzelbau.
Eimmart counted among his friends, with whom he was in constant
communication, Leibnitz, Cassini, La Hire, Flamsteed, Hevel, and others.
His correspondence with these distinguished men of science, together
with his numerous papers relating to his mathematical and astronomical
studies, are still preserved in manuscript, filling no less than
fifty-seven volumes.[109] In the year 1695 he published a description of
an armillary sphere which he had constructed to represent the Copernican
system, but this cannot now be located.[110] In the year 1705, the year
of his death, he issued a pair of globes, an example of each being now
kept in the Museo Astronomico of Rome. These spheres of papier-mâché,
each having a diameter of about 30 cm., are supplied each with a base
of wood, consisting of four turned columns, which support a horizon
circle of wood, on which are the usual engraved concentric circles
bearing respectively the names of the principal directions or winds, the
names of the zodiacal constellations, with their respective figures, the
names of the principal festivals, and names of the saints. They are made
to revolve within a graduated meridian circle which is adjusted to move
within the horizon circle. The globe balls are covered with engraved
gore maps, each consisting of twelve sections cut at the equatorial line
and in latitude 80 degrees, the polar areas being covered with a
circular disc, having the necessary radius of ten degrees.

On the terrestrial globe we find the following author and date legend:
“Cum geographica Orbis Terrarum descriptio secundum long. et lat. non
nisi vel per peregrinationes marittimas vel observationes coelestes
emendatior in dies prodeat, istud autem per experimenta propria (quo ad
exiguam saltem partem) perfecisse, e’ mille, vix uni contigat; Oportuit
nos Recentiorum accuratissimis observationibus insistore et quatenus cum
veritate congruant vel discrepent exactiori tuo judicio relinquest. Nos
eadem loca bona fide, nihil immutantes, prout ab auctoribus novissimis
accepimus usui tuo exhibibemus. Norimbergae apud G. C. Eimmartum Aᵒ
Christi 1705.” “Since the geographical description of the earth
according to latitude and longitude, both by maritime voyages and by
celestial observations becomes more accurate day by day, it happens to
scarcely any one man to perfect (a globe) by his own observations for
these can be partial only. Therefore it behooves us to make use of the
most accurate modern observations. In so far as they agree with the
truth or depart from it is left for you with your more exact judgment
to decide. We, for our part, exhibit for your use the places in all good
faith, as we have received them from the latest authorities and have
changed nothing. Nürnberg. By G. C. Eimmart, 1705.”

Meridians and parallels are represented at intervals of five degrees,
the ecliptic and the equator being graduated. Compass roses are
numerous, from which radiate numerous loxodromic lines. The several
compass roses are located on the equator, and at latitude 35 degrees and
70 degrees both north and south, where these parallels are crossed by
the prime meridian and the meridians of 90 degrees, of 180 degrees, and
of 270 degrees.

In the southern hemisphere of the celestial globe is the following
inscription: “Loca stellarum coelesti huic Globo insertarum a Jo.
Hevelio astronomo insigni ad ann. 1700 complet. sum̄o studio ac
diuturnis vigiliis restituta sunt; quae in hujusmodi Typum ad perpetuam
Coeli conformitatem juxta modum quem Problema inferius adjectum
praescribit noviter redacta a G. C. Eimmarto.” “The position of the
stars inscribed on this celestial globe were determined by J. Hevelius,
renowned astronomer, and completed to the year 1700 through deep study
and nightly vigils. And these observations on this globe are made
perpetually to conform, according to the method which is described
below, and these have been revised by G. C. Eimmart.”

Attention is called to the stars of the various magnitudes up to the
seventh by an appropriate illustration of each placed in a small but
artistically designed wreath. Latin names are given to the several
constellations and to a number of the individual stars, though one finds
an occasional Arabic name. Among the several constellations one notes
certain modern names such as “Scutum Subiescianum.”

In addition to the pair referred to above, a copy of the celestial globe
may be found in the Biblioteca Civico of Bergamo.

Joseph Moxon (1627-1700) (Fig. 116) was an English mathematician and
hydrographer of great distinction.[111] His earliest business, dating
from about 1655, was that of a maker and vender of mathematical
instruments, but he later turned his attention toward the designing of
letters and the making of printing types, achieving, for his work in
this field, a very remarkable reputation. It was in his early years,
when especially interested in making mathematical instruments in his
shop in Russell Street, at “The Sign of the Atlas,” that his thought was
turned toward geography, astronomy, and navigation; at any rate, he
published in the year 1657 an edition of Edward Wright’s ‘Certain errors
in navigation detected and corrected.’[112] In 1659 he published in
London the first edition of his important work which he called ‘A Tutor
to Astronomy and Geography, or an easie and speedy way to know the Use
of both the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial.’ This work, frequently
reissued during his lifetime, was followed at intervals by a number of
publications chiefly relating to the art of printing.[113] As to the
importance he attached to his own knowledge of globes, he states on the
title-page of his book on their uses that he explains therein “More
fully and amply than hath yet been set forth, either by Gemma Frisius,
Metius, Hues, Wright, Blaeu, or any others that have taught the Use of
the Globes: and that so Plainly and Methodically, that the meanest
Capacity may at first Reading apprehend it, and with a little Practice
grow expert in these Divine Sciences.” In his address “To the Reader,”
appearing as an introduction to this same work, he gives us further word
not only concerning his own globes, but an interesting insight into what
a globe maker of that time conceived as essential points to be noted
when directing attention to his own special work. Though somewhat
lengthy, it is here quoted as an interesting early statement. He
observes in his introductory paragraph that he is writing not “to expert
Practitioners but to Learners; to whom Examples may prove more
Instructive than Precepts.

[Illustration: Fig. 116. Portrait of Joseph Moxon.]

“Besides,” he states, “I hope to encourage those by an ample liberal
plainness to fall in love with the Studies, that formerly have been
disheartened by the Crabbed brevity of those Authors that have in
Characters as it were rather writ Notes for their own Memories, than
sufficient Documents for their Readers Instructions.

“The Globes for which this Book is written are new Globes that I set
forth, which as I told you in my Epistle to the Reader of Blaws Book
differ somewhat from other Globes; and that both the Celestial and the
Terrestrial; mine being the latest done of any, and to the accomplishing
of which, I have not only had the help of all or most of the best of
other Globes, Maps, Plates, and Sea-drafts of New discoveries that were
then extant for the Terrestrial Globe, but also the Advice and
directions of divers able Mathematicians both in England and Holland for
Tables and Calculations both of Lines and Stars for the Celestial; upon
which globe I have placed every Star that was observed by Tycho Brahe
and other Observers, one degree of Longitude farther in the Ecliptick
than they are on any other Globes: so that whereas on other Globes the
places of the Stars were correspondent with their places in Heaven 69
Years ago, when Tycho observed them, and therefore according to his Rule
want almost a degree of their true places in Heaven at this Time: I have
set every Star one degree farther in the Ecliptick, and rectified them
on the Globe according to the true place they had in Heaven in the Year
1671.

“On the Terrestrial Globe I have inserted all the New Discoveries that
have been made, either by our own Forraign Navigators, and that bothe in
the East, West, North, and South parts of the Earth. In the East Indies
we have in the latter Times many spacious places discovered, many
Islands inserted, and generally the whole Draught of the Country
rectified and amended, even to the Coast of China, Japan, Giloli &c. In
the South Sea between the East and West Indies are scattered many
Islands, which for the uncertain knowledge former Times had of them are
either wholly left out of other Globes, or else laid down so erroneously
that little of credit can be attributed unto them. California is found
to be an Island, though formerly supposed to be part of the main
Continent, whose North-West shoar was imagined to thrust itself forth
close to the Coasts of Cathaio, and so make the supposed Straights of
Anian. The Western Shoars of the West Indies are more accurately
described than formerly, as you may see if you compare my Terrestrial
Globe: that I have lately set forth with the Journals of the latest
Navigators: And if you compare them with other Globes you will find 5,
6, yea 7 degrees difference in Longitude in most Places of these Coasts.
Magellanica which heretofore was thought to be part of the South
Continent called Terra Incognita is now also found to be an Island. All
that Tract of Land called Terra Incognita I have purposely omitted,
because as yet we have no certainty whether it be Land or Sea; unless it
be of some parts lately found out by the Dutch, who having a convenient
Port at Batavia in Java, have from there sent forth Ships Southward,
where they have found several very large countries; one whereof they
have called Hollandia Nova, another Zelandia Nova, another Anthoni van
Diemans Land; and divers others; some whereof lie near our Antipodes; as
you may see by my terrestrial Globes. Again, Far to the Northwards there
are some New Discoveries, even within six degrees of the Pole: The
Drafts to the North Eastwards I have laid down even as they were
described by the Searchers of those parts for a passage into the East
Indies. And also the Discoveries of Baffin, Captain James, and Capt. Fox
(our own Country-men) that attempted the finding a passage that way into
the South Sea.

“I also told you what difference there is in several Authors about
placing the first Meridian, which is the beginning of Longitude; that
Ptolemy placed it at the Fortunate Islands, which Mr. Hues pag. 4. chap.
1. in his Treatise of Globes proves to be the Islands of Cabo Verde, and
not those now called the Canary Islands; because in his Time they were
the farthest place of the Discovered World towards the setting of the
Sun; Others placed it at Pico in Teneriffa; Others at Corvus and Flora;
because under that Meridian the Compass had no Variation, but did then
duly respect the North and South; Others for the same Reason begin their
Longitude at St. Michaels; and Others between the Islands of Flores and
Fayal: And the Spaniards of late by reason of their great Negotiation in
the West Indies, have begun their Longitude at Toledo there, and
contrary to all others account it Westwards.

“Therefore I, seeing such diversity among all Nations, and as yet an
Uniformity at home, chose with our own Country-men to place my First
Meridian at the Ile Gratiosa, one of the Iles of Azores.

“By the different placing of this first Meridian it comes to pass that
the Longitude of Places are diversely set down in different Tables; For
those Globes or Maps that have their first Meridian placed to the
Eastwards of Gratiosa, have all places counted Eastwards from the
Meridian of Gratiosa, and their first Meridian in a greater number of
degrees of Longitude, and that according as the Arch of Difference is.”

At the conclusion of this work we find printed a catalogue of his books,
maps, and instruments, including globes celestial and terrestrial of all
sizes, and, what is of considerable interest and value, the price of
each given.[114]

We know that the Chinese, very many centuries ago, manifested a
considerable interest in astronomy; nor was there wanting with them an
interest in geography. It was, however, especially in the former science
they may be said to have made contributions of real value. An unreliable
record, telling us of the interest exhibited by the Emperor Shun,
reigning more than two thousand years before the beginning of the
Christian era, notes that he made use of an armillary sphere in his
study of the stars. Little is there to assure us that prior to the time
of Kúblai Kaan (1216-1294) there were those who turned their attention
to the construction of globes. That great Mongol Emperor’s astronomer
Ko-Shun-King, having demonstrated the superiority of his astronomical
wisdom, was directed to institute reforms in Chinese chronology and to
construct for purposes of scientific investigations such instruments as
he thought to be necessary. Accordingly he removed from the old
observatory “an armillary sphere dating from 1049,” substituting in its
place a number of large and small instruments, two of which have
survived to our day--an armillary sphere and a celestial globe, which
may be said to date from about the year 1274. These instruments of the
astronomer Ko-Shun-King had place in an observatory which he had erected
on the site of an ancient structure at the southeast corner of the
Tartar city wall, being raised above the parapet. There they remained
until the year 1673 when the Jesuit astronomer Father Ferdinand Verbiest
judged them to be useless and persuaded the Emperor to pull them down
and put up new ones of his own contriving.[115] The old instruments were
stored away at the foot of the terrace, and of these, as before noted,
but two now remain.

Le Comte refers to the celestial globe as one well cast, and having a
diameter of about three feet, the degrees and minutes being marked both
“longitudinally and latitudinally.” An early description tells us that
its equator is in the center, equidistant from the two poles, in each
case a quarter of a circumference. The ecliptic is elevated above and
depressed below the equator, in each case barely twenty-four degrees.
The elevations and depressions of the moon in its orbit being variable,
a bamboo hoop, divided into degrees equally throughout, is used to
verify the intersections with the ecliptic and accordingly is moved from
time to time. The globe rests on a square box, the north and south poles
being respectively above and below the surface fully forty degrees, half
of the globe being visible and half concealed. Toothed wheels, set in
motion by machinery concealed within the box, are so adjusted as to
cause the globe to revolve.

The armillary sphere (Fig. 117) stands at the east end of the court. It
is an instrument of huge dimensions being described in early records
somewhat as follows, in each reference there being allusion to its
beautiful workmanship, and to its design as possessing remarkable
excellence. The supporting base of the piece has a mythological
significance. The four dragons, which play such a part in the Chinese
geomancy, are here represented as chained to the earth, while upholding
the spheres. Its substantial horizon circle, crossed at right angles by
a double ring representing an azimuth circle, forms the outer supporting
framework. The upper surface of the horizon circle is divided into
twelve equal parts, marked by the several Chinese cyclical characters
applied to the twelve hours into which the day and night was divided.
Around the outside of this horizon circle these twelve characters appear
again, with the Chinese names for the several points of the compass. On
the inside of this circle one finds the names of the twelve States into
which the ancient Empire was divided, each State being thought of as
under the influence of a particular quarter of the heavens.

[Illustration: Fig. 117. Ancient Mongolian Armillary Sphere, ca. 1274.]

Inside this frame is placed an equatorial circle within which is a
series of movable circles made to turn on polar pivots attached to the
azimuth circle. These movable circles consist of an equatorial circle, a
double ring ecliptic, an equinoctial colure, and a double ring
solstitial colure. The equator is divided into twenty-eight unequal
portions marked by the names of as many constellations of very ancient
origin. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-four equal parts according
with the divisions of the year. Within the circles just described there
is a double revolving meridian with a double axis and within this a
fixed tube for taking sights.

All the circles of this armillary sphere are divided into 365-1/4
degrees corresponding to the days of the year and each degree is divided
into hundreds. At the corners of the base outside the dragons are four
miniature rocks in bronze, with the respective inscriptions “Keen
Shan,” northwest or celestial mountain; “Kwan Shan,” southwest or
terrestrial mountain; “Seuen-Shan,” or southeast mountain; “Kan Shan,”
northeast mountain.

When the astronomer Père Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688),[116] undertook
the survey and management of mathematics for the Emperor he, like his
predecessor Ko-Shun-King four hundred years before, began his task, as
noted above, by ordering the removal of the old instruments from the
observatory and the construction of new ones. Six of these are referred
to in the records of the period as possessing especial merit, including
a zodiacal armillary sphere six feet in diameter, an equinoctial
armillary sphere six feet in diameter, a horizon azimuth likewise six
feet in diameter, a quadrant having a radius of six feet, a sextant with
a radius of eight feet, and a celestial globe having a diameter of six
feet.

The armillary spheres have each but four circles, being of excellent
workmanship, and having mountings of elaborate Chinese designs.

That which especially interests us here is the celestial globe (Fig.
117a) which Le Compte describes somewhat in detail. “This in my
Opinion,” he says, “is the fairest and best fashioned of all the
Instruments. The Globe itself is brazen, exactly round and smooth; the
Stars well made, and in their true places, and all Circles of
proportional breadth and thickness. It is besides so well hung, that the
least touch moves it, and tho’ it is above two thousand weight, the
least Child may elevate it to any Degree. On its large concave Bases are
placed opposite four Dragons, whose Hair standing up on end, support a
noble Horizon commendable for its breadth, its several Ornaments, and
the delicacy and niceness of the Work. The Meridian in which the Pole is
fixed rests upon Clouds that issue out of the Bases, and slides easily
between them, its Motion being facilitated by some hidden Wheels, and
moves with it the whole Globe to give it the required Elevation.
Besides which, the Horizon, Dragons and two brazen Beams, which lie
cross in the Center of the Bases Concavity, are all moved at pleasure
without stirring the Bases which still remain fixed; this facilitates
the due placing of the Horizon, whether in respect of the Natural
Horizon, or in respect of the Globe. I wonder how Men who live six
thousand Leagues from us could go through such a piece of Work; and I
must own, that if all the Circles which are divided, had been corrected
by some of our Workmen, nothing could be more perfect in this kind.”
This piece, it may be noted, was carried away to Potsdam at the close of
the Boxer Rebellion, copies of them being left in the old observatory.
The Treaty of Versailles directed that the originals should be returned
to their early home.

[Illustration: Fig. 117a. Armillary Sphere and Celestial Globe of
Ferdinand Verbiest, 1673.]


NOTES

[61] See I, 8.

[62] Coronelli, V. Epitome Cosmografica. Colonia, 1693. pp. 330-331.

[63] Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, “Olearius”; Varenius, B.
Geographia generalis. Cambridge, 1672. Bk. III, chap. xxxii; Moller,
G. I. Cimbria literata. Hanniae, 1744. Vol. I, p. 195:

Moller says: “Nec silentio sunt involvenda duo admiranda orbis
authomata astronomico-cosmographica, juxta delineationem ipsius
ingeniosissimam A. 1654 et seqq. ab And. Boschio Mechanico Dedalaeo
et in Mathesi versatissimo, dirigente laborem Ad. Oleario, Principis
hujus sui etiam mathematici, fabrefacta, quibus similis Europam, imo
orbem majorem universum, non vidisse, praeter Olearium Heun.
Heuningi et D. G. Morphosius sunt persuasi....” Weidler, J. F.
Historia astronomiae. Wittenberg, 1741, p. 541.

Weidler says: “Globum a. 1654 Fredericus dux Holsatiae, dirigente
opus Adamo Oleario, e cupro fabrefieri et in arce Gortorpiensi
curaverat. Diameter ejus 10-1/2 pedes capiebat, totusque globus
rotis, flumine circumjactis movebatur.”

[64] Günther-Fiorini. Erd- und Himmelsgloben, p. 83; Royal
Geographical Journal. London, 1901. p. 219.

[65] Bartholomaei, F. Erhard Weigel; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der
mathematischen Wissenschaften auf den deutschen Universitäten im
XVI Jahrhundert. (In: Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik.
Leipzig, 1868. Sup. Heft. pt. 1.); Allgemeine deutsche Biographia,
“Weigel, Erhard.”

[Illustration: Fig. 117a. Armillary Sphere and Celestial
Globe of Ferdinand Verbiest, 1673.]

[66] Schimpfer was a native of Nürnberg and active in his profession
about the middle of the seventeenth century.

[67] Bartholomaei, op. cit.

[68] Bartholomaei, referring to the popularity of Weigel as a
lecturer, states that some of his lectures were given in the open
because there was no available room sufficiently large to
accommodate his hearers.

[69] Weigel, E. Sphaerica Euclidea methodo conscripta; accessit
globorum heraldicorum ipsiusque pancosmi descriptio et usus. Jenae,
1688; Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, pp. 420-427. In a very early
day the Venerable Bede had suggested a change from the heathen names
of the several constellations to Christian names. See in this
connection Schiller, J. Coelum stellatum christianum. Augsburg,
1627.

Schiller was a pupil of the famous astronomer, Johannes Bayer, from
whom he probably received his impulse to inaugurate a reform in the
matter of naming the constellations. Schiller felt much annoyed that
heathen names for stars and star groups should be retained by
Christian peoples, and it was probably with Bayer that he worked out
his scheme for a new nomenclature. To the twelve signs of the
zodiac, for example, he gave the names of the twelve apostles. For
the constellation Perseus he proposed the Apostle Paul, for the
Great Bear the Ship of Peter, for Hercules the Three Kings, for
Cassiopeia the name Maria Magdalena, for Auriga Saint Jerome; he
further proposed to change the name Ophiuchus to Pope Benedict,
Pegasus to the Angel Gabriel, Orion to Joseph, Canis Major to King
David, the Ship Argo to the Ark of Noe, the Centaur to Abraham, the
Peacock to Eve.

It was proposed to change the name Sun to Christ, the Moon to Maria,
Saturn to Adam, Jupiter to Moses, Mars to Joshua, Venus to John the
Baptist, and Mercury to Elias.

The suggestions of Schiller, of Bayer, and of their contemporaries,
or near contemporaries, Schickard, Bartsch, and Harsdörfer, with the
added support of Weigel, seem to have found little favor among
astronomers.

[70] Weigel, E. Universi corporis pansophici prodromus. Jena, 1672;
same author. Beschreibung der verbesserten Himmels- und Erdgloben.
Jena, 1681.

[71] Coronelli, op. cit., pp. 331-332; Wolf, op. cit., pp. 426-427,
n. 16; Günther-Fiorini, op. cit., p. 85, n.

[72] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 308-310.

[73] Quoted by Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 306-307.

[74] Practically the only information we have concerning Moroncelli,
aside from that which may be gained from his globes, is contained in
a manuscript preserved in the Biolioteca Municipale of Fabriano,
titled, “Vite dei Monaci Illustri di S. Benedetto in Fabriano,” by
the Monk Feliziani, who died in the year 1683. Extracts from this
have courteously been sent the author in reply to letters of
inquiry. See also Fiorini, op. cit., p. 310.

[75] Letter from the director, Dr. G. Coggiola, dated January 4,
1914.

[76] See II, 34.

[77] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 323.

[78] Christina, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus; succeeded her father
as ruler of Sweden. In the year 1654 she abdicated the throne,
became a devout Catholic and passed a considerable part of her
remaining years in Rome, residing at first in the Palazzo Farnese,
and later in the Palazzo Riario, bringing together in the latter
place of residence a large collection of books and objects of art.
Much of her collection later passed to the Vatican.

[79] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 323.

[80] See note 9, above.

[81] Coronelli, op. cit., pp. 325-330; Dictionary of National
Biography, “Palmer, Roger” (Count of Castlemaine), to which is
appended a somewhat lengthy list of bibliographical references.

[82] Moxon, J. The English globe, being a stabil and immobil one,
performing what the ordinary globes do, and much more. Invented and
described by the Right honorable, the Earl of Castlemaine. The
second edition corrected by J. Moxon. London, 1696.

[83] Coronelli, op. cit., p. 333.

[84] It has been impossible to locate a copy of this work or to get
further information concerning Treffler.

[85] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 376.

[86] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 377.

[87] Briefly described in a letter received by the author from the
Biblioteca Estense of Modena.

[88] Fiorini, M. Vincenzo Coronelli ed i suoi globi cosmografici.
(In: Annuario Astro-Meteorologico. Roma, 1893.); Rigobon. Biografia
e studi del P. Vincenzo Coronelli. (In: Archivo Veneto, Vol. III,
pt. i, p. 267.); Ginanni, P. P. Memorie storico critiche degli
scrittori Ravennati. Faenza, 1769. Vol. I, p. 162; Pasolini, S.
Huomini illustri di Ravenna antica ed altri degni professori di
lettere ed armi. Bologna, 1703. p. 63.

[89] Among his more important works the following may here be cited:
Atlante Veneto, nel quale si contiene la descrittione ... degl’
Imperij. Regni, Provincie, e Stati dell’ Universo. Venetia,
1691-1696. 3 Vols. in 4 pts.; Biblioteca universale sacro-profano,
antico-moderna. Venezia, 1701-1706. Vols. I-VIII, but not completed
beyond “Caque”; Epitome Cosmografica, o compendiosa introduttione
all’ Astronomia, Geographia, et Idrografia. Colonia, 1693; Viaggi
del P. C. Venetia, 1697: The Royal Almanack: containing a succinct
account of the remarkable actions of K. William III: with the year
and the day of the month when each happened. Tr. from Italian into
English. London, 1696. See also Giannini, G. Titoli della opere ...
stampate dal anno 1704, dal P. M. C. ... publicate dall’ Accademia
degli Argonauti in aggiunta dell’ indice già dato in luce. Venetia,
1708.

[90] Not until the following century does it appear that such
societies were organized north of the Alps.

[91] See list given by Coronelli, Epitome, in introductory pages
under heading “Catalogo ...”

[92] See Coronelli. Epitome.

[93] This privilege is quoted by Coronelli, Epitome, in introductory
pages.

[94] Coronelli. Epitome, pp. 334-342.

[95] La Hire, P. de. Description et explication des Globes qui sont
placés dans les pavillons du Château de Marly par ordre de Sa
Majesté. Paris, 1704.

[96] Born September 16, 1638.

[97] Ludolf, H. Jobi Ludolfi ... ad suam historiam Aetiopicam ante
hac editam commentarius. Francforti ad Moenum, 1691. p. 22.

[98] Marcel, G. Les Portugais dans l’Africe Australe. (In: Revue de
Géographie. Paris, 1890.)

[99] This château was erected in the year 1693.

[100] Cited by Fiorini, op. cit., p. 338.

[101] Viaggi, del P. C. p. 28. He gives us in this work a statement
of prices for his globes as follows:

“Globes of various sizes.

Celestial and terrestrial three and one half feet in diameter, with
the addition of many stars and of newly discovered lands, painted
and varnished, without supports, 100 ducats L.260:

The same with their supports and with meridian of brass 1240:

The same one foot and a half in diameter with their pedestals and
with brass meridians 155:

The same six and a half inches in diameter with feet and with
meridians L.31:

The same four and a half inches in diameter with their feet and with
meridians 24:16

The same two and a half inches in diameter with their feet and with
meridians 18:12”


[102] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 378.

[103] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 379.

[104] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 370.

[105] Porena, F. Un cartografo italiano del principio del secolo
XVIII. (In: Memorie della Società geog. ital. Roma, 1895. Vol. V,
pt. 1, p. 45.)

[106] Published in Mediolani, 1712.

[107] Bernardo, F. da Bologna. Biblioteca Scriptorum Ordinis Minorum
S. Francisci Capucinorum. Venetiis, 1747.

[108] Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 127.

[109] Laland states that these fifty-seven came into the possession
of the Jesuit College of Polotzk in Russia.

[110] Eimmarto, G. C. Sphaerae armillaris a Georgio Christophoro
Eimmarto ex aurichalco constitutae, interius systema planetarum ex
mente Copernici repraesentatis, brevis elucidatio, Ed. Jo. Christ.
Sturmio-Altdorfii, 1695.

[111] Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XXXIX, p. 242.

[112] This work was first published in London in the year 1599.

[113] As a result of Moxon’s interest in this field we have from him
one of the most satisfactory of the early manuals of typography,
bearing the title ‘Mechanick Exercises or the Doctrine of
Handy-Works applied to the Art of Printing,’ London, 1683. This work
was reprinted, “line-for-line and page-for-page” of the original,
with preface and notes by Theodore L. Devinne. New York, 1896. 2
Vols.

[114] It is from the last-mentioned work that the following
citations are made:

“Books. Moxon, J. A Tutor to Astronomy and Geography, or the Use of
both the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial; by Joseph Moxon, A
Member of the Royal Society, and Hydrographer to the Kings most
Excellent Majesty. Price 5s.

The Use of the Copernican Spheres, teaching to solve the Phaenomena
by them, as easily as by the Ptolomaick Spheres; by Joseph Moxon,
&c. Price 4s.

The Use of Astronomical Playing Cards, teaching an ordinary capacity
by them to be acquainted with all the Stars of Heaven; to know their
places, Colours, Natures and Bignesses. Also the Poetical Reasons
for every Constellation. Very useful, pleasant and delightful for
all lovers of Ingeniety. By Joseph Moxon, &c. Price 6d.

The Astronomical Cards. By Joseph Moxon, &c. Price plain 1s.
Coloured 1s. 6d. best coloured, and the Stars Gilt, 5s.

Geographical Playing Cards, wherein is exactly described all the
Kingdoms of the Earth, curiously engraved. Price Plain 1s. Coloured
2s. best Coloured and Gilt 5s. the Pack.

The English Globe, invented by the Right Honourable, the Earl of
Castlemaine (and of which this Book shews the use) containing about
a Foot in Diameter, are made by Joseph Moxon. Price ordinary made up
40s. and with the projection described in Section 6. of this Book.
Price 50s.

To the above is added the following interesting information:

A Catalogue of GLOBES, Celestial and Terrestrial, Spheres, Maps,
Sea-Plates, Mathematical Instruments, and Books, with their prizes,
made and sold by Joseph Moxon, on Ludgate-Hill, at the Sign of
Atlas.

GLOBES 26 Inches Diameter. The price 20l. the Pair.

GLOBES near 15 Inches Diameter. The Price 4l.

GLOBES 8 Inches Diameter. The price 2l.

GLOBES 6 Inches Diameter. The price 1l. 10s.

CONCAVE HEMISPHERES of the Starry Orb, which serves for a Case to a
Terrestrial Globe of 3 Inches Diameter, made portable for the
pocket. Price 15s.

SPHERES, according to the Copernican Hypothesis, both General and
Particular, 20 Inches Diameter. Price of the General 5l. of the
Particular 6l. of both together 10l.

SPHERES, according to the Ptolomaick System, 14 Inches Diameter.
Price 3l.

SPHERES, according to the Ptolomaick System, 8 Inches Diameter.
Price 1l. 10s.”

[115] The following works may be cited for further reference to
these early Chinese globes of Peking: Wylie, A. Mongol astronomical
instruments in Peking. (In: Chinese Researches, Shantung, 1897, Part
III, pp. 1-20.); Le Comte, L. D. Memories and Observations. London,
1699; Du Halde, J. B. Description géographique de l’empire de la
China. Paris, 1735; Yule, H. Travels of Marco Polo. London, 1893.
Vol. I, pp. 448-456, with four illustrations.

[116] Carton, Abbé C. Biographique sur le Père Ferdinand Verbiest.
Bruges, 1839; Thompson, J. Illustrations of China and its people.
London, 1874. Vol. iv.



Chapter XII

Globes and Globe Makers of the First Half of the Eighteenth
Century--from Delisle to Ferguson

  Activities of Guillaume Delisle.--Jean Dominique Cassini
  and his reforms.--Vincenzo Miot.--The globes of Gerhard
  and Leonhard Valk.--Activities of John Senex.--Nicolas
  Bion.--The armillary sphere of Carmelo Cartilia.--Mattheus
  Seutter of Augsburg.--Robert Morden.--Jean Antoine
  Nollet.--Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr of
  Nürnberg.--Terrestrial globe of Cusani.--Terrestrial
  globes of Siena.--The work of the monk Pietro Maria da
  Vinchio.--James Ferguson of Scotland.


Among the numerous globe makers of the eighteenth century, there are
few, if any, entitled to rank with Blaeu or Hondius, with Greuter or
Coronelli of the seventeenth. There was much written during the period,
it is true, on the value of globes in geographical and astronomical
studies, and there were many globes constructed, of which a very
considerable number still have a place in our libraries, museums, and
private collections.

With the improvements in scientific map construction, improvements
amounting to a complete reformation, and ushered in during the closing
years of the seventeenth century and the opening years of the
eighteenth, by such men as Riccioli, Picard, Cassini, and Delisle, not
to mention a number of their distinguished immediate predecessors and
contemporaries, the last above-named working through the patronage of
the Royal Academy of Science of France,[117]--with these improvements
there appears to have been a decline in the relative value which the
late sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries set upon globes. Once
regarded as an essential part of a seaman’s instruments for use in
navigation, they gave place, just as the portolan chart of the earlier
day gave place, to an improved sailor’s chart. Globe makers, however, of
this period, such as Delisle and Bion, as Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, as
Vaugondy and Fortin, as Ferguson and Adams, have an honorable place in
the history of globes and of globe construction.

France was leading at the turn of the seventeenth century in the field
of geographical and astronomical science, a fact in part due to the
generous subsidy allowed by royalty. Guillaume Delisle (1675-1726),
perhaps the greatest among the reformers active in these years in
improving the methods of map construction, was a native of Paris, in
which city he passed practically his entire life.[118] The father,
Claude Delisle, famous as a teacher of history and geography, inspired
in his son a particular love for the latter subject, or perhaps this may
the better be referred to as a love for historical geography. The period
was one in which there was much emphasis placed upon the relationship
existing between the two branches of study, and it is interesting to
note that this phase of geographical study is again coming into
favor.[119]

Doubtless it was in part the influence of Cassini’s teaching which found
expression in Delisle’s lifelong efforts to eliminate the numerous
errors which he had found existing in the maps of his day, efforts which
even in his early life won for him distinction as a map maker. In the
year 1700, when he was but twenty-five years of age, there appeared
under his name a world map and likewise maps of the several
continents.[120] In these there was exhibited much originality, they
being constructed in the main on the basis of astronomical observations
which had been made at the Royal

[Illustration: Fig. 118a. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Ludovicus Andreae,
1717.]

Academy. Hitherto the Ptolemaic cartography had exerted an overpowering
influence. Errors in the location of places still remained on the maps,
attributable in large part to that ancient cosmographer, who continued
for so long a period a most influential teacher of geography and map
making after the renaissance of his ‘Cosmographia’ in the early
fifteenth century. Among the greatest errors still to be found in the
maps in Delisle’s day was the excessive length given to the
Mediterranean, this being about sixty-two degrees of longitude instead
of its correct length, which is about forty-two, and the extension of
Asia much too far to eastward, together with other errors following upon
these.[121] Delisle, having the support of the Royal Academy, and of the
King himself, was able to carry through the reforms in map construction,
the fundamental principles of which, it is true, had been suggested
before his day, based upon such astronomical observations as were those
of Cassini, Picard, and La Hire, wherein there had been an attempt to
determine the exact location in longitude of important places on the
earth’s surface and wherein they had been aided by the use of the
telescope. Through the employment of this instrument they were able to
fix the exact time of eclipses and determine the time of the transit of
the moons of Jupiter.[122] In the ‘Journal des Savants’ of the year 1700
is given a letter addressed to the engraver and map maker, Nolin, and
signed “Delisle.” In this there is reference to a manuscript globe of
the year 1696, the implication being that Guillaume was its author.[123]
The probability is that we have here a letter written by Claude, the
father, it being hardly probable that the son drafted a globe map at the
age of twenty-one. We, however, know, as before stated, that he achieved
great distinction through the maps he published in the year 1700, when
he was but twenty-five, and we are also informed that even at the age of
eight he attracted attention to himself through the maps he drew to
illustrate ancient history.

In the same year that he published his epoch-making maps he issued the
first edition of his globes, those having a diameter of about 31 cm. and
those having a diameter of about 15 cm. The globe balls were constructed
of papier-mâché covered with plaster over which were pasted the gore
maps, each map composed of twelve parts with the usual polar discs. The
engraver, we are told, in a brief legend on the terrestrial globe, was
Carolus Simonneau, “Car. Simon. del. et sculpsit.” On the larger of the
terrestrial globes is the title legend “Globe terrestre dressé sur les
observations de l’Académie Royale des sciences et autres mémoires,” and
a dedication reading, “À Son Altesse Royale Monseigneur Le Duc de
Chartres. Par son très humble et très obéissant serviteur G. De l’Isle
Géographie. Berey sculpsit.”

The celestial globe bears the title, “Globe céleste calculé pour l’an
1700. Sur les observations les plus récents. Par. G. De l’Isle
Géographe,” and is dedicated “À Son Altesse Royale Monseigneur le Duc de
Chartres. Par son très humble et très obéissant Serviteur De l’Isle,”
with the following reference to the privilege “À Paris Chez l’Auteur sur
le Quai de l’Horologe à la Couronne de Diamans. Avec Privilége du Roy
pour 20 ans. 1700.”

While it has not been possible to obtain a detailed description of
Delisle’s globe maps, they are referred to as giving practically the
same information as his plane maps, many of the latter to be found in
our important library collections, and cannot be considered rare.[124]

The several constellations which he has represented on his celestial
globes are those of Ptolemy to which have been added two in the northern
hemisphere and thirteen in the southern, and the year chosen for the
representation of the position of the stars is 1700. In general the
names chosen for the several constellations are French, though a few are
in Latin.

[Illustration: Fig. 118. Terrestrial Globe of Guillaume Delisle, 1700.]

A pair of Delisle’s globes may be found in the Königliches Museum of
Cassel, dated 1709; a pair dated 1700 in the Museo di Strumenti Antichi
of Florence, and a terrestrial globe dated 1700 in the Real Biblioteca
of Madrid (Fig. 118).

Weigel, Castlemaine, Coronelli, and Treffler, as has been noted,
represented a tendency in globe construction in their day which we have
referred to as the ultrapractical. It was impossible that their ideas
should find anything like a general acceptance and approval. A globe
eleven or fifteen feet in diameter, in the better judgment of
astronomers and geographers, could not be counted as possessing superior
scientific value, and globes of such dimensions seem only to have won
the praise of the novelty-loving contemporaries, and the same general
criticism may be passed upon the smaller globes of Castlemaine and
Treffler. Perhaps, however, one may well add that in all this a desire
was expressing itself for improvement in globe construction.

In this connection attention may be called to a plan for reform in globe
making proposed by Jean Dominique Cassini (1625-1712), one of the most
famous astronomers of the period.[125] Cassini was a native of
Périnaldo, Italy (Fig. 119). Early in life he became interested in the
study of astronomy, and at the age of twenty-five received an
appointment as professor of this science at the University of Bologna.
Recommended by Colbert as one worthy his royal master’s patronage,
Cassini in 1669 accepted the invitation of Louis XIV to fill the chair
of astronomy in the Collège de France, a position once held by Pierre
Gassendi.[126] In 1671 he became the director of the Royal Observatory
of Paris, a position held in succession by four generations of his
family. To him we owe the determination of the rotation periods of
Jupiter, Venus, and Mars, the discovery of four of Saturn’s satellites
and the determination of their periods of revolution. He devoted much
time and study to the problem of the obliquity of the ecliptic, to the
precession of the equinoxes,[127] and to the determination of the
latitude and longitude of places.[128] This precession, he found, could
not be represented on a celestial globe such as hitherto had been
constructed, and he set himself to the task of devising one on a new
plan. The position of the constellations, as indicated on the ordinary
celestial globe, he, as others, noted would soon be found to be
inaccurate. What he proposed was a globe capable of such adjustment as
to obviate this difficulty; in other words, he proposed the construction
of a globe by means of which this perpetual change might be indicated,
or one which would serve to indicate the position of the several
constellations at any time, past, present or future.

It was to Nicolas Bion, map and globe maker of Paris that the astronomer
Cassini entrusted the manufacture of such an instrument, and it is from
him that we have a brief description of its peculiar features.[129] He
tells us that the sphere on which the several constellations were
represented was enclosed within a number of armillae representing the
celestial circles, that is, the colures, the ecliptic, the tropics, the
equator, and the polar circles. This inner sphere was attached to a
meridian circle at the poles of its equator, within which circle it
turned as the ordinary sphere, and it was also attached to the same
meridian at the poles of the ecliptic. Around this polar axis of the
ecliptic the sphere, with the attached meridian, could be made to
revolve, the pole of the equator in its revolution tracing a circle
having a radius of twenty-three and a half degrees, a complete
revolution being made to represent a period of twenty-five thousand two
hundred years, or the time required for the complete precession of the
equinox according to his reckoning. This pole in its circle of
revolution could be immovably set at any desired point to represent any
time past or future, and the sphere then revolved around the pole of the
equator. The several stars or constellations could thus be represented
in their proper position for the time selected. Bion’s reference to this
globe seems to assure us that he completed its construction, yet no
trace of it has been left, unless we have such in a record to be found
in the history of the Royal Academy for the year 1727. In this we
find that a globe constructed on the principle laid down by Cassini was
presented to the Academy, in the year designated, by Outhier, a priest
of Besançon.[130] This globe, which has disappeared, had the double
movements, one about the axis of the equator and one about the axis of
the ecliptic. It was a globe which would represent the daily and annual
movements of the sun, the difference between the true and the mean time,
the movements of the moon and its phases, the eclipses, and the passing
of the several fixed stars across the meridian.

[Illustration: Fig. 119. Portrait of Jean Dominique Cassini.]

[Illustration: Fig. 123. Portrait of Nicolas Bion.]

Vincenzo Miot, a little-known Italian globe maker of the early
eighteenth century, holds a place among the men who were interested in
this field, through one extant example of his work, this being a small
celestial, having a diameter of about 17 cm.[131] Its author and date
legend reads, “Sphaera Mundi majoribus et minoribus circulis distincta
praecipuisque stellis in nostro Horizonte conspicuis ornata ad annum
1710. Studio et opera D. Vincentio Miot.” “World globe marked by large
and small circles, and adorned with the principal stars visible in our
horizon calculated for the year 1710. By the learning and labor of D.
Vincentio Miot.” The sphere is covered with an engraved map showing the
several constellations and the principal celestial circles. Its twelve
segments are fashioned to terminate at the poles of the ecliptic,
instead of at the poles of the equator, a practice not uncommon. The
globe has a simple mounting of wood, is reported to be in good
condition, and may be found in the Liceo Marco Foscarini of Venice, to
which library it came, in the year 1807, from the Convent of S. Georgio
Maggiore.

It is not a little surprising that our information is so meager
concerning men as active in the field of map and globe making as were
Gerhard and Leonhard Valk in the latter part of the seventeenth and
early eighteenth century. We cannot be certain of their relationship;
apparently they were not brothers, as has been sometimes stated. If
there is not left to us a biographical word by any admiring or
appreciative contemporary of these praiseworthy Netherlanders, there is
extant a very considerable amount of their work which warrants our
giving them rank well toward the van of those interested in their
particular field. Of the two, Gerhard seems to have been the more
prominent, his name very frequently appearing as the engraver or maker
of many of the maps one finds in the collective atlases of the early
eighteenth century.[132] With Leonhard he was the maker of globes, large
and small, ranging from about 7 cm. to 46 cm. in diameter, of which a
very considerable number may still be found in our libraries and
museums.

In an undated work published by Gerhard on the uses of celestial and
terrestrial globes,[133] he tells us of the improvements he introduced,
noting that he had attempted to give the location of the stars on his
celestial globe as late as 1700, while on those issued prior to his own,
the dates selected were in general 1640 or 1660. The suggestion
contained herein is that he at least began the construction of his
globes as early as 1700, although none are now known bearing date so
early.[134] There appears to be an example of his work in the University
Library of Ghent, dated 1707, but a description of this it has not been
possible to obtain. The date most commonly found on the Valk globes is
1750, all of which, if correctly dated, were issued long after their
death.

The Hispanic Society of America possesses three pairs of the Valk
globes, each apparently dated 1750, though in some instances, as noted
below, these dates have been altered by skilfully cutting out the last
two figures of the original and inserting the number 50. The diameter of
each of the largest pair is 46 cm. (Fig. 120). Each is supplied with a
graduated meridian circle of brass, the celestial being furnished with a
brass hour circle and pointer, and the terrestrial with a brass quadrant
of altitude. Each is further furnished with a broad horizon circle of
wood on which has been pasted an engraved paper giving the names of the
signs of the zodiac, the various chronological signs, such as golden
numbers, epacta, and dominical letters, the names of the months, and
points of the compass, including both the old and the new nomenclature
for the directions of winds, as “Borro Lybicus” or “Noord-West,”
“Zephyrus” or “West.” The under supports of the globes consist in each
instance of four turned columns attached at their lower extremities by
crossbars on which rests a circular turned plate 42 cm. in diameter.
From the center of these plates rises a post 10 cm. in length through a
notch in which the brass meridian circle is made to pass in moving the
globes to an adjustment for any desired altitude. The gores of each are
twelve in number, those of the terrestrial globe having an equatorial
mounting while those of the celestial globe have an ecliptic mounting,
that is, the meridian lines pass from pole to pole of the ecliptic
instead of from pole to pole of the equator. In each, the gores have
been truncated twenty degrees from the poles, the polar space being
covered by circular discs. The engraving of both the terrestrial and the
celestial map is exquisitely done, and much of the color originally
applied by hand yet remains. The several figures representing the
constellations are copies of the figures as represented by Hevelius in
his ‘Prodromus Astronomiae,’ and reference to this great astronomer is
made in the title legend quoted below. These figures are among the most
artistic representations to be found on any of the globes of the period,
which the author is preparing to reissue in facsimile as a by-product of
these globe studies. (Fig. 120a.)

[Illustration: Fig. 120. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk,
1750 (?).]

[Illustration: Fig. 120a. Southern Hemisphere of Celestial Globe by
Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, with Author and Date Legend, 1750 (?).]

Between the constellations “Cetus” and “Phoenix” on the celestial globe
is a cartouch which appears to have been pasted over an older title,
reading, “Uranographia Syderum et Stelarum in Singulis Syderibus
conspicuarum, exhibens Delineatonem accuratissimam qua ex
observationibus Astronomi plane Singularis Johannis Hevelii usque ad
finem anni MDCC emendata est. Nova praeterea methodo additus est ex
mente Lotharii Zumbach M.D. et Mathem. Cearis Horizon ad Meridianum
Amstelaedamensem accurate per annos plures quam ducentos Lunae Syzygias
indicans praeter annos communes et bissextiles. Opera et Studio Gerhardi
et Leonhardi Valk Amstelaedamensium 17[50].” “Uranography of the
constellations and of the single stars, exhibiting an accurate
delineation (of the same) corrected from the observations of the
renowned astronomer Johannes Hevelius, and conformed to the year 1700.
Besides a new method is added, the invention of Lothar Zumbach, M. D.,
and a renowned mathematician, accurately exhibiting the horizon on the
meridian of Amsterdam for more than 200 years, also the changes of the
moon in addition to the common years and leap years. By the learning and
the labor of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, citizens of Amsterdam, 1750.”

Near the constellation Argo appears the dedication to the Burgomaster of
Amsterdam and President of the East India Company, Johannes Trip J. U.
D. (1664-1732). In this there is, of course, conclusive evidence that
the globe must have been made before the year 1732. The dedication
reads, “Viro amplissima dignitate ac meritorum Splendore, conspicuo
Johanni Trip J. U. D. Reipublicae Amstelaedamensis Consuli Gravissimo,
Societatis Indiae Orientalis Moderatori integerrimo Toparchae in
Berkenroden iustissimo & hanc Universi Orbis Terrarum Faciem eâ quâ par
est reverentia D. D. D. Gerhardus et Leonhardus Valk.” “To John Tripp J.
U. D., Consul of the Amsterdam Republic, President of the East India
Company, the upright and honorable magistrate of Berkenrode, a man
conspicuous by reason of his great worth and the splendor of his
achievements, this globe is dedicated with reverence which is befitting
by Gerhard and Leonhard Valk.”

Near the first legend has been pasted the following brief printed
statement, “Propter motum, Stellarum fixarum versus ortum post annum
1750 additione 3/4 gr. Correctio Longitudinum ut instituatur monendus
Uranophilus.” “Because of the movement of the fixed stars toward the
east since the year 1750, the student of astronomy is advised to correct
the longitude by the addition of 3/4 of a degree.” The terrestrial
globe map, composed of eighteen gores, is filled with interesting
geographical details, with geographical names and brief explanatory
legends, being a fine example of the superior cartographical work
published in that century in the Netherlands. There is something of an
exaggeration in the representation by waving line of the several coasts
and river courses, all of which appears to have been done for artistic
effect rather than for a desire to be strictly accurate. In the New
World we find such regional names as “Penn-Sylvania,” the first part of
the name being north of Lake Ontario, also “Carolina,” “Virginia,”
“Belgia Nova,” “Anglia,” “Scotia Nova.” Many provincial names are given
in South America with boundary lines drawn. California is represented as
an island, stretching northward to “Fretum Aniani.” To the west of this
stretches as far as the northeast coast of Asia, through about
seventy-five degrees of longitude with definitely drawn southern coast
line but extending indefinitely northward, a continental region bearing
the legend “Terra incognita sive terra Esonis.” Loxodromic lines are
represented as on the best globes of the period radiating from numerous
compass roses located along the meridians 0 degrees, 180 degrees, and
270 degrees. Frobisher’s Strait is strangely duplicated at the southern
extremity of Greenland. The title legend of this terrestrial globe,
placed in the southern Pacific, reads, “Universi Orbis Terrarum Facies
cum industria ac fide Secundum certissimas et novissimas
Praestantissimiorum Geographorum Observationes denuo luci exposita;
cuique praeterea longitudinis et latitudinis gradus Secundum
Uranographiam novam, ac proinde &c. rei veritate sunt inscripti per
Gerhardum et Leonhardum Valk, Amstelaedamenses 1750, cum privilegio.” “A
representation of the land of the whole earth exhibited with industry
and accuracy according to the most reliable and the most recent
observations of the most renowned geographers, on which, in addition the
degrees of latitude and longitude according to a new method and also in
accord with truth, have been inserted by Gerhard and Leonhard Valk.
Amsterdam. 1750. With privilege.”

In the second pair of Valk globes belonging to The Hispanic Society of
America (Fig. 121), both terrestrial and celestial have diameters of
about 30 cm. The mounting of these globes is practically the same as
that in the larger pair. An author and date legend appearing in the
Pacific to the west of South America reads: “Cosmotheore. Coelesti
nostro Globo, Par et plane Novus. Hic Terrestris Ut existeret: certo
facias: Errore Veterum Sublatô, Non tantum Utrisque Orbis Longitudines
ac Latitudines, per reiteratas Neotericorum Observationes. Hiccè esse
restitutas; Sed et nullum typis Emendatiorum pro diisse, Hoc igitur
Novissimô tam diu fruere, Donec, sub Majori forma, Meō aere Alios
excudemus. Ger. et Leon. Valk Calcographi Amstelaedami. Revis. Aᵒ 1750
Cum Privilegio.” “Cosmotherium. That this terrestrial globe might equal
(be a companion to) our celestial globe and entirely new, be assured
that after correcting the errors of those who have preceded us, not only
the longitudes and latitudes of each sphere have been corrected by the
repeated observations of later astronomers, but likewise no (globe) has
appeared more carefully corrected in the printing. This most recent
globe therefore make use of until in a larger form at my own expense we
Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, engravers shall construct others. Amsterdam.
Revised to the year 1750. With privilege.”

[Illustration: Fig. 121. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk,
1750 (?).]

A dedication, such as appears on the first pair referred to, is wanting.
There is no particular improvement to be noted in this revision.
California is still laid down as an island. The uncertainty as to the
outline of “Holandia Nova” is a striking feature, as is the omission of
an austral continent. Geographical details are less numerous than in the
larger pair, but in the matter of the engraving of the map it exhibits
practically the same characteristics.

The celestial globe map has the author and date legend placed near the
constellation “Cetus.” It reads, “Uranographia Coelum omne hic
Complectens, illa pro ut aucta, et ad annum 1750 Completum MAGNO ab
HEVELIO correcta est; ita ejus ex Prototypis, sua noviter haec Ectypa
veris Astronomiae cultoribus exhibet et consecrant GER. et LEON. VALK,
Amstelaedamenses. Cum Privilegio.” “Star-Map comprising the entire
heavens according as it has been corrected to the end of the year 1750
by the Great Hevelius; so from his prototype Gerhard and Leonhard Valk
present and dedicate these their own recent copies to the true lovers of
astronomy. With privilege.”

Near this legend, now appearing as a part of the original engraving, is
that which, in the larger globe referred to above, had been pasted on as
a separate slip, reading “Propter motum ... Uranophilus.” Near the
constellation “Hydra” is the legend reading “Monitum Novis hisce
Sphaeris Novissimus. Ex praescripto Lotharii Zum-Bach Med. Doct. unus,
et alter additus Horizon: Quorum Is, qui huic Caelesti singularis,
Praeter Communes atque Bissextilem, Ut exactior, Luminarium indigetur
Locus ad Meridianum Amstelodamens. Plus quam per Ducentos Annos, Suis
Mensium Diebus Appositas Lunae Syzygias, Mediô Tempore Medias, Ingeniosâ
Methodō et eruit, et exhibet.” “Notice. To these our spheres, in accord
with the directions of Lothar Zum-Bach, Doctor of Medicine, there has
been added one very recent, and also a second horizon; of these two the
one which belongs to the celestial globe has in addition the common and
bissextile years, in order that the location of the stars may the more
exactly be discovered; it both works out and exhibits by an ingenious
method, according to the meridian of Amsterdam, over a space of more
than two hundred years the syzygies of the moon placed opposite their
proper days of the month, the middle ones being in the middle time.”

Each of these globes is well preserved, the colors originally applied
remaining particularly bright in the southern hemispheres, these being
better protected from light and from injuries incident to the more
exposed upper surfaces.

In the third pair of Valk globes belonging to The Hispanic Society (Fig.
121a) the diameter of each is about 23 cm. In geographical details, in
legends, etc., each of these agrees with the preceding second pair. It
is, however, to be noted that the date on the terrestrial globe has the
figure 50 appearing in the date 1750 skilfully inserted after the
removal of the original, and that the loxodromic lines are on this more
numerous; indeed, it is one of the most interesting globes examined for
the representation of these lines, which become curiously, but
necessarily, somewhat intricate in their crossings as they approach the
poles. Of the three pairs of these globes referred to above, this third
pair seems to be the best preserved; the only injury to be especially
noted is that appearing on the celestial, this being a crack in the
surface extending from pole to pole. The original colors in each are
particularly well preserved.

In addition to the examples of Valk globes referred to above as
belonging to the University of Ghent and to The Hispanic Society of
America, a pair may be found in the Königliches Museum of Cassel, said
by Gerland to be dated 1715, and to have each a diameter of 45 cm., also
a terrestrial globe in the same museum said to be dated, though
doubtless erroneously, 1700, and to have a diameter of 23 cm., also a
celestial globe of the same date having a diameter of 30 cm. In the
Mathematische Salon of Dresden is a celestial globe having a diameter of
30 cm., and a pair in the Museo di Fisica of Bologna, the diameter of
each being about 46 cm. The date has not been ascertained. In the
Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg may be found a well-preserved
pair of the Valk globes said to be dated 1700 and to have each a
diameter of 31 cm.

[Illustration: Fig. 121a. Celestial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk,
1750 (?).]

John Senex, a noted English cartographer and engraver (d. 1749),[135]
appears to have given some attention to the construction of globes,
which were sold at his establishment in Salisbury Court, London. In
the year 1714 we find his name associated with that of John Maxwell in
the issue of ‘The English Atlas,’ and in 1721 he appears as the editor
of ‘A New General Atlas.’ It was in the year 1720 that he made a
representation to the House of Commons on the subject of “A New Globular
Projection,” with the thought of eliciting encouragement for the
employment of better methods in map construction. He became a Fellow of
the Royal Society in 1728, and in 1738 read before that society a noted
paper on his “Contrivance to make the Poles of the Diurnal Motion in a
Celestial Globe pass round the Poles of the Ecliptic.” This globe was to
be “so adjusted as to exhibit not only the risings and the settings of
the stars in all ages and in all latitudes, but the other phenomena
likewise, that depend upon the motion of the diurnal axis round the
annual axis.” From what is stated in this paper one is led to associate
his idea with that of Cassini, to which attention was directed above.
If, however, such a globe was constructed as that referred to in this
scientific address it is not now known. Five of his globes have been
located, two of them undated, and three of them dated 1793, which, if
the correct date of issue, it will be noted, is more than fifty years
after his death. A pair of his globes may be found in the Bibliothèque
Nationale of Paris undated. These are reported as having a diameter of
about 40 cm. They are furnished with brass meridian circles, with
horizon circles of wood, and each with a wooden base. The dedication
reads: “Philosopho ac Geometrae summo Dᵒ Isaaco Newton, equiti, Regalis
Societatis Londini, ad scientias promovendas institutae, Praesidi
dignissimo, ejusdemque consilio et sodalibus hos Globos qua par est
humilitate D.D. C. Johannes Senex. London.” “To the great philosopher
and geometrician Sir Isaac Newton, Knight, most worthy President of the
Royal Society of London, for the promotion of knowledge, and to the
Committee and Members of the same Society these globes with befitting
humility are dedicated by C. John Senex. London.” Further descriptive
details of these globes it has not been possible to obtain.

The Biblioteca Real of Madrid possesses a terrestrial globe by Senex
(Fig. 122), which bears the title legend, “A new and most correct Globe
of the Earth laid down from the latest observations from the most
judicious astronomers, navigators, & travelers, by John Senex, F. R. S.
Now made and sold by Dudley Adams (only)[136] with all the latest
discoveries together with many new improvements etc. 1793.” This globe
has a diameter of about 40 cm., is furnished with a broad band which
serves as a horizon circle, a meridian circle of brass within which it
is made to revolve, and a tripod base. Its three fluted support columns
are strengthened in their position by three curved iron braces which
carry at their juncture a short carved post, through a slot in which the
brass meridian is movable. While the surface of the sphere is somewhat
injured, being crossed by numerous cracks, the engraved map is fairly
legible in all of its parts.

[Illustration: Fig. 122. Terrestrial Globe of John Senex, 1793.]

The British Museum likewise possesses one of Senex’s terrestrial globes,
which seems to be practically like that to be found in the Madrid
Library.

It will have been noted that many of those reputed to have been globe
makers in these early years did not actually apply themselves to the
constructive mechanical work, this being passed over to skilled
artisans, to workers in metal and wood, to engravers and to mathematical
instrument makers, who, if possessing generally recognized ability,
often insisted on having their names associated in the author legends
with the real authors of the globes. Nicolas Bion (1652-1733) may be
cited as an excellent example of such a skilful workman, achieving in
his day great distinction as a globe maker.[137] He seems not to have
thought of himself as one meriting special honors as geographer,
cartographer or astronomer (Fig. 123). By reason of his marked
abilities, exhibited in the manufacture of mathematical instruments,
he was honored by his royal patron with the title Engineer of the King
for Mathematical Instruments. Through his principal work,[138] a
treatise on the construction and uses of globes in which the subject is
treated in both a theoretical and a practical manner, he is entitled to
rank with the leaders of the century in this particular field of
scientific endeavor. True to the spirit of the age Bion gave much
thought to the idea of reform in the matter of globe construction,
especially in the matter of fashioning globe gores and their attachment
to the surface of the sphere. He seems to have prospered in his
business, and we are told by his son that he constructed numerous
armillary spheres, likewise many terrestrial and celestial globes of
various sizes. Reference is made above to a task assigned to him by the
great astronomer, Cassini.[139]

A few of the globes of this distinguished man have been located. Fiorini
reports[140] that one of his celestial globes may be found in the
private library of Count Malvezzi de’ Medici of Bologna, having a
diameter of about 32 cm. Its twelve gores have been cut at latitude 70
degrees both north and south, the polar spaces being covered by four
sectors instead of by the usual circular disc. The globe is made to
revolve on its equatorial axis, not on the axis of the ecliptic. It has
a simple mounting, including a meridian circle of brass and a horizon
circle of wood. Star names are given in French and in Latin. The
dedication reads, “Dédié et présenté à Monseigneur le Dauphin par son
très humble et très obéissant Bion,” but there appears to be some
uncertainty about the date, which is probably between 1700 and 1710.
There is one of Bion’s terrestrial globes dated 1712 and dedicated to
“Monseigneur le Duc de Berry,” in the Istituto tecnico of Florence,
which is reported to be in a good state of preservation. Loxodromic
lines are drawn on the map in accord with the best practices of the
time, which radiate from wind or compass roses, one being placed on the
equator and one at latitude 35 degrees south. A third terrestrial globe
made by Bion may be found in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Rome, which
is wanting both dedication and place of publication.

The Osservatorio Astronomico also possesses a fine armillary sphere, the
work of Carmelo Cartilia,[141] the diameter of whose largest or meridian
circle is about 26 cm. It is described by a former director of the
observatory as being made of brass, and a companion of a globe
constructed by Bion, having a similar mounting. The equatorial circle,
the tropics, and the colures have the usual graduation. The ecliptic
consists of a band 4 cm. in width, having engraved on its surface the
signs of the zodiac and the days of the months. At the north pole is
attached an hour circle with index. At the common center of the circles
is a small ball 27 mm. in diameter representing the earth, through which
the axis of the ecliptic passes. Around this small ball is adjusted a
circle on which is engraved the word “Luna.” There is an additional
small circle which represents the course of the sun, and attached to
this is a silvered ball to represent that luminary. Circles are provided
representing the planets, on which we find such names as “Marti,”
“Giove,” “Saturno,” and circles around the sun representing the course
of the planets Mercury and Venus. On one of the supporting arms of the
sphere is the author and date legend, reading, “Carmelus Cartilia et
Francalancia Siculus fecit Taurini anno dñi 1720.”

Mattheus Seutter (1678-1756) was a map and globe maker of this period,
whose activities centered in the city of Augsburg.[142] His early
training as engraver was received in the establishment of Johann
Baptista Homann in the city of Nürnberg, but in the year 1707 he
established himself in his native city, Augsburg, setting up an
independent business for the production of maps, globes, and
mathematical instruments. Seutter holds his place in the history of
cartography not so much by reason of the high quality of the work done
as by reason of the quantity.[143] The number of maps, large and
small, battle plans and city plans, charts geneological, chronological,
and heraldic, which he published may be counted by the hundreds, the
majority being modified copies of maps and charts which others had
previously issued. As a reward for the dedication of his large atlas to
the Emperor Charles VI, issued in the year 1725, he was named “Imperial
Geographer,” a title which had been held by Homann until his death in
the year 1727.

Following the practice of the more prominent map makers of the period,
Seutter turned his attention to globe construction, and not a few
examples of his work can still be found. Some of his globes were of
large size, having a diameter of about 160 cm. The terrestrial as well
as the celestial globe balls he covered with twelve engraved sections,
or twice twelve, these being cut at the line of the equator, and at
latitude sixty-seven both north and south, the polar space being
covered, as was usual, with a circular cap or disc. The mountings of
these globes consist of a wooden meridian circle and a graduated wooden
horizon circle, having each on the upper surface the usual concentric
rings with the names of the months, the names and signs of the zodiacal
constellations, and the names of the principal winds, the whole being
supported by two semicircles attached below to a single columnar base 28
cm. in length. A brief author legend reads, “Globus terrestris juxta
recentissimas observation: et navigation: peritissimor: Geograph:
delineat. cura et sumptibus Matth. Seutteri Calcogr: August.”
“Terrestrial globe according to the most recent observations and voyages
of the most skilled geographers. Made by the labor and at the expense of
Mattheus Seutter renowned engraver.”

The maps on these globes present no features of special scientific
value, the author following in the main the best contemporary
geographical and astronomical records. It should, however, be noted that
he introduced an improvement in the construction and printing of the
circular polar discs. To the end of remedying the difficulty in
attaching this part of the covering, having observed, as others, that
the paper would expand with the application of paste, and could
therefore not be adjusted with the strictest accuracy and nicety, he
conceived the idea of cutting from this disc a very small section or
small sections, so that when it was applied to the sphere after being
moistened with the paste the amount of stretching was sufficient to
cover the space. In other words, he made his circular disc one of 350
degrees instead of one having the full 360 degrees. In this connection,
it might be noted that the quality of the paper was an element always to
be taken into account in calculating the amount of expansion after
moistening.

A pair of Seutter’s globes may be found in the Biblioteca Comunale of
Macerata. A copy of the terrestrial is reported in 1892 to have been in
the private library of Professor Maximilian Tono of Venice, a pair in
the Museo Astronomico of Rome (Figs. 124, 125) and also in this museum
may be found a complete set of the gores for one of his terrestrial as
well as a set for one of his celestial globes, but which by Professor
Jacoli of Venice have been thought to be reprints and not originals. A
copy of the celestial globe may be found in the Biblioteca Universitario
of Urbino.

[Illustration: Fig. 124. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710.]

[Illustration: Fig. 125. Celestial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710.]

[Illustration: Fig. 125a. Terrestrial Globe of Van Lauen Zonen, 1745.]

Robert Morden,[144] active in London in the closing years of the
seventeenth and early years of the eighteenth century as map and globe
maker, seems, however, not to have won for himself a place of particular
prominence, his maps not being held in especially high repute. He was
for some time associated with Thomas Cockrill at “The Sign of the Atlas”
in Cornhill. Morden, however, published a small work on geography and
navigation in the year 1702, in which he attempted to set forth the
value attaching to globes for those interested in the general subject of
which he treated in his work.[145] While his map publications are
numerous, it has been possible to locate only the gores of one of his
globes, which gores may be found in the British Museum. Of the twelve
sections which made up a complete set for covering a sphere about 35
cm. in diameter, but nine remain, three having disappeared.

Jean Antoine Nollet, a French physicist (1700-1770), was a man of
science held in high esteem in his day.[146] In his early years he
entered the College of Clermont, later studied philosophy at the
University of Paris, where, against the wishes of his parents, he
finally turned his attention to the study of the natural sciences,
particularly to experimental physics. Early in his career he was honored
with membership in the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris and in other
similar organizations in Europe. In the year 1739 he was called to the
Court of Sardinia, where he gave lessons in physics to the Duke of
Savoy. Later he was called to the University of Turin, and was here
especially honored by having his name associated with those who were the
founders of the institution. In the year 1753 he was called to the chair
of physics at the College of Navarre, which position he so acceptably
filled that he received the title Master of Physics and of Natural
History for the Royal Children of France. His published works, which are
very numerous, treat of his studies in the physical sciences,
particularly in the field of electricity.

Nollet’s instruments, made for use in the study of the physical
sciences, included terrestrial and celestial globes, six of which have
been located, dated 1728 and 1730. The spheres are of papier-mâché,
having each a diameter of about 35 cm.[147] The engraved maps covering
the spheres are composed of twelve gores, which are cut at the line of
the equator but extend to the poles, omitting therefore the usual polar
circular discs. Each is furnished with a horizon circle of wood, on the
surface of which is the usual paper covering with the names of the
principal directions, of the zodiacal constellations, and of the names
of the months in concentric circles. Each also has a graduated meridian
circle, the whole resting on a base of four turned and rather
artistically fashioned columns.

His terrestrial globes have the following title: “Globe terrestre dressé
sur les observations les plus nouvelles et le plus exactes approuvées
par Mʳˢ de l’Académie Royale des sciences. À Paris avec privilège du
Roi. Monté par l’auteur.” “Terrestrial globe made according to the most
recent and the most exact and approved observations by the Royal Academy
of Sciences. Paris, with the approval of the King. Made by the author.”
The dedication reads “Dédié et présenté à S. A. Madame La Duchesse du
Maine par son très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur Nollet Lic. en
Théologie. 1728.” “Dedicated and presented to Her Highness the Duchess
of Maine by her very humble and very obedient servant Nollet Licentiate
in Theology. 1728.” Numerous inscriptions relate to well-known
geographical discoveries. Meridian and parallel circles are drawn on the
globe at intervals of five degrees, the principal ones, including the
equator, the tropics, and polar circles, being made especially
prominent. The prime meridian, passing through the Island of Ferro, is
designated “premier méridien de l’Isle Fer. Déclaration du Roi Louis
XIII du Juil. 1634.”

The celestial globe is titled “Globe céleste calculé pour l’année 1730
sur les observations les plus nouvelles et les plus exactes. À Paris
avec privilège du Roi. Bailleul le jeune sculpsit. Monté par l’auteur.”
“Celestial globe calculated to the year 1730 according to the most
recent and the most exact observations. Paris, with the privilege of the
King. Bailleul the younger engraver. Constructed by the author.” It is
dedicated “Dédié et présenté à S. A. S. Monseigneur le Comte de Clermont
par son très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur Nollet de la Société des
Arts. 1730.” “Dedicated and presented to His Most Serene Highness
Seigneur The Count of Clermont by his very humble and very obedient
servant Nollet of the Society of Arts. 1730.” The equatorial circle and
the ecliptic, as represented on the map, are graduated, but the tropics
and the polar circles are merely drawn as continuous black lines. The
figures representing the several Ptolemaic constellations are
artistically drawn and retain much of their original color, which was
added by hand at the time of construction.

Of Nollet’s globes a pair may be found in the Biblioteca Maldotti of
Guastalla, a pair in the Seminario Vescovile of Mondovi, a copy of the
terrestrial in the Archivo Fenaroli of Brescia, and a copy of the
celestial in the Museo Astronomico of Rome.

Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1671-1750) was one of Nürnberg’s famous
eighteenth-century mathematicians who was especially distinguished as
writer, translator, editor, and teacher.[148] A part of his early
training he received at the Egedian Gymnasium of his native town, where
from 1704 to the time of his death he was actively engaged as teacher of
mathematics and physics. In the year 1696 we find him registered as a
student of law at the University of Altdorf, though turning betimes with
much enthusiasm to the study of mathematics under the direction of Joh.
Christoph Sturm. In the year 1700, after some months passed at the
University of Halle, he determined to add to his equipment for his life
work such experience as could be gained through travel; accordingly he
visited in turn the more important cities of his own country and those
of Holland and England, spending in his travels a period of ten years.
Among his more important publications may be mentioned a translation of
the ‘Astronomy’ of Thomas Street,[149] a work by Bion in a German
translation from the French, which at the same time he enlarged.[150]
His ‘Einleitung zur Geographie,’ appearing as an introduction to
Homann’s ‘Atlas’ issued in the year 1714, and his ‘Atlas Coelestis,’
issued in the year 1742, are among his more important works original in
character, which he published on the subject of geography and astronomy.
His principal work is his ‘Notes’ on the mathematicians and artists of
Nürnberg.[151]

It was doubtless through his connection with the cartographical
establishment of Homann that he felt induced to undertake the
construction of his globes, examples of which exist dated 1728. In the
collection belonging to The Hispanic Society of America (Fig. 126) there
may be found a fine example of his terrestrial globes, which has a
diameter of about 32 cm. Over a carefully prepared hollow wooden ball
twelve gores, cut at the line of the equator and five degrees from each
pole, have been pasted. The small polar spaces lying between latitudes
85 degrees, both north and south, are covered by circular discs, having
a diameter of but ten degrees, on the one is engraved “Polus Arcticus”
and on the other “Polus Antarcticus.” The globe is furnished with a
narrow graduated meridian of brass within which the sphere turns on its
polar axis, a horizon circle of wood, circular on its inner edge but
octagonal on the outer. The engraved paper strip containing the zodiacal
figures, calendar, and directions, has practically disappeared. The base
support consists of four small turned columns of wood, attached at their
lower extremities by crossbars over which is a circular plate, provision
having been made for insertion into its surface of a compass, which
instrument, however, has disappeared. Excepting slight damage to its
horizon circle the globe may be said to be in an excellent state of
preservation. In a neat cartouch in the North Pacific is the title
legend reading, “Globus terrestris in quo locorum insigniorum situs
terraeque facies secundum praecipuas celeberrimorum nostri aevi
Astronomorum et Geographorum observationes opera Joh. Gabr. Doppelmaieri
Mathem. Prof. Publ. Norib. exhibentur, concinnatus a Joh. Georg.
Puschnero Chalcographo Norib. A. C. 1728.” “Terrestrial globe on which
the position of the principal places on the surface of the earth are
shown according to the principal observations of the most celebrated
astronomers and geographers of our times by the labor of John Gabriel
Doppelmayr, mathematician, professor and publisher of Nürnberg. Engraved
by John George Puschner, engraver of Nürnberg[152] in the year 1728.” An
interesting legend in the South Pacific tells us “Exprimit Globus hic
noster quicquid Geographia recens ex Observationibus fide dignis
suppeditat tam in situ locorum plurium, quam in terrarum novarum etiam
mariumque ambitu. Meridianus primus per Insulam Fer inter Canarias (quae
olim Fortunatae dicebantur) occidentalissimam ductus a quo Parisiensis
Meridianus Probatissimarum Observationum testimonio 20 Gradibus,
Noribergensis vero 28 Gr. 40 Min: distat.” “This globe of ours shows
that which the latest geographical information furnishes from the
trustworthy observations both as regards the location of new places and
the extent of the new lands and seas. The first meridian passes through
the Island of Ferro in the Canary Islands (called the Fortunate
Islands), which is the most western point and from which the meridian of
Paris, according to the testimony of the most approved observations
differs by 22 degrees, while that of Nürnberg differs by 28 degrees and
40 minutes.” Around this legend are the engraved portraits of famous
explorers, “Mart. Bohemus Norimbegus,” “Americus Vesputi,” “Franc.
Draco,” “Schouten,” “Georg Spilbergius,” “R. P. Tachard,” “Wilh.
Dampier,” “Mon. de la Salle,” “Thomas Candisch,” “Olivirius a Nord,”
“Ferdin. Magellanicus,” “Christ. Columbus.”

[Illustration: Fig. 126. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr,
1728.]

While the representation of the world is not so detailed in certain
respects as we find, for example, on the Valk globes, there nevertheless
is the evidence that the author wished to include such information as in
his judgment should be recorded. There are records of interest in the
newly explored regions of America. California is laid down as a
peninsula. In about latitude 41 degrees there appears a Drake record
reading “Pt. F. Drack.” “Fretum Anian” is represented at latitude 45
degrees. Sixty degrees to the west of this is the somewhat indefinitely
indicated coast line of “Terra Borealis incognita detecta Dom. Ioh. de
Gama,” this being separated from the coast of “Kamtzadalia Terra Jedso”
by “Fretum Vries.” The recently explored regions in the Far East, as in
Australia, New Zealand, Van Diemen’s Land,--each, however, being
represented as imperfectly known,--are made very prominent. There are
scarcely any map records of the period more interesting than are those
to be found on this globe of Doppelmayr’s. The routes of Magellan, 1519;
Nord, 1600; Roggeveen, 1722; Dampier, 1700; Tasman, 1624; Loys, 1708;
Lemaire, 1616, are all laid down. In latitude 60 degrees south and
longitude 300 degrees we find, “Port detecta per Fr. Drack,” and again
in latitude 67 degrees south and longitude 310, “I. deton detecta per F.
Drack.”

To accompany his terrestrial globe, Doppelmayr issued a celestial globe
bearing the same date. A title legend on the latter reads, “Globus
coelestis novus Stellarum fixarum loca secundum celeberrimi astronomi
Dantiscicani Joannis Hevelii Catalogum ad annum 1730 compl. sistens
opera Joh. Gabr. Doppelmaieri M. P. P. exhibitus a Johanne Georgio
Puschnero Chalcographo Noribergensi. A. C. 1728.” “A new celestial globe
giving the location of the fixed stars according to the record of the
celebrated Danish astronomer Johannes Hevelius conforming to the year
1730, by the labor of Johannes Gabriel Doppelmayr, mathematician,
professor, publisher, engraved by Johannes George Puschner, engraver of
Nürnberg, in the year 1728.” In size and in general features of
construction these globes seem to agree, being scientifically and
carefully constructed. A pair of these globes may be found in the
Biblioteca Capitolare of Verona, a pair in the Geographisches Institute
of Göttingen, a copy of the celestial in the Mathematical Salon of
Dresden, a copy of the terrestrial in the Museo di Fisica of Pavia, a
pair dated 1728 in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg, a pair
dated 1736, 20 cm. in diameter, and three copies each of his globes
issued in 1730, 20 cm. in diameter, and a celestial globe dated 1730 and
20 cm. in diameter, in Dresden. (Fig. 126a.)

[Illustration: Fig. 126a. Celestial Globe of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr,
1728.]

Fiorini notes the existence of a large terrestrial globe belonging
to the Marquis Luigi Cusani,[153] which probably was constructed in the
early eighteenth century, perhaps before 1730, by order of Cardinal
Agostino Cusani. The globe, unsigned and undated, is of papier-mâché,
having a diameter of about 120 cm. The paper gores with which the sphere
is covered are not all of like form, but all are cut at the line of the
equator and at latitude 80 both north and south, the usual circular disc
being provided for covering the polar areas. On its surface the map has
been drawn by hand, and practically all of the geographical names
recorded are in the Italian language. The globe is mounted on a solid
base, having a heavy horizon circle of wood, which is graduated, and on
its surface are the names and the signs of the several zodiacal
constellations, the names of the months and of the principal winds or
directions. The meridian circle, within which the sphere revolves, is of
brass and is graduated. It is reported to be in a good state of
preservation.

The Biblioteca Comunale of Siena possesses two anonymous terrestrial
globes, according to report of Fiorini, the one having a map in
manuscript, the other having an engraved map.[154] The first of these,
unsigned and undated, probably of the second quarter of the century, has
a diameter of about 120 cm. The sphere is of wood, the surface of which
is covered with mastic or varnish, and on this the map has been drawn.
It is constructed to revolve within its simple mounting of wood by means
of a crank. The title legend reads “Globe terrestre Dressé selon les
observations de l’Acad. Royale de Paris et des autres Acad. plus
célébrés d’Europe.” “Terrestrial globe constructed according to the
observations of the Royal Academy of Paris and of other Academies the
most celebrated in Europe.” In addition to the above legend one finds
the following inscription: “On a pris la longitude des villes
principales des Tables de Mᵘʳ Philippe de La Hire. Les autres villes
ou il n’ a point d’observations sont icy places en la même distance des
villes principales dans la quelle on les voit dans les cartes de M.
Guillaume de l’Isle.” “The longitudes of the principal towns have been
taken from the tables of Mᵘʳ Philippe de La Hire.[155] The other towns
which have not been located from observation are placed at the same
distance from the principal towns as they are located on the maps of M.
Guillaume de l’Isle.”

It seems probable that this globe was constructed in France, and from
the particular references to La Hire and Delisle one may infer, as noted
above, that it belongs to the early eighteenth century. Parallels and
meridians are drawn on the surface of the globe at intervals of ten
degrees, and one conspicuous wind rose with sixteen radiating lines is
placed in latitude 30 degrees north and longitude 350 degrees counting
from the prime meridian, which passes through the Island of Ferro. This
globe, it is thought, came to the Siena Library about the year 1810, at
the time of French rule in Tuscany, together with the library of the
Convent of S. Augustine, but how it came to have place in the Augustine
convent is unknown.

The second Sienese terrestrial globe, like the one just described,
probably belongs to about the same date.[156] It has the following
legend conspicuously placed: “Globo terracqueo corretto et accresciuto
secondo le nuove scoperte. Anno 1744. In Roma nella Calcografia del
R:C:A: al Piè di Marmo.” “Terrestrial globe corrected and enlarged
according to recent discoveries. 1744. In Rome in the engraving
establishment of R. C. A. at the foot of the marble.” The globe ball is
of wood, having a diameter of about 50 cm. Additional information
concerning this globe it has not been possible to obtain. Copies of it
may be found in the Biblioteca Comunale of Imola, in that of Osimo, in
that of Savignano, and in the Seminario Vescovile of Ivrea.

[Illustration: Fig. 126b. Celestial Globe of Johann Puschner, 1730.]

In the Museo di Strumenti Antichi of Florence there is a well-preserved
armillary sphere,[157] having the usual large circles the outer one
measuring about 15 cm. in diameter, of four lesser ones and of these
there are two small ones representing the sun and the moon. The
meridian and the equator are graduated, as is likewise the ecliptic,
having engraved on its surface the names of the principal winds in the
Italian language, and the ecliptic having engraved in Latin on its
surface the names of the signs of the zodiac. On one of the arms which
supports the horizon circle is the author and date legend, reading,
“Joseph Torricelli F. Florentiae 1739.” Fiorini thinks it probable that
Joseph was a relative of Evangelista Torricelli, inventor of the
barometer.

Pietro Maria da Vinchio, a monk of the order of St. Francis, deserves a
word of special praise for the skill with which he labored as a map and
globe maker about the middle of the eighteenth century.[158] He seems to
have followed in the main the work of Moroncelli, and that of the
unknown maker of the Cusani globe, yet he should be counted a workman
possessing greater technical ability. His first pair of globes have a
diameter of about 60 cm. The mounting consists of a meridian and a
horizon circle of wood, the whole resting on a somewhat elaborate wooden
base. The gores with which he covered his spheres are in each instance
eighteen in number, but each gore has been cut into three sections--at
the parallel of 40 degrees, both north and south, and also at the
parallel of 80 degrees, the polar spaces having the usual circular disc
covering. The terrestrial globes have represented on their surfaces the
polar and the tropical circles, also the ecliptic and the equator,
together with the several parallels and meridians at intervals of ten
degrees. Artistic wind roses are placed at each of the equinoctial
points, each with points representing the eight principal directions.
The title legend reads, “Globus terrestris juxta geographicas mappas
novissime editas accurate descriptus, in quibus, exactiori observatione
praemissa, errores multiplices sunt emendati, qui in veteri geographia
detinebantur impressi. F. Petri Mariae a Vinchio opus et labor 1739.”
“Terrestrial globe accurately delineated according to the most recent
geographical maps in which, by more exact observations, numerous errors
are corrected which continued to be printed in the old geography. Fra
Peter Maria a Vinchio, his work and labor, 1739.”

The celestial globe, similar in its construction in practically every
respect to the preceding, has its system of circles represented
according to the equatorial system instead of the ecliptic system. All
of the Ptolemaic constellations are represented, the figures of the
several constellations being very artistically painted. Its dedication
reads, “Ill̄mo ac Rev̄mo D. D. Petro Hieronymo Caravadossi Episcopo
Casalensi Ordinis Praedicatorum parvum hoc Firmamentum dicatum a F.
Petro Maria de Vinchio Ord. Min. Stric. Obser. operis auctor. 1745.”
“Dedicated to the Illustrious and Reverend D. D. Peter Hieronymus
Caravadossi Bishop of Casale of the Preaching Friars, by Fra. Peter
Maria de Vinchio of the Strict Minorite Order, who is the author of this
work, in the year 1745.” The pair just described may be found in the
Biblioteca Seminario Maggiore of Casale Monferrato. Fiorini is of the
opinion that these globes, presented to the learned Father Pietro
Girolamo Caravadossi of the Preaching Friars, Bishop of Casale, must
have been given by him to the seminary library, that they might serve in
the education of the priests. It is even probable that the two globes
came to the library by a direct clause in the will of the bishop, since
it is known that he bequeathed to the same library all of his books and
an annual sum, that the library might be used not only by the members of
the seminary but by the general public as well.

Not long after the completion of the pair just described, da Vinchio
undertook the construction of a second and larger pair. These he began
in the year 1746 and completed in the year 1751. These globes have a
diameter of about 105 cm. Like the preceding they are of papier-mâché.
Each is furnished with a meridian and a horizon circle of wood, and a
somewhat elaborate supporting base. On the parchment covering of the
spheres the maps have been drawn by hand. On the terrestrial globe the
meridians and the parallels are represented at intervals of ten degrees.
Place names, the names of the seas and of the rivers are in the Italian
language or in the language of the country claiming possession. Very
many of the discoveries are referred to in appropriate legends. The
title and date legend reads “D. O. M. Globus terraqueus Juxta
geographicas mappas novissime editas accurate descriptus, in quibus,
exactiori observatione praemissa, longitudinum, latitudinumque punctis
verius universe compertis, errores multiplices sunt emendati, qui in
veteri geographia detinebantur impressi. Inferius scripti mens, labor,
ars, et opus. F. Petrus Maria a Vinchio. In Conventu S. M. de Templo
Casalis annis 1746-1747-1748.” “D. O. M. Terrestrial globe accurately
described according to the latest geographical maps in which by a more
exact observation and by a truer location of the points of longitude and
latitude many errors have been corrected which continued to be printed
in the old geographies. What follows is the work and labor of Fra. Peter
Maria a Vinchio, made in the Convent of Santa Maria at the Temple in
Casale in the years 1746-1747-1748.”

The celestial globe is similarly mounted, having a title legend which
reads “Globus coelestis Circa quem spectabiliores, magisque obviae
stellae juxta dispositionem et situm, longitudinis scilicet ac
latitudinis gradū, in quo ab Auctore Universi in Firmamento sunt
positae, dispositae inspiciuntur; singulis tamen figuris a Poetis
ideatis, ab Astromomis diductae, et assignatae novissime auctus. F.
Maria a Vinchio O. M. S. O. Anno 1750.--Opifex.--1751.” “Celestial globe
in which are to be seen more clearly and more distinctly set forth the
stars according to their places and positions, that is, their degrees of
longitude and latitude where they have been placed in the firmament by
the Creator of the Universe. To which have been added the figures of the
constellations idealized by the poets, brought to earth and assigned
their true places by astronomers. F. Maria a Vinchio of the Strict
Order of the Minorites maker. In the year 1750-1751.”

The figures of the constellations are well drawn and are colored, the
names of these constellations being given in Latin. This pair of Maria’s
globes may be found in the Biblioteca Municipale of Alessandria, in
which town he probably lived at the time of their construction, and
probably at the convent of the Capuchin monks.

Prefixed to his ‘Select Mechanical Exercises,’ first issued in the year
1773, James Ferguson (1710-1776), Scotch experimental philosopher,
physicist, and astronomer (Fig. 127), gives us a most interesting
specimen of autobiography.[159] It is a remarkable story of native
genius and of self-instruction. Herein he tells us how the child of poor
parents, with an unquenchable desire for scientific knowledge, proceeded
in his early years, step by step, until at length he attained to a
position of great renown, not only in his own country but as well in
other lands. He tells of his early interest in simple mechanical
problems and of his attempts at the solution of the same, but what is of
special interest here, he relates how it was he became interested in
geography and in the construction of globes and orreries. From a
description of a globe he had found in ‘Gordon’s Geographical Grammar,’
as he tells us, “I made a globe in three weeks turning the ball thereof
out of a piece of wood.” This he covered with paper and delineated
thereon the map of the world. He was happy to find, as he says, “that by
using the globe, which was the first I ever saw, I could solve the
problems.” In his second attempt at globe making, his boyish ingenuity
particularly exhibited itself. Finding two large globular stones on the
top of a neighbor’s gate-posts, he painted on one of these, with oil
colors, a map of the terrestrial globe, and on the other a map of the
celestial, from a planisphere of the stars which he had copied on paper
from a celestial globe belonging to a neighboring gentleman. “The poles
of the painted globes stood toward the poles of the heavens. On each
the twenty-four hours were placed around the equinoctial so as to show
the time of day when the sun shone out, by the boundary where the half
of the globe at any time enlightened by the sun was parted from the
other half in the shade: the enlightened parts of the terrestrial globe
answering to the like enlightened parts of the earth at all times: so
that whenever the sun shone on the globe one might see to what place the
sun was then rising, to what place it was setting, and all the places
where it was then day or night, throughout the earth.”

[Illustration: Fig. 127. Portrait of James Ferguson.]

Turning his attention especially to the movements of the stars, he
contrived an orrery to show the motions of the earth and the moon, of
the sun and the planets, both diurnal and annual, and it was in his
first literary attempt, published in the year 1746, that he described
‘The Use of a New Orrery.’ Ferguson published many works on scientific
subjects, lectured extensively before learned societies, was honored
with the royal bounty of King George III, and became a member of the
Royal Society without initiatory or annual fees.

Of globes constructed by Ferguson other than those he contrived in his
boyhood days, eight copies are known. In the collection of The Hispanic
Society of America (Fig. 127a), there appears to be a unique example of
his first published globe work, constructed perhaps as early as the year
1750, since it records the route followed by the Englishman, George
Anson, in circumnavigating the earth in his expedition or expeditions of
the years 1740-1744, and omits reference to the expeditions of Captain
Cook. The terrestrial globe, a solid wooden ball, 7 cm. in diameter, is
enclosed in a black leather covering, on the inner surface of which is
pasted an engraved gore map of the celestial sphere. It appears to be
constructed as were those referred to by Moxon in his catalogue of
globes which were “made and sold by himself on Ludgate Hill,” that is,
“concave hemispheres of the Starry Orb which serve for a case to a
Terrestrial Globe of 3 inches in diameter, made portable for the
Pocket.” The covering of this Ferguson globe is made to open on the line
of the celestial equator. In a neat cartouch placed in the North Pacific
is the author and title legend reading, “A New Globe of the Earth by
James Ferguson.” The meridians are drawn at intervals of fifteen
degrees, the prime meridian passing through Greenwich, and the parallels
are drawn at intervals of ten degrees, being graduated on the meridian
of 145 degrees west, excepting the tropics and the polar circles, which
are drawn in their proper latitudes, respectively 23-1/2 degrees from
the equator and 23-1/2 degrees from the poles. Ferguson followed such
geographical records as were laid down by Hondius in his world map of
the year 1611, or by Greuter in his globe map of the year 1632 in the
North Pacific region, indicating there the existence of a great expanse
of ocean, between northwest North America and northeast Asia. “Anian
St.” is marked as separating a somewhat indefinitely outlined coast from
America. The Antarctic continent is altogether omitted; the only
inscription appearing in that region is “The South Pole.” Geographical
names are as numerous as one could expect to find them on a globe of
such small dimensions.

The figures on the celestial map pasted on the inner surface of the
terrestrial globe covering representing the several constellations have
been very artistically drawn. Both the terrestrial and the celestial
parts of this combination globe are remarkably well preserved. A second
and later example of this Ferguson globe may be found in the Harvard
University Library, once belonging to Ebenezer Storer of the class of
1747. It came into the possession of the University in the year 1914. In
addition to the globes of Ferguson, just described, two pairs are known,
dated each 1782, subsequent to the author’s death, it will be noted,
each having a diameter of 30 cm. These are mounted in the usual manner
with wooden horizon and brass meridian circles, with support base
columns of wood. On the terrestrial globes English is the language
employed, while all names of the constellations on the celestial globes
are in Latin. As on the small terrestrial globe in The Hispanic
Society’s collection, the route of Admiral Anson is indicated, omitting
that of Captain Cook, and numerous brief legends are given referring to
various geographical discoveries. One pair of these globes may be found
in the Biblioteca Comunale of Palermo and the other pair in the
Osservatorio Meteorico of Syracuse.

[Illustration: Fig. 127a. Pocket Globe of James Ferguson, 1750 (?).]

[Illustration: Fig. 127b. Terrestrial Globe of Herman Moll, 1705.]


NOTES

[117] This society was founded in the year 1666 by Louis XIV, after
the model of the Royal Society of London. It was liberally endowed
and supported, its members devoting themselves to the science of
physics, mathematics, astronomy, botany, zoology, and medicine. The
observatory, founded in the year 1667, was an adjunct of the
society.

[118] Niceron, J. F. “Delisle.” (In: Mémoires pour servir à
l’histoire des Hommes illustres dans la république des lettres.
Paris, 1729. Vol. 1, p. 214.); Fontenelle, B. le B. de. Éloge des
académiciens. À la Haye, 1731. Vol. II, pp. 324-339; Sandier, C. Die
Reformation der Kartographie um 1700. München, 1905. pp. 14-21.

[119] Not that there is less of interest in physical, in commercial,
in descriptive geography, but that there is a decided tendency in
this day to stress what is sometimes called human geography, which
consists in emphasizing the relation of geographical study to real
life.

[120] This work appears to have established his reputation. In the
year 1702 he became a member of the Academy, not as a
geographer--this department was not established until the year
1730--but as an astronomer under Cassini. Sandler, loc. cit.; Vivien
de Saint-Martin, M. Histoire de la géographie. Paris, 1875. p. 423.
This last-named author says: “La Mappemonde de Guillaume Delisle et
ses cartes particulières des quarte partiée du monde, publiées en
1700, remenèrent enfin pour la première fois à leurs véritables
places et à leurs dimensions réelles les parties orientales de
l’ancien continent. Quelle que fussent les améliorations de détail
que dût recevoir par la suit la carte du monde,--et ces
améliorations etaient immens,--l’honneur d’en avoir apéré la réforme
radical suffit pour éterniser le nom Guillaume Delisle.”

[121] Sandler, op. cit. This was an error having its origin in
Ptolemy’s geography, as set down in the Ptolemy maps. The two most
significant errors in the Ptolemaic cartography were (a) the
representation of the Indian Ocean as an enclosed sea; (b) the too
great extension in longitude given to the Mediterranean Sea. A
correction of the first of these errors followed quickly after the
discovery of the sea route to the Indies of the East. As a result
incident to the second error the Asiatic regions were extended much
too far eastward, the maps as late as the seventeenth century
showing the coast of China to lie at least twenty-five degrees too
far in that direction. The invention of the telescope in the first
decade of the seventeenth century and of the pendulum clock about
the middle of the century made possible a more accurate
determination of the location of places, and an improvement in map
construction soon followed. See also Wolf, Geschichte, pp. 355-362;
369-373.

[122] Wolf, op. cit., pp. 400-403. This came to be but one of the
many methods employed in the effort to determine longitude. One of
the most interesting and most recent is that in which wireless
telegraphy has been called into service. See Hoogewerff, Capt. J.A.
Washington-Paris Longitude by radio signals by F.B. Littell and G.A.
Hill. (In: Astronomical Journal. Albany, 1915.)

[123] See “Nolin” and “Delisle.” (In: Mémoire pour l’histoire des
sciences et des beaux arts. Trévoux, 1702. p. 166.); “Nolin.” (In:
Nouvelle biographie.); Lelewel. Géographie du moyen âge, II. p. 202;
Sandler, op. cit., p. 15.

[124] Sandler, op. cit., reproduces Delisle’s world map of 1700, pl.
iv.

[125] Wolf, op. cit., pp. 449-452; Mémoires pour servir a l’histoire
des sciences et a celle de l’observatoire royal de Paris. Paris,
1810. pp. 255-309; “Cassini, Jean-Dominique.” (In: Nouvelle
biographie.) In this last article may be found a long list of
Cassini’s publications.

[126] “Gassendi, Pierre.” (In: Nouvelle biographie.) Gassendi
achieved distinction for his works on astronomical subjects. In the
year 1645 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics in the Collège
Royal of Paris, a position he held with interruptions until his
death.

[127] The term “Precession of the Equinoxes,” as used in astronomy,
refers to the slow retrograde motion of the equinoctial point to the
west, or contrary to the order of the signs of the zodiac, this
precession being estimated by Hipparchus to be one degree in one
hundred years; in sixty-nine years by Ptolemy; in sixty-six years by
Albategnius; in seventy years by Cassini, but it is now estimated to
be one degree in about seventy and one half years. For one complete
revolution of this equinoctial point through the twelve signs of the
zodiac Hipparchus estimated a period of 36,000 years would be
required; according to Ptolemy a period of 24,840 years; according
to Albategnius 23,760 years; according to Cassini 25,200 years;
whereas the period is now estimated to be a little more than 25,800
years. An important consequence of the precession of the equinoxes
lies in the fact that the zodiacal constellations do not agree with
the signs with which they coincided in ancient times, i.e., in the
beginnings of astronomical science. The first star of Aries, which
at the time of Eudoxus was at the intersection of the equator and
the ecliptic, or at the equinoctial colure, has continued to
increase its position in longitude. At the time of Ptolemy this was
6 degrees 40 minutes. Its longitude is now about 31 degrees, which
places it entirely out of its original sign.

[128] Among the more important works of Cassini bearing upon this
particular subject may be mentioned, Méthode pour trouver la
différence des longitudes des lieux par les observations
correspondantes des phases des éclipses de soleil 1670. (In:
Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Paris, 1733. Vol. I, p.
133.); La méthode de déterminer les longitudes des lieux de la terre
par les observations des satellites de Jupiter. (In: Mémoires de
l’Académie. Paris, 1743. Vol. X, p. 569.); De la méthode de
déterminer les longitudes des lieux de la terre par les
observations des satellites de Jupiter. (In: Observations physiques
et mathématiques. Paris, 1688. pp. 232-278.); Les hypothèses et les
tables des satellites de Jupiter, réformees sur de nouvelles
observations. (In: Mémoires de l’Académie, 1693. Paris, 1730. Vol.
VIII, p. 363.); Méthode de déterminer les longitudes des lieux de la
terre par des étoiles fixes et des planètes par la Lune. (In:
Mémoires de l’Académie. Paris, 1703.)

[129] See p. 349 of Bion’s work referred to below, n. 138.

[130] Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Paris, 1727.

[131] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. pp. 401-402.

[132] Zedler, J. H. Groses universallexikon aller Wissenschaften und
Kunste. Leipzig-Halle, 1745. Vol. 46, p. 153; Günther, Erd- und
Himmelsgloben, p. 107, n. 1, reports that two of his Atlases, one of
which is a particularly fine example of work representing
astronomical geography, may be found in the K. Hof und
Staatsbibliothek of München. More than one hundred and twenty-five
maps of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk are listed by Phillips in his
excellent work on Atlases in the Library of Congress. See index.

[133] Praxis astronomiae utrisque ut et geographiae exercita per
usum Globi coelestis et terrestris tum et Planetolabii. Amstelodami,
sumptibus Gerhardi Valk Calcographi apud quem prostant una globis et
Planetolabio. n. d.

[134] There is considerable doubt as to the date assigned to the
Valk globes in the Königliche Museum of Cassel, and to those in the
Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg. See reference to these
above, p. 150.

[135] “Senex, John,” with appended short bibliographical list. (In:
Dictionary of National Biography.)

[136] See reference below, Chap. XIII, to Adams.

[137] “Bion, Nicolas,” with portrait. (In: Nouvelle biographie.
Paris, 1853.)

[138] Bion, Nicolas. Usage des globes célestes et terrestres, et des
sphères, suivant les différents systèmes du monde. Paris, 1699. This
work was reissued no less than six times before 1751, there being
added to the title in the sixth edition, “Précédé d’un Traité de
Cosmographie. Sixième édition, revue et corrigée par le Sieur N.
Bion, ingénieur du Roi pour les instruments de Mathématique, sur le
Quai de l’Orloge du Palais, au Soleil d’or, où trouvé des Sphères et
des Globes de toutes façons”; same author. Traité de la construction
et des principaux usages des instruments de mathématique. Paris,
1752. Bion’s work was translated into English by Edward Stone and
published in London, 1723, under the title ‘Bion’s construction and
principal use of mathematical instruments.’

[139] See p. 142.

[140] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 402-405.

[141] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 430-431.

[142] “Seutter, Mattheus.” (In: Allgemeine deutsche Biographie.);
Sandler, C. Mattheus Seuter und seine Landkarten. (In: Mitteilungen
des Vereins für Erdkunde zu Leipzig. Leipzig, 1894. pp. 5-38.) This
article contains a brief biography, a list of his several map
publications, his colaborers, and a special consideration of his
landkarten.

[143] See the list as given by Sandler, op. cit.

[144] “Morden, Robert.” (In: Dictionary of National Biography.)

[145] Morden, R. An introduction to astronomy, geography,
navigation, etc., made easy by the description and uses of the
coelestial and terrestrial globes, in seven parts. London, 1702. A
list of his maps and principal geographical works is given in the
article referred to in note 28. See also British Museum Catalogue of
Printed Books and Maps.

[146] l’Éloge de l’Abbé Nollet. (In: Histoire de l’Académie Royale
des Sciences. Paris, 1773. p. 121.); Querard, J. M. La France
Littéraire. Paris, 1826-1842. 10 vols. Vol. VI, p. 444; “Nollet,
l’Abbé, Jean Antoine.” (In: Nouvelle biographie.)

[147] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 407-409.

[148] “Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel.” (In: Allgemeine deutsche
Biographie.)

[149] Street, T. Astronomia Carolina. A new theory of the celestial
motions. London, 1661.

[150] This was a translation of Bion’s Traité de la construction et
des principaux usages des instruments de mathématique, to which he
gave a general title ‘Neueröfnete mathematische Werkschule.’
Leipzig, 1713. To the title of a later edition of this translation
was prefixed, “Dritte Eröfnung,” Nürnberg, 1741. The reference is to
a technical school of Nürnberg.

[151] Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel. Historische Nachricht von
nürnbergischen Mathematiscis und Künstlern. Nürnberg, 1730.

[152] Doppelmayr, op. cit.

[153] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 394.

[154] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 414-415.

[155] A noted French geometrician, professor of mathematics at the
Collège Royal de France, and at l’Académie d’Architecture,
1640-1718.

[156] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 415.

[157] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 431-432.

[158] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 410-414.

[159] Ferguson, James. Select mechanical exercises with a short
account of the life of the author by himself. London, 1773;
“Ferguson, James.” (In: A biographical dictionary of eminent
Scotsmen, originally edited by Robert Chambers, revised by Rev.
Thos. Thompson. London, 1856.); “Ferguson, James.” (In: Dictionary
of National Biography.) The last two articles contain extensive
references to Ferguson’s works, many of which are of a high order of
merit.

[Illustration: Ship. _From Jodocus Hondius’ World map, 1611_]



Chapter XIII

Globes and Globe Makers of the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

  Few globe makers of striking distinction in this
  period.--An apparent decrease in scientific interest in
  globes, but an apparent increase in popular
  interest.--Gilles and Didier Robert de Vaugondy.--The work
  of Desnos.--Globes of Gian Francesco Costa the
  Venetian.--Globes of Akerman and Akrel.--The French globe
  makers Rigobert Bonne and Lalande.--Charles Messier and
  Jean Fortin.--Globes of George Adams the Elder, of George
  Adams the Younger, and of Dudley Adams.--Small globes of
  Nathaniel Hill.--The work of Innocente Alessandri and
  Pietro Scaltaglia.--Charles Francis
  Delamarche.--Manuscript globes of Vincenzo
  Rosa.--Geographer and globe maker Giovanni Maria
  Cassini.--Globes of William Cary.


During the second half of the eighteenth century there is a continued
interest in globe construction, yet the period is not one which is at
all striking by reason of the good quality of the work done in this
field. Since the latter part of the sixteenth century and the early part
of the seventeenth, when, as has been noted, globes were so generally
thought to be an essential part of a seaman’s outfit of navigating
instruments, there had been a remarkable improvement in the construction
of sailors’ charts resulting from carefully devised methods for the
determination of geographical position and the employment of the results
in map construction. The plane or sheet chart was again regarded as a
more convenient, a more handy guide in navigation than was the globe. If
plane chart making had improved so had plane map making. There must,
however, have been a considerable popular interest in globes, judging
from the number which we know were constructed, and from the number of
publications issued which were intended to point out the particular
value attaching to globes in geographical and astronomical instruction,
to explain their construction, and to indicate the character of the
problems which, by their use, could be easily solved. The interest in
such objects in this period, perhaps we may say, was rather more
extensive than intensive, having more of a popular than of a scientific
character.

Among the most prominent French map and globe makers of this period were
Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688-1766) and Didier Robert de Vaugondy
(1723-1786), father and son, reference usually being made to these men
in geographical literature under the name “Robert” or “Vaugondy.”[160]
Gilles, the grandson of Nicolas Sanson,[161] who had achieved first rank
among geographers in his day for his maps and atlases, proved himself to
be a worthy member of the family. He doubtless owed his earliest
enthusiasm for geographical science to an inheritance of the maps,
atlases, and other geographical publications of the grandfather, many of
which he reissued, adding to the same his own valuable and independent
work. Didier seems to have possessed talents none the less brilliant
than were those exhibited by the father, and upon him, in succession,
the king conferred the title Royal Geographer. In addition to his issue
of maps and atlases, the father, often referred to simply as Robert de
Vaugondy, became interested in the construction of globes, issuing his
first pair, which must have been of small size, in the year 1751, in
which work he doubtless was assisted by the son. The king, it appears,
being so well pleased with these, directed the construction of others of
larger dimensions, and in the same year a pair was issued, each globe
having a diameter of about 48 cm.[162] In the same preface[163] it is
stated that the king gave orders for a terrestrial globe with map in
manuscript, the same to have a diameter of about six feet, and the
author further notes that “when this work shall have been completed and
presented to His Majesty, I shall give an explanation of the work which
I shall have been obliged to put upon the mechanical construction of the
ball, also a description of the allegorical ornaments which will adorn
the globe support, and a description of the geographical labor I shall
have expended.” There appearing no later reference to this particular
work, it seems hardly probable that it was ever actually undertaken.
Delamarche gives us to understand that the king could not have been
altogether pleased with Vaugondy’s first work, observing that while “it
was done to the satisfaction of the Prince, he would have received the
compensation due his talents and painstaking labor if the order of the
king had been followed.”[164] Wherein he failed we do not know. It may
have been this fact which discouraged him in his thought of undertaking
the larger work.

In the construction of his globes having a diameter of 48 cm. he was
assisted by the engravers, De la Haye and Gobin, the results being the
production of a terrestrial and a celestial globe map of superior
excellence.

While it has not been possible to obtain photographs of any of the
Vaugondy globes, his map of the world dated 1751 is doubtless much the
same as his globe map, presenting geographical records as he thought
proper to present them, including a representation of the route of a
number of the recent exploring expeditions.

Copies of his globes of the year 1751 cannot now be located, but
reproductions of the same, the terrestrial dated 1773 and the celestial
dated 1764, may be found in the Biblioteca Governativa of Lucca, in the
Biblioteca Real of Caserta, and a copy of the celestial in the
Osservatorio Patriarcale of Venice. Shortly after the first issue of
the globes in the year 1751 Vaugondy constructed other pairs, each
having a diameter of 23 cm. These are dated 1754, copies of which may be
found in the Biblioteca Palatina of Parma (two copies of the celestial),
in the Pinacoteca Quirini of Venice, and a pair in the Palazzo of the
Marquis of Spinola of Tassarolo.

L. C. (Pierre-Joseph ?) Desnos, a contemporary and an intimate friend of
Didier Robert de Vaugondy, was a Danish geographer of distinction,
winning for himself in early life the favor of his king and the title
Geographical Engineer.[165] A considerable number of his maps are known,
and especially worthy of note is his atlas, titled ‘Atlas Général et
Élémentaire,’ dated Paris, 1778, there being other editions of the same
with modifications. It has been possible to locate a few of his globes.
The first, a celestial, appears to have been issued as early as the year
1750, a copy of which may be found in the Liceo of Reggio, as there may
also be found in the same collection a Desnos terrestrial globe dated
1760. These have each a diameter of about 22 cm. and are reputed to be
in an excellent state of preservation. On the brass meridian circle of
the second, one reads, “Se fait et se vendre chez Desnos rue St. Julien
le pauvre 1753,” which legend suggests an issue of the same as early as
the date given, and this idea finds support in an engraved legend
referring to this particular issue as being one revised and corrected.
There is additional support for the belief that a pair was issued in the
year 1753 in the fact that this date appears on the base of the
celestial globe. The Desnos maps are all well engraved and, like others
of the period, much was made of indicating the routes of many of the
famous explorers, including a reference to the success of Bering as
follows, “Les Moscovites ont recouvré ici en 1743 sur les terres
basses.” In this we have one of the very early references to the Russian
successes in this region.

[Illustration: Fig. 129a. Globe of L. C. Desnos, 1782.]

In the year 1754 Desnos issued a pair of globes somewhat larger in size,
giving to them a diameter of about 26 cm. Copies of these globes may
be found in the private library of the Marquis Lalatta Costerbosa of
Parma. In their general features they resemble the previous edition,
with every evidence that the author wished to bring his records to date
and to make them quite as full as his space would allow, noting in one
of his inscriptions, “Nous n’avons tracé que par des points la figure
des terres que l’Admiral De Fonté détaille dans se lettre que Mr.
Delisle a rédu publique, en attendant l’authenticité de cette lettre, se
que les relations des nouvelles découvertes rendent probable.” In the
year 1772, it appears, he issued a third edition, noting that he had
made use of the most recent observations of the Royal Academy of
Sciences of Paris, bringing his star records down to the year 1770.
Copies of this edition are in Piacenza.

Gian Francesco Costa, a Venetian engineer, architect, and engraver, gave
some attention to the construction of globes.[166] In the year 1754 he
prepared and issued, for the Venetian Academy, a terrestrial and a
celestial globe, each about 24 cm. in diameter, basing the former on the
work of Delisle and the latter on the observations and records of the
English astronomer, John Flamsteed.[167] There is little of special
value attaching to the globes of Costa. They give merely the well-known
geographical and astronomical records of the day. Copies of his
celestial globe may be found in the Biblioteca Municipale of Cagli and
in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Rome. Fiorini refers to a copy of the
terrestrial as belonging to the Biblioteca Universitorio of Urbino, and
to one in the private library of Canon Ettore Fronzi of Senigallia.

There is said to be a fine manuscript terrestrial globe, dated 1756, in
the private library of Professor Maximilian Tono, director of the
Osservatorio Patriarcale di S. Maria della Salute in Venice. The ball is
of wood, over which is a coating of varnish, and on this a world map has
been drawn by hand. It appears to have been constructed merely for the
personal use of the maker, P. Francesco Grandi.

In Andrea Akerman we find a native of Sweden interested in the matter
of globe making. Observing him to be one in possession of commendable
talents, the Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, about the year 1750,
granted to him a subsidy for the establishment of a workshop in Upsala.
Here he undertook the construction of a terrestrial and of a celestial
globe. So successful was his enterprise that, we are told, his
productions found favor not only among those interested in his field
within his own country, but among those similarly interested in Denmark,
Germany, and Russia. Lalande makes mention of his work published through
the Geographical Society of Upsala, dated 1776, noting that they had a
diameter of about 22 inches.[168] A copy of his celestial globe may be
found in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Milan, having a diameter of
about 59 cm. It has an author and date legend, reading “Globus coelestis
ex Catalogo Brittanico et De la Caillii observationibus ad annum 1800
cura Soc. Cosmog. Upsal. delineatus ab Andrea Akerman Reg. S. S. Apt.
sculptore 1766.”

A pair of Akerman’s globes may also be found in the Geographisches
Institut of Göttingen, the terrestrial dated 1759, and the celestial
dated 1760 and dedicated to the President of the Academy of Sciences by
the Geographical Society of Upsala. His globes, it appears, were
reissued by Frederick Akrel,[169] an engraver who had assisted him in
his work. The reissue of the Akerman globes dated 1779 contained
corrections and additions which brought them to date, a fact which is
noted in the following legend: “Globus terraqueus cura Societatis
cosmographicae Upsalensis, editus ab Andr. Akerman Nunc emendatus....
opera Frederici Akrel 1779.” “Terrestrial globe issued under the
auspices of the Cosmographical Society of Upsala, edited by Andrea
Akerman, now corrected.... the work of Frederick Akrel 1779.”

[Illustration: Fig. 128. Terrestrial Globe of Pietro Rosini, 1762.]

The Biblioteca Universitario of Bologna possesses a very interesting
manuscript terrestrial globe (Fig. 128), the work of P. D. Pietro
Rosini, an Olivetan monk. Word from the librarian with photograph
kindly sent[170] gives us the information that this splendid globe was
constructed in the year 1762, that it is a fine example of the period
and is in an excellent state of preservation. It has a diameter of about
150 cm., being one of the largest constructed in Italy. The sphere is
constructed of wooden plates securely braced. It has a meridian circle
of heavy brass, a horizon circle of wood, having on its upper surface
the usual representations referring to the constellations of the zodiac,
the names of the months, and the principal directions. The circle on its
inner edge is fashioned to receive the sphere, but it has an outer edge
which is octagonal. Over the surface of the ball irregular pieces of
paper were pasted and on this the geographical map was drawn by hand.
Practically all geographical names are in the Italian language, as are
the few geographical legends. The author and date legend in Latin reads,
“D. Petrus Rosini de Lendinara Monᵘˢ Olivᵘˢ fecit ann: 1762.” “D.
Petrus Rosini of Lendinara, an Olivetan monk made this in the year
1762.” Fiorini cites a reference to a letter written by Rosini wherein
he is referred to as a professor, noting that other information
concerning him seems to be unobtainable. From the fact of his having
constructed a terrestrial globe and of his reference in his letter to an
eruption of Mount Vesuvius, one would obtain the impression that he was
a lover of scientific studies, and especially of geography.

Rigobert Bonne (1727-1794), a distinguished French hydrographer and
engineer, achieved likewise a very considerable reputation as a
geographer and cartographer; indeed, the great majority of his
scientific publications were within the field of geography.[171] With
Joseph Jérôme Le Français de Lalande (1732-1807), one of the most famous
of French astronomers,[172] he undertook the construction of a
terrestrial and a celestial globe on which it was proposed to record in
particular all of the most recent discoveries in both the field of
geography and that of astronomy. To these globes they gave a diameter
of about 31 cm., following, in constructing the gore maps with which
each sphere was covered, the method of Bion, giving very careful
consideration to the fact that the paper on which the maps were printed
would expand somewhat unevenly when moistened with the paste used in the
mounting. It seems probable that Bonne completed the terrestrial globe
about the year 1771, and Lalande the celestial about the year 1775, and
that the engraving of the maps was entrusted to Lattré, who had at this
time a place of marked distinction in the profession he represented.
Lalande says of the first issue of their work: “M. Lattré, Graveur
ordinaire de Mgr. le Dauphin et de M. le Duc d’Orleans, publiera vers la
fin de cette année 1771, deux globes d’un pied de diamètre, faites avec
le plus grand soin, et sur les observations les plus récentes dessines
avec une nouvelle exactitude; M. Bonne s’est chargé du globe terrestre,
et je suis occupé actuellement du globe céleste. Ces globes seront en
même temps réduits à 8 pouces et à six; chaque assortissement aura des
sphères du même diamètre. Les prix seront annoncés dans les journaux.” A
short time later these globe makers issued a publication in which they
especially described their work, and Lalande noted in his ‘Bibliographie
astronomique’ under the year 1775: “On trouve dans le Globe céleste
toutes les étoiles alors connues, toutes les constellations nouvelles de
la Caille, celle que j’avais introduite sous le nom de Messier, et
toutes les découvertes géographiques obtenues depuis quelques années par
plusieurs voyages autour du monde. On trouve ces globes chez Lamarche,
rue du Foin.” While it has not been possible to locate a pair of the
first edition of these globes, there may be found in the Osservatorio
Astronomico of Palermo an undated terrestrial globe by Bonne and a
celestial, clearly intended as a companion piece, dated 1779. In all
probability they are but reprints of the first edition, having the same
diameters, that is, about 31 cm. Each is furnished with a graduated
horizon circle of wood, a graduated horizon circle of brass, and a
small brass hour circle marked from I to XII, the whole being supported
by three turned columns. They are reported as being well preserved. A
pair has likewise been located in the Geographisches Institut of
Göttingen.

The British Museum possesses a small terrestrial globe 7 cm. in
diameter, signed N. Lane and dated 1776. Over a sphere of wood has been
pasted the engraved gore map, which gives but little geographical
information. It has not been possible to obtain a biographical reference
to this globe maker, who probably was an unimportant printer of maps in
London at this time.

Charles Messier (1730-1817), a French astronomer, map, and globe maker,
was a native of Lorraine.[173] In the year 1751 he went to Paris, where
he soon became associated with Delisle, first as his secretary, during
which period he gave striking proof of his abilities, and later as his
trusted assistant. His fame quickly extended to other lands, and he
became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin, also of the
Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, each of which organizations
published a considerable number of his scientific papers. It appears
that his fame as an astronomer rested chiefly on his investigations of
the nature and the movements of comets, becoming known as “le furet des
comètes.” Messier’s contemporary and intimate associate was Jean Fortin
(1750-1831), whose fame as a scientist rests primarily upon his work as
a maker of mathematical instruments. Like Bonne and Lalande, who labored
jointly in the construction of terrestrial and celestial globes, Messier
and Fortin were active in the same field. In the year 1780 they placed
on sale at the shop of Fortin in Rue de la Harpe pairs of their globes,
each having a diameter of about 31 cm. Lalande refers to them as “Globes
d’un pied de diamètre. Chez Fortin. Paris 1780. Le Globe céleste par
Messier: Les étoiles réduites à 1800, d’après les tables que j’avais
faites pour mon Globe. Le Globe terrestre par Fortin d’après les
nouvelles découvertes géographiques.” It has not been possible to locate
a copy of Fortin’s terrestrial globe, but an example of Messier’s
celestial may be found in the Osservatorio Meteorico of the University
of Parma, in the Istituto di Fisica of the University of Siena, in the
Biblioteca S. Scolastica e S. Benedetto in Subiaco, and in the Liceo
Machiavelli of Lucca. Copies of a celestial globe by Fortin, each about
22 cm. in diameter, may be found in the Convento dei Frati della
Missione of Chieri, in the Biblioteca Comunale of Correggio, and in the
Liceo Andrea Doria of Novi.

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a good example of Fortin’s
work (Fig. 129), this being an armillary sphere, having at the common
center of its system of circles a terrestrial globe about 5 cm. in
diameter. It is without date, but probably was constructed about the
year 1780. In the South Pacific within a cartouch is the inscription “A
Paris chez le Sr. Fortin. Rue de la Harpe.” This example is 41 cm. in
height, having a graduated horizon circle 31 cm. in diameter, supported
on a turned wooden base by four arms or quadrants. The terrestrial globe
map of twelve gores is much darkened with age but gives in good outline
the several continents with a few geographical names. Its armillae are
of pasteboard, consisting of a supporting meridian circle within which
the several celestial circles can be revolved on the extended polar axis
of the terrestrial globe. These celestial circles represent the zodiac,
on the surface of which are given the names of the several zodiacal
constellations and the names of the months, the meridian circles, the
tropics, the equator, the two polar circles with an hour circle at the
north pole, all of these being so attached as not to permit of
independent motion. Attached to one of the meridian circles is a device
for representing eclipses, the one of the sun and the other of the moon.

[Illustration: Fig. 129. Armillary Sphere of Jean Fortin, 1780.]

George Adams, the elder (fl. 1760), maker of mathematical instruments
and optician to His Majesty George III of England, won great distinction
for himself as a maker of terrestrial and celestial globes, and as a
writer on geographical and astronomical subjects. With him in his work
were associated his sons George (1750-1795) and Dudley, to whom, after
the death of the brother, fell the management of the business. We know
of Dudley’s success in his work, which he must have carried on well into
the first quarter of the nineteenth century, though we know neither the
date of his birth nor of his death. In the year 1766 the elder Adams
issued the first edition of a very useful work on globes, including a
consideration of their construction and their uses.[174] In the year
1810 appeared the thirtieth edition of this work, with a preface and
additions by the son, Dudley. The title of the work suggests that the
first issue was prepared as a description of globes which the author had
just put upon the market, but globes of his bearing a date so early seem
to be unknown. None have been located which appear to have been issued
earlier than the year 1772, after which time we know there were repeated
issues signed either “G. Adams” or “D. Adams.” A pair of the date 1782
may be found in the Museo Astronomico of Rome. These appear to be in a
fair state of preservation (Fig. 130). Each has a diameter of about 46
cm., being furnished with a graduated brass meridian circle within which
the sphere revolves, a graduated horizon circle of wood, having pasted
thereon the usual records referring to the zodiacal constellations and
to the time reckoning. This horizon circle rests upon four supporting
arms or quadrants, which in turn are carried by a tripod base of wood.
The spheres are of pasteboard with plaster of Paris covering, on which
the respective maps have been pasted, each map being composed of
twenty-four gores or biangles, or of twice twenty-four, since each is
cut on the line of the equator to facilitate mounting. The geographical
records given on the terrestrial globe map are practically such as one
could find on the best plane maps of the period, always, however, in
this connection remembering that those regions which had not been
visited or carefully charted by explorers gave to the map maker
considerable latitude for a play of his imagination. It is interesting,
for example, here to note that Adams appears to have been very uncertain
about his information relative to the western and southwestern part of
the present United States. He seems to have caught from some explorer’s
account that the Colorado River flows westward, emptying directly into
the Pacific, and he so marks it, giving, however, to the river the name
St. Bartholomew. The celestial globe revolves on the axis of the
equator, the gores being made to terminate at the poles of the ecliptic.
Constellations are represented so far as they have been named by
astronomers to date, the several figures being artistically drawn, on
which color has been somewhat sparingly employed. Each constellation is
given its old name with an English translation; star names, when given,
are frequently in Arabic, Latin or Chinese, and are distinguished by
Greek letters. Recently discovered stars are so marked as to be easily
distinguished.

In addition to the above, a pair of Adams globes may be found in the
Osservatorio Astronomico of Naples and a pair in the Biblioteca
Classense of Ravenna. A copy of the terrestrial may be found in the
Seminario Vescovile of Padua. A copy of the terrestrial dated 1785 may
be found in the Biblioteca Real of Madrid, agreeing in general with the
preceding except in the mounting. The author and date legend appears in
a neat cartouch in the North Pacific, reading: “Britanniarum Rigi
Augustissimo Georgio Tertio Scientiarum Cultori pariter et praefidio
Globum hunc Terrestrem. Omnes hactenus exploratios terrarum tractus. Ad
Observationes Navigantium Itinerantium et Astronomorum recentiores,
accuratissime descriptos exhibentem Grati animi et pietatis monumentum
D. D. Q. Omni cultu et officio devinctissimus. G. Adams. Londini apud G.
Adams artificem regium in vico (?) Fleet Street, 1785.”

[Illustration: Fig. 130. Terrestrial Globe of George Adams, 1782.]

The American Geographical Society possesses a pair of the Adams globes,
the gift of Mrs. Thomas F. Byrnes, dated 1797, and made by “Dudley
Adams Globe Maker to the King, Inst. Maker to his Majesty & Optician to
H. R. H. the Prince of Wales. No. 60 Fleet Street, London.” They are in
a fair state of preservation, the celestial, however, being somewhat
damaged through attempts to turn the sphere, which does not move freely
on its axis within the meridian and the horizon circle. These are
mounted on a high tripod base and are movable right or left, just as
they are movable for elevation or depression of the pole in the usual
manner. It does not appear that additions or corrections were made for
this issue.

Nathaniel Hill of London, active as a map engraver about the middle of
the eighteenth century, likewise turned his attention to the
construction of globes.[175] Those of his make now known, however, are
very small, consequently they present but meager geographical details.
Like certain productions of James Ferguson, the Hill globes might be
referred to as pocket globes.

The New York Public Library possesses a fine example of his work (Fig.
130a), bearing the title and author legend placed in the North Pacific,
“A New Terrestrial Globe by Nath. Hill 1754.” This globe has a diameter
of 7 cm. It is furnished with a graduated meridian circle, surmounted at
the north pole with an hour circle and pointer. The graduation is
somewhat unusual, beginning as it does with 0 degrees at either pole and
marked by tens on the right half of the circle through 90 degrees or to
the equator, and with 90 degrees at either pole and marked by tens on
the left to 0 degrees at the equator. The horizon circle of wood has
represented on its surface the names of the zodiacal constellations, the
names of the months, and the thirty-two compass directions, and rests
upon a base of four branching arms or quadrants, which in turn are
supported by three widely spreading feet, this base being fashioned and
carved in the Chippendale style. The sphere is covered with the usual
twelve gores truncated in latitude both north and south at about 68
degrees and has the polar spaces covered by circular discs. The entire
piece, including the map, is remarkably well preserved. The Pacific is
called “The Great South Sea,” while just off the coast of “S. America”
we read “Pacific Sea.” Between “N. America” and “Asia” is a great open
sea, Alaska being omitted. We find such names given as “Florida,”
“Virginia,” “Carolina,” “Maryla”: the Missouri River is called the “Long
R.” The meridian on which the graduation in latitude is represented is
150 degrees west, passing through the Pacific slightly to the west of
California. In “S. America” there are numerous regional names given,
including “Brazil,” “Peru,” “Terra firma,” “Chili.” In the East Indies
we find “New Holland,” “New Zeeland,” neither with completed coast line.
An attached card tells us that this globe was “Presented to the New York
Public Library by Mrs. Henry Draper, Oct. 9, 1908.”

There likewise may be found in the British Museum a copy, presumably of
this same globe, dated 1754, and a copy in the Bibliothèque Nationale of
Paris, signed and dated. This Paris copy is furnished with a cover
opening along the line of the equator and having on its inner surface a
representation of the celestial sphere which is neither signed nor
dated, but which is in a good state of preservation.

[Illustration: Fig. 130a. Terrestrial Globe of Nathaniel Hill, 1754.]

Fiorini refers to certain pairs of globes being apparently copies of the
work of Gian Francesco Costa without credit being noted. These globes,
inferior in the matter of engraving to the work of Costa, were issued as
the work of Innocente Alessandri and Pietro Scaltaglia.[176] The
terrestrial globe bears the inscription, “Nova et accurata descrizione
del Globo Terracqueo dirizzato sopra le più recenti Osservazioni del
Sigʳ Delisle e degli ultimi viaggiatori. Per uso dell’ Accademia
Veneta. Composto da Innocente Alessandri e Pietro Scaltaglia incisori in
rame. L’ anno 1784. Matteo Viani in Campo S. Bartolamio. Venezia.” “New
and accurate description of the Terrestrial globe based on the most
recent observations of Sr. Delisle and the latest explorers. For the
use of the Venetian Academy. Composed by Innocente Alessandri and Pietro
Scaltaglia, copper engravers. In the year 1784. Mattio Viani in Campo S.
Bartolamio. Venice.” A legend very similar to that on the terrestrial
globe appears on the celestial, reading, “Globo celeste nel quale sono
accuratamente descritte le stelle fisse col loro preciso numero e
Magnitudini secondo il Catalogo Brittanico del Sigʳ Flamstadio. Per uso
dell’ Accademia Veneta. Composto da Innocente Alessandri e Pietro
Scaltaglia incisori in Rame. L’anno 1784. Matteo Viani in Campo S.
Bartolamio. Venezia.” “Celestial Globe in which is accurately described
the fixed stars with their precise number and magnitude according to the
British Calendar of Sr. Flamsteed. For the use of the Venetian Academy.
Composed by Innocente Alessandri and Pietro Scaltaglia copper engravers.
In the year 1784. Matteo Viani in Campo S. Bartolamio. Venice.” A copy
of the terrestrial globe belongs to the Biblioteca Comunale of Cagli,
likewise one may be found in the office of the Eredità Bottrigari of
Bologna. Copies of the celestial may be found in the Museo Astronomico
of Rome, in the Seminario Vescovile of Brescia, in the Tipolitografia
Roberto of Bassano. Somewhat later it appears that the bookdealer Viani
reissued the terrestrial globe, undated, perhaps with the thought of
bringing them to date, that they might not be crowded out of the market
by the recently constructed globes by Giovanni Maria Cassini. The
inscription on this globe reads, “Nova et accurata descrizione del Globo
Terracqueo dirizzato sopra le più recenti Osservazioni del Sigʳ dell’
Isle e degli ultimi viaggiatori e del Cap. Cook negli ultimi suoi
viaggi. In Venᵃ appo Mattio Viani in Campo S. Bartolomeo.” “New and
accurate description of the Terrestrial globe based on the most recent
observations of Sr. Delisle and on the records of the most recent
navigators and of Captain Cook in his last voyages. In Venice by Mattio
Viani in Campo S. Bartolomeo.” Copies of this issue may be found in the
Museo Astronomico of Rome, in the library of the artist Giuseppe
Bortognoni of Bologna, in the library of Sr. Fenaroli of Brescia, in the
Biblioteca Vescovile of Rimini, and in the Tipolitografia Roberto of
Bassano.

Among the geographers of this period who were contributing to French
leadership may be named Charles Francis Delamarche (1740-1817). He was a
native of Paris, in which city, under the patronage of King Louis XV, he
carried on his activities as map and globe maker, conducting at the same
time a shop for their distribution. He seems to have patterned his globe
work largely after that of Gilles and Didier Robert de Vaugondy, giving
to his completed products practically the same dimensions and mounting.
His earliest examples bear the date 1785, of which only one copy, a
celestial globe, has been located, this now belonging to the
Osservatorio Meteorico of Venice. In the year 1791, he constructed a
pair of globes each having a diameter of about 18 cm., only the
terrestrial being dated, and in the same year he issued his treatise
which doubtless was intended to serve as an explanatory text for these
globes, at the same time advertising and popularizing his
productions.[177] Examples of this issue may be found in the Biblioteca
di Brera of Milan, and in the Liceo Carlo Alberto of Novara. A copy of
the terrestrial may be found in the Istituto Nautico of Palermo, and a
copy of the celestial in the Convento dei Frati della Missione of
Chieri. It could not have been long after this issue of 1791 that he
undertook the construction of a terrestrial globe about 31 cm. in
diameter, a copy of which may be found in the Istituto di Fisico of the
University of Siena.

We know that like his contemporary, Fortin, he also constructed
armillary spheres, one example of which it has been possible to locate.
Fiorini thus refers to it, his citation being given in free
translation.[178] It is a Copernican sphere, that is, having a
representation of the sun placed at the common center of the armillae
instead of a representation of the earth as in the Ptolemaic sphere. It
may be found in the palace of Sr. Scaramucci in S. Maria a Monte in the
province of Florence. Attached to a base of wood about 20 cm. in height
is an iron rod 35 cm. long. This rod passes through the several rings,
about which they can be revolved, each being in its movement independent
of the others. The first circle about the central sun represents the
orbit of Mercury, and has written upon it “Éloigné du Soleil 8537,
incliné 7 degr., fait sa révolution en 87 jours, 23 heures, 50 m.” The
second represents the orbit of Venus, having written upon it the
distance 15928-1/2 diameters of the earth, inclination 3 degrees and 22
minutes; it completes its revolution in 2224 days 16 hours and 41
minutes. In a space much larger than that which separates the other
circles, there is the orbit of the earth, upon which is written that
this planet passes over the ecliptic in 365 days 5 hours and 49 minutes,
and that it is 22000 diameters distant from the sun. This ring
representing the orbit of the earth is opened for the insertion of a
representation of the moon, adjusted to revolve on an adjusted pivot.
Armillae have been provided representing the orbits of Mars, of Jupiter,
and of Saturn with statements concerning their respective distances from
the sun and their respective periods of revolution. The outer and larger
armillae represent the colures, the ecliptic, and the horizon, and on
the last the inscription, “À Paris chez Delamarche Géog. Rue du Foinʳ
Saint Jacques au Collège de M^re Gervais.”

In the year 1793 Vincenzo Rosa, a little-known Italian cosmographer,
constructed two terrestrial globes, the maps of which being in
manuscript. The spheres are of papier-mâché covered with a light coating
of plaster. Each of these globes has a diameter of about 100 cm. An
inscription in Italian reads, “Vincenzo Rosa fece nel 1793 n. 24. La
geografia è quasi tutta delle carte di Robert del Vaugondy e di
De-la-Marche.” “Made by Vincent Rosa in the year 1793 n. 24. The
geographical information is almost entirely from the maps of Robert de
Vaugondy and of Delamarche.” One copy may be found in the Biblioteca
Universitario of Pavia, and the other in the Liceo Foscolo of the same
city. Fiorini notes that the “n. 24.” of the first is given as “n. 21.”
in the second.[179]

The last important globe maker of the eighteenth century in Italy was
Giovanni Maria Cassini (fl. 1790), an engraver, and a geographer of
distinction, to the truth of which statement his excellent work gives
testimony. As evidence of his interest in the matter of globe
construction we have the introduction to his ‘Nuovo atlante geografico
universale ...,’ wherein he gives carefully devised rules for the
construction of globe gores, and in addition we still find a number of
his completed globes, particularly in Italian museums and libraries.
These globes (Fig. 131), dated, the terrestrial 1790, and the celestial
1792, have each a diameter of about 35 cm., each covering map being
composed of twelve gores cut at latitude 80 degrees both north and
south, the polar space having the usual circular disc covering. Each is
furnished with a brass meridian circle within which the sphere may be
revolved, an hour circle, a horizon circle, on the surface of which are
the usual concentric circles with the names of the several zodiacal
constellations, the names of the months, and the principal directions.
The terrestrial globe has an author and date legend reading, “Globo
terrestre delineato sulle ultime osservazioni con i viaggi e nuove
scoperte del Cap. Cook inglese. In Rome.”

[Illustration: Fig. 131. Terrestrial Globe of Giovanni Maria Cassini,
1790.]

In The Hispanic Society’s collection is a terrestrial globe (Fig. 132),
being a solid wooden ball 21 cm. in diameter, over which has been pasted
the gore map composed of twelve sections, each cut at the parallel of 70
degrees both north and south, the polar space being covered with
circular discs each forty degrees in diameter. It is neither signed nor
dated but is clearly of German origin, since practically all
geographical names and legends are in the German language. The title,
placed within a circle to the west of Australia, “Neu Holland,” reads
“Die Erde nach den neusten Entdeckungen und besten Charten entworfen.”
Its date cannot be far from 1800, perhaps a little later, seeing that it
assigns the name “Nord Amerikanischer Staat” to the region east of the
Mississippi River, except to “Florida” which extends westward to this
river. We find but one actual date given, this referring to the
discovery of a small group of the “Gesellschafts Inseln,” reading
“Inseln welche die Spanier entdekt haben sollen 1773.” It is constructed
to revolve within a graduated meridian circle of brass and an octagonal
horizon of wood, on which are indicated in picture the twelve signs of
the zodiac, the calendar, and the thirty-two winds or directions, the
whole resting on four plain supports of wood strengthened below by light
crossbars.

The map is one well drawn for the period, and the engraving of the
several names and legends has been most skilfully done. Regional names
are numerous, but there has not been an overcrowding of the map with
minute details. On the west coast of North America, for example, we find
such names as “Norfolk,” “Neu Cornwallis,” “Neu Hanover,” “Neu Georgia,”
“Neu Albion,” “Neu Navarre,” “Mexico oder Neu Spanien.” Central America
with the West Indies is called “Mittel America oder West Indien.” In
South America we find “Neu Granada,” “Peru,” “Chili,” “Brasilien,” but
“Prasilisches Meer.” Certain localities are especially distinguished by
the addition of color, as the coast of Australia except the southern
coast, which is marked with a dotted line. Many of the East Indian
islands and the islands of the Indian Ocean are outlined in color, as
also the coast of “Vorder Indien,” and “Hinter Indien,” the coast of
“Arabien,” and certain other sections. The geography of the interior of
Africa is not as well represented as on many an earlier map, a fact
particularly noticeable with reference to the Nile River. The prime
meridian is made to pass through Cape Verde, to the west of which,
stretching practically along its entire length, we read “Der
Amerikanische Ocean.”

Among the globe makers of the eighteenth century whose work carries us
over into the nineteenth may be named William Cary (1759-1825).[180] At
first associated with Ramsden, a renowned mechanic, he established
himself in an independent business in London in the year 1790. He is
reputed to have constructed the first transit circle made in England,
which circle had a diameter of two feet and was provided with a reading
microscope. One of his circles of the above date, 41 cm. in diameter, is
reported as belonging to the Observatory of Zürich. In addition to the
altitude, azimuth, sextant, reflecting and refracting telescopic, and
microscopic instruments made by him, he interested himself in the
construction of terrestrial and celestial globes. Those examples of his
to which reference may here be made do not appear to be of the highest
order, perhaps due to the fact that he was primarily an instrument maker
and not a geographer or an astronomer. Further, the majority of his
globes which have been located bear dates subsequent to the year 1800,
and therefore do not properly call for reference here.

In the private library of Sr. Vittorio Bianchini of Macerata four of the
Cary globes may be found, three celestial and one terrestrial dated
1799. A celestial globe of the same date may be found in the
Osservatorio Astronomico of Rome, but its companion, a terrestrial
globe, bears the date 1815. Extant Cary globes of the early nineteenth
century may be considered numerous.

[Illustration: Fig. 132. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1800.]


Notes

[160] Nouvelle biographie générale, “Robert de Vaugondy, Gilles,”
“Robert de Vaugondy, Didier,” with references to their works.

[161] Sanson was the author of numerous maps and atlases. His works
are extensively referred to by Phillips in his List of
Geographical Atlases. See also list of his works in Britannica,
“Sanson, Nicolas.”

[162] These are referred to in the preface of a work titled ‘Usages
des Globes céleste et terrestre, faits par ordre du Roi, par le S.
Robert de Vaugondy, fils.’ Paris, 1751.

[163] See work referred to in preceding note.

[164] Cited by Fiorini, Sfere terrestri e celesti, p. 417, n. 2.

[165] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 419.

[166] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 421.

[167] John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer royal,
author of ‘Atlas Coelestis’ and other works treating of astronomical
subjects. The figures of the several constellations appearing in
this atlas were drawn by James Thornhill. Artistically they are not
equal to those appearing in Hevelius’ Prodromus astronomiae.

[168] Akerman, A. Globes céleste et terrestre de vingt-deux pouces.
Upsala, 1766.

[169] Poppe. Ausfürliche Geschichte der Anwendung aller krummen
Linien in mechanischen Künsten und in der Architektur. Nürnberg,
1882. p. 65.

[170] Letter and information from the Librarian dated Jan. 14, 1914.

[171] Reference to his publications in Nouvelle biographie, “Bonne,
Rigobert.”

[172] Nouvelle biographie, “Lalande, Joseph Jerome.” This is an
excellent article with references to his numerous publications. His
‘Bibliographie astronomique,’ Paris, 1803, has been of particular
value in the preparation of this work. See also Nouveaux globes,
céleste et terrestre, d’un pied de diamètre par M. De la Lande et M.
Bonne, avec l’explication en une brochure in-12. Paris, 1775.
Lalande, op. cit., refers to a work titled ‘Usage du Planétaire ou
sphère mouvante de Copernic, qui se trove chez Fortin,
ingénieur-mécanicien du Roi.’ Paris, 1773. Fortin issued a French
edition of Flamsteed’s Atlas under the title ‘Atlas céleste de
Flamsteed approuvé par l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Seconde
édition par M. J. Fortin Ingénieur-Mécanicien du Roi et de la
Famille Royale pour les Globes et les Sphères.’ Paris, 1776.

[173] Nouvelle biographie, “Messier, Charles,” with a very long list
of his publications.

[174] Adams, G. A treatise describing and explaining the
construction and the use of new celestial and terrestrial globes,
designed to illustrate in the most easy manner the phenomena of the
earth and heavens, with a great variety of astronomical and
geographical problems. London, 1766; A treatise on the construction
of globes. London, 1769; Geometrical and geographical essays,
containing a description of mathematical instruments. London, 1791;
Astronomical and geographical essays. London, 1795.

[175] We find that Nathl. Hill engraved the title-page and maps in
an atlas by Lewis Morris. Plans and Harbours, etc. London, 1748.

[176] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 439.

[177] Delamarche, C. F. Les usages de la Sphère et des Globes
céleste et terrestre. Paris, 1791.

[178] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 432.

[179] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 441.

[180] Dictionary of National Biography, “Cary, William”; Wolf,
Geschichte der Astronomie, pp. 562, 563.



Chapter XIV

The Technic of Globe Construction--Materials and Methods

  General problems to be met.--Development from the simple
  armilla to the complex sphere.--The references of Ptolemy,
  Leontius Mechanicus, Alfonso.--Behaim’s leadership in
  practical globe making.--Materials employed.--Experiments
  in map projection.--The beginning and rapid development of
  globe-gore construction.--Various examples of early gore
  maps.--Equatorial polar and ecliptic polar
  mountings.--Special features of celestial globe
  maps.--Globe mountings.--Varying sizes of globes.--The
  uses of globes.--Moon globes and planetariums.


In this concluding chapter it is not proposed to consider in detail the
technical features of globe construction, as these features have
presented themselves in the long period which has been under review; the
rather to give, somewhat in the nature of a summary, a general word as
to the development of the simple armilla of the ancients, “in continued
succession, receiving ripeness and perfection” in such celestial spheres
as were those of Mohammed ben Helal, of Tycho, of Hondius, or of Blaeu;
into the terrestrial spheres of Schöner, of Mercator, of Greuter, or of
Coronelli.

We have seen that during these years there were problems mechanical,
mathematical, and artistic continually arising, in the solution of which
talent of a high order was often exhibited; problems having to do with
the kind of material to be employed, with the shaping and the graduation
of the rings or circles, with the construction of the supporting bases
which entered into the completed product, with the engraving of the map
on the surface of the metal sphere, or with the designing and the
engraving of the plates for the printing of the map to be used in
covering the prepared ball, and the fitting of the same to its curved
surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 133. Astrolabe.]

The principal astronomical instrument employed by such ancient
astronomers as Eudoxus, Timocharis, and Hipparchus appears to have been
at first but a single metal ring, perhaps of brass. At any rate their
instruments must have been exceedingly simple, perhaps the simplest form
of the astrolabe (Fig. 133), yet they sufficed as aids in the solution
of such astronomical problems as suggested themselves in that early day.
The addition of a second ring to the simple instrument gave further aid
to the observer in his efforts to determine the declination and the
right ascension of any of the heavenly bodies. These rings came to be
considered, the first as a celestial meridian circle, the second as a
celestial horizon circle, and in the passing years others were added to
represent the ecliptic, the colures, the tropics, the polar circles, and
the orbits of the several planets, until we have the fully developed
armillary sphere of a Vopel or a Santucci.[181]

Relative to globes proper in antiquity, it will have been noted that in
general there is an element of uncertainty as to their exact character,
which speaks out in the numerous allusions to them. None has survived to
our day save the Atlante Farnese. This globe of marble is not so mounted
as to permit its revolution, resting as it does upon the shoulders of
the mythical Atlas, yet in its representation of the figures of the
several constellations, then recognized by astronomers, it differs
practically but little from the celestial globes, that is, solid
spheres, constructed a millennium and a half later.[182] We cannot,
however, draw the conclusion from this one example that such globes were
generally looked upon as practical instruments for use in astronomical
studies, yet there clearly were those who did so regard them.

Doubtless the globe or globes to which Ptolemy alludes were intended to
be of practical value. He tells us they should be constructed of brass,
and as before noted, he describes the use and the construction of such
instruments. Like the maps he probably made, though none survives, it is
not difficult, from his description, to reconstruct them. Such celestial
globes as Ptolemy may have prepared were doubtless adjustable, but were
not made to revolve by mechanical device such as we frequently meet with
in globes of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, nor were they
like the mechanical contrivance of Archimedes, clearly intended to
represent the movements of the celestial bodies, and perhaps their
movements relative to the earth. No description of Archimedes’ mechanism
survives by means of which it could now be reproduced with anything like
a satisfactory degree of certainty.

The allusions of Leontius Mechanicus, referred to in Chapter III, read
like a globe maker’s instructions of the eighteenth century. He knew his
Ptolemy whom he followed in the main, but he wrote as one who clearly
did not sense the approaching decline of interest in the physical
sciences.

And what can be said of the methods and the materials for globe making
during the period of the so-called middle ages? The survivals, and these
are only of the later years of the period, are of Arabic origin, which,
without exception, appear to have been intended primarily for use in
astronomical studies. They are either armillary spheres, or metal balls,
on the surface of which are the engraved representations of the starry
heavens, with the figures of the several constellations. Without a known
exception these are of small size, and if furnished at all with
mounting, only that of a simple character. There is reason for thinking
that such astronomical instruments were made in great numbers, and that
they were to be found in practically all Arabic observatories.[183]

The interesting allusions in King Alfonso’s ‘Libros del Saber de
Astronomia,’ from which citations may be found in our Chapter IV, give
us information concerning both methods and materials which might be
employed in globe construction in his day. It is not there stated that
the author had information concerning the actual use of the more than
twenty named materials which might be chosen for their manufacture. He
does, however, lead us to infer that there may have been experiments by
his contemporaries in which trial was made of the fitness of the several
materials named, his conclusion being that wood or brass was the most
suitable.

It has previously been noted that globes appear to have been made now
and then for use in the monastic schools, but we find no detailed
description of their special character. Here and there, it is true, may
be found reference to the adjustability of their parts, and to their
rings which made them serviceable for furthering astronomical studies.
The inference is fair that the globes of these Christian schools were
armillary spheres, and were not solid or hollow balls on the surface of
which the starry firmament or the earth had been depicted.

Behaim’s globe of the year 1492 seems to represent a radical departure
in globe construction. His idea appears to have been novel. He employed
a mould in the making of his globe ball, and over the surface of this
completed ball pasted irregular strips of parchment which furnished a
suitable ground for the draughting of the map with its geographical
outlines and its artistic adornments in color. Behaim’s globe mounting
was of the simplest character, consisting of a metal meridian circle
within which the sphere could be revolved, a horizon circle of like
material, the whole resting upon a tripod base. Although effort was made
to establish in Nürnberg an institute wherein globe making might be
taught especially, the plan seems not to have carried, and such as were
later produced in this city were merely the output of the mathematical
instrument maker’s shop or of the geographical establishments.

Throughout all the early years of the modern period, metal globes
continued to find favor, to the making of which skilled workmen in the
thriving industrial centers of Southern Germany, Southeastern France,
Northern Switzerland, and Northern Italy set themselves. Brass, copper,
silver, and gold were employed very frequently in their construction,
the last-named metals being used in the making of globes primarily for
ornamental purposes.[184] Globes with manuscript maps, as before noted,
seemed to find especial favor in Italy, in the making of which much
artistic skill was displayed. The spheres for such globes were usually
of wood either solid or hollow, of well-fashioned strips of wood, canvas
covered, the whole carefully glued and braced that the spherical shape
might not be affected with time. In the preparation of the sphere to
receive the manuscript map, workmen proceeded much as did Behaim,
pasting over its surface irregular strips of parchment or paper, adding
occasionally a groundwork of paint suitable for taking the sketch of the
draughtsman. As the years passed, and the engraved map found increasing
favor, practically all globe balls, with exceptions as noted above, were
made either of plaster shot through and through with a binding material,
usually of fiber, and fashioned over a mould, or of a preparation of
papier-mâché.

The increasing interest in globes and globe making manifesting itself in
the early years of the sixteenth century led to the devising of methods
for their more rapid construction. If the opening years of the sixteenth
century witnessed a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge, none the
less did they witness an improvement in the making of maps wherein this
expanding knowledge could fittingly be recorded. It is interesting to
note how rapidly change was made from one method of map draughting to
another in the search for a projection which might prove itself to be
altogether suitable. As a result of this striving we have for example
the projection of Donnus Nicolas Germanus employed in his maps of the
geographer Ptolemy, and often referred to as the Donis projection.[185]
Then we find the stereographic meridional[186] and the stereographic
polar,[187] the cordiform single and double[188] which seem to have been
a development from the orthographic projection well represented in the
map of Johannes Stabius (Fig. 45) who appears to have been the first to
give the method prominence. In addition to the projections mentioned
there were many modifications, to suit the notions of the draughtsmen,
which were employed in the early sixteenth century.[189] With the fuller
realization of the fact that the earth is a sphere, the desire
accurately to represent in the maps its spherical surface continued to
seek for expression, an expression that would do least violence to the
fact that the degrees of latitude and longitude vary in length,
particularly those of longitude as one passes from the equator toward
the poles or from the poles toward the equator. If the earth is a sphere
then why could a map so draughted as truly to represent the surface of a
sphere not be counted the most acceptable? This must have been the
argument of those who especially applied themselves to the designing of
maps suitable for a spherical surface, that is, for application to a
globe ball.

Who first conceived the idea of fashioning globe gore maps we do not
know. Fiorini cites evidence[190] that Francesco Rosselli (1445-1510), a
printer of large and small maps in Florence, included in his productions
gore maps to be used in globe construction, and this probably before the
year 1507, but none of his work of this character has come down to us.
The so-called Waldseemüller gores are the oldest known, of which but one
copy is extant.[191] By some they are thought to have been constructed
for his globe to which he refers in his ‘Cosmographiae Introductio,’ but
they are unsigned and undated. They are somewhat crude and much
manipulation would be required to fit them to the surface of a sphere.
Before the first quarter of the sixteenth century had passed other globe
gore maps made their appearance, such as those undoubtedly the work of
Schöner or of the Schönerian school, or such as the gores of
Boulengier[192] exquisitely engraved and printed, though so far as we
know never used in covering the surface of a sphere.

[Illustration: Fig. 134. Globe Gores of Henricus Glareanus, 1527.]

The artist Albrect Dürer (1471-1528), as we are informed, was one of the
earliest to set himself to the solution of the problem having to do with
the development of a spherical surface into a flat surface, yet he never
seems to have thought an exact mathematical solution possible. It was a
problem, he realized, in which there could be but an approximate
solution. In trying to illustrate what he thought to be the nearest
approach to the same he found himself led to the idea of the globe
gore.[193] Of his illustration, he said, “Die sphera oder ein Kugel wenn
man sie durch jr mittag linien zerschneydet, und in Planum legt, so
gewinnt sie ein Gestalt eines Kam, wie ich das hie hat auffgerissen.”
“Should one divide the sphere or ball on the line of the equator and
lay this out as a plane, one has the figure of a comb, as is here
shown.” Dürer worked out a simple rule for the construction of the globe
biangles,[194] which rule served measurably well for the purpose
intended. While it would not be inappropriate to give here a résumé of
his formula, as well as the formulae of others who set themselves to a
like task, we should in so doing be carried into a field rather more
technical than seems fitting for our purpose.[195]

Two years after Dürer had published his observations on this subject
Henricus Loriti Glareanus (1488-1551) issued a small treatise on
geography,[196] devoting his Chapter XIX bearing title ‘De inducendo
papyro in globo’ to globe-gore construction. He proposed the employment
of twelve gores or biangles (Fig. 134) so arranged for printing that the
shorter diameter of each should represent 30 degrees of longitude, the
sum therefore representing 360 degrees or the equatorial circumference
of the globe they were intended to cover; the longer diameter of each
gore representing the semicircumference of the globe and extending from
pole to pole, that is, a meridian. We do not know that his formula for
gore construction was closely followed by any globe maker of the period,
nor does Glareanus himself appear to have attempted a practical
application of his method, at least we have no evidence that he ever
actually attempted to construct a globe. He, however, had made an
important contribution toward the solution of the problem of how best to
multiply these instruments which were increasingly recognized as of
great value in geographical and astronomical studies. The general method
of gore map making rapidly found favor despite such practical
difficulties, for example, as arose from the peculiarity inseparable
from the quality inherent in any and all paper, that is, its irregular
expansion when moistened. This difficulty the globe makers, of course,
were continually seeking to overcome or reduce to a minimum, as the
years passed, through a careful selection of paper to be used, through
a more skilful manipulation of the paper made moist by the application
of the paste or glue employed in attaching the map to the surface of the
sphere,[197] and through a more careful working out of the mathematical
problem having to do with the proper proportions of each of the gores.

Dürer had proposed the employment of sixteen segments, Waldseemüller,
Schöner, Boulengier, and Glareanus had thought twelve a more suitable
number. As the years passed we find a preference manifesting itself now
for twelve, now for sixteen, now for eighteen, twenty-four, or
thirty-six with a more common preference for the smaller number. The
several biangles for the maps alluded to above were fashioned to extend
from pole to pole in what we may call the equatorial system; Mercator,
as has been noted, introduced the novel idea of truncating his gores
twenty degrees from each pole, preparing as a covering for the remaining
polar space a circular disc, having the required diameter of forty
degrees.[198] This plan he proposed for the practical reason that a
paper covering for a sphere so constructed could be applied with greater
ease and with greater accuracy than one consisting of complete biangular
figures, remembering the tendency of the paper to expand and the
difficulty in avoiding folds.

As there was much inclination among map makers to experiment in the
matter of map projection so there was an inclination to experiment, as
the years passed, in the matter of design for the globe gores. In the
so-called Da Vinci gores we find them drawn in two groups of four each
(Fig. 135), and instead of the globe biangle we have the globe
equilateral triangle. Their application to a spherical surface could
only have been made with difficulty, if at all; indeed we cannot be
certain that in so outlining a map of the world the draughtsman’s
intention was to use it in globe construction. The plan seems never to
have been followed by any of the other map makers, or by any globe
maker. We find an interesting early instance in which the gore map
construction was clearly employed merely as a method for plane map
making, a method having certain very commendable features (Fig. 136).
The author of this map is unknown.

[Illustration: Fig. 135. Gore Map of Leonardo da Vinci, ca. 1515.]

[Illustration: Fig. 136. Anonymous Globe Gores in Plane Map
Construction, ca. 1550.]

In referring to unusual forms in gore construction attention may again
be called to the map of Alonso de Santa Cruz and to that of Antonius
Florianus, in which maps the plan was hemispherical,[199] the central
point in the construction of each hemisphere, a northern and a southern,
being the pole, the circumference of the circle in which the thirty-six
gores were drawn, representing the equator. But again we do not know
that such a gore map was ever employed in globe construction though the
method, it seems, would lend itself to that end.

It can be readily understood that numerous modifications in the matter
of globe-gore construction and their application to the surface of the
sphere, more or less detailed in character, were introduced as the years
passed, but the modifications were by no means at all times in the line
of improvement.[200] The technical skill of the present day does not
surpass that which one occasionally finds exhibited in the work of some
three hundred years ago.

In the matter of geographical record terrestrial globe maps stand with
the plane maps of the same period. While they are by no means as
numerous as the plane maps, there attaches to them an importance no less
historically significant. Not infrequently they give us records not to
be found elsewhere. In their general features, differences can hardly be
said to exist between plane maps and globe maps. In the matter of
adornment there is similarity; each following the practice of the time
when constructed. As pictures and legends hold a place of prominence,
particularly on mediaeval maps,[201] so even to the close of the period
we have had under consideration, that is, the end of the eighteenth
century, these adornments have place on globe maps, sometimes few,
sometimes many, the same, if in picture, exhibiting the inhabitants of
land and sea, if merely a legend, giving information of geographical
importance on the terrestrial globe and of astronomical importance on
the celestial, these legends being often placed in an artistic cartouch.

To the printed or engraved globe map, color was generally added by hand
with an effect often very artistic, in contrast with which the modern
machine methods of color printing are deplorably crude.

On most terrestrial globe maps meridian circles are represented at
intervals of ten, twenty, or thirty degrees, the prime meridian on which
the degrees of latitude are marked being usually made very conspicuous,
and to the close of the period under consideration usually made to pass
through the Cape Verde Islands or the Canaries, a point always to be
carefully noted in attempting to get a reading for the longitude of any
particular place. Parallels are usually drawn at intervals similar to
those of meridians, the equator on which the degrees of longitude are
marked, the tropics, and the polar circles being always conspicuous. The
ecliptic or zodiac is usually indicated encircling the globe from the
solstitial point on the tropics, intersecting the equator at the two
opposite equinoctial points, through which as through the solstitial
points the colures are made to pass.

Hues states that “Those lines which a ship, following the direction of
the Magnetic Needle, describeth on the surface of the Sea, Petrus Nonius
calleth in the Latin Rumbos, borrowing the appellation of his Countrymen
the Portugals; which word, since it is now generally received by learned
writers to express them by, we also will use the same,” that is, rhumbs
or rhumb-lines.

[Illustration: Fig. 137. Portrait of Johann Hevelius (Hevel).]

These were represented on the globe, first by Mercator, by greater or
lesser circles or “winding lines,” and were intended to be of aid to
seamen in navigating from port to port across the great oceans. In their
representation on the globe map cognizance was taken of the fact that
all meridians of all places pass through both poles, crossing the
equator therefore at right angles and all other circles parallel to it,
and that if the navigator’s course is in any other direction than toward
one of the poles he is continually changing his horizon and his
meridian. The rhumbs as drawn were made to cut all meridians of all
places at equal angles and to respect the same quarters of the world,
that is, direction, whatever the horizon. Rhumbs can represent great
circles only when they coincide with the equator or with any
meridian.[202]

In the matter of draughting, printing, and mounting celestial globe gore
maps the method employed may in general be said to be identical with
that followed in terrestrial globe construction. It should, however, be
noted that in pasting the gores on the surface of the sphere they were
often so applied as to have their points or angles meet at the pole of
the ecliptic, in what may be called the ecliptic system, instead of
applying them to meet at the poles of the equator, the globe itself
being generally so mounted as to revolve in the equatorial system, its
poles of revolution being attached to the meridian circle.[203]

The figures of the several constellations were usually drawn with care,
occasionally with high artistic taste, as those drawn by Hevelius (Fig.
137) and copied by Gerhard and Leonhard Valk for their celestial globes
(Fig. 138). The several stars represented on the map, the majority of
them being either lettered or named, were usually from the first to the
sixth magnitude, each represented in its proportional size, while an
explanatory table for the several magnitudes was usually given on some
one of the gores. The stars and the figures of the several
constellations, let it be noted, were not made to appear on the surface
of the sphere, with rare exceptions, in their relative location as they
appear to the observer who beholds them from his position on the surface
of the earth, but are reversed. To the astronomer the earth is but a
point in space, to the layman, so far as mere appearance is concerned,
it is the center about which the starry heavens appear to revolve. With
the pole (north for us in the northern hemisphere) as the center of the
dial face the stars appear to move in a direction the reverse of that in
which the hands of a clock are made to move. The astronomer, that is,
the celestial globe maker, thinks of himself as placed beyond the
vaulted heavens in which the stars appear to be located, and as looking
down upon this vaulted dome as on the surface of his celestial globe. An
illustration may here well serve us. As one observes serves Ursa Major
on any starry night, which constellation we commonly call the Great
Dipper, the bowl of the dipper, which is located in the body and flank
of the bear, leads in its apparent motion around the pole star, being
followed by the handle of the dipper or the tail of the bear (Fig. 139).
On the surface of the celestial sphere, however, the position of bowl
and handle was usually reversed, the constellation appearing as it would
to the beholder who finds himself beyond the stars. Naturally the
planets could not be represented on the surface of a solid celestial
sphere; only in the armillary sphere or the orrery could they find
place. In these instruments we generally find them represented, each
with its circle or orbit properly given, and relatively properly placed.

[Illustration: Fig. 138. Constellation Ursa Major.]

In the geographical records as they appear on the several terrestrial
globe maps, it is to be admitted that the authors, with rare exceptions,
undertook to set down what they thought to be fact, shall we say the
real tangible geographical fact or facts. The maker of the star map, on
the contrary, clearly gave his imagination play, not in his attempt to
mark in the proper location the several stars as they came to be known
and catalogued, but in the draughting of the figures of the several
constellations. The imaginative figures of the ancients, of Eudoxus, of
Aratus, of Ptolemy and others survived throughout the period we have had
under consideration, and to the forty-eight constellations of Ptolemy
others from time to time were added until more than one hundred have
been named and figured. In general the several constellations, as the
various astronomers and makers of star maps have conceived them, may be
said to be identical, while some of the names which have been proposed
have been accepted but for a time only and then rejected. Some of the
groups to which names have been given have later been divided, thus
giving rise to a new group name and to the draughting of an appropriate
figure for this new group.[204]

Attention has been called to certain suggested changes in the names of
constellations as given by the ancients, as for example those suggested
by the Venerable Bede, by Johannes Bayer, by Julius Schiller proposing
that biblical or Christian names should be substituted for pagan names,
and for these changes there was of course suggested an appropriate
change in the figures for the several constellations. The proposal of
Erhard Weigel has likewise been noted urging a substitution of the
several coats of arms or heraldic devices of the European dynasties for
the figures which had been so long and so generally accepted. There
seems scarcely to be the need of stating that the names and figures of
the ancients remain.[205]

A comparison of the work of the several artists who have set their hand
to the draughting of figures for the numerous constellations is not
without interest. Attention may here be directed in passing to the
decidedly oriental cast of these figures as they appear on Arabic
globes.[206]

It is to be regretted that in the present very practical or scientific
day the star map, wanting the figures of the constellations or giving
them in but the faintest outline, has come to supplant the artistic and
not unscientific creations of earlier years.

The earliest references we have to globes, that is, to solid balls or
spheres, make mention of their mountings, that is, to their encasing
circles and their bases. The simplest mounting consisted of but a
meridian and a horizon circle with probably a simple supporting base.
The earliest spheres were doubtless made to revolve just as the globes
of today, around their polar axes which turn within sockets firmly
attached to the meridian circle. This meridian circle of brass or wood
was usually graduated from one to ninety degrees, that is, from the
equator to the poles, and being adjustable relative to the horizon
circle, a globe could be set with a polar elevation for any desired
latitude. Those who have had occasion to refer to the construction and
the uses of the globe more or less in detail, make mention of what they
call its threefold position. In the first of these positions either pole
may be at the vertical point, the equator and the horizon being parallel
or coinciding. This they termed a parallel sphere. In the second
position the equator and the horizon circle are set at right angles.
This they called a right sphere. In the third position, which was called
an oblique sphere, the pole could be set at any elevation from zero to
ninety degrees, counting from the horizon circle. In illustration of
this third position it may be said that for the latitude of New York
City, the north pole of the globe should be elevated 40 degrees 48
minutes above this circle.

More conspicuous by reason of its width and importance in the mounting
of the globe than the meridian is the horizon circle. It is through
notches in this circle at the north and south points that the meridian
circle passes, the notches also serving as gauges to keep the meridian
from inclining more to the one side of the horizon circle than to the
other. On the upper surface of this circle there were usually
represented several concentric circles, the same being either engraved
thereon, if it were of metal, and printed or pasted thereon if of wood,
just as the globe map proper which covered the surface of the sphere.
The number of concentric circles, and the information carried in each,
varied, nor was the order of the circles invariably the same. Those
globes giving fullest information exhibit ten or more of these circles.
That one which was innermost and next to the body of the globe was
divided into twelve parts, each part carrying the name of one of the
signs of the zodiac with its character, and each divided into thirty
equal parts or degrees, these being numbered by tens, as 0, 10, 20, 30.
Next to the circle of signs, always remembering that the order might
vary, was that containing the calendar including the names of the
months, as January, February, March, etc., the days of the week being
either distinguished by numbers or names. The old calendar was likewise
usually given and so represented as to show the beginning of each month
ten days earlier than in the new calendar. Here also were given the
names of the church festival days. In the next circle were the names of
the winds or directions, and first the Greek, Latin or Italian names of
the eight, twelve or sixteen winds, as Greco, Libeccio, Ponente,
Maestro, and next the names or initials of the thirty-two compass
directions, the same generally in English or Dutch abbreviations. It may
further be noted that a compass was often fixed in the horizon circle’s
upper face.

[Illustration: Fig. 138. Constellation of Orion by Hevelius.]

A complete globe was further furnished with a quadrant of altitude,
ninety degrees in length, this being attached at one end to the meridian
circle, yet movable to any degree of the meridian, though commonly set
at the zenith. This quadrant served for measuring altitudes or for
finding amplitudes or azimuths.

The small hour circle,[207] fitted to the meridian, its center being the
pole and for us the north, was marked with the twenty-four hours of the
day, each hour being again divided into halves and quarters. An index
attached to the axis of the globe pointed out successively the hours as
the globe was revolved. The use of this hour circle was to indicate the
time of the successive mutations, including the rising and the setting
of the celestial bodies and the time of their passing successively the
meridians.

As a compass was often set into the horizon circle so also we frequently
find a large or small compass set into that plate which in certain
globes was employed as a support, tying together, as it were, the lower
extremities of the base columns.[208]

It will have been noted that the globes referred to in the preceding
pages varied greatly as to size, from the small ball representing the
earth, and but a few centimeters in diameter, to be found in the center
of those armillary spheres representing the Ptolemaic geocentric system,
to the great globe of Coronelli fifteen feet in diameter constructed for
Louis XIV of France. With rare exceptions metal globes were made small
in size. Those globe balls or spheres, in the construction of which a
mould was employed, usually had a diameter under 50 cm., although we
find some of them twice this size. Such spheres had the advantage of
lightness though often were frail in structure and liable to lose their
perfect sphericity.

[Illustration: Fig. 140. Terrestrial Globe Gores by Johannes
Oterschaden, ca. 1675.]

In the matter of special ornamentation or decoration, to be observed in
globe mountings, individual taste was given unlimited freedom to express
itself, and in certain instances it will have been noted that these
mountings were exceedingly elaborate.

Primarily we may say that globes were constructed for the useful purpose
of promoting geographical and astronomical studies, generally recording
the latest and best geographical or astronomical information and in form
superior to that which could be set down on the plane map, but they also
had a place of importance, secondary we may call it, on account of their
decorative value. They came to be considered almost essential as
adornments for the libraries of princes, of prosperous patricians, and
of plodding students, and their mountings were often especially
fashioned for the places they were to occupy. They seemed to lend an air
of scholarly respectability; to suggest that their possessors wished to
pay, certainly a modicum of homage to the sciences which globes were
calculated to promote.

A brief concluding word may well be added touching those globes which
may of course be classed as celestial, but which are known as moon
globes and planetariums or orreries. There could be no practical value
in an attempt to set forth a map of the surface of the stars, nor of the
planets while our knowledge is so limited, although Schiaparelli has
undertaken, with measurable success, to map the surface of Mars,[209]
and it would be next in order to construct a Mars globe. Of the surface
of our moon much is known and maps of it have been constructed, as
indeed have been moon globes. We are informed that about the middle of
the seventeenth century the Danish astronomer, Hevelius, who designed so
successfully star maps, entertained the idea of constructing a moon
globe,[210] but we do not know that he set his hand to the work. A
century later it appears that the French astronomer La Hire actually
completed a moon globe,[211] but it has been possible to obtain only the
briefest reference to it.

Tobias Mayer of Nürnberg, a contemporary of La Hire, set himself to the
draughting of gore maps[212] intended for use in the manufacture of
moon globes. Mayer found employment in the Homann establishment of
Nürnberg, being regarded as an exceedingly skilful draughtsman, able to
sketch on his draughting sheet that which he saw through his telescope.
His plan contemplated the making of twelve gores or segments, six for
the northern half of the moon and six for the southern. His plan, of
course, would enable him to represent but one side of the moon,--that
turned toward the earth,--although it appeared that he contemplated the
addition of two segments on which, in at least a fragmentary manner, he
was to represent what we may call the border of the opposite side of the
moon. Mayer seems not to have completed his work, since we find nowhere
an example of his finished product.

It was not until near the close of the eighteenth that we again meet
with an attempt to construct a moon globe and it seems that the task was
accomplished by the Englishman, John Russel. It was in the year 1796
that he proposed to raise by subscription the necessary funds for making
his undertaking a success. His globe has a diameter of 12 inches,[213]
and was furnished with the necessary adjustable shield that the moon’s
waxing and waning could be represented. That this moon globe was
actually constructed, although no copy has been located, we are informed
by Wolf. Such attempts as were made in the nineteenth century with a
good measure of success do not here call for consideration.

It has been previously noted that the so-called globe of Archimedes may
have been a sort of planetarium, and that during the middle ages such
instruments were constructed and employed in astronomical instruction.
None, however, have come down to us out of those early years.
Astronomers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as we know,
made frequent use of planetariums, such for example as were constructed
by the Dutch astronomer, Christiaan Haygens (1629-1695) for the
illustration of planetary motion according to the Copernican system.
Each of the planets was represented in his machine by a small ball,
attached to an arm, which could be made to move through an orbit around
the sun. In the more complicated machines the several planetary moons,
such as the moons of Jupiter, were represented and were made to perform
their proper motions.

[Illustration: Fig. 141. Celestial Globe Gores by Johannes Oterschaden,
ca. 1675.]

[Illustration: Fig. 142. Engraved Sections for Globe Horizon Circle by
Johannes Oterschaden, ca. 1675.]

In the eighteenth century the instrument maker, George Graham
(1675-1751), constructed a complicated planetarium, in honor of Charles
Boyle, Earl of Orrery (1676-1731), which he called an orrery. His
machines, varying much in the character of construction, were especially
popular in the eighteenth century. The nineteenth century saw them
frequently in use for purposes of instruction and the regret may well be
expressed that for serious purposes they seem to have lost favor.

[Illustration: Fig. 143. The Orrery.]


NOTES

[181] See Fig. 56, I, 116.

[182] Compare for example Figs. 8 and 89.

[183] Consult the ‘Fihrist’ referred to in Chap. III, n. 4.

[184] Note such examples as the globe of Robertus de Bailly, I, 108,
the Lenox globe, I, 72, the Nancy globe, I, 102, and the Morgan
globe in the Metropolitan Museum, I, 200.

[185] See Fig. 3.

[186] See Fig. 43.

[187] See Apianus’ Cosmographicus liber.

[188] As for example the World map of Mercator of the year 1538, an
original copy of which may be found in the New York Public Library,
also a copy in the Library of The American Geographical Society.

[189] D’Avezac, M. A. P. Coup d’oeil historique sur la projection
des cartes de géographie. (In: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie
de Paris. Paris, 1863, pp. 274 ff.); Breusing, A. Das Verebnen der
Kugeloberfläche. Leipzig, 1892; Zondervan, H. Allgemeine
Kartenkunde. Leipzig, 1891; Fiorini, M. Le projezioni delle carte
geografiche. Bologna, 1881. The literature relative to map
projection is very extensive.

[190] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. pp. 93-102.

[191] See Fig. 32.

[192] See Fig. 40.

[193] Dürer, A. Underweysung der Mesung mit dem Zirkel und
Richtscheyd, in Linien ebnen und ganzen Corporen. Nürnberg, 1525.

[194] Buchlein, pp. 5 ff.

[195] Consult Günther. Erd- und Himmelsgloben. pp. 72-73; Kästner.
Geschichte der Mathematik. Vol. I, p. 684. See Günther, op. cit.,
chaps, vii, x, xii, xiii, xiv, with numerous references.

[196] Henrici Glareani poetae laureati de geographia liber unus.
Basileae, 1527.

[197] There is an interesting bit of information given by Coronelli
in his ‘Epitome Cosmografica’ relative to the making of an adhesive
material for use in the mounting of globe maps.

[198] See Fig. 61.

[199] See Figs. 59 and 66.

[200] Such, for example, as might consist of zonal strips, one for
the torrid, one for each of the temperate, and one for each of the
polar zones. Such strips perhaps could not properly be termed gores.

[201] Pictures are a particularly striking feature of the cloister
maps of the middle ages. The idea of such adornments may have come
down from Greek or Roman days. Plutarch tells us in his ‘Theseus’
that “Geographers crowd into the edge of their maps parts of the
world about which they have no knowledge, adding notes in the
margins to the effect that only deserts full of wild beasts and
impassable marshes lie beyond.” Jonathan Swift, humorously referring
to maps of the early period, writes:


“So geographers in Afric maps With savage pictures fill their gaps
And o’er unhabitable downs Place elephants for want of towns.”

The early map makers as illustrators should be an interesting theme
for a special monograph.

[202] Nonius, P. De arte atque ratione navigandi. Conimbriae, 1573,
lib. II, c. xxi, xxiv; Hues. Tractatus de Globis (Hakluyt Soc.
Pub.). pp. 127-147.

[203] For illustration of the method, see Fig. 89.

[204] Burritt, L. H. The geography of the heavens. New York, 1833;
Allen, R. H. Star names and their meanings; Wolf. Geschichte der
Astronomie. pp. 188-191, 420-427; Olcott, W. T. Starlore of all
ages. New York, 1911.

[205] The literature relating to this particular branch of astronomy
is extensive. Wolf, loc. cit., with references.

[206] See especially Fig. 13.

[207] See Fig. 121a.

[208] See Fig. 88.

[209] Wolf, R. Handbuch der Astronomie, ihre Geschichte und
Litteratur. Zürich, 1893. pp. 451 ff.; Frobesius. Bibliographie
Selenographorum. Helmstädt, 1718.

[210] Hevelius, J. Selenographiae sive Lunae descriptio. Danzig,
1647. pp. 492 ff.; Béziat, L. C. La vie et les travaux de Jean
Hévélius.

[211] Lalande. Bibliographie astronomique, “La Hire.”

[212] Mayer, T. Abhandlung über die Umwälzung des Mondes um seine
Achse und die scheinbare Bewegung der Mondflecke. Nürnberg, 1750;
same, Bericht von den Mondskugeln, welche bei der kosmographischen
Gesellschaft in Nürnberg aus neuen Beobachtungen verfertigt
werden. Nürnberg, 1750.

[213] Russel, J. A description of the selenographia, an apparatus
for exhibiting the phaenomena of the moon; together with an account
of some of the purposes to which it may be applied. London, 1797. In
his effort to obtain funds for the construction of his globe he
issued an announcement which he called a “Proposal for publishing by
subscription a Globe of the Moon.”

[Illustration: Printer’s Mark of the Blaeu Press]



Bibliographical List


The following bibliographical list includes the works referred
to in the body of the foregoing pages, with certain additions of
those touching incidentally globe making and globe makers. It is a
suggestive list, not one that can be called exhaustive. Practically all
those works in which the subject of geography and of astronomy has
been treated historically may be consulted with interest and profit.

AA, A. J. V. D. Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden. Haarlem,
1852-1878.

ABRAHAM BEN CHIJAH. Liber de Sphaera. 1105. MS.

ABULFEDA, I. E. I. Takwim al Boldan (Geography). Tr. by M. Reinaud
into French. Paris, 1848-1883.

ADAMS, G. A treatise describing and explaining the construction and
the use of new celestial and terrestrial globes, designed to
illustrate in the most easy manner the phenomena of the earth and
heavens. London, 1766.

  Astronomical and geographical essays. London, 1795.

  A treatise on the construction of globes. London, 1769.

  Geometrical and geographical essays, containing a description of
  mathematical instruments. London, 1791.

AKERMAN, A. Globes céleste et terrestre de vingt-deux pouces. Upsala,
1766.

ALBERTUS MAGNUS (Albert of Bollstädt). Opera omnia. Ed. by P. Jammy.
Leyden, 1651. 21 vols.

ALFONSO X. Libros del Saber de Astronomia del Rey D. Alfonso X de
Castilla. Ed. by Don Manuel Rico y Sinobas. Madrid, 1863-1867. 5 vols.

ALLEN, R. H. Star names and their meanings. New York, 1899.

ALLGEMEINE DEUTSCHE BIOGRAPHIE. Leipzig.

ALLGEMEINE GEOGRAPHISCHE EPHEMERIDEN. See ZACH, F. V.

AMARI, M. Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia. Firenze, 1868.

AMERICAN SCENIC AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION SOCIETY. Fifteenth Annual
Report. New York, 1910.

ANDREA, M. J. L. Zweifache Sternkugel oder Himmelskugel. n. p., 1724.

ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. Paris, 1891--.

ANNUARIO ASTRO-METEOROLOGICO con efemeridi nautichi. Venezia, 1882--.

ANONYMOUS. Treatise of the use of globes celestial and terrestrial.
London, 1647.

ANONYMOUS. W. J. Blaeus Antheil an der Bestimmung der Erdlangen.
Stuttgart, 1875.

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(In: Sitzungsbericht der kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in
Wien. Wien, 1888.)

  Die Karte des Bartolomeo Columbo über die vierte Reise des Admirals.
  Innsbruck, 1893.

  Die Karten von Amerika in den Islario General des Alonso de Santa
  Cruz, Cosmografo Mayor des Kaisers Karl V mit der spanischen
  Original Texte und einer kritischen Einleitung. Innsbruck, 1908.

  Magalhâes-Strasse und Australkontinent auf den Globen des Johannes
  Schöner. Innsbruck, 1881.

WILLIAMSON, H. A manual of problems on the globe. New York, 1886.

WILSON, J. Trigonometry: with an introduction to the use of both
Globes, and projection of the sphere in plano. Edinburgh, 1714.

WINSHIP, G. P. Cabot Bibliography. London, 1900.

WINSOR, J. Narrative and Critical History of America. Boston, 1889. 8
vols.

  Christopher Columbus and how he received and imparted the spirit of
  discovery. Boston and New York, 1892.

WITTY, J. Treatise of the sphere. London, 1714.

WOLF, R. Notizen zur Geschichte der Mathematik in der Schweiz, “Conrad
Dasypodius.” (In: Mitteilungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu
Bern. Bern, 1845.)

  Geschichte der Astronomie. München, 1877.

  Johannes Keppler und Joost Bürgi. Zürich, 1872.

WOLKENHAUER, A. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Kartographie und Nautik
des 15 bis 17 Jahrhundert. München, 1904.

WOLLWEBER. Globuskunde. Freiburg, 1885.

WRIGHT, E. The correction of certain errors in navigation. London,
1599.

  The description and use of the sphere. London, 1613.

WRIGHT, G. The description and Use of both the Globes, the Armillary
Sphere, and Orrery exemplified in a variety of problems in Astronomy.
London, 1783.

WRIGHT, T. The Use of the Globes or the general doctrine of the
Sphere. London, 1740.


YULE, H. The Book of Sir Marco Polo, the Venetian, concerning the
Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. London, 1903. 2 vols.


ZACH, F. v. Monatliche Korrespondence. Gotha, 1806.

  Allgemeine geographische Ephemeriden. Weimar, 1800-1830.

ZEDLER, J. H. Grosses Universal-Lexikon aller Wissenschaften und
Kunste. Leipzig-Halle, 1745.

ZEITSCHRIFT DER GESELLSCHAFT für Erdkunde zu Berlin. Berlin, 1866--.

ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR MATHEMATIK UND PHYSIK. Leipzig, 1856--.

ZEITSCHRIFT DES VEREINS FÜR HESSISCHE GESCHICHTE UND LANDESKUNDE.
Kessel, 1834--.

ZEITSCHRIFT für Wissenschaftliche Geographie. Weimar, ----.

ZIEGLER, A. Martin Behaim, der geistige Entdecker Amerikas. Dresden,
1859.

  Regiomantanus, ein geistiger Vorläufer des Columbus. Dresden, 1874.

ZIEGLERUS, J. De sphaerae solidae constructione. Basilae, 1536.

ZIMMERMANN, J. J. Coniglobium nocturnale stelligerum seu conus
Actrolabicus geminus. Hamburg, 1704.

ZIMMERMANN, M. Coniglobium. Le Globe céleste transporté sur deux
cones. Hambourg, 1770.

  Hans Müelich und Herzog Albrecht V. München, 1885.

ZÖCKLER, O. Geschichte der Beziehungen zwischen Theologie und
Naturwissenschaft. Gutersloh, 1877.

ZONDERVAN, H. Allgemeine Kartenkunde. Leipzig, 1901.



Index of Globes and Globe Makers


Table including alphabetical list of globe makers, the location of
individual examples, the kind of globe indicated by asterisk (*)
whether terrestrial (_Ter._), celestial (_Cel._), armillary sphere
(_Arm._), the date of the globe (_Date_), the diameter expressed in
centimeters (_Diam._), and where mention has been made in the text, a
reference to volume and page (_e.g._, II, 185).

  ========================================================================
                                               _Ter.|Cel.|Arm.|Date|Diam._
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ADAMS, DUDLEY (fl. 1797), II, 185.
    American Antiquarian Society, Worcester,
      II, 186                                    *    *        1797   46
    American Geographical Society, New York,
      II, 186                                    *    *        1797   46

  ADAMS, GEORGE, SR. (fl. 1760), II, 184.
    British Museum, II, 185                      *    *        1769   46
    British Museum, II, 185                      *    *        1772   46

  ADAMS, GEORGE, JR. (1750-1795), II, 185.
    University Library, Bologna, II, 186         *             1782   46
    Royal Library, Madrid, II, 186               *             1782   46
    Capodimonte Observatory, Naples, II, 186     *    *        1782   46
    Episcopal Seminary, Padua, II, 186           *             1782   46
    Classense Library, Ravenna, II, 186          *    *        1782   46
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 185           *    *        1782   46

  AKERMAN, ANDREA (1718-1778), II, 179.
    Geographical Institute, Göttingen, II, 180        *        1759   30
    Geographical Institute, Göttingen, II, 180   *             1779   30
    Astronomical Observatory, Milan, II, 180          *        1766   59

  ALBERTI, GIAN BATTISTA (fl. 1675), II, 96.
    Atheneum, Brescia, II, 96                              *   1688    ?

  ALSUFI ABUL HASSAN (ca. 1000).
    See reference in text, I, 28                      *            ?   ?

  ANDREAE, JOHANN (fl. 1720).
    City Historical Museum, Frankfurt, II, 140   *    *        1717   45
    Royal Museum, Cassel                         *             1725   25
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483)         *    *        1726   14

  ANONYMOUS (not otherwise listed--arranged
    alphabetically according to locality).
    Royal Museum, Cassel                         *    *        1725    7
    Royal Museum, Cassel                              *        1725    5
    Cusani Palace, Chignolo, II, 163             *             1725  120
    References in the ‘Fihrist,’ I, 28                *    *      ?    ?
    Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166                   *   1575   32
    Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166                   *   1575   23
    Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166                   *      ?    ?
    Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166                   *      ?    ?
    National Library, Florence, I, 166                *        1575   10
    National Library, Florence, I, 166           *    *        1575    5
    Musée Ariana, Geneva                              *    *   1600?   ?
    Communal Library, Imola, II, 164             *             1744   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Ivrea, II, 164           *             1744   50
    British Museum, London                       *             1590   25
    Record Sixth International Geographical
      Congress, London                           *    *    *   1580    ?
    Library Sir A. W. Franks, London             *             1569    ?
    Ambrosiana Library, Milan, II, 66                      *   1650    ?
    Royal Estense Library, Modena, II, 97                  *   1689    ?
    Royal Estense Library, Modena, II, 97                  *      ?    ?
    Royal Bavarian Court and State Library,
      Munich, I, 177 (numerous examples)         *    *    *      ?    ?
    Library W. R. Hearst, New York, II, 92            *        1700 ? 90
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 192                                    *             1800   21
    Metropolitan Museum, New York, I, 201             *        1575    8
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (Italian)                                            *    17c   16
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (French)                                             *    17c    8
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
     (Italian)                                             *    17c   11
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (Arabic)                                        *         17c   21
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (Arabic)                                        *         17c   15
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (German)                                             *    18c    9
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (French)                                             *    18c    6
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (Hindu)                                              *    18c   10
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (Italian)                                            *    18c    9
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York
      (Japanese)                                           *    18c   22
    German National Museum, Nürnberg                  *         16c   14
    German National Museum, Nürnberg                  *        1686   11
    German National Museum, Nürnberg             *              17c   42
    National Library, Paris, I, 106              *             1575   12
    National Library, Paris, I, 107              *             1575   21
    Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 129              *   1074    ?
    Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 165        *    *        1575   70
    Communal Library, Siena, II, 164             *         *   1744   45
    Collection John Wanamaker, New York                    *    17c  150
    Collection John Wanamaker, New York                    *    17c   30
    Communal Library, Savignano, II, 164         *             1744   50
    Communal Library, Siena, II, 163             *             1730  120
    Communal Library, Siena, II, 120                       *   1690   66
    Library Professor Tono, Venice, II, 179      *             1756    ?
    Library Admiral Acton, I, 79                 *                ?    ?
  APIANUS (BENEWITZ), PETER (1495-1552),
    I, 176.
    See reference in text, I, 176                *    *           ?    ?
  APIANUS (BENEWITZ), PHILIP (fl. 1575),
    II, 178.
    Royal Bavarian Library, Munich, II, 178.     *    *        1576  118
  ARCHIMEDES (287-212 B. C.).
    See reference in text, I, 15                           *      ?    ?
  ATLANTE FARNESE (250 B. C. ca.).
    National Museum, Naples, I, 15                    *           ?    ?
  BAILLY, ROBERTUS (fl. 1525), I, 105.
    Library J. P. Morgan, New York, I, 106       *             1530   14
    National Library, Paris, I, 105              *             1530   14
  B. F.
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 215                *        1600   12
  BARROCCI, GIOVANNI MARIA (fl. 1560), I, 165.
    Lancisiana Library, Rome, I, 165                       *   1570   36
  BASSO (PILIZZONI OR PELLICCIONI), FRANCESCO
    (fl. 1560).
    National Library, Turin, I, 163              *             1570   17
  BATTISTA, GIOVANNI, DA CASSINE (fl. 1560).
    See reference in text, II, 121               *    *        1700?   ?
  BEHAIM, MARTIN (1459-1506), I, 47.
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, I, 48      *             1492   50
  BELGA, GUILIELMUS NICOLO (fl. 1600).
    Bodel Nyenhuis, Leyden (gores)               *             1603    ?
  BENCI, CARLO (fl. 1660), II, 79.
    Palace Prince Massimo, Rome, II, 80          *    *        1671  120
  BEMBO, PIETRO (1470-1547).
    See reference in text, I, 120                *             1547    ?
  BEYER, JOHANN (fl. 1720).
    Royal Museum, Cassel                         *    *        1718   30
  BION, NICOLAS (1650-1733), II. 152.
    Malvezzi Library, Bologna, II, I53                *        1710    ?
    Technical Institute, Florence, II, I53       *             1712    ?
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 154           *             1712    ?
  BLAEU, WILLEM JANSZ. (1571-1638), II, 18-44.
    Muller, Frederick, Amsterdam, II, 27         *             1599   34
    Muller, Frederick, Amsterdam, II, 27              *        1603   34
    Communal Library, Fano, II, 27               *             1599   34
    Communal Library, Fano, II, 27                    *        1603   34
    Library Dr. Baumgärtner, Göttingen,
      II, 26                                     *             1599   34
    Library Dr. Baumgärtner, Göttingen,
      II, 26                                          *        1603   34
    University Library, Göttingen, II, 26        *             1599   34
    Library Adam Kästner, Göttingen, II, 27      *             1599   34
    Library Adam Kästner, Göttingen, II, 27           *        1603   34
    University Library, Leiden, II, 27           *             1599   34
    University Library, Leiden, II, 27                *        1603   34
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 27     *             1599   34
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 27     *             1599   34
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 27          *        1603   34
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 27          *        1603   34
    Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27               *             1599   34
    Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27               *             1599   34
    Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27                    *        1603   34
    Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27                    *        1603   34
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 30                 *             1602   24
    City Library, Nürnberg, II, 30               *    *        1602   24
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 30     *    *        1602   24
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 30          *        1602   24
    Concordia Academy, Rovigo, II, 30            *    *        1602   24
    City Library, Rüdlingen, II, 30              *             1602   24
    British Museum, London, II, 31               *    *        1606   13
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 30                                     *             1606   13
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 30                                     *    *        1616   10
    Muller, Frederick, Amsterdam                 *    *        1616   10
    Public Library, Aquila, II, 44                    *        1622   67
    Astronomical Observatory, Bologna, II, 43    *    *        1622   67
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 44                 *             1622   67
    Episcopal Library, Chioggia, II, 44          *    *        1622   67
    Communal Library, Como, II, 44               *             1622   67
    Astronomical Observatory, Florence, II, 41   *    *        1622   67
    Technical Institute, Florence, II, 44        *             1622   67
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      II, 44                                     *    *        1622   67
    Mission Brothers, Genoa, II, 44              *             1622   67
    Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 44          *    *        1622   67
    Royal Estense Library, Modena, II, 43        *    *        1622   67
    National Library, Naples, II, 44             *    *        1622   67
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 44                                     *             1622   67
    City Library, Nürnberg, II, 43                    *        1622   67
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 44     *             1622   67
    Library Reichsgraf Hans v. Oppersdorf,
      Oberglogau, II, 43                              *        1622   67
    Communal Library, Palermo, II, 42            *    *        1622   67
    Gambalunga Library, Rimini, II, 42           *    *        1622   67
    Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 42              *    *        1622   67
    Chigi Library, Rome, II, 44                  *    *        1622   67
    Scuole Pie, Savona, II, 44                   *    *        1622   67
    Marco Foscarini Liceum, Venice, II, 44       *    *        1622   67
    City Museum, Venice, II, 44                  *             1622   67
    Quirini Pinacoteca, Venice, II, 44
      (2 copies)                                 *    *        1622   67
    Library Count Francesco Franco, Vicenza,
      II, 44                                     *    *        1622   67
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 44           *    *        1640   76
    British Museum, London, II, 44                    *        1640   24
    British Museum, London, II, 44 (gores)       *             1640   60
    Geographical Institute, Utrecht              *             1640   67
    Royal Library, Madrid                        *    *        1640   67
  BODE, JOHANN ELERT (1747-1826).
    German National Museum, Nürnberg                  *        1790   32
  BONNE, RIGOBERT (1727-1795), II, 181.
    See reference in text, II, 181               *             1771   31
    Astronomical Observatory, Palermo, II, 181   *    *        1779   31
    Library Mrs. C. L. F. Robinson, Hartford     *             1779   31
    Geographical Institute, Göttingen, II, 182   *    *        1779   31
  BONIFACIUS, NATOLI (1550-1620).
    See Günther (E. u. H. Gl., p. 68)            *             1552?   ?
  BORSARI, BONIFACIUS (fl. 1760).
    City Museum, Modena                                    *   1764   18
  BOULENGIER, LOUIS (fl. 1515).
    Public Library, New York, I, 79              *             1518?  11
  BONCOMPAGNI, HIERONYMO DE.
    See reference in text, I, 165                     *        1570   29
  BRAHE, TYCHO (1546-1601), I, 183.
    See references in text, I, 185                    *    *   1584  150
  BÜCHLIN GLOBE (Waldseemüller?).
    See reference in text, I, 71                 *             1509    ?
  BÜHLER, JAMES A. (fl. 1790).
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483)         *             1795   10
  BÜNAU, HENRY.
    See reference in text, I, 67                 *             1507?   ?
  BÜRGI, JOST (1552-1633).
    Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196 (numerous
      examples)                                       *    *   1585    ?
    Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196                      *        1582   72
    Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196                      *        1592   72
    Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196                      *        1592   72
  Busch, Andreas (fl. 1650). See also OLEARIUS,
    ADAM, and GOTTORP, II, 73.
    National Museum, Copenhagen, II, 74                    *   1657  120
    Tsarskoe Selo Castle, II, 74                 *    *    *   1664  441
  CABOT, JOHN (fl. 1495).
    See reference in text, I, 53                 *             1497?   ?
  CAISSAR BEN ABUL ALCASEM (fl. 1225).
    National Museum, Naples, I, 29                    *        1225   22
  CAMPANO, GIOVANNI DA NOVARA (fl. 1300).
    See reference in text, I, 42                           *   1303?   ?
  CARAFFA, GIOVANNI (fl. 1561).
    See reference in text, I, 152                *             1575   68
  CARTARO, MARIO (fl. 1575), I, 167.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 168                                          *        1577   16
    Library Mr. Reed, New York, I, 168           *             1577   16
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 168            *    *        1577   16
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 168            *             1577   16
  CARTILIA, CARMELO (fl. 1720).
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 154                     *   1720   26
  CARY, WILLIAM (1759-1825), II, 194.
    Western Reserve Historical Society,
      Cleveland                                       *        1799   54
    Library Lorenzo Novella, Loano               *    *        1799   54
    British Museum, London                       *             1799   54
    Library Vittorio Bianchini, Macerata,
      II, 194                                    *    *        1799   54
    Library Vittorio Bianchini, Macerata,
      II, 194 (2 copies)                              *        1799   54
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 194           *    *        1799   54
    Library Count Vespignani, Rome               *    *        1799   54
  CASSINI, GIOVANNI MARIA (fl. 1790), II, 192.
    Communal School, Ancona                      *             1790   34
    Communal School, Ancona                           *        1792   34
    Liceum, Arpino                               *             1790   34
    Liceum, Arpino                                    *        1792   34
    Maletesta Library, Cesena                    *             1790   34
    Maletesta Library, Cesena                         *        1792   34
    Communal Library, Crevalcuore                *             1790   34
    Communal Library, Crevalcuore                     *        1792   34
    Collection John Wanamaker, New York          *    *    *   1792   34
    Cathedral Library, Perugia                   *             1790   34
    Cathedral Library, Perugia                        *        1792   34
    Nautical Institute, Palermo                  *             1790   34
    Nautical Institute, Palermo                       *        1792   34
    Episcopal Seminary, Rimini                   *             1790   34
    Episcopal Seminary, Rimini                        *        1792   34
    Astronomical Museum, Rome                    *             1790   34
    Astronomical Museum, Rome                         *        1792   34
    Episcopal Seminary, Vigevano                 *             1790   34
    Episcopal Seminary, Vigevano                      *        1792   34
  CASTLEMAINE, EARL OF (ROGER PALMER)
    (1634-1705), II, 94.
    University Library, Cambridge, II, 94        *    *        1679   29
  CAUCIGH, R. P. MICHAEL (fl. 1725).
    German National Museum, Nürnberg             *             1726   17
  CELTES, CONRAD (1459-1508).
    See reference in text, I, 54                 *    *        1495?   ?
  CHIGNOLO GLOBE.
    Library Marquis Cusani, Chignolo             *             1731  120
  COCCO, JACOMO (fl. 1575).
    See reference in text, I, 152                *             1575   68
  COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER (1451-1506).
    See reference in text, I, 52                 *             1480?   ?
    See reference in text, I, 52                 *             1501?   ?
  COLUMBUS, BARTHOLOMEW (1460-1514).
    See reference in text, I, 53                 *             1480?   ?
  CORONELLI, P. VINCENZO (1650-1718), II, 98.
    National Library, Paris, II, 100             *    *        1683  475
    Episcopal Seminary, Aversa, II, 114          *    *        1688  110
    City Library, Bergamo, II, 111               *    *        1688  110
    Communal Library, Bologna, II, 114           *    *        1688  110
    State Archives, Bologna, II, 114             *    *        1688  110
    Convent Osservanza, Bologna, II, 114         *    *        1688  110
    Library Professor Liuzzi, Bologna, II, 114   *             1688  110
    Royal Library, Brussels, II, 114             *    *        1688  110
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 111          *    *        1688  110
    Communal Library, Faenza, II, 111            *    *        1688  110
    Communal Library, Fano, II, 111              *    *        1688  110
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      II, 114                                    *    *        1688  110
    City Mission, Genoa, II, 114                 *    *        1688  110
    British Museum, London, II, 114 (gores)      *             1688  110
    Gonzaga Library, Mantua, II, 111             *    *        1688  110
    Astronomical Observatory, Milan, II, 114     *    *        1688  110
    Brancascia Library, Naples, II, 114          *    *        1688  110
    National Library, Naples, II, 114            *    *        1688  110
    University Library, Naples, II, 111          *    *        1688  110
    National Library, Palermo, II, 114           *    *        1688  110
    Antonian Library, Padua, II, 114             *    *        1688  110
    Library Count Manin, Passeriano, II, 111     *    *        1688  110
    Classense Library, Ravenna, II, 114          *    *        1688  110
    Cathedral Library, Reggio, II, 114           *             1688  110
    Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 118        *             1688  110
    Lancisiana Library, Rome, II, 114            *    *        1688  110
    Academy of Sciences, Turin, II, 114          *    *        1688  110
    Marciana Library, Venice, II, 111            *    *        1688  110
    Patriarchal Seminary, Venice, II, 114        *             1688  110
    Civic Museum, Venice, II, 114 (3 copies)     *             1688  110
    Communal Library, Vicenza, II, 114           *             1688  110
    Episcopal Seminary, Aversa, II, 114               *        1693  110
    City Museum, Genoa, II, 114                       *        1693  110
    British Museum, London, II, 114                   *        1693  110
    National Library, Paris, II, 114             *    *        1693  110
    Academy of Sciences, Turin, II, 114               *        1693  110
    Library of Congress, Washington, II, 112     *             1693  110
    Episcopal Seminary, Finale, II, 118          *    *        1696   48
    National Library, Florence, II, 118          *             1696   48
    Franzoniana, Genoa, II, 118                  *    *        1696   48
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 115                                    *             1696   48
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 118    *    *        1696   48
    Communal Library, Perugia, II, 118           *    *        1696   48
    Certosa, Pisa, II, 118                            *        1696   48
    Certosa, Pisa, II, 118                       *             1699   48
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 118                *        1696   48
    City Museum, Trieste, II, 118                *    *        1696   48
    Marucellian Library, Florence, II, 118       *    *        1699   48
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig                    *             1699   48
    Library Sr. Remigio Salotti, Modena,
      II, 118                                    *    *        1699   48
    Certosa Library, Perugia, II, 118                 *        1699   48
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 118           *             1699   48
    Library Giovanni Bargagli, Rome, II, 118     *    *        1699   48
    Victor Emanuel Library, Florence, II, 118    *    *        1699   48
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (gores)            *             1699   48
    British Museum, London, II, 119 (gores)      *             1699   48
    Royal Library, Madrid
    See reference in text, II, 119               *    *        1704  364
    Atlante Veneto of Coronelli, II, 119
      (small globes)                             *    *           ?    ?
  COSTA, GIAN FRANCESCO (fl. 1775), II, 179.
    Communal Library, Cagli, II, 179                  *        1754   20
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 179                *        1754   20
    Library Sr. Fronzi, Senigallia, II, 179      *             1754   20
    University Library, Urbino, II, 179          *             1754   20
  CRATES (fl. 150 B.C.).
    See reference in text, I, 7                  *               2c    ?
  CRUZ, ALONSO DE SANTA (1500-1572), I, 121.
    Royal Library, Stockholm, I, 121 (gores)     *             1542   39
  DANTI, IGNAZIO (1537-1586), I, 158.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 162                                     *             1567  200
    See reference in text, I, 162                     *        1567  200
  DASYPODIUS, CONRAD (1532-1600), I, 173.
    Strassburg Cathedral Clock, Strassburg,
      I, 175                                     *    *        1574   82
  DE BURE. See GILT GLOBE, I, 98.
  DELAMARCHE, CHARLES FRANÇOIS (1740-1817),
      II, 190.
    Patriarchal Observatory, Venice, II, 190.    *             1785   48
    Mission Brothers Convent, Chieri, II, 190         *        1791   18
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483)         *    *        1791   18
    National Library, Milan, II, 190             *    *        1791   18
    Charles Albert Liceum, Novara, II, 190       *    *        1791   18
    Nautical Institute, Palermo, II, 190         *             1791   18
    Palace Sr. Scaramucci, S. Maria a Monte,
      II, 191                                              *   1791    ?
    Physics Museum, Siena, II, 190               *             1791   30
    Patriarchal Observatory, Venice              *             1791   18
  DELISLE, GUILLAUME (1675-1726), II, 138.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      II, 140                                    *             1700   32
    Royal Library, Madrid, II, 141               *             1700   32
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 140                *    *        1709   16
  DE MONGENET, FRANÇOIS (fl. 1550), I, 147.
    Library Count Pilloni, Belluno, I, 150       *             1552    9
    British Museum, London (12 gores), I, 150    *    *        1552    9
    New York Public Library, New York
      (12 gores), I, 148                         *    *        1552    9
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, I, 148     *             1552    9
    British Museum, London (12 gores), I, 150    *             1560    9
    Library Prince Trivulzio, Milan, I, 150      *             1560    9
    National Library, Paris, I, 150              *    *        1560    9
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 150            *    *        1560    9
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 150                 *        1560    9
  DESNOS, L. C. (fl. 1750), II, 178.
    Spallanzani Liceum, Reggio Emilia, II, 178        *        1750   22
    See reference in text, II, 178               *    *        1753    ?
    Library Marquis Costerbosa, Parma, II, 179   *    *        1754   26
    Spallanzani Liceum, Reggio Emelia, II, 178   *             1760   22
    Library Alberoni College, Piacenza, II, 179  *    *        1772   26
  DEUR, JOHANNES (fl. 1725).
    Frederick Muller (Cat. Maps and Atlases),
      Amsterdam                                  *    *        1720    6
  DONDI, GIOVANNI (fl. 1350), I, 136.
    See reference in text, I, 136                          *    14C    ?
  DOPPELMAYR, JOHANN GABRIEL (1671-1750),
    II, 159.
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162               *        1728   32
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 160                                    *             1728   32
    City Library, Nurnberg, II, 160              *             1728   32
    German National Musum, Nürnberg, II, 160     *    *        1728   32
    Physics Museum, Pavia, II, 162               *             1728   32
    Cathedral Library, Verona, II, 162           *    *        1728   32
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162               *        1730   20
    Geographical Institute, Gottingen, II, 162   *    *        1730   20
    German National Museum, Nurnberg (4 copies),
      II, 162                                    *    *        1730   20
    Library of Congress, Washington              *             1730   20
    German National Museum, Nurnberg, II, 162    *    *        1736   20
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 160                                    *    *        1736   20
  DÜRER, ALBRECHT (1471-1528).
    See reference in text, I, 88                 *    *        1515    ?
  EDRISI (1099-1164).
    See reference in text, I, 27                           *    12C    ?
  EIMMART, GEORGE CHRISTOPHER (1638-1705),
    II, 122.
    See reference in text, II, 122                         *   1695    ?
    City Library, Bergamo, II, 124                    *        1705   30
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 122           *    *        1705   30
  ELCANO, SEBASTIAN (fl. 1520).
    See reference in text, I, 82                 *             1526    ?
  EUDOXUS (fl. 366 B.C.).
    See reference in text, I, 15                      *           ?    ?
  EMMOSER, GERHARD (fl. 1575), I, 179.
    Metropolitan Museum, New York, I, 179             *        1579   13
  FARNESE, ATLANTE.
    National Museum, Naples, I, 15                    *     3c B.C.   65
  FABER, SAMUEL (1657-1716).
    German National Museum, Nürnberg             *             1705   48
  FERGUSON, JAMES (1711-1776), II, 168.
    Harvard University Library, Cambridge,
      II, 171                                    *    *        1782    7
    Karl Hiersemann, Leipzig                     *    *        1782    7
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 169                                    *    *        1782    7
    Communal Library, Palermo, II, 171           *    *        1782    7
    Meteorological Observatory, Syracuse,
      II, 171                                    *    *        1728    7
  FERRERI, GIOVANNI PAOLO (fl. 1600), II, 44.
    Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 44                   *        1602   23
    Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 44                   *        1624   39
  FILIBERTO, EMANUELE (fl. 1575), I, 165.
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 165            *             1575   28
  FLORIANUS, ANTONIUS (fl. 1550), I, 150.
    Harvard University Library, Cambridge,
      I, 152 (36 gores)                          *             1555   25
    Library Professor Giovanni Marinelli,
      Florence, I, 151 (36 gores)                *             1555   25
    New York Public Library, New York, I, 152
      (36 gores)                                 *             1555   25
    British Museum, London (36 gores), I, 152    *             1555   25
    Library Baron Nordenskiöld, Stockholm,
      I, 152 (36 gores)                          *             1555   25
    Victor Emanuel Library, Rome (36 gores),
      I, 151                                     *             1555   25
    City Library, Treviso (36 gores), I, 151     *             1555   25
    State Archives, Turin (36 gores), I, 151     *             1555   25
    Marciana Library, Venice (36 gores), I, 151  *             1555   25
    Library of Congress, Washington (36 gores),
      I, 152                                     *             1555   25
  FORTIN, JEAN (1750-1831), II, 184.
    See reference in text, II, 184                                ?    ?
    Convent of Mission Brothers, Chieri,
      II, 184                                         *        1780   22
    Communal Library, Corregio, II, 184               *        1780   22
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 184                                              *   1780   22
    Dorian Liceum, Novi, II, 184                      *        1780   22
  FRACASTORO, GIROLAMO (16th Cent.).
    See reference in text, I, 136                *    *           ?    ?
  FRISIUS, GEMMA (1508-1565), I, 102.
    See reference in text, I, 102                *             1530    ?
    Francisceum Gymnasium, Zerbst, I, 103        *             1530    ?
    Francisceum Gymnasium, Zerbst, I, 105        *             1537    ?
  FURTEMBACH, MARTIN (fl. 1525).
    See reference in text, I, 110                *             1535    ?
  GERBERT (POPE SILVESTER II) (fl. 1000).
    See reference in text, I, 38                      *    *   1000    ?
  GESSNER, ABRAHAM (1552-1613), I, 199.
    Library S. J. Phillips, London, I, 218       *         *   1595    ?
    Museum des Cordeliers, Basel (3 goblets),
      I, 201                                          *    *   1600?   ?
    Wolfegg Castle, Wolfegg, I, 199              *    *    *   1600?   ?
    National Museum, Zürich, I, 200              *    *        1600?   ?
  GIANELLI, GIOVANNI (fl. 1550), I, 135.
    Ambrosiana Library, Milan, I, 135                 *        1549   14
  GILT GLOBE.
    National Library, Paris, I, 98               *             1527   23
  GIORDANI, VITALE (1633-1711), II, 120.
    Lancisiana Library, Rome, II, 120                      *   1690    ?
  GLAREANUS, HENRICUS (1488-1551), II, 203.
    See reference in text, II, 203 (globe gores)               1527
  GLOBUS MUNDI.
    See reference in text, I, 72                 *             1509    ?
  GONZAGA, GURZIO (fl. 1550), I, 154.
    See reference in text, I, 154                *             1561  203
  GOOS, ABRAHAM (fl. 1640), II, 66.
    Library Marquis Borromeo, Milan, II, 67      *    *        1648   44
  GOTTORP GLOBE.
    See BUSCH, ANDREAS, and OLEARIUS, ADAM.
  GRANDI, P. FRANCESCO (fl. 1750), II, 179.
    See reference in text, II, 179               *             1755   21
  GREEN GLOBE.
    National Library, Paris, I, 76               *             1515   24
  GREUTER, MATTHEUS (1564-1638), II, 54.
    Library Communal School, Ancona, II, 59      *             1632   50
    Library Communal School, Ancona, II, 59           *        1636   50
    Communal Library, Bassano, II, 60            *             1632   50
    Library Count Piloni, Belluno, II, 60        *             1632   50
    Library Count Piloni, Belluno, II, 60             *        1636   50
    Communal Library, Bologna, II, 59            *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Bologna, II, 59                 *        1632   50
    Library General Antonio Gandolfi, Bologna,
      II, 60                                     *             1632   50
    Library General Antonio Gandolfi, Bologna,
     II, 59                                           *        1636   50
    Atheneum, Brescia, II, 60                    *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Carmarino, II, 59          *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Carmarino, II, 59               *        1636   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Carpi, II, 59            *             1632   50
    Physics Museum, Catania, II, 60              *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Fabriano, II, 59           *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Fabriano, II, 59                *        1636   50
    Agabiti Museum, Fabriano, II, 59             *             1632   50
    Agabiti Museum, Fabriano, II, 59                  *        1636   50
    Communal Library, Ferrara, II, 59            *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Ferrara, II, 59                 *        1636   50
    Library Santa Maria Nuova, Florence, II, 59  *             1632   50
    Library Santa Maria Nuova, Florence, II, 59       *        1636   50
    Joseph Baer, Frankfurt, II, 59               *             1632   50
    Joseph Baer, Frankfurt, II, 59                    *        1636   50
    Library Sr. Luigi Belli, Genga, II, 60       *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Gubbio, II, 59             *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Gubbio, II, 59                  *        1636   50
    Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 59          *             1632   50
    Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 59               *        1636   50
    Gonzaga Library, Mantua, II, 59              *             1632   50
    Gonzaga Library, Mantua, II, 59                   *        1636   50
    Private Library, Matelica                    *             1632   50
    Private Library, Matelica                         *        1636   50
    University Library, Messina, II, 59          *             1632   50
    University Library, Messina, II, 59               *        1636   50
    National Library, Milan, II, 59              *             1632   50
    National Library, Milan, II, 59                   *        1636   50
    City Library, Modena, II, 59                 *             1632   50
    City Library, Modena, II, 59                      *        1636   50
    Ludwig Rosenthal, Munich                     *             1632   50
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 55                                     *             1632   50
    Physics Museum, Padua, II, 59                *             1632   50
    Physics Museum, Padua, II, 59                     *        1636   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Padua, II, 59            *             1632   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Padua, II, 59 (2 copies)      *        1636   50
    Communal Library, Palermo                    *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Palermo                         *        1636   50
    Palatin Library, Parma, II, 59               *             1632   50
    Palatin Library, Parma, II, 59                    *        1636   50
    Capitulary Library, Reggio, II, 59           *             1632   50
    Capitulary Library, Reggio, II, 59                *        1636   50
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 59            *             1632   50
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 59                 *        1636   50
    Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 59         *             1632   50
    Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 59              *        1636   50
    Mercantile Marine Library, Rotterdam         *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Sanseverino, II, 59        *             1632   50
    Communal Library, Sanseverino, II, 59             *        1636   50
    Library Canon Luigi Belli, Treviso, II, 60   *             1632   50
    Library Canon Luigi Belli, Treviso, II, 60        *        1636   50
    State Archives, Venice, II, 60               *             1632   50
    Chigi Library, Rome, II, 59                       *        1636   50
    Communal Library, Serra S. Quirico, II, 60        *        1636   50
    Library W. B. Thompson, Yonkers, II, 60           *        1636   50
    Private Library, Ancona, II, 61              *    *        1638   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Macerata, II, 61         *             1638   50
    Library Count Conestabile, Perugia, II, 61        *        1638   50
    Library Cav. Carlotti, Piticchio, II, 61     *    *        1638   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Toscanella, II, 61       *    *        1638   50
    Joseph Baer, Frankfurt                       *    *        1695   50
    Episcopal Library, Benevento, II, 63         *    *        1695   50
    Technical Institute, Casale Monserrate,
      II, 63                                     *    *        1695   50
    Communal Library, Ferrara, II, 63                 *        1695   50
    Technical Institute, Florence, II, 63        *    *        1695   50
    Badia of Santa Maria, Gretta Ferrata,
      II, 63                                          *        1695   50
    Communal Library, Imola, II, 63              *    *        1695   50
    Episcopal Seminary, Ivrea                         *        1695   50
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 62                                     *    *        1695   50
    Communal Library, Osimo                           *        1695   50
    Communal Library, Palestrina                 *    *        1695   50
    Communal Library, Savignano, II, 63               *        1695   50
    Cathedral Library, Pescia                    *    *        1695   50
  HABRECHT, ISAAC (fl. 1625), II, 50.
    Communal Library, Asti, II, 53               *    *        1619   21
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 53                      *        1625   21
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 50                                     *             1625   21
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 53          *        1625   21
    Communal Library, Sondrio, II, 53            *    *        1625   21
  HAHN, P. G. (1739-1790).
    German National Museum, Nürnberg                  *        1780    ?
  HARTMANN, GEORGE (fl. 1535), I, 117            *    *
  HAUER, JOHANN (fl. 1625), II, 53.
    National Museum, Stockholm, II, 53           *             1620    ?
  HAUSLAB GLOBES.
    Library Prince Liechtenstein, Vienna,
      I, 75 (12 gores)                           *             1515   37
    Library Prince Liechtenstein, Vienna,
      I, 75                                      *             1515   37
  HEYDEN, CHRISTIAN (1526-1576), I, 156.
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 156                *        1560    7
  HEROLDT, ADAM (fl. 1650), II, 64.
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 65.                     *   1649   13
  HILL, NATHANIEL (fl. 1750), II, 187.
    British Museum, London, II, 187              *    *        1754    7
    New York Public Library, New York, II, 188   *             1754    7
    National Library, Paris, II, 187             *    *        1754    7
  HIPPARCHUS (fl. 160 B.C.).
    See reference in text, I, 19                      *       2c B.C.  ?
  HOMANN, JOHANN BAPTISTA (1663-1727), II, 154.
    German National Museum, Nürnberg             *    *        1715?   7
    See reference in text, II, 154.
  HONTER, JOHANN (fl. 1540).
    See reference in text, II, 93                *             1542    ?
  HONDIUS, HENRICUS (1580-1644), II, 18.
    Quirinal Library, Brescia, II, 18            *    *        1640   53
    Episcopal Seminary, Portogruaro, II, 18      *    *        1640   53
    City Museum, Vicenza, II, 18                 *    *        1640   53
  HONDIUS, JODOCUS (1546-1611), II, 4.
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 4           *        1592   60
    Library Sr. Giannini, Lucca, II, 8           *    *        1600   34
    Library Henry E. Huntington, New York,
      II. 4                                      *    *        1600   34
    Municipal Museum, Milan, II, 9               *    *        1601   21
    Episcopal Seminary, Rimini, II, 11                *        1601   21
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      II, 13                                          *        1613   55
    Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 13              *    *        1613   55
    City Library, Treviso, II, 13                *    *        1613   55
    Library Sr. Lessi, Florence, II, 14 (Rossi)  *             1615   21
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 14 (Rossi)         *        1615   21
    Private Dutch Collection, II, 68, n. 12      *             1615   21
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 15     *             1618   34
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 14                                     *             1618   21
  IBRAHIM IBN SAID-AS-SAHLI (fl. 1075), I, 28.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 28                                           *        1080   20
  JAILLOT, CHARLES HUBERT ALEXIUS (1640-1712).
    German National Museum, Nürnberg             *             1700?  41
  JAGELLONICUS.
    Jagellonicus Library, Cracow, I, 74          *         *   1510    7
  JAPANESE GLOBE.
    Library Professor David E. Smith, New York        *        1600?  10
  JONSSONIUS, JOHANN (fl. 1620), II, 66.
    Library Leiden University, Leiden,
      II, 66 (gores)                             *             1621   12
    See reference in text, II, 66                *                ?    ?
  JULIUS II, POPE (1503-1513).
    See reference in text, I, 62                 *             1504   95
    Vatican Observatory, Rome, I, 62                  *        1504   95
  KEULEN, JOHANN VAN (fl. 1675), II, 66.
    Marine School, Rotterdam, II, 66
      (Blaeu, 1599)                              *             1682   34
  KLINGER, JOHANN GEORGE (fl. 1790).
    History Museum, Frankfurt                    *             1792   25
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483)              *        1790   32
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483)         *             1792   32
  KO-SHUN-KING (fl. 1250).
    Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 129.             *   1274  194
  LANE, N. (fl. 1775), II, 183.
    British Museum, London, II, 183              *             1776    7
  LAON GLOBE.
    City Library, Laon, I, 51                    *             1493   16
  LALANDE, JOSEPH JÉRÔME LE FRANÇAIS
    (1732-1807), II, 181.
    Astronomical Library, Palermo, II, 182            *        1779   32
  L’ÉCUY, ABBÉ.
    National Library, Paris, I, 188              *             1578   25
  LEGRAND, P. (fl. 1720).
    College of Dijon, Dijon (see Laland,
      Bib. Astr.)                                *             1720  190
  LENOX GLOBE.
    New York Public Library, New York, I, 74     *             1510   13
  LEONTIUS MECHANICUS (fl. 550).
    See reference in text, I, 21                      *           ?    ?
  LIBRI, FRANCESCO DAI.
    See reference in text, I, 100, 136           *             1529    ?
  LIECHTENSTEIN GLOBE.
    See reference in text, I, 77                 *             1515   37
  LUD. SEM. (unknown).
    Library Sr. Lissi, Florence, II, 45                    *   1612   20
  MACCARI, GIOVANNI (fl. 1685), II, 96.
    Liceum, Reggio Emelia, II, 96                          *   1689   16
  MAGELLAN GLOBE.
    See reference in text, I, 81                 *             1519    ?
  MARIA, PIETRO (fl. 1745), II, 165.
    Episcopal Seminary, Casale, II, 166          *    *        1745   60
    Municipal Library, Alessandria, II, 166      *    *        1751  105
  MARTYR, PETER (1455-1526).
    See reference in text                        *             1514    ?
  MAUROLICO, FRANCESCO (1494-1575).
    See reference in text, II, 167                    *        1575    ?
  MERCATOR, GERHARD (1512-1594), I, 124.
    Convent Adamont, Adamont, I, 133             *             1541   41
    Royal Library, Brussels, I, 127              *             1541
    Royal Library, Brussels, I, 131                   *        1551   41
    Governmental Library, Cremona, I, 133        *             1541   41
    Governmental Library, Cremona, I, 133             *        1551   41
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, I, 133     *             1541   41
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, I, 133          *        1551   41
    Astronomical Observatory, Paris, I, 133      *             1541   41
    Astronomical Observatory, Paris, I, 133           *        1551   41
    Library Marquis Gherardi, Prato, I, 133      *             1541   41
    Library Marquis Gherardi, Prato, I, 133           *        1551   41
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 134 (2 copies) *             1541   41
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 134                 *        1551   41
    City Archives, St. Nicolas, I, 133           *             1541   41
    City Archives, St. Nicolas, I, 133                *        1551   41
    Monastery Library, Stams, I, 133             *             1541   41
    Communal Library, Urbania, I, 134            *             1541   41
    Communal Library, Urbania, I, 134                 *        1551   41
    Imperial Library, Vienna, I, 133             *             1541   41
    Imperial Library, Vienna, I, 133                  *        1551   41
    Grand Ducal Library, Weimar, I, 133          *             1541   41
  MESSIER, CHARLES (1730-1817), II, 183.
    Machiavellian Liceum, Lucca, II, 184              *        1780   31
    City Library, Nürnberg, II, 184                   *        1780   31
    Meteorological Observatory, Parma, II, 184        *        1780   31
    Physics Museum, Siena, II, 184                    *        1780   31
    Monastic Library, Subiaco, II, 184                *        1780   31
  MIOT, VINCENZO (fl. 1700), II, 143.
    Marco Foscarini Liceum, Venice, II, 143.          *        1710   23
  MOHAMMED BEN HELAL (fl. 1275), I, 29.
    Royal Asiatic Society, London, I, 29              *        1275    ?
  MOHAMMED BEN MUWAJID AL ORDHI (fl. 1275), I, 30.
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 30                 *        1279   14
  MOHAMMED, DIEMAT EDDIN (fl. 1575), I, 31.
    National Library, Paris, I, 31                    *        1573   15
  MOLL, HERMAN (fl. 1700).
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 170                                    *             1703    8
  MOLYNEUX, EMERY (fl. 1590), I, 190.
    Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 195 (Sanderson)     *             1592   66
    Middle Temple, London, I, 190                *    *        1592   66
  MONACHUS, FRANCISCUS (fl. 1525), I, 96.
    See reference in text, I, 96                 *             1525    ?
  MORDEN, ROBERT (fl. 1700), II, 156.
    British Museum, London, II, 156              *             1683   35
  MORONCELLI, SILVESTER AMANTIUS (1652-1719),
      II, 83.
    Marciana Library, Venice, II, 83             *    *        1672  200
    Alessandrian Library, Rome, II, 84           *             1679   89
    Alessandrian Library, Rome, II, 84                *        1680   89
    See reference in text, II, 92 (2 or more)    *    *        1690   26
    Etruscan Academy, Cortona, II, 92                 *        1710   27
    Communal Library, Fermo, II, 86              *             1713  194
    Etruscan Academy, Cortona, II, 88            *             1715   80
    Etruscan Academy, Cortona, II, 93                 *        1715   80
    Casanatense Library, Rome, II, 89            *             1716  160
    Casanatense Library, Rome, II, 90                 *        1716  150
  M. P.
    Vallicellian Library, Rome                   *    *        1600   55
  MOXON, JOSEPH (1627-1700), II, 124.
    See reference in text, II, 126               *    *       1700?    ?
    Royal Museum, Cassel                         *    *        1700    ?
  MUTH BROTHERS (fl. 1720).
    Royal Museum, Cassel                              *        1721    4
  NANCY GLOBE.
    City Library, Nancy, I, 102                  *             1540   16
  NEWTON, GEORGE (fl. 1780).
    Astronomical Observatory, Padua              *    *        1787   38
  NOLLET, JEAN ANTOINE (1700-1770), II, 157.
    Library Count Fenaroli, Brescia, II, 159     *             1728   35
    Maldotti Library, Guastalla, II, 159         *             1728   35
    Maldotti Library, Guastalla, II, 159              *        1730   35
    Episcopal Seminary, Mondovi, II, 159         *             1728   35
    Episcopal Seminary, Mondovi, II, 159              *        1730   35
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 159                *        1730   35
  NORDENSKIÖLD GORES.
    Library Baron Nordenskiöld, Stockholm,
      I, 77                                      *             1518   10
  OLEARIUS, ADAM (1600-1671), II, 73.
    See BUSCH, ANDREAS, and GOTTORP, II, 73.
  OTTERSCHADEN, JOHANN (fl. 1675).
    The Hispanic Society of America, New
      York, II, 214, 216 (gores), II, 214        *    *        1675   12
  OUTHIER (fl. 1725).
    See reference in text, II, 143                    *       1725?    ?
  PARMENTIER, JEAN (fl. 1530).
    See reference in text, I, 99                 *                ?    ?
  PLANCIUS, PETER (1552-1622), II, 45.
    Stein Museum, Antwerp, II, 50                *             1614   26
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 48            *    *        1614   26
    Francisceum Gymnasium, Zerbst, I, 140             *        1614   26
    See reference in text, II, 50                *    *           ?    ?
  PILOT GLOBE.
    See reference in text, II, 53                *             1606    ?
  PLATUS, CAROLUS (fl. 1580), I, 180.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 180                                               *   1578   20
    Barbarini Library, Rome, I, 180                   *        1598   14
  POSIDONIUS (fl. 260 B..C.)
    See reference in text (Ptolemy ‘Almagest’)        *           ?    ?
  PRAETORIUS, JOHANNES (1537-1616), I, 158.
    See reference in text, I, 158                *    *        1566   28
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 158                *        1566   28
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 158           *             1568   28
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, I, 158     *    *        1566   28
  PTOLEMY, CLAUDIUS (fl. 150 A.D.), I, 5.
    See reference in text, I, 5, 19              *    *    *    150    ?
    Public Library, Kahira, I, 28                     *           ?    ?
  PUSCHNER, JOHANN GEORGE (fl. 1730), II, 160.
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162               *        1728   28
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162               *        1730   28
    University Library, Göttingen, II, 162       *    *        1730   28
  QUIRINI GLOBE.
    See GREEN GLOBE, I, 76.
  RAMUSIO GLOBES.
    See reference in text, I, 137                *    *       1540?    ?
  RIDHWAN (fl. 1700).
    Imperial Library, Petrograd, I, 32                *        1701   19
  RINALDI, PIER VINCENZO DANTE (fl. 1550).
    See reference in text, I, 158                          *      ?    ?
  ROLL, GEORGE, and REINHOLD, JOHANNES
      (fl. 1585).
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 181                *        1586   35
    Royal Library, Vienna, I, 181                     *        1588    ?
    Astronomical Observatory, Naples, I, 182          *        1589   21
  ROSA, VINCENZO (fl. 1790), II, 191.
    University Library, Pavia, II, 192           *             1793   98
    Foscolo Liceum, Pavia                        *             1793   98
  ROSINI, PIETRO (fl. 1760), II, 180.
    University Library, Bologna, II, 180         *             1762  150
  ROSSELLI, FRANCESCO (fl. 1526).
    See reference in text, I, 64                 *                ?    ?
  ROSSI, DOMINICO.
    See GREUTER, MATTHEUS.
  ROVERE, GIULIO FELTRIO DALLA.
    See reference in text, I, 152                *             1575  104
  ROUEN GLOBE.
    See L’ÉCUY, ABBÉ, I, 188.
  SANDERSON, WILLIAM (fl. 1590).
    See MOLYNEUX, EMERY.
  SANTA CRUZ, ALONSO DE (1500-1572), I, 121.
    Royal Library, Stockholm, I, 122             *             1542
  SANTUCCI, ANTONIO (fl. 1590), I, 212.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 213                                               *   1593   22
  SANUTO, GIULIO (fl. 1560).
    See reference in text, I, 154                *             1561    ?
  SCARABELLI, GIUSEPPE (fl. 1690).
    See reference in text, II, 121               *    *        1690  188
  SCALTAOLIA, PIETRO (fl. 1780), II, 188.
    See also VIANI, MATTIO LA VENEZIA.
    Roberti Tipografia, Bassano, II, 189         *             1784   23
    Eredità Bottrigari, Bologna, II, 189              *        1784   23
    Communal Library, Brescia                    *             1784   23
    Episcopal Seminary, Brescia, II, 189              *        1784   23
    Communal Library, Cagli, II, 189             *             1784   23
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 189                *        1784   23
  SCHIEPP, CHRISTOFF (fl. 1525), I, 108.
    National Library, Paris                      *             1530   24
  SCHÖNER, JOHANN (1477-1547), I, 82.
    City Library, Frankfurt, I, 84               *             1515   27
    Grand Ducal Library, Weimar, I, 84           *             1515   27
    Library Wolfegg Castle (gores)                    *        1517    ?
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, I, 86      *             1520   87
    See reference in text, I, 87                 *             1523    ?
    Grand Ducal Library, Weimar, I, 108          *             1533   27
    See reference in text, I, 108                     *        1533   27
  SENEX, JOHN (fl. 1740), II, 150.
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig                    *                ?   40
    British Museum, London (12 gores)            *             1720   40
    British Museum, London, II, 152              *             1793   40
    Royal Library, Madrid, II, 152               *             1793   40
    National Library, Paris, II, 151             *    *        1793   40
  SETTALLA, MANFREDO (1600-1680), II, 65.
    Ambrosiana Library, Milan, II, 65                      *   1646   18
  SEUTTER, MATTHEUS (1678-1756), II, 154.
    Communal Library, Macerata, II, 156          *    *        1710   23
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 156           *             1710   23
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 156           *    *        1710   23
    See reference in text, II, 156               *             1710   23
    University Library, Urbino, II, 156               *        1710   23
    Library Professor Tono, Venice               *             1710   23
  SPANO, ANTONIO (fl. 1590), I, 201.
    Library J.P. Morgan, New York, I, 201        *             1593    8
  STAMPFER, JACOB (1505-1579).
    See illustration, I, 102                     *         *   1539    ?
  STÖFFLER, JOHANNES (1452-1531), I, 53.
    Liceum Library, Constance, I, 53                  *        1499   48
    German National Museum, Nürnberg                  *        1499   48
  STRABO (54 B. C.-24 A. D.).
    See reference in text, I, 8                  *                ?    ?
  THEODORUS, PETER (fl. 1590), II, 75.
    National Museum, Copenhagen, II, 75               *        1595   23
  TITON DU TILLET.
    See reference in text, I, 188                *             1587    ?
  TORRICELLI, JOSEPH (fl. 1730), II, 165.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      II, 165                                              *   1739   15
  TOSCANELLI, PAOLO (1397-1482).
    See reference in text, I, 52                 *             1474    ?
  TRANSILVANUS, MAXIMILIAN (fl. 1520).
    See reference in text                        *             1522    ?
  TREFFLER, CHRISTOPHER (fl. 1680), II, 94.
    See reference in text, II, 95                *         *   1683    ?
  ULPIUS, EUPHROSINUS (fl. 1540), I, 117.
    Library New York Historical Society,
      New York, I, 117                           *             1542   39
  VALK, GERHARD (1626-1720), II, 143.
    Physics Museum, Bologna, II, 150             *    *        1700   46
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 150                *            1700?   23
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 150                     *        1700   30
    Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 150               *        1700   30
    German National Museum, Nürnberg, II, 150    *    *        1700   30
    University of Ghent, Ghent, II, 144          *    *        1707   30
    Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 150                *    *        1715   46
    Private Dutch Collection, Amsterdam          *             1745   62
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 144                                    *    *        1750   46
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 144                                    *    *        1750   30
    The Hispanic Society of America, New York,
      II, 144                                    *    *        1750   23
    Frederick Muller, Amsterdam (Cat. maps
      and atlases)                               *    *        1750   40
    Frederick Muller, Amsterdam (Cat. maps
      and atlases)                               *    *        1750   24
  VALK, LEONHARD (fl. 1700).
    See VALK, GERHARD.
  VAN LANGREN, ARNOLD FLORENTIUS (fl. 1600),
    I, 204.
    See reference in text, I, 204                *             1580   32
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 205            *             1585  32
    City Museum, Frankfurt                       *             1594  29
    Royal Geog. Society, Amsterdam, I, 208       *             1612  53
    City Museum, Zütphen, I, 212                 *             1612  53
    University of Ghent, Ghent, I, 210           *             1616  53
    Plantin-Moritus Museum, Antwerp, I, 211      *    *        1625  53
    National Library, Paris, I, 210              *             1625  53
    Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig                    *    *        1630? 53
  VAN LANGREN, JACOB FLORENTIUS.
    See VAN LANGREN, ARNOLD FLORENTIUS.
  VAUGONDY, GILES ROBERT DE (1688-1766),
    II, 176.
    See reference in text, II, 176               *    *        1751  48
    See reference in text, II, 177               *    *          ?  182
    Palatin Library, Parma, II, 178              *    *        1754  23
    Spinola Palace, Tassarolo, II, 178           *    *        1754  23
    Quirini Pinacoteca, Venice, II, 178               *        1764  48
    Patriarchal Observatory, Venice                   *        1764  23
    Royal Library, Caserta, II, 177                   *        1764  23
    Royal Library, Caserta, II, 177              *             1773  48
    Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 177              *        1764  23
    Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 177         *             1773  48
  VEEN, ADRIAN (fl. 1615).
    See HONDIUS, HENRICUS.
  VELDICO, WILLEM (fl. 1510).
    See reference in text, I, 66                 *             1507   ?
  VERBIEST, FERDINAND (1623-1688), II, 131.
    Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 131         *        1674 190
    Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 131              *   1674 300
  VERRAZANO, GIOVANNI (fl. 1525), II, 98.
    See reference in text, II, 98                *             1525   ?
  VESPUCCI, AMERIGO (1451-1512).
    See reference in text                        *               ?    ?
  VIANI, MATTIO DI VENEZIA (fl. 1780), II, 188.
    See also SCALTAGLIA, PIETRO.
    Roberti Tipografia, Bassano, II, 190         *             1784  20
    Studio Sr. Bortognoni, Bologna, II, 190      *             1784  20
    Library Sr. Fenaroli, Brescia, II, 190       *             1784  20
    Episcopal Seminary, Rimini, II, 190          *             1784  20
    Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 190           *             1784  20
  VINCI, LEONARDO DA (1452-1519).
    Windsor Castle, I, 78                        *             1514   ?
  VISEO, CARDINAL (fl. 1545).
    See reference in text, I, 152                *             1550  89
  VOLPAJA, GIROLAMO CAMILLO (fl. 1560), I, 155.
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 155                                               *   1557  14
    Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence,
      I, 156                                               *   1564  13
  VOLPI, JOS. ANTONIO (fl. 1680), II, 97.
    City Museum, Modena, II, 97                            *   1689   ?
  VOPEL, CASPAR (1471-1561), I, 112.
    City Archives, Cologne, I, 113                    *        1532  28
    City Archives, Cologne, I, 113                    *        1536  28
    City Archives, Cologne, I, 113               *             1542  28
    National Museum, Copenhagen, I, 114                    *   1543  10
    Library of Congress, Washington, I, 115.     *         *   1543  10
    National Museum, Washington, I, 113                    *   1543  10
    Library Jodoco del Badia, Florence, I, 115             *   1544  10
    City Museum, Salzburg, I, 116                          *   1544  10
    Library Sr. Frey, Bern, I, 116                         *   1545  10
  VULPES, JOS. ANTONIUS (fl. 1685).
    Estense Library, Modena, II, 97                        *   1689  15
  WALDSEEMÜLLER, MARTIN (ca. 1470-ca. 1522),
    I, 68.
    See reference in text, I, 70                 *             1507   ?
  WEIGEL, ERHARD (1625-1699), II, 75.
    See reference in text, II, 77, 78            *    *    *     ?    ?
    Royal Museum, Cassel (silver)                     *        1699  36
    Royal Museum, Cassel (copper)                     *        1699  36
  WELLINGTON, LIEUTENANT.
    Royal Museum, Cassel                         *             1710   7
  WELTKUGEL.
    See reference in text, I, 72                 *             1509   ?
  WOODEN GLOBE.
    National Library, Paris, I, 111              *             1535  20



General Index


It will be noted that a threefold index has been made for this work. The
first part is the “Bibliographical List,” containing in alphabetical
order the names of the authors cited, together with the titles of their
respective works. The second part is the “List of Globes and Globe
Makers,” which should be consulted especially for detailed biographical
and descriptive references. In this third part, or “General Index,”
reference has been made to a very considerable number of special items
more or less fully touched upon in the foregoing pages, with particular
reference to the several libraries, museums, and private collections in
which globes may be found, the same being given under the name of the
locality, as Florence, London, Nürnberg, Paris, Rome, with the name of
the particular globe maker whose work is possessed given in brackets.


  Academy of Sciences, Berlin, II, 183

  Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, II, 183

  Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, II, 180

  Acciaioli, Zenobio, notes that Barnaba Canti possessed a globe, I, 65

  Acton, Admiral William, obtains two early globes from Count Piloni,
      I, 79-81

  Africa, interior of, well represented on Coronelli globes, II, 103

  Albertus Magnus, belief in a spherical earth, I, 43

  Alessandria, Municipal Library (Biblioteca Municipale), II, 168 (Maria)

  Alfonso X (The Wise), orders the preparation of a great astronomical
      work, I, 40;
    reference to globe making and to material for use in globe
      construction, 40, 41

  Alvares, Sebastian, refers to a Reynell globe, I, 82

  America, early names given to, I, 74;
    location of name on Jagellonicus globe of 1510, 74, 75;
    the name on Schöner globe of 1515, 84, 85;
    appears four times on Green globe of 1515, 77;
    its relation to Asia, 88, 94-96;
    indicated as a separate continent on practically all maps of first
      quarter of sixteenth century, 95;
    an Asiatic connection indicated after 1525, 109, 110, 124;
    Mercator’s representation and his influence, 126;
    summary of the views relative to Asiatic connection, 172, 173

  Amsterdam, Royal Geographical Society (Kon. Nederl. Aardrijkskundig
      Genootschap), I, 208 (Van Langren).
    Frederick Muller, II, 27 (Blaeu); 259 (Deur); 271 (Valk).
    Private collection, II, 271 (Valk)

  Anaximander, called the first scientific cartographer, I, 3

  Ancona, Communal School (Scuole Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter);
      192 (Cassini).
    Private Library, 61 (Greuter)

  Anson, George, navigator, II, 169

  Antilia, laid down on Behaim globe, I, 50

  Antipodes, belief in existence of, I, 8, 13, n. 26

  Antoecians, referred to by Crates, I, 8

  Antwerp, Plantin-Moritus Museum, I, 211 (Van Langren).
    Stein Museum, II, 50 (Plancius)

  Aquila, Provincial Library (Biblioteca provinciale), II, 44 (Blaeu)

  Aquinas, Thomas, belief in a spherical earth, I, 43

  Arabic astronomers, as globe makers, I, 28

  Arabs, probably did not construct terrestrial globes, I, 26;
    constructed celestial globes, 27;
    their interest in astronomy, 27;
    their names and figures of the constellations, 27

  Aratus, astronomical poem of, I, 15, 23, n. 32;
    ideas followed by Leontius, 22

  Archimedes, I, 15;
    his globe or instrument for representing the movement of heavenly
      bodies, 15, 16, 17

  Argonauti, Accademia Cosmografo degli, first modern geographical
    society, founded by Coronelli, 1680, II, 98

  Aristotle, his scientific basis for belief in a spherical earth,
    I, 6, 12, n. 21

  Armillary, earliest form, I, 18;
    its development and system of circles, 19

  Arpino, Liceum, II, 192 (Cassini)

  Asimino or tausia, a style employed in metal globe making, I, 153

  Asti, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 53 (Habrecht)

  Astrolabe, earliest form, I, 18, II, 197;
    its construction and use according to Ptolemy, I, 19

  Atlantic Islands, mythical, retained by Mercator, I, 210;
    by Blaeu, II, 31

  Austral continent, on Green globe, 1515, I, 76;
    on Mercator globe, and reasons for believing in its existence, 130;
    on Spano and Hondius globes, 204, II, 148;
    compare its representation on various globes

  Aversa, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 114 (Coronelli)


  Baba, Andrea, secretary of the Argonauti, II, 102

  Bacon, Roger, belief in a spherical earth, I, 43

  Baldelli, Abbot Onofri, presented a Moroncelli globe to Academy of
    Cortona, II, 88

  Basel, Museum des Cordeliers, I, 201 (Gessner)

  Bassano, Communal Library (BibliotecaComunale), II, 60 (Greuter).
      Tipografia Roberto, II, 189 (Scaltaglia); 190 (Viani)

  Bede, the Venerable, belief in a spherical earth, I, 37, 38

  Behaim, Martin, maker of oldest extant terrestrial globe, I, 47;
      certain of his globe legends cited, 49-51;
      encourages globe construction in Nürnberg, 51;
      statement of expenses for the construction of his globe, 56, n. 104

  Belluno, Library Count Piloni, I, 150 (De Mongenet);
    II, 59 (Greuter)

  Benevento, Episcopal Library (Biblioteca Vescovile), II, 63 (Greuter)

  Benevento, Friar Marco da, refers to globes in his edition of Ptolemy,
    1507, I, 64

  Bergamo, City Library (Biblioteca Civico), II, 111 (Coronelli);
    124 (Eimmart)

  Bering, Vitus, reference to his discovery by Desnos, II, 178

  Bern, Library Sr. Frey, I, 116 (Vopel)

  Bernard, William, explorer, II, 38, 40

  Bertius, Petrus, noted geographer and friend of Hondius, II, 3

  Bion, Nicolas, reform in globe construction, II, 153

  Blaeu, Willem Jansz.,
      appointed official map maker, II, 21;
      variations in his signature, 23;
      relations with Tycho Brahe, 19-21;
      refers to the new star discovered in 1600, 30

  Bollert, Roland, patron of Franciscus Monachus, I, 97

  Bologna, Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico),
   II, 43 (Blaeu).
      Physics Museum (Museo di Fisica), II, 150 (Valk).
      University Library (Biblioteca Universitario), II, 180 (Rosini).
      Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter);
        114 (Coronelli).
      State Archives (Archivo di Stato), II, 114 (Coronelli).
      Convent Osservanza (Convento dell’ Osservanza), II, 114 (Coronelli).
      Malvezzi Library (Archivio Malvezzi), II, 153 (Bion).
      Library General Gandolfi, II, 59 (Greuter).
      Library Professor Liuzzi, II, 114 (Coronelli).
      Library Bottrigari, II, 189 (Scaltaglia).
      Library Bortognoni, II, 190 (Viani)

  Boncompagni, Jocopo, member of famous Bolognese family, to him Greuter
    dedicates his globe of 1632, II, 55

  Borgonone, Francesco Mongonetto, referred to as publisher of a globe,
    I, 149

  Boscoreale, globe fresco, I, 21

  Brabant, Hondius dedicates a globe to Albert and Isabella of, II, 9

  Brahe, George, uncle and teacher of Tycho Brahe, I, 183

  Brahe, Tycho, astronomical observations followed by Hondius, II, 7, 9,
    12, 21;
      by Blaeu, 25, 26, 29, 33, 49; by Plancius, 49; by Greuter, 58,
        61, 64;
      by Moroncelli, 85, 93;
      reference to his remarkable star discovered in 1572, 8, 18, 64, 67,
      89

  Brescia, Quirinal Library, II, 18 (Hondius).
      Library Count Fenaroli, II, 159 (Nollet); 190 (Viani).
      Atheneum, II, 60 (Greuter); 96 (Alberti).
      Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 189 (Scaltaglia)

  Brognoli, receives order for copies of Pope Julius II’s globes, I, 62

  Brussels, Royal Library, I, 127 (Mercator); II, 114 (Coronelli)

  Bunau, Henricus, possessed a terrestrial globe, I, 67

  Bürgi, Jost, globe and clock maker, said to have invented the pendulum
    clock, I, 197

  Burrow, Stephen, I, 193

  Button, Thomas, explorer, II, 17


  Cabot, John, possessed a globe “showing where he landed,” I, 53

  Cabot, Sebastian, explorer, II, 39

  Cagli, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 179 (Costa);
    189 (Scaltaglia)

  Calif al-Mansur, interested in astronomy, and celestial globes,
    I, 27;
      many of his successors likewise interested, 27

  California, represented as an island by Greuter, II, 62;
      by Coronelli, 111;
      by Valk, 147, 148

  Camarino, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter)

  Cambridge, Eng., University Library, II, 94 (Castlemaine)

  Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, I, 152 (Florianus);
    II, 170 (Ferguson)

  Camerarius, refers to Mercator globes for sale at Frankfort, I, 132

  Campano, Giovanni, a distinguished mediaeval writer on mathematics
    and on astronomical subjects, I, 42;
      his ‘Tractatis de sphera solida,’ 42

  Candish (Cavendish), Thomas, explorer, II, 37

  Cano, Sebastian del, reference in his will to a globe, I, 82

  Canti, Barnaba, possessed a small globe, I, 65

  Carpi, Cardinal of, possessed a globe, I, 152.
      Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 59 (Greuter)

  Carpini, I, 46

  Casale Monferrate, Technical Institute (Istituto Tecnico),
    II, 63 (Greuter).
      Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 166 (Maria)

  Caserta, Royal Library (Biblioteca Reale), II, 177 (Vaugondy)

  Cassel, Royal Museum (Königliches Museum), I, 195
   (Molyneux-Sanderson); 196 (Bürgi); II, 30, 44 (Blaeu);
   53 (Habrecht); 126 (Moxon); 140 (Delisle); 150 (Valk);
   249 (Andrea); 250 (Anonymous); 252 (Beyer); 268 (Muth Brothers);
   273 (Weigel); 273 (Wellington)

  Cassini, Jean Dominique, reforms globe making, II, 141;
      his discoveries in the field of astronomy, 141

  Catania, Physics Museum (Museo di Fisica), II, 60 (Greuter)

  Celtes, Conrad, made use of globes in geographical and astronomical
    instruction, I, 54, 55

  Cesena, Maletesta Library (Biblioteca Maletesta), II, 192 (Cassini)

  Céspedes, Garcia de, reference to small globe, II, 53

  Chancellor, Richard, explorer, I, 193

  Château Marly, Coronelli’s large globe constructed for Louis XIV placed
    in, II, 99

  Chieri, Convent of Mission Brothers (Frati della Missione),
    II, 184 (Fortin); 258 (Delamarche)

  Chignolo, Cusani Palace, II, 163 (Anonymous)

  Cicero, allusion to Archimedes’ globe, I, 15, 16

  Claudio de la Baume, to him De Mongenet dedicates his terrestrial
    globe, I, 149

  Clement X, Pope, Benci dedicates to him his globe of 1671, II, 80

  Clermont, Count of, Nollet dedicates to him his celestial globe of
    1730, II, 158

  Cleveland, Western Reserve Historical Society, II, 255 (Cary)

  Clocks, globes as a part of, I, 57, n. 110

  Cockrill, Thomas, II, 156

  Colbert, Jean Baptiste, proposes Cassini for the Chair of Astronomy
    in Collège de France, II, 141

  College of Navarre, II, 157

  Cologne, City Archives, I, 113 (Vopel)

  Colorado River, referred to by Adams as flowing directly westward
    into the Pacific, II, 186

  Columbus, Bartholomew, sketch maps showing Asiatic connection of
    the New World, I, 95

  Columbus, Christopher,
      his place in the history of terrestrial globes, I, 52;
      interested in globes if not a maker of them, 52, 53;
      said to have sent their Catholic Majesties a globe, 53

  Como, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 44 (Blaeu)

  Compass, variations referred to, II, 10, 17

  Constance, Liceum Library, I, 53 (Stöffler)

  Constellations,
      antiquity of star grouping, I, 1;
      Eudoxus’ part in fixing names of, 15;
      Aratus’ contribution, 15;
      Ptolemy’s names of constellations, 24, n. 14;
      proposals of Bede, Bayer, Schiller, Weigel, Moroncelli (see
        reference to each);
      those of the Antarctic, II, 108; 133, n. 69

  Cook, Captain,
     referred to by Viani, II, 189;
     by Cassini, 192

  Copenhagen, National Museum, I, 114 (Vopel); II, 74 (Gottorp);
    75 (Theodorus)

  Corfu, Archbishop of, possessed a globe, I, 152

  Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria, given title _Cosmografo della Serenissima
    Republica_, II, 98

  Correggio, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 184 (Fortin)

  Cortereal, Miguel and Gaspar, explorers, II, 39

  Cortona, Etruscan Academy (Accademia Etrusca), II, 88 (Moroncelli);
    92, 93 (Moroncelli)

  Cosimo de’ Medici, interested in maps and globes, I, 159

  Cosmas Indicopleustes, opposed the doctrine of a spherical earth,
    I, 36

  Cracow, Jagellonicus Library, I, 74 (Jagellonicus)

  Crates, reputed the first to construct a globe, I, 7;
    his idea concerning the earth’s surface, 8;
    referred to by Strabo, 8

  Cremona, Governmental Library (Biblioteca Governativo), I, 133
    (Mercator)

  Crevalcuore, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 192
    (Cassini)

  Cusani, Cardinal Agostino, II, 163


  Dalberg, Bishop of Worms, receives a globe from Johann Stöffler,
    I, 54

  Dante, belief in a spherical earth, I, 43

  Danti, Ignazio, called by Duke Cosimo to Florence to decorate his
    palace, I, 158;
      his work described by Vasari, 159-162

  Dasypodius, Petrus, father of Conrad Dasypodius, I, 173

  Da Vinci, Leonardo, peculiarities of his globe gores, II, 205

  Davis, John, explorer, II, 38, 51, 63

  Delisle, Claude, father of Guillaume, II, 138

  Diaz, Bartholomew, turns the Cape of Good Hope, I, 46

  Dicaearchus, introduces place orientation on the map, I, 4

  Dijon, College of Dijon, II, 266 (Legrand)

  Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel, II, 159-162;
      portraits of famous explorers, 161;
      marks the course of famous explorers, 162

  Drake, Francis, explorer, II, 37, 40

  Draper, Mrs. Henry, presents Nathan Hill globe to New York Public
    Library, II, 188

  Dresden,
    Math. Phys. Salon (Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon), I, 30
    (Mohammed ben Muwajed el Ordhi); 156 (Heyden); 158 (Praetorius);
    181 (Roll and Reinhold); 215 (B. F.); II, 44 (Blaeu);
    111 (Coronelli); 150 (Valk); 162 (Doppelmayr); 162 (Puschner)

  Dürer, Albrecht, on globe-gore construction, II, 202, 203


  Ecliptic Mounting, II, 145

  Edrisi, famous Arabic geographer, I, 27;
      references to so-called globe of King Roger, 27;
      comments on the earth as a sphere, 33, n. 51

  Egedian Gymnasium, Nürnberg, II, 159

  Equatorial mounting, II, 145

  Eratosthenes, represents curved surface of the earth on a plane, I, 5;
      his measurement of the earth, 5;
      idea concerning a spherical earth, 7;
      probably made use of an armillary sphere, 18

  Escorial, possessed at one time an Apianus globe, I, 176

  Este Family of Ferrara, interest in geographical discovery, I, 61, 62

  Estrées, Cardinal d’, induces Coronelli to construct a large globe for
    Louis XIV, II, 99

  Eudoxus, I, 14; made use of celestial globe, 15


  Fabriano, Agabiti Museum (Museo Agabiti), II, 59 (Greuter).
      Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter)

  Faenza, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 111 (Coronelli)

  Faletti, Giacomo, purchases a globe from Cardinal Bembo, I, 120

  Fano, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 27 (Blaeu);
    111 (Coronelli)

  Fermo, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 86 (Moroncelli)

  Ferrara, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter).
      Dukes of, their interest in geographical discovery, I, 61, 62

  Ferrero, Cardinal Gian Stefano, presents a globe to Pope Julius II,
    I, 63

  Fickler, his inventory including globes in library of Munich, I, 177

  Finale, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 118 (Coronelli)

  Fischer, Professor Joseph S. J., discovers copy of Waldseemüller map
    1507, and publishes same in facsimile, I, 67, 69;
      cited, 199, 200;
      co-editor with E. L. Stevenson of Jodocus Hondius world map of
        1611, II, 67

  Flamsteed, John, English astronomer, II, 179

  Florence, Museum of Ancient Instruments (Museo di Strumenti Antichi),
    I, 28 (Ibrahim); 155 (Volpaja); 162 (Danti); 168 (Cartaro);
    180 (Platus); 213 (Santucci); II, 44 (Blaeu); 114 (Coronelli);
    140 (Delisle); 165 (Torricelli).
      Library Jodoco del Badia, I, 115 (Vopel).
      Library Marquis Bargagli, II, 118 (Coronelli).
      Laurentian Library (Biblioteca Laurentiana), I, 166 (Anonymous).
      Library Sr. Lessi, II, 14 (Hondius-Rossi);
        45 (Lud. Sem.).
      Library Professor Giovanni Marinelli, I, 152 (Florianus).
      Marucellian Library (Biblioteca Marucelliana), II, 118 (Coronelli).
      National Library (Biblioteca Nazionale), I, 166 (Anonymous);
        II, 118 (Coronelli).
      Library Santa Maria Nuova, II, 59 (Greuter).
      Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico), II, 41 (Blaeu).
      Technical Institute (Istituto Tecnico), II, 44 (Blaeu);
        63 (Greuter); 153 (Bion)

  Florianus, Antonius, peculiarities of his globe gores, II, 207

  Franciscus Monachus, his hemispheres, I, 96

  Frankfurt, City Historical Museum, I, 82 (Schöner); II, 140 (Andreae);
    265 (Klinger); 272 (Van Langren). Joseph Baer, II, 263 (Greuter)

  Frederick II of Denmark, patron of Tycho Brahe, I, 184

  Frederick, Duke of Holstein, Gottorp globe constructed for, II, 73, 74

  Frederick II of Sicily, directs the construction of a celestial globe
    of gold, I, 39;
      his astronomical tent, 40

  Frobisher (Forbisher), Martin, explorer, II, 38, 39, 63

  Fugger, Raymond, Augsburg patrician and patron, I, 110, 111


  Gallus, C. Sulpicius, describes a globe, I, 15, 16

  Gemma Frisius, his relations to Mercator, I, 103, 104, 105

  Geneva, Musée Ariana, I, 201 (small globe)

  Genga, Library Sr. Luigi Belli, II, 60 (Greuter)

  Genoa, Mission Brothers (Frati della Missione), II, 44 (Blaeu).
      City Museum (Museo Civico), II, 114 (Coronelli).
      Franzoniana Library (Biblioteca Franzoniana), II,
        118 (Coronelli)

  Geography of the Ancients, works cited treating of, I, 11, n. 4

  Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II), made use of celestial globes and
    armillary spheres, I, 38, 39;
      his purpose to construct a globe, 39

  Germanus, Donnus Nicolas, his map projection, II, 201

  Germany as a center for the spread of information concerning the New
    World, I, 67

  Ghent, University Library, I, 210 (Van Langren); II, 144 (Valk)

  Gimma, Abbot, reference to Coronelli globes, II, 119

  Glareanus, Henricus, proposals for globe-gore construction, II, 204,
    205

  Globe-goblets, interest in their construction in second half of
    sixteenth century, I, 198;
      examples of, 199-201

  Globes, definition by Leontius, I, 23;
      materials entering into the construction of, 15, 40, 41, 56, n. 102,
        59, 60, 133, 201;
      used for decorative purposes, 60, 61, 154, 199;
      importance of globe legends (see the many citations);
      globe clocks, 173-175, 197, 216;
      globe gores, their use in globe construction, 60;
      praised by Ruscelli, 155, 204-207;
      globe making in sixteenth century, general summary, 172, 173;
      used by navigators, II, 1,
      shifting of interest in, 1;
      striking tendencies in their construction in second half of
        seventeenth century, 72, 73 (Gottorp), 77 (Coronelli), 99,
        104, 141;
      relative position of stars and constellations as represented on
        celestial globes, 209-211;
      uses and value as expressed by Joseph Moxon, 125;
      moon globes, 215-217

  Glockenthon, draughtsman of map on Behaim’s globe, I, 48

  Gnomon, its construction and use, I, 18

  Gonzaga, Curtio, constructs a large globe, I, 154

  Göttingen, Library Dr. Baumgärtner, II, 26, 27 (Blaeu).
      Geographical Institute, II, 162 (Doppelmayr); 180 (Akerman).
      University Library, II, 162 (Puschner)

  Gottorp globe, striking peculiarities of, II, 73, 74

  Gran Casa del Frari, center of Coronelli’s activities, II, 98

  Greeks, reduced map making to a real science, I, 3;
      survival of their ideas of a spherical earth during middle
        ages, 35

  Greuter, Mattheus, copied much from Blaeu, II, 57

  Groland, Nikolaus, a patron of Behaim in the construction of his
    globe, I, 48

  Grotta, Ferrata, Badia of Santa Maria, II, 63 (Greuter)

  Grüniger, Johann, printer of Strassburg, I, 71, 72

  Guastalla, Maldotti Library, II, 159 (Nollet)

  Gubbio, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter)

  Gustavus II, King of Sweden, Blaeu dedicated to him his globe
    of 1622, II, 42


  Habrecht, Isaac and Josias, globe and clock makers of Schaffhausen,
    I, 174

  Hainzel, Johan and Paul, assisted Tycho Brahe in globe construction,
    I, 184

  Hakluyt, allusion to a globe at Westminster, I, 98

  Hartford, Library Mrs. C. L. F. Robinson, II, 254 (Bonne)

  Hartmann, George, his the earliest example of engraved celestial
    globe gores, 1535, I, 117

  Hecataeus, I, 4

  Heelmstrech, Jacob, explorer, II, 40

  Henry the Navigator, his leadership in maritime enterprise, I, 46

  Hercules I, Duke of Ferrara, I, 62

  Heriot, Thomas, explorer, I, 210

  Herlin, Christian, friend and teacher of Conrad Dasypodius, I, 174;
    on the commission to restore the Strassburg clock, 174

  Herodotus, quoted, I, 4

  Hevelius, Johannes, star maps used by Eimmart, II, 124;
      by Valk, 145, 149, 209

  Hipparchus, great astronomer, I, 5;
      improved the gnomon, 18;
      constructed a celestial globe, 19

  Holzschuher, George, member of Nürnberg City Council, I, 47;
      supervises the construction of Behaim globe, 48

  Homann, Johann Baptista, named Imperial Geographer, II, 155

  Homer, said to have considered the form of the earth as that of a
    circular disc, I, 4

  Hondius, Jodocus, refers to the superiority of his globes, I, 208

  Hondt (Hondius), Oliver de, father of Jodocus Hondius, II, 2

  Houtmann, Frederick, astronomical observations of, followed by
    Van Langren, I, 211;
    by Hondius, II, 12;
    by Blaeu, 26, 29, 67;
    by Coronelli, 108

  Hudson, Henry, reference to his discoveries, II, 15, 17, 39, 40, 63

  Hulagu Khan, I, 28; his observatory at Maragha, 28

  Hunt, Richard, once owner of Lenox globe, I, 73

  Hveen, island given to Tycho Brahe, where he erected his observatory
    Uranienburg, I, 184


  Imola, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 63 (Greuter);
    164 (Anonymous)

  Ionic school of philosophers, I, 14

  Isabel of Este, I, 62

  Italians, favorable to manuscript globes, II, 200

  Italy, its people increasingly interested in maritime exploration
    in fourteenth and fifteenth century, I, 46

  Ivrea, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 164 (Anonymous);
    263 (Greuter)


  James, Thomas, explorer, II, 17

  Jomard, E. F., obtains an Arabic globe in Egypt, I, 31

  Julius I (Pope), globe belonging to, I, 62


  Kahira, Public Library, I, 28 (Ptolemy)

  Kepler, Johann, reference to Apianus globe, I, 177

  Ko-Shun-King, Chinese astronomer and globe maker, II, 129

  Kúblai Kaan, interested in globe making, II, 128


  Lactantius, allusion to Archimedes’ globe, I, 17

  Laon, City Library, I, 51 (Laon globe)

  Latitude and longitude, methods of determining, II, 141, 142, 171,
    n. 128

  Lattré, map engraver, II, 182

  Leiden, University Library, II, 27 (Blaeu); 66 (Janssonius).
    Bodel Nyenhuis, II, 252 (Belga)

  Leipzig, Karl Hiersemann, II, 254 (Bühler); 257 (Coronelli);
    258 (Delamarche); 260 (Ferguson); 265 (Klinger); 270 (Senex)

  Le Maire, Jacob, explorer, II, 31, 32, 38, 46, 51, 63

  Leontius Mechanicus, I, 21;
    a maker of globes and writer on globe construction, 22, 23

  Leowitz, Cyprian, I, 184

  Libri, Francesco, globe maker, I, 100

  Liechtenstein, Prince of, his globe gore maps, I, 71, 75

  Linschoten, John Hugo, explorer, II, 38, 39, 46

  Loano, Library Lorenzo Novella, II, 194 (Cary)

  London, British Museum, I, 150 (De Mongenet); 150 (Florianus);
    II, 31, 44 (Blaeu); 114, 119 (Coronelli); 152 (Senex); 156 (Morden);
    183 (Lane); 185 (Adams); 177 (Hill); 194 (Cary); 250 (Anonymous).
      Royal Asiatic Society, I, 29 (Mohammed ben Helal).
      Middle Temple, I, 190 (Molyneux).
      Library S. J. Phillips, I, 218 (Gessner).
      Library Sir A. W. Franks, II, 250 (Anonymous)

  London Company, its territorial jurisdiction represented on Hondius
    world map, 1611, II, 41, 70, n. 44.

  Longitude, on efforts to determine referred to, II, 10, 36, 68, n. 9,
    139

  Longomontanus (Severin), pupil of Tycho Brahe, I, 184

  Louis XIV, Coronelli dedicates to him his great globe, II, 100, 101

  Loxodrome (Rhumb) lines, represented by Mercator, I, 128;
    by Hondius, II, 7;
    by Blaeu, 28, 35;
    by Habrecht, 52;
    their purpose and their representation, 208, 209

  Lucca, Library Sr. Giannini, II, 8 (Hondius).
      Governmental Library (Biblioteca Governativo), II, 59 (Greuter);
        44 (Blaeu); 177 (Vaugondy). Machiavellian Liceum, II,
        184 (Messier)


  Macerata, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 61 (Greuter).
    Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 156 (Seutter).
    Library Vittorio Bianchini, II, 194 (Cary)

  Madrid, Royal Library (Biblioteca Real), II, 152 (Senex);
    119 (Coronelli); 141 (Delisle); 186 (Adams); 253 (Blaeu)

  Magellan, Ferdinand,
      demonstrates his plan by use of a globe, I, 81;
      influence of his voyage on idea of American-Asiatic connection,
        96, 109, 110

  Maine, Duchesse of, Nollet dedicates to her his terrestrial globe
    of 1728, II, 158

  Maiollo, Vesconte de, map of 1527, I, 105

  Malcolm, Sir John, presents Arabic globe to Asiatic Society, I, 29

  Mandeville, Sir John, I, 193

  Manhattan, oldest dated map reference to as an island on Blaeu globe,
    1622, II, 41

  Mantua, Gonzaga Library, II, 59 (Greuter); 111 (Coronelli)

  Map making, reform in, II, 137, 138, 139. 151, 171, n. 121

  Maps, early Egyptian, I, 2;
      early Babylonian, 3

  Marinus, introduces idea of inscribing on a map lines of latitude
    and longitude, I, 5

  Matelica, Private Library, II, 262 (Greuter)

  Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange,
      Hondius honors with a globe dedication, II, 5;
      Blaeu dedicates a globe to him, 25

  Maxwell, John, issued atlas with John Senex, II, 151

  Mela, Pomponius, geographer and map maker, I, 5

  Mellinus, Paulus, Rossi dedicates to him a globe, II, 14

  Mercator, Gerhard,
      his important maps of 1538, I, 125;
        of 1554, of 1564, of 1569, 126;
      peculiarities of his globe gores, 128;
      reasons for his belief in an austral continent, 130

  Meridian, Prime,
      its location and efforts to determine same,
      by Hondius, II, 11;
      by Blaeu, 36, 37;
      by Plancius, 48, 52;
      by Greuter, 57;
      by Moroncelli, 89;
      by Coronelli, 110;
      Coronelli cites Eratosthenes, Marinus, Ptolemy, Aboulfeda,
         Alfonso, Pigafetta, Herrera, Copernicus, Reinhold, Kepler,
         Longomontanus, Lansberg, Ricciola, Janssonius;
      by Moxon, 127;
      by Nollet, 158

  Messina, University Library (Biblioteca Universitario), II, 59 (Greuter)

  Middle Ages,
      lack of interest in fundamental principles of geographical and
        astronomical science, I, 35;
      attitude toward the Bible as the true source of geographical
        knowledge, 36;
      survival of Aristotelian doctrine of a spherical earth, 36;
      theories did not call for an interest in globes, 36, 37

  Milan, Ambrosiana Library (Biblioteca Ambrosiana), I, 135 (Gianelli);
    II, 65 (Settàla), 66 (Anonymous).
      National Library (Biblioteca Nazionale), II, 59 (Greuter);
        190 (Delamarche).
      Municipal Museum (Museo Municipale), II, 9 (Hondius).
      Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico), II, 114
        (Coronelli), 180 (Akerman).
      Library Prince Trivulzio, I, 150 (De Mongenet).

  Modena, City Museum (Museo Civico), II, 59 (Greuter),
    97 (Anonymous); 254 (Borsari).
      Royal Estense Library, II, 43 (Blaeu).
      Library Sr. Remigio Salotti, II, 118 (Coronelli)

  Monachus, Franciscus, importance attaching to his hemispheres,
    I, 96, 139, n. 205

  Monastic schools, geographical and astronomical instruction given
    therein, I, 38

  Mondovi, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 159 (Nollet)

  Montanus, Petrus, noted geographer and friend of Hondius, II, 3

  Morono, Philip Antonio, constructed the mechanical parts of Moroncelli
    globe, II, 86

  Müelichs, Johann, said to have adorned the Apianus globe, I, 178

  Munich, Royal Bavarian Court and State Library (K. B. Hof- und Staats
    Bibliothek), II, 177 (Anonymous);
    178 (Apianus).
    Ludwig Rosenthal, II, 262 (Greuter)

  Myrica, Caspar, map engraver with Mercator, I, 103, 105


  Nancy,
    Lorraine Museum, I, 102 (Nancy globe)

  Naples, National Museum (Museo Nazionale), I, 15 (Atlante Farnese);
    29 (Caissar).
      Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico),
        I, 182 (Roll and Reinhold); II, 186 (Adams).
      National Library (Biblioteca Nazionale), II, 44 (Blaeu);
        114 (Coronelli).
      University Library (Biblioteca Universitario), II, 111 (Coronelli)

  New York, Library William R. Hearst, II, 92 (Anonymous).
      The Hispanic Society of America, II, 14 (Hondius); 30, 44 (Blaeu);
        50 (Habrecht); 55, 62 (Greuter); 115 (Coronelli); 144 (Valk);
        160 (Doppelmayr); 169 (Ferguson); 170 (Moll); 184 (Fortin);
        192 (Anonymous); 214, 216 (Oterschaden).
      Library New York Historical Society, I, 117 (Ulpius).
      Library Henry E. Huntington, I, 213 (Santucci?),
        II, 4 (Hondius).
      Metropolitan Museum, I, 179 (Emmoser); 201 (Anonymous).
      Library J. P. Morgan, I, 106 (Bailly); 201 (Spano).
      New York Public Library, I, 74 (Lenox); 79 (Boulengier);
        87 (anonymous gores); 148 (De Mongenet); 152 (Florianus);
        II, 188 (Hill).
      Library Mr. Reed, I, 168 (Cartaro).
      Library Professor David E. Smith, II, 250 (Anonymous).
      Collection John Wanamaker, II, 251 (Cassini)

  Noort, Oliver van der, explorer, II, 28, 37

  Northeast passage, referred to, II, 38, 40

  Northwest passage, referred to, II, 24, 38;
    important searches for the passage mentioned by Blaeu on globe,
      1622, 39

  Notker Labeo, probably used globes in his monastic school of
    St. Gallen, I, 38

  Novara, Charles Albert Liceum, II, 190 (Delamarche)

  Novi, Dorian Liceum, II, 184 (Fortin)

  Nürnberg, German National Museum (Germanisches Nationalmuseum),
    I, 48 (Behaim); 53 (Stöffler); 86 (Schoner); 148 (De Mongenet);
    133 (Mercator); 158 (Praetorius); II, 4, 5 (Hondius); 27, 30, 44
    (Blaeu); 53 (Habrecht); 118 (Coronelli); 150 (Valk); 160, 162
    (Doppelmayr); 251 (Anonymous); 254 (Bode); 255 (Caucigh); 259 (Faber);
    264 (Hahn); 264 (Homann); 265 (Jaillot).
      City Library, II, 43 (Blaeu); 184 (Messier)

  Nutzel, Gabriel, a patron of Behaim in the construction of his globe,
    I, 48


  Oberglogau, Library Reichsgraf Hans v. Oppersdorf, II, 43 (Blaeu)

  Oecumene, the, I, 8

  Osimo, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 263 (Greuter)


  Padua, Antonian Library (Biblioteca Antoniana), II, 114 (Coronelli).
      Physics Museum (Museo di Fisica), II, 59 (Greuter).
      Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 59 (Greuter);
        186 (Adams).
      Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomica), II, 186 (Adams)

  Palermo, Archbishop of, receives a globe from Franciscus Monachus,
    I, 97

  Palermo, National Library (Biblioteca Nazionale), II, 114 (Coronelli).
    Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 42 (Blaeu); 63 (Greuter);
      171 (Ferguson).
    Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico), II, 182
      (Lalande).
    Nautical Institute (Istituto Nautico), II, 255 (Cassini);
      190 (Delamarche)

  Palestrina, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 263 (Greuter)

  Paliano, Duke of, possessed a globe, I, 152

  Pappus, defines mechanicians as those who understand globe making,
    I, 17

  Parias, Schöner’s explanation of its location, I, 85, 88

  Paris,
    Astronomical Observatory, I, 133 (Mercator).
    National Library (Bibliothèque Nationale), I, 31 (Mohammed Diemat
      Eddin); 76 (Green globe); 98 (Gilt globe); 105 (Bailly); 106, 107
      (Anonymous); 108 (Schiepp); 111 (Wooden globe); 150 (De Mongenet);
      210 (Van Langren); II, 100 (Coronelli); 151 (Senex); 187 (Hill);
      188 (L’Écuy)

  Parma, Palatin Library (Biblioteca Palatina), II, 59 (Greuter);
    178 (Vaugondy).
      Library Marquis Costerbosa, II, 179 (Desnos).
      Meteorological Observatory (Osservatorio Meteorologico), II, 184
        (Messier)

  Passeriano, Library Count Manin, II, 111 (Messier)

  Pavia, Physics Museum (Museo Fisica), II, 162 (Doppelmayr).
      University Library (Biblioteca Universitario), II, 192 (Rosa).
      Foscolo Liceum, II, 192 (Rosa)

  Pescia, Cathedral Library (Biblioteca Capitulare), II, 263 (Greuter)

  Peking, Astronomical Observatory, II, 129 (Anonymous);
    129 (Ko-Shun-King); 131 (Verbiest)

  Pergamum, Crates exhibits his globe in, I, 8

  Perioecians, referred to by Crates, I, 8

  Perrenot, Nicolás, suggests to Mercator the construction of a globe,
    I, 127, 129

  Perugia, Library Count Conestabile, II, 61 (Greuter).
      Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 118 (Coronelli).
      Cathedral Library (Biblioteca Capitulare), II, 255 (Cassini)

  Peter the Great, receives as present the Gottorp globe, II, 74

  Petri, Nicolas, issues a manual for the use of Van Langren globes, I,
    205

  Petrius, Cornelius, Blaeu dedicated to him his globe of 1606, II, 30

  Petrograd, Imperial Library, I, 32 (Ridhwan)

  Piacenza, Library Alberoni College, II, 179 (Desnos)

  Picard, Jean, improves map making, II, 138

  Piccolomini, Alessandro, refers to globes and globe making, I, 152

  Piloni, Count, once possessed two globes of early sixteenth century,
    I, 79

  Pinzon, Vincente, Yañez, I, 207

  Pisa, Certosa, II, 257 (Coronelli)

  Piticchio, Library Cav. Giampieri-Carletti, II, 61 (Greuter)

  Plancius, Peter, map and globe maker, II, 46;
      his large world map of 1592, 46

  Pliny, reasons for believing the earth to be a sphere, I, 10

  “Plus Ultra,” motto of the Argonauti of Venice, II, 98

  Polo, Marco, I, 46, 206

  Pontanus, Isaac, refers to globe of Brahe, Danti, and Santucci, I, 163

  Porcelaga, Zurelio, sends a globe to Roscelli, I, 153

  Portogruaro, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 18 (Hondius)

  Prato, Library Marquis Gherardi, I, 133 (Mercator)

  Precession of Equinoxes, II, 91, 141, 172, n. 127;
      method of representing by Cassini, 142

  Ptolemy, Claudius,
      foremost ancient map maker, I, 5;
      maps not popular in middle ages, 5;
      demonstrates the utility of lines of latitude and longitude, 10;
      gives information on construction and use of the astrolabe, 19;
      his ideas on globe construction, 19, 20, II, 198;
      his atlases, I, 12, n. 15;
      his forty-eight constellations, 24, n. 43

  Pythagoreans, their arguments supporting the spherical theory, I, 6


  Rad, Christopher, constructed the globe of Christopher Treffler,
    II, 94

  Raleigh, Sir Walter, I, 194

  Ravenna, Classense Library (Biblioteca Classense), II, 114 (Coronelli);
    186 (Adams)

  Reggio, Cathedral Library (Biblioteca Capitolare), II, 59 (Greuter);
    114 (Coronelli).
      Spallanzani Liceum, II, 178 (Desnos); 96 (Maccari)

  René, Duke of Lorraine, patron of culture and learning, I, 68

  Reymer von Streytperg,
      Canon Church of Bamberg, I, 86;
      Schöner dedicates to him his globe of 1523, 86

  Riccioli, Giovanni Battista, improves map making, II, 137

  Rimini,  Gambalunga Library, II, 42 (Blaeu).
      Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 11 (Hondius);
        255 (Cassini); 190 (Viani)

  Ringmann, Philesius, member of St. Dié coterie, I, 68

  Roger of Sicily, said to have possessed a silver globe, I, 27

  Romano, Giulio, said to have decorated globe of Pope Julius II, I, 64

  Romans, not especially interested in globe making, I, 20, 21;
    globes represented on Roman coins and medals, 21, 24, n. 46

  Rome, Astronomical Museum (Museo Astronomico), I, 134 (Mercator);
    150 (De Mongenet); 168 (Cartaro); 205 (Van Langren); II, 48 (Plancius);
    14 (Hondius); 59 (Greuter); 65 (Heroldt); 118 (Coronelli);
    124 (Eimmart); 156 (Seutter); 154 (Bion); 159 (Nollet); 185 (Adams);
    189 (Scaltaglia); 190 (Viani); 179 (Costa); 154 (Cartilia).
      Angelica Library (Biblioteca Angelica), II, 27 (Blaeu).
      Alessandrina Library, II, 84 (Moroncelli).
      Barberini Library (Biblioteca Barberini), I, 180 (Platus);
        II, 42 (Blaeu); 13 (Hondius); 44 (Ferreri).
      Campidoglio Observatory, II, 194 (Cary).
      Casanatense Library, II, 89 (Moroncelli).
      Chigi Library, II, 44 (Blaeu); 59 (Greuter).
      Victor Emanuel Library, I, 151 (Florianus); II, 165 (Anonymous);
        59 (Greuter); 118 (Coronelli).
      Lancisiana Library, I, 165 (Barocci); II, 120 (Giordani);
        114 (Coronelli).
      Palace Prince Massimo, II, 80 (Benci).
      Vallicellian Library, II, 268 (M. P.).
      Library Count Vespignani, II, 194 (Gary).
      Vatican Observatory (Osservatorio Vaticano), I, 62 (Julius II)

  Rosenthal, Ludwig, possessed as dealer certain old globes, I, 147

  Rosselli, Alexander, map and probably globe gore printer, I, 64

  Rosselli, Francesco, map printer of Florence, I, 64

  Rossi, Josef de, II, 13;
    Giovanni Battista de, 61;
    Dominici de, 63

  Rotterdam, Marine School, II, 66 (Keulin); 263 (Greuter)

  Rovigo, Concordia Academy (Accademia Concordia), II, 30 (Blaeu)

  Rubruquis, I, 46

  Rüdlingen, City Library, II, 30 (Blaeu)

  Rudolphis, Mons. R., possessed a globe, I, 66

  Ruscelli, Girolamo, direction for globe construction, I, 153;
    considered globes preferable to maps, 154


  Sacrobosco (John of Holywood), I, 43;
    supported the theory of a spherical earth, 43

  St. Dié, center of interest in geographical discovery and general
    culture, I, 68;
      its press first prints the name “America”, I, 70

  St. Gall, globe made for, I, 198

  S. Maria a Monte, Palace Sr. Scaramucci, II, 191 (Delamarche)

  St. Nicholas, City Archives, I, 133 (Mercator)

  Salviati, Cardinal Giovanni, asked Vannelli to construct a globe
    for him, I, 66

  Salzburg, City Museum, I, 116 (Vopel)

  Sandacourt, Jean Bassin de, member of St. Dié coterie, I, 68

  Sanderson, William, patron of Molyneux, I, 191

  Sanseverino, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter)

  Santa Cruz, Alonso de, location of copies of his ‘Yslario,’ I, 121;
      peculiarities of his globe gores, II, 207

  Santucci, Antonio, restores globe of Ignazio Danti, I, 162

  Sanuto, Giulio, Venetian map maker, I, 154

  Sanuto, Livio, Venetian nobleman and map maker, I, 154

  Savignano, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 63 (Greuter);
    164 (Anonymous)

  Savona, Scuole Pie, II, 44 (Blaeu)

  Schimpfer, Bartholomeus, astrologer and teacher of Erhard Weigel,
    II, 76

  Schöner, Johann, represents a strait south of South America on his
    globe of 1515, I, 85

  Schouten (Shouten), William van, explorer, II, 27, 31, 38, 51, 63

  Scovus, John, the Dane, reference to his visit to Greenland in 1476,
    I, 190

  Senex, John, proposes a “New globular projection,” II, 151

  Senigallia, Library Sr. Fronzi, II, 179 (Costa)

  Serra S. Quirico, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II,
    60 (Greuter)

  Seylor (er), Johann, patron of Johann Schöner, I, 83

  Siena, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 163, 164
   (Anonymous); 184 (Messier); 190 (Delamarche)

  Signoria, reference in its records to a globe placed in its orologia,
    I, 65, 66

  Smith, Buckingham, obtains Ulpius globe in Madrid, I, 117

  Soncino, Raimondi de, reference to Cabot’s globe, I, 53

  Sondrio, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 53 (Habrecht)

  Southwest passage, referred to, II, 24

  Spilbergen, George, explorer, II, 37

  Stabius, Johannes, peculiarities of his map projection, II, 201

  Stams, Monastery Library, I, 133 (Mercator)

  Stars, remarkable, referred to under “Tycho Brahe,” II, 108, 109

  Stimmer, Tobias and Josias, assisted in constructing Strassburg clock,
    I, 174

  Stockholm, Library Baron Nordenskiöld, I, 77 (Nordenskiold gores);
    152 (Florianus).
      Royal Library, I, 121 (Santa Cruz).
      National Museum, II, 53 (Hauer)

  Strabo, his suggested proof of the earth’s sphericity, I, 6;
      his idea as to the proper size of a globe to be useful, 8, 9;
      described the use and construction of the astrolabe and celestial
        sphere, 19, 20

  Strassburg clock, described, I, 176

  Sturm, Johann Christopher, teacher of Doppelmayr, II, 159

  Subiaco, Monastic Library (Monastero di S. Scolastica), II, 184 (Messier)

  Sylvester II, Pope, proposed to construct a globe, I, 39

  Syracuse, Meteorological Observatory, II, 171 (Ferguson)

  Syrians, belief in a circular earth and opposed to the spherical
    doctrine, I, 36


  Taisnero, referred to by Roscelli as a globe maker, I, 154

  Tassarolo, Spinola Palace, II, 178 (Vaugondy)

  Thales, I, 5, 14

  Theodorus, Petrus, astronomical observations followed by Hondius,
    II, 8, 9, 12

  Tiesbach, Gabriel, I, 148

  Tiraboschi, allusion to a globe belonging to Cardinal Bembo, I, 120

  Tolentino,
    Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 255 (Cassini)

  Torino, State Archives, I, 151 (Florianus).
      Academy of Sciences (Accademia delle Scienze), II, 114 (Coronelli).
      National Library (Biblioteca Nazionale), I, 163 (Basso)

  Toscanella, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile),
    II, 263 (Greuter).

  Toscanelli, Paolo, said to have made use of globes, I, 52

  Transit circle, first made by William Cary, II, 194

  Treviso, City Library (Biblioteca Civico), I, 151 (Florianus);
    II, 13 (Hondius).
      Library Canon Luigi Belli, II, 60 (Greuter)

  Trieste, City Museum, II, 118 (Coronelli)

  Trip, John, J. U. D., globes dedicated to, II, 146

  Trithemius, Johannes, purchases a terrestrial globe, 1507, I, 66

  Tsarskoe, Selo Castle, II, 74 (Gottorp)


  Uranienburg (Uraniburg), name given to Tycho Brahe’s observatory, I,
    184, II, 19

  Urbania, Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), I, 134 (Mercator)

  Urbino, Cardinal of, possessed a globe, I, 152.
      University Library (Biblioteca Universitario), II, 156 (Seutter);
      179 (Costa)

  Usselinx, William, organizes the West India Company, II, 46

  Utrecht, Geographical Institute, II, 254 (Blaeu)


  Valencia, Arabic globe constructed in, I, 28

  Vannelli, Friar Giuliano, repairs clock and globe in Florentine
    Signoria, I, 65;
      makes globe for Cardinal Salviati, 66

  Van der Noort, Oliver, reference to his voyage, II, 28

  Varthema, Ludovico, referred to by Van Langren, I, 206

  Veen, Adrian, associated with Hondius in globe making, II, 11, 12, 13

  Venice, Marciana Library, I, 151 (Florianus); II, 83 (Moroncelli);
    111 (Coronelli).
      City Museum (Museo Civico), II, 44 (Blaeu); 114 (Coronelli).
      Marco Foscarini Liceum (Museo Marco Foscarini), II, 44 (Blaeu);
        143 (Miot).
      Quirini Pinacoteca, II, 44 (Blaeu); 178 (Vaugondy).
      State Archives, II, 60 (Greuter).
      Patriarchal (Seminario Patriarcale), II, 114 (Coronelli).
      Patriarchal Observatory (Osservatorio Patriarcale), II, 272
        (Vaugondy); 258 (Delamarche).
      Library Prof. Maxim. Tono, II, 270 (Seutter)

  Verona, Cathedral Library (Biblioteca Capitolare), II, 162 (Doppelmayr)

  Verrazano, Hieronimus de, map of 1529, I, 106

  Vesoul, birthplace of François De Mongenet, I, 147

  Vicenza, Library Count Francesco Franco, II, 44 (Blaeu).
      City Museum (Museo Civico), II, 18 (Hondius).
      Communal Library (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 114 (Coronelli)

  Vienna, Library Prince Liechtenstein, I, 75 (Hauslab).
      Imperial Library, I, 133 (Mercator);
        II, 181 (Roll and Reinhold)

  Vigevano, Episcopal Seminary (Seminario Vescovile), II, 194 (Cassini)

  Vincent of Beauvais, belief in a spherical earth, I, 43

  Viseo, Cardinal, possessed a terrestrial globe, I, 152

  Volckamer, Paul, a patron of Behaim in the construction of his globe,
    I, 48

  Vosgian Gymnasium of St. Dié, I, 68


  Waldseemüller, Martin, his world map of 1507, I, 69;
      allusion in his “Cosmographiae Introductio” to his globe, 70

  Washington, National Museum, I, 113 (Vopel).
      Library of Congress, I, 115 (Vopel); 152 (Florianus);
        II, 112 (Coronelli); 259 (Doppelmayr)

  Weigel, Erhard, his proposed names for constellations, II, 77;
    peculiarities of his globes, 77, 78

  Weimar, Grand Ducal Library, I, 84, 108 (Schöner); 133 (Mercator)

  Welser, patrician family of Augsburg, I, 108

  Werner, Johann, his map projection, I, 151

  William III, King of England, Coronelli dedicates to him his globe
    of 1696, II, 115

  William, Landgraf of Cassel, patron of science and general culture,
    I, 184

  Willoughby, Hugo, explorer, II, 38, 39

  Windsor Castle, I, 78 (Da Vinci gores)

  Wolf, John David, acquires Ulpius globe for New York Historical
    Society, I, 117

  Wolf, Peter, receives a globe from Johann Stöffler, I, 54

  Wolfegg Castle, I, 199 (Gessner); II, 270 (Schöner)

  Worcester, American Antiquarian Society, II, 186 (Adams)

  Wright, Edward, English geographer, II, 3


  Yonkers, Library W. B. Thompson, II, 60 (Greuter)


  Zeitung aus Presillig Landt, as a source for Schöner’s globe of 1515,
    I, 85

  Zerbst, Francisceum Gymnasium, I, 103, 105 (Frisius);
    I, 140 (Plancius)

  Zumbach, Lothar, his reforms adopted by Valk, II, 146, 149

  Zürich, National Museum, I, 200 (Gessner)

  Zütphen, City Museum, I, 212 (Van Langren)


_1000 copies printed by the Yale University Press
under direction of Carl Purington Rollins,
in September, 1921._





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